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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 13, Slice 5 - "Hinduism" to "Home, Earls of"
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
      letters.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE HINDUISM: "But, in this respect, we also meet in the epics
      with the first clear evidence of what in after time became the
      prominent feature of the worship of Siva and his consort all over
      India ..." 'respect' amended from 'repect'.

    ARTICLE HINDUISM: "Though the Lingayats still show a certain
      animosity towards the Brahmans, and in the Census lists are
      accordingly classed as an independent group beside the Hindus ..."
      'classed' amended from 'classes'.

    ARTICLE HINTERLAND: "In the purely physical sense 'interior' or
      'back country' is more commonly used, but the word has gained a
      distinct political significance." 'or' amended from 'on'.

    ARTICLE HIPPODROME: "... so that the width was far greater, being
      about 400 ft., the course being 600 to 700 ft. long." 'course'
      amended from 'cource'.

    ARTICLE HIRSAU: "C. H. Klaiber, Das Kloster Hirschau (Tübingen,
      1886); and Baer, Die Hirsauer Bauschule (Freiburg, 1897)."
      'Hirsauer' amended from 'Hirsauers'.

    ARTICLE HOBBES, THOMAS: "In politics the revulsion from his
      particular conclusions did not prevent the more clear-sighted of
      his opponents from recognizing the force of his supreme
      demonstration of the practical irresponsibility of the sovereign
      power ..." 'particular' amended from 'particuar'.

    ARTICLE HOFFMANN, JOHANN JOSEPH: "His Japanese grammar (Japanische
      Sprachlehre) was published in Dutch and English in 1867, and in
      English and German in 1876." 'Sprachlehre' amended from
      'Sprechlehre'.

    ARTICLE HOFMEYR, JAN HENDRIK: "He was editor of the Zuid Afrikaan
      till its incorporation with Ons Land, and of the Zuid Afrikaansche
      Tijdschrift." 'Tijdschrift' amended from 'Tidjschrift'.

    ARTICLE HOHENLOHE: "... which was to exercise an important
      influence on his political activity. As the younger son of a cadet
      line of his house it was necessary for Prince Chlodwig to follow a
      profession." 'political' amended from 'politcal'.

    ARTICLE HOLLAND: "The height of the boezem peil ranges between
      1(1/3) ft. above to 1(5/6) ft. below the Amsterdam zero ..."
      'between' amended from 'beween'.

    ARTICLE HOLLAND: "... Nieuwe Wandelingen door Nederland, by J.
      Craandijk and P. A. Schipperus (Haarlem, 1888) ..." 'Wandelingen'
      amended from 'Wanderlingen'.

    ARTICLE HOLLAND: "... agreed to accept the sovereignty of the
      Netherlands provinces, except Holland and Zeeland." 'Netherlands'
      amended from 'Netherland'.

    ARTICLE HOLLAND: "left England on the 22nd of August for
      Sainte-Mère Eglise in Normandy." 'Eglise' amended from 'Eglide'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


            VOLUME XIII, SLICE V

         Hinduism to Home, Earls of



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  HINDUISM                         HODY, HUMPHREY
  HINDU KUSH                       HOE, RICHARD MARCH
  HINDUR                           HOE
  HINGANGHAT                       HOEFNAGEL, JORIS
  HINGE                            HOF
  HINGHAM                          HOFER, ANDREAS
  HINRICHS, HERMANN WILHELM        HÖFFDING, HARALD
  HINSCHIUS, PAUL                  HOFFMANN, AUGUST HEINRICH
  HINTERLAND                       HOFFMANN, ERNST THEODOR WILHELM
  HINTON, JAMES                    HOFFMANN, FRANÇOIS BENOÎT
  HIOGO                            HOFFMANN, FRIEDRICH
  HIP                              HOFFMANN, JOHANN JOSEPH
  HIP-KNOB                         HOFMANN, AUGUST WILHELM VON
  HIPPARCHUS                       HOFMANN, JOHANN CHRISTIAN KONRAD VON
  HIPPASUS OF METAPONTUM           HOFMANN, MELCHIOR
  HIPPEASTRUM                      HOFMEISTER, WILHELM FRIEDRICH BENEDICT
  HIPPED ROOF                      HOFMEYR, JAN HENDRIK
  HIPPEL, THEODOR GOTTLIEB VON     HOFSTEDE DE GROOT, PETRUS
  HIPPIAS OF ELIS                  HOGARTH, WILLIAM
  HIPPO                            HOGG, JAMES
  HIPPOCRAS                        HOGG, THOMAS JEFFERSON
  HIPPOCRATES                      HOGMANAY
  HIPPOCRENE                       HOGSHEAD
  HIPPODAMUS                       HOHENASPERG
  HIPPODROME                       HOHENFRIEDBERG
  HIPPOLYTUS (Greek legend hunter) HOHENHEIM
  HIPPOLYTUS (Church writer)       HOHENLIMBURG
  HIPPOLYTUS, THE CANONS OF        HOHENLOHE
  HIPPONAX                         HOHENSTAUFEN
  HIPPOPOTAMUS                     HOHENSTEIN
  HIPPURIC ACID                    HOHENZOLLERN
  HIPURNIAS                        HOKKAIDO
  HIRA                             HOKUSAI
  HIRADO                           HOLBACH, PAUL HEINRICH DIETRICH
  HIRE-PURCHASE AGREEMENT          HOLBEACH
  HIRING                           HOLBEIN, HANS (the elder)
  HIROSAKI                         HOLBEIN, HANS (the younger)
  HIROSHIGE                        HOLBERG, LUDVIG HOLBERG
  HIROSHIMA                        HOLBORN
  HIRPINI                          HOLCROFT, THOMAS
  HIRSAU                           HOLDEN, HUBERT ASHTON
  HIRSCH, MAURICE DE               HOLDEN, SIR ISAAC
  HIRSCH, SAMSON RAPHAEL           HÖLDERLIN, JOHANN CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH
  HIRSCHBERG                       HOLDERNESSE, EARL OF
  HIRSON                           HOLDHEIM, SAMUEL
  HIRTIUS, AULUS                   HOLGUÍN
  HISHAM IBN AL-KALBI              HOLIDAY
  HISPELLUM                        HOLINSHED, RAPHAEL
  HISSAR (district in Asia)        HOLKAR
  HISSAR (Indian town & district)  HOLL, FRANK
  HISTIAEUS                        HOLLAND, CHARLES
  HISTOLOGY                        HOLLAND, SIR HENRY
  HISTORY                          HOLLAND, HENRY FOX
  HIT                              HOLLAND, HENRY RICH
  HITA, GINÉS PEREZ DE             HOLLAND, HENRY RICHARD VASSALL FOX
  HITCHCOCK, EDWARD                HOLLAND, JOSIAH GILBERT
  HITCHCOCK, GEORGE                HOLLAND, PHILEMON
  HITCHCOCK, ROSWELL DWIGHT        HOLLAND, RICHARD
  HITCHIN                          HOLLAND (country)
  HITTITES                         HOLLAND, COUNTY AND PROVINCE OF
  HITTORFF, JACQUES IGNACE         HOLLAND (Michigan, U.S.A.)
  HITZACKER                        HOLLAND (cloth)
  HITZIG, FERDINAND                HOLLAR, WENZEL or WENCESLAUS
  HIUNG-NU                         HOLLES, DENZIL HOLLES
  HIVITES                          HOLLOWAY, THOMAS
  HJÖRRING                         HOLLY
  HKAMTI LÔNG                      HOLLYHOCK
  HLOTHHERE                        HOLLY SPRINGS
  HOACTZIN                         HOLMAN, JAMES
  HOADLY, BENJAMIN                 HOLMES, OLIVER WENDELL
  HOAR, SAMUEL                     HOLMFIRTH
  HOARE, SIR RICHARD COLT          HOLOCAUST
  HOBART, GARRET AUGUSTUS          HOLOCENE
  HOBART, JOHN HENRY               HOLROYD, SIR CHARLES
  HOBART PASHA                     HOLSTEIN, FRIEDRICH VON
  HOBART (capital of Tasmania)     HOLSTEIN (duchy of Germany)
  HOBBEMA, MEYNDERT                HOLSTEN, KARL CHRISTIAN JOHANN
  HOBBES, THOMAS                   HOLSTENIUS, LUCAS
  HOBBY                            HOLSTER
  HOBHOUSE, ARTHUR HOBHOUSE        HOLT, SIR JOHN
  HOBOKEN (town of Belgium)        HOLTEI, KARL EDUARD VON
  HOBOKEN (New Jersey, U.S.A.)     HÖLTY, LUDWIG HEINRICH CHRISTOPH
  HOBSON'S CHOICE                  HOLTZENDORFF, JOACHIM FRANZ PHILIPP VON
  HOBY, SIR THOMAS                 HOLTZMANN, HEINRICH JULIUS
  HOCHE, LAZARE                    HOLUB, EMIL
  HOCHHEIM                         HOLY
  HÖCHST                           HOLY ALLIANCE, THE
  HÖCHSTÄDT                        HOLYHEAD
  HOCHSTETTER, FERDINAND VON       HOLY ISLAND
  HOCKEY                           HOLYOAKE, GEORGE JACOB
  HOCK-TIDE                        HOLYOKE
  HOCUS                            HOLYSTONE
  HODDEN                           HOLY WATER
  HODDESDON                        HOLY WEEK
  HODEDA                           HOLYWELL
  HODENING                         HOLYWOOD
  HODGE, CHARLES                   HOLZMINDEN
  HODGKIN, THOMAS                  HOLZTROMPETE
  HODGKINSON, EATON                HOMAGE
  HODGSON, BRIAN HOUGHTON          HOMBERG, WILHELM
  HÓDMEZÖ-VÁSÁRHELY                HOMBURG-VOR-DER-HÖHE
  HODOGRAPH                        HOME, EARLS OF
  HODSON, WILLIAM STEPHEN RAIKES



HINDUISM, a term generally employed to comprehend the social
institutions, past and present, of the Hindus who form the great
majority of the people of India; as well as the multitudinous crop of
their religious beliefs which has grown up, in the course of many
centuries, on the foundation of the Brahmanical scriptures. The actual
proportion of the total population of India (294 millions) included
under the name of "Hindus" has been computed in the census report for
1901 at something like 70% (206 millions); the remaining 30% being made
up partly of the followers of foreign creeds, such as Mahommedans,
Parsees, Christians and Jews, partly of the votaries of indigenous forms
of belief which have at various times separated from the main stock, and
developed into independent systems, such as Buddhism, Jainism and
Sikhism; and partly of isolated hill and jungle tribes, such as the
Santals, Bhils (Bhilla) and Kols, whose crude animistic tendencies have
hitherto kept them, either wholly or for the most part, outside the pale
of the Brahmanical community. The name "Hindu" itself is of foreign
origin, being derived from the Persians, by whom the river Sindhu was
called Hindhu, a name subsequently applied to the inhabitants of that
frontier district, and gradually extended over the upper and middle
reaches of the Gangetic valley, whence this whole tract of country
between the Himalaya and the Vindhya mountains, west of Bengal, came to
be called by the foreign conquerors "Hindustan," or the abode of the
Hindus; whilst the native writers called it "Aryavarta," or the abode
of the Aryas.

But whilst, in its more comprehensive acceptation, the term Hinduism
would thus range over the entire historical development of Brahmanical
India, it is also not infrequently used in a narrower sense, as denoting
more especially the modern phase of Indian social and religious
institutions--from the earlier centuries of the Christian era down to
our own days--as distinguished from the period dominated by the
authoritative doctrine of pantheistic belief, formulated by the
speculative theologians during the centuries immediately succeeding the
Vedic period (see BRAHMANISM). In this its more restricted sense the
term may thus practically be taken to apply to the later bewildering
variety of popular sectarian forms of belief, with its social
concomitant, the fully developed caste-system. But, though one may at
times find it convenient to speak of "Brahmanism and Hinduism," it must
be clearly understood that the distinction implied in the combination of
these terms is an extremely vague one, especially from the chronological
point of view. The following considerations will probably make this
clear.


  Connexion with Brahmanism.

The characteristic tenet of orthodox Brahmanism consists in the
conception of an absolute, all-embracing spirit, the Brahma (neutr.),
being the one and only reality, itself unconditioned, and the original
cause and ultimate goal of all individual souls (_jiva_, i.e. living
things). Coupled with this abstract conception are two other doctrines,
viz. first, the transmigration of souls (_samsara_), regarded by Indian
thinkers as the necessary complement of a belief in the essential
sameness of all the various spiritual units, however contaminated, to a
greater or less degree, they may be by their material embodiment; and in
their ultimate re-union with the _Paramatman_, or Supreme Self; and
second, the assumption of a triple manifestation of the ceaseless
working of that Absolute Spirit as a creative, conservative and
destructive principle, represented respectively by the divine
personalities of Brahma (masc.), Vishnu and Siva, forming the _Trimurti_
or Triad. As regards this latter, purely exoteric, doctrine, there can
be little doubt of its owing its origin to considerations of theological
expediency, as being calculated to supply a sufficiently wide formula of
belief for general acceptance; and the very fact of this divine triad
including the two principal deities of the later sectarian worship,
Vishnu and Siva, goes far to show that these two gods at all events must
have been already in those early days favourite objects of popular
adoration to an extent sufficient to preclude their being ignored by a
diplomatic priesthood bent upon the formulation of a common creed. Thus,
so far from sectarianism being a mere modern development of Brahmanism,
it actually goes back to beyond the formulation of the Brahmanical
creed. Nay, when, on analysing the functions and attributes of those two
divine figures, each of them is found to be but a compound of several
previously recognized deities, sectarian worship may well be traced
right up to the Vedic age. That the theory of the triple manifestation
of the deity was indeed only a compromise between Brahmanical
aspirations and popular worship, probably largely influenced by the
traditional sanctity of the number three, is sufficiently clear from the
fact that, whilst Brahma, the creator, and at the same time the very
embodiment of Brahmanical class pride, has practically remained a mere
figurehead in the actual worship of the people, Siva, on the other hand,
so far from being merely the destroyer, is also the unmistakable
representative of generative and reproductive power in nature. In fact,
Brahma, having performed his legitimate part in the mundane evolution by
his original creation of the universe, has retired into the background,
being, as it were, looked upon as _functus officio_, like a venerable
figure of a former generation, whence in epic poetry he is commonly
styled _pitamaha_, "the grandsire." But despite the artificial character
of the _Trimurti_, it has retained to this day at least its theoretical
validity in orthodox Hinduism, whilst it has also undoubtedly exercised
considerable influence in shaping sectarian belief, in promoting
feelings of toleration towards the claims of rival deities; and in a
tendency towards identifying divine figures newly sprung into popular
favour with one or other of the principal deities, and thus helping to
bring into vogue that notion of avatars, or periodical descents or
incarnations of the deity, which has become so prominent a feature of
the later sectarian belief.

Under more favourable political conditions,[1] the sacerdotal class
might perhaps, in course of time, have succeeded in imposing something
like an effective common creed on the heterogeneous medley of races and
tribes scattered over the peninsula, just as they certainly did succeed
in establishing the social prerogative of their own order over the
length and breadth of India. They were, however, fated to fall far short
of such a consummation; and at all times orthodox Brahmanism has had to
wink at, or ignore, all manner of gross superstitions and repulsive
practices, along with the popular worship of countless hosts of
godlings, demons, spirits and ghosts, and mystic objects and symbols of
every description. Indeed, according to a recent account by a close
observer of the religious practices prevalent in southern India, fully
four-fifths of the people of the Dravidian race, whilst nominally
acknowledging the spiritual guidance of the Brahmans, are to this day
practically given over to the worship of their nondescript local village
deities (_grama-devata_), usually attended by animal sacrifices
frequently involving the slaughter, under revolting circumstances, of
thousands of victims. Curiously enough these local deities are nearly
all of the female, not the male sex. In the estimation of these people
"Siva and Vishnu may be more dignified beings, but the village deity is
regarded as a more present help in trouble, and more intimately
concerned with the happiness and prosperity of the villagers. The origin
of this form of Hinduism is lost in antiquity, but it is probable that
it represents a pre-Aryan religion, more or less modified in various
parts of south India by Brahmanical influence. At the same time, many of
the deities themselves are of quite recent origin, and it is easy to
observe a deity in making even at the present day."[2] It is a
significant fact that, whilst in the worship of Siva and Vishnu, at
which no animal sacrifices are offered, the officiating priests are
almost invariably Brahmans, this is practically never the case at the
popular performance of those "gloomy and weird rites for the
propitiation of angry deities, or the driving away of evil spirits, when
the pujaris (or ministrants) are drawn from all other castes, even from
the Pariahs, the out-caste section of Indian society."


  Caste.

As from the point of view of religious belief, so also from that of
social organization no clear line of demarcation can be drawn between
Brahmanism and Hinduism. Though it was not till later times that the
network of class divisions and subdivisions attained anything like the
degree of intricacy which it shows in these latter days, still in its
origin the caste-system is undoubtedly coincident with the rise of
Brahmanism, and may even be said to be of the very essence of it.[3] The
cardinal principle which underlies the system of caste is the
preservation of purity of descent, and purity of religious belief and
ceremonial usage. Now, that same principle had been operative from the
very dawn of the history of Aryanized India. The social organism of the
Aryan tribe did not probably differ essentially from that of most
communities at that primitive stage of civilization; whilst the body of
the people--the _Vis_ (or aggregate of _Vaisyas_)--would be mainly
occupied with agricultural and pastoral pursuits, two professional
classes--those of the warrior and the priest--had already made good
their claim to social distinction. As yet, however, the tribal community
would still feel one in race and traditional usage. But when the
fair-coloured Aryan immigrants first came in contact with, and drove
back or subdued the dark-skinned race that occupied the northern
plains--doubtless the ancestors of the modern Dravidian people--the
preservation of their racial type and traditionary order of things would
naturally become to them a matter of serious concern. In the extreme
north-western districts--the Punjab and Rajputana, judging from the
fairly uniform physical features of the present population of these
parts--they seem to have been signally successful in their endeavour to
preserve their racial purity, probably by being able to clear a
sufficiently extensive area of the original occupants for themselves
with their wives and children to settle upon. The case was, however,
very different in the adjoining valley of the Jumna and Ganges, the
sacred _Madhyadesa_ or Middle-land of classical India. Here the Aryan
immigrants were not allowed to establish themselves without undergoing a
considerable admixture of foreign blood. It must remain uncertain
whether it was that the thickly-populated character of the land scarcely
admitted of complete occupation, but only of a conquest by an army of
fighting men, starting from the Aryanized region--who might, however,
subsequently draw women of their own kin after them--or whether, as has
been suggested, a second Aryan invasion of India took place at that time
through the mountainous tracts of the upper Indus and northern Kashmir,
where the nature of the road would render it impracticable for the
invading bands to be accompanied by women and children. Be this as it
may, the physical appearance of the population of this central region of
northern India--Hindustan and Behar--clearly points to an intermixture
of the tall, fair-coloured, fine-nosed Aryan with the short-sized,
dark-skinned, broad-nosed Dravidian; the latter type becoming more
pronounced towards the lower strata of the social order.[4] Now, it was
precisely in this part of India that mainly arose the body of literature
which records the gradual rise of the Brahmanical hierarchy and the
early development of the caste-system.

The problem that now lay before the successful invaders was how to deal
with the indigenous people, probably vastly outnumbering them, without
losing their own racial identity. They dealt with them in the way the
white race usually deals with the coloured race--they kept them socially
apart. The land being appropriated by the conquerors, husbandry, as the
most respectable industrial occupation, became the legitimate calling of
the Aryan settler, the _Vaisya_; whilst handicrafts, gradually
multiplying with advancing civilization and menial service, were
assigned to the subject race. The generic name applied to the latter was
_Sudra_, originally probably the name of one of the subjected tribes. So
far the social development proceeded on lines hardly differing from
those with which one is familiar in the history of other nations. The
Indo-Aryans, however, went a step farther. What they did was not only to
keep the native race apart from social intercourse with themselves, but
to shut them out from all participation in their own higher aims, and
especially in their own religious convictions and ceremonial practices.
So far from attempting to raise their standard of spiritual life, or
even leaving it to ordinary intercourse to gradually bring about a
certain community of intellectual culture and religious sentiment, they
deliberately set up artificial barriers in order to prevent their own
traditional modes of worship from being contaminated with the obnoxious
practices of the servile race. The serf, the _Sudra_, was not to worship
the gods of the Aryan freemen. The result was the system of four castes
(_varna_, i.e. "colour"; or _jati_, "gens"). Though the Brahman, who by
this time had firmly secured his supremacy over the _kshatriya_, or
noble, in matters spiritual as well as in legislative and administrative
functions, would naturally be the prime mover in this regulation of the
social order, there seems no reason to believe that the other two upper
classes were not equally interested in seeing their hereditary
privileges thus perpetuated by divine sanction. Nothing, indeed, is more
remarkable in the whole development of the caste-system than the jealous
pride which every caste, from the highest to the lowest, takes in its
own peculiar occupation and sphere of life. The distinctive badge of a
member of the three upper castes was the sacred triple cord or thread
(_sutra_)--made of cotton, hemp or wool, according to the respective
caste--with which he was invested at the _upanayana_ ceremony, or
initiation into the use of the sacred _savitri_, or prayer to the sun
(also called _gayatri_), constituting his second birth. Whilst the Arya
was thus a _dvi-ja_, or twice-born, the Sudra remained unregenerate
during his lifetime, his consolation being the hope that, on the
faithful performance of his duties in this life, he might hereafter be
born again into a higher grade of life. In later times, the strict
adherence to caste duties would naturally receive considerable support
from the belief in the transmigration of souls, already prevalent before
Buddha's time, and from the very general acceptance of the doctrine of
_karma_ ("deed"), or retribution, according to which a man's present
station and manner of life are the result of the sum-total of his
actions and thoughts in his former existence; as his actions here will
again, by the same automatic process of retribution, determine his
status and condition in his next existence. Though this doctrine is
especially insisted upon in Buddhism, and its designation as a specific
term (Pali, _Kamma_) may be due to that creed, the notion itself was
doubtless already prevalent in pre-Buddhist times. It would even seem to
be necessarily and naturally implied in Brahmanical belief in
metempsychosis; whilst in the doctrine of Buddha, who admits no soul,
the theory of the net result or fruit of a man's actions serving
hereafter to form or condition the existence of some new individual who
will have no conscious identity with himself, seems of a peculiarly
artificial and mystic character. But, be this as it may, "the doctrine
of _karma_ is certainly one of the firmest beliefs of all classes of
Hindus, and the fear that a man shall reap as he has sown is an
appreciable element in the average morality ... the idea of forgiveness
is absolutely wanting; evil done may indeed be outweighed by meritorious
deeds so far as to ensure a better existence in the future, but it is
not effaced, and must be atoned for" (_Census Report_, i. 364).

In spite, however, of the artificial restrictions placed on the
intermarrying of the castes, the mingling of the two races seems to have
proceeded at a tolerably rapid rate. Indeed, the paucity of women of the
Aryan stock would probably render these mixed unions almost a necessity
from the very outset; and the vaunted purity of blood which the caste
rules were calculated to perpetuate can scarcely have remained of more
than a relative degree even in the case of the Brahman caste. Certain it
is that mixed castes are found referred to at a comparatively early
period; and at the time of Buddha--some five or six centuries before the
Christian era--the social organization would seem to have presented an
appearance not so very unlike that of modern times. It must be
confessed, however, that our information regarding the development of
the caste-system is far from complete, especially in its earlier stages.
Thus, we are almost entirely left to conjecture on the important point
as to the original social organization of the subject race. Though
doubtless divided into different tribes scattered over an extensive
tract of land, the subjected aborigines were slumped together under the
designation of Sudras, whose duty it was to serve the upper classes in
all the various departments of manual labour, save those of a downright
sordid and degrading character which it was left to _vratyas_ or
outcasts to perform. How, then, was the distribution of crafts and
habitual occupations of all kinds brought about? Was the process one of
spontaneous growth adapting an already existing social organization to a
new order of things; or was it originated and perpetuated by regulation
from above? Or was it rather that the status and duties of existing
offices and trades came to be determined and made hereditary by some
such artificial system as that by which the Theodosian Code succeeded
for a time in organizing the Roman society in the 5th century of our
era? "It is well known" (says Professor Dill) "that the tendency of the
later Empire was to stereotype society, by compelling men to follow the
occupation of their fathers, and preventing a free circulation among
different callings and grades of life. The man who brought the grain
from Africa to the public stores at Ostia, the baker who made it into
loaves for distribution, the butchers who brought pigs from Samnium,
Lucania or Bruttium, the purveyors of wine and oil, the men who fed the
furnaces of the public baths, were bound to their callings from one
generation to another. It was the principle of rural serfdom applied to
social functions. Every avenue of escape was closed. A man was bound to
his calling not only by his father's but also by his mother's condition.
Men were not permitted to marry out of their gild. If the daughter of
one of the baker caste married a man not belonging to it, her husband
was bound to her father's calling. Not even a dispensation obtained by
some means from the imperial chancery, not even the power of the Church
could avail to break the chain of servitude." It can hardly be gainsaid
that these artificial arrangements bear a very striking analogy to those
of the Indian caste-system; and if these class restrictions were
comparatively short-lived on Italian ground, it was not perhaps so much
that so strange a plant found there an ethnic soil less congenial to its
permanent growth, but because it was not allowed sufficient time to
become firmly rooted; for already great political events were impending
which within a few decades were to lay the mighty empire in ruins. In
India, on the other hand, the institution of caste--even if artificially
contrived and imposed by the Indo-Aryan priest and ruler--had at least
ample time allowed it to become firmly established in the social habits,
and even in the affections, of the people. At the same time, one could
more easily understand how such a system could have found general
acceptance all over the Dravidian region of southern India, with its
merest sprinkling of Aryan blood, if it were possible to assume that
class arrangements of a similar kind must have already been prevalent
amongst the aboriginal tribes prior to the advent of the Aryan. Whether
a more intimate acquaintance with the manners and customs of those rude
tribes that have hitherto kept themselves comparatively free from Hindu
influences may yet throw some light on this question, remains to be
seen. But, by this as it may, the institution of caste, when once
established, certainly appears to have gone on steadily developing; and
not even the long period of Buddhist ascendancy, with its uncompromising
resistance to the Brahman's claim to being the sole arbiter in matters
of faith, seems to have had any very appreciable retardant effect upon
the progress of the movement. It was not only by the formation of ever
new endogamous castes and sub-castes that the system gained in extent
and intricacy, but even more so by the constant subdivision of the
castes into numerous exogamous groups or septs, themselves often
involving gradations of social status important enough to seriously
affect the possibility of intermarriage, already hampered by various
other restrictions. Thus a man wishing to marry his son or daughter had
to look for a suitable match outside his sept, but within his caste. But
whilst for his son he might choose a wife from a lower sept than his
own, for his daughter, on the other hand, the law of hypergamy compelled
him, if at all possible, to find a husband in a higher sept. This would
naturally lead to an excess of women over men in the higher septs, and
would render it difficult for a man to get his daughter respectably
married without paying a high price for a suitable bridegroom and
incurring other heavy marriage expenses. It can hardly be doubted that
this custom has been largely responsible for the crime of female
infanticide, formerly so prevalent in India; as it also probably is to
some extent for infant marriages, still too common in some parts of
India, especially Bengal; and even for the all but universal repugnance
to the re-marriage of widows, even when these had been married in early
childhood and had never joined their husbands. Yet violations of these
rules are jealously watched by the other members of the sept, and are
liable--in accordance with the general custom in which communal matters
are regulated in India--to be brought before a special council
(_panchayat_), originally consisting of five (_pancha_), but now no
longer limited to that number, since it is chiefly the greater or less
strictness in the observance of caste rules and the orthodox ceremonial
generally that determine the status of the sept in the social scale of
the caste. Whilst community of occupation was an important factor in the
original formation of non-tribal castes, the practical exigencies of
life have led to considerable laxity in this respect--not least so in
the case of Brahmans who have often had to take to callings which would
seem altogether incompatible with the proper spiritual functions of
their caste. Thus, "the prejudice against eating cooked food that has
been touched by a man of an inferior caste is so strong that, although
the Shastras do not prohibit the eating of food cooked by a Kshatriya or
Vaisya, yet the Brahmans, in most parts of the country, would not eat
such food. For these reasons, every Hindu household--whether Brahman,
Kshatriya or Sudra--that can afford to keep a paid cook generally
entertains the services of a Brahman for the performance of its
_cuisine_--the result being that in the larger towns the very name of
Brahman has suffered a strange degradation of late, so as to mean only a
cook" (Jogendra Nath Bhattacharya, _Hindu Castes and Sects_). In this
caste, however, as in all others, there are certain kinds of occupation
to which a member could not turn for a livelihood without incurring
serious defilement. In fact, adherence to the traditional ceremonial and
respectability of occupation go very much hand-in-hand. Thus, amongst
agricultural castes, those engaged in vegetable-growing or
market-gardening are inferior to the genuine peasant or yeoman, such as
the Jat and Rajput; whilst of these the Jat who practises widow-marriage
ranks below the Rajput who prides himself on his tradition of ceremonial
orthodoxy--though racially there seems little, if any, difference
between the two; and the Rajput, again, is looked down upon by the
Babhan of Behar because he does not, like himself, scruple to handle the
plough, instead of invariably employing low-caste men for this manual
labour. So also when members of the Baidya, or physician, caste of
Bengal, ranging next to that of the Brahman, farm land on tenure, "they
will on no account hold the plough, or engage in any form of manual
labour, and thus necessarily carry on their cultivation by means of
hired servants" (H. H. Risley, _Census Report_).

  The scale of social precedence as recognized by native public opinion
  is concisely reviewed (ib.) as revealing itself "in the facts that
  particular castes are supposed to be modern representatives of one or
  other of the original castes of the theoretical Hindu system; that
  Brahmans will take water from certain castes; that Brahmans of high
  standing will serve particular castes; that certain castes, though not
  served by the best Brahmans, have nevertheless got Brahmans of their
  own whose rank varies according to circumstances; that certain castes
  are not served by Brahmans at all but have priests of their own; that
  the status of certain castes has been raised by their taking to
  infant-marriage or abandoning the re-marriage of widows; that the
  status of others has been modified by their pursuing some occupations
  in a special or peculiar way; that some can claim the services of the
  village barber, the village palanquin-bearer, the village midwife,
  &c., while others cannot; that some castes may not enter the
  courtyards of certain temples; that some castes are subject to special
  taboos, such as that they must not use the village well, or may draw
  water only with their own vessels, that they must live outside the
  village or in a separate quarter, that they must leave the road on the
  approach of a high-caste man and must call out to give warning of
  their approach." ... "The first point to observe is the predominance
  throughout India of the influence of the traditional system of four
  original castes. In every scheme of grouping the Brahman heads the
  list. Then come the castes whom popular opinion accepts as the modern
  representatives of the Kshatriyas; and these are followed by the
  mercantile groups supposed to be akin to the Vaisyas. When we leave
  the higher circles of the twice-born, the difficulty of finding a
  uniform basis of classification becomes apparent. The ancient
  designation Sudra finds no great favour in modern times, and we can
  point to no group that is generally recognized as representing it. The
  term is used in Bombay, Madras and Bengal to denote a considerable
  number of castes of moderate respectability, the higher of whom are
  considered 'clean' Sudras, while the precise status of the lower is a
  question which lends itself to endless controversy." ... In northern
  and north-western India, on the other hand, "the grade next below the
  twice-born rank is occupied by a number of castes from whose hands
  Brahmans and members of the higher castes will take water and certain
  kinds of sweetmeats. Below these again is rather an indeterminate
  group from whom water is taken by some of the higher castes, not by
  others. Further down, where the test of water no longer applies, the
  status of the caste depends on the nature of its occupation and its
  habits in respect of diet. There are castes whose touch defiles the
  twice-born, but who do not commit the crowning enormity of eating
  beef.... In western and southern India the idea that the social state
  of a caste depends on whether Brahmans will take water and sweetmeats
  from its members is unknown, for the higher castes will as a rule take
  water only from persons of their own caste and sub-caste. In Madras
  especially the idea of ceremonial pollution by the proximity of an
  unclean caste has been developed with much elaboration. Thus the table
  of social precedence attached to the Cochin report shows that while a
  Nayar can pollute a man of a higher caste only by touching him, people
  of the Kammalan group, including masons, blacksmiths, carpenters and
  workers in leather, pollute at a distance of 24 ft., toddy-drawers at
  36 ft., Pulayan or Cheruman cultivators at 48 ft., while in the case
  of the Paraiyan (Pariahs) who eat beef the range of pollution is no
  less than 64 ft."

In this bewildering maze of social grades and class distinctions, the
Brahman, as will have been seen, continues to hold the dominant
position, being respected and even worshipped by all the others. "The
more orthodox Sudras carry their veneration for the priestly class to
such a degree that they will not cross the shadow of a Brahman, and it
is not unusual for them to be under a vow not to eat any food in the
morning, before drinking _Bipracharanamrita_, i.e. water in which the
toe of a Brahman has been dipped. On the other hand, the pride of the
Brahmans is such that they do not bow to even the images of the gods
worshipped in a Sudra's house by Brahman priests" (Jog. Nath Bh.). There
are, however, not a few classes of Brahmans who, for various reasons,
have become degraded from their high station, and formed separate castes
with whom respectable Brahmans refuse to intermarry and consort. Chief
amongst these are the Brahmans who minister for "unclean" Sudras and
lower castes, including the makers and dealers in spirituous liquors; as
well as those who officiate at the great public shrines or places of
pilgrimage where they might be liable to accept forbidden gifts, and, as
a matter of fact, often amass considerable wealth; and those who
officiate as paid priests at cremations and funeral rites, when the
wearing apparel and bedding of the deceased are not unfrequently claimed
by them as their perquisites.

As regards the other two "twice-born" castes, several modern groups do
indeed claim to be their direct descendants, and in vindication of their
title make it a point to perform the _upanayana_ ceremony and to wear
the sacred thread. But though the Brahmans, too, will often acquiesce in
the reasonableness of such claims, it is probably only as a matter of
policy that they do so, whilst in reality they regard the other two
higher castes as having long since disappeared and been merged by
miscegenation in the Sudra mass. Hence, in the later classical Sanskrit
literature, the term _dvija_, or twice-born, is used simply as a synonym
for a Brahman. As regards the numerous groups included under the term of
Sudras, the distinction between "clean" and "unclean" Sudras is of
especial importance for the upper classes, inasmuch as only the
former--of whom nine distinct castes are usually recognized--are as a
rule considered fit for employment in household service.


  Theology.

The picture thus presented by Hindu society--as made up of a confused
congeries of social groups of the most varied standing, each held
together and kept separate from others by a traditional body of
ceremonial rules and by the notion of social gradations being due to a
divinely instituted order of things--finds something like a counterpart
in the religious life of the people. As in the social sphere, so also in
the sphere of religious belief, we find the whole scale of types
represented from the lowest to the highest; and here as there, we meet
with the same failure of welding the confused mass into a well-ordered
whole. In their theory of a triple manifestation of an impersonal deity,
the Brahmanical theologians, as we have seen, had indeed elaborated a
doctrine which might have seemed to form a reasonable, authoritative
creed for a community already strongly imbued with pantheistic notions;
yet, at best, that creed could only appeal to the sympathies of a
comparatively limited portion of the people. Indeed, the sacerdotal
class themselves had made its universal acceptance an impossibility,
seeing that their laws, by which the relations of the classes were to be
regulated, aimed at permanently excluding the entire body of aboriginal
tribes from the religious life of their Aryan masters. They were to be
left for all time coming to their own traditional idolatrous notions and
practices. However, the two races could not, in the nature of things, be
permanently kept separate from each other. Indeed, even prior to the
definite establishment of the caste-system, the mingling of the lower
race with the upper classes, especially with the aristocratic landowners
and still more so with the yeomanry, had probably been going on to such
an extent as to have resulted in two fairly well-defined intermediate
types of colour between the priestly order and the servile race and to
have facilitated the ultimate division into four "colours" (_varna_). In
course of time the process of intermingling, as we have seen, assumed
such proportions that the priestly class, in their pride of blood, felt
naturally tempted to recognize, as of old, only two "colours," the Aryan
Brahman and the non-Aryan Sudra. Under these conditions the religious
practices of the lower race could hardly have failed in the long run to
tell seriously upon the spiritual life of the lay body of the
Brahmanical community. To what extent this may have been the case, our
limited knowledge of the early phases of the sectarian worship of the
people does not enable us to determine. But, on the other hand, the same
process of racial intermixture also tended to gradually draw the lower
race more or less under the influence of the Brahmanical forms of
worship, and thus contributed towards the shaping of the religious
system of modern Hinduism. The grossly idolatrous practices, however,
still so largely prevalent in the Dravidian South, show how superficial,
after all, that influence has been in those parts of India where the
admixture of Aryan blood has been so slight as to have practically had
no effect on the racial characteristics of the people. These present-day
practices, and the attitude of the Brahman towards them, help at all
events to explain the aversion with which the strange rites of the
subjected tribes were looked upon by the worshippers of the Vedic
pantheon. At the same time, in judging the apparently inhuman way in
which the Sudras were treated in the caste rules, one has always to bear
in mind the fact that the belief in metempsychosis was already universal
at the time, and seemed to afford the only rational explanation of the
apparent injustice involved in the unequal distribution of the good
things in this world; and that, if the Sudra was strictly excluded from
the religious rites and beliefs of the superior classes, this exclusion
in no way involved the question of his ultimate emancipation and his
union with the Infinite Spirit, which were as certain in his case as in
that of any other sentient being. What it did make impossible for him
was to attain that union immediately on the cessation of his present
life, as he would first have to pass through higher and purer stages of
mundane existence before reaching that goal; but in this respect he only
shared the lot of all but a very few of the saintliest in the higher
spheres of life, since the ordinary twice-born would be liable to sink,
after his present life, to grades yet lower than that of the Sudra.

To what extent the changes, which the religious belief of the Aryan
classes underwent in post-Vedic times, may have been due to aboriginal
influences is a question not easily answered, though the later creeds
offer only too many features in which one might feel inclined to suspect
influences of that kind. The literary documents, both in Sanskrit and
Pali, dating from about the time of Buddha onwards--particularly the two
epic poems, the _Mahabharata_ and _Ramayana_--still show us in the main
the _personnel_ of the old pantheon; but the character of the gods has
changed; they have become anthropomorphized and almost purely
mythological figures. A number of the chief gods, sometimes four, but
generally eight of them, now appear as _lokapalas_ or world-guardians,
having definite quarters or intermediate quarters of the compass
assigned to them as their special domains. One of them, Kubera, the god
of wealth, is a new figure; whilst another, Varuna, the most spiritual
and ethical of Vedic deities--the king of the gods and the universe; the
nightly, star-spangled firmament--has become the Indian Neptune, the god
of waters. Indra, their chief, is virtually a kind of superior raja,
residing in _svarga_, and as such is on visiting terms with earthly
kings, driving about in mid-air with his charioteer Matali. As might
happen to any earth-lord, Indra is actually defeated in battle by the
son of the demon-king of Lanka (Ceylon), and kept there a prisoner till
ransomed by Brahma and the gods conferring immortality on his conqueror.
A quaint figure in the pantheon of the heroic age is Hanuman, the
deified chief of monkeys--probably meant to represent the aboriginal
tribes of southern India--whose wonderful exploits as Rama's ally on the
expedition to Lanka Indian audiences will never weary of hearing
recounted. The Gandharvas figure already in the Veda, either as a single
divinity, or as a class of genii, conceived of as the body-guard of Soma
and as connected with the moon. In the later Vedic times they are
represented as being fond of, and dangerous to, women; the Apsaras,
apparently originally water-nymphs, being closely associated with them.
In the heroic age the Gandharvas have become the heavenly minstrels
plying their art at Indra's court, with the Apsaras as their wives or
mistresses. These fair damsels play, however, yet another part, and one
far from complimentary to the dignity of the gods. In the epics
considerable merit is attached to a life of seclusion and ascetic
practices by means of which man is considered capable of acquiring
supernatural powers equal or even superior to those of the gods--a
notion perhaps not unnaturally springing from the pantheistic
conception. Now, in cases of danger being threatened to their own
ascendancy by such practices, the gods as a rule proceed to employ the
usually successful expedient of despatching some lovely nymph to lure
the saintly men back to worldly pleasures. Seeing that the epic poems,
as repeated by professional reciters, either in their original Sanskrit
text, or in their vernacular versions, as well as dramatic compositions
based on them, form to this day the chief source of intellectual
enjoyment for most Hindus, the legendary matter contained in these
heroic poems, however marvellous and incredible it may appear, still
enters largely into the religious convictions of the people. "These
popular recitals from the Ramayan are done into Gujarati in easy,
flowing narrative verse ... by Premanand, the sweetest of our bards.
They are read out by an intelligent Brahman to a mixed audience of all
classes and both sexes. It has a perceptible influence on the Hindu
character. I believe the remarkable freedom from infidelity which is to
be seen in most Hindu families, in spite of their strange gregarious
habits, can be traced to that influence; and little wonder" (B. M.
Malabari, _Gujarat and the Gujaratis_). Hence also the universal
reverence paid to serpents (_naga_) since those early days; though
whether it simply arose from the superstitious dread inspired by the
insidious reptile so fatal to man in India, or whether the verbal
coincidence with the name of the once-powerful non-Aryan tribe of Nagas
had something to do with it must remain doubtful. Indian myth represents
them as a race of demons sprung from Kadru, the wife of the sage
Kasyapa, with a jewel in their heads which gives them their sparkling
look; and inhabiting one of the seven beautiful worlds below the earth
(and above the hells), where they are ruled over by three chiefs or
kings, Sesha, Vasuki and Takshaka; their fair daughters often entering
into matrimonial alliances with men, like the mermaids of western
legend.

In addition to such essentially mythological conceptions, we meet in the
religious life of this period with an element of more serious aspect in
the two gods, on one or other of whom the religious fervour of the large
majority of Hindus has ever since concentrated itself, viz. Vishnu and
Siva. Both these divine figures have grown out of Vedic conceptions--the
genial Vishnu mainly out of a not very prominent solar deity of the same
name; whilst the stern Siva, i.e. the kind or gracious one--doubtless a
euphemistic name--has his prototype in the old fierce storm-god Rudra,
the "Roarer," with certain additional features derived from other
deities, especially Pushan, the guardian of flocks and bestower of
prosperity, worked up therewith. The exact process of the evolution of
the two deities and their advance in popular favour are still somewhat
obscure. In the epic poems which may be assumed to have taken their
final shape in the early centuries before and after the Christian era,
their popular character, so strikingly illustrated by their inclusion in
the Brahmanical triad, appears in full force; whilst their cult is
likewise attested by the coins and inscriptions of the early centuries
of our era. The co-ordination of the two gods in the Trimurti does not
by any means exclude a certain rivalry between them; but, on the
contrary, a supreme position as the true embodiment of the Divine Spirit
is claimed for each of them by their respective votaries, without,
however, an honourable, if subordinate, place being refused to the rival
deity, wherever the latter, as is not infrequently the case, is not
actually represented as merely another form of the favoured god. Whilst
at times a truly monotheistic fervour manifests itself in the adoration
of these two gods, the polytheistic instincts of the people did not fail
to extend the pantheon by groups of new deities in connexion with them.
Two of such new gods actually pass as the sons of Siva and his consort
Parvati, viz. Skanda--also called Kumara (the youth), Karttikeya, or
Subrahmanya (in the south)--the six-headed war-lord of the gods; and
Ganese, the lord (or leader) of Siva's troupes of attendants, being at
the same time the elephant-headed, paunch-bellied god of wisdom; whilst
a third, Kama (Kamadeva) or Kandarpa, the god of love, gets his popular
epithet of Ananga, "the bodiless," from his having once, in frolicsome
play, tried the power of his arrows upon Siva, whilst engaged in austere
practices, when a single glance from the third (forehead) eye of the
angry god reduced the mischievous urchin to ashes. For his chief
attendant, the great god (Mahadeva, Mahesvara) has already with him the
"holy" Nandi--presumably, though his shape is not specified, identical
in form as in name with Siva's sacred bull of later times, the
appropriate symbol of the god's reproductive power. But, in this
respect, we also meet in the epics with the first clear evidence of what
in after time became the prominent feature of the worship of Siva and
his consort all over India, viz. the feature represented by the _linga_,
or phallic symbol.

As regards Vishnu, the epic poems, including the supplement to the
Mahabharata, the Harivamsa, supply practically the entire framework of
legendary matter on which the later Vaishnava creeds are based. The
theory of Avataras which makes the deity--also variously called
Narayana, Purushottama, or Vasudeva--periodically assume some material
form in order to rescue the world from some great calamity, is fully
developed; the ten universally recognized "descents" being enumerated in
the larger poem. Though Siva, too, assumes various forms, the
incarnation theory is peculiarly characteristic of Vaishnavism; and the
fact that the principal hero of the Ramayana (Rama), and one of the
prominent warriors of the Mahabharata (Krishna) become in this way
identified with the supreme god, and remain to this day the chief
objects of the adoration of Vaishnava sectaries, naturally imparts to
these creeds a human interest and sympathetic aspect which is wholly
wanting in the worship of Siva. It is, however, unfortunately but too
true that in some of these creeds the devotional ardour has developed
features of a highly objectionable character.

  Even granting the reasonableness of the triple manifestation of the
  Divine Spirit, how is one to reconcile all these idolatrous practices,
  this worship of countless gods and godlings, demons and spirits
  indwelling in every imaginable object round about us, with the
  pantheistic doctrine of the _Ekam Advitiyam_, "the One without a
  Second"? The Indian theosophist would doubtless have little difficulty
  in answering that question. For him there is only the One Absolute
  Being, the one reality that is all in all; whilst all the phenomenal
  existences and occurrences that crowd upon our senses are nothing more
  than an illusion of the individual soul estranged for a time from its
  divine source--an illusion only to be dispelled in the end by the
  soul's fuller knowledge of its own true nature and its being one with
  the eternal fountain of blissful being. But to the man of ordinary
  understanding, unused to the rarefied atmosphere of abstract thought,
  this conception of a transcendental, impersonal Spirit and the
  unreality of the phenomenal world can have no meaning: what he
  requires is a deity that stands in intimate relation to things
  material and to all that affects man's life. Hence the exoteric theory
  of manifestations of the Supreme Spirit; and that not only the
  manifestations implied in the triad of gods representing the cardinal
  processes of mundane existence--creation, preservation, and
  destruction or regeneration--but even such as would tend to supply a
  rational explanation for superstitious imaginings of every kind. For
  "the Indian philosophy does not ignore or hold aloof from the religion
  of the masses: it underlies, supports and interprets their polytheism.
  This may be accounted the keystone of the fabric of Brahmanism, which
  accepts and even encourages the rudest forms of idolatry, explaining
  everything by giving it a higher meaning. It treats all the worships
  as outward, visible signs of some spiritual truth, and is ready to
  show how each particular image or rite is the symbol of some aspect of
  universal divinity. The Hindus, like the pagans of antiquity, adore
  natural objects and forces--a mountain, a river or an animal. The
  Brahman holds all nature to be the vesture or cloak of indwelling,
  divine energy, which inspires everything that produces awe or passes
  man's understanding" (Sir Alfred C. Lyall, _Brahminism_).


  Sectarianism.

During the early centuries of our era, whilst Buddhism, where
countenanced by the political rulers, was still holding its own by the
side of Brahmanism, sectarian belief in the Hindu gods seems to have
made steady progress. The caste-system, always calculated to favour
unity of religious practice within its social groups, must naturally
have contributed to the advance of sectarianism. Even greater was the
support it received later on from the Puranas, a class of poetical works
of a partly legendary, partly discursive and controversial character,
mainly composed in the interest of special deities, of which eighteen
principal (_maha-purana_) and as many secondary ones (_upa-purana_) are
recognized, the oldest of which may go back to about the 4th century of
our era. It was probably also during this period that the female element
was first definitely admitted to a prominent place amongst the divine
objects of sectarian worship, in the shape of the wives of the principal
gods viewed as their _sakti_, or female energy, theoretically identified
with the _Maya_, or cosmic Illusion, of the idealistic Vedanta, and the
_Prakriti_, or plastic matter, of the materialistic Sankhya philosophy,
as the primary source of mundane things. The connubial relations of the
deities may thus be considered "to typify the mystical union of the two
eternal principles, spirit and matter, for the production and
reproduction of the universe." But whilst this privilege of divine
worship was claimed for the consorts of all the gods, it is principally
to Siva's consort, in one or other of her numerous forms, that adoration
on an extensive scale came to be offered by a special sect of votaries,
the _Saktas_.


  Sankara.

In the midst of these conflicting tendencies, an attempt was made, about
the latter part of the 8th century, by the distinguished Malabar
theologian and philosopher Sankara Acharya to restore the Brahmanical
creed to something like its pristine purity, and thus once more to bring
about a uniform system of orthodox Hindu belief. Though himself, like
most Brahmans, apparently by predilection a follower of Siva, his aim
was the revival of the doctrine of the Brahma as the one self-existent
Being and the sole cause of the universe; coupled with the recognition
of the practical worship of the orthodox pantheon, especially the gods
of the Trimurti, as manifestations of the supreme deity. The practical
result of his labours was the foundation of a new sect, the _Smartas_,
i.e. adherents of the _smriti_ or tradition, which has a numerous
following amongst southern Brahmans, and, whilst professing Sankara's
doctrines, is usually classed as one of the Saiva sects, its members
adopting the horizontal sectarial mark peculiar to Saivas, consisting in
their case of a triple line, the _tripundra_, prepared from the ashes of
burnt cow-dung and painted on the forehead. Sankara also founded four
Maths, or convents, for Brahmans; the chief one being that of Sringeri
in Mysore, the spiritual head (_Guru_) of which wields considerable
power, even that of excommunication, over the Saivas of southern India.
In northern India, the professed followers of Sankara are mainly limited
to certain classes of mendicants and ascetics, although the tenets of
this great Vedanta teacher may be said virtually to constitute the creed
of intelligent Brahmans generally.

  Whilst Sankara's chief title to fame rests on his philosophical works,
  as the upholder of the strict monistic theory of Vedanta, he doubtless
  played an important part in the partial remodelling of the Hindu
  system of belief at a time when Buddhism was rapidly losing ground in
  India. Not that there is any evidence of Buddhists ever having been
  actually persecuted by the Brahmans, or still less of Sankara himself
  ever having done so; but the traditional belief in some personal god,
  as the principal representative of an invisible, all-pervading deity,
  would doubtless appeal more directly to the minds and hearts of the
  people than the colourless ethical system promulgated by the Sakya
  saint. Nor do Buddhist places of worship appear as a rule to have been
  destroyed by Hindu sectaries, but they seem rather to have been taken
  over by them for their own religious uses; at any rate there are to
  this day not a few Hindu shrines, especially in Bengal, dedicated to
  Dharmaraj, "the prince of righteousness," as the Buddha is commonly
  styled. That the tenets and practices of so characteristic a faith as
  Buddhism, so long prevalent in India, cannot but have left their marks
  on Hindu life and belief may readily be assumed, though it is not so
  easy to lay one's finger on the precise features that might seem to
  betray such an influence. If the general tenderness towards animals,
  based on the principle of _ahimsa_, or inflicting no injury on
  sentient beings, be due to Buddhist teaching, that influence must have
  made itself felt at a comparatively early period, seeing that
  sentiments of a similar nature are repeatedly urged in the Code of
  Manu. Thus, in v. 46-48, "He who does not willingly cause the pain of
  confinement and death to living beings, but desires the good of all,
  obtains endless bliss. He who injures no creature obtains without
  effort what he thinks of, what he strives for, and what he fixes his
  mind on. Flesh-meat cannot be procured without injury to animals, and
  the slaughter of animals is not conducive to heavenly bliss: from
  flesh-meat, therefore, let man abstain." Moreover, in view of the fact
  that Jainism, which originated about the same time as Buddhism,
  inculcates the same principle, even to an extravagant degree, it seems
  by no means improbable that the spirit of kindliness towards living
  beings generally was already widely diffused among the people when
  these new doctrines were promulgated. To the same tendency doubtless
  is due the gradual decline and ultimate discontinuance of animal
  sacrifices by all sects except the extreme branch of
  Sakti-worshippers. In this respect, the veneration shown to serpents
  and monkeys has, however, to be viewed in a somewhat different light,
  as having a mythical background; whilst quite a special significance
  attaches to the sacred character assigned to the cow by all classes of
  Hindus, even those who are not prepared to admit the claim of the
  Brahman to the exalted position of the earthly god usually conceded to
  him. In the Veda no tendency shows itself as yet towards rendering
  divine honour to the cow; and though the importance assigned her in an
  agricultural community is easily understood, still the exact process
  of her deification and her identification with the mother earth in the
  time of Manu and the epics requires further elucidation. An idealized
  type of the useful quadruped--likewise often identified with the
  earth--presents itself in the mythical Cow of Plenty, or "wish-cow"
  (Kamadhenu, or Kamadugha, i.e. wish-milker), already appearing in the
  Atharvaveda, and in epic times assigned to Indra, or identified with
  Surabhi, "the fragrant," the sacred cow of the sage Vasishtha.
  Possibly the growth of the legend of Krishna--his being reared at
  Gokula (cow-station); his tender relations to the _gopis_, or
  cow-herdesses, of Vrindavana; his epithets _Gopala_, "the cowherd,"
  and _Govinda_, "cow-finder," actually explained as "recoverer of the
  earth" in the great epic, and the _go-loka_, or "cow-world," assigned
  to him as his heavenly abode--may have some connexion with the sacred
  character ascribed to the cow from early times.


  Worship.

Since the time of Sankara, or for more than a thousand years, the gods
Vishnu and Siva, or _Hari_ and _Hara_ as they are also commonly
called--with their wives, especially that of the latter god--have shared
between them the practical worship of the vast majority of Hindus. But,
though the people have thus been divided between two different religious
camps, sectarian animosity has upon the whole kept within reasonable
limits. In fact, the respectable Hindu, whilst owning special allegiance
to one of the two gods as his _ishta devata_ (favourite deity), will not
withhold his tribute of adoration from the other gods of the pantheon.
The high-caste Brahman will probably keep at his home a salagram stone,
the favourite symbol of Vishnu, as well as the characteristic emblems of
Siva and his consort, to both of which he will do reverence in the
morning; and when he visits some holy place of pilgrimage, he will not
fail to pay his homage at both the Saiva and the Vaishnava shrines
there. Indeed, "sectarian bigotry and exclusiveness are to be found
chiefly among the professional leaders of the modern brotherhoods and
their low-caste followers, who are taught to believe that theirs are the
only true gods, and that the rest do not deserve any reverence whatever"
(Jog. Nath). The same spirit of toleration shows itself in the
celebration of the numerous religious festivals. Whilst some of
these--e.g. the _Sankranti_ (called _Pongal_, i.e. "boiled rice," in the
south), which marks the entrance of the sun into the sign of Capricorn
and the beginning of its northward course (_uttarayana_) on the 1st day
of the month Magha (c. Jan. 12); the _Ganesa-caturthi_, or 4th day of
the light fortnight of Bhadra (August-September), considered the
birthday of Ganesa, the god of wisdom; and the _Holi_, the Indian
Saturnalia in the month of Phalguna (February to March)--have nothing of
a sectarian tendency about them; others again, which are of a distinctly
sectarian character--such as the _Krishna-janmashtami_, the birthday of
Krishna on the 8th day of the dark half of Bhadra, or (in the south) of
Sravana (July-August), the _Durga-puja_ and the _Dipavali_, or lamp
feast, celebrating Krishna's victory over the demon Narakasura, on the
last two days of Asvina (September-October)--are likewise observed and
heartily joined in by the whole community irrespective of sect. Widely
different, however, as is the character of the two leading gods are also
the modes of worship practised by their votaries.

_Siva_ has at all times been the favourite god of the Brahmans,[5] and
his worship is accordingly more widely extended than that of his rival,
especially in southern India. Indeed there is hardly a village in India
which cannot boast of a shrine dedicated to Siva, and containing the
emblem of his reproductive power; for almost the only form in which the
"Great God" is adored is the _Linga_, consisting usually of an upright
cylindrical block of marble or other stone, mostly resting on a circular
perforated slab. The mystic nature of these emblems seems, however, to
be but little understood by the common people; and, as H. H. Wilson
remarks, "notwithstanding the acknowledged purport of this worship, it
is but justice to state that it is unattended in Upper India by any
indecent or indelicate ceremonies, and it requires a rather lively
imagination to trace any resemblance in its symbols to the objects they
are supposed to represent." In spite, however, of its wide diffusion,
and the vast number of shrines dedicated to it, the worship of Siva has
never assumed a really popular character, especially in northern India,
being attended with scarcely any solemnity or display of emotional
spirit. The temple, which usually stands in the middle of a court, is as
a rule a building of very moderate dimensions, consisting either of a
single square chamber, surmounted by a pyramidal structure, or of a
chamber for the linga and a small vestibule. The worshipper, having
first circumambulated the shrine as often as he pleases, keeping it at
his right-hand side, steps up to the threshold of the sanctum, and
presents his offering of flowers or fruit, which the officiating priest
receives; he then prostrates himself, or merely lifts his hands--joined
so as to leave a hollow space between the palms--to his forehead,
muttering a short prayer, and takes his departure. Amongst the many
thousands of Lingas, twelve are usually regarded as of especial
sanctity, one of which, that of Somnath in Gujarat, where Siva is
worshipped as "the lord of Soma," was, however, shattered by Mahmud of
Ghazni; whilst another, representing Siva as _Visvesvara_, or "Lord of
the Universe," is the chief object of adoration at Benares, the great
centre of Siva-worship. The Saivas of southern India, on the other hand,
single out as peculiarly sacred five of their temples which are supposed
to enshrine as many characteristic aspects (linga) of the god in the
form of the five elements, the most holy of these being the shrine of
Chidambaram (i.e. "thought-ether") in S. Arcot, supposed to contain the
ether-linga. According to Pandit S. M. Natesa (_Hindu Feasts, Fasts and
Ceremonies_), "the several forms of the god Siva in these sacred shrines
are considered to be the bodies or casements of the soul whose natural
bases are the five elements--earth, water, fire, air and ether. The
apprehension of God in the last of these five as ether is, according to
the Saiva school of philosophy, the highest form of worship, for it is
not the worship of God in a tangible form, but the worship of what, to
ordinary minds, is vacuum, which nevertheless leads to the attainment of
a knowledge of the all-pervading without physical accessories in the
shape of any linga, which is, after all, an emblem. That this is the
case at Chidambaram is known to every Hindu, for if he ever asks the
priests to show him the God in the temple he is pointed to an empty
space in the holy of holies, which has been termed the Akasa, or
ether-linga." But, however congenial this refined symbolism may be to
the worshipper of a speculative turn of mind, it is difficult to see how
it could ever satisfy the religious wants of the common man little given
to abstract conceptions of this kind.


  Mendicant orders.

From early times, detachment from the world and the practice of
austerities have been regarded in India as peculiarly conducive to a
spirit of godliness, and ultimately to a state of ecstatic communion
with the deity. On these grounds it was actually laid down as a rule for
a man solicitous for his spiritual welfare to pass the last two of the
four stages (_asrama_) of his life in such conditions of renunciation
and self-restraint. Though there is hardly a sect which has not
contributed its share to the element of religious mendicancy and
asceticism so prevalent in India, it is in connexion with the Siva-cult
that these tendencies have been most extensively cultivated. Indeed, the
personality of the stern God himself exhibits this feature in a very
marked degree, whence the term _mahayogi_ or "great ascetic" is often
applied to him.

  Of Saiva mendicant and ascetic orders, the members of which are
  considered more or less followers of Sankara Acharya, the following
  may be mentioned: (1) _Dandis_, or staff-bearers, who carry a wand
  with a piece of red cloth, containing the sacred cord, attached to it,
  and also wear one or more pieces of cloth of the same colour. They
  worship Siva in his form of Bhairava, the "terrible." A sub-section of
  this order are the Dandi Dasnamis, or Dandi of ten names, so called
  from their assuming one of the names of Sankara's four disciples, and
  six of their pupils. (2) _Yogis_ (or popularly, Jogis), i.e. adherents
  of the Yoga philosophy and the system of ascetic practices enjoined by
  it with the view of mental abstraction and the supposed attainment of
  superhuman powers--practices which, when not merely pretended, but
  rigidly carried out, are only too apt to produce vacuity of mind and
  wild fits of frenzy. In these degenerate days their supernatural
  powers consist chiefly in conjuring, sooth-saying, and feats of
  jugglery, by which they seldom fail in imposing upon a credulous
  public. (3) _Sannyasis_, devotees who "renounce" earthly concerns, an
  order not confined either to the Brahmanical caste or to the Saiva
  persuasion. Those of the latter are in the habit of smearing their
  bodies with ashes, and wearing a tiger-skin and a necklace or rosary
  of _rudraksha_ berries (Elaeocarpus Ganitrus, lit. "Rudra's eye"),
  sacred to Siva, and allowing their hair to grow till it becomes matted
  and filthy. (4) _Parama-hamsas_, i.e. "supreme geese (or swans)," a
  term applied to the world-soul with which they claim to be identical.
  This is the highest order of asceticism, members of which are supposed
  to be solely engaged in meditating on the Brahma, and to be "equally
  indifferent to pleasure or pain, insensible of heat or cold, and
  incapable of satiety or want." Some of them go about naked, but the
  majority are clad like the Dandis. (5) _Aghora Panthis_, a vile and
  disreputable class of mendicants, now rarely met with. Their filthy
  habits and disgusting practices of gross promiscuous feeding, even to
  the extent of eating offal and dead men's flesh, look almost like a
  direct repudiation of the strict Brahmanical code of ceremonial purity
  and cleanliness, and of the rules regulating the matter and manner of
  eating and drinking; and they certainly make them objects of loathing
  and terror wherever they are seen.

  On the general effect of the manner of life led by _Sadhus_ or "holy
  men," a recent observer (J. C. Oman, _Mystics, Ascetics and Saints of
  India_, p. 273) remarks: "_Sadhuism_, whether perpetuating the
  peculiar idea of the efficiency of austerities for the acquisition of
  far-reaching powers over natural phenomena, or bearing its testimony
  to the belief in the indispensableness of detachment from the world as
  a preparation for the ineffable joy of ecstatic communion with the
  Divine Being, has undoubtedly tended to keep before men's eyes, as the
  highest ideal, a life of purity, self-restraint, and contempt of the
  world and human affairs. It has also necessarily maintained amongst
  the laity a sense of the righteous claims of the poor upon the charity
  of the more affluent members of the community. Moreover, _sadhuism_,
  by the multiplicity of the independent sects which have arisen in
  India, has engendered and favoured a spirit of tolerance which cannot
  escape the notice of the most superficial observer."


  Lingayats.

An independent Saiva sect, or, indeed, the only strictly Saiva sect, are
the _Vira Saivas_, more commonly called _Lingayats_ (popularly Lingaits)
or _Lingavats_, from their practice of wearing on their person a phallic
emblem of Siva, made of copper or silver, and usually enclosed in a case
suspended from the neck by a string. Apparently from the movable nature
of their badge, their _Gurus_ are called _Jangamas_ ("movable"). This
sect counts numerous adherents in southern India; the Census Report of
1901 recording nearly a million and a half, including some 70 or 80
different, mostly endogamous, castes. The reputed founder, or rather
reformer, of the sect was Basava (or Basaba), a Brahman of the Belgaum
district who seems to have lived in the 11th or 12th century. According
to the Basava-purana he early in life renounced his caste and went to
reside at Kalyana, then the capital of the Chalukya kingdom, and later
on at Sangamesvara near Ratnagiri, where he was initiated into the Vira
Saiva faith which he subsequently made it his life's work to propagate.
His doctrine, which may be said to constitute a kind of reaction against
the severe sacerdotalism of Sankara, has spread over all classes of the
southern community, most of the priests of Saiva temples there being
adherents of it; whilst in northern India its votaries are only
occasionally met with, and then mostly as mendicants, leading about a
neatly caparisoned bull as representing Siva's sacred bull _Nandi_.
Though the Lingayats still show a certain animosity towards the
Brahmans, and in the Census lists are accordingly classed as an
independent group beside the Hindus, still they can hardly be excluded
from the Hindu community, and are sure sooner or later to find their way
back to the Brahmanical fold.


  Avatars.

Vishnu, whilst less popular with Brahmans than his rival, has from early
times proved to the lay mind a more attractive object of adoration on
account of the genial and, so to speak, romantic character of his
mythical personality. It is not, however, so much the original figure of
the god himself that enlists the sympathies of his adherents as the
additional elements it has received through the theory of periodical
"descents" (_avatara_) or incarnations applied to this deity. Whilst the
Saiva philosophers do not approve of the notion of incarnations, as
being derogatory to the dignity of the deity, the Brahmans have
nevertheless thought fit to adopt it as apparently a convenient
expedient for bringing certain tendencies of popular worship within the
pale of their system, and probably also for counteracting the Buddhist
doctrines; and for this purpose Vishnu would obviously offer himself as
the most attractive figure in the Brahmanical trinity. Whether the
incarnation theory started from the original solar nature of the god
suggestive of regular visits to the world of men, or in what other way
it may have originated, must remain doubtful. Certain, however, it is
that at least one of his Avatars is clearly based on the Vedic
conception of the sun-god, viz. that of the dwarf who claims as much
ground as he can cover by three steps, and then gains the whole universe
by his three mighty strides. Of the ten or more Avatars, assumed by
different authorities, only two have entered to any considerable extent
into the religious worship of the people, viz. those of _Rama_ (or
Ramachandra) and _Krishna_, the favourite heroes of epic romance. That
these two figures would appeal far more strongly to the hearts and
feelings of the people, especially the warlike Kshatriyas,[6] than the
austere Siva is only what might have been expected; and, indeed, since
the time of the epics their cult seems never to have lacked numerous
adherents. But, on the other hand, the essentially human nature of these
two gods would naturally tend to modify the character of the relations
between worshipper and worshipped, and to impart to the modes and forms
of adoration features of a more popular and more human kind. And
accordingly it is exactly in connexion with these two incarnations of
Vishnu, especially that of Krishna, that a new spirit was infused into
the religious life of the people by the sentiment of fervent devotion to
the deity, as it found expression in certain portions of the epic poems,
especially the _Bhagavadgita_, and in the _Bhagavata-purana_ (as against
the more orthodox Vaishnava works of this class such as the
Vishnu-purana), and was formulated into a regular doctrine of faith in
the _Sandilya-sutra_, and ultimately translated into practice by the
Vaishnava reformers.


  Ramanujas.

The first successful Vaishnava reaction against Sankara's reconstructed
creed was led by Ramanuja, a southern Brahman of the 12th century. His
followers, the Ramanujas, or Sri-Vaishnavas as they are usually called,
worship Vishnu (Narayana) with his consort Sri or Lakshmi (the goddess
of beauty and fortune), or their incarnations Rama with Sita and Krishna
with Rukmini. Ramanuja's doctrine, which is especially directed against
the Linga-worship, is essentially based on the tenets of an old
Vaishnava sect, the Bhagavatas or Pancharatras, who worshipped the
Supreme Being under the name of Vasudeva (subsequently identified with
Krishna, as the son of Vasudeva, who indeed is credited by some scholars
with the foundation of that monotheistic creed). The sectarial mark of
the Ramanujas resembles a capital U (or, in the case of another
division, a Y), painted with a white clay called gopi-chandana, between
the hair and the root of the nose, with a red or yellow vertical stroke
(representing the female element) between the two white lines. They also
usually wear, like all Vaishnavas, a necklace of _tulasi_, or basil
wood, and a rosary of seeds of the same shrub or of the lotus. Their
most important shrines are those of Srirangam near Trichinopoly,
Mailkote in Mysore, Dvaraka (the city of Krishna) on the Kathiawar
coast, and Jagannath in Orissa; all of them decorated with Vishnu's
emblems, the tulasi plant and salagram stone. The Ramanuja Brahmans are
most punctilious in the preparation of their food and in regard to the
privacy of their meals, before taking which they have to bathe and put
on woollen or silk garments. Whilst Sankara's mendicant followers were
prohibited to touch fire and had to subsist entirely on the charity of
Brahman householders, Ramanuja, on the contrary, not only allowed his
followers to use fire, but strictly forbade their eating any food
cooked, or even seen, by a stranger. On the speculative side, Ramanuja
also met Sankara's strictly monistic theory by another recognizing
Vishnu as identical with Brahma as the Supreme Spirit animating the
material world as well as the individual souls which have become
estranged from God through unbelief, and can only attain again conscious
union with him through devotion or love (_bhakti_). His tenets are
expounded in various works, especially in his commentaries on the
Vedanta-sutras and the Bhagavadgita. The followers of Ramanuja have
split into two sects, a northern one, recognizing the Vedas as their
chief authority, and a southern one, basing their tenets on the Nalayir,
a Tamil work of the Upanishad order. In point of doctrine, they differ
in their view of the relation between God Vishnu and the human soul;
whilst the former sect define it by the _ape_ theory, which makes the
soul cling to God as the young ape does to its mother, the latter
explain it by the cat theory, by which Vishnu himself seizes and rescues
the souls as the mother cat does her young ones.


  Madhvas.

_Madhva Acharya_, another distinguished Vedanta teacher and founder of a
Vaishnava sect, born in Kanara in A.D. 1199, was less intolerant of the
Linga cult than Ramanuja, but seems rather to have aimed at a
reconciliation of the Saiva and Vaishnava forms of worship. The
_Madhvas_ or _Madhvacharis_ favour Krishna and his consort as their
special objects of adoration, whilst images of Siva, Parvati, and their
son Ganesa are, however, likewise admitted and worshipped in some of
their temples, the most important of which is at Udipi in South Kanara,
with eight monasteries connected with it. This shrine contains an image
of Krishna which is said to have been rescued from the wreck of a ship
which brought it from Dvaraka, where it was supposed to have been set up
of old by no other than Krishna's friend Arjuna, one of the five Pandava
princes. Followers of the Madhva creed are but rarely met with in Upper
India. Their sectarial mark is like the U of the Sri-Vaishnavas, except
that their central line is black instead of red or yellow. Madhva--who
after his initiation assumed the name Anandatirtha--composed numerous
Sanskrit works, including commentaries on the Brahma sutras (i.e. the
Vedanta aphorisms), the Gita, the Rigveda and many Upanishads. His
philosophical theory was a dualistic one, postulating distinctness of
nature for the divine and the human soul, and hence independent
existence, instead of absorption, after the completion of mundane
existence.


  Ramats.

The Ramanandis or Ramavats (popularly Ramats) are a numerous northern
sect of similar tenets to those of the Ramanujas. Indeed its founder,
Ramananda, who probably flourished in the latter part of the 14th
century, according to the traditional account, was originally a
Sri-Vaishnava monk, and, having come under the suspicion of laxity in
observing the strict rules of food during his peregrinations, and been
ordered by his superior (Mahant) to take his meals apart from his
brethren, left the monastery in a huff and set up a schismatic math of
his own at Benares. The sectarial mark of his sect differs but slightly
from that of the parent stock. The distinctive features of their creed
consist in their making Rama and Sita, either singly or conjointly, the
chief objects of their adoration, instead of Vishnu and Lakshmi, and
their attaching little or no importance to the observance of privacy in
the cooking and eating of their food. Their mendicant members, usually
known as Vairagis, are, like the general body of the sect, drawn from
all castes without distinction. Thus, the founder's twelve chief
disciples include, besides Brahmans, a weaver, a currier, a Rajput, a
Jat and a barber--for, they argue, seeing that Bhagavan, the Holy One
(Vishnu), became incarnate even in animal form, a Bhakta (believer) may
be born even in the lowest of castes. Ramananda's teaching was thus of a
distinctly levelling and popular character; and, in accordance
therewith, the Bhakta-mala and other authoritative writings of the sect
are composed, not in Sanskrit, but in the popular dialects. A follower
of this creed was the distinguished poet Tulsidas, the composer of the
beautiful Hindi version of the Ramayana and other works which "exercise
more influence upon the great body of Hindu population than the whole
voluminous series of Sanskrit composition" (H. H. Wilson).


  Kabir.

The traditional list of Ramananda's immediate disciples includes the
name of Kabir, the weaver, a remarkable man who would accordingly have
lived in the latter part of the 15th century, and who is claimed by both
Hindus and Moslems as having been born within their fold. The story goes
that, having been deeply impressed by Ramananda's teaching, he sought to
attach himself to him; and, one day at Benares, in stepping down the
ghat at daybreak to bathe in the Ganges, and putting himself in the way
of the teacher, the latter, having inadvertently struck him with his
foot, uttered his customary exclamation "Ram Ram," which, being also the
initiatory formula of the sect, was claimed by Kabir as such, making him
Ramananda's disciple. Be this as it may, Kabir's own reformatory
activity lay in the direction of a compromise between the Hindu and the
Mahommedan creeds, the religious practices of both of which he
criticized with equal severity. His followers, the Kabir Panthis ("those
following Kabir's path"), though neither worshipping the gods of the
pantheon, nor observing the rites and ceremonial of the Hindus, are
nevertheless in close touch with the Vaishnava sects, especially the
Ramavats, and generally worship Rama as the supreme deity, when they do
not rather address their homage, in hymns and otherwise, to the founder
of their creed himself. Whilst very numerous, particularly amongst the
low-caste population, in western, central and northern India, resident
adherents of Kabir's doctrine are rare in Bengal and the south; although
"there is hardly a town in India where strolling beggars may not be
found singing songs of Kabir in the original or as translated into the
local dialects." The mendicants of this creed, however, never actually
solicit alms; and, indeed, "the quaker-like spirit of the sect, their
abhorrence of all violence, their regard for truth and the
inobtrusiveness of their opinions render them very inoffensive members
of the state" (H. H. Wilson). The doctrines of Kabir are taught, mostly
in the form of dialogues, in numerous Hindi works, composed by his
disciples and adherents, who, however, usually profess to give the
teacher's own words.

The peculiar conciliatory tendencies of Kabir were carried on with even
greater zeal from the latter part of the 15th century by one of his
followers, Nanak Shah, the promulgator of the creed of the _Nanak
Shahis_ or _Sikhs_--i.e. (Sanskr.) _sishya_, disciples, whose guru, or
teacher, he called himself--a peaceful sect at first until, in
consequence of Mahommedan persecution, a martial spirit was infused into
it by the tenth, and last, guru, Govind Shah, changing it into a
political organization. Whilst originally more akin in its principles to
the Moslem faith, the sect seems latterly to have shown tendencies
towards drifting back to the Hindu pale.

  Of Ramananda's disciples and successors several others, besides Kabir,
  have established schismatic divisions of their own, which do not,
  however, offer any very marked differences of creed. The most
  important of these, the Dadu Panthi sect, founded by Dadu about the
  year 1600, has a numerous following in Ajmir and Marwar, one section
  of whom, the Nagas, engage largely in military service, whilst the
  others are either householders or mendicants. The followers of this
  creed wear no distinctive sectarial mark or badge, except a skull-cap;
  nor do they worship any visible image of any deity, the repetition
  (_japa_) of the name of Rama being the only kind of adoration
  practised by them.


  Eroticism and Krishna worship.

Although the Vaishnava sects hitherto noticed, in their adoration of
Vishnu and his incarnations, Krishna and Ramachandra, usually associate
with these gods their wives, as their _saktis_, or female energies, the
sexual element is, as a rule, only just allowed sufficient scope to
enhance the emotional character of the rites of worship. In some of the
later Vaishnava creeds, on the other hand, this element is far from
being kept within the bounds of moderation and decency. The favourite
object of adoration with adherents of these sects is Krishna with his
mate--but not the devoted friend and counsellor of the Pandavas and
deified hero of epic song, nor the ruler of Dvaraka and wedded lord of
Rukmini, but the juvenile Krishna, Govinda or Bala Gopala, "the cowherd
lad," the foster son of the cowherd Nanda of Gokula, taken up with his
amorous sports with the _Gopis_, or wives of the cowherds of Vrindavana
(Brindaban, near Mathura on the Yamuna), especially his favourite
mistress Radha or Radhika. This episode in the legendary life of Krishna
has every appearance of being a later accretion. After barely a few
allusions to it in the epics, it bursts forth full-blown in the
Harivansa, the Vishnu-purana, the Narada-Pancharatra and the
Bhagavata-purana, the tenth canto of which, dealing with the life of
Krishna, has become, through vernacular versions, especially the Hindi
_Prem-sagar_, or "ocean of love," a favourite romance all over India,
and has doubtless helped largely to popularize the cult of Krishna.
Strange to say, however, no mention is as yet made by any of these works
of Krishna's favourite Radha; it is only in another Purana--though
scarcely deserving that designation--that she makes her appearance, viz.
in the Brahma-vaivarta, in which Krishna's amours in Nanda's cow-station
are dwelt upon in fulsome and wearisome detail; whilst the poet
Jayadeva, in the 12th century, made her love for the gay and inconstant
boy the theme of his beautiful, if highly voluptuous, lyrical drama,
_Gita-govinda_.

  The earliest of the sects which associate Radha with Krishna in their
  worship is that of the Nimavats, founded by Nimbaditya or Nimbarka
  (i.e. "the sun of the Nimba tree"), a teacher of uncertain date, said
  to have been a Telugu Brahman who subsequently established himself at
  Mathura (Muttra) on the Yamuna, where the headquarters of his sect
  have remained ever since. The Mahant of their monastery at Dhruva
  Kshetra near Mathura, who claims direct descent from Nimbarka, is said
  to place the foundation of that establishment as far back as the 5th
  century--doubtless an exaggerated claim; but if Jayadeva, as is
  alleged, and seems by no means improbable, was really a follower of
  Nimbarka, this teacher must have flourished, at latest, in the early
  part of the 12th century. He is indeed taken by some authorities to be
  identical with the mathematician Bhaskara Acharya, who is known to
  have completed his chief work in A.D. 1150. It is worthy of remark, in
  this respect, that--in accordance with Ramanuja's and Nimbarka's
  philosophical theories--Jayadeva's presentation of Krishna's fickle
  love for Radha is usually interpreted in a mystical sense, as
  allegorically depicting the human soul's striving, through love, for
  reunion with God, and its ultimate attainment, after many
  backslidings, of the longed-for goal. As the chief authority of their
  tenets, the Nimavats recognize the Bhagavata-purana; though several
  works, ascribed to Nimbarka--partly of a devotional character and
  partly expository of Vedanta topics--are still extant. Adherents of
  this sect are fairly numerous in northern India, their frontal mark
  consisting of the usual two perpendicular white lines, with, however,
  a circular black spot between them.

  Of greater importance than the sect just noticed, because of their far
  larger following, are the two sects founded early in the 16th century
  by Vallabha (Ballabha) Acharya and Chaitanya. In the forms of worship
  favoured by votaries of these creeds the emotional and erotic elements
  are allowed yet freer scope than in those that preceded them; and, as
  an effective auxiliary to these tendencies, the use of the vernacular
  dialects in prayers and hymns of praise takes an important part in the
  religious service. The Vallabhacharis, or, as they are usually called,
  from the title of their spiritual heads, the Gokulastha Gosains, i.e.
  "the cow-lords (_gosvamin_) residing in Gokula," are very numerous in
  western and central India. Vallabha, the son of a Telinga Brahman,
  after extensive journeyings all over India, settled at Gokula near
  Mathura, and set up a shrine with an image of Krishna Gopala. About
  the year 1673, in consequence of the fanatical persecutions of the
  Mogul emperor, this image was transferred to Nathdvara in Udaipur
  (Mewar), where the shrine of Srinatha ("the lord of Sri," i.e. Vishnu)
  continues to be the chief centre of worship for adherents of this
  creed; whilst seven other images, transferred from Mathura at the same
  time, are located at different places in Rajputana. Vallabha himself
  went subsequently to reside at Benares, where he died. In the doctrine
  of this Vaishnava prophet, the adualistic theory of Sankara is
  resorted to as justifying a joyful and voluptuous cult of the deity.
  For, if the human soul is identical with God, the practice of
  austerities must be discarded as directed against God, and it is
  rather by a free indulgence of the natural appetites and the pleasures
  of life that man's love for God will best be shown. The followers of
  his creed, amongst whom there are many wealthy merchants and bankers,
  direct their worship chiefly to Gopal Lal, the boyish Krishna of
  Vrindavana, whose image is sedulously attended like a revered living
  person eight times a day--from its early rising from its couch up to
  its retiring to repose at night. The sectarial mark of the adherents
  consists of two red perpendicular lines, meeting in a semicircle at
  the root of the nose, and having a round red spot painted between
  them. Their principal doctrinal authority is the Bhagavata-purana, as
  commented upon by Vallabha himself, who was also the author of several
  other Sanskrit works highly esteemed by his followers. In this sect,
  children are solemnly admitted to full membership at the early age of
  four, and even two, years of age, when a rosary, or necklace, of 108
  beads of basil (tulsi) wood is passed round their necks, and they are
  taught the use of the octo-syllabic formula _Sri-Krishnah saranam
  mama_, "Holy Krishna is my refuge." Another special feature of this
  sect is that their spiritual heads, the Gosains, also called
  Maharajas, so far from submitting themselves to self-discipline and
  austere practices, adorn themselves in splendid garments, and allow
  themselves to be habitually regaled by their adherents with choice
  kinds of food; and being regarded as the living representatives of the
  "lord of the Gopis" himself, they claim and receive in their own
  persons all acts of attachment and worship due to the deity, even, it
  is alleged, to the extent of complete self-surrender. In the final
  judgment of the famous libel case of the Bombay Maharajas, before the
  Supreme Court of Bombay, in January 1862, these improprieties were
  severely commented upon; and though so unsparing a critic of Indian
  sects as Jogendra Nath seems not to believe in actual immoral
  practices on the part of the Maharajas, still he admits that "the
  corrupting influence of a religion, that can make its female votaries
  address amorous songs to their spiritual guides, must be very great."

  A modern offshoot of Vallabha's creed, formed with the avowed object
  of purging it of its objectionable features, was started, in the early
  years of the 19th century, by Sahajananda, a Brahman of the Oudh
  country, who subsequently assumed the name of Svami Narayana. Having
  entered on his missionary labours at Ahmadabad, and afterwards removed
  to Jetalpur, where he had a meeting with Bishop Heber, he subsequently
  settled at the village of Wartal, to the north-west of Baroda, and
  erected a temple to Lakshmi-Narayana, which, with another at
  Ahmadabad, forms the two chief centres of the sect, each being
  presided over by a Maharaja. Their worship is addressed to Narayana,
  i.e. Vishnu, as the Supreme Being, together with Lakshmi, as well as
  to Krishna and Radha. The sect is said to be gaining ground in
  Gujarat. Chaitanya, the founder of the great Vaishnava sect of
  Bengal, was the son of a high-caste Brahman of Nadiya, the famous
  Bengal seat of Sanskrit learning, where he was born in 1485, two years
  after the birth of Martin Luther, the German reformer. Having married
  in due time, and a second time after the death of his first wife, he
  lived as a "householder" (_grihastha_) till the age of 24, when he
  renounced his family ties and set out as a religious mendicant
  (_vairagin_), visiting during the next six years the principal places
  of pilgrimage in northern India, and preaching with remarkable success
  his doctrine of Bhakti, or passionate devotion to Krishna, as the
  Supreme Deity. He subsequently made over to his principal disciples
  the task of consolidating his community, and passed the last twelve
  years of his life at Puri in Orissa, the great centre of the worship
  of Vishnu as Jagannatha, or "lord of the world," which he remodelled
  in accordance with his doctrine, causing the mystic songs of Jayadeva
  to be recited before the images in the morning and evening as part of
  the daily service; and, in fact, as in the other Vaishnava creeds,
  seeking to humanize divine adoration by bringing it into accord with
  the experience of human love. To this end, music, dancing,
  singing-parties (_sankirtan_), theatricals--in short anything
  calculated to produce the desired impression--would prove welcome to
  him. His doctrine of Bhakti distinguishes five grades of devotional
  feeling in the _Bhaktas_, or faithful adherents: viz. (_santi_) calm
  contemplation of the deity; (_dasya_) active servitude; (_sakhya_)
  friendship or personal regard; (_vatsalya_) tender affection as
  between parents and children; (_madhurya_) love or passionate
  attachment, like that which the Gopis felt for Krishna. Chaitanya also
  seems to have done much to promote the celebration on an imposing
  scale of the great Puri festival of the Ratha-yatra, or
  "car-procession," in the month of Ashadha, when, amidst multitudes of
  pilgrims, the image of Krishna, together with those of his brother
  Balarama and his sister Subhadra, is drawn along, in a huge car, by
  the devotees. Just as this festival was, and continues to be, attended
  by people from all parts of India, without distinction of caste or
  sex, so also were all classes, even Mahommedans, admitted by Chaitanya
  as members of his sect. Whilst numerous observances are recommended as
  more or less meritorious, the ordinary form of worship is a very
  simple one, consisting as it does mainly of the constant repetition of
  names of Krishna, or Krishna and Radha, which of itself is considered
  sufficient to ensure future bliss. The partaking of flesh food and
  spirituous liquor is strictly prohibited. By the followers of this
  sect, also, an extravagant degree of reverence is habitually paid to
  their gurus or spiritual heads. Indeed, Chaitanya himself, as well as
  his immediate disciples, have come to be regarded as complete or
  partial incarnations of the deity to whom adoration is due, as to
  Krishna himself; and their modern successors, the Gosains, share to
  the fullest extent in the devout attentions of the worshippers.
  Chaitanya's movement, being chiefly directed against the vile
  practices of the Saktas, then very prevalent in Bengal, was doubtless
  prompted by the best and purest of intentions; but his own doctrine of
  divine, though all too human, love was, like that of Vallabha, by no
  means free from corruptive tendencies,--yet, how far these tendencies
  have worked their way, who would say? On this point, Dr W. W.
  Hunter--who is of opinion that "the death of the reformer marks the
  beginning of the spiritual decline of Vishnu-worship," observes
  (_Orissa_, i. 111), "The most deplorable corruption of Vishnu-worship
  at the present day is that which has covered the temple walls with
  indecent sculptures, and filled its innermost sanctuaries with
  licentious rites" ... yet ... "it is difficult for a person not a
  Hindu to pronounce upon the real extent of the evil. None but a Hindu
  can enter any of the larger temples, and none but a Hindu priest
  really knows the truth about their inner mysteries"; whilst the
  well-known native scholar Babu Rajendralal Mitra points out
  (_Antiquities of Orissa_, i. 111) that "such as they are, these
  sculptures date from centuries before the birth of Chaitanya, and
  cannot, therefore, be attributed to his doctrines or to his followers.
  As a Hindu by birth, and a Vaishnava by family religion, I have had
  the freest access to the innermost sanctuaries and to the most secret
  of scriptures. I have studied the subject most extensively, and have
  had opportunities of judging which no European can have, and I have no
  hesitation in saying that, 'the mystic songs' of Jayadeva and the
  'ocean of love' notwithstanding, there is nothing in the rituals of
  Jagannatha which can be called licentious." Whilst in Chaitanya's
  creed, Krishna, in his relations to Radha, remains at least
  theoretically the chief partner, an almost inevitable step was taken
  by some minor sects in attaching the greater importance to the female
  element, and making Krishna's love for his mistress the guiding
  sentiment of their faith. Of these sects, it will suffice to mention
  that of the Radha-Vallabhis, started in the latter part of the 16th
  century, who worship Krishna as Radha-vallabha, "the darling of
  Radha." The doctrines and practices of these sects clearly verge upon
  those obtaining in the third principal division of Indian sectarians
  which will now be considered.


  Saktas

The Saktas, as we have seen, are worshippers of the _sakti_, or the
female principle as a primary factor in the creation and reproduction of
the universe. And as each of the principal gods is supposed to have
associated with him his own particular _sakti_, as an indispensable
complement enabling him to properly perform his cosmic functions,
adherents of this persuasion might be expected to be recruited from all
sects. To a certain extent this is indeed the case; but though
Vaishnavism, and especially the Krishna creed, with its luxuriant growth
of erotic legends, might have seemed peculiarly favourable to a
development in this direction, it is practically only in connexion with
the Saiva system that an independent cult of the female principle has
been developed; whilst in other sects--and, indeed, in the ordinary
Saiva cult as well--such worship, even where it is at all prominent, is
combined with, and subordinated to, that of the male principle. What has
made this cult attach itself more especially to the Saiva creed is
doubtless the character of Siva as the type of reproductive power, in
addition to his function as destroyer which, as we shall see, is
likewise reflected in some of the forms of his Sakti. The theory of the
god and his Sakti as cosmic principles is perhaps already foreshadowed
in the Vedic couple of Heaven and Earth, whilst in the speculative
treatises of the later Vedic period, as well as in the post-Vedic
Brahmanical writings, the assumption of the self-existent being dividing
himself into a male and a female half usually forms the starting-point
of cosmic evolution.[7] In the later Saiva mythology this theory finds
its artistic representation in Siva's androgynous form of Ardha-narisa,
or "half-woman-lord," typifying the union of the male and female
energies; the male half in this form of the deity occupying the
right-hand, and the female the left-hand side. In accordance with this
type of productive energy, the Saktas divide themselves into two
distinct groups, according to whether they attach the greater importance
to the male or to the female principle; viz. the _Dakshinacharis_, or
"right-hand-observers" (also called _Dak-shina-margis_, or followers "of
the right-hand path"), and the _Vamacharis_, or "left-hand-observers"
(or _Vama-margis_, followers "of the left path"). Though some of the
Puranas, the chief repositories of sectarian doctrines, enter largely
into Sakta topics, it is only in the numerous Tantras that these are
fully and systematically developed. In these works, almost invariably
composed in the form of a colloquy, Siva, as a rule, in answer to
questions asked by his consort Parvati, unfolds the mysteries of this
occult creed.

  The principal seat of Sakta worship is the north-eastern part of
  India--Bengal, Assam and Behar. The great majority of its adherents
  profess to follow the right-hand practice; and apart from the implied
  purport and the emblems of the cult, their mode of adoration does not
  seem to offer any very objectionable features. And even amongst the
  adherents of the left-hand mode of worship, many of these are said to
  follow it as a matter of family tradition rather than of religious
  conviction, and to practise it in a sober and temperate manner; whilst
  only an extreme section--the so-called _Kaulas_ or _Kulinas_, who
  appeal to a spurious Upanishad, the Kaulopanishad, as the divine
  authority of their tenets--persist in carrying on the mystic and
  licentious rites taught in many of the Tantras. But strict secrecy
  being enjoined in the performance of these rites, it is not easy to
  check any statements made on this point. The Sakta cult is, however,
  known to be especially prevalent--though apparently not in a very
  extreme form--amongst members of the very respectable Kayastha or
  writer caste of Bengal, and as these are largely employed as clerks
  and accountants in Upper India, there is reason to fear that their
  vicious practices are gradually being disseminated through them.

The divine object of the adoration of the Saktas, then, is Siva's
wife--the _Devi_ (goddess), _Mahadevi_ (great goddess), or _Jagan-mata_
(mother of the world)--in one or other of her numerous forms, benign or
terrible. The forms in which she is worshipped in Bengal are of the
latter category, viz. _Durga_, "the unapproachable," and _Kali_, "the
black one," or, as some take it, the wife of _Kala_, "time," or death
the great dissolver, viz. Siva. In honour of the former, the
_Durga-puja_ is celebrated during ten days at the time of the autumnal
equinox, in commemoration of her victory over the buffalo-headed demon
Mahishasura; when the image of the ten-armed goddess, holding a weapon
in each hand, is worshipped for nine days, and cast into the water on
the tenth day, called the Dasahara, whence the festival itself is
commonly called Dasara in western India. _Kali_, on the other hand, the
most terrible of the goddess's forms, has a special service performed to
her, at the _Kali-puja_, during the darkest night of the succeeding
month; when she is represented as a naked black woman, four-armed,
wearing a garland of heads of giants slain by her, and a string of
skulls round her neck, dancing on the breast of her husband (Mahakala),
with gaping mouth and protruding tongue; and when she has to be
propitiated by the slaughter of goats, sheep and buffaloes. On other
occasions also Vamacharis commonly offer animal sacrifices, usually one
or more kids; the head of the victim, which has to be severed by a
single stroke, being always placed in front of the image of the goddess
as a blood-offering (_bali_), with an earthen lamp fed with ghee burning
above it, whilst the flesh is cooked and served to the guests attending
the ceremony, except that of buffaloes, which is given to the low-caste
musicians who perform during the service. Even some adherents of this
class have, however, discontinued animal sacrifices, and use certain
kinds of fruit, such as coco-nuts or pumpkins, instead. The use of wine,
which at one time was very common on these occasions, seems also to have
become much more restricted; and only members of the extreme section
would still seem to adhere to the practice of the so-called five _m's_
prescribed by some of the Tantras, viz. _mamsa_ (flesh), _matsya_
(fish), _madya_ (wine), _maithuna_ (sexual union), and _mudra_ (mystical
finger signs)--probably the most degrading cult ever practised under the
pretext of religious worship.

  In connexion with the principal object of this cult, Tantric theory
  has devised an elaborate system of female figures representing either
  special forms and personifications or attendants of the "Great
  Goddess." They are generally arranged in groups, the most important of
  which are the _Mahavidyas_ (great sciences), the 8 (or 9) _Mataras_
  (mothers) or _Mahamataras_ (great mothers), consisting of the wives of
  the principal gods; the 8 _Nayikas_ or mistresses; and different
  classes of sorceresses and ogresses, called _Yoginis_, _Dakinis_ and
  _Sakinis_. A special feature of the Sakti cult is the use of obscure
  Vedic _mantras_, often changed so as to be quite meaningless and on
  that very account deemed the more efficacious for the acquisition of
  superhuman powers; as well as of mystic letters and syllables called
  _bija_ (germ), of magic circles (_chakra_) and diagrams (_yantra_),
  and of amulets of various materials inscribed with formulae of fancied
  mysterious import.


  General conclusions.

This survey of the Indian sects will have shown how little the character
of their divine objects of worship is calculated to exert that elevating
and spiritualizing influence, so characteristic of true religious
devotion. In all but a few of the minor groups religious fervour is only
too apt to degenerate into that very state of sexual excitation which
devotional exercises should surely tend to repress. If the worship of
Siva, despite the purport of his chief symbol, seems on the whole less
liable to produce these undesirable effects than that of the rival
deity, it is doubtless due partly to the real nature of that emblem
being little realized by the common people, and partly to the somewhat
repellent character of the "great god," more favourable to evoking
feelings of awe and terror than a spirit of fervid devotion. All the
more are, however, the gross stimulants, connected with the adoration of
his consort, calculated to work up the carnal instincts of the devotees
to an extreme degree of sensual frenzy. In the Vaishnava camp, on the
other hand, the cult of Krishna, and more especially that of the
youthful Krishna, can scarcely fail to exert an influence which, if of a
subtler and more insinuating, is not on that account of a less
demoralizing kind. Indeed, it would be hard to find anything less
consonant with godliness and divine perfection than the pranks of this
juvenile god; and if poets and thinkers try to explain them away by dint
of allegorical interpretation, the plain man will not for all their
refinements take these amusing adventures any the less _au pied de la
lettre_. No fault, in this respect, can assuredly be found with the
legendary Rama, a very paragon of knightly honour and virtue, even as
his consort Sita is the very model of a noble and faithful wife; and yet
this cult has perhaps retained even more of the character of mere
hero-worship than that of Krishna. Since by the universally accepted
doctrine of _karman_ (deed) or _karmavipaka_ ("the maturing of deeds")
man himself--either in his present, or some future, existence--enjoys
the fruit of, or has to atone for, his former good and bad actions,
there could hardly be room in Hindu pantheism for a belief in the
remission of sin by divine grace or vicarious substitution. And
accordingly the "descents" or incarnations of the deity have for their
object, not so much the spiritual regeneration of man as the deliverance
of the world from some material calamity threatening to overwhelm it.
The generally recognized principal Avatars do not, however, by any means
constitute the only occasions of a direct intercession of the deity in
worldly affairs, but--in the same way as to this day the eclipses of the
sun and moon are ascribed by the ordinary Hindu to these luminaries
being temporarily swallowed by the dragon _Rahu_ (or _Graha_, "the
seizer")--so any uncommon occurrence would be apt to be set down as a
special manifestation of divine power; and any man credited with
exceptional merit or achievement, or even remarkable for some strange
incident connected with his life or death, might ultimately come to be
looked upon as a veritable incarnation of the deity, capable of
influencing the destinies of man, and might become an object of local
adoration or superstitious awe and propitiatory rites to multitudes of
people. That the transmigration theory, which makes the spirit of the
departed hover about for a time in quest of a new corporeal abode, would
naturally lend itself to superstitious notions of this kind can scarcely
be doubted. Of peculiar importance in this respect is the worship of the
_Pitris_ ("fathers") or deceased ancestors, as entering largely into the
everyday life and family relations of the Hindus. At stated intervals to
offer reverential homage and oblations of food to the forefathers up to
the third degree is one of the most sacred duties the devout Hindu has
to discharge. The periodical performance of the commemorative rite of
obsequies called _Sraddha_--i.e. an oblation "made in faith" (_sraddha_,
Lat. _credo_)--is the duty and privilege of the eldest son of the
deceased, or, failing him, of the nearest relative who thereby
establishes his right as next of kin in respect of inheritance; and
those other relatives who have the right to take part in the ceremony
are called _sapinda_, i.e. sharing in the _pindas_ (or balls of cooked
rice, constituting along with libations of water the usual offering to
the Manes)--such relationship being held a bar to intermarriage. The
first _Sraddha_ takes place as soon as possible after the _antyeshti_
("final offering") or funeral ceremony proper, usually spread over ten
days; being afterwards repeated once a month for a year, and
subsequently at every anniversary and otherwise voluntarily on special
occasions. Moreover, a simple libation of water should be offered to the
Fathers twice daily at the morning and evening devotion called _sandhya_
("twilight"). It is doubtless a sense of filial obligation coupled with
sentiments of piety and reverence that gave rise to this practice of
offering gifts of food and drink to the deceased ancestors. Hence also
frequent allusion is made by poets to the anxious care caused to the
Fathers by the possibility of the living head of the family being
afflicted with failure of offspring; this dire prospect compelling them
to use but sparingly their little store of provisions, in case the
supply should shortly cease altogether. At the same time one also meets
with frank avowals of a superstitious fear lest any irregularity in the
performance of the obsequial rites should cause the Fathers to haunt
their old home and trouble the peace of their undutiful descendant, or
even prematurely draw him after them to the Pitri-loka or world of the
Fathers, supposed to be located in the southern region. Terminating as
it usually does with the feeding and feeing of a greater or less number
of Brahmans and the feasting of members of the performers' own caste,
the Sraddha, especially its first performance, is often a matter of very
considerable expense; and more than ordinary benefit to the deceased is
supposed to accrue from it when it takes place at a spot of recognized
sanctity, such as one of the great places of pilgrimage like Prayaga
(Allahabad, where the three sacred rivers, Ganga, Yamuna and Sarasvati,
meet), Mathura, and especially Gaya and Kasi (Benares). But indeed the
_tirtha-yatra_, or pilgrimage to holy bathing-places, is in itself
considered an act of piety conferring religious merit in proportion to
the time and trouble expended upon it. The number of such places is
legion and is constantly increasing. The banks of the great rivers such
as the Ganga (Ganges), the Yamuna (Jumna), the Narbada, the Krishna
(Kistna), are studded with them, and the water of these rivers is
supposed to be imbued with the essence of sanctity capable of cleansing
the pious bather of all sin and moral taint. To follow the entire course
of one of the sacred rivers from the mouth to the source on one side and
back again on the other in the sun-wise (pradakshina) direction--that
is, always keeping the stream on one's right-hand side--is held to be a
highly meritorious undertaking which it requires years to carry through.
No wonder that water from these rivers, especially the Ganges, is sent
and taken in bottles to all parts of India to be used on occasion as
healing medicine or for sacramental purposes. In Vedic times, at the
_Rajasuya_, or inauguration of a king, some water from the holy river
Sarasvati was mixed with the sprinkling water used for consecrating the
king. Hence also sick persons are frequently conveyed long distances to
a sacred river to heal them of their maladies; and for a dying man to
breathe his last at the side of the Ganges is devoutly believed to be
the surest way of securing for him salvation and eternal bliss.

  Such probably was the belief of the ordinary Hindu two thousand years
  ago, and such it remains to this day. In the light of facts such as
  these, who could venture to say what the future of Hinduism is likely
  to be? Is the regeneration of India to be brought about by the modern
  theistic movements, such as the Brahma-samaj and Arya-samaj, as so
  close and sympathetic an observer of Hindu life and thought as Sir A.
  Lyall seems to think? "The Hindu mind," he remarks, "is essentially
  speculative and transcendental; it will never consent to be shut up in
  the prison of sensual experience, for it has grasped and holds firmly
  the central idea that all things are manifestations of some power
  outside phenomena. And the tendency of contemporary religious
  discussion in India, so far as it can be followed from a distance, is
  towards an ethical reform on the old foundations, towards searching
  for some method of reconciling their Vedic theology with the practices
  of religion taken as a rule of conduct and a system of moral
  government. One can already discern a movement in various quarters
  towards a recognition of impersonal theism, and towards fixing the
  teaching of the philosophical schools upon some definitely authorized
  system of faith and morals, which may satisfy a rising ethical
  standard, and may thus permanently embody that tendency to substitute
  spiritual devotion for external forms and caste rules which is the
  characteristic of the sects that have from time to time dissented from
  orthodox Brahminism."

  AUTHORITIES.--_Census of India_ (1901), vol. i. part i.; _India_, by
  H. H. Risley and E. A. Gait; vol. i. _Ethnographical Appendices_, by
  H. H. Risley; _The Indian Empire_, vol. i. (new ed., Oxford, 1907); J.
  Muir, _Original Sanskrit Texts_ (2nd ed., 5 vols., London, 1873);
  Monier Williams, _Religious Thought and Life in India_ (London, 1883);
  _Modern India and the Indians_ (London, 1878, 3rd ed. 1879);
  _Hinduism_ (London, 1877); Sir Alfred C. Lyall, _Asiatic Studies_ (2
  series, London, 1899); "Hinduism" in _Religious Systems of the World_
  (London, 1904); "Brahminism" in _Great Religions of the World_ (New
  York and London, 1902); W. J. Wilkins, _Modern Hinduism_ (London,
  1887); J. C. Oman, _Indian Life, Religious and Social_ (London, 1879);
  _The Mystics, Ascetics and Saints of India_ (London, 1903); _The
  Brahmans, Theists and Muslims of India_ (London, 1907); S. C. Bose,
  _The Hindus as they are_ (2nd ed., Calcutta, 1883); J. Robson,
  _Hinduism and Christianity_ (Edinburgh and London, 3rd ed., 1905); J.
  Murray Mitchell, _Hinduism Past and Present_ (2nd ed., London, 1897);
  Jogendra Nath Bhattacharya, _Hindu Castes and Sects_ (Calcutta, 1896);
  A. Barth, _The Religions of India_ (London, 1882); E. W. Hopkins, _The
  Religions of India_ (London, 1896).     (J. E.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] "It is, perhaps, by surveying India that we at this day can best
    represent to ourselves and appreciate the vast external reform worked
    upon the heathen world by Christianity, as it was organized and
    executed throughout Europe by the combined authority of the Holy
    Roman Empire and the Church Apostolic." Sir Alfred C. Lyall, _Asiatic
    Studies_, i. 2.

  [2] Henry Whitehead, D. D., bishop of Madras, _The Village Deities of
    Southern India_ (Madras, 1907).

  [3] "The effect of caste is to give all Hindu society a religious
    basis." Sir A. C. Lyall, _Brahmanism_.

  [4] Thus, in Berar, "there is a strong non-Aryan leaven in the dregs
    of the agricultural class, derived from the primitive races which
    have gradually melted down into settled life, and thus become fused
    with the general community, while these same races are still distinct
    tribes in the wild tracts of hill and jungle." Sir Alfred C. Lyall,
    _As. St._, i. 6.

  [5] Siva is said to have first appeared in the beginning of the
    present age as Sveta, the White, for the purpose of benefiting the
    Brahmans, and he is invariably painted white; whilst Vishnu, when
    pictured, is always of a dark-blue colour.

  [6] As in the case of Siva's traditional white complexion, it may not
    be without significance, from a racial point of view, that Vishnu,
    Rama and Krishna have various darker shades of colour attributed to
    them, viz. blue, hyacinthine, and dark azure or dark brown
    respectively. The names of the two heroes meaning simply "black" or
    "dark," the blue tint may originally have belonged to Vishnu, who is
    also called _pitavasas_, dressed in yellow garment, i.e. the colours
    of sky and sun combined.

  [7] This notion not improbably took its origin in the mystic
    cosmogonic hymn, Rigv. x. 129, where it is said that--"that one
    (existent, neutr.) breathed breathless by (or with) its _svadha_ (?
    inherent power, or nature), beyond that there was nothing whatever
    ... that one live (germ) which was enclosed in the void was generated
    by the power of heat (or fervour); desire then first came upon it,
    which was the first seed of the mind ... fertilizing forces there
    were, _svadha_ below, _prayati_ (? will) above."



HINDU KUSH, a range of mountains in Central Asia. Throughout 500 m. of
its length, from its roots in the Pamir regions till it fades into the
Koh-i-Baba to the west of Kabul, this great range forms the water-divide
between the Kabul and the Oxus basins, and, for the first 200 m.
reckoning westwards, the southern boundary of Afghanistan. It may be
said to spring from the head of the Taghdumbash Pamir, where it unites
with the great meridional system of Sarikol stretching northwards, and
the yet more impressive mountain barrier of Muztagh, the northern base
of which separates China from the semi-independent territory of Kanjut.
The Wakhjir pass, crossing the head of the Taghdumbash Pamir into the
sources of the river Hunza, almost marks the tri-junction of the three
great chains of mountains. As the Hindu Kush strikes westwards, after
first rounding the head of an Oxus tributary (the Ab-i-Panja, which
Curzon considers to be the true source of the Oxus), it closely
overlooks the trough of that glacier-fed stream under its northern
spurs, its crest at the nearest point being separated from the river by
a distance which cannot much exceed 10 m. As the river is here the
northern boundary of Afghanistan, and the crest of the Hindu Kush the
southern boundary, this distance represents the width of the Afghan
kingdom at that point.

  _Physiography._--For the first 100 m. of its length the Hindu Kush is
  a comparatively flat-backed range of considerable width, permitting
  the formation of small lakes on the crest, and possessing no
  considerable peaks. It is crossed by many passes, varying in height
  from 12,500 ft. to 17,500 ft., the lowest and the easiest being the
  well-known group about Baroghil, which has from time immemorial
  offered a line of approach from High Asia to Chitral and Jalalabad. As
  the Hindu Kush gradually recedes from the Ab-i-Panja and turns
  south-westwards it gains in altitude, and we find prominent peaks on
  the crest which measure more than 24,000 ft. above sea-level. Even
  here, however, the main central water-divide, or axis of the chain, is
  apparently not the line of highest peaks, which must be looked for to
  the south, where the great square-headed giant called Tirach Mir
  dominates Chitral from a southern spur. For some 40 or 50 m. of this
  south-westerly bend, bearing away from the Oxus, where the Hindu Kush
  overlooks the mountain wilderness of Badakshan to the west, the crest
  is intersected by many passes, of which the most important is the
  Dorah group (including the Minjan and the Mandal), which rise to about
  15,000 ft., and which are, under favourable conditions, practicable
  links between the Oxus and Chitral basins.


    Kafiristan section.

  From the Dorah to the Khawak pass (or group of passes, for it is
  seldom that one line of approach only is to be found across the Hindu
  Kush), which is between 11,000 and 12,000 ft. in altitude, the
  water-divide overlooks Kafiristan and Badakshan. Here its exact
  position is matter of conjecture. It lies amidst a wild, inaccessible
  region of snowbound crests, and is certainly nowhere less than 15,000
  ft. above sea-level. There is a tradition that Timur attempted the
  passage of the Hindu Kush by one of the unmapped passes hereabouts,
  and that, having failed, he left a record of his failure engraved on a
  rock in the pass.


    Passes.

  The Khawak, at the head of the Panjshir tributary of the Kabul river,
  leading straight from Badakshan to Charikar and the city of Kabul, is
  now an excellent kafila route, the road having been engineered under
  the amir Abdur Rahman's direction, and it is said to be available for
  traffic throughout the year. From the Khawak to the head of the
  Ghorband (a river of the Hindu Kush which, rising to the north-west of
  Kabul, flows north-east to meet the Panjshir near Charikar, whence
  they run united into the plains of Kohistan) the Hindu Kush is
  intersected by passes at intervals, all of which were surveyed, and
  several utilized, during the return of the Russo-Afghan boundary
  commission from the Oxus to Kabul in 1886. Those utilized were the
  Kaoshan (the "Hindu Kush" pass _par excellence_), 14,340 ft.; the
  Chahardar (13,900 ft.), which is a link in one of the amir of
  Afghanistan's high roads to Turkestan; and the Shibar (9800 ft.),
  which is merely a diversion into the upper Ghorband of that group of
  passes between Bamian and the Kabul plains which are represented by
  the Irak, Hajigak, Unai, &c. About this point it is geographically
  correct to place the southern extremity of the Hindu Kush, for here
  commences the Koh-i-Baba system into which the Hindu Kush is merged.


    General conformation.

  The general conformation of the Hindu Kush system south of the Khawak,
  no less than such fragmentary evidence of its rock composition as at
  present exists to the north, points to its construction under the same
  conditions of upheaval and subsequent denudation as are common to the
  western Himalaya and the whole of the trans-Indus borderland. Its
  upheaval above the great sea which submerged all the north-west of the
  Indian peninsula long after the Himalaya had massed itself as a
  formidable mountain chain, belongs to a comparatively recent geologic
  period, and the same thrust upwards of vast masses of cretaceous
  limestone has disturbed the overlying recent beds of shale and clays
  with very similar results to those which have left so marked an
  impress on the Baluch frontier. Successive flexures or ridges are
  ranged in more or less parallel lines, and from between the bands of
  hard, unyielding rock of older formation the soft beds of recent shale
  have been washed out, to be carried through the enclosing ridges by
  rifts which break across their axes. The Hindu Kush is, in fact, but
  the face of a great upheaved mass of plateau-land lying beyond it
  northwards, just as the Himalaya forms the southern face of the great
  central tableland of Tibet, and its general physiography, exhibiting
  long, narrow, lateral valleys and transverse lines of "antecedent"
  drainage, is similar. There are few passes across the southern
  section of the Hindu Kush (and this section is, from the
  politico-geographical point of view, more important to India than the
  whole Himalayan system) which have not to surmount a succession of
  crests or ridges as they cross from Afghan Turkestan to Afghanistan.
  The exceptions are, of course, notable, and have played an important
  part in the military history of Asia from time immemorial. From a
  little ice-bound lake called Gaz Kul, or Karambar, which lies on the
  crest of the Hindu Kush near its northern origin at the head of the
  Taghdumbash Pamir, two very important river systems (those of Chitral
  and Hunza) are believed to originate. The lake really lies on the
  watershed between the two, and is probably a glacial relic. Its
  contribution to either infant stream appears to depend on conditions
  of overflow determined by the blocking of ice masses towards one end.
  It marks the commencement of the water-divide which primarily
  separates the Gilgit basin from that of the Yashkun, or Chitral,
  river, and subsequently divides the drainage of Swat and Bajour from
  that of the Chitral (or Kunar). The Yashkun-Chitral-Kunar river (it is
  called by all three names) is the longest affluent of the Kabul, and
  it is in many respects a more important river than the Kabul.
  Throughout its length it is closely flanked on its left bank by this
  main water-divide, which is called Moshabar or Shandur in its northern
  sections, and owns a great variety of names where it divides Bajour
  from the Kunar valley. It is this range, crowned by peaks of 22,000
  ft. altitude and maintaining an average elevation of some 10,000 ft.
  throughout its length of 250 m., that is the real barrier of the
  north--not the Hindu Kush itself. Across it, at its head, are the
  glacial passes which lead to the foot of the Baroghil. Of these
  Darkot, with a glacial staircase on each side, is typical. (See
  GILGIT.) Those passes (the Kilik and Mintaka) from the Pamir regions,
  which lead into the rocky gorges and defiles of the upper affluents of
  the Hunza to the east of the Darkot, belong rather to the Muztagh
  system than to the Hindu Kush. Other passes across this important
  water-divide are the Shandur (12,250 ft.), between Gilgit and Mastuj;
  the Lowarai (10,450 ft.), between the Panjkora and Chitral valleys;
  and farther south certain lower crossings which once formed part of
  the great highway between Kabul and India.


    Chitral.

  Deep down in the trough of the Chitral river, about midway between its
  source and its junction with the Kabul at Jalalabad, is the village
  and fort of Chitral (q.v.). Facing Chitral, on the right bank of the
  river, and extending for some 70 m. from the Hindu Kush, is the lofty
  snow-clad spur of the Hindu Kush known as Shawal, across which one or
  two difficult passes lead into the Bashgol valley of Kafiristan. This
  spur carries the boundary of Afghanistan southwards to Arnawai (some
  50 m. below Chitral), where it crosses the river to the long Shandur
  watershed. South of Arnawai the Kunar valley becomes a part of
  Afghanistan (see KUNAR). The value of Chitral as an outpost of British
  India may be best gauged by its geographical position. It is about 100
  m. (direct map measurement) from the outpost of Russia at Langar Kisht
  on the river Panja, with the Dorah pass across the Hindu Kush
  intervening. The Dorah may be said to be about half-way between the
  two outposts, and the mountain tracks leading to it on either side are
  rough and difficult. The Dorah, however, is not the only pass which
  leads into the Chitral valley from the Oxus. The Mandal pass, a few
  miles south of the Dorah, is the connecting link between the Oxus and
  the Bashgol valley of Kafiristan; and the Bashgol valley leads
  directly to the Chitral valley at Arnawai, about 50 m. below Chitral.
  Nor must we overlook the connexion between north and south of the
  Hindu Kush which is afforded by the long narrow valley of the Chitral
  (or Yashkun) itself, leading up to the Baroghil pass. This route was
  once made use of by the Chinese for purposes of pilgrimage, if not for
  invasion. Access to Chitral from the north is therefore but a matter
  of practicable tracks, or passes, in two or three directions, and the
  measure of practicability under any given conditions can best be
  reckoned from Chitral itself. By most authorities the possibility of
  an advance in force from the north, even under the most favourable
  conditions, is considered to be exceedingly small; but the tracks and
  passes of the Hindu Kush are only impracticable so long as they are
  left as nature has made them.

_Historical Notices._--Hindu Kush is the Caucasus of Alexander's
historians. It is also included in the Paropamisus, though the latter
term embraces more, Caucasus being apparently used only when the alpine
barrier is in question. Whether the name was given in mere vanity to the
barrier which Alexander passed (as Arrian and others repeatedly allege),
or was founded also on some verbal confusion, cannot be stated. It was
no doubt regarded (and perhaps not altogether untruly) as a part of a
great alpine zone believed to traverse Asia from west to east, whether
called Taurus, Caucasus or Imaus. Arrian himself applies Caucasus
distinctly to the Himalaya also. The application of the name Tanais to
the Syr seems to indicate a real confusion with Colchian Caucasus.
Alexander, after building an Alexandria at its foot (probably at Hupian
near Charikar), crossed into Bactria, first reaching Drapsaca, or
Adrapsa. This has been interpreted as Anderab, in which case he probably
crossed the Khawak Pass, but the identity is uncertain. The ancient Zend
name is, according to Rawlinson, Paresina, the essential part of
Paropamisus; this accounts for the great Asiastic _Parnassus_ of
Aristotle, and the _Pho-lo-sin-a_ of Hsüan Tsang.

The name Hindu Kush is used by Ibn Batuta, who crossed (c. 1332) from
Anderab, and he gives the explanation of the name which, however
doubtful, is still popular, as (Pers.) Hindu-Killer, "because of the
number of Indian slaves who perished in passing" its snows. Baber always
calls the range Hindu Kush, and the way in which he speaks of it shows
clearly that it was a range that was meant, not a solitary pass or peak
(according to modern local use, as alleged by Elphinstone and Burnes).
Probably, however, the title was confined to the section from Khawak to
Koh-i-Baba. The name has by some later Oriental writers been modified
into Hindu _Koh_ (mountain), but this is factitious, and throws no more
light on the origin of the title. The name seems to have become known to
European geographers by the Oriental translations of the two Petis de la
Croix, and was taken up by Delisle and D'Anville. Rennell and
Elphinstone familiarized it. Burnes first crossed the range (1832). A
British force was stationed at Bamian beyond it in 1840, with an outpost
at Saighan.

The Hindu Kush, formidable as it seems, and often as it has been the
limit between petty states, has hardly ever been the boundary of a
considerable power. Greeks, White Huns, Samanidae of Bokhara,
Ghaznevides, Mongols, Timur and Timuridae, down to Saddozais and
Barakzais, have ruled both sides of this great alpine chain.

  AUTHORITIES.--Information about the Hindu Kush and Chitral is now
  comparatively exact. The Russo-Afghan Boundary Commission of 1884 and
  the Chitral expedition of 1895 opened up a vast area for geographical
  investigation, and the information collected is to be found in the
  reports and gazetteers of the Indian government. The following are the
  chief recent authorities:--Report of the Russo-Afghan Boundary
  Commission (1886); Report of Lockhart's Mission (1886); Report of
  Asmar Boundary Commission (1895); Report of Pamir Boundary Commission
  (1896); J. Biddulph, _Tribes of the Hindu Kush_ (Calcutta, 1880); W.
  M'Nair, "Visit to Kafiristan," vol. vi. _R.G.S. Proc._, 1884; F.
  Younghusband, "Journeys on the Pamirs, &c.," vol. xiv. _R.G.S. Proc._,
  1892; Colonel Durand, _Making a Frontier_ (London, 1899); Sir G.
  Robertson, _Chitral_ (London, 1899).     (T. H. H.*)



HINDUR, or NALAGARH, one of the Simla hill states, under the government
of the Punjab, India. Pop. (1901) 52,551; area, 256 sq. m.; estimated
revenue, £8600. The country was overrun by the Gurkhas for some years
before 1815, when they were driven out by the British, and the raja was
confirmed in possession of the territory. The principal products are
grain and opium.



HINGANGHAT, a town of British India in Wardha district, Central
Provinces, 21 m. S.W. of Wardha town. Pop (1901) 12,662. It is a main
seat of the cotton trade, the cotton here produced in the rich Wardha
valley having given its name to one of the best indigenous staples of
India. The principal native traders are Marwaris, many of whom have
large transactions and export on their own account; but the greater
number act as middle-men. There are two cotton-mills and several ginning
and pressing factories.



HINGE (in Mid. Eng. _henge_ or _heeng_, from _hengen_, to hang), a
movable joint, particularly that by which a door or window "hangs" from
its side-post, or by which a lid or cover is attached to that which it
closes; also any device which allows two parts to be joined together and
move upon each other (see JOINERY). Figuratively the word is used of
that on which something depends, a cardinal or turning point, a crisis.



HINGHAM, a township of Plymouth county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., on
Massachusetts Bay. Pop (1890) 4564; (1900) 5059 (969 being
foreign-born); (1905, state census) 4819; (1910) 4965. Area, about 30
sq. m. The township is traversed by the New York, New Haven & Hartford
railway, and contains the villages of Hingham, West Hingham, Hingham
Center, and South Hingham. Derby Academy, a co-educational school
founded and endowed with about £12,000 in 1784 by Sarah Derby
(1714-1790), was opened in 1791. Hingham has a public library (1868),
with 12,000 volumes in 1908. The Old Meeting House, erected in 1681, is
one of the oldest church buildings in the country used continuously.
Manufactures were relatively much more important in the 17th and 18th
centuries than since. There were settlers here as early as 1633, some of
them--notably Edmund Hobart, ancestor of Bishop John Henry
Hobart,--being natives of Hingham, Norfolk, England, whence the name;
and in 1635 common land called Barecove became the township of Hingham.

  See _History of the Town of Hingham_ (4 vols., Hingham, 1893).



HINRICHS, HERMANN FRIEDRICH WILHELM (1794-1861), German philosopher,
studied theology at Strassburg, and philosophy at Heidelberg under Hegel
(q.v.), who wrote a preface to his _Religion im innern Verhältniss zur
Wissenschaft_ (Heidelberg, 1722). He became a _Privatdozent_ in 1819,
and held professorships at Breslau (1822) and Halle (1824).

  WORKS.--(1) Philosophical: _Grundlinien der Philosophie der Logik_
  (Halle, 1826); _Genesis des Wissens_ (Heidelberg, 1835). (2) On
  aesthetics: _Vorlesungen über Goethes Faust_ (Halle, 1825); _Schillers
  Dichtungen nach ihrem historischen Zusammenhang_ (Leipzig, 1837-1839).
  By these works he became a recognized exponent of orthodox
  Hegelianism. (3) Historical: _Geschichte der Rechts- und
  Staatsprinzipien seit der Reformation bis auf die Gegenwart_ (Leipzig,
  1848-1852); _Die Könige_ (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1853).



HINSCHIUS, PAUL (1835-1898), German jurist, was the son of Franz Sales
August Hinschius (1807-1877), and was born in Berlin on the 25th of
December 1835. His father was not only a scientific jurist, but also a
lawyer in large practice in Berlin. After working under his father,
Hinschius in 1852 began to study jurisprudence at Heidelberg and Berlin,
the teacher who had most influence upon him being Aemilius Ludwig
Richter (1808-1864), to whom he afterwards ascribed the great revival of
the study of ecclesiastical law in Germany. In 1855 Hinschius took the
degree of _doctor utriusque juris_, and in 1859 was admitted to the
juridical faculty of Berlin. In 1863 he went as professor
extraordinarius to Halle, returning in the same capacity to Berlin in
1865; and in 1868 became professor ordinarius at the university of Kiel,
which he represented in the Prussian Upper House (1870-1871). He also
assisted his father in editing the _Preussische Anwaltszeitung_ from
1862 to 1866 and the _Zeitschrift für Gesetzgebung und Rechtspflege in
Preussen_ from 1867 to 1871. In 1872 he was appointed professor
ordinarius of ecclesiastical law at Berlin. In the same year he took
part in the conferences of the ministry of ecclesiastical affairs, which
issued in the famous "Falk laws." In connexion with the developments of
the _Kulturkampf_ which resulted from the "Falk laws," he wrote several
treatises: e.g. on "The Attitude of the German State Governments towards
the Decrees of the Vatican Council" (1871), on "The Prussian Church Laws
of 1873" (1873), "The Prussian Church Laws of the years 1874 and 1875"
(1875), and "The Prussian Church Law of 14th July 1880" (1881). He sat
in the Reichstag as a National Liberal from 1872 to 1878, and again in
1881 and 1882, and from 1889 onwards he represented the university of
Berlin in the Prussian Upper House. He died on the 13th of December
1898.

The two great works by which Hinschius established his fame are the
_Decretales Pseudo-Isidorianae et capitula Angilramni_ (2 parts,
Leipzig, 1863) and _Das Kirchenrecht der Katholiken und Protestanten in
Deutschland_, vols, i.-vi. (Berlin, 1869-1877). The first of these, for
which during 1860 and 1861 he had gathered materials in Italy, Spain,
France, England, Scotland, Ireland, Holland and Belgium, was the first
critical edition of the False Decretals. His most monumental work,
however, is the _Kirchenrecht_, which remains incomplete. The six
volumes actually published (_System des katholischen Kirchenrechts_)
cover only book i. of the work as planned; they are devoted to an
exhaustive historical and analytical study of the Roman Catholic
hierarchy and its government of the church. The work is planned with
special reference to Germany; but in fact its scheme embraces the whole
of the Roman Catholic organization in its principles and practice.
Unfortunately even this part of the work remains incomplete; two
chapters of book i. and the whole of book ii., which was to have dealt
with "the rights and duties of the members of the hierarchy," remain
unwritten; the most notable omission is that of the ecclesiastical law
in relation to the regular orders. Incomplete as it is, however, the
_Kirchenrecht_ remains a work of the highest scientific authority.
Epoch-making in its application of the modern historical method to the
study of ecclesiastical law in its theory and practice, it has become
the model for the younger school of canonists.

  See the articles s.v. by E. Seckel in Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_
  (3rd ed., 1900), and by Ulrich Steitz in the _Allgemeine deutsche
  Biographie_, vol. 50 (Leipzig, 1905).



HINTERLAND (German for "the land behind"), the region lying behind a
coast or river line, or a country dependent for trade or commerce on any
other region. In the purely physical sense "interior" or "back country"
is more commonly used, but the word has gained a distinct political
significance. It first came into prominence during 1883-1885, when
Germany insisted that she had a right to exercise jurisdiction in the
territory behind those parts of the African coast that she had occupied.
The "doctrine of the hinterland" was that the possessor of the littoral
was entitled to as much of the back country as geographically,
economically or politically was dependent upon the coast lands, a
doctrine which, in the space of ten years, led to the partition of
Africa between various European powers.



HINTON, JAMES (1822-1875), English surgeon and author, son of John
Howard Hinton (1791-1873), Baptist minister and author of the _History
and Topography of the United States_ and other works, was born at
Reading in 1822. He was educated at his grandfather's school near
Oxford, and at the Nonconformist school at Harpenden, and in 1838, on
his father's removal to London, was apprenticed to a woollen-draper in
Whitechapel. After retaining this situation about a year he became clerk
in an insurance office. His evenings were spent in intense study, and
this, joined to the ardour, amounting to morbidness, of his interest in
moral problems, so affected his health that in his nineteenth year he
resolved to seek refuge from his own thoughts by running away to sea.
His intention having, however, been discovered, he was sent, on the
advice of the physician who was consulted regarding his health, to St
Bartholomew's Hospital to study for the medical profession. After
receiving his diploma in 1847, he was for some time assistant surgeon at
Newport, Essex, but the same year he went out to Sierra Leone to take
medical charge of the free labourers on their voyage thence to Jamaica,
where he stayed some time. He returned to England in 1850, and entered
into partnership with a surgeon in London, where he soon had his
interest awakened specially in aural surgery, and gave also much of his
attention to physiology. He made his first appearance as an author in
1856 by contributing papers on physiological and ethical subjects to the
_Christian Spectator_; and in 1859 he published _Man and his
Dwelling-place_. A series of papers entitled "Physiological Riddles," in
the _Cornhill Magazine_, afterwards published as _Life in Nature_
(1862), as well as another series entitled _Thoughts on Health_ (1871),
proved his aptitude for popular scientific exposition. After being
appointed aural surgeon to Guy's Hospital in 1863, he speedily acquired
a reputation as the most skilful aural surgeon of his day, which was
fully borne out by his works, _An Atlas of Diseases of the membrana
tympani_ (1874), and _Questions of Aural Surgery_ (1874). But his health
broke down, and in 1874 he gave up practice; and he died at the Azores
of acute inflammation of the brain on the 16th of December 1875. In
addition to the works already mentioned, he was the author of _The
Mystery of Pain_ (1866) and _The Place of the Physician_ (1874). On
account of their fresh and vigorous discussion of many of the important
moral and social problems of the time, his writings had a wide
circulation on both sides of the Atlantic.

  His _Life and Letters_, edited by Ellice Hopkins, with an introduction
  by Sir W. W. Gull, appeared in 1878.



HIOGO [HYOGO], a town of Japan in the province of Settsu, Nippon, on the
western shore of the bay of Osaka, adjoining the foreign settlement of
Kobe, 21 m. W. of Osaka by rail. The growth of its prosperity has been
very remarkable. Its population, including that of Kobe, was 135,639 in
1891, and 285,002 in 1903. From 1884 to the close of the century its
trade increased nearly eightfold, and the increase was not confined to a
few staples of commerce, but was spread over almost the whole trade, in
which silk and cotton fabrics, floor-mats, straw-plaits, matches, and
cotton yarns are specially important. Kobe owes much of its prosperity
to the fact of serving largely as the shipping port of Osaka, the chief
manufacturing town in Japan. The foreign community, exclusive of
Chinese, exceeds 1000 persons. Kobe is considered the brightest and
healthiest of all the places assigned as foreign settlements in Japan,
its pure, dry air and granite subsoil constituting special advantages.
It is in railway communication with all parts of the country, and
wharves admit of steamers of large size loading and discharging cargo
without the aid of lighters. The area originally appropriated for a
foreign settlement soon proved too restricted, and foreigners received
permission to lease lands and houses direct from Japanese owners beyond
the treaty limits, a privilege which, together with that of building
villas on the hills behind the town, ultimately involved some diplomatic
complications. Kobe has a shipbuilding yard, and docks in its immediate
neighbourhood.

Hiogo has several temples of interest, one of which has near it a huge
bronze statue of Buddha, while by the Minatogawa, which flows into the
sea between Hiogo and Kobe, a temple commemorates the spot where
Kusunoki Masashige, the mirror of Japanese loyalty, met his death in
battle in 1336. The temple of Ikuta was erected on the site of the
ancient fane built by Jingo on her return from Korea in the 3rd century.

Hiogo's original name was Bako. Its position near the entrance of the
Inland Sea gave it some maritime importance from a very early period,
but it did not become really prominent until the 12th century, when
Kiyomori, chief of the Taira clan, transferred the capital from Kioto to
Fukuhara, in Hiogo's immediate neighbourhood, and undertook various
public works for improving the place. The change of capital was very
brief, but Hiogo benefited permanently from the distinction.



HIP. (1) (From O. Eng. _hype_, a word common in various forms to many
Teutonic languages; cf. Dutch _heup_, and Ger. _Hüfte_), the projecting
part of the body formed by the top of the thighbone and the side of the
pelvis, in quadrupeds generally known as the haunch (see JOINTS). (2)(O.
Eng. _héope_, from same root as M.H. Ger. _hiefe_, a thorn-bush), the
fruit of the dog-rose (_Rosa canina_); "hips" are usually joined with
"haws," the fruit of the hawthorn.



HIP-KNOB, in architecture, the finial on the hip of a roof, between the
barge-boards of a gable.



HIPPARCHUS (fl. 146-126 B.C.), Greek astronomer, was born at Nicaea in
Bithynia early in the 2nd century B.C. He observed in the island of
Rhodes probably from 161, certainly from 146 until about 126 B.C., and
made the capital discovery of the precession of the equinoxes in 130
(see ASTRONOMY: _History_). The outburst of a new star in 134 B.C. is
stated by Pliny (_Hist. nat._ ii. 26) to have prompted the preparation
of his catalogue of 1080 stars, substantially embodied in Ptolemy's
_Almagest_. Hipparchus founded trigonometry, and compiled the first
table of chords. Scientific geography originated with his invention of
the method of fixing terrestrial positions by circles of latitude and
longitude. There can be little doubt that the fundamental part of his
astronomical knowledge was derived from Chaldaea. None of his many works
has survived except a Commentary on the _Phaenomena_ of Aratus and
Eudoxus, published by P. Victorius at Florence in 1567, and included by
D. Petavius in his _Uranologium_ (Paris, 1630). A new edition was
published by Carolus Manitius (Leipzig, 1894).

  See J. B. J. Delambre, _Histoire de l'astronomie ancienne_, i. 173; P.
  Tannery, _Recherches sur l'histoire de l'astr. ancienne_, p. 130; A.
  Berry, _Hist. of Astronomy_, pp. 40-61; M. Marie, _Hist. des
  sciences_, i. 207; G. Cornewall Lewis, _Astronomy of the Ancients_, p.
  207; R. Grant, _Hist. of Phys. Astronomy_, pp. 318, 437; F. Boll,
  _Sphaera_, p. 61 (Leipzig, 1903); R. Wolf, _Geschichte der
  Astronomie_, p. 45; J. F. Montucla, _Hist. des mathématiques_, t. i.
  p. 257; J. A. Schmidt, _Variorum philosophicorum decas_, cap. i.
  (Jenae, 1691).     (A. M. C.)



HIPPASUS OF METAPONTUM, Pythagorean philosopher, was one of the earliest
of the disciples of Pythagoras. He is mentioned both by Diogenes
Laërtius and by Iamblichus, but nothing is known of his life. Diogenes
says that he left no writings, but other authorities make him the author
of a [Greek: mystikos logos] directed against the Pythagoreans.
According to Aristotle (_Metaphysica_, i. 3), he was an adherent of the
Heraclitean fire-doctrine, whereas the Pythagoreans maintained the
theory that number is the principle of everything. He seems to have
regarded the soul as composed of igneous matter, and so approximates the
orthodox Pythagorean doctrine of the central fire, or Hestia, to the
more detailed theories of Heraclitus. In spite of this divergence,
Hippasus is always regarded as a Pythagorean.

  See Diogenes viii. 84; Brandis, _History of Greek and Roman
  Philosophy_; also PYTHAGORAS.



HIPPEASTRUM, in botany, a genus of the natural order Amaryllidaceae,
containing about 50 species of bulbous plants, natives of tropical and
sub-tropical South America. In cultivation they are generally known as
_Amaryllis_. The handsome funnel-shaped flowers are borne in a cluster
of two to many, at the end of a short hollow scape. The species and the
numerous hybrids which have been obtained artificially, show a great
variety in size and colour of the flower, including the richest deep
crimson and blood-red, white, or with striped, mottled or blended
colours. They are of easy culture, and free-blooming habit. Like other
bulbs they are increased by offsets, which should be carefully removed
when the plants are at rest, and should be allowed to attain a fair size
before removal. These young bulbs should be potted singly in February or
March, in mellow loamy soil with a moderate quantity of sand, about
two-thirds of the bulb being kept above the level of the soil, which
should be made quite solid. They should be removed to a temperature of
60° by night and 70° by day, very carefully watered until the roots have
begun to grow freely, after which the soil should be kept moderately
moist. As they advance the temperature should be raised to 70° at night,
and to 80° or higher with sun heat by day. They do not need shading, but
should have plenty of air, and be syringed daily in the afternoon. When
growing they require a good supply of water. After the decay of the
flowers they should be returned to a brisk moist temperature of from 70°
to 80° by day during summer to perfect their leaves, and then be ripened
off in autumn. Through the winter they should have less water, but must
not be kept entirely dry. The minimum temperature should now be about
55°, to be increased 10° or 15° in spring. As the bulbs get large they
will occasionally need shifting into larger pots. Propagation is also
readily effected by seeds for raising new varieties. Seeds are sown when
ripe in well drained pans of sandy loam at a temperature of about 65°.
The seedlings when large enough to handle are placed either singly in
very small pots or several in a pot or shallow pan, and put in a bottom
heat, in a moist atmosphere with a temperature from 60° to 70°. _H.
Ackermanni_, with large, handsome, crimson flowers--itself a hybrid--is
the parent of many of the large-flowered forms; _H. equestre_ (Barbados
lily), with yellowish-green flowers tipped with scarlet, has also given
rise to several handsome forms; _H. aulicum_ (flowers crimson and
green), _H. pardinum_ (flowers creamy-white spotted with crimson), and
_H. vittatum_ (flowers white with red stripes, a beautiful species and
the parent of many varieties), are stove or warm greenhouse plants.
These kinds, however, are now only regarded as botanical curiosities,
and are rarely grown in private or commercial establishments. They have
been ousted by the more gorgeous looking hybrids, which have been
evolved during the past 100 years. _H. Johnsoni_ is named after a
Lancashire watchmaker who raised it in 1799 by crossing _H. Reginae_
with _H. vittatum_. Since that time other species have been used for
hybridizing, notably _H. reticulatum_, _H. aulicum_, _H.
solandriflorum_, and sometimes _H. equestre_ and _H. psittacinum_. The
finest forms since 1880 have been evolved from _H. Leopoldi_ and _H.
pardinum_.     (J. Ws.)



HIPPED ROOF, the name given in architecture to a roof which slopes down
on all four sides instead of terminating on two sides against a
vertical gable. Sometimes a compromise is made between the two, half the
roof being hipped and half resting on the vertical wall; this gives much
more room inside the roof, and externally a most picturesque effect,
which is one of the great attractions of domestic architecture in the
south of England, and is rarely found in other countries.



HIPPEL, THEODOR GOTTLIEB VON (1741-1796), German satirical and humorous
writer, was born on the 31st of January 1741, at Gerdauen in East
Prussia, where his father was rector of a school. He enjoyed an
excellent education at home, and in his sixteenth year he entered
Königsberg university as a student of theology. Interrupting his
studies, he went, on the invitation of a friend, to St Petersburg, where
he was introduced at the brilliant court of the empress Catherine II.
Returning to Königsberg he became a tutor in a private family; but,
falling in love with a young lady of high position, his ambition was
aroused, and giving up his tutorship he devoted himself with enthusiasm
to legal studies. He was successful in his profession, and in 1780 was
appointed chief burgomaster in Königsberg, and in 1786 privy councillor
of war and president of the town. As he rose in the world, however, his
inclination for matrimony vanished, and the lady who had stimulated his
ambition was forgotten. He died at Königsberg on the 23rd of April 1796,
leaving a considerable fortune. Hippel had extraordinary talents, rich
in wit and fancy; but his was a character full of contrasts and
contradictions. Cautiousness and ardent passion, dry pedantry and piety,
morality and sensuality; simplicity and ostentation composed his nature;
and, hence, his literary productions never attained artistic finish. In
his _Lebensläufe nach aufsteigender Linie_ (1778-1781) he intended to
describe the lives of his father and grandfather, but he eventually
confined himself to his own. It is an autobiography, in which persons
well known to him are introduced, together with a mass of heterogeneous
reflections on life and philosophy. _Kreuz- und Querzüge des Ritters A
bis Z_ (1793-1794) is a satire levelled against the follies of the
age--ancestral pride and the thirst for orders, decoration and the like.
Among others of his better known works are _Über die Ehe_ (1774) and
_Über die bürgerliche Verbesserung der Weiber_ (1792). Hippel has been
called the fore-runner of Jean Paul Richter, and has some resemblance to
this author, in his constant digressions and in the interweaving of
scientific matter in his narrative. Like Richter he was strongly
influenced by Laurence Sterne.

  In 1827-1838 a collected edition of Hippel's works in 14 vols., was
  issued at Berlin. _Über die Ehe_ has been edited by E. Brenning
  (Leipzig, 1872), and the _Lebensläufe nach aufsteigender Linie_ has in
  a modernized edition by A. von Öttingen (1878), gone through several
  editions. See J. Czerny, _Sterne, Hippel und Jean Paul_ (Berlin,
  1904).



HIPPIAS OF ELIS, Greek sophist, was born about the middle of the 5th
century B.C. and was thus a younger contemporary of Protagoras and
Socrates. He was a man of great versatility and won the respect of his
fellow-citizens to such an extent that he was sent to various towns on
important embassies. At Athens he made the acquaintance of Socrates and
other leading thinkers. With an assurance characteristic of the later
sophists, he claimed to be regarded as an authority on all subjects, and
lectured, at all events with financial success, on poetry, grammar,
history, politics, archaeology, mathematics and astronomy. He boasted
that he was more popular than Protagoras, and was prepared at any moment
to deliver an extempore address on any subject to the assembly at
Olympia. Of his ability there is no question, but it is equally certain
that he was superficial. His aim was not to give knowledge, but to
provide his pupils with the weapons of argument, to make them fertile in
discussion on all subjects alike. It is said that he boasted of wearing
nothing which he had not made with his own hands. Plato's two dialogues,
the _Hippias major_ and _minor_, contain an exposé of his methods,
exaggerated no doubt for purposes of argument but written with full
knowledge of the man and the class which he represented. Ast denies
their authenticity, but they must have been written by a contemporary
writer (as they are mentioned in the literature of the 4th century), and
undoubtedly represent the attitude of serious thinkers to the growing
influence of the professional Sophists. There is, however, no question
that Hippias did a real service to Greek literature by insisting on the
meaning of words, the value of rhythm and literary style. He is credited
with an excellent work on Homer, collections of Greek and foreign
literature, and archaeological treatises, but nothing remains except the
barest notes. He forms the connecting link between the first great
sophists, Protagoras and Prodicus, and the innumerable eristics who
brought their name into disrepute.

  For the general atmosphere in which Hippias moved see SOPHISTS; also
  histories of Philosophy (e.g. Windelband, Eng. trans. by Tufts, pt. 1,
  c. 2, §§ 7 and 8).



HIPPO, a Greek philosopher and natural scientist, classed with the
Ionian or physical school. He was probably a contemporary of Archelaus
and lived chiefly in Athens. Aristotle declared that he was unworthy of
the name of philosopher, and, while comparing him with Thales in his
main doctrine, adds that his intellect was too shallow for serious
consideration. He held that the principle of all things is moisture
([Greek: to hygron]); that fire develops from water, and from fire the
material universe. Further he denied all existence save that of material
things as known through the senses, and was, therefore, classed among
the "Atheists." The gods are merely great men canonized by popular
tradition. It is said that he composed his own epitaph, wherein he
claims for himself a place in this company.



HIPPOCRAS, an old medicinal drink or cordial, made of wine mixed with
spices--such as cinnamon, ginger and sugar--and strained through woollen
cloths. The early spelling usual in English was _ipocras_, or _ypocras_.
The word is an adaptation of the Med. Lat. _Vinum Hippocraticum_, or
wine of Hippocrates, so called, not because it was supposed to be a
receipt of the physician, but from an apothecary's name for a strainer
or sieve, "Hippocrates' sleeve" (see W. W. Skeat, _Chaucer_, note to the
_Merchant's Tale_).



HIPPOCRATES, Greek philosopher and writer, termed the "Father of
Medicine," was born, according to Soranus, in Cos, in the first year of
the 80th Olympiad, i.e. in 460 B.C. He was a member of the family of the
Asclepiadae, and was believed to be either the nineteenth or seventeenth
in direct descent from Aesculapius. It is also claimed for him that he
was descended from Hercules through his mother, Phaenarete. He studied
medicine under Heraclides, his father, and Herodicus of Selymbria; in
philosophy Gorgias of Leontini and Democritus of Abdera were his
masters. His earlier studies were prosecuted in the famous Asclepion of
Cos, and probably also at Cnidos. He travelled extensively, and taught
and practised his profession at Athens, probably also in Thrace,
Thessaly, Delos and his native island. He died at Larissa in Thessaly,
his age being variously stated as 85, 90, 104 and 109. The incidents of
his life are shrouded by uncertain traditions, which naturally sprang up
in the absence of any authentic record; the earliest biography was by
one of the Sorani, probably Soranus the younger of Ephesus, in the 2nd
century; Suidas, the lexicographer, wrote of him in the 11th, and
Tzetzes in the 12th century. In all these biographies there is internal
evidence of confusion; many of the incidents related are elsewhere told
of other persons, and certain of them are quite irreconcilable with his
character, so far as it can be judged of from his writings and from the
opinions expressed of him by his contemporaries; we may safely reject,
for instance, the legends that he set fire to the library of the Temple
of Health at Cnidos, in order to destroy the evidence of plagiarism, and
that he refused to visit Persia at the request of Artaxerxes Longimanus,
during a pestilential epidemic, on the ground that he would in so doing
be assisting an enemy. He is referred to by Plato (_Protag._ p. 283;
_Phaedr._ p. 211) as an eminent medical authority, and his opinion is
also quoted by Aristotle. The veneration in which he was held by the
Athenians serves to dissipate the calumnies which have been thrown on
his character by Andreas, and the whole tone of his writings bespeaks a
man of the highest integrity and purest morality.

Born of a family of priest-physicians, and inheriting all its traditions
and prejudices, Hippocrates was the first to cast superstition aside,
and to base the practice of medicine on the principles of inductive
philosophy. It is impossible to trace directly the influence exercised
upon him by the great men of his time, but one cannot fail to connect
his emancipation of medicine from superstition with the widespread power
exercised over Greek life and thought by the living work of Socrates,
Plato, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Herodotus and Thucydides. It was
a period of great intellectual development, and it only needed a
powerful mind such as his to bring to bear upon medicine the same
influences which were at work in other sciences. It must be remembered
that his training was not altogether bad, although superstition entered
so largely into it. He had a great master in Democritus, the originator
of the doctrine of atoms, and there is every reason to believe that the
various "asclepia" were very carefully conducted hospitals for the sick,
possessing a curious system of case-books, in the form of votive
tablets, left by the patients, on which were recorded the symptoms,
treatment and result of each case. He had these records at his command;
and he had the opportunity of observing the system of training and the
treatment of injuries in the gymnasia. One of his great merits is that
he was the first to dissociate medicine from priest-craft, and to direct
exclusive attention to the natural history of disease. How strongly his
mind revolted against the use of charms, amulets, incantations and such
devices appears from his writings; and he has expressly recorded, as
underlying all his practice, the conviction that, however diseases may
be regarded from the religious point of view, they must all be
scientifically treated as subject to natural laws (_De aëre_, 29). Nor
was he anxious to maintain the connexion between philosophy and medicine
which had for long existed in a confused and confusing fashion.[1] His
knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathology was necessarily
defective, the respect in which the dead body was held by the Greeks
precluding him from practising dissection; thus we find him writing of
the tissues without distinguishing between the various textures of the
body, confusing arteries, veins and nerves, and speaking vaguely of the
muscles as "flesh." But when we come to study his observations on the
natural history of disease as presented in the living subject, we
recognize at once the presence of a great clinical physician.
Hippocrates based his principles and practice on the theory of the
existence of a spiritual restoring essence or principle, [Greek:
physis], the _vis medicatrix naturae_, in the management of which the
art of the physician consisted. This art could, he held, be only
obtained by the application of experience, not only to disease at large,
but to disease in the individual. He strongly deprecated blind
empiricism; the aphorism "[Greek: hê peira sphalerê, hê krisis chalepê]"
(whether it be his or not), tersely illustrates his position. Holding
firmly to the principle, [Greek: nousôn physies iêtroi], he did not
allow himself to remain inactive in the presence of disease; he was not
a merely "expectant" physician; as Sydenham puts it, his practice was
"the support of enfeebled and the coercion of outrageous nature." He
largely employed powerful medicines and blood-letting both ordinary and
by cupping. He advises, however, great caution in their application. He
placed great dependence on diet and regimen, and here, quaint as many of
his directions may now sound, not only in themselves, but in the reasons
given, there is much which is still adhered to at the present day. His
treatise [Greek: Peri aerôn, hydatôn, kai topôn] (_Airs, Waters, and
Places_) contains the first enunciation of the principles of public
health. Although the treatises [Greek: Peri krisimôn] cannot be accepted
as authentic, we find in the [Greek: Prognôstikon] evidence of the
acuteness of observation in the manner in which the occurrence of
critical days in disease is enunciated. His method of reporting cases is
most interesting and instructive; in them we can read how thoroughly he
had separated himself from the priest-physician. Laennec, to whom we are
indebted for the practice of auscultation, freely admits that the idea
was suggested to him by study of Hippocrates, who, treating of the
presence of morbid fluids in the thorax, gives very particular
directions, by means of succussion, for arriving at an opinion
regarding their nature. Laennec says, "Hippocrate avait tenté
l'auscultation immédiate." Although the treatise [Greek: Peri nousôn] is
doubtfully from the pen of Hippocrates, it contains strong evidence of
having been the work of his grandson, representing the views of the
Father of Medicine. Although not accurate in the conclusions reached at
the time, the value of the method of diagnosis is shown by the retention
in modern medicine of the name and the practice of "Hippocratic
succussion." The power of graphic description of phenomena in the
Hippocratic writings is illustrated by the retention of the term "facies
Hippocratica," applied to the appearance of a moribund person, pictured
in the _Prognostics_. In surgery his writings are important and
interesting, but they do not bear the same character of caution as the
treatises on medicine; for instance, in the essay _On Injuries of the
Head_, he advocates the operation "of trephining" more strongly and in
wider classes of cases than would be warranted by the experience of
later times.

  The _Hippocratic Collection_ consists of eighty-seven treatises, of
  which a part only can be accepted as genuine. The collection has been
  submitted to the closest criticism in ancient and modern times by a
  large number of commentators (for full list of the early commentators,
  see Adams's _Genuine Works of Hippocrates_, Sydenham Society, i. 27,
  28). The treatises have been classified according to (1) the direct
  evidence of ancient writers, (2) peculiarities of style and method,
  and (3) the presence of anachronisms and of opinions opposed to the
  general Hippocratic teaching--greatest weight being attached to the
  opinions of Erotian and Galen. The general estimate of commentators is
  thus stated by Adams: "The peculiar style and method of Hippocrates
  are held to be conciseness of expression, great condensation of
  matter, and disposition to regard all professional subjects in a
  practical point of view, to eschew subtle hypotheses and modes of
  treatment based on vague abstractions." The treatises have been
  grouped in the four following sections: (1) genuine; (2) those
  consisting of notes taken by students and collected after the death of
  Hippocrates; (3) essays by disciples; (4) those utterly spurious.
  Littré accepts the following thirteen as absolutely genuine: (1) _On
  Ancient Medicine_ ([Greek: Peri archaiês iêtrikês]); (2) _The
  Prognostics_ ([Greek: Prognôstikon]); (3) _The Aphorisms_ ([Greek:
  Aphorismoi]); (4) _The Epidemics_, i. and iii. ([Greek: Epidêmiôn a'
  kai g']); (5) _On Regimen in Acute Diseases_ ([Greek: Peri diaitês
  oxeôn]); (6) _On Airs, Waters, and Places_ ([Greek: Peri aerôn,
  hydatôn, kai topôn]); (7) _On the Articulations_ ([Greek: Peri
  arthrôn]); (8) _On Fractures_ ([Greek: Peri agmôn]); (9) _The
  Instruments of Reduction_ ([Greek: Mochlikos]); (10) _The Physician's
  Establishment, or Surgery_ ([Greek: Kat' iêtreion]); (11) _On Injuries
  of the Head_ ([Greek: Peri tôn en kephalê trômatôn]); (12) _The Oath_
  ([Greek: Horkos]); (13) _The Law_ ([Greek: Nomos]). Of these Adams
  accepts as certainly genuine the 2nd, 6th, 5th, 3rd (7 books), 4th,
  7th, 8th, 9th and 12th, and as "pretty confidently acknowledged as
  genuine, although the evidence in their favour is not so strong," the
  1st, 10th and 13th, and, in addition, (14) _On Ulcers_ ([Greek: Peri
  helkôn]); (15) _On Fistulae_ ([Greek: Peri syringôn]); (16) _On
  Hemorrhoids_ ([Greek: Peri haimorrhoïdôn]); (17) _On the Sacred
  Disease_ ([Greek: Peri hierês nousou]). According to the sceptical and
  somewhat subjective criticism of Ermerins, the whole collection is to
  be regarded as spurious except _Epidemics_, books i. and iii. (with a
  few interpolations), _On Airs, Waters, and Places_, _On Injuries of
  the Head_ ("insigne fragmentum libri Hippocratei"), the former portion
  of the treatise _On Regimen in Acute Diseases_, and the "obviously
  Hippocratic" fragments of the _Coan Prognostics_. Perhaps also the
  _Oath_ may be accepted as genuine; its comparative antiquity is not
  denied. The _Aphorisms_ are certainly later and inferior. In the other
  non-Hippocratic writings Ermerins thinks he can distinguish the hands
  of no fewer than nineteen different authors, most of them anonymous,
  and some of them very late.

  The earliest Greek edition of the Hippocratic writings is that which
  was published by Aldus and Asulanus at Venice in 1526 (folio); it was
  speedily followed by that of Frobenius, which is much more accurate
  and complete (fol., Basel, 1538). Of the numerous subsequent editions,
  probably the best was that of Foesius (Frankfort, 1595, 1621, Geneva,
  1657), until the publication of the great works of Littré, _Oeuvres
  complètes d'Hippocrate, traduction nouvelle avec le texte grec en
  regard, collationnée sur les manuscrits et toutes les éditions,
  accompagnée d'une introduction, de commentaires médicaux, de
  variantes, et de notes philologiques_ (10 vols., Paris, 1839-1861),
  and of F. Z. Ermerins, _Hippocratis et aliorum medicorum veterum
  reliquiae_ (3 vols., Utrecht, 1859-1864). See also Adams (as cited
  above), and Reinhold's _Hippocrates_ (2 vols., Athens, 1864-1867).
  Daremberg's edition of the _Oeuvres choisies_ (2nd ed., Paris, 1855)
  includes the _Oath_, the _Law_, the _Prorrhetics_, book i., the
  _Prognostics, On Airs, Waters, and Places, Epidemics_, books i. and
  iii., _Regimen_, and _Aphorisms_. Of the separate works attributed to
  Hippocrates the editions and translations are almost innumerable; of
  the _Prognostics_, for example, seventy editions are known, while of
  the _Aphorisms_ there are said to exist as many as three hundred. For
  some notice of the Arabic, Syriac and Hebrew translations of works
  professedly by Hippocrates (Ibukrat or Bukrat), the number of which
  greatly exceeds that of the extant Greek originals, reference may be
  made to Flügel's contribution to the article "Hippokrates" in the
  _Encyklopädie_ of Ersch and Gruber. They have been partially
  catalogued by Fabricius in his _Bibliotheca Graeca_.     (J. B. T.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] "Hippocrates Cous, primus quidem ex omnibus memoria dignus, ab
    studio sapientiae disciplinam hanc separavit, vir et arte et facundia
    insignis" (Celsus, _De medicina_).



HIPPOCRENE (the "fountain of the horse," [Greek: hê hippou krênê]), the
spring on Mt Helicon, in Boeotia, which, like the other spring there,
Aganippe, was sacred to the Muses and Apollo, and hence taken as the
source of poetic inspiration. The spring, surrounded by an ancient wall,
is now known as _Kryopegadi_ or the cold spring. According to the
legend, it was produced by the stamping of the hoof of Bellerophon's
horse Pegasus. The same story accounts for the Hippocrene in Troezen and
the spring Peirene at Corinth.



HIPPODAMUS, of Miletus, a Greek architect of the 5th century B.C. It was
he who introduced order and regularity into the planning of cities, in
place of the previous intricacy and confusion. For Pericles he planned
the arrangement of the harbour-town Peiraeus at Athens. When the
Athenians founded Thurii in Italy he accompanied the colony as
architect, and afterwards, in 408 B.C., he superintended the building of
the new city of Rhodes. His schemes consisted of series of broad,
straight streets, cutting one another at right angles.



HIPPODROME (Gr. [Greek: hippodromos], from [Greek: hippos], horse, and
[Greek: dromos], racecourse), the course provided by the Greeks for
horse and chariot racing; it corresponded to the Roman _circus_, except
that in the latter only four chariots ran at a time, whereas ten or more
contended in the Greek games, so that the width was far greater, being
about 400 ft., the course being 600 to 700 ft. long. The Greek
hippodrome was usually set out on the slope of a hill, and the ground
taken from one side served to form the embankment on the other side. One
end of the hippodrome was semicircular, and the other end square with an
extensive portico, in front of which, at a lower level, were the stalls
for the horses and chariots. The modern hippodrome is more for
equestrian and other displays than for horse racing. The Hippodrome in
Paris somewhat resembles the Roman amphitheatre, being open in the
centre to the sky, with seats round on rising levels.



HIPPOLYTUS, in Greek legend, son of Theseus and Hippolyte, queen of the
Amazons (or of her sister Antiope), a famous hunter and charioteer and
favourite of Artemis. His stepmother Phaedra became enamoured of him,
but, finding her advances rejected, she hanged herself, leaving a letter
in which she accused Hippolytus of an attempt upon her virtue. Theseus
thereupon drove his son from his presence with curses and called upon
his father Poseidon to destroy him. While Hippolytus was driving along
the shore at Troezen (the scene of the _Hippolytus_ of Euripides), a
sea-monster (a bull or _phoca_) sent by Poseidon emerged from the waves;
the horses were scared, Hippolytus was thrown out of the chariot, and
was dragged along, entangled in the reins, until he died. According to a
tradition of Epidaurus, Asclepius restored him to life at the request of
Artemis, who removed him to Italy (see VIRBIUS). At Troezen, where he
had a special sanctuary and priest, and was worshipped with divine
honours, the story of his death was denied. He was said to have been
rescued by the gods at the critical moment, and to have been placed
amongst the stars as the Charioteer (Auriga). It was also the custom of
the Troezenian maidens to cut off a lock of their hair and to dedicate
it to Hippolytus before marriage (see Frazer on Pausanias ii. 32. 1).
Well-known classical parallels to the main theme are Bellerophon and
Antea (or Stheneboea) and Peleus and Astydamia. The story was the
subject of two plays by Euripides (the later of which is extant), of a
tragedy by Seneca and of Racine's _Phèdre_. A trace of it has survived
in the legendary death of the apocryphal martyr Hippolytus, a Roman
officer who was torn to pieces by wild horses as a convert to
Christianity (see J. J. Döllinger, _Hippolytus and Callistus_, Eng. tr.
by A. Plummer, 1876, pp. 28-39, 51-60).

According to the older explanations, Hippolytus represented the sun,
which sets in the sea (cf. the scene of his death and the story of
Phaëthon), and Phaedra the moon, which travels behind the sun, but is
unable to overtake it. It is more probable, however, that he was a local
hero famous for his chastity, perhaps originally a priest of Artemis,
worshipped as a god at Troezen, where he was closely connected and
sometimes confounded with Asclepius. It is noteworthy that, in a speech
put into the mouth of Theseus by Euripides, the father, who of course
believes his wife's story and regards Hippolytus as a hypocrite, throws
his son's pretended misogyny and asceticism (Orphism) in his teeth. This
seems to point to a struggle between a new ritual and that of Poseidon,
the chief deity of Troezen, in which the representative of the intruding
religion meets his death through the agency of the offended god, as
Orpheus (q.v.) was torn to pieces by the votaries of the jealous
Dionysus. According to S. Reinach (_Archiv für Religionswissenschaft_,
x., 1907, p. 47), the Troezenian Hippolytus was a horse, the hypostasis
of an equestrian divinity periodically torn to pieces by the faithful,
who called themselves, and believed themselves to be, horses. Death was
followed by resuscitation, as in the similar myths of Adonis (the sacred
boar), Orpheus (the fox), Pentheus (the fawn), Phaëthon (the white
sun-horse).

  See Wilamowitz-Möllendorff's Introduction to his German translation of
  Euripides' _Hippolytus_ (1891); A. Kalkmann, _De Hippolytis
  Euripideis_ (Bonn, 1882); and (for representations in art) "Über
  Darstellung der Hippolytussage" in _Archäologische Zeitung_ (xli.
  1883); J. E. Harrison, _Mythology and Monuments of Ancient Athens_
  (1890), cl.



HIPPOLYTUS, a writer of the early Church. The mystery which enveloped
the person and writings of Hippolytus,[1] one of the most prolific
ecclesiastical writers of early times, had some light thrown upon it for
the first time about the middle of the 19th century by the discovery of
the so-called _Philosophumena_ (see below). Assuming this writing to be
the work of Hippolytus, the information given in it as to the author and
his times can be combined with other traditional dates to form a
tolerably clear picture. Hippolytus must have been born in the second
half of the 2nd century, probably in Rome. Photius describes him in his
_Bibliotheca_ (cod. 121) as a disciple of Irenaeus, and from the context
of this passage it is supposed that we may conclude that Hippolytus
himself so styled himself. But this is not certain, and even if it were,
it does not necessarily imply that Hippolytus enjoyed the personal
teaching of the celebrated Gallic bishop; it may perhaps merely refer to
that relation of his theological system to that of Irenaeus which can
easily be traced in his writings. As a presbyter of the church at Rome
under Bishop Zephyrinus (199-217), Hippolytus was distinguished for his
learning and eloquence. It was at this time that Origen, then a young
man, heard him preach (Hieron. _Vir. ill._ 61; cp. Euseb. _H.E._ vi. 14,
10). It was probably not long before questions of theology and church
discipline brought him into direct conflict with Zephyrinus, or at any
rate with his successor Calixtus I. (q.v.). He accused the bishop of
favouring the Christological heresies of the Monarchians, and, further,
of subverting the discipline of the Church by his lax action in
receiving back into the Church those guilty of gross offences. The
result was a schism, and for perhaps over ten years Hippolytus stood as
bishop at the head of a separate church. Then came the persecution under
Maximinus the Thracian. Hippolytus and Pontius, who was then bishop,
were transported in 235 to Sardinia, where it would seem that both of
them died. From the so-called chronograph of the year 354 (_Catalogus
Liberianus_) we learn that on the 13th of August, probably in 236, the
bodies of the exiles were interred in Rome and that of Hippolytus in the
cemetery on the Via Tiburtina. So we must suppose that before his death
the schismatic was received again into the bosom of the Church, and this
is confirmed by the fact that his memory was henceforth celebrated in
the Church as that of a holy martyr. Pope Damasus I. dedicated to him
one of his famous epigrams, and Prudentius (_Peristephanon_, 11) drew a
highly coloured picture of his gruesome death, the details of which are
certainly purely legendary: the myth of Hippolytus the son of Theseus
was transferred to the Christian martyr. Of the historical Hippolytus
little remained in the memory of after ages. Neither Eusebius (_H.E._
vi. 20, 2) nor Jerome (_Vir. ill._ 61) knew that the author so much read
in the East and the Roman saint were one and the same person. The notice
in the _Chronicon Paschale_ preserves one slight reminiscence of the
historical facts, namely, that Hippolytus's episcopal see was situated
at Portus near Rome. In 1551 a marble statue of a seated man was found
in the cemetery of the Via Tiburtina: on the sides of the seat were
carved a paschal cycle, and on the back the titles of numerous writings.
It was the statue of Hippolytus, a work at any rate of the 3rd century;
at the time of Pius IX. it was placed in the Lateran Museum, a record in
stone of a lost tradition.

Hippolytus's voluminous writings, which for variety of subject can be
compared with those of Origen, embrace the spheres of exegesis,
homiletics, apologetics and polemic, chronography and ecclesiastical
law. His works have unfortunately come down to us in such a fragmentary
condition that it is difficult to obtain from them any very exact notion
of his intellectual and literary importance. Of his exegetical works the
best preserved are the _Commentary on the Prophet Daniel_ and the
_Commentary on the Song of Songs_. In spite of many instances of a want
of taste in his typology, they are distinguished by a certain sobriety
and sense of proportion in his exegesis. We are unable to form an
opinion of Hippolytus as a preacher, for the _Homilies on the Feast of
Epiphany_ which go under his name are wrongly attributed to him. He
wrote polemical words directed against the pagans, the Jews and
heretics. The most important of these polemical treatises is the
_Refutation of all Heresies_, which has come to be known by the
inappropriate title of the _Philosophumena_. Of its ten books, the
second and third are lost; Book i. was for a long time printed (with the
title _Philosophumena_) among the works of Origen; Books iv.-x. were
found in 1842 by the Greek Minoides Mynas, without the name of the
author, in a MS. at Mount Athos. It is nowadays universally admitted
that Hippolytus was the author, and that Books i. and iv.-x. belong to
the same work. The importance of the work has, however, been much
overrated; a close examination of the sources for the exposition of the
Gnostic system which is contained in it has proved that the information
it gives is not always trustworthy. Of the dogmatic works, that on
_Christ and Antichrist_ survives in a complete state. Among other things
it includes a vivid account of the events preceding the end of the
world, and it was probably written at the time of the persecution under
Septimius Severus, i.e. about 202. The influence of Hippolytus was felt
chiefly through his works on chronographic and ecclesiastical law. His
chronicle of the world, a compilation embracing the whole period from
the creation of the world up to the year 234, formed a basis for many
chronographical works both in the East and West. In the great
compilations of ecclesiastical law which arose in the East since the 4th
century (see below: also APOSTOLIC CONSTITUTIONS) much of the material
was taken from the writings of Hippolytus; how much of this is genuinely
his, how much of it worked over, and how much of it wrongly attributed
to him, can no longer be determined beyond dispute even by the most
learned investigation.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The edition of J. A. Fabricius, _Hippolyti opera graece
  et latine_ (2 vols., Hamburg, 1716-1718, reprinted in Gallandi,
  _Bibliotheca veterum patrum_ (vol. ii., 1766), and Migne, _Cursus
  patrol. ser. Graeca_, vol. x.) is out of date. The preparation of a
  complete critical edition has been undertaken by the Prussian Academy
  of Sciences. The task is one of extraordinary difficulty, for the
  textual problems of the various writings are complex and confused: the
  Greek original is extant in a few cases only (the _Commentary on
  Daniel_, the _Refutation, on Antichrist_, parts of the _Chronicle_,
  and some fragments); for the rest we are dependent on fragments of
  translations, chiefly Slavonic, all of which are not even published.
  Of the Academy's edition one volume was published at Berlin in 1897,
  containing the _Commentaries on Daniel_ and on the _Song of Songs_,
  the treatise on _Antichrist_, and the _Lesser Exegetical_ and
  _Homiletic Works_, edited by Nathanael Bonwetsch and Hans Achelis. The
  _Commentary on the Song of Songs_ has also been published by Bonwetsch
  (Leipzig, 1902) in a German translation based on a Russian translation
  by N. Marr of the Grusian (Georgian) text, and he added to it
  (Leipzig, 1904) a translation of various small exegetical pieces,
  which are preserved in a Georgian version only (_The Blessing of
  Jacob_, _The Blessing of Moses_, _The Narrative of David and
  Goliath_). A great part of the original of the _Chronicle_ has been
  published by Adolf Bauer (Leipzig, 1905) from the _Codex Matritensis
  Graecus_, 221. For the _Refutation_ we are still dependent on the
  editions of Miller (Oxford, 1851), Duncker and Schneidewin (Göttingen,
  1859), and Cruice (Paris, 1860). An English translation is to be found
  in the _Ante-Nicene Christian Library_ (Edinburgh, 1868-1869).

  See Bunsen, _Hippolytus and his Age_ (1852, 2nd ed., 1854; Ger. ed.,
  1853); Döllinger, _Hippolytus und Kallistus_ (Regensb. 1853; Eng.
  transl., Edinb., 1876); Gerhard Ficker, _Studien zur Hippolytfrage_
  (Leipzig, 1893); Hans Achelis, _Hippolytstudien_ (Leipzig, 1897); Karl
  Johannes Neumann, _Hippolytus von Rom in seiner Stellung zu Staat und
  Welt_, part i. (Leipzig, 1902); Adhémar d'Alès, _La Théologie de Saint
  Hippolyte_ (Paris, 1906).     (G. K.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] According to the legend St Hippolytus was a Roman soldier who was
    converted by St Lawrence.



HIPPOLYTUS, THE CANONS OF. This book stands at the head of a series of
Church Orders, which contain instructions in regard to the choice and
ordination of Christian ministers, regulations as to widows and virgins,
conditions of reception of converts from heathenism, preparation for and
administration of baptism, rules for the celebration of the eucharist,
for fasting, daily prayers, charity suppers, memorial meals,
first-fruits, &c. We shall give (1) a description of the book as we have
it at present; (2) a brief statement of its relation to allied
documents; (3) some remarks on the evidence for its date and authorship.

1. We possess the _Canons of Hippolytus_ only in an Arabic version,
itself made from a Coptic version of the original Greek. Attention was
called to the book by Wansleben and Ludolf towards the end of the 17th
century, but it was only in 1870 that it was edited by Haneberg, who
added a Latin translation, and so made it generally accessible. In 1891
H. Achelis reproduced this translation in a revised form, embodying it
in a synopsis of allied documents. He suspected much interpolation and
derangement of order, and consequently rearranged its contents with a
free hand. In 1900 a German translation was made by H. Riedel, based on
fresh MSS. These showed that the book, as hitherto edited, had been
thrown into disorder by the displacement of two pages near the end; they
also removed other difficulties upon which the theory of interpolation
had been based. Further discoveries, to be spoken of presently, have
added to our materials for the study of the book.

  The book is attributed to "Hippolytus, the chief of the bishops of
  Rome," and is divided into thirty-eight canons, to which short
  headings are prefixed. This division is certainly not original, but it
  is convenient for purposes of reference. Canon 1 is prefatory; it
  contains a brief confession of faith in the Trinity, and especially in
  the Word, the Son of God; and it speaks of the expulsion of heretics
  from the Church. Canons 2-5 give regulations for the selection and
  ordination of bishops, presbyters and deacons. The bishop is chosen by
  the whole congregation: "one of the bishops and presbyters" is to lay
  hands upon him and say a prayer which follows (3): he is at once to
  proceed with "the offering," taking up the eucharistic service at the
  point where the _sursum corda_ comes in. A presbyter (4) is to be
  ordained with the same prayer as a bishop, "with the exception of the
  word bishop"; but he is given no power of ordination (this appears to
  be inconsistent with c. 2). The duties of a deacon are described, and
  the prayer of his ordination follows (5). Canons 6-9 deal with various
  classes in the Church. One who has suffered punishment for the faith
  (6) is to be counted a presbyter without ordination: "his confession
  is his ordination." Readers and sub-deacons (7) are given the Gospel,
  but are not ordained by laying-on of hands. A claim to ordination on
  the ground of gifts of healing (8) is to be admitted, if the facts are
  clear and the healing is from God. Widows are not ordained (9):
  "ordination is for men only." Canons 10-15 describe conditions for the
  admission of converts. Certain occupations are incompatible with
  Christian life: only under compulsion may a Christian be a soldier.
  Canons 16-18 deal chiefly with regulations concerning women. Canon 19
  is a long one dealing with catechumens, preparation for baptism,
  administration of that sacrament, and of the eucharist for the newly
  baptized. The candidate is twice anointed: first, with the oil of
  exorcism, after he has said, with his face westward, "I renounce thee,
  O devil, and all thy following"; and, again, immediately after the
  baptism. As he stands in the water, he declares his faith in response
  to an interrogatory creed; and after each of the three clauses he is
  immersed. After the second anointing the bishop gives thanks "for that
  Thou hast made them worthy that they should be born again, and hast
  poured out Thy Holy Ghost upon them, so that they may belong, each one
  of them, to the body of the Church": he signs them with the cross on
  their foreheads, and kisses them. The eucharist then proceeds: "the
  bishop gives them of the body of Christ and says, This is the body of
  Christ, and they answer Amen"; and similarly for the cup. Milk and
  honey are then given to them as being "born a second time as little
  children." A warning is added against eating anything before
  communicating. Canons 20-22 deal with fast-days, daily services in
  church, and the fast of the passover-week. Canon 23 seems as if it
  closed the series, speaking, as it does, of "our brethren the bishops"
  who in their cities have made regulations "according to the commands
  of our fathers the apostles": "let none of our successors alter them;
  because it saith that the teaching is greater than the sea, and hath
  no end." We pass on, however, to regulations about the sick (24) who
  are to be visited by the bishop, "because it is a great thing for the
  sick that the high-priest should visit them (for the shadow of Peter
  healed the sick)." Canons 25-27 deal again with prayers and
  church-services. The "seven hours" are specified, with reasons for
  their observance (25): attendance at sermons is urged (26), "for the
  Lord is in the place where his lordship is proclaimed" (comp.
  _Didachè_ 4, part of the _Two Ways_). When there are no prayers in
  church, reading at home is enjoined (27): "let the sun each morning
  see the book upon thy knees" (comp. Ath. _Ad virg._, § 12, "Let the
  sun when he ariseth see the book in thy hands"). Prayer must be
  preceded by the washing of the hands. "No believer must take food
  before communicating, especially on fast-days": only believers may
  communicate (28). The sacred elements must be guarded, "lest anything
  fall into the cup, and it be a sin unto death for the presbyters." No
  crumb must be dropped, "lest an evil spirit get possession of it."
  Canons 30-35 contain various rules, and specially deal with suppers
  for the poor (i.e. _agapae_) and memorial feasts. Then we have a
  prayer for the offering of first-fruits (36); a direction that
  ministers shall wear fair garments at "the mysteries" (37); and a
  command to watch during the night of the resurrection (38). The last
  canon hereupon passes into a general exhortation to right living,
  which forms a sixth part of the whole book. In Riedel's translation we
  read this for the first time as a connected whole. It falls into two
  parts, and describes, first, the true life of ordinary Christians,
  warning them against an empty profession, and laying down many
  precepts of morality; and then it addresses itself to the "ascete" who
  "wishes to belong to the rank of the angels," and who lives a life of
  solitude and poverty. He is encouraged by an exposition, on somewhat
  strange lines, of the temptations of our Lord, and is specially warned
  against spiritual pride and contempt of other men. The book closes
  with an appeal for love and mutual service, based on the parables in
  St Matthew xxv.

2. It is impossible to estimate the position of the Canons of Hippolytus
without some reference to allied documents (see APOSTOLICAL
CONSTITUTIONS). (a) The most important of these is what is now commonly
called the _Egyptian Church Order_. This is preserved to us in Coptic
and Aethiopic versions, of which Achelis, in his synopsis, gives German
translations. The subject-matter and arrangement of these canons
correspond generally to those of Hippolytus; but many of the details are
modified to bring them into accord with a later practice. A new light
was thrown on the criticism of this work by Hauler's discovery (1900) of
a Latin version (of which, unfortunately, about half is missing) in the
Verona palimpsest, from which he has also given us large Latin fragments
of the _Didascalia_ (which underlies books i.-vi. of the Apostolic
Constitutions, and which hitherto we have only known from the Syriac).
The Latin of the Egyptian Church Order is somewhat more primitive than
the Coptic, and approaches more nearly, at some points, to the _Canons
of Hippolytus_. It has a preface which refers to a treatise _Concerning
Spiritual Gifts_, as having immediately preceded it; but neither this
nor the Coptic-Aethiopic form has either the introduction or concluding
exhortation which is found in the _Canons of Hippolytus_. (b) _The
Testament of the Lord_ is a document in Syriac, of which the opening
part had been published by Lagarde, and of which Rahmani (1899) has
given us the whole. It professes to contain instructions given by our
Lord to the apostles after the resurrection. After an introduction
containing apocalyptical matter, it passes on to give elaborate
directions for the ordering of the Church, embodying, in a much-expanded
form, the Egyptian Church Order, and showing a knowledge of the preface
to that document which appears in the Latin version. It cannot be placed
with probability earlier than the latter part of the 4th century. (c)
The _Apostolic Constitutions_ is a composite document, which probably
belongs to the end of the 4th century. Its first six books are an
expanded edition of a _Didascalia_ which we have already mentioned: its
seventh book similarly expands and modifies the _Didachè_ its eighth
book begins by treating of "spiritual gifts," and then in c. 3 passes on
to expand in like manner the Egyptian Church Order. The hand which has
wrought up all these documents has been shown to be that of the
interpolator of the Ignatian Epistles in the longer Greek recension. (d)
The _Canons of Basil_ is the title of an Arabic work, of which a German
translation has been given us by Riedel, who thinks that they have come
through Coptic from an original Greek book. They embody, in a modified
form, considerable portions of the Canons of Hippolytus.

3. We now approach the difficult questions of date and authorship. Much
of the material has been quite recently brought to light, and criticism
has not had time to investigate and pronounce upon it. Some provisional
remarks, therefore, are all that can prudently be made. It seems plain
that we have two lines of tradition: (1) The Canons of Hippolytus,
followed by the Canons of Basil; (2) the Egyptian Church Order, itself
represented (a) by the Latin version, the Testament of the Lord, and the
Apostolic Constitutions, which are linked together by the same preface
(or portions of it); (b) by the Coptic and Aethiopic versions. Now, the
preface of the Latin version points to a time when the canons were
embodied in a _corpus_ of similar materials, or, at the least, were
preceded by a work on "Spiritual Gifts." The Canons of Hippolytus have a
wholly different preface, and also a long exhortation at the close. The
question which criticism must endeavour to answer is, whether the Canons
of Hippolytus are the original from which the Egyptian Church Order is
derived, or whether an earlier body of canons lies behind them both. At
present it is probably wise to assume that the latter is the true
explanation. For the Canons of Hippolytus appear to contain
contradictory regulations (e.g. cc. 2 and 4 of the presbyters), and also
suggest that they have received a considerable supplement (after c. 23).
There is, however, no doubt that they present us with a more primitive
stage of Church life than we find in the Egyptian Church Order. The
mention of sub-deacons (which, after Riedel's fresh manuscript evidence,
cannot now be dismissed as due to interpolation) makes it difficult to
assign a date much earlier than the middle of the 3rd century.

The Puritan severity of the canons well accords with the temper of the
writer to whom the Arabic title attributes them; and it is to be noted
that the exhortation at the close contains a quotation from 2 Peter
actually attributed to the apostle, and Hippolytus is perhaps the
earliest author who can with certainty be said to have used this
epistle. But the general style of Hippolytus, which is simple,
straight-forward and strong, is in marked contrast with that of the
closing passage of the canons; moreover, his mind, as presented to us in
his extant writings, appears to be a much larger one than that of the
writer of these canons; it is as difficult to think of Hippolytus as it
would be to think of Origen in such a connexion. How, then, are we to
account for the attribution? There is evidence to show that Hippolytus
was highly reverenced throughout the East: his writings, which were in
Greek, were known, but his history was entirely unknown. He was supposed
to be "a pupil ([Greek: gnôrimos]) of apostles" (Palladius, 4th
century), and the Arabic title calls him "chief of the bishops of Rome,"
i.e. archbishop of Rome. It is hard to trust this attribution more than
the attribution of a Coptic discourse on the _Dormitio Mariae_ to
"Evodius, archbishop of the great city Rome, who was the second after
Peter the apostle" (_Texts and Studies_, iv. 2-44)--Evodius being by
tradition first bishop of Antioch. A whole group of books on Church
Order bears the name of Clement of Rome; and the attribution of our
canons to Hippolytus may be only an example of the same tendency. The
fact that Hippolytus wrote a treatise _Concerning Spiritual Gifts_, and
that some such treatise is not only referred to in the Latin preface to
the Egyptian Church Order, but is actually found at the beginning of
book viii. of the Apostolic Constitutions, introduces an interesting
complication; but we cannot here pursue the matter further. Dom Morin's
ingenious attribution of the canons to Dionysius of Alexandria (on the
ground of Eusebius, _H.E._ vi. 46., 5) cannot be accepted in view of the
broader church policy which that writer represents. If the Hippolytean
authorship be given up, it is probable that Egypt will make the
strongest claim to be the locality in which the canons were compiled in
their present form.

  The authorities of chief practical importance are H. Achelis, _Texte
  u. Unters._ vi. 4 (1891); Rahmani, _Testamentum Domini_ (1899);
  Hauler, _Didascaliae Apostolorum_ (1900); Riedel,
  _Kirchenrechtsquellen des Patriarchats Alexandrien_ (1900).
       (J. A. R.)



HIPPONAX, of Ephesus, Greek iambic poet. Expelled from Ephesus in 540
B.C. by the tyrant Athenagoras, he took refuge in Clazomenae, where he
spent the rest of his life in poverty. His deformed figure and malicious
disposition exposed him to the caricature of the Chian sculptors Bupalus
and Athenis, upon whom he revenged himself by issuing against them a
series of satires. They are said to have hanged themselves like Lycambes
and his daughters when assailed by Archilochus, the model and
predecessor of Hipponax. His coarseness of thought and feeling, his rude
vocabulary, his want of grace and taste, and his numerous allusions to
matters of merely local interest prevented his becoming a favourite in
Attica. He was considered the inventor of parody and of a peculiar
metre, the _scazon_ or _choliambus_, which substitutes a spondee for the
final iambus of an iambic senarius, and is an appropriate form for the
burlesque character of his poems.

  Fragments in Bergk, _Poëtae lyrici Graeci_; see also B. J. Peltzer,
  _De parodica Graecorum poèsi_ (1855), containing an account of
  Hipponax and the fragments.



HIPPOPOTAMUS ("river-horse," Gr. [Greek: hippos], horse and [Greek:
potamos], river), the name of the largest representative of the
non-ruminating artiodactyle ungulate mammals, and its living and extinct
relatives. The common hippopotamus (_Hippopotamus amphibius_), which
formerly inhabited all the great rivers of Africa but whose range has
now been much restricted, is most likely the _behemoth_ of Scripture,
and may very probably in Biblical times have been found in the Jordan
valley, since at a still earlier (Pleistocene) epoch it ranged over a
large part of Europe. It typifies not only a genus, but likewise a
family, _Hippopotamidae_, distinguished from its relatives the pigs and
peccaries, or _Suidae_, by the following assemblage of characters:
Muzzle very broad and rounded. Feet short and broad, with four subequal
toes, bearing short rounded hoofs, and all reaching the ground in
walking. Incisors not rooted but continuously growing; those of the
upper jaw curved and directed downwards; those of the lower straight and
procumbent. Canines very large, curved, continuously growing; upper ones
directed downwards. Premolars 4/4; molars 3/3. Stomach complex. No
caecum.

[Illustration: The Hippopotamus (_Hippopotamus amphibius_).]

In form the hippopotamus is a huge, unwieldy creature, measuring in the
largest specimens fully 14 ft. from the extremity of the upper lip to
the tip of the tail, while it ordinarily attains a length of 12 ft.,
with a height of 5 ft. at the shoulders, and a girth round the thickest
part of the body almost equal to its length. The small ears are
exceedingly flexible, and kept in constant motion when the animal is
seeking to catch a distant sound; the eyes are placed high up on the
head, but little below the level of the ears; while the gape is wide,
and the upper lip thick and bulging so as to cover over even its large
tusks when the mouth is closed. The molars, which show trefoil-shaped
grinding-surfaces are well adapted for masticating vegetable substances,
while the formidable array of long spear-like incisors and curved
chisel-edged canines or tusks root up rank grass like an agricultural
implement. The legs are short, so that the body is but little elevated
above the ground; and the feet, which are small in proportion to the
size of the animal, terminate in four short toes each bearing a small
hoof. With the exception of a few tufts of hair on the lips, on the
sides of the head and neck, and at the extremity of the short robust
tail, the skin of the hippopotamus, some portions of which are 2 in. in
thickness, is destitute of covering. Hippopotamuses are gregarious
animals, living in herds of from 20 to 40 individuals on the banks and
in the beds of rivers, in the neighbourhood of which they most readily
find appropriate food. This consists chiefly of grass and of aquatic
plants, of which these animals consume enormous quantities, the stomach
being capable of containing from 5 to 6 bushels. They feed principally
by night, remaining in the water during the day, although in districts
where they are little disturbed they are less exclusively aquatic. In
such remote quarters, they put their heads boldly out of the water to
blow, but when rendered suspicious they become exceedingly cautious in
this respect, only exposing their nostrils above the water, and even
this they prefer doing amid the shelter of water plants. In spite of
their enormous size and uncouth form, they are expert swimmers and
divers, and can remain easily under the water from five to eight
minutes. They walk on the bottoms of rivers, beneath at least 1 ft. of
water. At nightfall they come on land to feed; and when, as often
happens on the banks of the Nile, they reach cultivated ground, they do
immense damage to growing crops, destroying by their ponderous tread
even more than they devour. To scare away these unwelcome visitors the
natives in such districts are in the habit of kindling fires at night.
Although hippopotamuses do not willingly go far from the water on which
their existence depends, they occasionally travel long distances by
night in search of food, and in spite of their clumsy appearance are
able to climb steep banks and precipitous ravines with ease. Of a
wounded hippopotamus which Sir S. Baker saw leaving the water and
galloping inland, he writes: "I never could have imagined that so
unwieldy an animal could have exhibited such speed. No man could have
had a chance of escape." The hippopotamus does not confine itself to
rivers and lakes, but has been known to prefer the waters of the ocean
as its home during the day. Of a mild and inoffensive disposition, it
seeks to avoid collision with man; when wounded, however, or in defence
of its young, it exhibits great ferocity, and native canoes are capsized
and occasionally demolished by its infuriated attacks; the bellowing
grunt then becoming loud enough to be heard a mile away. As among
elephants, so also among hippopotamuses there are "rogues"--old bulls
which have become soured in solitude, and are at all times dangerous.
Assuming the offensive on every occasion, they attack all and sundry
without shadow of provocation; and the natives avoid their haunts, which
are usually well known.

The only other living species is the pygmy hippopotamus, _H.
(Choeropsis) liberiensis_, of West Africa, an animal not larger than a
clumsily made pig of full dimensions, and characterized by having
generally one (in place of two) pair of incisors. It is much less
aquatic than its giant relative, having, in fact, the habits of a pig.

A small extinct species (_H. lemerlei_) inhabited Madagascar at a
comparatively recent date; while other dwarf kinds were natives of Crete
(_H. minutus_) and Malta and Sicily (_H. pentlandi_) during the
Pleistocene. A large form of the ordinary species (_H. amphibius major_)
was distributed over Europe as far north as Yorkshire at the same epoch;
while an allied species (_H. palaeindicus_) inhabited Pleistocene India.
Contemporary with the latter was, however, a species (_H. namadicus_)
with three pairs of incisors; and "hexaprotodont" hippopotamuses are
also characteristic of the Pliocene of India and Burma (_H. sivalensis_
and _H. iravadicus_), and of Algeria, Egypt and southern Europe (_H.
hipponensis_).

  For the ancestral genera of the hippopotamus line, see ARTIODACTYLA.
       (R. L.*)



HIPPURIC ACID (Gr. [Greek: hippos], horse, [Greek: ouron], urine),
benzoyl glycocoll or benzoyl amidoacetic acid, C9H9NO3 or
C6H5CO·NH·CH2·CO2H, an organic acid found in the urine of horses and
other herbivorae. It is excreted when many aromatic compounds, such as
benzoic acid and toluene, are taken internally. J. v. Liebig in 1829
showed that it differed from benzoic acid, and in 1839 determined its
constitution, while in 1853 V. Dessaignes (_Ann._ 87, p. 325)
synthesized it by acting with benzoyl chloride on zinc glycocollide. It
is also formed by heating benzoic anhydride with glycocoll (Th. Curtius,
_Ber._, 1884, 17, p. 1662), and by heating benzamide with
monochloracetic acid. It crystallizes in rhombic prisms which are
readily soluble in hot water, melt at 187° C. and decompose at about
240° C. It is readily hydrolysed by hot caustic alkalis to benzoic acid
and glycocoll. Nitrous acid converts it into benzoyl glycollic acid,
C6H5CO·O·CH2·CO2H. Its ethyl ester reacts with hydrazine to form
hippuryl hydrazine, C6H5CO·NH·CH2·CO·NH·NH2, which was used by Curtius
for the preparation of azoimide (q.v.).



HIPURNIAS, a tribe of South American Indians, 2000 or 3000 in number,
living on the river Purus, western Brazil. Their houses are long, low
and narrow: the side walls and roof are one, poles being fixed in the
ground and then bent together so as to meet and form a pointed arch for
the cross-sections. They use small bark canoes. Their chief weapons are
poisoned arrows. They have a native god called Guintiniri.



HIRA, the capital of an Arabian kingdom, founded in the 2nd century
A.D., on the western edge of Irak, was situated at 32° N., 44° 20´ E.,
about 4 m. S.E. of modern Nejef, by the Sa'ade canal, on the shore of
the Bahr Nejef or Assyrium Stagnum. Its kings governed the western shore
of the lower Euphrates and of the Persian Gulf, their kingdom extending
inland to the confines of the Nejd. This Lakhmid kingdom was more or
less dependent, during the four centuries of its existence, on the
Sassanian empire, to which it formed a sort of buffer state towards
Arabia. After the battle of Kadesiya and the founding of Kufa by the
Arabs, Hira lost its importance and fell into decay. The ruin mounds
covering the ancient site, while extensive, are insignificant in
appearance and give no indications of the existence of important
buildings.



HIRADO, an island belonging to Japan, 19½ m. long and 6 m. wide, lying
off the west coast of the province of Hizen, Kiushiu, in 33° 15´ N. and
129° 25´ E. It is celebrated as the site of the original Dutch
factory--often erroneously written Firando--and as the place where one
of the finest blue-and-white porcelains of Japan (_Hiradoyaki_) was
produced in the 17th and 18th centuries. The kilns are still active.



HIRE-PURCHASE AGREEMENT, in the law of contract, a form of bailment of
goods, on credit, which has extended very considerably of late years.
Originally applied to the sale of the more expensive kinds of goods,
such as pianos and articles of furniture, the hire-purchase agreement
has now been extended to almost every description. The agreement is
usually in writing, with a stipulation that the payments to purchase
shall be by weekly, monthly or other instalments. The agreement is
virtually one to purchase, but in order that the vendor may be able to
recover the goods at any time on non-payment of an instalment, it is
treated as an agreement to let and hire, with a provision that when the
last instalment has been paid the goods shall become the property of the
hirer. A clause provides that in case of default of any instalment, or
breach of any part of the agreement, all previous payments shall be
forfeited to the lender, who can forcibly recover the goods. Such
agreements, therefore, do not pass the property in the goods, which
remains in the lender until all the instalments have been paid. But the
terms of the agreement may sometimes purposely obscure the nature of the
transaction between the parties, where, for example, the hire-purchase
is merely to create a security for money. In such a case a judge will
look to the true nature of the transaction. If it is not a real letting
and hiring, the agreement will require registration under the Bills of
Sale Acts. If the agreement contains words to the effect that a person
has "bought or agreed to buy" goods, the transaction comes under the
Factors Act 1889, and the person in possession of the goods may dispose
of them and give a good title. The doctrine of reputed ownership, by
which a bankrupt is deemed the reputed owner of goods in his apparent
possession, has been somewhat modified by trade customs, in accordance
with which property is frequently let out on the hire-purchase system
(see BANKRUPTCY).



HIRING (from O. Eng. _hýrian_, a word common to many Teutonic languages
cf. Ger. _heuern_, Dutch _huren_, &c.), in law, a contract by which one
man grants the use of a thing to another in return for a certain price.
It corresponds to the _locatio-conductio_ of Roman law. That contract
was either a letting of a thing (_locatio-conductio rei_) or of labour
(_locatio operarum_). The distinguishing feature of the contract was
the price. Thus the contracts of _mutuum_, _commodatum_, _depositum_
and _mandatum_, which are all gratuitous contracts, become, if a price
is fixed, cases of _locatio-conductio_. In modern English law the term
can scarcely be said to be used in a strictly technical sense. The
contracts which the Roman law grouped together under the head of
_locatio-conductio_--such as those of landlord and tenant, master and
servant, &c.--are not in English law treated as cases of hiring but as
independent varieties of contract. Neither in law books nor in ordinary
discourse could a tenant farmer be said to hire his land. Hiring would
generally be applied to contracts in which the services of a man or the
use of a thing are engaged for a short time.

_Hiring Fairs_, or _Statute Fairs_, still held in Wales and some parts
of England, were formerly an annual fixture in every important country
town. These fairs served to bring together masters and servants. The men
and maids seeking work stood in rows, the males together and the females
together, while masters and mistresses walked down the lines and
selected those who suited them. Originally these hiring-fairs were
always held on Martinmas Day (11th of November). Now they are held on
different dates in different towns, usually in October or November. In
Cumberland the men seeking work stood with straws in their mouths. In
Lincolnshire the bargain between employer and employed was closed by the
giving of the "fasten-penny," the earnest money, usually a shilling,
which "fastened" the contract for a twelvemonth. Some few days after the
Statute Fair it was customary to hold a second called a Mop Fair or
Runaway Mop. "Mop" (from Lat. _mappa_, napkin, or small cloth) meant in
Old English a tuft or tassel, and the fair was so called, it is
suggested, in allusion to tufts or badges worn by those seeking
employment. Thus the carter wore whipcord on his hat, the cowherd a tuft
of cow's hair, and so on. Another possible explanation would be to take
the word "mop" in its old provincial slang sense of "a fool," mop fair
being the fools' fair, a sort of last chance offered to those who were
too dull or slovenly-looking to be hired at the statute fair. Perhaps
"runaway" suggests the idea of those absent through drunkenness, or
those who simply feared to face the ordeal of the larger hiring and so
ran away.



HIROSAKI, a town of Japan in the province of Michmoku or Rikuchiu, north
Nippon, 22 m. S.W. of Aomori by rail. Pop. about 37,000. The fine
isolated cone of Iwakisan, a mountain of pilgrimage, rises to the west.
Hirosaki is a very old place, formerly residence of a great daimio (or
daimyo) and capital of a vast principality, and still the seat of a high
court with jurisdiction over the surrounding districts of Aomori and
Akita. Like most places in north Nippon, it is built with continuous
verandas extending from house to house, and affording a promenade
completely sheltered from the snows of winter. Apples of fine flavour
grow in the district, which also enjoys some reputation for its peculiar
green lacquer-ware.



HIROSHIGE (1797-1858), Japanese artist, was one of the principal members
of that branch of the _Ukiyo-ye_ or Popular School of Painting in Japan,
a school which chiefly made colour-prints. His family name was Ando
Tokitaro; that under which he is known having been, in accordance with
Japanese practice, adopted by him in recognition of the fact that he was
a pupil of Toyohiro. The earliest reference to him is in the account
given by an inhabitant of the Lu-chu islands of a visit to Japan; where
a sketch of a procession drawn with great skill by Hiroshige at the age
of ten years only is mentioned as one of the remarkable sights seen. At
the age of fifteen he applied unsuccessfully to be admitted to the
studio of the elder Toyokuni; but was eventually received by Toyohiro.
On the death of the latter in 1828, he began to practise on his own
account, but finding small encouragement at Yedo (Tokyo) he removed to
Kioto, where he published a set of landscapes. He soon returned to Yedo,
where his work soon became popular, and was imitated by other artists.
He died in that city on the 6th day of the 9th month of the year, Ansei
5th, at the age of sixty-two, and was buried at Asakusa. One of his
pupils, Hironobu, received from him the name of Hiroshige II. and
another, Ando Tokubei, that of Hiroshige III. All three were closely
associated with the work signed with the name of the master. Hiroshige
II. some time after the year 1863 fell into disgrace and was compelled
to leave Yedo for Nagasaki, where he died; Hiroshige III. then called
himself Hiroshige II. He died in 1896. The earlier prints by these
artists, whose work can hardly be separated, are of extraordinary merit.
They applied the process of colour block printing to the purposes of
depicting landscape, with a breadth, skill and suitability of convention
that has been equalled only by Hokusai in Japan, and by no European.
Most of their subjects were derived from the neighbourhood of Yedo, or
were scenes on the old high road--the Tokaido--that ran from that city
to Kioto. The two elder of the name were competent painters, and
pictures and drawings by them are occasionally to be met with.

  See E. F. Strange, "Japanese Colour-prints" (_Victoria and Albert
  Museum Handbook_, 1904).     (E. F. S.)



HIROSHIMA, a city and seaport of Japan, capital of the government of its
name in central Nippon. Pop. (1903) 113,545. It is very beautifully
situated on a small plain surrounded by hills, the bay being studded
with islands. In its general aspect it resembles Osaka, from which it is
190 m. W. by rail, and next to that place and Hiogo it is the most
important commercial centre on the Inland Sea. The government has an
area of about 3000 sq. m., with a population of about 1,500,000.
Hiroshima is famous all over Japan owing to its association with the
neighbouring islet of Itaku-Shima, "Island of Light," which is dedicated
to the goddess Bentin and regarded as one of the three wonders of Japan.
The chief temple dates from the year 587, and the island, which is
inhabited largely by priests and their attendants, is annually visited
by thousands of pilgrims. But the hallowed soil is never tilled, so that
all provisions have to be brought from the surrounding districts.



HIRPINI (from an Oscan or Sabine stem _hirpo-_, "wolf"), an inland
Samnite tribe in the south of Italy, whose territory was bounded by that
of the Lucani on the S., the Campani on the S.W., the Appuli (Apuli) and
Frentani on the E. and N.E. On the N. we find them, politically
speaking, identified with the Pentri and Caraceni, and with them
constituting the Samnite alliance in the wars of the 4th century B.C.
(see SAMNITES). The Roman policy of separation cut them off from these
allies by the foundation of Beneventum in 268 B.C., and henceforward
they are a separate unit; they joined Hannibal in 216 B.C., and retained
their independence until, after joining in the Social war, which in
their part of Italy can hardly be said to have ceased till the final
defeat of the Samnites by Sulla in 83 B.C., they received the Roman
franchise. Of their Oscan speech, besides the evidence of their
place-names, only a few fragments survive (R. S. Conway, _The Italic
Dialects_, pp. 170 ff.; and for _hirpo-_, ib. p. 200). In the ethnology
of Italy the Hirpini appear from one point of view as the purest type of
Safine stock, namely, that in which the proportion of ethnica formed
with the suffix _-no-_ is highest, thirty-three out of thirty-six tribal
or municipal epithets being formed thereby (e.g. _Caudini_, _Compsani_)
and only one with the suffix -_ti_- (_Abellinates_), where it is
clearly secondary. On the significance of this see SABINI.     (R. S. C.)



HIRSAU (formerly _Hirschau_), a village of Germany, in the kingdom of
Württemberg, on the Nagold and the Pforzheim-Horb railway, 2 m. N. of
Calw. Pop. 800. Hirsau has some small manufactures, but it owes its
origin and historical interest to its former Benedictine monastery,
_Monasterium Hirsaugiense_, at one period one of the most famous in
Europe. Its picturesque ruins, of which only the chapel with the library
hall are still in good preservation, testify to the pristine grandeur of
the establishment. It was founded about 830 by Count Erlafried of Calw,
at the instigation of his son, Bishop Notting of Vercelli, who enriched
it with, among other treasures, the body of St Aurelius. Its first
occupants (838) were a colony of fifteen monks from Fulda, disciples of
Hrabanus Maurus and Walafrid Strabo, headed by the abbot Liudebert.
During about a century and a half, under the fostering care of the
counts of Calw, it enjoyed great prosperity, and became an important
seat of learning; but towards the end of the 10th century the ravages of
the pestilence combined with the rapacity of its patrons, and the
selfishness and immorality of its inmates, to bring it to the lowest
ebb. After it had been desolate and in ruins for upwards of sixty years
it was rebuilt in 1059, and under Abbot William--Wilhelm von
Hirsau--abbot from 1069 to 1091, it more than regained its former
splendour. By his _Constitutiones Hirsaugienses_, a new religious order,
the Ordo Hirsaugiensis, was formed, the rule of which was afterwards
adopted by many monastic establishments throughout Germany, such as
those of Blaubeuren, Erfurt and Schaffhausen. The friend and
correspondent of Pope Gregory VII., and of Anselm of Canterbury, Abbot
William took active part in the politico-ecclesiastical controversies of
his time; while a treatise from his pen, _De musica et tonis_, as well
as the _Philosophicarum et astronomicarum institutionum libri iii._,
bears witness to his interest in science and philosophy. About the end
of the 12th century the material and moral welfare of Hirsau was again
very perceptibly on the decline; and it never afterwards again rose into
importance. In consequence of the Reformation it was secularized in
1558; in 1692 it was laid in ruins by the French. The _Chronicon
Hirsaugiense_, or, as in the later edition it is called, _Annales
Hirsaugienses_ of Abbot Trithemius (Basel, 1559; St Gall, 1690), is,
although containing much that is merely legendary, an important source
of information, not only on the affairs of this monastery, but also on
the early history of Germany. The _Codex Hirsaugiensis_ was edited by A.
F. Gfrörer and printed at Stuttgart in 1843.

  See Steck, _Das Kloster Hirschau_ (1844); Helmsdörfer, _Forschungen
  zur Geschichte des Abts Wilhelm von Hirschau_ (Göttingen, 1874);
  Weizsäcker, _Führer durch die Geschichte des Klosters Hirschau_
  (Stuttgart, 1898); Süssmann, _Forschungen zur Geschichte des Klosters
  Hirschau_ (Halle, 1903); Giseke, _Die Hirschauer während des
  Investiturstreits_ (Gotha, 1883); C. H. Klaiber, _Das Kloster
  Hirschau_ (Tübingen, 1886); and Baer, _Die Hirsauer Bauschule_
  (Freiburg, 1897).



HIRSCH, MAURICE DE, BARON HIRSCH AUF GEREUTH, in the baronage of Bavaria
(1831-1896), capitalist and philanthropist (German by birth,
Austro-Hungarian by domicile), was born at Munich, 9th December 1831.
His grandfather, the first Jewish landowner in Bavaria, was ennobled
with the _prädikat_ "auf Gereuth" in 1818; his father, who was banker to
the Bavarian king, was created a baron in 1869. The family for
generations has occupied a prominent position in the German Jewish
community. At the age of thirteen young Hirsch was sent to Brussels to
school, but when seventeen years old he went into business. In 1855 he
became associated with the banking house of Bischoffsheim & Goldschmidt,
of Brussels, London and Paris. He amassed a large fortune, which he
increased by purchasing and working railway concessions in Austria,
Turkey and the Balkans, and by speculations in sugar and copper. While
living in great splendour in Paris and London and on his estates in
Hungary, he devoted much of his time to schemes for the relief of his
Hebrew co-religionists in lands where they were persecuted and
oppressed. He took a deep interest in the educational work of the
Alliance Israélite Universelle, and on two occasions presented the
society with gifts of a million francs. For some years he regularly
paid the deficits in the accounts of the Alliance, amounting to several
thousand pounds a year. In 1889 he capitalized his donations and
presented the society with securities producing an annual income of
£16,000. On the occasion of the fortieth anniversary of the emperor
Francis Joseph's accession to the Austrian throne he gave £500,000 for
the establishment of primary and technical schools in Galicia and the
Bukowina. The greatest charitable enterprise on which he embarked was in
connexion with the persecution of the Jews in Russia (see
ANTI-SEMITISM). He gave £10,000 to the funds raised for the repatriation
of the refugees in 1882, but, feeling that this was a very lame
conclusion to the efforts made in western Europe for the relief of the
Russian Jews, he offered the Russian Government £2,000,000 for the
endowment of a system of secular education to be established in the
Jewish pale of settlement. The Russian Government was willing to accept
the money, but declined to allow any foreigner to be concerned in its
control or administration. Thereupon Baron de Hirsch resolved to devote
the money to an emigration and colonization scheme which should afford
the persecuted Jews opportunities of establishing themselves in
agricultural colonies outside Russia. He founded the Jewish Colonization
Association as an English society, with a capital of £2,000,000, and in
1892 he presented to it a further sum of £7,000,000. On the death of his
wife in 1899 the capital was increased to £11,000,000, of which
£1,250,000 went to the Treasury, after some litigation, in death duties.
This enormous fund, which is probably the greatest charitable trust in
the world, is now managed by delegates of certain Jewish societies,
chiefly the Anglo-Jewish Association of London and the Alliance
Israélite Universelle of Paris, among whom the shares in the association
have been divided. The association, which is prohibited from working for
profit, possesses large colonies in South America, Canada and Asia
Minor. In addition to its vast agricultural work it has a gigantic and
complex machinery for dealing with the whole problem of Jewish
persecution, including emigration and distributing agencies, technical
schools, co-operative factories, savings and loan banks and model
dwellings in the congested Russian jewries. It also subventions and
assists a large number of societies all over the world whose work is
connected with the relief and rehabilitation of Jewish refugees. Besides
this great organization, Baron de Hirsch founded in 1891 a benevolent
trust in the United States for the benefit of Jewish immigrants, which
he endowed with £493,000. His minor charities were on a princely scale,
and during his residence in London he distributed over £100,000 among
the local hospitals. It was in this manner that he disposed of the whole
gross proceeds derived from his successes on the English turf, of which
he was a lavish patron. He raced, as he said himself, "for the London
hospitals," and in 1892, when his filly, La Flêche, won the Oaks, St
Leger and One Thousand Guineas, his donations from this source amounted
to about £40,000. Baron de Hirsch married on 28th June 1855 Clara,
daughter of Senator Bischoffsheim of Brussels (b. 1833), by whom he had
a son and daughter, both of whom predeceased him. He died at Ogyalla,
near Komorn, in Hungary, 21st April 1896. The baroness, who seconded her
husband's charitable work with great munificence--their total
benefactions have been estimated at £18,000,000,--died at Paris on the
1st of April 1899.

  For details of Baron de Hirsch's chief charities see the annual
  reports of the Alliance Israélite Universelle and of the
  "Administration Centrale" of the Jewish Colonization Association.
       (L. W.)



HIRSCH, SAMSON RAPHAEL (1808-1888), Jewish theologian, was born in
Hamburg in 1808 and died at Frankfort-on-the-Main in 1888. He opposed
the reform tendency of Geiger (q.v.), and presented Jewish orthodoxy in
a new and attractive light. His philosophical conception of tradition,
associated as it was with conservatism in ritual practice, created what
is often known as the Frankfort "Neo-Orthodoxy." Hirsch exercised a
profound influence on the Synagogue and undoubtedly stemmed the tide of
liberalism. His famous _Nineteen Letters_ (1836), with which the
Neo-Orthodoxy began, were translated into English by Drachmann (New
York, 1899). Other works by Hirsch were _Horeb_, and commentaries on
the Pentateuch and Psalms. These are marked by much originality, but
their exegesis is fanciful. Three volumes of his essays have been
published (1902-1908); these were collected as _Gesammelte Schriften_
from his periodical _Jeschurun_.

  For Hirsch's religious philosophy see S. A. Hirsch, _A Book of Essays_
  (London, 1905).     (I. A.)



HIRSCHBERG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia,
beautifully situated at the confluence of the Bober and Zacken, 1120 ft.
above the sea-level, 48 m. S.E. of Görlitz, on the railway to Glatz,
with branches to Grünthal and Schmiedeberg. Pop. (1905) 19,317. It is
surrounded by pleasant promenades occupying the site of its former
fortifications. It possesses an Evangelical church, the church of the
Holy Cross, one of the six _Gnaden Kirchen_ for the Silesian Protestants
stipulated for in the agreement at Altranstädt between Charles XII. of
Sweden and the emperor Joseph I. in 1707, four Roman Catholic churches,
one of which dates from the 14th century, a synagogue, several schools,
an orphanage and an asylum. The town is the principal emporium of
commerce in the Silesian mountains, and its industries include the
carding and spinning of wool, and the manufacture of linen and cotton
fabrics, yarn, artificial flowers, paper, cement, porcelain,
sealing-wax, blacking, chemicals and cider. There is also a lively trade
in corn, wine and agricultural produce. The town is celebrated for its
romantic surroundings, including the Cavalierberg, from which there is a
splendid view, the Hausberg, the Helicon, crowned by a small Doric
temple, the Kreuzberg, with walks commanding beautiful views, and the
Sattler ravine, over which there is a railway viaduct. Hirschberg was in
existence in the 11th century, and obtained town rights in 1108 from
Duke Boleslaus of Poland. It withstood a siege by the Hussites in 1427,
and an attack of the imperial troops in 1640. The foundation of its
prosperity was laid in the 16th century by the introduction of the
manufacture of linen and veils.

Hirschberg is also the name of a town of Thuringia on the Saale with
manufactures of leather and knives. Pop. 2000.



HIRSON, a town of northern France in the department of Aisne, 35 m. by
rail N.E. of Laon, on the Oise. Pop. (1906) 8335. It occupies an
important strategic position close to the point of intersection of
several railway lines, and not far from the Belgian frontier. For its
defence there are a permanent fort and two batteries, near the railway
junction. The town carries on the manufacture of glass bottles, tiles,
iron and tin goods, wool-spinning and brewing.



HIRTIUS, AULUS (c. 90-43 B.C.), Roman historian and statesman. He was
with Julius Caesar as legate in Gaul, but after the civil war broke out
in 49 he seems to have remained in Rome to protect Caesar's interests.
He was also a personal friend of Cicero. He was nominated with C. Vibius
Pansa by Caesar for the consulship of 43; and after the dictator's
assassination in March 44, he and his colleague supported the senatorial
party against M. Antonius, with whom Hirtius had at first sided. The
consuls set out for Mutina, where Antonius was besieging Decimus Brutus.
On the 15th of April, Pansa was attacked by Antonius at Forum Gallorum,
about 8 m. from Mutina, and lost his life in the engagement. Hirtius,
however, compelled Antonius to retire on Mutina, where another battle
took place on the 25th (or 27th) of April, in which Hirtius was slain.
Of the continuations of Caesar's _Commentaries_--the eighth book of the
Gallic war, the history of the Alexandrian, African and Spanish
wars--the first is generally allowed to be by Hirtius; the Alexandrian
war is perhaps by him (or Oppius); the last two are supposed to have
been written at his request, by persons who had taken part in the events
described, with a view to subsequent revision and incorporation in his
proposed work on military commanders. The language of Hirtius is good,
but his style is monotonous and lacks vigour.

  Hirtius and the other continuators of Caesar are discussed in M.
  Schanz, _Geschichte der römischen Literatur_, i.; also R. Schneider,
  _Bellum Africanum_ (1905). For the history of the period see under
  ANTONIUS; Cicero's _Letters_ (ed. Tyrrell and Purser); G. Boissier,
  _Cicero and his Friends_ (Eng. trans., 1897).



HISHAM IBN AL-KALBI [Abu-l Mundhir Hisham ibn Mahommed ibn us-Sa'b
ul-Kalb] (d. c. 819), Arabic historian, was born in Kufa, but spent
much of his life in Bagdad. Like his father, on whose authority he
relied largely, he collected information about the genealogies and
history of the ancient Arabs. According to the _Fihrist_ (see NADIM) he
wrote 140 works. As independent works they have almost entirely ceased
to exist, but his account of the genealogies of the Arabs is continually
quoted in the _Kitab ul-Aghani_.

  Large extracts from another of his works, the _Kitab ul-Asnam_, are
  contained in the _Khizanat ul-Adab_ (iii. 242-246) and in the
  geography of Yaqut (q.v.). These latter have been translated with
  comments by J. Wellhausen in his _Reste des arabischen Heidentums_
  (2nd ed., Berlin, 1897).     (G. W. T.)



HISPELLUM (mod. Spello, q.v.), an ancient town of Umbria, Italy, 3 m. N.
of Fulginiae, on the road between it and Perusia, 1030 ft. above
sea-level. It does not appear to be mentioned before the time of
Augustus, who founded a colony there (_Colonia Iulia Hispellum_) and
extended its territory to the springs of the Clitumnus, which had
originally belonged to the territory of Mevania. It received the name of
Flavia Constans by a rescript of the emperor Constantine, a copy of
which on a marble tablet is still preserved at Spello. The gate by which
the town is entered is ancient and has three portrait statues above it;
two other gates and a part of the city wall, built of rectangular blocks
of local limestone, may still be seen, as also the ruins of what is
possibly a triumphal arch (attributed to Augustus) and an amphitheatre,
and perhaps of a theatre, close to the modern high-road, outside the
town.     (T. As.)



HISSAR, a district in Central Asia, lying between 66° 30´ and 70° E. and
39° 15´ and 37° N. and dependent on the amir of Bokhara. It forms that
part of the basin of the Amu-darya or Oxus which lies on the north side
of the river, opposite the Afghan province of Balkh. The western
prolongation of the Tian-shan, which divides the basin of the Zarafshan
from that of the upper Amu, after rising to a height of 12,300 ft.,
bifurcates in 67° 45´ E. The main chain, the southern arm of this
bifurcation, designated the Hissar range, but sometimes called also
Koh-i-tau, forms the N. and N.W. boundaries of Hissar. On the W. it is
wholly bounded by the desert; the Amu limits it on the S. and S.E.; and
Karateghin and Darvaz complete the boundary on the E. Until 1875 it was
one of the least known tracts of Central Asia. Hissar is traversed from
north to south by four tributaries of the Amu, viz. the Surkhab or
Vakhsh, Kafirnihan, Surkhan and Shirabad-darya, which descend from the
snowy mountains to the north and form a series of fertile valleys,
disposed in a fan-shape, within which lie the principal towns. In the
N.W. boundary range between Khuzar and Derbent is situated the defile
formerly called the Iron Gate (Caspian Gates, Bab-al-Hadid, Dar Ahanin
and in Chinese T'ie-men-kuan) but now styled Buzghol-khana or the
Goat-house. It was also called Kohluga, said to be a Mongol word meaning
barrier. This pass is described as a deep but narrow chasm in a
transverse range, whose rocks overhang and threaten to choke the
tortuous and gloomy corridor (in places but five paces wide) which
affords the only exit from the valley. In ancient times it was a vantage
point of much importance and commanded one of the chief routes between
Turkestan and India. Hsüan Tsang, the Chinese traveller, who passed
through it in the 7th century, states that there were then two folding
doors or gates, cased with iron and hung with bells, placed across the
pass. Clavijo, the Spanish ambassador to the court of Timur, heard of
this when he passed through the defile nearly 800 years later, but the
gates had then disappeared.

The Surkhan valley is highly cultivated, especially in its upper
portion. It supplies Bokhara with corn and sheep, but its chief products
are rice and flax. The town of Hissar (pop. 15,000) commands the
entrance into the fertile valleys of the Surkhan and Kafirnihan, just as
Kabadian at the southern end of the latter defends them from the south.
Hissar was long famous for its damascened swords and its silk goods.
Kulab produces wheat in abundance, and gold is brought thither from the
surrounding districts. Kabadian is a large, silk-producing town, and is
surrounded with rice-fields.

The population consists principally of Uzbegs and Tajiks, the former
predominating and gradually pushing the Tajiks into the hills. On the
banks of the Amu there are Turkomans who work the ferries, drive sheep
and accompany caravans. Lyuli (gipsies), Jews, Hindus and Afghans are
other elements of the population. The climate of the valleys of Hissar
and Kulab is pleasant, as they are protected by mountains to the north
and open towards the south. They produce all the cereals and garden
plants indigenous to Central Asia. Cotton is grown in the district of
Shirabad; and cotton, wheat, flax, sheep and rock-salt are all exported.

_History._--This country was anciently part of the Persian empire of the
Achaemenidae, and probably afterwards of the Graeco-Bactrian kingdom,
and then subject to the invading Asiatic tribes who broke up that
kingdom, e.g. the Yue-chi. It was afterwards conquered by the
Ephthalites or White Huns, who were subdued by the Turks in the early
part of the 7th century. It then became subject successively to the
Mahommedan invaders from Persia, and after to the Mongol dynasty of
Jenghiz Khan, and to Timur and his successors. It subsequently became a
cluster of Uzbeg states and was annexed by the amir of Bokhara (q.v.) in
1869-1870, soon after the Russian occupation of Samarkand.
     (J. T. Be.; C. El.)



HISSAR, a town and district of British India, in the Delhi division of
the Punjab. The town is situated on the Rajputana railway and the
Western Jumna canal, 102 m. W.N.W. of Delhi. Pop. (1901) 17,647. It was
founded in 1356 by the emperor Feroz Shah, who constructed the canal to
supply it with water; but this fell into decay during the 18th century,
owing to the constant inroads of marauders. Hissar was almost completely
depopulated during the famine of 1783, but was afterwards occupied by
the famous Irish adventurer George Thomas, who built a fort and
collected inhabitants. It is now chiefly known for its cattle and horse
fairs, and has a cotton factory.

The DISTRICT comprises an area of 5217 sq. m. It forms the western
border district of the great Bikanir desert, and consists for the most
part of sandy plains dotted with shrub and brushwood, and broken by
undulations towards the south, which rise into hills of rock like
islands out of a sea of sand. The Ghaggar is its only river, whose
supply is uncertain, depending much on the fall of rain in the lower
Himalayas; its overflow in times of heavy rain is caught by _jhils_,
which dry up in the hot season. The Western Jumna canal crosses the
district from east to west, irrigating many villages. The soil is in
places hard and clayey, and difficult to till; but when sufficiently
irrigated it is highly productive. Old mosques and other buildings exist
in parts of the district. Hissar produces a breed of large milk-white
oxen, which are in great request for the carriages of natives. The
district has always been subject to famine. The first calamity of this
kind of which there is authentic record was in 1783; and Hissar has
suffered severely in more recent famines. Its population in 1901 was
781,717, showing practically no increase in the decade, whereas in the
previous decade there had been an increase of 15%. The climate is very
dry, hot westerly winds blowing from the middle of March till July.
Cotton weaving, ginning and pressing are carried on. The district is
served by the Rajputana-Malwa, the Southern Punjab and the
Jodhpur-Bikanir railways. The chief trading centres are Bhiwani, Hansi,
Hissar and Sirsa.

Before the Mahommedan conquest, the semi-desert tract of which Hissar
district now forms part was the retreat of Chauhan Rajputs. Towards the
end of the 18th century the Bhattis of Bhattiana gained ascendancy after
bloody struggles. To complete the ruin brought on by these conflicts,
nature lent her aid in the great famine of 1783. Hissar passed nominally
to the British in 1803, but they could not enforce order till 1810.
Early in the mutiny of 1857 Hissar was wholly lost for a time to British
rule, and all Europeans were either murdered or compelled to fly. The
Bhattis rose under their hereditary chiefs, and the majority of the
Mahommedan population followed their example. Before Delhi had been
recovered, the rebels were utterly routed.



HISTIAEUS (d. 494 B.C.), tyrant of Miletus under the Persian king Darius
Hystaspis. According to Herodotus he rendered great service to Darius
while he was campaigning in Scythia by persuading his fellow-despots not
to destroy the bridge over the Danube by which the Persians must return.
Choosing his own reward for this service, he became possessor of
territory near Myrcinus (afterwards Amphipolis), rich in timber and
minerals. The success of his enterprise led to his being invited to
Susa, where in the midst of every kind of honour he was virtually a
prisoner of Darius, who had reason to dread his growing power in Ionia.
During this period the Greek cities were left under native despots
supported by Persia, Aristagoras, son-in-law of Histiaeus, being ruler
of Miletus in his stead. This prince, having failed against Naxos in a
joint expedition with the satrap Artaphernes, began to stir up the
Ionians to revolt, and this result was brought to pass, according to
Herodotus, by a secret message from Histiaeus. The revolt assumed a
formidable character and Histiaeus persuaded Darius that he alone could
quell it. He was allowed to leave Susa, but on his arrival at the coast
found himself suspected by the satrap, and was ultimately driven to
establish himself (Herodotus says as a pirate; more probably in charge
of the Bosporus route) at Byzantium. After the total failure of the
revolt at the battle of Lade, he made various attempts to re-establish
himself, but was captured by the Persian Harpagus and crucified by
Artaphernes at Sardis. His head was embalmed and sent to Darius, who
gave it honourable burial. The theory of Herodotus that the Ionian
revolt was caused by the single message of Histiaeus is incredible;
there is evidence to show that the Ionians had been meditating since
about 512 a patriotic revolt against the Persian domination and the
"tyrants" on whom it rested (see Grote, _Hist. of Greece_, ed. 1907,
especially p. 122 note; art. IONIA, and authorities; also S. Heinlein in
_Klio_, 1909, pp. 341-351).



HISTOLOGY (Gr. [Greek: histos], web, tissue, properly the web-beam of
the loom, from [Greek: histanai], to make to stand), the science which
deals with the structure of the tissues of plants and animals (see
CYTOLOGY).



HISTORY. The word "history" is used in two senses. It may mean either
the record of events, or events themselves. Originally (see below)
limited to inquiry and statement, it was only in comparatively modern
times that the meaning of the word was extended to include the phenomena
which form or might form their subject. It was perhaps by a somewhat
careless transference of ideas that this extension was brought about.
Now indeed it is the commoner meaning. We speak of the "history of
England" without reference to any literary narrative. We term kings and
statesmen the "makers of history," and sometimes say that the historian
only records the history which they make. History in this connexion is
obviously not the record, but the thing to be recorded. It is
unfortunate that such a double meaning of the word should have grown up,
for it is productive of not a little confusion of thought.

History in the wider sense is all that has happened, not merely all the
phenomena of human life, but those of the natural world as well. It
includes everything that undergoes change; and as modern science has
shown that there is nothing absolutely static, therefore the whole
universe, and every part of it, has its history. The discovery of ether
brought with it a reconstruction of our ideas of the physical universe,
transferring the emphasis from the mathematical expression of static
relationships to a dynamic conception of a universe in constant
transformation; matter in equipoise became energy in gradual
readjustment. Solids are solids no longer. The universe is in motion in
every particle of every part; rock and metal merely a transition stage
between crystallization and dissolution. This idea of universal activity
has in a sense made physics itself a branch of history. It is the same
with the other sciences--especially the biological division, where the
doctrine of evolution has induced an attitude of mind which is
distinctly historical.

But the tendency to look at things historically is not merely the
attitude of men of science. Our outlook upon life differs in just this
particular from that of preceding ages. We recognize the unstable
nature of our whole social fabric, and are therefore more and more
capable of transforming it. Our institutions are no longer held to be
inevitable and immutable creations. We do not attempt to fit them to
absolute formulae, but continually adapt them to a changing environment.
Even modern architecture, notably in America, reflects the consciousness
of change. The permanent character of ancient or medieval buildings was
fitted only to a society dominated by static ideals. Now the architect
builds, not for all time, but for a set of conditions which will
inevitably cease in the not distant future. Thus our whole society not
only bears the marks of its evolution, but shows its growing
consciousness of the fact in the most evident of its arts. In
literature, philosophy and political science, there is the same
historical trend. Criticism no longer judges by absolute standards; it
applies the standards of the author's own environment. We no longer
condemn Shakespeare for having violated the ancient dramatic laws, nor
Voltaire for having objected to the violations. Each age has its own
expression, and in judging each we enter the field of history. In
ethics, again, the revolt against absolute standards limits us to the
relative, and morals are investigated on the basis of history, as
largely conditioned by economic environment and the growth of
intellectual freedom. Revelation no longer appeals to scientific minds
as a source of knowledge. Experience on the other hand is history. As
for political science, we do not regard the national state as that
ultimate and final product which men once saw in the Roman Empire. It
has hardly come into being before forces are evident which aim at its
destruction. Internationalism has gained ground in Europe in recent
years; and Socialism itself, which is based upon a distinct
interpretation of history, is regarded by its followers as merely a
stage in human progress, like those which have gone before it. It is
evident that Freeman's definition of history as "past politics" is
miserably inadequate. Political events are mere externals. History
enters into every phase of activity, and the economic forces which urge
society along are as much its subject as the political result.

In short the historical spirit of the age has invaded every field. The
world-picture presented in this encyclopaedia is that of a dynamic
universe, of phenomena in process of ceaseless change. Owing to this
insistent change all things which happen, or seem to happen, are history
in the broader sense of the word. The encyclopaedia itself is a history
of them in the stricter sense,--the description and record of this
universal process. This narrower meaning is the subject of the rest of
this article.

The word "history" comes from the Gr. [Greek: historia], which was used
by the Ionians in the 6th century B.C. for the search for knowledge in
the widest sense. It meant inquiry, investigation, not narrative. It was
not until two centuries later that the historikos, the reciter of
stories, superseded the _historeon_ ([Greek: historeôn]), the seeker
after knowledge. Thus history began as a branch of scientific
research,--much the same as what the Athenians later termed philosophy.
Herodotus himself was as much a scientific explorer as a reciter of
narrative, and his life-long investigation was _historie_ in his Ionian
speech. Yet it was Herodotus himself who first hinted at the new use of
the word, applied merely to the details accumulated during a long search
for knowledge. It is not until Aristotle, however, that we have it
definitely applied to the literary product instead of the inquiry which
precedes it. From Aristotle to modern times, history (Lat. _historia_)
has been a form of literature. It is only in the scientific environment
of to-day that we recognize once more, with those earliest of the
forerunners of Herodotus, that history involves two distinct operations,
one of which, investigation, is in the field of science, while the
other, the literary presentation, is in the field of art.

The history of history itself is therefore two-fold. History as art
flourishes with the arts. It calls upon the imagination and the literary
gifts of expression. Its history does not run parallel with the
scientific side, but rather varies in inverse ratio with scientific
activity. Those periods which have been dominated by the great masters
of style have been less interested in the criticism of the historian's
methods of investigation than in the beauty of his rhetoric. The
scientific historian, deeply interested in the search for truth, is
generally but a poor artist, and his uncoloured picture of the past will
never rank in literature beside the splendid distortions which glow in
the pages of a Michelet or Macaulay. History the art, in so far as it is
conditioned upon genius, has no single traceable line of development.
Here the product of the age of Pericles remains unsurpassed still; the
works of Herodotus and Thucydides standing along with those of Pheidias
as models for all time. On the other hand, history the science has
developed so that it has not only gained recognition among historians as
a distinct subject, but it has raised with it a group of auxiliary
sciences which serve either as tools for investigation or as a basis for
testing the results. The advance in this branch of history in the 19th
century was one of its greatest achievements. The vast gulf which lies
between the history of Egypt by Herodotus and that by Flinders Petrie is
the measure of its achievement. By the mechanism now at his disposal the
scientific explorer can read more history from the dust-heaps of Abydos
than the greatest traveller of antiquity could gather from the priests
of Saïs. In tracing the history of history we must therefore keep in
mind the double aspect.

History itself, this double subject, the science and the art combined,
begins with the dawn of memory and the invention of speech. It is wrong
to term those ages _pre-historic_ whose history has not come down to us,
including in one category the pre-literary age and the literary whose
traces have been lost. Even the pre-literary had its history, first in
myth and then in saga. The saga, or epos, was a great advance upon the
myth, for in it the deeds of men replace or tend to replace the deeds of
the gods. But we are still largely in the realm of imagination. Poetry,
as Thucydides complained, is a most imperfect medium for fact. The bard
will exaggerate or distort his story. True history, as a record of what
really has happened, first reached maturity in prose. Therefore,
although much of the past has been handed down to us in epic, in ballad
and in the legends of folk-lore, we must turn from them to what became
history in the narrower sense.

The earliest prose origins of history are the inscriptions. Their
inadequacy is evident from two standpoints. Their permanence depends not
upon their importance, but upon the durability of the substance on which
they are inscribed. A note for a wedding ring baked into the clay of
Babylon has been preserved, while the history of the greatest events has
perished. In the second place they are sealed to all but those who know
how to read them, and so they lie forgotten for centuries while oral
tradition flourishes,--being within the reach of every man. It is only
recently that archaeology, turning from the field of art, has undertaken
to interpret for us this first written history. The process by which the
modern fits together all the obtainable remains of an antiquity, and
reconstructs even that past which left no written record, lies outside
the field of this article. But such enlargement of the field of history
is a modern scientific product, and is to be distinguished from the
imperfect beginnings of history-writing which the archaeologist is able
to decipher.

Next to the inscriptions,--sometimes identical with them,--are the early
chronicles. These are of various kinds. Family chronicles preserved the
memory of heroic ancestors whose deeds in the earliest age would have
passed into the keeping of the bards. Such family archives were perhaps
the main source for Roman historians. But they are not confined to Rome
or Greece. Genealogies also pass from the bald verse, which was the
vehicle for oral transmission, to such elaborate tables as those in
which Manetho has preserved the dynasties of Egyptian Pharaohs.

In this field the priest succeeds the poet. The temple itself became the
chief repository of records. There were simple religious annals, votive
tablets recording miracles accomplished at a shrine, lists of priests
and priestesses, accounts of benefactions, of prodigies and portents. In
some cases, as in Rome, the pontiffs kept a kind of register, not merely
of religious history, but of important political events as well. Down to
the time of the Gracchi (131 B.C.) the Pontifex Maximus inscribed the
year's events upon annual tablets of wood which were preserved in the
Regia, the official residence of the pontiff in the Forum. These
pontifical "annals" thus came to be a sort of civic history. Chronicles
of the Greek cities were commonly ascribed to mythical authors, as for
instance that of Miletus, the oldest, to Cadmus the inventor of letters.
But they were continued and edited by men in whom the critical spirit
was awakening, as when the chroniclers of Ionian towns began the
criticism of Homer.

The first historians were the logographi of these Ionian cities; men who
carried their inquiry (_historie_) beyond both written record and oral
tradition to a study of the world around them. Their "saying" (_logos_)
was gathered mostly from contemporaries; and upon the basis of a widened
experience they became critics of their traditions. The opening lines of
Hecataeus of Miletus begin the history of the true historic spirit in
words which read like a sentence from Voltaire. "Hecataeus of Miletus
thus speaks: I write as I deem true, for the traditions of the Greeks
seem to me manifold and laughable." Those words mark an epoch in the
history of thought. They are the introduction to historical criticism
and scientific investigation. Whatever the actual achievement of
Hecataeus may have been, from his time onward the scientific movement
was set going. Herodotus of Heraclea struggled to rationalize mythology,
and established chronology on a solid basis. And finally Herodotus, a
professional story-teller, rose to the height of genuine scientific
investigation. Herodotus' inquiry was not simply that of an idle
tourist. He was a critical observer, who tested his evidence. It is easy
for the student now to show the inadequacy of his sources, and his
failure here or there to discriminate between fact and fable. But given
the imperfect medium for investigation and the absence of an
archaeological basis for criticism, the work of Herodotus remains a
scientific achievement, as remarkable for its approximation to truth as
for the vastness of its scope. Yet it was Herodotus' chief glory to have
joined to this scientific spirit an artistic sense which enabled him to
cast the material into the truest literary form. He gathered all his
knowledge of the ancient world, not simply for itself, but to mass it
around the story of the war between the east and west, the Greeks and
the Persians. He is first and foremost a story-teller; his theme is like
that of the bards, a heroic event. His story is a vast prose epos, in
which science is to this extent subordinated to art. "This is the
showing forth of the Inquiry of Herodotus of Halicarnassus, to the end
that neither the deeds of men may be forgotten by lapse of time, nor the
works, great and marvellous, which have been produced, some by Hellenes,
some by Barbarians, may lose their renown, and especially that the
causes may be remembered for which these waged war with one another"
(i.e. the Persian war).

In Thucydides a higher art than that of Herodotus was combined with a
higher science. He scorned the story-teller "who seeks to please the ear
rather than to speak the truth," and yet his rhetoric is the culmination
of Greek historical prose. He withdrew from vulgar applause, conscious
that his narrative would be considered "disappointing to the ear," yet
he recast the materials out of which he constructed it in order to lift
that narrative into the realm of pure literature. Speeches, letters and
documents are reworded to be in tone with the rest of the story. It was
his art, in fact, which really created the Peloponnesian war out of its
separate parts. And yet this art was merely the language of a scientist.
The "laborious task" of which he speaks is that of consulting all
possible evidence, and weighing conflicting accounts. It is this which
makes his rhetoric worth while, "an everlasting possession, not a prize
competition which is heard and forgotten."

From the sublimity of Thucydides, and Xenophon's straight-forward story,
history passed with Theopompus and Ephorus into the field of rhetoric. A
revival of the scientific instinct of investigation is discernable in
Timaeus the Sicilian, at the end of the 4th century, but his attack upon
his predecessors was the text of a more crushing attack upon himself by
Polybius, who declares him lacking in critical insight and biased by
passion. Polybius' comments upon Timaeus reach the dignity of a treatise
upon history. He protests against its use for controversial pamphlets
which distort the truth. "Directly a man assumes the moral attitude of
an historian he ought to forget all considerations, such as love of
one's friends, hatred of one's enemies.... He must sometimes praise
enemies and blame friends. For as a living creature is rendered useless
if deprived of its eyes, so if you take truth from History, what is left
but an improfitable tale" (bk. xii. 14). These are the words of a Ranke.
Unfortunately Polybius, like most modern scientific historians, was no
artist. His style is the very opposite of that of Isocrates and the
rhetoricians. It is often only clear in the light of inscriptions, so
closely does it keep to the sources. The style found no imitator;
history passed from Greece to Rome in the guise of rhetoric. In
Dionysius of Halicarnassus the rhetoric was combined with an extensive
study of the sources; but the influence of the Greek rhetoricians upon
Roman prose was deplorable from the standpoint of science. Cicero,
although he said that the duty of the historian is to conceal nothing
true, to say nothing false, would in practice have written the kind of
history that Polybius denounced. He finds fault with those who are _non
exornatores rerum sed tantum narratores_. History for him is the mine
from which to draw argument in oratory and example in education. It is
not the subject of a scientific curiosity.

It should be noted before we pass to Rome that with the expansion of
Hellenism the subject of historians expanded as well. Universal history
was begun by Ephorus, the rhetorician, and formed the theme of Polybius
and Deodorus. Exiled Greeks were the first to write histories of Rome
worthy of the name. The Alexandrian Eratosthenes placed chronology upon
the scientific basis of astronomy, and Apollodorus drew up the most
important _chronica_ of antiquity.

History-writing in Rome,--except for the Greek writers resident
there,--was until the first half of the 1st century B.C. in the form of
annals. Then came rhetorical ornamentation,--and the Ciceronian era. The
first Roman historian who rose to the conception of a science and art
combined was Sallust, the student of Thucydides. The Augustan age
produced in Livy a great popular historian and natural artist and a
trained rhetorician (in the speeches),--but as uncritical and inaccurate
as he was brilliant. From Livy to Tacitus the gulf is greater than from
Herodotus to Thucydides. Tacitus is at least a consummate artist. His
style ranges from the brilliancy of his youth to the sternness and
sombre gravity of age, passing almost to poetic expression in its
epigrammatic terseness. Yet in spite of his searching study of
authorities, his keen judgment of men, and his perception of underlying
principles of moral law, his view was warped by the heat of faction,
which glows beneath his external objectivity. After him Roman
history-writing speedily degenerated. Suetonius' _Lives of the Caesars_
is but a superior kind of journalism. But his gossip of the court became
the model for historians, whose works, now lost, furnish the main source
for the _Historia Augusta_. The importance to us of this uncritical
collection of biographies is sufficient comment on the decline of
history-writing in the latter empire. Finally, from the 4th century the
epitomes of Eutropius and Festus served to satisfy the lessening
curiosity in the past and became the handbooks for the middle ages. The
single figure of Ammianus Marcellinus stands out of this age like a
belated disciple of Tacitus. But the world was changing from antique to
Christian ideals just as he was writing, and with him we leave this
outline of ancient history.

The 4th and 5th centuries saw a great revolution in the history of
history. The story of the pagan past slipped out of mind, and in its
place was set, by the genius of Eusebius, the story of the world force
which had superseded it, Christianity, and of that small fraction of
antiquity from which it sprang,--the Jews. Christianity from the first
had forced thinking men to reconstruct their philosophy of history, but
it was only after the Church's triumph that its point of view became
dominant in historiography. Three centuries more passed before the pagan
models were quite lost to sight. But from the 7th century to the
17th--from Isidore of Seville and the English Bede for a thousand
years,--mankind was to look back along the line of Jewish priests and
kings to the Creation. Egypt was of interest only as it came into
Israelite history, Babylon and Nineveh were to illustrate the judgments
of Yahweh, Tyre and Sidon to reflect the glory of Solomon. The process
by which the "gentiles" have been robbed of their legitimate history was
the inevitable result of a religion whose sacred books make them lay
figures for the history of the Jews. Rejected by the Yahweh who became
the Christian God, they have remained to the present day, in Sunday
schools and in common opinion, not nations of living men, with the
culture of arts and sciences, but outcasts who do not enter into the
divine scheme of the world's history. When a line was drawn between
pagan and Christian back to the creation of the world, it left outside
the pale of inquiry nearly all antiquity. But it must be remembered that
that antiquity was one in which the German nations had no personal
interest. Scipio and the Gracchi were essentially unreal to them. The
one living organization with which they came into touch was the Church.
So Cicero and Pompey paled before Joshua and Paul. Diocletian, the
organizing genius, became a bloodthirsty monster, and Constantine, the
murderer, a saint.

Christian history begins with the triumph of the Church. With Eusebius
of Caesarea the apologetic pamphlets of the age of persecutions gave way
to a calm review of three centuries of Christian progress. Eusebius'
biography of Constantine shows what distortion of fact the father of
Church history permitted himself, but the Ecclesiastical History was
fortunately written for those who wanted to know what really happened,
and remains to-day an invaluable repository of Christian antiquities.
With the continuations of Socrates, Sozomen and Theodoret, and the Latin
manual which Cassiodorus had woven from them (the _Historia
tripartita_), it formed the body of Church history during all the middle
ages. An even greater influence, however, was exercised by Eusebius'
_Chronica_. Through Jerome's translation and additions, this scheme of
this world's chronology became the basis for all medieval world
chronicles. It settled until our own day the succession of years from
the Creation to the birth of Christ,--fitting the Old Testament story
into that of ancient history. Henceforth the Jewish past,--that one path
back to the beginning of the world,--was marked out by the absolute laws
of mathematics and revelation. Jerome had marked it out; Sulpicius
Severus, the biographer of St Martin, in his _Historia sacra_, adorned
it with the attractions of romance. Sulpicius was admirably fitted to
interpret the miraculous Bible story to the middle ages. But there were
few who could write like him, and Jerome's _Chronicle_ itself, or rather
portions of it, became, in the age which followed, a sort of universal
preface for the monastic chronicler. For a time there were even attempts
to continue "imperial chronicles," but they were insignificant compared
with the influence of Eusebius and Jerome.

From the first, Christianity had a philosophy of history. Its earliest
apologists sought to show how the world had followed a divine plan in
its long preparation for the life of Christ. From this central fact of
all history, mankind should continue through war and suffering until the
divine plan was completed at the judgment day. The fate of nations is in
God's hands; history is the revelation of His wisdom and power. Whether
He intervenes directly by miracle, or merely sets His laws in operation,
He is master of men's fate. This idea, which has underlain all Christian
philosophy of history, from the first apologists who prophesied the fall
of the Empire and the coming of the millennium, down to our own day,
received its classic statement in St Augustine's _City of God_. The
terrestrial city, whose eternity had been the theme of pagan history,
had just fallen before Alaric's Goths. Augustine's explanation of its
fall passes in review not only the calamities of Roman history--combined
with a pathetic perception of its greatness,--but carries the survey
back to the origin of evil at the creation. Then over against this
_civitas terrena_ he sets the divine city which is to be realized in
Christendom. The Roman Empire,--the last general form of the earthly
city,--gives way slowly to the heavenly. This is the main thread of
Augustine's philosophy of history. The mathematical demonstration of its
truth was left by Augustine for his disciple, Paulus Orosius.

Orosius' _Seven Books of Histories against the Pagans_, written as a
supplement to the _City of God_, is the first attempt at a Christian
"World History." This manual for the middle ages arranged the rise and
fall of empires with convincing exactness. The history of antiquity,
according to it, begins with Ninus. His realm was overthrown by the
Medes in the same year in which the history of Rome began. From the
first year of Ninus' reign until the rebuilding of Babylon by Semiramis
there were sixty-four years; the same between the first of Procas and
the building of Rome. Eleven hundred and sixty-four years after each
city was built, it was taken,--Babylon by Cyrus, Rome by Alaric, and
Cyrus' conquest took place just when Rome began the Republic. But before
Rome becomes a world empire, Macedon and Carthage intervene, guardians
of Rome's youth (_tutor curatorque_). This scheme of the four
world-monarchies, which was to prevail through all the middle ages, was
developed through seven books filled with the story of war and
suffering. As it was Orosius' aim to show that the world had improved
since the coming of Christ, he used Trogus Pompeius' war history,
written to exalt Roman triumphs, to show the reverse of
victory,--disaster and ruin. Livy, Caesar, Tacitus and Suetonius were
plundered for the story of horrors; until finally even the Goths in
Spain shine by contrast with the pagan heroes; and through the confusion
of the German invasions one may look forward to Christendom,--and its
peace.

The commonest form of medieval historical writing was the chronicle,
which reaches all the way from monastic annals, mere notes on Easter
tables, to the dignity of national monuments. Utterly lacking in
perspective, and dominated by the idea of the miraculous, they are for
the most part a record of the trivial or the marvellous. Individual
historians sometimes recount the story of their own times with sober
judgment, but seldom know how to test their sources when dealing with
the past. Contradictions are often copied down without the writer
noticing them; and since the middle ages forged and falsified so many
documents,--monasteries, towns and corporations gaining privileges or
titles of possession by the bold use of them,--the narrative of medieval
writers cannot be relied upon unless we can verify it by collateral
evidence. Some historians, like Otto of Freising, Guibert of Nogent or
Bernard Gui, would have been scientific if they had had our appliances
for comparison. But even men like Roger Bacon, who deplored the
inaccuracy of texts, had worked out no general method to apply in their
restoration. Toward the close of the middle ages the vernacular
literatures were adorned with Villani's and Froissart's chronicles. But
the merit of both lies in their journalistic qualities of contemporary
narrative. Neither was a history in the truest sense.

The Renaissance marked the first great gain in the historic sense, in
the efforts of the humanists to realize the spirit of the antique world.
They did not altogether succeed; antiquity to them meant largely Plato
and Cicero. Their interests were literary, and the un-Ciceronian
centuries were generally ignored. Those in which the foundations of
modern Europe were laid, which produced parliaments, cathedrals, cities,
Dante and Chaucer, were grouped alike on one dismal level and christened
the middle ages. The perspective of the humanists was only one degree
better than that of the middle ages. History became the servant to
literature, an adjunct to the classics. Thus it passed into the schools,
where text-books still in use devote 200 pages to the Peloponnesian war
and two to the Athens of Pericles.

But if the literary side of humanism has been a barrier to the progress
of scientific history, the discovery and elucidation of texts first made
that progress possible. Historical criticism soon awoke. Laurentius
Valla's brilliant attack on the "Donation of Constantine" (1440), and
Ulrich von Hutten's rehabilitation of Henry IV. from monkish tales mark
the rise of the new science. One sees at a glance what an engine of
controversy it was to be; yet for a while it remained but a phase of
humanism. It was north of the Alps that it parted company with the
grammarians. Classical antiquity was an Italian past, the German
scholars turned back to the sources of their national history. Aeneas
Sylvius Piccolomini (Pius II.) had discovered Otto of Freising and
Jordanes. Maximilian I. encouraged the search for manuscripts, and
Vienna became a great humanistic centre. Conrad Celtes left his
_Germania illustrata_ unfinished, but he had found the works of
Hroswitha. Conrad Peutinger gathered all sorts of Chronicles in his room
in Vienna, and published several,--among them Gregory of Tours. This
national movement of the 15th century was not paralleled in France or
England, where the classical humanities reigned. The Reformation
meanwhile gave another turn to the work of German scholars.

The Reformation, with its heated controversies, seems a strange
starting-point for science, yet it, even more than the Renaissance,
brought out scientific methods of historical investigation. It not only
sobered the humanist tendency to sacrifice truth for aesthetic effect,
it called for the documents of the Church and subjected them to the most
hostile criticism. Luther himself challenged them. Then in the
_Magdeburg Centuries_ (1559-1574) Protestantism tried to make good its
attack on the medieval Church by a great collection of sources
accompanied with much destructive criticism. This gigantic work is the
first monument of modern historical research. The reply of Cardinal
Baronius (_Annales ecclesiastici_, 1588-1697) was a still greater
collection, drawn from archives which till then had not been used for
scientific history. Baronius' criticism and texts are faulty, though far
surpassing anything before his day, and his collection is the basis for
most subsequent ones,--in spite of J. J. Scaliger's refutation, which
was to contain an equal number of volumes of the errors in Baronius.

The movement back to the sources in Germany until the Thirty Years' War
was a notable one. Collections were made by Simon Schard (1535-1573),
Johannes Pistorius (1576-1608), Marquard Freher (1565-1614), Melchior
Goldast (1576-1635) and others. After the war Leibnitz began a new
epoch, both by his philosophy with its law of continuity in phenomena,
and by his systematic attempt to collect sources through an association
(1670). His plan to have documents printed as they were, instead of
"correcting" them, was a notable advance. But from Leibnitz until the
19th century German national historiography made little
progress,--although church historians like Mosheim and Neander stand out
among the greatest historians of all time.

France had not paralleled the activity of Maximilian's Renaissance
historians. The father of modern French history, or at least of
historical research, was André Duchesne (1584-1640), whose splendid
collections of sources are still in use. Jean Bodin wrote the first
treatise on scientific history (_Methodus ad facilem historiarum
cognitionem_, 1566), but he did not apply his own principles of
criticism; and it was left for the Benedictine monks of the Congregation
of St Maur to establish definitely the new science. The place of this
school in the history of history is absolutely without a parallel. Few
of those in the audiences of Molière, returning home under the grey
walls of St Germain-des-Près, knew that within that monastery the men
whose midnight they disturbed were laying the basis for all scientific
history; and few of the later historians of that age have been any
wiser. But when Luc d'Achery turned from exegetics to patristics and the
lives of the saints, as a sort of Christian humanist, he led the way to
that vast work of collection and comparison of texts which developed
through Mabillon, Montfaucon, Ruinart, Martène, Bouquet and their
associates, into the indispensable implements of modern historians.
Here, as in the Reformation, controversy called out the richest product.
Jean Mabillon's treatise, _De re diplomatica_ (1681), was due to the
criticisms of that group of Belgian Jesuits whose _Acta Sanctorum
quotquot toto orbe coluntur_ (1643, &c., see BOLLANDISTS) was destined
to grow into the greatest repository of legend and biography the world
has seen. In reply to D. Papebroch's criticisms of the chronicle of St
Denis, Mabillon prepared this manual for the testing of medieval
documents. Its canons are the basis, indeed, almost the whole, of the
science of diplomatic (q.v.), the touchstone of truth for medieval
research. Henceforth even the mediocre scholar had a body of technical
rules by which to sort out the vast mass of apocrypha in medieval
documentary sources. Scientific history depends upon implements.
Without manuals, dictionaries, and easy access to texts, we should go as
far astray as any medieval chronicler. The France of the Maurists
supplied the most essential of these instruments. The great "glossary"
of Ducange is still in enlarged editions the indispensable encyclopaedia
of the middle ages. Chronology and palaeography were placed on a new
footing by Dom Bernard de Montfaucon's _Palaeographia graeca_ (1708),
the monumental _Art de vérifier les dates_ (3rd ed., 1818-1831, in 38
vols.), and the _Nouveau Traité de diplomatique_ (1750-1765) of Dom
Tassin and Dom Toustain. The collections of texts which the Maurists
published are too many and too vast to be enumerated here (see C.
Langlois, _Manuel de bibliographie historique_, pp. 293 ff.). Dom
Bouquet's _Historiens de la Gaule et de la France_--the national
repertory for French historians--is but one of a dozen tasks of similar
magnitude. During the 18th century this deep under-work of scientific
history continued to advance, though for the most part unseen by the
brilliant writers whose untrustworthy generalities passed for history in
the salons of the old régime. Interrupted by the Revolution, it revived
in the 19th century, and the roll of honour of the French École des
Chartes has almost rivalled that of St Germain-des-Prés.

The father of critical history in Italy was L. A. Muratori (1672-1750),
the Italian counterpart of Leibnitz. His vast collection of sources
(_Rerum Italicarum scriptores_), prepared amid every discouragement,
remains to-day the national monument of Italian history; and it is but
one of his collections. His output is perhaps the greatest of any
isolated worker in the whole history of historiography. The same haste,
but much less care, marked the work of J. D. Mansi (d. 1769), the
compiler of the fullest collection of the Councils. Spain, stifled by
the Inquisition, produced no national collection of sources during the
17th and 18th centuries, although Nicolas Antonio (d. 1684) produced a
national literary history of the first rank.

England in the 16th century kept pace with Continental historiography.
Henry VIII.'s chaplain, John Leland, is the father of English
antiquaries. Three of the most precious collections of medieval
manuscripts still in existence were then begun by Thomas Bodley (the
Bodleian at Oxford), Archbishop Matthew Parker (Corpus Christi at
Cambridge), and Robert Cotton (the Cottonian collection of the British
Museum). In Elizabeth's reign a serious effort was made to arrange the
national records, but until the end of the 18th century they were
scattered in not less than fifteen repositories. In the 17th and 18th
centuries English scholarship was enriched by such monuments of research
as William Dugdale's _Monasticon_, Thomas Madox's _History of the
Exchequer_, Wilkins's _Concilia_, and Thomas Rymer's _Foedera_. But
these works, important as they were, gave but little idea of the wealth
of historical sources which the 19th century was to reveal in England.

In the 19th century the science of history underwent a sort of
industrial revolution. The machinery of research, invented by the genius
of men like Mabillon, was perfected and set going in all the archives of
Europe. Isolated workers or groups of workers grew into national or
international associations, producing from archives vast collections of
material to be worked up into the artistic form of history. The result
of this movement has been to revolutionize the whole subject. These men
of the factory--devoting their lives to the cataloguing of archives and
libraries, to the publication of material, and then to the gigantic task
of indexing what they have produced--have made it possible for the
student in an American or Australian college to master in a few hours in
his library sources of history which baffled the long years of research
of a Martène or Rymer. The texts themselves have mostly become as
correct as they can ever be, and manuals and bibliographies guide one to
and through them, so that no one need go astray who takes the trouble to
make use of the mechanism which is at his hand. For example, since the
papal archives were opened, so many _regesta_ have appeared that soon it
will be possible to follow the letter-writing of the medieval popes day
by day for century after century.

The apparatus for this research is too vast to be described here.
Archives have been reformed, their contents catalogued or calendared;
government commissions have rescued numberless documents from oblivion
or destruction, and learned societies have supplemented and criticized
this work and co-ordinated the results. Every state in Europe now has
published the main sources for its history. The "Rolls" series, the
_Monumenta Germaniae historica_, and the _Documents inédits_ are but the
more notable of such national products. A series of periodicals keeps
watch over this enormous output. The files and indices of the _English
Historical Review_, _Historische Zeitschrift_, _Revue historique_, or
_American Historical Review_ will alone reveal the strength and
character of historical research in the later 19th century.

Every science which deals with human phenomena is in a way an implement
in this great factory system, in which the past is welded together
again. Psychology has been drawn upon to interpret the movements of
revolutions or religions, anthropology and ethnology furnish a clue to
problems to which the key of documents has been lost. Genealogy,
heraldry and chronology run parallel with the wider subject. But the
real auxiliary sciences to history are those which deal with those
traces of the past that still exist, the science of language
(philology), of writing (palaeography), of documents (diplomatic), of
seals (sphragistics), of coins (numismatics), of weights and measures,
and archaeology in the widest sense of the word. These sciences underlie
the whole development of scientific history. Dictionaries and manuals
are the instruments of this industrial revolution. Without them the
literary remains of the race would still be as useless as Egyptian
inscriptions to the fellaheen. Archaeology itself remained but a minor
branch of art until the machinery was perfected which enabled it to
classify and interpret the remains of the "pre-historic" age.

This is the most remarkable chapter in the whole history of history--the
recovery of that past which had already been lost when our literary
history began. The perspective stretches out as far the other side of
Homer as we are this. The old "providential" scheme of history
disintegrates before a new interest in the "gentile" nations to whose
high culture Hebrew sources bore unwilling testimony. Biblical criticism
is a part of the historic process. The Jewish texts, once the infallible
basis of history, are now tested by the libraries of Babylon, from which
they were partly drawn, and Hebrew history sinks into its proper place
in the wide horizon of antiquity. The finding of the Rosetta stone left
us no longer dependent upon Greek, Latin or Hebrew sources, and now
fifty centuries of Egyptian history lie before us. The scientific
historian of antiquity works on the hills of Crete, rather than in the
quiet of a library with the classics spread out before him. There he can
reconstruct the splendour of that Minoan age to which Homeric poems look
back, as the Germanic epics looked back to Rome or Verona. His
discoveries, co-ordinated and arranged in vast _corpora inscriptionum_,
stand now alongside Herodotus or Livy, furnishing a basis for their
criticism. Medieval archaeology has, since Quicherat, revealed how men
were living while the monks wrote chronicles, and now cathedrals and
castles are studied as genuine historic documents.

The immense increase in available sources, archaeological and literary,
has remade historical criticism. Ranke's application of the principles
of "higher criticism" to works written since the invention of printing
(_Kritik neuerer Geschichtsschreiber_) was an epoch-making challenge of
narrative sources. Now they are everywhere checked by contemporary
evidence, and a clearer sense of what constitutes a primary source has
discredited much of what had been currently accepted as true. This is
true not only of ancient history, where last year's book may be a
thousand years out of date, but of the whole field. Hardly an "old
master" remains an authoritative book of reference. Gibbon, Grote,
Giesebrecht, Guizot stand to-day by reason of other virtues than their
truth. Old landmarks drop out of sight--e.g. the fall of the Western
Empire in 476, the coming of the Greeks to Italy in 1450, dates which
once enclosed the middle ages. The perspective changes--the Renaissance
grows less and the middle ages more; the Protestant Revolution becomes
a complex of economics and politics and religion; the French Revolution
a vast social reform in which the Terror was an incident, &c., &c. The
result has been a complete transformation of history since the middle of
the 19th century.

In the 17th century the Augustinian scheme of world history received its
last classic statement in Bossuet's _Histoire universelle_. Voltaire's
reply to it in the 18th (_Essai sur les moeurs_) attacked its
limitations on the basis of deism, and its miraculous procedure on that
of science. But while there are foreshadowings of the evolutionary
theory in this work, neither the _philosophe_ historians nor Hume nor
Gibbon arrived at a constructive principle in history which could take
the place of the Providence they rejected. Religion, though false, might
be a real historic force. History became the tragic spectacle of a game
of dupes--the real movers being priests, kings or warriors. The pawns
slowly acquired reason, and then would be able to regulate the moves
themselves. But all this failed to give a satisfactory explanation of
the laws which determine the direction of this evolution. Giovanni
Battista Vico (1668-1744) was the first to ask why there is no science
of human history. But his lonely life and unrecognized labours leave him
apart from the main movement, until his works were discovered again in
the 19th century. It was A. L. H. Heeren who, at the opening of the 19th
century, first laid that emphasis upon the economic factors in history
which is to-day slowly replacing the Augustinian explanation of its
evolution. Heeren's own influence, however, was slight. The first half
of the century (apart from the scientific activity of Pertz, Guizot,
&c.) was largely dominated by the romanticists, with their exaggeration
of the individual. Carlyle's "great man theory of history" is logically
connected with the age of Scott. It was a philosophy of history which
lent itself to magnificent dramatic creations; but it explained nothing.
It substituted the work of the genius for the miraculous intervention of
Providence, but, apart from certain abstract formulae such as Truth and
Right, knew nothing of why or how. It is but dealing in words to say
that the meaning of it all is God's revelation of Himself. Granting
that, what is the process? Why does it so slowly reveal the Right of the
middle ages (as in slavery for instance) to be the Wrong to-day? Carlyle
stands to Bossuet as the sage to the myth. Hegel got no closer to
realities. His idealistic scheme of history, which makes religion the
keynote of progress, and describes the function of each--Judaism to
typify duty, Confucianism order, Mahommedanism justice, Buddhism
patience, and Christianity love--does not account for the facts of the
history enacted by the devotees. It characterizes, not the real process
of evolution, but an ideal which history has not realized. Besides, it
does not face the question how far religion itself is a product or a
cause, or both combined.

In the middle of the century two men sought to incorporate in their
philosophy the physical basis which Hegel had ignored in his
spiritism--recognizing that life is conditioned by an environment and
not an abstraction for metaphysics. H. T. Buckle, in his _History of
Civilization in England_ (1857), was the first to work out the
influences of the material world upon history, developing through a
wealth of illustration the importance of food, soil and the general
aspect of nature upon the formation of society. Buckle did not, as is
generally believed, make these three factors dominate all history. He
distinctly stated that "the advance of European civilization is
characterized by a diminishing influence of physical laws and an
increasing influence of mental laws," and "the measure of civilization
is the triumph of mind over external agents." Yet his challenge, not
only to the theologian, but also to those "historians whose indolence of
thought" or "natural incapacity" prevented them from attempting more
than the annalistic record of events, called out a storm of protest from
almost every side. Now that the controversy has cleared away, we see
that in spite of Buckle's too confident formulation of his laws, his
pioneer work in a great field marks him out as the Augustine of the
scientific age. Among historians, however, Buckle's theory received but
little favour for another generation. Meanwhile the economists had
themselves taken up the problem, and it was from them that the
historians of to-day have learned it. Ten years before Buckle published
his history, Karl Marx had already formulated the "economic theory of
history." Accepting with reservation Feuerbach's attack on the Hegelian
"absolute idea," based on materialistic grounds (_Der Mensch ist, was er
isst_), Marx was led to the conclusion that the causes of that process
of growth which constitutes the history of society are to be found in
the economic conditions of existence. From this he went on to socialism,
which bases its militant philosophy upon this interpretation of history.
But the truth or falseness of socialism does not affect the theory of
history. In 1845 Marx wrote of the Young-Hegelians that to separate
history from natural science and industry was like separating the soul
from the body, and "finding the birthplace of history, not in the gross
material production on earth, but in the misty cloud formation of
heaven" (_Die heilige Familie_, p. 238). In his _Misère de la
philosophie_ (1847) he lays down the principle that social relationships
largely depend upon modes of production, and therefore the principles,
ideas and categories which are thus evolved are no more eternal than the
relations they express, but are historical and transitory products. In
the famous _Manifesto of the Communist Party_ (1848) the theory was
applied to show how the industrial revolution had replaced feudal with
modern conditions. But it had little vogue, except among Socialists,
until the third volume of _Das Kapital_ was published in 1894, when its
importance was borne in upon continental scholars. Since then the
controversy has been almost as heated as in the days of the Reformation.
It is an exaggeration of the theory which makes it an explanation of all
human life, but the whole science of dynamic sociology rests upon the
postulate of Marx.

The content of history always reflects the interests of the age in which
it is written. It was so in Herodotus and in medieval chronicles. Modern
historians began with politics. But as the complex nature of society
became more evident in the age of democracy, the economic or
sociological history gained ground. Histories of commerce and cities now
rank beside those on war and kings, although there are readers still who
prefer to follow the pennants of robber barons rather than to watch the
slow evolution of modern conditions. The drum-and-trumpet history has
its place like that of art, jurisprudence, science or philosophy. Only
now we know that no one of these is more than a single glimpse at a vast
complex of phenomena, most of which lie for ever beyond our ken.

This expansion of interest has intensified specialization. Historians no
longer attempt to write world histories; they form associations of
specialists for the purpose. Each historian chooses his own epoch or
century and his own subject, and spends his life mastering such traces
of it as he can find. His work there enables him to judge of the methods
of his fellows, but his own remains restricted by the very wealth of
material which has been accumulated on the single subject before him.
Thus the great enterprises of to-day are co-operative--the _Cambridge
Modern History_, Lavisse and Rambaud's _Histoire générale_, or Lavisse's
_Histoire de France_, like Hunt and Poole's _Political History of
England_, and Oncken's _Allgemeine Geschichte in Einzeldarstellungen_.
But even these vast sets cover but the merest fraction of their
subjects. The Cambridge history passes for the most part along the
political crust of society, and seldom glances at the social forces
within. This limitation of the professed historian is made up for by the
growingly historical treatment of all the sciences and arts--a tendency
noted before, to which this edition of the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_ is
itself a notable witness. Indeed, for a definition of that limitless
subject which includes all the phenomena that stand the warp and stress
of change, one might adapt a famous epitaph--_si historiam requiris,
circumspice_.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--See Ch. V. Langlois, _Manuel de bibliographie
  historique_ (2 vols., 1904). This forms the logical bibliography of
  this article. It is a general survey of the whole apparatus of
  historical research, and is the indispensable guide to the subject.
  Similar bibliographies covering sections of history are noted with the
  articles where they properly belong, e.g. in English medieval history
  the manual of Chas. Gross, _Sources and Literature of English
  History_; in German history the _Quellenkunde_ of Dahlmann-Waitz (7th
  ed.); for France the _Bibliographie de l'histoire de France_ of G.
  Monod (antiquated, 1888), or the _Sources de l'histoire de France_ so
  ably begun by A. Molinier's volumes on the medieval period. Perhaps
  the sanest survey of the present scientific movement in history is the
  clear summary of Ch. V. Langlois and Ch. Seignobos, _Introduction to
  the Study of History_ (trans. with preface by F. York Powell, London,
  1898). Much more ambitious is E. Bernheim's _Lehrbuch der historischen
  Methode und der Geschichtsphilosophie mit Nachweis der wichtigsten
  Quellen und Hilfsmittel zum Studium der Geschichte_ (3rd and 4th ed.,
  Leipzig, 1903).     (J. T. S.*)



HIT, a town of Asiatic Turkey, in the vilayet of Bagdad, on the west
bank of the Euphrates, 70 m. W.N.W. of Bagdad, in 33° 38´ 8´´ N., 42°
52´ 15´´ E. It is picturesquely situated on a line of hills, partly
natural, but in large part certainly artificial, the accumulation of
centuries of former habitation, from 30 to 100 ft. in height, bordering
the river. The houses are built of field stones and mud. A striking
feature of the town is a lofty and well-proportioned minaret, which
leans quite perceptibly. Behind and around Hit is an extensive but
utterly barren plain, through which flow several streams of bitter
water, coming from mineral springs. Directly behind the town are two
bitumen springs, one cold and one hot, within 30 ft. of one another. The
gypsum cliffs on the edge of the plain, and the rocks which crop out
here and there in the plain, are full of seams of bitumen, and the whole
place is redolent of sulphuretted hydrogen. Across the river there are
naphtha springs. Indeed, the entire region is one possessing great
potential wealth in mineral oils and the like. Hit, with its fringe of
palms, is like an oasis in the desert occasioned by the outcrop of these
deposits. From time immemorial it has been the chief source of supply of
bitumen for Babylonia, the prosperity of the town depending always upon
its bitumen fountains, which are still the property of the government,
but are rented out to any one who wishes to use them. There is also a
shipyard at Hit, where the characteristic Babylonian boats are still
made, smeared within and without with bitumen. Hit is the head of
navigation on the Euphrates. It is also the point from which the
camel-post starts across the desert to Damascus. About 8 m. inland from
Hit, on a bitter stream, lies the small town of Kubeitha. Hit is
mentioned, under the name of Ist, in the Karnak inscription as paying
tribute to Tethmosis (Thothmes) III. In the Bible (Ezra viii. 15) it is
called Ahava; the original Babylonian name seems to have been _Ihi_,
which becomes in the Talmud _Ihidakira_, in Ptolemy [Greek: Idikara],
and in Zosimus and Ammianus [Greek: Dakira] and Diacira.

  See Geo. Rawlinson's _Herodotus_, i. 179, and note by H. C. Rawlinson;
  J. P. Peters, _Nippur_ (1897); H. V. Geere, _By Nile and Euphrates_
  (1904).     (J. P. Pe.)



HITA, GINÉS PEREZ DE (1544?-1605?), Spanish novelist and poet, was born
at Mula (Murcia) about the middle of the 16th century. He served in the
campaign of 1569-1571 against the Moriscos, and in 1572 wrote a rhymed
history of the city of Lorca which remained unpublished till 1889. He
owes his wide celebrity to the _Historia de los bandos de Zegríes y
Abencerrajes_ (1595-1604), better known as the _Guerras civiles de
Granada_, which purports to be a chronicle based on an Arabic original
ascribed to a certain Aben-Hamin. Aben-Hamin is a fictitious personage,
and the _Guerras de Granada_ is in reality a historical novel, perhaps
the earliest example of its kind, and certainly the first historical
novel that attained popularity. In the first part the events which led
to the downfall of Granada are related with uncommon brilliancy, and
Hita's sympathetic transcription of life at the Emir's court has clearly
suggested the conventional presentation of the picturesque, chivalrous
Moor in the pages of Mlle de Scudéry, Mme de Lafayette, Châteaubriand
and Washington Irving. The second part is concerned with the author's
personal experiences, and the treatment is effective; yet, though
Calderón's play, _Amar después de la muerte_, is derived from it, the
second part has never enjoyed the vogue or influence of the first. The
exact date of Hita's death is unknown. His blank verse rendering of the
_Crónica Troyana_, written in 1596, exists in manuscript.



HITCHCOCK, EDWARD (1793-1864), American geologist, was born of poor
parents at Deerfield, Massachusetts, on the 24th of May 1793. He owed
his education chiefly to his own exertions, and was preparing himself
to enter Harvard College when he was compelled to interrupt his studies
from a weakness in his eyesight. In 1815 he became principal of the
academy of his native town; but he resigned this office in 1818 in order
to study for the ministry. Having been ordained in 1821 pastor of the
Congregational church of Conway, Mass., he employed his leisure in
making a scientific survey of the western counties of the state. From
1825 to 1845 he was professor of chemistry and natural history, from
1845 to 1864 was professor of natural theology and geology at Amherst
College, and from 1845 to 1854 was president; the college owed its early
success largely to his energetic efforts, especially during the period
of his presidency. In 1830 he was appointed state geologist of
Massachusetts, and in 1836 was made geologist of the first district of
the state of New York. In 1840 he received the degree of LL.D. from
Harvard, and in 1846 that of D.D. from Middlebury College, Vermont.
Besides his constant labours in geology, zoology and botany, Hitchcock
took an active interest in agriculture, and in 1850 he was sent by the
Massachusetts legislature to examine into the methods of the
agricultural schools of Europe. In geology he made a detailed
examination and exposition of the fossil footprints from the Triassic
sandstones of the Connecticut valley. His collection is preserved in the
Hitchcock Ichnological Museum of Amherst College, and a description of
it was published in 1858 in his report to the Massachusetts legislature
on the ichnology of New England. The footprints were regarded as those
of reptiles, amphibia and birds (?). In 1857 he undertook, with the aid
of his two sons, the geological survey of Vermont, which was completed
in 1861. As a writer on geological science, Hitchcock was largely
concerned in determining the connexion between it and religion, and
employing its results to explain and support what he regarded as the
truths of revelation. He died at Amherst, on the 27th of February 1864.

His son, CHARLES HENRY HITCHCOCK (1836-   ), did good service in geology,
in Vermont, New Hampshire (1868-1878), and other parts of America, and
became professor of geology at Dartmouth in 1868.

  The following are Edward Hitchcock's principal works: _Geology of the
  Connecticut Valley_ (1823); _Catalogue of Plants growing without
  cultivation in the vicinity of Amherst_ (1829); _Reports on the
  Geology of Massachusetts_ (1833-1841); _Elementary Geology_ (1840; ed.
  2, 1841; and later ed. with C. H. Hitchcock, 1862); _Fossil Footmarks
  in the United States_ (1848); _Outline of the Geology of the Globe and
  of the United States in particular_ (1853); _Illustrations of Surface
  Geology_ (1856); _Ichnology of New England_ (1858); _The Religion of
  Geology and its Connected Sciences_ (1851; new ed., 1869);
  _Reminiscences of Amherst College_ (1863); and various papers in the
  _American Journal of Science_, and other periodicals.



HITCHCOCK, GEORGE (1850-   ), American artist, was born at Providence,
Rhode Island, in 1850. He graduated from Brown University in 1872 and
from the law school of Harvard University in 1874; then turned his
attention to art and became a pupil of Boulanger and Lefebvre in Paris.
He attracted notice in the Salon of 1885 with his "Tulip Growing," a
Dutch garden which he painted in Holland. He had for years a studio at
Egmond, in the Netherlands. He became a Chevalier of the Legion of
Honour, France; a member of the Vienna Academy of Arts, the Munich
Secession Society, and other art bodies; and is represented in the
Dresden gallery; the imperial collection, Vienna; the Chicago Art
Institute, and the Detroit Museum of Fine Arts.



HITCHCOCK, ROSWELL DWIGHT (1817-1887), American divine, was born at East
Machias, Maine, on the 15th of August 1817, graduated at Amherst College
in 1836, and later studied at Andover Theological Seminary, Mass. After
a visit to Germany he was a tutor at Amherst in 1839-1842, and was
minister of the First (Congregational) Church, Exeter, New Hampshire, in
1845-1852. He became professor of natural and revealed religion in
Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine, in 1852, and in 1855 professor of
church history in the Union Theological Seminary in New York, of which
he was president in 1880-1887. He died at Somerset, Mass., on the 16th
of June 1887.

  Among his works are: _Life of Edward Robinson_ (1863); _Socialism_
  (1879); _Carmina Sanctorum_ (with Z. Eddy and L. W. Mudge, 1885); and
  _Eternal Atonement_ (1888).



HITCHIN, a market town in the Hitchin parliamentary division of
Hertfordshire, England, on the small river Hiz, 32 m. N. from London by
the Great Northern railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 10,072. It is
the junction of the main line with the Cambridge branch, and with a
branch of the Midland railway to Bedford. The church of St Mary is
Perpendicular, with a fine porch, a painting of the Adoration of the
Magi, attributed to Rubens, a small crypt said to have been used by
Cromwell as a prison for the Royalists, and many interesting monuments.
Hitchin Priory is a mansion on the site of a Carmelite foundation of the
early 14th century. A Gilbertine nunnery, founded later in the same
century, stood adjacent to the church, and portions of the buildings
appear in an existing block of almshouses. The grammar school (1632) was
reconstituted in 1889 for boys and girls. Straw-plaiting, malting,
brewing, and the cultivation and distillation of lavender and peppermint
are carried on.



HITTITES, an ancient people, alluded to frequently in the earlier
records of Israel, and also, under slightly variant names, in Egyptian
records of the XVIIIth, XIXth and XXth Dynasties, and in Assyrian from
about 1100 to 700 B.C. They appear also in the Vannic cuneiform texts,
and are believed to be the authors of a class of monuments bearing
inscriptions in a peculiar pictographic character, and widely
distributed over Asia Minor and N. Syria, around which much controversy
has raged during the past thirty years.

1. _The Bible._--In the Old Testament the name of the race is written
_Heth_ (with initial aspirate), members of it being _Hitti_, _Hittim_,
which the Septuagint renders [Greek: chet], [Greek: chettaios], [Greek:
chettein] or [Greek: chetteim], keeping, it will be noted, [epsilon] in
the stem throughout. The race appears in two connexions, (a) In
pre-Israelite Palestine, it is resident about Hebron (Gen. xxiii. 3),
and in the central uplands (Num. xiii. 29). To Joshua (i. 4) is promised
"from the wilderness and this Lebanon even unto the great river, the
river Euphrates, all the land of the Hittites." The term "wilderness"
here is of geographical ambiguity; but the promise is usually taken to
mean that Palestine itself was part of the Hittite land before the
coming of Israel; and an apostrophe of Ezekiel (xvi. 3) to Jerusalem,
"thy mother (was) an Hittite," is quoted in confirmation. Under the
monarchy we hear frequently of Hittites within the borders of Israel,
but either as a small subject people, coupled with other petty tribes,
or as individuals in the Jewish service (e.g. Uriah, in the time of
David). It appears, therefore, that there survived in Palestine to late
times a detached Hittite population, with which Hebrews sometimes
intermarried (Judges iii. 5-6; Gen. xxvi. 34) and lived in relations now
amicable, now tyrannical (e.g. Hittites were made tributary bondsmen by
Solomon, 1 Kings ix. 20, 21; 2 Chron. viii. 7, 8). (b) An independent
and powerful Hittite people was domiciled N. of Palestine proper,
organized rather as a confederacy of tribes than a single monarchy (1
Kings x. 28; 2 Kings vii. 6). Presumably it was a daughter of these
Hittites that Solomon took to wife. If the emendation of 2 Sam. xxiv.
64, "Tahtim-hodshi," based on the Septuagint version [Greek: gên
chetteim kadês] be accepted, we hear of them at Kadesh on Orontes; and
some minor Hittite cities are mentioned, e.g. Luz; but no one capital
city of the race is clearly indicated. Carchemish, on the Euphrates,
though mentioned three times (2 Chron. xxxv. 20; Isa. x. 9; Jer. xlvi.
2), is not connected explicitly with Hittites, a fact which is not
surprising, since that city was no longer under a Hatti dynasty at the
epoch of the Old Testament references. So far as the Old Testament goes,
therefore, we gather that the Hittites were a considerable people,
widely spread in Syria, in part subdued and to some extent assimilated
by Israel, but in part out of reach. The latter portion was not much
known to the Hebrews, but was vaguely feared as a power in the early
days of the monarchy, though not in the later pre-Captivity period. The
identification of the northern and southern Hittites, however, presents
certain difficulties not yet fully explained; and it seems that we must
assume Heth to have been the name both of a country in the north and of
a tribal population not confined to that country.

2. _Egyptian Records._--The decipherment of the inscriptions of the
XVIIIth Theban Dynasty led, before the middle of the 19th century, to
the discovery of the important part played in the Syrian campaigns of
Tethmosis (Thothmes) III. by the H-t8 (vulgarly transliterated _Kheta_,
though the vocalization is uncertain). The coincidence of this name,
beginning with an aspirate, led H. K. Brugsch to identify the Kheta with
Heth. That identification stands, and no earlier Egyptian mention of the
race has been found. Tethmosis III. found the Kheta ("Great" and
"Little") in N. Syria, not apparently at Kadesh, but at Carchemish,
though they had not been in possession of the latter place long (not in
the epoch of Tethmosis I.'s Syrian campaign). They were a power strong
enough to give the Pharaoh cause to vaunt his success (see also EGYPT:
_Ancient History_, § "The New Empire"). Though he says he levied tribute
upon them, his successors in the dynasty nearly all record fresh wars
with the Kheta who appear as the northernmost of Pharaoh's enemies, and
Amenophis or Amenhotep III. saw fit to take to wife Gilukhipa, a Syrian
princess, who may or may not have been a Hittite. This queen is by some
supposed to have introduced into Egypt certain exotic ideas which
blossomed in the reign of Amenophis IV. The first Pharaoh of the
succeeding dynasty, Rameses I., came to terms with a Kheta king called
Saplel or Saparura; but Seti I. again attacked the Kheta (1366 B.C.),
who had apparently pushed southwards. Forced back by Seti, the Kheta
returned and were found holding Kadesh by Rameses II., who, in his fifth
year, there fought against them and a large body of allies, drawn
probably in part from beyond Taurus, the battle which occasioned the
monumental poem of Pentaur. After long struggles, a treaty was concluded
in Rameses's twenty-first year, between Pharaoh and "Khetasar" (i.e.
Kheta-king), of which we possess an Egyptian copy. The discovery of a
cuneiform tablet containing a copy of this same treaty, in the
Babylonian language, was reported from Boghaz Keui in Cappadocia by H.
Winckler in 1907. It argues the Kheta a people of considerable
civilization. The Kheta king subsequently visited Pharaoh and gave him
his daughter to wife. Rameses' successor, Mineptah, remained on terms
with the Kheta folk; but in the reign of Rameses III. (Dyn. XX.) the
latter seem to have joined in the great raid of northern tribes on Egypt
which was checked by the battle of Pelusium. From this point (c. 1150
B.C.)--the point at which (roughly) the monarchic history of Israel in
Palestine opens--Egyptian records cease to mention Kheta; and as we know
from other sources that the latter continued powerful in Carchemish for
some centuries to come, we must presume that the rise of the Israelite
state interposed an effective political barrier.

3. _Assyrian Records._--In an inscription of Tiglath Pileser I. (about
1100 B.C.), first deciphered in 1857, a people called _Khatti_ is
mentioned as powerful in Girgamish on Euphrates (i.e. Carchemish); and
in other records of the same monarch, subsequently read, much mention is
made of this and of other N. Syrian names. These Khatti appear again in
the inscriptions of Assur-nazir-pal (early 9th century B.C.), in whose
time Carchemish was very wealthy, and the Khatti power extended far over
N. Syria and even into Mesopotamia. Shalmaneser II. (d. 825 B.C.) raided
the Khatti and their allies year after year; and at last Sargon III., in
717 B.C., relates that he captured Carchemish and its king, Pisiris, and
put an end to its independence. We hear no more of it thenceforward.
These _Khatti_, there is no reasonable doubt, are identical with
_Kheta_. (For the chronology see further under BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA.)

4. _Other Cuneiform Records._--The name of the race appears in certain
of the Tel-el-Amarna letters, tablets written in Babylonian script to
Amenophis (Amenhotep) IV. and found in 1892 on the site of his capital.
Some of his governors in Syrian districts (e.g. one Aziru of Phoenicia)
report movements of the Hittites, who were then pursuing an aggressive
policy (about 1400 B.C.). There are also other letters from rulers of
principalities in N. Syria (Mitanni) and E. Asia Minor (Arzawa), who
write in non-Semitic tongues and are supposed to have been Hittites.

Certain _Khate_ or _Khati_ are mentioned in the Vannic inscriptions
(deciphered partially by A. H. Sayce and others) as attacked by kings
of Bianas (Van), and apparently domiciled on the middle Euphrates N. of
Taurus in the 9th century B.C. This name again may safely be identified
with _Khatti-Kheta_.

The Khatti also appear on a "prophecy-tablet," referring ostensibly to
the time of Sargon of Agadé (middle of 4th millennium B.C.); but the
document is probably of very much later date. Lastly, a fragmentary
chronicle of the 1st Babylonian Dynasty mentions an invasion of Akkad by
them about 1800 B.C.

From all these various sources we should gather that the Hittites were
among the more important racial elements in N. Syria and S.E. Asia Minor
for at least a thousand years. The limits at each end, however, are very
ill defined, the superior falling not later than 2000 B.C. and the
inferior not earlier than 600 B.C. This people was militant, aggressive
and unsettled in the earlier part of that time; commercial, wealthy and
enervated in the latter. A memorial of its trading long remained in Asia
in the shape of the weight-measure called in cuneiform records the
_maneh_ "of Carchemish." These Hittites had close relations with other
Asia Minor peoples, and at times headed a confederacy. During the later
part of their history they were in continual contact with Assyria, and,
as a Syrian power, and perhaps also as a Cappadocian one, they finally
succumbed to Assyrian pressure.

_The "Hittite" Monuments._--It remains to consider in the light of the
foregoing evidence a class of monuments to which attention began to be
called about 1870. In that year two Americans, Consul J. A. Johnson and
the Rev. S. Jessup, rediscovered, at Hamah (Hamath) on Orontes, five
basaltic blocks bearing pictographic inscriptions in relief, one of
which had been reported by J. L. Burckhardt in 1812. In spite of their
efforts and subsequent attempts made by Tyrwhitt Drake and Richard
Burton, when consul at Damascus, proper copies could not be obtained;
and it was not till the end of 1872 that, thanks to W. Wright of Beirut,
casts were taken and the stones themselves sent to Constantinople by
Subhi Pasha of Damascus. As usually happens when a new class of
antiquities is announced, it was soon found that the "Hamathite"
inscriptions did not stand alone. A monument in the same script had been
seen in Aleppo by Tyrwhitt Drake and George Smith in 1872. It still
exists, built into a mosque on the western wall of the city. Certain
clay sealings, eight of which bore pictographic signs, found by A. H.
Layard in the palace of Assur-bani-pal at Kuyunjik (Nineveh), as long
ago as 1851 and noticed then as in a "doubtful character," were compared
by Hayes Ward and found to be of the Hamathite class. A new copy of the
long known rock-sculpture at Ivriz[1] in S.W. Cappadocia was published
by E. J. Davis in 1876, and clearly showed Hamathite characters
accompanying the figures. Davis also reported, but did not see, a
similar inscription at Bulgar Maden, not far away. Sculptures seen by W.
Skene and George Smith at Jerablus, on the middle Euphrates, led to
excavations being undertaken there, in 1878, by the British Museum, and
to the discovery of certain Hamathite inscriptions accompanying
sculptures, a few of which were brought to London. The conduct of these
excavations, owing to the death of George Smith, devolved on Consul
Henderson of Aleppo, and was not satisfactorily carried out. Meanwhile
Wright, Ward and Sayce had all suggested "Hittite" as a substitute for
"Hamathite," because no other N. Syrian people loomed so large in
ancient records as did the Hittites, and the suggestion began to find
acceptance. Jerablus was confidently identified with Carchemish (but
without positive proof to this day), and the occurrence of Hamathite
monuments there was held to confirm the Hittite theory.

In 1876 Sayce pointed out the resemblance between certain Hittite signs
and characters in the lately deciphered Cypriote syllabary, and
suggested that the comparison might lead to a beginning of decipherment;
but the hope has proved vain. To this scholar, however, is owed the
next great step ahead. In 1879 it first occurred to him to compare the
rock-monuments at Boghaz Keui (see PTERIA) and Euyuk in N. Cappadocia,
discovered by Texier and Hamilton in 1835 and subsequently explored by
G. Perrot and E. Guillaume. These, he now saw, bore Hittite pictographs.
Other rock-sculptures at Giaur Kalessi, in Galatia, and in the Karabel
pass near Smyrna, he suspected of belonging to the same class[2]; and
visiting the last-named locality in the autumn, he found Hittite
pictographs accompanying one of the two figures.[3] He announced his
discoveries in 1880, and proclaimed the fact that a great Hittite
empire, extending from Kadesh to Smyrna, had risen from the dead. A
month later he had the good fortune to recover copies of a silver boss,
or hilt-top, offered to various museums about 1860, but rejected by them
as a meaningless forgery and for a long time lost again to sight. Round
the rim was a cuneiform legend, and in the field a Hittite figure with
six Hittite symbols engraved twice over on either hand of it. Reading
the cuneiform as _Tarqu-dimme sar mat Erme_ (i.e. "T. king of the
country E."), Sayce distributed phonetic values, corresponding to the
syllables of the two proper names, among four of the Hittite characters,
reserving two as "ideograms" of "king" and "country," and launched into
the field of decipherment. But he subsequently recognized that this was
a false start, and began afresh from another basis. Since then a number
of other monuments have been found, some on new sites, others on sites
already known to be Hittite, the distribution of which can be seen by
reference to the accompanying map. It will be observed that, so far as
at present known, they cluster most closely in Commagene, Cappadocia and
S. Phrygia.

  The following notes supplement the map:--

  A. WEST ASIA MINOR.--"_Niobe_" (_Suratlu Tash_) and _Karabel_ (two);
  rock-cut figures with much defaced hieroglyphs in relief. Remains of
  buildings, not yet explored, lie near the "Niobe" figure. Nothing
  purely Hittite has been found at Sardis or in any W. Asian excavation;
  but small Hittite objects have been sold in Smyrna and Aidin.

  B. PHRYGIA.--_Giaur-Kalessi_; rock-cut figures and remains of a
  stronghold, but no inscriptions. _Doghanlüdere_ and _Beikeui_ in the
  Phrygian rock-monument country; at the first is a sculptured
  rock-panel with a few pictographs in relief; at the latter a fragment
  of an inscription in relief was disinterred from a mound. _Kolitolu
  Yaila_, near Ilghin; block inscribed in relief, disinterred from
  mounds apparently marking a camp or palace-enclosure. _Eflatun Bunar_
  (= Plato's Spring), W. of Konia; megalithic building with rude and
  greatly defaced reliefs, not certainly Hittite: no inscription.
  Fassiler, W. of Konia; gigantic _stela_, or composite statue (figure
  on animals), not certainly Hittite; no inscription. _Konia_; relief of
  warrior, drawn by Texier in 1835 and since lost; of very doubtful
  Hittite character. A gold inscribed Hittite ring, now at Oxford, was
  bought there in 1903. _Emirghazi_ (anc. _Ardistama_?); three
  inscriptions in relief (two on altars) and large mounds. Evidently an
  important Hittite site. _Kara-Dagh_; hill-sanctuary with incised
  carving of seated figure and inscriptions, found by Miss G. L. Bell
  and Sir W. M. Ramsay in 1907 (see their _Thousand and One Churches_,
  1909).

  C. NORTH CAPPADOCIA.--_Boghaz Keui_ (see PTERIA); large city with
  remains of palace, citadel, walls, &c. Long rock-cut inscription of
  ten lines in relief, two short relief inscriptions cut on blocks, and
  also cuneiform tablets in Babylonian and also in a native language,
  first found in situ in 1893, and showing the site to be the capital of
  Arzawa, whence came two of the Tell el-Amarna letters. Near the site
  are the rock reliefs of _Yasili Kaya_ in two hypaethral galleries,
  showing, in the one, two processions composed of over sixty figures
  meeting at the head of the gallery; in the other, isolated groups of
  figures, fifteen in number (see for detailed description _Murray's
  Guide to Asia Minor_, 1895, pp. 23 ff.). Pictographs accompany many of
  the figures. The whole makes the most extensive group of Hittite
  remains yet known. Boghaz Keui was never thoroughly explored until
  1907, the survey of Perrot and Guillaume having been superficial only
  and the excavations of E. Chantre (1894) very slight. In 1906 a German
  expedition under Professor H. Winckler undertook the work, and great
  numbers of cuneiform tablets were found. These refer to the reigns of
  at least four kings from Subbiluliuma (= Saplel, see above) to
  Hattusil II. or Khartusil (= Khetasar, see above). The latter was an
  ally of Katashmanturgu of Babylon, and powerful enough to write to
  the Babylonian court as a sovereign of equal standing. His letter
  shows that he considered the rise of Assyria a menace to himself.
  Winckler claims to read _Hatti_ as the name of the possessors of
  Boghaz Keui, and to find in this name the proof of the Hittite
  character of Syro-Cappadocian power and of the imperial predominance
  of the city. But it remains to be proved whether these tablets were
  written there, and not rather, being in a foreign script, abroad, like
  most of the Tell el-Amarna archives. O. Puchstein has cleared and
  studied important architectural remains. _Euyuk_; large mound with
  remains of palace entered between sphinxes. Sculptured wall-dados, but
  no Hittite inscriptions. Cuneiform tablets; some Babylonian, others in
  a native language. Also inscriptions in early Phrygian character and
  language, found in 1894. The most famous of Hittite reliefs is here--a
  double-headed eagle "displayed" on the flank of one of the gateway
  sphinxes. This is supposed to have suggested to the Seljuks of Konia
  their heraldic device adopted in the 13th century, which, brought to
  Europe by the Crusaders, became the emblem of Teutonic empire in 1345.
  This derivation must be taken, however, _cum grano_, proof of its
  successive steps being wanting. Kara-Euyuk; a mound near Dedik,
  partially excavated by E. Chantre in 1894. Cuneiform tablets and small
  objects possibly, but not certainly, Hittite. A colossal eagle was
  found on a deserted site near _Yamuli_ on the middle Halys, in 1907 by
  W. Attmore Robinson.

  [Illustration: Map of Hittite remains.]

  D. SOUTH CAPPADOCIA.--_Karaburna_; long, incised rock-inscription.
  _Bogja_, eight hours west of Kaisariye; four-sided _stela_ with
  incised inscription. _Assarjik_, on the side of Mt. Argaeus; incised
  rock-inscription. _Ekrek_; a fragmentary inscription in relief and an
  incised inscription on a _stela_ of very late appearance. _Fraktin_ or
  _Farakdin_ (probably anc. _Das-tarkon_); sculptured rock-panel showing
  two groups of figures in act of cult, with hieroglyphs in relief.
  _Arslan Tash_, near Comana (Cappadocia), on the Soghan Dagh; two
  colossal lions, one with incised inscription. _Tashji_ in the Zamanti
  valley; rock-relief with rudely incised inscription. _Andaval_ and
  _Bor_; inscriptions incised on sculptured _stelae_ of kings (?),
  probably from Tyana (_Ekuzli Hissar_). All are now in Constantinople.
  A silver seal with hieroglyphs, now at Oxford, came also from Bor.
  _Nigdeh_; basalt drum or altar with incised inscription. _Ivriz_;
  rock-sculpture of king adoring god, with three inscriptions in relief.
  A second sculpture, similar in subject but smaller and much defaced,
  was found hard by in 1906. _Bulgar Maden_; long incised rock
  inscription, near silver-mines. _Gorun_ (Gurun); two rock-inscriptions
  in relief, much damaged. _Arslan-Tepe_, near Ordasu (two hours from
  Malatia); large mound whence two sculptured _stelae_ or wall-blocks
  with inscriptions in relief have been unearthed (now in Constantinople
  and the Louvre). Four other reliefs, reported found near Malatia and
  published by J. Garstang in _Annals Arch. and Anthrop._, 1908,
  probably came also from Arslan Tepe. _Palanga_; lower aniconic half of
  draped statue with incised inscription, now in Constantinople. Also a
  small basalt lion. _Arslan Tash_, near Palanga; two rude gateway
  lions, uninscribed. _Yapalak_; defaced inscription, reported by J. S.
  Sterrett but never copied. _Izgin_; obelisk with long inscription in
  relief on all four faces, now in Constantinople. These last four
  places seem to lie on a main road leading from Cappadocia to Marash
  and the Syrian sites. The expedition sent out by Cornell University in
  1907 found several Hittite inscriptions on rocks near _Darende_ in the
  valley of the Tokhma Su.

  E. NORTH SYRIA.--_Marash_; several monuments (_stelae_, wall-blocks
  and two lions) with inscriptions, both in relief and incised (part are
  now at Constantinople, part in Berlin and America); evidently one of
  the most important of Hittite sites. _Karaburshlu_, _Arbistan_,
  _Gerchin_, _Sinjerli_; mounds about the head-waters of the Kara Su.
  The last-named mound, brought to O. Puchstein's notice in 1882 by the
  chance discovery of sculptured wall-dados, now in Constantinople, was
  the scene of extensive German excavations in 1893-1894, directed by F.
  v. Luschan and K. Koldewey, and was found to cover a walled town with
  central fortified palace. Hittite, cuneiform and old Aramaean
  monuments were found with many small objects, most of which have been
  taken to Berlin; but no Hittite inscriptions came to light.
  _Sakchegeuzu_ (Sakchegözu), a site with several mounds between
  Sinjerli and Aintab; series of reliefs, once wall-dados, now in Berlin
  and Constantinople. This site is in process of excavation by Professor
  J. Garstang of the University of Liverpool. A sculptured portico has
  come to light in the smallest of the five mounds, and much pottery,
  with incised and painted decoration, has been recovered. _Aintab_;
  fragment of relief inscription. _Samsat_ (Samosata); sculptured stela
  with incised inscription much defaced. _Jerablus_; see above. Several
  Hittite objects sent from Birejik and Aintab to Europe probably came
  from Jerablus, others from _Tell Bashar_ on the Sajur. _Kellekli_,
  near Jerablus; two _stelae_, one with relief inscription. _Iskanderun_
  (Alexandretta); source of a long inscription cut on both sides of a
  spheroidal object of unknown origin. _Kirchoglu_, a site on the Afrin,
  whence a fragmentary draped statue with incised inscription was sent
  to Berlin. _Aleppo_; inscription in relief (see above). _Tell Ahmar_
  (on left bank of Euphrates); large _stela_ with sculpture and long
  relief inscription, found in 1908 with several sculptured slabs and
  two gateway lions, inscribed in cuneiform. Two hours south, a lion and
  a fragment of a relief inscription were found in 1909 by Miss G. L.
  Bell. _Tell Halaf_ in Mid-Mesopotamia, near Ras el-Ain; sculptures on
  portico of a temple or palace; cuneiform inscriptions and large
  mounds, explored in 1902 by Oppenheim. _Hamah_; five blocks inscribed
  in relief (see above).

  F. OUTLYING SITES.--_Erzerum_; source of an incised inscription,
  perhaps not originally found there. _Kedabeg_; metal boss or hilt-top
  with pictographs, found in a tomb and stated by F. Hommel to be
  Hittite, but doubtful. _Toprak Kaleh_; bronze fragments with two
  pictographs; doubtful if Hittite. _Nineveh_; sealings, see above.
  Babylon; a bowl and a stela of storm-god, both with incised
  inscriptions; doubtless spoil of war or tribute brought from Syria.
  The bowl is inscribed round the outside, the _stela_ on the back.

  (For a detailed description of the subjects of the reliefs, &c., with
  the necessary illustrations, see the works indicated in the
  bibliography.)

_Structures._--The structural remains found as yet on Hittite sites are
few, scanty and far between. They consist of: (a) Ground plans of a
palatial building and three temples and fortifications with sculptured
gate at Boghaz Keui. The palace was built round a central court, flanked
by passages and entered by a doorway of three _battants_ hung on two
columns. The whole plan bears more than a superficial resemblance to
those of Cretan palaces in the later Minoan period. Only the rough core
of the walls is standing to a height of about 3 ft. The fortifications
of the citadel have an elaborate double gate with flanking towers, (b)
Fortifications, palace, &c., at Sinjerli. The gates here are more
elaborate than at Boghaz Keui, but planned with the same idea--that of
entrapping in an enclosed space, barred by a second door, an enemy who
may have forced the first door, while flanking towers would add to his
discomfiture. The palace plan is again rectangular, with a central
pillared hall, and very similar in plan to that of Boghaz Keui. The
massive walls are also of similar construction. Dados of
relief-sculpture run round the inner walls; this feature seems to have
been common to Hittite buildings of a sumptuous kind, and accounts for
most of the sculptured blocks that have been found, e.g. at Jerablus,
Sakhchegeuzu, Euyuk, Arslan Tepe, &c. Columns, probably of wood, rested
on bases carved as winged lions, (c) Gate with sculptured approach at
Euyuk. The ground plan of the gate is practically the same in idea as
that at Sinjerli. Structures were found at Jerablus, but never properly
uncovered or planned, (d) Sculptured porticoes of temples or palaces
uncovered at Sakchegeuzu and Tell Halaf (see above). On other sites,
e.g. Arslan Tepe (Ordasu), Arbistan, Marash (above the modern town and
near the springs), Beikeui, mounds, doubtless covering structures, may
be seen, and sculptured slabs have been recovered. The mounds, probably
Hittite, in N. Syria alone are to be counted by hundreds. No tombs
certainly Hittite have been found,[4] though it is possible that some of
the reliefs (e.g. at Fraktin) are of funerary character.

_Sculptures and other Objects of Art._--The sculptures hitherto found
consist of reliefs on rocks and on _stelae_, either honorific or
funerary; reliefs on blocks forming parts of wall-dados; and a few
figures more or less in the round, though most of these (e.g. the
sphinxes of Euyuk and the lions of Arslan Tash and Marash) are not
completely disengaged from the block. The most considerable sculptured
rock-panels are at Boghaz Keui (see Pteria); the others (Ivriz, Fraktin,
Karabel, Giaur Kalessi, Doghanlüdere), it should be observed, all lie N.
of Taurus--a fact of some bearing on the problem of the origin and local
domicile of the art, since rock-reliefs, at any rate, cannot be
otherwise than _in situ_. Sculptured _stelae_, honorific or funerary,
all with pyramidal or slightly rounded upper ends, and showing a single
regal or divine figure or two figures, have come to light at Bor,
Marash, Sinjerli, Jerablus, Babylon, &c. These, like most of the
rock-panels, are all marked as Hittite by accompanying pictographic
inscriptions. The wall-blocks are seldom inscribed, the exceptions (e.g.
the Arslan Tepe lion-hunt and certain blocks from Marash and Jerablus)
being not more certainly wall-dados than _stelae_. The only fairly
complete anthropoid statue known is the much-defaced "Niobe" at Suratlu
Tash, engaged in the rock behind. The aniconic lower part of an
inscribed statue wholly in the round was found at Palanga, and parts of
others at Kirchoglu and Marash. Despite considerable differences in
execution and details, all these sculptures show one general type of
art, a type which recalls now Babylonian, now Assyrian, now Egyptian,
now archaic Ionian, style, but is always individual and easily
distinguishable from the actual products of those peoples. The figures,
whether of men or beasts, are of a squat, heavy order, with internal
features (e.g. bones, muscles, &c.) shown as if external, as in some
Mesopotamian sculptures. The human type is always very brachycephalic,
with brow receding sharply and long nose making almost one line with the
sloping forehead. In the sculptures of the Commagene and the Tyana
districts, the nose has a long curving tip, of very Jewish appearance,
but not unlike the outline given to Kheta warriors in Egyptian scenes.
The lips are full and the chin short and shaven. The whole physiognomy
is fleshy and markedly distinct from that of other Syrians. At Boghaz
Keui, Euyuk and Jerablus, the facial type is very markedly non-Semitic.
But not much stress can be laid on these differences owing to (1) great
variety of execution in different sculptures, which argues artists of
very unequal capacity; (2) doubt whether individual portraits are
intended in some cases and not in others. The hair of males is
sometimes, but not always, worn in pigtail. The fashions of
head-covering and clothes are very various, but several of them--e.g.
the horned cap of the Ivriz god; the conical hat at Boghaz Keui,
Fraktin, &c; the "jockey-cap" on the Tarkudimme boss; the broad-bordered
over-robe, and the upturned shoes--are not found on other Asiatic
monuments, except where Hittites are portrayed. Animals in profile are
represented more naturalistically than human beings, e.g. at Yasili
Kaya, and especially in some pictographic symbols in relief (e.g. at
Hamah). This, however, is a feature common to Mesopotamian and Egyptian,
and perhaps to all primitive art.

The subjects depicted are processions of figures, human and divine
(Yasili Kaya, Euyuk, Giaur Kalessi); scenes of sacrifice or adoration,
or other cult-practice (Yasili Kaya, Euyuk, Fraktin, Ivriz, and perhaps
the figures seated beside tables at Marash Sakchegeuzu, Sinjerli, &c.);
of the chase (Arslan Tepe, Sakchegeuzu); but not, as known at present,
of battle. Both at Euyuk and Yasili Kaya reliefs in one and the same
series are widely separated in artistic conception and execution, some
showing the utmost _naïveté_, others expressing both outline and motion
with fair success. The fact warns us against drawing hasty inductions as
to relative dates from style and execution.

Besides sculptures, well assured, Hittite art-products include a few
small objects in metal (e.g. heavy, inscribed gold ring bought by Sir W.
M. Ramsay at Konia; base silver seal, supported on three lions' claws,
bought by D. G. Hogarth at Bor; inscribed silver boss of "Tarkudimme,"
mentioned above, &c. &c.); many intaglios in various stones (chiefly in
steatite), mostly either spheroidal or gable-shaped, but a few
scarabaeoid, conical or cylindrical, bearing sometimes pictographic
symbols, sometimes divine, human or animal figures. The best collection
is at Oxford. The majority are of very rude workmanship, bodies and
limbs being represented by mere skeleton lines or unfilled outlines; a
few vessels (e.g. inscribed basalt bowl found at Babylon) and fragments
of ware painted with dark ornament on light body-clay, or in polychrome
on a cream-white slip, or black burnished, found on N. Cappadocian
sites, &c. The bronzes hitherto claimed as Hittite have been bought on
the Syrian coast or come from not certainly Hittite sites in Cappadocia
(see E. Chantre, _Mission en Cappadocie_). A great many small objects
were found in the excavations at Sinjerli, including carved ivories,
seals, toilet-instruments, implements, &c., but these have not been
published. Nor, except provisionally, has the pottery, found at
Sakchegeuzu.

_Inscriptions._--These, now almost sixty in number (excluding seals),
are all in a pictographic character which employed symbols somewhat
elaborately depicted in relief, but reduced to conventional and
"shorthand" representations in the incised texts. So far, the majority
of our Hittite inscriptions, like those first found at Hamah, are in
relief (cameo); but the incised characters, first observed in the Tyana
district, have since been shown, by discoveries at Marash, Babylon, &c.,
to have had a wider range. It has usually been assumed that the incised
inscriptions, being the more conventionalized, are all of later date
than those in relief; but comparison of Egyptian inscriptions, wherein
both incised and cameo characters coexisted back to very early times,
suggests that this assumption is not necessarily correct. The Hittite
symbols at present known show about two hundred varieties; but new
inscriptions continually add to the list, and great uncertainty remains
as to the distinction of many symbols (i.e. whether mere variants or
not), and as to many others which are defaced or broken in our texts.
The objects represented by these symbols have been certainly identified
in only a few instances. A certain number are heads (human and animal)
detached from bodies, in a manner not known in the Egyptian hieroglyphic
system, with which some of the other symbols show obvious analogies.
Articles of dress, weapons, tools, &c., also appear. The longer
inscriptions are disposed in horizontal zones or panels, divided by
lines, and, it seems, they were to be read _boustrophedon_, not only as
regards the lines (which begin right to left) but also the words, which
are written in columnar fashion, syllable _below_ syllable, and read
downwards and upwards alternately. The direction of reading is towards
any faces which may be shown among the pictographs. The words are
perhaps distinguished in some texts by punctuation marks.

Long and patient efforts have been made to decipher this script, ever
since it was first restored to our knowledge; and among the would-be
decipherers honourable mention must be made, for persistence and
courage, of Professor A. H. Sayce and of Professor P. Jensen. Other
interpretations have been put forward by F. E. Peiser (based on
conjectures as to the names on the Nineveh sealings), C. R. Conder
(based largely on Cypriote comparisons and phonetic values transferred
from these) and C. J. Ball (based on Hittite names recorded on Egyptian
and Assyrian monuments, and applied to word-groups on the Hittite
monuments). These, however, as having arbitrary and inadequate
foundations, and for other reasons, have not been accepted. F. Hommel,
J. Halévy and J. Menant have done useful work in distinguishing
word-groups, and have essayed partial interpretations. No other
decipherers call for mention. A. H. Sayce and P. Jensen alone have
enlisted any large body of adherents; and the former, who has worked
upon his system for thirty years and published in the _Proceedings of
the Society for Biblical Archaeology_ for 1907 a summary of his method
and results, has proceeded on the more scientific plan. His system,
however, like all others, is built in the main upon hypotheses incapable
at present of quite satisfactory verification, such, for example, as the
conjectural reading "Gargamish" for a group of symbols which recurs in
inscriptions from Jerablus and elsewhere. In this case, to add to the
other obvious elements of uncertainty, it must be borne in mind that the
location of Carchemish at Jerablus is not proved, though it is very
probable. Other conjectural identifications of groups of symbols with
the place-names Hamath, Marash, Tyana are bases of Sayce's system.
Jensen's system may be said to have been effectually demolished by L.
Messerschmidt in his _Bemerkungen_ (1898); but Sayce's system, which has
been approved by Hommel and others, is probably in its main lines
correct. Its frequent explanation, however, of incompatible symbols by
the doctrines of phonetic variation and interchange, or by alternative
values of the same symbol used as ideograph, determinative or phonetic
complement, and the occasional use of circular argument in the process
of "verification," do not inspire confidence in other than its broader
results. Sayce's phonetic values and interpretations of determinatives
are his best assured achievements. But the words thus arrived at
represent a language on which other known tongues throw little or no
light, and their meaning is usually to be guessed only. In some
significant cases, however, the Boghaz Keui tablets appear to give
striking confirmation of Sayce's conjectures.

Writing in 1903 L. Messerschmidt, editor of the best collection of
Hittite texts up to date, made a _tabula rasa_ of all systems of
decipherment, asserting that only one sign out of two hundred--the
bisected oval, determinative of divinity--had been interpreted with any
certainty; and in view of this opinion, coupled with the steady refusal
of historians to apply the results of any Hittite decipherment, and the
obvious lack of satisfactory verification, without which the piling of
hypothesis on hypothesis may only lead further from probability, there
is no choice but to suspend judgment for some time longer as to the
inscriptions and all deductions drawn from them.

_Are the Monuments Hittite?_--It is time to ask this question, although
a perfectly satisfactory answer can only be expected when the
inscriptions themselves have been deciphered. Almost all "Hittitologues"
assume a connexion between the monuments and the Kheta-Khatti-Hittites,
but in various degrees; e.g. while Sayce has said roundly that common
sense demands the acceptance of all as the work of the Hittites, who
were the dominant caste throughout a loosely-knit empire extending at
one time from the Orontes to the Aegean, Messerschmidt has stated with
equal dogmatism that the Hittites proper were only one people out of
many[5] in N. Syria and Asia Minor who shared a common civilization, and
that therefore they were authors of a part of the monuments
only--presumably the N. Syrian, Commagenian and Cataonian groups. O.
Puchstein[6] has denied to the Hittites some of the N. Syrian monuments,
holding these of too late a date (judged by their Assyrian analogies)
for the flourishing period of the Kheta-Khatti, as known from Egyptian
and Assyrian records. He would ascribe them to the Kummukh
(Commagenians), who seem to have succeeded the Khatti as the strongest
opponents of Assyria in these parts. He was possibly right as regards
the Sinjerli and Sakchegeuzu sculptures, which are of provincial
appearance. The following considerations, however, may be stated in
favour of the ascription of the monuments to the Hittites:--

(1) The monuments in question are found frequently whereever, from other
records, we know the Hittites to have been domiciled at some period,
i.e. throughout N. Syria and in Cataonia. (2) It was under the Khatti
that Carchemish was a flourishing commercial city; and if Jerablus be
really Carchemish, it is significant that apparently the most numerous
and most artistic of the monuments occur there. (3) Among all the early
peoples of N. Syria and Asia Minor known to us from Egyptian and
Assyrian records, the Kheta-Khatti alone appear frequently as leading to
war peoples from far beyond Taurus. (4) The Kheta certainly had a system
of writing and a glyptic art in the time of Rameses II., or else the
Egyptian account of their copy of the treaty would be baseless. (5) The
physiognomy given to Kheta warriors by Egyptian artists is fairly
representative of the prevailing type shown in the Hittite sculptures.

Furthermore, the Boghaz Keui tablets, though only partially deciphered
as yet, go far to settle the question. They show that whether Boghaz
Keui was actually the capital of the Hatti or not, it was a great city
of the Hatti, and that the latter were an important element in
Cappadocia from very early times. Before the middle of the 16th century
B.C. the Cappadocian Hatti were already in relations, generally more or
less hostile, with a rival power in Syria, that of Mitanni; and
Subbiluliuma (= Saplel or Saparura), king of these Hatti, a contemporary
of Amenophis IV. and Rameses I., seems to have obtained lasting dominion
in Syria by subduing Dushratta of Mitanni. Carchemish thenceforward
became a Hatti city and the southern capital of Cappadocian power. Since
all the Syrian monuments of the Hittite class, so far known, seem
comparatively late (most show such strong Assyrian, influence that they
must fall after 1100 B.C. and probably even considerably later), while
the North Cappadocian monuments (as Sayce, Ramsay, Perrot and others saw
long ago) are the earlier in style, we are bound to ascribe the origin
of the civilization which they represent to the Cappadocian Hatti.

Whether the Mitanni had shared in that civilization while independent,
and whether they were racially kin to the Hatti, cannot be determined at
present. Winckler has adduced evidence from names of local gods to show
that there was an Indo-European racial element in Mitanni; but none for
a similar element in the Hatti, whose chief god was Teshub. The majority
of scholars has always regarded the Hittites proper as, at any rate,
non-Semitic, and some leading authorities have called them
proto-Armenian, and believed that they have modern descendants in the
Caucasus. This racial question can hardly be determined till those Hatti
records, whether in cuneiform or pictographic script, which are couched
in a native tongue, not in Babylonian, are read. In the meantime we have
proper names to argue from; and these give us at least the significant
indication that the Hittite nominative ended in _s_ and the accusative
in _m_. In any case the connexion of the Hatti with the peculiar class
of monuments which we have been describing, can hardly be further
questioned; and it has become more than probable that the Hatti of
Cappadocia were responsible in the beginning for the art and script of
those monuments and for the civilization of which they are memorials.
Other peoples of north Syria and Asia Minor (e.g. the Kummukh or
Commagenians and the Muski or Phrygians) came no doubt under the
influence of this civilization and imitated its monuments, while subject
to or federated with the Hatti. Through Phrygia and Lydia (q.v.)
influences of this same Cappadocian civilization passed towards the
west; and indeed, before the Greek colonization of Asia Minor, a loosely
knit Hatti empire may have stretched even to the Aegean. The Nymphi
(Kara Bel) and Niobe sculptures near Smyrna are probably memorials of
that extension. Certainly some inland Anatolian power seems to have kept
Aegean settlers and culture away from the Ionian coast during the Bronze
Age, and that power was in all likelihood the Hatti kingdom of
Cappadocia. Owing perhaps to Assyrian aggression, this power seems to
have begun to suffer decay about 1000 B.C. and thereafter to have shrunk
inwards, leaving the coasts open. The powers of Phrygia and Lydia rose
successively out of its ruins, and continued to offer westward passage
to influences of Mesopotamian culture till well into historic times. The
Greeks came too late to Asia to have had any contact with Hatti power
obscured from their view by the intermediate and secondary state of
Phrygia. Their earliest writers regarded the latter as the seat of the
oldest and most godlike of mankind. Only one Greek author, Herodotus,
alludes to the pre-historic Cappadocian power and only at the latest
moment of its long decline. At the same time, some of the Greek legends
seem to show that peoples, with whom the Greeks came into early contact,
had vivid memories of the Hatti. Such are the Amazon stories, whose
local range was very extensive, and the myths of Memnon and Pelops. The
real reference of these stories, however, was forgotten, and it has been
reserved to our own generation to rediscover the records of a power and
a civilization which once dominated Asia Minor and north Syria and
occupied all the continental roads of communication between the East and
the West of the ancient world. The credit of having been the first to
divine this importance of the Hittites should always be ascribed to
Sayce.

The history of the Hatti and their civilization, then, would appear to
have been, very briefly, this. They belonged to an ethnic scattered
widely over Eastern Asia Minor and Syria at an early period (Khatti
invaded Akkad about 1800 B.C. in the reign of Samsuditana); but they
first formed a strong state in Cappadocia late in the 16th century B.C.
Subbiluliuma became their first great king, though he had at least one
dynastic predecessor of the name of Hattusil. The Hatti now pushed
southwards in force, overcame the kingdom of Mitanni and proceeded
partly to occupy and partly to make tributary both north Syria and
western Mesopotamia where some of their congeners were already settled.
They came early into collision with Egypt, and at the height of their
power under Hattusil II. fought the battle of Kadesh with Rameses II.,
on at least equal terms. Both now and previously the diplomatic
correspondence of the Hatti monarchs shows that they treated on terms
of practical equality with both the Babylonian and the Egyptian courts;
and that they waged constant wars in Syria, mainly with the Amorite
tribes. At this time the Hatti empire or confederacy probably included,
on the west, both Phrygia and Lydia. The Boghaz Keui correspondence
ceases to be important with the generation following Hattusil II., and
in the Assyrian records, which begin about a couple of centuries later,
we find Carchemish the chief Hatti city and N. Syria called the
Hatti-land. It is possible therefore that a change of imperial centre
took place after the Hatti had ceased to fear Egypt in north Syria. If
so, the continuation of Hittite history will have to be sought among the
remains at Jerablus and other middle Euphratean sites, rather than in
those at Boghaz Keui. The establishment of the Hatti at Carchemish not
only made them a commercial people and probably sapped their highland
vigour, but also brought them into closer proximity to the rising North
Semitic power of Assyria, whose advent had been regarded with
apprehension by Hattusil II. (see above). One of his successors,
Arnaunta (late 13th century?), was already feeling the effect of
Assyrian pressure, and with the accession of Tiglath Pileser I., about a
century later, a long but often interrupted series of Assyrian efforts
to break up the Hatti power began. A succession of Ninevite armies
raided north Syria and even south-east Asia Minor, and gradually reduced
the Hatti. But the resistance of the latter was sturdy and prolonged.
They remained the strongest power in Syria and eastern Asia Minor till
well into the first millennium B.C., and their Syrian seat was not lost
finally till after the great extension of Assyrian power which took
place in the latter part of the 9th century. What had been happening to
their Cappadocian province meanwhile we do not yet know; but the
presence of Phrygian inscriptions at Euyuk and Tyana, ancient seats of
their power, suggests that the client monarchy in the Sangarius valley
shook itself free during the early part of the Hittite struggle with
Assyria, and in the day of Hatti weakness extended its dominion over the
home territory of its former suzerain. "White Syrians," however, were
still in Cappadocia even after the Cimmerians had destroyed the Phrygian
monarchy, allowing Lydia to become independent under the Mermnad
dynasty. Croesus found them centred at Pteria in the 6th century and
dealt them a final blow. But much of their secular or religious custom
lived on to be recorded by Greek writers, and regarded by modern
scholars as typically "Anatolian."

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--General summaries: L. Messerschmidt, _The Hittites_
  ("Ancient East" series, vi., 1903); A. H. Sayce, _The Hittites_
  ("Bypaths of Biblical Knowledge" series, xii., 2nd ed. 1892); G.
  Perrot and C. Chipiez, _History of Art in Sardinia, Judaea, Syria and
  Asia Minor_ (Eng. trans., vol. ii., 1890); L. Lantsheere, _De la race
  et de la langue des Hétéens_ (1891); P. Jensen, _Hittiter und
  Armenier_ (1898); M. Jastrow, final chapter in H. V. Hilprecht,
  _Exploration in Bible Lands_ (1903); W. Wright, _Empire of the
  Hittites_ (1884); F. Hommel, _Hettiter und Skythen_ (1898); D. G.
  Hogarth, _Ionia and the East_ (1909); W. Max Müller, _Asien und
  Europa_, chap. xxv. (1893). See also authorities for Egyptian and
  Assyrian history.

  Inscriptions: L. Messerschmidt, "Corpus inscr. Hettiticarum,"
  _Zeitsch. d. d. morgenländ. Gesellschaft_ (1900, 1902, 1906, &c.), and
  "Bemerkungen zu d. Heth. Inschriften," _Mitteil. d. vorderasiat.
  Gesellschaft_ (1898); P. Jensen, "Grundlagen für eine Entzifferung der
  (Hat. oder) Cilicischen Inschriften," _Zeitschr. d. d. morgenländ.
  Gesellschaft_ (1894); F. E. Peiser, _Die Hettitischen Inschriften_
  (1892); A. H. Sayce, "Decipherment of the Hittite Inscriptions,"
  _Proc. Soc. of Bibl. Archaeology_ (1903), and "Hittite Inscriptions,
  translated and annotated," ibid. (1905, 1907); J. Menant, "Études
  Hétéennes," _Recueil de travaux rel. à la philologie, &c._, and _Mém.
  de l'Acad. Inscr._, vol. xxxiv. (1890); J. Halévy in _Revue
  sémitique_, vol. i. Also divers articles by A. H. Sayce, F. Hommel and
  others in _Proc._ and _Trans. Soc. Bibl. Arch._ since 1876, and in
  _Recueil de travaux, &c._, since its beginning.

  Exploration: G. Perrot and E. Guillaume, _Exploration arch. de la
  Galatie_, &c. (1862-1872); E. Chantre, _Mission en Cappadocie_ (1898);
  Sir W. M. Ramsay, "Syro-Cappadocian Monuments," in _Athen.
  Mitteilungen_ (1889), with D. G. Hogarth, "Pre-Hellenic Monuments of
  Cappadocia," in _Recueil de travaux_, &c. (1892-1895); and with Miss
  Gertrude Bell, _The Thousand and One Churches_ (1909); C. Humann and
  O. Puchstein, _Reisen in Nord-Syrien_, &c. (1890). J. Garstang in
  _Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology_, i. (1908) and following
  numbers. Reports on excavations at Sinjerli in _Berl. Philol.
  Wochenschrift_ (1891), pp. 803, 951; and F. von Luschan, and others,
  "Ausgrabungen in Sendschirli" in _Mitteil. Orient-Sammlungen_ (Berlin
  Museum, 1893 ff.); and on excavations at Boghaz-Keui, H. Winckler in
  _Orient. Literaturzeitung_ (Berlin, 1907); _Mitteil.
  Orient-Gesellschaft_ (Dec. 1907). See also s.v. PTERIA.     (D. G. H.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] First described by the Turk, Hajji Khalifa, in the 17th century;
    first seen by the Swedish traveller Otter in 1736, and first
    published in 1840 in Ritter's _Erdkunde_, iii., after a drawing by
    Major Fischer, made in 1837.

  [2] The "Niobe" statue near Manisa was not definitely known for
    "Hittite" till 1882, when G. Dennis detected pictographs near it.

  [3] The "pseudo-Sesostres" of Herodotus, already demonstrated
    non-Egyptian by Rosellini. The second figure was unknown, till found
    by Dr Beddoe in 1856.

  [4] Five intramural graves were explored at Sinjerli, but whether of
    the Hittite or of the Assyrian occupation is doubtful.

  [5] The Assyrian records, as well as the Egyptian, distinguish many
    peoples in both areas from the Kheta-Khatti; and the most we can
    infer from these records is that there was an occasional league
    formed under the Hittites, not any imperial subjection or even a
    continuous federation.

  [6] _Pseudo-Hethitische Kunst_ (Berlin, 1890).



HITTORFF, JACQUES IGNACE (1792-1867), French architect, was born at
Cologne on the 20th of August 1792. After serving an apprenticeship to a
mason in his native town, he went in 1810 to Paris, and studied for some
years at the Academy of Fine Arts, where he was a favourite pupil of
Bélanger, the government architect, who in 1814 appointed him his
principal inspector. Succeeding Bélanger as government architect in
1818, he designed many important public and private buildings in Paris
and also in the south of France. From 1819 to 1830 in collaboration with
le Cointe he directed the royal fêtes and ceremonials. After making
architectural tours in Germany, England, Italy and Sicily, he published
the result of his observations in the latter country in the work
_Architecture antique de la Sicile_ (3 vols., 1826-1830; new edition,
1866-1867), and also in _Architecture moderne de la Sicile_ (1826-1835).
One of his important discoveries was that colour had been made use of in
ancient Greek architecture, a subject which he especially discussed in
_Architecture polychrome chez les Grecs_ (1830) and in _Restitution du
temple d'Empédocle à Sélinunte_ (1851); and in accordance with the
doctrines enunciated in these works he was in the habit of making colour
an important feature in most of his architectural designs. His principal
building is the church of St Vincent de Paul in the basilica style,
which was constructed between 1830 and 1844. He also designed the two
fountains in the Place de la Concorde, the Circus of the Empress, the
Rotunda of the panoramas, many cafés and restaurants of the Champs
Elysées, the houses forming the circle round the Arc de Triomphe de
l'Étoile, besides many embellishments of the Bois de Boulogne and other
places. In 1833 he was elected a member of the Academy of Fine Arts. He
died in Paris on the 25th of March 1867.



HITZACKER, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover at the
influx of the Jeetze into the Elbe, 33 m. N.E. of Lüneburg by the
railway to Wittenberge. Pop. (1905) 1106. It has an Evangelical church
and an old castle and numerous medieval remains. There are chalybeate
springs and a hydropathic establishment in the town. The famous library
now in Wolfenbüttel was originally founded here by Augustus, duke of
Brunswick (d. 1666) and was removed to its present habitation in 1643.



HITZIG, FERDINAND (1807-1875), German biblical critic, was born at
Hauingen, Baden, where his father was a pastor, on the 23rd of June
1807. He studied theology at Heidelberg under H. E. G. Paulus, at Halle
under Wilhelm Gesenius and at Göttingen under Ewald. Returning to
Heidelberg he became _Privatdozent_ in theology in 1829, and in 1831
published his _Begriff der Kritik am Alten Testamente praktisch
erörtert_, a study of Old Testament criticism in which he explained the
critical principles of the grammatico-historical school, and his _Des
Propheten Jonas Orakel über Moab_, an exposition of the 15th and 16th
chapters of the book of Isaiah attributed by him to the prophet Jonah
mentioned in 2 Kings xiv. 25. In 1833 he was called to the university of
Zürich as professor ordinarius of theology. His next work was a
commentary on Isaiah with a translation (_Übersetzung u. Auslegung des
Propheten Jesajas_), which he dedicated to Heinrich Ewald, and which
Hermann Hupfeld (1796-1866), well known as a commentator on the Psalms
(1855-1861), pronounced to be his best exegetical work. At Zürich he
laboured for a period of twenty-eight years, during which, besides
commentaries on _The Psalms_ (1835-1836; 2nd ed., 1863-1865), _The Minor
Prophets_ (1838; 3rd ed., 1863), _Jeremiah_ (1841; 2nd ed., 1866),
_Ezekiel_ (1847), _Daniel_ (1850), _Ecclesiastes_ (1847), _Canticles_
(1855), and _Proverbs_ (1858), he published a monograph, _Über Johannes
Markus u. seine Schriften_ (1843), in which he maintained the
chronological priority of the second gospel, and sought to prove that
the Apocalypse was written by the same author. He also published various
treatises of archaeological interest, of which the most important are
_Die Erfindung des Alphabets_ (1840), _Urgeschichte u. Mythologie der
Philistäer_ (1845), and _Die Grabschrift des Eschmunezar_(1855). After
the death of Friedrich Umbreit (1795-1860), one of the founders of the
well-known _Studien und Kritiken_, he was called in 1861 to succeed him
as professor of theology at Heidelberg. Here he wrote his _Geschichte
des Volkes Israel_ (1869-1870), in two parts, extending respectively to
the end of the Persian domination and to the fall of Masada, A.D. 72, as
well as a work on the Pauline epistles, _Zur Kritik Paulinischer Briefe_
(1870), on the Moabite Stone, _Die Inschrift des Mescha_ (1870), and on
Assyrian, _Sprache u. Sprachen Assyriens_ (1871), besides revising the
commentary on Job by Ludwig Hirzel (1801-1841), which was first
published in 1839. He was also a contributor to the _Monatsschrift des
wissenschaftlichen Vereins in Zürich_, the _Zeitschrift der deutschen
morgenländischen Gesellschaft_, the _Theologische Studien u. Kritiken_,
Eduard Zeller's _Theologische Jahrbücher_, and Adolf Hilgenfeld's
_Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Theologie_. Hitzig died at Heidelberg
on the 22nd of January 1875. As a Hebrew philologist he holds high rank;
and as a constructive critic he is remarkable for acuteness and
sagacity. As a historian, however, some of his speculations have been
considered fanciful. "He places the cradle of the Israelites in the
south of Arabia, and, like many other critics, makes the historical
times begin only with Moses" (F. Lichtenberger, _History of German
Theology_, p. 569).

  His lectures on biblical theology (_Vorlesungen über biblische
  Theologie u. messianische Weissagungen_) were published in 1880 after
  his death, along with a portrait and biographical sketch by his pupil,
  J. J. Kneucker (b. 1840), professor of theology at Heidelberg. See
  Heinrich Steiner, _Ferdinand Hitzig_ (1882); and Adolf Kamphausen's
  article in Herzog-Hauck's _Realencyklopädie_.



HIUNG-NU, HIONG-NU, HEUNG-NU, a people who about the end of the 3rd
century B.C. formed, according to Chinese records, a powerful empire
from the Great Wall of China to the Caspian. Their ethnical affinities
have been much discussed; but it is most probable that they were of the
Turki stock, as were the Huns, their later western representatives. They
are the first Turkish people mentioned by the Chinese. A theory which
seems plausible is that which assumes them to have been a heterogenous
collection of Mongol, Tungus, Turki and perhaps even Finnish hordes
under a Mongol military caste, though the Mongolo-Tungus element
probably predominated. Towards the close of the 1st century of the
Christian era the Hiung-nu empire broke up. Their subsequent history is
obscure. Some of them seem to have gone westward and settled on the Ural
river. These, de Guiques suggests, were the ancestors of the Huns, and
many ethnologists hold that the Hiung-nu were the ancestors of the
modern Turks.

  See _Journal Anthropological Institute_ for 1874; Sir H. H. Howorth,
  _History of the Mongols_ (1876-1880); 6th Congress of Orientalists,
  Leiden, 1883 (_Actes_, part iv. pp. 177-195); de Guiques, _Histoire
  générale des Huns, des Turcs, des Mongoles, et des autres Tartares
  occidentaux_ (1756-1758).



HIVITES, an ancient tribe of Palestine driven out by the invading
Israelites. In Josh. ix. 7, xi. 19 they are connected with Gibeon. The
meaning of the name is uncertain; Wellhausen derives it from [Hebrew:
Hava] "Eve," or "serpent," in which case the Hivites were originally the
snake clan; others explain it from the Arabic _hayy_, "family," as
meaning "dwellers in (Bedouin) encampments." (See PALESTINE; JEWS.)



HJÖRRING, an ancient town of Denmark, capital of the _amt_ (county) of
its name, in the northern insular part of the peninsula of Jutland. Pop.
(1901) 7901. It lies 7 m. inland from the shore of Jammer Bay, a stretch
of coast notoriously dangerous to shipping. On the coast is Lönstrup, a
favoured seaside resort. In this neighbourhood as well as to the
south-east of Hjörring, slight elevations are seen, deserving the name
of hills in this low-lying district. Hjörring is on the northern railway
of Jutland, which here turns eastward to the Cattegat part of
Frederikshavn (23 m.), a harbour of refuge.



HKAMTI LÔNG (called Kantigyi by the Burmese, and Bor Hkampti by the
peoples on the Assam side), a collection of seven Shan states
subordinate to Burma, but at present beyond the administrative border.
Estimated area, 900 sq. m.; estimated pop. 11,000. It lies between 27°
and 28° N. and 97° and 98° E., and is bordered by the Mishmi country on
the N., by the Patkai range on the W., by the Hukawng valley on the S.
and E., and indeed all round by various Chingpaw or Kachin communities.
The country is little known. It was visited by T. T. Cooper, the Chinese
traveller and political agent at Bhamo, where he was murdered; by
General Woodthorpe and Colonel Macgregor in 1884, by Mr Errol Grey in
the following year, and by Prince Henry of Orleans in 1895. All of
these, however, limited their explorations to the valley of the
Mali-hka, the western branch of the Irrawaddy river. Hkamti has shrunk
very much from its old size. It was no doubt the northernmost province
of the Shan kingdom, founded at Mogaung by Sam Long-hpa, the brother of
the ruler of Kambawsa, when that empire had reached its greatest
extension. The irruption of Kachins or Chingpaw from the north has now
completely hemmed the state in. Prince Henry of Orleans described it as
"a splendid territory, fertile in soil and abundant in water, where
tropical and temperate culture flourish side by side, and the
inhabitants are protected on three fronts by mountains." According to
him the Kiutze, the people of the hills between the Irrawaddy and the
Salween, call it the kingdom of Moam.



HLOTHHERE, king of Kent, succeeded his brother Ecgberht in 673, and
appears for a time to have reigned jointly with his nephew Eadric, son
of Ecgberht, as a code of laws still extant was issued under both names.
Neither is mentioned in the account of the invasion of Æthelred in 676.
In 685 Eadric, who seems to have quarrelled with Hlothhere, went into
exile and led the South Saxons against him. Hlothhere was defeated and
died of his wounds.

  See Bede, _Hist. eccl._ (Plummer), iv. 5, 17, 26, v. 24; _Saxon
  Chronicle_ (Earle and Plummer), s.a. 685; Schmid, _Gesetze_, pp. 10
  sqq.; Thorpe, _Ancient Laws_, i. 26 sqq.



HOACTZIN, or HOATZIN, a bird of tropical South America, thought by
Buffon to be that indicated by Hernandez or Fernandez under these names,
the _Opisthocomus hoazin_ or _O. cristatus_ of modern ornithologists--a
very curious and remarkable form, which has long exercised the ingenuity
of classifiers. Placed by Buffon among his "_Hoccos_" (Curassows), and
then by P. L. S. Müller and J. F. Gmelin in the Linnaean genus
_Phasianus_, some of its many peculiarities were recognized by J. K. W.
Illiger in 1811 as sufficient to establish it as a distinct genus,
_Opisthocomus_; but various positions were assigned to it by subsequent
systematic authors. L'Herminier was the first to give any account of its
anatomy (_Comptes rendus_, 1837, v. 433), and from his time our
knowledge of it has been successively increased by Johannes Müller
(_Ber. Akad. Wissensch. Berlin_, 1841, p. 177), Deville (_Rev. et mag.
de zoologie_, 1852, p. 217), Gervais (Castelnau, _Expéd. Amérique du
Sud, zoologie, anatomie_, p. 66), Huxley (_Proc. Zool. Society_, 1868,
p. 304), Perrin (_Trans. Zool. Society_, ix. p. 353), and A. H. Garrod
(_Proc. Zool. Society_, 1879, p. 109). After a minute description of the
skeleton of _Opisthocomus_, with the especial object of determining its
affinities, Huxley declared that it "resembles the ordinary gallinaceous
birds and pigeons more than it does any others, and that when it
diverges from them it is either sui generis or approaches the
_Musophagidae_." He accordingly regarded it as the type and sole member
of a group, named by him _Heteromorphae_, which sprang from the great
Carinate stem later than the _Tinamomorphae_, _Turnicomorphae_, or
_Charadriomorphae_, but before the _Peristeromorphae_, _Pteroclomorphae_
or _Alectoromorphae_. This conclusion is substantially the same as that
at which A. H. Garrod subsequently arrived after closely examining and
dissecting specimens preserved in spirit; but the latter has gone
further and endeavoured to trace more particularly the descent of this
peculiar form and some others, remarking that the ancestor of
_Opisthocomus_ must have left the parent stem very shortly before the
true _Gallinae_ first appeared, and at about the same time as the
independent pedigree of the _Cuculidae_ and _Musophagidae_
commenced--these two groups being, he believed, very closely related,
and _Opisthocomus_ serving to fill the gap between them.

The first thing that strikes the observer of its skeleton is the
extraordinary structure of the sternal apparatus, which is wholly unlike
that of any other bird known. The keel is only developed on the
posterior part of the sternum--the fore part being, as it were, cut
away, while the short furcula at its symphysis meets the manubrium, with
which it is firmly consolidated by means of a prolonged and straight
hypocleidium, and anteriorly ossifies with the coracoids. This unique
arrangement seems to be correlated with the enormously capacious crop,
which rests upon the furcula and fore part of the sternum, and is also
received in a cavity formed on the surface of each of the great pectoral
muscles. Furthermore this crop is extremely muscular, so as more to
resemble a gizzard, and consists of two portions divided by a partial
constriction, after a fashion of which no other example is known among
birds. The true gizzard is greatly reduced.

[Illustration: Hoactzin.]

The hoactzin appears to be about the size of a small pheasant, but is
really a much smaller bird. The beak is strong, curiously denticulated
along the margin of the maxilla near the base, and is beset by diverging
bristles. The eyes, placed in the middle of a patch of bare skin, are
furnished with bristly lashes, resembling those of horn-bills and some
few other birds. The head bears a long pendant crest of loose yellowish
feathers. The body is olive-coloured, varied with white above, and
beneath is of a dull bay. The wings are short and rounded. The tail is
long and tipped with yellow. The legs are rather short, the feet stout,
the tarsi reticulated, and the toes scutellated; the claws long and
slightly curved. According to all who have observed the habits of this
bird, it lives in bands on the lower trees and bushes bordering the
streams and lagoons, feeding on leaves and various wild fruits,
especially, says H. W. Bates (_Naturalist on the River Amazons_, i. 120),
those of a species of _Psidium_, and it is also credited with eating
those of an arum (_Caladium arborescens_), which grows plentifully in its
haunts. "Its voice is a harsh, grating hiss," continues the same
traveller, and "it makes the noise when alarmed, all the individuals
sibilating as they fly heavily away from tree to tree, when disturbed by
passing canoes." It exhales a very strong odour--wherefore it is known in
British Guiana as the "stink-bird"--compared by Bates to "musk combined
with wet hides," and by Deville to that of a cow-house. The species is
said to be polygamous; the nest is built on trees, of sticks placed above
one another, and softer materials atop. Therein the hen lays her eggs to
the number of three or four, of a dull-yellowish white, somewhat
profusely marked with reddish blotches and spots, so as to resemble those
of some of the _Rallidae_ (_Proc. Zool. Society_, 1867, pl. xv. fig. 7.
p. 164). The young are covered only with very scanty hair, like down, and
have well-developed claws on the first and second fingers of the wing,
which they use in clambering about the twigs in a quadrupedal manner; if
placed in the water they swim and dive well, although the adults seem to
be not at all aquatic.     (A. N.)



HOADLY, BENJAMIN (1676-1761), English divine, was born at Westerham,
Kent, on the 14th of November 1676. In 1691 he entered Catharine Hall,
Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. and was for two years tutor, after
which he held from 1701 to 1711 the lectureship of St Mildred in the
Poultry, and along with it from 1704 the rectory of St Peter-le-Poer,
London. His first important appearance as a controversialist was against
Edmund Calamy "the younger" in reference to conformity (1703-1707), and
after this he came into conflict with Francis Atterbury, first on the
interpretation of certain texts and then on the whole Anglican doctrine
of non-resistance. His principal treatises on this subject were the
_Measures of Submission to the Civil Magistrate_ and _The Origin and
Institution of Civil Government discussed_; and his part in the
discussion was so much appreciated by the Commons that in 1709 they
presented an address to the queen praying her to "bestow some dignity in
the church on Mr Hoadly for his eminent services both to church and
state." The queen returned a favourable answer, but the dignity was not
conferred. In 1710 he was presented by a private patron to the rectory
of Streatham in Surrey. In 1715 he was appointed chaplain to the king,
and the same year he obtained the bishopric of Bangor. He held the see
for six years, but never visited the diocese. In 1716, in reply to
George Hickes (q.v.), he published a _Preservative against the
Principles and Practices of Nonjurors in Church and State_, and in the
following year preached before the king his famous sermon on the
_Kingdom of Christ_, which was immediately published by royal command.
These works were attacks on the divine authority of kings and of the
clergy, but as the sermon dealt more specifically and distinctly with
the power of the church, its publication caused an ecclesiastical
ferment which in certain aspects has no parallel in religious history.
It was at once resolved to proceed against him in convocation, but this
was prevented by the king proroguing the assembly, a step which had
consequences of vital bearing on the history of the Church of England,
since from that period the great Anglican council ceased to transact
business of a more than formal nature. The restrained sentiments of the
council in regard to Hoadly found expression in a war of pamphlets known
as the Bangorian Controversy, which, partly from a want of clearness in
the statements of Hoadly, partly from the disingenuousness of his
opponents and the confusion resulting from exasperated feelings,
developed into an intricate and bewildering maze of side discussions in
which the main issues of the dispute were concealed almost beyond the
possibility of discovery. But however vague and uncertain might be the
meaning of Hoadly in regard to several of the important bearings of the
questions around which he aroused discussion, he was explicit in denying
the power of the Church over the conscience, and its right to determine
the condition of men in relation to the favour of God. The most able of
his opponents was William Law; others were Andrew Snape, provost of
Eton, and Thomas Sherlock, dean of Chichester. So exercised was the mind
of the religious world over the dispute that in July 1717 as many as
seventy-four pamphlets made their appearance; and at one period the
crisis became so serious that the business of London was for some days
virtually at a stand-still. Hoadly, being not unskilled in the art of
flattery, was translated in 1721 to the see of Hereford, in 1723 to
Salisbury and in 1734 to Winchester. He died at his palace at Chelsea on
the 17th of April 1761. His controversial writings are vigorous if
prolix and his theological essays have little merit. He must have been a
much hated man, for his latitudinarianism offended the high church party
and his rationalism the other sections. He was an intimate friend of Dr
Samuel Clarke, of whom he wrote a life.

Hoadly's brother, JOHN HOADLY (1678-1746), was archbishop of Dublin from
1730 to 1742 and archbishop of Armagh from the latter date until his
death on the 19th of July 1746. In early life the archbishop was very
intimate with Gilbert Burnet, then bishop of Salisbury, and in later
life he was a prominent figure in Irish politics.

  The works of Benjamin Hoadly were collected and published by his son
  John in 3 vols. (1773). To the first volume was prefixed the article
  "Hoadly" from the supplement to the _Biographia Britannica_. See also
  L. Stephen, _English Thought in the 18th Century_.



HOAR, SAMUEL (1778--1856), American lawyer, was born in Lincoln,
Massachusetts, on the 18th of May 1778. He was the son of Samuel Hoar,
an officer in the American army during the War of Independence, for many
years a member of the Massachusetts General Court, and a member in
1820-1821 of the state Constitutional Convention. The son graduated at
Harvard in 1802, was admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 1805 and began
practice at Concord. His success in his profession was immediate, and
for a half-century he was one of the leading lawyers of Massachusetts.
He was in early life a Federalist and was later an ardent Whig in
politics. He was a member of the state senate in 1825, 1832 and 1833,
and of the national house of representatives in 1835-1837, during which
time he made a notable speech in favour of the constitutional right of
congress to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia. In November
1844, having retired from active legal practice some years before, he
went to Charleston, S.C., at the request of Governor George Nixon Briggs
(1796-1861), to test in the courts of South Carolina the
constitutionality of the state law which provided that "it shall not be
lawful for any free negro, or person of color, to come into this state
on board any vessel, as a cook, steward or mariner, or in any other
employment," and that such free negroes should be seized and locked up
until the vessels on which they had come were ready for sea, when they
should be returned to such vessels. His visit aroused great excitment,
he was threatened with personal injury, the state legislature passed
resolutions calling for his expulsion, and he was compelled to leave
early in December. In 1848 he was prominent in the Free Soil movement in
Massachusetts, and subsequently assisted in the organization of the
Republican Party. In 1850 he served in the Massachusetts house of
representatives. He married a daughter of Roger Sherman of Connecticut.
He died at Concord, Massachusetts, on the 2nd of November 1856.

  See a memoir by his son G. F. Hoar in _Memorial Biographies of the New
  England Historic Genealogical Society_, vol. iii. (Boston, 1883); the
  estimate by R. W. Emerson in _Lectures and Biographical Sketches_
  (Boston, 1903); and "Samuel Hoar's Expulsion from Charleston," _Old
  South Leaflets_, vol. vi. No. 140.

His son, EBENEZER ROCKWOOD HOAR (1816-1895), was born at Concord,
Massachusetts, on the 21st of February 1816. He graduated at Harvard in
1835 and at the Harvard Law School in 1839, and was admitted to the
Massachusetts bar in 1840. From 1849 to 1855 he was a judge of the
Massachusetts court of common pleas, from 1859 to 1869 a judge of the
state supreme court, and in 1869-1870 attorney-general of the United
States in the cabinet of President Grant, and in that position fought
unmerited "machine" appointments to offices in the civil service until
at the pressure of the "machine" Grant asked for his resignation from
the cabinet. The Senate had already shown its disapproval of Hoar's
policy of civil service reform by its failure in 1870 to confirm the
President's nomination of Hoar as associate-justice of the supreme
court. In 1871 he was a member of the Joint High Commission which drew
up the Treaty of Washington. In 1872 he was a presidential elector on
the Republican ticket, and in 1873-1875 was a representative in
Congress. He was a member of the Board of Overseers of Harvard
University from 1868 to 1880 and from 1881 to 1887, and was president of
the Board in 1878-1880 and in 1881-1887. He was also prominent in the
affairs of the Unitarian church. He was a man of high character and
brilliant wit. He died at Concord on the 31st of January 1895.

Another son, GEORGE FRISBIE HOAR (1826-1904), was born in Concord,
Massachusetts, on the 29th of August 1826. He graduated at Harvard in
1846 and at the Harvard Law School in 1849. He settled in the practice
of law in Worcester, Massachusetts, where in 1852 he became a partner of
Emory Washburn (1800-1877). In 1852 he was elected as a Free-Soiler to
the Massachusetts House of Representatives, and during his single term
of service became the leader of his party in that body. He was active in
the organization of the Republican party in Massachusetts, and in 1857
was elected to the State senate, but declined a re-election. During
1856-1857 he was active in behalf of the Free-State cause in Kansas. He
was a member of the National House of Representatives from 1869 until
1877, and in this body took high rank as a ready debater and a
conscientious committee worker. He was prominent as a defender and
supporter of the Freedman's Bureau, took a leading part in the later
reconstruction legislation and in the investigation of the Crédit
Mobilier scandal, and in 1876 was one of the House managers of the
impeachment of General W. W. Belknap, Grant's secretary of war. In 1877
he was a member of the Electoral Commission which settled the disputed
Hayes-Tilden election. From 1877 until his death he was a member of the
United States senate. In the senate almost from the start he took rank
as one of the most influential leaders of the Republican party; he was a
member from 1882 until his death of the important Judiciary Committee,
of which he was chairman in 1891-1893 and in 1895-1904. His most
important piece of legislation was the Presidential Succession Act of
1886. He was a delegate to every Republican National Convention from
1876 to 1904, and presided over that at Chicago in 1880. He was a
conservative by birth and training, and although he did not leave his
party he disagreed with its policy in regard to the Philippines, and
spoke and voted against the ratification of the Spanish Treaty. He was
regent of the Smithsonian Institution in 1880-1881, and long served as
an overseer of Harvard University (1896-1904) and as president of its
alumni association. He was also president of the American Historical
Association (1894-1895) and of the American Antiquarian Society
(1884-1887). Like his brother, he was a leading Unitarian, and was
president of its National Conference from 1894 to 1902. He died at
Worcester, Massachusetts, on the 30th of September 1904. A memorial
statue has been erected there.

  See his _Recollections of Seventy Years_ (New York, 1903).



HOARE, SIR RICHARD COLT, BART. (1758-1838), English antiquary, was the
eldest son of Richard Hoare, who was created a baronet in 1786, and was
born on the 9th of December 1758. He was descended from Sir Richard
Hoare (1648-1718), lord mayor of London, the founder of the family
banking business. An ample allowance from his grandfather, Henry Hoare,
enabled him to pursue the archaeological studies for which he had
already shown an inclination. In 1783 he married Hester, daughter of
William Henry, Lord Lyttelton, and after her death in 1785 he paid a
prolonged visit to France, Italy and Switzerland. He succeeded to the
baronetcy in 1787, and in 1788 made a second continental tour, the
record of his travels appearing in 1819 under the title _A Classical
Tour through Italy and Sicily_. A journey through Wales was followed by
a translation of the _Itinerarium Cambriae_ and of the _Descriptio
Cambriae of_ Giraldus Cambrensis, Hoare adding notes and a life of
Giraldus to the translation. This was first published in 1804, and has
been revised by T. Wright (London, 1863). Sir Richard died at Stourhead,
Wiltshire, on the 19th of May 1838, being succeeded in the baronetcy by
his half-brother, Henry Hugh Hoare. Hoare's most important work was his
_Ancient History of North and South Wiltshire_ (1812-1819); he also did
some work on the large _History of Modern Wiltshire_ (1822-1844).

  For notices of him and a list of his works, many of which were printed
  privately, see the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for July 1838, and the
  _Dict. Nat. Biog._ vol. xxvii. (1891). See also E. Hoare, _History of
  the Hoare Family_ (1883).



HOBART, GARRET AUGUSTUS (1844-1899), Vice-President of the United States
1897-1899, was born at Long Branch, N.J., on the 3rd of June 1844. He
graduated at Rutgers College in 1863, was admitted to the bar in 1869,
practised law at Paterson, N.J., and rose to prominence in the State. He
was long conspicuous in the State Republican organization, was chairman
of the New Jersey State Republican Committee from 1880 to 1890, became a
member in 1884 of the Republican National Committee, and was the
delegate-at-large from New Jersey to five successive Republican national
nominating conventions. He served in the New Jersey Assembly in
1873-1874, and in the New Jersey Senate in 1877-1882, and was speaker of
the Assembly in 1874 and president of the Senate in 1881 and 1882. He
was also prominent and successful in business and accumulated a large
fortune. He accepted the nomination as Vice-President in 1896, on the
ticket with President McKinley, and was elected; but while still in
office he died at Paterson, N.J., on the 21st of November 1899.

  See the _Life_ (New York, 1910) by David Magie.



HOBART, JOHN HENRY (1775-1830), American Protestant Episcopal bishop,
was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on the 14th of September 1775,
being fifth in direct descent from Edmund Hobart, a founder of Hingham,
Massachusetts. He was educated at the Philadelphia Latin School, the
College of Philadelphia (now the University of Pennsylvania), and
Princeton, where he graduated in 1793. After studying theology under
Bishop William White at Philadelphia, he was ordained deacon in 1798,
and priest two years later. He was elected assistant bishop of New York,
with the right of succession, in 1811, and was acting diocesan from that
date because of the ill-health of Bishop Benjamin Moore, whom he
formally succeeded on the latter's death in February 1816. He was one of
the founders of the General Theological Seminary, became its professor
of pastoral theology in 1821, and as bishop was its governor. In his
zeal for the historic episcopacy he published in 1807 _An Apology for
Apostolic Order and its Advocates_, a series of letters to Rev. John M.
Mason, who, in _The Christian's Magazine_, of which he was editor, had
attacked the Episcopacy in general and in particular Hobart's
_Collection of Essays on the Subject of Episcopacy_ (1806). Hobart's
zeal for the General Seminary and the General Convention led him to
oppose the plan of Philander Chase, bishop of Ohio, for an Episcopal
seminary in that diocese; but the Ohio seminary was made directly
responsible to the House of Bishops, and Hobart approved the plan. His
strong opposition to "dissenting churches" was nowhere so clearly shown
as in a pamphlet published in 1816 to dissuade all Episcopalians from
joining the American Bible Society, which he thought the Protestant
Episcopal Church had not the numerical or the financial strength to
control. In 1818, to counterbalance the influence of the Bible Society
and especially of Scott's _Commentaries_, he began to edit with selected
notes the _Family Bible_ of the Society for Promoting Christian
Knowledge. He delivered episcopal charges to the clergy of Connecticut
and New York entitled _The Churchman_ (1819) and _The High Churchman
Vindicated_ (1826), in which he accepted the name "high churchman," and
stated and explained his principles "in distinction from the corruptions
of the Church of Rome and from the Errors of Certain Protestant Sects."
He exerted himself greatly in building up his diocese, attempting to
make an annual visit to every parish. His failing health led him to
visit Europe in 1823-1825. Upon his return he preached a characteristic
sermon entitled _The United States of America compared with some
European Countries, particularly England_ (published 1826), in which,
although there was some praise for the English church, he so boldly
criticized the establishment, state patronage, cabinet appointment of
bishops, lax discipline, and the low requirements of theological
education, as to rouse much hostility in England, where he had been
highly praised for two volumes of _Sermons on the Principal Events and
Truths of Redemption_ (1824). He died at Auburn, New York, on the 12th
of September 1830. He was able, impetuous, frank, perfectly fearless in
controversy, a speaker and preacher of much eloquence, a supporter of
missions to the Oneida Indians in his diocese, and the compiler of the
following devotional works: _A Companion for the Altar_ (1804),
_Festivals and Fasts_ (1804), _A Companion to the Book of Common Prayer_
(1805), and _A Clergyman's Companion_ (1805).

  See _Memorial of Bishop Hobart_, containing a _Memoir_ (New York,
  1831); John McVickar, _The Early Life and Professional Years of Bishop
  Hobart_ (New York, 1834), and _The Closing Years of Bishop Hobart_
  (New York, 1836).



HOBART PASHA, AUGUSTUS CHARLES HOBART-HAMPDEN (1822-1886), English naval
captain and Turkish admiral, was born in Leicestershire on the 1st of
April 1822, being the third son of the 6th Earl of Buckinghamshire. In
1835 he entered the Royal Navy and served as a midshipman on the coast
of Brazil in the suppression of the slave trade, displaying much
gallantry in the operations. In 1855 he took part, as captain of the
"Driver," in the Baltic Expedition, and was actively engaged at
Bomarsund and Abo. In 1862 he retired from the navy with the rank of
post-captain; but his love of adventure led him, during the American
Civil War, to take the command of a blockade-runner. He had the good
fortune to run the blockade eighteen times, conveying war material to
Charleston and returning with a cargo of cotton. In 1867 Hobart entered
the Turkish service, and was immediately nominated to the command of
that fleet, with the rank of "Bahrie Limassi" (rear-admiral). In this
capacity he performed splendid service in helping to suppress the
insurrection in Crete, and was rewarded by the Sultan with the title of
Pasha (1869). In 1874 Hobart, whose name had, on representations made by
Greece, been removed from the British Navy List, was reinstated; his
restoration did not, however, last long, for on the outbreak of the
Russo-Turkish war he again entered Turkish service. In command of the
Turkish squadron he completely dominated the Black Sea, blockading the
ports of South Russia and the mouths of the Danube, and paralysing the
action of the Russian fleet. On the conclusion of peace Hobart still
remained in the Turkish service, and in 1881 was appointed Mushir, or
marshal, being the first Christian to hold that high office. His
achievements as a blockade-runner, his blockade of Crete, and his
handling of the Turkish fleet against the torpedo-lined coasts of
Russia, showed him to be a daring, resourceful, and skilful commander,
worthy to be ranked among the illustrious names of British naval heroes.
He died at Milan on the 19th of June 1886.

  See his _Sketches of My Life_ (1886), which must, however, be used
  with caution, since it contains many proved inaccuracies.



HOBART, the capital of Tasmania, in the county of Buckingham, on the
southern coast of the island. It occupies a site of great beauty,
standing on a series of low hills at the foot of Mount Wellington, a
lofty peak (4166 ft.) which is snow-clad for many months in the year.
The town fronts Sullivan's Cove, a picturesque bay opening into the
estuary of the river Derwent, and is nearly square in form, laid out
with wide streets intersecting at right angles, the chief of which are
served by electric tramways. It is the seat of the Anglican bishop of
Tasmania, and of the Roman Catholic archbishop of Hobart. The Anglican
cathedral of St David dates from 1873, though its foundations were laid
as early as 1817. St Mary's Roman Catholic cathedral is a beautiful
building; but perhaps the most notable ecclesiastical building in Hobart
is the great Baptist tabernacle in Upper Elizabeth Street. The most
prominent public buildings are the Houses of Parliament, to which an
excellent library is attached; the town hall, a beautiful building of
brown and white Tasmanian freestone in Italian style; the museum and
national art gallery, and the general post office (1904) with its lofty
clock-tower. Government House, the residence of the governor of
Tasmania, a handsome castellated building, stands in its domain on the
banks of the Derwent, to the north of the town. The botanical gardens
adjoin. Of the parks and public gardens, the most extensive is the
Queen's Domain, covering an area of about 700 acres, while the most
central is Franklin Square, adorned with a statue of Sir John Franklin,
the famous Arctic explorer, who was governor of Tasmania from 1837 to
1843. The university of Tasmania, established in 1890, and opened in
1893, has its headquarters at Hobart. The town is celebrated for its
invigorating climate, and its annual regatta on the Derwent attracts
numerous visitors. The harbour is easy of access, well sheltered and
deep, with wharf accommodation for vessels of the largest tonnage. It is
a regular port of call for several intercolonial lines from Sydney and
Melbourne, and for lines from London to New Zealand. The exports, of an
average value of £850,000 annually, consist mainly of fruit, hops,
grain, timber and wool. The industries comprise brewing, saw-milling,
iron-founding, flour-milling, tanning, and the manufacture of pottery
and woollen goods. Hobart is the centre of a large fruit-growing
district, the produce of which, for the most part, is exported to London
and Sydney. The city was founded in 1804 and takes its name from Lord
Hobart (see BUCKINGHAMSHIRE, EARLS OF), then secretary of state for the
colonies. It was created a municipality in 1853, and a city in 1857; and
in 1881 its name was changed from Hobart Town to the present form. The
chief suburbs are Newton, Sandy Bay, Wellington, Risdon, Glenorchy,
Bellerive and Beltana. The population of the city proper in 1901 was
24,652, or including suburbs, 34,182.



HOBBEMA, MEYNDERT (c. 1638-1709), the greatest landscape painter of the
Dutch school after Ruysdael, lived at Amsterdam in the second half of
the 17th century. The facts of his life are somewhat obscure. Nothing is
more disappointing than to find that in Hobbema's case chronology and
signed pictures substantially contradict each other. According to the
latter his practice lasted from 1650 to 1689; according to the former
his birth occurred in 1638, his death as late as 1709. If the
masterpiece formerly in the Bredel collection, called "A Wooded Stream,"
honestly bears the date of 1650, or "The Cottages under Trees" of the
Ford collection the date of 1652, the painter of these canvases cannot
be Hobbema, whose birth took place in 1638, unless indeed we admit that
Hobbema painted some of his finest works at the age of twelve or
fourteen. For a considerable period it was profitable to pass Hobbemas
as Ruysdaels, and the name of the lesser master was probably erased from
several of his productions. When Hobbema's talent was recognized, the
contrary process was followed, and in this way the name, and perhaps
fictitious dates, reappeared by fraud. An experienced eye will note the
differences which occur in Hobbema's signatures in such well-known
examples as adorn the galleries of London and Rotterdam, or the
Grosvenor and van der Hoop collections. Meanwhile, we must be content to
know that, if the question of dates could be brought into accordance
with records and chronology, the facts of Hobbema's life would be as
follows.

Meyndert Hobbema was married at the age of thirty to Eeltije Vinck of
Gorcum, in the Oudekerk or old church at Amsterdam, on the 2nd of
November 1668. Witnesses to the marriage were the bride's brother
Cornelius Vinck and Jacob Ruysdael. We might suppose from this that
Hobbema and Ruysdael, the two great masters of landscape, were united at
this time by ties of friendship, and accept the belief that the former
was the pupil of the latter. Yet even this is denied to us, since
records tell us that there were two Jacob Ruysdaels, cousins and
contemporaries, at Amsterdam in the middle of the 17th century--one a
framemaker, the son of Solomon, the other a painter, the son of Isaac
Ruysdael. Of Hobbema's marriage there came between 1668 and 1673 four
children. In 1704 Eeltije died, and was buried in the pauper section of
the Leiden cemetery at Amsterdam. Hobbema himself survived till December
1709, receiving burial on the 14th of that month in the pauper section
of the Westerkerk cemetery at Amsterdam. Husband and wife had lived
during their lifetime in the Rozengracht, at no great distance from
Rembrandt, who also dwelt there in his later and impoverished days.
Rembrandt, Hals, Jacob Ruysdael, and Hobbema were in one respect alike.
They all died in misery, insufficiently rewarded perhaps for their toil,
imprudent perhaps in the use of the means derived from their labours.
Posterity has recognized that Hobbema and Ruysdael together represent
the final development of landscape art in Holland. Their style is so
related that we cannot suppose the first to have been unconnected with
the second. Still their works differ in certain ways, and their
character is generally so marked that we shall find little difficulty in
distinguishing them, nor indeed shall we hesitate in separating those of
Hobbema from the feebler productions of his imitators and
predecessors--Isaac Ruysdael, Rontbouts, de Vries, Dekker, Looten,
Verboom, du Bois, van Kessel, van der Hagen, even Philip de Koningk. In
the exercise of his craft Hobbema was patient beyond all conception. It
is doubtful whether any one ever so completely mastered as he did the
still life of woods and hedges, or mills and pools. Nor can we believe
that he obtained this mastery otherwise than by constantly dwelling in
the same neighbourhood, say in Guelders or on the Dutch Westphalian
border, where day after day he might study the branching and foliage of
trees and underwood embowering cottages and mills, under every variety
of light, in every shade of transparency, in all changes produced by the
seasons. Though his landscapes are severely and moderately toned,
generally in an olive key, and often attuned to a puritanical grey or
russet, they surprise us, not only by the variety of their leafage, but
by the finish of their detail as well as the boldness of their touch.
With astonishing subtlety light is shown penetrating cloud, and
illuminating, sometimes transiently, sometimes steadily, different
portions of the ground, shining through leaves upon other leaves, and
multiplying in an endless way the transparency of the picture. If the
chance be given him he mirrors all these things in the still pool near a
cottage, the reaches of a sluggish river, or the swirl of the stream
that feeds a busy mill. The same spot will furnish him with several
pictures. One mill gives him repeated opportunities of charming our eye;
and this wonderful artist, who is only second to Ruysdael because he had
not Ruysdael's versatility and did not extend his study equally to downs
and rocky eminences, or torrents and estuaries--this is the man who
lived penuriously, died poor, and left no trace in the artistic annals
of his country! It has been said that Hobbema did not paint his own
figures, but transferred that duty to Adrian van de Velde, Lingelbach,
Barendt Gael, and Abraham Storck. As to this much is conjecture.

  The best of Hobbema's dated pictures are those of the years 1663 to
  1667. Of the former, several in the galleries of Brussels and St
  Petersburg, and one in the Holford collection, are celebrated. Of 1665
  fine specimens are at Grosvenor House and the Wallace collection. Of
  seven pieces in the National Gallery, including the "Avenue at
  Middelharnis," which some assign to 1689, and the "Ruins of Breberode
  Castle," two are dated 1667. A sample of the last of these years is
  also in the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge. Amongst the masterpieces
  in private hands in England may be noticed two landscapes in
  Buckingham Palace, two at Bridgewater House, and one belonging to Mr
  Walter of Bearwood. On the continent are a "Wooded Landscape" in the
  Berlin gallery, a "Forest" belonging to the duchess of Sagan in Paris,
  and a "Glade" in the Louvre. There are other fine Hobbemas in the
  Antwerp Museum, the Arenberg gallery at Brussels, and the Belvedere at
  Vienna.     (J. A. C.)



HOBBES, THOMAS (1588-1679), English philosopher, second son of Thomas
Hobbes, was born at Westport (now part of Malmesbury, Wiltshire) on the
5th of April 1588. His father, vicar of Charlton and Westport, an
illiterate and choleric man, quarrelled, it is said, with a brother
clergyman at the church door, and was forced to decamp, leaving his
three children to the care of an elder brother Francis, a flourishing
glover at Malmesbury. Thomas Hobbes was put to school at Westport church
at the age of four, passed to the Malmesbury school at eight, and was
taught again in Westport later at a private school kept by a young man
named Robert Latimer, fresh from Oxford and "a good Grecian." He had
begun Latin and Greek early, and under Latimer made such progress as to
be able to translate the _Medea_ of Euripides into Latin iambic verse
before he was fourteen. About the age of fifteen he was sent to Oxford
and entered at Magdalen Hall. During his residence, the first principal
of Magdalen Hall, John Hussee, was succeeded by John Wilkinson, who
ruled in the interest of the Calvinistic party in the university. Thus
early was he brought into contact with the aggressive Puritan spirit.
Apart from this, Hobbes owed little to his university training, which
was based on the scholastic logic then prevalent. We have from himself a
lively record of his student life (_Vit. carm. exp._ p. lxxxv.), which,
though penned in extreme old age, may be taken as trustworthy. He tells
how, when he had slowly taken in the doctrine of logical figures and
moods, he put it aside and would prove things only in his own way; how
he then heard about bodies as consisting of matter and form, as throwing
off species of themselves for perception, and as moved by sympathies and
antipathies, with much else of a like sort, all beyond his
comprehension; and how he therefore turned to his old books again, fed
his mind on maps and charts of earth and sky, traced the sun in his
path, followed Drake and Cavendish girdling the main, and gazed with
delight upon pictured haunts of men and wonders of unknown lands. Very
characteristic is the interest in men and things, and the disposition to
cut through questions in the schools after a trenchant fashion of his
own. He was little attracted by the scholastic learning, though it would
be wrong to take his words as evidence of a precocious insight into its
weakness. The truth probably is that he took no interest in studies
which there was no risk in neglecting, and thought as little of
rejecting as of accepting the traditional doctrines. He adds that he
took his degree at the proper time; but in fact, upon any computation
and from whatever cause, he remained at Magdalen Hall five, instead of
the required four, years, not being admitted as bachelor till the 5th of
February 1608.


  Translation of Thucydides.

In the same year Hobbes was recommended by Wilkinson as tutor to the son
of William Cavendish, baron of Hardwick (afterwards 2nd earl of
Devonshire), and thus began a lifelong connexion with a great and
powerful family. Twice it was loosened--once, for a short time, after
twenty years, and again, for a longer period, during the Civil War--but
it never was broken. Hobbes spoke of the first years of his tutorship as
the happiest of his life. Young Cavendish was hardly younger than
Hobbes, and had been married, a few months before, at the instance of
the king, to Christiana, the only daughter of Edward, Lord Bruce of
Kinloss, though by reason of the bride's age, which was only twelve
years, the pair had no establishment for some time. Hobbes was his
companion rather than tutor (before becoming secretary); and, growing
greatly attached to each other, they were sent abroad together on the
grand tour in 1610. During this journey, the duration of which cannot be
precisely stated, Hobbes acquired some knowledge of French and Italian,
and also made the important discovery that the scholastic philosophy
which he had learned in Oxford was almost universally neglected in
favour of the scientific and critical methods of Galileo, Kepler and
Montaigne. Unable at first to cope with their unfamiliar ideas, he
determined to become a scholar, and until 1628 was engaged in a careful
study of Greek and Latin authors, the outcome of which was his great
translation of Thucydides. But when he had finished his work he kept it
lying by him for years, being no longer so sure of finding appreciative
readers; and when he did send it forth, in 1628, he was fain to be
content with "the few and better sort."[1] That he was finally
determined to publication by the political troubles of the year 1628 may
be regarded as certain, not only from his own express declaration at a
later time (_Vit. carm. exp._), but also from unmistakable hints in the
account of the life and work of his author prefixed to the translation
on its appearance. This was the year of the Petition of Right, extorted
from the king in the third parliament he had tried within three years of
his accession; and, in view of Hobbes's later activity, it is
significant that he came forward just then, at the mature age of forty,
with his version of the story of the Athenian democracy as the first
production of his pen. Nothing else is known of his doings before 1628,
except that through his connexion with young Cavendish he had relations
with literary men of note like Ben Jonson, and also with Bacon and Lord
Herbert of Cherbury. If he never had any sympathy with Herbert's
intuitionalist principles in philosophy, he was no less eager, as he
afterwards showed, than Herbert to rationalize in matters of religious
doctrine, so that he may be called the second of the English deists, as
Herbert has been called the first. With Bacon he was so intimate
(Aubrey's _Lives_, pp. 222, 602) that some writers have described him as
a disciple. The facts that he used to walk with Bacon at Gorhambury, and
would jot down with exceptional intelligence the eager thinker's sudden
"notions," and that he was employed to make the Latin version of some of
the _Essays_, prove nothing when weighed against his own disregard of
all Bacon's principles, and the other evidence that the impulse to
independent thinking came to him not from Bacon, and not till some time
after Bacon's death in 1626.[2]


  Philosophic Inquiry.

So far as we have any positive evidence, it was not before the year 1629
that Hobbes entered on philosophical inquiry. Meanwhile a great change
had been wrought in his circumstances. His friend and master, after
about two years' tenure of the earldom of Devonshire, died of the plague
in June 1628, and the affairs of the family were so disordered
financially that the widowed countess was left with the task of righting
them in the boyhood of the third earl. Hobbes went on for a time living
in the household; but his services were no longer in demand, and,
remaining inconsolable under his personal bereavement, he sought
distraction, in 1629, in another engagement which took him abroad as
tutor to the son of Sir Gervase Clifton, of an old Nottinghamshire
family. This, his second, sojourn abroad appears to have been spent
chiefly in Paris, and the one important fact recorded of it is that he
then first began to look into Euclid. The engagement came to an end in
1631, when he was recalled to train the young earl of Devonshire, now
thirteen years old, son of his previous pupil. In the course of the next
seven years in Derbyshire and abroad, Hobbes took his pupil over
rhetoric,[3] logic, astronomy, and the principles of law, with other
subjects. His mind was now full of the thought of motion in nature, and
on the continent he sought out the philosophical speculators or
scientific workers. In Florence in 1636 he saw Galileo, for whom he ever
retained the warmest admiration, and spent eight months in daily
converse with the members of a scientific circle in Paris, held together
by Marin Mersenne (q.v.). From that time (the winter of 1636-1637) he
too, as he tells us, was numbered among philosophers.

  His introduction to Euclid took place accidentally in 1629 (Aubrey's
  _Lives_, p. 604). Euclid's manner of proof became the model for his
  own way of thinking upon all subjects. It is less easy to determine
  when he awoke to an interest in the physical doctrine of motion. The
  story told by himself (_Vit._ p. xx.) is that, hearing the question
  asked "What is sense?" he fell to thinking often on the subject, till
  it suddenly occurred to him that if bodies and their internal parts
  were at rest, or were always in the same state of motion, there could
  be no distinction of anything, and consequently no sense; the cause of
  all things must therefore be sought in diversity of movements.
  Starting from this principle he was driven to geometry for insight
  into the ground and modes of motion. The biographies we possess do not
  tell us where or when this great change of interest occurred. Nothing
  is said, however, which contradicts a statement that on his third
  journey in Europe he began to study the doctrine of motion more
  seriously, being interested in it before; and as he claims more than
  once (_L.W._ v. 303; _E.W._ vii. 468) to have explained light and
  sound by a mechanical hypothesis as far back as 1630, the inspiration
  may be assigned to the time of the second journey. But it was not till
  the third journey that the new interest became an overpowering
  passion, and the "philosopher" was on his way home before he had
  advanced so far as to conceive the scheme of a system of thought to
  the elaboration of which his life should henceforth be devoted.

  Hobbes was able to carry out his plan in some twenty years or more
  from the time of its conception, but the execution was so broken in
  upon by political events, and so complicated with other labours, that
  its stages can hardly be followed without some previous understanding
  of the relations of the parts of the scheme, as there is reason to
  believe they were sketched out from the beginning. His scheme was
  first to work out, in a separate treatise _De corpore_, a systematic
  doctrine of Body, showing how physical phenomena were universally
  explicable in terms of motion, as motion or mechanical action was then
  (through Galileo and others) understood--the theory of motion being
  applied in the light of mathematical science, after quantity, the
  subject-matter of mathematics, had been duly considered in its place
  among the fundamental conceptions of philosophy, and a clear
  indication had been given, at first starting, of the logical ground
  and method of all philosophical inquiry. He would then single out Man
  from the realm of nature, and, in a treatise _De homine_, show what
  specific bodily motions were involved in the production of the
  peculiar phenomena of sensation and knowledge, as also of the
  affections and passions thence resulting, whereby man came into
  relation with man. Finally he would consider, in a crowning treatise
  _De cive_, how men, being naturally rivals or foes, were moved to
  enter into the better relation of Society, and demonstrate how this
  grand product of human wit must be regulated if men were not to fall
  back into brutishness and misery. Thus he proposed to unite in one
  coherent whole the separate phenomena of Body, Man and the State.

Hobbes came home, in 1637, to a country seething with discontent. The
reign of "Thorough" was collapsing, and the forces pent up since 1629
were soon to rend the fabric of the state. By these events Hobbes was
distracted from the orderly execution of his philosophic plan. The Short
Parliament, as he tells us at a later time (_E.W._ iv. 414), was not
dissolved before he had ready "a little treatise in English," in which
he sought to prove that the points of the royal prerogative which the
members were determined to dispute before granting supplies "were
inseparably annexed to the sovereignty which they did not then deny to
be in the king." Now it can be proved that at this time he had written
not only his _Human Nature_ but also his _De corpore politico_, the two
treatises (though published separately ten years later) having been
composed as parts of one work;[4] and there cannot be the least question
that together they make "the little treatise" just mentioned. We are
therefore to understand, first, that he wrote the earliest draft of his
political theory some years before the outbreak of the Civil War, and,
secondly, that this earliest draft was not written till, in accordance
with his philosophical conception, he had established the grounds of
polity in human nature. The first point is to be noted, because it has
often been supposed that Hobbes's political doctrine took its peculiar
complexion from his revulsion against the state of anarchy before his
eyes, as he wrote during the progress of the Civil War. The second point
must be maintained against his own implied, if not express, statement
some years later, when publishing his _De cive_ (_L.W._ ii. 151), that
he wrote this third part of his system before he had been able to set
down any finished representation of the fundamental doctrines which it
presupposed. In the beginning of 1640, therefore, he had written out his
doctrine of Man at least, with almost as much elaboration as it ever
received from him.


  In Paris.

In November 1640 the Long Parliament succeeded to the Short, and sent
Laud and Strafford to the Tower, and Hobbes, who had become, or thought
he had become, a marked man by the circulation of his treatise (of
which, "though not printed, many gentlemen had copies"), hastened to
Paris, "the first of all that fled." He was now for the fourth and last
time abroad, and did not return for eleven years. Apparently he remained
the greater part of the time in or about Paris. He was welcomed back
into the scientific coterie about Mersenne, and forthwith had the task
assigned him of criticizing the _Meditations_ of Descartes, which had
been sent from Holland, before publication, to Mersenne with the
author's request for criticism from the most different points of view.
Hobbes was soon ready with the remarks that were printed as "Third"
among the six (later seven) sets of "Objections" appended, with
"Replies" from Descartes, to the _Meditations_, when published shortly
afterwards in 1641 (reprinted in _L.W._ v. 249-274). About the same time
also Mersenne sent to Descartes, as if they came from a friend in
England, another set of objections which Hobbes had to offer on various
points in the scientific treatises, especially the _Dioptrics_, appended
by Descartes to his _Discourse on Method_ in 1637; to which Descartes
replied without suspecting the common authorship of the two sets. The
result was to keep the two thinkers apart rather than bring them
together. Hobbes was more eager to bring forward his own philosophical
and physical ideas than careful to enter into the full meaning of
another's thought; and Descartes was too jealous, and too confident in
his conclusions to bear with this kind of criticism. He was very curt in
his replies to Hobbes's philosophical objections, and broke off all
correspondence on the physical questions, writing privately to Mersenne
that he had grave doubts of the Englishman's good faith in drawing him
into controversy (_L.W._ v. 277-307).

Meanwhile Hobbes had his thoughts too full of the political theory which
the events of the last years had ripened within him to settle, even in
Paris, to the orderly composition of his works. Though connected in his
own mind with his view of human nature and of nature generally, the
political theory, as he always declared, could stand by itself. Also,
while he may have hoped at this time to be able to add much (though he
never did) to the sketch of his doctrine of Man contained in the
unpublished "little treatise," he might extend, but could hardly
otherwise modify, the sketch he had there given of his carefully
articulated theory of Body Politic. Possibly, indeed, before that sketch
was written early in 1640, he may, under pressure of the political
excitement, have advanced no small way in the actual composition of the
treatise _De Cive_, the third section of his projected system. In any
case, it was upon this section, before the others, that he set to work
in Paris; and before the end of 1641 the book, as we know from the date
of the dedication (November 1), was finished. Though it was forthwith
printed in the course of the year 1642, he was content to circulate a
limited number of copies privately[5]; and when he found his work
received with applause (it was praised even by Descartes), he seems to
have taken this recognition of his philosophical achievement as an
additional reason for deferring publication till the earlier works of
the system were completed. Accordingly, for the next three or four
years, he remained steadily at work, and nothing appeared from him in
public except a short treatise on optics (_Tractatus opticus, L.W._ v.
217-248) included in the collection of scientific tracts published by
Mersenne under the title _Cogitata physico-mathematica_ in 1644, and a
highly compressed statement of his psychological application of the
doctrine of motion (_L.W._ v. 309-318), incorporated with Mersenne's
_Ballistica_, published in the same year. Thus or otherwise he had
become sufficiently known by 1645 to be chosen as a referee, with
Descartes, Roberval and others, in the famous controversy between John
Pell (q.v.) and the Dane Longomontanus (q.v.) over that problem of the
squaring of the circle which was seen later on to have such a fatal
charm for himself. But though about this time he had got ready all or
most of the materials for his fundamental work on Body, not even now was
he able to make way with its composition, and when he returned to it
after a number of years, he returned a different man.


  Leviathan.

The Civil War had broken out in 1642, and the royalist cause began to
decline from the time of the defeat at Marston Moor, in the middle of
1644. Then commenced an exodus of the king's friends. Newcastle himself,
who was a cousin of Hobbes's late patron and to whom he dedicated the
"little treatise" of 1640, found his way to Paris, and was followed by a
stream of fugitives, many of whom were known to Hobbes. The sight of
these exiles made the political interest once more predominant in
Hobbes, and before long the revived feeling issued in the formation of a
new and important design. It first showed itself in the publication of
the _De cive_, of which the fame, but only the fame, had extended beyond
the inner circle of friends and critics who had copies of the original
impression. Hobbes now entrusted it, early in 1646, to his admirer, the
Frenchman Samuel de Sorbière, by whom it was seen through the Elzevir
press at Amsterdam in 1647--having previously inserted a number of notes
in reply to objections, and also a striking preface, in the course of
which he explained its relation to the other parts of the system not yet
forthcoming, and the (political) occasion of its having been composed
and being now published before them.[6] So hopeless, meanwhile, was he
growing of being able to return home that, later on in the year, he was
on the point of leaving Paris to take up his abode in the south with a
French friend,[7] when he was engaged "by the month" as mathematical
instructor to the young prince of Wales, who had come over from Jersey
about the month of July. This engagement lasted nominally from 1646 to
1648 when Charles went to Holland. Thus thrown more than ever into the
company of the exiled royalists, it was then, if not earlier, that he
conceived his new design of bringing all his powers of thought and
expression to bear upon the production of an English book that should
set forth his whole theory of civil government in relation to the
political crisis resulting from the war. The _De cive_, presently to be
published, was written in Latin for the learned, and gave the political
theory without its foundation in human nature. The unpublished treatise
of 1640 contained all or nearly all that he had to tell concerning human
nature, but was written before the terrible events of the last years had
disclosed how men might still be urged by their anti-social passions
back into the abyss of anarchy. There was need of an exposition at once
comprehensive, incisive and popular. The State, it now seemed to Hobbes,
might be regarded as a great artificial man or monster (_Leviathan_),
composed of men, with a life that might be traced from its generation
through human reason under pressure of human needs to its dissolution
through civil strife proceeding from human passions. This, we may
suppose, was the presiding conception from the first, but the design may
have been variously modified in the three or four years of its
execution. Before the end, in 1650-1651, it is plain that he wrote in
direct reference to the greatly changed aspect of affairs in England.
The king being dead, and the royalist cause appearing to be hopelessly
lost, he did not scruple, in closing the work with a general "Review and
Conclusion," to raise the question of the subject's right to change
allegiance when a former sovereign's power to protect was irrecoverably
gone. Also he took advantage of the rule of the Commonwealth to indulge
much more freely than he might have otherwise dared in rationalistic
criticism of religious doctrines; while, amid the turmoil of sects, he
could the more forcibly urge that the preservation of social order, when
again firmly restored, must depend on the assumption by the civil power
of the right to wield all sanctions, supernatural as well as natural,
against the pretensions of any clergy, Catholic, Anglican or
Presbyterian, to the exercise of an _imperium in imperio_.

We know the _Leviathan_ only as it finally emerged from Hobbes's pen.
During the years of its composition he remained in or near Paris, at
first in attendance on his royal pupil, with whom he became a great
favourite. In 1647 Hobbes was overtaken by a serious illness which
disabled him for six months. Mersenne begged him not to die outside the
Roman Catholic Church, but Hobbes said that he had already considered
the matter sufficiently and afterwards took the sacrament according to
the rites of the Church of England. On recovering from this illness,
which nearly proved fatal, he resumed his literary task, and carried it
steadily forward to completion by the year 1650, having also within the
same time translated into English, with characteristic force of
expression, his Latin treatise. Otherwise the only thing known (from one
or two letters) of his life in those years is that from the year 1648 he
had begun to think of returning home; he was then sixty and might well
be weary of exile. When 1650 came, as if to prepare the way for the
reception of his _magnum opus_, he allowed the publication of his
earliest treatise, divided into two separate small volumes (_Human
Nature, or the Fundamental Elements of Policy, E.W._ iv. 1-76, and _De
Corpore Politico, or the Elements of Law, Moral and Politic_, pp.
77-228).[8] In 1651[9] he published his translation of the De Cive under
the title of _Philosophical Rudiments concerning Government and Society_
(_E.W._ ii.). Meanwhile the printing of the greater work was proceeding,
and finally it appeared about the middle of the same year, 1651, under
the title of _Leviathan, or the Matter, Form and Power of a
Commonwealth, Ecclesiastical and Civil_ (_E.W._ iii.), with a quaint
frontispiece in which, from behind hills overlooking a fair landscape of
town and country, there towered the body (above the waist) of a crowned
giant, made up of tiny figures of human beings and bearing sword and
crozier in the two hands. It appeared, and soon its author was more
lauded and decried than any other thinker of his time; but the first
effect of its publication was to sever his connexion with the exiled
royalist party, and to throw him for protection on the revolutionary
Government. No sooner did copies of the book reach Paris than he found
himself shunned by his former associates, and though he was himself so
little conscious of disloyalty that he was forward to present a
manuscript copy "engrossed in vellum in a marvellous fair hand"[10] to
the young king of the Scots (who, after the defeat at Worcester, escaped
to Paris about the end of October), he was denied the royal presence
when he sought it shortly afterwards. Straightway, then, he saw himself
exposed to a double peril. The exiles had among them desperadoes who
could slay; and, besides exciting the enmity of the Anglican clergy
about the king, who bitterly resented the secularist spirit of his book,
he had compromised himself with the French authorities by his elaborate
attack on the papal system. In the circumstances, no resource was left
him but secret flight. Travelling with what speed he could in the depths
of a severe winter and under the effects of a recent (second) illness,
he managed to reach London, where, sending in his submission to the
council of state, he was allowed to subside into private life.


  Return to London.

  Controversy with Bramhall.

Though Hobbes came back, after his eleven years' absence, without having
as yet publicly proved his title to rank with the natural philosophers
of the age, he was sufficiently conscious of what he had been able to
achieve in _Leviathan_; and it was in no humble mood that he now, at
the age of sixty-four, turned to complete the fundamental treatise of
his philosophical system. Neither those whom his masterpiece soon roused
to enthusiasm, nor those whom it moved to indignation, were likely to be
indifferent to anything he should now write, whether it lay near to or
far from the region of practice. Taking up his abode in Fetter Lane,
London, on his return, and continuing to reside there for the sake of
intellectual society, even after renewing his old ties with the earl of
Devonshire, who lived in the country till the Restoration,[11] he worked
so steadily as to be printing the _De corpore_ in the year 1654.
Circumstances (of which more presently), however, kept the book back
till the following year, and meanwhile the readers of _Leviathan_ had a
different excitement. In 1654 a small treatise, "Of Liberty and
Necessity" (_E.W._ iv. 229-278), issued from the press, claiming to be
an answer to a discourse on the same subject by Bishop Bramhall of
Londonderry (afterwards archbishop of Armagh, d. 1663), addressed by
Hobbes to the marquis of Newcastle.[12] It had grown out of an oral
discussion between Hobbes and Bramhall in the marquis's presence at
Paris in 1646. Bramhall, a strong Arminian, had afterwards written down
his views and sent them to Newcastle to be answered in this form by
Hobbes. Hobbes duly replied, but not for publication, because he thought
the subject a delicate one. But it happened that Hobbes had allowed a
French acquaintance to have a private translation of his reply made by a
young Englishman, who secretly took a copy of the original for himself;
and now it was this unnamed purloiner who, in 1654, when Hobbes had
become famous and feared, gave it to the world of his own motion, with
an extravagantly laudatory epistle to the reader in its front. Upon
Hobbes himself the publication came as a surprise, but, after his plain
speaking in _Leviathan_, there was nothing in the piece that he need
scruple to have made known, and he seems to have condoned the act. On
the other hand, Bramhall, supposing Hobbes privy to the publication,
resented the manner of it, especially as no mention was made of his
rejoinder. Accordingly, in 1655, he printed everything that had passed
between them (under the title of _A Defence of the True Liberty of Human
Actions from Antecedent or Extrinsic Necessity_), with loud complaint
against the treatment he had received, and the promise added that, in
default of others, he himself would stand forward to expose the deadly
principles of _Leviathan_. About this time Hobbes had begun to be hard
pressed by other foes, and, being never more sure of himself than upon
the question of the will, he appears to have welcomed the opportunity
thus given him of showing his strength. By 1656 he was ready with his
_Questions concerning Liberty, Necessity and Chance_ (_E.W._ v.), in
which he replied with astonishing force to the bishop's rejoinder point
by point, besides explaining the occasion and circumstances of the whole
debate, and reproducing (as Bramhall had done) all the pieces from the
beginning. As perhaps the first clear exposition and defence of the
_psychological_ doctrine of determinism, Hobbes's own two pieces must
ever retain a classical importance in the history of the free-will
controversy; while Bramhall's are still worth study as specimens of
scholastic fence. The bishop, it should be added, returned to the charge
in 1658 with ponderous _Castigations of Mr Hobbes's Animadversions_, and
also made good his previous threat in a bulky appendix entitled _The
Catching of Leviathan the Great Whale_. Hobbes never took any notice of
the _Castigations_, but ten years later replied to the charges of
atheism, &c., made in the non-political part of the appendix, of which
he says he then heard for the first time (_E.W._ iv. 279-384). This
_Answer_ was first published after Hobbes's death.[13]


    Controversy with Wallis and Ward.

  We may now follow out the more troublesome conflict, or rather series
  of conflicts, in which Hobbes became entangled from the time of
  publishing his _De corpore_ in 1655, and which checkered all his
  remaining years. In _Leviathan_ he had vehemently assailed the system
  of the universities, as originally founded for the support of the
  papal against the civil authority, and as still working social
  mischief by adherence to the old learning. The attack was duly noted
  at Oxford, where under the Commonwealth a new spirit of scientific
  activity had begun to stir. In 1654 Seth Ward (1617-1689), the
  Savilian professor of astronomy, replying in his _Vindiciae
  academiarum_ to some other assaults (especially against John Webster's
  _Examen of Academies_) on the academic system, retorted upon Hobbes
  that, so far from the universities being now what he had known them in
  his youth, he would find his geometrical pieces, when they appeared,
  better understood there than he should like. This was said in
  reference to the boasts in which Hobbes seems to have been freely
  indulging of having squared the circle and accomplished other such
  feats; and, when a year later the _De corpore_ (_L.W._ i.) finally
  appeared, it was seen how the thrust had gone home. In the chapter
  (xx.) of that work where Hobbes dealt with the famous problem whose
  solution he thought he had found, there were left expressions against
  Vindex (Ward) at a time when the solutions still seemed to him good;
  but the solutions themselves, as printed, were allowed to be all in
  different ways halting, as he naively confessed he had discovered only
  when he had been driven by the insults of malevolent men to examine
  them more closely with the help of his friends. A strange conclusion
  this, and reached by a path not less strange, as was now to be
  disclosed by a relentless hand. Ward's colleague, the more famous John
  Wallis (q.v.), Savilian professor of geometry from 1649, had been
  privy to the challenge thrown out in 1654, and it was arranged that
  they should critically dispose of the _De corpore_ between them. Ward
  was to occupy himself with the philosophical and physical sections,
  which he did in leisurely fashion, bringing out his criticism in the
  course of next year (_In Th. Hobbii philosophiam exercitatio
  epistolica_). Wallis was to confine himself to the mathematical
  chapters, and set to work at once with characteristic energy.
  Obtaining an unbound copy of the _De corpore_, he saw by the mutilated
  appearance of the sheets that Hobbes had repeatedly altered his
  demonstrations before he issued them at last in their actual form,
  grotesque as it was, rather than delay the book longer. Obtaining also
  a copy of the work as it had been printed before Hobbes had any doubt
  of the validity of his solutions, Wallis was able to track his whole
  course from the time of Ward's provocation--his passage from
  exultation to doubt, from doubt to confessed impotence, yet still
  without abandoning the old assumption of confident strength; and all
  his turnings and windings were now laid bare in one of the most
  trenchant pieces of controversial writing ever penned. Wallis's
  _Elenchus geometriae Hobbianae_, published in 1655 about three months
  after the _De corpore_, contained also an elaborate criticism of
  Hobbes's whole attempt to relay the foundations of mathematical
  science in its place within the general body of reasoned knowledge--a
  criticism which, if it failed to allow for the merit of the
  conception, exposed only too effectually the utter inadequacy of the
  result. Taking up mathematics when not only his mind was already
  formed but his thoughts were crystallizing into a philosophical
  system, Hobbes had, in fact, never put himself to school and sought to
  work up gradually to the best knowledge of the time, but had been more
  anxious from the first to become himself an innovator with whatever
  insufficient means. The consequence was that, when not spending
  himself in vain attempts to solve the impossible problems that have
  always waylaid the fancy of self-sufficient beginners, he took an
  interest only in the elements of geometry, and never had any notion of
  the full scope of mathematical science, undergoing as it then was (and
  not least at the hands of Wallis) the extraordinary development which
  made it before the end of the century the potent instrument of
  physical discovery which it became in the hands of Newton. He was even
  unable, in dealing with the elementary conceptions of geometry, to
  work out with any consistency the few original thoughts he had, and
  thus became the easy sport of Wallis. At his advanced age, however,
  and with the sense he had of his powers, he was not likely to be
  brought to a better mind by so insulting an opponent. He did indeed,
  before allowing an English translation of the _De corpore_ (_E.W._
  i.) to appear in 1656, take care to remove some of the worst mistakes
  exposed by Wallis, and, while leaving out all the references to
  Vindex, now profess to make, in altered form, a series of mere
  "attempts" at quadrature; but he was far from yielding the ground to
  the enemy. With the translation,[14] in the spring of 1656, he had
  ready _Six Lessons to the Professors of Mathematics, one of Geometry,
  the other of Astronomy, in the University of Oxford_ (_E.W._ vii.
  181-356), in which, after reasserting his view of the principles of
  geometry in opposition to Euclid's, he proceeded to repel Wallis's
  objections with no lack of dialectical skill, and with an unreserve
  equal to Wallis's own. He did not scruple, in the ardour of conflict,
  even to maintain positions that he had resigned in the translation,
  and he was not afraid to assume the offensive by a counter criticism
  of three of Wallis's works then published. When he had thus disposed
  of the "Paralogisms" of his more formidable antagonist in the first
  five lessons, he ended with a lesson on "Manners" to the two
  professors together, and set himself gravely at the close to show that
  he too could be abusive. In this particular part of his task, it must
  be allowed, he succeeded very well; his criticism of Wallis's works,
  especially the great treatise _Arithmetica infinitorum_ (1655), only
  showed how little able he was to enter into the meaning of the modern
  analysis. Wallis, on his side, was not less ready to keep up the game
  in English than he had been to begin it in Latin. Swift as before to
  strike, in three months' time he had deftly turned his own word
  against the would-be master by administering _Due Correction for Mr
  Hobbes, or School Discipline for not saying his Lessons right_, in a
  piece that differed from the _Elenchus_ only in being more biting and
  unrestrained. Having an easy task in defending himself against
  Hobbes's trivial criticism, he seized the opportunity given him by the
  English translation of the _De corpore_ to track Hobbes again step by
  step over the whole course, and now to confront him with his
  incredible inconsistencies multiplied by every new utterance. But it
  was no longer a fight over mathematical questions only. Wallis having
  been betrayed originally by his fatal cleverness into the pettiest
  carping at words, Hobbes had retorted in kind, and then it became a
  high duty in the other to defend his Latin with great parade of
  learning and give fresh provocation. One of Wallis's rough sallies in
  this kind suggested to Hobbes the title of the next rejoinder with
  which, in 1657, he sought to close the unseemly wrangle. Arguing in
  the _Lessons_ that a mathematical point must have quantity, though
  this were not reckoned, he had explained the Greek word [Greek:
  stigmê], used for a point, to mean a visible mark made with a hot
  iron; whereupon he was charged by Wallis with gross ignorance for
  confounding [Greek: stigmê] and [Greek: stigma]. Hence the title of
  his new piece: [Greek: Stigmai ageômetrias, agroikias, antipoliteias,
  amatheias], or _Marks of the Absurd Geometry, Rural Language, Scottish
  Church Politics, and Barbarisms of John Wallis, Professor of Geometry
  and Doctor of Divinity_ (_E.W._ vii. 357-400). He now attacked more in
  detail but not more happily than before Wallis's great work, while
  hardly attempting any further defence of his own positions; also he
  repelled with some force and dignity the insults that had been heaped
  upon him, and fought the verbal points, but could not leave the field
  without making political insinuations against his adversary, quite
  irrelevant in themselves and only noteworthy as evidence of his own
  resignation to Cromwell's rule. The thrusts were easily and nimbly
  parried by Wallis in a reply (_Hobbiani puncti dispunctio_, 1657)
  occupied mainly with the verbal questions. Irritating as it was, it
  did not avail to shake Hobbes's determination to remain silent; and
  thus at last there was peace for a time.

  Before the strife flamed up again, Hobbes had published, in 1658, the
  outstanding section of his philosophical system, and thus completed,
  after a fashion, the scheme he had planned more than twenty years
  before. So far as the treatise _De homine_ (_L.W._ ii. 11-32) was
  concerned, the completion was more in name than in fact. It consisted
  for the most part of an elaborate theory of vision which, though very
  creditable to Hobbes's scientific insight, was out of place, or at
  least out of proportion, in a philosophical consideration of human
  nature generally. The remainder of the treatise, dealing cursorily
  with some of the topics more fully treated in the _Human Nature_ and
  the _Leviathan_, has all the appearance of having been tagged in haste
  to the optical chapters (composed years before)[15] as a makeshift
  for the proper transition required in the system from questions of
  Body Natural to questions of Body Politic. Hobbes had in fact spent
  himself in his earlier constructive efforts, and at the age of
  seventy, having nothing to add to his doctrine of Man as it was
  already in one form or another before the world, was content with
  anything that might stand for the fulfilment of his philosophical
  purpose. But he had still in him more than twenty years of vigorous
  vitality, and, not conscious to himself of any shortcoming, looked
  forward, now his hands were free, to doing battle for his doctrines.
  Rather than remain quiet, on finding no notice taken of his latest
  production, he would himself force on a new conflict with the enemy.
  Wallis having meanwhile published other works and especially a
  comprehensive treatise on the general principles of calculus
  (_Mathesis universalis_, 1657), he might take this occasion of
  exposing afresh the new-fangled methods of mathematical analysis and
  reasserting his own earlier positions. Accordingly, by the spring of
  1660, he had managed to put his criticism and assertions into five
  dialogues under the title _Examinatio et emendatio mathematicae
  hodiernae qualis explicatur in libris Johannis Wallisii_, with a sixth
  dialogue so called, consisting almost entirely of seventy or more
  propositions on the circle and cycloid.[16] Wallis, however, would not
  take the bait. Hobbes then tried another tack. Next year, having
  solved, as he thought, another ancient _crux_, the duplication of the
  cube, he had his solution brought out anonymously at Paris in French,
  so as to put Wallis and other critics off the scent and extort a
  judgment that might be withheld from a work of his. The artifice was
  successful, and no sooner had Wallis publicly refuted the solution
  than Hobbes claimed the credit of it, and went more wonderfully than
  ever astray in its defence. He presently republished it (in modified
  form), with his remarks, at the end of a new Latin dialogue which he
  had meanwhile written in defence of another part of his philosophical
  doctrine. This was the _Dialogus physicus, sive De natura aëris_
  (_L.W._ iv. 233-296), fulminated in 1661 against Boyle and other
  friends of Wallis who, as he fancied, under the influence of that
  malevolent spirit, were now in London, after the Restoration, forming
  themselves into a society (incorporated as the Royal Society in 1662)
  for experimental research, to the exclusion of himself personally, and
  in direct contravention of the method of physical inquiry enjoined in
  the _De corpore_.[17] All the laborious manipulation recorded in
  Boyle's _New Experiments touching the Spring of the Air_ (1660), which
  Hobbes chose, without the least warrant, to take as the manifesto of
  the new "academicians," seemed to him only to confirm the conclusions
  he had reasoned out years before from speculative principles, and he
  warned them that if they were not content to begin where he had left
  off their work would come to nought. To as much of this diatribe as
  concerned himself Boyle quickly replied with force and dignity, but it
  was from Hobbes's old enemy that retribution came, in the scathing
  satire _Hobbius heauton-timorumenos_ (1662). Wallis, who had deftly
  steered his course amid all the political changes of the previous
  years, managing ever to be on the side of the ruling power, was now
  apparently stung to fury by a wanton allusion in Hobbes's latest
  dialogue to a passage of his former life (his deciphering for the
  parliament the king's papers taken at Naseby), whereof he had once
  boasted but after the Restoration could not speak or hear too little.
  The revenge he took was crushing. Professing to be roused by the
  attack on his friend Boyle, when he had scorned to lift a finger in
  defence of himself against the earlier dialogues, he tore them all to
  shreds with an art of which no general description can give an idea.
  He got, however, upon more dangerous ground when, passing wholly by
  the political insinuation against himself, he roundly charged Hobbes
  with having written _Leviathan_ in support of Oliver's title, and
  deserted his royal master in distress. Hobbes seems to have been
  fairly bewildered by the rush and whirl of sarcasm with which Wallis
  drove him anew from every mathematical position he had ever taken up,
  and did not venture forth into the field of scientific controversy
  again for some years, when he had once followed up the physical
  dialogue of 1661 by seven shorter ones, with the inevitable appendix,
  entitled _Problemata physica, una cum magnitudine circuli_ (_L.W._ iv.
  297-384), in 1662.[18] But all the more eagerly did he take advantage
  of Wallis's loose calumny to strike where he felt himself safe. His
  answer to the personal charges took the form of a letter about himself
  in the third person addressed to Wallis in 1662, under the title of
  _Considerations upon the Reputation, Loyalty, Manners and Religion of
  Thomas Hobbes_ (_E.W._ iv. 409-440). In this piece, which is of great
  biographical value, he told his own and Wallis's "little stories
  during the time of the late rebellion" with such effect that Wallis,
  like a wise man, attempted no further reply. Thus ended the second
  bout.

  After a time Hobbes took heart again and began a third period of
  controversial activity, which did not end, on his side, till his
  ninetieth year. Little need be added to the simple catalogue of the
  untiring old man's labours in this last stage of his life. The first
  piece, published in 1666, _De principiis et ratiocinatione
  geometrarum_ (_L.W._ iv. 385-484), was designed, as the sub-title
  declared, to lower the pride of geometrical professors by showing that
  there was no less uncertainty and error in their works than in those
  of physical or ethical writers. Wallis replied shortly in the
  _Philosophical Transactions_ (August 1666). Three years later he
  brought his three great achievements together in compendious form,
  _Quadratura circuli, Cubatio sphaerae, Duplicatio cubi_, and as soon
  as they were once more refuted by Wallis, reprinted them with an
  answer to the objections, in compliment to the grand-duke of Tuscany,
  who paid him attentions on a visit to England in 1669 (_L.W._ iv.
  485-522). Wallis, who had promised to leave him alone henceforward,
  refuted him again before the year was out. In 1671 he worked up his
  propositions over again in _Rosetum geometricum_ (_L.W._ v. 1-50), as
  a fragrant offering to the geometrical reader, appending a criticism
  (_Censura brevis_, pp. 50-88) on the first part of Wallis's treatise
  _De motu_, published in 1669; also he sent _Three Papers_ to the Royal
  Society on selected points treated very briefly, and when Wallis,
  still not weary of confuting, shortly replied, published them
  separately with triumphant _Considerations on Dr Wallis's Answer to
  them_ (_E.W._ vii. 429-448). Next year (1672), having now, as he
  believed, established himself with the Royal Society, he proceeded to
  complete the discomfiture of Wallis by a public address to the Society
  on all the points at issue between them from the beginning, _Lux
  Mathematica excussa collisionibus Johannis Wallisii et Thomae
  Hobbesii_ (_L.W._ v. 89-150), the light, as the author R. R. (Roseti
  Repertor) added, being here "increased by many very brilliant rays."
  Wallis replied in the _Transactions_, and then finally held his hand.
  Hobbes's energy was not yet exhausted. In 1674, at the age of
  eighty-six, he published his _Principia et problemata aliquot
  geometrica, ante desperata nunc breviter explicata et demonstrata_
  (_L.W._ v. 150-214), containing in the chapters dealing with questions
  of principle not a few striking observations, which ought not to be
  overlooked in the study of his philosophy. His last piece of all,
  _Decameron physiologicum_ (_E.W._ vii. 69-180), in 1678, was a new set
  of dialogues on physical questions, most of which he had treated in a
  similar fashion before; but now, in dealing with gravitation, he was
  able to fire a parting shot at Wallis; and one more demonstration of
  the equality of a straight line to the arc of a circle, thrown in at
  the end, appropriately closed the strangest warfare in which perverse
  thinker ever engaged.[19]


  Later Years.

We must now turn back to trace the fortunes of Hobbes and his other
doings in the last twenty years of his life. All these controversial
writings on mathematics and physics represent but one half of his
activity after the age of seventy; though, as regards the other half, it
is not possible, for a reason that will be seen, to say as definitely in
what order the works belonging to the period were produced. From the
time of the Restoration he acquired a new prominence in the public eye.
No year had passed since the appearance of _Leviathan_ without some
indignant protest against the influence which its trenchant doctrine was
calculated to produce upon minds longing above everything for civil
repose; but after the Restoration "Hobbism" became a fashionable creed,
which it was the duty of every lover of true morality and religion to
denounce. Two or three days after Charles's arrival in London, Hobbes
drew in the street the notice of his former pupil, and was at once
received into favour. The young king, if he had ever himself resented
the apparent disloyalty of the "Conclusion" of _Leviathan_, had not
retained the feeling long, and could appreciate the principles of the
great book when the application of them happened, as now, to be turned
in his own favour. He had, besides, a relish for Hobbes's wit (as he
used to say, "Here comes the bear to be baited"), and did not like the
old man the less because his presence at court scandalized the bishops
or the prim virtue of Chancellor Hyde. He even went the length of
bestowing on Hobbes (but not always paying) a pension of £100, and had
his portrait hung up in the royal closet. These marks of favour,
naturally, did not lessen Hobbes's self-esteem, and perhaps they
explain, in his later writings, a certain slavishness toward the regal
authority, which is wholly absent from his rational demonstration of
absolutism in the earlier works. At all events Hobbes was satisfied with
the rule of a king who had appreciated the author of _Leviathan_, and
protected him when, after a time, protection in a very real sense became
necessary. His eagerness to defend himself against Wallis's imputation
of disloyalty, and his apologetic dedication of the _Problemata physica_
to the king, are evidence of the hostility with which he was being
pressed as early as 1662; but it was not till 1666 that he felt himself
seriously in danger. In that year the Great Fire of London, following on
the Great Plague, roused the superstitious fears of the people, and the
House of Commons embodied the general feeling in a bill against atheism
and profaneness. On the 17th of October it was ordered that the
committee to which the bill was referred "should be empowered to receive
information touching such books as tend to atheism, blasphemy and
profaneness, or against the essence and attributes of God, and in
particular the book published in the name of one White,[20] and the book
of Mr Hobbes called the _Leviathan_, and to report the matter with their
opinion to the House." Hobbes, then verging upon eighty, was terrified
at the prospect of being treated as a heretic, and proceeded to burn
such of his papers as he thought might compromise him. At the same time
he set himself, with a very characteristic determination, to inquire
into the actual state of the law of heresy. The results of his
investigation were first announced in three short Dialogues added (in
place of the old "Review and Conclusion," for which the day had passed)
as an Appendix to his Latin translation of _Leviathan_ (_L.W._ iii.),
included with the general collection of his works published at Amsterdam
in 1668. In this appendix, as also in the posthumous tract, published in
1680, _An Historical Narration concerning Heresy and the Punishment
thereof_ (_E.W._ iv. 385-408), he aimed at showing that, since the High
Court of Commission had been put down, there remained no court of heresy
at all to which he was amenable, and that even when it stood nothing was
to be declared heresy but what was at variance with the Nicene Creed, as
he maintained the doctrine of _Leviathan_ was not.

The only consequence that came of the parliamentary scare was that
Hobbes could never afterwards get permission to print anything on
subjects relating to human conduct. The collected edition of his Latin
works (in two quarto volumes) appeared at Amsterdam in 1668, because he
could not obtain the censor's licence for its publication at London,
Oxford or Cambridge. Other writings which he had finished, or on which
he must have been engaged about this time, were not made public till
after his death--the king apparently having made it the price of his
protection that no fresh provocation should be offered to the popular
sentiment. The most important of the works composed towards 1670, and
thus kept back, is the extremely spirited dialogue to which he gave the
title _Behemoth: the History of the Causes of the Civil Wars of England
and of the Counsels and Artifices by which they were carried on from the
year 1640 to the year 1660_.[21] To the same period probably belongs the
unfinished _Dialogue between a Philosopher and a Student of the Common
Laws of England_ (_E.W._ vi. 1-160), a trenchant criticism of the
constitutional theory of English government as upheld by Coke. Aubrey
takes credit for having tried to induce Hobbes to write upon the subject
in 1664 by presenting him with a copy of Bacon's _Elements of the Laws
of England_, and though the attempt was then unsuccessful, Hobbes later
on took to studying the statute-book, with _Coke upon Littleton_. One
other posthumous production also (besides the tract on Heresy before
mentioned) may be referred to this, if not, as Aubrey suggests, an
earlier time--the two thousand and odd elegiac verses in which he gave
his view of ecclesiastical encroachment on the civil power; the quaint
verses, disposed in his now favourite dialogue-form, were first
published, nine years after his death, under the title _Historia
ecclesiastica_ (_L.W._ v. 341-408), with a preface by Thomas Rymer.

For some time Hobbes was not even allowed to utter a word of protest,
whatever might be the occasion that his enemies took to triumph over
him. In 1669 an unworthy follower--Daniel Scargil by name, a fellow of
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge--had to recant publicly and confess
that his evil life had been the result of Hobbist doctrines. In 1674
John Fell, the dean of Christ Church, who bore the charges of the Latin
translation of Anthony Wood's _History and Antiquities of the University
of Oxford_ (1670), struck out all the complimentary epithets in the
account of his life, and substituted very different ones; but this time
the king did suffer him to defend himself by publishing a dignified
letter (_Vit. Auct._ pp. xlvii.-l.), to which Fell replied by adding to
the translation when it appeared a note full of the grossest insults.
And, amid all his troubles, Hobbes was not without his consolations. No
Englishman of that day stood in the same repute abroad, and foreigners,
noble or learned, who came to England, never forgot to pay their
respects to the old man, whose vigour and freshness of intellect no
progress of the years seemed able to quench. Among these was the
grand-duke of Tuscany (Ferdinand II.), who took away some works and a
portrait to adorn the Medicean library.

His pastimes in the latest years were as singular as his labours. The
autobiography in Latin verse, with its playful humour, occasional pathos
and sublime self-complacency, was thrown off at the age of eighty-four.
At eighty-five, in the year 1673, he sent forth a translation of four
books of the _Odyssey_ (ix.-xii.) in rugged but not seldom happily
turned English rhymes; and, when he found this _Voyage of Ulysses_
eagerly received, he had ready by 1675 a complete translation of both
_Iliad_ and _Odyssey_ (_E.W._ x.), prefaced by a lively dissertation
"Concerning the Virtues of an Heroic Poem," showing his unabated
interest in questions of literary style. After 1675, he passed his time
at his patron's seats in Derbyshire, occupied to the last with
intellectual work in the early morning and in the afternoon hours, which
it had long been his habit to devote to thinking and to writing. Even as
late as August 1679 he was promising his publisher "somewhat to print in
English." The end came very soon afterwards. A suppression of urine in
October, in spite of which he insisted upon being conveyed with the
family from Chatsworth to Hardwick Hall towards the end of November, was
followed by a paralytic stroke, under which he sank on the 4th of
December, in his ninety-second year. He lies buried in the neighbouring
church of Ault Hucknall.


  Personal characteristics.

He was tall and erect in figure, and lived on the whole a temperate
life, though he used to say that he had been drunk about a hundred
times. His favourite exercise was tennis, which he played regularly even
after the age of seventy. Socially he was genial and courteous, though
in argument he occasionally lost his temper. As a friend he was generous
and loyal. Intellectually bold in the extreme, he was curiously timid in
ordinary life, and is said to have had a horror of ghosts. He read
little, and often boasted that he would have known as little as other
men if he had read as much. He appears to have had an illegitimate
daughter for whom he made generous provision. In the National Portrait
Gallery there is a portrait of him by J. M. Wright, and two others are
in the possession of the Royal Society.


  Place in English thought.

As already suggested, it cannot be allowed that Hobbes falls into any
regular succession from Bacon; neither can it be said that he handed on
the torch to Locke. He was the one English thinker of the first rank in
the long period of two generations separating Locke from Bacon, but,
save in the chronological sense, there is no true relation of succession
among the three. It would be difficult even to prove any ground of
affinity among them beyond a desposition to take sense as a prime factor
in the account of subjective experience: their common interest in
physical science was shared equally by rationalist thinkers of the
Cartesian school, and was indeed begotten of the time. Backwards,
Hobbes's relations are rather with Galileo and the other inquirers who,
from the beginning of the 17th century, occupied themselves with the
physical world in the manner that has come later to be distinguished by
the name of science in opposition to philosophy. But even more than in
external nature, Hobbes was interested in the phenomena of social life,
presenting themselves so impressively in an age of political revolution.
So it came to pass that, while he was unable, by reason of imperfect
training and too tardy development, with all his pains, to make any
contribution to physical science or to mathematics as instrumental in
physical research, he attempted a task which no other adherent of the
new "mechanical philosophy" conceived--nothing less than such a
universal construction of human knowledge as would bring Society and Man
(at once the matter and maker of Society) within the same principles of
scientific explanation as were found applicable to the world of Nature.
The construction was, of course, utterly premature, even supposing it
were inherently possible; but it is Hobbes's distinction, in his
century, to have conceived it, and he is thereby lifted from among the
scientific workers with whom he associated to the rank of those
philosophical thinkers who have sought to order the whole domain of
human knowledge. The effects of his philosophical endeavour may be
traced on a variety of lines. Upon every subject that came within the
sweep of his system, except mathematics and physics, his thoughts have
been productive of thought. When the first storm of opposition from
smaller men had begun to die down, thinkers of real weight, beginning
with Cumberland and Cudworth, were moved by their aversion to his
analysis of the moral nature of man to probe anew the question of the
natural springs and the rational grounds of human action; and thus it
may be said that Hobbes gave the first impulse to the whole of that
movement of ethical speculation that, in modern times, has been carried
on with such remarkable continuity in England. In politics the revulsion
from his particular conclusions did not prevent the more clear-sighted
of his opponents from recognizing the force of his supreme demonstration
of the practical irresponsibility of the sovereign power, wherever
seated, in the state; and, when in a later age the foundations of a
positive theory of legislation were laid in England, the school of
Bentham--James Mill, Grote, Molesworth--brought again into general
notice the writings of the great publicist of the 17th century, who,
however he might, by the force of temperament, himself prefer the rule
of one, based his whole political system upon a rational regard to the
common weal. Finally, the psychology of Hobbes, though too undeveloped
to guide the thoughts or even perhaps arrest the attention of Locke,
when essaying the scientific analysis of knowledge, came in course of
time (chiefly through James Mill) to be connected with the theory of
associationism developed from within the school of Locke, in different
ways, by Hartley and Hume; nor is it surprising that the later
associationists, finding their principle more distinctly formulated in
the earlier thinker, should sometimes have been betrayed into
affiliating themselves to Hobbes rather than to Locke. For his ethical
theories see Ethics.

  Sufficient information is given in the _Vitae Hobbianae auctarium_
  (_L.W._ i. p. lxv. ff.) concerning the frequent early editions of
  Hobbes's separate works, and also concerning the works of those who
  wrote against him, to the end of the 17th century. In the 18th
  century, after Clarke's _Boyle Lectures_ of 1704-1705, the opposition
  was less express. In 1750 _The Moral and Political Works_ were
  collected, with life, &c., by Dr Campbell, in a folio edition,
  including in order, _Human Nature_, _De corpore politico_,
  _Leviathan_, _Answer to Bramhall's Catching of the Leviathan_,
  _Narration concerning Heresy_, _Of Liberty and Necessity_, _Behemoth_,
  _Dialogue of the Common Laws_, the Introduction to the _Thucydides_,
  _Letter to Davenant and two others_, the Preface to the _Homer_, _De
  mirabilibus Pecci_ (with English translation), _Considerations on the
  Reputation, &., of T. H._ In 1812 the _Human Nature_ and the _Liberty
  and Necessity_ (with supplementary extracts from the _Questions_ of
  1656) were reprinted in a small edition of 250 copies, with a
  meritorious memoir (based on Campbell) and dedication to Horne Tooke,
  by Philip Mallet. Molesworth's edition (1839-1845), dedicated to
  Grote, has been referred to in a former note. Of translations may be
  mentioned _Les Élémens philosophiques du citoyen_ (1649) and _Le Corps
  politique_ (1652), both by S. de Sorbière, conjoined with _Le Traité
  de la nature humaine_, by d'Holbach, in 1787, under the general title
  _Les Oeuvres philosophiques et politiques de Thomas Hobbes_; a
  translation of the first section, "Computatio sive logica," of the _De
  corpore_, included by Destutt de Tracy with his _Élémens d'idéologie_
  (1804); a translation of _Leviathan_ into Dutch in 1678, and another
  (anonymous) into German--_Des Engländers Thomas Hobbes Leviathan oder
  der kirchliche und bürgerliche Staat_ (Halle, 1794, 2 vols.); a
  translation of the _De cive_ by J. H. v. Kirchmann--_T. Hobbes:
  Abhandlung über den Bürger, &c._ (Leipzig, 1873). Important later
  editions are those of Ferdinand Tönnies, _Behemoth_ (1889), on which
  see Croom Robertson's _Philosophical Remains_ (1894), p. 451;
  _Elements of Law_ (1889).

  _Biographical and Critical Works._--There are three accounts of
  Hobbes's life, first published together in 1681, two years after his
  death, by R. B. (Richard Blackbourne, a friend of Hobbes's admirer,
  John Aubrey), and reprinted, with complimentary verses by Cowley and
  others, at the beginning of Sir W. Molesworth's collection of the
  _Latin Works_: (1) _T. H. Malmesb. vita_ (pp. xiii.-xxi.), written by
  Hobbes himself, or (as also reported) by T. Rymer, at his dictation;
  (2) _Vitae Hobbianae auctarium_ (pp. xxii.-lxxx.), turned into Latin
  from Aubrey's English; (3) _T. H. Malmesb. vita carmine expressa_ (pp.
  lxxxi.-xcix.), written by Hobbes at the age of eighty-four (first
  published by itself in 1680). The _Life of Mr T. H. of Malmesburie_,
  printed among the _Lives of Eminent Men_, in 1813, from Aubrey's
  papers in the Bodleian, &c. (vol. ii. pt. ii. pp. 593-637), contains
  some interesting particulars not found in the _Auctarium_. All that is
  of any importance for Hobbes's life is contained in G. Croom
  Robertson's _Hobbes_ (1886) in Blackwood's Philosophical Classics, and
  Sir Leslie Stephen's _Hobbes_ (1904) in the "English Men of Letters"
  series, both of which deal fully with his philosophy also. See also F.
  Tönnies, _Hobbes Leben und Lehre_ (1896), _Hobbes-Analekten_ (1904
  foll.); G. Zart, _Einfluss der englischen Philosophie seit Bacon auf
  die deutsche Philosophie des 18ten Jahrh._ (Berlin, 1881); G. Brandt,
  _Thomas Hobbes: Grundlinien seiner Philosophie_ (1895); G. Lyon, _La
  Philos. de Hobbes_ (1893); J. M. Robertson, _Pioneer Humanists_
  (1907); J. Rickaby, _Free Will and Four English Philosophers_ (1906),
  pp. 1-72; J. Watson, _Hedonistic Theories_ (1895); W. Graham, _English
  Political Philosophy from Hobbes to Maine_ (1899); W. J. H. Campion,
  _Outlines of Lectures on Political Science_ (1895).     (G. C. R.; X.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The translation, under the title _Eight Books of the
    Peloponnesian War, written by Thucydides the son of Olorus,
    interpreted with faith and diligence immediately out of the Greek by
    Thomas Hobbes, secretary to the late Earl of Devonshire_, appeared in
    1628 (or 1629), after the death of the earl, to whom touching
    reference is made in the dedication. It reappeared in 1634, with the
    date of the dedication altered, as if then newly written. Though
    Hobbes claims to have performed his work "with much more diligence
    than elegance," his version is remarkable as a piece of English
    writing, but is by no means accurate. It fills vols. viii. and ix. in
    Molesworth's collection (11 vols., including index vol.) of Hobbes's
    _English Works_ (London, Bohn, 1839-1845). The volumes of this
    collection will here be cited as E. W. Molesworth's collection of the
    Latin _Opera philosophica_ (5 vols., 1839-1845) will be cited as
    _L.W._ The five hundred and odd Latin hexameters under the title _De
    mirabilibus Pecci_ (_L.W._ v. 323-340), giving an account of a short
    excursion from Chatsworth to view the seven wonders of the Derbyshire
    Peak, were written before 1628 (in 1626 or 1627), though not
    published till 1636. It was a New Year's present to his patron, who
    gave him £5 in return. A later edition, in 1678, included an English
    version by another hand.

  [2] Hobbes, in minor works dealing with physical questions (L.W. iv.
    316; _E.W._ vii. 112), makes two incidental references to Bacon's
    writings, but never mentions Bacon as he mentions Galileo, Kepler,
    Harvey, and others (_De corpore_, ep. ded.), among the lights of the
    century. The word "Induction," which occurs in only three or four
    passages throughout all his works (and these again minor ones), is
    never used by him with the faintest reminiscence of the import
    assigned to it by Bacon; and, as will be seen, he had nothing but
    scorn for experimental work in physics.

  [3] The free English abstract of Aristotle's _Rhetoric_, published in
    1681, after Hobbes's death, as _The Whole Art of Rhetoric_ (_E.W._
    vi. 423-510), corresponds with a Latin version dictated to his young
    pupil. Among Hobbes's papers preserved at Hardwick, where he died,
    there remains the boy's dictation-book, interspersed with headings,
    examples, &c. in Hobbes's hand.

  [4] Among the Hardwick papers there is preserved a MS. copy of the
    work, under the title _Elementes of Law Naturall and Politique_, with
    the dedication to the earl of Newcastle, written in Hobbes's own
    hand, and dated May 9, 1640. This dedication was prefixed to the
    first thirteen chapters of the work when printed by themselves, under
    the title _Human Nature_ in 1650.

  [5] The book, of which the copies are rare (one in Dr Williams's
    library in London and one in the Bodleian), was printed in quarto
    size (Paris, 1642), with a pictorial title-page (not afterwards
    reproduced) of scenes and figures illustrating its three divisions,
    "Libertas," "Imperium," "Religio." The title _Elementorum
    philosophiae sectio tertia, De Cive_, expresses its relation to the
    unwritten sections, which also comes out in one or two
    back-references in the text.

  [6] _L.W._ ii. 133-134. In this first public edition (12mo), the
    title was changed to _Elementa philosophica de cive_, the references
    in the text to the previous sections being omitted. The date of the
    dedication to the young earl of Devonshire was altered from 1641 to
    1646.

  [7] Described as "nobilis Languedocianus" in _Vit._; doubtless the
    same with the "Dominus Verdusius, nobilis Aquitanus," to whom was
    dedicated the _Exam. et emend. math. hod._ (_L.W._ iv.) in 1660. Du
    Verdus was one of Hobbes's profoundest admirers and most frequent
    correspondents in later years; there are many of his letters among
    Hobbes's papers at Hardwick.

  [8] _The Human Nature_ corresponds with cc. i.-xiii. of the first
    part of the original treatise. The remaining six chapters of the part
    stand now as Part I. of the _De Corpore Politico_. Part II. of the
    _D.C.P._ corresponds with the original second part of the whole work.

  [9] At the beginning of this year he wrote and published in Paris a
    letter on the nature and conditions of poetry, chiefly epic, in
    answer to an appeal to his judgment made in the preface to Sir W.
    Davenant's heroic poem, _Gondibert_ (_E.W._ iv. 441-458). The letter
    is dated Jan. 10, 1650 (1650/1).

  [10] This presentation copy, so described by Clarendon (_Survey of
    the Leviathan_, 1676, p. 8), is doubtless the beautifully written and
    finely bound MS. now to be found in the British Museum (Egerton MSS.
    1910).

  [11] During all the time he was abroad he had continued to receive
    from his patron a yearly pension of £80, and they remained in steady,
    correspondence. The earl, having sided with the king in 1642, was
    declared unfit to sit in the House of Peers, and though, by
    submission to Parliament, he recovered his estates when they were
    sequestered later on, he did not sit again till 1660. Among Hobbes's
    friends at this time are specially mentioned John Selden and William
    Harvey, who left him a legacy of £10. According to Aubrey, Selden
    left him an equal bequest, but this seems to be a mistake. Harvey
    (not Bacon) is the only Englishman he mentions in the dedicatory
    epistle prefixed to the _De corpore_, among the founders, before
    himself, of the new natural philosophy.

  [12] The treatise bore the date, "Rouen, Aug. 20, 1652," but it
    should have been 1646, as afterwards explained by Hobbes himself
    (_E.W._ v. 25).

  [13] "The _Vit. auct._ refers to 1676, a 'Letter to William duke of
    Newcastle on the Controversy about Liberty and Necessity, held with
    Benjamin Laney, bishop of Ely.' In that year there did appear a
    (confused) little tract written by Laney against Hobbes's concluding
    statement of his own 'Opinion' in the 'Liberty and Necessity' of 1654
    (1646), but I can find no trace of any further writing by Hobbes on
    the subject" (G. Croom Robertson, _Hobbes_, p. 202).

  [14] This translation, _Concerning Body_, though not made by Hobbes,
    was revised by him; but it is far from accurate, and not seldom, at
    critical places (e.g. c. vi. § 2), quite misleading. Philosophical
    citations from the _De corpore_ should always be made in the original
    Latin. Molesworth reprints the Latin, not from the first edition of
    1655, but from the modified edition of 1668--modified, in the
    mathematical chapters, in general (not exact) keeping with the
    English edition of 1656. The Vindex episode, referred to in the _Six
    Lessons_, becomes intelligible only by going beyond Molesworth to the
    original Latin edition of 1655.

  [15] They were composed originally, in a somewhat different and
    rather more extended form, as the second part of an English treatise
    on Optics, completed by the year 1646. Of this treatise, preserved in
    Harleian MSS. 3360, Molesworth otherwise prints the dedication to the
    marquis of Newcastle, and the concluding paragraphs (_E.W._ vii.
    467-471).

  [16] _L.W._ iv. 1-232. The propositions on the circle, forty-six in
    number (shattered by Wallis in 1662), were omitted by Hobbes when he
    republished the _Dialogues_ in 1668, in the collected edition of his
    Latin works from which Molesworth reprints. In the part omitted, at
    p. 154 of the original edition, Hobbes refers to his first
    introduction to Euclid, in a way that confirms the story in Aubrey
    quoted in an earlier paragraph.

  [17] Remaining at Oxford, Wallis, in fact, took no active part in the
    constitution of the new society, but he had been, from 1645, one of
    the originators of an earlier association in London, thus continued
    or revived. This earlier society had been continued also at Oxford
    after the year 1649, when Wallis and others of its members received
    appointments there.

  [18] The _Problemata physica_ was at the same time put into English
    (with some changes and omission of part of the mathematical
    appendix), and presented to the king, to whom the work was dedicated
    in a remarkable letter apologizing for _Leviathan_. In its English
    form, as _Seven Philosophical Problems and Two Propositions of
    Geometry_ (_E.W._ vii. 1-68), the work was first published in 1682,
    after Hobbes's death.

  [19] Wallis's pieces were excluded from the collected edition of his
    works (1693-1697), and have become extremely rare.

  [20] The De medio animarum statu of Thomas White, a heterodox
    Catholic priest, who contested the natural immortality of the soul.
    White (who died 1676) and Hobbes were friends.

  [21] _E.W._ vi. 161-418. Though _Behemoth_ was kept back at the
    king's express desire, it saw the light, without Hobbes's leave, in
    1679, before his death.



HOBBY, a small horse, probably from early quotations, of Irish breed,
trained to an easy gait so that riding was not fatiguing. The common use
of the word is for a favourite pursuit or occupation, with the idea
either of excessive devotion or of absence of ulterior motive or of
profit, &c., outside the occupation itself. This use is probably not
derived from the easy ambling gait of the Irish "hobby," but from the
"hobby-horse," the mock horse of the old morris-dances, made of a
painted wooden horse's head and tail, with a framework casing for an
actor's body, his legs being covered by a cloth made to represent the
"housings" of the medieval tilting-horse. A hobby or hobby-horse is thus
a toy, a diversion. The O. Fr. _hobin_, or _hobi_, Mod. _aubin_, and
Ital. _ubina_ are probably adaptations of the English, according to the
_New English Dictionary_. The O. Fr. hober, to move, which is often
taken to be the origin of all these words, is the source of a use of
"hobby" for a small kind of falcon, _falco subbuteo_, used in hawking.



HOBHOUSE, ARTHUR HOBHOUSE, 1ST BARON (1819-1904), English judge, fourth
son of Henry Hobhouse, permanent under-secretary of state in the Home
Office, was born at Hadspen, Somerset, on the 10th of November 1819.
Educated at Eton and Balliol, he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn
in 1845, and rapidly acquired a large practice as a conveyancer and
equity draftsman; he became Q.C. in 1862, and practised in the Rolls
Court, retiring in 1866. He was an active member of the charity
commission and urged the appropriation of pious bequests to educational
and other purposes. In 1872 he began a five years' term of service as
legal member of the council of the governor-general of India, his
services being acknowledged by a K.C.S.I.; and in 1881 he was appointed
a member of the judicial committee of the privy council, on which he
served for twenty years. He was made a peer in 1885, and consistently
supported the Liberal party in the House of Lords. He died on the 6th of
December 1904, leaving no heir to the barony.

  His papers read before the Social Science Association on the subject
  of property were collected in 1880 under the title of _The Dead Hand_.



HOBOKEN, a small town of Belgium on the right bank of the Scheldt about
4 m. above Antwerp. It is only important on account of the shipbuilding
yard which the Cockerill firm of Seraing has established at Hoboken.
Many wealthy Antwerp merchants have villas here, and it is the
headquarters of several of the leading rowing clubs on the Scheldt. Pop.
(1904) 12,816.



HOBOKEN, a city of Hudson county, New Jersey, U.S.A., on the Hudson
river, adjoining Jersey City on the S. and W. and opposite New York
city, with which it is connected by ferries and by two subway lines
through tunnels under the river. Pop. (1890) 43,648; (1900) 59,364, of
whom 21,380 were foreign-born, 10,843 being natives of Germany; (1910
census) 70,324. Of the total population in 1900, 48,349 had either one
or both parents foreign-born, German being the principal racial element.
The city is served by the West Shore, and the Delaware, Lackawanna &
Western railways, being the eastern terminus of the latter, and is
connected by electric railway with the neighbouring cities of
north-eastern New Jersey. In Hoboken are the piers of the North German
Lloyd, the Hamburg American, the Netherlands American, the Scandinavian
and the Phoenix steamship lines. Hoboken occupies a little more than 1
sq. m. and lies near the foot of the New Jersey Palisades, which rise
both on the W. and N. to a height of nearly 200 ft. Much of its surface
has had to be filled in to raise it above high tide, but Castle Point,
in the N.E., rises from the generally low level about 100 ft. On this
Point are the residence and private estate of the founder of the city,
John Stevens (1749-1838), Hudson Park, and facing it the Stevens
Institute of Technology, an excellent school of mechanical engineering
endowed by Edwin A. Stevens (1795-1868), son of John Stevens, opened in
1871, and having in 1909-1910 34 instructors and 390 students. The
institute owes much to its first president, Henry Morton (1836-1902), a
distinguished scientist, whose aim was "to offer a course of instruction
in which theory and practice were carefully balanced and thoroughly
combined," and who gave to the institute sums aggregating $175,000 (see
_Morton Memorial, History of Stevens Institute_, ed. by Furman, 1905).
In connexion with the institute there is a preparatory department, the
Stevens School (1870). The city maintains a teachers' training school.
Among the city's prominent buildings are the Delaware, Lackawanna &
Western station, the Hoboken Academy (1860), founded by German
Americans, and the public library. The city has an extensive coal trade
and numerous manufactures, among which are lead pencils, leather goods,
silk goods, wall-paper and caskets. The value of the manufactured
product increased from $7,151,391 in 1890 to $12,092,872 in 1900, or
69.1%. The factory product in 1905 was valued at $14,077,305, an
increase of 34.3% over that for 1900. The site of Hoboken (originally
"Hobocanhackingh," the place of the tobacco pipe) was occupied about
1640 as a Dutch farm, but in 1643 the stock and all the buildings except
a brew-house were destroyed by the Indians. In 1711 title to the place
was acquired by Samuel Bayard, a New York merchant, who built on Castle
Point his summer residence. During the War of Independence his
descendant, William Bayard, was a loyalist, and his home was burned and
his estate confiscated. In 1784 the property was purchased by John
Stevens, the inventor, who in 1804 laid it out as a town. For the next
thirty-five years its "Elysian Fields" were a famous pleasure resort of
New York City. Hoboken was incorporated as a town in 1849 and as a city
in 1855. On the 30th of June 1900 the wharves of the North German Lloyd
Steamship Company and three of its ocean liners were almost completely
destroyed by a fire, which caused a loss of more than 200 lives and over
$5,000,000.



HOBSON'S CHOICE, i.e. "this or nothing," an expression that arose from
the fact that the Cambridge-London carrier, Thomas Hobson (1544-1630),
refused, when letting his horses on hire, to allow any animal to leave
the stable out of its turn. Among other bequests made by Hobson, and
commemorated by Milton, was a conduit for the Cambridge market-place,
for which he provided the perpetual maintenance. See _Spectator_, No.
509 (14th of October 1712).



HOBY, SIR THOMAS (1530-1566), English diplomatist and translator, son of
William Hoby of Leominster, was born in 1530. He entered St John's
College, Cambridge, in 1545, but in 1547 he went to Strassburg, where he
was the guest of Martin Bucer, whose _Gratulation ... unto the Church of
Englande for the restitution of Christes Religion_ he translated into
English. He then proceeded to Italy, visiting Padua and Venice, Florence
and Siena, and in May 1550 he had settled at Rome, when he was summoned
by his half-brother, Sir Philip Hoby (1505-1558), then ambassador at the
emperor's court, to Augsburg. The brothers returned to England at the
end of the year, and Thomas attached himself to the service of the
marquis of Northampton, whom he accompanied to France on an embassy to
arrange a marriage between Edward VI. and the princess Elizabeth.
Shortly after he returned to England he started once more for Paris, and
in 1552 he was engaged on his translation of _The Courtyer of Count
Baldessar Castilio_. His work was probably completed in 1554, and the
freedom of the allusions to the Roman church probably accounts for the
fact that it was withheld from publication until 1561. The _Cortegiano_
of Baldassare Castiglione, which Dr Johnson called "the best book that
ever was written upon good breeding," is a book as entirely typical of
the Italian Renaissance as Machiavelli's _Prince_ in another direction.
It exercised an immense influence on the standards of chivalry
throughout Europe, and was long the recognized authority for the
education of a nobleman. The accession of Mary made it desirable for the
Hobys to remain abroad, and they were in Italy until the end of 1555.
Thomas Hoby married in 1558 Elizabeth, the learned daughter of Sir
Anthony Cook, who wrote a Latin epitaph on her husband. He was knighted
in 1566 by Elizabeth, and was sent to France as English ambassador. He
died on the 13th of July in the same year in Paris, and was buried in
Bisham Church.

His son, SIR EDWARD HOBY (1560-1617), enjoyed Elizabeth's favour, and he
was employed on various confidential missions. He was constable of
Queenborough Castle, Kent, where he died on the 1st of March 1617. He
took part in the religious controversies of the time, publishing many
pamphlets against Theophilus Higgons and John Fludd or Floyd. He
translated, from the French of Mathieu Coignet, _Politique Discourses on
Trueth and Lying_ (1586).

  The authority for Thomas Hoby's biography is a MS. "Booke of the
  Travaile and lief of me Thomas Hoby, with diverse things worth the
  noting." This was edited for the Royal Historical Society by Edgar
  Powell in 1902. Hoby's translation of _The Courtyer_ was edited (1900)
  by Professor Walter Raleigh for the "Tudor Translations" series.



HOCHE, LAZARE (1768-1797), French general, was born of poor parents near
Versailles on the 24th of June 1768. At sixteen years of age he enlisted
as a private soldier in the _Gardes françaises_. He spent his entire
leisure in earning extra pay by civil work, his object being to provide
himself with books, and this love of study, which was combined with a
strong sense of duty and personal courage, soon led to his promotion.
When the _Gardes françaises_ were broken up in 1789 he was a corporal,
and thereafter he served in various line regiments up to the time of his
receiving a commission in 1792. In the defence of Thionville in that
year Hoche earned further promotion, and he served with credit in the
operations of 1792-1793 on the northern frontier of France. At the
battle of Neerwinden he was aide-de-camp to General le Veneur, and when
Dumouriez deserted to the Austrians, Hoche, along with le Veneur and
others, fell under suspicion of treason; but after being kept under
arrest and unemployed for some months he took part in the defence of
Dunkirk, and in the same year (1793) he was promoted successively _chef
de brigade_, general of brigade, and general of division. In October
1793 he was provisionally appointed to command the Army of the Moselle,
and within a few weeks he was in the field at the head of his army in
Lorraine. His first battle was that of Kaiserslautern (28th-30th of
November) against Prussians. The French were defeated, but even in the
midst of the Terror the Committee of Public Safety continued Hoche in
his command. Pertinacity and fiery energy in their eyes outweighed
everything else, and Hoche soon showed that he possessed these
qualities. On the 22nd of December he stormed the lines of Fröschweiler,
and the representatives of the Convention with his army at once added
the Army of the Rhine to his sphere of command. On the 26th of December
the French carried by assault the famous lines of Weissenburg, and
Hoche pursued his success, sweeping the enemy before him to the middle
Rhine in four days. He then put his troops into winter quarters. Before
the following campaign opened, he married Anne Adelaïde Dechaux at
Thionville (March 11th, 1794). But ten days later he was suddenly
arrested, charges of treason having been preferred by Pichegru, the
displaced commander of the Army of the Rhine, and by his friends. Hoche
escaped execution, however, though imprisoned in Paris until the fall of
Robespierre. Shortly after his release he was appointed to command
against the Vendéans (21st of August 1794). He completed the work of his
predecessors in a few months by the peace of Jaunaye (15th of February
1795), but soon afterwards the war was renewed by the Royalists. Hoche
showed himself equal to the crisis and inflicted a crushing blow on the
Royalist cause by defeating and capturing de Sombreuil's expedition at
Quiberon and Penthièvre (16th-21st of July 1795). Thereafter, by means
of mobile columns (which he kept under good discipline) he succeeded
before the summer of 1796 in pacifying the whole of the west, which had
for more than three years been the scene of a pitiless civil war. After
this he was appointed to organize and command the troops destined for
the invasion of Ireland, and he started on this enterprise in December
1796. A tempest, however, separated Hoche from the expedition, and after
various adventures the whole fleet returned to Brest without having
effected its purpose. Hoche was at once transferred to the Rhine
frontier, where he defeated the Austrians at Neuwied (April), though
operations were soon afterwards brought to an end by the Preliminaries
of Leoben. Later in 1797 he was minister of war for a short period, but
in this position he was surrounded by obscure political intrigues, and,
finding himself the dupe of Barras and technically guilty of violating
the constitution, he quickly laid down his office, returning to his
command on the Rhine frontier. But his health grew rapidly worse, and he
died at Wetzlar on the 19th of September 1797 of consumption. The belief
was widely spread that he had been poisoned, but the suspicion seems to
have been without foundation. He was buried by the side of his friend
Marceau in a fort on the Rhine, amidst the mourning not only of his army
but of all France.

  See Privat, _Notions historiques sur la vie morale, politique et
  militaire du général Hoche_ (Strassburg, 1798); Daunou, _Éloge du
  général Hoche_ (1798), delivered on behalf of the Institut at Hoche's
  funeral; Rousselin, _Vie de Lazare Hoche, général des armées de la
  république française_ (Paris, 1798; this work was printed at the
  public expense and distributed to the schools); Dubroca, _Éloge
  funèbre du général Hoche_ (Paris, 1800); _Vie et pensées du général
  Hoche_ (Bern); Champrobert, _Notice historique sur Lazare Hoche, le
  pacificateur de la Vendée_ (Paris, 1840); Dourille, _Histoire de
  Lazare Hoche_ (Paris, 1844); Desprez, _Lazare Hoche d'après sa
  correspondance_ (Paris, 1858; new ed., 1880); Bergounioux, _Essai sur
  la vie de Lazare Hoche_ (1852); É. de Bonnechose, _Lazare Hoche_
  (1867); H. Martin, _Hoche et Bonaparte_ (1875); Dutemple, _Vie
  politique et militaire du général Hoche_ (1879); Escaude, _Hoche en
  Irlande_ (1888); Cunéo d'Ornano, _Hoche_ (1892); A. Chuquet, _Hoche et
  la lutte pour l'Alsace_ (a volume of this author's series on the
  campaigns of the Revolution, 1893); E. Charavaray, _Le Général Hoche_
  (1893); A. Duruy, _Hoche et Marceau_ (1885).



HOCHHEIM, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau,
situated on an elevation not far from the right bank of the Main, 3 m.
above its influx into the Rhine and 3 m. E. of Mainz by the railway from
Cassel to Frankfort-on-Main. Pop. (1905) 3779. It has an Evangelical and
a Roman Catholic church, and carries on an extensive trade in wine, the
English word "Hock," the generic term for Rhine wine, being derived from
its name. Hochheim is mentioned in the chronicles as early as the 7th
century. It is also memorable as the scene of a victory gained here, on
the 7th of November 1813 by the Austrians over the French.

  See Schüler, _Geschichte der Stadt Hochheim am Main_ (Hochheim, 1888).



HÖCHST, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau on
the Main, 6 m. by rail W. of Frankfort-on-Main. Pop. (1905) 14,121. It
is a busy industrial town with large dye-works and manufactures of
machinery, snuff, tobacco, waxcloth, gelatine, furniture and biscuits.
Brewing is carried on and there is a considerable river trade. The
Roman Catholic church of St Justinus is a fine basilica originally built
in the 9th century; it has been restored several times, and a Gothic
choir was added in the 15th century. The town has also an Evangelical
church and a synagogue, and a statue of Bismarck by Alois Mayer. Höchst
belonged formerly to the electors of Mainz who had a palace here; this
was destroyed in 1634 with the exception of one fine tower which still
remains. In 1622 Christian, duke of Brunswick, was defeated here by
Count Tilly, and in 1795 the Austrians gained a victory here over the
French.

Höchst is also the name of a small town in Hesse. This has some
manufactures, and was formerly the seat of a Benedictine monastery.



HÖCHSTÄDT, a town of Bavaria, Germany, in the district of Swabia, on the
left bank of the Danube, 34 m. N.E. of Ulm by rail. Pop. (1905) 2305. It
has three Roman Catholic churches, a castle flanked by walls and towers
and some small industries, including malting and brewing. Höchstädt,
which came into the possession of Bavaria in 1266, has been a place of
battles. Here Frederick of Hohenstaufen, vicegerent of the Empire for
Henry IV., was defeated by Henry's rival, Hermann of Luxemburg, in 1081;
in 1703 the Imperialists were routed here by Marshal Villars in command
of the French; in August 1704 Marlborough and Prince Eugene defeated the
French and Bavarians commanded by Max Emanuel, the elector of Bavaria
and Marshal Tallard, this battle being usually known as that of
Blenheim; and in June 1800 an engagement took place here between the
Austrians and the French.

There is another small town in Bavaria named Höchstadt. Pop. 2000. This
is on the river Aisch, not far from Bamberg, to which bishopric it
belonged from 1157 to 1802, when it was ceded to Bavaria.



HOCHSTETTER, FERDINAND CHRISTIAN VON, BARON (1829-1884), Austrian
geologist, was born at Esslingen, Würtemberg, on the 30th of April 1829.
He was the son of Christian Ferdinand Hochstetter (1787-1860), a
clergyman and professor at Brünn, who was also a botanist and
mineralogist. Having received his early education at the evangelical
seminary at Maulbronn, he proceeded to the university of Tübingen; there
under F. A. Quenstedt the interest he already felt in geology became
permanently fixed, and there he obtained his doctor's degree and a
travelling scholarship. In 1852 he joined the staff of the Imperial
Geological Survey of Austria and was engaged until 1856 in parts of
Bohemia, especially in the Böhmerwald, and in the Fichtel and Karlsbad
mountains. His excellent reports established his reputation. Thus he
came to be chosen as geologist to the Novara expedition (1857-1859), and
made numerous valuable observations in the voyage round the world. In
1859 he was engaged by the government of New Zealand to make a rapid
geological survey of the islands. On his return he was appointed in 1860
professor of mineralogy and geology at the Imperial Polytechnic
Institute in Vienna, and in 1876 he was made superintendent of the
Imperial Natural History Museum. In these later years he explored
portions of Turkey and eastern Russia, and he published papers on a
variety of geological, palaeontological and mineralogical subjects. He
died at Vienna on the 18th of July 1884.

  PUBLICATIONS.--_Karlsbad, seine geognostischen Verhältnisse und seine
  Quellen_ (1858); _Neu-Seeland_ (1863); _Geological and Topographical
  Atlas of New Zealand_ (1864); _Leitfaden der Mineralogie und Geologie_
  (with A. Bisching) (1876, ed. 8, 1890).



HOCKEY (possibly derived from the "hooked" stick with which it is
played; cf. O. Fr. _hoquet_, shepherd's crook), a game played with a
ball or some similar object by two opposing sides, using hooked or bent
sticks, with which each side attempts to drive it into the other's goal.
In one or more of its variations Hockey was known to most northern
peoples in both Europe and Asia, and the Romans possessed a game of
similar nature. It was played indiscriminately on the frozen ground or
the ice in winter. In Scotland it was called "shinty," and in Ireland
"hurley," and was usually played on the hard, sandy sea-shore with
numerous players on each side. The rules were simple and the play very
rough.

Modern Hockey, properly so called, is played during the cold season on
the hard turf, and owes its recent vogue to the formation of "The Men's
Hockey Association" in England in 1875. The rules drawn up by the
Wimbledon Club in 1883 still obtain in all essentials. Since 1895
"international" matches at hockey have been played annually between
England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales; and in 1907 a match was played
between England and France, won by England by 14 goals to nil. In 1890
Divisional Association matches (North, South, West, Midlands) and
inter-university matches (Oxford and Cambridge) were inaugurated, and
have since been played annually. County matches are also now regularly
played in England, twenty-six counties competing in 1907. Of other
hockey clubs playing regular matches in 1907, there were eighty-one in
the London district, and fifty-nine in the provinces.

[Illustration: Diagram of Hockey Field.

  G, Goal.          RW, Right Wing.
  RB, Right Back.   RI, Inside Right.
  LB, Left Back.    CF, Centre Forward.
  RH, Right Half.   LI, Inside Left.
  CH, Centre Half.  LW, Left Wing.]
  LH, Left Half.

  The game is played by teams of eleven players on a ground 100 yds.
  long and 50 to 60 yds. wide. The goals are in the centre of each
  end-line, and consist of two uprights 7 ft. high surmounted by a
  horizontal bar, enclosing a space 12 ft. wide. In front of each goal
  is a space enclosed by a curved line, its greatest diameter from the
  goal-line being 15 ft., called the _striking-circle_. The positions of
  the players on each side may be seen on the accompanying diagram. Two
  umpires, one on each side of the centre-line, officiate.

  The ball is an ordinary cricket-ball painted white. The stick has a
  hard-wood curved head, and a handle of cork or wrapped cane. It must
  not exceed 2 in. in diameter nor 28 oz. in weight. At the start of the
  game, which consists of two thirty or thirty-five minute periods, the
  two centre-forwards "bully off" the ball in the middle of the field.
  In "bullying off" each centre must strike the ground on his own side
  of the ball three times with his stick and strike his opponent's stick
  three times alternately; after which either may strike the ball. Each
  side then endeavours, by means of striking, passing and dribbling, to
  drive the ball into its opponents' goal. A player is "off side" if he
  is nearer the enemy's goal than one of his own side who strikes the
  ball, and he may not strike the ball himself until it has been touched
  by one of the opposing side. The ball may be caught (but not held) or
  stopped by any part of the body, but may not be picked up, carried,
  kicked, thrown or knocked except with the stick. An opponent's stick
  may be hooked, but not an opponent's person, which may not be
  obstructed in any way. No left-handed play is allowed. Penalties for
  infringing rules are of two classes; "free hits" and "penalty
  bullies," to be taken where the foul occurred. For flagrant fouls
  penalty goals may also be awarded. A "corner" occurs when the ball
  goes behind the goal-line, but not into goal. If it is hit by the
  attacking side, or unintentionally by the defenders, it must be
  brought out 25 yds., in a direction at right angles to the goal-line
  from the point where it crossed the line, and there "bullied." But if
  the ball is driven from within the 25-yd. line unintentionally behind
  the goal-line by the defenders, a member of the attacking side is
  given a free hit from a point within 3 yds. of a corner flag, the
  members of the defending side remaining behind their goal-line. If the
  ball is hit intentionally behind the goal-line by the attacking side,
  the free hit is taken from the point where the ball went over. No goal
  can be scored from a free hit directly.

_Ice Hockey_ (or _Bandy_, to give it its original name) is far more
popular than ordinary Hockey in countries where there is much ice; in
fact in America "Hockey" means Ice Hockey, while the land game is called
Field Hockey. Ice Hockey in its simplest form of driving a ball across a
given limit with a stick or club has been played for centuries in
northern Europe, attaining its greatest popularity in the Low Countries,
and there are many 16th- and 17th-century paintings extant which
represent games of Bandy, the players using an implement formed much
like a golf club.

  In England Bandy is controlled by the "National Bandy Association." A
  team consists of eleven players, wearing skates, and the proper space
  for play is 200 yds. by 100 yds. in extent. The ball is of solid
  india-rubber, between 2¼ and 2¾ in. in diameter. The bandies are 2 in.
  in diameter and about 4 ft. long. The goals, placed in the centre of
  each goal-line, consist of two upright posts 7 ft. high and 12 ft.
  apart, connected by a lath. A match is begun by the referee throwing
  up the ball in the centre of the field, after which it must not be
  touched other than with the bandy until a goal is scored or the ball
  passes the boundaries of the course, in which case it is hit into the
  field in any direction excepting forward from the point where it went
  out by the player who touched it last. If the ball is hit across the
  goal-line but not into a goal, it is hit out by one of the defenders
  from the point where it went over, the opponents not being allowed to
  approach nearer than 25 yds. from the goal-line while the hit is made.

  [Illustration: Hockey Stick.]

  In America the development of the modern game is due to the Victoria
  Hockey Club and McGill University (Montreal). About 1881 the secretary
  of the former club made the first efforts towards drawing up a
  recognized code of laws, and for some time afterwards playing rules
  were agreed upon from time to time whenever an important match was
  played, the chief teams being, besides those already mentioned, the
  Ottawa, Quebec, Crystal and Montreal Hockey Clubs, the first general
  tournament taking place in 1884. Three years later the "Amateur Hockey
  Association of Canada" was formed, and a definite code of rules drawn
  up. Soon afterwards, in consequence of exhibitions given by the best
  Canadian teams in some of the larger cities of the United States, the
  new game was taken up by American schools, colleges and athletic
  clubs, and became nearly as popular in the northern states as in the
  Dominion. The rules differ widely from those of English Bandy. The
  rink must be at least 112 ft. long by 58 ft. wide, and seven players
  form a side. The goals are 6 ft. wide and 4 ft. high and are provided
  with goal-nets. Instead of the English painted cricket-ball a puck is
  used, made of vulcanized rubber in the form of a draught-stone, 1 in.
  thick, and 3 in. in diameter. The sticks are made of one piece of hard
  wood, and may not be more than 3 in. wide at any part. The game is
  played for two half-hour or twenty-minute periods with an intermission
  of ten minutes. At the beginning of a match, and also when a goal has
  been made, the puck is _faced_, i.e. it is placed in the middle of the
  rink between the sticks of the two left-centres, and the referee calls
  "play." Whichever side then secures the ball endeavours by means of
  passing and dribbling to get the puck into a position from which a
  goal may be _shot_. The puck may be stopped by any part of the person
  but not carried or knocked except with the stick. No stick may be
  raised above the shoulder except when actually striking the puck. When
  the puck is driven off the rink or behind the goal, or a foul has been
  made behind the goal, it is faced 5 yds. inside the rink. The
  goal-keeper must maintain a standing position.

  There are a number of Hockey organizations in America, all under the
  jurisdiction of the "American Amateur Hockey League" in the United
  States and the "Canadian Amateur Athletic League" in Canada.

  _Ice Polo_, a winter sport similar to Ice Hockey, is almost
  exclusively played in the New England states. A rubber-covered ball is
  used and the stick is heavier than that used in Ice Hockey. The
  radical difference between the two games is that, in Ice Polo, there
  is no strict off-side rule, so that passes and shots at goal may come
  from any and often the most unexpected direction. Five men constitute
  a team: a goal-tend, a half-back, a centre and two rushers. The
  rushers must be rapid skaters, adepts in dribbling and passing and
  good goal shots. The centre supports the rushers, passing the ball to
  them or trying for goal himself. The half-back is the first defence
  and the goal-tend the last. The rink is 150 ft. long.

  _Ring Hockey_ may be played on the floor of any gymnasium or large
  room by teams of six, comprising a goal-keeper, a quarter, three
  forwards and a centre. The goals consist of two uprights 3 ft. high
  and 4 ft. apart. The ring, which takes the place of the ball or puck,
  is made of flexible rubber, and is 5 in. in diameter with a 3-in.
  opening through the centre. It weighs between 12 and 16 oz. The stick
  is a wand of light but tough wood, between 36 and 40 in. long, about ¾
  in. in diameter, provided with a 5-in. guard 20 in. from the lower
  end. The method of shooting is to insert the end of the stick in the
  hole of the ring and drive it towards the goal. A goal shot from the
  field counts one point, a goal from a foul ½ point. When a foul is
  called by the referee a player of the opposing side is allowed a free
  shot for goal from any point on the quarter line.

  _Roller Polo_, played extensively during the winter months in the
  United States, is practically Ice Polo adapted to the floors of
  gymnasiums and halls, the players, five on a side, wearing
  roller-skates. The first professional league was organized in 1883.



HOCK-TIDE, an ancient general holiday in England, celebrated on the
second Monday and Tuesday after Easter Sunday. Hock-Tuesday was an
important term day, rents being then payable, for with Michaelmas it
divided the rural year into its winter and summer halves. The derivation
of the word is disputed: any analogy with Ger. _hoch_, "high," being
generally denied. No trace of the word is found in Old English, and
"hock-day," its earliest use in composition, appears first in the 12th
century. The characteristic pastime of hock-tide was called binding. On
Monday the women, on Tuesday the men, stopped all passers of the
opposite sex and bound them with ropes till they bought their release
with a small payment, or a rope was stretched across the highroads, and
the passers were obliged to pay toll. The money thus collected seems to
have gone towards parish expenses. Many entries are found in parish
registers under "Hocktyde money." The hock-tide celebration became
obsolete in the beginning of the 18th century. At Coventry there was a
play called "The Old Coventry Play of Hock Tuesday." This, suppressed at
the Reformation owing to the incidental disorder, and revived as part of
the festivities on Queen Elizabeth's visit to Kenilworth in July 1575,
depicted the struggle between Saxons and Danes, and has given colour to
the suggestion that hock-tide was originally a commemoration of the
massacre of the Danes on St Brice's Day, the 13th of November A.D. 1002,
or of the rejoicings at the death of Hardicanute on the 8th of June 1042
and the expulsion of the Danes. But the dates of these anniversaries do
not bear this out.



HOCUS, a shortened form of "hocus pocus," used in the 17th century in
the sense of "to play a trick on any one," to "hoax," which is generally
taken to be a derivative. "Hocus pocus" appears to have been a mock
Latin expression first used as the name of a juggler or conjurer. Thus
in Ady's _Candle in the Dark_ (1655), quoted in the _New English
Dictionary_, "I will speak of one man ... that went about in King James
his time ... who called himself, The Kings Majesties most excellent
Hocus Pocus, and so was called, because that at the playing of every
Trick, he used to say, _Hocus pocus, tontus talontus, vade celeriter
jubeo_, a dark composure of words, to blinde the eyes of the beholders,
to make his Trick pass the more currantly without discovery."
Tillotson's guess (_Sermons_, xxvi.) that the phrase was a corruption of
_hoc est corpus_ and alluded to the words of the Eucharist, "in
ridiculous imitation of the priests of the Church of Rome in their trick
of Transubstantiation," has frequently been accepted as a serious
derivation, but has no foundation. A connexion with a supposed demon of
Scandinavian mythology, called "Ochus Bochus," is equally unwarranted.
"Hocus" is used as a verb, meaning to drug, stupefy with opium, &c., for
a criminal purpose. This use dates from the beginning of the 19th
century.



HODDEN (a word of unknown origin), a coarse kind of cloth made of undyed
wool, formerly much worn by the peasantry of Scotland. It was usually
made on small hand-looms by the peasants themselves. Grey hodden was
made by mixing black and white fleeces together in the proportion of one
to twelve when weaving.



HODDESDON, an urban district in the Hertford parliamentary division of
Hertfordshire, England, near the river Lea, 17 m. N. from London by the
Great Eastern railway (Broxbourne and Hoddesdon station on the Cambridge
line). Pop. (1901), 4711. This is the northernmost of a series of
populous townships extending from the suburbs of London along the Lea
valley as far as its junction with the Stort, which is close to
Hoddesdon. They are in the main residential. Hoddesdon was a famous
coaching station on the Old North Road; and the Bull posting-house is
mentioned in Matthew Prior's "Down Hall." The Lea has been a favourite
resort of anglers (mainly for coarse fish in this part) from the time of
Izaak Walton, in whose book Hoddesdon is specifically named. The church
of St Augustine, Broxbourne, is a fine example of Perpendicular work,
and contains interesting monuments, including an altar tomb with
enamelled brasses of 1473. Hoddesdon probably covers the site of a
Romano-British village.



HODEDA (_Hodeida_, _Hadeda_), a town in Arabia situated on the Red Sea
coast 14° 48´ N. and 42° 57´ E. It lies on a beach of muddy sand exposed
to the southerly and westerly winds. Steamers anchor more than a mile
from shore, and merchandize has to be transhipped by means of _sambuks_
or native boats. But Hodeda has become the chief centre of the maritime
trade of Turkish Yemen, and has superseded Mokha as the great port of
export of South Arabian coffee. The town is composed of stone-built
houses of several storeys, and is surrounded, except on the sea face, by
a fortified enceinte. The population is estimated at 33,000, and
contains, besides the Arab inhabitants and the Turkish officials and
garrison, a considerable foreign element, Greeks, Indians and African
traders from the opposite coast. There are consulates of Great Britain,
United States, France, Germany, Italy and Greece. The steam tonnage
entering and clearing the port in 1904 amounted to 78,700 tons, the
highest hitherto recorded. Regular services are maintained with Aden,
and with Suez, Massowa and the other Red Sea ports. Large dhows bring
dates from the Persian Gulf, and occasional steamers from Bombay call on
their way to Jidda with cargoes of grain. The imports for 1904 amounted
in value to £467,000, the chief items being piece goods, food grains and
sugar; the exports amounted to £451,000, including coffee valued at
£229,000.



HODENING, an ancient Christmas custom still surviving in Wales, Kent,
Lancashire and elsewhere. A horse's skull or a wooden imitation on a
pole is carried round by a party of youths, one of whom conceals himself
under a white cloth to simulate the horse's body, holding a lighted
candle in the skull. They make a house-to-house visitation, begging
gratuities. The "Penitential" of Archbishop Theodore (d. 690) speaks of
"any who, on the kalands of January, clothe themselves with the skins of
cattle and carry heads of animals." This, coupled with the fact that
among the primitive Scandinavians the horse was often the sacrifice made
at the winter solstice to Odin for success in battle, has been thought
to justify the theory that hodening is a corruption of Odining.



HODGE, CHARLES (1797-1878), American theologian, was born in
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on the 28th of December 1797. He graduated
at the College of New Jersey (now Princeton) in 1815, and in 1819 at the
Princeton Theological seminary, where he became an instructor in 1820,
and the first professor of Oriental and Biblical literature in 1822.
Meanwhile, in 1821, he had been ordained as a Presbyterian minister.
From 1826 to 1828 he studied under de Sacy in Paris, under Gesenius and
Tholuck in Halle, and under Hengstenberg, Neander and Humboldt in
Berlin. In 1840 he was transferred to the chair of exegetical and
didactic theology, to which subjects that of polemic theology was added
in 1854, and this office he held until his death. In 1825 he established
the quarterly _Biblical Repertory_, the title of which was changed to
_Biblical Repertory and Theological Review_ in 1830 and to _Biblical
Repertory and Princeton Review_ in 1837. With it, in 1840, was merged
the _Literary and Theological Review_ of New York, and in 1872 the
American Presbyterian Review of New York, the title becoming
_Presbyterian Quarterly and Princeton Review_ in 1872 and _Princeton
Review_ in 1877. He secured for it the position of theological organ of
the Old School division of the Presbyterian church, and continued its
principal editor and contributor until 1868, when the Rev. Lyman H.
Atwater became his colleague. His more important essays were republished
under the titles _Essays and Reviews_ (1857), _Princeton Theological
Essays, and Discussions in Church Polity_ (1878). He was moderator of
the General Assembly (O.S.) in 1846, a member of the committee to revise
the _Book of Discipline_ of the Presbyterian church in 1858, and
president of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions in 1868-1870.
The 24th of April 1872, the fiftieth anniversary of his election to his
professorship, was observed in Princeton as his jubilee by between 400
and 500 representatives of his 2700 pupils, and $50,000 was raised for
the endowment of his chair. He died at Princeton on the 19th of June
1878. Hodge was one of the greatest of American theologians.

  Besides his articles in the _Princeton Review_, he published a
  _Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans_ (1835, abridged 1836,
  rewritten and enlarged 1864, new ed. 1886), _Constitutional History of
  the Presbyterian Church in the United States_ (2 vols., 1839-1840);
  _The Way of Life_ (1841); _Commentaries on Ephesians_ (1856); 1
  _Corinthians_ (1857); 2 _Corinthians_ (1859); _Systematic Theology_ (3
  vols., 2200 pp., 1871-1873), probably the best of all modern
  expositions of Calvinistic dogmatic; and _What is Darwinism?_ (1874),
  in which he opposed "Atheistic Evolutionism." After his death a volume
  of _Conference Papers_ (1879) was published. His life, by his son, was
  published in 1880.

His son, ARCHIBALD ALEXANDER HODGE (1823-1886), also famous as a
Presbyterian theologian, was born at Princeton on the 18th of July 1823.
He graduated at the College of New Jersey in 1841, and at the Princeton
Theological seminary in 1846, and was ordained in 1847. From 1847 to
1850 he was a missionary at Allahabad, India, and was then pastor of
churches successively at Lower West Nottingham, Maryland (1851-1855); at
Fredericksburg, Virginia (1855-1861), and at Wilkes-Barré, Pennsylvania
(1861-1864). From 1864 to 1877 he was professor of didactic and
polemical theology in the Allegheny Theological seminary at Allegheny,
Pennsylvania, where he was also from 1866 to 1877 pastor of the North
Church (Presbyterian). In 1878 he succeeded his father as professor of
didactic theology at the Princeton seminary. He died on the 11th of
November 1886. Besides writing the biography of his father, he was the
author of _Outlines of Theology_ (1860, new ed. 1875; enlarged, 1879);
_The Atonement_ (1867); _Exposition of the Confession of Faith_ (1869);
and _Popular Lectures on Theological Themes_ (1887).

  See C. A. Salmond's _Charles and A. A. Hodge_ (New York, 1888).



HODGKIN, THOMAS (1831-   ), British historian, son of John Hodgkin
(1800-1875), barrister, was born in London on the 29th of July 1831.
Having been educated as a member of the Society of Friends and taken the
degree of B.A. at London University, he became a partner in the banking
house of Hodgkin, Barnett & Co., Newcastle-on-Tyne, a firm afterwards
amalgamated with Lloyds' Bank. While continuing in business as a banker,
Hodgkin devoted a good deal of time to historical study, and soon became
a leading authority on the history of the early middle ages, his books
being indispensable to all students of this period. His chief works are,
_Italy and her Invaders_ (8 vols., Oxford, 1880-1899); _The Dynasty of
Theodosius_ (Oxford, 1889); _Theodoric the Goth_ (London, 1891); and an
introduction to the _Letters_ of Cassiodorus (London, 1886). He also
wrote a _Life of Charles the Great_ (London, 1897); _Life of George Fox_
(Boston, 1896); and the opening volume of Longman's _Political History
of England_ (London, 1906).



HODGKINSON, EATON (1789-1861), English engineer, the son of a farmer,
was born at Anderton near Northwich, Cheshire, on the 26th of February
1789. After attending school at Northwich, he began to help his widowed
mother on the farm, but to escape from that uncongenial occupation he
persuaded her in 1811 to remove to Manchester and start a pawnbroking
business. There he made the acquaintance of John Dalton, and began those
inquiries into the strength of materials which formed the work of his
life. He was associated with Sir William Fairbairn in an important
series of experiments on cast iron, and his help was sought by Robert
Stephenson in regard to the forms and dimensions of the tubes for the
Britannia bridge. A paper which he communicated to the Royal Society on
"Experimental Researches on the Strength of Pillars of Cast Iron and
other Materials," in 1840 gained him a Royal medal in 1841, and he was
also elected a fellow. In 1847 he was appointed professor of the
mechanical principles of engineering in University College, London, and
at the same time he was employed as a member of the Royal Commission
appointed to inquire into the application of iron to railway structures.
In 1848 he was chosen president of the Manchester Philosophical Society,
of which he had been a member since 1826, and to which, both previously
and subsequently, he contributed many of the more important results of
his discoveries. For several years he took an active part in the
discussions of the Institution of Civil Engineers, of which he was
elected an honorary member in 1851. He died at Eaglesfield House, near
Manchester, on the 18th of June 1861.



HODGSON, BRIAN HOUGHTON (1800-1894), English administrator, ethnologist
and naturalist, was born at Lower Beech, Prestbury, Cheshire, on the 1st
of February 1800. His father, Brian Hodgson, came of a family of country
gentlemen, and his mother was a daughter of William Houghton of
Manchester. In 1816 he obtained an East Indian writership. After passing
through the usual course at Haileybury, he went out to India in 1818,
and after a brief service at Kumaon as assistant-commissioner was in
1820 appointed assistant to the Resident at Katmandu, the capital of
Nepal. In 1823 he obtained an under-secretaryship in the foreign
department at Calcutta, but his health failed, and in 1824 he returned
to Nepal, to which the whole of his life, whether in or out of India,
may be said to have been thenceforth given. He devoted himself
particularly to the collection of Sanskrit MSS. relating to Buddhism,
and hardly less so to the natural history and antiquities of the
country, and by 1839 had contributed eighty-nine papers to the
_Transactions_ of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. His investigations of
the ethnology of the aboriginal tribes were especially important. In
1833 he became Resident in Nepal, and passed many stormy years in
conflict with the cruel and faithless court to which he was accredited.
He succeeded, nevertheless, in concluding a satisfactory treaty in 1839;
but in 1842 his policy, which involved an imperious attitude towards the
native government, was upset by the interference of Lord Ellenborough,
but just arrived in India and not unnaturally anxious to avoid trouble
in Nepal during the conflict in Afghanistan. Hodgson took upon himself
to disobey his instructions, a breach of discipline justified to his own
mind by his superior knowledge of the situation, but which the
governor-general could hardly be expected to overlook. He was,
nevertheless, continued in office for a time, but was recalled in 1843,
and resigned the service. In 1845 he returned to India and settled at
Darjeeling, where he devoted himself entirely to his favourite pursuits,
becoming the greatest authority on the Buddhist religion and on the
flora of the Himalayas. It was he who early suggested the recruiting of
Gurkhas for the Indian army, and who influenced Sir Jung Bahadur to lend
his assistance to the British during the mutiny in 1857. In 1858 he
returned to England, and lived successively in Cheshire and
Gloucestershire, occupied with his studies to the last. He died at his
seat at Alderley Grange in the Cotswold Hills on the 23rd of May 1894.
No man has done so much to throw light on Buddhism as it exists in
Nepal, and his collections of Sanskrit manuscripts, presented to the
East India Office, and of natural history, presented to the British
Museum, are unique as gatherings from a single country. He wrote
altogether 184 philological and ethnological and 127 scientific papers,
as well as some valuable pamphlets on native education, in which he took
great interest. His principal work, _Illustrations of the Literature and
Religion of Buddhists_ (1841), was republished with the most important
of his other writings in 1872-1880.

  His life was written by Sir W. W. Hunter in 1896.



HÓDMEZÖ-VÁSÁRHELY, a town of Hungary, in the county of Csongrád, 135 m.
S.E. of Budapest by rail. Pop. (1900) 60,824 of which about two-thirds
are Protestants. The town, situated on Lake Hód, not far from the right
bank of the Tisza, has a modern aspect. The soil of the surrounding
country, of which 383 sq. m. belong to the municipality, is exceedingly
fertile, the chief products being wheat, mangcorn, barley, oats, millet,
maize and various descriptions of fruit, especially melons. Extensive
vineyards, yielding large quantities of both white and red grapes,
skirt the town, and the horned cattle and horses of Hódmezö-Vásárhely
have a good reputation; sheep and pigs are also extensively reared. The
commune is protected from inundations of the Tisza by an enormous dike,
but the town, nevertheless, sometimes suffers considerable damage during
the spring floods.



HODOGRAPH (Gr. [Greek: hodos], a way, and [Greek: graphein], to write),
a curve of which the radius vector is proportional to the velocity of a
moving particle. It appears to have been used by James Bradley, but for
its practical development we are mainly indebted to Sir William Rowan
Hamilton, who published an account of it in the _Proceedings of the
Royal Irish Academy_, 1846. If a point be in motion in any orbit and
with any velocity, and if, at each instant, a line be drawn from a fixed
point parallel and equal to the velocity of the moving point at that
instant, the extremities of these lines will lie on a curve called the
hodograph. Let PP1P2 be the path of the moving point, and let OT, OT1,
OT2, be drawn from the fixed point O parallel and equal to the
velocities at P, P1, P2 respectively, then the locus of T is the
hodograph of the orbits described by P (see figure). From this
definition we have the following important fundamental property which
belongs to all hodographs, viz. that at any point the tangent to the
hodograph is parallel to the direction, and the velocity in the
hodograph equal to the magnitude of the resultant acceleration at the
corresponding point of the orbit. This will be evident if we consider
that, since radii vectores of the hodograph represent velocities in the
orbit, the elementary arc between two consecutive radii vectores of the
hodograph represents the velocity which must be compounded with the
velocity of the moving point at the beginning of any short interval of
time to get the velocity at the end of that interval, that is to say,
represents the change of velocity for that interval. Hence the
elementary arc divided by the element of time is the rate of change of
velocity of the moving-point, or in other words, the velocity in the
hodograph is the acceleration in the orbit.

[Illustration]

  Analytically thus (Thomson and Tait, _Nat. Phil._):--Let x, y, z be
  the coordinates of P in the orbit, [xi], [eta], [zeta] those of the
  corresponding point T in the hodograph, then

    [xi] = dx/dt, [eta] = dy/dt, [zeta] = dz/dt;

  therefore

      d[xi]      d[eta]      d[zeta]
    -------- = --------- =  ---------     (1).
   (d²x/dt²)   (d²y/dt²)    (d²z/dt²)

  Also, if s be the arc of the hodograph,

    ds         / /d[xi]\²    /d[eta]\²    /d[zeta]\²
    -- = v =  / ( ----- ) + ( ------ ) + ( ------- )
    dt      \/   \ dt  /     \  dt  /     \   dt  /

               / /d²x\²    /d²y\²    /d²z\²
           =  / ( --- ) + ( --- ) + ( --- )   (2).
            \/   \dt²/     \dt²/     \dt²/

  Equation (1) shows that the tangent to the hodograph is parallel to
  the line of resultant acceleration, and (2) that the velocity in the
  hodograph is equal to the acceleration.

  Every orbit must clearly have a hodograph, and, conversely, every
  hodograph a corresponding orbit; and, theoretically speaking, it is
  possible to deduce the one from the other, having given the other
  circumstances of the motion.

  For applications of the hodograph to the solution of kinematical
  problems see MECHANICS.



HODSON, WILLIAM STEPHEN RAIKES (1821-1858), known as "Hodson of Hodson's
Horse," British leader of light cavalry during the Indian Mutiny, third
son of the Rev. George Hodson, afterwards archdeacon of Stafford and
canon of Lichfield, was born on the 19th of March 1821 at Maisemore
Court, near Gloucester. He was educated at Rugby and Cambridge, and
accepted a cadetship in the Indian army at the advanced age for those
days of twenty-three. Joining the 2nd Bengal Grenadiers he went through
the first Sikh War, and was present at the battles of Moodkee,
Ferozeshah and Sobraon. In one of his letters home at this period he
calls the campaign a "tissue of mismanagement, blunders, errors,
ignorance and arrogance", and outspoken criticism such as this brought
him many bitter enemies throughout his career, who made the most of
undeniable faults of character. In 1847, through the influence of Sir
Henry Lawrence, he was appointed adjutant of the corps of Guides, and in
1852 was promoted to the command of the Guides with the civil charge of
Yusafzai. But his brusque and haughty demeanour to his equals made him
many enemies. In 1855 two separate charges were brought against him. The
first was that he had arbitrarily imprisoned a Pathan chief named Khadar
Khan, on suspicion of being concerned in the murder of Colonel Mackeson.
The man was acquitted, and Lord Dalhousie removed Hodson from his civil
functions and remanded him to his regiment on account of his lack of
judgment. The second charge was more serious, amounting to an accusation
of malversation in the funds of his regiment. He was tried by a court of
inquiry, who found that his conduct to natives had been "unjustifiable
and oppressive," that he had used abusive language to his native
officers and personal violence to his men, and that his system of
accounts was "calculated to screen peculation and fraud." Subsequently
another inquiry was carried out by Major Reynell Taylor, which dealt
simply with Hodson's accounts and found them to be "an honest and
correct record ... irregularly kept." At this time the Guides were split
up into numerous detachments, and there was a system of advances which
made the accounts very complicated. The verdicts of the two inquiries
may be set against each other, and this particular charge declared "not
proven." It is possible that Hodson was careless and extravagant in
money matters rather than actually dishonest; but there were several
similar charges against him. During a tour through Kashmir with Sir
Henry Lawrence he kept the purse and Sir Henry could never obtain an
account from him; subsequently Sir George Lawrence accused him of
embezzling the funds of the Lawrence Asylum at Kasauli; while Sir
Neville Chamberlain in a published letter says of the third brother,
Lord Lawrence, "I am bound to say that Lord Lawrence had no opinion of
Hodson's integrity in money matters. He has often discussed Hodson's
character in talking to me, and it was to him a regret that a man
possessing so many fine gifts should have been wanting in a moral
quality which made him untrustworthy." Finally, on one occasion Hodson
spent £500 of the pay due to Lieutenant Godby, and under threat of
exposure was obliged to borrow the money from a native banker through
one of his officers named Bisharat Ali.

It was just at the time when Hodson's career seemed ruined that the
Indian Mutiny broke out, and he obtained the opportunity of
rehabilitating himself. At the very outset of the campaign he made his
name by riding with despatches from General Anson at Karnal to Meerut
and back again, a distance of 152 m. in all, in seventy-two hours,
through a country swarming with the rebel cavalry. This feat so pleased
the commander-in-chief that he empowered him to raise a regiment of 2000
irregular horse, which became known to fame as Hodson's Horse, and
placed him at the head of the Intelligence Department. In his double
rôle of cavalry leader and intelligence officer, Hodson played a large
part in the reduction of Delhi and consequently in saving India for the
British empire. He was the finest swordsman in the army, and possessed
that daring recklessness which is the most useful quality of leadership
against Asiatics. In explanation of the fact that he never received the
Victoria Cross it was said of him that it was because he earned it every
day of his life. But he also had the defects of his qualities, and could
display on occasion a certain cruelty and callousness of disposition.
Reference has already been made to Bisharat Ali, who had lent Hodson
money. During the siege of Delhi another native, said to be an enemy of
Bisharat Ali's, informed Hodson that he had turned rebel and had just
reached Khurkhouda, a village near Delhi. Hodson thereupon took out a
body of his sowars, attacked the village, and shot Bisharat Ali and
several of his relatives. General Crawford Chamberlain states that this
was Hodson's way of wiping out the debt. Again, after the fall of Delhi,
Hodson obtained from General Wilson permission to ride out with fifty
horsemen to Humayun's tomb, 6 m. out of Delhi, and bring in Bahadur
Shah, the last of the Moguls. This he did with safety in the face of a
large and threatening crowd, and thus dealt the mutineers a heavy blow.
On the following day with 100 horsemen he went out to the same tomb and
obtained the unconditional surrender of the three princes, who had been
left behind on the previous occasion. A crowd of 6000 persons gathered,
and Hodson with marvellous coolness ordered them to disarm, which they
proceeded to do. He sent the princes on with an escort of ten men, while
with the remaining ninety he collected the arms of the crowd. On
galloping after the princes he found the crowd once more pressing on the
escort and threatening an attack; and fearing that he would be unable to
bring his prisoners into Delhi he shot them with his own hand. This is
the most bitterly criticized action in his career, but no one but the
man on the spot can judge how it is necessary to handle a crowd; and in
addition one of the princes, Abu Bukt, heir-apparent to the throne, had
made himself notorious for cutting off the arms and legs of English
children and pouring the blood into their mothers' mouths. Considering
the circumstances of the moment, Hodson's act at the worst was one of
irregular justice. A more unpleasant side to the question is that he
gave the king a safe conduct, which was afterwards seen by Sir Donald
Stewart, before he left the palace, and presumably for a bribe; and he
took an armlet and rings from the bodies of the princes. He was freely
accused of looting at the time, and though this charge, like that of
peculation, is matter for controversy, it is very strongly supported.
General Pelham Burn said that he saw loot in Hodson's boxes when he
accompanied him from Fatehgarh to take part in the siege of Lucknow, and
Sir Henry Daly said that he found "loads of loot" in Hodson's boxes
after his death, and also a file of documents relating to the Guides
case, which had been stolen from him and of which Hodson denied all
knowledge. On the other hand the Rev. G. Hodson states in his book that
he obtained the inventory of his brother's possessions made by the
Committee of Adjustment and it contained no articles of loot, and Sir
Charles Gough, president of the committee, confirmed this evidence. This
statement is totally incompatible with Sir Henry Daly's and is only one
of many contradictions in the case. Sir Henry Norman stated that to his
personal knowledge Hodson remitted several thousand pounds to Calcutta
which could only have been obtained by looting. On the other hand,
again, Hodson died a poor man, his effects were sold for £170, his widow
was dependent on charity for her passage home, was given apartments by
the queen at Hampton Court, and left only £400 at her death.

Hodson was killed on the 11th of March 1858 in the attack on the Begum
Kotee at Lucknow. He had just arrived on the spot and met a man going to
fetch powder to blow in a door; instead Hodson, with his usual
recklessness, rushed into the doorway and was shot. On the whole, it can
hardly be doubted that he was somewhat unscrupulous in his private
character, but he was a splendid soldier, and rendered inestimable
services to the empire.

  The controversy relating to Hodson's moral character is very
  complicated and unpleasant. Upon Hodson's side see Rev. G. Hodson,
  _Hodson of Hodson's Horse_ (1883), and L. J. Trotter, _A Leader of
  Light Horse_ (1901); against him, R. Bosworth Smith, _Life of Lord
  Lawrence_, appendix to the 6th edition of 1885; T. R. E. Holmes,
  _History of the Indian Mutiny_, appendix N to the 5th edition of 1898,
  and _Four Famous Soldiers_ by the same author, 1889; and General Sir
  Crawford Chamberlain, _Remarks on Captain Trotter's Biography of Major
  W. S. R. Hodson_ (1901).



HODY, HUMPHREY (1659-1707), English divine, was born at Odcombe in
Somersetshire in 1659. In 1676 he entered Wadham College, Oxford, of
which he became fellow in 1685. In 1684 he published _Contra historiam
Aristeae de LXX. interpretibus dissertatio_, in which he showed that the
so-called letter of Aristeas, containing an account of the production of
the Septuagint, was the late forgery of a Hellenist Jew originally
circulated to lend authority to that version. The dissertation was
generally regarded as conclusive, although Isaac Vossius published an
angry and scurrilous reply to it in the appendix to his edition of
Pomponius Mela. In 1689 Hody wrote the _Prolegomena_ to the Greek
chronicle of John Malalas, published at Oxford in 1691. The following
year he became chaplain to Edward Stillingfleet, bishop of Worcester,
and for his support of the ruling party in a controversy with Henry
Dodwell regarding the non-juring bishops he was appointed chaplain to
Archbishop Tillotson, an office which he continued to hold under
Tenison. In 1698 he was appointed regius professor of Greek at Oxford,
and in 1704 was made archdeacon of Oxford. In 1701 he published _A
History of English Councils and Convocations_, and in 1703 in four
volumes _De Bibliorum textis originalibus_, in which he included a
revision of his work on the Septuagint, and published a reply to
Vossius. He died on the 20th of January 1707.

  A work, _De Graecis Illustribus_, which he left in manuscript, was
  published in 1742 by Samuel Jebb, who prefixed to it a Latin life of
  the author.



HOE, RICHARD MARCH (1812-1886), American inventor, was born in New York
City on the 12th of September 1812. He was the son of Robert Hoe
(1784-1833), an English-born American mechanic, who with his
brothers-in-law, Peter and Matthew Smith, established in New York City a
manufactory of printing presses, and used steam to run his machinery.
Richard entered his father's manufactory at the age of fifteen and
became head of the firm (Robert Hoe & Company) on his father's death. He
had considerable inventive genius and set himself to secure greater
speed for printing presses. He discarded the old flat-bed model and
placed the type on a revolving cylinder, a model later developed into
the well-known Hoe rotary or "lightning" press, patented in 1846, and
further improved under the name of the Hoe web perfecting press (see
PRINTING). He died in Florence, Italy, on the 7th of June 1886.

  See _A Short History of the Printing Press_ (New York, 1902) by his
  nephew Robert Hoe (1839-1909), who was responsible for further
  improvements in printing, and was an indefatigable worker in support
  of the New York Metropolitan Museum.



HOE (through Fr. _houe_ from O.H.G. _houwâ_, mod. Ger. _Haue_; the root
is seen in "hew," to cut, cleave; the word must be distinguished from
"hoe," promontory, tongue of land, seen in place names, e.g. Morthoe,
Luton Hoo, the Hoe at Plymouth, &c.; this is the same as Northern
English "heugh" and is connected with "hang"), an agricultural and
gardening implement used for extirpating weeds, for stirring the
surface-soil in order to break the capillary channels and so prevent the
evaporation of moisture, for singling out turnips and other root-crops
and similar purposes. Among common forms of hoe are the ordinary
garden-hoe (numbered _1_ in fig. 1), which consists of a flat blade set
transversely in a long wooden handle; the Dutch or thrust-hoe (_2_),
which has the blade set into the handle after the fashion of a spade;
and the swan-neck hoe (_3_), the best manual hoe for agricultural
purposes, which has a long curved neck to attach the blade to the
handle; the soil falls back over this, blocking is thus avoided and a
longer stroke obtained. Several types of horse-drawn hoe capable of
working one or more rows at a time are used among root and grain crops.
The illustrations show two forms of the implement, the blades of which
differ in shape from those of the garden-hoe. Fig. 2 is in ordinary use
for hoeing between two lines of beans or turnips or other "roots." Fig.
3 is adapted for the narrow rows of grain crops and is also convertible
into a root-hoe. In the lever-hoe, which is largely used in grain crops,
the blades may be raised and lowered by means of a lever. The
horse-drawn hoe is steered by means of handles in the rear, but its
successful working depends on accurate drilling of the seed, because
unless the rows are parallel the roots of the plants are liable to be
cut and the foliage injured. Thus Jethro Tull (17th century), with whose
name the beginning of the practice of horse-hoeing is principally
connected, used the drill which he invented as an essential adjunct in
the so-called "Horse-hoeing Husbandry" (see AGRICULTURE).

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Three Forms of Manual Hoe.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Martin's One-Row Horse Hoe.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Martin's General Purpose Steerage Horse Hoe.]



HOEFNAGEL, JORIS (1545-1601), Dutch painter and engraver, the son of a
diamond merchant, was born at Antwerp. He travelled abroad, making
drawings from archaeological subjects, and was a pupil of Jan Bol at
Mechlin. He was afterwards patronized by the elector of Bavaria at
Munich, where he stayed eight years, and by the Emperor Rudolph at
Prague. He died at Vienna in 1601. He is famous for his miniature work,
especially on a missal in the imperial library at Vienna; he painted
animals and plants to illustrate works on natural history; and his
engravings (especially for Braun's _Civitates orbis terrarum_, 1572, and
Ortelius's _Theatrum orbis terrarum_, 1570) give him an interesting
place among early topographical draughtsmen.



HOF, a town of Germany, in the Bavarian province of Upper Franconia,
beautifully situated on the Saale, on the north-eastern spurs of the
Fichtelgebirge, 103 m. S.W. of Leipzig on the main line of railway to
Regensburg and Munich. Pop. (1885) 22,257; (1905) 36,348. It has one
Roman Catholic and three Protestant churches (among the latter that of
St Michael, which was restored in 1884), a town hall of 1563, a
gymnasium with an extensive library, a commercial school and a hospital
founded in 1262. It is the seat of various flourishing industries,
notably woollen, cotton and jute spinning, jute weaving, and the
manufacture of cotton and half-woollen fabrics. It has also dye-works,
flour-mills, saw-mills, breweries, iron-works, and manufactures of
machinery, iron and tin wares, chemicals and sugar. In the neighbourhood
there are large marble quarries and extensive iron mines. Hof,
originally called Regnitzhof, was built about 1080. It was held for some
time by the dukes of Meran, and was sold in 1373 to the burgraves of
Nuremberg. The cloth manufacture introduced into it in the 15th century,
and the manufacture of veils begun in the 16th century, greatly promoted
its prosperity, but it suffered severely in the Albertine and Hussite
wars as well as in the Thirty Years' War. In 1792 it came into the
possession of Prussia; in 1806 it fell to France; and in 1810 it was
incorporated with Bavaria. In 1823 the greater part of the town was
destroyed by fire.

  See Ernst, _Geschichte und Beschreibung des Bezirks und der Stadt Hof_
  (1866); Tillmann, _Die Stadt Hof und ihre Umgebung_ (Hof, 1899), and
  C. Meyer, _Quellen zur Geschichte der Stadt Hof_ (1894-1896).



HOFER, ANDREAS (1767-1810), Tirolese patriot, was born on the 22nd of
November 1767 at St Leonhard, in the Passeier valley. There his father
kept an inn known as "am Sand," which Hofer inherited, and on that
account he was popularly known as the "Sandwirth." In addition to this
he carried on a trade in wine and horses with the north of Italy,
acquiring a high reputation for intelligence and honesty. In the wars
against the French from 1796 to 1805 he took part, first as a
sharp-shooter and afterwards as a captain of militia. By the treaty of
Pressburg (1805) Tirol was transferred from Austria to Bavaria, and
Hofer, who was almost fanatically devoted to the Austrian house, became
conspicuous as a leader of the agitation against Bavarian rule. In 1808
he formed one of a deputation who went to Vienna, at the invitation of
the archduke John, to concert a rising; and when in April 1809 the
Tirolese rose in arms, Hofer was chosen commander of the contingent from
his native valley, and inflicted an overwhelming defeat on the Bavarians
at Sterzing (April 11). This victory, which resulted in the temporary
reoccupation of Innsbruck by the Austrians, made Hofer the most
conspicuous of the insurgent leaders. The rapid advance of Napoleon,
indeed, and the defeat of the main Austrian army under the archduke
Charles, once more exposed Tirol to the French and Bavarians, who
reoccupied Innsbruck. The withdrawal of the bulk of the troops, however,
gave the Tirolese their chance again; after two battles fought on the
Iselberg (May 25 and 29) the Bavarians were again forced to evacuate the
country, and Hofer entered Innsbruck in triumph. An autograph letter of
the emperor Francis (May 29) assured him that no peace would be
concluded by which Tirol would again be separated from the Austrian
monarchy, and Hofer, believing his work accomplished, returned to his
home. Then came the news of the armistice of Znaim (July 12), by which
Tirol and Vorarlberg were surrendered by Austria unconditionally and
given up to the vengeance of the French. The country was now again
invaded by 40,000 French and Bavarian troops, and Innsbruck fell; but
the Tirolese once more organized resistance to the French "atheists and
freemasons," and, after a temporary hesitation, Hofer--on whose head a
price had been placed--threw himself into the movement. On the 13th of
August, in another battle on the Iselberg, the French under Marshal
Lefebvre were routed by the Tirolese peasants, and Hofer once more
entered Innsbruck, which he had some difficulty in saving from sack.
Hofer was now elected _Oberkommandant_ of Tirol, took up his quarters in
the Hofburg at Innsbruck, and for two months ruled the country in the
emperor's name. He preserved the habits of a simple peasant, and his
administration was characterized in part by the peasant's shrewd common
sense, but yet more by a pious solicitude for the minutest details of
faith and morals. On the 29th of September Hofer received from the
emperor a chain and medal of honour, which encouraged him in the belief
that Austria did not intend again to desert him; the news of the
conclusion of the treaty of Schönbrunn (October 14), by which Tirol was
again ceded to Bavaria, came upon him as an overwhelming surprise. The
French in overpowering force at once pushed into the country, and, an
amnesty having been stipulated in the treaty, Hofer and his companions,
after some hesitation, gave in their submission. On the 12th of
November, however, urged on by the hotter heads among the peasant
leaders and deceived by false reports of Austrian victories, Hofer again
issued a proclamation calling the mountaineers to arms. The summons met
with little response; the enemy advanced in irresistible force, and
Hofer, a price once more set on his head, had to take refuge in the
mountains. His hiding-place was betrayed by one of his neighbours, named
Josef Raffl, and on the 27th of January 1810 he was captured by Italian
troops and sent in chains to Mantua. There he was tried by
court-martial, and on the 20th of February was shot, twenty-four hours
after his condemnation. This crime, which was believed to be due to
Napoleon's direct orders, caused an immense sensation throughout Germany
and did much to inflame popular sentiment against the French. At the
court of Austria, too, which was accused of having cynically sacrificed
the hero, it produced a painful impression, and Metternich, when he
visited Paris on the occasion of the marriage of the archduchess Marie
Louise to Napoleon, was charged to remonstrate with the emperor.
Napoleon expressed his regret, stating that the execution had been
carried out against his wishes, having been hurried on by the zeal of
his generals. In 1823 Hofer's remains were removed from Mantua to
Innsbruck, where they were interred in the Franciscan church, and in
1834 a marble statue was erected over his tomb. In 1893 a bronze statue
of him was also set up on the Iselberg. At Meran his patriotic deeds of
heroism are the subject of a festival play celebrated annually in the
open air. In 1818 the patent of nobility bestowed upon him by the
Austrian emperor in 1809 was conferred upon his family.

  See _Leben und Thaten des ehemaligen Tyroler Insurgenten-Chefs Andr.
  Hofer_ (Berlin, 1810); _Andr. Hofer und die Tyroler Insurrection im
  Jahre 1809_ (Munich, 1811); Hormayr, _Geschichte Andr. Hofer's
  Sandwirths auf Passeyr_ (Leipzig, 1845); B. Weber, _Das Thal Passeyr
  und seine Bewohner mit besonderer Rücksicht auf Andreas Hofer und das
  Jahr 1809_ (Innsbruck, 1851); Rapp, _Tirol im Jahr 1809_ (Innsbruck,
  1852); Weidinger, _Andreas Hofer und seine Kampfgenossen_ (3rd ed.,
  Leipzig, 1861); Heigel, _Andreas Hofer_ (Munich, 1874); Stampfer,
  _Sandwirt Andreas Hofer_ (Freiburg, 1874); Schmölze, _Andreas Hofer
  und seine Kampfgenossen_ (Innsbruck, 1900). His history has supplied
  the materials for tragedies to B. Auerbach and Immermann, and for
  numerous ballads, of which some remain very popular in Germany (see
  Franke, _Andreas Hofer im Liede_, Innsbruck, 1884).



HÖFFDING, HARALD (1843-   ), Danish philosopher, was born and educated in
Copenhagen. He became a schoolmaster, and ultimately in 1883 professor
in the university of Copenhagen. He was much influenced by Sören
Kierkegaard in the early development of his thought, but later became a
positivist, retaining, however, and combining with it the spirit and
method of practical psychology and the critical school. His best-known
work is perhaps his _Den nyere Filosofis Historie_ (1894), translated
into English from the German edition (1895) by B. E. Meyer as _History
of Modern Philosophy_ (2 vols., 1900), a work intended by him to
supplement and correct that of Hans Bröchner, to whom it is dedicated.
His _Psychology, the Problems of Philosophy_ (1905) and _Philosophy of
Religion_ (1906) also have appeared in English.

  Among Höffding's other writings, practically all of which have been
  translated into German, are: _Den engelske Filosofi i vor Tid_ (1874);
  _Etik_ (1876; ed. 1879); _Psychologi i Omrids paa Grundlag of
  Erfaring_ (ed. 1892); _Psykologiske Undersogelser_ (1889); _Charles
  Darwin_ (1889); _Kontinuiteten i Kants filosofiske Udviklingsgang_
  (1893); _Det psykologiske Grundlag for logiske Domme_ (1899);
  _Rousseau und seine Philosophie_ (1901); _Mindre Arbejder_ (1899).



HOFFMANN, AUGUST HEINRICH (1798-1874), known as HOFFMANN VON
FALLERSLEBEN, German poet, philologist and historian of literature, was
born at Fallersleben in the duchy of Lüneburg, Hanover, on the 2nd of
April 1798, the son of the mayor of the town. He was educated at the
classical schools of Helmstedt and Brunswick, and afterwards at the
universities of Göttingen and Bonn. His original intention was to study
theology, but he soon devoted himself entirely to literature. In 1823 he
was appointed custodian of the university library at Breslau, a post
which he held till 1838. He was also made extraordinary professor of the
German language and literature at that university in 1830, and ordinary
professor in 1835; but he was deprived of his chair in 1842 in
consequence of his _Unpolitische Lieder_ (1840-1841), which gave much
offence to the authorities in Prussia. He then travelled in Germany,
Switzerland and Italy, and lived for two or three years in Mecklenburg,
of which he became a naturalized citizen. After the revolution of 1848
he was enabled to return to Prussia, where he was restored to his
rights, and received the _Wartegeld_--the salary attached to a promised
office not yet vacant. He married in 1849, and during the next ten years
lived first in Bingerbrück, afterwards in Neuwied, and then in Weimar,
where together with Oskar Schade (1826-1906) he edited the _Weimarische
Jahrbuch_ (1854-1857). In 1860 he was appointed librarian to the Duke of
Ratibor at the monasterial castle of Corvey near Höxter on the Weser,
where he died on the 19th of January 1874. Fallersleben was one of the
best popular poets of modern Germany. In politics he ardently
sympathized with the progressive tendencies of his time, and he was
among the earliest and most effective of the political poets who
prepared the way for the outbreak of 1848. As a poet, however, he
acquired distinction chiefly by the ease, simplicity and grace with
which he gave expression to the passions and aspirations of daily life.
Although he had not been scientifically trained in music, he composed
melodies for many of his songs, and a considerable number of them are
sung by all classes in every part of Germany. Among the best known is
the patriotic _Deutschland, Deutschland über Alles_, composed in 1841 on
the island of Heligoland, where a monument was erected in 1891 to his
memory (subsequently destroyed).

  The best of his poetical writings is his _Gedichte_ (1827; 9th ed.,
  Berlin, 1887); but there is great merit also in his _Alemannische
  Lieder_ (1826; 5th ed., 1843), _Soldatenlieder_ (1851),
  _Soldatenleben_ (1852), _Rheinleben_ (1865), and in his _Fünfzig
  Kinderlieder_, _Fünfzig neue Kinderlieder_, and _Alte und neue
  Kinderlieder_. His _Unpolitische Lieder_, _Deutsche Lieder aus der
  Schweiz_ and _Streiflichter_ are not without poetical value, but they
  are mainly interesting in relation to the movements of the age in
  which they were written. As a student of ancient Teutonic literature
  Hoffmann von Fallersleben ranks among the most persevering and
  cultivated of German scholars, some of the chief results of his
  labours being embodied in his _Horae Belgicae_, _Fundgruben für
  Geschichte deutscher Sprache und Literatur_, _Altdeutsche Blätter_,
  _Spenden zur deutschen Literaturgeschichte_ and _Findlinge_. Among his
  editions of particular works may be named _Reineke Vos_, _Monumenta
  Elnonensia_ and _Theophilus_. _Die deutsche Philologie im Grundriss_
  (1836) was at the time of its publication a valuable contribution to
  philological research, and historians of German literature still
  attach importance to his _Geschichte des deutschen Kirchenliedes bis
  auf Luther_ (1832; 3rd ed., 1861), _Unsere volkstümlichen Lieder_ (3rd
  ed., 1869) and _Die deutschen Gesellschaftslieder des 16. und 17.
  Jahrh._ (2nd ed., 1860). In 1868-1870 Hoffmann published in 6 vols. an
  autobiography, _Mein Leben: Aufzeichnungen und Erinnerungen_ (an
  abbreviated ed. in 2 vols., 1894). His _Gesammelte Werke_ were edited
  by H. Gerstenberg in 8 vols. (1891-1894); his _Ausgewählte Werke_ by
  H. Benzmann (1905, 4 vols.). See also _Briefe von Hoffmann von
  Fallersleben und Moritz Haupt an Ferdinand Wolf_ (1874); J. M. Wagner,
  _Hoffmann von Fallersleben, 1818-1868_ (1869-1870), and R. von
  Gottschall, _Porträts und Studien_ (vol. v., 1876).



HOFFMANN, ERNST THEODOR WILHELM (1776-1822), German romance-writer, was
born at Königsberg on the 24th of January 1776. For the name Wilhelm he
himself substituted Amadeus in homage to Mozart. His parents lived
unhappily together, and when the child was only three they separated.
His bringing up was left to an uncle who had neither understanding nor
sympathy for his dreamy and wayward temperament. Hoffmann showed more
talent for music and drawing than for books. In 1792, when little over
sixteen years old, he entered the university of Königsberg, with a view
to preparing himself for a legal career. The chief features of interest
in his student years were an intimate friendship for Theodor Gottlieb
von Hippel (1775-1843), a nephew of the novelist Hippel, and an unhappy
passion for a lady to whom he gave music lessons; the latter found its
outlet, not merely in music, but also in two novels, neither of which he
was able to have published. In the summer of 1795 he began his practical
career as a jurist in Königsberg, but his mother's death and the
complications in which his love-affair threatened to involve him made
him decide to leave his native town and continue his legal
apprenticeship in Glogau. In the autumn of 1798 he was transferred to
Berlin, where the beginnings of the new Romantic movement were in the
air. Music, however, had still the first place in his heart, and the
Berlin opera house was the chief centre of his interests.

In 1800 further promotion brought him to Posen, where he gave himself up
entirely to the pleasures of the hour. Unfortunately, however, his
brilliant powers of caricature brought him into ill odour, and instead
of receiving the hoped-for preferment in Posen itself, he found himself
virtually banished to the little town of Plozk on the Vistula. Before
leaving Posen he married, and his domestic happiness alleviated to some
extent the monotony of the two years' exile. His leisure was spent in
literary studies and musical composition. In 1804 he was transferred to
Warsaw, where, through J. E. Hitzig (1780-1849), he was introduced to
Zacharias Werner, and began to take an interest in the later Romantic
literature; now, for the first time, he discovered how writers like
Novalis, Tieck, and especially Wackenroder, had spoken out of his own
heart. But in spite of this literary stimulus, his leisure in Warsaw was
mainly occupied by composition; he wrote music to Brentano's _Lustige
Musikanten_ and Werner's _Kreuz an der Ostsee_, and also an opera _Liebe
und Eifersucht_, based on Calderón's drama _La Banda y la Flor_.

The arrival of the French in Warsaw and the consequent political changes
put an end to Hoffmann's congenial life there, and a time of tribulation
followed. A position which he obtained in 1808 as musical director of a
new theatre in Bamberg availed him little, as within a very short time
the theatre was bankrupt and Hoffmann again reduced to destitution. But
these misfortunes induced him to turn to literature in order to eke out
the miserable livelihood he earned by composing and giving music
lessons. The editor of the _Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung_ expressed
his willingness to accept contributions from Hoffmann, and here appeared
for the first time some of the musical sketches which ultimately passed
over into the _Phantasiestücke in Callots Manier_. This work appeared in
four volumes in 1814 and laid the foundation of his fame as a writer.
Meanwhile, Hoffmann had again been for some time attached, in the
capacity of musical director, to a theatrical company, whose
headquarters were at Dresden. In 1814 he gladly embraced the opportunity
that was offered him of resuming his legal profession in Berlin, and two
years later he was appointed councillor of the Court of Appeal
(_Kammergericht_). Hoffmann had the reputation of being an excellent
jurist and a conscientious official; he had leisure for literary
pursuits and was on the best of terms with the circle of Romantic poets
and novelists who gathered round Fouqué, Chamisso and his old friend
Hitzig. Unfortunately, however, the habits of intemperance which, in
earlier years, had thrown a shadow over his life, grew upon him, and his
health was speedily undermined by the nights he spent in the wine-house,
in company unworthy of him. He was struck down by locomotor ataxy, and
died on the 24th of July 1822.

The _Phantasiestücke_, which had been published with a commendatory
preface by Jean Paul, were followed in 1816 by the gruesome novel--to
some extent inspired by Lewis's _Monk--Die Elixiere des Teufels_, and
the even more gruesome and grotesque stories which make up the
_Nachtstücke_ (1817, 2 vols.). The full range of Hoffmann's powers is
first clearly displayed in the collection of stories (4 vols.,
1819-1821) _Die Serapionsbrüder_, this being the name of a small club of
Hoffmann's more intimate literary friends. _Die Serapionsbrüder_
includes not merely stories in which Hoffmann's love for the mysterious
and the supernatural is to be seen, but novels in which he draws on his
own early reminiscences (_Rat Krespel_, _Fermate_), finely outlined
pictures of old German life (_Der Artushof_, _Meister Martin der Küfner
und seine Gesellen_), and vivid and picturesque incidents from Italian
and French history (_Doge und Dogaressa_, the story of Marino Faliero,
and _Das Fräulein von Scuderi_). The last-mentioned story is usually
regarded as Hoffmann's masterpiece. Two longer works also belong to
Hoffmann's later years and display to advantage his powers as a
humorist; these are _Klein Zaches, genannt Zinnober_ (1819), and
_Lebensansichten des Katers Murr, nebst fragmentarischer Biographie des
Kapellmeisters Johannes Kreisler_ (1821-1822).

Hoffmann is one of the master novelists of the Romantic movement in
Germany. He combined with a humour that reminds us of Jean Paul the warm
sympathy for the artist's standpoint towards life, which was enunciated
by early Romantic leaders like Tieck and Wackenroder; but he was
superior to all in the almost clairvoyant powers of his imagination. His
works abound in grotesque and gruesome scenes--in this respect they mark
a descent from the high ideals of the Romantic school; but the gruesome
was only one outlet for Hoffmann's genius, and even here the secret of
his power lay not in his choice of subjects, but in the wonderfully
vivid and realistic presentation of them. Every line he wrote leaves the
impression behind it that it expresses something felt or experienced;
every scene, vision or character he described seems to have been real
and living to him. It is this realism, in the best sense of the word,
that made him the great artist he was, and gave him so extraordinary a
power over his contemporaries.

  The first collected edition of Hoffmann's works appeared in ten
  volumes (_Ausgewählte Schriften_, 1827-1828); to these his widow added
  five volumes in 1839 (including the 3rd edition of J. E. Hitzig's _Aus
  Hoffmanns Leben und Nachlass_, 1823). Other editions of his works
  appeared in 1844-1845, 1871-1873, 1879-1883, and, most complete of
  all, _Sämtliche Werke_, edited by E. Grisebach, in 15 vols. (1900).
  There are many editions of selections, as well as cheap reprints of
  the more popular stories. All Hoffmann's important works--except
  _Klein Zaches_ and _Kater Murr_--have been translated into English:
  _The Devil's Elixir_ (1824), _The Golden Pot_ by Carlyle (in _German
  Romance_, 1827), _The Serapion Brethren_ by A. Ewing (1886-1892), &c.
  In France Hoffmann was even more popular than in England. Cp. G.
  Thurau, _Hoffmanns Erzählungen in Frankreich_ (1896). An edition of
  his _Oeuvres complètes_ appeared in 12 vols. in Paris in 1830. The
  best monograph on Hoffmann is by G. Ellinger, _E. T. A. Hoffmann_
  (1894); see also O. Klinke, _Hoffmanns Leben und Werke vom Standpunkte
  eines Irrenarztes_ (1903); and the exhaustive bibliography in
  Goedeke's _Grundriss zur Geschichte der deutschen Dichtung_, 2nd ed.,
  vol. viii. pp. 468 ff. (1905).     (J. G. R.)



HOFFMANN, FRANÇOIS BENOÎT (1760-1828), French dramatist and critic, was
born at Nancy on the 11th of July 1760. He studied law at the university
of Strassburg, but a slight hesitation in his speech precluded success
at the bar, and he entered a regiment on service in Corsica. He served,
however, for a very short time, and, returning to Nancy, he wrote some
poems which brought him into notice at the little court of Lunéville
over which the marquise de Boufflers then presided. In 1784 he went to
Paris, and two years later produced the opera _Phèdre_. His opera
_Adrien_ (1792) was objected to by the government on political grounds,
and Hoffmann, who refused to make the changes proposed to him, ran
considerable risk under the revolutionary government. His later operas,
which were numerous, were produced at the Opéra Comique. In 1807 he was
invited by Étienne to contribute to the _Journal de l'Empire_
(afterwards the _Journal des débats_). Hoffmann's wide reading qualified
him to write on all sorts of subjects, and he turned, apparently with no
difficulty, from reviewing books on medicine to violent attacks on the
Jesuits. His severe criticism of Chateaubriand's _Martyrs_ led the
author to make some changes in a later edition. He had the reputation of
being an absolutely conscientious and incorruptible critic and thus
exercised wide influence. Hoffmann died in Paris on the 25th of April
1828. Among his numerous plays should be mentioned an excellent one-act
comedy, _Le Roman d'une heure_ (1803), and an amusing one-act opera _Les
Rendez-vous bourgeois_.

  See Sainte-Beuve, "M. de Feletz et la critique littéraire sous
  l'Empire" in _Causeries du lundi_, vol. i.



HOFFMANN, FRIEDRICH (1660-1742), German physician, a member of a family
that had been connected with medicine for 200 years before him, was born
at Halle on the 19th of February 1660. At the gymnasium of his native
town he acquired that taste for and skill in mathematics to which he
attributed much of his after success. At the age of eighteen he went to
study medicine at Jena, whence in 1680 he passed to Erfurt, in order to
attend Kasper Cramer's lectures on chemistry. Next year, returning to
Jena, he received his doctor's diploma, and, after publishing a thesis,
was permitted to teach. Constant study then began to tell on his
health, and in 1682, leaving his already numerous pupils, he proceeded
to Minden in Westphalia to recruit himself, at the request of a relative
who held a high position in that town. After practising at Minden for
two years, Hoffmann made a journey to Holland and England, where he
formed the acquaintance of many illustrious chemists and physicians.
Towards the end of 1684 he returned to Minden, and during the next three
years he received many flattering appointments. In 1688 he removed to
the more promising sphere of Halberstadt, with the title of physician to
the principality of Halberstadt; and on the founding of Halle university
in 1693, his reputation, which had been steadily increasing, procured
for him the primarius chair of medicine, while at the same time he was
charged with the responsible duty of framing the statutes for the new
medical faculty. He filled also the chair of natural philosophy. With
the exception of four years (1708-1712), which he passed at Berlin in
the capacity of royal physician, Hoffmann spent the rest of his life at
Halle in instruction, practice and study, interrupted now and again by
visits to different courts of Germany, where his services procured him
honours and rewards. His fame became European. He was enrolled a member
of many learned societies in different foreign countries, while in his
own he became privy councillor. He died at Halle on the 12th of November
1742.

  Of his numerous writings a catalogue is to be found in Haller's
  _Bibliotheca medicinae practicae_. The chief is _Medicina rationalis
  systematica_, undertaken at the age of sixty, and published in 1730.
  It was translated into French in 1739, under the title of _Médecine
  raisonnée d'Hoffmann_. A complete edition of Hoffmann's works, with a
  life of the author, was published at Geneva in 1740, to which
  supplements were added in 1753 and 1760. Editions appeared also at
  Venice in 1745 and at Naples in 1753 and 1793. (See also MEDICINE.)



HOFFMANN, JOHANN JOSEPH (1805-1878), German scholar, was born at
Würzburg on the 16th of February 1805. After studying at Würzburg he
went on the stage in 1825; but owing to an accidental meeting with the
German traveller, Dr Philipp Franz von Siebold (1796-1866), in July
1830, his interest was diverted to Oriental philology. From Siebold he
acquired the rudiments of Japanese, and in order to take advantage of
the instructions of Ko-ching-chang, a Chinese teacher whom Siebold had
brought home with him, he made himself acquainted with Malay, the only
language except Chinese which the Chinaman could understand. In a few
years he was able to supply the translations for Siebold's _Nippon_; and
the high character of his work soon attracted the attention of older
scholars. Stanislas Julien invited him to Paris; and he would probably
have accepted the invitation, as a disagreement had broken out between
him and Siebold, had not M. Baud, the Dutch colonial minister, appointed
him Japanese translator with a salary of 1800 florins (£150). The Dutch
authorities were slow in giving him further recognition; and he was too
modest a man successfully to urge his claims. It was not till after he
had received the offer of the professorship of Chinese in King's
College, London, that the authorities made him professor at Leiden and
the king allowed him a yearly pension. In 1875 he was decorated with the
order of the Netherlands Lion, and in 1877 he was elected corresponding
member of the Berlin Academy. He died at the Hague on the 23rd of
January 1878.

  Hoffmann's chief work was his unfinished Japanese Dictionary, begun in
  1839 and afterwards continued by L. Serrurier. Unable at first to
  procure the necessary type, he set himself to the cutting of punches,
  and even when the proper founts were obtained he had to act as his own
  compositor as far as Chinese and Japanese were concerned. His Japanese
  grammar (_Japanische Sprachlehre_) was published in Dutch and English
  in 1867, and in English and German in 1876. Of his miscellaneous
  productions it is enough to mention "Japans Bezüge mit der koraischen
  Halbinsel und mit Schina" in _Nippon_, vii.; _Yo-San-fi-Rok_, _L'Art
  d'élever les vers à soie au Japon, par Ouckaki Mourikouni_ (Paris,
  1848); "Die Heilkunde in Japan" in _Mittheil. d. deutsch. Gesellsch.
  für Natur- und Völkerk. Ost-Asiens_ (1873-1874); and _Japanische
  Studien_ (1878).



HOFMANN, AUGUST WILHELM VON (1818-1892), German chemist, was born at
Giessen on the 8th of April 1818. Not intending originally to devote
himself to physical science, he first took up the study of law and
philology at Göttingen, and the general culture he thus gained stood him
in good stead when he turned to chemistry, the study of which he began
under Liebig. When, in 1845, a school of practical chemistry was started
in London, under the style of the Royal College of Chemistry, Hofmann,
largely through the influence of the Prince Consort, was appointed its
first director. It was with some natural hesitation that he, then a
_Privatdozent_ at Bonn, accepted the position, which may well have
seemed rather a precarious one; but the difficulty was removed by his
appointment as extraordinary professor at Bonn, with leave of absence
for two years, so that he could resume his career in Germany if his
English one proved unsatisfactory. Fortunately the college was more or
less successful, owing largely to his enthusiasm and energy, and many of
the men who were trained there subsequently made their mark in chemical
history. But in 1864 he returned to Bonn, and in the succeeding year he
was selected to succeed E. Mitscherlich as professor of chemistry and
director of the laboratory in Berlin University. In leaving England, of
which he used to speak as his adopted country, Hofmann was probably
influenced by a combination of causes. The public support extended to
the college of chemistry had been dwindling for some years, and before
he left it had ceased to have an independent existence and had been
absorbed into the School of Mines. This event he must have looked upon
as a curtailment of its possibilities of usefulness. But, in addition,
there is only too much reason to suppose that he was disappointed at the
general apathy with which his science was regarded in England. No man
ever realized more fully than he how entirely dependent on the advance
of scientific knowledge is the continuation of a country's material
prosperity, and no single chemist ever exercised a greater or more
direct influence upon industrial development. In England, however,
people cared for none of these things, and were blind to the commercial
potentialities of scientific research. The college to which Hofmann
devoted nearly twenty of the best years of his life was starved; the
coal-tar industry, which was really brought into existence by his work
and that of his pupils under his direction at that college, and which
with a little intelligent forethought might have been retained in
England, was allowed to slip into the hands of Germany, where it is now
worth millions of pounds annually; and Hofmann himself was compelled to
return to his native land to find due appreciation as one of the
foremost chemists of his time. The rest of his life was spent in Berlin,
and there he died on the 5th of May 1892. That city possesses a
permanent memorial to his name in Hofmann House, the home of the German
Chemical Society (of which he was the founder), which was formally
opened in 1900, appropriately enough with an account of that great
triumph of German chemical enterprise, the industrial manufacture of
synthetical indigo.

Hofmann's work covered a wide range of organic chemistry, though with
inorganic bodies he did but little. His first research, carried out in
Liebig's laboratory at Giessen, was on coal-tar, and his investigation
of the organic bases in coal-gas naphtha established the nature of
aniline. This substance he used to refer to as his first love, and it
was a love to which he remained faithful throughout his life. His
perception of the analogy between it and ammonia led to his famous work
on the amines and ammonium bases and the allied organic phosphorus
compounds, while his researches on rosaniline, which he first prepared
in 1858, formed the first of a series of investigations on colouring
matters which only ended with quinoline red in 1887. But in addition to
these and numberless other investigations for which he was responsible
the influence he exercised through his pupils must also be taken into
account. As a teacher, besides the power of accurately gauging the
character and capabilities of those who studied under him, he had the
faculty of infecting them with his own enthusiasm, and thus of
stimulating them to put forward their best efforts. In the lecture-room
he laid great stress on the importance of experimental demonstrations,
paying particular attention to their selection and arrangement, though,
since he himself was a somewhat clumsy manipulator, their actual
exhibition was generally entrusted to his assistants. He was the
possessor of a clear and graceful, if somewhat florid, style, which
showed to special advantage in his numerous obituary notices or
encomiums (collected and published in three volumes _Zur Erinnerung an
vorangegangene Freunde_, 1888). He also excelled as a speaker,
particularly at gatherings of an international character, for in
addition to his native German he could speak English, French and Italian
with fluency.

  See _Memorial Lectures delivered before the Chemical Society,
  1893-1900_ (London, 1901).



HOFMANN, JOHANN CHRISTIAN KONRAD VON (1810-1877), Lutheran theologian
and historian, was born on the 21st of December 1810 at Nuremberg, and
studied theology and history at the university of Erlangen. In 1829 he
went to Berlin, where Schleiermacher, Hengstenberg, Neander, Ranke and
Raumer were among his teachers. In 1833 he received an appointment to
teach Hebrew and history in the gymnasium of Erlangen. In 1835 he became
_Repetent_, in 1838 _Privatdozent_ and in 1841 _professor
extraordinarius_ in the theological faculty at Erlangen. In 1842 he
became _professor ordinarius_ at Rostock, but in 1845 returned once more
to Erlangen as the successor of Gottlieb Christoph Adolf von Harless
(1806-1879), founder of the _Zeitschrift für Protestantismus und
Kirche_, of which Hofmann became one of the editors in 1846, J. F.
Höfling (1802-1853) and Gottfried Thomasius (1802-1875) being his
collaborators. He was a conservative in theology, but an enthusiastic
adherent of the progressive party in politics, and sat as member for
Erlangen and Fürth in the Bavarian second chamber from 1863 to 1868. He
died on the 20th of December 1877.

He wrote _Die siebzig Jahre des Jeremias u. die siebzig Jahrwochen des
Daniel_ (1836); _Geschichte des Aufruhrs in den Cevennen_ (1837);
_Lehrbuch der Weltgeschichte für Gymnasien_ (1839), which became a
text-book in the Protestant gymnasia of Bavaria; _Weissagung u.
Erfüllung im alten u. neuen Testamente_ (1841-1844; 2nd ed., 1857-1860);
_Der Schriftbeweis_ (1852-1856; 2nd ed., 1857-1860); _Die heilige
Schrift des neuen Testaments zusammenhängend untersucht_ (1862-1875);
_Schutzschriften_ (1856-1859), in which he defends himself against the
charge of denying the Atonement; and _Theologische Ethik_ (1878). His
most important works are the five last named. In theology, as in
ecclesiastical polity, Hofmann was a Lutheran of an extreme type,
although the strongly marked individuality of some of his opinions laid
him open to repeated accusations of heterodoxy. He was the head of what
has been called the Erlangen School, and "in his day he was
unquestionably the chief glory of the University of Erlangen"
(Lichtenberger).

  See the articles in Herzog-Hauck's _Realencyklopädie_ and the
  _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_; and cf. F. Lichtenberger, _History
  of German Theology in the Nineteenth Century_ (1889) pp. 446-458.



HOFMANN, MELCHIOR (c. 1498-1543-4), anabaptist, was born at Hall, in
Swabia, before 1500 (Zur Linden suggests 1498). His biographers usually
give his surname as above; in his printed works it is Hoffman, in his
manuscripts Hoffmann. He was without scholarly training, and first
appears as a furrier at Livland. Attracted by Luther's doctrine, he came
forward as a lay preacher, combining business travels with a religious
mission. Accompanied by Melchior Rinck, also a skinner or furrier, and a
religious enthusiast, he made his way to Sweden. Joined by Bernard
Knipperdolling, the party reached Stockholm in the autumn of 1524. Their
fervid attacks on image worship led to their expulsion. By way of
Livonia, Hofmann arrived at Dorpat in November 1524, but was driven
thence in the following January. Making his way to Riga, and thence to
Wittenberg, he found favour with Luther; his letter of the 22nd of June
1525 appears in a tract by Luther of that year. He was again at Dorpat
in May 1526; later at Magdeburg. Returning to Wittenberg, he was coldly
received; he wrote there his exposition of Daniel xii. (1527). Repairing
to Holstein, he got into the good graces of Frederick I. of Denmark, and
was appointed by royal ordinance to preach the Gospel at Kiel. He was
extravagant in denunciation, and developed a Zwinglian view of the
Eucharist. Luther was alarmed. At a colloquy of preachers in Flensburg
(8th April 1529) Hofmann, John Campanus and others were put on their
defence. Hofmann maintained (against the "magic" of the Lutherans) that
the function of the Eucharist, like that of preaching, is an appeal for
spiritual union with Christ. Refusing to retract, he was banished. At
Strassburg to which he now turned, he was well received (1529) till his
anabaptist development became apparent. He was in relations with
Schwenkfeld and with Carlstadt, but assumed a prophetic rôle of his own.
Journeying to East Friesland, (1530) he founded a community at Emden
(1532), securing a large following of artisans. Despite the warning of
John Trypmaker, who prophesied for him "six months" in prison, he
returned in the spring of 1533 to Strassburg, where we hear of his wife
and child. He gathered from the Apocalypse a vision of "resurrections"
of apostolic Christianity, first under John Hus, and now under himself.
The year 1533 was to inaugurate the new era; Strassburg was to be the
seat of the New Jerusalem. In May 1533 he and others were arrested.
Under examination, he denied that he had made common cause with the
anabaptists and claimed to be no prophet, a mere witness of the Most
High, but refused the articles of faith proposed to him by the
provincial synod. Hofmann and Claus Frey, an anabaptist, were detained
in prison, a measure due to the terror excited by the Münster episode of
1533-1534. The synod, in 1539, made further effort to reclaim him. The
last notice of his imprisonment is on the 19th of November 1543; he
probably died soon after.

Two of his publications, with similar titles, in 1530, are noteworthy as
having influenced Menno Simons and David Joris (_Weissagung vsz heiliger
götlicher geschrifft_, and _Prophecey oder Weissagung vsz warer heiliger
götlicher schrifft_). Bock treats him as an antitrinitarian, on grounds
which Wallace rightly deems inconclusive. With better reason Trechsel
includes him among pioneers of some of the positions of Servetus. His
Christology was Valentinian. While all are elected to salvation, only
the regenerate may receive baptism, and those who sin after regeneration
sin against the Holy Ghost, and cannot be saved. His followers were
known as Hofmannites or Melchiorites.

  See G. Herrmann, _Essai sur la vie et les écrits de M. Hofmann_
  (1852); F. O. zur Linden, _M. Hofmann, ein Prophet der Wiedertäufer_
  (1885); H. Holtzmann, in _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_ (1880);
  Hegler in Hauck's _Realencyklopädie_ (1900); Bock, _Hist. Antitrin._
  (1776), ii.; Wallace, _Antitrin. Biography_ (1850) iii., app. iii.;
  Trechsel, _Prot. Antitrin. vor F. Socin_ (1839) i.; Barclay, _Inner
  Life of Rel. Societies_ (1876). An alleged portrait, from an engraving
  of 1608, is reproduced in the appendix to A. Ross, _Pansebeia_ (1655).
       (A. Go.*)



HOFMEISTER, WILHELM FRIEDRICH BENEDICT (1824-1877), German botanist, was
born at Leipzig on the 18th of May 1824. He came of a family engaged in
trade, and after being educated at the _Realschule_ of Leipzig he
entered business as a music-dealer. Much of his botanical work was done
while he was so employed, till in 1863 he was nominated, without
intermediate academic steps, to the chair in Heidelberg; thence he was
transferred in 1872 to Tübingen, in succession to H. von Mohl. His first
work was on the distribution of the Coniferae in the Himalaya, but his
attention was very soon devoted to studying the sexuality and origin of
the embryo of Phanerogams. His contributions on this subject extended
from 1847 till 1860, and they finally settled the question of the origin
of the embryo from an ovum, as against the prevalent pollen-tube theory
of M. J. Schleiden, for he showed that the pollen-tube does not itself
produce the embryo, but only stimulates the ovum already present in the
ovule. He soon turned his attention to the embryology of Bryophytes and
Pteridophytes, and gave continuous accounts of the germination of the
spores and fertilization in _Pilularia_, _Salvinia_, _Selaginella_. Some
of the main facts of the life of ferns and mosses were already known;
these, together with his own wider observations, were worked into that
great general pronouncement published in 1851 under the title,
_Vergleichende Untersuchungen der Keimung, Entfaltung und Fruchtbildung
köherer Kryptogamen und der Samenbildung der Coniferen_. This work will
always stand in the first rank of botanical books. It antedated the
_Origin of Species_ by eight years, but contained facts and comparisons
which could only become intelligible on some theory of descent. The plan
of life-story common to them all, involving two alternating generations,
was demonstrated for Liverworts, Mosses, Ferns, Equiseta, Rhizocarps,
Lycopodiaceae, and even Gymnosperms, with a completeness and certainty
which must still surprise those who know the botanical literature of the
author's time. The conclusions of Hofmeister remain in their broad
outlines unshaken, but rather strengthened by later-acquired details. In
the light of the theory of descent the common plan of life-history in
plants apparently so diverse as those named acquires a special
significance; but it is one of the remarkable features of this great
work that the writer himself does not theorize--with an unerring insight
he points out his comparisons and states his homologies, but does not
indulge in explanatory surmises. It is the typical work of an heroic age
of plant-morphology. From 1857 till 1862 Hofmeister wrote occasionally
on physiological subjects, such as the ascent of sap, and curvatures of
growing parts, but it was in morphology that he found his natural
sphere. In 1861, in conjunction with other botanists, a plan was drawn
up of a handbook of physiological botany, of which Hofmeister was to be
editor. Though the original scheme was never completed, the editor
himself contributed two notable parts, _Die Lehre von der Pflanzenzelle_
(1867) and _Allgemeine Morphologie der Gewächse_ (1868). The former
gives an excellent summary of the structure and relations of the
vegetable cell as then known, but it did not greatly modify current
views. The latter was notable for its refutation of the spiral theory of
leaf arrangement in plants, founded by C. F. Schimper and A. Braun.
Hofmeister transferred the discussion from the mere study of mature form
to the observation of the development of the parts, and substituted for
the "spiral tendency" a mechanical theory based upon the observed fact
that new branchings appear over the widest gaps which exist between next
older branchings of like nature. With this important work Hofmeister's
period of active production closed; he fell into ill-health, and retired
from his academic duties some time before his death at Lindenau, near
Leipzig, on the 12th of January 1877.     (F. O. B.)



HOFMEYR, JAN HENDRIK (1845-1909), South African politician, was born at
Cape Town on the 4th of July 1845. He was educated at the South African
College, and at an early age turned his attention to politics, first as
a journalist. He was editor of the _Zuid Afrikaan_ till its
incorporation with _Ons Land_, and of the _Zuid Afrikaansche
Tijdschrift_. By birth, education and sympathies a typical Dutch
Afrikander, he set himself to organize the political power of his
fellow-countrymen. This he did very effectively, and when in 1879 he
entered the Cape parliament as member for Stellenbosch, he became the
real leader of the Dutch party. Yet he only held office for six
months--as minister without portfolio in the Scanlen ministry from May
to November 1881. He held no subsequent official post in the colony,
though he shared with Sir Thomas Upington and Sir Charles Mills the
honour of representing the Cape at the intercolonial conference of 1887.
Here he supported the proposal for entrusting the defence of Simon's
Town to Cape Colony, leaving only the armament to be provided by the
imperial government, opposed trans-oceanic penny postage, and moved a
resolution in favour of an imperial customs union. At the colonial
conference of 1894 at Ottawa he was again one of the Cape
representatives. In 1888 and in 1889 he was a member of the South
African customs conference.

His chief importance as a public man was, however, derived from his
power over the Dutch in Cape Colony, and his control of the Afrikander
Bond. In 1878 he had himself founded the "Farmers' Association," and as
the Cape farmers were almost entirely Dutch the Association became a
centre of Dutch influence. When the Bond was formed in 1882, with purely
political aims, Hofmeyr made haste to obtain control of it, and in 1883
amalgamated the Farmers' Association with it. Under his direction the
constitution of the Bond was modified by the elimination of the
provisions inconsistent with loyalty to the British crown. But it
remained an organization for obtaining the political supremacy of the
Cape Dutch. (See CAPE COLONY: _History_.) His control over the Bond
enabled him for many years, while free from the responsibilities of
office, to make and unmake ministers at his will, and earned for him the
name of "Cabinet-maker of South Africa." Although officially the term
"Afrikander" was explained by Hofmeyr to include white men of whatever
race, yet in practice the influence of the Bond was always exerted in
favour of the Dutch, and its power was drawn from the Dutch districts of
Cape Colony. The sympathies of the Bond were thus always strongly with
the Transvaal, as the chief centre of Dutch influence in South Africa;
and Hofmeyr's position might in many respects be compared with that of
Parnell at the head of the Irish Nationalist party in Great Britain. In
the Bechuanaland difficulty of 1884 Hofmeyr threw all the influence of
the Bond into the scale in favour of the Transvaal. But in the course of
the next few years he began to drift away from President Kruger. He
resented the reckless disregard of Cape interests involved in Kruger's
fiscal policy; he feared that the Transvaal, after its sudden leap into
prosperity upon the gold discoveries of 1886, might overshadow all other
Dutch influences in South Africa; above all he was convinced, as he
showed by his action at the London conference, that the protection of
the British navy was indispensable to South Africa, and he set his face
against Kruger's intrigues with Germany, and his avowed intention of
acquiring an outlet to the sea in order to get into touch with foreign
powers.

In 1890 Hofmeyr joined forces with Cecil Rhodes, who became premier of
Cape Colony with the support of the Bond. Hofmeyr's influence was a
powerful factor in the conclusion of the Swaziland convention of 1890,
as well as in stopping the "trek" to Banyailand (Rhodesia) in 1891--a
notable reversal of the policy he had pursued seven years before. But
the reactionary elements in the Bond grew alarmed at Rhodes's
imperialism, and in 1895 Hofmeyr resigned his seat in parliament and the
presidency of the Bond. Then came the Jameson Raid, and in its wake
there rolled over South Africa a wave of Dutch and anti-British feeling
such as had not been known since the days of Majuba. (The proclamation
issued by Sir Hercules Robinson disavowing Jameson was suggested by
Hofmeyr, who helped to draw up its terms.) Once more Hofmeyr became
president of the Bond. By an alteration of the provincial constitution,
all power in the Cape branch of the Bond was vested in the hands of a
vigilance committee of three, of whom Hofmeyr and his brother were two.
As the recognized leader of the Cape Dutch, he protested against such
abuses as the dynamite monopoly in the Transvaal, and urged Kruger even
at the eleventh hour to grant reasonable concessions rather than plunge
into a war that might involve Cape Afrikanderdom and the Transvaal in a
common ruin. In July 1899 he journeyed to Pretoria, and vainly supported
the proposal of a satisfactory franchise law, combined with a limited
representation of the Uitlanders in the Volksraad, and in September
urged the Transvaal to accede to the proposed joint inquiry. During the
negotiations of 1899, and after the outbreak of war, the official organ
of the Bond, _Ons Land_, was conspicuous for its anti-British attitude,
and its violence forced Lord Roberts to suppress it in the Cape Colony
district under martial law. Hofmeyr never associated himself publicly
with the opinions expressed by _Ons Land_, but neither did he repudiate
them. The tide of race sympathy among his Dutch supporters made his
position one of great difficulty, and shortly after the outbreak of war
he withdrew to Europe, and refused to act as a member of the
"Conciliation Committee" which came to England in 1901 in the interests
of the Boer republics.

Towards the close of the war Hofmeyr returned to South Africa and
organized the Bond forces for the general election held in Cape Colony
at the beginning of 1904, which resulted in the defeat of the Bond
party. Hofmeyr retained his ascendancy over the Cape Dutch, but now
began to find himself somewhat out of sympathy with the larger outlook
on South African affairs taken by the younger leaders of the Boers in
the Transvaal. During 1906 he gave offence to the extreme section of the
Bond by some criticisms of the _taal_ and his use of English in public
speeches. At the general election in 1908 the Bond, still largely under
his direction, gained a victory at the polls, but Hofmeyr himself was
not a candidate. In the renewed movement for the closer union of the
South African colonies he advocated federation as opposed to
unification. When, however, the unification proposals were ratified by
the Cape parliament, Hofmeyr procured his nomination as one of the Cape
delegates to England in the summer of 1909 to submit the draft act of
union to the imperial government. He attended the conferences with the
officials of the Colonial Office for the preparation of the draft act,
and after the bill had become law went to Germany for a "cure." He
returned to London in October 1909, where he died on the 16th of that
month. His body was taken to Cape Town for burial.



HOFSTEDE DE GROOT, PETRUS (1802-1886), Dutch theologian, was born at
Leer in East Friesland, Prussia, on the 8th of October 1802, and was
educated at the Gymnasium and university of Groningen. For three years
(1826-1829) he was pastor of the Reformed Church at Ulrum, and then
entered upon his lifelong duties as professor of theology at Groningen.
With his colleagues L. G. Pareau, J. F. van Vordt, and W. Muurling he
edited from 1837 to 1872 the _Waarheid in Liefde_. In this review and in
his numerous books he vigorously upheld the orthodox faith against the
Dutch "modern theology" movement. Many of his works were written in
Latin, including _Disputatio, qua ep. ad Hebraeos cum Paulin. epistolis
comparatur_ (1826), _Institutiones historiae ecclesiae_ (1835),
_Institutio theologiae naturalis_ (1842), _Encyclopaedia theologi
christiani_ (1844). Others, in Dutch, were: _The Divine Education of
Humanity up to the Coming of Jesus Christ_ (3 vols., 1846), _The Nature
of the Gospel Ministry_ (1858), _The "Modern Theology" of the
Netherlands_ (1869), _The Old Catholic Movement_ (1877). He became
professor emeritus in 1872, and died at Groningen on the 5th of December
1886.



HOGARTH, WILLIAM (1697-1764), the great English painter and pictorial
satirist, was born at Bartholomew Close in London on the 10th of
November 1697, and baptized on the 28th in the church of St Bartholomew
the Great. He had two younger sisters, Mary, born in 1699, and Ann, born
in 1701. His father, Richard Hogarth, who died in 1718, was a
schoolmaster and literary hack, who had come to the metropolis to seek
that fortune which had been denied to him in his native Westmorland. The
son seems to have been early distinguished by a talent for drawing and
an active perceptive faculty rather than by any close attention to the
learning which he was soon shrewd enough to see had not made his parent
prosper. "Shows of all sorts gave me uncommon pleasure when an infant,"
he says, "and mimicry, common to all children, was remarkable in me....
My exercises when at school were more remarkable for the ornaments which
adorned them than for the exercise itself." This being the case, it is
no wonder that, by his own desire, he was apprenticed to a silver-plate
engraver, Mr Ellis Gamble, at the sign of the "Golden Angel" in
Cranbourne Street or Alley, Leicester Fields. For this master he
engraved a shop-card which is still extant. When his apprenticeship
began is not recorded; but it must have been concluded before the
beginning of 1720, for in April of that year he appears to have set up
as engraver on his own account. His desires, however, were not limited
to silver-plate engraving. "Engraving on copper was, at twenty years of
age, my utmost ambition." For this he lacked the needful skill as a
draughtsman; and his account of the means which he took to supply this
want, without too much interfering with his pleasure, is thoroughly
characteristic, though it can scarcely be recommended as an example.
"Laying it down," he says, "first as an axiom, that he who could by any
means acquire and retain in his memory, perfect ideas of the subjects he
meant to draw, would have as clear a knowledge of the figure as a man
who can write freely hath of the twenty-four letters of the alphabet and
their infinite combinations (each of these being composed of lines),
and would consequently be an accurate designer, ... I therefore
endeavoured to habituate myself to the exercise of a sort of technical
memory, and by repeating in my own mind, the parts of which objects were
composed, I could by degrees combine and put them down with my pencil."
This account, it is possible, has something of the complacency of the
old age in which it was written; but there is little doubt that his
marvellous power of seizing expression owed less to patient academical
study than to his unexampled eye-memory and tenacity of minor detail.
But he was not entirely without technical training, since, by his own
showing, he occasionally "took the life" to correct his memories, and is
known to have studied at Sir James Thornhill's then recently opened art
school.

"His first employment" (i.e. after he set up for himself) "seems," says
John Nichols, in his _Anecdotes_, "to have been the engraving of arms
and shop bills." After this he was employed in designing "plates for
booksellers." Of these early and mostly insignificant works we may pass
over "The Lottery, an Emblematic Print on the South Sea Scheme," and
some book illustrations, to pause at "Masquerades and Operas" (1724),
the first plate he published on his own account. This is a clever little
satire on contemporary follies, such as the masquerades of the Swiss
adventurer Heidegger, the popular Italian opera-singers, Rich's
pantomimes at Lincoln's Inn Fields, and last, but by no means least, the
exaggerated popularity of Lord Burlington's protégé, the architect
painter William Kent, who is here represented on the summit of
Burlington Gate, with Raphael and Michelangelo for supporters. This
worthy, Hogarth had doubtless not learned to despise less in the school
of his rival Sir James Thornhill. Indeed almost the next of Hogarth's
important prints was aimed at Kent alone, being that memorable burlesque
of the unfortunate altarpiece designed by the latter for St Clement
Danes, which, in deference to the ridicule of the parishioners, Bishop
Gibson took down in 1725. Hogarth's squib, which appeared subsequently,
exhibits it as a very masterpiece of confusion and bad drawing. In 1726
he prepared twelve large engravings for Butler's _Hudibras_. These he
himself valued highly, and they are the best of his book illustrations.
But he was far too individual to be the patient interpreter of other
men's thoughts, and it is not in this direction that his successes are
to be sought.

To 1727-1728 belongs one of those rare occurrences which have survived
as contributions to his biography. He was engaged by Joshua Morris, a
tapestry worker, to prepare a design for the "Element of Earth." Morris,
however, having heard that he was "an engraver, and no painter,"
declined the work when completed, and Hogarth accordingly sued him for
the money in the Westminster Court, where, on the 28th of May 1728, the
case was decided in his (Hogarth's) favour. It may have been the
aspersion thus early cast on his skill as a painter (coupled perhaps
with the unsatisfactory state of print-selling, owing to the
uncontrolled circulation of piratical copies) that induced him about
this time to turn his attention to the production of "small conversation
pieces" (i.e. groups in oil of full-length portraits from 12 to 15 in.
high), many of which are still preserved in different collections.
"This," he says, "having novelty, succeeded for a few years." Among his
other efforts in oil between 1728 and 1732 were "The Wanstead
Conversation," "The House of Commons examining Bambridge," an infamous
warden of the Fleet, and several pictures of the chief actors in Gay's
popular _Beggar's Opera_.

On the 23rd of March 1729 he was married at old Paddington church to
Jane Thornhill, the only daughter of Kent's rival above mentioned. The
match was a clandestine one, although Lady Thornhill appears to have
favoured it. We next hear of him in "lodgings at South Lambeth," where
he rendered some assistance to the then well-known Jonathan Tyers, who
opened Vauxhall in 1732 with an entertainment styled a _ridotto al
fresco_. For these gardens Hogarth painted a poor picture of Henry VIII.
and Anne Boleyn, and he also permitted Hayman to make copies of the
later series of the "Four Times of the Day." In return, the grateful
Tyers presented him with a gold pass ticket "_In perpetuam Beneficii
Memoriam_." It was long thought that Hogarth designed this himself. Mr
Warwick Wroth (_Numismatic Chronicle_, vol. xviii.) doubts this,
although he thinks it probable that Hogarth designed some of the silver
Vauxhall passes which are figured in Wilkinson's _Londina illustrata_.
The only engravings between 1726 and 1732 which need be referred to are
the "Large Masquerade Ticket" (1727), another satire on masquerades, and
the print of "Burlington Gate" (1731), evoked by Pope's _Epistle to Lord
Burlington_, and defending Lord Chandos, who is therein satirized. This
print gave great offence, and was, it is said, suppressed.

By 1731 Hogarth must have completed the earliest of the series of moral
works which first gave him his position as a great and original genius.
This was "A Harlot's Progress," the paintings for which, if we may trust
the date in the last of the pictures, were finished in that year. Almost
immediately afterwards he must have begun to engrave them--a task he had
at first intended to leave to others. From an advertisement in the
_Country Journal; or, the Craftsman_, 29th of January 1732, the pictures
were then being engraved, and from later announcements it seems clear
that they were delivered to the subscribers early in the following
April, on the 21st of which month an unauthorized prose description of
them was published. We have no record of the particular train of thought
which prompted these story-pictures; but it may perhaps be fairly
assumed that the necessity for creating some link of interest between
the personages of the little "conversation pieces" above referred to,
led to the further idea of connecting several groups or scenes so as to
form a sequent narrative. "I wished," says Hogarth, "to compose pictures
on canvas, similar to representations on the stage." "I have
endeavoured," he says again, "to treat my subject as a dramatic writer;
my picture is my stage, and men and women my players, who by means of
certain actions and gestures are to exhibit _a dumb show_." There was
never a more eloquent dumb show than this of the "Harlot's Progress." In
six scenes the miserable career of a woman of the town is traced out
remorselessly from its first facile beginning to its shameful and
degraded end. Nothing of the detail is softened or abated; the whole is
acted out _coram populo_, with the hard, uncompassionate morality of the
age the painter lived in, while the introduction here and there of one
or two well-known characters such as Colonel Charteris and Justice
Gonson give a vivid reality to the satire. It had an immediate success.
To say nothing of the fact that the talent of the paintings completely
reconciled Sir James Thornhill to the son-in-law he had hitherto refused
to acknowledge, more than twelve hundred names of subscribers to the
engravings were entered in the artist's book. On the appearance of plate
iii. the lords of the treasury trooped to the print shop for Sir John
Gonson's portrait which it contained. The story was made into a
pantomime by Theophilus Cibber, and by some one else into a ballad
opera; and it gave rise to numerous pamphlets and poems. It was painted
on fan-mounts and transferred to cups and saucers. Lastly, it was freely
pirated. There could be no surer testimony to its popularity.

From the MSS. of George Vertue in the British Museum (Add. MSS.
23069-98) it seems that during the progress of the plates, Hogarth was
domiciled with his father-in-law, Sir James Thornhill, in the Middle
Piazza, Covent Garden (the "second house eastward from James Street"),
and it must have been thence that set out the historical expedition from
London to Sheerness of which the original record still exists at the
British Museum. This is an oblong MS. volume entitled _An Account of
what seem'd most Remarkable in the Five Days' Peregrination of the Five
Following Persons, vizt., Messieurs Tothall, Scott, Hogarth, Thornhill
and Forrest. Begun on Saturday May 27th 1732 and Finish'd On the 31st of
the Same Month. Abi tu et fac similiter. Inscription on Dulwich College
Porch_. The journal, which is written by Ebenezer, the father of
Garrick's friend Theodosius Forrest, gives a good idea of what a
"frisk"--as Johnson called it--was in those days, while the
illustrations were by Hogarth and Samuel Scott the landscape painter.
John Thornhill, Sir James's son, made the map. This version (in prose)
was subsequently run into rhyme by one of Hogarth's friends, the Rev.
Wm. Gostling of Canterbury, and after the artist's death both versions
were published. In the absence of other biographical detail, they are of
considerable interest to the student of Hogarth. In 1733 Hogarth moved
into the "Golden Head" in Leicester Fields, which, with occasional
absences at Chiswick, he continued to occupy until his death. By
December of this year he was already engaged upon the engravings of a
second Progress, that of a Rake. It was not as successful as its
predecessor. It was in eight plates in lieu of six. The story is
unequal; but there is nothing finer than the figure of the desperate
hero in the Covent Garden gaming-house, or the admirable scenes in the
Fleet prison and Bedlam, where at last his headlong career comes to its
tragic termination. The plates abound with allusive suggestion and
covert humour; but it is impossible to attempt any detailed description
of them here.

"A Rake's Progress" was dated June 25, 1735, and the engravings bear the
words "according to Act of Parliament." This was an act (8 Geo. II. cap.
13) which Hogarth had been instrumental in obtaining from the
legislature, being stirred thereto by the shameless piracies of rival
printsellers. Although loosely drawn, it served its purpose; and the
painter commemorated his success by a long inscription on the plate
entitled "Crowns, Mitres, &c.," afterwards used as a subscription ticket
to the Election series. These subscription tickets to his engravings,
let us add, are among the brightest and most vivacious of the artist's
productions. That to the "Harlot's Progress" was entitled "Boys peeping
at Nature," while the Rake's Progress was heralded by the delightful
etching known as "A Pleased Audience at a Play, or The Laughing
Audience."

We must pass more briefly over the prints which followed the two
Progresses, noting first "A Modern Midnight Conversation," an admirable
drinking scene which comes between them in 1733, and the bright little
plate of "Southwark Fair," which, although dated 1733, was published
with "A Rake's Progress" in 1735. Between these and "Marriage _à la
mode_," upon the pictures of which the painter must have been not long
after at work, come the small prints of the "Consultation of Physicians"
and "Sleeping Congregation" (1736), the "Scholars at a Lecture" (1737);
the "Four Times of the Day" (1738), a series of pictures of 18th century
life, the earlier designs for which have been already referred to; the
"Strolling Actresses dressing in a Barn" (1738), which Walpole held to
be, "for wit and imagination, without any other end, the best of all the
painter's works"; and finally the admirable plates of the Distrest Poet
painfully composing a poem on "Riches" in a garret, and the Enraged
Musician fulminating from his parlour window upon a discordant orchestra
of knife-grinders, milk-girls, ballad-singers and the rest upon the
pavement outside. These are dated respectively 1736 and 1741. To this
period also (i.e. the period preceding the production of the plates of
"Marriage _à la mode_") belong two of those history pictures to which,
in emulation of the Haymans and Thornhills, the artist was continually
attracted. "The Pool of Bethesda" and the "Good Samaritan," "with
figures seven feet high," were painted _circa_ 1736, and presented by
the artist to St Bartholomew's Hospital, where they remain. They were
not masterpieces; and it is pleasanter to think of his connexion with
Captain Coram's recently established Foundling Hospital (1739), which he
aided with his money, his graver and his brush, and for which he painted
that admirable portrait of the good old philanthropist which is still,
and deservedly, one of its chief ornaments.

In "A Harlot's Progress" Hogarth had not strayed much beyond the lower
walks of society, and although, in "A Rake's Progress," his hero was
taken from the middle classes, he can scarcely be said to have quitted
those fields of observation which are common to every spectator. It is
therefore more remarkable, looking to his education and antecedents,
that his masterpiece, "Marriage _à la mode_," should successfully
depict, as the advertisement has it, "a variety of modern occurrences in
high life." Yet, as an accurate delineation of upper class 18th century
society, his "Marriage _à la mode_" has never, we believe, been
seriously assailed. The countess's bedroom, the earl's apartment with
its lavish coronets and old masters, the grand saloon with its marble
pillars and grotesque ornaments, are fully as true to nature as the
frowsy chamber in the "Turk's Head Bagnio," the quack-doctor's museum in
St Martin's Lane, or the mean opulence of the merchant's house in the
city. And what story could be more vividly, more perspicuously, more
powerfully told than this godless alliance of _sacs et parchemins_--this
miserable tragedy of an ill-assorted marriage? There is no defect of
invention, no superfluity of detail, no purposeless stroke. It has the
merit of a work by a great master of fiction, with the additional
advantages which result from the pictorial fashion of the narrative; and
it is matter for congratulation that it is still to be seen by all the
world in the National Gallery in London, where it can tell its own tale
better than pages of commentary. The engravings of "Marriage _à la
mode_" were dated April 1745. Although by this time the painter found a
ready market for his engravings, he does not appear to have been equally
successful in selling his pictures. The people bought his prints; but
the richer and not numerous connoisseurs who purchased pictures were
wholly in the hands of the importers and manufacturers of "old masters."
In February 1745 the original oil paintings of the two Progresses, the
"Four Times of the Day" and the "Strolling Actresses" were still unsold.
On the last day of that month Hogarth disposed of them by an ill-devised
kind of auction, the details of which may be read in Nichols's
_Anecdotes_, for the paltry sum of £427, 7s. No better fate attended
"Marriage _à la mode_," which six years later became the property of Mr
Lane of Hillingdon for 120 guineas, being then in Carlo Maratti frames
which had cost the artist four guineas a piece. Something of this was no
doubt due to Hogarth's impracticable arrangements, but the fact shows
conclusively how completely blind his contemporaries were to his merits
as a painter, and how hopelessly in bondage to the all-powerful
picture-dealers. Of these latter the painter himself gave a graphic
picture in a letter addressed by him under the pseudonym of "Britophil"
to the _St James's Evening Post_, in June 1737.

But if Hogarth was not successful with his dramas on canvas, he
occasionally shared with his contemporaries in the popularity of
portrait painting. For a picture, executed in 1746, of Garrick as
Richard III. he was paid £200, "which was more," says he, "than any
English artist ever received for a single portrait." In the same year a
sketch of Simon Fraser, Lord Lovat, afterwards beheaded on Tower Hill,
had an exceptional success.

We must content ourselves with a brief enumeration of the most important
of his remaining works. These are "The Stage Coach or Country Inn Yard"
(1747); the series of twelve plates entitled "Industry and Idleness"
(1747), depicting the career of two London apprentices; the "Gate of
Calais" (1749), which had its origin in a rather unfortunate visit paid
to France by the painter after the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle; the "March
to Finchley" (1750); "Beer Street," "Gin Lane" and the "Four Stages of
Cruelty" (1751); the admirable representations of election humours in
the days of Sir Robert Walpole, entitled "Four Prints of an Election"
(1755-1758); and the plate of "Credulity, Superstition and Fanaticism, a
Medley" (1762), adapted from an earlier unpublished design called
"Enthusiasm Delineated." Besides these must be chronicled three more
essays in the "great style of history painting," viz. "Paul before
Felix," "Moses brought to Pharaoh's Daughter" and the Altarpiece for St
Mary Redcliffe at Bristol. The first two were engraved in 1751-1752, the
last in 1794. A subscription ticket to the earlier pictures, entitled
"Paul before Felix Burlesqued," had a popularity far greater than that
of the prints themselves.

In 1745 Hogarth painted that admirable portrait of himself with his dog
Trump, which is now in the National Gallery. In a corner of this he had
drawn on a palette a serpentine curve with the words "The Line of
Beauty." Much inquiry ensued as to the meaning of this hieroglyphic; and
in an unpropitious hour the painter resolved to explain himself in
writing. The result was the well-known _Analysis of Beauty_ (1753), a
treatise to fix "the fluctuating ideas of Taste," otherwise a desultory
essay having for pretext the precept attributed to Michelangelo that a
figure should be always "Pyramidall, Serpent like and multiplied by one
two and three." The fate of the book was what might have been expected.
By the painter's adherents it was praised as a final deliverance upon
aesthetics; by his enemies and professional rivals, its obscurities, and
the minor errors which, notwithstanding the benevolent efforts of
literary friends, the work had not escaped, were made the subject of
endless ridicule and caricature. It added little to its author's fame,
and it is perhaps to be regretted that he ever undertook it. Moreover,
there were further humiliations in store for him. In 1759 the success of
a little picture called "The Lady's Last Stake," painted for Lord
Charlemont, procured him a commission from Sir Richard Grosvenor to
paint another picture "upon the same terms." Unhappily on this occasion
he deserted his own field of genre and social satire, to select the
story from Boccaccio (or rather Dryden) of Sigismunda weeping over the
heart of her murdered lover Guiscardo, being the subject of a picture in
Sir Luke Schaub's collection by Furini which had recently been sold for
£400. The picture, over which he spent much time and patience, was not
regarded as a success; and Sir Richard rather meanly shuffled out of his
bargain upon the plea that "the constantly having it before one's eyes,
would be too often occasioning melancholy ideas to arise in one's mind."
Sigismunda, therefore, much to the artist's mortification, and the
delight of the malicious, remained upon his hands. As, by her husband's
desire, his widow valued it at £500, it found no purchaser until after
her death, when the Boydells bought it for 56 guineas. It was exhibited,
with others of Hogarth's pictures, at the Spring Gardens exhibition of
1761, for the catalogue of which Hogarth engraved a Head-piece and a
Tail-piece which are still the delight of collectors; and finally, by
the bequest of Mr J. H. Anderdon, it passed in 1879 to the National
Gallery, where, in spite of theatrical treatment and a repulsive theme,
it still commands admiration for its colour, drawing and expression.

In 1761 Hogarth was sixty-five years of age, and he had but three years
more to live. These three years were embittered by an unhappy quarrel
with his quondam friends, John Wilkes and Churchill the poet, over which
most of his biographers are contented to pass rapidly. Having succeeded
John Thornhill in 1757 as serjeant painter (to which post he was
reappointed at the accession of George III.), an evil genius prompted
him in 1762 to do some "timed" thing in the ministerial interest, and he
accordingly published the indifferent satire of "The Times, plate i."
This at once brought him into collision with Wilkes and Churchill, and
the immediate result was a violent attack upon him, both as a man and an
artist, in the opposition _North Briton_, No. 17. The alleged decay of
his powers, the miscarriage of Sigismunda, the cobbled composition of
the _Analysis_, were all discussed with scurrilous malignity by those
who had known his domestic life and learned his weaknesses. The old
artist was deeply wounded, and his health was failing. Early in the next
year, however, he replied by that portrait of Wilkes which will for ever
carry his squinting features to posterity. Churchill retaliated in July
by a savage _Epistle to William Hogarth_, to which the artist rejoined
by a print of Churchill as a bear, in torn bands and ruffles, not the
most successful of his works. "The pleasure, and pecuniary advantage,"
writes Hogarth manfully, "which I derived from these two engravings" (of
Wilkes and Churchill), "together with occasionally riding on horseback,
restored me to as much health as can be expected at my time of life." He
produced but one more print, that of "Finis, or The Bathos," March 1764,
a strange jumble of "fag ends," intended as a tail-piece to his
collected prints; and on the 26th October of the same year he died of an
aneurism at his house in Leicester Square. His wife, to whom he left his
plates as a chief source of income, survived him until 1789. He was
buried in Chiswick churchyard, where a tomb was erected to him by his
friends in 1771, with an epitaph by Garrick. Not far off, on the road
to Chiswick Gardens, still stands the little red-brick Georgian villa
in which from September 1749 until his death he spent the summer
seasons. After many vicissitudes and changes of ownership it was
purchased in 1902 by Lieut.-Colonel Shipway of Chiswick, who turned it
into a Hogarth museum and preserved it to the nation.

From such records of him as survive, Hogarth appears to have been much
what from his portrait one might suppose him to have been--a blue-eyed,
honest, combative little man, thoroughly insular in his prejudices and
antipathies, fond of flattery, sensitive like most satirists, a good
friend, an intractable enemy, ambitious, as he somewhere says, in all
things to be singular, and not always accurately estimating the extent
of his powers. With the art connoisseurship of his day he was wholly at
war, because, as he believed, it favoured foreign mediocrity at the
expense of native talent; and in the heat of argument he would probably,
as he admits, often come "to utter blasphemous expressions against the
divinity even of Raphael Urbino, Correggio and Michelangelo." But it was
rather against the third-rate copies of third-rate artists--the
"ship-loads of dead Christs, Holy Families and Madonnas"--that his
indignation was directed; and in speaking of his attitude with regard to
the great masters of art, it is well to remember his words to Mrs
Piozzi:--"The connoisseurs and I are at war, you know; and because I
hate _them_, they think I hate _Titian_--and let them!"

But no doubt it was in a measure owing to this hostile attitude of his
towards the all-powerful picture-brokers that his contemporaries failed
to recognize adequately his merits as a painter, and persisted in
regarding him as an ingenious humorist alone. Time has reversed that
unjust sentence. He is now held to have been a splendid painter, pure
and harmonious in his colouring, wonderfully dexterous and direct in his
handling, and in his composition leaving little or nothing to be
desired. As an engraver his work is more conspicuous for its vigour,
spirit and intelligibility than for finish and beauty of line. He
desired that it should tell its own tale plainly, and bear the distinct
impress of his individuality, and in this he thoroughly succeeded. As a
draughtsman his skill has sometimes been debated, and his work at times
undoubtedly bears marks of haste, and even carelessness. If, however, he
is judged by his best instead of his worst, he will not be found wanting
in this respect. But it is not after all as a draughtsman, an engraver
or a painter that he claims his unique position among English
artists--it is as a humorist and a satirist upon canvas. Regarded in
this light he has never been equalled, whether for his vigour of realism
and dramatic power, his fancy and invention in the decoration of his
story, or his merciless anatomy and exposure of folly and wickedness. If
we regard him--as he loved to regard himself--as "author" rather than
"artist," his place is with the great masters of literature--with the
Thackerays and Fieldings, the Cervantes and Molières.

  AUTHORITIES.--The main body of Hogarth literature is to be found in
  the autobiographical _Memoranda_ published by John Ireland in 1798,
  and in the successive _Anecdotes_ of the antiquary John Nichols. Much
  minute information has also been collected in F. G. Stephens's
  _Catalogue of the Satirical Prints and Drawings in the British
  Museum_. But a copious bibliography of books, pamphlets, &c., relating
  to Hogarth, together with detailed catalogues of his paintings and
  prints, will be found in the _Memoir_ of Hogarth by Austin Dobson.
  First issued in 1879, this was reprinted and expanded in 1891, 1897,
  1902 and finally in 1907. Pictures by Hogarth from private collections
  are constantly to be found at the annual exhibitions of the Old
  Masters at Burlington House; but most of the best-known works have
  permanent homes in public galleries. "Marriage _à la mode_."
  "Sigismunda," "Lavinia Fenton," the "Shrimp Girl," the "Gate of
  Calais," the portraits of himself, his sister and his servants, are
  all in the National Gallery; the "Rake's Progress" and the Election
  Series, in the Soane Museum; and the "March to Finchley" and "Captain
  Coram" in the Foundling. There are also notable pictures in the
  Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge and the National Portrait Gallery. At
  the Print Room in the British Museum there is also a very interesting
  set of sixteen designs for the series called "Industry and Idleness,"
  the majority of which formerly belonged to Horace Walpole.     (A. D.)



HOGG, JAMES (1770-1835), Scottish poet, known as the "Ettrick Shepherd,"
was baptized at Ettrick in Selkirkshire on the 9th of December 1770.
His ancestors had been shepherds for centuries. He received hardly any
school training, and seems to have had difficulty in getting books to
read. After spending his early years herding sheep for different
masters, he was engaged as shepherd by Mr Laidlaw, tenant of Blackhouse,
in the parish of Yarrow, from 1790 till 1799. He was treated with great
kindness, and had access to a large collection of books. When this was
exhausted he subscribed to a circulating library in Peebles. While
attending to his flock, he spent a great deal of time in reading. He
profited by the company of his master's sons, of whom William Laidlaw is
known as the friend of Scott and the author of _Lucy's Flittin'_. Hogg's
first printed piece was "The Mistakes of a Night" in the _Scots
Magazine_ for October 1794, and in 1801 he published his _Scottish
Pastorals_. In 1802 Hogg became acquainted with Sir Walter Scott, who
was then collecting materials for his _Border Minstrelsy_. On Scott's
recommendation Constable published Hogg's miscellaneous poems (_The
Mountain Bard_) in 1807. By this work, and by _The Shepherd's Guide,
being a Practical Treatise on the Diseases of Sheep_, Hogg realized
about £300. With this money he unfortunately embarked in farming in
Dumfriesshire, and in three years was utterly ruined, having to abandon
all his effects to his creditors. He returned to Ettrick, only to find
that he could not even obtain employment as a shepherd; so he set off in
February 1810 to push his fortune in Edinburgh as a literary adventurer.
In the same year he published a collection of songs, _The Forest
Minstrel_, to which he was the largest contributor. This book, being
dedicated to the countess of Dalkeith (afterwards duchess of Buccleuch),
and recommended to her notice by Scott, was rewarded with a present of
100 guineas. He then began a weekly periodical, _The Spy_, which he
continued from September 1810 till August 1811. The appearance of _The
Queen's Wake_ in 1813 established Hogg's reputation as a poet; Byron
recommended it to John Murray, who brought out an English edition. The
scene of the poem is laid in 1561; the queen is Mary Stuart; and the
"wake" provides a simple framework for seventeen poems sung by rival
bards. It was followed by the _Pilgrims of the Sun_ (1815), and _Mador
of the Moor_ (1816). The duchess of Buccleuch, on her death-bed (1814),
had asked her husband to do something for the Ettrick bard; and the duke
gave him a lease for life of the farm of Altrive in Yarrow, consisting
of about 70 acres of moorland, on which the poet built a house and spent
the last years of his life. In order to obtain money to stock his farm
Hogg asked various poets to contribute to a volume of verse which should
be a kind of poetic "benefit" for himself. Failing in his applications
he wrote a volume of parodies, published in 1816, as _The Poetic Mirror,
or the Living Bards of Great Britain_. He took possession of his farm in
1817; but his literary exertions were never relaxed. Before 1820 he had
written the prose tales of _The Brownie of Bodsbeck_ (1818) and two
volumes of _Winter Evening Tales_ (1820), besides collecting, editing
and writing part of two volumes of _The Jacobite Relics of Scotland_
(1819-1821), and contributing largely to _Blackwood's Magazine_. "The
Chaldee MS.," which appeared in _Blackwood's Magazine_ (October 1817),
and gave such offence that it was immediately withdrawn, was largely
Hogg's work.

In 1820 he married Margaret Phillips, a lady of a good Annandale family,
and found himself possessed of about £1000, a good house and a
well-stocked farm. Hogg's connexion with _Blackwood's Magazine_ kept him
continually before the public; his contributions, which include the best
of his prose works, were collected in the _Shepherd's Calendar_ (1829).
The wit and mischief of some of his literary friends made free with his
name as the "Shepherd" of the _Noctes Ambrosianae_, and represented him
in ludicrous and grotesque aspects; but the effect of the whole was
favourable to his popularity. "Whatever may be the merits of the picture
of the Shepherd [in the _Noctes Ambrosianae_]--and no one will deny its
power and genius," writes Professor Veitch--"it is true, all the same,
that this Shepherd was not the Shepherd of Ettrick or the man James
Hogg. He was neither a Socrates nor a Falstaff, neither to be credited
with the wisdom and lofty idealizings of the one, nor with the
characteristic humour and coarseness of the other." _The Three Perils of
Woman_ (1820), and _The Three Perils of Man_ (1822), were followed in
1825 by an epic poem, _Queen Hynde_, which was unfavourably received. He
visited London in 1832, and was much lionized. On his return a public
dinner was given to him in Peebles,--Professor Wilson in the chair,--and
he acknowledged that he had at last "found fame." His health, however,
was seriously impaired. With his pen in his hand to the last, Hogg in
1834 published a volume of _Lay Sermons_, and _The Domestic Manners and
Private Life of Sir Walter Scott_, a book which Lockhart regarded as an
infringement on his rights. In 1835 appeared three volumes of _Tales of
the Wars of Montrose_. Hogg died on the 21st of November 1835, and was
buried in the churchyard of his native parish Ettrick. His fame had
seemed to fill the whole district, and was brightest at its close; his
presence was associated with all the border sports and festivities; and
as a man James Hogg was ever frank, joyous and charitable. It is mainly
as a great peasant poet that he lives in literature. Some of his lyrics
and minor poems--his "Skylark," "When the Kye comes Hame," his verses on
the "Comet" and "Evening Star," and his "Address to Lady Ann Scott"--are
exquisite. _The Queen's Wake_ unites his characteristic excellences--his
command of the old romantic ballad style, his graceful fairy mythology
and his aerial flights of imagination. In the fairy story of Kilmeny in
this work Hogg seems completely transformed; he is absorbed in the ideal
and supernatural, and writes under direct and immediate inspiration.

  See Hogg's "Memoir of the Author's Life, written by himself," prefixed
  to the 3rd edition (1821) of _The Mountain Bard_, also _Memorials of
  James Hogg, the Ettrick Shepherd_, edited by his daughter, Mrs M. G.
  Garden (enlarged edition with preface by Professor Veitch, 1903), and
  Sir G. B. S. Douglas, _James Hogg_ (1899) in the "Famous Scots"
  series; also _The Poems of James Hogg_, selected by William Wallace
  (1903). John Wilson ("Christopher North") had a real affection for
  Hogg, but for some reason or other made no use of the materials placed
  in his hands for a biography of the poet. The memoir mentioned on the
  title-page of the _Works_ (1838-1840) never appeared, and the memoir
  prefixed to the edition of Hogg's works published by Blackie & Co.
  (1865) was written by the Rev. Thomas Thompson. See also Wilson's
  _Noctes Ambrosianae_; Mrs Oliphant's _Annals of a Publishing House_,
  vol. i. chap. vii.; Gilfillan's _First Gallery of Literary Portraits_;
  Cunningham's _Biog. and Crit. Hist. of Lit._; and the general index to
  _Blackwood's Magazine_. A collected edition of Hogg's Tales appeared
  in 1837 in 6 vols., and a second in 1851; his _Poetical Works_ were
  published in 1822, 1838-1840 and 1865-1866. For an admirable account
  of the social entertainments Hogg used to give in Edinburgh, see
  _Memoir of Robert Chambers_ (1874), by Dr William Chambers, pp.
  263-270.



HOGG, THOMAS JEFFERSON (1792-1862), English man of letters, was born at
Norton, Durham, on the 24th of May 1792. He was educated at Durham
grammar school and at University College, Oxford. Here he became the
intimate friend of the poet Shelley, with whom in 1811 he was expelled
from the university for refusing to disclaim connexion with the
authorship of the pamphlet _The Necessity for Atheism_. He was then sent
to study law at York, where he remained for six months. Hogg's behaviour
to Harriet Shelley interrupted his relations with her husband for some
time, but in 1813 the friendship was renewed in London. In 1817 Hogg was
called to the bar, and became later a revising barrister. In 1844 he
inherited £2000 under Shelley's will, and in 1855, in accordance with
the wishes of the poet's family, began to write Shelley's biography. The
first two volumes of it were published in 1858, but they proved to be
far more an autobiography than a biography, and Shelley's
representatives refused Hogg further access to the materials necessary
for its completion. Hogg died on the 27th of August 1862.



HOGMANAY, the name in Scotland and some parts of the north of England
for New Year's Eve, as also for the cake then given to the children. On
the morning of the 31st of December the children in small bands go from
door to door singing:

                      "Hogmanay
                      Trollolay
  Gie's o' your white bread and nane o' your grey";


and begging for small gifts or alms. These usually take the form of an
oaten cake. The derivation of the term has been much disputed. Cotgrave
(1611) says: "It is the voice of the country folks begging small
presents or New Year's gifts ... an ancient term of rejoicing derived
from the Druids, who were wont the first of each January to go into the
woods, where, having sacrificed and banquetted together, they gathered
mistletoe, esteeming it excellent to make beasts fruitful and most
soverayne against all poyson." And he connects the word, through such
Norman French forms as _hoguinané_, with the old French _aguilanneuf_,
which he explains as _au gui-l'an-neuf_, "to the mistletoe! the New
Year!"--this being (on his interpretation) the Druidical salutation to
the coming year as the revellers issued from the woods armed with boughs
of mistletoe. But though this explanation may be accepted as containing
the truth in referring the word to a French original, Cotgrave's
detailed etymology is now repudiated by scientific philologists, and the
identical French _aguilanneuf_ remains, like it, in obscurity.



HOGSHEAD, a cask for holding liquor or other commodities, such as
tobacco, sugar, molasses, &c.; also a liquid measure of capacity,
varying with the contents. As a measure for beer, cider, &c., it equals
54 gallons. A statute of Richard III. (1483) fixed the hogshead of wine
at 63 wine-gallons, i.e. 52½ imperial gallons. The etymology of the word
has been much discussed. According to Skeat, the origin is to be found
in the name for a cask or liquid measure appearing in various forms in
several Teutonic languages, in Dutch _oxhooft_ (modern _okshoofd_), Dan.
_oxehoved_, O. Swed. _oxhufvod_, &c. The word should therefore be
"oxhead," and "hogshead" is a mere corruption. It has been suggested
that the name arose from the branding of such a measure with the head of
an ox (see _Notes and Queries_, series iv. 2, 46, note by H. Tiedeman).
The _New English Dictionary_ does not attempt any explanation of the
term, and takes "hogshead" as the original form, from which the forms in
other languages have been corrupted. The earlier Dutch forms
_hukeshovet_ and _hoekshoot_ are nearer to the English form, and,
further, the Dutch for "ox" is os.



HOHENASPERG, an ancient fortress of Germany, in the kingdom of
Württemberg, 10 m. N. of Stuttgart, is situated on a conical hill, 1100
ft. high, overlooking the town of Asperg. It was formerly strongly
fortified and was long the state prison of the kingdom of Württemberg.
Among the many who have been interned here may be mentioned the
notorious Jew financier, Joseph Süss-Oppenheimer (1692-1738) and the
poet C. F. D. Schubart (1739-1791). It is now a reformatory. Hohenasperg
originally belonged to the counts of Calw; it next passed to the counts
palatine of Tübingen and from them was acquired in 1308 by Württemberg.
In 1535 the fortifications were extended and strengthened, and in 1635
the town was taken by the Imperialists, who occupied it until 1649.

  See Schön, _Die Staatsgefangenen von Hohenasperg_ (Stuttgart, 1899);
  and Biffart, _Geschichte der Württembergischen Feste Hohenasperg_
  (Stuttgart, 1858).



HOHENFRIEDBERG, or HOHENFRIEDEBERG, a village of Silesia, about 6 m.
from the small town of Striegau. It gives its name to a battle (also
called the battle of Striegau) in the War of the Austrian Succession,
fought on the 3rd of June 1745 between the Prussians under Frederick the
Great and the Austrians and Saxons commanded by Prince Charles of
Lorraine. In May the king, whose army had occupied extended winter
quarters in Silesia, had drawn it together into a position about Neisse
whence he could manoeuvre against the Austrians, whether they invaded
Silesia by Troppau or Glatz, or joined their allies (who, under the duke
of Weissenfels, were on the upper Elbe), and made their advance on
Schweidnitz, Breslau or Liegnitz. On the Austrians concentrating towards
the Elbe, Frederick gradually drew his army north-westward along the
edge of the mountain country until on the 1st of June it was near
Schweidnitz. At that date the Austro-Saxons were advancing (very slowly
owing to the poorness of the roads and the dilatoriness of the Saxon
artillery train) from Waldenburg and Landshut through the mountains,
heading for Striegau. After a few minor skirmishes at the end of May,
Frederick had made up his mind to offer no opposition to the passage of
the Allies, but to fall upon them as they emerged, and the Prussian army
was therefore kept concentrated out of sight, while only selected
officers and patrols watched the debouches of the mountains. On the
other hand the Allies had no intention of delivering battle, but meant
only, on emerging from the mountains, to take up a suitable camping
position and thence to interpose between Breslau and the king, believing
that "the king was at his wits' end, and, once the army really began its
retreat on Breslau, there would be frightful consternation in its
ranks." But in fact, as even the coolest observers noticed, the Prussian
army was in excellent spirits and eager for the "decisive affair"
promised by the king. On the 3rd of June, watched by the invisible
patrols, the Austrians and Saxons emerged from the hills at
Hohenfriedberg with bands playing and colours flying. Their advanced
guard of infantry and cavalry spread out into the plain, making for a
line of hills spreading north-west from Striegau, where the army was to
encamp. But the main body moved slowly, and at last Prince Charles and
Weissenfels decided to put off the occupation of the line of hills till
the morrow. The army bivouacked therefore in two separate wings, the
Saxons (with a few Austrian regiments) between Günthersdorf and
Pilgramshain, the Austrians near Hausdorf. They were about 70,000
strong, Frederick 65,000.

[Illustration: Hohenfriedberg, June 4, 1745.]

The king had made his arrangements in good time, aided by the enemy's
slowness, and in the evening he issued simple orders to move. About 9
P.M. the Prussians marched off from Alt-Jauernigk towards Striegau, the
guns on the road, the infantry and cavalry, in long open columns of
companies and squadrons, over the fields on either side--a night march
well remembered by contrast with others as having been executed in
perfect order. Meanwhile General Dumoulin, who commanded an advanced
detachment between Striegau and Stanowitz, broke camp silently and moved
into position below the hill north-west of Striegau, which was found to
be occupied by Saxon light infantry outposts. The king's orders were for
Dumoulin and the right wing of the main army to deploy and advance
towards Häslicht against the Saxons, and for the left wing infantry to
prolong the line from the marsh to Günthersdorf, covered by the
left-wing cavalry on the plain near Thomaswaldau. On the side of the
Austrians, the outlying hussars are said to have noticed and reported
the king's movement, for the night was clear and starlit, but their
report, if made, was ignored.

At 4 A.M. Dumoulin advanced on Pilgramshain, neglecting the fire of the
Saxon outpost on the Spitzberg, whereupon this promptly retired in
order to avoid being surrounded. Dumoulin then posted artillery on the
slope of the hill and deployed his six grenadier battalions facing the
village. The leading cavalry of the main army came up and deployed on
Dumoulin's left front in open rolling ground. Meantime the duke of
Weissenfels had improvised a line of defence, posting his infantry in
the marshy ground and about Pilgramshain, and his cavalry, partly in
front of Pilgramshain and partly on the intervening space, opposite that
of the Prussians. But before the marshy ground was effectively occupied
by the duke's infantry, his cavalry had been first shaken by the fire of
Dumoulin's guns on the Spitzberg and a heavy battery that was brought up
on to the Gräbener Fuchsberg, and then charged by the Prussian
right-wing cavalry, and in the mêlée the Allies were gradually driven in
confusion off the battlefield. The cavalry battle was ended by 6.30
A.M., by which time Dumoulin's grenadiers, stiffened by the line
regiment Anhalt (the "Old Dessauer's" own), were vigorously attacking
the garden hedges and walls of Pilgramshain, and the Saxon and Austrian
infantry in the marsh was being attacked by Prince Dietrich of Dessau
with the right wing of the king's infantry. The line infantry of those
days, however, did not work easily in bad ground, and the Saxons were
steady and well drilled. After an hour's fight, well supported by the
guns and continually reinforced as the rest of the army closed up, the
prince expelled the enemy from the marsh, while Dumoulin drove the light
troops out of Pilgramshain. By 7 A.M. the Saxons, forming the left wing
of the allied army, were in full retreat.

While his allies were being defeated, Prince Charles of Lorraine had
done nothing, believing that the cannonade was merely an outpost affair
for the possession of the Spitzberg. His generals indeed had drawn out
their respective commands in order of battle, the infantry south of
Günthersdorf, the cavalry near Thomaswaldau, but they had no authority
to advance without orders, and stood inactive, while, 1 m. away, the
Prussian columns were defiling over the Striegau Water. This phase of
the king's advance was the most delicate of all, and the moment that he
heard from Prince Dietrich that the marsh was captured he stopped the
northward flow of his battalions and swung them westward, the left wing
cavalry having to cover their deployment. But when one-third of this
cavalry only had crossed at Teichau the bridge broke. For a time the
advanced squadrons were in great danger. But they charged boldly, and a
disjointed cavalry battle began, during which (Ziethen's hussars having
discovered a ford) the rest of the left-wing cavalry was able to cross.
At last 25 intact squadrons under Lieut.-General von Nassau charged and
drove the Austrians in disorder towards Hohenfriedberg. This action was
the more creditable to the victors in that 45 squadrons in 3 separate
fractions defeated a mass of 60 squadrons that stood already deployed to
meet them.

Meanwhile the Prussian infantry columns of the centre and left had
crossed Striegau Water and deployed to their left, and by 8.30 they were
advancing on Günthersdorf and the Austrian infantry south of that place.
Frederick's purpose was to roll up the enemy from their inner flank, and
while Prince Dietrich, with most of the troops that had forced the
Saxons out of the marsh, pursued Weissenfels, two regiments of his and
one of Dumoulin's were brought over to the left wing and sent against
the north side of Günthersdorf. In the course of the general forward
movement, which was made in what was for those days a very irregular
line, a wide gap opened up between the centre and left, behind which 10
squadrons of the Bayreuth dragoon regiment, with Lieut.-General von
Gessler, took up their position. Thus the line advanced. The grenadiers
on the extreme left cleared Thomaswaldau, and their fire galled the
Austrian squadrons engaged in the cavalry battle to the south. Then
Günthersdorf, attacked on three sides, was also evacuated by the enemy.
But although Frederick rode back from the front saying "the battle is
won," the Prussian infantry, in spite of its superior fire discipline,
failed for some time to master the defence, and suffered heavily from
the eight close-range volleys they received, one or two regiments losing
40 and 50% of their strength. The Austrians, however, suffered still
more; feeling themselves isolated in the midst of the victorious enemy,
they began to waver, and at the psychological moment Gessler and the
Bayreuth dragoons charged into their ranks and "broke the equilibrium."
These 1500 sabres scattered twenty battalions of the enemy and brought
in 2500 prisoners and 66 Austrian colours, and in this astounding charge
they themselves lost no more than 94 men. By nine o'clock the battle was
over, and the wrecks of the Austro-Saxon army were retreating to the
mountains. The Prussians, who had been marching all night, were too far
spent to pursue.

  The loss of the allies was in all 15,224, 7985 killed and wounded, and
  7239 prisoners, as well as 72 guns and 83 standards and colours. The
  Prussians lost 4666 killed and wounded, 71 missing.



HOHENHEIM, a village of Germany, in the kingdom of Württemberg, 7 m. S.
of Stuttgart by rail. Pop. 300. It came in 1768 from the counts of
Hohenheim to the dukes of Württemberg, and in 1785 Duke Karl Eugen built
a country house here. This house with grounds is now the seat of the
most important agricultural college in Germany; it was founded in 1817,
was raised to the position of a high school in 1865, and now ranks as a
technical high school with university status.

  See Fröhlich, _Das Schloss und die Akademie Hohenheim_ (Stuttgart,
  1870).



HOHENLIMBURG, a town of Germany, on the Lenne, in the Prussian prov. of
Westphalia, 30 m. by rail S.E. of Dortmund. Pop. (1905) 12,790. It has
two Evangelical churches, a Roman Catholic church and a synagogue. The
town is the seat of various iron and metal industries, while dyeing,
cloth-making and linen-weaving are also carried on here. It is the chief
town of the county of Limburg, and formerly belonged to the counts of
Limburg, a family which became extinct in 1508. Later it passed to the
counts of Bentheim-Tecklenburg. The castle of Hohenlimburg, which
overlooks the town, is now the residence of Prince Adolf of
Bentheim-Tecklenburg.



HOHENLOHE, a German princely family which took its name from the
district of Hohenlohe in Franconia. At first a countship, its two
branches were raised to the rank of principalities of the Empire in 1744
and 1764 respectively; in 1806 they lost their independence and their
lands now form part of the kingdoms of Bavaria and of Württemberg. At
the time of the mediatization the area of Hohenlohe was 680 sq. m. and
its estimated population was 108,000. The family is first mentioned in
the 12th century as possessing the castle of Hohenloch, or Hohenlohe,
near Uffenheim, and its influence was soon perceptible in several of the
Franconian valleys, including those of the Kocher, the Jagst and the
Tauber. Henry I. (d. 1183) was the first to take the title of count of
Hohenlohe, and in 1230 his grandsons, Gottfried and Conrad, supporters
of the emperor Frederick II., founded the lines of Hohenlohe-Hohenlohe
and Hohenlohe-Brauneck, names taken from their respective castles. The
latter became extinct in 1390, its lands passing later to Brandenburg,
while the former was divided into several branches, only two of which,
however, Hohenlohe-Weikersheim and Hohenlohe-Uffenheim-Speckfeld, need
be mentioned here. Hohenlohe-Weikersheim, descended from Count Kraft I.
(d. 1313), also underwent several divisions, that which took place after
the deaths of Counts Albert and George in 1551 being specially
important. At this time the lines of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein and
Hohenlohe-Waldenburg were founded by the sons of Count George.
Meanwhile, in 1412, the family of Hohenlohe-Uffenheim-Speckfeld had
become extinct, and its lands had passed through the marriages of its
heiresses into other families.

The existing branches of the Hohenlohe family are descended from the
lines of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein and Hohenlohe-Waldenburg, established in
1551. The former of these became Protestant, while the latter remained
Catholic. Of the family of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein, which underwent several
partitions and inherited Gleichen in 1631, the senior line became
extinct in 1805, while in 1701 the junior line divided itself into
three branches, those of Langenburg, Ingelfingen and Kirchberg.
Kirchberg died out in 1861, but members of the families of
Hohenlohe-Langenburg and Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen are still alive, the
latter being represented by the branches of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen and
Hohenlohe-Öhringen. The Roman Catholic family of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg
was soon divided into three branches, but two of these had died out by
1729. The surviving branch, that of Schillingsfürst, was divided into
the lines of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst and Hohenlohe-Bartenstein; other
divisions followed, and the four existing lines of this branch of the
family are those of Waldenburg, Schillingsfürst, Jagstberg and
Bartenstein. The family of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst possesses the
duchies of Ratibor and of Corbie inherited in 1824.

The principal members of the family are dealt with below.

I. FRIEDRICH LUDWIG, prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen (1746-1818),
Prussian general, was the eldest son of Prince Johann Friedrich (d.
1796) of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, and began his military career as a boy,
serving against the Prussians in the last years of the Seven Years' War.
Entering the Prussian army after the peace (1768), he was on account of
his rank at once made major, and in 1775 he became lieutenant-colonel;
in 1778 he took part in the War of the Bavarian Succession and about the
same time was made a colonel. Shortly before the death of Frederick the
Great he was promoted to the rank of major-general and appointed chief
of a regiment. For some years the prince did garrison duty at Breslau,
until in 1791 he was made governor of Berlin. In 1794 he commanded a
corps in the Prussian army on the Rhine and distinguished himself
greatly in many engagements, particularly in the battle of
Kaiserslautern on the 20th of September. He was at this time the most
popular soldier in the Prussian army. Blücher wrote of him that "he was
a leader of whom the Prussian army might well be proud." He succeeded
his father in the principality, and acquired additional lands by his
marriage with a daughter of Count von Hoym. In 1806 Hohenlohe, now a
general of infantry, was appointed to command the left-wing army of the
Prussian forces opposing Napoleon, having under him Prince Louis
Ferdinand of Prussia; but, feeling that his career had been that of a
prince and not that of a scientific soldier, he allowed his
quartermaster-general Massenbach to influence him unduly. Disputes soon
broke out between Hohenlohe and the commander-in-chief, the duke of
Brunswick, the armies marched hither and thither without effective
results, and finally Hohenlohe's army was almost destroyed by Napoleon
at Jena (see NAPOLEONIC CAMPAIGNS). The prince displayed his usual
personal bravery in the battle, and managed to rally a portion of his
corps near Erfurt, whence he retired into Prussia. But the pursuers
followed him up closely, and, still acting under Massenbach's advice, he
surrendered the remnant of his army at Prenzlau on the 28th of October,
a fortnight after Jena and three weeks after the beginning of
hostilities. Hohenlohe's former popularity and influence in the army had
now the worst possible effect, for the commandants of garrisons
everywhere lost heart and followed his example. After two years spent as
a prisoner of war in France Hohenlohe retired to his estates, living in
self-imposed obscurity until his death on the 15th of February 1818. He
had, in August 1806, just before the outbreak of the French War,
resigned the principality to his eldest son, not being willing to become
a "mediatized" ruler under Württemberg suzerainty.

II. LUDWIG ALOYSIUS, prince of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Bartenstein
(1765-1829), marshal and peer of France, was born on the 18th of August
1765. In 1784 he entered the service of the Palatinate, which he quitted
in 1792 in order to take the command of a regiment raised by his father
for the service of the emigrant princes of France. He greatly
distinguished himself under Condé in the campaigns of 1792-1793,
especially at the storming of the lines of Weissenburg. Subsequently he
entered the service of Holland, and, when almost surrounded by the army
of General Pichegru, conducted a masterly retreat from the island of
Bommel. From 1794 to 1799 he served as colonel in the Austrian
campaigns; in 1799 he was named major-general by the archduke Charles;
and after obtaining the rank of lieutenant-general he was appointed by
the emperor governor of the two Galicias. Napoleon offered to restore to
him his principality on condition that he adhered to the confederation
of the Rhine, but as he refused, it was united to Württemberg. After
Napoleon's fall in 1814 he entered the French service, and in 1815 he
held the command of a regiment raised by himself, with which he took
part in the Spanish campaign of 1823. In 1827 he was created marshal and
peer of France. He died at Lunéville on the 30th of May 1829.

III. ALEXANDER LEOPOLD FRANZ EMMERICH, prince of
Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst (1794-1849), priest and reputed
miracle-worker, was born at Kupferzell, near Waldenburg, on the 17th of
August 1794. By his mother, the daughter of an Hungarian nobleman, he
was from infancy destined for the church; and she entrusted his early
education to the ex-Jesuit Riel. In 1804 he entered the "Theresianum" at
Vienna, in 1808 the academy at Bern, in 1810 the archiepiscopal seminary
at Vienna, and afterwards he studied at Tyrnau and Ellwangen. He was
ordained priest in 1815, and in the following year he went to Rome,
where he entered the society of the "Fathers of the Sacred Heart."
Subsequently, at Munich and Bamberg, he was blamed for Jesuit and
obscurantist tendencies, but obtained considerable reputation as a
preacher. His first co-called miraculous cure was effected, in
conjunction with a peasant, Martin Michel, on a princess of
Schwarzenberg who had been for some years paralytic. Immediately he
acquired such fame as a performer of miraculous cures that multitudes
from various countries flocked to partake of the beneficial influence of
his supposed supernatural gifts. Ultimately, on account of the
interference of the authorities with his operations, he went in 1821 to
Vienna and then to Hungary, where he became canon at Grosswardein and in
1844 titular bishop of Sardica. He died at Vöslau near Vienna on the
17th of November 1849. He was the author of a number of ascetic and
controversial writings, which were collected and published in one
edition by S. Brunner in 1851.

IV. KRAFT, prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen (1827-1892), soldier and
military writer, son of Prince Adolf of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen
(1797-1873), was born at Koschentin in Upper Silesia. He was a nephew of
the Prince Hohenlohe noticed above, who commanded the Prussians at Jena.
Educated with great rigour, owing to the impoverishment of the family
estates during the Napoleonic wars, he was sent into the Prussian army,
and commissioned to the artillery at the least expensive arm of the
service. He joined the Prussian Guard artillery in 1845, and it was soon
discovered that he had unusual aptitudes as an artillery officer. For a
time his brother officers resented the presence of a prince, until it
was found that he made no attempt to use his social position to secure
advancement. After serving as a military attaché in Vienna and on the
Transylvanian frontier during the Crimean War, he was made a captain on
the general staff, and in 1856 personal aide-de-camp to the king,
remaining, however, in close touch with the artillery. In 1864, having
become in the meanwhile successively major and lieut.-colonel, he
resigned the staff appointments to become commander of the new Guard
Field Artillery regiment and in the following year he became colonel. In
1866 he saw his first real active service. In the bold advance of the
Guard corps on the Austrian right wing at Königgratz (see SEVEN WEEKS'
WAR), he led the Guard reserve artillery with the greatest dash and
success, and after the short war ended he turned his energies, now
fortified by experience, to the better tactical training of the Prussian
artillery. In 1868 he was made a major-general and assigned to command
the Guard artillery brigade. In this capacity he gained great
distinction during the Franco-German war and especially at Gravelotte
and Sedan; he was in control of the artillery attack on the
fortifications of Paris. In 1873 he was placed in command of an infantry
division, and three years later was promoted lieutenant-general. He
retired in 1879, was made general of infantry in 1883 and general of
artillery in 1889. His military writings were numerous, and amongst
them several have become classics. These are _Briefe über Artillerie_
(Eng. trans. _Letters on Artillery_, 1887); _Briefe über Strategie_
(1877; Eng. trans. _Letters on Strategy_, 1898); and _Gespräche über
Reiterei_ (1887; Eng. trans. _Conversations on Cavalry_). The _Briefe
über Infanterie_ and _Briefe über Kavallerie_ (translated into English,
_Letters on Infantry_, _Letters on Cavalry_, 1889) are of less
importance, though interesting as a reflection of prevailing German
ideas. His memoirs (_Aus meinem Leben_) were prepared in retirement near
Dresden, and the first volume (1897) created such a sensation that eight
years were allowed to elapse before the publication was continued.
Prince Kraft died near Dresden on the 16th of January 1892.
     (C. F. A.)

V. CHLODWIG KARL VICTOR, prince of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst
(1819-1901), statesman, was born on the 31st of March 1819 at
Schillingsfürst in Bavaria. His father, Prince Franz Joseph (1787-1841),
was a Catholic, his mother, Princess Konstanze of Hohenlohe-Langenburg,
a Protestant. In accordance with the compromise customary at the time,
Prince Chlodwig and his brothers were brought up in the religion of
their father, while his sisters followed that of their mother. In spite
of the difference of creed the family was very united, and it was to the
spirit that rendered this possible that the prince owed his liberal and
tolerant point of view, which was to exercise an important influence on
his political activity. As the younger son of a cadet line of his house
it was necessary for Prince Chlodwig to follow a profession. For a while
he thought of obtaining a commission in the British army through the
influence of his aunt, Princess Feodora of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (_née_
princess of Leiningen), Queen Victoria's half-sister. He decided,
however, to enter the Prussian diplomatic service. His application to be
excused the preliminary steps, which involved several years' work in
subordinate positions in the Prussian civil service, was refused by
Frederick William IV., and the prince, with great good sense, decided to
sacrifice his pride of rank and to accept the king's conditions. As
auscultator in the courts at Coblenz he acquired a taste for
jurisprudence, became a _Referendar_ in September 1843, and after some
months of travel in France, Switzerland and Italy went to Potsdam as a
civil servant (May 13, 1844). These early years were invaluable, not
only as giving him experience of practical affairs but as affording him
an insight into the strength and weakness of the Prussian system. The
immediate result was to confirm his Liberalism. The Prussian principle
of "propagating enlightenment with a stick" did not appeal to him; he
"recognized the confusion and want of clear ideas in the highest
circles," the tendency to make agreement with the views of the
government the test of loyalty to the state; and he noted in his journal
(June 25, 1844) four years before the revolution of '48, "a slight cause
and we shall have a rising." "The free press," he notes on another
occasion, "is a necessity, progress the condition of the existence of a
state." If he was an ardent advocate of German unity, and saw in Prussia
the instrument for its attainment, he was throughout opposed to the
"Prussification" of Germany, and ultimately it was he who made the
unification of Germany possible by insisting at once on the principle of
union with the North German states and at the same time on the
preservation of the individuality of the states of the South.

On the 12th of November 1834 the landgrave Viktor Amadeus of
Hesse-Rotenburg died, leaving to his nephews, the princes Viktor and
Chlodwig Hohenlohe, his allodial estates: the duchy of Ratibor in
Silesia, the principality of Corvey in Westphalia, and the lordship of
Treffurt in the Prussian governmental district of Erfurt. On the death
of Prince Franz Joseph on the 14th of January 1841 it was decided that
the principality of Schillingsfürst should pass to the third brother,
Philipp Ernst, as the two elder sons, Viktor and Chlodwig, were provided
for already under their uncle's will, the one with the duchy of Ratibor,
the other with Corvey and Treffurt. The youngest son, Gustav (b.
February 28, 1823), the future cardinal, was destined for the Church. On
the death of Prince Philipp Ernst (May 3, 1845) a new arrangement was
made: Prince Chlodwig became prince of Schillingsfürst, while Corvey was
assigned to the duke of Ratibor; Treffurt was subsequently sold by
Prince Chlodwig, who purchased with the price large estates in Posen.
This involved a complete change in Prince Chlodwig's career. His new
position as a "reigning" prince and hereditary member of the Bavarian
Upper House was incompatible with that of a Prussian official. On the
18th of April 1846 he took his seat as a member of the Bavarian
_Reichsrath_, and on the 26th of June received his formal discharge from
the Prussian service.

Save for the interlude of 1848 the political life of Prince Hohenlohe
was for the next eighteen years not eventful. During the revolutionary
years his sympathies were with the Liberal idea of a united Germany, and
he compromised his chances of favour from the king of Bavaria by
accepting the task (November 1, 1848) of announcing to the courts of
Rome, Florence and Athens the accession to office of the Archduke John
of Austria as regent of Germany. But he was too shrewd an observer to
hope much from a national parliament which "wasted time in idle babble,"
or from a democratic victory which had stunned but not destroyed the
German military powers. On the 16th of February 1847 he had married the
Princess Marie of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg, the heiress to vast
estates in Russia.[1] This led to a prolonged visit to Werki in
Lithuania (1851-1853) in connexion with the management of the property,
a visit repeated in 1860. In general this period of Hohenlohe's life was
occupied in the management of his estates, in the sessions of the
Bavarian _Reichsrath_ and in travels. In 1856 he visited Rome, during
which he noted the baneful influence of the Jesuits. In 1859 he was
studying the political situation at Berlin, and in the same year he paid
a visit to England. The marriage of his brother Konstantin in 1859 to
another princess of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg led also to frequent
visits to Vienna. Thus Prince Hohenlohe was brought into close touch
with all the most notable people in Europe. At the same time, during
this period (1850-1866) he was endeavouring to get into relations with
the Bavarian government, with a view to taking a more active part in
affairs. Towards the German question his attitude at this time was
tentative. He had little hope of a practical realization of a united
Germany, and inclined towards the tripartite divisions under Austria,
Prussia and Bavaria--the so-called "Trias." He attended the _Fürstentag_
at Frankfort in 1863, and in the Schleswig-Holstein question was a
supporter of the prince of Augustenburg. It was at this time that, at
the request of Queen Victoria, he began to send her regular reports on
the political condition of Germany.

Prince Hohenlohe's importance in history, however, begins with the year
1866. In his opinion the war was a blessing. It had demonstrated the
insignificance of the small and middle states, "a misfortune for the
dynasties"--with whose feelings a mediatized prince could scarcely be
expected to be over-sympathetic--but the best possible good fortune for
the German nation. In the Bavarian _Reichsrath_ Hohenlohe now began to
make his voice heard in favour of a closer union with Prussia; clearly,
if such a union were desirable, he was the man in every way best fitted
to prepare the way for it. One of the main obstacles in the way was the
temperament of Louis II. of Bavaria, whose ideas of kingship were very
remote from those of the Hohenzollerns, whose pride revolted from any
concession to Prussian superiority, and who--even during the crisis of
1866--was more absorbed in operas than in affairs of state. Fortunately
Richard Wagner was a politician as well as a composer, and equally
fortunately Hohenlohe was a man of culture capable of appreciating "the
master's" genius. It was Wagner, apparently, who persuaded the king to
place Hohenlohe at the head of his government (_Denkwürdigkeiten_, i.
178, 211), and on the 31st of December 1866 the prince was duly
appointed minister of the royal house and of foreign affairs and
president of the council of ministers.

As head of the Bavarian government Hohenlohe's principal task was to
discover some basis for an effective union of the South German states
with the North German Confederation, and during the three critical years
of his tenure of office he was, next to Bismarck, the most important
statesman in Germany. He carried out the reorganization of the Bavarian
army on the Prussian model, brought about the military union of the
southern states, and took a leading share in the creation of the customs
parliament (_Zollparlament_), of which on the 28th of April 1868 he was
elected a vice-president. During the agitation that arose in connexion
with the summoning of the Vatican council Hohenlohe took up an attitude
of strong opposition to the ultramontane position. In common with his
brothers, the duke of Ratibor and the cardinal, he believed that the
policy of Pius IX.--inspired by the Jesuits (that "devil's society," as
he once called it)--of setting the Church in opposition to the modern
State would prove ruinous to both, and that the definition of the dogma
of papal infallibility, by raising the pronouncements of the Syllabus of
1864 into articles of faith, would commit the Church to this policy
irrevocably. This view he embodied into a circular note to the Catholic
powers (April 9, 1869), drawn up by Döllinger, inviting them to exercise
the right of sending ambassadors to the council and to combine to
prevent the definition of the dogma. The greater powers, however, were
for one reason or another unwilling to intervene, and the only practical
outcome of Hohenlohe's action was that in Bavaria the powerful
ultramontane party combined against him with the Bavarian "patriots" who
accused him of bartering away Bavarian independence to Prussia. The
combination was too strong for him; a bill which he brought in for
curbing the influence of the Church over education was defeated, the
elections of 1869 went against him, and in spite of the continued
support of the king he was forced to resign (March 7, 1870).

Though out of office, his personal influence continued very great both
at Munich and Berlin and had not a little to do with favourable terms of
the treaty of the North German Confederation with Bavaria, which
embodied his views, and with its acceptance by the Bavarian
parliament.[2] Elected a member of the German Reichstag, he was on the
23rd of March 1871 chosen one of its vice-presidents, and was
instrumental in founding the new groups which took the name of the
Liberal Imperial party (_Liberale Reichspartei_), the objects of which
were to support the new empire, to secure its internal development on
Liberal lines, and to oppose clerical aggression as represented by the
Catholic Centre. Like the duke of Ratibor, Hohenlohe was from the first
a strenuous supporter of Bismarck's anti-papal policy, the main lines of
which (prohibition of the Society of Jesus, &c.) he himself suggested.
Though sympathizing with the motives of the Old Catholics, however, he
realized that they were doomed to sink into a powerless sect, and did
not join them, believing that the only hope for a reform of the Church
lay in those who desired it remaining in her communion.[3] In 1872
Bismarck proposed to appoint Cardinal Hohenlohe Prussian envoy at the
Vatican, but his views were too much in harmony with those of his
family, and the pope refused to receive him in this capacity.[4]

In 1873 Bismarck chose Prince Hohenlohe to succeed Count Harry Arnim as
ambassador in Paris, where he remained for seven years. In 1878 he
attended the congress of Berlin as third German representative, and in
1880, on the death of Bernhardt Ernst von Bülow (October 20), secretary
of state for foreign affairs, he was called to Berlin as temporary head
of the Foreign Office and representative of Bismarck during his absence
through illness. In 1885 he was chosen to succeed Manteuffel as governor
of Alsace-Lorraine. In this capacity he had to carry out the coercive
measures introduced by the chancellor in 1887-1888, though he largely
disapproved of them;[5] his conciliatory disposition, however, did much
to reconcile the Alsace-Lorrainers to German rule. He remained at
Strassburg till October 1894, when, at the urgent request of the
emperor, he consented, in spite of his advanced years, to accept the
chancellorship in succession to Caprivi. The events of his
chancellorship belong to the general history of Germany (q.v.); as
regards the inner history of this time the editor of his memoirs has
very properly suppressed the greater part of the detailed comments which
the prince left behind him. In general, during his term of office, the
personality of the chancellor was less conspicuous in public affairs
than in the ease of either of his predecessors. His appearances in the
Prussian and German parliaments were rare, and great independence was
left to the secretaries of state. What influence the tact and experience
of Hohenlohe exercised behind the scenes on the masterful will and
impulsive character of the emperor cannot as yet be generally known.

Prince Hohenlohe resigned the chancellorship on the 17th of October
1900, and died at Ragaz on the 6th of July 1901. On the 16th of February
1897 he had celebrated his golden wedding; on the 21st of December of
the same year the princess died. There were six children of the
marriage: Elizabeth (b. 1847); Stephanie (b. 1851); Philipp Ernst,
reigning prince of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst (b. 1853), who married
Princess Charielée Ypsilanti; Albert (1857-1866); Moritz and Alexander,
twins (b. 1862).

  All other authorities for the life of Prince Hohenlohe have been
  superseded by the _Denkwürdigkeiten_ (2 vols., Stuttgart and Leipzig,
  1906). With the exception noted above these are singularly full and
  outspoken, the latter quality causing no little scandal in Germany and
  bringing down on Prince Alexander, who was responsible for their
  publication, the disfavour of the emperor. They form not only the
  record of a singularly full and varied life, but are invaluable to the
  historian for the wealth of material they contain and for
  appreciations of men and events by an observer who had the best
  opportunities for forming a judgment. The prince himself they reveal
  not only as a capable man of affairs, though falling short of
  greatness, but as a personality of singular charm, tenacious of his
  principles, tolerant, broad-minded, and possessed of a large measure
  of the saving grace of humour.

  See generally A. F. Fischer, _Geschichte des Hauses Hohenlohe_
  (1866-1871); K. Weller, _Hohenlohisches Urkundenbuch_, 1153-1350
  (Stuttgart, 1899-1901), and _Geschichte des Hauses Hohenlohe_
  (Stuttgart, 1904).     (W. A. P.; C. F. A.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Through her mother, _née_ Princess Stephanie Radziwill (d. 1832).
    Before Prince Wittgenstein's death (1887) a new law had forbidden
    foreigners to hold land in Russia. Prince Hohenlohe appears, however,
    to have sold one of his wife's estates and to have secured certain
    privileges from the Russian court for the rest.

  [2] Speech of December 30, 1870, in the _Reichsrath_.
    _Denkwürdigkeiten_, ii. 36.

  [3] "If I wished to leave the Church because of all the scandalous
    occurrences in the Catholic Church, I should have had to secede while
    studying Church history," _op. cit._ ii. 92.

  [4] Dr Johann Friedrich (q.v.), afterwards one of the Old Catholic
    leaders, was his secretary at the time of the Vatican council, and
    supplied historical and theological material to the opposition
    bishops.

  [5] He protested against the passport system as likely to lead to a
    war with France, for which he preferred not to be responsible (Letter
    to Wilmowski, _Denkw._ ii. 433), but on the chancellor taking full
    responsibility consented to retain office.



HOHENSTAUFEN, the name of a village and ruined castle near Lorsch in
Swabia, now in the kingdom of Württemberg, which gave its name to a
celebrated Swabian family, members of which were emperors or German
kings from 1138 to 1208, and again from 1214 to 1254. The earliest known
ancestor was Frederick, count of Büren (d. 1094), whose son Frederick
built a castle at Staufen, or Hohenstaufen, and called himself by this
name. He was a firm supporter of the emperor Henry IV., who rewarded his
fidelity by granting him the dukedom of Swabia in 1079, and giving him
his daughter Agnes in marriage. In 1081 he remained in Germany as
Henry's representative, but only secured possession of Swabia after a
struggle lasting twenty years. In 1105 Frederick was succeeded by his
son Frederick II., called the One-eyed, who, together with his brother
Conrad, afterwards the German king Conrad III., held south-west Germany
for their uncle the emperor Henry V. Frederick inherited the estates of
Henry V. in 1125, but failed to secure the throne, and took up an
attitude of hostility towards the new emperor, Lothair the Saxon, who
claimed some of the estates of the late emperor as crown property. A war
broke out and ended in the complete submission of Frederick at Bamberg.
He retained, however, his dukedom and estates. In 1138 Conrad of
Hohenstaufen was elected German king, and was succeeded in 1152, not by
his son but by his nephew Frederick Barbarossa, son of his brother
Frederick (d. 1147). Conrad's son Frederick inherited the duchy of
Franconia which his father had received in 1115, and this was retained
by the Hohenstaufen until the death of Duke Conrad II. in 1196. In 1152
Frederick received the duchy of Swabia from his cousin the German king
Frederick I., and on his death in 1167 it passed successively to
Frederick's three sons Frederick, Conrad and Philip. The second
Hohenstaufen emperor was Frederick Barbarossa's son, Henry VI., after
whose death a struggle for the throne took place between Henry's brother
Philip, duke of Swabia, and Otto of Brunswick, afterwards the emperor
Otto IV. Regained for the Hohenstaufen by Henry's son, Frederick II., in
1214, the German kingdom passed to his son, Conrad IV., and when
Conrad's son Conradin was beheaded in Italy in 1268, the male line of
the Hohenstaufen became extinct. Daughters of Philip of Swabia married
Ferdinand III., king of Castile and Leon, and Henry II., duke of
Brabant, and a daughter of Conrad, brother of the emperor Frederick I.,
married into the family of Guelph. The castle of Hohenstaufen was
destroyed in the 16th century during the Peasants' War, and only a few
fragments now remain.

  See F. von Raumer, _Geschichte der Hohenstaufen und ihrer Zeit_
  (Leipzig, 1878); B. F. W. Zimmermann, _Geschichte der Hohenstaufen_
  (Stuttgart, 1st ed., 1838; 2nd ed., 1865); F. W. Schirrmacher, _Die
  letzten Hohenstaufen_ (Göttingen, 1871).



HOHENSTEIN (Hohenstein-Ernstthal), a town of Germany, in the kingdom of
Saxony, on the slopes of the Erzgebirge, and on the railway
Reichenbach-Chemnitz, 12 m. N.E. of Zwickau. Pop. (1905) 13,903.
Hohenstein possesses two fine Evangelical churches, a town hall,
restored in 1876, and several monuments to famous men. The principal
industries are the spinning and weaving of cotton, the manufacture of
machines, stockings, gloves and woollen and silk fabrics, cotton
printing and dyeing. Many of the inhabitants are also employed in the
neighbouring copper and arsenic mines. Not far from Hohenstein there is
a mineral spring, connected with which there are various kinds of baths.
Hohenstein is the birthplace of the physicist G. H. von Schubert and of
C. G. Schröter (1699-1782), one of the inventors of the pianoforte.
Hohenstein consists of two towns, Hohenstein and Ernstthal, which were
united in 1898.

Another place of the same name is a town in East Prussia. Pop. (1900)
2467. This Hohenstein, which was founded by the Teutonic Order in 1359,
has a Roman Catholic and an Evangelical church, a synagogue and several
educational establishments.



HOHENZOLLERN, the name of a castle which stood on the hill of Zollern
about 1½ m. south of Hechingen, and gave its name to the family to which
the present German emperor belongs. A vague tradition connects the house
with the Colonna family of Rome, or the Colalto family of Lombardy; but
one more definite unites the Hohenzollerns with the Burkhardingers, who
were counts in Raetia during the early part of the 10th century, and two
of whom became dukes of Swabia. Tassilo, a member of this family, is
said to have built a castle at Zollern early in the 9th century; but the
first historical mention of the name is in the _Chronicon_ of a certain
Berthold (d. 1088), who refers to Burkhard and Wezil, or Werner, of
Zollern, or Zolorin. These men appear to have been counts of Zollern,
and to have met their death in 1061. The family of Wezil died out in
1194, and the existing branches of the Hohenzollerns are descended from
Burkhard and his son Frederick, whose eldest son, Frederick II., was in
great favour with the German kings, Lothair the Saxon and Conrad III.
Frederick II. died about 1145, and his son and successor, Frederick
III., was a constant supporter of the Hohenstaufen. This count married
Sophia, daughter and heiress of Conrad, burgrave of Nuremberg, and about
1192 he succeeded his father-in-law as burgrave, obtaining also some
lands in Austria and Franconia. He died about 1200, and his sons, Conrad
and Frederick, ruled their lands in common until 1227, when an important
division took place. Conrad became burgrave of Nuremberg, and, receiving
the lands which had come into the family through his mother, founded
the Franconian branch of the family, which became the more important of
the two; while Frederick, receiving the county of Zollern and the older
possessions of the family, was the ancestor of the Swabian branch.

Early in the 12th century Burkhard, a younger son of Frederick I.,
secured the county of Hohenberg, and this district remained in the
possession of the Hohenzollerns until the death of Count Sigismund in
1486. Its rulers, however, with the exception of Count Albert II. (d.
1298), played an unimportant part in German history. Albert, who was a
Minnesinger, was loyal to the declining fortunes of the Hohenstaufen,
and afterwards supported his brother-in-law, Rudolph of Habsburg, in his
efforts to obtain the German throne. He shared in the campaigns of
Rudolph and fell in battle in 1298, during the struggle between Adolph
of Nassau and Albert of Habsburg (afterwards King Albert I.). When this
family became extinct in 1486 Hohenberg passed to the Habsburgs.

The Franconian branch of the Hohenzollerns was represented in 1227 by
Conrad, burgrave of Nuremberg, whom the emperor Frederick II. appointed
guardian of his son Henry, and administrator of Austria. After a short
apostasy, during which he supported Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia,
Conrad returned to the side of the Hohenstaufen and aided Conrad IV. He
died in 1261, when his son and successor, the burgrave Frederick III.,
had already obtained Bayreuth through his marriage with Elizabeth,
daughter of Otto of Meran (d. 1234). Frederick took a leading part in
German affairs, and it is interesting to note that he had a considerable
share in securing the election of his uncle, Rudolph of Habsburg, as
German king in 1273. He died in 1297 and was succeeded by his son,
Frederick IV. This burgrave fought for King Albert I. in Thuringia, and
supported Henry VII. in his efforts to secure Bohemia for his son John;
but in 1314, forsaking his father's policy, he favoured Louis,
afterwards the emperor Louis IV., in his struggle with Frederick, duke
of Austria, and by his conduct at the battle of Mühldorf in 1322 and
elsewhere earned the designation of "saviour of the empire." Frederick,
however, did not neglect his hereditary lands. He did something for the
maintenance of peace and the security of traders, gave corporate
privileges to villages, and took the Jews under his protection. His
services to Louis were rewarded in various ways, and, using part of his
wealth to increase the area of his possessions, he bought the town and
district of Ansbach in 1331. Dying in 1332, Frederick was succeeded by
his son, John II., who, after one of his brothers had died and two
others had entered the church, ruled his lands in common with his
brother Albert. About 1338 John bought Culmbach and Plassenburg, and on
the strength of a privilege granted to him in 1347 he seized many
robber-fortresses and held the surrounding lands as imperial fiefs. In
general he continued his father's policy, and when he died in 1357 was
succeeded by his son, Frederick V., who, after the death of his uncle
Albert in 1361, became sole ruler of Nuremberg, Ansbach and Bayreuth.
Frederick lived in close friendship with the emperor Charles IV., who
formally invested him with Ansbach and Bayreuth and made him a prince of
the empire in 1363. In spite of the troubled times in which he lived,
Frederick was a successful ruler, and introduced a regular system of
public finance into his lands. In 1397 he divided his territories
between his sons John and Frederick, and died in the following year. His
elder son, John III., who had married Margaret, a daughter of the
emperor Charles IV., was frequently in the company of his
brothers-in-law, the German kings Wenceslaus and Sigismund. He died
without sons in 1420.

Since 1397 the office of burgrave of Nuremberg had been held by John's
brother, Frederick, who in 1415 received Brandenburg from King
Sigismund, and became margrave of Brandenburg as Frederick I. (q.v.). On
his brother's death in 1420 he reunited the lands of his branch of the
family, but in 1427 he sold his rights as burgrave to the town of
Nuremberg. The subsequent history of this branch of the Hohenzollerns is
identified with that of Brandenburg from 1415 to 1701, and with that of
Prussia since the latter date, as in this year the elector Frederick
III. became king of Prussia. In 1871 William, the seventh king, took the
title of German emperor. While the electorate of Brandenburg passed
according to the rule of primogeniture, the Franconian possessions of
the Hohenzollerns, Ansbach and Bayreuth, were given as appanages to
younger sons, an arrangement which was confirmed by the _dispositio
Achillea_ of 1473. These principalities were ruled by the sons and
descendants of the elector Albert Achilles from 1486 to 1603; and, after
reverting to the elector of Brandenburg, by the descendants of the
elector John George from 1603 to 1791. In 1791 Prince Charles Alexander
(d. 1806), who had inherited both districts, sold his lands to Prussia.

The influence of the Swabian branch of the Hohenzollerns was weakened by
several partitions of its lands; but early in the 16th century it rose
to some eminence through Count Eitel Frederick II. (d. 1512), a friend
and adviser of the emperor Maximilian I. Eitel received from this
emperor the district of Haigerloch, and in 1534 his grandson Charles (d.
1576) was granted the counties of Sigmaringen and Vöhringen by the
emperor Charles V. In 1576 the sons of Charles divided their lands, and
founded three branches of the family, one of which is still flourishing.
Eitel Frederick IV. took Hohenzollern with the title of
Hohenzollern-Hechingen; Charles II. Sigmaringen and Vöhringen and the
title of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen; and Christopher took Haigerloch.
Christopher's family died out in 1634, but the remaining lines are of
some importance. Count John George of Hohenzollern-Hechingen was made a
prince in 1623, and John of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen soon received the
same honour. In 1695 these two branches of the family entered conjointly
into an agreement with Brandenburg, which provided that, in case of the
extinction of either of the Swabian branches, the remaining branch
should inherit its lands; and if both branches became extinct the
principalities should revert to Brandenburg. During the 17th and 18th
centuries and during the period of the Napoleonic wars the history of
these lands was very similar to that of the other small estates of
Germany. In consequence of the political troubles of 1848 Princes
Frederick William of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Charles Anton of
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen resigned their principalities, and accordingly
these fell to the king of Prussia, who took possession on the 12th of
March 1850. By a royal decree of the 20th of May following the title of
"highness," with the prerogatives of younger sons of the royal house,
was conferred on the two princes. The proposal to raise Prince Leopold
of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1835-1905) to the Spanish throne in 1870
was the immediate cause of the war between France and Germany. In 1908
the head of this branch of the Hohenzollerns, the only one existing
besides the imperial house, was Leopold's son William (b. 1864), who,
owing to the extinction of the family of Hohenzollern-Hechingen in 1869,
was called simply prince of Hohenzollern. In 1866 Prince Charles of
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was chosen prince of Rumania, becoming king in
1881.

The modern Prussian province of Hohenzollern is a long, narrow strip of
territory bounded on the S.W. by Baden and in other directions by
Württemberg. It was divided into two principalities,
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Hohenzollern-Hechingen, until 1850, when
these were united. They now form the government of Sigmaringen (q.v.).

The castle of Hohenzollern was destroyed in 1423, but it has been
restored several times. Some remains of the old building may still be
seen adjoining the present castle, which was built by King Frederick
William IV.

  See _Monumenta Zollerana_, edited by R. von Stillfried and T. Märker
  (Berlin, 1852-1890); _Quellen und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte des
  Hauses Hohenzollern_, edited by E. Berner (Berlin, 1901 fol.); R. von
  Stillfried, _Altertümer und Kunstdenkmale des erlauchten Hauses von
  Hohenzollern_ (Berlin, 1852-1867) and _Stammtafeln des Gesamthauses
  Hohenzollern_ (Berlin, 1869); L. Schmid, _Die älteste Geschichte des
  erlauchten Gesamthauses der königlichen und fürstlichen Hohenzollern_
  (Tübingen, 1884-1888); E. Schwartz, _Stammtafel des preussischen
  Königshauses_ (Breslau 1898); _Hohenzollernsche Forschungen, Jahrbuch
  für die Geschichte der Hohenzollern_, edited by C. Meyer (Berlin,
  1891-1902); _Hohenzollern Jahrbuch, Forschungen und Abbildungen zur
  Geschichte der Hohenzollern in Brandenburg-Freussen_, edited by Seidel
  (Leipzig, 1897-1903), and T. Carlyle, _History of Frederick the Great_
  (London, 1872-1873).     (A. W. H.*)



HOKKAIDO, the Japanese name for the northern division of the empire
(_Hoku_ = north, _kai_ = sea, and _do_ = road), including Yezo, the
Kuriles and their adjacent islets.



HOKUSAI (1760-1849), the greatest of all the Japanese painters of the
Popular School (_Ukiyo-ye_), was born at Yedo (Tokyo) in the 9th month
of the 10th year of the period Horeki, i.e. October-November 1760. He
came of an artisan family, his father having been a mirror-maker,
Nakajima Issai. After some practice as a wood-engraver he, at the age of
eighteen, entered the studio of Katsugawa Shunsho, a painter and
designer of colour-prints of considerable importance. His disregard for
the artistic principles of his master caused his expulsion in 1785; and
thereafter--although from time to time Hokusai studied various styles,
including especially that of Shiba Gokan, from whom he gained some
fragmentary knowledge of European methods--he kept his personal
independence. For a time he lived in extreme poverty, and, although he
must have gained sums for his work which might have secured him comfort,
he remained poor, and to the end of his life proudly described himself
as a peasant. He illustrated large numbers of books, of which the
world-famous _Mangwa_, a pictorial encyclopaedia of Japanese life,
appeared in fifteen volumes from 1812 to 1875. Of his colour-prints the
"Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji" (the whole set consisting of forty-six
prints) were made between 1823 and 1829; "Views of Famous Bridges" (11),
"Waterfalls" (8), and "Views of the Lu-chu Islands" (8), are the best
known of those issued in series; but Hokusai also designed some superb
broadsheets published separately, and his _surimono_ (small prints made
for special occasions and ceremonies) are unequalled for delicacy and
beauty. The "Hundred Views of Mount Fuji" (1834-1835), 3 vols., in
monochrome, are of extraordinary originality and variety. As a painter
and draughtsman Hokusai is not held by Japanese critics to be of the
first rank, but this verdict has never been accepted by Europeans, who
place him among the greatest artists of the world. He possessed great
powers of observation and characterization, a singular technical skill,
an unfailing gift of good humour, and untiring industry. He was an eager
student to the end of his long life, and on his death-bed said, "If
Heaven had lent me but five years more, I should have become a great
painter." He died on the 10th of May 1849.

  See E. de Goncourt, _Hokousaï_ (1896); M. Revon, _Étude sur Hokusaï_
  (1896); E. F. Fenollosa, _Catalogue of the Exhibition of Paintings by
  Hokusai at Tokyo_ (1901); E. F. Strange, Hokusai (1906).     (E. F. S.)



HOLBACH, PAUL HEINRICH DIETRICH, BARON D' (1723-1789), French
philosopher and man of letters, of German origin, was born at
Heidelsheim in the palatinate in 1723. Of his family little is known;
according to J. J. Rousseau his father was a rich parvenu, who brought
his son at an early age to Paris, where the latter spent most of his
life. Much of Holbach's fame is due to his intimate connexion with the
brilliant coterie of bold thinkers and polished wits whose creed, the
new philosophy, is concentrated in the famous _Encyclopédie_. Possessed
of easy means and being of hospitable disposition, he kept open house
for Helvétius, D'Alembert, Diderot, Condillac, Turgot, Buffon, Grimm,
Hume, Garrick, Wilkes, Sterne, and for a time J. J. Rousseau, guests
who, while enjoying the intellectual pleasure of their host's
conversation, were not insensible to his excellent cuisine and costly
wines. For the _Encyclopédie_ he compiled and translated a large number
of articles on chemistry and mineralogy, chiefly from German sources. He
attracted more attention, however, in the department of philosophy. In
1767 _Christianisme dévoilé_ appeared, in which he attacked Christianity
and religion as the source of all human evils. This was followed up by
other works, and in 1770 by a still more open attack in his most famous
book, _Le Système de la nature_, in which it is probable he was
assisted by Diderot. Denying the existence of a deity, and refusing to
admit as evidence all a priori arguments, Holbach saw in the universe
nothing save matter in spontaneous movement. What men call their souls
become extinct when the body dies. Happiness is the end of mankind. "It
would be useless and almost unjust to insist upon a man's being virtuous
if he cannot be so without being unhappy. So long as vice renders him
happy, he should love vice." The restraints of religion were to be
replaced by an education developing an enlightened self-interest. The
study of science was to bring human desires into line with their natural
surroundings. Not less direct and trenchant are his attacks on political
government, which, interpreted by the light of after events, sound like
the first distant mutterings of revolution. Holbach exposed the logical
consequences of the theories of the Encyclopaedists. Voltaire hastily
seized his pen to refute the philosophy of the Système in the article
"Dieu" in his _Dictionnaire philosophique_, while Frederick the Great
also drew up an answer to it. Though vigorous in thought and in some
passages clear and eloquent, the style of the Système is diffuse and
declamatory, and asserts rather than proves its statements. Its
principles are summed up in a more popular form in _Bon Sens, ou idées
naturelles opposées aux idées surnaturelles_ (Amsterdam, 1772). In the
Système social (1773), the _Politique naturelle_ (1773-1774) and the
_Morale universelle_ (1776) Holbach attempts to rear a system of
morality in place of the one he had so fiercely attacked, but these
later writings had not a tithe of the popularity and influence of his
earlier work. He published his books either anonymously or under
borrowed names, and was forced to have them printed out of France. The
uprightness and sincerity of his character won the friendship of many to
whom his philosophy was repugnant. J. J. Rousseau is supposed to have
drawn his portrait in the virtuous atheist Wolmar of the _Nouvelle
Héloïse_. He died on the 21st of January 1789.

  Holbach is also the author of the following and other works: _Esprit
  du clergé_ (1767); _De l'imposture sacerdotale_ (1767); _Prêtres
  démasqués_ (1768); _Examen critique de la vie et des ouvrages de St
  Paul_ (1770); _Histoire critique de Jésus-Christ_ (1770), and
  _Ethocratie_ (1776). For further particulars as to his life and
  doctrines see Grimm's _Correspondance littéraire_, &c. (1813);
  Rousseau's _Confessions_; Morellet's _Mémoires_ (1821); Madame de
  Genlis, _Les Dîners du Baron Holbach_; Madame d'Épinay's _Mémoires_;
  Avezac-Lavigne, _Diderot et la société du Baron d'Holbach_ (1875), and
  Morley's _Diderot_ (1878).



HOLBEACH, a market town in the Holland or Spalding parliamentary
division of Lincolnshire, England, on the Midland and Great Northern
joint railway, 23½ m. N.E. of Peterborough. Pop. of urban district
(1901), 4755. All Saints' Church, with a lofty spire, is a fine specimen
of late Decorated work. The grammar school, founded in 1669, occupies a
building erected in 1877. Other public buildings are the assembly rooms
and a market house. Roman and Saxon remains have been found, and the
market dates from the 13th century.



HOLBEIN, HANS, the elder (c. 1460-1524), belonged to a celebrated family
of painters in practice at Augsburg and Basel from the close of the 15th
to the middle of the 16th century. Though closely connected with Venice
by her commercial relations, and geographically nearer to Italy than to
Flanders, Augsburg at the time of Maximilian cultivated art after the
fashion of the Flemings, and felt the influence of the schools of Bruges
and Brussels, which had branches at Cologne and in many cities about the
headwaters of the Rhine. It was not till after the opening of the 16th
century, and between that and the era of the Reformation, that Italian
example mitigated to some extent the asperity of South German painting.
Flemish and German art was first tempered with Italian elements at
Augsburg by Hans Holbein the elder. Hans first appears at Augsburg as
partner to his brother Sigismund, who survived him and died in 1540 at
Berne. Sigismund is described as a painter, but his works have not come
down to us. Hans had the lead of the partnership at Augsburg, and signed
all the pictures which it produced. In common with Herlen, Schöngauer,
and other masters of South Germany, he first cultivated a style akin to
that of Memlinc and other followers of the schools of Brussels and
Bruges, but he probably modified the systems of those schools by
studying the works of the masters of Cologne. As these early impressions
waned, they were replaced by others less favourable to the expansion of
the master's fame; and as his custom increased between 1499 and 1506, we
find him relying less upon the teaching of the schools than upon a mere
observation and reproduction of the quaintnesses of local passion plays.
Most of his early works indeed are taken from the Passion, and in these
he obviously marshalled his figures with the shallow stage effect of the
plays, copying their artificial system of grouping, careless to some
extent of proportion in the human shape, heedless of any but the coarser
forms of expression, and technically satisfied with the simplest methods
of execution. If in any branch of his art he can be said to have had a
conscience at this period, we should say that he showed it in his
portrait drawings. It is seldom that we find a painted likeness worthy
of the name. The drawings of which numbers are still preserved in the
galleries of Basel, Berlin and Copenhagen show extraordinary quickness
and delicacy of hand, and a wonderful facility for seizing character;
and this happily is one of the features which Holbein bequeathed to his
more famous son, Hans the younger. It is between 1512 and 1522 that
Holbein tempered the German quality of his style with some North Italian
elements. A purer taste and more pleasing realism mark his work, which
in drapery, dress and tone is as much more agreeable to the eye as in
respect of modelling and finish it is smoother and more carefully
rounded. Costume, architecture, ornament and colour are applied with
some knowledge of the higher canons of art. Here, too, advantage accrued
to Hans the younger, whose independent career about this time began.

The date of the elder Holbein's birth is unknown. But his name appears
in the books of the tax-gatherers of Augsburg in 1494, superseding that
of Michael Holbein, who is supposed to have been his father. Previous to
that date, and as early as 1493, he was a painter of name, and he
executed in that year, it is said, for the abbey at Weingarten, the
wings of an altarpiece representing Joachim's Offering, the Nativity of
the Virgin, Mary's Presentation in the Temple, and the Presentation of
Christ, which now hang in separate panels in the cathedral of Augsburg.
In these pieces and others of the same period, for instance in two
Madonnas in the Moritz chapel and castle of Nuremberg, we mark the clear
impress of the schools of Van der Weyden and Memlinc; whilst in later
works, such as the Basilica of St Paul (1504) in the gallery of
Augsburg, the wane of Flemish influence is apparent. But this
altarpiece, with its quaint illustrations of St Paul's life and
martyrdom, is not alone of interest because its execution is
characteristic of old Holbein. It is equally so because it contains
portraits of the master himself, accompanied by his two sons, the
painters Ambrose (c. 1494-c. 1519) and Hans the younger. Later pictures,
such as the Passion series in the Fürstenberg gallery at Donaueschingen,
or the Martyrdom of St Sebastian in the Munich Pinakothek, contain
similar portraits, the original drawings of which are found in old
Holbein's sketch-book at Berlin, or in stray leaves like those possessed
by the duke of Aumale in Paris. Not one of these fails to give us an
insight into the character, or a reflex of the features, of the members
of this celebrated family. Old Holbein seems to ape Leonardo, allowing
his hair and beard to grow wildly, except on the upper lip. Hans the
younger is a plain-looking boy. But his father points to him with his
finger, and hints that though but a child he is clearly a prodigy.

After 1516 Hans Holbein the elder appears as a defaulter in the
registers of the tax-gatherers at Augsburg; but he willingly accepts
commissions abroad. At Issenheim in Alsace, where Grünewald was employed
in 1516, old Holbein also finds patrons, and contracts to complete an
altarpiece. But misfortune or a bailiff pursues him, and he leaves
Issenheim, abandoning his work and tools. According to Sandrart, he
wanders to Basel and takes the freedom of its gild. His brother
Sigismund and others are found suing him for debt before the courts of
Augsburg. Where he lived when he executed the altarpiece, of which two
wings with the date of 1522 are in the gallery of Carlsruhe, is
uncertain; where he died two years later is unknown. He slinks from ken
at the close of a long life, and disappears at last heeded by none but
his own son, who claims his brushes and paints from the monks of
Issenheim without much chance of obtaining them. His name is struck off
the books of the Augsburg gild in 1524.

  The elder Holbein was a prolific artist, who left many pictures behind
  him. Earlier than the Basilica of St Paul, already mentioned, is the
  Basilica of St Mary Maggiore, and a Passion in eleven pieces, in the
  Augsburg gallery, both executed in 1499. Another Passion, with the
  root of Jesse and a tree of the Dominicans, is that preserved in the
  Staedel, Saalhof, and church of St Leonard at Frankfort. It was
  executed in 1501. The Passion of Donaueschingen was finished after
  1502, in which year was completed the Passion of Kaisheim, a
  conglomerate of twenty-seven panels, now divided amongst the galleries
  of Munich, Nuremberg, Augsburg and Schleissheim. An altarpiece of the
  same class, commissioned for the monastery of St Moritz at Augsburg in
  1504-1508, has been dispersed and lost. 1512 is the date of a
  Conception in the Augsburg gallery, long assigned, in consequence of a
  forged inscription, to Hans Holbein the younger. A diptych, with a
  Virgin and Child, and a portrait of an old man, dated 1513, came in
  separate parts into the collections of Mr Posonyi and Count
  Lanckoronski at Vienna. The sketch-books of Berlin, Copenhagen and
  Augsburg give a lively picture of the forms and dress of Augsburg
  residents at the beginning of the 16th century. They comprise
  portraits of the emperor Maximilian, the future Charles V., Kunz von
  der Rosen, the fool of Maximilian, the Fuggers, friars, merchants, and
  at rare intervals ladies.

  See also the biography by Stödtner (Berlin, 1896).



HOLBEIN, HANS, the younger (1497-1543), German painter, favourite son of
Hans Holbein the elder, was probably born at Augsburg about the year
1497. Though Sandrart and Van Mander declare that they do not know who
gave him the first lessons, he doubtless received an artist's education
from his father. About 1515 he left Augsburg with Ambrose, his elder
brother, to seek employment as an illustrator of books at Basel. His
first patron is said to have been Erasmus, for whom, shortly after his
arrival, he illustrated with pen-and-ink sketches an edition of the
_Encomium Moriae_, now in the museum of Basel. But his chief occupation
was that of drawing titlepage-blocks and initials for new editions of
the Bible and classics issued from the presses of Froben and other
publishers. His leisure hours, it is supposed, were devoted to the
production of rough painter's work, a schoolmaster's sign in the Basel
collection, a table with pictures of St Nobody in the library of the
university at Zürich. In contrast with these coarse productions, the
portraits of Jacob Meyer and his wife in the Basel museum, one of which
purports to have been finished in 1516, are miracles of workmanship. It
has always seemed difficult indeed to ascribe such excellent creations
to Holbein's nineteenth year; and it is hardly credible that he should
have been asked to do things of this kind so early, especially when it
is remembered that neither he nor his brother Ambrose were then allowed
to matriculate in the guild of Basel. Not till 1517 did Ambrose, whose
life otherwise remains obscure, join that corporation; Hans, not
overburdened with practice, wandered into Switzerland, where (1517) he
was employed to paint in the house of Jacob Hertenstein at Lucerne. In
1519 Holbein reappeared at Basel, where he matriculated and, there is
every reason to think, married. Whether, previous to this time, he took
advantage of his vicinity to the Italian border to cross the Alps is
uncertain. Van Mander says that he never was in Italy; yet the large
wall-paintings which he executed after 1519 at Basel, and the series of
his sketches and pictures which is still extant, might lead to the
belief that Van Mander was misinformed. The spirit of Holbein's
compositions for the Basel town hall, the scenery and architecture of
his numerous drawings, and the cast of form in some of his imaginative
portraits, make it more likely that he should have felt the direct
influence of North Italian painting than that he should have taken
Italian elements from imported works or prints. The Swiss at this period
wandered in thousands to swell the ranks of the French or imperial
armies fighting on Italian soil, and the road they took may have been
followed by Hans on a more peaceful mission. He shows himself at all
events familiar with Italian examples at various periods of his career;
and if we accept as early works the "Flagellation," and the "Last
Supper" at Basel, coarse as they are, they show some acquaintance with
Lombard methods of painting, whilst in other pieces, such as the series
of the Passion in oil in the same collection, the modes of Hans Holbein
the elder are agreeably commingled with a more modern, it may be said
Italian, polish. Again, looking at the "Virgin" and "Man of Sorrows" in
the Basel museum, we shall be struck by a searching metallic style akin
to that of the Ferrarese; and the "Lais" or the "Venus and Amor" of the
same collection reminds us of the Leonardesques of the school of Milan.
When Holbein settled down to an extensive practice at Basel in 1519, he
decorated the walls of the house "Zum Tanz" with simulated architectural
features of a florid character after the fashion of the Veronese; and
his wall paintings in the town-hall, if we can truly judge of them by
copies, reveal an artist not unfamiliar with North Italian composition,
distribution, action, gesture and expression. In his drawings too,
particularly in a set representing the Passion at Basel, the
arrangement, and also the perspective, form and decorative ornament, are
in the spirit of the school of Mantegna. Contemporary with these,
however, and almost inexplicably in contrast with them as regards
handling, are portrait-drawings such as the likenesses of Jacob Meyer,
and his wife, which are finished with German delicacy, and with a power
and subtlety of hand seldom rivalled in any school. Curiously enough,
the same contrast may be observed between painted compositions and
painted portraits. The "Bonifacius Amerbach" of 1519 at Basel is
acknowledged to be one of the most complete examples of smooth and
transparent handling that Holbein ever executed. His versatility at this
period is shown by a dead Christ (1521), a corpse in profile on a
dissecting table, and a set of figures in couples; the "Madonna and St
Pantalus," and "Kaiser Henry with the Empress Kunigunde" (1522),
originally composed for the organ loft of the Basel cathedral, now in
the Basel museum. Equally remarkable, but more attractive, though
injured, is the "Virgin and Child between St Ursus and St Nicholas" (not
St Martin) giving alms to a beggar, in the gallery of Solothurn. This
remarkable picture is dated 1522, and seems to have been ordered for an
altar in the minster of St Ursus of Solothurn by Nicholas Conrad, a
captain and statesman of the 16th century, whose family allowed the
precious heirloom to fall into decay in a chapel of the neighbouring
village of Grenchen. Numerous drawings in the spirit of this picture,
and probably of the same period in his career, might have led Holbein's
contemporaries to believe that he would make his mark in the annals of
Basel as a model for painters of altarpieces as well as a model for
pictorial composition and portrait. The promise which he gave at this
time was immense. He was gaining a freedom in draughtsmanship that gave
him facility to deal with any subject. Though a realist, he was sensible
of the dignity and severity of religious painting. His colour had almost
all the richness and sweetness of the Venetians. But he had fallen on
evil times, as the next few years undoubtedly showed. Amongst the
portraits which he executed in these years are those of Froben, the
publisher, known only by copies at Basel and Hampton Court, and Erasmus,
who sat in 1523, as he likewise did in 1530, in various positions,
showing his face threequarters as at Longford, Basel, Turin, Parma, the
Hague and Vienna, and in profile as in the Louvre or at Hampton Court.
Besides these, Holbein made designs for glass windows, and for woodcuts,
including subjects of every sort, from the Virgin and Child with saints
of the old time to the Dance of Death, from gospel incidents extracted
from Luther's Bible to satirical pieces illustrating the sale of
indulgences and other abuses denounced by Reformers. Holbein, in this
way, was carried irresistibly with the stream of the Reformation, in
which, it must now be admitted, the old traditions of religious painting
were wrecked, leaving nothing behind but unpictorial elements which
Cranach and his school vainly used for pictorial purposes.

Once only, after 1526, and after he had produced the "Lais" and "Venus
and Amor," did Holbein with impartial spirit give his services and
pencil to the Roman Catholic cause. The burgomaster Meyer, whose
patronage he had already enjoyed, now asked him to represent himself and
his wives and children in prayer before the Virgin; and Holbein produced
the celebrated altarpiece now in the palace of Prince William of Hesse
at Darmstadt, the shape and composition of which are known to all the
world by its copy in the Dresden museum. The drawings for this
masterpiece are amongst the most precious relics in the museum of Basel.
The time now came when art began to suffer from unavoidable depression
in all countries north of the Alps. Holbein, at Basel, was reduced to
accept the smallest commissions--even for scutcheons. Then he saw that
his chances were dwindling to nothing, and taking a bold resolution,
armed with letters of introduction from Erasmus to More, he crossed the
Channel to England, where in the one-sided branch of portrait painting
he found an endless circle of clients. Eighty-seven drawings by Holbein
in Windsor Castle, containing an equal number of portraits, of persons
chiefly of high quality, testify to his industry in the years which
divide 1528 from 1543. They are all originals of pictures that are still
extant, or sketches for pictures that were lost or never carried out.
Sir Thomas More, with whom he seems to have had a very friendly
connexion, sat to him for likenesses of various kinds. The drawing of
his head is at Windsor. A pen-and-ink sketch, in which we see More
surrounded by all the members of his family, is now in the gallery of
Basel, and numerous copies of a picture from it prove how popular the
lost original must once have been. At the same period were executed the
portraits of Warham (Lambeth and Louvre), Wyatt (Louvre), Sir Henry
Guildford and his wife (Windsor), all finished in 1527, the astronomer
Nicholas Kratzer (Louvre), Thomas Godsalve (Dresden), and Sir Bryan Tuke
(Munich) in 1528. In this year, 1528, Holbein returned to Basel, taking
to Erasmus the sketch of More's family. With money which he brought from
London he purchased a house at Basel wherein to lodge his wife and
children, whose portraits he now painted with all the care of a husband
and father (1528). He then witnessed the flight of Erasmus and the fury
of the iconoclasts, who destroyed in one day almost all the religious
pictures at Basel. The municipality, unwilling that he should suffer
again from the depression caused by evil times, asked him to finish the
frescoes of the town-hall, and the sketches from these lost pictures are
still before us to show that he had not lost the spirit of his earlier
days, and was still capable as a composer. His "Rehoboam receiving the
Israelite Envoys," and "Saul at the Head of his Array meeting Samuel,"
testify to Holbein's power and his will, also proved at a later period
by the "Triumphs of Riches and Poverty," executed for the Steelyard in
London (but now lost), to prefer the fame of a painter of history to
that of a painter of portraits. But the reforming times still remained
unfavourable to art. With the exception of a portrait of Melanchthon
(Hanover) which he now completed, Holbein found little to do at Basel.
The year 1530, therefore, saw him again on the move, and he landed in
England for the second time with the prospect of bettering his fortunes.
Here indeed political changes had robbed him of his earlier patrons. The
circle of More and Warham was gone. But that of the merchants of the
Steelyard took its place, for whom Holbein executed the long and
important series of portraits that lie scattered throughout the
galleries and collections of England and the Continent, and bear date
after 1532. Then came again the chance of practice in more fashionable
circles. In 1533 the "Ambassadors" (National Gallery), and the "Triumphs
of Wealth and Poverty" were executed, then the portraits of Leland and
Wyatt (Longford), and (1534) the portrait of Thomas Cromwell. Through
Cromwell Holbein probably became attached to the court, in the pay of
which he appears permanently after 1537. From that time onwards he was
connected with all that was highest in the society of London. Henry
VIII. invited him to make a family picture of himself, his father and
family, which obtained a post of honour at Whitehall. The beautiful
cartoon of a part of this fine piece at Hardwicke Hall enables us to
gauge its beauty before the fire which destroyed it in the 17th century.
Then Holbein painted Jane Seymour in state (Vienna), employing some
English hand perhaps to make the replicas at the Hague, Sion House and
Woburn; he finished the Southwell of the Uffizi (copy at the Louvre),
the jeweller Morett at Dresden, and last, not least, Christine of
Denmark, who gave sittings at Brussels in 1538. During the journey which
this work involved Holbein took the opportunity of revisiting Basel,
where he made his appearance in silk and satin, and _pro forma_ only
accepted the office of town painter. He had been living long and
continuously away from home, not indeed observing due fidelity to his
wife, who still resided at Basel, but fairly performing the duties of
keeping her in comfort. His return to London in autumn enabled him to do
homage to the king in the way familiar to artists. He presented to Henry
at Christmas a portrait of Prince Edward. Again abroad in the summer of
1539, he painted with great fidelity the princess Anne of Cleves, at
Düren near Cologne, whose form we still see depicted in the great
picture of the Louvre. That he could render the features of his sitter
without flattery is plain from this one example. Indeed, habitual
flattery was contrary to his habits. His portraits up to this time all
display that uncommon facility for seizing character which his father
enjoyed before him, and which he had inherited in an expanded form. No
amount of labour, no laboriousness of finish--and of both he was ever
prodigal--betrayed him into loss of resemblance or expression. No
painter was ever quicker at noting peculiarities of physiognomy, and it
may be observed that in none of his faces, as indeed in none of the
faces one sees in nature, are the two sides alike. Yet he was not a
child of the 16th century, as the Venetians were, in substituting touch
for line. We must not look in his works for modulations of surface or
subtle contrasts of colour in juxtaposition. His method was to the very
last delicate, finished and smooth, as became a painter of the old
school.

Amongst the more important creations of Holbein's later time we should
note his "Duke of Norfolk" at Windsor, the hands of which are so
perfectly preserved as to compensate for the shrivel that now disfigures
the head. Two other portraits of 1541 (Berlin and Vienna), the Falconer
at the Hague, and John Chambers at Vienna (1542), are noble specimens of
portrait art; most interesting and of the same year are the likenesses
of Holbein himself, of which several examples are extant--one
particularly good at Fähna, the seat of the Stackelberg family near
Riga, and another at the Uffizi in Florence. Here Holbein appears to us
as a man of regular features, with hair just turning grey, but healthy
in colour and shape, and evidently well to do in the world. Yet a few
months only separated him then from his death-bed. He was busy painting
a picture of Henry the VIII. confirming the Privileges of the Barber
Surgeons (Lincoln's Inn Fields), when he sickened of the plague and died
after making a will about November 1543. His loss must have been
seriously felt in England. Had he lived his last years in Germany, he
would not have changed the current which decided the fate of painting in
that country; he would but have shared the fate of Dürer and others who
merely prolonged the agony of art amidst the troubles of the
Reformation.     (J. A. C.)

  The early authorities are Karel Van Mander's _Het Schilder Boek_
  (1604), and J. von Sandrart, _Accademia Todesca_ (1675). See also R.
  N. Wornum, _Life and Work of Holbein_ (1867); H. Knackfuss, _Holbein_
  (1899); G. S. Davies, _Holbein_ (1903); A. F. G. A. Woltmann, _Holbein
  und seine Zeit_ (1876).



HOLBERG, LUDVIG HOLBERG, BARON (1684-1754), the great Scandinavian
writer, was born at Bergen, in Norway, on the 3rd of December 1684. Both
Holberg's parents died in his childhood, his father first, leaving a
considerable property; and in his eleventh year he lost his mother also.
Before the latter event, however, the family had been seriously
impoverished by a great fire, which destroyed several valuable
buildings, but notwithstanding this, the mother left to each of her six
children some little fortune. In 1695 the boy Holberg was taken into the
house of his uncle, Peder Lem, who sent him to the Latin school, and
prepared him for the profession of a soldier; but soon after this he was
adopted by his cousin Otto Munthe, and went to him up in the mountains.
His great desire for instruction, however, at last induced his family
to send him back to Bergen, to his uncle, and there he remained, eagerly
studying, until the destruction of that city by fire in 1702, when he
was sent to the university of Copenhagen. But he soon exhausted his
resources, and, having nothing to live upon, was glad to hurry back to
Norway, where he accepted the position of tutor in the house of a rural
dean at Voss. He soon returned to Copenhagen, where in 1704 he took his
degree, and worked hard at French, English and Italian. But he had to
gain his living, and accordingly he accepted the post of tutor once
more, this time in the house of Dr Smith, vice-bishop of Bergen. The
good doctor had travelled much, and the reading of his itineraries and
note-books awakened such a longing for travel in the young Holberg that
at last, at the close of 1704, having scraped together 60 dollars, he
went on board a ship bound for Holland. He proceeded as far as
Aix-la-Chapelle, where he fell sick of a fever, and suffered so much
from weakness and poverty, that he made his way on foot to Amsterdam,
and came back to Norway. Ashamed to be seen so soon in Bergen, he
stopped at Christianssand, where he lived through the winter, supporting
himself by giving lessons in French. In the spring of 1706 he travelled,
in company with a student named Brix, through London to Oxford, where he
studied for two years, gaining his livelihood by giving lessons on the
violin and the flute. He mentions, with gratitude, the valuable
libraries of Oxford, and it is pleasant to record that it was while he
was there that it first occurred to him, as he says, "how splendid and
glorious a thing it would be to take a place among the authors." Through
London and Elsinore he reached Copenhagen a third time, and began to
lecture at the university; his lectures were attended, but he got no
money. He was asked in 1709 to conduct a rich young gentleman to
Dresden, and on his return journey he lectured at Leipzig, Halle and
Hamburg. Once more in Copenhagen, he undertook to teach the children of
Admiral Gedde. Weary with this work, he took a post at Borch College in
1710, where he wrote, and printed in 1711, his first work, _An
Introduction to the History of the Nations of Europe_, and was permitted
to present to King Frederick IV. two manuscript essays on Christian IV.
and Frederick III. The king soon after presented him with the title of
Professor, and with the Rosenkrantz grant of 100 dollars for four years,
the holder of which was expected to travel. Holberg accordingly started
in 1714, and visited, chiefly on foot, a great portion of Europe. From
Amsterdam he walked through Rotterdam to Antwerp, took a boat to
Brussels, and on foot again reached Paris. Walking and skating, he
proceeded in the depth of winter to Marseilles, and on by sea to Genoa.
On the last-mentioned voyage he caught a fever, and nearly died in that
city. On his recovery he pushed on to Civita Vecchia and Rome. When the
spring had come, being still very poor and in feeble health, he started
homewards on foot by Florence, across the Apennines, through Bologna,
Parma, Piacenza, Turin, over the Alps, through Savoy and Dauphiné to
Lyons, and finally to Paris, where he arrived in excellent health. After
spending a month in Paris, he walked on to Amsterdam, took sail to
Hamburg, and so went back to Denmark in 1716. He spent the next two
years in extreme poverty, and published his _Introduction to Natural and
Popular Law_. But at last, in 1718, his talents were recognized by his
appointment as professor of metaphysics at the university of Copenhagen;
and in 1720 he was promoted to the lucrative chair of public eloquence,
which gave him a seat in the consistory. His pecuniary troubles were now
at an end. Hitherto he had written only on law, history and philology,
although in a Latin controversy with the jurist Andreas Hojer of
Flensborg his satirical genius had flashed out. But now, and until 1728,
he created an entirely new class of humorous literature under the
pseudonym of Hans Mikkelsen. The serio-comic epic of _Peder Paars_, the
earliest of the great classics of the Danish language, appeared In 1719.
This poem was a brilliant satire on contemporary manners, and enjoyed an
extraordinary success. But the author had offended in it several
powerful persons who threatened his life, and if Count Danneskjold had
not personally interested the king in him, Holberg's career might have
had an untimely close. During the next two years he published five
shorter satires, all of which were well received by the public. The
great event of 1721 was the erection of the first Danish theatre in
Grönnegade, Copenhagen; Holberg took the direction of this house, in
which was played, in September 1722, a Danish translation of L'Avare.
Until this time no plays had been acted in Denmark except in French and
German, but Holberg now determined to use his talent in the construction
of Danish comedy. The first of his original pieces performed was _Den
politiske Kandestöber_ (The Pewterer turned Politician); he wrote other
comedies with miraculous rapidity, and before 1722 was closed, there had
been performed in succession, and with immense success, _Den
Vaegelsindede_ (The Waverer), _Jean de France_, _Jeppe paa Bjerget_, and
_Gert the Westphalian_. Of these five plays, four at least are
masterpieces; and they were almost immediately followed by others.
Holberg took no rest, and before the end of 1723 the comedies of
_Barselstuen_ (The Lying-in Room), _The Eleventh of July_, _Jakob von
Thyboe_, _Den Bundeslöse_ (The Fidget), _Erasmus Montanus_, _Don
Ranudo_, _Ulysses of Ithaca_, _Without Head or Tail_, _Witchcraft_ and
_Melampe_ had all been written, and some of them acted. In 1724 the most
famous comedy that Holberg produced was _Henrik and Pernille_. But in
spite of this unprecedented blaze of dramatic genius the theatre fell
into pecuniary difficulties, and had to be closed, Holberg composing for
the last night's performance, in February 1727, a _Funeral of Danish
Comedy_. All this excessive labour for the stage had undermined the
great poet's health, and in 1725 he had determined to take the baths at
Aix-la-Chapelle; but instead of going thither he wandered through
Belgium to Paris, and spent the winter there. In the spring he returned
to Copenhagen with recovered health and spirits, and worked quietly at
his protean literary labours until the great fire of 1728. In the period
of national poverty and depression that followed this event, a
puritanical spirit came into vogue which was little in sympathy with
Holberg's dramatic or satiric genius. He therefore closed his career as
a dramatic poet by publishing in 1731 his acted comedies, with the
addition of five which he had no opportunity of putting on the stage.
With characteristic versatility, he adopted the serious tone of the new
age, and busied himself for the next twenty years with historical,
philosophical and statistical writings. During this period he published
his poetical satire called _Metamorphosis_ (1726), his _Epistolae ad
virum perillustrem_ (1727), his _Description of Denmark and Norway_
(1729), _History of Denmark_, _Universal Church History_, _Biographies
of Famous Men_, _Moral Reflections_, _Description of Bergen_ (1737), _A
History of the Jews_, and other learned and laborious compilations. The
only poem he published at this time was the famous _Nicolai Klimii iter
subterraneum_ (1741), afterwards translated into Danish by Baggesen.
When Christian VI. died in 1747, pietism lost its sway; the theatre was
reopened and Holberg was appointed director, but he soon resigned this
arduous post. The six comedies he wrote in his old age did not add to
his reputation. His last published work was his _Epistles_, in 5 vols.
the last of them posthumous (1754). In 1747 he was created by the new
king Baron of Holberg. In August 1753 he took to his bed, and he died at
Copenhagen on the 28th of January 1754, in the seventieth year of his
age. He was buried at Sorö, in Zealand. He had never married, and he
bequeathed all his property, which was considerable, to Sorö College.

Holberg was not only the founder of Danish literature and the greatest
of Danish authors, but he was, with the exception of Voltaire, the first
writer in Europe during his own generation. Neither Pope nor Swift, who
perhaps excelled him in particular branches of literary production,
approached him in range of genius, or in encyclopaedic versatility.
Holberg found Denmark provided with no books, and he wrote a library for
her. When he arrived in the country, the Danish language was never heard
in a gentleman's house. Polite Danes were wont to say that a man wrote
Latin to his friends, talked French to the ladies, called his dogs in
German, and only used Danish to swear at his servants. The single genius
of Holberg revolutionized this system. He wrote poems of all kinds in a
language hitherto employed only for ballads and hymns; he instituted a
theatre, and composed a rich collection of comedies for it; he filled
the shelves of the citizens with works in their own tongue on history,
law, politics, science, philology and philosophy, all written in a true
and manly style, and representing the extreme attainment of European
culture at the moment. Perhaps no author who ever lived has had so vast
an influence over his countrymen, an influence that is still at work
after 200 years.

  The editions of Holberg's works are legion. Complete editions of the
  _Comedies_ are too numerous to be quoted; the best is that brought out
  in 3 vols. by F. I. Lichtenberg, in 1870. Of _Peder Paars_ there exist
  at least twenty-three editions, besides translations in Dutch, German
  and Swedish. The _Iter subterraneum_ has been three several times
  translated into Danish, ten times into German, thrice into Swedish,
  thrice into Dutch, thrice into English, twice into French, twice into
  Russian and once into Hungarian. The life of Holberg was written by
  Welhaven in 1858 and by Georg Brandes in 1884. Among works on his
  genius by foreigners may be mentioned an exhaustive study by Robert
  Prutz (1857), and _Holberg considéré comme imitateur de Molière_, by
  A. Legrelle (Paris, 1864).     (E. G.)



HOLBORN, a central metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded N.W.
by St Pancras, N.E. by Finsbury, S.E. by the City of London, S. and W.
by the City of Westminster and St Marylebone. Pop. (1901), 59,405. Area
405.1 acres. Its main thoroughfare is that running E. and W. under the
names of Holborn Viaduct, High Holborn and New Oxford Street.

The name of Holborn was formerly derived from Old Bourne, a tributary of
the Fleet, the valley of which is clearly seen where Holborn Viaduct
crosses Farringdon Street. Of the existence of this tributary, however,
there is no evidence, and the origin of the name is found in
_Hole-bourne_, the stream in the hollow, in allusion to the Fleet
itself. The fall and rise of the road across the valley before the
construction of the viaduct (1869) was abrupt and inconvenient. In
earlier times a bridge here crossed the Fleet, leading from Newgate,
while a quarter of a mile west of the viaduct is the site of Holborn
Bars, at the entrance to the City, where tolls were levied. The better
residential district of Holborn, which extends northward to Euston Road
in the borough of St Pancras, is mainly within the parish of St George,
Bloomsbury. The name of Bloomsbury is commonly derived from William
Blemund, a lord of the manor in the 15th century. A dyke called
Blemund's Ditch, of unknown origin, bounded it on the south, where the
land was marshy. During the 18th century Bloomsbury was a fashionable
and wealthy residential quarter. The reputation of the district
immediately to the south, embraced in the parish of St Giles in the
Fields, was far different. From the 17th century until modern times this
was notorious as a home of crime and poverty. Here occurred some of the
earliest cases of the plague which spread over London in 1664-1665. The
opening of the thoroughfares of New Oxford Street (1840) and Shaftesbury
Avenue (1855) by no means wholly destroyed the character of the
district. The circus of Seven Dials, east of Shaftesbury Avenue, affords
a typical name in connexion with the lowest aspect of life in London. A
similar notoriety attached to Saffron Hill on the eastern confines of
the borough. By a singular contrast, the neighbouring thoroughfare of
Hatton Garden, leading north from Holborn Circus, is a centre of the
diamond trade.

Of the ecclesiastical buildings of Holborn that of first interest is the
chapel of St Etheldreda in Ely Place, opening from Holborn Circus. Ely
Place takes its name from a palace of the bishops of Ely, who held land
here as early as the 13th century. Here died John of Gaunt in 1399. The
property was acquired by Sir Christopher Hatton, Lord Chancellor under
Queen Elizabeth, after whom Hatton Garden is named; though the bishopric
kept some hold upon it until the 18th century. The chapel, the only
remnant of the palace, is a beautiful Decorated structure with a vaulted
crypt, itself above ground-level. Both are used for worship by Roman
Catholics, by whom the chapel was acquired in 1874 and opened five years
later after careful restoration. The present parish church of St Giles
in the Fields, between Shaftesbury Avenue and New Oxford Street, dates
from 1734, but here was situated a leper's hospital founded by Matilda,
wife of Henry I., in 1101. Its chapel became the parish church on the
suppression of the monasteries. The church of St Andrew, the parish of
which extends into the City, stands near Holborn Viaduct. It is by Wren,
but there are traces of the previous Gothic edifice in the tower.
Sacheverell was among its rectors (1713-1724), and Thomas Chatterton
(1770) was interred in the adjacent burial ground, no longer extant, of
Shoe Lane Workhouse; the register recording his Christian name as
William. Close to this church Is the City Temple (Congregational).

Two of the four Inns of Court, Lincoln's Inn and Gray's Inn, lie within
the borough. Of the first the Tudor gateway opens upon Chancery Lane.
The chapel, hall and residential buildings surrounding the squares
within, are picturesque, but of later date. To the west lie the fine
square, with public gardens, still called, from its original character,
Lincoln's Inn Fields. Gray's Inn, between High Holborn and Theobald's
Road, and west of Gray's Inn Road, is of similar arrangement. The fabric
of the small chapel is apparently of the 14th century, and may have been
attached to the manor house of Portpool, held at that period by the
Lords Grey of Wilton. Of the former Inns of Chancery attached to these
Inns of Court the most noteworthy buildings remaining are those of
Staple Inn, of which the timbered and gabled Elizabethan front upon High
Holborn is a unique survival of its character in a London thoroughfare;
and of Barnard's Inn, occupied by the Mercer's School. Both these were
attached to Gray's Inn. Of Furnival's and Thavies Inns, attached to
Lincoln's Inn, only the names remain. The site of the first is covered
by the fine red brick buildings of the Prudential Assurance Company,
Holborn Viaduct. Among other institutions in Holborn, the British
Museum, north of New Oxford Street, is pre-eminent. The varied
collections of Sir John Soane, accumulated at his house in Lincoln's Inn
Fields, are open to view as the Soane Museum. There may also be
mentioned the Royal College of Surgeons, Lincoln's Inn Fields, with
museum; the Royal Colleges of Organists, and of Veterinary Surgeons, the
College of Preceptors, the Jews' College, and the Metropolitan School of
Shorthand. Among hospitals are the Italian, the Homoeopathic, the
National for the paralysed and epileptic, the Alexandra for children
with hip disease, and the Hospital for sick children. The Foundling
Hospital, Guilford Street, was founded by Thomas Coram in 1739.



HOLCROFT, THOMAS (1745-1809), English dramatist and miscellaneous
writer, was born on the 10th of December 1745 (old style) in Orange
Court, Leicester Fields, London. His father, besides having a
shoemaker's shop, kept riding horses for hire; but having fallen into
difficulties was reduced ultimately to the necessity of hawking pedlary.
The son accompanied his parents in their tramps, and succeeded in
procuring the situation of stable boy at Newmarket, where he spent his
evenings chiefly in miscellaneous reading and the study of music.
Gradually he obtained a knowledge of French, German and Italian. At the
end of his term of engagement as stable boy he returned to assist his
father, who had again resumed his trade of shoemaker in London; but
after marrying in 1765, he became a teacher in a small school in
Liverpool. He failed in an attempt to set up a private school, and
became prompter in a Dublin theatre. He acted in various strolling
companies until 1778, when he produced _The Crisis; or, Love and
Famine_, at Drury Lane. _Duplicity_ followed in 1781. Two years later he
went to Paris as correspondent of the _Morning Herald_. Here he attended
the performances of Beaumarchais's _Mariage de Figaro_ until he had
memorized the whole. The translation of it, with the title _The Follies
of the Day_, was produced at Drury Lane in 1784. _The Road to Ruin_, his
most successful melodrama, was produced in 1792. A revival in 1873 ran
for 118 nights. Holcroft died on the 23rd of March 1809. He was a member
of the Society for Constitutional Information, and on that account was,
in 1794, indicted of high treason, but was discharged without a trial.
Among his novels may be mentioned _Alwyn_ (1780), an account, largely
autobiographical, of a strolling comedian, and _Hugh Trevor_
(1794-1797). He also was the author of _Travels from Hamburg through
Westphalia, Holland and the Netherlands to Paris_, of some volumes of
verse and of translations from the French and German.

  His _Memoirs written by Himself and continued down to the Time of his
  Death, from his Diary, Notes and other Papers_, by William Hazlitt,
  appeared in 1816, and was reprinted, in a slightly abridged form, in
  1852.



HOLDEN, HUBERT ASHTON (1822-1896), English classical scholar, came of an
old Staffordshire family. He was educated at King Edward's school,
Birmingham, and Trinity College, Cambridge (senior classic, 1845;
fellow, 1847). He was vice-principal of Cheltenham College (1853-1858),
and headmaster of Queen Elizabeth's school, Ipswich (1858-1883). He died
in London on the 1st of December 1896. In addition to several school
editions of portions of Cicero, Thucydides, Xenophon and Plutarch, he
published an expurgated text of Aristophanes with a useful onomasticon
(re-issued separately, 1902) and larger editions of Cicero's _De
officiis_ (revised ed., 1898) and of the _Octavius_ of Minucius Felix
(1853). His chief works, however, were his _Foliorum silvula_ (1852), a
collection of English extracts for translation into Greek and Latin
verse; _Folia silvulae_ (translations of the same); and _Foliorum
centuriae_, a companion volume of extracts for Latin prose translation.
In English schools these books have been widely used for the teaching of
Latin and Greek composition.



HOLDEN, SIR ISAAC, BART. (1807-1897), English inventor and manufacturer,
was the son of Isaac Holden, a native of Cumberland, and was born at
Hurlet, a village between Paisley and Glasgow, on the 7th of May 1807.
His early life was passed in very straitened circumstances, but his
father spared no pains to give him as much elementary education as
possible. At the age of ten he began to work as weaver's draw-boy, and
afterwards was employed in a cotton mill. Meanwhile his education was
continued at the night schools, and from time to time, as funds allowed,
he was taken from work and sent to the grammar-school, to which he at
last went regularly for a year or two until he was fifteen, when his
father removed to Paisley and apprenticed him to an uncle, a
shawl-weaver there. This proving too much for his strength, in 1823 he
became assistant teacher in a school at Paisley, and in 1828 he was
appointed mathematical teacher in the Queen's Square Academy, Leeds. At
the end of six months he was transferred to Lingard's grammar school,
near Huddersfield, and shortly afterwards became classical master at
Castle Street Academy, Reading. It was here that in 1829 he invented a
lucifer match by adopting sulphur as the medium between the explosive
material and the wood, but he refused to patent the invention. In 1830
his health again failed, and he returned to Scotland, where a Glasgow
friend set up a school for him. After six months, however, he was
recommended for the post of bookkeeper to Messrs. Townend Brothers,
worsted manufacturers, of Cullingworth, where his interest in machinery
soon led to his transfer from the counting-house to the mill. There his
experiments led him to the invention of his square motion wool-comber
and of a process for making genappe yarns, a patent for which was taken
out by him in conjunction with S. C. Lister (Lord Masham) in 1847. The
firm of Lister & Holden, which established a factory near Paris in 1848,
carried on a successful business, and in 1859, when Lister retired, was
succeeded by Isaac Holden and Sons, which became the largest
wool-combing business in the world, employing upwards of 4000
workpeople. In 1865 Holden's medical advisers insisted on complete
change of occupation, and he entered parliament as Liberal member for
Knaresborough. From 1868 to 1882 he was without a seat, but in the
latter year he was elected for the northern division of the West Riding,
and in 1885 for Keighley. He was created a baronet in 1893, and died
suddenly at Oakworth House, near Keighley, on the 13th of August 1897.

His son and heir, Sir Angus Holden, was in 1908 created a peer with the
title of Baron Holden of Alston.



HÖLDERLIN, JOHANN CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH (1770-1843), German poet, was born
on the 20th of March 1770, at Lauffen on the Neckar. His mother
removing, after a second marriage, to Nürtingen, he began his education
at the classical school there. He was destined by his relations for the
church, and with this view was later admitted to the seminaries at
Denkendorf and Maulbronn. At the age of eighteen he entered as a student
of theology the university of Tübingen, where he remained till 1793. He
was already the writer of occasional verses, and had begun to sketch his
novel _Hyperion_, when he was introduced in this year to Schiller, and
obtained through him the post of tutor to the young son of Charlotte von
Kalb. A year later he left this situation to attend Fichte's lectures,
and to be near Schiller in Jena. The latter recognized in the young poet
something of his own genius, and encouraged him by publishing some of
his early writings in his periodicals _Die neue Thalia_ and _Die Horen_.
In 1796 Hölderlin obtained the post of tutor in the family of the banker
J. F. Gontard in Frankfort-on-Main. For Gontard's beautiful and gifted
wife, Susette, the "Diotima" of his _Hyperion_, he conceived a violent
passion; and she became at once his inspiration and his ruin. At the end
of two years, during which time the first volume of _Hyperion_ was
published (1797), a crisis appears to have occurred in their relations,
for the young poet suddenly left Frankfort. In spite of ill-health, he
now completed _Hyperion_, the second volume of which appeared in 1799,
and began a tragedy, _Der Tod des Empedokles_, a fragment of which is
published among his works. His friends became alarmed at the alternate
depression and nervous irritability from which he suffered, and he was
induced to go to Switzerland, as tutor in a family at Hauptwill. There
his health improved; and several of his poems, among which are _Der
blinde Sänger_, _An die Hoffnung_ and _Dichtermut_, were written at this
time. In 1801 he returned home to arrange for the publication of a
volume of his poems; but, on the failure of this enterprise, he was
obliged to accept a tutorship at Bordeaux. "Diotima" died a year later,
in June 1802, and the news is supposed to have reached Hölderlin shortly
afterwards, for in the following month he suddenly left Bordeaux, and
travelled homewards on foot through France, arriving at Nürtingen
destitute and insane. Kind treatment gradually alleviated his condition,
and in lucid intervals he occupied himself by writing verses and
translating Greek plays. Two of these translations--the _Antigone_ and
_Oedipus rex_ of Sophocles--appeared in 1804, and several of his short
poems were published by Franz K. L. von Seckendorff in his
_Musenalmanach_, 1807 and 1808. In 1804 Hölderlin obtained the sinecure
post of librarian to the landgrave Frederick V. of Hesse-Homburg, and
went to live in Homburg under the supervision of friends; but two years
later becoming irremediably but harmlessly insane, he was taken in the
summer of 1807 to Tübingen, where he remained till his death on the 7th
of June 1843.

Hölderlin's writings are the production of a beautiful and sensitive
mind; but they are intensely, almost morbidly, subjective, and they lack
real human strength. Perhaps his strongest characteristic was his
passion for Greece, the result of which was that he almost entirely
discarded rhyme in favour of the ancient verse measures. His poems are
all short pieces; of his tragedy only a fragment was written. _Hyperion,
oder der Eremit in Griechenland_ (1797-1799), is a romance in letters,
in which the stormy fervour of the "Sturm und Drang" is combined with a
romantic enthusiasm for Greek antiquity. The interest centres not in the
story, for the novel has little or none--Hyperion is a young Greek who
takes part in the rising of his people against the Turks in 1770--but in
its lyric subjectivity and the dithyrambic beauty of its language.

  Hölderlin's lyrics, _Lyrische Gedichte_, were edited by L. Uhland and
  G. Schwab in 1826. A complete edition of his works, _Sämtliche Werke_,
  with a biography by C. T. Schwab, appeared in 1846; also _Dichtungen_
  by K. Köstlin (Tübingen, 1884), and (the best edition) _Gesammelte
  Dichtungen_ by B. Litzmann (2 vols., Stuttgart, 1897). For biography
  and criticism, see C. C. T. Litzmann, _F. Hölderlins Leben_ (Berlin,
  1890), A. Wilbrandt, _Hölderlin_ (2nd ed., Berlin, 1891), and C.
  Müller, _Friedrich Hölderlin, sein Leben und sein Dichten_ (Bremen,
  1894).



HOLDERNESSE, EARL OF, an English title borne by Sir John Ramsay and
later by the family of Darcy. John Ramsay (c. 1580-1626), a member of
the Scottish family of Ramsay of Dalhousie, was knighted for his share
in rescuing James VI. from the hands of John Ruthven, earl of Gowrie, in
August 1600. In 1606 the king created him Viscount Haddington and Lord
Ramsay of Barns, and in 1621 made him an English peer as earl of
Holdernesse. Ramsay died without surviving issue in February 1626, when
his titles became extinct. In 1644 Charles I. created his nephew, Prince
Rupert, earl of Holdernesse, but when the prince died unmarried in
November 1682 the earldom again became extinct. Conyers Darcy
(1599-1689), who was made earl of Holdernesse in 1682 only a few days
after the death of Rupert, was the son and heir of Conyers Darcy, Lord
Darcy and Conyers (c. 1571-1654), and succeeded his father in these
baronies in March 1654. He was succeeded as 2nd earl by his only son
Conyers (c. 1620-1692), who was member of parliament for Yorkshire
during the reign of Charles II. In his turn he was succeeded by his
grandson Robert (1681-1722). Robert's only son, Robert Darcy, 4th earl
of Holdernesse (1718-1778), was a diplomatist and a politician. From
1744 to 1746 he was ambassador at Venice and from 1749 to 1751 he
represented his country at the Hague. In 1751 he became one of the
secretaries of state, and he remained in office until March 1761, when
he was dismissed by George III. From 1771 to 1776 he acted as governor
to two of the king's sons, a "solemn phantom" as Horace Walpole calls
him. He left no sons, and all his titles became extinct except the
barony of Conyers, which had been created by writ in 1509 in favour of
his ancestor Sir William Conyers (d. 1525). This descended to his only
daughter Amelia (1754-1784), the wife of Francis Osborne, afterwards 5th
duke of Leeds, and when the 7th duke of Leeds died in 1859 it passed to
his nephew, Sackville George Lane-Fox (1827-1888), falling into abeyance
on his death. Hornby castle in Yorkshire, now the principal seat of the
dukes of Leeds, came to them through marriage of the 5th duke with the
heiress of the families of Conyers and of Darcy.



HOLDHEIM, SAMUEL (1806-1860), Jewish rabbi, a leader of reform in the
German Synagogue, was born in Posen in 1806 and died in Berlin in 1860.
In 1836 he was appointed rabbi at Frankfort-on-the-Oder, in 1840 he was
transferred to the rabbinate of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. He then became
prominent as an advocate on the one hand of religious freedom (much
trammelled at the time by Prussian state laws) and on the other of
reform within the Jewish community. Various rabbinical conferences were
held, at Brunswick (1844), Frankfort-on-the-Main (1845) and Breslau
(1846). At all of these Holdheim was a strong supporter of the policy of
modifying ritual (especially with regard to Sabbath observance, marriage
laws and liturgical customs). In 1846 he was chosen Rabbi of the new
Berlin congregation and there exercised considerable influence on the
course of Jewish reform.

  See I. H. Ritter in the _Jewish Quarterly Review_, i. 202. The same
  authority has written the life of Holdheim in vol. iii. of his
  _Geschichte der jüdischen Reformation_ (Berlin, 1865). Graetz in his
  _History_ passes an unfavourable judgment on Holdheim, and there were
  admittedly grounds for opposition to Holdheim's attitude. A moderate
  criticism is contained in Dr D. Philipson's _History of the Reform
  Movement_ in Judaism (London, 1906).



HOLGUÍN, a town of the high plateau country in the interior of Oriente
province, Cuba, about 65 m. N.W. of Santiago de Cuba. Pop. (1907) 7592.
The town is near the Marañon and Jigüé rivers, on a plain from which
hills rise on all sides except the E., on which side it is open to the
winds of the plateau. Holguín was long the principal acclimatization
station for Spanish troops. The oldest public buildings are two churches
built in 1800 and 1809 respectively. Holguín has trade in cabinet woods,
tobacco, Indian corn and cattle products, which it exports through its
port Gibara, about 25 m. N.N.E., with which it is connected by railway.
Holguín was settled about 1720 and became a _ciudad_ (city) in 1751. In
the Ten Years' War of 1868-78 and in the revolution of 1895-98 Holguín
was an insurgent centre.



HOLIDAY, originally the "holy day," a festival set apart for religious
observances as a memorial of some sacred event or sacred person; hence a
day on which the ordinary work or business ceases. For the religious
sense see FEASTS AND FESTIVALS, and SUNDAY. Apart from the use of the
term for a single day of rest or enjoyment, it is commonly used in the
plural for a recognized and regular period (as at schools, &c.) of
absence from work. It is unnecessary here to deal with what may be
regarded as private holidays, which are matters of agreement between
employer and employed or between the authorities of this or that
institution and those who attend it. In recent years there has been a
notable tendency in most occupations to shorten the hours of labour, and
make holidays more regular. It will suffice to deal here with public
holidays, the observance of which is prescribed by the state. In one
respect these have been diminished, in so far as saints' days are no
longer regarded as entailing non-attendance at the government offices in
England, as was the case at the beginning of the 19th century. But while
the influence of religion in determining such holidays has waned, the
importance of making some compulsory provision for social recreation has
made itself felt. In England four days, known as Bank Holidays (q.v.),
are set apart by statute to be observed as general holidays, while the
sovereign may by proclamation appoint any day to be similarly observed.
Endeavours have been made from time to time to get additional days
recognized as general holidays, such as Empire Day (May 24th), Arbor
Day, &c. In the British colonies there is no uniform practice. In Canada
eight days are generally observed as public holidays: New Year's Day,
Good Friday, Easter Monday, Christmas Day, the birthday of the
sovereign, Victoria Day, Dominion Day and Labour Day. Some of the
provinces have followed the American example by adding an Arbor Day.
Alberta and Saskatchewan observe Ash Wednesday. In Quebec, where the
majority of the population is Roman Catholic, the holy days are also
holidays, namely, the Festival of the Epiphany, Ash Wednesday, Good
Friday, Easter Monday, the Ascension, All Saint's Day, Conception Day,
Christmas Day. In 1897 Labour Day was added. In New South Wales, the 1st
of January, Good Friday, Easter Eve, Easter Monday, the birthday of the
sovereign, the 1st of August, the birthday of the prince of Wales,
Christmas Day and the 26th of December, are observed as holidays. In
Victoria there are thirteen public holidays during the year, and in
Queensland fourteen. In New Zealand the public holidays are confined to
four, Christmas Day, New Year's Day, Good Friday and Labour Day. In most
of the other British colonies the usual number of public holidays is
from six to eight.

In the United States there is no legal holiday in the sense of the
English bank holidays. A legal holiday is dependent upon state and
territorial legislation. It is usual for the president to proclaim the
last Thursday in November as a day of thanksgiving; this makes it only a
legal holiday in the District of Columbia, and in the territories, but
most states make it a general holiday. Independence Day (July 4th) and
Labour Day (first Monday in September) are legal holidays in most
states. There are other days which, in connexion with particular events
or in remembrance of particular persons, have been made legal holidays
by particular states. For example, Lincoln's birthday, Washington's
birthday, Memorial Day (May 30th), Patriots' Day (April 19th, Maine and
Mass.), R. E. Lee's birthday (Jan. 19th, Ala., Fla., Ga., Va.),
Pioneers' Day (July 24th, Utah), Colorado Day (Aug. 1st), Battle of New
Orleans (Jan. 8th, La.), Bennington Battle Day (Aug. 16th, Vt.),
Defender's Day (Sept, 12th, Md.), Arbor Day (April 22nd, Nebraska;
second Friday in May R.I., &c.), Admission Day (September 9th, Cal.;
Oct. 31st, Nev.), Confederate Memorial Day (April 26th, Ala., Fla., Ga.,
Miss., May 10th, N. & S. Car., June 3rd, La., Miss., Texas), &c.

  See M'Curdy, _Bibliography of Articles relating to Holidays_ (Boston,
  1905).     (T. A. I.)



HOLINSHED (or HOLLINGSHEAD), RAPHAEL (d. c. 1580), English chronicler,
belonged probably to a Cheshire family, and according to Anthony Wood
was educated at one of the English universities, afterwards becoming a
"minister of God's Word." The authenticity of these facts is doubtful,
although it is possible that Raphael was the Holinshed who matriculated
from Christ's College, Cambridge, in 1544. About 1560 he came to London
and was employed as a translator by Reginald or Reyner Wolfe, to whom he
says he was "singularly beholden." Wolfe was already engaged in the
preparation of a universal history, and Holinshed worked for some years
on this undertaking; but after Wolfe's death in 1573 the scope of the
work was abridged, and it appeared in 1578 as the _Chronicles of
England, Scotland, and Ireland_. The work was in two volumes, which were
illustrated, and although Holinshed did a great deal of the work he
received valuable assistance from William Harrison (1534-1593) and
others, while the part dealing with the history of Scotland is mainly a
translation of Hector Boece's _Scotorum historiae_. Afterwards, as is
shown by his will, Holinshed served as steward to Thomas Burdet of
Bramcott, Warwickshire, and died about 1580.

  A second edition of the _Chronicles_, enlarged and improved but
  without illustrations, which appeared in 1587, contained statements
  which were offensive to Queen Elizabeth and her advisers, and
  immediately after publication some of the pages were excised by order
  of the privy council. These excisions were published separately in
  1723. An edition of the _Chronicles_, in accordance with the original
  text, was published in six volumes in 1808. The work contains a large
  amount of information, and shows that its compilers were men of great
  industry; but its chief interest lies in the fact that it was largely
  used by Shakespeare and other Elizabethan dramatists; Shakespeare, who
  probably used the edition of 1587, obtaining from the _Chronicles_
  material for most of his historical plays, and also for _Macbeth_,
  _King Lear_ and part of _Cymbeline_. A single manuscript by Holinshed
  is known to be extant. This is a translation of Florence of Worcester,
  and is in the British Museum. See W. G. Boswell-Stone, _Shakspere's
  Holinshed_. _The Chronicle and the historical plays compared_ (London,
  1896).



HOLKAR, the family name of the Mahratta ruler of Indore (q.v.), which
has been adopted as a dynastic title. The termination -_kar_ implies
that the founder of the family came from the village of Hol near Poona.



HOLL, FRANK (1845-1888), English painter, was born in London on the 4th
of July 1845, and was educated chiefly at University College School. He
was a grandson of William Holl, an engraver of note, and the son of
Francis Holl, A.R.A., another engraver, whose profession he originally
intended to follow. Entering the Royal Academy schools as a probationer
in painting in 1860, he rapidly progressed, winning silver and gold
medals, and making his début as an exhibitor in 1864 with "A Portrait,"
and "Turned out of Church," a subject picture. "A Fern Gatherer" (1865);
"The Ordeal" (1866); "Convalescent" (the somewhat grim pathos of which
attracted much attention), and "Faces in the Fire" (1867), succeeded.
Holl gained the travelling studentship in 1868; the successful work was
characteristic of the young painter's mood, being "The Lord gave, and
the Lord hath taken away." His insatiable zeal for work of all kinds
began early to undermine the artist's health, but his position was
assured by the studentship picture, which created a sort of _furore_,
although, as with most of his works, the blackness of its coloration,
probably due to his training as an engraver, was even more decidedly
against it than the sadness of its theme. Otherwise, this painting
exhibited nearly all the best technical qualities to which he ever
attained, except high finish and clearness, and a very sincere vein of
pathos. Holl was much below Millais In portraiture, and far inferior In
all the higher ways of design; in technical resources, relatively
speaking, he was but scantily provided. The range of his studies and the
manner of his painting were narrower than those of Josef Israels, with
whom, except as a portrait-painter, he may better be compared than with
Millais. In 1870 he painted "Better is a Dinner of Herbs where Love is,
than a Stalled Ox and Hatred therewith"; "No Tidings from the Sea," a
scene in a fisherman's cottage, in 1871--a story told with
breath-catching pathos and power; "I am the Resurrection and the Life"
(1872); "Leaving Home" (1873), "Deserted" (1874), both of which had
great success; "Her First-born," girls carrying a baby to the grave
(1876); and "Going Home" (1877). In 1877 he painted the two pictures
"Hush" and "Hushed." "Newgate, Committed for Trial," a very sad and
telling piece, first attested the breaking down of the painter's health
in 1878. In this year he was elected A.R.A., and exhibited "The Gifts of
the Fairies," "The Daughter of the House," "Absconded," and a very fine
portrait of Samuel Cousins, the mezzotint engraver. This last canvas is
a masterpiece, and deserved the success which attended the print
engraved from it. Holl was overwhelmed with commissions, which he would
not decline. The consequences of this strain upon a constitution which
was never strong were more or less, though unequally, manifest in
"Ordered to the Front," a soldier's departure (1880); "Home Again," its
sequel, in 1883 (after which he was made R.A.). In 1886 he produced a
portrait of Millais as his diploma work, but his health rapidly declined
and he died at Hampstead, on the 31st of July 1888. Holl's better
portraits, being of men of rare importance, attest the commanding
position he occupied in the branch of art he so unflinchingly followed.
They include likenesses of Lord Roberts, painted for queen Victoria
(1882); the prince of Wales, Lord Dufferin, the duke of Cleveland
(1885); Lord Overstone, Mr Bright, Mr Gladstone, Mr Chamberlain, Sir J.
Tenniel, Earl Spencer, Viscount Cranbrook, and a score of other
important subjects.     (F. G. S.)



HOLLAND, CHARLES (1733-1769), English actor, was born in Chiswick, the
son of a baker. He made his first appearance on the stage in the title
rôle of _Oroonoko_ at Drury Lane in 1755, John Palmer, Richard Yates and
Mrs Cibber being in the cast. He played under Garrick, and was the
original Florizel in the latter's adaptation of Shakespeare's _Winter's
Tale_. Garrick thought highly of him, and wrote a eulogistic epitaph for
his monument in Chiswick church.

His nephew, Charles Holland (1768-1849) was also an actor, who played
with Mrs Siddons and Kean.



HOLLAND, SIR HENRY, BART. (1788-1873), English physician and author, was
born at Knutsford, Cheshire, on the 27th of October 1788. His maternal
grandmother was the sister of Josiah Wedgwood, whose grandson was
Charles Darwin; and his paternal aunt was the mother of Mrs Gaskell.
After spending some years at a private school at Knutsford, he was sent
to a school at Newcastle-on-Tyne, whence after four years he was
transferred to Dr J. P. Estlin's school near Bristol. There he at once
took the position of head boy, in succession to John Cam Hobhouse,
afterwards Lord Broughton, an honour which required to be maintained by
physical prowess. On leaving school he became articled clerk to a
mercantile firm in Liverpool, but, as the privilege was reserved to him
of passing two sessions at Glasgow university, he at the close of his
second session sought relief from his articles, and in 1806 began the
study of medicine in the university of Edinburgh, where he graduated in
1811. After several years spent in foreign travel, he began practice in
1816 as a physician in London--according to his own statement, "with a
fair augury of success speedily and completely fulfilled." This
"success," he adds, "was materially aided by visits for four successive
years to Spa, at the close of that which is called the London season."
It must also, however, be in a great degree attributed to his happy
temperament and his gifts as a conversationalist--qualities the
influence of which, in the majority of cases belonging to his class of
practice, is often of more importance than direct medical treatment. In
1816 he was elected F.R.S., and in 1828 F.R.C.S. He became physician in
ordinary to Prince Albert in 1840, and was appointed in 1852 physician
in ordinary to the queen. In April 1853 he was created a baronet. He was
also a D.C.L. of Oxford and a member of the principal learned societies
of Europe. He was twice married, his second wife being a daughter of
Sydney Smith, a lady of considerable literary talent, who published a
biography of her father. Sir Henry Holland at an early period of his
practice resolved to devote to his professional duties no more of his
time than was necessary to secure an income of £5000 a year, and also to
spend two months of every year solely in foreign travel. By the former
resolution he secured leisure for a wide acquaintance with general
literature, and for a more than superficial cultivation of several
branches of science; and the latter enabled him, besides visiting, "and
most of them repeatedly, every country of Europe," to make extensive
tours in the other three continents, journeying often to places little
frequented by European travellers. As, moreover, he procured an
introduction to nearly all the eminent personages in his line of travel,
and knew many of them in his capacity of physician, his acquaintance
with "men and cities" was of a species without a parallel. The _London
Medical Record_, in noticing his death, which took place on his
eighty-fifth birthday, October 27, 1873, remarked that it "had occurred
under circumstances highly characteristic of his remarkable career." On
his return from a journey in Russia he was present, on Friday, October
24th, at the trial of Marshal Bazaine in Paris, dining with some of the
judges in the evening. He reached London on the Saturday, took ill the
following day, and died quietly on the Monday afternoon.

  Sir Henry Holland was the author of _General View of the Agriculture
  of Cheshire_ (1807); _Travels in the Ionian Isles, Albania, Thessaly
  and Greece_ (1812-1813, 2nd ed., 1819); _Medical Notes and
  Reflections_ (1839); _Chapters on Mental Physiology_ (1852); _Essays
  on Scientific and other Subjects contributed to the Edinburgh and
  Quarterly Reviews_ (1862); and _Recollections of Past Life_ (1872).



HOLLAND, HENRY FOX, 1ST BARON (1705-1774), English statesman, second son
of Sir Stephen Fox, was born on the 28th of September 1705. Inheriting a
large share of the riches which his father had accumulated, he
squandered it soon after attaining his majority, and went to the
Continent to escape from his creditors. There he made the acquaintance
of a countrywoman of fortune, who became his patroness and was so lavish
with her purse that, after several years' absence, he was in a position
to return home and, in 1735, to enter parliament as member for Hindon in
Wiltshire. He became the favourite pupil and devoted supporter of Sir
Robert Walpole, achieving unequalled and unenviable proficiency in the
worst political arts of his master and model. As a speaker he was fluent
and self-possessed, imperturbable under attack, audacious in exposition
or retort, and able to hold his own against Pitt himself. Thus he made
himself a power in the House of Commons and an indispensable member of
several administrations. He was surveyor-general of works from 1737 to
1742, was member for Windsor from 1741 to 1761; lord of the treasury in
1743, secretary at war and member of the privy council in 1746, and in
1755 became leader of the House of Commons, secretary of state and a
member of the cabinet under the duke of Newcastle. In 1757, in the
rearrangements of the government, Fox was ultimately excluded from the
cabinet, and given the post of paymaster of the forces. During the war,
which Pitt conducted with extraordinary vigour, and in which the nation
was intoxicated with glory, Fox devoted himself mainly to accumulating a
vast fortune. In 1762 he again accepted the leadership of the House,
with a seat in the cabinet, under the earl of Bute, and exercised his
skill in cajolery and corruption to induce the House of Commons to
approve of the treaty of Paris of 1763; as a recompense, he was raised
to the House of Lords with the title of Baron Holland of Foxley,
Wiltshire, on the 16th of April 1763. In 1765 he was forced to resign
the paymaster generalship, and four years later a petition of the livery
of the city of London against the ministers referred to him as "the
public defaulter of unaccounted millions." The proceedings brought
against him in the court of exchequer were stayed by a royal warrant;
and in a statement published by him he proved that in the delays in
making up the accounts of his office he had transgressed neither the law
nor the custom of the time. From the interest on the outstanding
balances he had, none the less, amassed a princely fortune. He strove,
but in vain, to obtain promotion to the dignity of an earl, a dignity
upon which he had set his heart, and he died at Holland House,
Kensington, on the 1st of July 1774, a sorely disappointed man, with a
reputation for cunning and unscrupulousness which cannot easily be
matched, and with an unpopularity which justifies the conclusion that he
was the most thoroughly hated statesman of his day. Lord Holland married
in 1744 Lady Georgina Caroline Lennox, daughter of the duke of
Richmond, who was created Baroness Holland, of Holland, Lincolnshire, in
1762. There were four sons of the marriage: Stephen, 2nd Lord Holland
(d. 1774); Henry (d. an infant); Charles James (the celebrated
statesman); and Henry Edward (1755-1811), soldier and diplomatist.

  See Walpole's and other memoirs of the time, also the article FOX,
  CHARLES JAMES.



HOLLAND, HENRY RICH, 1ST EARL OF (1590-1649), 2nd son of Robert, 1st
earl of Warwick, and of Penelope, Sir Philip Sidney's "Stella," daughter
of Walter Devereux, 1st earl of Essex, was baptized on the 19th of
August 1590, educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, knighted on the
3rd of June 1610, and returned to parliament for Leicester in 1610 and
1614. In 1610 he was present at the siege of Juliers. Favours were
showered upon him by James I. He was made gentleman of the bedchamber to
Charles, prince of Wales, and captain of the yeomen of the guard; and on
the 8th of March 1623 he was raised to the peerage as Baron Kensington.
In 1624 he was sent to Paris to negotiate the marriage treaty between
Charles and Henrietta Maria. On the 15th of September he was created
earl of Holland, and in 1625 was sent on two further missions, first to
Paris to arrange a treaty between Louis XIII. and the Huguenots, and
later to the Netherlands in company with Buckingham. In October 1627 he
was given command of the troops sent to reinforce Buckingham at Rhé, but
through delay in starting only met the defeated troops on their return.
He succeeded Buckingham as chancellor of Cambridge University; was
master of the horse in 1628, and was appointed constable of Windsor and
high steward to the queen in 1629. He interested himself, like his elder
brother, Lord Warwick, in the plantations; and was the first governor of
the Providence company in 1630, and one of the proprietors of
Newfoundland in 1637. In 1631 he was made chief-justice-in-eyre south of
the Trent, and in this capacity was responsible for the unpopular
revival of the obsolete forest laws. He intrigued at court against
Portland and against Strafford, who expressed for him the greatest
contempt. In 1636 he was disappointed at not obtaining the great office
of lord high admiral, but was made instead groom of the stole. In 1639
he was appointed general of the horse, and drew ridicule upon himself by
the fiasco at Kelso. In the second war against the Scots he was
superseded in favour of Conway. He opposed the dissolution of the Short
Parliament, joined the peers who supported the parliamentary cause, and
gave evidence against Strafford. He was, however, won back to the king's
side by the queen, and on the 16th of April 1641 made captain general
north of the Trent. Dissatisfied, however, with Charles's refusal to
grant him the nomination of a new baron, he again abandoned him, refused
the summons to York, and was deprived of his office as groom of the
stole at the instance of the queen, who greatly resented his
ingratitude. He was chosen by the parliament in March and July 1642 to
communicate its votes to Charles, who received him, much to his
indignation, with studied coldness. He was appointed one of the
committee of safety in July; made zealous speeches on behalf of the
parliamentary cause to the London citizens; and joined Essex's army at
Twickenham, where, it is said, he persuaded him to avoid a battle. In
1643 he appeared as a peacemaker, and after failing to bring over Essex,
he returned to the king. His reception, however, was not a cordial one,
and he was not reinstated in his office of groom of the stole. After,
therefore, accompanying the king to Gloucester and taking part in the
first battle of Newbury, he once more returned to the parliament,
declaring that the court was too much bent on continuing hostilities,
and the influence of the "papists" too strong for his patriotism. He was
restored to his estates, but the Commons obliged the Lords to exclude
him from the upper house, and his petition in 1645 for compensation for
his losses and for a pension was refused. His hopes being in this
quarter also disappointed, he once again renewed his allegiance to the
king's cause; and after endeavouring to promote the negotiations for
peace in 1645 and 1647 he took up arms in the second Civil War, received
a commission as general, and put himself at the head of 600 men at
Kingston. He was defeated on the 7th of July 1647, captured at St Neots
shortly afterwards, and imprisoned at Warwick Castle. He was tried
before a "high court of justice" on the 3rd of February 1649, and in
spite of his plea that he had received quarter was sentenced to death.
He was executed together with Hamilton and Capel on the 9th of March.
Clarendon styles him "a very well-bred man and a fine gentleman in good
times."[1] He was evidently a man of shallow character, devoid of
ability, raised far above his merits and hopelessly unfit for the great
times in which he lived. Lord Holland married Elizabeth, daughter and
heiress of Sir Walter Cope of Kensington, and, besides several
daughters, had four sons, of whom the eldest, Robert, succeeded him as
2nd earl of Holland, and inherited the earldom of Warwick in 1673.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] _Hist. of the Rebellion_, xi. 263.



HOLLAND, HENRY RICHARD VASSALL FOX, 3RD BARON (1773-1840), was the son
of Stephen Fox, 2nd Baron Holland, his mother, Lady Mary Fitzpatrick,
being the daughter of the earl of Upper Ossory. He was born at
Winterslow House in Wiltshire, on the 21st of November 1773, and his
father died in the following year. He was educated at Eton and at Christ
Church, Oxford, where he became the friend of Canning, of Hookham Frere,
and of other wits of the time. Lord Holland did not take the same
political side as his friends in the conflicts of the revolutionary
epoch. He was from his boyhood deeply attached to his uncle, C. J. Fox,
and remained steadily loyal to the Whig party. In 1791 he visited Paris
and became acquainted with Lafayette and Talleyrand, and in 1793 he
again went abroad to travel in France and Italy. At Florence he met with
Lady Webster, wife of Sir Godfrey Webster, Bart., who left her husband
for him. She was by birth Elizabeth Vassall (1770-1845), daughter of
Richard Vassall, a planter in Jamaica. A son was born of their irregular
union, a Charles Richard Fox (1796-1873), who after some service in the
navy entered the Grenadiers, and was known in later life as a collector
of Greek coins. His collection was bought for the royal museum of Berlin
when he died in 1873. He married Lady Mary Fitzclarence, a daughter of
William IV. by Mrs Jordan. Sir Godfrey Webster having obtained a
divorce, Lord Holland was enabled to marry on the 6th of July 1797. He
had taken his seat in the House of Lords on the 5th of October 1796.
During several years he may be said almost to have constituted the Whig
party in the Upper House. His protests against the measures of the Tory
ministers were collected and published, as the _Opinions of Lord
Holland_ (1841), by Dr Moylan of Lincoln's Inn. In 1800 he was
authorized to take the name of Vassall, and after 1807 he signed himself
Vassall Holland, though the name was no part of his title. In 1800 Lord
and Lady Holland went abroad and remained in France and Spain till 1805,
visiting Paris during the Peace of Amiens, and being well received by
Napoleon. Lady Holland always professed a profound admiration of
Napoleon, of which she made a theatrical display after his fall, and he
left her a gold snuff-box by his will. In public life Lord Holland took
a share proportionate to his birth and opportunities. He was appointed
to negotiate with the American envoys, Monroe and W. Pinkney, was
admitted to the privy council on the 27th of August 1806, and on the
15th of October entered the cabinet "of all the talents" as lord privy
seal, retiring with the rest of his colleagues in March 1807. He led the
opposition to the Regency bill in 1811, and he attacked the "orders in
council" and other strong measures of the government taken to counteract
Napoleon's Berlin decrees. He was in fact in politics a consistent Whig,
and in that character he denounced the treaty of 1813 with Sweden which
bound England to consent to the forcible union of Norway, and he
resisted the bill of 1816 for confining Napoleon in St Helena. His
loyalty as a Whig secured recognition when his party triumphed in the
struggle for parliamentary reform, by his appointment as chancellor of
the duchy of Lancaster in the cabinet of Lord Grey and Lord Melbourne,
and he was still in office when he died on the 22nd of October 1840.
Lord Holland is notable, not for his somewhat insignificant political
career, but as a patron of literature, as a writer on his own account,
and because his house was the centre and the headquarters of the Whig
political and literary world of the time; and Lady Holland (who died on
the 16th of November 1845) succeeded in taking the sort of place in
London which had been filled in Paris during the 18th century by the
society ladies who kept "salons." Lord Holland's _Foreign Reminiscences_
(1850) contain much amusing gossip from the Revolutionary and Napoleonic
era. His _Memoirs of the Whig Party_ (1852) is an important contemporary
authority. His small work on _Lope de Vega_ (1806) is still of some
value. Holland had two legitimate sons, Stephen, who died in 1800, and
Henry Edward, who became 4th Lord Holland. When this peer died in
December 1859 the title became extinct.

  See _The Journal of Elizabeth, Lady Holland_, edited by the earl of
  Ilchester (1908); and Lloyd Sanders, _The Holland House Circle_
  (1908).



HOLLAND, JOSIAH GILBERT (1819-1881), American author and editor, was
born in Belchertown, Massachusetts, on the 24th of July 1819. He
graduated in 1843 at the Berkshire Medical College (no longer in
existence) at Pittsfield, Mass., and after practising medicine in
1844-1847, and making an unsuccessful attempt, with Charles Robinson
(1818-1894), later first governor of the state of Kansas, to establish a
hospital for women, he taught for a brief period in Richmond, Virginia,
and in 1848 was superintendent of schools in Vicksburg, Mississippi. In
1849 he became assistant editor under Samuel Bowles, and three years
later one of the owners, of the Springfield (Massachusetts)
_Republican_, with which he retained his connexion until 1867. He then
travelled for some time in Europe, and in 1870 removed to New York,
where he helped to establish and became editor and one-third owner of
_Scribner's Monthly_ (the title of which was changed in 1881 to _The
Century_), which absorbed the periodicals _Hours at Home_, _Putnam's
Magazine_ and the _Riverside Magazine_. He remained editor of this
magazine until his death. Dr Holland's books long enjoyed a wide
popularity. The earlier ones were published over the pseudonym "Timothy
Titcomb." His writings fall into four classes: history and biography,
represented by a _History of Western Massachusetts_ (1855), and a _Life
of Abraham Lincoln_ (1865); fiction, of which _Miss Gilbert's Career_
(1860) and _The Story of Sevenoaks_ (1875) remain faithful pictures of
village life in eastern United States; poetry, of which _Bitter-Sweet_
(1858) and _Kathrina, Her Life and Mine_ (1867) were widely read; and a
series of homely essays on the art of living, of which the most
characteristic were _Letters to Young People, Single and Married_
(1858), _Gold Foil, hammered from Popular Proverbs_ (1859), _Letters to
the Jonses_ (1863), and _Every-Day Topics_ (2 series, 1876 and 1882).
While a resident of New York, where he died on the 12th of October 1881,
he identified himself with measures for good government and school
reform, and in 1872 became a member and for a short time in 1873 was
president of the Board of Education.

  See Mrs H. M. Plunkett's _Josiah Gilbert Holland_ (New York, 1894).



HOLLAND, PHILEMON (1552-1637), English scholar, "the translator-general
in his age," was born at Chelmsford in Essex. He was the son of a
clergyman, John Holland, who had been obliged to take refuge in Germany
and Denmark with Miles Coverdale during the Marian persecution. Having
become a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and taken the degree of
M.A., he was incorporated at Oxford (July 11th, 1585). Having
subsequently studied medicine, about 1595 he settled as a doctor in
Coventry, but chiefly occupied himself with translations. In 1628 he was
appointed headmaster of the free school, but, owing probably to
advancing age, he held office for only eleven months. His latter days
were oppressed by poverty, partly relieved by the generosity of the
common council of Coventry, which in 1632 assigned him £3, 6s. 8d. for
three years, "if he should live so long." He died on the 9th of
February, 1636-1637. His fame is due solely to his translations, which
included Livy, Pliny's _Natural History_, Plutarch's _Morals_,
Suetonius, Ammianus Marcellinus and Xenophon's _Cyropaedia_. He
published also an English version, with additions, of Camden's
_Britannia_. His Latin translation of Brice Bauderon's _Pharmacopaea_
and his _Regimen sanitatis Salerni_ were published after his death by
his son, HENRY HOLLAND (1583-?1650), who became a London bookseller, and
is known to bibliographers for his _Bazili[omega]logia; a Booke of
Kings, beeing the true and liuely Effigies of all our English Kings from
the Conquest_ (1618), and his _Her[omega]ologia Anglica_ (1620).



HOLLAND, RICHARD, or RICHARD DE HOLANDE (fl. 1450), Scottish writer,
author of the _Buke of the Howlat_, was secretary or chaplain to the
earl of Moray (1450) and rector of Halkirk, near Thurso. He was
afterwards rector of Abbreochy, Loch Ness, and later held a chantry in
the cathedral of Norway. He was an ardent partisan of the Douglases, and
on their overthrow retired to Orkney and later to Shetland. He was
employed by Edward IV. in his attempt to rouse the Western Isles through
Douglas agency, and in 1482 was excluded from the general pardon granted
by James III. to those who would renounce their fealty to the Douglases.

The poem, entitled the _Buke of the Howlat_, written about 1450, shows
his devotion to the house of Douglas:--

  "On ilk beugh till embrace
   Writtin in a bill was
   O Dowglass, O Dowglass
   Tender and trewe!"

   (ii. 400-403).

and is dedicated to the wife of a Douglas--

  "Thus for ane Dow of Dunbar drew I this Dyte,
   Dowit with ane Dowglass, and boith war thei dowis."

but all theories of its being a political allegory in favour of that
house may be discarded. Sir Walter Scott's judgment that the _Buke_ is
"a poetical apologue ... without any view whatever to local or natural
politics" is certainly the most reasonable. The poem, which extends to
1001 lines written in the irregular alliterative rhymed stanza, is a
bird-allegory, of the type familiar in the _Parlement of Foules_. It has
the incidental interest of showing (especially in stanzas 62 and 63) the
antipathy of the "Inglis-speaking Scot" to the "Scots-speaking Gael" of
the west, as is also shown in Dunbar's _Flyting with Kennedy_.

  The text of the poem is preserved in the Asloan and Bannatyne MSS.
  Fragments of an early 16th century black-letter edition, discovered by
  D. Laing, are reproduced in the _Adversaria_ of the Bannatyne Club.
  The poem has been frequently reprinted, by Pinkerton, in his _Scottish
  Poems_ (1792); by D. Laing (Bannatyne Club 1823; reprinted in "New
  Club" series, Paisley, 1882); by the Hunterian Club in their edition
  of the Bannatyne MS., and by A. Diebler (Chemnitz, 1893). The latest
  edition is that by F. J. Amours in _Scottish Alliterative Poems_
  (Scottish Text Society, 1897), pp. 47-81. (See also Introduction pp.
  xx.-xxxiv.)



HOLLAND, officially the kingdom of the Netherlands (_Koningrijk der
Nederlanden_), a maritime country in the north-west of Europe. The name
Holland is that of the former countship, which forms part of the
political, as well as the geographical centre of the kingdom (see the
next article).

_Topography._--Holland is bounded on the E. by Germany, on the S. by
Belgium, on the W. and N. by the North Sea, and at the N.E. corner by
the Dollart. From Stevensweert southward to the extreme corner of
Limburg the boundary line is formed by the river Maas or Meuse.[1] On
the east a natural geographical boundary was formed by the long line of
marshy fens extending along the borders of Overysel, Drente and
Groningen. The kingdom extends from 53° 32´ 21´´ (Groningen Cape on
Rottum Island) to 50° 45´ 49´´ N. (Mesch in the province of Limburg),
and from 3° 23´ 27´´ (Sluis in the province of Zeeland) to 7° 12´ 20´´
E. (Langakkerschans in the province of Groningen). The greatest length
from north to south, viz. that from Rottum Island to Eisden near
Maastricht is 164 m., and the greatest breadth from south-west to
north-east, or from Zwin near Sluis to Losser in Overysel, 144 m. The
area is subject to perpetual variation owing, on the one hand, to the
erosion of the coasts, and, on the other, to reclamation of land by
means of endiking and drainage operations. In 1889 the total area was
calculated at 12,558 sq. m., and, including the Zuider Zee and the
Wadden (2050 sq. m.) and the Dutch portion of the Dollart (23 sq. m.),
14,613 sq. m. In no country in Europe has the character of the territory
exercised so great an influence on the inhabitants as in the
Netherlands; and, on the other hand, no people has so extensively
modified the condition of its territory as the Dutch. The greatest
importance attaches therefore to the physical conformation of the
country.


    Coast.

  The coast-line extends in a double curve from south-west to
  north-east, and is formed by a row of sand dunes, 171 m. in length,
  fringed by a broad sandy beach descending very gradually into the sea.
  In the north and south, however, this line is broken by the inlets of
  the sea which form the Frisian and the South Holland and Zeeland
  islands respectively; but the dunes themselves are found continued
  along the seaward side of these islands, thus indicating the original
  continuity of the coast-line. The breadth of the dunes naturally
  varies greatly, the maximum width of about 4375 yds. being found at
  Schoorl, north-west of Alkmaar. The average height of the individual
  dune-tops is not above 33 ft., but attains a maximum of 197 ft. at the
  High Blinkert, near Haarlem. The steepness of the dunes on the side
  towards the sea is caused by the continual erosion, probably
  traceable, in part at least, to the channel current (which at mean
  tide has a velocity of 14 or 15 in. per second), and to the strong
  west or north-west winds which carry off large quantities of material.
  This alteration of coast-line appears at Loosduinen, where the moor or
  fenland formerly developed behind the dunes now crops out on the shore
  amid the sand, being pressed to the compactness of lignite by the
  weight of the sand drifted over it. Again, the remains of the Roman
  camp Brittenburg or Huis te Britten, which originally lay within the
  dunes and, after being covered by them, emerged again in 1520, were,
  in 1694, 1600 paces out to sea, opposite Katwijk; while, besides
  Katwijk itself, several other villages of the west coast, as Domburg,
  Scheveningen, Egmond, have been removed further inland. The tendency
  of the dunes to drift off on the landward side is prevented by the
  planting of bent-grass (_Arundo arenaria_), whose long roots serve to
  bind the sand together. It must be further remarked that both the
  "dune-pans," or depressions, which are naturally marshy through their
  defective drainage, and the _geest_ grounds--that is, the grounds
  along the foot of the downs--have been in various places either
  planted with wood or turned into arable and pasture land; while the
  numerous springs at the base of the dunes are of the utmost value to
  the great cities situated on the marshy soil inland, the example set
  by Amsterdam in 1853 in supplying itself with this water having been
  readily followed by Leiden, the Hague, Flushing, &c.

  As already remarked, the coast-line of Holland breaks up into a series
  of islands at its northern and southern extremities. The principal
  sea-inlets in the north are the Texel Gat or Marsdiep and the Vlie,
  which lead past the chain of the Frisian Islands into the large inland
  sea or gulf called the Zuider Zee, and the Wadden or "shallows," which
  extend along the shores of Friesland and Groningen as far as the
  Dollart and the mouth of the Ems. The inland sea-board thus formed
  consists of low coasts of sea-clay protected by dikes, and of some
  high diluvial strata which rise far enough above the level of the sea
  to make dikes unnecessary, as in the case of the Gooi hills between
  Naarden and the Eem, the Veluwe hills between Nykerk and Elburg, and
  the steep cliffs of the Gaasterland between Oude Mirdum and Stavoren.
  The Dollart was formed in 1277 by the inundation of the Ems basin,
  more than thirty villages being destroyed at once. The Zuider Zee and
  the bay in the Frisian coast known as the Lauwers Zee also gradually
  came into existence in the 13th century. The extensive sea-arms
  forming the South Holland and Zeeland archipelago are the Hont or West
  Scheldt, the East Scheldt, the Grevelingen (communicating with Krammer
  and the Volkerak) and the Haringvliet, which after being joined by the
  Volkerak is known as the Hollandsch Diep. These inlets were formerly
  of much greater extent than now, but are gradually closing up owing to
  the accumulation of mud deposits, and no longer have the same freedom
  of communication with one another. At the head of the Hollandsch Diep
  is the celebrated railway bridge of the Moerdyk (1868-1871) 1607 yds.
  in length; and above this bridge lies the Biesbosch ("reed forest"), a
  group of marshy islands formed by a disastrous inundation in 1421,
  when seventy-two villages and upwards of 100,000 lives were destroyed.


    Relief and levels.

  Besides the dunes the only hilly regions of Holland are the southern
  half of the province of Limburg, the neighbourhood of Nijmwegen, the
  hills of Utrecht, including the Gooi hills, the Veluwe region in
  Gelderland, the isolated hills in the middle and east of Overysel and
  the Hondsrug range in Drente. The remainder of the country is flat,
  and shows a regular downward slope from south-east to north-west, in
  which direction the rivers mainly flow. The elevation of the surface
  of the country ranges between the extreme height of 1057 ft. near
  Vaals in the farthest corner of Limburg, and 16-20 ft. below the
  Amsterdam zero[2] in some of the drained lands in the western half of
  the country. In fact, one quarter of the whole kingdom, consisting of
  the provinces of North and South Holland, the western portion of
  Utrecht as far as the Vaart Rhine, Zeeland, except the southern part
  of Zeeland-Flanders, and the north-west part of North Brabant, lies
  below the Amsterdam zero; and altogether 38% of the country, or all
  that part lying west of a line drawn through Groningen, Utrecht and
  Antwerp, lies within one metre above the Amsterdam zero and would be
  submerged if the sea broke down the barrier of dunes and dikes. This
  difference between the eastern and western divisions of Holland has
  its counterpart in the landscape and the nature of the soil. The
  western division consists of low fen or clay soil and presents a
  monotonous expanse of rich meadow-land, carefully drained in regular
  lines of canals bordered by stunted willows, and dotted over with
  windmills, the sails of canal craft and the clumps of elm and poplar
  which surround each isolated farm-house. The landscape of the eastern
  division is considered less typical. Here the soil consists mainly of
  sand and gravel, and the prevailing scenery is formed of waste heaths
  and patches of wood, while here and there fertile meadows extend along
  the banks of the streams, and the land is laid out in the highly
  regular manner characteristic of fen reclamation (see DRENTE).


    Rivers.

  The entire drainage of Holland is into the North Sea. The three
  principal rivers are the Rhine, the Maas (Meuse) and the Scheldt
  (Schelde), and all three have their origin outside the country, whilst
  the Scheldt has its mouth only in Holland, giving its name to the two
  broad inlets of the sea which bound the Zeeland islands. The Rhine in
  its course through Holland is merely the parent stream of several
  important branches, splitting up into Rhine and Waal, Rhine and Ysel,
  Crooked Rhine and Lek (which takes two-thirds of the waters), and at
  Utrecht into Old Rhine and Vecht, finally reaching the sea through the
  sluices at Katwijk as little more than a drainage canal. The Ysel and
  the Vecht flow to the Zuider Zee; the other branches to the North Sea.
  The Maas, whose course is almost parallel to that of the Rhine,
  follows in a wide curve the general slope of the country, receiving
  the Roer, the Mark and the Aa. Towards its mouth its waters find their
  way into all the channels intersecting the South Holland archipelago.
  The main stream joining the Waal at Gorinchem flows on to Dordrecht as
  the Merwede, and is continued thence to the sea by the Old Maas, the
  North, and the New Maas, the New Maas being formed by the junction of
  the Lek and the North. From Gorinchem the New Merwede (constructed in
  the second half of the 19th century) extends between dykes through the
  marshes of the Biesbosch to the Hollandsch Diep. These great rivers
  render very important service as waterways. The mean velocity of their
  flow seldom exceeds 4.9 ft., but rises to 6.4 ft. when the river is
  high. In the lower reaches of the streams the velocity and slope are
  of course affected by the tides. In the Waal ordinary high water is
  perceptible as far up as Zalt Bommel in Gelderland, in the Lek the
  maximum limits or ordinary and spring tides are at Vianen and
  Kuilenburg respectively, in the Ysel above the Katerveer at the
  junction of the Willemsvaart and past Wyhe midway between Zwolle and
  Deventer; and in the Maas near Heusden and at Well in Limburg. Into
  the Zuider Zee there also flow the Kuinder, the Zwarte Water, with its
  tributary the Vecht, and the Eem. The total length of navigable
  channels is about 1150 m., but sand banks and shallows not
  infrequently impede the shipping traffic at low water during the
  summer. The smaller streams are often of great importance. Except
  where they rise in the fens they call into life a strip of fertile
  grassland in the midst of the barren sand, and are responsible for the
  existence of many villages along their banks. Following the example of
  the great Kampen irrigation canal in Belgium, artificial irrigation is
  also practised by means of some of the smaller streams, especially in
  North Brabant, Drente and Overysel, and in the absence of streams,
  canals and sluices are sometimes specially constructed to perform the
  same service. The low-lying spaces at the confluences of the rivers,
  being readily laid under water, have been not infrequently chosen as
  sites for fortresses. As a matter of course, the streams are also
  turned to account in connexion with the canal system--the Dommel,
  Berkel, Vecht, Regge, Holland Ysel, Gouwe, Rotte, Schie, Spaarne,
  Zaan, Amstel, Dieze, Amer, Mark, Zwarte Water, Kuinder and the
  numerous Aas in Drente and Groningen being the most important in this
  respect.


    Lakes.

  It is unnecessary to mention the names of the numerous marshy lakes
  which exist, especially in Friesland and Groningen, and are connected
  with rivers or streamlets. Those of Friesland are of note for the
  abundance of their fish and their beauty of situation, on which last
  account the Uddelermeer in Gelderland is also celebrated. The Rockanje
  Lake near Brielle is remarkable for the strong salty solution which
  covers even the growing reeds with a hard crust. Many of the lakes
  are nothing more than deep pits or marshes from which the peat has
  been extracted.

[Illustration: Holland Map.]

_Dikes._--The circumstance that so much of Holland is below the
sea-level necessarily exercises a very important influence on the
drainage, the climate and the sanitary conditions of the country, as
well as on its defence by means of inundation. The endiking of low lands
against the sea which had been quietly proceeding during the first
eleven centuries of the Christian era, received a fresh impetus in the
12th and 13th centuries from the fact that the level of the sea then
became higher in relation to that of the land. This fact is illustrated
by the broadening of river mouths and estuaries at this time, and the
beginning of the formation of the Zuider Zee. A new feature in diking
was the construction of dams or sluices across the mouths of rivers,
sometimes with important consequences for the villages situated on the
spot. Thus the dam on the Amstel (1257) was the origin of Amsterdam, and
the dam on the Ye gave rise to Edam. But Holland's chief protection
against inundation is its long line of sand dunes, in which only two
real breaches have been effected during the centuries of erosion. These
are represented by the famous sea dikes called the Westkapelle dike and
the Hondsbossche Zeewering, or sea-defence, which were begun
respectively in the first and second halves of the 15th century. The
first extends for a distance of over 4000 yds. between the villages of
Westkapelle and Domburg in the island of Walcheren; the second is about
4900 yds. long, and extends from Kamperduin to near Petten, whence it is
continued for another 1100 yds. by the Pettemer dike. These two sea
dikes were reconstructed by the state at great expense between the year
1860 and 1884, having consisted before that time of little more than a
protected sand dike. The earthen dikes are protected by stone-slopes and
by piles, and at the more dangerous points also by _zinkstukken_
(sinking pieces), artificial structures of brushwood laden with stones,
and measuring some 400 yds. in circuit, by means of which the current is
to some extent turned aside. The Westkapelle dike, 12,468 ft. long, has
a seaward slope of 300 ft., and is protected by rows of piles and basalt
blocks. On its ridge, 39 ft. broad, there is not only a roadway but a
service railway. The cost of its upkeep is more than £6000 a year, and
of the Hondsbossche Zeewering £2000 a year. When it is remembered that
the woodwork is infested by the pile worm (_Teredo navalis_), the
ravages of which were discovered in 1731, the labour and expense
incurred in the construction and maintenance of the sea dikes now
existing may be imagined. In other parts of the coast the dunes, though
not pierced through, have become so wasted by erosion as to require
artificial strengthening. This is afforded, either by means of a
so-called sleeping dike (_slaperdyk_) behind the weak spot, as, for
instance, between Kadzand and Breskens in Zeeland-Flanders, and again
between 's Gravenzande and Loosduinen; or by means of piers or
breakwaters (_hoofden_, heads) projecting at intervals into the sea and
composed of piles, or brushwood and stones. The first of such
breakwaters was that constructed in 1857 at the north end of the island
of Goeree, and extends over 100 yds. into the sea at low water. Similar
constructions are to be found on the seaward side of the islands of
Walcheren, Schouwen and Voorne, and between 's Gravenzande and
Scheveningen, and Katwijk and Noordwijk. Owing to the obstruction which
they offer to drifting sands, artificial dunes are in course of time
formed about them, and in this way they become at once more effective
and less costly to maintain. The firm and regular dunes which now run
from Petten to Kallantsoog (formerly an island), and thence northwards
to Huisduinen, were thus formed about the Zyper (1617) and Koegras
(1610) dikes respectively. From Huisduinen to Nieuwediep the dunes are
replaced by the famous Helder sea-wall. The shores of the Zuider Zee and
the Wadden, and the Frisian and Zuider Zee islands, are also partially
protected by dikes. In more than one quarter the dikes have been
repeatedly extended so as to enclose land conquered from the sea, the
work of reclamation being aided by a natural process. Layer upon layer
of clay is deposited by the sea in front of the dikes, until a new
fringe has been added to the coast-line on which sea-grasses grasses
begin to grow. Upon these clay-lands (_kwelders_) horses, cattle and
sheep are at last able to pasture at low tide, and in course of time
they are in turn endiked.

River dikes are as necessary as sea dikes, elevated banks being found
only in a few places, as on the Lower Rhine. Owing to the unsuitability
of the foundations, Dutch dikes are usually marked by a great width,
which at the crown varies between 13 and 26 ft. The height of the dike
ranges to 40 in. above high water-level. Between the dikes and the
stream lie "forelands" (_interwaarden_), which are usually submerged in
winter, and frequently lie 1 or 2 yds, higher than the country within
the dikes. These forelands also offer in course of time an opportunity
for endiking and reclamation. In this way the towns of Rotterdam,
Schiedam, Vlaardingen and Maasluis have all gradually extended over the
Maas dike in order to keep in touch with the river, and the small town
of Delftshaven is built altogether on the outer side of the same dike.

  _Impoldering._--The first step in the reclamation of land is to
  "impolder" it, or convert it into a "polder" (i.e. a section of
  artificially drained land), by surrounding it with dikes or quays for
  the two-fold purpose of protecting it from all further inundation from
  outside and of controlling the amount of water inside. Impoldering for
  its own sake or on a large scale was impossible as long as the means
  of drainage were restricted. But in the beginning of the 15th century
  new possibilities were revealed by the adaptation of the windmill to
  the purpose of pumping water. It was gradually recognized that the
  masses of water which collected wherever peat-digging had been carried
  on were an unnecessary menace to the neighbouring lands, and also that
  a more enduring source of profit lay in the bed of the fertile
  sea-clay under the peat. It became usual, therefore, to make the
  subsequent drainage of the land a condition of the extraction of peat
  from it, this condition being established by proclamation in 1595.

  _Drainage._--It has been shown that the western provinces of Holland
  may be broadly defined as lying below sea-level. In fact the surface
  of the sea-clay in these provinces is from 11½ to 16½ ft. below the
  Amsterdam zero. The ground-water is, therefore, relatively very high
  and the capacity of the soil for further absorption proportionately
  low. To increase the reservoir capacity of the polder, as well as to
  conduct the water to the windmills or engines, it is intersected by a
  network of ditches cut at right angles to each other, the amount of
  ditching required being usually one-twelfth of the area to be drained.
  In modern times pumping engines have replaced windmills, and the
  typical old Dutch landscape with its countless hooded heads and
  swinging arms has been greatly transformed by the advent of the
  chimney stacks of the pumping-stations. The power of the
  pumping-engines is taken on the basis of 12 h.p. per 1000 hectares for
  every metre that the water has to be raised, or stated in another
  form, the engines must be capable of raising nearly 9 lb. of water
  through 1 yd. per acre per minute. The main ditches, or canals,
  afterwards also serve as a means of navigation. The level at which it
  is desired to keep the water in these ditches constitutes the unit of
  water measurement for the polder, and is called the polder's _zomer
  peil_ (Z.P.) or summer water-level. In pasture-polders (_koepolders_)
  Z.P. is 1 to 1½ ft. below the level of the polder, and in agricultural
  polders 2½ to 3½ ft. below. Owing to the shrinkage of the soil in
  reclaimed lands, however, that is, lands which have been drained after
  fen or other reclamation, the sides of the polder are often higher
  than the middle, and it is necessary by means of small dams or sluices
  to make separate water-tight compartments (_afpolderingen_), each
  having its own unit of measurement. Some polders also have a winter
  peil as a precaution against the increased fall of water in that
  season. The summer water-level of the pasture polders south of the
  former Y is about 4 to 8 ft. below the Amsterdam zero, but in the
  Noorderkwartier to the north, it reaches 10½ ft. below A. P. in the
  Beschotel polder, and in reclaimed lands (_droogmakerijen_) may be
  still lower, thus in the Reeuwyk polder north of Gouda it is 21¼ ft.
  below.

  The drainage of the country is effected by natural or artificial
  means, according to the slope of the ground. Nearly all the polders of
  Zeeland and South Holland are able to discharge naturally into the sea
  at average low water, self-regulating sluices being used. But in North
  Holland and Utrecht on the contrary the polder water has generally to
  be raised. In some deep polders and drained lands where the water
  cannot be brought to the required height at once, windmills are found
  at two or even three different levels. The final removal of polder
  water, however, is only truly effected upon its discharge into the
  "outer waters" of the country, that is, the sea itself or the large
  rivers freely communicating with it; and this happens with but a small
  proportion of Dutch polders, such as those of Zeeland, the Holland
  Ysel and the Noorderkwartier.

  As the system of impoldering extended, the small sluggish rivers were
  gradually cut off by dikes from the marshy lands through which they
  flowed, and by sluices from the waters with which they communicated.
  Their level ranges from about 1½ to 4 ft. above that of the pasture
  polders. In addition, various kinds of canals and endiked or embanked
  lakes had come into existence, forming altogether a vast network of
  more or less stagnant waters. These waters are utilized as the
  temporary reservoirs of the superfluous polder water, each system of
  reservoirs being termed a _boezem_ (bosom or basin), and all lands
  watering into the same boezem being considered as belonging to it. The
  largest boezem is that of Friesland, which embraces nearly the whole
  province. It sometimes happens that a polder is not in direct contact
  with the boezem to which it belongs, but first drains into an adjacent
  polder, from which the water is afterwards removed. In the same way,
  some boezems discharge first into others, which then discharge into
  the sea or rivers. This is usually the case where there is a great
  difference in height between the surface of the boezem and the outer
  waters, and may be illustrated by the Alblasserwaard and the Rotte
  boezems in the provinces of South and North Holland respectively. In
  time of drought the water in the canals and boezems is allowed to run
  back into the polders, and so serve a double purpose as
  water-reservoirs. Boezems, like polders, have a standard water-level
  which may hot be exceeded, and as in the polder this level may vary in
  the different parts of an extended boezem. The height of the _boezem
  peil_ ranges between 1(1/3) ft. above to 1(5/6) ft. below the
  Amsterdam zero, though the average is about 1 to 1(2/3) ft. below.
  Some boezems, again, which are less easily controlled, have a "danger
  water-level" at which they refuse to receive any more water from the
  surrounding polders. The Schie or Delflands boezem of South Holland is
  of this kind, and such a boezem is termed _besloten_ or "sequestered,"
  in contradistinction to a "free" boezem. A third kind of boezem is the
  reserve or _berg-boezem_, which in summer may be made dry and used for
  agriculture, while in winter it serves as a special reserve. The
  centuries of labour and self-sacrifice involved in the making of this
  complete and harmonious system of combined defence and reclamation are
  better imagined than described, and even at the present day the
  evidences of the struggle are far less apparent than real.

  _Geology._--Except in Limburg, where, in the neighbourhood of
  Maastricht, the upper layers of the chalk are exposed and followed by
  Oligocene and Miocene beds, the whole of Holland is covered by recent
  deposits of considerable thickness, beneath which deep borings have
  revealed the existence of Pliocene beds similar to the "Crags" of East
  Anglia. They are divided into the _Diestien_, corresponding in part
  with the English Coralline Crag, the _Scaldisien_ and _Poederlien_
  corresponding with the Walton Crag, and the _Amstelien_ corresponding
  with the Red Crag of Suffolk. In the south of Holland the total
  thickness of the Pliocene series is only about 200 ft., and they are
  covered by about 100 ft. of Quaternary deposits; but towards the north
  the beds sink down and at the same time increase considerably in
  thickness, so that at Utrecht a deep boring reached the top of the
  Pliocene at a depth of 513 ft. and at 1198 ft. it had not touched the
  bottom. At Amsterdam the top of the Pliocene lay 625 ft. below the
  surface, but the boring, 1098 ft. deep, did not reach the base of the
  uppermost division of the Pliocene, viz. the _Amstelien_. Eastward and
  westward of Amsterdam, as well as southward, the Pliocene beds rise
  slowly to the surface, and gradually decrease in thickness. They were
  laid down in a broad bay which covered the east of England and nearly
  the whole of the Netherlands, and was open to the North Sea. There is
  evidence that the sea gradually retreated northwards during the
  deposition of these beds, until at length the Rhine flowed over to
  England and entered the sea north of Cromer. The appearance of
  northern shells in the upper divisions of the Pliocene series
  indicates the approach of the Glacial period, and glacial drift
  containing Scandinavian boulders now covers much of the country east
  of the Zuider Zee. The more modern deposits of Holland consist of
  alluvium, wind-blown sands and peat.[3]

  _Climate._--Situated in the temperate zone between 50° and 53° N. the
  climate of Holland shows a difference in the lengths of day and night
  extending in the north to nine hours, and there is a correspondingly
  wide range of temperature; it also belongs to the region of variable
  winds. On an average of fifty years the mean annual temperature was
  49.8° Fahr.; the maximum, 93.9° Fahr.; the minimum, -5.8° Fahr. The
  mean annual barometric height is 29.93 in.; the mean annual moisture,
  81%; the mean annual rainfall, 27.99 in. The mean annual number of
  days with rain is 204, with snow 19, and with thunder-storms 18. The
  increased rainfall from July to December (the summer and autumn
  rains), and the increased evaporation in spring and summer (5.2 in.
  more than the rainfall), are of importance as regards "poldering" and
  draining operations. The prevalence of south-west winds during nine
  months of the year and of north-west during three (April-June) has a
  strong influence on the temperature and rainfall, tides, river mouths
  and outlets, and also, geologically, on dunes and sand drifts, and on
  fens and the accumulation of clay on the coast. The west winds of
  course increase the moisture, and moderate both the winter cold and
  the summer heat, while the east winds blowing over the continent have
  an opposite influence. It cannot be said that the climate is
  particularly good, owing to the changeableness of the weather, which
  may alter completely within a single day. The heavy atmosphere
  likewise, and the necessity of living within doors or in confined
  localities, cannot but exercise an influence on the character and
  temperament of the inhabitants. Only of certain districts, however,
  can it be said that they are positively unhealthy; to this category
  belong some parts of the Holland provinces, Zeeland, and Friesland,
  where the inhabitants are exposed to the exhalations from the marshy
  ground, and the atmosphere is often burdened with sea-fogs.

  _Fauna._--In the densely populated Netherlands, with no extensive
  forests, the fauna does not present any unusual varieties. The otter,
  martin and badger may be mentioned among the rarer wild animals, and
  the weasel, ermine and pole-cat among the more common. In the 18th
  century wolves still roamed the country in such large numbers that
  hunting parties were organized against them; now they are unknown.
  Roebuck and deer are found in a wild state in Gelderland and Overysel,
  foxes are plentiful in the dry wooded regions on the borders of the
  country, and hares and rabbits in the dunes and other sandy stretches.
  Among birds may be reckoned about two hundred and forty different
  kinds which are regular inhabitants, although nearly two hundred of
  these are migratory. The woodcock, partridge, hawk, water-ousel,
  magpie, jay, raven, various kinds of owls, wood-pigeon, golden-crested
  wren, tufted lark and titmouse are among the birds which breed here.
  Birds of passage include the buzzard, kite, quail, wild fowl of
  various kinds, golden thrush, wagtail, linnet, finch and nightingale.
  Storks are plentiful in summer and might almost be considered the most
  characteristic feature of the prevailing landscape.

  _Flora._--The flora may be most conveniently dealt with in the four
  physiographical divisions to which it belongs. These are, namely, the
  heath-lands, pasture-lands, dunes and coasts. Heath (_Erica tetralix_)
  and ling (_Calluna vulgaris_) cover all the waste sandy regions in the
  eastern division of the country. The vegetation of the meadow-lands is
  monotonous. In the more damp and marshy places the bottom is covered
  with marsh trefoil, carex, smooth equisetum, and rush. In the ditches
  and pools common yellow and white water-lilies are seen, as well as
  water-soldier (_Stratiotes aloides_), great and lesser reed-mace,
  sweet flag and bur-reed. The plant forms of the dunes are stunted and
  meagre as compared with the same forms elsewhere. The most common
  plant here is the stiff sand-reed (_Arundo arenaria_), called
  sand-oats in Drente and Overysel, where it is much used for making
  mats. Like the sand-reed, the dewberry bramble and the shrub of the
  buckthorn (_Hippophae rhamnoides_) perform a useful service in helping
  to bind the sand together. Furze and the common juniper are regular
  dune plants, and may also be found on the heaths of Drente, Overysel
  and Gelderland. Thyme and the small white dune-rose (_Rosa
  pimpinellifolia_) also grow in the dunes, and wall-pepper (_Sedum
  acre_), field fever-wort, reindeer moss, common asparagus, sheep's
  fescue grass, the pretty Solomon-seal (_Polygonatum officinale_), and
  the broad-leaved or marsh orchis (_Orchis latifolia_). The sea-plants
  which flourish on the sand and mud-banks along the coasts greatly
  assist the process of littoral deposits and are specially cultivated
  in places. Sea-aster flourishes in the Wadden of Friesland and
  Groningen, the Dollart and the Zeeland estuaries, giving place nearer
  the shore to sandspurry (_Spergularia_), or sea-poa or floating meadow
  grass (_Glyceria maritima_), which grows up to the dikes, and affords
  pasture for cattle and sheep. Along the coast of Overysel and in the
  Biesbosch lake club-rush, or scirpus, is planted in considerable
  quantities for the hat-making industry, and common sea-wrack (_Zostera
  marina_) is found in large patches in the northern half of the Zuider
  Zee, where it is gathered for trade purposes during the months of
  June, July and August. Except for the willow-plots found along the
  rivers on the clay lands, nearly all the wood is confined to the sand
  and gravel soils, where copses of birch and alder are common.

_Population._--The following table shows the area and population in the
eleven provinces of the Netherlands:--

  +--------------+-------+----------+------------+-----------+
  |              |Area in|Population| Population |Density per|
  |   Province   | sq. m.|   1890.  |   1900.    | sq. m. in |
  |              |       |          |            |   1900.   |
  +--------------+-------+----------+------------+-----------+
  | North Brabant| 1,980 |  509,628 |   553,842  |    280    |
  | Gelderland   | 1,965 |  512,202 |   566,549  |    288    |
  | South Holland| 1,166 |  949,641 | 1,144,448  |    981    |
  | North Holland| 1,070 |  829,489 |   968,131  |    905    |
  | Zeeland      |   690 |  199,234 |   216,295  |    313    |
  | Utrecht      |   534 |  221,007 |   251,034  |    470    |
  | Friesland    | 1,282 |  335,558 |   340,262  |    265    |
  | Overysel     | 1,291 |  295,445 |   333,338  |    258    |
  | Groningen    |   790 |  272,786 |   299,602  |    379    |
  | Drente       | 1,030 |  130,704 |   148,544  |    144    |
  | Limburg      |   850 |  255,721 |   281,934  |    332    |
  |              +-------+----------+------------+-----------+
  |   Total      |12,648 |4,511,415 | 5,104,137* |    404    |
  +--------------+-------+----------+------------+-----------+
    * This total includes 158 persons assigned to no province.

The extremes of density of population are found in the provinces of
North Holland and South Holland on the one hand, and Drente on the
other. This divergence is partly explained by the difference of
soil--which in Drente comprises the maximum of waste lands, and in South
Holland the minimum--and partly also by the greater facilities which the
seaward provinces enjoy of earning a subsistence, and the greater
variety of their industries. The largest towns are Amsterdam, Rotterdam,
the Hague, Utrecht, Groningen, Haarlem, Arnhem, Leiden, Nijmwegen,
Tilburg. Other considerable towns are Dordrecht, Maastricht, Leeuwarden,
Zwolle, Delft, 's Hertogenbosch, Schiedam, Deventer, Breda, Apeldoorn,
Helder, Enschedé, Gouda, Zaandam, Kampen, Hilversum, Flushing,
Amersfoort, Middelburg, Zutphen and Alkmaar. Many of the smaller towns,
such as Assen, Enschedé, Helmond, Hengelo, Tiel, Venlo, Vlaardingen,
Zaandam, Yerseke, show a great development, and it is a noteworthy fact
that the rural districts, taken as a whole, have borne an equal share in
the general increase of population. This, taken in conjunction with the
advance in trade and shipping, the diminution in emigration, and the
prosperity of the savings banks, points to a favourable state in the
condition of the people.


    Roads.

  _Communications._--The roads are divided into national or royal roads,
  placed directly under the control of the _water-staat_ and supported
  by the state; provincial roads, under the direct control of the states
  of the provinces, and almost all supported by the provincial
  treasuries; communal and polder roads, maintained by the communal
  authorities and the polder boards; and finally, private roads. The
  system of national roads, mainly constructed between 1821 and 1827,
  but still in process of extension, brings into connexion nearly all
  the towns.


    Canals.

  The canal system of Holland is peculiarly complete and extends into
  every part of the country, giving to many inland towns almost a
  maritime appearance. The united length of the canals exceeds 1500 m.
  As a matter of course the smaller streams have been largely utilized
  in their formation, while the necessity for a comprehensive drainage
  system has also contributed in no small degree. During the years
  1815-1830 a large part of the extensive scheme of construction
  inaugurated by King William I. was carried out, the following canals,
  among others, coming into existence in that period: the North Holland
  ship canal (depth, 16½ ft.) from Amsterdam to den Helder, the Grift
  canal between Apeldoorn and Hattem, the Willemsvaart connecting Zwolle
  with the Ysel, the Zuid Willemsvaart, or South William's canal (6½
  ft.), from 's Hertogenbosch to Maastricht, and the Ternuzen-Ghent ship
  canal. After 1849 the canal programme was again taken up by the state,
  which alone or in conjunction with the provincial authorities
  constructed the Apeldoorn-Dieren canal (1859-1869), the drainage
  canals of the "Peel" marsh in North Brabant, and of the eastern
  provinces, namely, the Deurne canal (1876-1892) from the Maas to
  Helenaveen, the Almelo (1851-1858) and Overysel (1884-1888) canals
  from Zwolle, Deventer and Almelo to Koevorden, and the Stieltjes
  (1880-1884), and Orange (1853-1858 and 1881-1889) canals in Drente,
  the North Williams canal (1856-1862) between Assen and Groningen, the
  Ems (1866-1876) ship canal from Groningen to Delfzyl, and the New
  Merwede, and enlarged the canal from Harlingen by way of Leeuwarden to
  the Lauwars Zee. The large ship canals to Rotterdam and Amsterdam,
  called the New Waterway and the North Sea canal respectively, were
  constructed in 1866-1872 and 1865-1876 at a cost of 2½ and 3 million
  pounds sterling, the former by widening the channel of the Scheur
  north of Rozenburg, and cutting across the Hook of Holland, the latter
  by utilizing the bed of the Y and cutting through the dunes at
  Ymuiden. In 1876 an agreement was arrived at with Germany for
  connecting the important drainage canals in Overysel, Drente and
  Groningen with the Ems canal system, as a result of which the
  Almelo-Noordhorn (1884-1888) and other canals came into existence.

  The canals differ in character in the different provinces. In Zeeland
  they connect the towns of the interior with the sea or the river
  mouths; for example, the one from Middelburg to Veere and Flushing
  (1866-1878), from Goes to the East Scheldt, and from Zierikzee also to
  the East Scheldt. The South Beveland (1862-1866) canal connects the
  East and West Scheldt; similarly in South Holland the Voorne canal
  unites the Haringvliet with the New Maas, which does not allow the
  passage of large vessels above Brielle; whilst owing lo the banks and
  shallows in front of Hellevoetsluis the New Waterway was cut to
  Rotterdam. Of another character is the Zederik canal, which unites the
  principal river of central Holland, the Lek, at Vianen by means of the
  Linge with the Merwede at Gorkum. Amsterdam is connected with the Lek
  and the Zederik canal via Utrecht by the Vecht and the Vaart Rhine
  (1881-1893; depth 10.2 ft.). Again, a totally different character
  belongs to the canals in North Brabant, and the east and north-east of
  Holland where, in the absence of great rivers, they form the only
  waterways which render possible the drainage of the fens and the
  export of peat; and unite the lesser streams with each other. Thus in
  Overysel, in addition to the canals already mentioned, the Dedemsvaart
  connects the Vecht with the Zwarte Water near Hasselt; in Drente the
  Smildervaart and Drentsche Hoofdvaart unites Assen with Meppel, and
  receives on the eastern side the drainage canals of the Drente fens,
  namely, the Orange canal and the Hoogeveen Vaart (1850-1860;
  1880-1893). Groningen communicates with the Lauwers Zee by the
  Reitdiep (1873-1876), while the canal to Winschoten and the
  Stadskanaal, or State canal (1877-1880), bring it into connexion with
  the flourishing fen colonies in the east of the province and in
  Drente. In Friesland, finally, besides the ship canal from Harlingen
  to the Lauwers Zee there are canals from Leeuwarden to the Lemmer,
  whence there is a busy traffic with Amsterdam; and the Caspar Robles
  or Kolonels Diep, and the Hoendiep connect it with Groningen.


    Railways.

  The construction of railways was long deferred and slowly
  accomplished. The first line was that between Amsterdam and Haarlem,
  opened in 1839 by the Holland railway company (_Hollandsch Yzeren
  Spoorweg Maatschappij_). In 1845 the state undertook to develop the
  railway system, and a company of private individuals was formed to
  administer it under the title of the _Maatschappij tot Exploitatie van
  Staatspoorwegen_. In 1860, however, the total length of railways was
  only 208 m., and in that year a parliamentary bill embodying a
  comprehensive scheme of construction was adopted. By 1872 this
  programme was nearly completed, and 542 m. of new railway had been
  added. In 1873 and 1875 a second and a third bill provided for the
  extension of the railway system at the cost of the state, and, in
  1876, 1882 and 1890 laws were introduced readjusting the control of
  the various lines, some of which were transferred to the Holland
  railway. The state railway system was completed in 1892, and since
  that time the utmost that the state has done has been to subsidize new
  undertakings. These include various local lines such as the line
  Alkmaar-Hoorn (1898), Ede-Barneveld-Nykerk, Enschedé-Ahaus in Germany
  (1902), Leeuwarden to Franeker, Harlingen and Dokkum, and the line
  Zwolle-Almelo (junction at Marienberg)
  Koevorden-Stadskanal-Veendam-Delfzyl, connecting all the fen countries
  on the eastern borders. The electric railway Amsterdam-Zandvoort was
  opened in 1904. The frame upon which the whole network of the Dutch
  railways may be said to depend is formed of two main lines from north
  and south and four transverse lines from west to east. The two
  longitudinal lines are the railway den Helder via Haarlem
  (1862-1867),[4] Rotterdam (1839-1847), and Zwaluwe (1869-1877) to
  Antwerp (1852-1855), belonging to the Holland railway company, and the
  State railway from Leeuwarden and Groningen (1870) (junction at
  Meppel, 1867) Zwolle (1866)--Arnhem (1865)--Nijmwegen (1879)--Venlo
  (1883)--Maastricht (1865). The four transverse lines belong to the
  State and Holland railways alternately and are, beginning with the
  State railway: (1) the line Flushing (1872)--Rozendaal (1860)--Tilburg
  (1863)--Bokstel (whence there is a branch line belonging to the North
  Brabant and Germany railway company via Vechel to Goch in Germany,
  opened in 1873)--Eindhoven--Venlo and across Prussian border (1866);
  (2) the line Hook of Holland--Rotterdam (1893)--Dordrecht
  (1872-1877)--Elst (1882-1885)--Nijmwegen (1879)--Cleves, Germany
  (1865); (3) the line Rotterdam--Utrecht (1866-1869) and
  Amsterdam--Utrecht--Arnhem (1843-1845) to Emmerich in Germany (1856):
  this line formerly belonged to the Netherlands-Rhine railway company,
  but was bought by the state in 1890; and finally (4) the line
  Amsterdam--Hilversum--Amersfoort--Apeldoorn (1875), whence it is
  continued (a) via Deventer, Almelo and Hengelo to Salzbergen, Germany
  (1865); (b) via Zutphen, Hengelo (1865), Enschedé (1866) to Gronau,
  Germany; (c) via Zutphen (1876) and Ruurlo to Winterswyk (1878). Of
  these (1) and (2) form the main transcontinental routes in connexion
  with the steamboat service to England (ports of Queenborough and
  Harwich respectively). Two other lines of railway, both belonging to
  the state, also traverse the country west to east, namely, the line
  Rozendaal--'s Hertogenbosch (1890)--Nijmwegen, and in the extreme
  north, the line from Harlingen through Leeuwarden (1863) and Groningen
  (1866) to the border at Nieuwe Schans (1869), whence it was connected
  with the German railways in 1876. The northern and southern provinces
  are further connected by the lines Amsterdam--Zaandam
  (1878)--Enkhuizen (1885), whence there is a steam ferry across the
  Zuider Zee to Stavoren, from where the railway is continued to
  Leeuwarden (1883-1885); the Netherlands Central railway,
  Utrecht--Amersfoort--Zwoole--Kampen (1863); and the line Utrecht--'s
  Hertogenbosch (1868-1869) which is continued southward into Belgium by
  the lines bought in 1898 from the Grand Central Beige railway, namely,
  via Tilburg to Turnhout (1867), and via Eindhoven (1866) to Hasselt.
  In 1892 Greenwich mean time was adopted on the railways and in the
  post-offices, making a difference of twenty minutes with mean
  Amsterdam time.


    Tramways.

  Since 1877 railway communication has been largely supplemented by
  steam-tramways, which either run along the main roads or across the
  country on special embankments, while one of them is carried across
  the river Ysel at Doesburg on a pontoon bridge. The state first began
  to encourage the construction of these local light railways by means
  of subsidies in 1893, since when some of the most prominent lines have
  come into existence, such as Purmerend--Alkmaar (1898),
  Zutphen--Emmerich (1902), along the Dedemsvaart in Overysel (1902),
  from 's Hertogenbosch via Utrecht and Eindhoven to Turnhout in Belgium
  (1898), and especially those connecting the South Holland and Zeeland
  islands with the railway, namely, between Rotterdam and Numansdorp on
  the Hollandsch Diep (1898), and from Breda or Bergen-op-Zoom, via
  Steenbergen to St Philipsland, Zierikzee and Brouwershaven (1900). An
  electric tramway connects Haarlem and Zandvoort. The number of
  passengers carried by the steam-tramways is relatively higher than
  that of the railways. The value of the goods traffic is not so high,
  owing, principally, to the want of intercommunication between the
  various lines on account of differences in the width of the gauge.

_Agriculture._--Waste lands are chiefly composed of the barren stretches
of heaths found in Drente, Overysel, Gelderland and North Brabant. They
formerly served to support large flocks of sheep and some cattle, but
are gradually transformed by the planting of woods, as well as by
strenuous efforts at cultivation. Zeeland and Groningen are the two
principal agricultural provinces, and after them follow Limburg, North
Brabant, Gelderland and South Holland. The chief products of cultivation
on the heavy clay soil are oats, barley and wheat, and on the
sand-grounds rye, buckwheat and potatoes. Flax and beetroot are also
cultivated on the clay lands. Tobacco, hemp, hops, colza and chicory
form special cultures. With the possible exception of oats, the cereals
do not suffice for home consumption, and maize is imported in large
quantities for cattle-feeding, and barley for the distilleries and
breweries. Horticulture and market-gardening are of a high order, and
flourish especially on the low fen soil and _geest_ grounds along the
foot of the dunes in the provinces of North and South Holland. The
principal market products are cauliflower, cabbage, onions, asparagus,
gherkins, cucumbers, beans, peas, &c. The principal flowers are
hyacinths, tulips, crocuses, narcissus and other bulbous plants, the
total export of which is estimated at over £200,000. Fruit is everywhere
grown, and there is a special cultivation of grapes and figs in the
Westland of South Holland. The woods, or rather the plantations,
covering 6%, consist of (1) the so-called forest timber (_opgaandhout_;
Fr. _arbres de haute futaie_), including the beech, oak, elm, poplar,
birch, ash, willow and coniferous trees; and (2) the copse wood
(_akkermaal_ or _hakhout_), embracing the elder, willow, beech, oak, &c.
This forms no unimportant branch of the national wealth.


    Livestock.

  With nearly 35% of the total surface of the country under permanent
  pasture, cattle-breeding forms one of the most characteristic
  industries of the country. The provinces of Friesland, North and South
  Holland, and Utrecht take the lead as regards both quality and
  numbers. A smaller, hardier kind of cattle and large numbers of sheep
  are kept upon the heath-lands in the eastern provinces, which also
  favour the rearing of pigs and bee-culture. Horse-breeding is most
  important in Friesland, which produces the well-known black breed of
  horse commonly used in funeral processions. Goats are most numerous in
  Gelderland and North Brabant. Poultry, especially fowls, are generally
  kept. Stock-breeding, like agriculture, has considerably improved
  under the care of the government (state and provincial), which grants
  subsidies for breeding, irrigation of pasture-lands, the importation
  of finer breeds of cattle and horses, the erection of factories for
  dairy produce, schools, &c.

  _Fisheries._--The fishing industry of the Netherlands may be said to
  have been in existence already in the 13th century, and in the
  following century received a considerable impetus from the discovery
  how to cure herring by William Beukelszoon, a Zeeland fisherman. It
  steadily declined during the 17th and 18th centuries, however, but
  again began to revive in the last half of the 19th century. The
  fisheries are commonly divided into four particular fishing areas,
  namely, the "deep-sea" fishery of the North Sea, and the "inner"
  (_binnengaatsch_) fisheries of the Wadden, the Zuider Zee, and the
  South Holland and Zeeland waters. The deep-sea fishery may be farther
  divided into the so-called "great" or "salt-herring" fishery, mainly
  carried on from Vlaardingen and Maasluis during the summer and autumn,
  and the "fresh-herring" fishery, chiefly pursued at Scheveningen,
  Katwijk and Noordwijk. The value of the herring fisheries is enhanced
  by the careful methods of smoking and salting, the export of salted
  fish being considerable. In the winter the largest boats are laid up
  and the remainder take to line-fishing. Middelharnis, Pernis and
  Zwartewaal are the centres of this branch of fishery, which yields
  halibut, cod, ling and haddock. The trawl fisheries of the coast yield
  sole, plaice, turbot, brill, skate, &c., of which a large part is
  brought alive to the market. In the Zuider Zee small herring, flat
  fish, anchovies and shrimps are caught, the chief fishing centres
  being the islands of Texel, Urk and Wieringen, and the coast towns of
  Helder, Bunschoten, Huizen, Enkhuizen, Vollendam, Kampen, Harderwyk,
  Vollenhove. The anchovy fishing which takes place in May, June and
  July sometimes yields very productive results. Oysters and mussels are
  obtained on the East Scheldt, and anchovies at Bergen-op-Zoom; while
  salmon, perch and pike are caught in the Maas, the Lek and the New
  Merwede. The oyster-beds and salmon fisheries are largely in the hands
  of the state, which lets them to the highest bidder. Large quantities
  of eels are caught in the Frisian lakes. The fisheries not only supply
  the great local demand, but allow of large exports.

_Manufacturing Industries._--The mineral resources of Holland give no
encouragement to industrial activity, with the exception of the
coal-mining in Limburg, the smelting of iron ore in a few furnaces in
Overysel and Gelderland, the use of stone and gravel in the making of
dikes and roads, and of clay in brickworks and potteries, the quarrying
of stone at St Pietersberg, &c. Nevertheless the industry of the country
has developed in a remarkable manner since the separation from Belgium.
The greatest activity is shown in the cotton industry, which flourishes
especially in the Twente district of Overysel, where jute is also worked
into sacks. In the manufacture of woollen and linen goods Tilburg ranks
first, followed by Leiden, Utrecht and Eindhoven; that of half-woollens
is best developed at Roermond and Helmond. Other branches of industry
include carpet-weaving at Deventer, the distillation of brandy, gin and
liqueurs at Schiedam, Rotterdam and Amsterdam, and beer-brewing in most
of the principal towns; shoe-making and leather-tanning in the
Langstraat district of North Brabant; paper-making at Apeldoorn, on the
Zaan, and in Limburg; the manufacture of earthenware and faïence at
Maastricht, the Hague and Delft, as well as at Utrecht, Purmerend and
Makkum; clay pipes and stearine candles at Gouda; margarine at Osch;
chocolate at Weesp and on the Zaan; mat-plaiting and broom-making at
Genemuiden and Blokzyl; diamond-cutting and the manufacture of quinine
at Amsterdam; and the making of cigars and snuff at Eindhoven,
Amsterdam, Utrecht, Kampen, &c. Shipbuilding is of no small importance
in Holland, not only in the greater, but also in the smaller towns along
the rivers and canals. The principal shipbuilding yards are at
Amsterdam, Kinderdijk, Rotterdam and at Flushing, where there is a
government dockyard for building warships.

  _Trade and Shipping._--To obtain a correct idea of the trade of
  Holland, greater attention than would be requisite in the case of
  other countries must be paid to the inland traffic. It is impossible
  to state the value of this in definite figures, but an estimate may be
  formed of its extent from the number of ships which it employs in the
  rivers and canals, and from the quantity of produce brought to the
  public market. In connexion with this traffic there is a large fleet
  of tug boats; but steam- or petroleum-propelled barges are becoming
  more common. Some of the lighters used in the Rhine transport trade
  have a capacity of 3000 tons. A great part of the commercial business
  at Rotterdam belongs to the commission and transit trade. The other
  principal ports are Flushing, Terneuzen (for Belgium), Harlingen,
  Delfzyl, Dordrecht, Zaandam, Schiedam, Groningen, den Helder,
  Middelburg, Vlaardingen. Among the national mail steamship services
  are the lines to the East and West Indies, Africa and the United
  States. An examination of its lists of exports and imports will show
  that Holland receives from its colonies its spiceries, coffee, sugar,
  tobacco, indigo, cinnamon; from England and Belgium its manufactured
  goods and coals; petroleum, raw cotton and cereals from the United
  States; grain from the Baltic provinces, Archangel, and the ports of
  the Black Sea; timber from Norway and the basin of the Rhine, yarn
  from England, wine from France, hops from Bavaria and Alsace; iron-ore
  from Spain; while in its turn it sends its colonial wares to Germany,
  its agricultural produce to the London market, its fish to Belgium and
  Germany, and its cheese to France, Belgium and Hamburg, as well as
  England. The bulk of trade is carried on with Germany and England;
  then follow Java, Belgium, Russia, the United States, &c. In the last
  half of the 19th century the total value of the foreign commerce was
  more than trebled.

_Constitution and Government._--The government of the Netherlands is
regulated by the constitution of 1815, revised in 1848 and 1887, under
which the sovereign's person is inviolable and the ministers are
responsible. The age of majority of the sovereign is eighteen. The crown
is hereditary in both the male and the female line according to
primogeniture; but it is only in default of male heirs that females can
come to the throne. The crown prince or heir apparent is the first
subject of the sovereign, and bears the title of the prince of Orange.
The sovereign alone has executive authority. To him belong the ultimate
direction of foreign affairs, the power to declare war and peace, to
make treaties and alliances, and to dissolve one or both chambers of
parliament, the supreme command of the army and navy, the supreme
administration of the state finances and of the colonies and other
possessions of the kingdom, and the prerogative of mercy. By the
provisions of the same constitution he establishes the ministerial
departments, and shares the legislative power with the first and second
chambers of parliament, which constitute the states-general and sit at
the Hague. The heads of the departments to whom the especial executive
functions are entrusted are eight in number--ministers respectively of
the interior, of "water-staat," trade and industry (that is, of public
works, including railways, post-office, &c.), of justice, of finance, of
war, of marine, of the colonies and of foreign affairs. There is a
department of agriculture, but without a minister at its head. The heads
of departments are appointed and dismissed at the pleasure of the
sovereign, usually determined, however, as in all constitutional states,
by the will of the nation as indicated by its representatives.

The number of members in the first chamber is 50, South Holland sending
10, North Holland 9, North Brabant and Gelderland each 6, Friesland 4,
Overysel, Limburg and Groningen each 3, Zeeland, Utrecht and Drente each
2. According to the fundamental law (_Grondwet_) of 1887, they are
chosen by the provincial states, not only from amongst those who bear
the greatest burden of direct taxation in each province, but also from
amongst great functionaries and persons of high rank. Those deputies who
are not resident in the Hague are entitled to receive 16s. 8d. a day
during the session. The duration of parliament is nine years, a third of
the members retiring every three years. The retiring members are
eligible for re-election. The members of the second chamber are chosen
in the electoral districts by all capable male citizens not under 23
years of age, who pay one or more direct taxes, ranging from a minimum
of one guilder (1s. 8d.) towards the income tax. The number of members
is 100, Amsterdam returning 9, Rotterdam 5, the Hague 3, Groningen and
Utrecht 2 members each. Members must be at least thirty years old, and
receive an annual allowance of £166, besides travelling expenses. They
only, and the government, have the right of initiating business, and of
proposing amendments. Their term is four years, but they are
re-eligible. All communications from the sovereign to the states-general
and from the states to the sovereign, as well as all measures relating
to internal administration or to foreign possessions, are first
submitted to the consideration of the council of state, which consists
of 14 members appointed by the sovereign, who is the president. The
state council also has the right of making suggestions to the sovereign
in regard to subjects of legislation and administration.

  The provincial administration is entrusted to the provincial states,
  which are returned by direct election by the same electors as vote for
  the second chamber. The term is for six years, but one-half of the
  members retire every three years subject to re-election or renewal.
  The president of the assembly is the royal commissioner for the
  province. As the provincial states only meet a few times in the year,
  they name a committee of deputy-states which manages current general
  business, and at the same time exercises the right of control over the
  affairs of the communes. At the head of every commune stands a
  communal council, whose members must be not under 23 years of age.
  They are elected for six years (one-third of the council retiring
  every two years) by the same voters as for the provincial states.
  Communal franchise is further restricted, however, to those electors
  who pay a certain sum to the communal rates. The number of councillors
  varies according to the population between 7 and 45. One of the
  special duties of the council is the supervision of education. The
  president of the communal council is the burgomaster, who is named by
  the sovereign in every instance for six years, and receives a salary
  varying from £40 to over £600. Provision is made for paying the
  councillors a certain fee--called "presence-money"--when required.
  The burgomaster has the power to suspend any of the council's decrees
  for 30 days. The executive power is vested in a college formed by the
  burgomaster and two, three or four magistrates (_wethouders_) to be
  chosen by and from the members of the council. The provinces are
  eleven in number.

  _National Defence._--The home defence system of Holland is a militia
  with strong cadres based on universal service. Service in the
  "militia" or 1st line force is for 8 years, in the 2nd line for 7.
  Every year in the drill season contingents of militiamen are called up
  for long or short periods of training, and the maximum peace strength
  under arms in the summer is about 35,000, of whom half are permanent
  cadres and half militiamen. In 1908 12,300 of the year's contingent
  were trained for eight months and more, and 5200 for four months. The
  war strength of the militia is 105,000, that of the second line or
  reserve 70,000. The defence of the country is based on the historic
  principle of concentrating the people and their resources in the heart
  of the country, covered by a wide belt of inundations. The chosen line
  of defence is marked by a series of forts which control the sluices,
  extending from Amsterdam, through Muiden, thence along the Vecht and
  through Utrecht to Gorinchem (Gorkum) on the Waal. The line continues
  thence by the Hollandsche Diep and Volkerak to the sea, and the coast
  also is fortified. The army in the colonies numbers in all about
  26,000, all permanent troops and for the most part voluntarily
  enlisted European regulars. The military expenditure in 1908 was
  £2,331,255. The Dutch navy at home and in Indian waters consists
  (1909) of 9 small battleships, 6 small cruisers and 80 other vessels,
  manned by 8600 officers and men of the navy and about 2250 marines.
  Recruiting is by voluntary enlistment, with contingent powers of
  conscription amongst the maritime population.

  _Justice._--The administration of justice is entrusted (1) to the high
  council (_hooge raad_) at the Hague, the supreme court of the whole
  kingdom, and the tribunal for all high government officials and for
  the members of the states-general; (2) to the five courts of justice
  established at Amsterdam, the Hague, Arnhem, Leeuwarden and 's
  Hertogenbosch; (3) to tribunals established in each arrondissement;
  (4) to cantonal judges appointed over a group of communes, whose
  jurisdiction is restricted to claims of small amount (under 200
  guilders), and to breaches of police regulations, and who at the same
  time look after the interest of minors. The high council is composed
  of 12 to 14 councillors, a procureur-general and three
  advocates-general. Criminal and correctional procedure were formerly
  divided between the courts of justice and the arrondissement
  tribunals; but this distinction was suppressed by the penal code of
  1886, thereby increasing the importance of the arrondissement courts,
  which also act as court of appeal of the cantonal courts.

  Besides the prisons, which include one built on the cellular principle
  at Breda, the state supports three penal workhouses for drunkards and
  beggars. There are also the penal colonies at Veenhuizen in Drente,
  which were brought from the Society of Charity (_Maatschappij van
  Weldadigkeid_) in 1859. The inmates practise agriculture, as well as
  various industries for supplying all the requirements of the colony.
  The objection raised against these establishments is that the
  prisoners do not represent the real vagabondage of the country, but a
  class of more or less voluntary inmates. Children under 16 years of
  age are placed in the three state reformatories, and there is an
  institution for vagabond women at Rotterdam.

  _Charitable and other Institutions._--Private charities have always
  occupied a distinguished position in the Netherlands, and the
  principle of the law of 1854 concerning the relief of the poor is,
  that the state shall only interfere when private charity fails. All
  private and religious institutions have to be inscribed before they
  can collect public funds. In some cases these institutions are
  organized and administered conjointly with the civil authorities. At
  the head of the charitable institutions stand the agricultural
  colonies belonging to the Society of Charity (see DRENTE). Of the
  numerous institutions for the encouragement of the sciences and the
  fine arts, the following are strictly national--the Royal Academy of
  Sciences (1855), the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute
  (1854), the National Academy of the Plastic Arts, the Royal School of
  Music, the National Archives, besides various other national
  collections and museums. Provincial scientific societies exist at
  Middelburg, Utrecht, 's Hertogenbosch and Leeuwarden, and there are
  private and municipal associations, institutions and collections in a
  large number of the smaller towns. Among societies of general utility
  are the Society for Public Welfare (_Maatschappij tot nut van't
  algemeen_, 1785), whose efforts have been mainly in the direction of
  educational reform; the Geographical Society at Amsterdam (1873);
  Teyler's Stichting or foundation at Haarlem (1778), and the societies
  for the promotion of industry (1777), and of sciences (1752) in the
  same town; the Institute of Languages, Geography and Ethnology of the
  Dutch Indies (1851), and the Indian Society at the Hague, the Royal
  Institute of Engineers at Delft (1848), the Association for the
  Encouragement of Music at Amsterdam, &c.

  _Religion._--Religious conviction is one of the most characteristic
  traits of the Dutch people, and finds expression in a large number of
  independent religious congregations. The bond between church and
  state which had been established by the synod of Dort (1618) and the
  organization of the Low-Dutch Reformed Church (_Nederlandsche
  Hervormde Kerk_) as the national Protestant church, practically came
  to an end in the revolution of 1795, and in the revision of the
  Constitution in 1848 the complete religious liberty and equality of
  all persons and congregations was guaranteed. The present organization
  of the Reformed Church dates from 1852. It is governed by a general
  assembly or "synod" of deputies from the principal judicatures,
  sitting once a year. The provinces are subdivided into "classes," and
  the classes again into "circles" (_ringen_), each circle comprising
  from 5 to 25 congregations, and each congregation being governed by a
  "church council" or session. The provincial synods are composed of
  ministers and elders deputed by the classes; and these are composed of
  the ministers belonging to the particular class and an equal number of
  elders appointed by the local sessions. The meetings of the circles
  have no administrative character, but are mere brotherly conferences.
  The financial management in each congregation is entrusted to a
  special court (_kerk-voogdij_) composed of "notables" and church
  wardens. In every province there is besides, in the case of the
  Reformed Church, a provincial committee of supervision for the
  ecclesiastical administration. For the whole kingdom this supervision
  is entrusted to a common "collegium" or committee of supervision,
  which meets at the Hague, and consists of 11 members named by the
  provincial committee and 3 named by the synod. Some congregations have
  withdrawn from provincial supervision, and have thus free control of
  their own financial affairs. The oldest secession from the Orthodox
  Church is that of the Remonstrants, who still represent the most
  liberal thought in the country, and have their own training college at
  Leiden. Towards 1840 a new congregation calling itself the Christian
  Reformed Church (_Christelijke Gereformeerde Kerk_) arose as a protest
  against the government and the modern tendencies of the Reformed
  Church; and for the same reason those who had founded the Free
  University of Amsterdam (1880) formed themselves in 1886 into an
  independent body called the _Nederlandsche Gereformeerde Kerk_. In
  1892 these two churches united under the name of the Reformed Churches
  (_Gereformeerde Kerken_) with the doctrine and discipline of Dort.
  They have a theological seminary at Kampen. Other Protestant bodies
  are the Walloons, who, though possessing an independent church
  government, are attached to the Low-Dutch Reformed Church; the
  Lutherans, divided into the main body of Evangelical Lutherans and a
  smaller division calling themselves the Re-established or Old
  Lutherans (_Herstelde Lutherschen_) who separated in 1791 in order to
  keep more strictly to the Augsburg confession; the Mennonites founded
  by Menno Simons of Friesland, about the beginning of the 16th century;
  the Baptists, whose only central authority is the General Baptist
  Society founded at Amsterdam in 1811; the Evangelical Brotherhood of
  Hernhutters or Moravians, who have churches and schools at Zeist and
  Haarlem; and a Catholic Apostolic Church (1867) at the Hague. There
  are congregations of English Episcopalians at the Hague, Amsterdam and
  Rotterdam, and German Evangelicals at the Hague (1857) and Rotterdam
  (1861). In 1853 the Roman Catholic Church, which before had been a
  mission in the hands of papal legates and vicars, was raised into an
  independent ecclesiastical province with five dioceses, namely, the
  archbishopric of Utrecht, and the suffragan bishoprics of Haarlem,
  Breda, 's Hertogenbosch and Roermond, each with its own seminary. Side
  by side with the Roman Catholic hierarchy are the congregations of the
  Old Catholics or Old Episcopalian Church (_Oud Bisschoppelijke
  Clerezie_), and the Jansenists (see JANSENISM). The Old Catholics,
  with whom the Jansenists are frequently confused, date from the 17th
  century. Besides an archbishop at Utrecht, the Old Catholics have
  bishops at Deventer and Haarlem, and a training college at Amersfoort.
  They numbered in 1905 about 9000 (see UTRECHT). The large Jewish
  population in Holland had its origin in the wholesale influx of
  Portuguese Jews at the end of the 16th, and of German Jews in the
  beginning of the 17th century. In 1870 they were reorganized under the
  central authority of the Netherlands Israelite Church, and divided
  into head and "ring" synagogues and associated churches. The Roman
  Catholic element preponderates in the southern provinces of Limburg,
  and North Brabant, but in Friesland, Groningen and Drente the Baptists
  and Christian Reformed are most numerous.

  _Education._--Every grade of education in the Netherlands is under the
  control and supervision of the state, being administered by a special
  department under the ministry for the interior. In 1889 the state
  recognized private denominational schools, and in 1900 passed a law of
  compulsory attendance. Infant schools, which are generally in the
  hands of private societies or the municipal authorities, are not
  interfered with by the state. According to the law of 1889 primary
  education is carried on in the ordinary and in continuation schools
  for boys and girls (co-education having been long in vogue). These
  schools are established in every commune, the state contributing aid
  at the rate of 25% of the total expenditure. The age of admission is
  six; and the course is for six years, 7-13 being the legal age limits;
  the fee, from which poverty exempts, is almost nominal. Nature-study,
  continued in the secondary schools, is an essential part in the
  curriculum of these schools, and elementary general history, English,
  French and German are among the optional subjects. While the boys are
  instructed in woodwork, needlework is taught to the girls, its
  introduction in 1889 having been the first recognition of practical
  instruction in any form. Continuation schools (_herhalingsscholen_)
  must be organized wherever required, and are generally open for six
  months in winter, pupils of twelve to fourteen or sixteen attending.
  Secondary schools were established by the law of 1863 and must be
  provided by every commune of 10,000 inhabitants; they comprise the
  Burgher-Day-and-Evening schools and the Higher-Burgher schools. The
  first named schools being mainly intended for those engaged in
  industrial or agricultural pursuits, the day classes gradually fell
  into disuse. The length of the course as prescribed by law is two
  years, but it is usually extended to three or four years, and the
  instruction, though mainly theoretical, has regard to the special
  local industries; the fees, if any, may not exceed one pound sterling
  per annum. Special mention must be made in this connexion of the
  school of engineering in Amsterdam (1878) and the Academy of Plastic
  Arts at Rotterdam. The higher-burgher schools have either a three or a
  five years' course, and the fees vary from £2, 10s. to £5 a year. The
  instruction given is essentially non-classical and scientific. In both
  schools certificates are awarded at the end of the course, that of the
  higher-burgher schools admitting to the natural science and medical
  branches of university education, a supplementary examination in Greek
  and Latin being required for other branches. The gymnasia, or
  classical schools, fall legally speaking under the head of higher
  education. By the law of 1876, every town of 20,000 inhabitants,
  unless specially exempted, must provide a gymnasium. A large
  proportion of these schools are subsidized by the state to the extent
  of half their net cost. The curriculum is classical and philological,
  but in the two upper classes there is a bifurcation in favour of
  scientific subjects for those who wish. The fees vary from £5 to £8 a
  year, but, owing to the absence of scholarships and bursaries, are
  sometimes remitted, as in the case of the higher-burgher schools.
  Among the schools which give specialized instruction, mention must be
  made of the admirable trade schools (_ambachtsscholen_) established in
  1861, and the corresponding industrial schools for girls; the fishery
  schools and schools of navigation; the many private schools of
  domestic science, and of commerce and industry, among which the
  municipal school at Enschedé (1886) deserves special mention; and the
  school of social work, "Das Huis," at Amsterdam (1900). For the
  education of medical practitioners, civil and military, the more
  important institutions are the National Obstetrical College at
  Amsterdam, the National Veterinary School at Utrecht, the National
  College for Military Physicians at Amsterdam and the establishment at
  Utrecht for the training of military apothecaries for the East and
  West Indies. The organization of agricultural education under the
  state is very complete, and includes a state professor of agriculture
  for every province (as well as professors of horticulture in several
  cases), "winter schools" of agriculture and horticulture, and a state
  agricultural college at Wageningen (1876) with courses in home and
  colonial agriculture. The total fees at this college, including board
  and lodging, are about £50 a year. According to the law of 1898, the
  state also maintains or subsidizes experimental or testing-stations.
  Other schools of the same class are the Gerard Adriaan van Swieten
  schools of agriculture, gardening and forestry in Drente, the school
  of instruction in butter and cheese making (_zuivelbereiding_) at
  Bolsward and the state veterinary college at Utrecht.

  There are three state universities in Holland, namely, Leiden (1575),
  Groningen (1585) and Utrecht (1634). The ancient athenaeums of
  Franeker (1585) and Harderwyk (1603) were closed in 1811, but that of
  Amsterdam was converted into a municipal university in 1877. In each
  of these universities there are five faculties, namely, law, theology,
  medicine, science and mathematics, and literature and philosophy, the
  courses for which are respectively four, five, eight, and six or seven
  years for the two last named. The fees amount to 200 florins (£16,
  13s. 4d.) per annum and are payable for four years. Two kinds of
  degrees are conferred, namely, the ordinary (_candidaats_) and the
  "doctor's" degrees. Pupils from the higher-burgher schools are only
  eligible for the first. There is also a free (Calvinistic) university
  at Amsterdam founded in 1880 and enjoying, since 1905, the right of
  conferring degrees. It has, however, no faculties of law or science.
  The state polytechnic school at Delft (1864) for the study of
  engineering in all its branches, architecture and naval construction,
  has a nominal course of four years, and confers the degree of
  "engineer." The fees are the same as those of the universities, and as
  at the universities there are bursaries. A national institution at
  Leiden for the study of languages, geography and ethnology of the
  Dutch Indies has given place to communal institutions of the same
  nature at Delft and at Leiden, founded in 1864 and 1877. The centre of
  Dutch university life, which is non-residential, is the students'
  corps, at the head of which is a "senate," elected annually from among
  the students of four years' standing. Membership of the corps is
  gained after a somewhat trying novitiate, but is the only passport to
  the various social and sports societies.

  All teachers in the Netherlands must qualify for their profession by
  examination. Under the act of 1898 they are trained either in the
  state training-colleges, or in state-aided municipal, and private
  denominational colleges; or else by means of state or private
  state-aided courses of instruction. The age of admission to this class
  of training is from 14 to 18, and the course is for four years. In the
  last year practice in teaching is obtained at the primary "practice"
  school attached to each college, and students are also taught to make
  models explanatory of the various subjects of instruction after the
  manner of the Swedish Sloyd (Slöjd) system. Assistant-teachers wishing
  to qualify as head-teachers must have had two years' practical
  experience. Pupil-teachers can only give instruction under the
  supervision of a certificated teacher. The minimum salary of teachers
  is determined by law. The teaching, which follows the so-called
  "Heuristic" method, and the equipment of schools of every description,
  are admirable.

  _Finance._--The following statement shows the revenue and expenditure
  of the kingdom for the years 1889, 1900-1901 and 1905:--

    _Revenue._

    +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
    |         Source.         |   1889.   |   1901.   |   1905.   |
    +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
    |                         |     £     |     £     |     £     |
    | Excise                  | 3,678,075 | 4,042,500 | 4,514,998 |
    | Direct taxation         | 2,300,865 | 2,900,175 | 3,135,665 |
    | Indirect taxation       | 2,004,745 | 1,805,583 | 1,946,666 |
    | Post Office             |   539,405 |   865,750 | 1,103,333 |
    | Government telegraphs   |   106,970 |   187,375 |   211,333 |
    | Export and Import duties|   440,247 |   801,500 |   930,912 |
    | State domains           |   213,186 |   147,000 |   139,000 |
    | Pilot dues              |   106,079 |   191,667 |   200,000 |
    | State lotteries         |    54,609 |    54,250 |    52,666 |
    | Game and Fisheries      |    11,660 |    11,000 |    11,750 |
    | Railways                |    ..     |   361,512 |   349,011 |
    | Part paid by East Indies|           |           |           |
    |  on account of interest |           |           |           |
    |  and redemption of      |           |           |           |
    |  public debt            |    ..     |    ..     |   321,916 |
    | Netherland Bank         |           |           |           |
    |  contribution           |    ..     |    ..     |   160,500 |
    +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
    |     Total*              | 9,475,337 |11,394,220 |14,017,079 |
    +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
      * Including various miscellaneous items not specified in detail.

    _Expenditure._

    +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
    |         Object.         |   1889.   |   1901.   |   1905.   |
    +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
    |                         |     £     |     £     |     £     |
    | National Debt           | 2,727,591 | 2,906,214 | 2,899,770 |
    | Department of War       | 1,708,698 | 1,893,036 | 2,474,011 |
    |     "         Waterstaat| 1,790,291 | 2,448,339 | 2,869,951 |
    |     "         Finance   | 1,537,404 | 2,092,343 | 2,297,180 |
    |     "         Marine    | 1,038,536 | 1,388,141 | 1,396,137 |
    |     "         Interior  |   815,188 | 1,330,563 | 1,613,134 |
    |     "         Justice   |   426,343 |   529,159 |   592,073 |
    |     "         Colonies  |    93,829 |   109,768 |   251,150 |
    | Dept. of Foreign Affairs|    57,312 |    71,101 |    82,403 |
    | Royal Household         |    54,166 |    66,667 |    66,666 |
    | Superior Authorities of |           |           |           |
    |  the State              |    52,476 |    56,792 |    58,251 |
    | Unforeseen Expenditure  |     1,745 |     4,166 |     4,166 |
    +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
    |    Total*               |10,393,579 |12,896,289 |14,907,781 |
    +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
      * Including, besides the ordinary budget, the outlays in payment
        of annuities, in funding and discharging debt, in railway
        extension, &c.

  The total debt in 1905 amounted to £96,764,266, the annual interest
  amounted to £3,396,590. During the years 1850-1905, £27,416,651 has
  been devoted to the redemption of the public debt. The total wealth of
  the kingdom is estimated at 900 millions sterling. The various
  provinces and communes have separate budgets. The following table
  gives a statement of the provincial and communal  finances:--

    _Revenue._

    +---------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
    |                     |   1889.   |   1900.   |   1905.   |
    +---------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
    |                     |    £      |    £      |    £      |
    | Provincial          |   722,583 |   445,333 |   718,199 |
    | Communal            | 6,132,000 | 9,311,666 |12,750,083 |
    +---------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+

    _Expenditure._

    +---------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
    |                     |   1889.   |   1900.   |   1905.   |
    +---------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
    |                     |     £     |     £     |     £     |
    | Provincial          |   740,333 |   445,333 |   702,718 |
    | Communal            | 5,683,800 | 8,503,250 |12,085,250 |
    +---------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+

_Colonies._--The Dutch colonies in the Malay Archipelago have an area of
600,000 sq. m., with a population of 23,000,000, among which are 35,000
Europeans, 319,000 Chinese, 15,000 Arabs, and 10,000 other immigrant
Asiatics. The West Indian possessions of Holland include Dutch Guiana or
the government of Surinam, and the Dutch Antilles or the government of
Curaçoa and its dependencies (St Eustatius, Saba, the southern half of
St Martin, Curaçoa, Bonaire and Aruba), a total area of 60,000 sq. m.,
with 90,000 inhabitants, of whom a small portion are Europeans, and the
rest negroes and other people of colour, and Chinese.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The chief place is due to the following geographical
  publications:--Dr H. Blink, _Nederland en zijne Bewoners_ (Amsterdam,
  1888-1892), containing a copious bibliography; _Tegenwoordige Staat
  van Nederland_ (Amsterdam, 1897); R. Schuiling, _Aardrijkskunde van
  Nederland_ (Zwolle, 1884); A. A. Beekman, _De Strijd om het Bestaan_
  (Zutphen, 1887), a manual on the characteristic hydrography of the
  Netherlands; and E. Reclus' _Nouvelle géographie universelle_ (1879;
  vol. iv.). The _Gedenboek uitgeven ter gelegenheid van het
  fijftig-jarig bestaan van het Koninklijk Instituut van Ingenieurs_,
  1847-1897 ('s Gravenhage, 1898), is an excellent aid in studying
  technically the remarkable works on Dutch rivers, canals, sluices,
  railways and harbours, and drainage and irrigation works. The
  _Aardrijkskundig Woordenboek van Nederland_, by P. H. Witkamp (Arnhem,
  1895), is a complete gazetteer with historical notes, and _Nomina
  Geographica Neerlandica_, published by the Netherlands Geographical
  Society (Amsterdam, 1885, &c.), contains a history of geographical
  names. _Geschiedenis van den Boereastand en den landbouw in
  Nederland_, H. Blink (Groningen, 1902), and the report on agriculture,
  published at the Hague by the Royal Commission appointed in 1896,
  furnish special information in connexion with this subject. Of more
  general interest are: _Eene halve Eeuw, 1848-1898_, edited by Dr P. H.
  Ritter (Amsterdam, 1898), containing a series of articles on all
  subjects connected with the kingdom during the second half of the 19th
  century, written by specialists; and _Les Pays Bas_ (Leiden, 1899),
  and _La Hollande géographique, ethnologique, politique, &c._ (Paris,
  1900), both works of the same class as the preceding.

  Books of travel include some of considerable topographical as well as
  literary interest, from Lodovico Guicciardini (1567) down to Edmondo
  de Amicis (_Holland_, translated from the Italian, London, 1883); H.
  Havard, _Dead Cities of the Zuider Zee, &c._ (translated from the
  French, London 1876), and D. S. Meldrum, _Holland and the Hollanders_
  (London, 1899) in the 19th century. Mention may also be made of _Old
  Dutch Towns and Villages of the Zuider Zee_, by W. J. Tuyn (translated
  from the Dutch, London, 1901), _Nieuwe Wandelingen door Nederland_, by
  J. Craandijk and P. A. Schipperus (Haarlem, 1888); _Friesland Meres
  and through the Netherlands_, by H. M. Doughty (London, 1887); _On
  Dutch Waterways_, by G. C. Davis (London, 1887); _Hollande et
  hollandais_, by H. Durand (Paris, 1893); and _Holland and Belgium_ by
  Professor N. G. van Kampen (translated from the Dutch, London, 1860),
  the last three being chiefly remarkable for their fine illustrations.
  Works of historical and antiquarian interest of a high order are
  _Merkwaardige Kasteelen in Nederland_, by J. van Lennep and W. J.
  Hofdyk (Leiden, 1881-1884); _Noord-Hollandsche Oudheden_, by G. van
  Arkel and A. W. Weisman, published by the Royal Antiquarian Society
  (Amsterdam, 1891); and _Oud Holland_, edited by A. D. de Vries and N.
  de Roever (Amsterdam, 1883-1886), containing miscellaneous
  contributions to the history of ancient Dutch art, crafts and letters.
  Natural history is covered by various periodical publications of the
  Royal Zoological Society "Natura Artis Magistra" at Amsterdam, and the
  _Natuurlijke Historie van Nederland_ (Haarlem, 1856-1863) written by
  specialists, and including ethnology and flora. Military and naval
  defence may be studied in _De vesting Holland_, by A. L. W. Seijffardt
  (Utrecht, 1887), and the _Handbook of the Dutch Army_, by Major W. L.
  White, R.A. (London, 1896); ecclesiastical history in _The Church in
  the Netherlands_, by P. H. Ditchfield (London, 1893); and education in
  vol. viii. of the _Special Reports on Educational Subjects_ issued by
  the Board of Education, London. Statistics are furnished by the annual
  publication of the Society for Statistics in the Netherlands,
  Amsterdam.


HISTORY FROM 1579 TO MODERN TIMES[5]


  Consequences of the Union of Utrecht.

  Sovereignty offered to the Duke of Anjou.

  The Ban against William of Orange.

  The Act of Abjuration.

  The Apology.

The political compact known as the Union of Utrecht differed from its
immediate predecessors, the Pacification of Ghent, the Union of Brussels
and the Perpetual Edict, in its permanence. The confederacy of the
northern provinces of the Netherlands which was effected (29th of
January 1579) by the exertions of John of Nassau, was destined to be the
beginning of a new national life. The foundation was laid on which the
Republic of the United Netherlands was to be raised. Its immediate
results were far from promising. The falling away of the Walloon
provinces and the Catholic nobles from the patriot cause threatened it
with ruin. Nothing but the strong personal influence and indefatigable
labours of the prince of Orange stood in the way of a more general
defection. Everywhere, save in staunch and steadfast Holland and
Zeeland, a feeling of wavering and hesitation was spreading through the
land. In Holland and Zeeland William was supreme, but elsewhere his aims
and his principles were misrepresented and misunderstood. He saw that
unaided the patriotic party could not hope to resist the power of Philip
II., and he had therefore resolved to gain the support of France by the
offer of the sovereignty of the Netherlands to the duke of Anjou. But
Anjou was a Catholic, and this fact aroused among the Protestants a
feeling that they were being betrayed. But the prince persisted in the
policy he felt to be a necessity, and (23rd of Jan. 1581) a treaty was
concluded with the duke, by which he, under certain conditions, agreed
to accept the sovereignty of the Netherlands provinces, except Holland
and Zeeland. These two provinces were unwilling to have any sovereign
but William himself, and after considerable hesitation he agreed to
become their Count (24th of July 1581). He felt that he was justified in
taking this step because of the Ban which Philip had published on the
15th of March 1581, in which Orange had been proclaimed a traitor and
miscreant, and a reward offered to any one who would take his life. His
practical answer to the king was the act of Abjuration, by which at his
persuasion the representatives of the provinces of Brabant, Flanders,
Holland, Zeeland, Gelderland and Utrecht, assembled at the Hague,
declared that Philip had forfeited his sovereignty over them, and that
they held themselves henceforth absolved from their allegiance to him.
In a written defence, the famous _Apology_, published later in the year,
William replied at great length to the charges that had been brought
against him, and carrying the war into the enemy's camp, endeavoured to
prove that the course he had pursued was justified by the crimes and
tyranny of the king.


  Attempt on the Life of Orange by Jean Jaureguy.

  The French Fury.

  Assassination of William the Silent.

The duke of Anjou was solemnly inaugurated as duke of Brabant (February
1582), and shortly afterwards as duke of Gelderland, count of Flanders
and lord of Friesland. William had taken up his residence at Antwerp in
order to give the French prince his strongest personal support, and
while there a serious attempt was made upon his life (March 18th) by a
youth named Jean Jaureguy. He fired a pistol at the prince close to his
head, and the ball passed under the right ear and out at the left jaw.
It was a terrible wound, but fortunately not fatal. Meanwhile Anjou soon
grew tired of his dependent position and of the limitations placed upon
his sovereignty. He resolved by a secret and sudden attack (17th of
January 1583) to make himself master of Antwerp and of the person of
Orange. The assault was made, but it proved an utter failure. The
citizens resisted stoutly behind barricades, and the French were routed
with heavy loss. The "French Fury" as it was called, rendered the
position of Anjou in the Netherlands impossible, and made William
himself unpopular in Brabant. He accordingly withdrew to Delft. In the
midst of his faithful Hollanders he felt that he could still organize
resistance, and stem the progress made by Spanish arms and Spanish
influence under the able leadership of Alexander of Parma. Antwerp, with
St Aldegonde as its burgomaster, was still in the hands of the patriots
and barred the way to the sea, and covered Zeeland from invasion. Never
for one moment did William lose heart or relax his efforts and
vigilance; he felt that with the two maritime provinces secure the
national cause need not be despaired of. But his own days had now drawn
to their end. The failure of Jaureguy did not deter a young Catholic
zealot, by name Balthazar Gérard, from attempting to assassinate the man
whom he looked upon as the arch-enemy of God and the king. Under the
pretext of seeking a passport, Gérard penetrated into the Prinsenhof at
Delft, and firing point blank at William as he left the dining hall,
mortally wounded him (10th of July 1584). Amidst general lamentations
"the Father of his Country," as he was called, was buried with great
state in the Nieuwe Kerk at Delft at the public charge.


  Maurice of Nassau.

  The Sovereignty offered to Henry III. and declined.

  Leicester Governor-general.

But though the great leader was dead, he had not striven or worked in
vain. The situation was critical, but there was no panic. Throughout the
revolted provinces there was a general determination to continue the
struggle to the bitter end. To make head, however, against the
victorious advance of Parma, before whose arms all the chief towns of
Brabant and Flanders, Bruges, Ghent, Brussels and lastly--after a
valiant defence--Antwerp itself had fallen, it was necessary to look for
the protection of a foreign ruler. The government, now that the
commanding personal influence of William was no more, was without any
central authority which could claim obedience. The States-General were
but the delegates of a number of sovereign provinces, and amongst these
Holland by its size and wealth (after the occupation by the Spaniards of
Brabant and Flanders) was predominant. Maurice of Nassau, William's
second son, had indeed on his father's death been appointed captain and
admiral-general of the Union, president of the Council of State, and
stadholder of Holland and Zeeland, but he was as yet too young, only
seventeen, to take a leading part in affairs. Count Hohenloo took the
command of the troops with the title of lieutenant-general. Two devoted
adherents of William of Orange, Paul Buys, advocate of Holland, and
Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, pensionary of Rotterdam, were the statesmen
who at this difficult juncture took the foremost part in directing the
policy of the confederacy. They turned first to France. The sovereignty
of the provinces was offered to Henry III., but the king, harassed by
civil discords in his own country, declined the dangerous honour (1585).
Repelled in this direction, the States-General next turned themselves to
England. Elizabeth was alarmed by the successes of the Spanish arms, and
especially by the fall of Antwerp; and, though refusing the sovereignty,
she agreed to send a force of 5000 foot and 1000 horse to the aid of the
Provinces under the command of the earl of Leicester, her expenses being
guaranteed by the handing over to her the towns of Flushing, Brill and
Rammekens as pledges (10th of August 1585). Leicester, on landing in
Holland, was in the presence of the States-General and of Maurice of
Nassau invested with the title of governor-general and practically
sovereign powers (February 1586).


  Failure and withdrawal of Leicester.

The new governor had great difficulties to contend with. He knew nothing
of the language or the character of the people he was called upon to
govern; his own abilities both as general and statesman were mediocre;
and he was hampered constantly in his efforts by the niggardliness and
changing whims of his royal mistress. In trying to consolidate the
forces of the Provinces for united action and to centralize its
government, he undoubtedly did his best, according to his lights, for
the national cause. But he was too hasty and overbearing. His edict
prohibiting all commercial intercourse with the enemy at once aroused
against him the bitter hostility of the merchants of Holland and
Zeeland, who thrived by such traffic. His attempts to pack the council
of State, on which already two Englishmen had seats, with personal
adherents and to override the opposition of the provincial states of
Holland to his arbitrary acts, at last made his position impossible. The
traitorous surrender of Deventer and Zutphen by their English governors,
Stanley and York, both Catholics, rendered all Englishmen suspect. The
States of Holland under the leadership of Johan van Oldenbarneveldt,
took up an attitude of resolute hostility to him, and the States of
Holland dominated the States-General. In the midst of these divided
councils the important seaport of Sluis was taken by Parma. Utterly
discredited, Leicester (6th of August 1587) abandoned the task, in
which he had met with nothing but failure, and returned to England.


  Johan van Oldenbarneveldt.

  Maurice of Nassau.

Nothing could have been worse than the position of the States at the
beginning of 1588. Had Parma had a free hand, in all probability he
would have crushed out the revolt and reconquered the northern
Netherlands. But the attention of the Spanish king was at this time
concentrated upon the success of the Invincible Armada. The army of
Parma was held in readiness for the invasion of England, and the United
Provinces had a respite. They were fortunately able to avail themselves
of it. The commanding abilities of Oldenbarneveldt, now advocate of
Holland, gradually gathered into his hands the entire administration of
the Republic. He became indispensable and, as his influence grew, more
and more did the policy of the provinces acquire unity and consistency
of purpose. At the same time Maurice of Nassau, now grown to man's
estate, began to display those military talents which were to gain for
him the fame of being the first general of his time. But Maurice was no
politician. He had implicit trust in the advocate, his father's faithful
friend and counsellor, and for many years to come the statesman and the
soldier worked in harmony together for the best interests of their
country (see OLDENBARNEVELDT, and MAURICE, prince of Orange). At the
side of Maurice, as a wise adviser, stood his cousin William Louis,
stadholder of Friesland, a trained soldier and good commander in the
field.


  Campaign of 1591.

  Death of Parma.

  New province of Stadt en Landen.

After the destruction of the Armada, Parma had been occupied with
campaigns on the southern frontier against the French, and the
Netherlanders had been content to stand on guard against attack. The
surprise of Breda by a stratagem (8th of March 1590) was the only
military event of importance up to 1591. But the two stadholders had not
wasted the time. The States' forces had been reorganized and brought to
a high state of military discipline and training. In 1591 the
States-General, after considerable hesitation, were persuaded by Maurice
to sanction an offensive campaign. It was attended by marvellous
success. Zutphen was captured on the 20th of May, Deventer on the 20th
of June. Parma, who was besieging the fort of Knodsenburg, was forced to
retire with loss. Hulst fell after a three days' investment, and finally
Nymegen was taken on the 21st of October. The fame of Maurice, a
consummate general at the early age of twenty-four, was on all men's
lips. The following campaign was signalized by the capture of Steenwyk
and Koevorden. On the 8th of December 1592 Parma died, and the States
were delivered from their most redoubtable adversary. In 1593 the
leaguer of Geertruidenburg put the seal on Maurice's reputation as an
invincible besieger. The town fell after an investment of three months.
Groningen was the chief fruit of the campaign of 1594. With its
dependent district it was formed into a new province under the name of
Stadt en Landen. William Louis became the stadholder (see GRONINGEN).
The soil of the northern Netherlands was at last practically free from
the presence of Spanish garrisons.


  Triple Alliance of France, England and the United Provinces.

The growing importance of the new state was signalized by the
conclusion, in 1596, of a triple alliance between England, France and
the United Provinces. It was of short duration and purchased by hard
conditions, but it implied the recognition by Henry IV. and Elizabeth of
the States-General, as a sovereign power, with whom treaties could be
concluded. Such a recognition was justified by the brilliant successes
of the campaign of 1597. It began with the complete rout of a Spanish
force of 4500 men at Turnhout in January, with scarcely any loss to the
victors. Then in a succession of sieges Rheinberg, Meurs, Groenlo,
Bredevoort, Enschedé, Ootmarsum, Oldenzaal and Lingen fell into the
hands of Maurice.


  Albert and Isabel, Sovereigns of the Netherlands.

The relations of the Netherlands to Spain were in 1598 completely
changed. Philip II. feeling death approaching, resolved to marry his
elder daughter, the Infanta Isabel Clara Eugenia, to her cousin, the
Cardinal Archduke Albert of Austria, who had been governor-general of
the Netherlands since 1596, and to erect the Provinces into an
independent sovereignty under their joint rule. The instrument was
executed in May; Philip died in September; the marriage took place in
November. In case the marriage should have no issue, the sovereignty of
the Netherlands was to revert to the king of Spain. The archdukes (such
was their official title) did not make their _joyeuse entrée_ into
Brussels until the close of 1599. The step was taken too late to effect
a reconciliation with the rebel provinces. Peace overtures were made,
but the conditions were unacceptable. The States-General never seriously
considered the question of giving in their submission to the new
sovereigns. The traders of Holland and Zeeland had thriven mightily by
the war. Their ships had penetrated to the East and West Indies, and
were to be found in every sea. The year 1600 saw the foundation of the
Chartered East India Company (see DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY). The
question of freedom of trade with the Indies had become no less vital to
the Dutch people than freedom of religious worship. To both these
concessions Spanish policy was irreconcilably opposed.


  The Battle of Nieuport.

  Siege of Ostend.

Dunkirk, as a nest of freebooters who preyed upon Dutch commerce, was
made the objective of a daring offensive campaign in 1600 by the orders
of the States-General under the influence of Oldenbarneveldt in the
teeth of the opposition of the stadholders Maurice and William Louis. By
a bold march across Flanders, Maurice reached Nieuport on the 1st of
July, and proceeded to invest it. The archduke Albert, however, followed
hard on his steps with an army of seasoned troops, and Maurice, with his
communications cut, was forced to fight for his existence. A desperate
combat took place on the dunes between forces of equal strength and
valour. Only by calling up his last reserves did victory declare for
Maurice. The archduke had to fly for his life. Five thousand Spaniards
were killed; seven hundred taken, and one hundred and five standards. To
have thus worsted the dreaded Spanish infantry in open fight was a great
triumph for the States troops and their general, but it was barren of
results. Maurice refused to run further risks and led back his army to
Holland. For the following three years all the energies alike of the
archdukes and the States-General were concentrated on the siege of
Ostend (15th of July 1601-20th of Sept. 1604), the solitary possession
of the Dutch in Flanders. The heroic obstinacy of the defence was
equalled by the perseverance of the attack, and there was a vast
expenditure, especially on the side of the Spaniards, of blood and
treasure. At last when reduced to a heap of ruins, Ostend fell before
the resolution of Ambrosio de Spinola, a Genoese banker, to whom the
command of the besiegers had been entrusted (see SPINOLA). A month
before the surrender, however, another and more commodious seaport,
Sluis, had fallen into the possession of the States army under Maurice,
and thus the loss of Ostend was discounted.


  Negotiations for Peace.

  The Twelve Years' Truce.

Spinola proved himself to be a general of a high order, and the
campaigns of 1606 and 1607 resolved themselves into a duel of skill
between him and Maurice without much advantage accruing to either side.
But the archdukes' treasury was now empty, and their credit exhausted;
both sides were weary of fighting, and serious negotiations for peace
were set on foot. The disposition of the Spaniards to make concessions
was further quickened by the destruction of their fleet at Gibraltar by
the Dutch admiral Heemskerk, (April 1607). But there were many
difficulties in the way. The peace party in the United Provinces headed
by Oldenbarneveldt was opposed by the stadholders Maurice and William
Louis, the great majority of the military and naval officers, the
Calvinist preachers and many leading merchants. The Spaniards on their
side were obdurate on the subjects of freedom of trade in the Indies and
of freedom of religious worship. At last, after the negotiations had
been repeatedly on the point of breaking off, a compromise was effected
by the mediation of the envoys of France and England. On the 9th of
April 1609 a truce for twelve years was agreed upon. On all points the
Dutch demands were granted. The treaty was concluded with the Provinces,
"in the quality of free States over whom the archdukes made no
pretentions." The _uti possidetis_ as regards territorial possession was
recognized. Neither the granting of freedom of worship to Roman
Catholics nor the word "Indies" was mentioned, but in a secret treaty
King Philip undertook to place no hindrance in the way of Dutch trade,
wherever carried on.


  Theological strife in Holland.

  Arminius and Gomarus.

  Remonstrants and Contra-Remonstrants.

  Waard-gelders.

  Oldenbarneveldt executed.

One of the immediate results of this triumph of his policy was the
increase of Oldenbarneveldt's influence and authority in the government
of the Republic. But though Maurice and his other opponents had
reluctantly yielded to the advocate's skilful diplomacy and persuasive
arguments, a soreness remained between the statesman and the stadholder
which was destined never to be healed. The country was no sooner
relieved from the pressure of external war than it was torn by internal
discords. After a brief interference in the affairs of Germany, where
the intricate question of the Cleves-Jülich succession was already
preparing the way for the Thirty Years' War, the United Provinces became
immersed in a hot and absorbing theological struggle with which were
mixed up important political issues. The province of Holland was the
arena in which it was fought out. Two professors of theology at Leiden,
Jacobus Arminius (see ARMINIUS) and Franciscus Gomarus, became the
leaders of two parties, who differed from one another upon certain
tenets of the abstruse doctrine of predestination. Gomarus supported the
orthodox Calvinist view; Arminius assailed it. The Arminians appealed to
the States of Holland (1610) in a Remonstrance in which their
theological position was defined. They were henceforth known as
"Remonstrants"; their opponents were styled "Contra-Remonstrants." The
advocate and the States of Holland took sides with the Remonstrants,
Maurice and the majority of the States-General (four provinces out of
seven) supported the Contra-Remonstrants. It became a question of the
extent of the rights of sovereign princes under the Union. The
States-General wished to summon a national synod, the States of Holland
refused their assent, and made levies of local militia (_waard-gelders_)
for the maintenance of order. The States-General (9th of July 1618) took
up the challenge, and the prince of Orange, as captain-general, was
placed at the head of a commission to go in the first place to Utrecht,
which supported Oldenbarneveldt, and then to the various cities of
Holland to insist on the disbanding of the _waard-gelders_. On the side
of Maurice, whom the army obeyed, was the power of the sword. The
opposition collapsed; the recalcitrant provincial states were purged;
and the leaders of the party of state rights--the advocate himself, Hugo
de Groot (see GROTIUS), pensionary of Rotterdam, and Hoogerbeets,
pensionary of Leiden, were arrested and thrown into prison. The whole
proceedings were illegal, and the illegality was consummated by the
prisoners being brought before a special tribunal of 24 judges, nearly
all of whom were personal enemies of the accused. The trial was merely a
preliminary to condemnation. The advocate was sentenced to death, and
executed (13th of May 1619) in the Binnenhof at the Hague. The sentences
of Grotius and Hoogerbeets were commuted to perpetual imprisonment.


  Synod of Dort.

Meanwhile the National Synod had been summoned and had met at Dort on
the 13th of November 1618. One hundred members, many of them foreign
divines, composed this great assembly, who after 154 sittings gave their
seal to the doctrines of the Netherlands Confession and the Heidelberg
Catechism. The Arminians were condemned, their preachers deprived, and
the Remonstrant party placed under a ban (6th of May 1619).


  Renewal of the war.

  Death of Maurice.

  The period of Frederick Henry.

  The East and West India Companies.

In 1621 the Twelve Years' Truce came to an end, and war broke out once
more with Spain. Maurice, after the death of Oldenbarneveldt, was
supreme in the land, but he missed sorely the wise counsels of the old
statesman whose tragic end he had been so largely instrumental in
bringing about. He and Spinola found themselves once more at the head of
the armies in the field, but the health of the stadholder was
undermined, and his military genius was under a cloud. Deeply mortified
by his failure to relieve Breda, which was blockaded by Spinola, Maurice
fell seriously ill, and died on the 23rd of April 1625. He was succeeded
in his dignities by his younger brother Frederick Henry (see FREDERICK
HENRY, prince of Orange), who was appointed stadholder of Holland,
Zeeland, Utrecht, Overyssel and Gelderland, captain and adjutant-general
of the Union and head of the Council of State. Frederick Henry was as a
general scarcely inferior to Maurice, and a far more able statesman. The
moderation of his views and his conciliatory temper did much to heal the
wounds left by civil and religious strife, and during his time the power
and influence of the stadholderate attained their highest point. Such
was his popularity and the confidence he inspired that in 1631 his great
offices of state were declared hereditary, in favour of his
five-year-old son, by the _Acte de Survivance_. He did much to justify
the trust placed in him, for the period of Frederick Henry is the most
brilliant in the history of the Dutch Republic. During his time the East
India Company, which had founded the town of Batavia in Java as their
administrative capital, under a succession of able governor-generals
almost monopolized the trade of the entire Orient, made many conquests
and established a network of factories and trade posts stretching from
the Cape of Good Hope to Japan (see DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY). The West
India Company, erected in 1621, though framed on the same model, aimed
rather at waging war on the enemies' commerce than in developing their
own. Their fleets for some years brought vast booty into the company's
coffers. The Mexican treasure ships fell into the hands of Piet Heyn,
the boldest of their admirals, in 1628; and they were able to send
armies across the ocean, conquer a large part of Brazil, and set up a
flourishing Dutch dominion in South America (see Dutch West India
Company). The operations of these two great chartered companies occupy a
place among memorable events of Frederick Henry's stadholderate; they
are therefore mentioned here, but for further details the special
articles must be consulted.


  Policy of Frederick Henry.

When Frederick Henry stepped into his brother's place, he found the
United Provinces in a position of great danger and of critical
importance. The Protestants of Germany were on the point of being
crushed by the forces of the Austrian Habsburgs and the Catholic League.
It lay with the Netherlands to create a diversion in the favour of their
co-religionists by keeping the forces of the Spanish Habsburgs fully
occupied. But to do so with their flank exposed to imperialist attack
from the east, was a task involving grave risks and possible disaster.
In these circumstances, Frederick Henry saw the necessity of securing
French aid. It was secured by the skilful diplomacy of Francis van
Aarssens (q.v.) but on hard conditions. Richelieu required the
assistance of the Dutch fleet to enable him to overcome the resistance
of the Huguenot stronghold of La Rochelle. The far-sighted stadholder,
despite popular opposition, by his powerful personal influence induced
the States-General to grant the naval aid, and thus obtain the French
alliance on which the safety of the republic depended.


  Sieges of Hertogenbosch and Maestricht.

  Death of the Infanta Isabel.

The first great military success of Frederick Henry was in 1629. His
capture of Hertogenbosch (Bois-le-duc), hitherto supposed to be
impregnable, after a siege of five months was a triumph of engineering
skill. Wesel also was taken by surprise this same year. In 1631 a large
Spanish fleet carrying a picked force of 6000 soldiers, for the invasion
of Zeeland, was completely destroyed by the Dutch in the Slaak and the
troops made prisoners. The campaign of the following year was made
memorable by the siege of Maestricht. This important frontier town lying
on both sides of the river Meuse was taken by the prince of Orange in
the teeth of two relieving armies, Spanish and Imperialist, whose
united forces were far larger than his own. This brilliant feat of arms
was the prelude to peace negotiations, which led to a lengthy exchange
of diplomatic notes. No agreement, however, was reached. The death of
the Infanta Isabel in November 1633, and the reversion of the
Netherlands to the sovereignty of the king of Spain, rendered all
efforts to end the war, for the time being, fruitless.


  Alliance with France.

  Capture of Breda.

  Battle of the Downs.

At this juncture a strengthening of the French alliance seemed to the
prince not merely expedient, but necessary. He had to contend against a
strong peace party in Holland headed by the pensionary Pauw, but with
the aid of the diplomatic skill of Aarssens all opposition was overcome.
Pauw was replaced as pensionary by Jacob Cats, and the objections of
Richelieu were met and satisfied. A defensive and offensive alliance
with France was concluded early in 1635 against the king of Spain, and
each party bound itself not to make a peace or truce without the assent
of the other. A large French force was sent into the Netherlands and
placed under the command of the prince of Orange. The military results
of the alliance were during the first two campaigns inconsiderable. The
Cardinal Infant Ferdinand had been appointed governor of the
Netherlands, and he proved himself an excellent general, and there were
dissensions in the councils of the allies. In 1637 the stadholder was
able to add to his fame as an invincible besieger of cities. His failure
to relieve Breda had hastened the death of Maurice. It fell in 1625 into
the hands of Spinola after a blockade of eleven months; it was now
retaken by Frederick Henry after a siege of eleven weeks, in the face of
immense difficulties. The reluctance of the States of Holland, and of
Amsterdam in particular, to grant adequate supplies caused the campaigns
of 1638 and 1639 to be in the main defensive and dilatory. An attempted
attack on Antwerp was foiled by the vigilance of the Cardinal Infant. A
body of 6000 men under Count William of Nassau were surprised and
utterly cut to pieces. The year 1639, which had begun with abortive
negotiations, and in which the activity of the stadholder had been much
hampered by ill-health, was not to end, however, without a signal
triumph of the Dutch arms, but it was to be on sea and not on land. A
magnificent Spanish armada consisting of 77 vessels, manned by 24,000
soldiers and sailors under the command of Admiral Oquendo, were sent to
the Channel in September with orders to drive the Dutch from the narrow
seas and land a large body of troops at Dunkirk. Attacked by a small
Dutch fleet under Admiral Marten Tromp, the Spaniards sheltered
themselves under the English Downs by the side of an English squadron.
Tromp kept watch over them until he had received large reinforcements,
and then (21st of October) boldly attacked them as they lay in English
waters. Oquendo himself with seven vessels escaped under cover of a fog;
all the rest of the fleet was destroyed. This crushing victory assured
to the Dutch the command of the sea during the rest of the war. The
naval power of Spain never in fact recovered from the blow.


  English and Dutch Commercial Rivalry.

  Marriage of William and Mary.

The triumph of Tromp had, however, a bad effect on public feeling in
England. The circumstances under which the battle of the Downs was won
were galling to the pride of the English people, and intensified the
growing unfriendliness between two nations, one of whom possessed and
the other claimed supremacy upon the seas. The prosperity of the
world-wide Dutch commerce was looked upon with eyes of jealousy across
the Channel. Disputes had been constantly recurring between Dutch and
English traders in the East Indies and elsewhere, and the seeds were
already sown of that stern rivalry which was to issue in a series of
fiercely contested wars. But in 1639-1640 civil discords in England
stood in the way of a strong foreign policy, and the adroit Aarssens was
able so "to sweeten the bitterness of the pill" as to bring King Charles
not merely to "overlook the scandal of the Downs," but to consent to the
marriage of the princess royal with William, the only son of the
stadholder. The wedding of the youthful couple (aged respectively 14 and
10 years) took place on the 12th of May 1641 (see WILLIAM II., PRINCE OF
ORANGE). This royal alliance gave added influence and position to the
house of Orange-Nassau.


  Changed relations of the United Provinces with France and Spain.

About this time various causes brought about a change in the feelings
which had hitherto prevented any possibility of peace between Spain and
the United Netherlands. The revolt of Portugal (December 1640) weakened
the Spanish power, and involved the loss to Spain of the Portuguese
colonies. But it was in the Portuguese colonies that the conquests of
the Dutch East and West India Companies had been made, and the question
of the Indies as between Netherlander and Spaniard assumed henceforth
quite a different complexion. Aarssens, the strongest advocate of the
French alliance, passed away in 1641, and his death was quickly followed
by those of Richelieu and Louis XIII. The victory of Condé at Rocroy
opened the eyes of Frederick Henry to the danger of a French conquest of
the Belgian provinces; and, feeling his health growing enfeebled, the
prince became anxious before his death to obtain peace and security for
his country by means of an accommodation with Spain. In 1643
negotiations were opened which, after many delays and in the face of
countless difficulties, were at length, four years later, to terminate
successfully.


  Death of Frederick Henry--his last campaigns.

The course of the _pourparlers_ would doubtless have run more smoothly
but for the infirm health and finally the death of the prince of Orange
himself. Frederick Henry expired on the 14th of March 1647, and was
buried by the side of his father and brother in Delft. In his last
campaigns he had completed with signal success the task which, as a
military commander, he had set himself,--of giving to the United
Provinces a thoroughly defensible frontier of barrier fortresses. In
1644 he captured Sas de Ghent; in 1645 Hulst. That portion of Flanders
which skirts the south bank of the Scheldt thus passed into the
possession of the States, and with it the complete control of all the
waterways to the sea.


  The Peace of Münster.

  Complete triumph of the Dutch.

The death of the great stadholder did not, however, long delay the
carrying out of the policy on which he had set his heart, of concluding
a separate peace with Spain behind the back of France, notwithstanding
the compact of 1635 with that power. A provisional draft of a treaty had
already been drawn up before the demise of Frederick Henry, and
afterwards, despite the strenuous opposition of the new prince of Orange
(who, under the _Acte de Survivance_, had inherited all his father's
offices and dignities) and of two of the provinces, Zeeland and Utrecht,
the negotiations were by the powerful support of the States of Holland
and of the majority of the States-General, quickly brought to a
successful issue. The treaty was signed at Münster on the 30th of
January 1648. It was a peace practically dictated by the Dutch, and
involved a complete surrender of everything for which Spain had so long
fought. The United Provinces were recognized as free and independent,
and Spain dropped all her claims; the _uti possidetis_ basis was adopted
in respect to all conquests; the Scheldt was declared entirely closed--a
clause which meant the ruin of Antwerp for the profit of Amsterdam; the
right to trade in the East and West Indies was granted, and all the
conquests made by the Dutch from the Portuguese were ceded to them; the
two contracting parties agreed to respect and keep clear of each other's
trading grounds; each was to pay in the ports of the other only such
tolls as natives paid. Thus, triumphantly for the revolted provinces,
the eighty years' war came to an end. At this moment the republic of the
United Netherlands touched, perhaps, the topmost point of its prosperity
and greatness.


  The form of Government in the United Provinces.

  The position of Holland and Amsterdam.

No sooner was peace concluded than bitter disputes arose between the
provincial States of Holland and the prince of Orange, supported by the
other six provinces, upon the question of the disbanding of the military
forces. William was a young man (he was twenty-one at the time of his
father's death) of the highest abilities and of soaring ambition. He
was totally opposed to the peace with Spain, and wished to bring about a
speedy resumption of the war. With this view he entered into secret
negotiations for a French alliance which, as far as can be gathered from
extant records, had for its objects the conquest and partition by the
allies of the Belgic provinces, and joint action in England on behalf of
Charles II. As a preliminary step William aimed at a centralization of
the powers of government in the United Provinces in his own person. He
saw clearly the inherent defects of the existing federation, and he
wished to remedy a system which was so complicated as to be at times
almost unworkable. The States-General were but the delegates, the
stadholders the servants, of a number of sovereign provinces, each of
which had different historical traditions and a different form of
government, and one of which--Holland--in wealth and importance
outweighed the other six taken together. Between the States of Holland
and the States-General there was constant jealousy and friction. And yet
strangely enough the States of Holland themselves were not really
representative of the people of that province, but only of the limited,
self-coopting burgher aristocracies of certain towns, each of which with
its rights and liberties had a quasi-independence of its own. Foremost
among these was the great commercial capital, Amsterdam, whose rich
burgher patriciate did not scruple on occasion to defy the authority of
the States-General, the stadholder and even of the States of Holland
themselves.


  The position in 1650.

  The question of disbanding the forces.

  The Prisoners of Loevenstein.

  Sudden Death of William II.

The States of Holland had, in the years that followed the truce of 1609,
measured their strength with that of the States-General, but the issue
had been decided conclusively in favour of the federal authority by the
sword of Maurice. The party and the principles of Oldenbarneveldt,
however, though crushed, were not extinguished, and though Frederick
Henry by his personal influence and prudent statesmanship had been able
to surmount the difficulties placed in his way, he had had to encounter
at times strong opposition, and had been much hampered in the conduct
both of his campaigns and of his policy. With the conclusion of the
peace of Münster and the death of the veteran stadholder the struggle
for predominance in the Union between the Orange-federalist and the
Hollander States-rights parties was certain to be renewed. The moment
seemed to be favourable for the assertion of provincial sovereignty
because of the youth and inexperience of the new prince of Orange. But
William II., though little more than a boy, was endowed with singular
capacity and great strength of will, and he was intent upon ambitious
projects, the scope of which has been already indicated. The collision
came, which was perhaps inevitable. The States-General in the disbanding
of the forces wished to retain the _cadres_ of the regiments complete in
case of a renewal of the war. The States of Holland objected, and,
although the army was a federal force, gave orders for the general
disbanding of the troops in the pay of the province. The officers
refused to obey any orders but those of the council of State of the
Union. The provincial states, on their part, threatened them with loss
of pay. At this juncture the States-General, as in 1618, appointed a
commission headed by the prince of Orange to visit the towns of Holland,
and provide for the maintenance of order and the upholding of the Union.
Both parties put themselves in the wrong, the province by refusing its
quota to the federal war-sheet, the generality by dealing with
individual towns instead of with the states of the province. The
visitation was a failure. The town councils, though most of them willing
to receive William in his capacity as stadholder, declined to give a
hearing to the commission. Amsterdam refused absolutely to admit either
stadholder or commission. In these circumstances William resolved upon
strong measures. Six leading members of the States of Holland were
seized (30th of July 1650) and imprisoned in Loevenstein Castle, and
troops under the command of William Frederick, stadholder of Friesland,
were sent to surprise Amsterdam. But the town council had been warned,
and the gates were shut and guarded. The _coup d'état_ nevertheless was
completely successful. The anti-Orange party, remembering the fate of
Oldenbarneveldt, were stricken with panic at the imprisonment of their
leaders. The States of Holland and the town council of Amsterdam gave in
their submission. The prisoners were released, and public thanks were
rendered to the prince by the various provincial states for "his great
trouble, care and prudence." William appeared to be master of the
situation but his plans for future action were never to be carried into
effect. Busily engaged in secret negotiations with France, he had
retired to his hunting seat at Dieren, when he fell ill with smallpox on
the 27th of October. A few days later he expired at the Hague (6th of
November), aged but twenty-four years. A week after his death, his
widow, the princess Mary of England, gave birth to a son who, as William
III., was to give added lustre to the house of Orange.


  The Grand Assembly.

The anti-Orange particularist party, which had just suffered decisive
defeat, now lifted up its head again. At the instance of Holland a Grand
Assembly was summoned, consisting of delegates from all the provinces,
to consider the state of the Union, the army and religion. It met at the
Hague on the 18th of January 1651. The conclusions arrived at were that
all sovereign powers resided in the provinces, and that to them
severally, each within its own borders, belonged the control of the
military forces and of religion. There was to be no captain-general of
the Union. All the provinces, except Friesland and Groningen, which
remained true to William Frederick of Nassau-Dietz, agreed to leave the
office of stadholder vacant. The practical result was the establishment
of the hegemony of Holland in the Union, and the handing over of the
control of its policy to the patrician oligarchies who formed the town
councils of that province.


  The office of Grand Pensionary.

  John de Witt.

Such a system would have been unworkable but for the fact that with the
revival of the political principles of Oldenbarneveldt, there was found
a statesman of commanding ability to fill the office in which the famous
advocate of Holland had for so many years been "minister of all affairs"
in the forming state. The title of advocate had indeed been replaced by
that of grand pensionary (_Raad Pensionaris_), but the duties assigned
to the office remained the same, the only change of importance being
that the advocate was appointed for life, the grand pensionary for a
term of five years. The grand pensionary was nominally the paid servant
of the States of Holland, but his functions were such as to permit a man
of talent and industry in the stadholderless republic to exercise
control in all departments of policy and of government. All
correspondence passed through his hands, he wrote all despatches,
conducted the debates over which he presided, kept the minutes, drafted
the resolutions, and was _ex officio_ the leader and spokesman of the
delegates who represented the Province of Holland in the States-General.
Such was the position to which John de Witt, a young man of twenty-eight
years of age, belonging to one of the most influential patrician
families of Dordrecht (his father, Jacob de Witt, was one of the
prisoners of Loevenstein) was appointed in 1653. From that date until
1672 it was his brain and his will that guided the affairs of the United
Netherlands. He was supreme in the States of Holland, and Holland was
dominant in the States-General (see JOHN DE WITT).


  Disputes between English and Dutch Traders.

  Naval struggle with England.

  Peace of Westminster.

  Act of Seclusion.

The death of William II. had left the Dutch republic at the very highest
point of commercial prosperity, based upon an almost universal carrying
trade, and the strictest system of monopoly. Friction and disputes had
frequently arisen between the Dutch and the English traders in different
parts of the world, and especially in the East Indies, culminating in
the so-called "Massacre of Amboyna"; and the strained relations between
the two nations would, but for the civil discords in England, have
probably led to active hostilities during the reign of Charles I. With
the accession of Cromwell to power the breach was widened. A strong
party in the Provinces were unfriendly to the Commonwealth, and insults
were offered in the Hague to the English envoys. The parliament replied
by passing the memorable Navigation Act (Oct. 1651), which struck a
deadly blow at the Dutch carrying trade. It was the beginning of that
struggle for supremacy upon the seas which was to end, after three great
wars, in the defeat of the weaker country. The first English war lasted
from May 1652 to April 1654, and within fifteen months twelve sea-fights
took place, which were desperately contested and with varying success.
The leaders on both sides--the Netherlanders Tromp (killed in action on
the 10th of August 1653) and de Ruyter, the Englishmen Blake and
Monk--covered themselves with equal glory. But the losses to Dutch trade
were so serious that negotiations for peace were set on foot by the
burgher party of Holland, and Cromwell being not unwilling, an agreement
was reached in the Treaty of Westminster, signed on the 5th of April
1654. The Dutch conceded the striking of the flag and compensation for
English claims against the Dutch in the East Indies and elsewhere. The
act of Seclusion, which barred the young prince of Orange from holding
the office of stadholder and of captain-general, had been one of the
conditions on which Cromwell had insisted. The consent of the
States-General was refused, but by a secret treaty Holland, under the
influence of de Witt, accepted it in their own name as a sovereign
province. The popular feeling throughout the United Provinces was
strongly antagonistic to the act of Seclusion, by which at the dictation
of a foreign power a ban of exclusion was pronounced against the house
of Orange-Nassau, to which the republic owed its independence.


  War with Sweden.

In 1658, the States-General interfered to save the Danes from Charles
Gustavus of Sweden. In 1659 a treaty of peace was concluded between
France, England and the United Provinces with a view to the settlement
of the Dano-Swedish question, which ended in securing a northern peace
in 1660, and in keeping the Baltic open for Dutch trade. The foreign
affairs of the republic were throughout these years ably conducted by de
Witt, and the position of Dutch colonial expansion in the Eastern seas
made secure and firm. An advantageous peace with Portugal was made in
1662.


  Second English war.

  Peace of Breda.

  The Triple Alliance.

Meanwhile the Commonwealth in England had been followed in 1660 by the
restoration of the monarchy. To conciliate the new king the act of
Seclusion was repealed, and the education of the young prince of Orange
was undertaken by the States of Holland under the superintendence of de
Witt. But Charles owed a grudge against Holland, and he was determined
to gratify it. The Navigation Act was re-enacted, old grievances
revived, and finally the Dutch colony of New Netherland was seized in
time of peace (1664) and its capital, New Amsterdam, renamed New York.
War broke out in 1665, and was marked by a series of terrific battles.
On the 13th of June 1665 the Dutch admiral Obdam was completely defeated
by the English under the duke of York. The four days' fight (11th-14th
of June 1666) ended in a hard-won victory by de Ruyter over Monk, but
later in this year (August 3rd) de Ruyter was beaten by Ayscue and
forced to take refuge in the Dutch harbours. He had his revenge, for on
the 22nd of June 1667 the Dutch fleet under de Ruyter and Cornelius de
Witt made their way up the Medway as far as Chatham and burnt the
English fleet as it lay at anchor. Negotiations between the two
countries were already in progress and this event hastened a settlement.
The peace of Breda was signed (31st of July 1667) on terms on the whole
favourable to the Dutch. New Netherland was retained by England in
exchange for Suriname. In the following year by the efforts of Sir
William Temple the much vaunted Triple Alliance was concluded between
Great Britain, the United Provinces and Sweden to check the ambitious
designs of Louis XIV. The instability of Charles II., who sold himself
to Louis by the treaty of Dover (1670), speedily rendered it of no
effect, and left the United Provinces to face unaided the vengeance of
the French king.


  The French invasion.

  William III. Stadholder and Captain-general.

  The third English war.

  Murder of the Brothers de Witt.

From 1668 to 1672 Louis made ready to destroy the Dutch, and so well had
his diplomacy served him that they were left without a friend in Europe.
In 1672 the storm broke: the English without a declaration of war tried,
unsuccessfully, to intercept the Dutch Mediterranean fleet; and the
French at the same time set forth in apparently irresistible strength to
overcome the despised traders of Holland. The States were ill-prepared
on land though their fleet was strong and ready; party spirit had become
intensely bitter as the prince of Orange (see WILLIAM III.) grew to
man's estate, and the ruling burgher party, knowing how great was the
popularity of William, especially in the army, had purposely neglected
their land forces. Town after town fell before the French armies, and to
de Witt and his supporters there seemed to be nothing left but to make
submission and accept the best terms that Louis XIV. would grant. The
young prince alone rose to the height of the occasion, and set his face
against such cowardly counsels, and he had the enthusiastic support of
the great majority of the people. Amidst general acclamation William was
elected stadholder, first of Zeeland, then of Holland, and was appointed
captain-general of the Union (June 1672). Meanwhile the fleet under de
Ruyter had encountered a combined English and French force in Solebay
(7th of June), and after a desperate fight, in which the French had but
slackly supported their allies, had more then held its own. William, in
his turn, with an army wholly insufficient to meet the French in the
open field, was able to persuade his countrymen to open the dikes and by
flooding the land to prevent its occupation by the enemy. The courage
and resourcefulness of their youthful leader inspired the people to make
heroic sacrifices for their independence, but unfortunately such was the
revulsion of feeling against the grand pensionary, that he himself and
his brother Cornelius were torn in pieces by an infuriated mob at the
Hague (20th of August).


  Peace of Westminster.

  The war with France.

  Death of de Ruyter.

  Peace of Nymwegen.

William, now supreme in the States, while on land struggling with
chequered success against the superior forces of the French, strove by
his diplomacy, and not in vain, to gain allies for the republic. The
growing power of France caused alarm to her neighbours, and Sweden,
Denmark, Spain and the emperor lent a willing ear to the persuasions of
the stadholder and were ready to aid his efforts to curb the ambition of
Louis. On sea in 1673 de Ruyter, in a series of fiercely contested
battles, successfully maintained his strenuous and dogged conflict
against the united English and French fleets. In England the war was
exceedingly unpopular, and public opinion forced Charles II. to conclude
peace. The treaty of Westminster, which provided that all conquests
should be restored, was signed on the 14th of February 1674. The French
now found themselves threatened on many sides, and were reduced to the
defensive. The prince, however, suffered a defeat at Seneff, and was in
1674 prevented from invading France. The war, nevertheless, during the
following years was on the whole advantageous to the Dutch. In 1676 a
Dutch squadron fought two hard but indecisive battles with a superior
French force, off Stromboli (8th of January) and off Messina (22nd of
April). In the last-named fight Admiral de Ruyter was badly wounded and
died (29th of April). In 1677 negotiations for peace went on, and were
forwarded by the marriage, at the close of the year, of William of
Orange with his cousin the princess Mary, daughter of the duke of York.
At last (August 1678) a peace was concluded at Nymwegen by which the
Dutch secured the integrity and independence of their country. All the
conquests made by the French were given up.


  League of Augsburg.

  Revolution of 1688.

  The Grand Alliance.

  William and Heinsius.

The aggressive policy of Louis XIV. in the years that followed the peace
of Nymwegen enabled William to lay the foundations of the famous
confederacy which changed the whole aspect of European politics. The
league of Augsburg (1686), which followed the revocation of the edict of
Nantes, placed Orange at the head of the resistance to French
domination. The league was formed by the emperor, Spain, Sweden, the
United Provinces and by several German states. In England William and
Mary were looked upon as the natural successors to the throne on the
death of James II., and William kept up close relations with the
malcontents in Church and State, who disliked the arbitrary and
papistical policy of his father-in-law. But with the birth of a prince
of Wales the situation was changed, and William determined to intervene
actively in English affairs. His opportunity came when Louis XIV.,
having declared war against the Empire, had invaded the Palatinate. The
opposition of Amsterdam to an English expedition, in the absence of
danger from the side of France, was overcome. The Revolution of 1688
ensued, and England became, under William's strong rule, the chief
member of the Great Coalition against French aggression. In the Grand
Alliance of 1689-1690 he was accused of sacrificing Dutch to English
interests, but there can be no doubt that William loved his native
country better than his adopted one, and was a true patriot. If the
United Provinces suffered in prosperity through their close relations
with and subordination to Great Britain during a long series of years,
it was due not to the policy of William, but to the fact that the
territory of the republic was small, open to attack by great military
powers, and devoid of natural resources. The stadholder's authority and
popularity continued unimpaired, despite of his frequent absences in
England. He had to contend, like his predecessors, with the perennial
hostility of the burgher aristocracy of Amsterdam, and at times with
other refractory town councils, but his power in the States during his
life was almost autocratic. His task was rendered lighter by the
influence and ability of Heinsius, the grand pensionary of Holland, a
wise and prudent statesman, whose tact and moderation in dealing with
the details and difficulties of internal administration were
conspicuous. The stadholder gave to Heinsius his fullest confidence, and
the pensionary on his part loyally supported William's policy and placed
his services ungrudgingly at his disposal (see HEINSIUS).


  War with France.

  Peace of Ryswick.

  Death of William III.

The conduct of the war by the allies was far from successful. In 1690
(July 1st) Waldeck was defeated by Luxemburg at Fleurus; and the
Anglo-Dutch fleet was so severely handled by Tourville (10th July) off
Beachy Head that for two years the command of the sea remained in the
possession of the French. A striking victory off Cape la Hogue (29th of
May 1692) restored, however, supremacy to the allies. On land the
combined armies fared ill. In 1691 the French took Mons, and in 1692
Namur, in which year after a hard-fought battle William was defeated at
Steenkirk and in 1693 at Neerwinden. But William's military genius never
shone so brightly as in the hour of defeat; he never knew what it was to
be beaten, and in 1695 his recapture of Namur was a real triumph of
skill and resolution. At last, after long negotiations, exhaustion
compelled the French king to sign the peace of Ryswick in 1697, in which
William was recognized by France as king of England, the Dutch obtaining
a favourable commercial treaty, and the right to garrison the Netherland
barrier towns. This peace, however, did no more than afford a breathing
space during which Louis XIV. prepared for a renewal of the struggle.
The great question of the Spanish succession was looming in all men's
eyes, and though partition treaties between the interested powers were
concluded in 1698 and 1700, it is practically certain that the French
king held himself little bound by them. In 1701 he elbowed the Dutch
troops out of the barrier towns; he defied England by recognizing James
III. on the death of his father; and it was clear that another war was
imminent when William III. died in 1702.


  Stadholderless Government.

In 1672 the stadholdership in five provinces had been made hereditary in
the family of the prince of Orange, but William died childless, and the
republican burgher party was strong enough to prevent the posts being
filled up. William had wished that his cousin, Count John William Friso
of Nassau, stadholder of Friesland and Groningen, should succeed him,
but his extreme youth and the jealousy of Holland against a "Frisian"
stood in the way of his election. The result was a want of unity in
counsel and action among the provinces, Friesland and Groningen standing
aloof from the other five, while Holland and Zeeland had to pay for
their predominance in the Union by being left to bear the bulk of the
charges. Fortunately there was no break of continuity in the policy of
the States, the chief conduct of affairs remaining, until his death in
1720, in the capable and tried hands of the grand pensionary Heinsius,
who had at his side a number of exceptionally experienced and wise
counsellors--among these Simon van Slingeland, for forty-five years
(1680-1725) secretary of the council of state, and afterwards grand
pensionary of Holland (1727-1736), and Francis Fagel, who succeeded his
father in 1699 as recorder (_Griffier_) of the States-General, and held
that important office for fifty years. The tradition of William III. was
thus preserved, but with the loss of the firm hand and strong
personality of that great ruler the United Provinces were relegated to a
subordinate place in the councils of the nations, and with the gradual
decadence of its navy the Dutch republic ceased to rank as a power to be
reckoned with.


  War of the Spanish Succession.

  Treaty of Utrecht.

In the War of the Spanish Succession, which broke out in 1702, Dutch
troops took part in the campaigns of Marlborough and Eugene, and had
their share in winning the great victories of Blenheim (1704), Ramillies
(1706), Oudenarde (1708) and Malplaquet (1709). At the peace of Utrecht,
concluded in 1713, the interests of the Netherlands were but
half-heartedly supported by the English plenipotentiaries, and the
French were able to obtain far more favourable terms than they had the
power to exact. But they were compelled to abandon all claim to the
Spanish Netherlands, which were formally handed over to the United
Provinces, as trustees, to be by them, after the conclusion of a
satisfactory barrier treaty, given up to the emperor, and be known
henceforth as the Austrian Netherlands. The peace of Utrecht taught the
Dutch that the great powers around them, while ready to use their
resources for war, would not scruple to abandon them when they wanted
peace; they, therefore, determined henceforth to stand clear of all
foreign complications. With 1713 the influence of the United Netherlands
upon European politics comes almost to an end.


  Peace policy.

  Ostend East India Company.

  War of the Austrian Succession.

  Revolution of 1747.

  William IV.

The ruling party in the States took an active part in securing George I.
on the throne of England; and they succeeded in coming to an agreement
both with France and with Austria over the difficulties connected with
the barrier towns, and were thus able in tranquillity to concentrate
their energies upon furthering the interests of their trade. Under the
close oligarchical rule of the patrician families, who filled all
offices in the town councils, the States of Holland, in which the
influence of Amsterdam was dominant, and which in their turn exercised
predominance in the States-General, became more and more an assembly of
"shopkeepers" whose policy was to maintain peace for the sake of the
commerce on which they thrived. For thirty years after the peace of
Utrecht the Provinces kept themselves free from entanglement in the
quarrels of their neighbours. The foundation of the Ostend East India
Company (see OSTEND COMPANY), however, by the emperor Joseph II. in
1723, at once aroused the strong opposition of the Amsterdam merchants
who looked upon this invasion of their monopoly with alarm, and declared
that the Ostend Company had been set up in contravention to the terms of
Article V. of the treaty of Münster. In maintaining this position the
States had the support of England, but it was not until 1731 that they
succeeded in obtaining the suppression of the company by consenting to
guarantee the Pragmatic Sanction of Charles VI. This step led in 1743 to
their being involved in the War of the Austrian Succession, and thus
being drawn into hostilities with France, which invaded the barrier
country. In 1744 they formed with Great Britain, Austria and Saxony, a
Quadruple Alliance, and put a contingent of troops in the field. The
Dutch took an active part in the campaign of 1745 and suffered heavily
at Fontenoy, after which battle Marshal Saxe overran the Austrian
Netherlands. The French captured all the barrier towns, and in 1747
entered Dutch Flanders and made an easy conquest. The United Provinces,
as in 1672, seemed to lie at the mercy of their enemies, and as in that
eventful year, popular feeling broke down the opposition of the burgher
oligarchies, and turned to William IV., prince of Orange, as the saviour
of the state. John William Friso had died young in 1711, leaving a
posthumous son, William Charles Henry Friso, who was duly elected
stadholder by the two provinces, Friesland and Groningen, which were
always faithful to his family, and in 1722 he became also, though with
very limited powers, stadholder of Gelderland. The other provinces,
however, under pressure from Holland, bound themselves not to elect
stadholders, and they refused to revive the office of captain-general of
the Union. By the conquest of Dutch Flanders Zeeland was threatened, and
the states of that province, in which there were always many Orange
partisans, elected (April 1747) William stadholder, captain-general and
admiral of Zeeland. The example once given was infectious, and was
followed in rapid succession by Holland, Utrecht and Overysel. Finally
the States-General (May 4) appointed the prince, who was the first
member of his family to be stadholder of all the seven provinces,
captain and admiral-general of the Union, and a little later these
offices were declared hereditary in both the male and female lines.


  Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle.

  Death of William IV.

  Anne of England Regent.

William IV., though not a man of great ability, was sincerely anxious to
do his utmost for securing the maintenance of peace, and the development
of the resources and commercial prosperity of the country, and his
powerful dynastic connexions (he had married Anne, eldest daughter of
George II.) gave him weight in the councils of Europe. The peace of
Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748, in which the influence of Great Britain was
exerted on behalf of the States, though it nominally restored the old
condition of things, left the Provinces crippled by debt, and fallen low
from their old position among the nations. At first the stadholder's
efforts to promote the trade and welfare of the country were hampered by
the distrust and opposition of Amsterdam, and other strongholds of
anti-Orange feeling, and just as his good intentions were becoming more
generally recognized, William unfortunately died, on the 22nd of October
1751, aged forty years, leaving his three-year-old son, William V., heir
to his dignities. The princess Anne of England became regent, but she
had a difficult part to play, and on the outbreak of the Seven Years'
War in which the Provinces were determined to maintain neutrality, her
English leanings brought much unpopularity upon her. She died in 1759,
and for the next seven years the regency passed into the hands of the
States, and the government was practically stadholderless.


  William V.

  The Armed Neutrality.

  War with England.

  Peace of Paris.

In 1766 William V. was declared to be of age; and his accession to power
was generally welcomed. He was, however, a weak man, without energy or
resolution, and he allowed himself to be entirely led by his old
guardian the duke of Brunswick, and by his wife Frederica Wilhelmina of
Prussia, a woman of marked ability, to whom he entirely deferred. In the
American War of Independence William's sympathies were strongly on the
English side, while those of the majority of the Dutch people were with
the revolted colonies. It is, however, certain that nothing would have
driven the Provinces to take part in the war but for the overbearing
attitude of the British government with regard to the right of neutral
shipping upon the seas, and the heavy losses sustained by Dutch commerce
at the hands of British privateers. The famous agreement, known as the
"Armed Neutrality," with which in 1780 the States of the continent at
the instigation of Catherine II. of Russia replied to the maritime
claims put forward by Great Britain drew the Provinces once more into
the arena of European politics. Every effort was made by the English to
prevent the Dutch from joining the league, and in this they were
assisted by the stadholder, but at last the States-General, though only
by the bare majority of four provinces against three, determined to
throw in their lot with the opponents of England. Nothing could have
been more unfortunate, for the country was not ready for war, and party
spirit was too strong for united action to be taken or vigorous
preparations to be made. When war broke out Dutch commerce was
destroyed, and the Dutch colonies were at the mercy of the English fleet
without the possibility of a blow being struck in their defence. An
indecisive, but bravely fought action with Admiral Parker at the Dogger
Bank showed, however, that the Dutch seamen had lost none of their old
dogged courage, and did much to soothe the national sense of
humiliation. In the negotiations of the Treaty of Paris (1783) the Dutch
found themselves abandoned by their allies, and compelled to accept the
disadvantageous but not ungenerous terms accorded to them by Great
Britain. They had to sacrifice some of their East Indian possessions and
to concede to the English freedom of trade in the Eastern seas.


  The "Patriot" Party.

  Intervention of the King of Prussia.

  Difficulty with the Emperor.

  Prussian Invasion.

  Restoration to power of William V.

One result of this humiliating and disastrous war was the strengthening
of the hands of the anti-Orange burgher-regents, who had now arrogated
to themselves the name of "patriots." It was they, and not the
stadholder, who had been mainly responsible for the Provinces joining
"the Armed Neutrality," but the consequences of the war, in which this
act had involved them, was largely visited upon the prince of Orange.
The "patriot" party did their utmost to curtail his prerogatives, and
harass him with petty insults, and at last the Prussian king was obliged
to interfere to save his niece, who was even more unpopular than her
weak husband, from being driven from the country. In 1784 the emperor
Joseph II. took advantage of the dissensions in the Provinces to raise
the question of the opening of the Scheldt. He himself was, however, no
more prepared for attack than the Republic for defence, but the Dutch
had already sunk so low, that they agreed to pay a heavy indemnity to
induce the Austrians to drop a demand they were unable to enforce. To
hold the mouth of the Scheldt and prevent at all costs a revival of
Antwerp as a commercial port had been for two centuries a cardinal point
of Dutch policy. This difficulty removed, the agitation of the
"patriots" against the stadholderate form of government increased in
violence, and William speedily found his position untenable. An insult
offered to the prince of Orange in 1787 led to an invasion of the
country by a Prussian army. Amsterdam capitulated, the country was
occupied, and the patriot leaders declared incapable of holding any
office. The Orange party was completely triumphant, and William V.,
under the protection of Prussia and England, with which states the
United Provinces were compelled to ally themselves, was restored to
power. It was, however, impossible to make the complicated and creaking
machinery of the constitution of the worn-out republic of the United
Netherlands work smoothly, and in all probability it would have been
within a very short time replaced by an hereditary monarchy, had not the
cataclysm of the French Revolution swept it away from its path, never to
be revived.


  The French invade the Netherlands.

  Overthrow of the Stadholderate.

  Flight of William V.

  The Batavian Republic.

  Changes of Government.

When war broke out between the French revolutionary government and the
coalition of kings, the Provinces remained neutral as long as they
could. It was not till Dumouriez had overrun all the Austrian
Netherlands in 1792, and had thrown open the passage of the Scheldt,
that they were drawn into the war. The patriot party sided with the
French, but for various reasons the conquest of the country was delayed
until 1795. In the closing months of 1794 Pichegru, at the head of a
large and victorious army, invaded the Provinces. The very severe frost
of that winter gave his troops an easy passage over all the rivers and
low-lying lands; town after town fell before him; he occupied Amsterdam,
and crossing the ice with his cavalry took the Dutch fleet, as it lay
frost-bound at the Texel. The stadholder and his family fled to England,
and the disorganized remnants of the allied forces under the duke of
York retreated into Germany. The "patriots," as the anti-Orange
republicans still styled themselves, received the French with open arms
and public rejoicings, and the government was reorganized so as to bring
it into close harmony with that of Paris. The stadholderate, the offices
of captain and admiral-general, and all the ancient organization of the
United Netherlands were abolished, and were transformed into the
Batavian Republic, in close alliance with France. But the Dutch had soon
cause to regret their revolutionary ardour. French alliance meant French
domination, and participation in the wars of the Revolution. Its
consequences were the total ruin of Dutch commerce, and the seizure of
all the Dutch colonies by the English. Internally one change of
government succeeded another; after the States-General came a national
convention; then in 1798 a constituent assembly with an executive
directory; then chambers of representatives; then a return to the
earlier systems under the names of the eight provincial and one central
Commissions (1801). These changes were the outcome of a gradual reaction
in a conservative direction.


  Constitution of 1805.

  Louis Bonaparte King of Holland.

  The Sovereign Prince.

  Creation of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

  The Hundred Days.

  William I. crowned at Brussels.

  Constitution of the Netherlands.

The peace of Amiens gave the country a little rest, and the Dutch got
back the Cape of Good Hope and their West Indian colonies; it was,
however, but the brief and deceptive interlude between two storms; when
war began again England once more took possession of all she had
restored. In 1805 the autocratic will of Napoleon Bonaparte imposed upon
them a new constitution, and Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck (1765-1825) was
made, under the ancient title of grand pensionary, head of the
government. In the next year the French emperor added Holland, as the
United Provinces were now named, to the ring of dependent sovereignties,
by means of which he sought to build up a universal empire, and he
forced his brother Louis to be the unwilling king of an unwilling
people. The new king was a man of excellent intentions and did his best
to promote the interest of his subjects, but finding himself unable to
protect them from the despotic overlordship of his brother, after a four
years' reign, Louis abdicated. In 1810 the Northern Netherlands by
decree of Napoleon were incorporated in the French empire, and had to
bear the burdens of conscription and of a crushing weight of taxation.
The defeat of Leipzig in 1813 was the signal for a general revolt in the
Netherlands; the prince of Orange (son of William V.) was recalled, and
amidst general rejoicing accepted at Amsterdam the offer of the
sovereignty under a free constitution (Dec. 1, 1813), with the title of
sovereign prince. On the downfall of Napoleon the great powers
determined to create in the Low Countries a powerful state, and by the
treaty of London (June 14, 1814) the Belgians were united with the Dutch
provinces to form the kingdom of the Netherlands, which was also to
include the bishopric of Liège and the duchy of Bouillon, and the prince
of Orange was placed upon the throne on the 15th of March 1815 as
William I., king of the Netherlands (see WILLIAM I., king of the
Netherlands). The ancestral possessions of the House of Nassau were
exchanged for Luxemburg, of which territory King William in his personal
capacity became grand duke. The carrying out of the treaty was delayed
by the Hundred Days' campaign, which for a short time threatened its
very existence. The daring invasion of Napoleon, however, afforded the
Dutch and Belgian contingents of the allied army the opportunity to
fight side by side under the command of William, prince of Orange,
eldest son of the new king, who highly distinguished himself by his
gallantry at Quatre Bras, and afterwards at Waterloo where he was
wounded (see WILLIAM II., king of the Netherlands). The Congress of
Vienna confirmed the arrangements made by the treaty of London, and
William I. was crowned king of the Netherlands at Brussels on the 27th
of September 1815. Under the constitution the king, as hereditary
sovereign, possessed full executive powers, and the initiative in
proposing laws. He had the power of appointing his own council of state.
The legislative body bore the time-honoured title of States-General, and
was divided into an Upper Chamber nominated by the king, and a Lower
Chamber elected by the people. Freedom of worship, freedom of the press,
and political equality were principles of the constitution, guaranteed
to all.


  Difference between the Dutch and Belgic provinces.

  The Belgian Revolution.

  Reign of William II.

  Accession of William III.

  The Constitution of 1848.

  Political parties in the Netherlands.

The union of the Dutch and Belgian provinces, like so many of the
territorial arrangements of the Congress of Vienna, was an attempt to
create a strong state out of diverse and jarring elements. It was an
artificial union, which nothing but consummate tact and statesmanship
could have rendered permanent and solid. North and south were divided
from one another by religious belief, by laws and usages, by material
interests, and by two centuries and a half of widely severed national
life. The Belgians were strict Catholics, the Dutch Calvinistic
Protestants. The Dutch were chiefly a commercial and seafaring people,
with interests in distant lands and colonial possessions; the Belgians
were agriculturists, except where their abundance of minerals made them
manufacturers. The national traits of the Dutch were a blend of German
and English, the national leaning of the Belgians was towards France and
French ideals. Nevertheless the materials were there out of which a
really broad-minded and conciliatory handling of religion and racial
difficulties might have gradually built up a Netherland nation able to
hold from its population and resources a considerable place among
European powers. For it must not be forgotten that some two-thirds of
the Belgian people are by origin and language of the same race as the
Dutch. But when difficulties and differences arose between North and
South, as they were sure to arise, they were not dealt with wisely. The
king had good intentions, but his mind was warped by Dutch prejudices,
and he was ill-advised and acted unadvisedly. The consequences were the
Belgian Revolution of 1830, which ended in the intervention of the great
powers, and the setting up, in 1831, of Belgium as an independent
kingdom. The final settlement of outstanding questions between the two
countries was not reached till 1839 (for an account of the Belgian
Revolution, see BELGIUM). King William I. in the following year, having
become unpopular through his resistance to reform, resigned his crown to
his son William II., who reigned in peace till his death in 1849, when
he was succeeded by his eldest son William III. (see WILLIAM III., king
of the Netherlands). His accession marked the beginning of
constitutional government in the Netherlands. William I. had been to a
large extent a personal ruler, but William II., though for a time
following in his father's steps, had been moved by the revolutionary
outbreaks of 1848 to concede a revision of the constitution. The
fundamental law of 1848 enacted that the first chamber of the
States-General should be elected by the Provincial Estates instead of
being appointed by the king, and that the second chamber should be
elected directly by all persons paying a certain amount in taxation.
Ministers were declared responsible to the States-General, and a liberal
measure of self-government was also granted. During the long reign of
William III. (1849-1890) the chief struggles of parties in the
Netherlands centred round religious education. On the one side are the
liberals, divided into moderates and progressives, the representatives
to a large extent of the commercial towns. Opposed to them is the
coalition of the orthodox Protestant conservatives, styled
anti-revolutionaries, supported by the Calvinistic peasantry, and the
Catholics, who represent about one-third of the population and have
their headquarters in Dutch Brabant, Dutch Flanders and Limburg. There
is also in the Netherlands a small, but very strenuous socialist party,
which was founded by the active propaganda of an ex-pastor
Domela-Nieuwenhuis. It draws its chief strength from Amsterdam and
certain country districts of Friesland.


  Religious education.

The liberals were in power from 1871 to 1888 continuously, but a
Catholic-anti-revolutionary ministry under Baron Mackay held office from
1888 to 1891, and again a coalition ministry was formed in 1901 with Dr
Kuyper at its head. From 1894 to 1897 a ministry of moderate liberals
supported by a large part of the Catholic and anti-revolutionary parties
were in power. The constitution of 1848 made it the duty of the state to
provide free primary secular education, but it allowed to members of all
creeds the liberty of establishing private schools, and this was carried
into effect by a law passed in 1857 by the joint efforts of the liberals
and Catholics against the opposition of the orthodox Calvinists. But the
long liberal ascendancy closed the ranks of the Catholic-Calvinist
coalition, and united them against the neutral schools, and in 1889 they
were able to pass a law enabling not only the unsectarian public
schools, but all private schools organized by societies and bodies
recognized by the law to receive subventions from the state. In 1890
there were 3000 public schools with 450,000 scholars and 1300 private
schools with 195,000 scholars.


  Extension of the suffrage.

  Military service.

The subject of the extension of the franchise has also been the cause of
violent party strife and controversy. It was taken in hand as early as
1872, but as a revision of the constitution was necessary, no change was
actually carried out till 1887. The law of that year lowered the
qualification of the payer of a direct tax to 10 fl. Votes were given to
all householders paying a certain _minimum_ house duty, and to all
lodgers who had for a given time paid a _minimum_ of rent, also to all
who possessed certain educational and social qualifications, whose
definition was left to be specified by a later law. The passing of such
a law was deferred by the coalition (Catholic-Orthodox) ministry of
1888-1891. The liberal ministry of 1891 attempted to deal with the
question, and a proposal was made by the minister Tak van Poortvliet,
which almost amounted to universal suffrage. The educational
qualification was to be able to write, the social that of not receiving
charitable relief. This proposal caused a cleavage right through all
parties. It was supported by the radical left, by a large portion of the
Orthodox-Calvinists under Dr Kuyper, and by some Catholics; it had
against it the moderate liberals, the aristocratic section of the
Orthodox-Calvinists, the bulk of the Catholics, and a few radicals under
an influential leader van Houten. After a fierce electoral fight the
Takkians were victors at the first polls, but were beaten at the second
ballots. Of the 46 Takkians, 35 were liberals; of the 54 anti-Takkians,
24 were Catholics. A moderate liberal ministry was formed (1894) and in
1896 carried into law what was known as the van Houten project. It gave
the right of voting to all Dutchmen over twenty-five years of age, who
paid 1 fl. in direct taxation; were householders or lodgers as defined
in 1887, or tenants of a vessel of, at least, 24 tons; were the
recipients of certain salaries or had certain deposits in the public
funds or savings banks. By this reform the number of electors, which had
been raised in 1887 from 140,000 to 300,000, was augmented to 700,000.
The question of universal military service has also divided parties. The
principle of personal service has been strongly opposed by the Catholics
and conservatives, but became the law of the land in 1898, though
exemptions were conceded in favour of ecclesiastics and certain classes
of students.


  The Achin war.

The long-continued and costly wars with the sultan of Achin have during
a series of years been a source of trouble to Dutch ministries. In
1871-1872 Great Britain, in exchange for certain possessions of Holland
on the coast of Guinea, agreed to recognize the right of the Dutch to
occupy the north of Sumatra. The sultan of Achin opposed by force of
arms the efforts of the Dutch to make their occupation effective, and
has succeeded in maintaining a vigorous resistance, the Dutch colonial
troops suffering severely from the effects of the insalubrious climate.
Until 1871 the surplus derived from the colonial budget had been turned
into a deficit, and the necessity of imposing fresh taxes to meet the
war expenses has led to the downfall both of individual ministries and
of cabinets.


  Queen Wilhelmina.

William III. dying in 1890 was succeeded by his only surviving child,
Wilhelmina. The new queen being a minor, her mother, the queen-dowager
Emma, became regent. One effect of the accession of Queen Wilhelmina was
the severance of the bond between the Netherlands and Luxemburg. The
grand duchy, being hereditary only in the male line, passed to the
nearest agnate, the duke of Nassau. In 1898 the queen, having reached
the age of eighteen, assumed the government. She married in 1901 Prince
Henry of Mecklenburg. The outbreak of the Boer War in 1899 led to a
strong outburst of sympathy among the Dutch on behalf of their kinsmen
in South Africa, and there were times during the war, especially after
President Kruger had fled from the Transvaal in a Dutch war vessel and
had settled in Holland, when it was a task of some difficulty for the
Dutch government to prevent the relations between Great Britain and the
Netherlands from becoming strained. The ministry, however, under Dr
Kuyper were able to keep the popular feeling in favour of the Boers in
restraint, and to maintain towards Great Britain a correct attitude of
strict neutrality. In 1903 the government took strong measures to
prevent a threatened general strike of railway employees, the military
were called out, and occupied the stations. A bill was passed by the
States-General declaring railway strikes illegal. The elections of 1905
for the Second Chamber gave the liberals a narrow majority of four. Dr
Kuyper accordingly resigned, and a moderate liberal cabinet was formed
by Th. H. de Meester. The fact that up to 1908 the queen had not become
a mother gradually caused some public concern as to the succession; but
in 1909 Queen Wilhelmina, amid national rejoicings, gave birth to a
princess.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--See (for the general history) J. Wagenaar,
  _Vaderlandsche historie_, to 1751 (21 vols., 1749-1759); continuation
  by Az. P. Loosjes, from 1751-1810 (48 vols., 1786-1811); W.
  Bilderdijk, _Geschiedenis der Vaderlands_ (13 vols., 1832-1853); Groen
  G. van Prinsterer, _Handboek der Geschiedenis van het Vaderland_ (6th
  ed., 1895); (for particular periods): L. ab Aitzema, _Saken van spaet
  en oorlogh in ende om trent de Vereenigde Nederlanden (1621-1668)_ (15
  vols., 1657-1671); continuation by Lambert van den Bos (Lambertus
  Sylvius) (4 vols., 1685-1699). The work of Aitzema contains a large
  number of important diplomatic and other documents; A. de Wicquefort,
  _Histoire des provinces des Pays-Bas depuis la paix de Munster_
  (1648-1658) (2 vols., 1719-1743); in these volumes will be also found
  a rich collection of original documents; R. Fruin, _Tien jaren uit den
  tactig jarigen oorlog (1588-1598)_, (6th ed., 1905), a standard work;
  J. L. Motley, _History of the United Netherlands (1584-1609)_, (4
  vols., 1860-1868); P. J. Blok, _History of the People of the
  Netherlands_, vol. iii. (1568-1621) (trans. by Ruth Putnam, 1900);
  _Cambridge Modern History_, vol. iii. ch. xix. and vol. iv. ch. xxv.
  (see the bibliographies); Ant. L. Pontales, _Vingt années de
  république parlementaire au 17me siècle. Jean de Witt, grand
  pensionnaire de Hollande_ (1884); E. C. de Gerlache, _Histoire du
  royaume des Pays-Bas 1814-1830_ (3 vols., 1859); Bosch J. de Kemper,
  _Geschiedenis van Nederland na 1830_ (5 vols., 1873-1882); also the
  following important works: Groen G. van Prinsterer, _Archives ou
  correspondance inédite de la maison d'Orange-Nassau_, 2^e série
  (1584-1688) (5 vols., 1857-1860); J. de Witt, _Brieven (1652-1669)_ (6
  vols., 1723-1725); A. Kluit, _Historie der Hollandsche Staatsregering
  tot 1795_ (5 vols., 1802-1805); G. W. Vreede, _Inleiding tot eene
  geschiedenis der Nederlandsche diplomatic_ (6 vols., 1850-1865); J. C.
  de Jonge, _Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsche Zeewesen_, (6 vols.,
  1833-1848); E. Luzac, _Holland's Rijkdom_ (4 vols., 1781); R. Fruin,
  _Geschiedenis der Staatsinstellingen in Nederland tot den val der
  Republick_, edn. Colenbrander (1901); N. G. van Kampen, _Geschiedenis
  der Nederlanders buiten Europa_ (4 vols., 1833); W. J. A. Jonckbloet,
  _Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche Letterkunde_ (2 vols. 1881); C. Busken
  Hüet, _Het Land van Rembrandt-studien over de Nordnederlandsche
  beschaving in de 17^e eeuw_ (2 vols., 1886); L. D. Petit, _Repertorium
  der verhandelingen en bijdragen betreffende de geschiedenis des
  Vaterlands in tijdschriften en mengel werken tot op 1900 verschenen_,
  2 parts (1905); other parts of this valuable _repertorium_ are in
  course of publication.     (G. E.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] At Maastricht, however, a portion lies on the left bank of the
    river, measured, according to the treaty with Belgium, 19th of April
    1839, art. 4, by an average radius of 1200 Dutch fathoms (7874 ft.)
    from the outer glacis of the fortress.

  [2] The datum plane, or basis of the measurement of heights, is
    throughout Holland, and also in some of the border districts of
    Germany, the _Amsterdamsch Peil_ (A.P.), or Amsterdam water-level,
    and represents the average high water-level of the Y at Amsterdam at
    the time when it was still open to the Zuider Zee. Local and
    provincial "peils" are, however, also in use on some waterways.

  [3] See J. Lorié, _Contributions à la géologie des Pays-bas_
    (1885-1895), _Archives du Mus. Teyler_ (Haarlem), ser. 2, vol. ii.
    pp. 109-240, vol. iii. pp. 1-160, 375-461, vol. iv. pp. 165-309 and
    _Bull. soc. belge géol._ vol. iii. (1889); _Mém._ pp. 409-449; F. W.
    Harmer, "On the Pliocene Deposits of Holland," &c., _Quart. Journ.
    Geol. Soc., London_, vol. lii. (1896) pp. 748-781, pls. xxxiv., xxxv.

  [4] The dates indicate the period of construction of the different
    sections.

  [5] For the history of the Netherlands previous to the confederacy of
    the northern provinces in 1579 see NETHERLANDS.



HOLLAND, COUNTY AND PROVINCE OF.--The first mention of Holland in any
document is found in an imperial _gift brief_ dated May 2nd, 1064. In
this the phrase "_omnis comitatus in Hollandt_" occurs, but without any
further description of the locality indicated. A comparison with other
documentary evidence, however, leads to the identification of Holland
with the _forestum Merweda_, or the bush-grown fenland lying between the
Waal, the old Meuse and the Merwe. It is the district surrounding the
town of Dordrecht. A portion of the original Holland was submerged by a
great inundation in 1421, and its modern appellation of Biesbosch
(reed-forest) is descriptive of what must have been the condition of the
entire district in early times. The word Holland is indeed by many
authorities thought to be a corruption of Holt-land (it was sometimes so
spelt by 13th-century writers) and to signify wood-land. The earliest
spelling is, however, Holland, and it is more probable that it means
lowlying-land (hol = hollow), a derivation which is equally applicable
to the district in Lincolnshire which bears the same name.


  The first Count of Holland.

The title count of Holland appears to have been first borne by the
Frisian count Dirk III., who founded Dordrecht (about 1015) and made it
his residence (see below). It was not, however, till late in the 11th
century that his successors adopted the style "_Hollandensis comes_" as
their territorial designation (it is found for the first time on a seal
of Dirk V. 1083), and that the name Holland became gradually extended
northwards to connote all the land subject to the rule of the counts
between Texel and the Maas.


  Dirk I.

  Dirk II.

  Extent of his dominions.

  Arnulf.

  Dirk III.

  Foundation of Dordrecht.

  Defeat of Godfrey of Lorraine.

  Beginning of the County of Holland.

The beginnings of the history of this feudal state (the later Holland)
centre round the abbey of Egmont in whose archives its records have been
preserved. In 922 Charles the Simple gave in full possession to a count
in Frisia, Dirk by name (a shortened form of Diederic, Latin
Theodoricus), "the church of Egmont with all that belonged to it from
Swithardeshage to Kinhem." This man, usually known as Dirk I., died
about 939 and was succeeded by his son of the same name. Among the
records of the abbey of Egmont is a document by which the emperor Arnulf
gave to a certain count Gerolf the same land "between Swithardeshage and
Kinhem," afterwards held by Dirk I. It is generally assumed that this
Gerolf was his father, otherwise their deed of gift would not have been
preserved among the family papers. Dirk II. was the founder of the abbey
of Egmont. His younger son Egbert became archbishop of Treves. His elder
son Arnulf married Liutgardis, daughter of Siegfried of Luxemburg and
sister-in-law of the emperor Henry II. He obtained from the emperor Otto
III., with whom he was in great favour in 983, a considerable extension
of territory, that now covered by the Zuider Zee and southward down to
Nijmwegen. In the deed of gift he is spoken of as holding the three
countships of Maasland, Kinhem or Kennemerland and Texla or Texel; in
other words his rule extended over the whole country from the right bank
of the Maas or Meuse to the Vlie. He appears also to have exercised
authority at Ghent. He died in 988. Arnulf was count till 993, when he
was slain in battle against the west Frisians, and was succeeded by his
twelve-year-old son Dirk III. During the guardianship of his mother,
Liutgardis, the boy was despoiled of almost all his possessions, except
Kennemerland and Maasland. But no sooner was he arrived at man's estate
than Dirk turned upon his enemies with courage and vigour. He waged war,
successfully with Adelbold, the powerful bishop of Utrecht, and made
himself master not only of his ancestral possessions, but of the
district on the Meuse known as the Bushland of Merweda (_forestum
Merweda_), hitherto subject to the see of Utrecht. In the midst of this
marshy tract, at a point commanding the courses of the Meuse and the
Waal, he built a castle (about 1015) and began to levy tolls. Around
this castle sprang up the town of Thuredrecht or Dordrecht. The
possession of this stronghold was so injurious to the commerce of Tiel,
Cologne and the Rhenish towns with England that complaints were made by
the bishop of Utrecht and the archbishop of Cologne to the emperor.
Henry II. took the part of the complainants and commissioned Duke
Godfrey of Lorraine to chastise the young Frisian count. Duke Godfrey
invaded Dirk's lands with a large army, but they were impeded by the
swampy nature of the country and totally defeated with heavy loss (July
29, 1018). The duke was himself taken prisoner. The result was that Dirk
was not merely confirmed in his possession of Dordrecht and the Merweda
Bushland (the later Holland) but also of the territory of a vassal of
the Utrecht see, Dirk Bavo by name, which he conquered. This victory of
1018 is often regarded as the true starting-point of the history of the
county of Holland. Having thus established his rule in the south, Dirk
next proceeded to bring into subjection the Frisians in the north. He
appointed his brother Siegfrid or Sikka as governor over them. In his
later years Dirk went upon a pilgrimage to the Holy Land from which he
returned in 1034; and ruled in peace until his death in 1039.


  Dirk IV.

  Quarrel with Flanders about Zeeland.

His son, Dirk IV., was one of the most enterprising of his warlike and
strenuous race. He began the long strife with the counts of Flanders, as
to the lordship over Walcheren and other islands of Zeeland; the quarrel
was important, as dealing with the borderland between French and German
overlordship. This strife, which lasted 400 years, did not at first
break out into actual warfare, because both Dirk and Baldwin V. of
Flanders had a common danger in the emperor Henry III., who in 1046
occupied the lands in dispute. Dirk allied himself with Godfrey the
Bearded of Lorraine, who was at war with the emperor, and his territory
was invaded by a powerful imperial fleet and army (1047). But Dirk
entrenched himself in his stronghold at Vlaardingen, and when winter
came on he surrounded and cut off with his light boats a number of the
enemy's ships, and destroyed a large part of their army as they made
their way amidst the marches, which impeded their retreat. He was able
to recover what he had lost and to make peace on his own terms. Two
years later he was again assailed by a coalition headed by the
archbishop of Cologne and the bishop of Utrecht. They availed themselves
of a very hard winter to penetrate into the land over the frozen water.
Dirk offered a stout resistance, but, according to the most trustworthy
account, was enticed into an ambuscade and was killed in the fight
(1049). He died unmarried and was succeeded by his brother Floris I.


  Floris I.

  Dirk V.

  Robert the Frisian guardian to his stepson

  Godfrey the Hunchback of Lorraine conquers Holland.

  The Bishop of Utrecht surrenders it to Dirk V.

  Floris II.

  Dirk VI.

Floris, like his predecessors, was hard-fighting and tenacious. He
gradually recovered possession of his ancestral lands. He found a
formidable adversary in the able and warlike William, who, becoming
bishop of Utrecht in 1054, was determined to recover the lost
possessions of his see; and in 1058, in alliance with Hanno, archbishop
of Cologne, Egbert, margrave of Brandenburg, the bishop of Liége and
others, invaded the Frisian territory. At first success attended the
invaders and many places fell into their hands, but finally they were
surprised and defeated near Dordrecht. The counts of Guelders and
Louvain were among the prisoners that fell into the hands of Floris. The
attack was renewed in 1061. In a battle at Nederhemert Floris met with
his death in the hour of victory. He is said to have been killed as,
wearied with pursuing, he lay asleep under a tree. He was succeeded by
his son, Dirk V., a child, under the guardianship of his mother,
Gertrude of Saxony. Bishop William seems now to have seized his
opportunity and occupied all the territory that he claimed. In this he
was confirmed by two charters of the emperor Henry IV. (April 30 and May
2, 1064). Among the possessions thus assigned to him is found _comitatus
omnis in Hollandt cum omnibus ad bannum regalem pertinentibus_. An
examination of these documents shows the possessions of Dirk as _in
Westflinge et circa oras Rheni_, i.e. west of the Vlie and around the
mouths of the Rhine. Gertrude and her son appear to have withdrawn to
the islands of Frisia (Zeeland), leaving William in undisturbed
occupation of the disputed lands. In 1063 Gertrude contracted a marriage
with Robert, the second son of Baldwin V. of Flanders, a man famous for
his adventurous career (see FLANDERS). On his marriage his father
invested him with Imperial Flanders, as an apanage including the islands
of Frisia (Zeeland) west of the Scheldt. He now became guardian to his
stepson, in whose inheritance lay the islands east of the Scheldt.
Robert thus, in his own right and that of Dirk, was ruler of all Frisia
(Zeeland), and thus became known among his Flemish countrymen as Robert
the Frisian. The death of his brother Baldwin VI. in 1070 led to civil
war in Flanders, the claim of Robert to the guardianship of his nephew
Arnulf being disputed by Richilde, the widow of Baldwin. The issue was
decided by the decisive victory of Robert at Cassel (February 1071) when
Arnulf was killed and Richilde taken prisoner (see Flanders). While
Robert was thus engaged in Flanders, an effort was made to recover "the
County of Holland" and other lands now held by William of Utrecht. The
people rose in revolt, but by command of the emperor Henry IV. were
speedily brought back under episcopal rule by an army under the command
of Godfrey the Hunchback, duke of Lower Lorraine. Again in 1076, at the
request of the bishop, Duke Godfrey visited his domains in the Frisian
borderland. At Delft, of which town tradition makes Godfrey the founder,
the duke was treacherously murdered (February 26, 1076). William of
Utrecht died on the 17th of the following April. Dirk V., now grown to
man's estate, was not slow to take advantage of the favourable juncture.
With the help of Robert (his stepfather) he raised an army, besieged
Conrad, the successor of William, in the castle of Ysselmonde and took
him prisoner. The bishop purchased his liberty by surrendering all claim
to the disputed lands. Henceforth the Frisian counts became definitively
known as counts of Holland. Dirk V. died in 1091 and was succeeded by
his son Floris II. the Fat. This count had a peaceful and prosperous
reign of thirty-one years. After his death (1122) his widow, Petronilla
of Saxony, governed in the name of Dirk VI., who was a minor. The
accession of her half-brother, Lothaire of Saxony, to the imperial
throne on the death of Henry V. greatly strengthened her position. The
East Frisian districts, Oostergoo and Westergoo, were by Lothaire
transferred from the rule of the bishops of Utrecht to that of the
counts of Holland (1125). These Frisians proved very troublesome
subjects to Dirk VI. In 1132 they rose in insurrection under the
leadership of Dirk's own brother, Floris the Black. The emperor Conrad
III. (1138), who was of the rival house of Hohenstaufen, gave back these
Frisian districts to the bishop; it was in truth somewhat of an empty
gift. The Frisian peasants and fisher folk loved their independence, and
were equally refractory to the rule of any distant overlord, whether
count or bishop. Dirk VI. was succeeded in 1157 by Floris III.


  Floris III.

  Dirk VII.

  William I.

  Floris IV.

Floris III. reversed the traditional policy of his house by allying
himself with the Hohenstaufens. He became a devoted adherent and friend
of Frederick Barbarossa. He had troubles with West Friesland and
Groningen, and a war with the count of Flanders concerning their
respective rights in West Zeeland, in which he was beaten. In 1170 a
great flood caused immense devastation in the north and helped to form
the Zuider Zee. In 1189 Floris accompanied Frederick Barbarossa upon the
third Crusade, of which he was a distinguished leader. He died in 1190
at Antioch of pestilence. His son, Dirk VII., had a stormy, but on the
whole successful reign. Contests with the Flemings in West Zeeland and
with the West Frisians, stirred up to revolt by his brother William,
ended in his favour. The brothers were reconciled and William was made
count of East Friesland. In 1202, however, Dirk was defeated and taken
prisoner by the duke of Brabant, and had to purchase peace on
humiliating terms. He only survived his defeat a short time and died
early in 1204, leaving as his only issue a daughter, Ada, 17 years of
age. The question of female succession thus raised was not likely to be
accepted without a challenge by William. It had been the intention of
Dirk VII. to secure the recognition of his daughter's rights by
appointing his brother her guardian. His widow Alida, however, an
ambitious woman of strong character, as soon as her husband was dead,
hurried on a marriage between Ada and Count Louis of Loon; and attempted
with the nobles of Holland, who now for the first time make their
appearance as a power in the country, to oppose the claim which William
had made to the countship as heir in the male line. A struggle ensued.
William was supported by the Zeelanders and Ada was forced to fly to
England. William, by a treaty concluded with Louis of Loon in 1206,
became undisputed count. He took an active part in the events of his
time. He fought by the side of the emperor Otto IV. in the great battle
of Bouvines in 1214 (see PHILIP AUGUSTUS), and was taken prisoner. Two
years later he accompanied Louis, the eldest son of Philip Augustus, in
his expedition against King John of England. William is perhaps best
known in history by his taking part in the fourth Crusade. He
distinguished himself greatly at the capture of Damietta (1219). He did
not long survive his return home, dying in 1222. The earliest charters
conveying civic privileges in the county of Holland date from his
reign--those of Geertruidenberg (1213) and of Dordrecht (1220). His son
Floris IV., being a minor, succeeded him under the guardianship of his
maternal uncle, Gerard III. of Gelderland. He maintained in later life
close relations of friendship with Gerard, and supported him in his
quarrel with the bishop of Utrecht (1224-1226). Floris was murdered in
1235 at a tournament at Corbie in Picardy by the count of Clermont.
Another long minority followed his death, during which his brother Otto,
bishop of Utrecht, acted as guardian to his nephew William II.


  William II.

  Elected King of the Romans.

  Floris V.

  Alliance with Edward I. of England.

  First Charter to Amsterdam.

  Murder of Floris V.

William II. became a man of mark. Pope Innocent IV., having deposed the
emperor Frederick II., after several princes had refused to allow
themselves to be nominated in the place of the Hohenstaufen, caused the
young count of Holland to be elected king of the Romans (1247) by an
assembly composed chiefly of German ecclesiastics. William took Aachen
in 1248 and was there crowned king; and after Frederick's death in 1250,
he had a considerable party in Germany. He brought a war with Margaret
of Flanders (Black Margaret) to a successful conclusion (1253). He was
on the point of proceeding to Rome to be crowned emperor, when in an
expedition against the West Frisians he perished, going down, horse and
armour, through the ice (1256). Like so many of his predecessors he left
his inheritance to a child. Floris V. was but two years old on his
father's death; and he was destined during a reign of forty years to
leave a deeper impress upon the history of Holland than any other of its
counts. Floris was a man of chivalrous character and high capacity, and
throughout his reign he proved himself an able and beneficent ruler.
Alike in his troubles with his turbulent subjects and in the perennial
disputes with his neighbours he pursued a strong, far-sighted and
successful policy. But his active interest in affairs was not limited to
the Netherlands. He allied himself closely with Edward I. of England in
his strife with France, and secured from the English king great trading
advantages for his people; the staple of wool was placed at Dort
(Dordrecht) and the Hollanders and Zeelanders got fishing rights on the
English coast. So intimate did their relations become that Floris sent
his son John to be educated at the court of Edward with a view to his
marriage with an English princess. To balance the power of the nobles he
granted charters to many of the towns. Floris made himself master of
Amstelland and Gooiland; and Amsterdam, destined to become the chief
commercial town of Holland, counts him the founder of its greatness. Its
earliest extant charter dates from 1275. In 1296 Floris forsook the
alliance of Edward I. for that of Philip IV. of France, probably because
Edward had given support to Guy, count of Flanders, in his dynastic
dispute with John of Avesnes, count of Hainaut, Floris's nephew (see
FLANDERS). The real motives of his policy will, however, never be known,
for shortly afterwards a conspiracy of disaffected nobles, headed by
Gijsbrecht van Amstel, Gerard van Velzen and Wolfert van Borselen, was
formed against him. He was by them basely murdered in the castle of
Muiden (June 27, 1296). The tragic event has been immortalized in dramas
from the pens of Holland's most famous writers (see VONDEL, HOOFT). The
burghers and people, who knew him to be their best friend, took such
vengeance on his slayers as permanently to reduce the power of the
nobles.


  John I.

  Extinction of the first line of Counts. Their high character.

John I., his son, was in England when his father was murdered; he was
but 15 years of age, feeble in body and mind. He was married to Eleanor,
daughter of Edward I. His reign was a struggle between John of Avesnes,
the young count's guardian and next heir, and Wolfert van Borselen, who
had a strong following in Zeeland. In 1299 van Borselen was killed, and
a few months later John I. died. John of Avesnes was at once recognized
as his successor by the Hollanders. Thus with John I. ended the first
line of counts, after a rule of nearly 400 years. Europe has perhaps
never seen an abler series of princes than these fourteen lineal
descendants of Dirk I. Excepting the last there is not a weak man among
them. Physically handsome and strong, model knights of the days of
chivalry, hard fighters, wise statesmen, they were born leaders of men;
always ready to advance the commerce of the country, they were the
supporters of the growing towns, and likewise the pioneers in the task
of converting a land of marshes and swamps into a fertile agricultural
territory rich in flocks and herds. As individuals they had their
failings, but one and all were worthy members of a high-souled race.


  John II. of the House of Avesnes.

  William III.

  William IV.

  The Empress Margaret.

  William V. of the House of Bavaria.

  Albert of Bavaria.

  William VI.

  Jacqueline of Bavaria.

  Accession of the Burgundian Dynasty.

  Philip the Good.

  Flourishing state of Holland.

  Charles the Bold.

  Mary of Burgundy.

John of Avesnes, who took the title of John II., was the son of John of
Avesnes, count of Hainaut, and Alida, sister of William II. of Holland.
On his succession to the countship the Hollanders were willing to
receive him, but the Zeelanders were hostile; and a long struggle ensued
before his authority was generally recognized. In 1301 Bishop William of
Utrecht invaded Amstelland, but was killed in battle. John made use of
his victory to secure the election of his brother Guy as bishop in his
place. A war with the Flemings followed, in which the Flemings were at
first victorious, but after a struggle of many vicissitudes they were at
length driven out of Holland and Zeeland In 1304. John II. died in that
year and was succeeded by his son William III., surnamed the Good
(1304-1337). In his reign the long-standing quarrel with Flanders, which
had during a century and a half caused so many wars, was finally settled
by the treaty of 1323, by which the full possession of West Zeeland was
granted to William, who on his part renounced all claim in Imperial
Flanders. The Amstelland with its capital, Amsterdam, which had hitherto
been held as a fief of Utrecht, was by William, on the death of his
uncle Bishop Guy, finally annexed to Holland. This count did much to
encourage civic life and to develop the resources of the country. He had
close relations through marriage with the three principal European
dynasties of his time. His wife was Jeanne of Valois, niece of the
French king; in 1323 the emperor Louis the Bavarian wedded his daughter
Margaret; and in 1328 his third daughter, Philippa of Hainaut, was
married to Edward III. of England. By their alliance William III.
occupied a position of much dignity and influence, which he used to
further the interests and increase the welfare of his hereditary lands.
He was in all respects a great prince and a wise and prudent statesman.
He was succeeded by his son, William IV., who was the ally of his
brother-in-law, Edward III., in his French wars. He was fond of
adventure, and in 1343 made a journey to the Holy Land in disguise, and
on his way took part in an expedition of the knights of the Teutonic
Order against the infidel Wends and Lithuanians. He was killed in battle
against the Frisians in 1345. He left no children, and the question as
to the succession now brought on Holland a period of violent civil
commotions. His inheritance was claimed by his eldest sister, the
empress Margaret, as well as by Philippa of Hainaut, or in other words,
by Edward III. of England. Margaret came in person and was duly
recognized as countess in Holland, Zeeland and Hainaut; but returned to
her husband after appointing her second son (the eldest, Louis,
renounced his rights) Duke William of Bavaria, as stadholder in her
place. William was but sixteen, and disorder and confusion soon reigned
in the land. The sudden death of the emperor in 1347 added to the
difficulties of his position. In 1349 Margaret was induced to resign her
sovereignty, and the stadholder became count under the title of William
V. This was the time of the formation of the famous parties in Holland,
known as Kabbeljauws (Cods) and Hoeks (Hooks); the former, the burgher
party, were the supporters of William (possibly the name was derived
from the light blue, scaly looking Bavarian coat of arms), the latter
the party of the disaffected nobles, who wanted to catch and devour the
fat burgher fish. In 1350 such was the disorder in the land that
Margaret, at the request of the nobles, came to Holland to take into her
own hands the reins of government. The struggle between the nobles and
the cities broke out into civil war. Edward III. came to Margaret's aid,
winning a sea-fight off Veere in 1351; a few weeks later the Hooks and
their English allies were defeated by William and the Cods at
Vlaardingen--an overthrow which ruined Margaret's cause. Edward III.
shortly afterwards changed sides, and the empress saw herself compelled
(1354) to come to an understanding with her son, he being recognized as
count of Holland and Zeeland, she of Hainaut. Margaret died two years
later, leaving William, who had married Matilda of Lancaster, in
possession of the entire Holland-Hainaut inheritance (July 1356). His
tenure of power was, however, very brief. Before the close of 1357 he
showed such marked signs of insanity that his wife, with his own consent
and the support of both parties, invited Duke Albert of Bavaria, younger
brother of William V., to be regent, with the title of Ruward (1358).
William lived in confinement for 31 years. Albert died in 1404, having
ruled the land well and wisely for 46 years, first as Ruward, then as
count. Despite outbreaks from time to time of the Hook and Cod troubles,
he was able to make his authority respected, and to help forward in many
ways the social progress of the country. The influence of the towns was
steadily on the increase, and their government began to fall into the
hands of the burgher patrician class, who formed the Cod party. Opposed
to them were the nobility and the lower classes, forming the Hook party.
In Albert's latter years a fresh outbreak of civil war (1392-1395) was
caused by the count's espousing the side of the Cods, while the Hooks
had the support of his eldest son, William. Albert was afterwards
reconciled to his son, who succeeded him as William VI. in 1404. On his
accession to power William upheld the Hooks, and secured their
ascendancy. His reign was much troubled with civil discords, but he was
a brave soldier, and was generally successful in his enterprises. He
died in 1417, leaving an only child, a daughter, Jacqueline (or Jacoba),
who had in her early youth been married to John, heir to the throne of
France. At a gathering held at the Hague (August 15, 1416) the nobles
and representatives of the cities of Holland and Zeeland had promised at
William's request to support his daughter's claims to the succession.
But John of France died (April 1417), and William VI. about a month
later, leaving the widowed Jacqueline at 17 years of age face to face
with a difficult situation. She was at first welcomed in Holland and
Zeeland, but found her claims opposed by her uncle, John of Bavaria,
supported by the Cod party. Every one from whom she might have expected
help betrayed her in turn, her second husband John IV. of Brabant, her
third husband Humphrey of Gloucester, her cousin Philip the Good of
Burgundy, all behaved shamefully to her. Her romantic and sad life has
rendered the courageous and accomplished Jacqueline the most picturesque
figure in the whole history of Holland. She struggled long against her
powerful kinsfolk, nor did she know happiness till near the end of her
life, when she abandoned the unequal strife, and found repose with
Francis of Borselen, Ruward of Holland, her fourth husband. Him Philip
the Good, duke of Burgundy, craftily seized; and thereby in 1433 the
Duchess Jacqueline was compelled to cede her rights over the counties of
Holland and Hainaut. Consequently at her death in 1436, as she left no
children, Philip succeeded to the full and undisputed possession of her
lands. He had already acquired by inheritance, purchase or force almost
all the other Netherland states; and now, with the extinction of the
Bavarian line of counts, Holland ceased to have an independent existence
and became an outlying province of the growing Burgundian power (see
BURGUNDY). During the years that followed the accession to the
sovereignty of Duke Philip, Holland plays but an insignificant part. It
was governed by a stadholder, and but small respect was shown for its
chartered rights and privileges. The quarrels between the Hook and Cod
factions still continued, but the outbreaks of civil strife were quickly
repressed by the strong hand of Philip. Holland during this time
contented herself with growing material prosperity. Her herring fishery,
rendered more valuable by the curing process discovered or introduced by
Benkelszoon, brought her increasing wealth, and her fishermen were
already laying the foundations of her future maritime greatness. It was
in the days of Duke Philip that Lorenz Koster of Haarlem contributed his
share to the discovery of printing. During the reign of Charles the Bold
(1467-1477) the Hollanders, like the other subjects of that warlike
prince, suffered much from the burden of taxation An outbreak at Hoorn
was by Charles sternly repressed. The Hollanders were much aggrieved by
the establishment of a high court of justice for the entire Netherlands
at Mechlin. (1474). This was regarded as a serious breach of their
privileges. The succession of Mary of Burgundy led to the granting to
Holland as to the other provinces of the Netherlands, of the Great
Privilege of March 1477, which restored the most important of their
ancient rights and liberties (see NETHERLANDS). A high court of justice
was established for Holland, Zeeland and Friesland, and the use of the
native language was made official. The Hook and Cod troubles again
disturbed the country. Hook uprisings took place at Leiden and Dordrecht
and had to be repressed by armed force.


  Maximilian of Austria.

  Philip II. the Fair.

  The Emperor Charles V. (Charles III.).

  Philip III.

  William of Orange Stadholder.

  The revolt of the Netherlands.

  Union of Utrecht.

  Abjuration of Philip's Sovereignty.

By the sudden death of the Duchess Mary in 1482 her possessions,
including the county of Holland, passed to her infant son Philip, under
the guardianship of his father the Archduke Maximilian of Austria. Thus
the Burgundian dynasty was succeeded by that of the Habsburgs. During
the regency of Maximilian the turbulence of the Hooks caused much strife
and unrest in Holland. Their leaders. Francis of Brederode and John of
Naaldwijk, seized Rotterdam and other places. Their overthrow finally
ended the strife between Hooks and Cods. The "Bread and Cheese War," an
uprising of the peasants in North Holland caused by famine, is a proof
of the misery caused by civil discords and oppressive taxation. In 1494,
Maximilian having been elected emperor, Philip was declared of age. His
assumption of the government was greeted with joy in Holland, and in his
reign the province enjoyed rest and its fisheries benefited from the
commercial treaty concluded with England. The story of Holland during
the long reign of his son and successor Charles III. (1506-1555), better
known as the emperor Charles V., belongs to the general history of the
Netherlands (see NETHERLANDS). On the abdication of Charles, his son
Philip II. of Spain became Philip III., count of Holland, the ruler
whose arbitrary rule in church and state brought about the revolt of the
Netherlands. His appointment of William, prince of Orange, as stadholder
of Holland and Zeeland was destined to have momentous results to the
future of those provinces (see WILLIAM THE SILENT). The capture of Brill
and of Flushing in 1572 by the Sea-Beggars led to the submission of the
greater part of Holland and Zeeland to the authority of the prince of
Orange, who, as stadholder, summoned the states of Holland to meet at
Dordrecht. This act was the beginning of Dutch independence. From this
time forward William made Holland his home. It became the bulwark of the
Protestant faith in the Netherlands, the focus of the resistance to
Spanish tyranny. The sieges of Haarlem, Alkmaar and Leiden saved Holland
from being overwhelmed by the armies of Alva and Requesens and stemmed
the tide of Spanish victory. The act of federation between Holland and
Zeeland brought about by the influence of William was the germ of the
larger union of Utrecht between the seven northern provinces in 1579.
But within the larger union the inner and closer union between Holland
and Zeeland continued to subsist. In 1580, when the sovereignty of the
Netherlands was offered to the duke of Anjou, the two maritime provinces
refused to acquiesce, and forced William to accept the title of count of
Holland and Zeeland. In the following year William in the name of the
two provinces solemnly abjured the sovereignty of the Spanish king (July
24). After the assassination of William (1584) the title of count of
Holland was never revived.


  Government of Holland.

  Johan van Oldenbarneveldt.

  Contest between the Principles of National and Provincial Sovereignty.

In the long struggle of the united provinces with Spain, which followed
the death of Orange, the brunt of the conflict fell upon Holland. More
than half the burden of the charges of the war fell upon this one
province; and with Zeeland it furnished the fleets which formed the
chief defence of the country. Hence the importance attached to the vote
of Holland in the assembly of the States-General. That vote was given by
deputies at the head of whom was the advocate (in later times called the
grand pensionary) of Holland, and who were responsible to, and the
spokesmen of, the provincial states. These states, which met at the
Hague in the same building as the States-General, consisted of
representatives of the burgher oligarchies (regents) of the principal
towns, together with representatives of the nobles, who possessed one
vote only. The advocate was the paid minister of the states. He presided
over their meetings, kept their minutes and conducted all
correspondence, and, as stated above, was their spokesman in the
States-General. The advocate (or grand pensionary) of Holland therefore,
if an able man, had opportunities for exercising a very considerable
influence, becoming in fact a kind of minister of all affairs. It was
this influence as exerted by the successive advocates of Holland, Paul
Buys and Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, which rendered abortive the
well-meant efforts of the earl of Leicester to centralize the government
of the United Provinces. After his departure (1587) the advocate of
Holland, Oldenbarneveldt, became the indispensable statesman of the
struggling republic. The multiplicity of his functions gave to the
advocate an almost unlimited authority in the details of administration,
and for thirty years the conduct of affairs remained in his hands (see
OLDENBARNEVELDT). This meant the undisputed hegemony of Holland in the
federation, in other words of the burgher oligarchies who controlled the
town corporations of the province, and especially of Amsterdam. This
authority of Holland was, however, more than counterbalanced by the
extensive powers with which the stadholder princes of Orange were
invested; and the chief crises in the internal history of the Dutch
republic are to be found in the struggles for supremacy between two, in
reality, different principles of government. On the one side the
principle of provincial sovereignty which gave to the voice of Holland a
preponderating weight that was decisive; on the other side the principle
of national sovereignty personified in the princes of Orange, to whom
the States-General and the provincial states delegated executive powers
that were little less than monarchical.


  Maurice Prince of Orange and John of Oldenbarneveldt.

  Frederick Henry Prince of Orange.

  William II. Prince of Orange.

  John de Witt.

  William III. Prince of Orange.

  William IV. Prince of Orange.

The conclusion of the twelve years' truce in 1609 was a triumph for
Oldenbarneveldt and the province of Holland over the opposition of
Maurice, prince of Orange. In 1617 the outbreak of the religious dispute
between the Remonstrant and Contra-remonstrant parties brought on a life
and death struggle between the sovereign province of Holland and the
States-General of the union. The sword of Maurice decided the issue in
favour of the States-General. The claims of Holland were overthrown and
the head of Oldenbarneveldt fell upon the scaffold (1619). The
stadholder, Frederick Henry of Orange, ruled with well-nigh monarchical
authority (1625-1647), but even he at the height of his power and
popularity had always to reckon with the opposition of the states of
Holland and of Amsterdam, and many of his plans of campaign were
thwarted by the refusal of the Hollanders to furnish supplies. His son
William II. was but 21 years of age on succeeding to the stadholdership,
and the states of Holland were sufficiently powerful to carry through
the negotiations for the peace of Münster (1648) in spite of his
opposition. A life and death conflict again ensued, and once more in
1650 the prince of Orange by armed force crushed the opposition of the
Hollanders. The sudden death of William in the hour of his triumph
caused a complete revolution in the government of the republic. He left
no heir but a posthumous infant, and the party of the burgher regents of
Holland was once more in the ascendant. The office of stadholder was
abolished, and John de Witt, the grand pensionary (_Raad-Pensionaris_)
of Holland, for two decades held in his hands all the threads of
administration, and occupied the same position of undisputed authority
in the councils of the land as Oldenbarneveldt had done at the beginning
of the century. Amsterdam during this period was the centre and head of
the United Provinces. The principle of provincial sovereignty was
carried to its extreme point in the separate treaty concluded with
Cromwell in 1654, in which the province of Holland agreed to exclude for
ever the prince of Orange from the office of stadholder of Holland or
captain-general of the union. In 1672 another revolution took place.
John de Witt was murdered, and William III. was called to fill the
office of dignity and authority which had been held by his ancestors of
the house of Orange, and the stadholdership was declared to be
hereditary in his family. But William died without issue (see WILLIAM
III.) and a stadholderless period, during which the province of Holland
was supreme in the union, followed till 1737. This change was effected
smoothly, for though William had many differences with Amsterdam, he had
in Anthony Heinsius (van der Heim), who was grand pensionary of Holland
from 1690 to his death in 1720, a statesman whom he thoroughly trusted,
who worked with him in the furtherance of his policy during life and who
continued to carry out that policy after his death. In 1737 there was
once more a reversion to the stadholdership in the person of William
IV., whose powers were strengthened and declared hereditary both in the
male and female line in 1747. But until the final destruction of the
federal republic by the French armies, the perennial struggle went on
between the Holland or federal party (_Staatsgesinden_) centred at
Amsterdam--out of which grew the patriot party under William V.--and the
Orange or unionist party (_Oranjegesinden_), which was strong in the
smaller provinces and had much popular support among the lower classes.
The French conquest swept away the old condition of things never to
reappear; but allegiance to the Orange dynasty survived, and in 1813
became the rallying point of a united Dutch people. At the same time the
leading part played by the province of Holland in the history of the
republic has not been unrecognized, for the country ruled over by the
sovereigns of the house of Orange is always popularly, and often
officially, known as Holland.


  Constitution of the States of Holland.

  The Grand Pensionary.

  College of Deputed Councillors.

The full title of the states of Holland in the 17th and 18th centuries
was: _de Edele Groot Mogende Heeren Staaten van Holland en
Westfriesland_. After 1608 this assembly consisted of nineteen members,
one representing the nobility (_ridderschap_), and eighteen, the towns.
The member for the nobles had precedence and voted first. The interests
of the country districts (_het platte land_) were the peculiar charges
of the member for the nobles. The nobles also retained the right of
appointing representatives to sit in the College of Deputed Councillors,
in certain colleges of the admiralty, and upon the board of directors of
the East India Company, and to various public offices. The following
eighteen towns sent representatives: South Quarter--(1) Dordrecht, (2)
Haarlem, (3) Delft, (4) Leiden, (5) Amsterdam, (6) Gouda, (7) Rotterdam,
(8) Gorinchem, (9) Schiedam, (10) Schoonhoven, (11) Brill; North
Quarter:--(12) Alkmaar, (13) Hoorn, (14) Enkhuizen, (15) Edam, (16)
Monnikendam, (17) Medemblik, (18) Purmerend. Each town (as did also the
nobles) sent as many representatives as they pleased, but the nineteen
members had only one vote each. Each town's deputation was headed by its
pensionary, who was the spokesman on behalf of the representatives.
Certain questions such as peace and war, voting of subsidies, imposition
of taxation, changes in the mode of government, &c., required unanimity
of votes. The grand pensionary (_Raad-Pensionaris_) was at once the
president and chief administrative officer of the states. He presided
over all meetings, conducted the business, kept the minutes, and was
charged with the maintenance of the rights of the states, with the
execution of their resolutions and with the entire correspondence. Nor
were his functions only provincial. He was the head and the spokesman of
the deputation of the states to the States-General of the union; and in
the stadholderless period the influence of such grand pensionaries of
Holland as John de Witt and Anthony Heinsius enabled the complicated and
intricate machinery of government in a confederacy of many sovereign and
semi-sovereign authorities without any recognized head of the state, to
work with comparative smoothness and a remarkable unity of policy. This
was secured by the indisputable predominance in the union of the
province of Holland. The policy of the states of Holland swayed the
policy of the generality, and historical circumstances decreed that the
policy of the states of Holland during long and critical periods should
be controlled by a succession of remarkable men filling the office of
grand pensionary. The states of Holland sat at the Hague in the months
of March, July, September and November. During the periods of
prorogation the continuous oversight of the business and interests of
the province was, however, never neglected. This duty was confided to a
body called the College of Deputed Councillors (_het Kollegie der
Gekommitteerde Raden_), which was itself divided into two sections, one
for the south quarter, another for the north quarter. The more
important--that for the south quarter--consisted of ten members, (1) the
senior member of the nobility, who sat for life, (2) representatives
(for periods of three years) of the eight towns: Dordrecht, Haarlem,
Delft, Leiden, Amsterdam, Gouda, Rotterdam and Gorinchem, with a tenth
member (usually elected biennially) for the towns of Schiedam,
Schoonhoven and Brill conjointly. The grand pensionary presided over the
meetings of the college, which had the general charge of the whole
provincial administration, especially of finance, the carrying out of
the resolutions of the states, the maintenance of defences, and the
upholding of the privileges and liberties of the land. With particular
regard to this last-named duty the college deputed two of its members to
attend all meetings of the states-general, to watch the proceedings and
report at once any proposals which they held to be contrary to the
interests or to infringe upon the rights of the province of Holland. The
institution of the College of Deputed Councillors might thus be
described as a vigilance committee of the states in perpetual session.
The existence of the college, with its many weighty and important
functions, must never be lost sight of by students who desire to have a
clear understanding of the remarkable part played by the province of
Holland in the history of the United Netherlands.     (G. E.)



HOLLAND, a city of Ottawa county, Michigan, U.S.A., on Macatawa Bay
(formerly called Black Lake), near Lake Michigan, and 25 m. W.S.W. of
Grand Rapids. Pop. (1890) 3945; (1900) 7790, of whom a large portion
were of Dutch descent; (1904) 8966; (1910) 10,490. It is served by the
Père Marquette Railroad, by steamboat lines to Chicago and other lake
ports, and by electric lines connecting with Grand Rapids, Saugatuck,
and the neighbouring summer resorts. On Macatawa Bay are Ottawa Beach,
Macatawa Park, Jenison Park, Central Park, Castle Park and Waukezoo. In
the city itself are Hope College (co-educational; founded in 1851 and
incorporated as a college in 1866), an institution of the (Dutch)
Reformed Church in America; and the Western Theological Seminary (1869;
suspended 1877-1884) of the same denomination. Holland is a grain and
fruit shipping centre, and among its manufactures are furniture,
leather, grist mill products, iron, beer, pickles, shoes, beet sugar,
gelatine, biscuit (Holland rusk), electric and steam launches, and
pianos. In 1908 seven weekly, one daily, and two monthly papers (four
denominational) were published at Holland, five of them in Dutch. The
municipality owns its water-works and electric-lighting plant. Holland
was founded in 1847 by Dutch settlers, under the leadership of the Rev.
A. C. Van Raalte, and was chartered as a city in 1867. In 1871 much of
it was destroyed by a forest fire.



HOLLAND, a cloth so called from the country where it was first made. It
was originally a fine plain linen fabric of a brownish colour--unbleached
flax. Several varieties are now made: hollands, pale hollands and fine
hollands. They are used for aprons, blinds, shirts, blouses and dresses.



HOLLAR, WENZEL or WENCESLAUS [VACLAF HOLAR] (1607-1677), Bohemian etcher,
was born at Prague on the 13th of July 1607, and died in London, being
buried at St Margaret's church, Westminster, on the 28th of March 1677.
His family was ruined by the capture of Prague in the Thirty Years' War,
and young Hollar, who had been destined for the law, determined to become
an artist. The earliest of his works that have come down to us are dated
1625 and 1626; they are small plates, and one of them is a copy of a
Virgin and Child by Dürer, whose influence upon Hollar's work was always
great. In 1627 he was at Frankfort, working under Matthew Merian, an
etcher and engraver; thence he passed to Strassburg, and thence, in 1633,
to Cologne. It was there that he attracted the notice of the famous
amateur Thomas, earl of Arundel, then on an embassy to the imperial
court; and with him Hollar travelled to Vienna and Prague, and finally
came in 1637 to England, destined to be his home for many years. Though
he lived in the household of Lord Arundel, he seems to have worked not
exclusively for him, but to have begun that slavery to the publishers
which was afterwards the normal condition of his life. In his first year
in England he made for Stent, the printseller, the magnificent View of
Greenwich, nearly a yard long, and received thirty shillings for the
plate,--perhaps a twentieth part of what would now be paid for a single
good impression. Afterwards we hear of his fixing the price of his work
at fourpence an hour, and measuring his time by a sandglass. The Civil
War had its effect on his fortunes, but none on his industry. Lord
Arundel left England in 1642, and Hollar passed into the service of the
duke of York, taking with him a wife and two children. With other
royalist artists, notably Inigo Jones and Faithorne, he stood the long
and eventful siege of Basing House; and as we have some hundred plates
from his hand dated during the years 1643 and 1644 he must have turned
his enforced leisure to good purpose. Taken prisoner, he escaped or was
released, and joined Lord Arundel at Antwerp, and there he remained eight
years, the prime of his working life, when he produced his finest plates
of every kind, his noblest views, his miraculous "muffs" and "shells,"
and the superb portrait of the duke of York. In 1652 he returned to
London, and lived for a time with Faithorne the engraver near Temple Bar.
During the following years were published many books which he
illustrated:--Ogilby's _Virgil_ and _Homer_, Stapylton's _Juvenal_, and
Dugdale's _Warwickshire_, _St Paul's_ and _Monasticon_ (part i.). The
booksellers continued to impose on the simple-minded foreigner,
pretending to decline his work that he might still further reduce the
wretched price he charged them. Nor did the Restoration improve his
position. The court did nothing for him, and in the great plague he lost
his young son, who, we are told, might have rivalled his father as an
artist. After the great fire he produced some of his famous "Views of
London"; and it may have been the success of these plates which induced
the king to send him, in 1668, to Tangier, to draw the town and forts.
During his return to England occurred the desperate and successful
engagement fought by his ship the "Mary Rose," under Captain Kempthorne,
against seven Algerine men-of-war,--a brilliant affair which Hollar
etched for Ogilby's _Africa_. He lived eight years after his return,
still working for the booksellers, and retaining to the end his wonderful
powers; witness the large plate of Edinburgh (dated 1670), one of the
greatest of his works. He died in extreme poverty, his last recorded
words being a request to the bailiffs that they would not carry away the
bed on which he was dying.

Hollar's variety was boundless; his plates number some 2740, and include
views, portraits, ships, religious subjects, heraldic subjects,
landscapes, and still life in a hundred different forms. No one that
ever lived has been able to represent fur, or shells, or a butterfly's
wing as he has done. His architectural drawings, such as those of
Antwerp and Strassburg cathedrals, and his views of towns, are
mathematically exact, but they are pictures as well. He could reproduce
the decorative works of other artists quite faultlessly, as in the
famous chalice after Mantegna's drawing. His _Theatrum mulierum_ and
similar collections reproduce for us with literal truth the outward
aspects of the people of his day; and his portraits, a branch of art in
which he has been unfairly disparaged, are of extraordinary refinement
and power.

  Almost complete collections of Hollar's works exist in the British
  Museum and in the library at Windsor Castle. Two admirable catalogues
  of his plates have been made, one in 1745 (2nd ed. 1759) by George
  Vertue, and one in 1853 by Parthey. The latter, published at Berlin,
  is a model of German thoroughness and accuracy.



HOLLES, DENZIL HOLLES, BARON (1599-1680), English statesman and writer,
second son of John Holles, 1st earl of Clare (c. 1564-1637), by Anne,
daughter of Sir Thomas Stanhope, was born on the 31st of October 1599.
The favourite son of his father and endowed with great natural
abilities, Denzil Holles grew up under advantageous circumstances.
Destined to become later one of the most formidable antagonists of King
Charles's arbitrary government, he was in early youth that prince's
playmate and intimate companion. The earl of Clare was, however, no
friend to the Stuart administration, being especially hostile to the
duke of Buckingham; and on the accession of Charles to the throne the
king's offers of favour were rejected. In 1624 Holles was returned to
parliament for Mitchell in Cornwall, and in 1628 for Dorchester. He had
from the first a keen sense of the humiliations which attended the
foreign policy of the Stuart kings. Writing to Strafford, his
brother-in-law, on the 29th of November 1627, he severely censures
Buckingham's conduct of the expedition to the Isle of Rhé; "since
England was England," the declared, "it received not so dishonourable a
blow"; and he joined in the demand for Buckingham's impeachment in 1628.
To these discontents were now added the abuses arising from the king's
arbitrary administration. On the 2nd of March 1629, when Sir John Finch,
the speaker, refused to put Sir John Eliot's Protestations and was about
to adjourn the House by the king's command, Holles with another member
thrust him back into the chair and swore "he should sit still till it
pleased them to rise." Meanwhile Eliot, on the refusal of the speaker to
read the Protestations, had himself thrown them into the fire; the usher
of the black rod was knocking at the door for admittance, and the king
had sent for the guard. But Holles, declaring that he could not render
the king or his country better service, put the Protestations to the
House from memory, all the members rising to their feet and applauding.
In consequence a warrant was issued for his arrest with others on the
following day. They were prosecuted first in the Star Chamber and
subsequently in the King's Bench. When brought upon his _habeas corpus_
before the latter court Holles offered with the rest to give bail, but
refused sureties for good behaviour, and argued that the court had no
jurisdiction over offences supposed to have been committed in
parliament. On his refusal to plead he was sentenced to a fine of 1000
marks and to imprisonment during the king's pleasure. Holles had at
first been committed and remained for some time a close prisoner in the
Tower of London. The "close" confinement, however, was soon changed to a
"safe" one, the prisoner then having leave to take the air and exercise,
but being obliged to maintain himself at his own expense. On the 29th of
October Holles, with Eliot and Valentine, was transferred to the
Marshalsea. His resistance to the king's tyranny did not prove so stout
as that of some of his comrades in misfortune. Among the papers of the
secretary Sir John Coke is a petition of Holles, couched in humble and
submissive terms, to be restored to the king's favour;[1] having given
the security demanded for his good behaviour, he was liberated early in
1630, and on the 30th of October was allowed bail. Being still banished
from London he retired to the country, paying his fine in 1637 or 1638.
The fine was repaid by the parliament in