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´╗┐Title: Texas Honey Plants
Author: Scholl, E. E., Sanborn, C. E.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Texas Honey Plants" ***

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               TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS.

                          BULLETIN NO. 102.

                             JANUARY 1908
                      --------------------------

                      DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY.

                       College Station, Texas.

                 [Photograph: Honey Bee on Horse-mint]

                      _Honey Bee on Horse-mint_


                         TEXAS HONEY PLANTS.


                            C. E. Sanborn,
    U. S. Cooperative Entomologist and Acting State Entomologist.

                            E. E. Scholl,
              Assistant State Entomologist and Apiarist.
                      --------------------------

                             Postoffice,
                COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS.

* * * * *

                TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
                      --------------------------

                              OFFICERS.
                      --------------------------

                           GOVERNING BOARD.
              (Board of Directors A. & M. College.)

K. K. LEGGETT, President               Abilene
T. D. ROWELL, Vice President           Jefferson
A. HAIDUSEK                            La Grange
J. M. GREEN                            Yoakum
WALTON PETEET                          Dallas
R. T. MILNER                           Austin
L. L. McINNIS                          Bryan
W. B. SEBASTIAN                        Breckenridge

                          STATION OFFICERS.

H. H. HARRINGTON                       LL. D., President of the
                                        College and Director
J. W. CARSON                           Assistant to Director and
                                        State Feed Inspector
W. G. WELBORN                          Vice Director and Agriculturist
M. FRANCIS                             Veterinarian
E. J. KYLE                             Horticulturist
JOHN C. BURNS                          Animal Husbandry
R. L. BENNETT                          Cotton Specialist
O. M. BALL                             Botanist
G. S. FRAPS                            Chemist
C. E. SANBORN                          Co-Operative Entomologist
N. C. HAMNER                           Assistant Chemist
E. C. CARLYLE                          Assistant Chemist
L. McLENNAN                            Deputy Feed Inspector
A. T. POTTS                            Deputy Feed Inspector
J. H. RODGERS                          Deputy Peed Inspector
H. E. HANNA                            Deputy Feed Inspector
C. W. CRISLER                          Chief Clerk
W. L. BOYETT                           Clerk Feed Control
F. R. Navaille                         Stenographer
A. S. Ware                             Stenographer

                         STATE SUB-STATIONS.

W. S. HOTCHKISS, Superintendent        Troupe, Smith County
S. A. WASCHKA, Superintendent          Beeville, Bee County


NOTE--The main station is located on the grounds of the
Agricultural and Mechanical College, in Brazos County. The postoffice
address is College Station, Texas. Reports and bulletins are sent free
upon application to the Director.



PREFACE.

This preliminary bulletin on Texas Honey Plants represents work of
the Department of Entomology dating through the office tenures of
Professors Mally, Newell, Sanderson and Conradi. They each have
authorized and aided in the collection of the flora and data contained
in this publication.

To Mr. Louis H. Scholl, of New Braunfels, Texas, Assistant and
Apiarist from 1902 until 1906, the Department is directly indebted for
the material contained herein, except as is otherwise designated.

Mr. Ernest Scholl, now Assistant and Apiarist, has furnished
material as shown herein. He is now working on a continuation of the
subject.

Mr. D. C. Milam, of Uvalde, formerly Foul Brood Inspector, has also
contributed, as is shown.

The main body of the work, however, has been accomplished through
the services of Mr. Louis H. Scholl, and much credit is due him, since
he has done more in this Department, and perhaps more than any other
person in helping to build up the Bee Industry of Texas. His data are
followed by this mark *



INTRODUCTION.

This publication treats of many of the Texas honey plants in a brief
technical manner. In addition, wherever possible, the common name is
used in connection with the description.

The sequence followed by Coulter in his Botany of South West Texas
is herein mainly followed. In some instances quotations from Small's
Botany of Texas were used, as is shown in the publication. The plants
are discussed by families.

Not only is the honey producing qualities of the plants mentioned,
but frequent mention is also made of the respective quality and yield
of pollen and propolis. Data are included in many instances concerning
the weather conditions and its effects upon the yield of certain
plants.

It is hoped that this will be a great help to apiarists in selecting
locations for bees, since the value of bees depends entirely on the
environment under which they may be placed. Again it may help in
selecting certain plants to be planted that might prove to be very
beneficial to an established apiary.

The geographical distribution is given in a general brief way, so
that one is less apt to be confused concerning the abundance in nature
of certain plants. In this connection it must be remembered, however,
that on account of extended cultivation in Texas, some of the common
wild plants are becoming less numerous than formerly, while cultivated
varieties are becoming more common.

Two indices are contained in this bulletin. The first contains all
the common or vernacular names, and the second contains the latin or
technical names. The latter is complete, since some plants are known
only by the technical appellation.

*****

TRIPLE-LEAFED BARBERRY. Berberis trifoliata Moric.
Barberry family. Berberideae.

"On gravelly slopes and foothills from the Gulf coast to the Limpia
mountains." (Coulter). Hunter, gravelly hills; honey yield abundant,
also pollen; fine for early brood rearing. January and February.*


PRICKLY POPPY. Argemone platyceras (Link. and Otto.)
Poppy family. Papaveraceae.

"Abundant in valleys and along dry hillsides." (Coulter). Roadsides,
waste fields and prairies. Honey yield unimportant, but abundance of
pollen during the dearth of summer. May and July.*

"This plant is abundant along the Brazos valley. Bees work heavily on
it in June, carrying heavy loads of pollen, which they store in nearly
every comb, thus making it disagreeable in the honey combs sometimes."
(E. Scholl).


POPPY. Papaver rhoeas L.
Poppy family. Papaveraceae.

Cultivated in flower gardens. Honey yield not important and plants
few. May.*


PEPPERGRASS. PEPPERWORT. Lepidium Virginicum L.
Mustard family. Cruciferae.

"In all situations, Quebec to Minnesota, Kansas, Florida, Texas and
Mexico. Naturalized in Europe." (Small). Found in all kinds of places;
honey yield not important; some pollen. June to August.*


GREGGIA. Greggia camporum Gray.
Mustard family. Cruciferae.

"Mountains of Western Texas." (Coulter). Honey yield early but not
abundant; also pollen helps early brood rearing. Hunter; waste fields
and fertile prairies. Honey yield early, but not abundant; also
pollen; helps early brood rearing. February.*


COMMON TURNIP. Brassica rapa L.
Mustard family. Cruciferae.

Cultivated and sometimes escaped; bees work on the blossoms, honey
and pollen. June and July.*


BLACK MUSTARD. Brassica nigra Koch.
Mustard family. Cruciferae.

Cultivated and escaped; bees sometimes busy on it. June and July.*


MIGNONETTE. Reseda odorata L.
Mignonette family. Resedaceae.

College: cultivated on Apiary Experimental plats. Honey yield good;
plants not plentiful enough for surplus. June and July.*


PORTULACA. Portulaca grandiflora Hook.
Purslane family. Portulaceae.

Cultivated in ornamental flower beds. Honey yield good as it comes
during time when few others in bloom; also abundance of highly colored
pollen, red, orange and yellows. June until frost.*


SALT CEDAR. Tamarix gallica L.
Tamarisc family. Tamariscineae.

"A common European Mediterranean shrub which seems to have escaped in
many places in Texas." (Coulter). "On roadsides, in thickets and waste
places; warmer parts of Southern United States, naturalized from
Southern Europe." (Small). College Station; cultivated ornamental
shrub bees worked well on it, but number of trees scarce. May and
June.*


FRINGED POPPY MALLOW. Callirrhoe digitata Nutt.
Mallow family. Malvaceae.

"Common on prairies and in valleys." (Coulter). Hunter; prairies and
lowlands. Honey yield not important; some pollen. May and June. A good
pollen yielder during May at College Station.*


SPANISH APPLE. Malvaviscus drummondii. Torr & Gray.
Mallow family. Malvaceae.

"From Rio Grande to the Colorado and Northeastward." (Coulter). In
lowlands and along streams. June and July.* Plentiful along Comal and
Guadalupe rivers, New Braunfels, Texas. Not important." (E. Scholl).


ROSE OF SHARON. SHRUBBY ALTHAEA. Hibiscus Syriacus L.
Mallow family. Malvaceae.

"In various situations New Jersey and Pennsylvania to Florida and
Texas." (Small). Cultivated ornamental, in gardens and parks; honey
yield not important and plants few, but bees work busily on it; honey
and pollen. May to Sept.*


SPRING SIDA. Sida spinosa L.
Mallow family. Malvaceae.

"In cultivated grounds, waste places on roadsides, New York to Iowa,
Florida and Texas. Widely distributed in the tropics." (Small). Waste
places, fields and along roads; some honey and pollen; not important.
June to August.*


NARROW-LEAFED SIDA. Sida angustifolia Lam.
Mallow family. Malvaceae.

"In dry soil Texas to Arizona; also in Mexico and tropical America."
(Small). In dry soils; bees found upon it; yields pollen. June to
August.*


COTTON. Gossypium herbaceum L.
Mallow family. Malvaceae.

Cultivated staple crop in the fields for fibre. Honey yield good,
steady flow till frost, honey white and of good quality. Main source
throughout cotton belt. Nectar glands on ribs of leaves and on bracts
of buds, blooms and bolls. June to frost.*


JAPANESE VARNISH TREE. Firmiana platinifolia (L.) R. Br.
Chocolate family. Buettneriaceae. HBK.

College Station: Cultivated ornamental tree on campus; honey yield
very heavy but of short duration some seasons longer. May and June.*


BASSWOOD. AMERICAN LINDEN. Tilia Americana L.
Linden family. Tiliaceae.

"A large and handsome tree of the Atlantic States, extending in
Texas to the Valley of the San Antonio River." (Coulter). On forests
of Eastern Texas, yields large quantities of excellent honey. May and
June.*


LARGE-FLOWERED CALTROP. Tribulus cistoides L.
Bean-caper family. Zygophylleae.

Hunter: in fields and waste lands; honey yield good until noon when
flowers close; also much pollen. April, August.*


GREATER CALTROP. Kallstroemia maxima (L) T. & G.
Bean-caper family. Zygophylleae.

"Tribulus maxima." (Coulter). "Common in dry soil throughout
Southern and Western Texas." (Coulter). Hunter: in fields and waste
lands. Honey yield good in morning, blossoms closing by noon except
in cool weather; good as it comes in the dearth of summer; also
abundance of pollen. April to August.*


YELLOW WOOD SORREL. Oxalis stricta L.
Geranium family. Geraniaceae.

"Eastern and Southern Texas." (Coulter). Waste soils and open
woodlands; not plentiful for bee forage. May, August.*


TOOTH-ACHE TREE. PRICKLY ASH. SEA ASH. PEPPERWOOD. Xanthoxylum
clava-Herculis L.
Rue family. Rutaceae.

"Colorado to Rio Grande." (Coulter). "Along or near the coast,
Virginia to Florida, Arkansas and Texas." (Small). Hunter: woodland
prairies; honey yield good; bees work busily on it. April, June.*


HOP TREE. Ptelea trifoliata L.
Rue family. Rutaceae.

"Throughout Southern and Western Texas." (Coulter). In woodlands and
along rivers and creeks. Honey yield good; very good in favorable
seasons where abundant. May and July.*


HARDY ORANGE. Citrus trifoliata L.
Rue family. Rutaceae.

College: planted for hedges, scarce; honey yield fair for early
brood. Bees worked on it abundantly. March.*


TREE OF HEAVEN. Ailanthus glandulosus Desf.
Quassia family. Simarubaceae.

"In waste places and along streams, more or less extensively
naturalized in the United States and Southern British America. Native
of China." (Small). Hunter: cultivated for shade and escaped. Honey
yield fair in good seasons, pollen; also nectar glands on leaf blades.
April.*


UMBRELLA CHINA TREE. Melia azedarach L.
Melia family. Meliaceae.

"A favorite shade tree and extensively naturalized in Central and
Southern Texas." (Coulter). Cultivated ornamental shade tree and
escaped. Honey yield helps early brood rearing. February, March.*


POSSUM HAW. BEAR BERRY. Ilex decidua Walt.
Holly family. Ilicineae.

"A species of Southern States and extending in Texas to the Valley
of the San Antonio." (Coulter). College; along lowlands, creeks and
streams. Honey yield good but short; in warm spring early and valuable
for early brood. March, May.*


YOUPON. Ilex Caroliniana Trelease.
Holly family. Ilicineae.

"A species of the Gulf States and extending into Texas. Limit
uncertain." (Coulter). Hunter: low woodland thickets; not important.
March, April.*


BRASIL WOOD. LOGWOOD. Condalia obovata Hook.
Buckthorn family. Rhamneae.

"From the Guadalupe to the Rio Grande and west of New Mexico."
(Coulter). Hunter: in woodlands, dry soils; honey yield not very
important but comes well in dearth of summer. July, August.* "Abundant
along Carter's Creek. Honey yield good during May." (E. Scholl).


RATTAN VINE. Berchemia scandens Trelease.
Buckthorn family. Rhamneae.

"A species of the Southern States extending into Texas where its
western limit is uncertain." (Coulter). Along ravines and low
woodlands; honey yield good, giving surplus in favorable years but
dark amber colored, used in manufacturing-houses. April.*


COLUMBRINA TEXENSIS. Gray.
Buckthorn family. Rhamneae.

"From the Colorado to the Rio Grande westward to New Mexico."
(Coulter). Floresville, slopes, adobe hills. Honey yield good but not
enough for surplus. Also some pollen. April.*


CULTIVATED WINE GRAPES. Vitis (?) (Varieties).
Vine family. Ampelidaceae.

Cultivated in orchards; good for pollen. April, May.*


MOUNTAIN GRAPE. Vitis monticola Buckley.
Vine family. Ampelidaceae.

"Peculiar to the hilly limestone regions of Western Texas, not
extending to the low country nor to the granite mountains." (Coulter.)
Hunter: in woods and forests; honey yield fairly good and pollen
valuable for brood rearing. March.*


COW ITCH. Cissus incisa Desmoul.
Vine family. Ampelidaceae.

"In shady places from the Colorado to the Rio Grande and
westward. An ornamental vine known as "Yerba del buey."
(Coulter). Hunter: along fences and edge of thickets; honey yield
keeps bees out of mischief during dearth. Surplus where
plentiful. April, to August.*


SOAPBERRY. WILD CHINA. Sapindus marginatus Willd.
Soapberry family. Sapindaceae.

"Common along creeks throughout Texas from Louisiana to New Mexico
and Mexico. Smaller west of the Colorado river." (Coulter). Along
rivers and creeks and sometimes along uplands; honey yield good, heavy
flow in favorable seasons gives surplus. June.* Evergreen shrub,
blooms in April; yields quantities of honey and pollen where enough
bushes." (Milam, Uvalde).


COMMON BALLOON VINE. Cardiospermum Halicacabum L.
Soapberry family. Sapindaceae.

"Guadalupe to Rio Grande." (Coulter). "In thickets and waste places
New Jersey, Missouri, Florida, Texas and tropical America; summer and
fall." (Small). Hunter: in creek bottoms; honey yield fair but plants
not abundant. April, July.*


MEXICAN BUCKEYE. Ungnadia speciosa Endl.
Soapberry family. Sapindaceae.

"Common along rocky valleys and in the mountains from the Valley of
the Trinity through Western Texas to New Mexico." (Coulter). Hunter:
"mountainous woodlands. Honey yield good in dearth but not plentiful.
July."


DWARF SUMACH. Rhus copallina L.
Sumach family. Anacardiaceae.

"A sumach of the Atlantic States extending through Eastern and
Southern Texas to the Rio Grande." (Coulter). Hunter: small shrubby
tree rocky hillsides and woodland prairies. Honey yield good giving
surplus in favorable seasons depending upon rains. Reported as a honey
plant in most of the beekeepers reports received. August.*


GREEN SUMACH. Rhus virens Lindh.
Sumach family. Anacardiaceae.

"From the Colorado to the Rio Grande and westward." (Coulter). In
stony, hilly woodlands. Bees are some seasons busy on it. October.*


BLUE LUPINE. BLUEBONNET. Lupinus subcarnosus Hook.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"Common lupine of Southern and Western Texas, 'covering fertile
slopes with a carpet of purple blue.' (Harvard), as early as March."
(Coulter). Hunter: places in open woodlands. Honey yield good; also
pollen of very bright and orange colors. March, April.*


ALFALFA OR LUCERNE. Medicago sativa L.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"An extensively cultivated forage plant which has long been an
introduced plant in Southern and Western Texas." (Coulter). Cultivated
for hay crops; honey yield fair; early summer and fall; better in
irrigated regions. May, August.* "Large number of bees were seen on it
at New Braunfels, Texas. June 19th, 1907. A good thing in North
Texas." (E. Scholl).


MEDICK. BURR CLOVER. Medicago denticulata Willd.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"Naturalized in Western Texas." (Coulter). College: abundant on
campus lawns. Honey yield sparingly in summer, not important. February
to May.*


SWEET CLOVER. Melilotus alba Desv.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

Distribution not definite. Cultivated and along fence rows; honey
yield good and of fine quality; scarce and should be cultivated for
honey. May to October.* "An important honey plant in North Texas." (E.
Scholl).


YELLOW SWEET CLOVER. Melilotus officinalis (L) Lam.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

Colorado along roadsides, escaped. Honey yield good; claimed to be
superior to and earlier than M. alba by beemen. Should be cultivated
on the poor soils of Texas. April to September.*


RED CLOVER. Trifolium pratense L.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

College Station: cultivated on experimental plats. Blooms in summer;
not important, not much grown and deep corollas. June.*


WHITE CLOVER. Trifolium repens L.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"May be found wild in Texas." (Coulter). Along roadsides and on
lawns. Cultivated at College, but did not grow as conditions were too
dry. Honey yield good and one of main sources in States north of
Texas. June, July.*


EYSENHARDTIA. Eysenhardtia amorphoides. H B K.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"Throughout Southern and Western Texas, South of the Colorado."
(Coulter). Hunter: on light soils and woodlands and known as "Rock
Brush" by beemen. Honey yield abundant. Blooming after heavy rains.
Honey fine quality. March, May.*


BLACK LOCUST. Robinia Pseudacacia L.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"Native from Pennsylvania to Iowa, Georgia and Indian
Territory. Also naturalized in the northeastern part of North
America." (Small). College: cultivated on campus; honey yield good if
no cold weather; bees work on it abundantly. March, April.*


CASSIA. Daubentonia longifolia (Cav.) DC.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

Low and damp places; sandy soils; bees on it frequently but
apparently of little value. July, September.*


MEXICAN GROUND-PLUM. Astragalus Mexicanus. A. DC.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"Prairies throughout Texas." (Coulter). Hunter: in open prairies
honey yield abundant when season is favorable; drouth injures
it. June.*


COW PEA. Vigna (sp.)
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

Honey yield good; fair quality, light color. Cultivated for forage
crops and for enriching soils. June, August.*


COW PEA. Vigna Sinensis (L) Endl. (Var. ?).
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

Cultivated for forage crops and for enriching soils; honey yield
good; fair quality, light color. June, August.*


JAPANESE DELCHOS. Dolichos lablab L.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

Cultivated in Apiary Experimental plats; no bees on it; other plants
in bloom. June, August.*


GARDEN PEA. Pisum sativum L.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

Hunter: cultivated widely; honey yield unimportant, some pollen; not
visited much by bees. March, April.*


RED BUD. Cercis occidentalis Torr.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"Far Western and North Mexican species extending into Western
Texas." (Coulter). Aids early brood rearing. March.*


RED BUD. JUDAS TREE. Cercis Canadensis L.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"In rich soil Ontario to Minnesota, New Jersey, Florida and Texas."
(Small). Hunter: in woodlands. Honey yield fair, aiding in early brood
rearing. March, April.*


RETAMA. Parkinsonia aculeata L.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"Throughout Southern and Western Texas." (Coulter). In sandy soils
and low swamps. Blooms spring and throughout summer; bees work on it
more or less all summer. May, Sept.*


HONEY LOCUST. Gleditschia triacanthos L.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"An Atlantic species extending at least to the Valley of the Brazos
river and common in cultivation." (Coulter). College Station: Along
ravines and valleys; very heavy honey yield but of short duration.
April.*


MEZQUIT TREE. SCREW BEAN. Prosopis juliflora DC.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"The chief woody plant of the wooded table-lands and high valleys
throughout southern and western Texas, often forming impenetrable
thickets." (Coulter) Hunter: throughout the black land prairies; honey
yield abundant, main source in State, good light honey. April, and
again in June.*


Neptunia lutea Benth.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"In Eastern and Southern Texas, extending as far up the Rio Grande
as Eagle Pass." (Coulter). College, open prairies; not plentiful, bees
rarely found on it; some pollen. May.*


SENSITIVE BRIAR. Schrankia angustata Torr. and Gray.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"Found in Texas as far as San Diego and probably in the San Antonio
region." (Coulter). Hunter: open prairies; honey yield not important;
plants scarce; pollen. April to September.*


HUISACHE. Acacia Farnesiana Willd.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"From San Antonio to the Gulf Coast and lower Rio Grande."
(Coulter). Very plentiful in richer soil of Southwest Texas; honey
yield good for stimulating early brood rearing; also pollen. February,
April.*


HUAJILLI. Acacia Berlandiera Benth.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"From the Nueces to the Rio Grande and west to Devil's River. Common
on the bluffs of the lower Rio Grande." (Coulter). On dry and rocky
hills in solid masses generally. Honey yield very heavy and main
surplus in Southwest Texas; fine quality, white; considered the best
honey in Texas in quality. April.*


PARADISE FLOWER. CATSCLAW. DEVILS CLAWS. Acacia Greggii Gray.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"In dry or rocky soil, Texas, New Mexico." (Small). Floresville: All
over Southwest Texas. Honey yield very abundant, a main yielder of
fine quality honey. April.*


ROUND-FLOWERED CATSCLAW. Acacia Roemeriana Schlecht.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"Throughout Texas south of the Colorado and west to El Paso."
(Coulter). Hunter: in brushy woodlands; honey yield is heavy, of fine
quality, but plants not abundant. April and May.*


Acacia amentacea DC.
Pulse family. Leguminosae.

"From the Guadalupe to the lower Rio Grande and west to the Pecos."
(Coulter). Very plentiful throughout Southwest Texas, on prairies.
Honey yield of no importance. Bees gather pollen from it occasionally
in early summer.*


PLUM. Prunus domestica L.
Rose family. Rosaceae.

Hunter: in orchards and escaped. Honey yield good with "fruit
bloom." Helps to build up colonies of bees. February.*


WILD PLUM. Prunus (sp.)
Rose family. Rosaceae.

College Station: planted on campus. Honey yield good but of short
duration. March.*


PEACH. Amygdalus Persica L.
Rose family. Rosaceae.

"In waste places and cultivated grounds throughout the United
States." (Small). Cultivated in orchards; honey yield good; with
"fruit bloom" builds up colonies in spring. January to April.*


BRIDAL WREATH. Spiraea Virginiana Britt.
Rose family. Rosaceae.

Cultivated ornamental shrub. Honey yield unimportant; bees sometimes
busy on it. March.*


DEW-BERRY. Rubus trivialis Michx.
Rose family. Rosaceae.

"A Southern blackberry, apparently common in Eastern, Southern and
Western Texas." (Coulter). Common wild, little cultivated; bees on it
busy; honey and pollen. February, April.*


ROSE. Rosa Tourn.
Cultivated widely; honey yield unimportant; pollen gathered from it
sometimes. Spring, summer and fall.*


APPLE. Malus malus (L) Britt.
Rose family. Rosaceae.

Cultivated in orchards; honey yield early; helps in brood rearing;
good where abundant. March, April.*


PEAR. Pyrus communis L.
Rose family. Rosaceae.

A much cultivated fruit tree, important for early honey and pollen.
February, March.*


HAWTHORN. WHITE THORN. Crataegus spathulata Michx.
Rose family. Rosaceae.

"A species of the Gulf States and extending to the lower Colorado in
Texas." (Coulter). In woodlands and creeks; good for honey and pollen.
April.*


HAWTHORN. WHITE THORN. Crataegus arborescens Ell.
Rose family. Rosaceae.

"A species of the Gulf States and extending to the lower Colorado in
Texas." (Coulter). College Station; in woodlands and creek banks;
honey yield good, bees found busily on it; also pollen. April.*


CREPE MYRTLE. Lagerstroemia Indica L.
Loose strife family. Lythraceae.

"In waste places in and near gardens; widely cultivated and
sparingly naturalized from Maryland, Florida and Texas."
(Small). Cultivated ornamental on campus; honey yield occasionally
good and visited much by bees. June, October.*


JUSSIAEA. Jussiaea repens L.
Evening Primrose family. Onagrarieae.

"In streams from the San Antonio northward and eastward." (Coulter).
In water edge of rivers and lakes. Not affected by drouth; it is
important for bees during dearth. June to September.*


JUSSIAEA. Jussiaea diffusa Forskl.
Evening Primrose family. Onagrarieae.

"In and about ponds, Kentucky to Kansas, Florida and Texas, also in
tropical America and Asia." (Small) In water edge of pasture tanks and
pools. Honey yield good; important as it is not affected by drouths
but better after rains. June, August.*


Gaura filiformis Small.
Evening Primrose family. Onagrarieae.

Sandy soils and along creeks; honey yield good; sometimes yielding
surplus in spurts when favorable season and rains prevail. June,
October.*


MUSK MELON. Cucumis Melo L.
Gourd family. Cucurbitaceae.

Hunter: cultivated. Honey yield good; abundant during dewy mornings.
Also pollen. Early summer to fall. Important in melon growing
sections, South Texas. July and September.*


CUCUMBER. Cucumis sativa.
Gourd family. Cucurbitaceae.

Cultivated; honey yield very good; short duration; pollen; but
plants not abundant. April, July.*


WATERMELON. Citrullus Citrullus (L) Small.
Gourd family. Cucurbitaceae.

Cultivated; honey yield good; abundant during dewy mornings, also
pollen; from early summer to frosts in late autumn. May to October.*
"Successful in honey plant plot at College in 1905." (E. Scholl).


WILD GOURD. Cucurbita foetidissima HBK.
Gourd family. Cucurbitaceae.

"Abundant in the valleys of Southern and Western Texas." (Coulter).
Hunter: in a variety of places. Honey yield not important; plants
scattered and few, good for pollen. April, July.*


COMMON PUMPKIN. Cucurbita pepo L.
Gourd family. Cucurbitaceae.

Cultivated: not important for honey, but much pollen. May, June.*


COMMON CACTUS OR PRICKLY PEAR. Opuntia englemannii Salm. & Dyk.
Cactus family. Cactaceae.

"Common throughout Southern and Western Texas. This seems to be
common "prickly pear" of Texas, though all the flat-jointed opuntias
bear that name. The joints are commonly spoken of as "leaves" and form
an important food for grazing of animals, under the name of "nopal."
The "nopal leaf" is also much used for poultices, etc."
(Coulter). Hunter: over entire Southwestern Texas; Honey yield
abundant; sometimes surplus; honey of rank flavor when first
stored. May, June.*


DOGWOOD. Cornus asperifolia Michx.
Dogwood family. Cornaceae.

"An Eastern species extending to Central Texas where the variety
Drummondii is the common form." (Coulter). Lowlands and along banks;
honey yield good and bees fairly roam over blossoms, but species not
plentiful. March, April.*


ELDER. Sambucus Canadensis L.
Honey suckle family. Caprifoliaceae.

"Moist grounds throughout Texas." (Coulter). Along rivers and wet
places; honey yield good but not plentiful. April, May.*


BLACK HAW. Virburnum prunifolium L.
Honey suckle family. Caprifoliaceae.

"An Atlantic species, extending westward into Texas as far as the
valley of the Guadalupe and probably the San Antonio." (Coulter).
Hunter: in woodlands and forests. Honey yield good, early, valuable
for brood rearing. March, April.*


CORAL BERRY. INDIAN CURRANT. Symphoricarpos symphorlcarpos (L) MacM.
Honey suckle family. Caprifoliaceae.

"An Atlantic species extending into Texas. Near New Braunfels.
(Lindheimer)." (Coulter). In woodlands along rivers and rocky soil.
Honey yield good and of long duration. July, September.*


BUSH HONEYSUCKLE. Lonicera fragrantissima Lindle.
Honey suckle family. Caprifoliaceae.

Shrubby vine; cultivated species on campus; honey yield extremely
early, valuable to stimulate bees if weather is favorable; also
pollen. January.*


WHITE-FLOWERED HONEYSUCKLE. Lonicera albiflora Torn. & Gray.
Honey suckle family. Caprifoliaceae.

"Abundant throughout Western Texas and especially in the mountains
west of the Pecos." (Coulter). Hunter: cultivated for ornamental
purposes. Honey yield good, but few plants. May, July.*


HOUSTONIA. Houstonia angustifolia Michx.
Madder family. Rubiaceae.

"Throughout Texas." (Coulter). College Station: on dry soils and
prairies. Bees work on it well but plants not abundant. May, July.*


BUTTON BUSH. Cephalanthus occidentalis L.
Madder family. Rubiaceae.

"Swamps and along streams throughout Texas." (Coulter). Hunter:
along rivers and creeks. Bees work on it. July.*


BUTTON WEED. Diodia teres Walt.
Madder family. Rubiaceae.

"Sandy soil, low grounds of Texas to mouth of Rio Grande."
(Coulter). Low sandy soils; honey yield good and valuable as it comes
during drouth. No surplus. July, August.*


BROOMWEED. Gutierrezia Texana T. & G.
Composite family. Compositae.

"Sterile plains throughout Texas." (Coulter). In open prairies;
honey yield good in fall for winter stores; dark amber and strong
flavor. September, October.*


GOLDENROD. Solidago sp. (?).
Composite family. Compositae.

Occurs in all parts of Texas. September. See A. B. C. 173.


Parthenium Hysterophorus L.
Composite family. Compositae.

"Throughout Eastern and Central Texas. Dr. Harvard remarks that it
is one of the commonest weeds about the streets of San Antonio."
(Coulter). Hunter: in waste places and open town lots of which it
takes possession. Honey yield good in favorable seasons when not too
dry. White pollen. April, November.*


ROMAN WORMWOOD. Ambrosia artemisiaefolia L.
Composite family. Compositae.

"A common weed of waste grounds, extremely variable." (Coulter). Dry
upland soils and waste places; probably pollen only. July, August.*


TALL RAGWEED. Ambrosia aptera DC.
Composite family. Compositae.

"Low grounds in Southern and Western Texas." (Coulter). Hunter:
along field fences and low places. Some honey but more pollen of a
resinous nature. July and August.*


GREAT RAGWEED. Ambrosia trifida L.
Composite family. Compositae.

"Moist river banks throughout Eastern and Central Texas." (Coulter).
College: in low moist creeks and along Brazos river. Honey yield not
important, but yields much pollen. July and August.*


COCKLE-BURR. CLOT BURR. Xanthium Canadense Mill.
Composite family. Compositae.

"Alluvial shores and waste ground." (Coulter). Hunter: along creeks,
in pastures and fields; not important; furnishes pollen late in the
fall. September, October.*


CONE FLOWER. NIGGER HEAD. Rudbeckia hirta L.
Composite family. Compositae.

"Dry and open ground throughout Texas." (Coulter). Waysides and
prairies; of no importance; bees gather propolis from resinous heads
sometimes. May, June.*


CONE FLOWER. NIGGER HEAD. Rudbeckia bicolor Nutt.
Composite family. Compositae.

"Pine woods or sandy soil, Eastern and Southern Texas."
(Coulter). "In woods and sandy soil, Arkansas to Alabama and Texas."
(Small). Waysides and prairies; of no importance; bees gather
propolis from resinous heads sometimes. May, June.*


COMMON SUNFLOWER. Helianthus annuus L.
Composite family. Compositae.

"Abundant in all valleys." (Coulter). Hunter: along roadsides and in
waste fields. Honey yield sometimes good in the fall but strong in
flavor. Much propolis gathered from the large composite heads of the
flower and stems and leaves of the plant. May, September.*


VIRGINIAN CROWN-BEARD. Verbesina Virginica L.
Composite family. Compositae.

"Rich dry soil from the Mississippi and Gulf States through Texas to
Mexico." (Coulter). In rich soils, lowlands and woodlands; honey yield
very abundant, depending upon seasons; fine quality of honey.
October.*


SNEEZE WEED. BITTER WEED. Helenium tenuifolium Nutt.
Composite family. Compositae.

"River bottoms, etc., extending from the Gulf and Mississippi States
to Western Texas." (Coulter). College: abundant on open woodland
prairies and plains of Eastern Texas. Honey yield good in favorable
seasons; pollen; honey golden yellow, heavy body but very bitter, as
if 50 per cent quinine and some pepper was added. June to October.*


MARIGOLD. Gaillardia pulchella Foug.
Composite family. Compositae.

"Extending from plains of Arkansas and Louisiana through Texas to
those of Arizona and Mexico." (Coulter). Hunter: waysides and
prairies. Honey yield of good quality, dark amber colored. A main
yielder of surplus. May, June.*


BLUE THISTLE. Cnicus altissimus Willd.
Composite family. Compositae.

"Borders of woods and open ground. Common in the Atlantic States and
extending into Texas." (Coulter). Hunter: scattered over open
prairies; honey yield unimportant; some pollen. July, August.* "Bees
working heavily on it in June, 1907 along Guadalupe River, New
Braunfels, Texas, where some of the pastures were literally covered
with it." (E. Scholl).


AMERICAN KNAPWEED. Centaurea Americana Nutt.
Composite family. Compositae.

"Extending from the plains of Arkansas and Louisiana through Texas
to Arizona and adjacent Mexico." (Coulter). Hunter: open prairies and
pastures. Not important. July, August.*


DANDELION. Taraxacum officinale Weber.
Composite family. Compositae.

"Common everywhere; an introduction from Europe." (Coulter). See
A. B. C. of Bee Culture. February.*


MARIGOLD. Tagetes patalus L.
Composite family. Compositae.

Cultivated in flower gardens; honey yield not important; bees only
occasionally visiting it. July.*


NARROW-LEAFED IRON WOOD. Bumelia angustifolia Nutt.
Appodilla family. Sapotaceae.

"Valley of the lower Rio Grande." (Coulter). Specimen sent from the
Nueces River. (Cotulla). June.*


MEXICAN PERSIMMON. Diospyros Texana Scheele.
Ebony family. Ebenaceae.

"Woods along streams, Matagorda Bay to the Concho River and
southward." (Coulter). "Mexicans call it "Chapote," also known as
"black persimmon." Often found on rocky mesas but thrives best in
canyons and on the edges of ravines." (Harvard). Hunter: in woodlands:
honey yield abundant, not harmed by showers on account of bell-shaped
flowers. April.*


PERSIMMON (COMMON). Diospyros Virginiana L.
Ebony family. Ebenaceae.

"A common tree of the Atlantic States. Extending Into Texas to the
valley of the Colorado." (Coulter). Throughout East Texas; honey yield
good, not long and trees not abundant. Bell-shaped blossoms are
protected in rain. April.*


CALIFORNIA PRIVET. Ligustrum vulgare L.
Olive family. Oleaceae.

"Thickets and on roadsides, Ontario to Pennsylvania and North
Carolina." (Small). Ornamental shrub cultivated for hedges, etc.,
honey yield good; flowering trees scarce, trimmed and kept down in
hedges. April, May.* "A good flow at College Station in 1906." (E.
Scholl).


SILVER BERRY. Elaeagnus argentia, Pursh.
Oleaster family. Elaeagnaceae.

College Station; cultivated ornamental on campus. Honey yield
abundant in narrowly funnel-shaped blossoms hanging downward. Nectar
runs to mouth of flower. Protected from rains. Corolla
8mm. deep. Long-tongue bees would be of advantage. October, November.*


SWEET OLIVE. Elaeagnus angustifolia L.
Oleaster family. Elaeagnaceae.

College Station: cultivated ornamental shrub on campus; honey yield
good; bees work on blossom. April.*


SILK WEED. Asclepias sp.
Milk weed family. Asclepiadeae.

Beeville; on plains and prairies. Honey yield good but pollen
attaches to bee's feet and cripples them. March.*


DENSE-FLOWERED PHACELIA. Phacelia congesta Hook.
Water-leaf family. Hydrophyllaceae.

"Throughout Texas." (Coulter). Rich places and moist woods; honey
yield sparing. April, June.*


Phacelia glabra Nutt.
Water-leaf family. Hydrophyllaceae.

"Low prairies Arkansas and East Texas." (Coulter). On prairies
Eastern Texas. March, April.*


BORAGE. Borage officinalis L.
Borage family. Boragineae.

College: cultivated; honey yield good; bees working busily on it
during June. Old stalks die down in July and large lower leaves
protect root stock during severe drouth and sprout out for bees to
work on bloom in August. June, July.*


MORNING GLORY. Ipomoea Caroliniana Pursh.
Convolvulus family. Convolvulaceae.

Most common in cultivated fields. Honey yield light, pollen. June to
November.*


NIGHT-SHADE. Solanum rostratum Dunal.
Night-shade family. Solanaceae.

"Plains throughout Texas." (Coulter). Hunter: waste lands, prairies
and roadsides. Honey very little; some pollen. May, October.*


TRUMPET CREEPER. TRUMPET FLOWER. Campsis radicans (L) Seem.
Bigonia family. Bignoniaceae.

"Moist soil, extending from Atlantic and Gulf States into Texas and
common in cultivation." (Coulter). Cultivated and along river bottoms:
honey yield of little importance; external nectar glands; pollen from
flowers. July to October.*


LARGE-FLOWERED VERBENA. Verbena urticaefolia L.
Vervain family. Verbenaceae.

"Waste or open grounds, extending from the Atlantic regions through
Texas to tropical America." (Coulter). College Station: in waste open
ground. April, August.*


BLUE VERVAIN. Verbena xutha Lehm.
Vervain family. Verbenaceae.

"Extending from Louisiana through Texas to Southern California and
Mexico." (Coulter). College: in sandy soils, honey yield sparing and
scattering throughout its season. April, August.*


SPATULATE-LEAFED FOG-FRUIT. Lippia nodiflora Michx.
Vervain family. Verbenaceae.

"Low ground extending from the Gulf States to Western Texas."
(Coulter). In moist places, rivers and creeks; honey yield very light
and of little importance. July.*


WHITE BRUSH. Lippia ligustrina Britt.
Vervain family. Verbenaceae.

"Common on rocky slopes throughout Texas." (Coulter). "Foliage eaten
by cattle, sheep and goats." (Harvard). All over Southwest Texas;
honey yield very heavy of fine quality but very short duration, only a
few days; blooms after each rain during season. May to November.*


LANTANA. Lantana Camara L.
Vervain family. Verbenaceae.

"Extending from the Gulf States through Southeastern Texas to
tropical America." (Coulter). On light soils of Southwest Texas;
unimportant; bees seldom on it. April, October.*


FRENCH MULBERRY. Callicarpa Americana L.
Vervain family. Verbenaceae.

"Rich or moist grounds, extending from Gulf States to Southern
Texas." (Coulter). Brazos bottoms, College; rich soil in woods,
abundant: honey yield only fair. May.*


ROEMER'S SAGE. Salvia Roemeriana Scheele.
Mint family. Labiatae.

"In light fertile soils, Western Texas." (Coulter). Hunter: rich
soils in forests. Unimportant as a honey plant; not abundant; deep
corollas. May, June.*


BLUE SAGE. Salvia azurea Lam.
Mint family. Labiatae.

"From Gulf States to extreme Western Texas." (Coulter). Hunter: dry
soil and waste places; corolla deep and visited much more frequently
by bumble bees than honey bees. April, October.*


CATNIP. Nepeta cataria L.
Mint family. Labiatae.

Cultivated on Apiary Experimental Plats, 1904; only a few plants
grew and bloomed. A few bees visited it. Soon died. July.*


WILD BERGAMONT. Monarda fistulosa L.
Mint family. Labiatae.

"Dry soil throughout Texas, etc." (Coulter). College: along banks of
ravines. Honey yield good but plants not abundant. May, July.*


HORSE-MINT. Monarda clinopodioides Gray.
Mint family. Labiatae.

"Eastern and Southern Texas." (Coulter). Prairies and waste land;
honey yield abundant; one of the main yielders; honey compared to
bass-wood in flavor. May, June.*


HORSE-MINT. Monarda punctata L. (See frontis-piece).
Mint family. Labiatae.

"Sandy ground extending from the Atlantic regions to Southern and
Western Texas." (Coulter). In open prairies and waste land; honey
yield abundant; one of the main crop yielders; honey compared with
basswood. May, July.* "A good yielder in Brazos bottoms. College
Station, Texas, in 1907, June." (E. Scholl).


DRUMMOND'S SKULL-CAP. Scutellaria drummondii Benth.
Mint family. Labiatae.

"Common throughout Texas in damp rich soil." (Coulter). "On
prairies, Kansas to Texas." (Small). Hunter: waste places in fields
and prairies. Honey yield abundant in spring; much visited by
bees. April, May.*


COMMON HOARHOUND. Marrubium vulgare L.
Mint family. Labiatae.

"A common escape in waste or open ground." (Coulter). Hunter: most
all parts of the South; fertile places; fence corners and pens; honey
yield abundant; steady flow; dark amber colored. Claimed bitter by
some. February, July.*


COLEUS. Coleus blumei Benth.
Mint family. Labiatae.

College; ornament for borders, etc. Honey yield of no
importance. Bees gather pollen from it only occasionally. July.*


COMMON PIGWEED. Amaranthus retroflexus L.
Amaranth family. Amaranthaceae.

"Throughout Texas." (Coulter). Waste lands and fields; honey yield
of no importance; some pollen. July, September.*


THORNY AMARANTH. Amaranthus spinosus L.
Amaranth family. Amaranthaceae.

"From Tom Green County to Laredo." (Coulter). Annual weedy herbs. In
waste places and cultivated soils presumably pollen only; not
important. August.*


MADEIRA VINE. Anredera scandens (L). Moq.
Goosefoot family. Chenopodiaceae.

"From the upper Pecos to the lower Rio Grande, (Ringgold)."
(Coulter). Hunter. Texas; cultivated for shade on verandas; honey
yield fair, bees work on it industriously, but the plants are
scarce. May, September.*


JAPANESE BUCKWHEAT. Fagopyrum fagopyrum (L) Karst.
Buckwheat family. Polygonaceae.

Cultivated in fields in a small way; honey yield good on favorable
moist mornings, not in dry weather. Honey very dark and strong in
flavor; not important for bees in Texas. June, July.* "A good yielder
to bridge over from early spring flower to cotton bloom at College
Station, Texas." (E. Scholl).


AMERICAN MISTLETOE. Phoradendron flavescens Nutt.
Mistletoe family. Loranthaceae.

"From Eagle Pass to Central Texas. Reported on Ulmus, Prosopis,
Quercus, etc." (Coulter). Honey yield abundant and also pollen, very
valuable for early brood rearing. The first source for bees in the
season. December, January.* "Blooms in January and February if weather
is not too cold, yields pollen and honey." (Milam, D. C, Uvalde,
Texas).


SPURGE. Euphorbia marginata Pursh.
Spurge family. Euphorbiaceae.

"Throughout the valleys of the Pecos and Rio Grande."
(Coulter). Along valleys and lowlands; honey yield of no
importance. June, October.*


SONORA CROTON. Croton Sonorae Torr.
Spurge family. Euphorbiaceae.

"On rocky bluffs of the upper Llano." (Coulter). Hunter: open places
in woodland bluffs; honey yield only light, but comes in dearth and
good if rains; pollen. July, August.*


CROTON CAPITATUS MICHX.
Spurge family. Euphorbiaceae.

"From the Pecos to Southern and Central Texas." (Coulter). Roadsides
and prairies; unimportant; some pollen when no other bloom. July,
September.* "Plenty of pollen at College Station in August, 1907." (E.
Scholl).


TEXAS CROTON. Croton Texensis Muell.
Spurge family. Euphorbiaceae.

"From the staked plains to Corpus Christi." (Coulter). Hunter:
roadsides and fields; honey yield very light, not important. June,
August.*


ONE-SEEDED CROTON. Croton monanthogynus Michx.
Spurge family. Euphorbiaceae.

"Central and Southern Texas." (Coulter). Hunter: open prairies and
pastures; honey yield fair, but unimportant. May, June.


CASTOR-OIL PLANT. Ricinus communis L.
Spurge family. Euphorbiaceae.

"Cultivated extensively for ornament and sparingly escaped in
Missouri and southwestward to Central Mexico." (Coulter). Planted for
ornamental purposes; honey yield good in favorable seasons; pollen;
has glands at base of leaves. March, April.*


AMERICAN OR WHITE ELM. Ulmus Americana L.
Nettle family. Urticaceae.

"Extending westward to the streams of Southern and Central Texas."
(Coulter). College: along moist creeks and streams; honey yield good
but not very plentiful. August.*


WINGED ELM or WAHOO. Ulmus alata Michx.
Nettle family. Urticaceae.

"On streams extending to the valley of the Trinity." (Coulter). Tree
with corky winged branches, along streams and low soils in woods;
honey yield good sometimes giving surplus; much pollen; honey of amber
color and strong characteristic aroma. August, September.*


GRANJENO. Celtis pallida Torr.
Nettle family. Urticaceae.

"Very common on all mesas and foot-hills of Western and Southern
Texas." (Coulter). Beekeepers value it as an important plant in
Southwest Texas. March, April.*


HACKBERRY. Celtis Mississippiensis Bosc.
Nettle family. Urticaceae.

"Extending to Central Texas." (Coulter). In woodlands; much planted
for shade; honey yield fair, valuable for pollen in the spring. March,
April.*


HACKBERRY. Celtis occidentalis L.
Nettle family. Urticaceae.

"Very common in the valleys of Western and Southwestern Texas, 'Palo
Blanco'" (Coulter). In woods and valleys, planted for shade; honey
yield fair, much pollen, valuable for early brood rearing. March,
April.*


OSAGE ORANGE. Toxylon pomiferum Raf.
Nettle family. Urticaceae.

"Near waters from Eastern to Central and Southern Texas. Extensively
used for hedges." (Coulter). Planted for hedges and timber; honey
yield not important on account of scarcity of trees. April.*


PECAN-NUT. Hicoria Pecan (Marsh) Britt.
Walnut family. Juglandeae.

"Extending from the Mississippi States to the streams of Central and
Southwestern Texas as far west as Fort Concho." (Coulter). Along
rivers and creeks; honey yield where plentiful; valuable for brood
rearing on account of its pollen. March.*


MOCKERNUT. WHITEHEART HICKORY. Hicoria alba (L) Britt.
Walnut family. Juglandeae.

"Extending to the Valley of the Brazos." (Coulter). College Station,
Brazos River. Abundant in the sandy valley land; some honey and
pollen. March.*


BLACK WALNUT. Juglans nigra L.
Walnut family. Juglandeae.

"Extending from the east to the valley of the Colorado and San
Antonio." (Coulter). In forests, along creeks and rivers; some honey,
more pollen; good to stimulate bees. March.*


POST OAK. Quercus minor (Marsh) Sarg.
Oak family. Cupuliferae.

"Sandy or sterile soils, extending from the Atlantic States to
Central Texas." (Coulter). In sandy land sections of the country;
honey yield inferior but with large amount of pollen; good for early
brood rearing. March, April.*


LIVE OAK. Quercus Virginiana Mill.
Oak family. Cupuliferae.

"Common along water courses extending from the Gulf States through
Southern and Western Texas to the mountains of New Mexico." (Coulter).
Hunter: in forests, honey yield good, poor in quality, dark; valuable
for early brood rearing; much pollen. March.*


RED OAK. Quercus rubra L.
Oak family. Cupuliferae.

"Extending to the valleys of the Colorado and San Antonio. Not
abundant and timber poor." (Coulter). Along creeks and low-lands;
scarce; pollen. March, April.*


SWAMP, SPANISH, or PIN OAK. Quercus palustris Du Roi.
Oak family. Cupuliferae.

"Low grounds extending to the valley of the Colorado." (Coulter).
Forests; good honey yield and also pollen; valuable for brood rearing,
March, April.*


WATER OAK. Quercus aquatica Walt.
Oak family. Cupuliferae.

"Wet grounds extending from the South Atlantic States to the valley
of the Colorado." (Coulter). College: along creeks and streams; scarce
and scattering; pollen. March.*


BLACK JACK or BARREN OAK. Quercus nigra L.
Oak family. Cupuliferae.

"Extending to the valleys of the Colorado and Nueces." (Coulter). In
post oak woods in sandy sections of the country; early pollen. March,
April.*


BLACK WILLOW. Salix nigra Marsh.
Willow family. Salicineae.

"On banks bending over the water of most streams of Western Texas."
(Coulter). Along rivers and creeks; honey yield good and valuable for
brood rearing, and for abundance of pollen. February to April.*


COTTONWOOD. NECKLACE POPLAR. Populus monilifera Ait.
Willow family. Salicineae.

"Extending into the mountains of Western Texas." (Coulter). Lowlands
and along streams; some honey but more pollen; valuable for early
brood rearing. March.*


GREEN BRIAR. CAT BRIAR. Smilax bona-nox L.
Lily family. Liliaceae.

"Abundant along the Rio Grande and Pecos." (Coulter). "In thickets
Massachusetts to Florida and Texas. Stretch berry." (Small). In
thickets; honey yield fair; bees work on it well, but of short
duration. April.*


ASPARAGUS. Asparagus officinalis Linn.
Lily family. Liliaceae.

"In waste places and salt marshes. New Brunswick to Georgia and
Louisiana. Naturalized from Europe." (Small). Cultivated for its young
shoots for food; honey yield of no importance, but good for pollen.
March, April.*


VIRGINIAN SPIDERWORT. Commelina Virginica L.
Spiderwort family. Commelinaceae.

"Moist thickets and borders of rivers southern and southwestern
Texas." (Coulter). Hunter: moist fence corners and open woods; honey
yield unimportant, valuable for pollen. April, May.*


SPIDERWORT. Tradescantia gigantea Rose.
Spiderwort family. Commelinaceae.

"On plains or prairies, Texas." (Small). New Braunfels; in and about
hedges of woodlands; honey yield unimportant but good for early
pollen. March, May.*


SORGHUM. Sorghum vulgare Pers.
Grass family. Gramineae.

Hunter: cultivated for hay crops, etc., valuable for abundant yield
of pollen; some honey. June, August.*


INDIAN CORN. Zea mays L.
Grass family. Gramineae.

"Cultivated in fields for grain; honey yield not positively known;
valuable for its pollen in abundance. May, June.*



INDEX

Latin or Technical Names.

Acacia amentacea
Acacia Berlandiera
Acacia Farnesiana
Acacia Greggii
Acacia Roemeriana
Ailanthus glandulosus
Amaranthaceae
Amaranthus retroflexus
Amaranthus spinosus
Ambrosia aptera
Ambrosia artemisiaefolia
Ambrosia trifida
Ampelidaceae
Amygdalus Persica
Anacardiaceae
Anredera scandens
Argemone platyceras
Asclepiadeae
Asclepias sp
Asparagus officinalis
Astragalus Mexicanus
Berberideae
Berberis trifoliata
Bignoniaceae
Berchemia scandens
Borage officinalis
Boragineae
Brassica nigra
Brassica rapa
Bumelia angustifolia
Callicarpa Americana
Callirrhoe digitata
Cactaceae
Campsis radicans
Caprifoliaceae
Cardiospermum Halicacabum
Celtis pallida
Celtis occidentalis
Celtis Mississippiensis
Centaurea Americana
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Cercis Canadensis
Cercis occidentalis
Chenopodiaceae
Cissus incisa
Citrullus Citrullus
Citrus trifoliata
Cnicus altissimus
Coleus blumei
Columbrina Texensis
Commelinaceae
Commelina Virginica
Compositae
Condalia obovata
Convolvulaceae
Cornaceae
Cornus asperifolia
Crataegus arborescens
Crataegus spathulata
Croton Capitatus
Croton monanthogynus
Croton Sonorae
Croton Texensis
Cruciferae
Cucumis Melo
Cucumis sativa
Cucurbitaceae
Cucurbita foetidissima
Cucurbita pepo
Cupuliferae
Daubentonia longifolia
Diodia teres
Diospyros Texana
Diospyros Virginiana
Dolichos lablab
Ebenaceae
Elaeagnaceae
Elaeagnus angustifolia
Elaeagnus argentia
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbia marginata
Eysenhardtia amorphoides
Firmiana platinifolia
Fagopyrum fagopyrum
Gaillardia pulchella
Gaura filiformis
Geraniaceae
Gleditschia triacanthos
Gossypium herbaceum
Gramineae
Greggia camporum
Gutierrezia Texana
Helenium tenuifolium
Helianthus annuus
Hibiscus syriacus
Hicoria alba
Hicoria Pecan
Houstonia angustifolia
Hydrophyllaceae
Ilex Caroliniana
Ilex decidua
Ilicineae
Ipomoea Caroliniana
Juglandeae
Juglans nigra
Jussiaea diffusa
Jussiaea repens
Kallstroemia maxima
Labiatae
Lagerstroemia Indica
Lantana Camara
Leguminosae
Lepidium virginicum
Ligustrum vulgare
Liliaceae
Lippia ligustrina
Lippia nodiflora
Lonicera albiflora
Lonicera fragrantissima
Loranthaceae
Lupinus subcarnosus
Lythraceae
Malus malus
Malvaceae
Malvaviscus drummondii
Marrubium vulgare
Medicago denticulata
Medicago sativa
Meliaceae
Melia azedarach
Melilotus alba
Melilotus officinalis
Monarda clinopodioides
Monarda fistulosa
Monarda punctata
Nepeta cataria
Neptunia lutea
Oleaceae
Onagrarieae
Opuntia englemannii
Oxalis stricta
Papaveraceae
Papaver rhoeas
Parkinsonia aculeata
Parthenium Hysterophorus
Phacelia congesta
Phacelia glabra
Phoradendron flavescens
Pisum sativum
Polygonaceae
Populus monilifera
Portulaceae
Portulaca grandiflora
Prosopis juliflora
Prunus (sp.)
Prunus domestica
Ptelea trifoliata
Pyrus communis
Quercus aquatica
Quercus minor
Quercus nigra
Quercus palustris
Quercus rubra
Quercus Virginiana
Reseda odorata
Resedaceae
Rhamneae
Rhus copallina
Rhus virens
Ricinus communis
Robinia Pseudacacia
Rosa
Rosaceae
Rudbeckia bicolor
Rudbeckia hirta
Rubiaceae
Rubus trivialis
Rutaceae
Salicineae
Salix nigra
Salvia azurea
Salvia Roemeriana
Sambucus Canadensis
Sapindaceae
Sapindus marginatus
Sapotaceae
Schrankia angustata
Scutellaria drummondii
Sida spinosa
Sida angustifolia
Simarubaceae
Smilax bona-nox
Solanaceae
Solanum rostratum
Solidago sp. (?)
Sorghum vulgare
Spiraea Virginiana
Symphoricarpos symphorlcarpos
Tagetes patalus
Tamariscineae
Tamarix gallica
Taraxacum officinale
Tilia Americana
Tiliaceae
Toxylon pomiferum
Tradescantia gigantea
Tribulus cistoides
Trifolium pratense
Trifolium repens
Ulmus Americana
Ulmus alata
Ungnadia speciosa
Urticaceae
Verbenaceae
Verbena urticaefolia
Verbena xutha
Verbesina Virginica
Vigna sinensis (Var. ?)
Vigna (sp).
Virburnum prunifolium
Vitis monticola
Vitis (?) (Varieties)
Xanthium Canadense
Xanthoxylum clava-Herculis
Zea mays
Zygophylleae



INDEX

Vernacular or Common Names.

Alfalfa or Lucerne
Amaranth family
American Knapweed
American mistletoe
American or White elm
Apple
Appodilla family
Asparagus
Barberry family
Basswood. American linden
Bean-caper family
Bigonia family
Black haw
Black jack or Barren oak
Black locust
Black walnut
Black willow
Blue lupine. Bluebonnet
Blue sage
Blue thistle
Blue vervain
Borage
Borage family
Brasil wood
Bridal wreath
Broomweed
Buckthorn family
Buckwheat family
Bush honeysuckle
Button bush
Button weed
Cactus family
California privet
Cassia
Castor-oil plant
Catnip
Catsclaw
Cockle-burr. Clot-burr
Coleus
Common Balloon Vine
Common cactus or Prickly pear
Common hoarhound
Common pigweed
Common pumpkin
Common Sunflower
Common turnip
Composite family
Cone flower. Nigger Head
Convolvulus family
Coral berry. Indian currant
Cotton
Cottonwood. Necklace poplar
Cow itch
Crepe myrtle
Cucumber
Cultivated wine grapes
Cow pea
Dandelion
Dense-flowered phacelia
Devils claws
Dew-berry
Dogwood family
Drummond's skull-cap
Dwarf sumach
Ebony family
Elder
Evening primrose family
Eysenhardtia
French mulberry
Fringed poppy mallow
Garden pea
Geranium family
Goldenrod
Goosefoot family
Gourd family
Grass family
Granjeno
Greater caltrop
Great ragweed
Green briar. Cat briar
Green sumach
Greggia
Hardy orange
Hackberry
Hawthorn. White thorn
Holly family
Honey locust
Honey suckle family
Hop tree
Horse-mint
Houstonia
Huajilla
Huisache
Indian corn
Japanese buckwheat
Japanese delchos
Japanese varnish tree
Jussiaea
Lantana
Large-flowered caltrop
Large-flowered verbena
Lily family
Linden family
Live oak
Loose strife family
Madder family
Madeira vine
Mallow family
Marigold
Medick. Burr clover
Melia family
Mezquit tree. Screw bean
Mexican buckeye
Mexican ground plum
Mexican persimmon
Mignonette
Mignonette family
Milk weed family
Mint family
Mistletoe family
Mockernut. Whiteheart Hickory
Morning glory
Mountain grape
Musk melon
Mustard family
Narrow-leafed iron wood
Narrow-leafed sida
Nettle family
Night-shade
Night-shade family
Oak family
Oleaster family
Olive family
One-seeded croton
Osage orange
Paradise flower
Peach
Pear
Pecan-nut
Persimmon (common)
Peppergrass. Pepperwort
Plum
Poppy family
Portulaca
Possum haw. Bear berry
Post oak
Prickly poppy
Pulse family
Purslane family
Quassia family
Rattan vine
Red bud
Red bud. Judas tree
Red clover
Red oak
Retama
Roemer's sage
Roman wormwood
Rose
Rose family
Rose of sharon. Shrubby althaea
Round-flowered catsclaw
Rue family
Salt cedar
Sensitive briar
Silk weed
Silver berry
Sneeze weed. Bitter weed
Soapberry. Wild china
Soapberry family
Sonora croton
Sorgum
Spanish apple
Spatulate-leafed fog-fruit
Spiderwort family
Spring sida
Spurge
Spurge family
Sumach family
Swamp, Spanish, or Pin oak
Sweet clover
Sweet olive
Tall ragweed
Tamarisc family
Texas croton
Thorny amaranth
Tooth-ache tree. Prickly ash. Sea ash. Pepperwood
Tree of heaven
Triple-leafed barberry
Trumpet creeper. Trumpet flower
Umbrella china tree
Vervain family
Vine family
Virginian crown-beard
Virginian spiderwort
Walnut family
Water-leaf family
Watermelon
Water oak
White brush
White clover
White-flowered honey suckle
Willow family
Wild bergamont
Wild gourd
Wild plum
Winged elm or Wahoo
Yellow Wood sorrel
Yellow sweet clover
Youpon

----------------------------------------------------------------------

[Transcriber's note:

Electronic version produced by Frank Zago - April 2nd, 2012.

Notes about this edition: only the obvious typos were fixed; and
several missing opening or closing quotes were added. Otherwise no
other change was made.

The original book used is freely available from Texas A&M University
at: http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/3440]





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