Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Illustrated Catalogue of Locomotives - Baldwin Locomotive Works
Author: Williams, Edward H., Parry, Charles T., Burnham, George, Baird, Matthew, Henszey, William P.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Illustrated Catalogue of Locomotives - Baldwin Locomotive Works" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



[Illustration: BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS.

[Bird's-Eye View.]]



  BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS.


  ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE
  OF
  LOCOMOTIVES.

  M. BAIRD & Co.,

  PHILADELPHIA.

  MATTHEW BAIRD,
  GEORGE BURNHAM,
  CHARLES T. PARRY,
  EDWARD H. WILLIAMS,
  WILLIAM P. HENSZEY,
  EDWARD LONGSTRETH.

  PRESS OF
  J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO.,
  PHILADELPHIA.



SKETCH OF THE BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS.


THE BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS dates its origin from the inception of
steam railroads in America. Called into existence by the early
requirements of the railroad interests of the country, it has grown
with their growth and kept pace with their progress. It has reflected
in its career the successive stages of American railroad practice, and
has itself contributed largely to the development of the locomotive as
it exists to-day. A history of the Baldwin Locomotive Works,
therefore, is, in a great measure, a record of the progress of
locomotive engineering in this country, and as such cannot fail to be
of interest to all who are concerned in this important element of our
material progress.

MATTHIAS W. BALDWIN, the founder of the establishment, learned the
trade of a jeweler, and entered the service of Fletcher & Gardiner,
Jewelers and Silversmiths, Philadelphia, in 1817. Two years later he
opened a small shop, in the same line of business, on his own account.
The demand for articles of this character falling off, however, he
formed a partnership, in 1825, with David Mason, a machinist, in the
manufacture of bookbinders' tools and cylinders for calico-printing.
Their shop was in a small alley which runs north from Walnut Street,
above Fourth. They afterwards removed to Minor Street, below Sixth.
The business was so successful that steam-power became necessary in
carrying on their manufactures, and an engine was bought for the
purpose. This proving unsatisfactory, Mr. Baldwin decided to design
and construct one which should be specially adapted to the
requirements of his shop. One of these requirements was that it should
occupy the least possible space, and this was met by the construction
of an upright engine on a novel and ingenious plan. On a bed-plate
about five feet square an upright cylinder was placed; the piston-rod
connected to a cross-bar having two legs, turned downward, and sliding
in grooves on the sides of the cylinder, which thus formed the guides.
To the sides of these legs, at their lower ends, was connected by
pivots an inverted U-shaped frame, prolonged at the arch into a single
rod, which took hold of the crank of a fly-wheel carried by upright
standards on the bed-plate. It will be seen that the length of the
ordinary separate guide-bars was thus saved, and the whole engine was
brought within the smallest possible compass. The design of the
machine was not only unique, but its workmanship was so excellent, and
its efficiency so great, as readily to procure for Mr. Baldwin orders
for additional stationary engines. His attention was thus turned to
steam engineering, and the way was prepared for his grappling with the
problem of the locomotive when the time should arrive.

This original stationary engine, constructed prior to 1830, has been
in almost constant service since its completion, and at this day is
still in use, furnishing all the power required to drive the machinery
in the erecting-shop of the present works. The visitor who beholds it
quietly performing its regular duty in a corner of the shop, may
justly regard it with considerable interest, as in all probability the
indirect foundation of the Baldwin Locomotive Works, and permitted
still to contribute to the operation of the mammoth industry which it
was instrumental in building up.

The manufacture of stationary steam-engines thus took a prominent
place in the establishment, and Mr. Mason shortly afterward withdrew
from the business.

In 1829-30 the use of steam as a motive power on railroads had begun
to engage the attention of American engineers. A few locomotives had
been imported from England, and one (which, however, was not
successful) had been constructed at the West Point Foundry, in New
York City. To gratify the public interest in the new motor, Mr.
Franklin Peale, then proprietor of the Philadelphia Museum, applied to
Mr. Baldwin to construct a miniature locomotive for exhibition in his
establishment. With the aid only of the imperfect published
descriptions and sketches of the locomotives which had taken part in
the Rainhill competition in England, Mr. Baldwin undertook the work,
and on the 25th of April, 1831, the miniature locomotive was put in
motion on a circular track made of pine boards covered with hoop iron,
in the rooms of the Museum. Two small cars, containing seats for four
passengers, were attached to it, and the novel spectacle attracted
crowds of admiring spectators. Both anthracite and pine-knot coal were
used as fuel, and the exhaust steam was discharged into the chimney,
thus utilizing it to increase the draught.

The success of the model was such that, in the same year, Mr. Baldwin
received an order for a locomotive from the Philadelphia, Germantown
and Norristown Railroad Company, whose short line of six miles to
Germantown was operated by horse-power. The Camden and Amboy Railroad
Company had shortly before imported a locomotive from England, which
was stored in a shed at Bordentown. It had not yet been put together;
but Mr. Baldwin, in company with his friend, Mr. Peale, visited the
spot, inspected the detached parts, and made a few memoranda of some
of its principal dimensions. Guided by these figures and his
experience with the Peale model, Mr. Baldwin commenced the task. The
difficulties to be overcome in filling the order can hardly be
appreciated at this day. There were few mechanics competent to do any
part of the work on a locomotive. Suitable tools were with difficulty
obtainable. Cylinders were bored by a chisel fixed in a block of wood
and turned by hand. Blacksmiths able to weld a bar of iron exceeding
one and one-quarter inches in thickness, were few, or not to be had.
It was necessary for Mr. Baldwin to do much of the work with his own
hands, to educate the workmen who assisted him, and to improvise tools
for the various processes.

The work was prosecuted, nevertheless, under all these difficulties,
and the locomotive was finally completed, christened the "Old
Ironsides," and tried on the road, November 23, 1832. The
circumstances of the trial are fully preserved, and are given, further
on, in the extracts from the journals of the day. Despite some
imperfections, naturally occurring in a first effort, and which were
afterward, to a great extent, remedied, the engine was, for that early
day, a marked and gratifying success. It was put at once into service,
as appears from the Company's advertisement three days after the
trial, and did duty on the Germantown road and others for over a score
of years.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.--THE "OLD IRONSIDES," 1832.]

The "Ironsides" was a four-wheeled engine, modeled essentially on the
English practice of that day, as shown in the "Planet" class, and
weighed, in running order, something over five tons. The rear or
driving-wheels were fifty-four inches in diameter on a crank-axle
placed in front of the fire-box. The cranks were thirty-nine inches
from centre to centre. The front wheels, which were simply carrying
wheels, were forty-five inches in diameter, on an axle placed just
back of the cylinders. The cylinders were nine and one-half inches in
diameter by eighteen inches stroke, and were attached horizontally to
the outside of the smoke-box, which was D-shaped, with the sides
receding inwardly, so as to bring the centre line of each cylinder in
line with the centre of the crank. The wheels were made with heavy
cast-iron hubs, wooden spokes and rims, and wrought-iron tires. The
frame was of wood, placed outside the wheels. The boiler was thirty
inches in diameter, and contained seventy-two copper flues, one and
one-half inches in diameter and seven feet long. The tender was a
four-wheeled platform, with wooden sides and back, carrying an iron
box for a water-tank, inclosed in a wooden casing, and with a space
for fuel in front. The engine had no cab. The valve-motion was given
by a single loose eccentric for each cylinder, placed on the axle
between the crank and the hub of the wheel. On the inside of the
eccentric was a half-circular slot, running half-way around. A stop
was fastened to the axle at the arm of the crank, terminating in a pin
which projected into the slot. This pin would thus hold the eccentric
at one end or the other of the half-circular slot, and the engine was
reversed by moving the eccentric about the axle, by means of movable
hand-levers set in sockets in the rock-shafts, until it was arrested
and held by the pin at one end or the other of the slot. The
rock-shafts, which were under the footboard, had arms above and below,
and the eccentric-straps had each a forked rod, with a hook, or an
upper and lower latch or pin, at their extremities, to engage with
the upper or lower arm of the rock-shaft. The eccentric-rods were
raised or lowered by a double treadle, so as to connect with the upper
or lower arm of the rock-shaft, according as forward or backward gear
was desired. A peculiarity in the exhaust of the "Ironsides" was that
there was only a single straight pipe running across from one cylinder
to the other, with an opening in the upper side of the pipe, midway
between the cylinders, to which was attached at right angles the
perpendicular pipe into the chimney. The cylinders, therefore,
exhausted against each other; and it was found, after the engine had
been put in use, that this was a serious objection. This defect was
afterwards remedied by turning each exhaust-pipe upward into the
chimney, substantially as is now done. The steam-joints were made with
canvas and red-lead, as was the practice in English locomotives, and
in consequence much trouble was caused, from time to time, by leaking.

The price of the engine was to have been $4000, but some difficulty
was found in procuring a settlement. The Company claimed that the
engine did not perform according to contract; and objection was also
made to some of the defects alluded to. After these had been corrected
as far as possible, however, Mr. Baldwin finally succeeded in
effecting a compromise settlement, and received from the Company $3500
for the machine.

We are indebted for the sketch of the "Ironsides" from which the
accompanying cut is produced, as well as for other valuable
particulars in regard to the engine, to Mr. H. R. Campbell, who was
the Chief Engineer of the Germantown and Norristown Railroad when the
"Ironsides" was placed in service, and who is thoroughly familiar with
all the facts in regard to the engine. Much of the success of the
machine was due to his exertions, as, while the President of the
Company was inclined to reject it as defective, Mr. Campbell was
earnest in his efforts to correct its imperfections, and his influence
contributed largely to retain the engine on the road.

The results of the trial and the impression produced by it on the
public mind may be gathered from the following extracts from the
newspapers of the day:

The _United States Gazette_ of Nov. 24th, 1832, remarks:

     "A most gratifying experiment was made yesterday afternoon on the
     Philadelphia, Germantown and Norristown Railroad. The beautiful
     locomotive engine and tender, built by Mr. Baldwin, of this city,
     whose reputation as an ingenious machinist is well known, were
     for the first time placed on the road. The engine traveled about
     six miles, working with perfect accuracy and ease in all its
     parts, and with great velocity."

The _Chronicle_ of the same date noticed the trial more at length, as
follows:

     "It gives us pleasure to state that the locomotive engine built
     by our townsman, M. W. Baldwin, has proved highly successful. In
     the presence of several gentlemen of science and information on
     such subjects, the engine was yesterday placed upon the road for
     the first time. All her parts had been previously highly finished
     and fitted together in Mr. Baldwin's factory. She was taken apart
     on Tuesday and removed to the Company's depot, and yesterday
     morning she was completely together, ready for travel. After the
     regular passenger cars had arrived from Germantown in the
     afternoon, the tracks being clear, preparation was made for her
     starting. The placing fire in the furnace and raising steam
     occupied twenty minutes. The engine (with her tender) moved from
     the depot in beautiful style, working with great ease and
     uniformity. She proceeded about half a mile beyond the Union
     Tavern, at the township line, and returned immediately, a
     distance of six miles, at a speed of about twenty-eight miles to
     the hour, her speed having been slackened at all the road
     crossings, and it being after dark, but a portion of her power
     was used. It is needless to say that the spectators were
     delighted. From this experiment there is every reason to believe
     this engine will draw thirty tons gross, at an average speed of
     forty miles an hour, on a level road. The principal superiority
     of the engine over any of the English ones known, consists in the
     light weight,--which is but between four and five tons,--her
     small bulk, and the simplicity of her working machinery. We
     rejoice at the result of this experiment, as it conclusively
     shows that Philadelphia, always famous for the skill of her
     mechanics, is enabled to produce steam-engines for railroads
     combining so many superior qualities as to warrant the belief
     that her mechanics will hereafter supply nearly all the public
     works of this description in the country."

On subsequent trials, the "Ironsides" attained a speed of thirty miles
per hour, with its usual train attached. So great were the wonder and
curiosity which attached to such a prodigy, that people flocked to see
the marvel, and eagerly bought the privilege of riding after the
strange monster. The officers of the road were not slow to avail
themselves of the public interest to increase their passenger
receipts, and the following advertisement from _Poulson's American
Daily Advertiser_ of Nov. 26, 1832, will show that as yet they
regarded the new machine rather as a curiosity and a bait to allure
travel than as a practical, every-day servant:

     "NOTICE.--The locomotive engine (built by M. W. Baldwin, of this
     city) will depart daily, _when the weather is fair_, with a train
     of passenger cars. _On rainy days horses will be attached._"

This announcement did not mean that in wet weather horses _would be
attached to the locomotive_ to aid if in drawing the train, but that
the usual horse-cars would be employed in making the trips upon the
road without the engine.

Upon making the first trip to Germantown with a passenger train with
the Ironsides, one of the drivers slipped upon the axle, causing the
wheels to track less than the gauge of the road and drop in between
the rails. It was also discovered that the valve arrangement of the
pumps was defective, and they failed to supply the boiler with water.
The shifting of the driving wheel upon the axle fastened the
eccentric, so that it would not operate in backward motion. These
mishaps caused delay, and prevented the engine from reaching its
destination, to the great disappointment of all concerned. They were
corrected in a few days, and the machine was used in experimenting
upon its efficiency, making occasional trips with trains to
Germantown. The road had an ascending grade, nearly uniform, of
thirty-two feet per mile, and for the last half-mile of forty-five
feet per mile, and it was found that the engine was too light for the
business of the road upon these grades.

Such was Mr. Baldwin's first locomotive; and it is related of him that
his discouragement at the difficulties which he had undergone in
building it and in finally procuring a settlement for it was such that
he remarked to one of his friends, with much decision, "That is our
last locomotive."

It was some time before he received an order for another, but
meanwhile the subject had become singularly fascinating to him, and
occupied his mind so fully that he was eager to work out his new ideas
in a tangible form.

[Illustration: Fig. 2.--HALF-CRANK.]

Shortly after the "Ironsides" had been placed on the Germantown road,
Mr. E. L. Miller, of Charleston, S. C, came to Philadelphia and made a
careful examination of the machine. Mr. Miller had, in 1830,
contracted to furnish a locomotive to the Charleston and Hamburg
Railroad Company, and accordingly the engine "Best Friend" had been
built under his direction at the West Point Foundry, New York. After
inspecting the "Ironsides," he suggested to Mr. Baldwin to visit the
Mohawk and Hudson Railroad and examine an English locomotive which had
been placed on that road in July, 1831, by Messrs. Robert Stephenson &
Co., of Newcastle, England. It was originally a four-wheeled engine of
the "Planet" type, with horizontal cylinders and crank-axle. The front
wheels of this engine were removed about a year after the machine was
put at work, and a four-wheeled swiveling or "bogie" truck
substituted. The result of Mr. Baldwin's investigations was the
adoption of this design, but with some important improvements. Among
these was the "half-crank," which he devised on his return from this
trip, and which he patented September 10, 1834. In this form of crank,
shown in Figure 2, the outer arm is omitted, and the wrist is fixed in
a spoke of the wheel. In other words, the wheel itself formed one arm
of the crank. The result sought and gained was that the cranks were
strengthened, and, being at the extremities of the axle, the boiler
could be made larger in diameter and placed lower. The driving axle
could also be placed back of the fire-box, the connecting rods passing
by the sides of the fire-box and taking hold inside of the wheels.
This arrangement of the crank also involved the placing of the
cylinders outside the smoke-box, as was done on the "Ironsides."

By the time the order for the second locomotive was received, Mr.
Baldwin had matured this device and was prepared to embody it in
practical form. The order came from Mr. E. L. Miller in behalf of the
Charleston and Hamburg Railroad Company, and the engine bore his name,
and was completed February 18, 1834. It was on six wheels; one pair
being drivers, four and a half feet in diameter, with half-crank axle
placed back of the fire-box as above described, and the four front
wheels combined in a swiveling truck. The driving-wheels, it should be
observed, were cast in solid bell-metal. The combined wood and iron
wheels used on the "Ironsides" had proved objectionable, and Mr.
Baldwin, in his endeavors to find a satisfactory substitute, had
recourse to brass. June 29, 1833, he took out a patent for a
cast-brass wheel, his idea being that by varying the hardness of the
metal the adhesion of the drivers on the rails could be increased or
diminished at will. The brass wheels on the "Miller," however, soon
wore out, and the experiment with this metal was not repeated. The "E.
L. Miller" had cylinders ten inches in diameter; stroke of piston,
sixteen inches; and weighed, with water in the boiler, seven tons
eight hundredweight. The boiler had a high dome over the fire-box, as
shown in Figure 3; and this form of construction, it may be noted, was
followed, with a few exceptions, for many years.

The valve-motion was given by a single fixed eccentric for each
cylinder. Each eccentric-strap had two arms attached to it, one above
and the other below, and, as the driving-axle was back of the
fire-box, these arms were prolonged backward under the footboard, with
a hook on the inner side of the end of each. The rock-shaft had arms
above and below its axis, and the hooks of the two rods of each
eccentric were moved by hand-levers so as to engage with either arm,
thus producing backward or forward gear. This form of single
eccentric, peculiar to Mr. Baldwin, was in the interest of simplicity
in the working parts, and was adhered to for some years. It gave rise
to an animated controversy among mechanics as to whether, with its
use, it was possible to get a lead on the valve in both directions.
Many maintained that this was impracticable; but Mr. Baldwin
demonstrated by actual experience that the reverse was the case.

Meanwhile the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania had given Mr. Baldwin an
order for a locomotive for the State Road, as it was then called, from
Philadelphia to Columbia, which, up to that time, had been worked by
horses. This engine, called the "Lancaster," was completed in June,
1834. It was similar to the "Miller," and weighed seventeen thousand
pounds. After it was placed in service, the records show that it
hauled at one time nineteen loaded burden cars over the highest grades
between Philadelphia and Columbia. This was characterized at the time
by the officers of the road as an "unprecedented performance." The
success of the machine on its trial trips was such that the
Legislature decided to adopt steam-power for working the road, and Mr.
Baldwin received orders for several additional locomotives. Two others
were accordingly delivered to the State in September and November
respectively of that year, and one was also built and delivered to the
Philadelphia and Trenton Railroad Company during the same season. This
latter engine, which was put in service October 21, 1834, averaged
twenty-one thousand miles per year to September 15, 1840.

[Illustration: Fig. 3.--BALDWIN ENGINE, 1834.]

Five locomotives were thus completed in 1834, and the new business was
fairly under way. The building in Lodge Alley, to which Mr. Baldwin
had removed from Minor Street, and where these engines were
constructed, began to be found too contracted, and another removal was
decided upon. A location on Broad and Hamilton Streets (the site, in
part, of the present works) was selected, and a three-story L-shaped
brick building, fronting on both streets, erected. This was completed
and the business removed to it during the following year (1835). The
original building still stands, forming the office, drawing-room, and
principal machine-shops of the present works.

These early locomotives, built in 1834, were the types of Mr.
Baldwin's practice for some years. Their general design is shown in
Figure 3. All, or nearly all of them, embraced several important
devices, which were the results of his study and experiments up to
that time. The devices referred to were patented September 10, 1834,
and the same patent covered the four following inventions, viz.:

1. The half-crank, and method of attaching it to the driving-wheel.
(This has already been described.)

[Illustration: Fig. 4.--BALDWIN COMPOUND WOOD AND IRON WHEELS, 1834.]

2. A new mode of constructing the wheels of locomotive engines and
cars. In this the hub and spokes were of cast-iron, cast together. The
spokes were cast without a rim, and terminated in segment flanges,
each spoke having a separate flange disconnected from its neighbors.
By this means, it was claimed, the injurious effect of the unequal
expansion of the materials composing the wheels was lessened or
altogether prevented. The flanges bore against wooden felloes, made in
two thicknesses, and put together so as to break joints. Tenons or
pins projected from the flanges into openings made in the wooden
felloes, to keep them in place. Around the whole the tire was passed
and secured by bolts. The above sketch shows the device.

3. A new mode of forming the joints of steam and other tubes. This was
Mr. Baldwin's invention of ground joints for steam-pipes, which was a
very valuable improvement over previous methods of making joints with
red-lead packing, and which rendered it possible to carry a much
higher pressure of steam.

4. A new mode of forming the joints and other parts of the
supply-pump, and of locating the pump itself. This invention consisted
in making the single guide-bar hollow and using it for the
pump-barrel. The pump-plunger was attached to the piston-rod at a
socket or sleeve formed for the purpose, and the hollow guide-bar
terminated in the vertical pump-chamber. This chamber was made in two
pieces, joined about midway between the induction and eduction-pipes.
This joint was ground steam-tight, as were also the joints of the
induction-pipe with the bottom of the lower chamber, and the flange of
the eduction-pipe with the top of the upper chamber. All these parts
were held together by a stirrup with a set-screw in its arched top,
and the arrangement was such that by simply unscrewing this set-screw
the different sections of the chamber, with all the valves, could be
taken apart for cleaning or adjusting. The cut below illustrates the
device.

[Illustration: Fig. 5.--PUMP AND STIRRUP.]

It is probable that the five engines built during 1834 embodied all,
or nearly all, these devices. They all had the half-crank, the ground
joints for steam-pipes (which was first made by him in 1833), and the
pump formed in the guide-bar, and all had the four-wheeled truck in
front, and a single pair of drivers back of the fire-box. On this
position of the driving-wheels, Mr. Baldwin laid great stress, as it
made a more even distribution of the weight, throwing about one-half
on the drivers and one-half on the four-wheeled truck. It also
extended the wheel-base, making the engine much steadier and less
damaging to the track. Mr. William Norris, who had established a
locomotive works in Philadelphia in 1832, was at this time building a
six-wheeled engine with a truck in front and the driving-wheels placed
in front of the fire-box. Considerable rivalry naturally existed
between the two manufacturers as to the comparative merits of their
respective plans. In Mr. Norris's engine, the position of the
driving-axle in front of the fire-box threw on it more of the weight
of the engine, and thus increased the adhesion and the tractive power.
Mr. Baldwin, however, maintained the superiority of his plan, as
giving a better distribution of the weight and a longer wheel-base,
and consequently rendering the machine less destructive to the track.
As the iron rails then in use were generally light, and much of the
track was of wood, this feature was of some importance.

To the use of the ground joint for steam-pipes, however, much of the
success of his early engines was due. The English builders were making
locomotives with canvas and red-lead joints, permitting a steam
pressure of only sixty pounds per inch to be carried, while Mr.
Baldwin's machines were worked at one hundred and twenty pounds with
ease. Several locomotives imported from England at about this period
by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for the State Road (three of which
were made by Stephenson) had canvas and red-lead joints, and their
efficiency was so much less than that of the Baldwin engines, on
account of this and other features of construction, that they were
soon laid aside or sold.

In June, 1834, a patent was issued to Mr. E. L. Miller, by whom Mr.
Baldwin's second engine was ordered, for a method of increasing the
adhesion of a locomotive by throwing a part of the weight of the
tender on the rear of the engine, thus increasing the weight on the
drivers. Mr. Baldwin adopted this device on an engine built for the
Philadelphia and Trenton Railroad Company, May, 1835, and thereafter
used it largely, paying one hundred dollars royalty for each engine.
Eventually (May 6, 1839) he bought the patent for nine thousand
dollars, evidently considering that the device was especially
valuable, if not indispensable, in order to render his engine as
powerful, when required, as other patterns having the driving-wheels
in front of the fire-box, and therefore utilizing more of the weight
of the engine for adhesion.

In making the truck and tender wheels of these early locomotives, the
hubs were cast in three pieces and afterward banded with wrought-iron,
the interstices being filled with spelter. This method of construction
was adopted on account of the difficulty then found in casting a
chilled wheel in one solid piece.

April 3, 1835, Mr. Baldwin took out a patent for certain improvements
in the wheels and tubes of locomotive engines. That relating to the
wheels provided for casting the hub and spokes together, and having
the spokes terminate in segments of a rim, as described in his patent
of September 10, 1834. Between the ends of the spokes and the tires
wood was interposed, and the tire might be either of wrought-iron or
of chilled cast-iron. The intention was expressed of making the tire
usually of cast-iron chilled. The main object, however, was declared
to be the interposition between the spokes and the rim of a layer of
wood or other substance possessing some degree of elasticity. This
method of making driving-wheels was followed for several years.

The improvement in locomotive tubes consisted in driving a copper
ferrule or thimble on the outside of the end of the tube, and
soldering it in place, instead of driving a ferrule into the tube, as
had previously been the practice. The object of the latter method had
been to make a tight joint with the tube-sheet; but, by putting the
ferrule on the outside of the tube, not only was the joint made as
tight as before, but the tube was strengthened, and left unobstructed
throughout to the full extent of its diameter. This method of setting
flues has been generally followed in the works from that date to the
present, the only difference being that, at this time, with iron
tubes, the end is swedged down, the copper ferrule brazed on, and the
iron end turned or riveted over against the copper thimble and the
flue-sheet, to make the joint perfect.

Early in 1835, the new shop on Broad Street was completed and
occupied. Mr. Baldwin's attention was thenceforward given to
locomotive building exclusively, except that a stationary engine was
occasionally constructed.

In May, 1835, his eleventh locomotive, the "Black Hawk," was delivered
to the Philadelphia and Trenton Railroad Company. This was the first
outside-connected engine of his build. It was also the first engine on
which the Miller device of attaching part of the weight of the tender
to the engine was employed. On the eighteenth engine, the
"Brandywine," built for the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad
Company, brass tires were used on the driving-wheels, for the purpose
of obtaining more adhesion; but they wore out rapidly and were
replaced with iron.

Fourteen engines were constructed in 1835; forty in 1836; forty in
1837; twenty-three in 1838; twenty-six in 1839; and nine in 1840.
During all these years the general design continued the same; but, in
compliance with the demand for more power, three sizes were furnished,
as follows:

  First-class. Cylinders, 12-1/2 × 16; weight, loaded, 26,000 pounds.
  Second-class.   "       12     × 16;    "       "    23,000   "
  Third-class.    "       10-1/2 × 16;    "       "    20,000   "

The first-class engine he fully believed, in 1838, was as heavy as
would be called for, and he declared that it was as large as he
intended to make. Most of the engines were built with the half-crank,
but occasionally an outside-connected machine was turned out. These
latter, however, failed to give as complete satisfaction as the
half-crank machine. The drivers were generally four and a half feet in
diameter.

A patent was issued to Mr. Baldwin, August 17, 1835, for his device of
cylindrical pedestals. In this method of construction, the pedestal
was of cast-iron, and was bored in a lathe so as to form two concave
jaws. The boxes were also turned in a lathe so that their vertical
ends were cylindrical, and they were thus fitted in the pedestals.
This method of fitting up pedestals and boxes was cheap and effective,
and was used for some years for the driving and tender wheels.

As showing the estimation in which these early engines were held, it
may not be out of place to refer to the opinions of some of the
railroad managers of that period.

Mr. L. A. Sykes, engineer of the New Jersey Transportation Company,
under date of June 12, 1838, wrote that he could draw with his
engines twenty four-wheeled cars with twenty-six passengers each, at a
speed of twenty to twenty-five miles per hour, over grades of
twenty-six feet per mile. "As to simplicity of construction," he adds,
"small liability to get out of order, economy of repairs, and ease to
the road, I fully believe Mr. Baldwin's engines stand unrivalled. I
consider the simplicity of the engine, the arrangement of the
working-parts, and the distribution of the weight, far superior to any
engine I have ever seen, either of American or English manufacture,
and I have not the least hesitation in saying that Mr. Baldwin's
engine will do the same amount of work with much less repairs, either
to the engine or the track, than any other engine in use."

L. G. Cannon, President of the Rensselaer and Saratoga Railroad
Company, writes, "Your engines will, in performance and cost of
repairs, bear comparison with any other engine made in this or any
other country."

Some of Mr. Baldwin's engines on the State Road, in 1837, cost, for
repairs, only from one and two-tenths to one and six-tenths cents per
mile. It is noted that the engine "West Chester," on the same road,
weighing twenty thousand seven hundred and thirty-five pounds (ten
thousand four hundred and seventy-five on drivers), drew fifty-one
cars (four-wheeled), weighing two hundred and eighty-nine net tons,
over the road, some of the track being of wood covered with
strap-rail.

The financial difficulties of 1836 and 1837, which brought ruin upon
so many, did not leave Mr. Baldwin unscathed. His embarrassments
became so great that he was unable to proceed, and was forced to call
his creditors together for a settlement. After offering to surrender
all his property, his shop, tools, house, and everything, if they so
desired,--all of which would realize only about twenty-five per cent.
of their claims,--he proposed to them that they should permit him to
go on with the business, and in three years he would pay the full
amount of all claims, principal and interest. This was finally acceded
to, and the promise was in effect fulfilled, although not without an
extension of two years beyond the time originally proposed.

In May, 1837, the number of hands employed was three hundred, but this
number was reducing weekly, owing to the falling off in the demand for
engines.

These financial troubles had their effect on the demand for
locomotives, as will be seen in the decrease in the number built in
1838, 1839, and 1840; and this result was furthered by the
establishment of several other locomotive works and the introduction
of other patterns of engines.

The changes and improvements in details made during these years may be
summed up as follows:

The subject of burning coal had engaged much attention. In October,
1836, Mr. Baldwin secured a patent for a grate or fireplace which
could be detached from the engine at pleasure, and a new one with a
fresh coal fire substituted. The intention was to have the grate with
freshly ignited coal all ready for the engine on its arrival at a
station, and placed between the rails over suitable levers, by which
it could be attached quickly to the fire-box. It is needless to say
that this was never practiced. In January, 1838, however, Mr. Baldwin
was experimenting with the consumption of coal on the Germantown road,
and in July of the same year the records show that he was making a
locomotive to burn coal, part of the arrangement being to blow the
fire with a fan.

Up to 1838, Mr. Baldwin had made both driving and truck wheels with
wrought tires, but during that year chilled wheels for engine and
tender trucks were adopted. His tires were furnished by Messrs. S.
Vail & Son, Morristown, N. J., who made the only tires then obtainable
in America. They were very thin, being only one inch to one and a half
inches thick; and Mr. Baldwin, in importing some tires from England at
that time, insisted on their being made double the ordinary thickness.
The manufacturers at first objected and ridiculed the idea, the
practice being to use two tires when extra thickness was wanted, but
finally they consented to meet his requirements.

All his engines thus far had the single eccentric for each valve, but
at about this period double eccentrics were adopted, each terminating
in a straight hook, and reversed by hand-levers.

At this early period, Mr. Baldwin had begun to feel the necessity of
making all like parts of locomotives of the same class in such manner
as to be absolutely interchangeable. Steps were taken in this
direction, but it was not until many years afterward that the system
of standard gauges was perfected, which has since grown to be a
distinguishing feature in the establishment.

In March, 1839, Mr. Baldwin's records show that he was building a
number of outside-connected engines, and had succeeded in making them
strong and durable. He was also making a new chilled wheel, and one
which he thought would not break.

On the one hundred and thirty-sixth locomotive, completed October 18,
1839, for the Philadelphia, Germantown and Norristown Railroad, the
old pattern of wooden frame was abandoned, and no outside frame
whatever was employed,--the machinery, as well as the truck and the
pedestals of the driving-axles, being attached directly to the naked
boiler. The wooden frame thenceforward disappeared gradually, and an
iron frame took its place. Another innovation was the adoption of
eight-wheeled tenders, the first of which was built at about this
period.

April 8, 1839, Mr. Baldwin associated with himself Messrs. Vail and
Hufty, and the business was conducted under the firm name of Baldwin,
Vail & Hufty until 1841, when Mr. Hufty withdrew, and Baldwin & Vail
continued the copartnership until 1842.

The time had now arrived when the increase of business on railroads
demanded more powerful locomotives. It had for some years been felt
that for freight traffic the engine with one pair of drivers was
insufficient. Mr. Baldwin's engine had the single pair of drivers
placed back of the fire-box; that made by Mr. Norris, one pair in
front of the fire-box. An engine with two pairs of drivers, one pair
in front and one pair behind the fire-box, was the next logical step,
and Mr. Henry R. Campbell, of Philadelphia, was the first to carry
this design into execution. Mr. Campbell, as has been noted, was the
Chief Engineer of the Germantown Railroad when the "Ironsides" was
placed on that line, and had since given much attention to the subject
of locomotive construction. February 5, 1836, Mr. Campbell secured a
patent for an eight-wheeled engine with four drivers connected, and a
four-wheeled truck in front; and subsequently contracted with James
Brooks, of Philadelphia, to build for him such a machine. The work was
begun March 16, 1836, and the engine was completed May 8, 1837. This
was the first eight-wheeled engine of this type, and from it the
standard American locomotive of to-day takes its origin. The engine
lacked, however, one essential feature; there were no equalizing beams
between the drivers, and nothing but the ordinary steel springs over
each journal of the driving-axles to equalize the weight upon them. It
remained for Messrs. Eastwick & Harrison to supply this deficiency;
and in 1837 that firm constructed at their shop in Philadelphia a
locomotive on this plan, but with the driving-axles running in a
separate square frame, connected to the main frame above it by a
single central bearing on each side. This engine had cylinders twelve
by eighteen, four coupled driving-wheels, forty-four inches in
diameter, carrying eight of the twelve tons constituting the total
weight. Subsequently, Mr. Joseph Harrison, Jr., of the same firm,
substituted "equalizing beams" on engines of this plan afterward
constructed by them, substantially in the same manner as since
generally employed.

In the _American Railroad Journal_ of July 30, 1836, a wood-cut
showing Mr. Campbell's engine, together with an elaborate calculation
of the effective power of an engine on this plan, by William J. Lewis,
Esq., Civil Engineer, was published, with a table showing its
performance upon grades ranging from a dead level to a rise of one
hundred feet per mile. Mr. Campbell stated that his experience at that
time (1835-6) convinced him that grades of one hundred feet rise per
mile would, if roads were judiciously located, carry railroads over
any of the mountain passes in America, without the use of planes with
stationary steam power, or, as a general rule, of costly tunnels,--an
opinion very extensively verified by the experience of the country
since that date.

A step had thus been taken toward a plan of locomotive having more
adhesive power. Mr. Baldwin, however, was slow to adopt the new
design. He naturally regarded innovations with distrust. He had done
much to perfect the old pattern of engine, and had built over a
hundred of them, which were in successful operation on various
railroads. Many of the details were the subjects of his several
patents, and had been greatly simplified in his practice. In fact,
simplicity in all the working parts had been so largely his aim, that
it was natural that he should distrust any plan involving additional
machinery, and he regarded the new design as only an experiment at
best. In November, 1838, he wrote to a correspondent that he did not
think there was any advantage in the eight-wheeled engine. There being
three points in contact, it could not turn a curve, he argued, without
slipping one or the other pair of wheels sideways. Another objection
was in the multiplicity of machinery and the difficulty in maintaining
four driving-wheels all of exactly the same size. Some means, however,
of getting more adhesion must be had, and the result of his
reflections upon this subject was the project of a "geared engine." In
August, 1839, he took steps to secure a patent for such a machine, and
December 31, 1840, letters patent were granted him for the device. In
this engine, an independent shaft or axle was placed between the two
axles of the truck, and connected by cranks and coupling-rods with
cranks on the outside of the driving-wheels. This shaft had a central
cog-wheel engaging on each side with intermediate cog-wheels, which in
turn geared into cog-wheels on each truck-axle. The intermediate
cog-wheels had wide teeth, so that the truck could pivot while the
main shaft remained parallel with the driving-axle. The diameters of
the cog-wheels were, of course, in such proportion to the driving and
truck wheels, that the latter should revolve as much oftener than the
drivers as their smaller size might require. Of the success of this
machine for freight service, Mr. Baldwin was very sanguine. One was
put in hand at once, completed in August, 1841, and eventually sold to
the Sugarloaf Coal Company. It was an outside-connected engine,
weighing thirty thousand pounds, of which eleven thousand seven
hundred and seventy-five pounds were on the drivers, and eighteen
thousand three hundred and thirty-five on the truck. The
driving-wheels were forty-four and the truck-wheels thirty-three
inches in diameter. The cylinders were thirteen inches in diameter by
sixteen inches stroke. On a trial of the engine upon the Philadelphia
and Reading Railroad, it hauled five hundred and ninety tons from
Reading to Philadelphia--a distance of fifty-four miles--in five hours
and twenty-two minutes. The Superintendent of the road, in writing of
the trial, remarked that this train was unprecedented in length and
weight both in America and Europe. The performance was noticed in
favorable terms by the Philadelphia newspapers, and was made the
subject of a report by the Committee on Science and Arts of the
Franklin Institute, who strongly recommended this plan of engine for
freight service. The success of the trial led Mr. Baldwin at first to
believe that the geared engine would be generally adopted for freight
traffic; but in this he was disappointed. No further demand was made
for such machines, and no more of them were built.

In 1840, Mr. Baldwin received an order, through August Belmont, Esq.,
of New York, for a locomotive for Austria, and had nearly completed
one which was calculated to do the work required, when he learned that
only sixty pounds pressure of steam was admissible, whereas his engine
was designed to use steam at one hundred pounds and over. He
accordingly constructed another, meeting this requirement, and shipped
it in the following year. This engine, it may be noted, had a kind of
link-motion, agreeably to the specification received, and was the
first of his make upon which the link was introduced.

Mr. Baldwin's patent of December 31, 1840, already referred to as
covering his geared engine, embraced several other devices, as
follows:

1. A method of operating a fan, or blowing-wheel, for the purpose of
blowing the fire. The fan was to be placed under the footboard, and
driven by the friction of a grooved pulley in contact with the flange
of the driving-wheel.

2. The substitution of a metallic stuffing, consisting of wire, for
the hemp, wool, or other material which had been employed in
stuffing-boxes.

3. The placing of the springs of the engine truck so as to obviate the
evil of the locking of the wheels when the truck-frame vibrates from
the centre-pin vertically. Spiral as well as semi-elliptic springs,
placed at each end of the truck-frame, were specified. The spiral
spring is described as received in two cups,--one above and one below.
The cups were connected together at their centres by a pin upon one
and a socket in the other, so that the cups could approach toward or
recede from each other and still preserve their parallelism.

4. An improvement in the manner of constructing the iron frames of
locomotives, by making the pedestals in one piece with, and
constituting part of, the frames.

5. The employment of spiral springs in connection with cylindrical
pedestals and boxes. A single spiral was at first used, but, not
proving sufficiently strong, a combination or nest of spirals curving
alternately in opposite directions was afterward employed. Each spiral
had its bearing in a spiral recess in the pedestal.

In the specification of this patent a change in the method of making
cylindrical pedestals and boxes is noted. Instead of boring and
turning them in a lathe, they were cast to the required shape in
chills. This method of construction was used for a time, but
eventually a return was made to the original plan, as giving a more
accurate job.

In 1842, Mr. Baldwin constructed, under an arrangement with Mr. Ross
Winans, three locomotives for the Western Railroad of Massachusetts,
on a plan which had been designed by that gentleman for freight
traffic. These machines had upright boilers, and horizontal cylinders
which worked cranks on a shaft bearing cog-wheels engaging with other
cog-wheels on an intermediate shaft. This latter shaft had cranks
coupled to four driving-wheels on each side. These engines were
constructed to burn anthracite coal. Their peculiarly uncouth
appearance earned for them the name of "crabs," and they were but
short-lived in service.

[Illustration: Fig. 6.--BALDWIN SIX-WHEELS-CONNECTED ENGINE, 1842.]

[Illustration: Fig. 7.--BALDWIN FLEXIBLE-BEAM TRUCK,
1842.--ELEVATION.]

[Illustration: HALF PLAN.]

But, to return to the progress of Mr. Baldwin's locomotive practice.
The geared engine had not proved a success. It was unsatisfactory, as
well to its designer as to the railroad community. The problem of
utilizing more or all of the weight of the engine for adhesion
remained, in Mr. Baldwin's view, yet to be solved. The plan of
coupling four or six wheels had long before been adopted in England,
but on the short curves prevalent on American railroads, he felt that
something more was necessary. The wheels must not only be coupled, but
at the same time must be free to adapt themselves to a curve. These
two conditions were apparently incompatible, and to reconcile these
inconsistencies was the task which Mr. Baldwin set himself to
accomplish. He undertook it, too, at a time when his business had
fallen off greatly and he was involved in the most serious financial
embarrassments. The problem was constantly before him, and at length,
during a sleepless night, its solution flashed across his mind. The
plan so long sought for, and which, subsequently, more than any other
of his improvements or inventions, contributed to the foundation of
his fortune, was his well-known six-wheels-connected locomotive with
the four front drivers combined in a flexible truck. For this machine
Mr. Baldwin secured a patent, August 25, 1842. Its principal
characteristic features are now matters of history, but they deserve
here a brief mention. The engine was on six wheels, all connected as
drivers. The rear wheels were placed rigidly in the frames, usually
behind the fire-box, with inside bearings. The cylinders were
inclined, and with outside connections. The four remaining wheels had
inside journals running in boxes held by two wide and deep
wrought-iron beams, one on each side. These beams were unconnected,
and entirely independent of each other. The pedestals formed in them
were bored out cylindrically, and into them cylindrical boxes, as
patented by him in 1835, were fitted. The engine-frame on each side
was directly over the beam, and a spherical pin, running down from the
frame, bore in a socket in the beam midway between the two axles. It
will thus be seen that each side-beam independently could turn
horizontally or vertically under the spherical pin, and the
cylindrical boxes could also turn in the pedestals. Hence, in passing
a curve, the middle pair of drivers could move laterally in one
direction--say to the right--while the front pair could move in the
opposite direction, or to the left; the two axles all the while
remaining parallel to each other and to the rear driving-axle. The
operation of these beams was, therefore, like that of the
parallel-ruler. On a straight line the two beams and the two axles
formed a rectangle; on curves, a parallelogram, the angles varying
with the degree of curvature. The coupling-rods were made with
cylindrical brasses, thus forming ball-and-socket joints, to enable
them to accommodate themselves to the lateral movements of the wheels.
Colburn, in his "Locomotive Engineering," remarks of this arrangement
of rods as follows:

     "Geometrically, no doubt, this combination of wheels could only
     work properly around curves by a lengthening and shortening of
     the rods which served to couple the principal pair of
     driving-wheels with the hind truck-wheels. But if the
     coupling-rods from the principal pair of driving-wheels be five
     feet long, and if the beams of the truck-frame be four feet long
     (the radius of curve described by the axle-boxes around the
     spherical side bearings being two feet), then the total
     corresponding lengthening of the coupling-rods, in order to allow
     the hind truck-wheels to move one inch to one side, and the front
     wheels of the truck one inch to the other side of their normal
     position on a straight line, would be V[60^{2} + 1^{2}] - 60 + 24
     - V[24^{2} - 1^{2}] = 0.0275 inch, or less than one thirty-second
     of an inch. And if only one pair of driving-wheels were thus
     coupled with a four-wheeled truck, the total wheel-base being
     nine feet, the motion permitted by this slight elongation of the
     coupling-rods (an elongation provided for by a trifling slackness
     in the brasses) would enable three pairs of wheels to stand
     without binding in a curve of only one hundred feet radius."

The first engine of the new plan was finished early in December, 1842,
being one of fourteen engines constructed in that year, and was sent
to the Georgia Railroad, on the order of Mr. J. Edgar Thomson, then
Chief Engineer and Superintendent of that line. It weighed twelve
tons, and drew, besides its own weight, two hundred and fifty tons up
a grade of thirty-six feet to the mile.

Other orders soon followed. The new machine was received generally
with great favor. The loads hauled by it exceeded anything so far
known in American railroad practice, and sagacious managers hailed it
as a means of largely reducing operating expenses. On the Central
Railroad of Georgia, one of these twelve-ton engines drew nineteen
eight-wheeled cars, with seven hundred and fifty bales of cotton, each
bale weighing four hundred and fifty pounds, over maximum grades of
thirty feet per mile, and the manager of the road declared that it
could readily take one thousand bales. On the Philadelphia and Reading
Railroad a similar engine of eighteen tons weight drew one hundred and
fifty loaded cars (total weight of cars and lading, one thousand one
hundred and thirty tons) from Schuylkill Haven to Philadelphia, at a
speed of seven miles per hour. The regular load was one hundred loaded
cars, which were hauled at a speed of from twelve to fifteen miles per
hour on a level.

The following extract from a letter, dated August 10, 1844, of Mr. G.
A. Nicolls, then Superintendent of that line, and still connected with
its management, gives the particulars of the performance of these
machines, and shows the estimation in which they were held:

     "We have had two of these engines in operation for about four
     weeks. Each engine weighs about forty thousand pounds with water
     and fuel, equally distributed on six wheels, all of which are
     coupled, thus gaining the whole adhesion of the engine's weight.
     Their cylinders are fifteen by eighteen inches."

     "The daily allotted load of each of these engines is one hundred
     coal cars, each loaded with three and six-tenths tons of coal,
     and weighing two and fifteen one-hundredths tons each, empty;
     making a net weight of three hundred and sixty tons of coal
     carried, and a gross weight of train of five hundred and
     seventy-five tons, all of two thousand two hundred and forty
     pounds."

     "This train is hauled over the ninety-four miles of the road,
     half of which is level, at the rate of twelve miles per hour; and
     with it the engine is able to make fourteen to fifteen miles per
     hour on a level."

     "Were all the cars on the road of sufficient strength, and making
     the trip by daylight, nearly one-half being now performed at
     night, I have no doubt of these engines being quite equal to a
     load of eight hundred tons gross, as their average daily
     performance on any of the levels of our road, some of which are
     eight miles long."

     "In strength of make, quality of workmanship, finish, and
     proportion of parts, I consider them equal to any, and superior
     to most, freight engines I have seen. They are remarkably easy on
     the rail, either in their vertical or horizontal action, from the
     equalization of their weight, and the improved truck under the
     forward part of the engine. This latter adapts itself to all the
     curves of the road, including some of seven hundred and sixteen
     feet radius in the main track, and moves with great ease around
     our turning Y curves at Richmond, of about three hundred feet
     radius.

     "I consider these engines as near perfection, in the arrangement
     of their parts, and their general efficiency, as the present
     improvements in machinery and the locomotive engine will admit
     of. They are saving us thirty per cent, in every trip, on the
     former cost of motive or engine power."

But the flexible-beam truck also enabled Mr. Baldwin to meet the
demand for an engine with four drivers connected. Other builders were
making engines with four drivers and a four-wheeled truck, of the
present American standard type. To compete with this design, Mr.
Baldwin modified his six-wheels-connected engine by connecting only
two out of the three pairs of wheels as drivers, making the forward
wheels of smaller diameter as leading wheels, but combining them with
the front drivers in a flexible-beam truck. The first engine on this
plan was sent to the Erie and Kalamazoo Railroad, in October, 1843,
and gave great satisfaction. The Superintendent of the road was
enthusiastic in its praise, and wrote to Mr. Baldwin that he doubted
"if anything could be got up which would answer the business of the
road so well." One was also sent to the Utica and Schenectady Railroad
a few weeks later, of which the Superintendent remarked that "it
worked beautifully, and there were not wagons enough to give it a full
load." In this plan the leading wheels were usually made thirty-six
and the drivers fifty-four inches in diameter.

This machine of course came in competition with the eight-wheeled
engine having four drivers, and Mr. Baldwin claimed for his plan a
decided superiority. In each case about two-thirds of the total weight
was carried on the four drivers, and Mr. Baldwin maintained that his
engine, having only six instead of eight wheels, was simpler and more
effective.

At about this period Mr. Baldwin's attention was called by Mr. Levi
Bissell to an "Air Spring" which the latter had devised, and which it
was imagined was destined to be a cheap, effective, and perpetual
spring. The device consisted of a small cylinder placed above the
frame over the axle-box, and having a piston fitted air-tight into it.
The piston-rod was to bear on the axle-box, and the proper quantity of
air was to be pumped into the cylinder above the piston, and the
cylinder then hermetically closed. The piston had a leather packing
which was to be kept moist by some fluid (molasses was proposed)
previously introduced into the cylinder. Mr. Baldwin at first proposed
to equalize the weight between two pairs of drivers by connecting two
air-springs on each side by a pipe, the use of an equalizing beam
being covered by Messrs. Eastwick & Harrison's patent. The air-springs
were found, however, not to work practically, and were never applied.
It may be added that a model of an equalizing air-spring was exhibited
by Mr. Joseph Harrison, Jr., at the Franklin Institute, in 1838 or
1839.

With the introduction of the new machine, business began at once to
revive, and the tide of prosperity turned once more in Mr. Baldwin's
favor. Twelve engines were constructed in 1843, all but four of them
of the new pattern; twenty-two engines in 1844, all of the new
pattern; and twenty-seven in 1845. Three of this number were of the
old type, with one pair of drivers, but from that time forward the old
pattern with the single pair of drivers disappeared from the practice
of the establishment, save occasionally for exceptional purposes.

In 1842, the partnership with Mr. Vail was dissolved, and Mr. Asa
Whitney, who had been Superintendent of the Mohawk and Hudson
Railroad, became a partner with Mr. Baldwin, and the firm continued as
Baldwin & Whitney until 1846, when the latter withdrew to engage in
the manufacture of car-wheels, in which business he is still concerned
as senior member of the firm of A. Whitney & Sons, Philadelphia.

Mr. Whitney brought to the firm a railroad experience and thorough
business talent. He introduced a system in many details of the
management of the business, which Mr. Baldwin, whose mind was devoted
more exclusively to mechanical subjects, had failed to establish or
wholly ignored. The method at present in use in the establishment, of
giving to each class of locomotives a distinctive designation,
composed of a number and a letter, originated very shortly after Mr.
Whitney's connection with the business. For the purpose of
representing the different designs, sheets with engravings of
locomotives were employed. The sheet showing the engine with one pair
of drivers was marked B; that with two pairs, C; that with three, D;
and that with four, E. Taking its rise from this circumstance, it
became customary to designate as B engines those with one pair of
drivers; as C engines, those with two pairs; as D engines, those with
three pairs; and as E engines, those with four pairs. Shortly
afterwards, a number, indicating the weight in gross tons, was added.
Thus, the 12 D engine was one with three pairs of drivers, and
weighing twelve tons; the 12 C, an engine of same weight, but with
only four wheels connected. Substantially this system of designating
the several sizes and plans has been retained to the present time. The
figures, however, are no longer used to express the weight, but merely
to designate the class.

It will be observed that the classification as thus established began
with the B engines. The letter A was reserved for an engine intended
to run at very high speeds, and so designed that the driving-wheels
should make two revolutions for each reciprocation of the pistons.
This was to be accomplished by means of gearing. The general plan of
the engine was determined in Mr. Baldwin's mind, but was never carried
into execution.

The adoption of the plan of six-wheels-connected engines opened the
way at once to increasing their size. The weight being almost evenly
distributed on six points, heavier machines were admissible, the
weight on any one pair of drivers being little, if any, greater than
had been the practice with the old plan of engine having a single pair
of drivers; Hence engines of eighteen and twenty tons weight were
shortly introduced, and in 1844 three of twenty tons weight, with
cylinders sixteen and one-half inches diameter by eighteen inches
stroke, were constructed for the Western Railroad of Massachusetts,
and six, of eighteen tons weight, with cylinders fifteen by eighteen,
and drivers forty-six inches in diameter, were built for the
Philadelphia and Reading Railroad. It should be noted that three of
these latter engines had iron flues. This was the first instance in
which Mr. Baldwin had employed tubes of this material. The advantage
found to result from the use of iron tubes, apart from their less
cost, was that the tubes and boiler-shell, being of the same material,
expanded and contracted alike, while in the case of copper tubes the
expansion of the metal by heat varied from that of the boiler-shell,
and as a consequence there was greater liability to leakage at the
joints with the tube-sheets. The opinion prevailed largely at that
time that some advantage resulted in the evaporation of water, owing
to the superiority of copper as a conductor of heat. To determine this
question, an experiment was tried with two of the six engines referred
to above, one of which, the "Ontario," had copper flues, and another,
the "New England," iron flues. In other respects they were precisely
alike. The two engines were run from Richmond to Mount Carbon, August
27, 1844, each drawing a train of one hundred and one empty cars, and,
returning, from Mount Carbon to Richmond, on the following day, each
with one hundred loaded cars. The quantity of water evaporated and
wood consumed was noted, with the result shown in the following table:

  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              |         UP TRIP,    |     DOWN TRIP,      |
                              |     AUG. 27, 1844.  |   AUG. 28, 1844.    |
  ----------------------------+---------------------+----------+----------|
                              |"Ontario."|  "New    |"Ontario."|  "New    |
                              |          | England."|          | England."|
                              | (Copper  |  (Iron   | (Copper  |  (Iron   |
                              |  Flues.) |  Flues.) |  Flues.) |  Flues.) |
  ----------------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------|
  Time, running               |  9h. 7m. |  7h. 41m.| 10h. 44m.|  8h. 19m.|
    "   standing at stations. |  4h. 2m. |  3h.  7m.|  2h. 12m.|  3h.  8m.|
  Cords of wood burned        |   6.68   |   5.50   |   6.94   |   6.     |
  Cubic feet of water         |          |          |          |          |
    evaporated                | 925.75   | 757.26   | 837.46   | 656.39   |
  Ratio, cubic feet of water  |          |          |          |          |
    to a cord of wood         | 138.57   | 137.68   | 120.67   | 109.39   |
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------

The conditions of the experiments not being absolutely the same in
each case, the results could not of course be accepted as entirely
accurate. They seemed to show, however, no considerable difference in
the evaporative efficacy of copper and iron tubes.

The period under consideration was marked also by the introduction of
the French & Baird stack, which proved at once to be one of the most
successful spark-arresters thus far employed, and which was for years
used almost exclusively wherever, as on the cotton-carrying railroads
of the South, a thoroughly effective spark-arrester was required. This
stack was introduced by Mr. Baird, then a foreman in the Works, who
purchased the patent-right of what had been known as the Grimes stack,
and combined with it some of the features of the stack made by Mr.
Richard French, then Master Mechanic of the Germantown Railroad,
together with certain improvements of his own. The cone over the
straight inside pipe was made with volute flanges on its under side,
which gave a rotary motion to the sparks. Around the cone was a casing
about six inches smaller in diameter than the outside stack. Apertures
were cut in the sides of this casing, through which the sparks in
their rotary motion were discharged and thus fell to the bottom of
the space between the straight inside pipe and the outside stack. The
opening in the top of the stack was fitted with a series of V-shaped
iron circles perforated with numerous holes, thus presenting an
enlarged area, through which the smoke escaped. The patent-right for
this stack was subsequently sold to Messrs. Radley & Hunter, and its
essential principle is still used in the Radley & Hunter stack as at
present made.

In 1845, Mr. Baldwin built three locomotives for the Royal Railroad
Committee of Würtemberg. They were of fifteen tons weight, on six
wheels, four of them being sixty inches in diameter and coupled. The
front drivers were combined by the flexible beams into a truck with
the smaller leading wheels. The cylinders were inclined and outside,
and the connecting-rods took hold of a half-crank axle back of the
fire-box. It was specified that these engines should have the
link-motion which had shortly before been introduced in England by the
Stephensons. Mr. Baldwin accordingly applied a link of a peculiar
character to suit his own ideas of the device. The link was made
solid, and of a truncated V-section, and the block was grooved so as
to fit and slide on the outside of the link.

During the year 1845 another important feature in locomotive
construction--the cut-off valve--was added to Mr. Baldwin's practice.
Up to that time the valve-motion had been the two eccentrics, with the
single flat hook for each cylinder. Since 1841 Mr. Baldwin had
contemplated the addition of some device allowing the steam to be used
expansively, and he now added the "half-stroke cut-off." In this
device the steam-chest was separated by a horizontal plate into an
upper and a lower compartment. In the upper compartment, a valve,
worked by a separate eccentric, and having a single opening, admitted
steam through a port in this plate to the lower steam-chamber. The
valve-rod of the upper valve terminated in a notch or hook, which
engaged with the upper arm of its rock-shaft. When thus working, it
acted as a cut-off at a fixed part of the stroke, determined by the
setting of the eccentric. This was usually at half the stroke. When it
was desired to dispense with the cut-off and work steam for the full
stroke, the hook of the valve-rod was lifted from the pin on the upper
arm of the rock-shaft by a lever worked from the footboard, and the
valve-rod was held in a notched rest fastened to the side of the
boiler. This left the opening through the upper valve and the port in
the partition plate open for the free passage of steam throughout the
whole stroke. The first application of the half-stroke cut-off was
made on the engine "Champlain" (20 D), built for the Philadelphia and
Reading Railroad Company, in 1845. It at once became the practice to
apply the cut-off on all passenger engines, while the six- and
eight-wheels-connected freight engines were, with a few exceptions,
built for a time longer with the single valve admitting steam for the
full stroke.

After building, during the years 1843, 1844, and 1845, ten
four-wheels-connected engines on the plan above described, viz., six
wheels in all, the leading wheels and the front drivers being combined
into a truck by the flexible beams, Mr. Baldwin finally adopted the
present design of four drivers and a four-wheeled truck. Some of his
customers who were favorable to the latter plan had ordered such
machines of other builders, and Colonel Gadsden, President of the
South Carolina Railroad Company, called on him in 1845 to build for
that line some passenger engines of this pattern. He accordingly
bought the patent-right for this plan of engine of Mr. H. R. Campbell,
and for the equalizing beams used between the drivers, of Messrs.
Eastwick & Harrison, and delivered to the South Carolina Railroad
Company, in December, 1845, his first eight-wheeled engine with four
drivers and a four-wheeled truck. This machine had cylinders thirteen
and three-quarters by eighteen, and drivers sixty inches in diameter,
with the springs between them arranged as equalizers. Its weight was
fifteen tons. It had the half-crank axle, the cylinders being inside
the frame but outside the smoke-box. The inside-connected engine,
counterweighting being as yet unknown, was admitted to be steadier in
running, and hence more suitable for passenger service. With the
completion of the first eight-wheeled "C" engine, Mr. Baldwin's
feelings underwent a revulsion in favor of this plan, and his
partiality for it became as great as had been his antipathy before.
Commenting on the machine, he recorded himself as "more pleased with
its appearance and action than any engine he had turned out." In
addition to the three engines of this description for the South
Carolina Railroad Company, a duplicate was sent to the Camden and
Amboy Railroad Company, and a similar but lighter one to the
Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad Company, shortly afterwards. The
engine for the Camden and Amboy Railroad Company, and perhaps the
others, had the half-stroke cut-off.

From that time forward, all of his four-wheels-connected machines were
built on this plan, and the six-wheeled "C" engine was abandoned,
except in the case of one built for the Philadelphia, Germantown and
Norristown Railroad Company in 1846, and this was afterwards rebuilt
into a six-wheels-connected machine. Three methods of carrying out the
general design were, however, subsequently followed. At first the
half-crank was used; then horizontal cylinders inclosed in the
chimney-seat and working a full-crank-axle, which form of construction
had been practiced at the Lowell Works; and eventually, outside
cylinders with outside connections.

[Illustration: Fig. 8.--BALDWIN EIGHT-WHEELS-CONNECTED ENGINE, 1846.]

Meanwhile the flexible truck machine maintained its popularity for
heavy freight service. All the engines thus far built on this plan had
been six-wheeled, some with the rear driving-axle back of the
fire-box, and others with it in front. The next step, following
logically after the adoption of the eight-wheeled "C" engine, was to
increase the size of the freight machine, and distribute the weight on
eight wheels all connected, the two rear pairs being rigid in the
frame, and the two front pairs combined into the flexible-beam truck.
This was first done in 1846, when seventeen engines on this plan were
constructed on one order for the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad
Company. Fifteen of these were of twenty tons weight, with cylinders
fifteen and a half by twenty, and wheels forty-six inches in diameter;
and two of twenty-five tons weight, with cylinders seventeen and a
quarter by eighteen, and drivers forty-two inches in diameter. These
engines were the first ones on which Mr. Baldwin placed sand-boxes,
and they were also the first built by him with roofs. On all previous
engines the footboard had only been inclosed by a railing. On these
engines for the Reading Railroad, four iron posts were carried up, and
a wooden roof supported by them. The engine-men added curtains at the
sides and front, and Mr. Baldwin on subsequent engines added sides,
with sash and glass. The cab proper, however, was of New England
origin, where the severity of the climate demanded it, and where it
had been used previous to this period.

[Illustration: Fig. 9.--BALDWIN ENGINE FOR RACK-RAIL, 1847.]

Forty-two engines were completed in 1846, and thirty-nine in 1847. The
only novelty to be noted among them was the engine "M. G. Bright,"
built for operating the inclined plane on the Madison and Indianapolis
Railroad. The rise of this incline was one in seventeen, from the bank
of the Ohio River at Madison. The engine had eight wheels, forty-two
inches in diameter, connected, and worked in the usual manner by
outside inclined cylinders, fifteen and one-half inches diameter by
twenty inches stroke. A second pair of cylinders, seventeen inches in
diameter with eighteen inches stroke of piston, was placed vertically
over the boiler, midway between the furnace and smoke-arch. The
connecting-rods worked by these cylinders connected with cranks on a
shaft under the boiler. This shaft carried a single cog-wheel at its
centre, and this cog-wheel engaged with another of about twice its
diameter on a second shaft adjacent to it and in the same plane. The
cog-wheel on this latter shaft worked in a rack-rail placed in the
centre of the track. The shaft itself had its bearings in the lower
ends of two vertical rods, one on each side of the boiler, and these
rods were united over the boiler by a horizontal bar which was
connected by means of a bent lever and connecting-rod to the piston
worked by a small horizontal cylinder placed on top of the boiler. By
means of this cylinder, the yoke carrying the shaft and cog-wheel
could be depressed and held down so as to engage the cogs with the
rack-rail, or raised out of the way when only the ordinary drivers
were required. This device was designed by Mr. Andrew Cathcart, Master
Mechanic of the Madison and Indianapolis Railroad. A similar machine,
the "John Brough," for the same plane, was built by Mr. Baldwin in
1850. The incline was worked with a rack-rail and these engines until
it was finally abandoned and a line with easy gradients substituted.

The use of iron tubes in freight engines grew in favor, and in
October, 1847, Mr. Baldwin noted that he was fitting his flues with
copper ends, "for riveting to the boiler."

The subject of burning coal continued to engage much attention, but
the use of anthracite had not as yet been generally successful. In
October, 1847, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company advertised
for proposals for four engines to burn Cumberland coal, and the
order was taken and filled by Mr. Baldwin with four of his
eight-wheels-connected machines.

The year 1848 showed a falling off in business, and only twenty engines
were turned out. In the following year, however, there was a rapid
recovery, and the production of the works increased to thirty, followed
by thirty-seven in 1850, and fifty in 1851. These engines, with a few
exceptions, were confined to three patterns, the eight-wheeled
four-coupled engine, from twelve to nineteen tons in weight, for
passengers and freight, and the six- and eight-wheels-connected engine,
for freight exclusively, the six-wheeled machine weighing from twelve to
seventeen tons, and the eight-wheeled, from eighteen to twenty-seven
tons. The drivers of these six- and eight-wheels-connected machines were
made generally forty-two, with occasional variations up to forty-eight,
inches in diameter.

[Illustration: Fig. 10.--BALDWIN FAST PASSENGER ENGINE, 1848.]

The exceptions referred to in the practice of these years were the
fast passenger engines built by Mr. Baldwin during this period. Early
in 1848, the Vermont Central Railroad was approaching completion, and
Governor Paine, the President of the Company, conceived the idea that
the passenger service on the road required locomotives capable of
running at very high velocities. Henry R. Campbell, Esq., was a
contractor in building the line, and was authorized by Governor Paine
to come to Philadelphia and offer Mr. Baldwin ten thousand dollars for
a locomotive which could run with a passenger train at a speed of
sixty miles per hour. Mr. Baldwin at once undertook to meet these
conditions. The work was begun early in 1848, and in March of that
year Mr. Baldwin filed a caveat for his design. The engine was
completed in 1849, and was named the "Governor Paine." It had one pair
of driving-wheels six and a half feet in diameter, placed back of the
fire-box. Another pair of wheels, but smaller and unconnected, was
placed directly in front of the fire-box, and a four-wheeled truck
carried the front of the engine. The cylinders were seventeen and a
quarter inches diameter and twenty inches stroke, and were placed
horizontally between the frames and the boiler, at about the middle of
the waist. The connecting-rods took hold of "half-cranks" inside of
the driving-wheels. The object of placing the cylinders at the middle
of the boiler was to lessen or obviate the lateral motion of the
engine, produced when the cylinders were attached to the smoke-arch.
The bearings on the two rear axles were so contrived that, by means of
a lever, a part of the weight of the engine usually carried on the
wheels in front of the fire-box could be transferred to the
driving-axle. The "Governor Paine" was used for several years on the
Vermont Central Railroad, and then rebuilt into a four-coupled
machine. During its career, it was stated by the officers of the road
that it could be started from a state of rest and run a mile in
forty-three seconds. Three engines on the same plan, but with
cylinders fourteen by twenty, and six-feet driving-wheels, the
"Mifflin," "Blair," and "Indiana," were also built for the
Pennsylvania Railroad Company, in 1849. They weighed each about
forty-seven thousand pounds, distributed as follows: eighteen thousand
on drivers, fourteen thousand on the pair of wheels in front of the
fire-box, and fifteen thousand on the truck. By applying the lever,
the weight on the drivers could be increased to about twenty-four
thousand pounds, the weight on the wheels in front of the fire-box
being correspondingly reduced. A speed of four miles in three minutes
is recorded for them, and upon one occasion President Taylor was taken
in a special train over the road by one of these machines at a speed
of sixty miles an hour. One other engine of this pattern, the
"Susquehanna," was built for the Hudson River Railroad Company, in
1850. Its cylinders were fifteen inches diameter by twenty inches
stroke, and drivers six feet in diameter. All these engines, however,
were short-lived, and died young, of insufficient adhesion.

Eight engines with four drivers connected and half-crank-axles, were
built for the New York and Erie Railroad Company in 1849, with
seventeen by twenty inch cylinders; one-half of the number with
six-feet and the rest with five-feet drivers. These machines were
among the last on which the half-crank-axle was used. Thereafter,
outside-connected engines were constructed almost exclusively.

In May, 1848, Mr. Baldwin filed a caveat for a four-cylinder
locomotive, but never carried the design into execution. The first
instance of the use of steel axles in the practice of the
establishment occurred during the same year,--a set being placed as an
experiment under an engine constructed for the Pennsylvania Railroad
Company. In 1850, the old form of dome boiler, which had characterized
the Baldwin engine since 1834, was abandoned, and the wagon-top form
substituted.

The business in 1851 had reached the full capacity of the shop, and
the next year marked the completion of about an equal number of
engines (forty-nine). Contracts for work extended a year ahead, and,
to meet the demand, the facilities in the various departments were
increased, and resulted in the construction of sixty engines in 1853,
and sixty-two in 1854.

At the beginning of the latter year, Mr. Matthew Baird, who had been
connected with the works since 1836 as one of its foremen, entered
into partnership with Mr. Baldwin, and the style of the firm was made
M. W. Baldwin & Co.

The only novelty in the general plan of engines during this period was
the addition of the ten-wheeled engine to the patterns of the
establishment. The success of Mr. Baldwin's engines with all six or
eight wheels connected, and the two front pairs combined by the
parallel beams into a flexible truck, had been so marked that it was
natural that he should oppose any other plan for freight service. The
ten-wheeled engine, with six drivers connected, had, however, now
become a competitor. This plan of engine was first patented by
Septimus Norris, of Philadelphia, in 1846, and the original design was
apparently to produce an engine which should have equal tractive power
with the Baldwin six-wheels-connected machine. This the Norris patent
sought to accomplish by proposing an engine with six drivers
connected, and so disposed as to carry substantially the whole weight,
the forward drivers being in advance of the centre of gravity of the
engine, and the truck only serving as a guide, the front of the engine
being connected with it by a pivot-pin, but without a bearing on the
centre-plate. Mr. Norris's first engine on this plan was tried in
April, 1847, and was found not to pass curves so readily as was
expected. As the truck carried little or no weight, it would not keep
the track. The New York and Erie Railroad Company, of which John
Brandt was then Master Mechanic, shortly afterwards adopted the
ten-wheeled engine, modified in plan so as to carry a part of the
weight on the truck. Mr. Baldwin filled an order for this company, in
1850, of four eight-wheels-connected engines, and in making the
contract he agreed to substitute a truck for the front pair of wheels
if desired after trial. This, however, he was not called upon to do.

In February, 1852, Mr. J. Edgar Thomson, President of the Pennsylvania
Railroad Company, invited proposals for a number of freight
locomotives of fifty-six thousand pounds weight each. They were to be
adapted to burn bituminous coal, and to have six wheels connected and
a truck in front, which might be either of two or four wheels. Mr.
Baldwin secured the contract, and built twelve engines of the
prescribed dimensions, viz., cylinders eighteen by twenty-two; drivers
forty-four inches diameter, with chilled tires. Several of these
engines were constructed with a single pair of truck-wheels in front
of the drivers, but back of the cylinders. It was found, however,
after the engines were put in service, that the two truck-wheels
carried eighteen thousand or nineteen thousand pounds, and this was
objected to by the company as too great a weight to be carried on a
single pair of wheels. On the rest of the engines of the order,
therefore, a four-wheeled truck in front was employed.

The ten wheeled engine thereafter assumed a place in the Baldwin
classification. In 1855-56, two of twenty-seven tons weight, nineteen
by twenty-two cylinders, forty-eight inches drivers, were built for
the Portage Railroad, and three for the Pennsylvania Railroad. In
1855, '56, and '57, fourteen, of the same dimensions, were built for
the Cleveland and Pittsburg Railroad; four for the Pittsburg, Fort
Wayne and Chicago Railroad; and one for the Marietta and Cincinnati
Railroad. In 1858 and '59, one was constructed for the South Carolina
Railroad, of the same size, and six lighter ten-wheelers, with
cylinders fifteen and a half by twenty-two, and four-feet drivers, and
two with cylinders sixteen by twenty-two, and four-feet drivers, were
sent out to railroads in Cuba.

It was some years--not until after 1860, however--before this pattern
of engine wholly superseded in Mr. Baldwin's practice the old plan of
freight engine on six or eight wheels, all connected.

On three locomotives--the "Clinton," "Athens," and "Sparta"--completed
for the Central Railroad of Georgia in July, 1852, the driving-boxes
were made with a slot or cavity in the line of the vertical bearing on
the journal. The object was to produce a more uniform distribution of
the wear over the entire surface of the bearing. This was the first
instance in which this device, which has since come into general use,
was employed in the Works, and the boxes were so made by direction of
Mr. Charles Whiting, then Master Mechanic of the Central Railroad of
Georgia. He subsequently informed Mr. Baldwin that this method of
fitting up driving-boxes had been in use on the road for several years
previous to his connection with the company. As this device was
subsequently made the subject of a patent by Mr. David Matthew, these
facts may not be without interest.

In 1853, Mr. Charles Ellet, Chief Engineer of the Virginia Central
Railroad, laid a temporary track across the Blue Ridge, at Rock Fish
Gap, for use during the construction of a tunnel through the mountain.
This track was twelve thousand five hundred feet in length on the
eastern slope, ascending in that distance six hundred and ten feet, or
at the average rate of one in twenty and a half feet. The maximum
grade was calculated for two hundred and ninety-six feet per mile, and
prevailed for half a mile. It was found, however, in fact, that the
grade in places exceeded three hundred feet per mile. The shortest
radius of curvature was two hundred and thirty-eight feet. On the
western slope, which was ten thousand six hundred and fifty feet in
length, the maximum grade was two hundred and eighty feet per mile,
and the ruling radius of curvature three hundred feet. This track was
worked by two of the Baldwin six-wheels-connected flexible-beam truck
locomotives constructed in 1853-54. From a description of this track,
and the mode of working it, published by Mr. Ellet in 1856, the
following is extracted:

     "The locomotives mainly relied on for this severe duty were
     designed and constructed by the firm of M. W. Baldwin & Company,
     of Philadelphia. The slight modifications introduced at the
     instance of the writer to adapt them better to the particular
     service to be performed in crossing the Blue Ridge, did not touch
     the working proportions or principle of the engines, the merits
     of which are due to the patentee, M. W. Baldwin, Esq.

     "These engines are mounted on six wheels, all of which are
     drivers, and coupled, and forty-two inches diameter. The wheels
     are set very close, so that the distance between the extreme
     points of contact of the wheels and the rail, of the front and
     rear drivers, is nine feet four inches. This closeness of the
     wheels, of course, greatly reduces the difficulty of turning the
     short curves of the road. The diameter of the cylinders is
     sixteen and a half inches, and the length of the stroke twenty
     inches. To increase the adhesion, and at the same time avoid the
     resistance of a tender, the engine carries its tank upon the
     boiler, and the footboard is lengthened out and provided with
     suspended side-boxes, where a supply of fuel may be stored. By
     this means the weight of wood and water, instead of abstracting
     from the effective power of the engine, contributes to its
     adhesion and consequent ability to climb the mountain. The total
     weight of these engines is fifty-five thousand pounds, or
     twenty-seven and a half tons, when the boiler and tank are
     supplied with water, and fuel enough for a trip of eight miles is
     on board. The capacity of the tank is sufficient to hold one
     hundred cubic feet of water, and it has storage-room on top for
     one hundred cubic feet of wood, in addition to what may be
     carried in the side-boxes and on the footboard.

     "To enable the engines better to adapt themselves to the flexures
     of the road, the front and middle pairs of drivers are held in
     position by wrought-iron beams, having cylindrical boxes in each
     end for the journal-bearings, which beams vibrate on spherical
     pins fixed in the frame of the engine on each side, and resting
     on the centres of the beams. The object of this arrangement is to
     form a truck, somewhat flexible, which enables the drivers more
     readily to traverse the curves of the road.

     "The writer has never permitted the power of the engines on this
     mountain road to be fully tested. The object has been to work the
     line regularly, economically, and, above all, _safely_; and these
     conditions are incompatible with experimental loads subjecting
     the machinery to severe strains. The regular daily service of
     each of the engines is to make four trips, of eight miles, over
     the mountain, drawing one eight-wheel baggage car, together with
     two eight-wheel passenger cars, in each direction.

     "In conveying freight, the regular train on the mountain is three
     of the eight-wheel house-cars, fully loaded, or four of them when
     empty or partly loaded.

     "These three cars, when full, weigh, with their loads, from forty
     to forty-three tons. Sometimes, though rarely, when the business
     has been unusually heavy, the loads have exceeded fifty tons.

     "With such trains the engines are stopped on the track, ascending
     or descending, and are started again, on the steepest grades, at
     the discretion of the engineer.

     "Water, for the supply of the engines, has been found difficult
     to obtain on the mountain; and, since the road was constructed, a
     tank has been established on the eastern slope, where the
     ascending engines stop daily on a grade of two hundred and eighty
     feet per mile, and are there held by the brakes while the tank is
     being filled, and started again at the signal and without any
     difficulty.

     "The ordinary speed of the engines, when loaded, is seven and a
     half miles an hour on the ascending grades, and from five and a
     half to six miles an hour on the descent.

     "When the road was first opened, it speedily appeared that the
     difference of forty-three feet on the western side, and
     fifty-eight feet on the eastern side, between the grades on
     curves of three hundred feet radii and those on straight lines,
     was not sufficient to compensate for the increased traction due
     to such curvature. The velocity, with a constant supply of steam,
     was promptly retarded on passing from a straight line to a curve,
     and promptly accelerated again on passing from the curve to the
     straight line. But, after a little experience in the working of
     the road, it was found advisable to supply a small amount of
     grease to the flange of the engine by means of a sponge,
     saturated with oil, which, when needed, is kept in contact with
     the wheel by a spring. Since the use of the oil was introduced,
     the difficulty of turning the curves has been so far diminished,
     that it is no longer possible to determine whether grades of two
     hundred and thirty-seven and six-tenths feet per mile on curves
     of three hundred feet radius, or grades of two hundred and
     ninety-six feet per mile on straight lines, are traversed most
     rapidly by the engine.

     "When the track is in good condition, the brakes of only two of
     the cars possess sufficient power to control and regulate the
     movement of the train,--that is to say, they will hold back the
     two cars and the engine. When there are three or more cars in the
     train, the brakes on the cars, of course, command the train so
     much the more easily.

     "But the safety of the train is not dependent on the brakes of
     the cars. There is also a valve or air-cock in the steam-chest,
     under the control of the engineer. This air-cock forms an
     independent brake, exclusively at the command of the engineer,
     and which can always be applied when the engine itself is in
     working order. The action of this power may be made ever so
     gradual, either slightly relieving the duty of the brakes on the
     cars, or bringing into play the entire power of the engine. The
     train is thus held in complete command."

The Mountain Top Track, it may be added, was worked successfully for
several years, by the engines described in the above extract, until it
was abandoned on the completion of the tunnel. The exceptionally steep
grades and short curves which characterized the line, afforded a
complete and satisfactory test of the adaptation of these machines to
such peculiar service.

But the period now under consideration was marked by another, and a
most important, step in the progress of American locomotive practice.
We refer to the introduction of the link-motion. Although this device
was first employed by William T. James, of New York, in 1832, and
eleven years later by the Stephensons, in England, and was by them
applied thenceforward on their engines, it was not until 1849 that it
was adopted in this country. In that year Mr. Thomas Rogers, of the
Rogers Locomotive and Machine Company, introduced it in his practice.
Other builders, however, strenuously resisted the innovation, and none
more so than Mr. Baldwin. The theoretical objections which confessedly
apply to the device, but which practically have been proved to be
unimportant, were urged from the first by Mr. Baldwin as arguments
against its use. The strong claim of the advocates of the link-motion,
that it gave a means of cutting off steam at any point of the stroke,
could not be gainsaid, and this was admitted to be a consideration of
the first importance. This very circumstance undoubtedly turned Mr.
Baldwin's attention to the subject of methods for cutting off steam,
and one of the first results was his "Variable Cut-off," patented
April 27, 1852. This device consisted of two valves, the upper sliding
upon the lower, and worked by an eccentric and rock-shaft in the usual
manner. The lower valve fitted steam-tight to the sides of the
steam-chest and the under surface of the upper valve. When the piston
reached each end of its stroke, the full pressure of steam from the
boiler was admitted around the upper valve, and transferred the lower
valve instantaneously from one end of the steam-chest to the other.
The openings through the two valves were so arranged that steam was
admitted to the cylinder only for a part of the stroke. The effect
was, therefore, to cut off steam at a given point, and to open the
induction and exhaust ports substantially at the same instant and to
their full extent. The exhaust port, in addition, remained fully open
while the induction port was gradually closing, and after it had
entirely closed. Although this device was never put in use, it may be
noted in passing that it contained substantially the principle of the
steam-pump, as since patented and constructed.

Early in 1853, Mr. Baldwin abandoned the half-stroke cut-off,
previously described, and which he had been using since 1845, and
adopted the variable cut-off, which was already employed by other
builders. One of his letters, written in January, 1853, states his
position, as follows:

     "I shall put on an improvement in the shape of a variable
     cut-off, which can be operated by the engineer while the machine
     is running, and which will cut off anywhere from six to twelve
     inches, according to the load and amount of steam wanted, and
     this without the link-motion, which I could never be entirely
     satisfied with. I still have the independent cut-off, and the
     additional machinery to make it variable will be simple and not
     liable to be deranged."

This form of cut-off was a separate valve, sliding on a partition
plate between it and the main steam-valve, and worked by an
independent eccentric and rock-shaft. The upper arm of the rock-shaft
was curved so as to form a radius-arm, on which a sliding-block,
forming the termination of the upper valve-rod, could be adjusted and
held at varying distances from the axis, thus producing a variable
travel of the upper valve. This device did not give an absolutely
perfect cut-off, as it was not operative in backward gear, but when
running forward it would cut-off with great accuracy at any point of
the stroke, was quick in its movement, and economical in the
consumption of fuel.

After a short experience with this arrangement of the cut-off, the
partition plate was omitted, and the upper valve was made to slide
directly on the lower. This was eventually found objectionable,
however, as the lower valve would soon cut a hollow in the valve-face.
Several unsuccessful attempts were made to remedy this defect, by
making the lower valve of brass, with long bearings, and making the
valve-face of the cylinder of hardened steel; finally, however, the
plan of one valve on the other was abandoned, and recourse was again
had to an interposed partition plate, as in the original half-stroke
cut-off.

[Illustration: Fig. 11.--VARIABLE CUT-OFF ADJUSTMENT.]

Mr. Baldwin did not adopt this form of cut-off without some
modification of his own, and the modification in this instance
consisted of a peculiar device, patented September 13, 1853, for
raising and lowering the block on the radius-arm. A quadrant was
placed so that its circumference bore nearly against a curved arm
projecting down from the sliding-block, and which curved in the
reverse direction from the quadrant. Two steel straps side by side
were interposed between the quadrant and this curved arm. One of the
straps was connected to the lower end of the quadrant and the upper
end of the curved arm; the other, to the upper end of the quadrant and
the lower end of the curved arm. The effect was the same as if the
quadrant and arm geared into each other in any position by teeth, and
theoretically the block was kept steady in whatever position placed on
the radius-arm of the rock-shaft. This was the object sought to be
accomplished, and was stated in the specification of the patent as
follows:

     "The principle of varying the cut-off by means of a vibrating arm
     and sliding pivot-block has long been known, but the contrivances
     for changing the position of the block upon the arm have been
     very defective. The radius of motion of the link by which the
     sliding-block is changed on the arm, and the radius of motion of
     that part of the vibrating arm on which the block is placed,
     have, in this kind of valve gear, as heretofore constructed, been
     different, which produced a continual rubbing of the
     sliding-block upon the arm while the arm is vibrating; and as the
     block for the greater part of the time occupies one position on
     the arm, and only has to be moved toward either extremity
     occasionally, that part of the arm on which the block is most
     used soon becomes so worn that the block is loose, and jars."

This method of varying the cut-off was first applied on the engine
"Belle," delivered to the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, December 6,
1854, and thereafter was for some time employed by Mr. Baldwin. It was
found, however, in practice, that the steel straps would stretch
sufficiently to allow them to buckle and break, and hence they were
soon abandoned, and chains substituted between the quadrant and curved
arm of the sliding-block. These chains in turn proved little better,
as they lengthened, allowing lost motion, or broke altogether, so that
eventually the quadrant was wholly abandoned, and recourse was finally
had to the lever and link for raising and lowering the sliding-block.
As thus arranged, the cut-off was substantially what was known as the
"Cuyahoga cut-off," as introduced by Mr. Ethan Rogers, of the Cuyahoga
Works, Cleveland, Ohio, except that Mr. Baldwin used a partition plate
between the upper and the lower valve.

But while Mr. Baldwin, in common with many other builders, was thus
resolutely opposing the link-motion, it was nevertheless rapidly
gaining favor with railroad managers. Engineers and master mechanics
were everywhere learning to admire its simplicity, and were
manifesting an enthusiastic preference for engines so constructed. At
length, therefore, he was forced to succumb; and the link was applied
to the "Pennsylvania," one of two engines completed for the Central
Railroad of Georgia, in February, 1854. The other engine of the order,
the "New Hampshire," had the variable cut-off, and Mr. Baldwin, while
yielding to the demand in the former engine, was undoubtedly sanguine
that the working of the latter would demonstrate the inferiority of
the new device. In this, however, he was disappointed, for in the
following year the same company ordered three more engines, on which
they specified the link-motion. In 1856, seventeen engines for nine
different companies had this form of valve gear, and its use was thus
incorporated in his practice. It was not, however, until 1857 that he
was induced to adopt it exclusively. This step was forced upon him, at
that time, by the report of Mr. Parry, then Superintendent of the
Works (now a member of the present firm), who, on returning from an
extended tour in the South, brought back the intelligence that the
link-motion was everywhere preferred, and that the Baldwin engines
were losing ground rapidly, in consequence of their lack of this
feature. Mr. Baldwin's characteristic reply was, "Then they shall have
link-motion hereafter." And thenceforth the independent cut-off
gradually disappeared, and the link reigned in its stead.

February 14, 1854, Mr. Baldwin and Mr. David Clark, Master Mechanic of
the Mine Hill Railroad, took out conjointly a patent for a feed-water
heater, placed at the base of a locomotive chimney, and consisting of
one large vertical flue, surrounded by a number of smaller ones. The
exhaust steam was discharged from the nozzles through the large
central flue, creating a draft of the products of combustion through
the smaller surrounding flues. The pumps forced the feed-water into
the chamber around these flues, whence it passed to the boiler by a
pipe from the back of the stack. This heater was applied on several
engines for the Mine Hill Railroad, and on a few for other roads; but
its use was exceptional, and lasted only for a year or two.

In December of the same year, Mr. Baldwin filed a caveat for a
variable exhaust, operated automatically, by the pressure of steam, so
as to close when the pressure was lowest in the boiler, and open with
the increase of pressure. The device was never put in service.

The use of coal, both bituminous and anthracite, as a fuel for
locomotives, had by this time become a practical success. The
economical combustion of bituminous coal, however, engaged
considerable attention. It was felt that much remained to be
accomplished in consuming the smoke and deriving the maximum of useful
effect from the fuel. Mr. Baird, who was now associated with Mr.
Baldwin in the management of the business, made this matter a subject
of careful study and investigation. An experiment was conducted under
his direction, by placing a sheet-iron deflector in the fire-box of an
engine on the Germantown and Norristown Railroad. The success of the
trial was such as to show conclusively that a more complete combustion
resulted. As, however, a deflector formed by a single plate of iron
would soon be destroyed by the action of the fire, Mr. Baird proposed
to use a water-leg projecting upward and backward from the front of
the fire-box under the flues. Drawings and a model of the device were
prepared, with a view of patenting it, but subsequently the intention
was abandoned, Mr. Baird concluding that a fire-brick arch as a
deflector to accomplish the same object was preferable. This was
accordingly tried on two locomotives built for the Pennsylvania
Railroad Company in 1854, and was found so valuable an appliance that
its use was at once established, and it was put on a number of engines
built for railroads in Cuba and elsewhere. For several years the
fire-bricks were supported on side plugs; but in 1858, in the "Media,"
built for the West Chester and Philadelphia Railroad Company,
water-pipes extending from the crown obliquely downward and curving to
the sides of the fire-box at the bottom, were successfully used for
the purpose.

The adoption of the link-motion may be regarded as the dividing line
between the present and the early and transitional stage of locomotive
practice. Changes since that event have been principally in matters of
detail, but it is the gradual perfection of these details which has
made the locomotive the symmetrical, efficient, and wonderfully
complete piece of mechanism it is to-day. In perfecting these minutiæ,
the Baldwin Locomotive Works has borne its part, and it only remains
to state briefly its contributions in this direction.

The production of the establishment during the six years from 1855 to
1860, inclusive, was as follows: forty-seven engines in 1855;
fifty-nine in 1856; sixty-six in 1857; thirty-three in 1858; seventy
in 1859; and eighty-three in 1860. The greater number of these were of
the ordinary type, four drivers coupled, and a four-wheeled truck, and
varying in weight from fifteen ton engines, with cylinders twelve by
twenty-two, to twenty-seven ton engines, with cylinders sixteen by
twenty-four. A few ten-wheeled engines were built, as has been
previously noted, and the remainder were the Baldwin flexible-truck
six- and eight-wheels-connected engines. The demand for these, however,
was now rapidly falling off, the ten-wheeled and heavy "C" engines
taking their place, and by 1859 they ceased to be built, save in
exceptional cases, as for some foreign roads, from which orders for
this pattern were still occasionally received.

A few novelties characterizing the engines of this period may be
mentioned. Several engines built in 1855 had cross-flues placed in
the fire-box, under the crown, in order to increase the heating
surface. This feature, however, was found impracticable, and was soon
abandoned. The intense heat to which the flues were exposed converted
the water contained in them into highly superheated steam, which would
force its way out through the water around the fire-box with violent
ebullitions. Four engines were built for the Pennsylvania Railroad
Company, in 1856-57, with straight boilers and two domes. The "Delano"
grate, by means of which the coal was forced into the fire-box from
below, was applied on four ten-wheeled engines for the Cleveland and
Pittsburg Railroad, in 1857. In 1859, several engines were built with
the form of boiler introduced on the Cumberland Valley Railroad in
1851 by Mr. A. F. Smith, and which consisted of a combustion-chamber
in the waist of the boiler, next the fire-box. This form of boiler was
for some years thereafter largely used in engines for soft coal. It
was at first constructed with the "water-leg," which was a vertical
water-space, connecting the top and bottom sheets of the
combustion-chamber, but eventually this feature was omitted, and an
unobstructed combustion-chamber employed. Several engines were built
for the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad Company in
1859, and thereafter, with the "Dimpfel" boiler, in which the tubes
contain water, and, starting downward from the crown-sheet, are curved
to the horizontal, and terminate in a narrow water-space next the
smoke-box. The whole waist of the boiler, therefore, forms a
combustion-chamber, and the heat and gases, after passing for their
whole length along and around the tubes, emerge into the lower part of
the smoke-box.

In 1860, an engine was built for the Mine Hill Railroad, with boiler
of a peculiar form. The top sheets sloped upward from both ends toward
the centre, thus making a raised part or hump in the centre. The
engine was designed to work on heavy grades, and the object sought by
Mr. Wilder, the Superintendent of the Mine Hill Railroad, was to have
the water always at the same height in the space from which steam was
drawn, whether going up or down grade.

All these experiments are indicative of the interest then prevailing
upon the subject of coal-burning. The result of experience and study
had meantime satisfied Mr. Baldwin that to burn soft coal successfully
required no peculiar devices; that the ordinary form of boiler, with
plain fire-box, was right, with perhaps the addition of a fire-brick
deflector; and that the secret of the economical and successful use of
coal was in the mode of firing, rather than in a different form of
furnace.

The year 1861 witnessed a marked falling off in the production. The
breaking out of the war at first unsettled business, and by many it
was thought that railroad traffic would be so largely reduced that the
demand for locomotives must cease altogether. A large number of hands
were discharged from the works, and only forty locomotives were turned
out during the year. It was even seriously contemplated to turn the
resources of the establishment to the manufacture of shot and shell,
and other munitions of war, the belief being entertained that the
building of locomotives would have to be altogether suspended. So far,
however, was this from being the case, that, after the first
excitement had subsided, it was found that the demand for
transportation by the general government, and by the branches of trade
and production created by the war, was likely to tax the carrying
capacity of the principal Northern railroads to the fullest extent.
The government itself became a large purchaser of locomotives, and it
is noticeable, as indicating the increase of travel and freight
transportation, that heavier machines than had ever before been built
became the rule. Seventy-five engines were sent from the works in
1862; ninety-six in 1863; one hundred and thirty in 1864; and one
hundred and fifteen in 1865. During two years of this period, from
May, 1862, to June, 1864, thirty-three engines were built for the
United States Military Railroads. The demand from the various
coal-carrying roads in Pennsylvania and vicinity was particularly
active, and large numbers of ten-wheeled engines, and of the heaviest
eight-wheeled four-coupled engines, were built. Of the latter class,
the majority were with fifteen and sixteen inch cylinders, and of the
former, seventeen and eighteen inch cylinders.

The introduction of several important features in construction marks
this period. Early in 1861, four eighteen inch cylinder freight
locomotives, with six coupled wheels, fifty-two inches in diameter,
and a Bissell pony-truck with radius-bar in front, were sent to the
Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company. This was the first instance
of the use of the Bissell truck in the Baldwin Works. These engines,
however, were not of the regular "Mogul" type, as they were only
modifications of the ten-wheeler, the drivers retaining the same
position, well back, and a pair of pony-wheels on the Bissell plan
taking the place of the ordinary four-wheeled truck. Other engines of
the same pattern, but with eighteen and one-half inch cylinders, were
built in 1862-63, for the same company, and for the Don Pedro II.
Railway of Brazil.

The introduction of steel in locomotive-construction was a
distinguishing feature of the period. Steel tires were first used in
the works in 1863, on some engines for the Don Pedro II. Railway of
South America. Their general adoption on American railroads followed
slowly. No tires of this material were then made in this country, and
it was objected to their use that, as it took from sixty to ninety
days to import them, an engine, in case of a breakage of one of its
tires, might be laid up useless for several months. To obviate this
objection, M. W. Baldwin & Co. imported five hundred steel tires, most
of which were kept in stock, from which to fill orders.

Steel fire-boxes were first built for some engines for the
Pennsylvania Railroad Company in 1861. English steel, of a high
temper, was used, and at the first attempt the fire-boxes cracked in
fitting them in the boilers, and it became necessary to take them out
and substitute copper. American homogeneous cast-steel was then tried
on engines 231 and 232, completed for the Pennsylvania Railroad in
January, 1862, and it was found to work successfully. The fire-boxes
of nearly all engines thereafter built for that road were of this
material, and in 1866 its use for the purpose became general. It may
be added that while all steel sheets for fire-boxes or boilers are
required to be thoroughly annealed before delivery, those which are
flanged or worked in the process of boiler-construction are a second
time annealed before riveting.

Another feature of construction, gradually adopted, was the placing of
the cylinders horizontally. This was first done in the case of an
outside-connected engine, the "Ocmulgee," which was sent to the
Southwestern Railroad Company of Georgia in January, 1858. This engine
had a square smoke-box, and the cylinders were bolted horizontally to
its sides. The plan of casting the cylinder and half-saddle in one
piece and fitting it to the round smoke-box was introduced by Mr.
Baldwin, and grew naturally out of his original method of
construction. Mr. Baldwin was the first American builder to use an
outside cylinder, and he made it for his early engines with a circular
flange cast to it, by which it could be bolted to the boiler. The
cylinders were gradually brought lower, and at a less angle, and the
flanges prolonged and enlarged. In 1852, three six-wheels-connected
engines, for the Mine Hill Railroad Company, were built with the
cylinder flanges brought around under the smoke-box until they nearly
met, the space between them being filled with a spark-box. This was
practically equivalent to making the cylinder and half-saddle in one
casting. Subsequently, on other engines on which the spark-box was not
used, the half-saddles were cast so as almost to meet under the
smoke-box, and, after the cylinders were adjusted in position, wedges
were fitted in the interstices and the saddles bolted together. It was
finally discovered that the faces of the two half-saddles might be
planed and finished so that they could be bolted together and bring
the cylinders accurately in position, thus avoiding the troublesome
and tedious job of adjusting them by chipping and fitting to the
boiler and frames. With this method of construction, the cylinders
were placed at a less and less angle, until at length the truck-wheels
were spread sufficiently, on all new or modified classes of
locomotives in the Baldwin list, to admit of the cylinders being hung
horizontally, as is the present almost universal American practice. By
the year 1865, horizontal cylinders were made in all cases where the
patterns would allow it. The advantages of this arrangement are
manifestly in the interest of simplicity and economy, as the cylinders
are thus rights or lefts, indiscriminately, and a single pattern
answers for either side.

A distinguishing feature in the method of construction which
characterizes these Works, is the extensive use of a system of
standard gauges and templets, to which all work admitting of this
process is required to be made. The importance of this arrangement, in
securing absolute uniformity of essential parts in all engines of the
same class, is manifest, and with the increased production since 1861
it became a necessity as well as a decided advantage. It has already
been noted that as early as 1839 Mr. Baldwin felt the importance of
making all like parts of similar engines absolutely uniform and
interchangeable. It was not attempted to accomplish this object,
however, by means of a complete system of standard gauges, until many
years later. In 1861 a beginning was made of organizing all the
departments of manufacture upon this basis, and from it has since
grown an elaborate and perfected system, embracing all the essential
details of construction. An independent department of the Works,
having a separate foreman and an adequate force of skilled workmen,
with special tools adapted to the purpose, is organized as the
Department of Standard Gauges. A system of standard gauges and
templets for every description of work to be done, is made and kept by
this department. The original templets are kept as "standards," and
are never used on the work itself, but from them exact duplicates are
made, which are issued to the foremen of the various departments, and
to which all work is required to conform. The working gauges are
compared with the standards at regular intervals, and absolute
uniformity is thus maintained. The system is carried into every
possible important detail. Frames are planed and slotted to gauges,
and drilled to steel bushed templets. Cylinders are bored and planed,
and steam-ports, with valves and steam-chests, finished and fitted, to
gauges. Tires are bored, centres turned, axles finished, and
crossheads, guides, guide-bearers, pistons, connecting- and
parallel-rods planed, slotted, or finished, by the same method. Every
bolt about the engine is made to a gauge, and every hole drilled and
reamed to a templet. The result of the system is an absolute
uniformity and interchangeableness of parts in engines of the same
class, insuring to the purchaser the minimum cost of repairs, and
rendering possible, by the application of this method, the large
production which these Works have accomplished.

Thus had been developed and perfected the various essential details of
existing locomotive practice, when Mr. Baldwin died, September 7, 1866.
He had been permitted, in a life of unusual activity and energy, to
witness the rise and wonderful increase of a material interest which had
become the distinguishing feature of the century. He had done much, by
his own mechanical skill and inventive genius, to contribute to the
development of that interest. His name was as "familiar as household
words" wherever on the American continent the locomotive had penetrated.
An ordinary ambition might well have been satisfied with this
achievement. But Mr. Baldwin's claim to the remembrance of his
fellow-men rests not alone on the results of his mechanical labors. A
merely technical history, such as this, is not the place to do justice
to his memory as a man, as a Christian, and as a philanthropist; yet the
record would be manifestly imperfect, and would fail properly to reflect
the sentiments of his business associates who so long knew him in all
relations of life, were no reference made to his many virtues and noble
traits of character. Mr. Baldwin was a man of sterling integrity and
singular conscientiousness. To do right, absolutely and unreservedly, in
all his relations with men, was an instinctive rule of his nature. His
heroic struggle to meet every dollar of his liabilities, principal and
interest, after his failure, consequent upon the general financial crash
in 1837, constitutes a chapter of personal self-denial and determined
effort which is seldom paralleled in the annals of commercial
experience. When most men would have felt that an equitable compromise
with creditors was all that could be demanded in view of the general
financial embarrassment, Mr. Baldwin insisted upon paying all claims in
full, and succeeded in doing so only after nearly five years of
unremitting industry, close economy, and absolute personal sacrifices.
As a philanthropist and a sincere and earnest Christian, zealous in
every good work, his memory is cherished by many to whom his
contributions to locomotive improvement are comparatively unknown. From
the earliest years of his business life the practice of systematic
benevolence was made a duty and a pleasure. His liberality constantly
increased with his means. Indeed, he would unhesitatingly give his
notes, in large sums, for charitable purposes, when money was absolutely
wanted to carry on his business. Apart from the thousands which he
expended in private charities, and of which, of course, little can be
known, Philadelphia contains many monuments of his munificence. Early
taking a deep interest in all Christian effort, his contributions to
missionary enterprise and church extension were on the grandest scale,
and grew with increasing wealth. Numerous church edifices in this city,
of the denomination to which he belonged, owe their existence largely to
his liberality, and two at least were projected and built by him
entirely at his own cost. In his mental character, Mr. Baldwin was a man
of remarkable firmness of purpose. This trait was strongly shown during
his mechanical career, in the persistency with which he would work at a
new improvement or resist an innovation. If he was led sometimes to
assume an attitude of antagonism to features of locomotive-construction
which after-experience showed to be valuable,--and a desire for
historical accuracy has required the mention, in previous pages, of
several instances of this kind,--it is at least certain that his
opposition was based upon a conscientious belief in the mechanical
impolicy of the proposed changes.

After the death of Mr. Baldwin, the business was reorganized, in 1867,
under the title of "The Baldwin Locomotive Works," M. Baird & Co.,
Proprietors. Messrs. George Burnham and Charles T. Parry, who had been
connected with the establishment from an early period, the former in
charge of the finances, and the latter as General Superintendent, were
associated with Mr. Baird in the copartnership. Three years later,
Messrs. Edward H. Williams, William P. Henszey, and Edward Longstreth
became members of the firm. Mr. Williams had been connected with
railway management on various lines since 1850. Mr. Henszey had been
Mechanical Engineer, and Mr. Longstreth the General Superintendent of
the Works for several years previously.

The production of the Baldwin Locomotive Works from 1866 to 1871, both
years inclusive, has been as follows:

  1866, one hundred and eighteen locomotives.
  1867, one hundred and twenty-seven   "
  1868, one hundred and twenty-four    "
  1869, two hundred and thirty-five    "
  1870, two hundred and eighty         "
  1871, three hundred and thirty-one   "

In July, 1866, the engine "Consolidation" was built for the Lehigh
Valley Railroad, on the plan and specification furnished by Mr.
Alexander Mitchell, Master Mechanic of the Mahanoy Division of that
railroad. This engine was intended for working the Mahanoy plane,
which rises at the rate of one hundred and thirty-three feet per mile.
The "Consolidation" had cylinders twenty by twenty-four, four pairs of
drivers connected, forty-eight inches in diameter, and a Bissell
pony-truck in front, equalized with the front drivers. The weight of
the engine, in working order, was ninety thousand pounds, of which all
but about ten thousand pounds was on the drivers. This engine has
constituted the first of a class to which it has given its name, and
over thirty "Consolidation" engines have since been constructed.

A class of engines known as "Moguls," with three pairs of drivers
connected and a swing pony-truck in front equalized with the front
drivers, took its rise in the practice of this establishment from the
"E. A. Douglas," built for the Thomas Iron Company in 1867. These
engines are fully illustrated in the Catalogue. Several sizes of
"Moguls" have been built, but principally with cylinders sixteen,
seventeen, and eighteen inches in diameter, respectively, and
twenty-two or twenty-four inches stroke, and with drivers from
forty-four to fifty-seven inches in diameter. This plan of engine has
rapidly grown in favor for freight service on heavy grades or where
maximum loads are to be moved, and has been adopted by several leading
lines. Utilizing, as it does, nearly the entire weight of the engine
for adhesion, the main and back pairs of drivers being equalized
together, as also the front drivers and the pony-wheels, and the
construction of the engine with swing-truck and one pair of drivers
without flanges allowing it to pass short curves without difficulty,
the "Mogul" is generally accepted as a type of engine especially
adapted to the economical working of heavy freight traffic.

In 1867, on a number of eight-wheeled four-coupled engines, for the
Pennsylvania Railroad, the four-wheeled swing-bolster-truck was first
applied, and thereafter nearly all the engines built in the
establishment with a two- or four-wheeled truck in front have been so
constructed. The two-wheeled or "pony" truck has been built both on
the Bissell plan, with double inclined slides, and with the ordinary
swing-bolster, and in both cases with the radius-bar pivoting from a
point about four feet back from the centre of the truck. The
four-wheeled truck has been made with swing-bolster exclusively and
without the radius-bar. Of the engines above referred to as the first
on which the swing-bolster-truck was applied, four were for express
passenger service, with drivers sixty-seven inches in diameter, and
cylinders seventeen by twenty-four. One of them, placed on the road
September 9, 1867, was in constant service until May 14, 1871, without
ever being off its wheels for repairs, making a total mileage of one
hundred and fifty-three thousand two hundred and eighty miles. All of
these engines have their driving-wheels spread eight and one-half feet
between centres, thus increasing the adhesive weight, and with the use
of the swing-truck they have been found to work readily on the
shortest curves on the road.

Steel flues were put in three ten-wheeled freight engines, numbers
211, 338, and 368, completed for the Pennsylvania Railroad in August,
1868, and up to the present time have been in constant use without
requiring renewal. Flues of the same material have also been used in a
number of engines for South American railroads. Experience with tubes
of this metal, however, has not yet been sufficiently extended to show
whether they give any advantages commensurate with their increased
cost over iron.

Steel boilers have been built, to a considerable extent, for the
Pennsylvania, Lehigh Valley, Central of New Jersey, and some other
railroad companies, since 1868, and with good results thus far. Where
this metal is used for boilers, the plates may be somewhat thinner
than if of iron, but at the same time, as shown by careful tests,
giving a greater tensile strength. The thoroughly homogeneous
character of the steel boiler-plate made in this country recommends it
strongly for the purpose.

In 1854, four engines for the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, the
"Tiger," "Leopard," "Hornet," and "Wasp," were built with straight
boilers and two domes each, and in 1866 this method of construction
was revived. Since that date, the practice of the establishment has
included both the wagon-top boiler with single dome, and the straight
boiler with two domes. When the straight boiler is used, the waist is
made about two inches larger in diameter than that of the wagon-top
form. About equal space for water and steam is thus given in either
case, and, as the number of flues is the same in both forms, more room
for the circulation of water between the flues is afforded in the
straight boiler, on account of its larger diameter, than in the
wagon-top shape. The preference of many railroad officers for the
straight boiler is based on the consideration of the greater strength
which this form confessedly gives. The top and side lines being of
equal length, the expansion is uniform throughout, and hence there is
less liability to leak on the sides, at the junction of the waist and
fire-box. The throttle-valve is placed in the forward dome, from which
point drier steam can be drawn than from over the crown-sheet, where
the most violent ebullitions in a boiler occur. For these reasons, as
well as on account of its greater symmetry, the straight boiler with
two domes is largely accepted as preferable to the wagon-top form.

Early in 1870, the success of the various narrow-gauge railway
enterprises in Europe aroused a lively interest in the subject, and
numerous similar lines were projected on this side of the Atlantic.
Several classes of engines for working railroads of this character
were designed and built, and are illustrated in full in Division VII
of the Catalogue.

The history of the Baldwin Locomotive Works has thus been traced from
its inception to the present time. Over twenty-six hundred locomotives
have been built in the establishment since the completion of the "Old
Ironsides," in 1832. Its capacity is now equal to the production of
over four hundred locomotives annually, and it has attained the rank
of the largest locomotive works in the world. It owes this position
not only to the character of the work it has turned out, but largely
also to the peculiar facilities for manufacture which it possesses.
Situated close to the great iron and coal region of the country, the
principal materials required for its work are readily available. It
numbers among its managers and workmen men who have had the training
of a lifetime in the various specialties of locomotive-manufacture,
and whose experience has embraced the successive stages of American
locomotive progress. Its location, in the largest manufacturing city
of the country, is an advantage of no ordinary importance. In 1870,
Philadelphia, with a total population of nearly seven hundred thousand
souls, gave employment in its manufactures to over one hundred and
twenty thousand persons. In other words, more than one-sixth of its
population is concerned in production. The extent of territory
covered by the city, embracing one hundred and twenty-seven square
miles, with unsurpassed facilities for ready intercommunication by
street railways, renders possible separate comfortable homes for the
working population, and thus tends to elevate their condition and
increase their efficiency. Such and so vast a class of skilled
mechanics is therefore available from which to recruit the forces of
the establishment when necessary. Under their command are special
tools, which have been created from time to time with reference to
every detail of locomotive-manufacture; and an organized system of
production, perfected by long years of experience, governs the
operation of all.

With such a record for the past, and such facilities at its command
for the future, the Baldwin Locomotive Works submits the following
Catalogue of the principal classes of locomotives embraced in its
present practice.



CIRCULAR.


In the following pages we present and illustrate a system of STANDARD
LOCOMOTIVES, in which, it is believed, will be found designs suited to
all the requirements of ordinary service.

These patterns admit of modifications, to suit the preferences of
railroad managers, and where machines of peculiar construction for
special service are required, we are prepared to make and submit
designs, or to build to specifications furnished.

All the locomotives of the system herewith presented are adapted to
the consumption of wood, coke, or bituminous or anthracite coal as
fuel.

All work is accurately fitted to gauges, which are made from a system
of standards kept exclusively for the purpose. Like parts will,
therefore, fit accurately in all locomotives of the same class.

This system of manufacture, together with the large number of
locomotives at all times in progress, and embracing the principal
classes, insures unusual and especial facilities for filling at once,
or with the least possible delay, orders for duplicate parts.

Full specifications of locomotives will be furnished on application.

                                                   M. BAIRD & CO.



EXPLANATION OF TERMS.


The several classes of locomotives manufactured by the Baldwin
Locomotive Works have their respective distinguishing names, which are
derived and applied as follows:

  All locomotives having one pair of driving-wheels
                                          are designated as B engines.
  Those having two pairs of drivers, as                     C engines.
  Those having three pairs of drivers, as                   D engines.
  Those having four pairs of drivers, as                    E engines.

One or more figures united with one of these letters, B, C, D, or E,
and preceding it, indicates the dimensions of cylinders, boiler, and
other parts, and also the general plan of the locomotive: thus, 27-1/2
C designates the class of eight-wheeled locomotives (illustrated on
pages 56 and 60) with two pairs of drivers and a four-wheeled truck,
and with cylinders sixteen inches in diameter and twenty-two or
twenty-four inches stroke. 34 E designates another class (illustrated
on page 80), with four pairs of drivers and a pony truck, and with
cylinders twenty inches in diameter and twenty-four inches stroke.

In like manner all the other classes are designated by a combination
of certain letters and figures.

All corresponding important parts of locomotives of the same class are
made interchangeable and exact duplicates.

The following table gives a summary of the principal classes of
locomotives of our manufacture:


GENERAL CLASSIFICATION.

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             |                          |            |          |  DRIVERS.   |Truck. |Weight in|
  Designation|          SERVICE.        |  Gauge.    |Cylinders.|-------------| No.   |Working  |
   of Class. |                          |            |          |No.|Diameter.|Wheels.|Order.   |
  -----------+--------------------------+------------+----------+---+---------+-------+---------|
             |                          |            |          |   | INCHES. |       | POUNDS. |
   8-1/2 C   | Narrow Gauge             |            |          |   |         |       |         |
             |   Passenger and Freight. |  3 feet    |  9 × 16  | 4 | 36 to 40|   2   | 25,000  |
             |                          |  and over. |          |   |         |       |         |
   9-1/2 C   |                 do.      |     "      | 10 × 16  | 4 | 36 to 40|   2   | 30,000  |
      12 D   | Narrow Gauge Freight.    |     "      | 11 × 16  | 6 | 36 to 40|   2   | 35,000  |
      14 D   |                do.       |     "      | 12 × 16  | 6 | 36 to 40|   2   | 40,000  |
       8 C   | Tank Switching.          |4 ft. 8-1/2 |  9 × 16  | 4 | 36      | ....  | 25,000  |
             |                          |  and over  |          |   |         |       |         |
  10-1/2 C   |                do.       |     "      | 11 × 16  | 4 | 36      | ....  | 38,000  |
  11-1/2 C   |                do.       |     "      | 11 × 16  | 4 | 36      |   2   | 40,000  |
      12 C   |                do.       |     "      | 12 × 22  | 4 | 44      | ....  | 43,000  |
      14 C   |                do.       |     "      | 14 × 22  | 4 | 48      | ....  | 48,000  |
  14-1/2 C   |                do.       |     "      | 14 × 22  | 4 | 48      |   2   | 50,000  |
  18-1/2 C   |                do.       |     "      | 15 × 22  | 4 | 48 to 54| ....  | 55,000  |
  15-1/2 C   |                do.       |     "      | 15 × 22  | 4 | 48 to 54|   2   | 57,000  |
      21 D   |                do.       |     "      | 15 × 22  | 6 | 44      | ....  | 60,000  |
  27-1/2 D   |                do.       |     "      | 16 × 22  | 6 | 44 to 48| ....  | 66,000  |
       8 C   | Switching,               |            |          |   |         |       |         |
             |   with separate Tender.  |     "      |  9 × 16  | 4 | 36      | ....  | 22,000  |
  10-1/2 C   |                do.       |     "      | 11 × 16  | 4 | 36      | ....  | 34,000  |
  11-1/2 C   |                do.       |     "      | 11 × 16  | 4 | 36      |   2   | 36,000  |
      12 C   |                do.       |     "      | 12 × 22  | 4 | 44      | ....  | 38,000  |
      14 C   |                do.       |     "      | 14 × 22  | 4 | 48      | ....  | 42,000  |
  14-1/2 C   |                do.       |     "      | 14 × 22  | 4 | 48      |   2   | 44,000  |
  18-1/2 C   |                do.       |     "      | 15 × 22  | 4 | 48 to 54| ....  | 49,000  |
  15-1/2 C   |                do.       |     "      | 15 × 22  | 4 | 48 to 54|   2   | 51,000  |
  19-1/2 C   |                do.       |     "      | 16 × 22  | 4 | 48 to 54| ....  | 56,000  |
      21 D   |                do.       |     "      | 15 × 22  | 6 | 44      | ....  | 52,000  |
  27-1/2 D   |                do.       |     "      | 16 × 22} | 6 | 44 to 48| ....  | 60,000  |
             |                          |            |      24} |   |         |       |         |
  25-1/2 D   |                do.       |     "      | 17 × 22} | 6 | 48 to 54| ....  | 66,000  |
             |                          |            |      24} |   |         |       |         |
      15 C   | Passenger and Freight.   |     "      | 10 × 20  | 4 | 54      |   4   | 38,000  |
  16-1/2 C   |                do.       |     "      | 12 × 22  | 4 | 54 to 60|   4   | 44,000  |
  20-1/2 C   |                do.       |     "      | 13 × 22} | 4 | 56 to 66|   4   | 50,000  |
             |                          |            |      24} |   |         |       |         |
  22-1/2 C   |                do.       |     "      | 14 × 22} | 4 | 56 to 66|   4   | 55,000  |
             |                          |            |      24} |   |         |       |         |
  24-1/2 C   |                do.       |     "      | 15 × 22} | 4 | 56 to 66|   4   | 60,000  |
             |                          |            |      24} |   |         |       |         |
  27-1/2 C   |                do.       |     "      | 16 × 22} | 4 | 56 to 66|   4   | 65,000  |
             |                          |            |      24} |   |         |       |         |
      28     |                do.       |     "      | 17 × 22} | 4 | 56 to 66|   4   | 70,000  |
             |                          |            |      24} |   |         |       |         |
  24-1/2 D   | Freight.                 |     "      | 16 × 22} | 6 | 48 to 54|   4   | 67,000  |
             |                          |            |      24} |   |         |       |         |
  26-1/2 D   |                do.       |     "      | 17 × 22} | 6 | 48 to 54|   4   | 72,000  |
             |                          |            |      24} |   |         |       |         |
  28-1/2 D   |                do.       |     "      | 18 × 22} | 6 | 48 to 54|   4   | 77,000  |
             |                          |            |      24} |   |         |       |         |
  27-1/2 D   | Freight and pushing.     |     "      | 16 × 22} | 6 | 48 to 54|   2   | 66,000  |
             |                          |            |      24} |   |         |       |         |
  25-1/2 D   |                do.       |     "      | 17 × 22} | 6 | 48 to 54|   2   | 71,000  |
             |                          |            |      24} |   |         |       |         |
      30 D   |                do.       |     "      | 18 × 22} | 6 | 48 to 54|   2   | 76,000  |
             |                          |            |      24} |   |         |       |         |
      34 E   | Freight and Pushing.     |     "      | 20 × 24  | 8 | 48      |   2   | 96,000  |
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



PREFATORY.


The dimensions given in the following Catalogue are for locomotives of
four feet eight and a half inches gauge, unless otherwise stated.

The _loads_ given under each class are invariably in gross tons of
twenty-two hundred and forty pounds, and include both cars and lading.

All the locomotives described in this Catalogue are sold with the
guarantee that they will haul, on a straight track in good condition,
the loads stated. Their actual performance under favorable
circumstances may be relied upon largely to exceed the figures given
in the guarantee.

The feed-water for all locomotives specified is supplied by two pumps,
or one pump and one injector. One or more injectors can also be
supplied in addition to the two pumps, if desired.



[Illustration: Locomotive.]

DIVISION I.

ROAD LOCOMOTIVES FOR PASSENGER OR FREIGHT SERVICE.


CLASS 15 C.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 52.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     10 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          20   "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                       54 inches.


TRUCK.

FOUR-WHEELED TRUCK, WITH CENTRE-BEARING BOLSTER.

  Diameter of wheels                                        24 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                16 ft. 3-3/4 inches.


TENDER.

ON FOUR WHEELS.

  Capacity of tank                                        900 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  On drivers                                            23,000 pounds.
  On truck                                              15,000   "
                                                        ------
             Total weight of engine, about              38,000   "


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                           550 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    250   "    "
    "  40     "                                        160   "    "
    "  60     "                                        115   "    "
    "  80     "                                         85   "    "
    " 100     "                                         65   "    "



DIVISION I.

ROAD LOCOMOTIVES FOR PASSENGER OR FREIGHT SERVICE.


CLASS 16-1/2 C.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 52.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     12 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          22   "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                 54 to 60 inches.


TRUCK.

FOUR-WHEELED TRUCK, WITH CENTRE-BEARING BOLSTER.

  Diameter of wheels                                  24 to 26 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                      19 ft. 1 inch.


TENDER.

ON TWO FOUR-WHEELED TRUCKS.

  Capacity of tank                                       1200 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  On drivers                                            28,000 pounds.
  On truck                                              16,000   "
                                                        ------
  Total weight of engine, about                         44,000   "


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                           665 gross tons.
    "    20 ft. grade                                  305  "     "
    "    40      "                                     190  "     "
    "    60      "                                     135  "     "
    "    80      "                                     100  "     "
    "   100      "                                      75  "     "



[Illustration: Locomotive.]

DIVISION I.

ROAD LOCOMOTIVES FOR PASSENGER OR FREIGHT SERVICE.


CLASS 20-1/2 C

General Design Illustrated by Prints on Pages 52 and 56.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     13 inches.
  Length of stroke                                    22 or 24 inches.


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                 56 to 66 inches.


TRUCK.

FOUR-WHEELED CENTRE-BEARING TRUCK, WITH SWING BOLSTER.

  Diameter of wheels                                  24 to 30 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                  20 ft. 1-3/4 inches.
  Rigid    "   (distance between driving-wheel-centres)  6 ft. 6 inches.


TENDER.

ON TWO FOUR-WHEELED TRUCKS.

  Capacity of tank                                       1400 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  On drivers                                            30,000 pounds.
  On truck                                              20,000   "
                                                        ------
  Total weight of engine, about                         50,000   "


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                           710 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    325   "    "
    "  40      "                                       200   "    "
    "  60      "                                       140   "    "
    "  80      "                                       105   "    "
    " 100      "                                        80   "    "



DIVISION I.

ROAD LOCOMOTIVES FOR PASSENGER OR FREIGHT SERVICE.


CLASS 22-1/2 C.

General Design Illustrated by Prints on Pages 52 and 56.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     14 inches.
  Length of stroke                                    22 or 24 inches.


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                 56 to 66 inches.


TRUCK.

FOUR-WHEELED CENTRE-BEARING TRUCK, WITH SWING BOLSTER.

  Diameter of wheels                                  24 to 30 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                20 ft. 7-3/4 inches.
  Rigid   "   (distance between driving-wheel-centres)           7 ft.


TENDER.

ON TWO FOUR-WHEELED TRUCKS.

  Capacity of tank                                       1600 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  On drivers                                            35,000 pounds.
  On truck                                              20,000   "
                                                        ------
             Total weight of engine, about              55,000   "


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                           835 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    380   "    "
    "  40      "                                       240   "    "
    "  60      "                                       170   "    "
    "  80      "                                       125   "    "
    " 100      "                                       100   "    "



[Illustration: Locomotive.]

DIVISION I.

ROAD LOCOMOTIVES FOR PASSENGER OR FREIGHT SERVICE.


CLASS 24-1/2 C

General Design Illustrated by Prints on Pages 56 and 60.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     15 inches.
  Length of stroke                                    22 or 24 inches.


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                 56 to 66 inches.


TRUCK.

FOUR-WHEELED CENTRE-BEARING TRUCK, WITH SWING BOLSTER.

  Diameter of wheels                                  24 to 30 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                      21 ft. 3 inches.
  Rigid     "   (distance between driving-wheel-centres) 7 ft. 8 inches.


TENDER.

ON TWO FOUR-WHEELED TRUCKS.

  Capacity of tank                                       1800 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  On drivers                                            39,000 pounds.
  On truck                                              21,000   "
                                                        ------
             Total weight of engine, about              60,000   "


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO WEIGHT OF ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                           930 gross tons.
    " 20 ft. grade                                     430   "    "
    " 40    "                                          270   "    "
    " 60    "                                          190   "    "
    " 80    "                                          140   "    "
    "100    "                                          110   "    "



DIVISION I.

ROAD LOCOMOTIVES FOR PASSENGER OR FREIGHT SERVICE.


CLASS 27-1/2 C.

General Design Illustrated by Prints on Pages 56 and 60.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     16 inches.
  Length of stroke                                    22 or 24 inches.


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                 56 to 66 inches.


TRUCK.

FOUR-WHEELED CENTRE-BEARING TRUCK, WITH SWING BOLSTER.

  Diameter of wheels                                  24 to 30 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                    21 ft. 9 inches.
  Rigid     " (distance between driving-wheel-centres)       8 ft.


TENDER.

ON TWO FOUR-WHEELED TRUCKS.

  Capacity of tank                                       2000 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  On drivers                                            42,000 pounds.
  On truck                                              23,000   "
                                                        ------
             Total weight of engine, about              65,000   "


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                          1000 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                   460   "    "
    "  40    "                                        290   "    "
    "  60    "                                        205   "    "
    "  80    "                                        150   "    "
    " 100    "                                        120   "    "

The distance between centres of drivers (rigid wheel-base) can be made
8 ft. 6 in., if preferred to 8 ft. as given above. This greater spread
of wheels, throwing more weight on the drivers, gives the engine
greater adhesion, and thus adds to its efficiency for freight service.
Owing to the peculiar construction of the truck, the engine is found
to pass short curves without difficulty, even with this greater
distance between driving-wheel-centres.



[Illustration: Locomotive.]

DIVISION I.

ROAD LOCOMOTIVES FOR PASSENGER OR FREIGHT SERVICE.


CLASS 28 C.

General Design Illustrated by Prints on Pages 56, 60, and 64.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     17 inches.
  Length of stroke                                    22 or 24 inches.


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                 56 to 66 inches.


TRUCK.

FOUR-WHEELED CENTRE-BEARING TRUCK, WITH SWING BOLSTER.

  Diameter of wheels                                  24 to 30 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                22 ft. 6-1/4 inches.
  Rigid     " (distance between driving-wheel-centres)       8 ft.


TENDER.

ON TWO FOUR-WHEELED TRUCKS.

  Capacity of tank                                       2200 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  On drivers                                            45,000 pounds.
  On truck                                              25,000   "
                                                        ------
             Total weight of engine, about              70,000   "


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                          1075 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    495   "    "
    "  40     "                                        310   "    "
    "  60     "                                        220   "    "
    "  80     "                                        165   "    "
    " 100     "                                        130   "    "

The distance between centres of drivers (rigid wheel-base) can be made
8 ft. 6 in., if preferred to 8 ft. as given above. This greater spread
of wheels, throwing more weight on the drivers, gives the engine
greater adhesion, and thus adds to its efficiency for freight service.
Owing to the peculiar construction of the truck, the engine is found
to pass short curves without difficulty, even with this greater
distance between driving-wheel-centres.



ADDENDA.


ADAPTATION FOR EITHER PASSENGER OR FREIGHT SERVICE.

The five preceding classes, embracing road locomotives with cylinders
from thirteen to seventeen inches in diameter, admit of construction
with either a twenty-two or a twenty-four inches stroke, and with
driving-wheels of any diameter from fifty-six to sixty-six inches.
Each class can, therefore, be adapted to either passenger or freight
service, by giving the shorter stroke and the larger wheel for the
former use, and the longer stroke and smaller wheel for the latter.
The same cylinder pattern is used for both the twenty-two and the
twenty-four inches stroke, the difference in length being made by
recessing the cylinder heads.


ANTHRACITE COAL BURNERS.

The illustrations and figures given for engines in this Division are
all for soft coal or wood burners. For anthracite coal the form of the
furnace is changed, giving a longer grate and shallower fire-box. The
barrel of boiler, length of connecting-rods, number and length of
flues, etc., remain the same, so that no change in principal patterns
results. The change in shape and dimensions of fire-box, however,
alters the distribution of weight, throwing more load on the drivers
and less on the truck, while the total weight of engine remains nearly
the same. The hard coal burners, accordingly, having from this cause
somewhat more adhesion than the soft coal burners of the same class,
have proportionately more tractive power, and will haul loads from ten
to fifteen per cent. greater than those given for the corresponding
soft coal or wood burning engines.


STRAIGHT AND WAGON-TOP BOILERS.

All the engines of this division are built with wagon-top boilers or
with straight boilers and two domes, as preferred. Where the latter
form is made, the throttle-valve is placed in the forward dome. The
wagon-top and straight boilers for the same class are so proportioned
as to give equal steam space and the same number of flues in both
forms of construction.



[Illustration: Locomotive.]

DIVISION II.

TEN-WHEELED FREIGHT LOCOMOTIVES.


CLASS 24-1/2 D.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 68.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     16 inches.
  Length of stroke                                    22 or 24 inches.


DRIVING-WHEELS.

REAR AND FRONT PAIRS WITH FLANGED TIRES 5-1/2 INCHES WIDE. MAIN PAIR
WITH PLAIN TIRES 6 INCHES WIDE.

  Diameter of drivers                                 48 to 54 inches.


TRUCK.

FOUR-WHEELED CENTRE-BEARING TRUCK, WITH SWING BOLSTER.

  Diameter of wheels                                  24 to 26 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                            23 feet.
  Rigid   " (distance between centres of rear and
             front drivers)                             12 ft. 1 inch.


TENDER.

ON TWO FOUR-WHEELED TRUCKS.

  Capacity of tank                                       1600 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  On drivers                                            51,000 pounds.
  On truck                                              16,000   "
                                                        ------
             Total weight of engine, about              67,000   "


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                           1230 gross tons
    "  20 ft. grade                                     570   "    "
    "  40      "                                        360   "    "
    "  60      "                                        260   "    "
    "  80      "                                        195   "    "
    " 100      "                                        155   "    "



DIVISION II.

TEN-WHEELED FREIGHT LOCOMOTIVES.


CLASS 26-1/2 D.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 68.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     17 inches.
  Length of stroke                                    22 or 24 inches.


DRIVING-WHEELS.

REAR AND FRONT PAIRS WITH FLANGED TIRES 5-1/2 INCHES WIDE. MAIN PAIR
WITH PLAIN TIRES 6 INCHES WIDE.

  Diameter of drivers                                 48 to 54 inches.


TRUCK.

FOUR-WHEELED CENTRE-BEARING TRUCK, WITH SWING BOLSTER.

  Diameter of wheels                                  24 to 26 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                23 ft. 2-3/4 inches.
  Rigid     " (distance between centres of rear and
               front drivers)                         12 ft. 8 inches.


TENDER.

ON TWO FOUR-WHEELED TRUCKS.

  Capacity of tank                                       1800 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  On drivers                                            54,000 pounds.
  On truck                                              18,000   "
                                                        ------
             Total weight of engine, about              72,000   "


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                          1300 gross tons.
     "    20 ft. grade                                 600    "      "
     "    40       "                                   380    "      "
     "    60       "                                   270    "      "
     "    80       "                                   205    "      "
     "   100       "                                   160    "      "



DIVISION II.

TEN-WHEELED FREIGHT LOCOMOTIVES.


CLASS 28-1/2 D.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 68.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     18 inches.
  Length of stroke                                    22 or 24 inches.


DRIVING-WHEELS.

REAR AND FRONT PAIRS WITH FLANGED TIRES 5-1/2 INCHES WIDE. MAIN PAIR
WITH PLAIN TIRES 6 INCHES WIDE.

  Diameter of drivers                                 48 to 54 inches.


TRUCK.

FOUR-WHEELED CENTRE-BEARING TRUCK, WITH SWING BOLSTER.

  Diameter of wheels                                  24 to 26 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                23 ft. 2-3/4 inches.
  Rigid     " (distance between centres of rear and
               front drivers)                         12 ft. 8 inches.


TENDER.

ON TWO FOUR-WHEELED TRUCKS.

  Capacity of tank                                       2000 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  On drivers                                            58,000 pounds.
  On truck                                              19,000   "
                                                        ------
             Total weight of engine, about              77,000   "


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                          1400 gross tons.
     "  20 ft. grade                                   645   "    "
     "  40      "                                      410   "    "
     "  60      "                                      290   "    "
     "  80      "                                      220   "    "
     " 100      "                                      175   "    "



ADDENDA.


HARD AND SOFT COAL BURNERS

In the three classes of engines of Division II. certain differences
occur between hard and soft coal burners. The print on page 68
illustrates the plan of the soft coal or wood burner. In the hard coal
burner the fire-box is made longer and shallower; the rear drivers are
brought farther forward, and the three pairs of drivers are arranged
so that the distance between centres of rear and main drivers is the
same as the distance between centres of main and front drivers. The
point of suspension of the back part of the engine being thus brought
forward, a greater proportion of the total weight is carried on the
drivers and rendered available for adhesion, and the tractive power of
the hard coal burner is accordingly somewhat greater than that of the
soft coal engine. The rigid wheel-base of the hard coal burner is also
lessened from 17 to 24 inches by the same modification.


CURVING.

All engines of this Division are built with a swing-bolster truck. The
middle pair of drivers have tires without flanges. The engine is
accordingly guided on the rails by the truck and the flanges of the
front driving-wheels, and is found to pass curves without difficulty.

If preferred, however, the front instead of the main pair of drivers
can have the plain tires. Both methods are in use.


STRAIGHT AND WAGON-TOP BOILERS.

All the engines of this Division are built with wagon-top boilers or
with straight boilers and two domes, as preferred. Where the latter
form is made, the throttle-valve is placed in the forward dome. The
wagon-top and straight boilers for the same class are so proportioned
as to give equal steam space and the same number of flues in both
forms of construction.



[Illustration: Locomotive.]

DIVISION III.

FREIGHT OR PUSHING ENGINES.--"MOGUL" PATTERN.


CLASS 27-1/2 D.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 74.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     16 inches.
  Length of stroke                                    22 or 24 inches.


DRIVING-WHEELS.

REAR AND FRONT PAIRS WITH FLANGED TIRES 5-1/2 INCHES WIDE. MAIN PAIR
WITH PLAIN TIRES 6 INCHES WIDE.

  Diameter of drivers                                 48 to 54 inches.


TRUCK.

ONE PAIR OF LEADING WHEELS, WITH SWING BOLSTER AND RADIUS-BAR,
EQUALIZED WITH FRONT DRIVERS.

  Diameter of wheels                                        30 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                    21 ft. 4 inches.
  Rigid     " (distance between centres of rear and
               front drivers)                               14 ft.


TENDER.

ON TWO FOUR-WHEELED TRUCKS.

  Capacity of tank                                       1600 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  On drivers                                            57,000 pounds.
  On leading wheels                                      9,000   "
                                                        ------
             Total weight of engine, about              66,000   "


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                          1400 gross tons.
     "  20 ft. grade                                   655   "    "
     "  40      "                                      415   "    "
     "  60      "                                      300   "    "
     "  80      "                                      230   "    "
     " 100      "                                      180   "    "



DIVISION III.

FREIGHT OR PUSHING ENGINES--"MOGUL" PATTERN.


CLASS 25-1/2 D.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 74.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     17 inches.
  Length of stroke                                    22 or 24 inches.


DRIVING-WHEELS.

REAR AND FRONT PAIRS WITH FLANGED TIRES 5-1/2 INCHES WIDE. MAIN PAIR
WITH PLAIN TIRES 6 INCHES WIDE.

  Diameter of drivers                                 48 to 54 inches.


TRUCK.

ONE PAIR OF LEADING WHEELS, WITH SWING BOLSTER AND RADIUS-BAR,
EQUALIZED WITH FRONT DRIVERS.

  Diameter of wheels                                        30 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                   21 ft. 10 inches.
  Rigid      "  (distance between centres of rear and
                 front drivers)                       14 ft. 6 inches.


TENDER.

ON TWO FOUR-WHEELED TRUCKS.

  Capacity of tank                                       1800 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  On drivers                                            62,000 pounds.
  On leading wheels                                      9,000   "
                                                        ------
             Total weight of engine, about              71,000   "


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                          1500 gross tons.
     "  20 ft. grade                                   695   "    "
     "  40      "                                      445   "    "
     "  60      "                                      320   "    "
     "  80      "                                      245   "    "
     " 100      "                                      195   "    "



DIVISION III.

FREIGHT OR PUSHING ENGINES--"MOGUL" PATTERN.


CLASS 30 D.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 74.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     18 inches.
  Length of stroke                                    22 or 24 inches.


DRIVING-WHEELS.

REAR AND FRONT PAIRS WITH FLANGED TIRES 5-1/2 INCHES WIDE. MAIN PAIR
WITH PLAIN TIRES 6 INCHES WIDE.

  Diameter of drivers                                 48 to 54 inches.


TRUCK.

ONE PAIR OF LEADING WHEELS, WITH SWING BOLSTER AND RADIUS-BAR,
EQUALIZED WITH FRONT DRIVERS.

  Diameter of wheels                                        30 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                    22 ft. 5 inches.
  Rigid     " (distance between centres of rear and
               front drivers)                               15 ft.


TENDER.

ON TWO FOUR-WHEELED TRUCKS.

  Capacity of tank                                       2000 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  On drivers                                            66,000 pounds.
  On leading wheels                                     10,000   "
                                                        ------
             Total weight of engine, about              76,000   "


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                          1600 gross tons.
     "  20 ft. grade                                   740   "    "
     "  40     "                                       470   "    "
     "  60     "                                       340   "    "
     "  80     "                                       260   "    "
     " 100     "                                       205   "    "



ADDENDA.


ANTHRACITE COAL BURNERS.

For anthracite coal, a long and shallow fire-box is constructed, and
the back driving-wheels are placed at the same distance from the main
pair as the latter are from the front drivers. This reduces the rigid
wheel-base to some extent, but retains the same weight on drivers.


CURVING.

The leading wheels having a swing bolster, and the middle pair of
drivers having no flanges, the engine is guided by the truck and the
front drivers, and is found to pass short curves without difficulty.


TRACTIVE POWER.

It will be seen that in engines of this pattern nearly all the weight
of the machine is utilized for adhesion, only enough load being thrown
on the leading wheels to steady the engine on the track. The tractive
power of these engines is accordingly greater in comparison with their
total weight than that of either the eight-wheeled C or the
ten-wheeled D patterns, and they are, therefore, especially suited to
working steep grades and hauling heavy loads at low speeds.


STRAIGHT AND WAGON-TOP BOILERS.

All the engines of this Division are built with wagon-top boilers or
with straight boilers and two domes, as preferred. Where the latter
form is made, the throttle-valve is placed in the forward dome. The
wagon-top and straight boilers for the same class are so proportioned
as to give equal steam space and the same number of flues in both
forms of construction.



[Illustration: Locomotive.]

DIVISION IV.

FREIGHT OR PUSHING ENGINES.--"CONSOLIDATION" PATTERN.


CLASS 34 E.

Illustrated by Print on Page 80.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     20 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          24 inches.


DRIVING-WHEELS.

REAR AND SECOND PAIRS WITH FLANGED TIRES 5-1/2 INCHES WIDE. FRONT AND
MAIN PAIRS WITH PLAIN TIRES 6 INCHES WIDE.

  Diameter of drivers                                       48 inches.


TRUCK.

ONE PAIR OF LEADING WHEELS, WITH SWING BOLSTER AND RADIUS-BAR,
EQUALIZED WITH FRONT DRIVERS.

  Diameter of wheels                                        30 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                   21 ft. 10 inches.
  Rigid     " (distance between rear and second pair of
               drivers)                               9 ft. 10 inches.


TENDER.

ON TWO FOUR-WHEELED TRUCKS.

  Capacity of tank                                       2400 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  On drivers                                            87,000 pounds.
  On leading wheels                                      9,000   "
                                                        ------
             Total weight of engine, about              96,000   "


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                          2000 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    990   "    "
    "  40      "                                       635   "    "
    "  60      "                                       460   "    "
    "  80      "                                       355   "    "
    " 100      "                                       285   "    "



ADDENDA.


GENERAL DESIGN.

The plan of this engine admits of either straight or wagon-top boiler,
and of the use, with the proper form of grate, of either anthracite or
bituminous coal or of wood.


WHEEL-BASE.

The arrangement of the wheels is such as to permit the engine to
traverse curves with nearly as much facility as an engine of the
ordinary type with only four drivers. The leading wheels having a
swing bolster, and the front and main drivers having no flanges, the
engine is guided on the rails by the leading wheels and by the flanges
of the rear and second pairs of drivers. It is, therefore, impossible
for the wheels to bind on the rails. Engines of this class are run
around curves of 400 feet radius and less.


TRACTIVE POWER.

The distribution of the total weight of the engine gives about
twenty-two thousand pounds for each pair of drivers,--a weight no
greater than is carried on each pair of drivers of the larger sizes of
ordinary eight-wheeled C engines. The single pair of leading wheels
carries only nine thousand pounds. This arrangement renders available
for adhesion a total weight of 87,000 pounds. One of these engines on
a recent trial hauled one hundred and fifty gross tons of cars and
load up a grade of one hundred and forty-five feet with sharp curves,
and two hundred and sixty-eight gross tons of cars and load up a grade
of one hundred and sixteen feet to the mile. The pressure in the first
case was one hundred and ten pounds, and the speed six minutes to the
mile; in the second case, the pressure was one hundred and twenty
pounds, and the speed seven and one-half minutes to the mile.

These engines are especially adapted to the working of steep gradients
or where heavy loads are to be moved.



[Illustration: Locomotive.]

DIVISION V.

SWITCHING ENGINES WITH SEPARATE TENDERS.


CLASS 8 C.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 84.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                      9 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          16   "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                       36 inches.
  Distance between centres                                   6 feet.


TENDER.

ON FOUR WHEELS, 30 INCHES IN DIAMETER.

  Capacity of tank                                        750 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  Total weight of engine, about                         22,000 pounds.


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                           530 gross tons.
     "  20 ft. grade                                   245   "    "
     "  40     "                                       155   "    "
     "  60     "                                       110   "    "
     "  80     "                                        85   "    "
     " 100     "                                        70   "    "



DIVISION V.

SWITCHING ENGINES WITH SEPARATE TENDERS.


CLASS 10-1/2 C.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 84.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     11 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          16   "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                       36 inches.
  Distance between centres                                   6 feet.


TENDER.

ON FOUR WHEELS, 30 INCHES IN DIAMETER.

  Capacity of tank                                        750 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  Total weight of engine, about                         34,000 pounds.


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                           825 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    385   "    "
    "  40     "                                        250   "    "
    "  60     "                                        180   "    "
    "  80     "                                        140   "    "
    " 100     "                                        110   "    "



[Illustration: Locomotive.]

DIVISION V.

SWITCHING ENGINES WITH SEPARATE TENDERS.


CLASS 12 C.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 88.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     12 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          22   "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                       44 inches.
  Distance between centres                                   7 feet.


TENDER.

ON FOUR, SIX, OR EIGHT WHEELS, 30 INCHES IN DIAMETER.

  Capacity of tank                                900 to 1400 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  Total weight of engine, about                         38,000 pounds.


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                           925 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    435   "    "
    "  40      "                                       280   "    "
    "  60      "                                       200   "    "
    "  80      "                                       155   "    "
    " 100      "                                       125   "    "



DIVISION V.

SWITCHING ENGINES WITH SEPARATE TENDERS.


CLASS 14 C.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 88.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     14 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          22   "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                       48 inches.
  Distance between centres                                   7 feet.


TENDER.

ON FOUR, SIX, OR EIGHT WHEELS, 30 INCHES IN DIAMETER.

  Capacity of tank                                900 to 1400 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  Total weight of engine, about                         42,000 pounds.


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                          1020 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    480   "    "
    "  40      "                                       305   "    "
    "  60      "                                       225   "    "
    "  80      "                                       170   "    "
    " 100      "                                       135   "    "



DIVISION V.

SWITCHING ENGINES WITH SEPARATE TENDERS.


CLASS 18-1/2 C.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 88.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     15 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          22   "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                 48 to 54 inches.
  Distance between centres                                   7 feet.


TENDER.

ON EIGHT WHEELS, 30 INCHES IN DIAMETER.

  Capacity of tank                                       1600 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  Total weight of engine, about                         49,000 pounds.


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                          1200 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    560   "    "
    "  40      "                                       360   "    "
    "  60      "                                       260   "    "
    "  80      "                                       200   "    "
    " 100      "                                       160   "    "



DIVISION V.

SWITCHING ENGINES WITH SEPARATE TENDERS.


CLASS 19-1/2 C.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 88.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     16 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          22    "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                 48 to 54 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                      7 ft. 6 inches
  Rigid      "                                          7 ft. 6 inches


TENDER.

ON EIGHT WHEELS, 30 INCHES IN DIAMETER.

  Capacity of tank                                       1600 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  Total weight of engine, about                         56,000 pounds.


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                          1360 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    640   "    "
    "  40      "                                       410   "    "
    "  60      "                                       300   "    "
    "  80      "                                       230   "    "
    " 100      "                                       180   "    "



[Illustration: Locomotive.]

DIVISION V.

SWITCHING ENGINES WITH SEPARATE TENDERS.


CLASS 11-1/2 C

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 94.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     11 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          16   "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                       36 inches.


TRUCK.

TWO-WHEELED, WITH SWING BOLSTER AND RADIUS-BAR.

  Diameter of wheels                                        24 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                    11 ft. 3 inches.
  Rigid     "                                          4 ft. 8 inches.


TENDER.

ON FOUR WHEELS, 30 INCHES IN DIAMETER.

  Capacity of tank                                        750 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  On drivers                                            30,000 pounds.
  On truck                                               5,000   "
                                                        ------
  Total weight of engine, about                         35,000   "


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                           725 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    335   "    "
    "  40      "                                       215   "    "
    "  60      "                                       155   "    "
    "  80      "                                       120   "    "
    " 100      "                                        95   "    "



DIVISION V.

SWITCHING ENGINES WITH SEPARATE TENDERS.


CLASS 14-1/2 C.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 94.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     14 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          22   "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                       48 inches.


TRUCK.

TWO-WHEELED, WITH SWING BOLSTER AND RADIUS-BAR.

  Diameter of wheels                                        24 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                13 ft. 8-1/2 inches.
  Rigid     "                                          6 ft. 6 inches.


TENDER.

ON FOUR WHEELS, OR TWO FOUR-WHEELED TRUCKS.

  Capacity of tank                               1200 to 1600 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  On drivers                                            38,000 pounds.
  On truck                                               6,000   "
                                                        ------
             Total weight of engine, about              44,000   "


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                           865 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    400   "    "
    "  40     "                                        255   "    "
    "  60     "                                        180   "    "
    "  80     "                                        140   "    "
    " 100     "                                        110   "    "



DIVISION V.

SWITCHING ENGINES WITH SEPARATE TENDERS.


CLASS 15-1/2 C.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 94.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     15 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          22   "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                 48 to 54 inches.


TRUCK.

TWO-WHEELED, WITH SWING BOLSTER AND RADIUS-BAR.

  Diameter of wheels                                        24 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                    14 ft. 9 inches.
  Rigid     " (distance between driving-wheel centres)       7 ft.


TENDER.

ON TWO FOUR-WHEELED TRUCKS.

  Capacity of tank                                       1600 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  On drivers                                            44,000 pounds.
  On truck                                               6,000   "
                                                        ------
             Total weight of engine, about              50,000   "


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                          1060 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    495   "    "
    "  40     "                                        315   "    "
    "  60     "                                        230   "    "
    "  80     "                                        170   "    "
    " 100     "                                        135   "    "



[Illustration: Locomotive.]

DIVISION V.

SWITCHING ENGINES WITH SEPARATE TENDERS.


CLASS 21 D.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 100.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     15 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          22   "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                       44 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                     9 ft. 9 inches.
  Rigid     "                                          9 ft. 9 inches.


TENDER.

ON TWO FOUR-WHEELED TRUCKS.

  Capacity of tank                                       1600 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  Total weight of engine, about                          52,000 pounds.


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                          1260 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    590   "    "
    "  40      "                                       375   "    "
    "  60      "                                       270   "    "
    "  80      "                                       210   "    "
    " 100      "                                       165   "    "



DIVISION V.

SWITCHING ENGINES WITH SEPARATE TENDERS.


CLASS 27-1/2 D.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 100.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     16 inches.
  Length of stroke                                    22 or 24 inches.


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                 44 to 48 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                            10 feet.
  Rigid     "                                                 10   "


TENDER.

ON TWO FOUR-WHEELED TRUCKS.

  Capacity of tank                                       1600 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  Total weight of engine, about                         60,000 pounds.


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                          1460 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    685   "    "
    "  40      "                                       440   "    "
    "  60      "                                       320   "    "
    "  80      "                                       245   "    "
    " 100      "                                       200   "    "



DIVISION V.

SWITCHING ENGINES WITH SEPARATE TENDERS.


CLASS 25-1/2 D.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 100.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     17 inches.
  Length of stroke                                    22 or 24 inches.


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                       48 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                            10 feet.
  Rigid    "                                                  10  "


TENDER.

ON TWO FOUR-WHEELED TRUCKS.

  Capacity of tank                                       1800 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  Total weight of engine, about                         66,000 pounds.


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                          1600 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    755   "    "
    "  40      "                                       485   "    "
    "  60      "                                       350   "    "
    "  80      "                                       270   "    "
    " 100      "                                       215   "    "



[Illustration: Locomotive.]

DIVISION VI.

TANK SWITCHING ENGINES.


CLASS 8 C.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 106.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                      9 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          16   "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                       36 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                     6 ft. 6 inches.
  Rigid     "                                          6 ft. 6 inches.


TANK.

  Capacity                                                250 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  Total weight of engine, about                         25,000 pounds.


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO WEIGHT OF ENGINE.

  On a level                                           565 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    265   "    "
    "  40      "                                       170   "    "
    "  60      "                                       125   "    "
    "  80      "                                       100   "    "
    " 100      "                                        80   "    "



DIVISION VI.

TANK SWITCHING ENGINES.


CLASS 10-1/2 C.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 106.


CYLINDERS

  Diameter of cylinders                                     11 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          16   "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                       36 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                     6 ft. 6 inches.
  Rigid     "                                          6 ft. 6 inches.


TANK.

  Capacity                                                400 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  Total weight of engine, about                         38,000 pounds.


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO WEIGHT OF ENGINE.

  On a level                                           855 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    405   "    "
    "  40      "                                       265   "    "
    "  60      "                                       195   "    "
    "  80      "                                       150   "    "
    " 100      "                                       120   "    "



DIVISION VI.

TANK SWITCHING ENGINES.


CLASS 12 C.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 106.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     12 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          22   "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                       44 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                            7 feet.
  Rigid     "                                                 7  "


TANK.

  Capacity                                                500 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  Total weight of engine, about                         43,000 pounds.


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO WEIGHT OF ENGINE.

  On a level                                           960 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    455   "    "
    "  40      "                                       295   "    "
    "  60      "                                       215   "    "
    "  80      "                                       170   "    "
    " 100      "                                       135   "    "



DIVISION VI.

TANK SWITCHING ENGINES.


CLASS 14 C.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 106.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     14 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          22    "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                       48 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                             7 feet.
  Rigid     "                                                  7   "


TANK.

  Capacity                                                600 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  Total weight of engine, about                         49,000 pounds.


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO WEIGHT OF ENGINE.

  On a level                                          1100 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    525   "    "
    "  40      "                                       340   "    "
    "  60      "                                       250   "    "
    "  80      "                                       195   "    "
    " 100      "                                       155   "    "



DIVISION VI.

TANK SWITCHING ENGINES.


CLASS 18-1/2 C.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 106.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     15 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          22   "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                       48 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                             7 feet.
  Rigid     "                                                  7   "


TANK.

  Capacity                                                700 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  Total weight of engine, about                         56,000 pounds.


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO WEIGHT OF ENGINE.

  On a level                                          1230 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    585   "    "
    "  40      "                                       380   "    "
    "  60      "                                       280   "    "
    "  80      "                                       215   "    "
    " 100      "                                       175   "    "



[Illustration: Locomotive.]

DIVISION VI.

TANK SWITCHING ENGINES.


CLASS 11-1/2 C.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 114.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     11 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          16    "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                       36 inches.


TRUCK.

TWO-WHEELED, WITH SWING BOLSTER AND RADIUS-BAR.

  Diameter of wheels                                        24 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                    11 ft. 3 inches.
  Rigid     "                                          4 ft. 8 inches.


TANK.

  Capacity                                                400 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  On drivers                                            35,000 pounds.
  On truck                                               5,000   "
                                                        ------
             Total weight of engine, about              40,000   "


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO WEIGHT OF ENGINE.

  On a level                                           785 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    370   "     "
    "  40     "                                        240   "     "
    "  60     "                                        175   "     "
    "  80     "                                        135   "     "
    " 100     "                                        110   "     "



DIVISION VI.

TANK SWITCHING ENGINES.


CLASS 14-1/2 C.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 114.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     14 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          22   "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                       48 inches.


TRUCK.

TWO-WHEELED, WITH SWING BOLSTER AND RADIUS-BAR.

  Diameter of wheels                                        24 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                13 ft. 8-1/2 inches.
  Rigid     "                                          6 ft. 6 inches.


TANK.

  Capacity                                                600 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  On drivers                                            44,000 pounds.
  On truck                                               6,000   "
                                                        ------
    Total weight of engine, about                       50,000   "


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO WEIGHT OF ENGINE.

  On a level                                           980 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    465   "    "
    "  40      "                                       300   "    "
    "  60      "                                       220   "    "
    "  80      "                                       170   "    "
    " 100      "                                       140   "    "



DIVISION VI.

TANK SWITCHING ENGINES.


CLASS 15-1/2 C.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 114.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     15 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          22   "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                 48 to 54 inches.


TRUCK.

TWO-WHEELED, WITH SWING BOLSTER AND RADIUS-BAR.

  Diameter of wheels                                        24 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                14 ft. 7-1/2 inches.
  Rigid   "                                                  7 ft.


TANK.

  Capacity                                                700 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  On drivers                                            50,000 pounds.
  On truck                                               6,000   "
                                                        ------
             Total weight of engine, about              56,000   "


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO WEIGHT OF ENGINE.

  On a level                                          1120 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    535   "    "
    "  40      "                                       345   "    "
    "  60      "                                       255   "    "
    "  80      "                                       195   "    "
    " 100      "                                       160   "    "



[Illustration: Locomotive.]

DIVISION VI.

TANK SWITCHING ENGINES.


CLASS 21 D.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 120.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     15 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          22    "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                       44 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                     9 ft. 9 inches.
  Rigid     "                                          9 ft. 9 inches.


TANK.

  Capacity                                                750 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  Total weight of engine, about                         60,000 pounds.


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO WEIGHT OF ENGINE.

  On a level                                          1375 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    650   "    "
    "  40      "                                       420   "    "
    "  60      "                                       310   "    "
    "  80      "                                       240   "    "
    " 100      "                                       195   "    "



DIVISION VI.

TANK SWITCHING ENGINES.


CLASS 27-1/2 D.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 120.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     16 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          22   "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                 44 to 48 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                            10 feet.
  Rigid      "                                                10   "


TANK.

  Capacity                                                900 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  Total weight of engine, about                         66,000 pounds.


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO WEIGHT OF ENGINE.

  On a level                                          1470 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    700   "    "
    "  40      "                                       455   "    "
    "  60      "                                       335   "    "
    "  80      "                                       260   "    "
    " 100      "                                       210   "    "



[Illustration: Locomotive.]

DIVISION VII.

NARROW-GAUGE PASSENGER AND FREIGHT LOCOMOTIVES.


CLASS 8-1/2 C.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 124.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                      9 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          16    "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                 36 to 40 inches.


TRUCK.

TWO-WHEELED, WITH SWING BOLSTER AND RADIUS-BAR.

  Diameter of wheels                                        24 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                11 ft 11-1/2 inches.
  Rigid     "                                          6 ft. 3 inches.


TENDER.

ON FOUR OR SIX WHEELS.

  Capacity of tank                                        500 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  On drivers                                            20,000 pounds.
  On truck                                               5,000   "
                                                        ------
             Total weight of engine, about              25,000   "


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                           480 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    225   "    "
    "  40      "                                       140   "    "
    "  60      "                                       105   "    "
    "  80      "                                        75   "    "
    " 100      "                                        60   "    "

Engines of this class can be adapted to a gauge of 3 feet or upward.



DIVISION VII.

NARROW-GAUGE PASSENGER AND FREIGHT LOCOMOTIVES.


CLASS 9-1/2 C.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 124.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     10 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          16   "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                 36 to 40 inches.


TRUCK.

TWO-WHEELED-WITH SWING BOLSTER AND RADIUS-BAR.

  Diameter of wheels                                        24 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                12 ft. 4-1/2 inches.
  Rigid     "                                          6 ft. 6 inches.


TENDER.

ON FOUR OR SIX WHEELS.

  Capacity of tank                                        600 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  On drivers                                            25,000 pounds.
  On pony truck                                          5,000   "
                                                        ------
             Total weight of engine, about              30,000   "


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                           605 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    285   "    "
    "  40      "                                       175   "    "
    "  60      "                                       125   "    "
    "  80      "                                        95   "    "
    " 100      "                                        75   "    "

Engines of this class can be adapted to a gauge of 3 feet or upward.



[Illustration: Locomotive.]

DIVISION VIII.

NARROW-GAUGE FREIGHT LOCOMOTIVES.


CLASS 12 D.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 128.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     11 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          16   "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                       36 inches.


TRUCK.

TWO-WHEELED, WITH SWING BOLSTER AND RADIUS-BAR.

  Diameter of wheels                                        24 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                    14 ft. 3 inches.
  Rigid    "                                           8 ft. 7 inches.


TENDER.

ON FOUR OR SIX WHEELS.

  Capacity of tank                                        750 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  On drivers                                            31,000 pounds.
  On truck                                               4,000   "
                                                        ------
             Total weight of engine, about              35,000   "


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                           730 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    340   "    "
    "  40      "                                       220   "    "
    "  60      "                                       160   "    "
    "  80      "                                       120   "    "
    " 100      "                                       100   "    "

Engines of this class can be adapted to a gauge of 3 feet or upward.



DIVISION VIII.

NARROW-GAUGE FREIGHT LOCOMOTIVES.


CLASS 14 D.

General Design Illustrated by Print on Page 128.


CYLINDERS.

  Diameter of cylinders                                     12 inches.
  Length of stroke                                          16   "


DRIVING-WHEELS.

  Diameter of drivers                                 36 to 40 inches.


TRUCK.

TWO-WHEELED, WITH SWING BOLSTER AND RADIUS-BAR.

  Diameter of wheels                                        24 inches.


WHEEL-BASE.

  Total wheel-base                                    15 ft. 4 inches.
  Rigid    "                                           9 ft. 4 inches.


TENDER.

ON FOUR OR SIX WHEELS.

  Capacity of tank                                        900 gallons.


WEIGHT OF ENGINE IN WORKING ORDER.

  On drivers                                            36,000 pounds.
  On truck                                               4,000   "
                                                        ------
             Total weight of engine, about              40,000   "


LOAD.

IN ADDITION TO ENGINE AND TENDER.

  On a level                                           870 gross tons.
    "  20 ft. grade                                    405   "    "
    "  40      "                                       255   "    "
    "  60      "                                       185   "    "
    "  80      "                                       140   "    "
    " 100      "                                       110   "    "

Engines of this class can be adapted to a gauge of 3 feet or upward.



GENERAL SPECIFICATION.


The following general specification of an ordinary freight or
passenger locomotive is given to show principal features of
construction.


BOILER.

Of the best Pennsylvania cold-blast charcoal iron, three-eighths inch
thick, or of best homogeneous cast-steel, five-sixteenths inch thick;
all horizontal seams and junction of waist and fire-box
double-riveted. Boiler well and thoroughly stayed in all its parts,
provided with cleaning holes, etc. Extra welt-pieces riveted to inside
of side-sheets, providing double thickness of metal for studs of
expansion braces. Iron sheets three-eighths inch thick riveted with
three-fourths inch rivets, placed two inches from centre to centre.
Steel sheets five-sixteenths inch thick riveted with five-eighths inch
rivets, placed one and seven-eighths inches from centre to centre.

WAIST made straight, with two domes, steam being taken from the
forward dome; or with wagon-top and one dome.

FLUES of iron, lap-welded, with copper ferrules on fire-box ends; or
of seamless drawn copper or brass.

FIRE-BOX of best homogeneous cast-steel; side- and back-sheets
five-sixteenths inch thick; crown-sheet three-eighths inch thick;
flue-sheet one-half inch thick. Water space three inches sides and
back, four inches front. Stay bolts seven-eighths inch diameter,
screwed and riveted to sheets, and not over four and one-half inches
from centre to centre. Crown bars made of two pieces of wrought-iron
four and one-half inches by five-eighths inch, set one and one-half
inches above crown, bearing on side-sheets, placed not over four and
one-half inches from centre to centre, and secured by bolts fitted to
taper hole in crown-sheet, with head on under side of bolt, and nut on
top bearing on crown bars. Crown stayed by braces to dome and outside
shell of boiler. Fire-door opening formed by flanging and riveting
together the inner and outer sheets. Blow-off cock in back or side of
furnace operated from the footboard.

GRATES of cast-iron, plain or rocking, for wood and soft coal; and of
water tubes, for hard coal.

ASH-PAN, with double dampers, operated from the footboard, for wood
and soft coal; and with hopper with slide in bottom, for hard coal.

SMOKE-STACK of approved pattern suitable for the fuel.


CYLINDERS.

Placed horizontally; each cylinder cast in one piece with half-saddle;
right and left hand cylinders reversible and interchangeable;
accurately planed, fitted and bolted together in the most approved
manner. Oil valves to cylinders placed in cab and connected to
steam-chests by pipes running under jacket. Pipes proved to two
hundred pounds pressure.


PISTONS.

Heads and followers of cast-iron, fitted with two brass rings
babbited. Piston-rods of cold-rolled iron, fitted and keyed to pistons
and crossheads.


GUIDES.

Of steel, or iron case-hardened, fitted to guide-yoke extending
across, or secured to boiler and frames.


VALVE MOTION.

Most approved shifting link motion, graduated to cut off equally at
all points of the stroke. Links made of the best hammered iron well
case-hardened. Sliding block four and one-half inches long, with
flanges seven inches long. Rock shafts of wrought-iron. Reverse shaft
of wrought-iron, made with arms forged on.


THROTTLE-VALVE.

Balanced poppet throttle-valve of cast-iron, with double seats in
vertical arm of dry-pipe.


DRIVING-WHEELS.

CENTRES of cast-iron, with hollow spokes and rims.

TIRES of cast-steel, shrunk on wheel-centres. Flanged tires five and
one-half inches wide and two and three-eighths inches thick when
finished. Plain tires six inches wide and two and three-eighths inches
thick when finished.

AXLES of hammered iron.

WRIST-PINS of cast-steel, or iron case-hardened. SPRINGS of best
quality of cast-steel.

CONNECTING-RODS of best hammered iron, furnished with all necessary
straps, keys, and brasses, well fitted and finished. EQUALIZING BEAMS
of most approved arrangement, with steel bearings. Driving-boxes of
cast-iron with brass bearings babbited.


FRAMES.

Of hammered iron, forged solid, or with pedestals separate and bolted
and keyed to place. Pedestals cased with cast-iron gibs and wedges to
prevent wear by boxes. Braces bolted between pedestals, or welded in.


FEED WATER.

Supplied by one injector and one pump, or two brass pumps, with valves
and cages of best hard metal accurately fitted. Plunger of hollow
iron. Cock in feed-pipe regulated from footboard.


ENGINE TRUCK.

SQUARE wrought-iron frame, with centre-bearing swing bolster.

WHEELS of best spoke or plate pattern.

AXLES of best hammered iron, with inside journals.

SPRINGS of cast-steel, connected by equalizing beams.


HOUSE.

Of good pattern, substantially built of hard wood, fitted together
with joint-bolts. Roof finished to carlines in strips of ash and
walnut. Backboards with windows to raise and lower.


PILOT.

Of wood or iron.


FURNITURE.

Engine furnished with sand-box, alarm and signal bells, whistle, two
safety-valves, steam and water gauges, heater and gauge cocks,
oil-cans, etc. Also a complete set of tools, consisting of two
jack-screws, pinch-bar, monkey, packing, and flat wrenches, hammer,
chisels, etc.


FINISH.

Cylinders lagged with wood and cased with brass, or iron painted.
Heads of cast-iron polished, or of cast-brass.

Steam-chests with cast-iron tops; bodies cased with brass, or iron
painted.

Domes lagged with wood, with brass or iron casing on bodies, and
cast-iron top and bottom rings.

Boiler lagged with wood and jacketed with Russia iron secured by brass
bands polished.


GENERAL FEATURES OF CONSTRUCTION.

All principal parts of engine accurately fitted to gauges and
thoroughly interchangeable. All movable bolts and nuts and all wearing
surfaces made of steel or iron case-hardened. All wearing brasses made
of ingot copper and tin, alloyed in the proportion of seven parts of
the former to one of the latter. All bolts and threads to U. S.
standard.


TENDER.

On two four-wheeled trucks. Wheels of best plate pattern, thirty
inches in diameter. Truck frames of square wrought-iron with
equalizers between springs, or of bar-iron with wooden bolsters. Axles
of best hammered iron. Oil-tight boxes with brass bearings. Tank put
together with angle iron corners and strongly braced. Top and bottom
plates of No. 6 iron; side plates of No. 8 iron. Tender frame of wood
or iron.


PAINTING.

Engine and tender to be well painted and varnished.



[Transcriber's notes: Obvious printer's errors have been corrected,
all other inconsistencies are as in the original. The author's
spelling has been maintained.

V[] is used to mark square roots; e.g.: V[6 + 1] means the square root
of 6 + 1.]





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Illustrated Catalogue of Locomotives - Baldwin Locomotive Works" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home