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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 13, Slice 1 - "Harmony" to "Heanor"
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 13, Slice 1 - "Harmony" to "Heanor"" ***

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
      letters.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE HARMONY: "So strong is the identity of the tonic in major
      and minor mode that Haydn and Mozart had no scruple in annexing,
      with certain reservations, the key-relationships of either as an
      addition to those of the other." 'identity' amended from
      'indentity'.

    ARTICLE HARMOTOME: "... Andreasberg in the Harz. Morvenite (from
      Morven in Argyllshire) is the name given to small transparent
      crystals formerly referred to as phillipsite." 'as' added.

    ARTICLE HART, ERNEST ABRAHAM: "The record of his public work covers
      nearly the whole field of sanitary legislation during the last
      thirty years of his life." 'thirty' amended from 'thrity'.

    ARTICLE HART, SIR ROBERT: "In the following year he received an
      appointment as student-interpreter in the China consular service,
      ..." 'appointment' amended from 'appointemnt'.

    ARTICLE HARVEY, WILLIAM: "'I found him,' he says, 'with a cheerful
      and sprightly countenance investigating, like Democritus, the
      nature of things. Asking if all were well with him ..." 'cheerful'
      amended from 'cheeerful'.

    ARTICLE HATHRAS: "Hathras is connected by a light railway with
      Muttra, and by a branch with Hathras junction, on the East Indian
      main line." 'Indian' amended from 'Indain'.

    ARTICLE HATTON, JOHN LIPTROT: "He seems to have kept this
      appointment for about five years. In 1856 a cantata, ..."
      'appointment' amended from 'apppointment'.

    ARTICLE HATTON, JOHN LIPTROT: "In 1875 he went to Stuttgart, and
      wrote an oratorio, Hezekiah, given at the Crystal Palace in 1877;
      like all his larger works it met with very moderate success."
      'Crystal' amended from 'Cyrstal'.

    ARTICLE HAURÉAU, (JEAN) BARTHÉLEMY: "... whose works, being often
      anonymous, raise many problems of attribution, and, though
      deficient in originality of thought and style, ..." 'originality'
      amended from 'orginality'.

    ARTICLE HAUSER, KASPAR: "... and Earl Stanhope also took part in
      the discussion by publishing Materialien zur Geschichte K. Hausers
      (Heidelberg, 1836)." 'Materialien' amended from 'Materialen'.

    ARTICLE HAVANA: "English squadrons threatened the city several
      times in the first half of the 18th century, but it was not until
      1762 that an investment, ..." 'that' amended from 'than'.

    ARTICLE HAVELOCK, SIR HENRY: "In 1854 he became
      quartermaster-general, then full colonel, and lastly
      adjutant-general of the troops in India." 'adjutant' amended from
      'ajdutant'.

    ARTICLE HAWAII: "He made John Young (c. 1775-1835) and Isaac Davis,
      Americans from one of the ships of Captain Metcalf which visited
      the island in 1789, ..." 'Davis' amended from 'Dayis'.

    ARTICLE HAWKE, EDWARD HAWKE: "There is a story that he was
      dismissed from the service for having left the line to engage the
      'Poder,' and was restored by the king's order." added 'from'.

    ARTICLE HAWKSHAW, SIR JOHN: "... but many years previously he had
      investigated for himself the question of a tunnel under the Strait
      of Dover from an engineering point of view, and had come to a
      belief in its feasibility, ..." 'himself' amended from 'himsself'.



  THE

  ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

  ELEVENTH EDITION



  FIRST  edition, published in three    volumes, 1768-1771.
  SECOND    "        "        ten          "     1777-1784.
  THIRD     "        "        eighteen     "     1788-1797.
  FOURTH    "        "        twenty       "     1801-1810.
  FIFTH     "        "        twenty       "     1815-1817.
  SIXTH     "        "        twenty       "     1823-1824.
  SEVENTH   "        "        twenty-one   "     1830-1842.
  EIGHTH    "        "        twenty-two   "     1853-1860.
  NINTH     "        "        twenty-five  "     1875-1889.
  TENTH     "   ninth edition and eleven
                  supplementary volumes,         1902-1903.
  ELEVENTH  "  published in twenty-nine volumes, 1910-1911.


  COPYRIGHT

  in all countries subscribing to the Bern Convention

  by

  THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS
  of the
  UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE


  _All rights reserved_



  THE

  ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF
  ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL INFORMATION

  ELEVENTH EDITION

  VOLUME XIII
  HARMONY to HURSTMONCEAUX

  New York

  Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  342 Madison Avenue


  Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910,
  by
  The Encyclopædia Britannica Company.


     VOLUME XIII, SLICE I

      Harmony to Heanor



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:

  HARMONY                           HATHERLEY, WILLIAM PAGE WOOD
  HARMOTOME                         HATHERTON, EDWARD JOHN LITTLETON
  HARMS, CLAUS                      HATHRAS
  HARNACK, ADOLF                    HATTIESBURG
  HARNESS                           HATTINGEN
  HARO, CLAMEUR DE                  HATTO I.
  HAROLD I.                         HATTON, SIR CHRISTOPHER
  HAROLD II.                        HATTON, JOHN LIPTROT
  HARP                              HAUCH, JOHANNES CARSTEN
  HARPENDEN                         HAUER, FRANZ
  HARPER'S FERRY                    HAUFF, WILHELM
  HARPIES                           HAUG, MARTIN
  HARPIGNIES, HENRI                 HAUGE, HANS NIELSEN
  HARP-LUTE                         HAUGESUND
  HARPOCRATES                       HAUGHTON, SAMUEL
  HARPOCRATION, VALERIUS            HAUGHTON, WILLIAM
  HARPOON                           HAUGWITZ, CHRISTIAN HEINRICH KURT
  HARPSICHORD                       HAUNTINGS
  HARPY                             HAUPT, MORITZ
  HARRAN                            HAUPTMANN, GERHART
  HARRAR                            HAUPTMANN, MORITZ
  HARRATIN                          HAURÉAU, (JEAN) BARTHÉLEMY
  HARRIER                           HAUSA
  HARRIGAN, EDWARD                  HAUSER, KASPAR
  HARRIMAN, EDWARD HENRY            HAUSMANN, JOHANN FRIEDRICH LUDWIG
  HARRIMAN                          HAUSRATH, ADOLPH
  HARRINGTON, EARLS OF              HÄUSSER, LUDWIG
  HARRINGTON, JAMES                 HAUSSMANN, GEORGES EUGÈNE
  HARRIOT, THOMAS                   HAUSSONVILLE, JOSEPH  DE CLÉRON
  HARRIS, GEORGE                    HAUTE-GARONNE
  HARRIS, JAMES                     HAUTE-LOIRE
  HARRIS, JOEL CHANDLER             HAUTE-MARNE
  HARRIS, JOHN                      HAUTERIVE, ALEXANDRE DE LANAUTTE
  HARRIS, THOMAS LAKE               HAUTES ALPES
  HARRIS, SIR WILLIAM SNOW          HAUTE-SAÔNE
  HARRIS, WILLIAM TORREY            HAUTE-SAVOIE
  HARRISBURG                        HAUTES-PYRÉNÉES
  HARRISMITH                        HAUTE-VIENNE
  HARRISON, BENJAMIN                HAUT-RHIN
  HARRISON, FREDERIC                HAÜY, RENÉ JUST
  HARRISON, JOHN                    HAVANA
  HARRISON, THOMAS                  HAVANT
  HARRISON, THOMAS ALEXANDER        HAVEL
  HARRISON, WILLIAM                 HAVELBERG
  HARRISON, WILLIAM HENRY           HAVELOCK, SIR HENRY
  HARRISON (New Jersey, U.S.A.)     HAVELOK THE DANE
  HARRODSBURG                       HAVERFORDWEST
  HARROGATE                         HAVERGAL, FRANCES RIDLEY
  HARROW                            HAVERHILL (England)
  HARROWBY, DUDLEY RYDER            HAVERHILL (Massachusetts, U.S.A.)
  HARROWING OF HELL                 HAVERSACK
  HARROW-ON-THE-HILL                HAVERSTRAW
  HARRY THE MINSTREL                HAVET, EUGÈNE AUGUSTE ERNEST
  HARSDÖRFFER, GEORG PHILIPP        HAVET, JULIEN
  HARSHA                            HAVRE, LE
  HARSNETT, SAMUEL                  HAWAII
  HART, ALBERT BUSHNELL             HAWARDEN
  HART, CHARLES                     HAWAWIR
  HART, ERNEST ABRAHAM              HAWEIS, HUGH REGINALD
  HART, SIR ROBERT                  HAWES, STEPHEN
  HART, WILLIAM                     HAWES, WILLIAM
  HARTE, FRANCIS BRET               HAWFINCH
  HARTEBEEST                        HAWICK
  HARTFORD                          HAWK
  HARTFORD CITY                     HAWKE, EDWARD HAWKE
  HARTIG, GEORG LUDWIG              HAWKER, ROBERT STEPHEN
  HARTLEPOOL                        HAWKERS and PEDLARS
  HARTLEY, SIR CHARLES AUGUSTUS     HAWKESWORTH, JOHN
  HARTLEY, DAVID                    HAWKHURST
  HARTLEY, JONATHAN SCOTT           HAWKINS, CAESAR HENRY
  HARTLIB, SAMUEL                   HAWKINS, SIR JOHN (British admiral)
  HARTMANN, KARL ROBERT EDUARD VON  HAWKINS, SIR JOHN (British writer)
  HARTMANN, MORITZ                  HAWKINS, SIR RICHARD
  HARTMANN VON AUE                  HAWKS, FRANCIS LISTER
  HARTSHORN, SPIRITS OF             HAWKSHAW, SIR JOHN
  HARTZENBUSCH, JUAN EUGENIO        HAWKSLEY, THOMAS
  HARUN AL-RASHID                   HAWKSMOOR, NICHOLAS
  HARUSPICES                        HAWKWOOD, SIR JOHN
  HARVARD UNIVERSITY                HAWLEY, HENRY
  HARVEST                           HAWLEY, JOSEPH ROSWELL
  HARVEST-BUG                       HAWORTH
  HARVESTER                         HAWSER
  HARVEY, GABRIEL                   HAWTHORN (Australian city)
  HARVEY, SIR GEORGE                HAWTHORN (genus of shrubs)
  HARVEY, WILLIAM                   HAWTHORNE, NATHANIEL
  HARVEY (Illinois, U.S.A.)         HAWTREY, CHARLES HENRY
  HARWICH                           HAWTREY, EDWARD CRAVEN
  HARZBURG                          HAXO, FRANÇOIS NICOLAS BENOÎT
  HARZ MOUNTAINS                    HAXTHAUSEN, AUGUST FRANZ LUDWIG MARIA
  HASA, EL                          HAY, GEORGE
  HASAN and HOSAIN                  HAY, GILBERT
  HASAN UL-BASRI                    HAY, JOHN
  HASBEYA                           HAY (Australia)
  HASDAI IBN SHAPRUT                HAY (Wales)
  HASDEU, BOGDAN PETRICEICU         HAY (dried grass)
  HASDRUBAL                         HAYASHI, TADASU
  HASE, CARL BENEDICT               HAYDEN, FERDINAND VANDEVEER
  HASE, KARL AUGUST VON             HAYDN, FRANZ JOSEPH
  HASHISH                           HAYDON, BENJAMIN ROBERT
  HASLEMERE                         HAYES, RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD
  HASLINGDEN                        HAY FEVER
  HASPE                             HAYLEY, WILLIAM
  HASSAM, CHILDE                    HAYM, RUDOLF
  HASSAN                            HAYNAU, JULIUS JACOB
  HASSANIA                          HAYNE, ROBERT YOUNG
  HASSAN IBN THABIT                 HAYTER, SIR GEORGE
  HASSE, JOHANN ADOLPH              HAYTON
  HASSELQUIST, FREDERIK             HAYWARD, ABRAHAM
  HASSELT, ANDRÉ CONSTANT VAN       HAYWARD, SIR JOHN
  HASSELT                           HAYWOOD, ELIZA
  HASSENPFLUG, HANS FRIEDRICH       HAZARA (race of Afghanistan)
  HASTINAPUR                        HAZARA (district of British India)
  HASTINGS (English family)         HAZARD
  HASTINGS, RAWDON-HASTINGS         HAZARIBAGH
  HASTINGS, FRANK ABNEY             HAZEBROUCK
  HASTINGS, WARREN                  HAZEL
  HASTINGS (Sussex, England)        HAZLETON
  HASTINGS (Nebraska, U.S.A.)       HAZLITT, WILLIAM
  HAT                               HEAD, SIR EDMUND WALKER
  HATCH, EDWIN                      HEAD, SIR FRANCIS BOND
  HATCH                             HEAD
  HATCHET                           HEAD-HUNTING
  HATCHETTITE                       HEALTH
  HATCHMENT                         HEALY, GEORGE PETER ALEXANDER
  HATFIELD                          HEANOR



INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XI. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS,[1] WITH
THE HEADINGS OF THE ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.



  A. E. G.*
    REV. ALFRED ERNEST GARVIE, M.A., D.D.

      Principal of New College, Hampstead. Member of the Board of
      Theology and the Board of Philosophy, London University. Author of
      _Studies in the Inner Life of Jesus_, &c.

    Heresy (_in part_).

  A. D.
    HENRY AUSTIN DOBSON, LL.D.

      See the biographical article, DOBSON, H. A.

    Hogarth.

  A. E. T. W.
    ALFRED EDWARD THOMAS WATSON.

      Editor of the _Badminton Library_ and _Badminton Magazine_.
      Formerly Editor of the _Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News_.
      Author of _The Racing World and its Inhabitants_: &c.

    Horse-Racing (_in part_);
    Hunting.

  A. C. S.
    ALGERNON CHARLES SWINBURNE.

      See the biographical article, SWINBURNE, A. C.

    Hugo, Victor.

  A. Cy.
    ARTHUR ERNEST COWLEY, M.A., LITT.D.

      Sub-Librarian of the Bodleian Library, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen
      College.

    Hebrew Language;
    Hebrew Literature.

  A. F. P.
    ALBERT FREDERICK POLLARD, M.A., F.R.HIST.S.

      Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow
      of All Souls College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the _Dictionary
      of National Biography_, 1893-1901. Lothian Prizeman (Oxford),
      1892, Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of _England under the
      Protector Somerset_; _Henry VIII._; _Life of Thomas Cranmer_; &c.

    Heath, Nicholas;
    Henry VIII. of England;
    Hooper, Bishop;
    Humphrey, Lawrence.

  A. Go.*
    REV. ALEXANDER GORDON, M.A.

      Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester.

    Hofmann, Melchior;
    Hotman.

  A. H. S.
    REV. ARCHIBALD HENRY SAYCE, D.D., LITT.D., LL.D.

      See the biographical article, SAYCE, A. H.

    Humboldt, Karl W. Von.

  A. H.-S.
    SIR A. HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, C.I.E.

      General in the Persian Army. Author of _Eastern Persian Irak_.

    Hormuz (_in part_).

  A. J. H.
    ALFRED J. HIPKINS, F.S.A. (1826-1903).

      Formerly Member of Council and Hon. Curator of the Royal College
      of Music, London. Member of Committee of the Inventions and Music
      Exhibition, 1885; of the Vienna Exhibition, 1892; and of the Paris
      Exhibition, 1900. Author of _Musical Instruments_; &c.

    Harp (_in part_).

  A. L.
    ANDREW LANG.

      See the biographical article, LANG, ANDREW.

    Hauntings.

  A. M. C.
    AGNES MARY CLERKE.

      See the biographical article, CLERKE, A. M.

    Herschel, Sir F. W. (_in part_);
    Herschel, Sir J. F. W. (_in part_);
    Hevelius;
    Hipparchus;
    Horrocks;
    Huggins;
    Humboldt.

  A. N.
    ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S.

      See the biographical article, NEWTON, ALFRED.

    Harpy;
    Harrier;
    Hawfinch;
    Hawk;
    Heron;
    Hoactzin;
    Honeyeater;
    Honey Guide;
    Hoopoe;
    Hornbill;
    Humming-Bird.

  A. Sl.
    ARTHUR SHADWELL, M.A., M.D., LL.D., F.R.C.P.

      Member of Council of Epidemiological Society. Author of
      _Industrial Efficiency_; _The London Water Supply_; _Drink,
      Temperance and Legislation_.

    Housing.

  A. W. H.*
    ARTHUR WILLIAM HOLLAND.

      Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of
      Gray's Inn, 1900.

    Henry IV.: _Roman Emperor_;
    Hide;
    Hohenzollern;
    Honorius II.: _Anti-Pope_.

  A. W. W.
    ADOLPHUS WILLIAM WARD, LITT.D., LL.D.

      See the biographical article, WARD, A. W.

    Hrosvitha.

  C. A. M. F.
    CHARLES AUGUSTUS MAUDE FENNELL, M.A., LITT.D.

      Formerly Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge. Editor of Pindar's
      _Odes and Fragments_; and of the _Stanford Dictionary of
      Anglicised Words and Phrases_.

    Hercules.

  C. B.*
    CHARLES BÉMONT, LITT.D. (Oxon.).

      See the biographical article, BÉMONT, C.

    Havet;
    Hozier.

  C. El.
    SIR CHARLES NORTON EDGCUMBE ELIOT, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.A., LL.D.,
    D.C.L.

      Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. Formerly Fellow of
      Trinity College, Oxford. H.M.'s Commissioner and
      Commander-in-Chief for the British East Africa Protectorate; Agent
      and Consul-General at Zanzibar; and Consul-General for German East
      Africa, 1900-1904.

    Hissar (_in part_);
    Hungary: _Language_;
    Huns.

  C. F. A.
    CHARLES FRANCIS ATKINSON.

      Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of
      London (Royal Fusiliers). Author of _The Wilderness and Cold
      Harbour_.

    Hohenlohe (_in part_).

  C. H. Ha.
    CARLTON HUNTLEY HAYES, A.M., PH.D.

      Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York
      City. Member of the American Historical Association.

    Honorius II., III., IV.

  C. J. L.
    SIR CHARLES JAMES LYALL, K.C.S.I., C.I.E., LL.D. (Edin.).

      Secretary Judicial and Public Department, India Office. Fellow of
      King's College, London. Secretary to Government of India, Home
      Department, 1889-1894. Chief Commissioner, Central Provinces,
      India, 1895-1898. Author of _Translations of Ancient Arabic
      Poetry_; &c.

    Hindostani Literature.

  C. L. K.
    CHARLES LETHBRIDGE KINGSFORD, M.A., F.R.HIST.S., F.S.A.

      Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of _Life of
      Henry V._ Editor of _Chronicles of London_, and Stow's _Survey of
      London_.

    Henry IV., V., VI.: _of England_.

  C. Mo.
    WILLIAM COSMO MONKHOUSE.

      See the biographical article, MONKHOUSE, W. C.

    Hunt, W. Holman.

  C. P.
    REV. CHARLES PRITCHARD, M.A.

      See the biographical article, PRITCHARD, CHARLES.

    Herschel, Sir F. W. (_in part_);
    Herschel, Sir J. F. W. (_in part_).

  C. Pf.
    CHRISTIAN PEISTER, D.-ÈS-L.

      Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of
      Honour. Author of _Études sur le règne de Robert le Pieux_.

    Hunald.

  C. R. B.
    CHARLES RAYMOND BEAZLEY, M.A., D.LITT.

      Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham.
      Formerly Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer
      in the History of Geography. Author of _Henry the Navigator_; _The
      Dawn of Modern Geography_; &c.

    Hayton;
    Henry the Navigator.

  C. S.
    CARL SCHURZ, LL.D.

      See the biographical article, SCHURZ, CARL.

    Hayes, Rutherford B.

  C. W. W.
    SIR CHARLES WILLIAM WILSON, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836-1907).

      Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American
      Boundary Commission, 1858-1862. British Commissioner on the
      Servian Boundary Commission. Director-General of the Ordnance
      Survey, 1886-1894. Director-General of Military Education,
      1895-1898. Author of _From Korti to Khartoum_; _Life of Lord
      Clive_; &c.

    Hierapolis (_in part_).

  D. B. M.
    DAVID BINNING MONRO, M.A., LITT.D.

      See the biographical article, MONRO, DAVID BINNING.

    Homer.

  D. F. T.
    DONALD FRANCIS TOVEY.

      Author of _Essays in Musical Analysis_: comprising _The Classical
      Concerto_, _The Goldberg Variations_, and analyses of many other
      classical works.

    Harmony.

  D. Gi.
    SIR DAVID GILL, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., D.SC.

      H.M. Astronomer at Cape of Good Hope, 1879-1907. Served in
      Geodetic Survey of Egypt, and on the expedition to Ascension
      Island to determine the Solar Parallax by observations of Mars.
      Directed Geodetic Survey of Natal, Cape Colony and Rhodesia.
      Author of _Geodetic Survey of South Africa_; _Catalogues of Stars
      for the Equinoxes_ (1850, 1860, 1885, 1890, 1900); &c.

    Heliometer.

  D. G. H.
    DAVID GEORGE HOGARTH, M.A.

      Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen
      College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at
      Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and 1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905;
      Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at Athens, 1897-1900.
      Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.

    Heraclea (_in part_);
    Hierapolis (_in part_);
    Hittites.

  D. H.
    DAVID HANNAY.

      Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of _Short
      History of the Royal Navy_; _Life of Emilio Castelar_; &c.

    Heyn;
    Hood, Viscount;
    Howe, Earl;
    Humour.

  D. Mn.
    REV. DUGALD MACFADYEN, M.A.

      Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Author of
      _Constructive Congregational Ideals_; &c.

    Henderson, Alexander (_in part_).

  D. S.*
    DAVID SHARP, M.A., M.B., F.R.S., F.Z.S.

      Editor of the _Zoological Record_. Formerly Curator of Museum of
      Zoology, University of Cambridge. President of Entomological
      Society of London. Author of "Insecta" (_Cambridge Natural
      History_); &c.

    Hexapoda (_in part_).

  E. C. B.
    RT. REV. EDWARD CUTHBERT BUTLER, O.S.B., M.A., D.LITT.

      Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of "The Lausiac History of
      Palladius" in _Cambridge Texts and Studies_, vol. vi.

    Hieronymites;
    Hilarion, Saint.

  E. D. B.
    EDWIN DAMPIER BRICKWOOD.

      Author of _Boat-Racing_; &c.

    Horse: _History_;
    Horse-Racing (_in part_).

  E. D. Bu.
    EDWARD DUNDAS BUTLER.

      Formerly Assistant in the Department of Printed Books, British
      Museum. Foreign Member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
      Author of _Hungarian Poems and Fables for English Readers_; &c.

    Hungary: _Literature_ (_in part_).

  E. E. S.
    ERNEST EDWARD SIKES, M.A.

      Fellow, Tutor and Lecturer, St John's College, Cambridge. Newton
      Student at Athens, 1890. Editor of the _Prometheus Vinctus_ of
      Aeschylus, and of _The Homeric Hymns_.

    Hephaestus;
    Hera;
    Hermes.

  E. F. S.
    EDWARD FAIRBROTHER STRANGE.

      Assistant-Keeper, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington.
      Member of Council, Japan Society. Author of numerous works on art
      subjects. Joint-editor of Bell's "Cathedral" Series.

    Hiroshige;
    Hokusai.

  E. G.
    EDMUND GOSSE, LL.D.

      See the biographical article, GOSSE, EDMUND, W.

    Heroic Romances;
    Heroic Verse;
    Herrick;
    Holberg.

  Ed. M.
    EDUARD MEYER, PH.D., D.LITT. (OXON.), LL.D.

      Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author
      of _Geschichte des Alterthums_; _Geschichte des alten Aegyptens_;
      _Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstämme_.

    Hormizd.

  E. M. W.
    REV. EDWARD MEWBURN WALKER, M.A.

      Fellow, Senior Tutor and Librarian of Queen's College, Oxford.

    Herodotus (_in part_).

  E. O.*
    EDMUND OWEN, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.SC.

      Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the
      Children's Hospital, Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the
      Legion of Honour. Late Examiner in Surgery at the Universities of
      Cambridge, London and Durham. Author of _A Manual of Anatomy for
      Senior Students_.

    Heart: _Surgery_;
    Hernia.

  E. Pr.
    EDGAR PRESTAGE.

      Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature at the University of
      Manchester. Commendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago.
      Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal Academy of Sciences and
      Lisbon Geographical Society.

    Herculano de Carvalho e Araiyo.

  E. Re.*
    EMIL REICH, DOC.JURIS., F.R.HIST.S.

      Author of _Hungarian Literature_; _History of Civilization_; &c.

    Hungary: _Literature_ (_in part_).

  E. R. B.
    EDWYN ROBERT BEVAN, M.A.

      New College, Oxford. Author of _The House of Seleucus_; _Jerusalem
      under the High Priests_.

    Hellenism.

  F. B.
    FELICE BARNABEI, LITT.D.

      Formerly Director of Museum of Antiquities at Rome. Author of
      archaeological papers in Italian reviews and in the _Athenaeum_.

    Herculaneum.

  F. C. C.
    FREDERICK CORNWALLIS CONYBEARE, M.A., D.TH. (Giessen).

      Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University
      College, Oxford. Author of _The Ancient Armenian Texts of
      Aristotle_; _Myth, Magic and Morals_; &c.

    Holy Water.

  F. G. M. B.
    FREDERICK GEORGE MEESON BECK, M.A.

      Fellow and Lecturer of Clare College, Cambridge.

    Heruli.

  F. G. P.
    FREDERICK GYMER PARSONS, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.ANTHROP.INST.

      Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
      Lecturer on Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School
      of Medicine for Women. Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal
      College of Surgeons.

    Heart: _Anatomy_.

  F. G. S.
    F. G. STEPHENS.

      Formerly art critic of the _Athenaeum_. Author of _Artists at
      Home_; _George Cruikshank_; _Memorials of W. Mulready_; _French
      and Flemish Pictures_; _Sir E. Landseer_; _T. C. Hook, R.A._; &c.

    Holl, Frank.

  F. H. B.
    FRANCIS HENRY BUTLER, M.A.

      Worcester College, Oxford. Associate of the Royal School of Mines.

    Honey;
    Hunter, John;
    Hunter, William.

  F. Ll. G.
    FRANCIS LLEWELLYN GRIFFITH, M.A., PH.D., F.S.A.

      Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the
      Archaeological Survey and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt
      Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial German Archaeological
      Institute.

    Heliopolis;
    Hermes Trismegistus;
    Horus.

  F. O. B.
    FREDERICK ORPEN BOWER, D.SC., F.R.S.

      Regius Professor of Botany in the University of Glasgow. Author of
      _Practical Botany for Beginners_.

    Hofmeister.

  F. Px.
    FRANK PUAUX.

      President of the Société de l'Histoire du Protestantisme français.
      Author of _Les Précurseurs français de la tolérance_; _Histoire de
      l'établissement des protestants français en Suède_; _L'Église
      réformée de France_; &c.

    Huguenots.

  G. A. Gr.
    GEORGE ABRAHAM GRIERSON, C.I.E., PH.D., D.LITT.

      Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1873-1903. In charge of
      Linguistic Survey of India, 1898-1902. Gold Medallist, Asiatic
      Society, 1909. Vice-President of the Royal Asiatic Society.
      Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of _The Languages
      of India_; &c.

    Hindostani.

  G. C. R.
    GEORGE CROOM ROBERTSON, M.A.

      See the biographical article, ROBERTSON, G. C.

    Hobbes, Thomas (_in part_).

  G. C. W.
    GEORGE CHARLES WILLIAMSON, LITT.D.

      Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of _Portrait
      Miniatures_; _Life of Richard Cosway_, R.A.; _George Engleheart_;
      _Portrait Drawings_; &c. Editor of new edition of Bryan's
      _Dictionary of Printers and Engravers_.

    Hilliard, Lawrence;
    Hilliard, Nicholas;
    Hoskins;
    Humphry, Ozias.

  G. G. S.
    GEORGE GREGORY SMITH, M.A.

      Professor of English Literature, Queen's University of Belfast.
      Author of The _Days of James IV._; _The Transition Period_;
      _Specimens of Middle Scots_; &c.

    Henryson.

  G. E.
    REV. GEORGE EDMUNDSON, M.A., F.R.HIST.S.

      Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's
      Lecturer, 1909. Hon. Member, Dutch Historical Society, and Foreign
      Member, Netherlands Association of Literature.

    Holland: _History_.
    Holland: _County and Province of_.

  G. H. C.
    GEORGE HERBERT CARPENTER, B.SC.

      Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin.
      President of the Association of Economic Biologists. Member of the
      Royal Irish Academy. Author of _Insects: their Structure and
      Life_; &c.

    Hemiptera;
    Hexapoda (_in part_).

  G. J. T.
    GEORGE JAMES TURNER.

      Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. Editor of _Select Pleas for the
      Forests_ for the Selden Society.

    Hundred.

  G. K.
    GUSTAV KRÜGER.

      Professor of Church History in the University of Giessen. Author
      of _Das Papsttum_; &c.

    Hippolytus.

  G. R.

    REV. GEORGE RAWLINSON, M.A.

      See the biographical article, RAWLINSON, GEORGE.

    Herodotus (_in part_).

  G. W. T.
    REV. GRIFFITHES WHEELER THATCHER, M.A., B.D.

      Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew
      and Old Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford.

    Hasan-ul-Basri;
    Hassan ibn Thabit;
    Hisham ibn al-Kalbi.

  H.
    LORD HOUGHTON.

      See the biographical article, HOUGHTON, 1ST BARON.

    Hood, Thomas.

  H. Br.
    HENRY BRADLEY, M.A., PH.D.

      Joint-editor of the _New English Dictionary_ (Oxford). Fellow of
      the British Academy. Author of _The Story of the Goths_; _The
      Making of English_; &c.

    Heliand.

  H. Bt.
    SIR HENRY BURDETT, K.C.B., K.C.V.O.

      Founder and Editor of _The Hospital_. Formerly Superintendent of
      the Queen's Hospital, Birmingham, and the Seamen's Hospital,
      Greenwich. Author of _Hospitals and Asylums of the World_; &c.

    Hospital.

  H. Ch.
    HUGH CHISHOLM, M.A.

      Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the
      11th edition of the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_; Co-editor of the
      10th edition.

    Howe, Samuel Gridley.

  H. De.
    HIPPOLYTE DELEHAYE, S.J.

      Assistant in the compilation of the Bollandist publications:
      _Analecta Bollandiana_ and _Acta sanctorum_.

    Helena, St;
    Hubert, St.

  H. L.
    HENRI LABROSSE.

      Assistant Librarian at the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. Officer
      of the Academy.

    Hugh of St Cher.

  H. L. C.
    HUGH LONGBOURNE CALLENDAR, F.R.S., LL.D.

      Professor of Physics, Royal College of Science, London. Formerly
      Professor of Physics in McGill College, Montreal, and in
      University College, London.

    Heat.

  H. M. V.
    HERBERT M. VAUGHAN, F.S.A.

      Keble College, Oxford. Author of _The Last of the Royal Stuarts_;
      _The Medici Popes_; _The Last Stuart Queen_.

    Henry, Stuart (Cardinal York).

  H. W. C. D.
    HENRY WILLIAM CARLESS DAVIS, M.A.

      Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls
      College, Oxford, 1895-1902. Author of _England under the Normans
      and Angevins_; Charlemagne.

    Henry I., II., III,: _Of England_.
    Henry of Huntingdon.

  H. W. R.*
    REV. HENRY WHEELER ROBINSON, M.A.

      Professor of Church History in Rawdon College, Leeds. Senior
      Kennicott Scholar, Oxford, 1901. Author of _Hebrew Psychology in
      Relation to Pauline Anthropology_ (in Mansfield College Essays);
      &c.

    Hosea (_in part_).

  H. W. S.
    H. WICKHAM STEED.

      Correspondent of _The Times_ at Vienna. Correspondent of _The
      Times_ at Rome, 1897-1902.

    Humbert, King.

  H. Y.
    SIR HENRY YULE, K.C.S.I., C.B.

      See the biographical article, YULE, SIR H.

    Hormuz (_in part_);
    Hsüan Tsang (_in part_).

  I. A.
    ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, M.A.

      Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of
      Cambridge. Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of
      England. Author of _A Short History of Jewish Literature_; _Jewish
      Life in the Middle Ages_; _Judaism_; &c.

    Hasdai ibn Shaprut;
    Herzl;
    Hirsch, Samson R.

  J. A. C.
    SIR JOSEPH ARCHER CROWE, K.C.M.G.

      See the biographical article, CROWE, SIR J. A.

    Hobbema;
    Holbein.

  J. A. R.
    VERY REV. JOSEPH ARMITAGE ROBINSON, D.D.

      Dean of Westminster. Fellow of the British Academy. Hon. Fellow of
      Christ's College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Christ's College,
      Cambridge, and Norrisian Professor of Divinity in the University.
      Author of _Some Thoughts on the Incarnation_; &c.

    Hippolytus, The Canons of.

  J. Bt.
    JAMES BARTLETT.

      Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities,
      &c., at King's College, London. Member of Society of Architects.
      Member of Institute of Junior Engineers.

    Heating.

  J. B. T.
    SIR JOHN BATTY TUKE, M.D., F.R.S. (EDIN.), D.SC., LL.D.

      President of the Neurological Society of the United Kingdom.
      Medical Director of New Saughton Hall Asylum, Edinburgh. M.P. for
      the Universities of Edinburgh and St Andrews, 1900-1910.

    Hippocrates.

  J. Da.
    REV. JAMES DAVIES, M.A. (1820-1883).

      Formerly Head Master of Ludlow Grammar School and Prebendary of
      Hereford Cathedral. Translated classical authors for Bohn's
      "Classical Library." Author of volumes in Collins's _Ancient
      Classics for English Readers_.

    Hesiod (_in part_).

  J. E.
    H. JULIUS EGGELING, PH.D.

      Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology, University of
      Edinburgh. Formerly Secretary and Librarian to Royal Asiatic
      Society.

    Hinduism.

  J. F. F.
    JOHN FAITHFULL FLEET, C.I.E.

      Commissioner of Central and Southern Divisions of Bombay,
      1891-1897. Author of _Inscriptions of the Early Gupta Kings_; &c.

    Hindu Chronology.

  J. F. H. B.
    SIR JOHN FRANCIS HARPIN BROADBENT, BART., M.A., M.D.

      Physician to Out-Patients, St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the
      Hampstead General Hospital. Assistant Physician to the London
      Fever Hospital. Author of _Heart Disease and Aneurysm_; &c.

    Heart: _Heart Disease_.

  J. G.*
    REV. JAMES GOW, M.A., LITT.D.

      Head Master of Westminster School. Fellow of King's College,
      London. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Editor of
      Horace's Odes and Satires. Author of _A Companion to the School
      Classics_; &c.

    Horace (_in part_).

  J. Ga.
    JAMES GAIRDNER, C.B.

      See the biographical article, GAIRDNER, J.

    Henry VII.: _of England_.

  J. G. M.
    JOHN GRAY MCKENDRICK, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.C.P. (Edin.)

      Emeritus Professor of Physiology at the University of Glasgow.
      Author of _Life in Motion_; _Life of Helmholtz_; &c.

    Hearing; Helmholtz.

  J. G. R.
    JOHN GEORGE ROBERTSON, M.A., PH.D.

      Professor of German at the University of London. Formerly Lecturer
      on the English Language, Strassburg University. Author of _History
      of German Literature_; &c.

    Heine (_in part_);
    Hildebrand, Lay of;
    Hoffmann, E. T. W.

  J. Hn.
    JUSTUS HASHAGEN, PH.D.

      Privatdozent in Medieval and Modern History, University of Bonn.
      Author of _Das Rheinland unter der französischen Herrschaft_.

    Hecker, F. F. K.;
    Hertzberg, Count Von;
    Hormayr.

  J. H. A. H.
    JOHN HENRY ARTHUR HART, M.A.

      Fellow, Theological Lecturer and Librarian, St John's College,
      Cambridge.

    Herod;
    Herodians.

  J. H. F.
    JOHN HENRY FREESE, M.A.

      Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge.

    Herald;
    Hesiod (_in part_).

  J. H. Mu.
    JOHN HENRY MUIRHEAD, M.A., LL.D.

      Professor of Philosophy in the University of Birmingham. Author of
      _Elements of Ethics_; _Philosophy and Life_; &c. Editor of
      _Library of Philosophy_.

    Hegel: _Hegelianism in England_.

  J. H. R.
    JOHN HORACE ROUND, M.A., LL.D. (Edin.).

      Author of _Feudal England_; _Studies in Peerage and Family
      History_; _Peerage and Pedigree_.

    Hereward.

  J. J. F.
    REV. JAMES J. FOX.

      St Thomas's College, Brookland, D.C., U.S.A.

    Hecker, I. T.

  J. K. L.
    SIR JOHN KNOX LAUGHTON, M.A., LITT.D.

      Professor of Modern History, King's College, London, Secretary of
      the Navy Records Society. Served in the Baltic, 1854-1855; in
      China, 1856-1859. Honorary Fellow, Gonville and Caius College,
      Cambridge. Fellow, King's College, London. Author of _Physical
      Geography in its Relation to the Prevailing Winds and Currents_;
      _Studies in Naval History_; _Sea Fights and Adventures_; &c.

    Hood of Avalon.

  J. M. M.
    JOHN MALCOLM MITCHELL.

      Sometime Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics,
      East London College (University of London). Joint-editor of
      Grote's _History of Greece_.

    Heraclitus;
    Hume, David (_in part_).

  J. P.-B.
    JAMES GEORGE JOSEPH PENDEREL-BRODHURST.

      Editor of the _Guardian_ (London).

    Hepplewhite.

  J. P. Pe.
    REV. JOHN PUNNETT PETERS, PH.D., D.D.

      Canon Residentiary, Cathedral of New York. Formerly Professor of
      Hebrew in the University of Pennsylvania. Director of the
      University Expedition to Babylonia, 1888-1895. Author of _Nippur,
      or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates_.

    Hillah;
    Hit.

  J. S. Co.
    JAMES SUTHERLAND COTTON, M.A.

      Editor of _The Imperial Gazetteer of India_. Hon. Secretary of the
      Egyptian Exploration Fund. Formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Queen's
      College, Oxford. Author of _India_ in the "Citizen" Series; &c.

    Hastings, Warren.

  J. S. F.
    JOHN SMITH FLETT, D.SC., F.G.S.

      Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on
      Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal
      Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society
      of London.

    Hornfels.

  J. T. Be.
    JOHN T. BEALBY.

      Joint-author of Stanford's _Europe_. Formerly Editor of the
      _Scottish Geographical Magazine_. Translator of Sven Hedin's
      _Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet_; &c.

    Hissar (_in part_).

  J. T. C.
    JOSEPH THOMAS CUNNINGHAM, M.A., F.Z.S.

      Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Western Polytechnic, London.
      Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Assistant Professor
      of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh and Naturalist
      to the Marine Biological Association.

    Herring.

  J. T. Mo.
    JOHN TORREY MORSE, Jr.

      Author of _The Life and Letters of Oliver Wendell Holmes_.

    Holmes, Oliver Wendell.

  J. T. S.*
    JAMES THOMSON SHOTWELL, PH.D.

      Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City.

    History.

  J. V.*
    JULES VIARD.

      Archivist at the National Archives, Paris. Officer of Public
      Instruction. Author of _La France sous Philippe VI. de Valois_;
      &c.

    Hundred Years' War.

  J. V. B.
    JAMES VERNON BARTLET, M.A., D.D. (St Andrews).

      Professor of Church History, Mansfield College, Oxford. Author of
      _The Apostolic Age_; &c.

    Hebrews, Epistle to the;
    Hermas, Shepherd of.

  J. Ws.
    JOHN WEATHERS, F.R.H.S.

      Lecturer on Horticulture to the Middlesex County Council. Author
      of _Practical Guide to Garden Plants_; _French Market Gardening_;
      &c.

    Hippeastrum;
    Honeysuckle;
    Horticulture (_in part_).

  J. W.*
    JAMES WARD, D.SC., LL.D.

      Professor of Mental Philosophy and Logic in the University of
      Cambridge. Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Fellow of the
      British Academy. Fellow of the New York Academy of Sciences.

    Herbart.

  J. W. F.
    J. WALTER FERRIER.

      Translated _George Eliot and Judaism_ from the German of Kaufmann.
      Author of _Mottiscliffe_.

    Heine (_in part_).

  J. W. Fo.
    THE HON. JOHN WATSON FOSTER, A.M., LL.D.

      Professor of American Diplomatics, George Washington University,
      Washington, U.S.A. Formerly U.S. Secretary of State. Author of
      _Diplomatic Memoirs_; &c.

    Harrison, Benjamin.

  K. S.
    KATHLEEN SCHLESINGER.

      Editor of _The Portfolio of Musical Archaeology_. Author of _The
      Instruments of the Orchestra_.

    Harp (_in part_);
    Harp-Lute;
    Harpsichord;
    Holztrompete;
    Horn;
    Hurdy-Gurdy.

  L. H. B.
    LIBERTY HYDE BAILEY, LL.D.

      Director of the College of Agriculture, Cornell University.
      Chairman of Roosevelt Commission on Country Life.

    Horticulture: _American Calendar_ (_in part_).

  L. J. S.
    LEONARD JAMES SPENCER, M.A.

      Assistant in Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly
      Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar.
      Editor of the _Mineralogical Magazine_.

    Harmotome;
    Hemimorphite;
    Heulandite;
    Hornblende;
    Humite.

  L. W.
    LUCIEN WOLF.

      Vice-President of the Jewish Historical Society of England.
      Formerly President of the Society. Joint-editor of the
      _Bibliotheca Anglo-judaica_.

    Hirsch, Baron.

  M. G.
    MOSES GASTER, PH.D. (Leipzig).

      Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic Communities of England.
      Vice-President, Zionist Congress, 1898, 1899, 1900. Ilchester
      Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and Byzantine Literature, 1886 and
      1891. President, Folk lore Society of England. Vice-President
      Anglo-Jewish Association. Author of _History of Rumanian Popular
      Literature_; &c.

    Hasdeu.

  M. Ha.
    MARCUS HARTOG, M.A., D.SC., F.L.S.

      Professor of Zoology, University College, Cork. Author of
      "Protozoa" in _Cambridge Natural History_; and papers for various
      scientific journals.

    Heliozoa.

  M. H. C.
    MONTAGUE HUGHES CRACKANTHORPE, K.C., D.C.L.

      President of the Eugenics Education Society. Honorary Fellow, St
      John's College, Oxford. Bencher of Lincoln's Inn. Formerly Member
      of the General Council of the Bar and of the Council of Legal
      Education, and Standing Counsel to the University of Oxford.

    Herschell, 1st Baron.

  M. N. T.
    MARCUS NIEHBUR TOD, M.A.

      Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in
      Epigraphy. Joint-author of _Catalogue of the Sparta Museum_.

    Helots.

  M. O. B. C.
    MAXIMILIAN OTTO BISMARCK CASPARI.

      Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek
      at Birmingham University, 1905-1908.

    Heraclius.

  M. T. M.
    MAXWELL T. MASTERS, M.D., F.R.S. (1833-1907).

      Formerly Editor of _Gardeners' Chronicle_; and Lecturer on Botany,
      St George's Hospital, London. Author of _Plant Life_; _Botany for
      Beginners_; and numerous monographs in botanical works.

    Horticulture (_in part_).

  N. D. M.
    NEWTON DENNISON MERENESS, A.M., PH.D.

      Author of _Maryland as a Proprietary Province_.

    Henry, Patrick;
    Homestead and Exemption Laws.

  O. Ba.
    OSWALD BARRON, F.S.A.

      Editor of _The Ancestor_, 1902-1905. Hon. Genealogist to Standing
      Council of the Honourable Society of the Baronetage.

    Heraldry;
    Herbert: _family_;
    Howard: _family_.

  O. Br.
    OSCAR BRILIANT.

    Hungary: _Geography and Statistics_.

  O. C. W.
    REV. OWEN CHARLES WHITEHOUSE, M.A., D.D.

      Christ's College, Cambridge. Professor of Hebrew, Biblical
      Exegesis and Theology, and Theological Tutor, Cheshunt College,
      Cambridge.

    Hebrew Religion.

  P. A.
    PAUL DANIEL ALPHANDÉRY.

      Professor of the History of Dogma, École pratique des hautes
      études, Sorbonne, Paris. Author of _Les Idées morales chez les
      hétérodoxes Latines au début du XIII^e siècle_.

    Henry of Lausanne;
    Hugh of St Victor;
    Humiliati.

  P. C. M.
    PETER CHALMERS MITCHELL, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.SC., LL.D.

      Secretary to the Zoological Society of London. University
      Demonstrator in Comparative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre
      Professor at Oxford, 1888-1891. Examiner in Zoology to the
      University of London, 1903. Author of _Outlines of Biology_; &c.

    Hemichorda;
    Heredity.

  P. C. Y.
    PHILIP CHESNEY YORKE, M.A.

      Magdalen College, Oxford. Editor of _Letters of Princess Elizabeth
      of England_.

    Holles, Baron.

  P. H.
    PETER HENDERSON (1823-1890).

      Formerly Horticulturist, Jersey City and New York. Author of
      _Gardening for Profit_; _Garden and Farm Topics_.

    Horticulture: _American Calendar_ (_in part_).

  P. H. P.-S.
    PHILIP HENRY PYE-SMITH, M.D., F.R.S.

      Consulting Physician to Guy's Hospital, London. Formerly
      Vice-Chancellor of the University of London. Joint-author of _A
      Text Book of Medicine_; &c.

    Harvey, William.

  P. La.
    PHILIP LAKE, M.A., F.G.S.

      Lecturer on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge
      University. Formerly of the Geological Survey of India. Author of
      _Monograph of British Cambrian Trilobites_. Translator and Editor
      of Kayser's _Comparative Geology_.

    Himalaya: _Geology_.

  R. A.*
    ROBERT ANCHEL.

      Archivist to the Department de l'Eure.

    Herault de Séchelles.

  R. Ad.
    ROBERT ADAMSON, LL.D.

      See the biographical article, ADAMSON, R.

    Hume, David (_in part_).

  R. A. S. M.
    ROBERT ALEXANDER STEWART MACALISTER, M.A., F.S.A.

      St John's College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the
      Palestine Exploration Fund.

    Hebron;
    Hor, Mt.

  R. A. W.

      Robert Alexander Wahab, C.B., C.M.G., C.I.E. Colonel, Royal
      Engineers. Formerly H.M. Commissioner, Aden Boundary Delimitation,
      and Superintendent, Survey of India. Served with Tirah
      Expeditionary Force, 1897-1898; Anglo-Russian Boundary Commission,
      Pamirs, 1895; &c.

    Hasa, El;
    Hejaz.

  R. H. S.
    RICHARD HENRY STODDARD.

      See the biographical article, STODDARD, RICHARD HENRY.

    Hawthorne, Nathaniel.

  R. I. P.
    REGINALD INNES POCOCK, F.Z.S.

      Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London.

    Harvester;
    Hibernation.

  R. J. M.
    RONALD JOHN MCNEILL, M.A.

      Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the
      _St James's Gazette_, London.

    Hely-Hutchinson.

  R. J. S.
    HON. ROBERT JOHN STRUTT, M.A., F.R.S.

      Professor of Physics in the Imperial College of Science and
      Technology, South Kensington. Fellow of Trinity College,
      Cambridge.

    Helium.

  R. K. D.
      SIR ROBERT KENNAWAY DOUGLAS.

      Formerly Keeper of Oriental Printed Books and MSS. at the British
      Museum, and Professor of Chinese, King's College, London. Author
      of _The Language and Literature of China_; &c.

    Hsüan Tsang (_in part_).

  R. L.*
    RICHARD LYDEKKER, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S.

      Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882.
      Author of _Catalogue of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in the
      British Museum_; _The Deer of all Lands_; _The Game Animals of
      Africa_; &c.

    Hedgehog;
    Hippopotamus; Horse (_in part_);
    Howler.

  R. N. B.
    ROBERT NISBET BAIN (d. 1909).

      Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of
      _Scandinavia, the Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden,
      1513-1900_; _The First Romanovs 1613-1725_; _Slavonic Europe, the
      Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1796_; &c.

    Höpken;
    Horn, A. B., Count;
    Hungary: _History_ (_in part_);
    Hunyadi, János;
    Hunyadi, László.

  R. Po.
    RENÉ POUPARDIN, D.-ÈS-L.

      Secretary of the École des Chartes. Honorary Librarian at the
      Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. Author of _Le Royaume de Provence
      sous les Carolingiens_; _Recueil des chartes de Saint-Germain_;
      &c.

    Hinemar.

  R. P. S.
    R. PHENÉ SPIERS, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A.

      Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy,
      London. Past President of Architectural Association. Associate and
      Fellow of King's College, London. Corresponding Member of the
      Institute of France. Editor of _Fergusson's History of
      Architecture_. Author of _Architecture: East and West_; &c.

    House.

  R. S. C.
    ROBERT SEYMOUR CONWAY, M.A., D.LITT. (Cantab.).

      Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University
      of Manchester. Formerly Professor of Latin in University College,
      Cardiff; and Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.
      Author of _The Italic Dialects_.

    Hernici;
    Hirpini.

  R. S. T.
    RALPH STOCKMAN TARR.

      Professor of Physical Geography, Cornell University.

    Hudson River.

  R. W.
    ROBERT WALLACE, F.R.S. (Edin.), F.L.S.

      Professor of Agriculture and Rural Economy at Edinburgh
      University, and Garton. Lecturer on Colonial and Indian
      Agriculture. Professor of Agriculture, R.A.C., Cirencester,
      1882-1885. Author of _Farm Live Stock of Great Britain_; _The
      Agriculture and Rural Economy of Australia and New Zealand_;
      _Farming Industries of Cape Colony_; &c.

    Horse (_in part_).

  S. F. B.
    SPENCER FULLERTON BAIRD, LL.D.

      See the biographical article, BAIRD, S. F.

    Henry, Joseph.

  S. A. C.
    STANLEY ARTHUR COOK, M.A.

      Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and
      Caius College, Cambridge. Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund.
      Examiner in Hebrew and Aramaic, London University, 1904-1908.
      Author of _Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions_; _The Laws of Moses
      and the Code of Hammurabi_; _Critical Notes on Old Testament
      History_; _Religion of Ancient Palestine_; &c.

    Hezekiah;
    Hoshea.

  T. A. I.
    THOMAS ALLAN INGRAM, M.A., LL.D.

      Trinity College, Dublin.

    Holiday.

  T. As.
    THOMAS ASHBY, M.A., D.LITT. (Oxon.).

      Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly
      Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington
      Prizeman, 1906. Member of the Imperial German Archaeological
      Institute.

    Heraclea (_in part_);
    Hispellum.

  T. Ba.
    SIR THOMAS BARCLAY, M.P.

      Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the
      Supreme Council of the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of
      Honour. Author of _Problems of International Practice and
      Diplomacy_; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910.

    High Seas.

  T. B.*
    THOMAS BROWN.

      Incorporated Weaving, Dyeing and Printing College, Glasgow.

    Hosiery.

  T. F. H.
    T. F. HENDERSON.

      Author of _The Casket Letters and Mary Queen of Scots_; _Life of
      Robert Burns_; &c.

    Hooker, Richard.

  T. Gi.
    THOMAS GILRAY, M.A.

      Formerly Professor of Modern History and English Literature,
      University College, Dundee.

    Henderson, Alexander (_in part_).

  T. H. H.*
    COLONEL SIR THOMAS HUNGERFORD HOLDICH, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., HON.
    D.SC.

      Superintendent Frontier Surveys, India, 1892-1898. Gold Medallist,
      R.G.S., London, 1887. Author of _The Indian Borderland_; _The
      Countries of the King's Award_; _India_; _Tibet_; &c.

    Helmund;
    Herat;
    Himalaya;
    Hindu Kush.

  T. L. H.
    SIR THOMAS LITTLE HEATH, K.C.B., D.SC.

      Assistant Secretary to the Treasury. Formerly Fellow of Trinity
      College, Cambridge.

    Hero of Alexandria.

  T. Se.
    THOMAS SECCOMBE, M.A.

      Balliol College, Oxford. Lecturer in History, East London and
      Birkbeck Colleges, University of London. Stanhope Prizeman,
      Oxford, 1887. Assistant Editor of _Dictionary of National
      Biography_, 1891-1901. Author of _The Age of Johnson_;
      joint-author of _Bookman History of English Literature_; &c.

    Hayward, Abraham;
    Hughes, Thomas.

  T. Wo.
    THOMAS WOODHOUSE.

      Head of the Weaving and Textile Designing Department, Technical
      College, Dundee.

    Hose-Pipe.

  T. W. A.
    THOMAS WILLIAM ALLEN, M.A.

      Fellow and Tutor of Queen's College, Oxford. Joint-editor of _The
      Homeric Hymns_.

    Homer (_in part_).

  W. A. B. C
    REV. WILLIAM AUGUSTUS BREVOORT COOLIDGE, M.A., F.R.G.S., PH.D.

      Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History,
      St David's College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of _Guide to
      Switzerland_; _The Alps in Nature and in History_; &c. Editor of
      _The Alpine Journal_, 1880-1889.

    Hautes Alpes;
    Haute-Savoie;
    Herzog, Hans.

  W. A. P.
    WALTER ALISON PHILLIPS, M.A.

      Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St
      John's College, Oxford. Author of _Modern Europe_; &c.

    Hohenlohe (_in part_);
    Holy Alliance, The;
    Honorius I.;
    Hungary: _History_ (_in part_).

  W. Ba.
    WILLIAM BACHER, D.PH.

      Professor of Biblical Studies at the Rabbinical Seminary,
      Budapest.

    Hillel.

  W. Fr.
    WILLIAM FREAM, LL.D. (d. 1907).

      Formerly Lecturer on Agricultural Entomology, University of
      Edinburgh, and Agricultural Correspondent of _The Times_.

    Hop;
    Horse (_in part_).

  W. F. C
    WILLIAM FEILDEN CRAIES, M.A.

      Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law at King's
      College, London. Editor of _Archbold's Criminal Pleading_ (23rd
      ed.).

    Homicide.

  W. G. H.
    WALTER GEORGE HEADLAM (1866-1908).

      Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Editor of Herodas. Translator
      of the plays of Aeschylus.

    Herodas.

  W. H. F.
    SIR WILLIAM HENRY FLOWER, F.R.S.

      See the biographical article, FLOWER, SIR W. H.

    Horse (_in part_).

  W. H. Ha.
    WILLIAM HENRY HADOW, M.A., MUS.DOC.

      Principal, Armstrong College, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Formerly Fellow
      and Tutor of Worcester College, Oxford. Member of Council, Royal
      College of Music. Editor of _Oxford History of Music_. Author of
      _Studies in Modern Music_; &c.

    Haydn.

  W. L. G.
    WILLIAM LAWSON GRANT, M.A.

      Professor at Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. Formerly Beit
      Lecturer in Colonial History at Oxford University. Editor of _Acts
      of the Privy Council_, Colonial Series; _Canadian Constitutional
      Development_ (in collaboration).

    Howe, Joseph.

  W. M. R.
    WILLIAM MICHAEL ROSSETTI.

      See the biographical article, ROSSETTI, DANTE GABRIEL.

    Haydon, Benjamin Robert.

  W. P. J.
    WILLIAM PRICE JAMES.

      University College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. High Bailiff of
      County Courts, Cardiff. Author of _Romantic Professions_; &c.

    Henley, W. E.

  W. R. Nl.
    SIR WILLIAM ROBERTSON NICOLL, LL.D.

      See the biographical article, NICOLL, SIR W. R.

    Harris, Thomas Lake.

  W. R. S.
    WILLIAM ROBERTSON SMITH, LL.D.

      See the biographical article, SMITH, WILLIAM ROBERTSON.

    Hosea (_in part_).

  W. R. S.-R.
    WILLIAM RALSTON SHEDDEN-RALSTON, M.A.

      Assistant in the Department of Printed Books, British Museum.
      Author of _Russian Folk Tales_; &c.

    Hertzen.

  W. R. W.
    WILLIAM ROBERT WORTHINGTON WILLIAMS, F.L.S.

      Superintendent of London County Council Botany Centre. Assistant
      Lecturer in Botany, Birkbeck College (University of London).
      Member of the Geologists' Association.

    Horticulture (_in part_).

  W. T. H.
    WILLIAM TOD HELMUTH, M.D., LL.D. (d. 1901).

      Formerly Professor of Surgery and Dean of the Homoeopathic and
      Medical College and Hospital New York. President of the Collins
      State Homoeopathic Hospital. Sometime President of the American
      Institute of Homoeopathy and the New York State Homoeopathic
      Medical Society. Author of _Treatise on Diphtheria_; _System of
      Surgery_; &c.

    Homoeopathy.

  W. W.
    WILLIAM WALLACE, LL.D.

      See the biographical article, WALLACE, WILLIAM (1844-1897).

    Hegel (_in part_).

  W. Wr.
    WILLISTON WALKER, PH.D., D.D.

      Professor of Church History, Yale University. Author of _History
      of the Congregational Churches in the United States_; _The
      Reformation_; _John Calvin_; &c.

    Hopkins, Samuel.

  W. Y. S.
    WILLIAM YOUNG SELLAR, LL.D.

      See the biographical article, SELLAR, W. Y.

    Horace (_in part_).



PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES

  Harrow.                Heligoland.       High Place.
  Hartford.              Heliostat.        Highway.
  Hartlepool.            Hellebore.        Hockey.
  Harvard University.    Helmet.           Holly.
  Harz Mountains.        Hemp.             Homily.
  Hat.                   Herbarium.        Honduras.
  Havana.                Herefordshire.    Hong-Kong.
  Hawaii.                Hero.             Hostage.
  Hazel.                 Hertfordshire.    Hottentots.
  Health.                Hesse.            Household, Royal.
  Heath.                 Hesse-Cassel.     Hudson's Bay Company.
  Hebrides, The.         Hesse-Darmstadt.  Huntingdonshire.
  Heidelberg Catechism.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in
    the final volume.



  ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

  ELEVENTH EDITION

  VOLUME XIII



HARMONY (Gr. [Greek: harmonia], a concord of musical sounds, [Greek:
harmozein] to join; [Greek: harmonikê] (sc. [Greek: technê]) meant the
science or art of music, [Greek: mousikê] being of wider significance),
a combination of parts so that the effect should be aesthetically
pleasing. In its earliest sense in English it is applied, in music, to a
pleasing combination of musical sounds, but technically it is confined
to the science of the combination of sounds of different pitch.

I. _Concord and Discord._--By means of harmony modern music has attained
the dignity of an independent art. In ancient times, as at the present
day among nations that have not come under the influence of European
music, the harmonic sense was, if not altogether absent, at all events
so obscure and undeveloped as to have no organizing power in the art.
The formation by the Greeks of a scale substantially the same as that
which has received our harmonic system shows a latent harmonic sense,
but shows it in a form which positively excludes harmony as an artistic
principle. The Greek perception of certain _successions_ of sounds as
concordant rests on a principle identifiable with the scientific basis
of concord in simultaneous sounds. But the Greeks did not conceive of
musical simultaneity as consisting of anything but identical sounds; and
when they developed the practice of _magadizing_--i.e. singing in
octaves--they did so because, while the difference between high and low
voices was a source of pleasure, a note and its octave were then, as
now, perceived to be in a certain sense identical. We will now start
from this fundamental identity of the octave, and with it trace the
genesis of other concords and discords; bearing in mind that the history
of harmony is the history of artistic instincts and not a series of
progressive scientific theories.

[Illustration: Ex. 1.--The notes marked * are out of tune.]

The unisonous quality of octaves is easily explained when we examine the
"harmonic series" of upper partials (see SOUND). Every musical sound, if
of a timbre at all rich (and hence pre-eminently the human voice),
contains some of these upper partials. Hence, if one voice produce a
note which is an upper partial of another note sung at the same time by
another voice, the higher voice adds nothing new to the lower but only
reinforces what is already there. Moreover, the upper partials of the
higher voice will also coincide with some of the lower. Thus, if a note
and its octave be sung together, the upper octave is itself No. 2 in the
harmonic series of the lower, No. 2 of its own series is No. 4 of the
lower, and its No. 3 is No. 6, and so on. The impression of identity
thus produced is so strong that we often find among people unacquainted
with music a firm conviction that a man is singing in unison with a boy
or an instrument when he is really singing in the octave below. And even
musical people find a difficulty in realizing more than a certain
brightness and richness of single tone when a violinist plays octaves
perfectly in tune and with a strong emphasis on the lower notes.
Doubling in octaves therefore never was and never will be a process of
harmonization.

Now if we take the case of one sound doubling another in the 12th, it
will be seen that here, too, no real addition is made by the higher
sound to the lower. The 12th is No. 3 of the harmonic series, No. 2 of
the higher note will be No. 6 of the lower, No. 3 will be No. 9, and so
on. But there is an important difference between the 12th and the
octave. However much we alter the octave by transposition into other
octaves, we never get anything but unison or octaves. Two notes two
octaves apart are just as devoid of harmonic difference as a plain
octave or unison. But, when we apply our principle of the identity of
the octave to the 12th, we find that the removal of one of the notes by
an octave may produce a combination in which there is a distinct
harmonic element. If, for example, the lower note is raised by an octave
so that the higher note is a fifth from it, No. 3 of the harmonic series
of the higher note will not belong to the lower note at all. The 5th is
thus a combination of which the two notes are obviously different; and,
moreover, the principle of the identity of octaves can now operate in a
contrary direction and transfer this positive harmonic value of the 5th
to the 12th, so that we regard the 12th as a 5th plus an octave, instead
of regarding the 5th as a compressed 12th.[1] At the same time, the
relation between the two is quite close enough to give the 5th much of
the feeling of harmonic poverty and reduplication that characterizes the
octave; and hence when medieval musicians doubled a melody in 5ths and
octaves they believed themselves to be doing no more than extending and
diversifying the means by which a melody might be sung in unison by
different voices. How they came to prefer for this purpose the 4th to
the 5th seems puzzling when we consider that the 4th does not appear as
a fundamental interval in the harmonic series until that series has
passed beyond that part of it that maintains any relation to our musical
ideas. But it was of course certain that they obtained the 4th as the
inversion of the 5th; and it is at least possible that the singers of
lower voices found a peculiar pleasure in singing below higher voices in
a position which they felt harmonically as that of a top part. That is
to say, a bass, in singing a fourth below a tenor, would take pleasure
in doubling in the octave an alto singing normally a 5th above the
tenor.[2] This should also, perhaps, be taken in connexion with the fact
that the interval of the downward 4th is in melody the earliest that
became settled. And it is worth noticing that, in any singing-class
where polyphonic music is sung, there is a marked tendency among the
more timid members to find their way into their part by a gentle humming
which is generally a 4th below the nearest steady singers.

The limited compass of voices soon caused modifications in the medieval
parallelisms of 4ths and 5ths, and the introduction of independent
ornaments into one or more of the voices increased to an extent which
drew attention to other intervals. It was long, however, before the true
criterion of concord and discord was attained; and at first the notion
of concord was purely acoustic, that is to say, the ear was sensitive
only to the difference in roughness and smoothness between combinations
in themselves. And even the modern researches of Helmholtz fail to
represent classical and modern harmony, in so far as the phenomena of
beats are quite independent of the contrapuntal nature of concord and
discord which depends upon the melodic intelligibility of the motion of
the parts. Beats give rise to a strong physical sense of discord akin to
the painfulness of a flickering light (see SOUND). Accordingly, in the
earliest experiments in harmony, the ear, in the absence of other
criteria, attached much more importance to the purely acoustic roughness
of beats than our ears under the experience of modern music. This, and
the circumstance that the _imperfect_ concords[3] (the 3rds and 6ths)
long remained out of tune owing to the incompleteness of the Pythagorean
system of harmonic ratios, sufficiently explain the medieval treatment
of these combinations as discords differing only in degree from the
harshness of 2nds and 7ths. In the earliest attempts at really
contrapuntal writing (the astonishing 13th and 14th-century motets, in
which voices are made to sing different melodies at once, with what
seems to modern ears a total disregard of sound and sense) we find that
the method consists in a kind of rough-hewing by which the concords of
the octave, 5th and 4th are provided at most of the strong accents,
while the rest of the harmony is left to take care of itself. As the art
advanced the imperfect concords began to be felt as different from the
discords; but as their true nature appeared it brought with it such an
increased sense of the harmonic poverty of octaves, 5ths and 4ths, as
ended in a complete inversion of the earliest rules of harmony.

The harmonic system of the later 15th century, which culminated in the
"golden age" of the 16th-century polyphony, may be described as follows:
Imagine a flux of simultaneous independent melodies, so ordered as to
form an artistic texture based not only on the variety of the melodies
themselves, but also upon gradations between points of repose and points
in which the roughness of sound is rendered interesting and beautiful by
means of the clearness with which the melodic sense in each part
indicates the convergence of all towards the next point of repose. The
typical point of repose owes its effect not only to the acoustic
smoothness of the combination, but to the fact that it actually
consists of the essential elements present in the first five notes of
the harmonic series. The major 3rd has thus in this scheme asserted
itself as a concord, and the fundamental principle of the identity of
octaves produces the result that any combination of a bass note with a
major 3rd and a perfect 5th above it, at any distance, and with any
amount of doubling, may constitute a concord available even as the final
point of repose in the whole composition. And by degrees the _major
triad_, with its major 3rd, became so familiar that a chord consisting
of a bare 5th, with or without an octave, was regarded rather as a
skeleton triad without the 3rd than as a concord free from elements of
imperfection. Again, the identity of the octave secured for the
combination of a note with its minor 3rd and minor 6th a place among
concords; because, whether so recognized by early theorists or not, it
was certainly felt as an inversion of the major triad. The fact that its
bass note is not the fundamental note (and therefore has a series of
upper partials not compatible with the higher notes) deprives it of the
finality and perfection of the major triad, to which, however, its
relationship is too near for it to be felt otherwise than as a concord.
This sufficiently explains why the minor 6th ranks as a concord in
music, though it is acoustically nearly as rough as the discord of the
minor 7th, and considerably rougher than that of the 7th note of the
harmonic series, which has not become accepted in our musical system at
all.

[Illustration: Ex. 2.]

[Illustration: Ex. 3.]

But the major triad and its inversion are not the only concords that
will be produced by our flux of melodies. From time to time this flux
will arrest attention by producing a combination which, while it does
not appeal to the ear as being a part of the harmonic chord of nature,
yet contains in itself no elements not already present in the major
triad. Theorists have in vain tried to find in "nature" a combination of
a note with its minor 3rd and perfect 5th; and so long as harmony was
treated unhistorically and unscientifically as an a priori theory in
which every chord must needs have a "root," the minor triad, together
with nearly every other harmonic principle of any complexity, remained a
mystery. But the minor triad, as an artistic and not purely acoustic
phenomenon, is an inevitable thing. It has the character of a concord
because of our intellectual perception that it contains the same
elements as the major triad; but its absence of connexion with the
natural harmonic series deprives it of complete finality in the simple
system of 16th-century harmony, and at the same time gives it a
permanent contrast with the major triad; a contrast which is
acoustically intensified by the fact that, though its intervals are in
themselves as concordant as those of the major triad, their relative
position produces decidedly rough combinations of "resultant tones."

By the time our flux of melodies had come to include the major and minor
triads as concords, the notion of the independence of parts had become
of such paramount importance as totally to revolutionize the medieval
conception of the perfect concords. Fifths and octaves no longer formed
an oasis in a desert of cacophony, but they assumed the character of
concord so nearly approaching to unison that a pair of consecutive 5ths
or octaves began to be increasingly felt as violating the independence
of the parts. And thus it came about that in pure 16th-century
counterpoint (as indeed at the present day whenever harmony and
counterpoint are employed in their purest significance) consecutive 5ths
and octaves are strictly forbidden. When we compare our laws of
counterpoint with those of medieval discant (in which consecutive 5ths
and octaves are the rule, while consecutive 3rds and 6ths are strictly
forbidden) we are sometimes tempted to think that the very nature of the
human ear has changed. But it is now generally recognized that the
process was throughout natural and inevitable, and the above account
aims at showing that consecutive 5ths are forbidden by our harmonic
system for the very reason which inculcated them in the system of the
12th century.

II. _Tonality._--As soon as the major and minor triad and their first
inversions were well-defined entities, it became evident that the
successions of these concords and their alternations with discord
involved principles at once larger and more subtle than those of mere
difference in smoothness and artificiality. Not only was a major chord
(or at least its skeleton) necessary for the final point of repose in a
composition, but it could not itself sound final unless the concords as
well as the discords before it showed a well-defined tendency towards
it. This tendency was best realized when the penultimate concord had its
fundamental note at the distance of a 5th or a 4th above or below that
of the final chord. When the fundamental note of the penultimate chord
is a 5th above or (what is the same thing) a 4th below that of the final
chord, we have an "authentic" or "perfect" cadence, and the relation
between the two chords is very clear. While the contrast between them is
well marked, they have one note in common--for the root of the
penultimate chord is the 5th of the final chord; and the statement of
this common note, first as an octave or unison and then as a 5th,
expresses the first facts of harmony with a force which the major 3rds
of the chords can only strengthen, while it also involves in the bass
that melodic interval of the 4th or the 5th which is now known to be the
germ of all melodic scales. The relation of the final note of a scale
with its upper 5th or lower 4th thus becomes a fundamental fact of
complex harmonic significance--that is to say, of harmony modified by
melody in so far as it concerns the succession of sounds as well as
their simultaneous combination. In our modern key-system the final note
of the scale is called the _tonic_, and the 5th above or 4th below it is
the _dominant_. (In the 16th century the term "dominant" has this
meaning only in the "authentic" modes other than the Phrygian, but as an
aesthetic fact it is present in all music, though the theory here given
would not have been intelligible to any composers before the 18th
century). Another penultimate chord asserts itself as the converse of
the dominant--namely, the chord of which the root is a 5th below or a
4th above the final. This chord has not that relationship to the final
which the dominant chord shows, for its fundamental note is not in the
harmonic series of the final. But the fundamental note of the final
chord is in its harmonic series, and in fact stands to it as the
dominant stands to the final. Thus the progression from _subdominant_,
as it is called, to tonic, or final, forms a full close known as the
"plagal cadence," second only in importance to the "perfect" or
"authentic cadence." In our modern key-system these three chords, the
tonic, the dominant and the subdominant, form a firm harmonic centre in
reference to which all other chords are grouped. The tonic is the final
in which everything ultimately resolves: the dominant stands on one side
of it as a chord based on the note harmonically most closely related to
the tonic, and the subdominant stands on the other side as the converse
and opposite of the dominant, weaker than the dominant because not
directly derived from the tonic. The other triads obtainable from the
notes of the scale are all minor, and of less importance; and their
relationship to each other and to the tonic is most definite when they
are so grouped that their basses rise and fall in 4th and 5ths, because
they then tend to imitate the relationship between tonic, dominant and
subdominant.

[Illustration: Ex. 4.]

[Illustration: Ex. 5.]

[Illustration: Ex. 6.

Tonic. Supertonic. Mediant. Sub-dominant. Dominant. Sub-mediant.][4]

Here are the six common chords of the diatonic scale. The triad on the
7th degree or "leading-note" (B) is a discord, and is therefore not
given here.

Now, in the 16th century it was neither necessary nor desirable that
chords should be grouped exclusively in this way. The relation between
tonic, dominant and subdominant must necessarily appear at the final
close, and in a lesser degree at subordinate points of repose; but,
where no harmonies were dwelt on as stable and independent entities
except the major and minor triads and their first inversions, a scheme
in which these were confined to the illustration of their most
elementary relationship would be intolerably monotonous. It is therefore
neither surprising nor a sign of archaism that the tonality of modal
music is from the modern point of view often very indefinite. On the
contrary, the distinction between masterpieces and inferior works in the
16th century is nowhere more evident than in the expressive power of
modal tonality, alike where it resembles and where it differs from
modern. Nor is it too much to say that that expressive power is based on
the modern sense of key, and that a description of modal tonality in
terms of modern key will accurately represent the harmonic art of
Palestrina and the other supreme masters, though it will have almost as
little in common with 16th-century theory and inferior 16th-century
practice as it has with modern custom. We must conceive modal harmony
and tonality as a scheme in which voices move independently and
melodiously in a scale capable of bearing the three chords of the tonic,
dominant and subdominant, besides three other minor triads, but not
under such restrictions of symmetrical rhythm and melodic design as will
necessitate a confinement to schemes in which these three cardinal
chords occupy a central position. The only stipulation is that the
relationship of at least two cardinal chords shall appear at every full
close. At other points the character and drift of the harmony is
determined by quite a different principle--namely, that, the scale being
conceived as indefinitely extended, the voices are agreed in selecting a
particular section of it, the position of which determines not only the
melodic character of each part but also the harmonic character of the
whole, according to its greater or less remoteness from the scale in
which major cardinal chords occupy a central position. Historically
these modes were derived, with various errors and changes, from the
purely melodic modes of the Greeks. Aesthetically they are systems of
modern tonality adapted to conditions in which the range of harmony was
the smallest possible, and the necessity for what we may conveniently
call a clear and solid key-perspective incomparably slighter than that
for variety within so narrow a range. We may thus regard modal harmony
as an essentially modern scheme, presented to us in cross-sections of
various degrees of obliquity, and modified at every close so as either
to take us to a point of view in which we see the harmony symmetrically
(as in those modes[5] of which the final chord is normally major, namely
the Ionian, which is practically our major scale, the Mixolydian and the
Lydian, which last is almost invariably turned into Ionian by the
systematic flattening of its 4th degree) or else to transform the mode
itself so that its own notes are flattened and sharpened into suitable
final chords (as is necessary in those modes of which the triad on the
final is normally minor, namely, the Dorian, Phrygian and Aeolian). In
this way we may describe Mixolydian tonality as a harmonic scheme in
which the keys of G major and C major are so combined that sometimes we
feel that we are listening to harmony in C major that is disposed to
overbalance towards the dominant, and sometimes that we are in G major
with a pronounced leaning towards the subdominant. In the Dorian mode
our sensations of tonality are more confused. We seem to be wandering
through all the key-relationships of a minor tonic without defining
anything, until at the final close the harmonies gather strength and
bring us, perhaps with poetic surprise, to a close in D with a major
chord. In the Phrygian mode the difficulty in forming the final close is
such that classical Phrygian compositions actually end in what we feel
to be a half-close, an impression which is by the great masters rendered
perfectly artistic by the strong feeling that all such parts of the
composition as do not owe their expression to the variety and
inconstancy of their harmonic drift are on the dominant of A minor.

It cannot be too strongly insisted that the expression of modal music is
a permanent artistic fact. Its refinements may be crowded out by the
later tonality, in which the much greater variety of fixed chords needs
a much more rigid harmonic scheme to control it, but they can never be
falsified. And when Beethoven in his last "Bagatelle" raises the 6th of
a minor scale for the pleasure he takes in an unexpectedly bright major
chord; or when, in the _Incarnatus_ of his _Mass in D_, he makes a free
use of the Dorian scale, he is actuated by precisely the same harmonic
and aesthetic motives as those of the wonderful opening of Palestrina's
eight-part _Stabat Mater_; just as in the Lydian figured chorale in his
_A minor Quartet_ he carries out the principle of harmonic variety, as
produceable by an oblique melodic scale, with a thoroughness from which
Palestrina himself would have shrunk. (We have noted that in
16th-century music the Lydian mode is almost invariably Ionicized.)

[Illustration: Ex. 7. Suspension.]

[Illustration: No. 8. Passing Notes.]

[Illustration: Ex. 9.]

III. _Modern Harmony and Tonality._--In the harmonic system of
Palestrina only two kinds of discord are possible, namely, _suspensions_
and _passing-notes_. The principle of the suspension is that while parts
are moving from one concord to another one of the parts remains behind,
so as to create a discord at the moment when the other parts proceed.
The suspended part then goes on to its concordant note, which must lie
on an adjacent (and in most cases a lower) degree of the scale.
Passing-notes are produced transiently by the motion of a part up or
down the scale while other parts remain stationary. The possibilities of
these two devices can be worked out logically so as to produce
combinations of extreme harshness. And, when combined with the rules
which laid on the performers the responsibility for modifying the strict
scale of the mode in order to form satisfactory closes and avoid melodic
harshness, they sometimes gave rise to combinations which the clearest
artistic intellects of the 16th century perceived as incompatible with
the modal style. For example, in a passage written thus the singer of
the lower part would be obliged to flatten his B in order to avoid the
ugly "tritone" between F and B, while the other singer would be hardly
less likely on the spur of the moment to sharpen his G under the
impression that he was making a close; and thus one of the most complex
and characteristically modern discords, that of the augmented 6th, did
frequently occur in 16th-century performances, and was not always
regarded as a blunder. But if the technical principles of 16th-century
discord left much to the good taste of composers and singers, they
nevertheless in conjunction with that good taste severely restricted the
resources of harmony; for, whatever the variety and artificiality of the
discords admitted by them, they all had this in common, that every
discord was transient and could only arise as a phenomenon of delay in
the movement of one or more parts smoothly along the scale ("in conjunct
motion") or of a more rapid motion up and down the scale in which none
but the rigorously concordant first and last notes received any
emphasis. No doubt there were many licenses (such as the
"changing-note") which introduced discords by skip, or on the strong
beat without preparation, but these were all as natural as they were
illogical. They were artistic as intelligible accidents, precisely like
those which make language idiomatic, such as "attraction of the
relative" in Greek. But when Monteverde and his fellow monodists tried
experiments with unprepared discords, they opened up possibilities far
too vast to be organized by them or by the next three generations. We
have elsewhere compared the difference between early and modern harmony
with that between classical Greek, which is absolutely literal and
concrete in expression, and modern English, which is saturated with
metaphors and abstractions. We may go further and say that a
16th-century discord, with its preparation and resolution, is, on a very
small scale, like a simile, in which both the figure and its
interpretation are given, whereas modern discord is like the metaphor,
in which the figure is a substitute for and not an addition to the
plain statement. It is not surprising that the sudden opening up of the
whole possibilities of modern harmony at the end of the 16th century at
first produced a chaos of style.

Another feature of the harmonic revolution arose from the new habit of
supporting a single voice on chords played by an instrument. This,
together with the use of discords in a new sense, drew attention to the
chords as things in themselves and not as moments of greater or less
repose in a flux of independent melodies. This was as valuable an
addition to musical thought and expression as the free use of abstract
terms is in literature, but it had precisely the same dangers, and has
until recent times vitiated harmonic theory and divorced it from the
modest observation of the practice of great masters. When, early in the
18th century, Rameau devoted much of his best energy to the elaboration
of a theory of harmony, his field of observation was a series of
experiments begun in chaos and resolved, not as yet in a great art, but
in a system of conventions, for the contemporary art of Bach and Handel
was beyond the scope of contemporary theory. He showed great analytical
genius and sense of tonality in his development of the notion of the
"fundamental bass," and it is rather to his credit than otherwise that
he did not emphasize the distinction between discords on the dominant
and those on other degrees of the scale. But his system, with all
subsequent improvements, refutations and repairs only led to that bane
of 19th-century theory and source of what may be called the journalese
of harmonic style, according to which every chord (no matter how
obviously artificial and transient) must be regarded, so to speak, as a
literal fact for which a root and a scientific connexion with the
natural harmonic series must at all cost be found. Some modern theorists
have, however, gone too far in denying the existence of harmonic roots
altogether, and certainly it is neither scientific nor artistic to
regard the coincidence of the major triad with the first five notes of
the harmonic series as merely accidental. It is not likely that the
dominant 7th owes all its naturalness to a resemblance to the flat 7th
of the harmonic series, which is too far out of tune even to pass for an
augmented 6th. But the dominant major 9th certainly gains in
sonorousness from its coincidence with the 9th harmonic, and many cases
in music could be found where the dominant 7th itself would gain from
being so far flattened as to add coincidence with a natural harmonic to
its musical significance as an unprepared discord (see, for example the
"native wood-notes wild" of the distant huntsmen in the second act of
_Tristan und Isolde_, where also the 9th and 11th are involved, and,
moreover, on horns, of which the natural scale is the harmonic series
itself). If the distinction between "essential" and "unessential"
discords is, in the light of history and common sense, a difference only
in degree, it is thus none the less of great aesthetic importance.
Arithmetic and acoustics show that in proportion as musical harmony
emphasizes combinations belonging to the lower region of the harmonic
series the effect will be sonorous and natural; but common sense,
history and aesthetics also show that the interaction of melody, harmony
and rhythm must produce a host of combinations which acoustics alone
cannot possibly explain. These facts are amply competent to explain
themselves. To describe them in detail is beyond the scope of the
present article, but a few examples from different periods are given at
the end in musical type.

IV. _The Minor Mode._--When the predecessors of Bach and Handel had
succeeded in establishing a key-system able to bear the weight of free
discord, that key-system took two forms, in both of which the three
chords of tonic, dominant and subdominant occupied cardinal points. In
the one form the tonic chord was natural, that is to say, major. In the
other form the tonic chord was artificial, that is to say, minor. In the
minor mode so firm is the position of the tonic and dominant (the
dominant chord always being major) that it is no longer necessary, as in
the 16th century, to conclude with a major chord, although it long
remained a frequent practice, rather because of the inherent beauty and
surprise of the effect than because of any mere survival of ancient
customs, at least where great masters are concerned. (This final major
chord is known as the _Tierce de Picardie_.) The effect of the minor
mode is thus normally plaintive because it centres round the artificial
concord instead of the natural; and, though the keynote bears this minor
artificial triad, the ear nevertheless has an expectation (which may be
intensified into a powerful emotional effect) that the final conclusion
of the harmonic scheme may brighten out into the more sonorous harmonic
system of major chords. Let us once more recall those ecclesiastical
modes of which the 3rd degree is normally minor. We have seen how they
may be regarded as the more oblique of the various cross-sections of the
16th-century harmonic scheme. Now, the modern minor mode is too firmly
rooted in its minor tonic chord for the 16th-century feeling of an
oblique harmonic scheme to be of more than secondary importance, though
that feeling survives, as the discussion of key-relationships will show
us. But it is constantly thrust into the background by the new
possibility that the minor tonic chord with its attendant minor
harmonies may give place to the major system round the same tonic, and
by the certainty that if any change is made at the conclusion of the
work it will be upon the same tonic and not have reference to some other
harmonic centre. In other words, a major and minor key on the same tonic
are felt as identical in everything but expression (a point in which the
Tonic Sol Fa system, as hitherto practised, with its identification of
the minor key with its "relative" instead of its tonic major, shows a
most unfortunate confusion of thought). The characteristics of the major
and minor modes may of course be modified by many artistic
considerations, and it would be as absurd to develop this account into a
scheme of pigeon-holed passions as to do the same for the equally
obvious and closely parallel fact that in drama a constant source of
pathos is the placing of our sympathies in an oblique relation to the
natural sequence of events or to the more universal issues of the
subject.

V. _Key-Relationships._--On the modern sense of the identity of the
tonic in major and minor rests the whole distinctive character of modern
harmony, and the whole key-system of the classical composers. The
masters of the 16th century naturally found it necessary to make full
closes much more frequently than would be desirable if the only possible
close was that on the final of the mode. They therefore formed closes on
other notes, but they formed them on these exactly as on a final. Thus,
a close on the second degree of the Ionian mode was identical with a
Dorian final close. The notes, other than the final, on which closes
could be made were called _modulations_. And what between the three
"regular modulations" (known as the dominant, mediant, and participant)
and the "conceded modulations," of which two were generally admitted in
each mode simply in the interests of variety, a composer was at liberty
to form a full close on any note which did not involve too many
extraneous sharps or flats for its correct accomplishment. But there was
a great difference between modal and modern conceptions of modulation.
We have said that the close on the second degree of the Ionian mode was
Dorian, but such a modulation was not regarded as a visit paid to the
Dorian mode, but merely as the formation of a momentary point of repose
on the second degree of the Ionian mode. When therefore it is said that
the modulations of 16th-century music are "purposeless and shifting,"
the criticism implies a purpose in change of key which is wholly
irrelevant. The modal composers' purpose lay in purely local
relationships of harmony, in various degrees of refinement which are
often crowded out of the larger and more coarse-grained scheme of modern
harmony, but which modern harmony is perfectly capable of employing in
precisely the same sense whenever it has leisure.

Modulation, in the modern sense of the term, is a different thing. The
modern sense of tonality is so firm, and modern designs so large, that
it is desirable that different portions of a composition should be
arranged round different harmonic centres or keys, and moreover that the
relation between these keys and the primary key should be felt, and the
whole design should at last return to the primary key, to remain there
with such emphasis and proportion as shall leave upon the mind the
impression that the whole is in the primary key and that the foreign
keys have been as artistically grouped around it as its own local
harmonies. The true principles on which keys are related proved so
elastic in the hands of Beethoven that their results utterly outstripped
the earlier theory which adhered desperately to the limitations of the
16th century; and so vast is the range of key which Beethoven is able to
organize in a convincing scheme of relationship, that even modern
theory, dazzled by the true harmonic possibilities, is apt to come to
the conclusion, more lame and impotent than any ancient pedantry, that
all keys are equally related. A vague conception, dubbed "the unity of
the chromatic scale," is thus made to explain away the whole beauty and
power of Wagner's no less than Beethoven's harmonic system. We have not
space to dispute the matter here, and it must suffice to state
dogmatically and statistically the classical facts of key-relationship,
including those which Beethoven established as normal possibilities on
the suggestion of Haydn, in whose works they appear as special effects.

a. _Direct Relationships._--The first principle on which two keys are
considered to be related is a strengthening of that which determined the
so-called modulations of the 16th-century modes. Two keys are directly
related when the tonic chord of the one is among the common chords of
the other. Thus, D minor is related to C major because the tonic chord
of D minor is the common chord on the supertonic of C (see Ex. 6). In
the same way the four other related keys to C major are E minor the
mediant, F major the subdominant, G major the dominant and A minor the
submediant.

[Illustration: Ex. 10.]

This last key-relationship is sometimes called the "relative" minor,
partly because it is usually expressed by the same key-signature as the
tonic, but probably more justifiably because it is the point of view
from which to reckon the key-relationships of the minor tonic. If we
take the minor scale in its "harmonic" form (i.e. the form deducible
from its chords of minor tonic, minor subdominant and major dominant,
without regard to the exigencies of melody in concession to which the
"melodic" minor scale raises the 6th in ascent and flattens the 7th in
descent), we shall find it impossible to build a common chord upon its
mediant (Ex. 10). But we have seen that A minor is related to C major;
therefore it is absurd to suppose that C major is not related to A
minor. Clearly then we must deduce some of the relationships of a minor
tonic as the converse of those of a major tonic. Thus we may read Ex. 6
backwards and reason as follows: A minor is the submediant of C major;
therefore C major is the mediant or relative major of A minor. D minor
is the supertonic of C major; therefore C major is related to D minor
and may be called its flat 7th. Taking A minor as our standard key, G
major is then the flat 7th to A minor. The remaining major keys (C major
to E minor = F major to A minor) may be traced directly as well as
conversely; and the subdominant, being minor, does not involve an appeal
to the major scale at all. But with the dominant we find the curious
fact that while the dominant _chord_ of a minor key is major it is
impossible to regard the major dominant _key_ as directly related to the
minor tonic, since it does not contain the minor tonic chord at all;
e.g. the only chord of A in E major is A major. But the dominant minor
key contains the tonic chord of the primary minor key clearly enough as
subdominant, and therefore when we modulate from a minor tonic to a
minor dominant we feel that we have a direct key-relationship and have
not lost touch with our tonic. Thus in the minor mode modulation to the
dominant key is, though frequent and necessary, a much more uphill
process than in the major mode, because the naturally major dominant
chord has first to be contradicted. On the other hand, a contrast
between minor tonic and major dominant key is very difficult to work on
a large scale (as, for example, in the complementary key for second
subjects of sonata movements) because, while the major dominant key
behaves as if not directly related to the minor tonic, it also gives a
curious sensation of being merely _on_ the dominant instead of _in_ it;
and thus we find that in the few classical examples of a dominant major
second subject in a minor sonata-movement the second subject either
relapses into the dominant minor, as in Beethoven's _Kreutzer Sonata_
and the finale of Brahms's _Third Symphony_, or begins in it, as in the
first movement of Brahms's _Fourth Symphony_.

The effect of a modulation to a related key obviously depends upon the
change of meaning in the chords common to both keys, and also in the new
chords introduced. Thus, in modulating to the dominant we invest the
brightest chord of our first key with the finality and importance of a
tonic; our original tonic chord becomes comparatively soft in its new
position as subdominant; and a new dominant chord arises, surpassing in
brilliance the old dominant (now tonic) as that surpassed the primary
tonic. Again, in modulating to the subdominant the softest chord of the
primary key becomes tonic, the old tonic is comparatively bright, and a
new and softer subdominant chord appears. We have seen the peculiarities
of modulation to the dominant from a minor tonic, and it follows from
them that modulation from a minor tonic to the subdominant involves the
beautiful effect of a momentary conversion of the primary tonic chord to
major, the poetic and often dramatically ironical power of which is
manifested at the conclusion of more than half the finest classical slow
movements in minor keys, from Bach's E[flat] minor Prelude in the first
book of the _Forty-eight_ to the slow movement of Brahms's _G major
String Quintet_, Op. 111.

The effect of the remaining key-relationships involves contrasts between
major and minor mode; but it is otherwise far less defined, since the
primary tonic chord does not occupy a cardinal position in the second
key. These key-relationships are most important from a minor tonic, as
the change from minor to major is more vivid than the reverse change.
The smoothest changes are those to "relative" minor, "relative" major (C
to A minor; C minor to E[flat]); and mediant minor and submediant major
(C to E minor; C minor to A[flat]). The change from major tonic to
supertonic minor is extremely natural on a small scale, i.e. within the
compass of a single melody, as may be seen in countless openings of
classical sonatas. But on a large scale the identity of primary dominant
with secondary subdominant confuses the harmonic perspective, and
accordingly in classical music the supertonic minor appears neither in
the second subjects of first movements nor as the key for middle
movements.[6] But since the key-relationships of a minor tonic are at
once more obscure harmonically and more vivid in contrast, we find that
the converse key-relationship of the flat 7th, though somewhat bold and
archaic in effect on a small scale, has once or twice been given organic
function on a large scale in classical movements of exceptionally
fantastic character, of which the three great examples are the ghostly
slow movement of Beethoven's _D major Trio, Op. 70_, No. 1, the scherzo
of his _Ninth Symphony_, and the finale of Brahms's _D minor Violin
Sonata_ (where, however, the C major theme soon passes permanently into
the more orthodox dominant minor).

Thus far we have the set of key-relationships universally recognized
since the major and minor modes were established, a relationship based
entirely on the place of the primary tonic chord in the second key. It
only remains for us to protest against the orthodox description of the
five related keys as being the "relative" minor or major and the
dominant and subdominant with their "relative" minors or majors; a
conception which expresses the fallacious assumption that keys which are
related to the same key are related to one another, and which thereby
implies that all keys are equally related and that classical composers
were fools. It cannot be too strongly insisted that there is no
foundation for key-relationship except through a tonic, and that it is
through the tonic that the most distant keys have always been connected
by every composer with a wide range of modulation, from Haydn to Brahms
and (with due allowance for the conditions of his musical drama) Wagner.

b. _Indirect Relationships._--So strong is the identity of the tonic
in major and minor mode that Haydn and Mozart had no scruple in
annexing, with certain reservations, the key-relationships of either as
an addition to those of the other. The smoothness of Mozart's style
makes him prefer to annex the key-relationships of the tonic minor (e.g.
C major to A[flat], the submediant of C minor), because the primary
tonic note is in the second key, although its chord is transformed. His
range of thought does not allow him to use these keys otherwise than
episodically; but he certainly does not treat them as chaotically remote
by confining them to rapid modulations in the development-portions of
his movements. They occur characteristically as beautiful purple patches
before or during his second subjects. Haydn, with his mastery of
rational paradox, takes every opportunity, in his later works, of using
all possible indirect key-relationships in the choice of key for slow
movements and for the trios of minuets. By using them thus sectionally
(i.e. so as not to involve the organic connecting links necessary for
the complementary keys of second subjects) he gives himself a free hand;
and he rather prefers those keys which are obtained by transforming the
minor relationships of a major primary key (e.g. C to A major instead of
A minor). These relationships are of great brilliance and also of some
remoteness of effect, since the primary tonic note, as well as its
chord, disappears entirely. Haydn also obtains extreme contrasts by
changing both modes (e.g. C minor to A major, as in the _G minor
Quartet, Op. 72_, No 6, where the slow movement is in E major), and
indeed there is not one key-contrast known to Beethoven and Brahms which
Haydn does not use with complete sense of its meaning, though his art
admits it only as a surprise.

Beethoven rationalized every step in the whole possible range of
key-relationship by such harmonic means as are described in the article
BEETHOVEN. Haydn's favourite key-relationships he used for the
complementary key in first movements; and he at once discovered that the
use of the major mediant as complementary key to a major tonic implied
at all events just as much suggestion of the submediant major in the
recapitulation as would not keep the latter half of the movement for too
long out of the tonic. The converse is not the case, and where Beethoven
uses the submediant major as complementary key in a major first movement
he does not subsequently introduce the still more remote and brilliant
mediant in the recapitulation. The function of the complementary key is
that of contrast and vividness, so that if the key is to be remote it is
as well that it should be brilliant rather than sombre; and accordingly
the easier key-relationships obtainable through transforming the tonic
into minor do not appear as complementary keys until Beethoven's latest
and most subtle works, as the _Quartet in B[flat], Op. 130_ (where we
again note that the flat submediant of the exposition is temporarily
answered by the flat mediant of the recapitulation).

c. _Artificial Key-relationships._--Early in the history of the minor
mode it was discovered that the lower tetrachord could be very
effectively and naturally altered so as to resemble the upper (thus
producing the scale C D[flat] E[natural] F, G A[flat] B[natural] C).
This produces a flat supertonic (the chord of which is generally
presented in its first inversion, and is known as the Neapolitan 6th,
from its characteristic use in the works of the Neapolitan school which
did so much to establish modern tonality) and its origin, as just
described, often impels it to resolve on a major tonic chord.
Consequently it exists in the minor mode as a phenomenon not much more
artificial than the mode itself; and although the keys it thus connects
are extremely remote, and the effect of their connexion very surprising,
the connexion is none the less real, whether from a major or a minor
tonic, and is a crucial test of a composer's sense of key-perspective.
Thus Philipp Emanuel Bach in a spirit of mere caprice puts the charming
little slow movement of his _D major Symphony_ into E[flat] and
obliterates all real relationship by chaotic operatic connecting links.
Haydn's greatest pianoforte sonata (which, being probably his last, is
of course No. 1 in most editions) is in E[flat], and its slow movement
is in F[natural] major (= F[flat]). That key had already appeared, with
surprising effect, in the wanderings of the development of the first
movement. No attempt is made to indicate its connexion with E[flat]; and
the finale begins in E[flat], but its first bar is unharmonized and
starts on the one note which most contradicts E[natural] and least
prepares the mind for E[flat]. The immediate repetition of the opening
phrase a step higher on the normal supertonic strikes the note which the
opening had contradicted, and thus shows its function in the main key
without in the least degree explaining away the paradoxical effect of
the key of the slow movement. Brahms's _Violoncello Sonata Op. 99_, is
in F; a prominent episode in the development of the first movement is in
E[sharp] minor (= G[flat]), thus preparing the mind for the slow
movement, which is in F[sharp] major (= G[flat]), with a central episode
in F minor. The scherzo is in F minor, and begins on the dominant. Thus
if we play its first chord immediately after the last chord of the slow
movement we have exactly that extreme position of flat supertonic
followed by dominant which is a favourite form of cadence in Wagner, who
can even convey its meaning by its mere bass without any harmonies
(_Walküre_, Act 3, Scene 2: "Was jetzt du bist, das sage dir selbst").

Converse harmonic relationships are, as we have seen, always weaker than
their direct forms. And thus the relation of C major to B major or minor
(as shown in the central episode of the slow movement just mentioned) is
rare. Still more rare is the obtaining of indirect artificial
relationships, of which the episode in the first movement just mentioned
is an illustration in so far as it enhances the effect of the slow
movement, but is inconclusive in so far as it is episodic. For with
remote key-relationships everything depends upon whether they are used
with what may be called cardinal function (like complementary keys) or
not. Even a near key may occur in the course of wandering modulations
without producing any effect of relationship at all, and this should
always be borne in mind whenever we accumulate statistics from classical
music.

d. _Contrary and Unconnected Keys._--There remain only two pairs of
keys that classical music has not brought into connexion, a circumstance
which has co-operated with the utter vagueness of orthodox theories on
the subject to confirm the conventionally progressive critic in his
conviction that all modulations are alike. We have seen how the effect
of modulation from major tonic to minor supertonic is, on a large scale,
obscured by the identity of the primary dominant with the secondary
subdominant, though the one chord is major and the other minor. Now when
the supertonic becomes major this difference no longer obviates the
confusion, and modulation from C major to D major, though extremely
easy, is of so bewildering effect that it is used by classical composers
only in moments of intensely dramatic surprise, as, for example, in the
recapitulation of the first subject of Beethoven's _Eroica Symphony_,
and the last variation (or coda) of the slow movement of his _Trio in
B[flat], Op. 97._ And in both cases the balance is restored by the
converse (and equally if not more contradictory) modulation between
major tonic and major flat 7th, though in the slow movement of the
_B[flat] Trio_ the latter is represented only by its dominant chord
which is "enharmonically" resolved into quite another key. The frequent
attempts made by easy-going innovators to treat these key-contrasts on
another footing than that of paradox, dramatic surprise or hesitation,
only show a deficient sense of tonality, which must also mean an
inability to see the intensely powerful effect of the true use of such
modulations in classical music, an effect which is entirely independent
of any ability to formulate a theory to explain it.[7] There now
remains only one pair of keys that have never been related, namely,
those that (whether major or minor) are at the distance of a tritone
4th. In the first place they are unrelated because there is no means of
putting any form of a tonic chord of F[sharp] into any form of the key
of C, or vice versa; and in the second place because it is impossible to
tell which of two precisely opposite keys the second key may be (e.g. we
have no means of knowing that a direct modulation from C to F[sharp] is
not from C to G[flat], which is exactly the same distance in the
opposite direction). And this brings us to the only remaining subjects
of importance in the science and art of harmony, namely, those of the
tempered scale, enharmonic ambiguity and just intonation. Before
proceeding we subjoin a table of all the key-relationships from major
and minor tonics, representing the degrees by capital Roman figures when
the second key is major and small figures when minor. Thus I represents
tonic major, iv represents subdominant minor, and so on. A flat or a
sharp after the figure indicates that the normal degree of the standard
scale has been lowered or raised a semitone, even when in any particular
pair of keys it would not be expressed by a flat or a sharp. Thus
vi[flat] would, from the tonic of B[flat] major, express the position of
the slow movement of Beethoven's _Sonata, Op. 106_, which is written in
F[sharp] minor since G[flat] minor is beyond the practical limits of
notation.


TABLES OF KEY-RELATIONSHIPS

                                    _A. From Major Tonic_

                        I    Direct Relationships     ii    iii    IV    V    vi
  ----------------------|------------------------------|-----|------|----|-----|--
                        |                              |     |      |    |     |
                        |       Indirect through both  |     |      |    |     |
                        |       i and the second key   |     |      iv   v     |
                        |------------------------------|-----|-----------------|--
                        |                              |     |                 |
                        |                              |     |                 |
  Indirect, through i    \       Indirect through the  |     |                 |
  III[flat]  VI[flat]     \          second key        |    III                VI
  --|-----------|----------\---------------------------|--------------------------
    |           |            \                         |
  Doubly indirect through the \                        |
    former indirect keys       \                       |
  iii[flat]  vi[flat]           \                      |
  -------------------------------\---------------------|--------------------------
                                  \                    |
                                    \                  |
    Artificial, direct      II[flat] \                 |     VII     &    vii
                         -------------\----------------|--------------------------
                                       \               |
    Artificial, indirect[8] ii[flat]     \             |
                         -----------------\------------|--------------------------
                                           \           |
                                             \         |
                                              \        |
                                                \      |
                                                 \     |
  -------------------------------------------------\---|--------------------------
                                                    \  |
                                                     \ |  IV[sharp] & iv[sharp] =
       Unrelated                                      \|    V[flat] & v[flat]
  -----------------------------------------------------\--------------------------
                                                       |\
                                                       | \
                                                       |   \
       Contradictory                                   II  VII[flat] & vii[flat]
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                   _B. From Minor Tonic_[9]

                        i    Direct Relationships     III    iv     v    VI    VII
  ----------------------|------------------------------|-----|------|----|-----|--
                        |                              |     |      |    |     |
                        |       Indirect through both  |     |      |    |     |
                        |       i and the second key   |     IV     V    |     |
                        | -----------------------------|-----------------|-----|--
                         \                             |                 |     |
                          \                            |                 |     |
  Indirect, through i      \     Indirect through the  |                 |     |
  iii[sharp]  vi[sharp]     \        second key       iii                vi    |
  --|-----------|------------\-------------------------------------------------|--
    |           |             \                                               /
    |           |              \                                             /
  Doubly indirect               \                                           /
  III[sharp]  VI[sharp]         |                                         /
  ------------------------------|----------------------------------------/--------
                                 \                                      /
                                   \                                  /
  Artificial, direct                \       II[flat]                 |
                                     \                               |
                                       \-----------------------------|------------
  Artificial, indirect[10]              \   ii[flat]      VII[sharp] | & vii[sharp]
                                         \---------------------------|------------
                                          \                          |
                                            \                        |
                                             \                       |
                                               \                     |
                                                \                    |
  ------------------------------------------------\------------------|-------------
                                                   \                 |
                                                    \   IV[sharp] &  | = V[flat] &
       Unrelated                                     \  iv[sharp     |   v[flat]
  ----------------------------------------------------\--------------|--------------
                                                       \             |
                                                         \           |
                                                          \          |
       Contradictory[11]                                   ii   II  vii[flat]
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------


VI. _Temperament and Enharmonic Changes._--As the facts of artistic
harmony increased in complexity and range, the purely acoustic
principles which (as Helmholtz has shown) go so far to explain
16th-century aesthetics became more and more inadequate; and grave
practical obstacles to euphonious tuning began to assert themselves. The
scientific (or natural) ratios of the diatonic scale were not interfered
with by art so long as no discords were "fundamental"; but when discords
began to assume independence, one and the same note often became
assignable on scientific grounds to two slightly different positions in
pitch, or at all events to a position incompatible with even tolerable
effect in performance. Thus, the chord of the diminished 7th is said to
be intolerably harsh in "just intonation," that is to say, intonation
based upon the exact ratios of a normal minor scale. In practical
performance the diminished 7th contains three minor 3rds and two
imperfect 5ths (such as that which is present in the dominant 7th),
while the peculiarly dissonant interval from which the chord takes its
name is very nearly the same as a major 6th. Now it can only be said
that an intonation which makes nonsense of chords of which every
classical composer from the time of Corelli has made excellent sense, is
a very unjust intonation indeed; and to anybody who realizes the
universal relation between art and nature it is obvious that the chord
of the diminished 7th must owe its naturalness to its close
approximation to the natural ratios of the minor scale, while it owes
its artistic possibility to the extremely minute instinctive
modification by which its dissonance becomes tolerable. As a matter of
fact, although we have shown here and in the article Music how
artificial is the origin and nature of all but the very scantiest
materials of the musical language, there is no art in which the element
of practical compromise is so minute and so hard for any but trained
scientific observation to perceive. If a painter could have a scale of
light and shade as nearly approaching nature as the practical intonation
of music approaches the acoustic facts it really involves, a visit to a
picture gallery would be a severe strain on the strongest eyes, as
Ruskin constantly points out. Yet music is in this respect exactly on
the same footing as other arts. It constitutes no exception to the
universal law that artistic ideas must be realized, not in spite of, but
by means of practical necessities. However independent the treatment of
discords, they assert themselves in the long run as transient. They
resolve into permanent points of repose of which the basis is natural;
but the transient phenomena float through the harmonic world adapting
themselves, as best they can, to their environment, showing as much
dependence upon the stable scheme of "just intonation" as a crowd of
metaphors and abstractions in language shows a dependence upon the rules
of the syllogism. As much and no more, but that is no doubt a great
deal. Yet the attempt to determine the point in modern harmony where
just intonation should end and the tempered scale begin, is as vexatious
as the attempt to define in etymology the point at which the literal
meaning of a word gives places to a metaphorical meaning. And it is as
unsound scientifically as the conviction of the typical circle-squarer
that he is unravelling a mystery and measuring a quantity hitherto
unknown. Just intonation is a reality in so far as it emphasizes the
contrast between concord and discord; but when it forbids artistic
interaction between harmony and melody it is a chimera. It is sometimes
said that Bach, by the example of his forty-eight preludes and fugues in
all the major and minor keys, first fixed the modern scale. This is true
practically, but not aesthetically. By writing a series of movements in
every key of which the keynote was present in the normal organ and
harpsichord manuals of his and later times, he enforced the system by
which all facts of modern musical harmony are represented on keyed
instruments by dividing the octave into twelve equal semitones, instead
of tuning a few much-used keys as accurately as possible and sacrificing
the euphony of all the rest. This system of _equal temperament_, with
twelve equal semitones in the octave, obviously annihilates important
distinctions, and in the most used keys it sours the concords and blunts
the discords more than unequal temperament; but it is never harsh; and
where it does not express harmonic subtleties the ear instinctively
supplies the interpretation; as the observing faculty, indeed, always
does wherever the resources of art indicate more than they express.

Now it frequently happens that discords or artificial chords are not
merely obscure in their intonation, whether ideally or practically, but
as produced in practice they are capable of two sharply distinct
interpretations. And it is possible for music to take advantage of this
and to approach a chord in one significance and quit it with another.
Where this happens in just intonation (in so far as that represents a
real musical conception) such chords will, so to speak, quiver from one
meaning into the other. And even in the tempered scale the ear will
interpret the change of meaning as involving a minute difference of
intonation. The chord of the diminished 7th has in this way four
different meanings--

[Illustration: Ex. 11.]

and the chord of the augmented 6th, when accompanied by the fifth, may
become a dominant 7th or vice versa, as in the passage already cited in
the coda of the slow movement of Beethoven's _B[flat] Trio, Op. 97._
Such modulations are called _enharmonic_. We have seen that all the more
complex musical phenomena involve distinctions enharmonic in the sense
of intervals smaller than a semitone, as, for instance, whenever the
progression D E in the scale of C, which is a minor tone, is identified
with the progression of D E in the scale of D, which is a major tone
(differing from the former as 8/9 from 9/10). But the special musical
meaning of the word "enharmonic" is restricted to the difference between
such pairs of sharps with flats or naturals as can be represented on a
keyboard by the same note, this difference being the most impressive to
the ear in "just intonation" and to the imagination in the tempered
scale.

Not every progression of chords which is, so to speak, spelt
enharmonically is an enharmonic modulation in itself. Thus a modulation
from D flat to E major looks violently enharmonic on paper, as in the
first movement of Beethoven's _Sonata, Op. 110_. But E major with four
sharps is merely the most convenient way of expressing F flat, a key
which would need six flats and a double flat. The reality of an
enharmonic modulation can be easily tested by transporting the passage a
semitone. Thus, the passage just cited, put a semitone lower, becomes a
perfectly diatonic modulation from C to E flat. But no transposition of
the sixteen bars before the return of the main theme in the scherzo of
Beethoven's _Sonata in E[flat], Op. 31_, No. 3, will get rid of the fact
that the diminished 7th (G B[flat] D[flat] E[natural]), on the dominant
of F minor, must have changed into G B[flat] D[flat] F[flat] (although
Beethoven does not take the trouble to alter the spelling) before it
could resolve, as it does, upon the dominant of A[flat]. But though
there is thus a distinction between real and apparent enharmonic
modulations, it frequently happens that a series of modulations
perfectly diatonic in themselves returns to the original key by a
process which can only be called an enharmonic circle. Thus the whole
series of keys now in practical use can be arranged in what is called
the circle of fifths (C G D A E B F[sharp] [= G[flat]] D[flat] A[flat]
B[flat] F C, from which series we now see the meaning of what was said
in the discussion of key-relationships as to the ambiguity of the
relationships between keys a tritone fourth apart). Now no human memory
is capable of distinguishing the difference of pitch between the keys
of C and B[sharp] after a wide series of modulations. The difference
would be perceptible enough in immediate juxtaposition, but after some
interval of time the memory will certainly accept two keys so near in
pitch as identical, whether in "just intonation" or not. And hence the
enharmonic circle of fifths is a conception of musical harmony by which
infinity is at once rationalized and avoided, just as some modern
mathematicians are trying to rationalize the infinity of space by a
non-Euclidian space so curved in the fourth dimension as to return upon
itself. A similar enharmonic circle progressing in major 3rds is of
frequent occurrence and of very rich effect. For example, the keys of
the movements of Brahms's _C Minor Symphony_ are C minor, E major,
A[flat] major (= G[sharp]), and C (= B[sharp]). And the same circle
occurs in the opposite direction in the first movement of his _Third
Symphony_, where the first subject is in F, the transition passes
directly to D[flat] and thence by exactly the same step to A (=
B[flat][flat]). The exposition is repeated, which of course means that
in "just intonation" the first subject would begin in G[flat][flat] and
then pass through a transition in E[flat][flat][flat] to the second
subject in C[flat][flat][flat]. As the development contains another
spurious enharmonic modulation, and the recapitulation repeats in
another position the first spurious enharmonic modulation of the
exposition, it would follow that Brahms's movement began in F and ended
in C sextuple-flat! So much, then, for the application of bad
metaphysics and circle-squaring mathematics to the art of music. Neither
in mathematics nor in art is an approximation to be confused with an
imperfection. Brahms's movement begins and ends in F much more exactly
than any wooden diagonal fits a wooden square.

  The following series of musical illustrations show the genesis of
  typical harmonic resources of classical and modern music.

  [Illustration: Ex. 12.--Three concords (ionic, first inversion of
  subdominant, and dominant of A minor, a possible 16th-century cadence
  in the Phrygian mode).]

  [Illustration: Ex. 13.--The same chords varied by a suspension (*).]

  [Illustration: Ex. 14.--Ditto, with the further addition of a double
  suspension (*) and two passing notes ([dagger][dagger]).]

  [Illustration: Ex. 15.--Ditto, with a chromatic alteration of the
  second chord (*) and an "essential" discord (dominant 7th) at
  ([dagger]).]

  [Illustration: Ex. 16.--Ditto, with chromatic passing notes (**) and
  appoggiaturas ([dagger][dagger]).]

  [Illustration: Ex. 17.--The last two chords of Ex. 16 attacked
  unexpectedly, the first appoggiatura (*) prolonged till it seems to
  make a strange foreign chord before it resolves on the short note at
  [Dagger], while the second appoggiatura ([dagger]) is chromatic.]

  [Illustration: Ex. 18.--The same enharmonically transformed so as to
  become a variation of the "dominant ninth" of C minor. The G[sharp] at
  * is really A[flat], and [Dagger] is no longer a note of resolution,
  but a chromatic passing-note._


  _Definitions._

  (Intended to comprise the general conceptions set forth in the above
  article.)

  1. _Musical sounds_, or _notes_, are sensations produced by regular
  periodical vibrations in the air, sufficiently rapid to coalesce in a
  single continuous sensation, and not too rapid for the mechanism of
  the human ear to respond.

  2. The _pitch_ of a note is the sensation corresponding to the degree
  of rapidity of its vibrations; being _low_ or _grave_ where these are
  slow, and _high_ or _acute_ where they are rapid.

  3. An _interval_ is the difference in pitch between two notes.

  4. _Rhythm_ is the organization, in a musical scheme, of sounds in
  respect of time.

  5. _Melody_ is the organization, in a musical scheme, of rhythmic
  notes in respect of pitch.

  6. _Harmony_ is the organization, in a musical scheme, of simultaneous
  combinations of notes on principles whereby their acoustic properties
  interact with laws of rhythm and melody.

  7. The _harmonic series_ is an infinite series of notes produced by
  the subdivision of a vibrating body or column of air into aliquot
  parts, such notes being generally inaudible except in the form of the
  timbre which their presence in various proportions imparts to the
  fundamental note produced by the whole vibrating body or air-column.

  8. A _concord_ is a combination which, both by its acoustic smoothness
  and by its logical origin and purpose in a musical scheme, can form a
  point of repose.

  9. A _discord_ is a combination in which both its logical origin in a
  musical scheme and its acoustic roughness show that it cannot form a
  point of repose.

  10. The _perfect concords_ and _perfect intervals_ are those comprised
  within the first four members of the harmonic series, namely, the
  octave, as between numbers 1 and 2 of the series (see Ex. 1 above);
  the 5th, as between Nos. 2 and 3; and the 4th, as between Nos. 3 and
  4.

  11. All notes exactly one or more octaves apart are regarded as
  harmonically identical.

  12. The _root_ of a chord is that note from which the whole or the
  most important parts of the chord appear (if distributed in the right
  octaves) as members of the harmonic series.

  13. A chord is inverted when its lowest note is not its root.

  14. The _major triad_ is a concord containing three different notes
  which (octaves being disregarded) are identical with the first, third
  and fifth members of the harmonic series (the second and fourth
  members being negligible as octaves).

  15. The _minor triad_ is a concord containing the same intervals as
  the major triad in a different order; in consequence it is artificial,
  as one of its notes is not derivable from the harmonic series.

  16. _Unessential discords_ are those that are treated purely as the
  phenomena of transition, delay or ornament, in an otherwise concordant
  harmony.

  17. _Essential discords_ are those which are so treated that the mind
  tends to regard them as definite chords possessing roots.

  18. A _key_ is an harmonic system in which there is never any doubt as
  to which note or triad shall be the final note of music in that
  system, nor of the relations between that note or chord and the other
  notes or chords. (In this sense the church modes are either not keys
  or else they are subtle mixtures of keys.)

  19. This final note of a key is called its _tonic_.

  20. The _major_ mode is that of keys in which the tonic triad and the
  two other cardinal triads are major.

  21. The _minor_ mode is that of keys in which the tonic triad and one
  other cardinal triad are minor.

  22. A _diatonic scale_ is a series of the notes essential to one major
  or minor key, arranged in order of pitch and repeating itself in other
  octaves on reaching the limit of an octave.

  23. _Modulation_ is the passing from one key to another.

  24. _Chromatic_ notes and chords are those which do not belong to the
  diatonic scale of the passage in which they occur, but which are not
  so used as to cause modulation.

  25. _Enharmonic_ intervals are minute intervals which never occur in
  music as directly measured quantities, though they exist as
  differences between approximately equal ordinary intervals, diatonic
  or chromatic. In an enharmonic modulation, two chords differing by an
  enharmonic quantity are treated as identical.

  26. _Pedal_ or _organ point_ is the sustaining of a single note in the
  bass (or, in the case of an _inverted pedal_, in an upper part) while
  the harmonies move independently. Unless the harmonies are sometimes
  foreign to the sustained note, it does not constitute a pedal. In
  modern music pedals take place on either the tonic or the dominant,
  other pedal-notes being rare and of complex meaning. Double pedals (of
  tonic and dominant, with tonic below) are not unusual. The device is
  capable of very free treatment, and has produced many very bold and
  rich harmonic effects in music since the earlier works of Beethoven.
  It probably accounts for many so-called "essential discords."

  In the form of _drones_ the pedal is the only real harmonic device of
  ancient and primitive music. The ancient Greeks sometimes used a
  reiterated instrumental note as an accompaniment _above_ the melody.
  These primitive devices, though harmonic in the true modern sense of
  the word, are out of the line of harmonic development, and did not
  help it in any definite way.

  27. The _fundamental bass_ of a harmonic passage is an imaginary bass
  consisting of the roots of the chords.

  28. A _figured bass_, or _continuo_, is the bass of a composition
  supplied with numerals indicating the chords to be filled in by the
  accompanist. _Thorough-bass_ (Ger. _Generalbass_) is the art of
  interpreting such figures.     (D. F. T.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Musical intervals are reckoned numerically upwards along the
    degrees of the diatonic scales (described below). Intervals greater
    than an octave are called compound, and are referred to their simple
    forms, e.g. the 12th is a compound 5th.

  [2] It is at least probable that this is one of the several rather
    obscure reasons for the peculiar instability of the 4th in modern
    harmony, which is not yet satisfactorily explained.

  [3] The perfect concords are the octave, unison, 5th and 4th. Other
    diatonic combinations, whether concords or discords, are called
    imperfect.

  [4] The submediant is so-called because if the subdominant is taken a
    5th below the tonic, the submediant will come midway between it and
    the tonic, as the mediant comes midway between tonic and dominant.

  [5] See PLAIN SONG.

  [6] Until Beethoven developed the resources for a wider scheme of
    key-contrasts, the only keys for second subjects of sonata-movements
    were the dominant (when the tonic was major) and the "relative" major
    or dominant minor (when the tonic was minor). A wider range was
    possible only in the irresponsible style of D. Scarlatti.

  [7] Many theorists mistake the usual extreme emphasis on the dominant
    chord of the dominant key, in preparation for second subjects, for a
    modulation to the major supertonic, but this can deceive no one with
    any sense of tonality. A good practical test is to see what becomes
    of such passages when translated into the minor mode. Illusory
    modulation to the flat 7th frequently occurs as a bold method of
    throwing strong emphasis on to the subdominant at the outset of a
    movement, as in Beethoven's _Sonata, Op. 31_, No. 1.

  [8] Very rare, but the slow movement of Schubert's _C major String
    Quintet_ demonstrates it magnificently.

  [9] All the indirect relationships from a minor tonic are distinctly
    strained and, except in the violently contrasted doubly indirect
    keys, obscure as being themselves minor. But the direct artificial
    modulation is quite smooth, and rich rather than remote. See
    Beethoven's _C[sharp] minor Quartet._

  [10] No classical example, though the clearer converse from a major
    tonic occurs effectively.

  [11] Not (with the exception of II) so violent as when from major
    tonic. Bach, whose range seldom exceeds direct key-relationships, is
    not afraid to drift from D minor to C minor, though nothing would
    induce him to go from D major to C major or minor.



HARMOTOME, a mineral of the zeolite group, consisting of hydrous barium
and aluminium silicate, H2BaAl2(SiO3)5 + 5H2O. Usually a small amount of
potassium is present replacing part of the barium. The system of
crystallization is monoclinic; only complex twinned crystals are known.
A common and characteristic form of twinned crystal, such as is
represented in the figure, consists of four intercrossing individuals
twinned together according to two twin-laws; the compound group
resembles a tetragonal crystal with prism and pyramid, but may be
distinguished from this by the grooves along the edges of the
pseudo-prism. The faces of the crystals are marked by characteristic
striations, as indicated in the figure. Twinned crystals of exactly the
same kind are also frequent in phillipsite (q.v.). Crystals are usually
white and translucent, with a vitreous lustre. The hardness is 4½, and
the specific gravity 2.5.

[Illustration]

The name harmotome (from [Greek: harmos], "a joint," and [Greek:
temnein], "to cut") was given by R. J. Haüy in 1801, and has a
crystallographic signification. Earlier names are cross-stone (Ger.
_Kreuzstein_), ercinite, andreasbergolite and andreolite, the two last
being derived from the locality, Andreasberg in the Harz. Morvenite
(from Morven in Argyllshire) is the name given to small transparent
crystals formerly referred to as phillipsite.

Like other zeolites, harmotome occurs with calcite in the amygdaloidal
cavities of volcanic rocks, for example, in the dolerites of
Dumbartonshire, and as fine crystals in the agate-lined cavities in the
melaphyre of Oberstein in Germany. It also occurs in gneiss, and
sometimes in metalliferous veins. At Andreasberg in the Harz it is found
in the lead and silver veins; and at Strontian in Argyllshire in lead
veins, associated with brewsterite (a strontium and barium zeolite),
barytes and calcite.     (L. J. S.)



HARMS, CLAUS (1778-1855), German divine, was born at Fahrstedt in
Schleswig-Holstein on the 25th of May 1778, and in his youth worked in
his father's mill. At the university of Kiel he repudiated the
prevailing rationalism and under the influence of Schleiermacher became
a fervent Evangelical preacher, first at Lunden (1806), and then at Kiel
(1816). His trenchant style made him very popular, and he did great
service for his cause especially in 1817, when, on the 300th anniversary
of the Reformation, he published side by side with Luther's theses,
ninety-five of his own, attacking reason as "the pope of our time" who
"dismisses Christ from the altar and throws God's word from the pulpit."
He also had some fame as a hymn-writer, and besides volumes of sermons
published a good book on _Pastoraltheologie_ (1830). He resigned his
pastorate on account of blindness in 1849, and died on the 1st of
February 1855.

  See _Autobiography_ (2nd ed., Kiel, 1852); M. Baumgarten, _Ein Denkmal
  für C. Harms_ (Brunswick, 1855).



HARNACK, ADOLF (1851-   ), German theologian, was born on the 7th of May
1851 at Dorpat, in Russia, where his father, Theodosius Harnack
(1817-1889), held a professorship of pastoral theology.

Theodosius Harnack was a staunch Lutheran and a prolific writer on
theological subjects; his chief field of work was practical theology,
and his important book on that subject, summing up his long experience
and teaching, appeared at Erlangen (1877-1878, 2 vols.). The liturgy of
the Lutheran church of Russia has, since 1898, been based on his
_Liturgische Formulare_ (1872).

The son pursued his studies at Dorpat (1869-1872) and at Leipzig, where
he took his degree; and soon afterwards (1874) began lecturing as a
_Privatdozent_. These lectures, which dealt with such special subjects as
Gnosticism and the Apocalypse, attracted considerable attention, and in
1876 he was appointed professor extraordinarius. In the same year he
began the publication, in conjunction with O. L. von Gebhardt and T.
Zahn, of an edition of the works of the Apostolic Fathers, _Patrum
apostolicorum opera_, a smaller edition of which appeared in 1877. Three
years later he was called to Giessen as professor ordinarius of church
history. There he collaborated with Oscar Leopold von Gebhardt in _Texte
und Untersuchungen zur Geschithte der altchristlichen Litteratur_ (1882
sqq.), an irregular periodical, containing only essays in New Testament
and patristic fields. In 1881 he published a work on monasticism, _Das
Mönchtum, seine Ideale und seine Geschichte_ (5th ed., 1900; English
translation, 1901), and became joint-editor with Emil Schürer of the
_Theologische Literaturzeitung_. In 1885 he published the first volume of
his epoch-making work, _Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte_ (3rd ed. in three
volumes, 1894-1898; English translation in seven volumes, 1894-1899). In
this work Harnack traces the rise of dogma, by which he understands the
authoritative doctrinal system of the 4th century and its development
down to the Reformation. He considers that in its earliest origins
Christian faith and the methods of Greek thought were so closely
intermingled that much that is not essential to Christianity found its
way into the resultant system. Therefore Protestants are not only free,
but bound, to criticize it; indeed, for a Protestant Christian, dogma
cannot be said to exist. An abridgment of this appeared in 1889 with the
title _Grundriss der Dogmengeschichte_ (3rd ed., 1898). In 1886 Harnack
was called to Marburg; and in 1888, in spite of violent opposition from
the conservative section of the church authorities, to Berlin. In 1890 he
became a member of the Academy of Sciences. At Berlin, somewhat against
his will, he was drawn into a controversy on the Apostles' Creed, in
which the party antagonisms within the Prussian Church had found
expression. Harnack's view is that the creed contains both too much and
too little to be a satisfactory test for candidates for ordination, and
he would prefer a briefer symbol which could be rigorously exacted from
all (cf. his _Das apostolische Glaubensbekenntnis. Ein geschichtlicher
Bericht nebst einem Nachworte_, 1892; 27th ed., 1896). At Berlin Harnack
continued his literary labours. In 1893 he published a history of early
Christian literature down to Eusebius, _Geschichte der altchristl.
Litteratur bis Eusebius_ (part 2 of vol. i., 1897); and in 1900 appeared
his popular lectures, _Das Wesen des Christentums_ (5th ed., 1901;
English translation, _What is Christianity?_ 1901; 3rd ed., 1904). One of
his more recent historical works is _Die Mission und Ausbreitung des
Christentums in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten_ (1902; English translation
in two volumes, 1904-1905). It has been followed by some very interesting
and important New Testament studies (_Beiträge zur Einleitung in das neue
Testament_, 1906 sqq.; Engl. trans.: _Luke the Physician_, 1907; _The
Sayings of Jesus_, 1908). Harnack, both as lecturer and writer, was one
of the most prolific and most stimulating of modern critical scholars,
and trained up in his "_Seminar_" a whole generation of teachers, who
carried his ideas and methods throughout the whole of Germany and even
beyond its borders. His distinctive characteristics are his claim for
absolute freedom in the study of church history and the New Testament;
his distrust of speculative theology, whether orthodox or liberal; his
interest in practical Christianity as a religious life and not a system
of theology. Some of his addresses on social matters have been published
under the heading "Essays on the Social Gospel" (1907).



HARNESS (from O. Fr. _harneis_ or _harnois_; the ultimate origin is
obscure; the Celtic origin which connects it with the Welsh _haiarn_,
iron, has phonetic and other difficulties; the French is the origin of
the Span. _arnes_, and Ger. _Harnisch_), probably, in origin, gear,
tackle, equipment in general, but early applied particularly to the body
armour of a soldier, including the trappings of the horse; now the
general term for the gear of an animal used for draft purposes, traces,
collar, bridle, girth, breeching, &c. It is usually not applied to the
saddle or bridle of a riding animal. The word, in its original meaning
of tackle or working apparatus, is still found in weaving, for the
mechanism which shifts the warp-threads to form the "shed," and in
bell-hanging, for the apparatus by which a large bell is hung. The _New
English Dictionary_ quotes an early use of the word for the lines, rod
and hooks of an angler (_Fysshing with an Angle_, c. 1450).



HARO, CLAMEUR DE, the ancient Norman custom of "crying for justice,"
still surviving in the Channel Islands. The wronged party must on his
knees and before witnesses cry: "Haro! Haro! Haro! à l'aide, mon prince,
on me fait tort." This appeal has to be respected, and the alleged
trespass or tort must cease till the matter has been thrashed out in the
courts. The "cry" thus acts as an interim injunction, and no inhabitant
of the Channel Islands would think of resisting it. The custom is
undoubtedly very ancient, dating from times when there were no courts
and no justice except such as was meted out by princes personally. The
popular derivation for the name is that which explains "Haro" as an
abbreviation of "Ha! Rollo," a direct appeal to Rollo, first duke of
Normandy. It is far more probable that haro is simply an exclamation to
call attention (O.H.G. _hero_, _hara_, "here"!). Indeed it is clear that
the "cry for justice" was in no sense an institution of Rollo, but was a
method of appeal recognized in many countries. It is said to be
identical with the "Legatro of the Bavarians and the Thuringians," and
the first mention of it in France is to be found in the "Grand coutumier
de Normandie." A similar custom, only observed in criminal charges, was
recognized by the Saxon laws under the name of "Clamor Violentiae." Thus
there is reason to think that William the Conqueror on his arrival in
England found the "cry" fully established as far as criminal matters
were concerned. Later the "cry" was made applicable to civil wrongs,
and, when the administration of justice became systematized, disappeared
altogether in criminal cases. It naturally tended to become obsolete as
the administration of justice became systematized, but it was long
retained in north-western France in cases of disputed possession, and
was not actually repealed until the close of the 18th century. A
survival of the English form of haro is possibly to be found in the
"Ara," a cry at fairs when "settling time" arrived.



HAROLD I. (d. 1040), surnamed Harefoot, the illegitimate son of Canute,
king of England, and Ælfgifu of Northampton. On the death of his father
in 1035, he claimed the crown of England in opposition to Canute's
legitimate son, Hardicanute. His claims were supported by Leofric, earl
of Mercia, and the north; those of Hardicanute by his mother, Queen
Emma, Godwine, earl of the West-Saxons and the south. Eventually Harold
was temporarily elected regent, pending a final settlement on
Hardicanute's return from Denmark. Hardicanute, however, tarried, and
meanwhile Harold's party increased rapidly. In 1037 he was definitely
elected king, and banished Emma from the kingdom. The only events of his
brief reign are ineffectual inroads of the Welsh and Scots. Hardicanute
was preparing to invade England in support of his claims when Harold
died at Oxford on the 10th of March 1040.



HAROLD II. (c. 1022-1066), king of the English, the second son of Earl
Godwine, was born about 1022. While still very young (before 1045) he
was appointed to the earldom of the East-Angles. He shared his father's
outlawry and banishment in 1051; but while Godwine went to Flanders,
Harold with his brother Leofwine took refuge in Ireland. In 1052 Harold
and Leofwine returned. Having plundered in the west of England, they
joined their father, and were with him at the assembly which decreed the
restoration of the whole family. Harold was now restored to his earldom
of the East-Angles, and on his father's death in 1053 he succeeded him
in the greater earldom of the West-Saxons. He was now the chief man in
the kingdom, and when the older earls Leofric and Siward died his power
increased yet more, and the latter part of Edward's reign was virtually
the reign of Harold. In 1055 he drove back the Welsh, who had burned
Hereford. In 1063 came the great Welsh war, in which Harold, with the
help of his brother Tostig, crushed the power of Gruffyd, who was killed
by his own people. But in spite of his power and his prowess, Harold was
the minister of the king rather than his personal favourite. This latter
position rather belonged to Tostig, who on the death of Siward in 1055
received the earldom of Northumberland. Here, however, his harshness
soon provoked enmity, and in 1065 the Northumbrians revolted against
him, choosing Morkere in his place. Harold acted as mediator between the
king and the insurgents, and at length agreed to the choice of Morkere,
and the banishment of his brother. At the beginning of 1066 Edward died,
with his last breath recommending Harold as his successor. He was
accordingly elected at once and crowned. The men of Northumberland at
first refused to acknowledge him, but Harold won them over. The rest of
his brief reign was taken up with preparations against the attacks which
threatened him on both sides at once. William challenged the crown,
alleging both a bequest of Edward in bis favour and a personal
engagement which Harold had contracted towards him--probably in 1064;
and prepared for the invasion of England. Meanwhile Tostig was trying
all means to bring about his own restoration. He first attacked the Isle
of Wight, then Lindesey, but was compelled to take shelter in Scotland.
From May to September the king kept the coast with a great force by sea
and land, but at last provisions failed and the land army was dispersed.
Harold then came to London, ready to meet whichever enemy came first. By
this time Tostig had engaged Harold Hardrada of Norway to invade
England. Together they sailed up the Humber, defeated Edwin and Morkere,
and received the submission of York. Harold hurried northwards; and on
the 25th of September he came on the Northmen at Stamford Bridge and won
a complete victory, in which Tostig and Harold Hardrada were slain. But
two days later William landed at Pevensey. Harold marched southward as
fast as possible. He gathered his army in London from all southern and
eastern England, but Edwin and Morkere kept back the forces of the
north. The king then marched into Sussex and engaged the Normans on the
hill of Senlac near Battle (see Hastings). After a fight which lasted
from morning till evening, the Normans had the victory, and Harold and
his two brothers lay dead on the field (14th of October 1066).



HARP (Fr. _harpe_; Ger. _Harfe_; Ital. _arpa_), a member of the class of
stringed instruments of which the strings are twanged or vibrated by the
fingers. The harp is an instrument of beautiful proportions,
approximating to a triangular form, the strings diminishing in length as
they ascend in pitch. The mechanism is concealed within the different
parts of which the instrument is composed, (1) the pedestal or
pedal-box, on which rest (2) the vertical pillar, and (3) the inclined
convex body in which the soundboard is fixed, (4) the curved neck, with
(5) the comb concealing the mechanism for stopping the strings,
supported by the pillar and the body.

  (1) The _pedestal_ or _pedal-box_ forms the base of the harp and
  contains seven pedals both in single and double action harps, the
  difference being that in the single action the pedals are only capable
  of raising the strings one semitone by means of a drop into a notch,
  whereas with the double action the pedals, after a first drop, can by
  a further drop into a second and lower notch shorten the string a
  second semitone, whereby each string is made to serve in turn for
  flat, natural and sharp. The harp is normally in the key of C flat
  major, and each of the seven pedals acts upon one of the notes of this
  diatonic scale throughout the compass. The choice of this method of
  tuning was imposed by the construction of the harp with double action.
  The pedals remain in the notches until released by the foot, when the
  pedal returns to its normal position through the action of a spiral
  spring, which may be seen under each of the pedals by turning the harp
  up.

  (2) The _vertical pillar_ is a kind of tunnel in which are placed the
  seven rods worked by the pedals, which set in motion the mechanism
  situated in the neck of the instrument. Although the pillar apparently
  rests on the pedestal, it is really supported by a brass shoulder
  firmly screwed to the beam which forms the lowest part of the body, a
  connexion which remains undisturbed when the pedal box and its cover
  are removed.

  (3) The _body_ or _sound-chest_ of the harp is in shape like the
  longitudinal section of a cone. It was formerly composed of staves
  joined together as in the lute and mandoline. Erard was the first to
  make it in two pieces of wood, generally sycamore, with the addition
  of a flat soundboard of Swiss pine. The body is strengthened on the
  inside, in order to resist the tension of the strings, by means of
  ribs; there are five soundholes in the back, which in the older models
  were furnished with swell shutters opened at will by the swell pedal,
  the fourth from the left worked by the left foot. As the increase of
  sound obtained by means of the swell was infinitesimal, the device has
  now been discarded. The harp is strung by knotting the end of the
  string and passing it through its hole in the centre of the
  soundboard, where it is kept in position by means of a grooved peg
  which grips the string.

  (4) The _neck_ consists of a curved piece of wood resting on the body
  at the treble end of the instrument and joining the pillar at the bass
  end. In the neck are set the tuning pins round which are wound the
  strings.

  (5) The _comb_ is the name given to two brass plates or covers which
  fit over both sides of the neck, concealing part of the mechanism for
  shortening the strings and raising their pitch a semitone when
  actuated by the pedals. On the front plate of the comb, to the left of
  the player, is a row of brass bridges against which the strings rest
  below the tuning pins, and which determine the vibrating length of the
  string reckoned from the peg in the soundboard. Below the bridges are
  two rows of brass disks, known as forks, connected by steel levers;
  each disk is equipped with two studs for grasping the string and
  shortening it. The mechanism is ingenious. When a pedal is depressed
  to the first notch, the corresponding lower disk turns a little way on
  a mandrel keeping the studs clear of the string. The upper disk, set
  in motion by the steel levers connecting the disks, revolves
  simultaneously till the string is caught by the two studs which thus
  form a new bridge, shortening the vibrating length of the string by
  just the length necessary to raise the pitch a semitone. If the same
  pedal be depressed to the second notch, another movement causes the
  lower disk to revolve again till the string is a second time seized
  and shortened, the upper disk remaining stationary. The hidden
  mechanism meanwhile has gone through a series of movements; the pedal
  is really a lever set upon a spring, and when depressed it draws down
  the connecting rod in the pillar which sets in motion chains governing
  the mandrels of the disks.

  The harp usually has forty-six strings, of gut in the middle and upper
  registers, and of covered steel wire in the bass; the C strings are
  red and the F strings blue. The compass thus has a range of 6½ octaves
  from [music notes]. The double stave is used as for the pianoforte.
  The single action harp used to be tuned to the key of E[flat] major.

  The modern harp with double action is the only instrument with fixed
  tones, not determined by the ear or touch of the performer, which has
  separate notes for naturals, sharps and flats, giving it an enharmonic
  compass. On the harp the appreciable interval between D[sharp] and
  E[flat] can be played. The harp in its normal condition is tuned to
  C[flat] major; it rests with the performer to transpose it at will in
  a few seconds into any other key by means of the pedals. Each of the
  pedals influences one note of the scale throughout the compass,
  beginning at the left with D, C, and B worked by the left foot.
  Missing the fourth or forte pedal, and continuing towards the right we
  get the E, F, G and A pedals worked by the right foot. By lowering the
  D pedal into the first notch the D[flat] becomes D[natural], and into
  the second notch D[sharp], and so on for all the pedals. If, for
  example, a piece be written in the key of E major, the harp is
  transposed into that key by depressing the E, A, and B pedals to the
  first notch, and those for F, G, C and D to the second or sharp notch
  and so on through all the keys. Accidentals and modulations are
  readily played by means of the pedals, provided the transitions be not
  too rapid. The harp is the instrument upon which transposition
  presents the least difficulty, for the fingering is the same for all
  keys. The strings are twanged with the thumbs and the first three
  fingers.

  The quality of tone does not vary much in the different registers, but
  it has the greatest brilliancy in keys with many flats, for the
  strings are then open and not shortened by the forks. Various effects
  can be obtained on the harp: (1) by harmonics, (2) by damping, (3) by
  guitar tones, (4) by the glissando. (1) Harmonics are produced by
  resting the ball of the hand on the middle of the string and setting
  it in vibration by the thumb or the first two fingers of the same
  hand, whereby a mysterious and beautiful tone is obtained. Two or
  three harmonics can be played together with the left hand, and by
  using both hands at once as many as four are possible. (2) Damping is
  effected by laying the palm against the string in the bass and the
  back of the finger in the treble. (3) Guitar or pizzicato notes are
  obtained by twanging the strings sharply at the lower end near the
  soundboard with the nails. (4) The glissando effect is produced, as on
  the pianoforte, by sliding the thumb or finger along the strings in
  quick succession; this does not necessarily give the diatonic scale,
  for by means of the pedals the harp can be tuned beforehand to chords.
  It is possible to play on the harp all kinds of diatonic and arpeggio
  passages, but no chromatic, except in very slow tempo, on account of
  the time required by the mechanism of the pedals; and chords of three
  or four notes in each hand, shakes, turns, successions of double notes
  can be easily acquired. The same note can also be repeated slowly or
  quickly, the next string being tuned to a duplicate note, and the two
  strings plucked alternately in order to give the string time to
  vibrate.

  Pleyel's chromatic harp, patented in 1894 and improved in 1903 by
  Gustave Lyon, manager of the firm of Pleyel, Wolff & Co., is an
  instrument practically without mechanism which has already won great
  favour in France and Belgium, notably in the orchestra. It has been
  constructed on the familiar lines of the pianoforte. Henry Pape, a
  piano manufacturer, had in 1845 conceived the idea of a chromatic harp
  of which the strings crossed in the centre as in the piano, and a
  report on the construction was published at the time; the instrument,
  however, was not considered successful, and was relegated to oblivion
  until Mr Lyon revised the matter and brought out a successful and
  practical instrument. The advantages claimed for this harp are the
  abandonment of the whole pedal mechanism, a metal framing which
  insures the strings keeping in tune as long as those of a piano, and
  an easily acquired technique. The chromatic harp consists of (1) a
  pedestal on castors, (2) a steel pillar without internal mechanism,
  (3) a wide neck containing two brass wrest-planks in which are fixed
  two rows of tuning pins, and (4) a soundchest in which is firmly
  riveted the steel plate to which the strings are fastened, and the
  soundboard pierced with eyelet holes through which the strings are
  drawn to the string plate. There is a string for every chromatic
  semitone of the scale of C major, the white strings representing the
  white keys of the piano keyboard, and the black strings corresponding
  to the black keys. The tuning pins for the black strings are set in
  the left side of the neck in alternate groups of twos and threes, and
  those for the white in the right side in alternate groups of threes
  and fours. The strings cross half-way between neck and soundboard,
  this being the point where they are plucked; the left hand finds the
  black notes above, and the right hand below the crossing. There is
  besides in the neck a set of twelve tuning buttons, each one of which
  on being pressed gives out one note of the chromatic scale tuned to
  the pitch of the diapason normal. It is obvious that the répertoire
  for this harp is very extensive, including many compositions written
  for the piano, which however cannot be played with any legato effects,
  these being still impossible on this chromatic harp.

  _History._--While the instrument is of great antiquity, it is yet from
  northern Europe that the modern harp and its name are derived. The
  Greeks and Romans preferred to it the lyre in its different varieties,
  and a Latin writer, Venantius Fortunatus,[1] describes it in the 7th
  century of our era as an instrument of the barbarians--"Romanusque
  lyra, plaudat tibi barbarus harpa." This is believed to be the
  earliest mention of the name, which is clearly Teutonic,--O.H.Ger.
  _harapha_, A.-S. _hearpe_, Old Norse _harpa_. The modern Fr. _harpe_
  retains the aspirate; in the Spanish and Italian _arpa_ it is dropped.

  [Illustration: FIG. 1.]

  The earliest delineations of the harp in Egypt give no indication that
  it had not existed long before. There are, indeed, representations in
  Egyptian paintings of stringed instruments of a bow-form having
  affinities with both primitive harp and _nefer_ (a kind of oval
  guitar) that support the idea of the invention of the harp from the
  tense string of the warrior's or hunter's bow. This primitive-looking
  instrument, called _nanga_, had a boat-shaped sound-chest with a
  parchment or skin soundboard, down the centre of which one end of the
  string was fastened to a strip of wood, whilst the other was wound
  round pegs in the upper part of the bow. The nanga was played
  horizontally, being borne upon the performer's shoulder.[2] Between it
  and the grand vertical harps in the frescos of the time of Rameses
  III., more than 3000 years old, discovered by the traveller Bruce[3]
  (fig. 1), there are varieties that permit us to bind the whole, from
  the simplest bow-form to the almost triangular harp, into one family
  (see fig. 2).

  [Illustration: FIG. 2.]

  The Egyptian harp had no front pillar, and as it was strung with
  catgut the tension and pitch must necessarily have been low. The harps
  above-mentioned depicted in the tomb at Thebes, assumed from the
  players to be more than 6 ft. high, have not many strings, the one
  having ten, the other thirteen. What the accordance of these strings
  was it would be hard to recover. We must be content with the knowledge
  that the old Egyptians possessed harps in principle like our own, the
  largest having pedestals upon which they bestowed a wealth of
  decoration, as if to show how much they prized them.

  The ancient Assyrians had harps like those of Egypt in being without a
  front pillar, but differing from them in having the sound-body
  uppermost, in which we find the early use of soundholes; while the
  lower portion was a bar to which the strings were tied and by means of
  which the tuning was apparently effected.[4] What the Hebrew harp was,
  whether it followed the Egyptian or the Assyrian, we do not know. That
  King David played upon the harp as commonly depicted is rather a
  modern idea. Medieval artists frequently gave King David the psaltery,
  a horizontal stringed instrument from which has gradually developed
  the modern piano. The Hebrew "kinnor" may have been a kind of
  trigonon, a triangular stringed instrument between a small harp and a
  psaltery, sounded by a plectrum, or more probably, as advocated by Dr
  Stainer in his essay on the music of the Bible, a kind of lyre.

  The earliest records that we possess of the Celtic race, whether
  Gaelic or Cymric, give the harp a prominent place and harpists
  peculiar veneration and distinction. The names for the harp are,
  however, quite different from the Teutonic. The Irish "clairseach,"
  the Highland Scottish "clarsach," the Welsh, Cornish, Breton "telyn,"
  "telein," "télen," show no etymological kinship to the other European
  names. The first syllable in clairseach or clarsach is derived from
  the Gaelic "clar," a board or table (soundboard), while the first
  syllable of telyn is distinctly Old Welsh, and has a tensile meaning;
  thus resonance supplies the one idea, tension the other.

  The literature of these Celtic harps may be most directly found in
  Bunting's _Ancient Music of Ireland_ (Dublin, 1840), Gunn's
  _Historical Enquiry respecting the Performance on the Harp in the
  Highlands of Scotland_ (Edinburgh, 1807), and E. Jones's _Musical and
  Poetical Memoirs of the Welsh Bards_ (London, 1784). The treatises of
  Walker, Dalyell, and others may also be consulted; but in all these
  authorities due care must be taken of the bias of patriotism, and the
  delusive aim to reconstruct much that we must be content to receive as
  only vaguely indicated in records and old monuments. There is,
  however, one early Irish monument about which there can be no mistake,
  the harp upon a cross belonging to the ancient church of Ullard near
  Kilkenny, the date of which cannot be later than 830; the sculpture is
  rude, but the instrument is clearly shown by the drawing in Bunting's
  work to have no front pillar. This remarkable structural likeness to
  the old harps of Egypt and Assyria may be accidental, but permits the
  plausible hypothesis of Eastern descent. The oldest specimen of the
  beautiful form by which the Irish harp is now recognized, with
  gracefully curved front pillar and sweep of neck (the latter known as
  the harmonic curve), is the famous harp in Trinity College, Dublin,
  the possession of which has been attributed to King Brian Boiroimhe.
  From this mythic ownership Dr Petrie (see essay in Bunting) has
  delivered it; but he can only deduce the age from the ornamentation
  and heraldry, which fix its date in the 14th century or a little
  later. There is a cast of it in the Victoria and Albert Museum. The
  next oldest is in the Highlands of Scotland, the _Clarsach Lumanach_,
  or Lamont's Clarschoe, belonging, with another of later date, to the
  old Perthshire family of Robertson of Lude. Both are described in
  detail by Gunn. This Lamont harp was taken by a lady of that family
  from Argyleshire about 1460, on her marriage into the family of Lude.
  It had about thirty strings tuned singly, but the scale was sometimes
  doubled in pairs of unisons like lutes and other contemporary
  instruments. The Dalway harp in Ireland (fig. 3) inscribed "Ego sum
  Regina Cithararum," and dated 1621, appears to have had pairs of
  strings in the centre only. These were of brass wire, and played with
  the pointed finger-nails. The Italian contemporary "Arpa Doppia" was
  entirely upon the duplex principle, but with gut strings played by the
  fleshy ends of the fingers. When E. Bunting met at Belfast in 1792 as
  many Irish harpers as could be at that late date assembled, he found
  the compass of their harps to comprise [music notes] thirty notes
  which were tuned diatonically in the key of G, under certain
  circumstances transposable to C and rarely to D, the scales being the
  major of these keys. The harp first appeared in the coat of arms of
  Ireland in the reign of Henry VIII.; and some years after in a map of
  1567 preserved in a volume of state papers, we find it truly drawn
  according to the outlines of the national Irish instrument.[5]
  References to the Highlands of Scotland are of necessity included with
  Ireland; and in both we find another name erroneously applied by
  lexicographers to the harp, viz. "cruit." Bunting particularly
  mentions the "cinnard cruit" (harp with a high head) and the "crom
  cruit" (the curved harp). In the Ossianic MSS. of the Dean of Lismore
  (1512) the word "crwt" occurs several times, and in Neill M'Alpine's
  _Gaelic Dictionary_ (1832), which gives the dialect of Islay, closely
  related to that of Ulster, the word "cruit" is rendered "harp." The
  confusion doubtless arose from the fact that from the 11th century
  cithara is glossed _hearpan_ in Anglo-Saxon MSS., a word which, like
  _citharisare_ in medieval Latin, referred to plucking or twanging of
  strings in contradistinction to those instruments vibrated by means of
  the bow. In Irish of the 8th and 9th centuries (Zeuss) cithara is
  always glossed by "crot." The modern Welsh "crwth" is not a harp but a
  "rotta" (see CROWD). An old Welsh harp, not triple strung, exists,
  which bears a great resemblance to the Irish harp in neck, soundboard
  and soundholes. But this does not imply derivation of the harp of
  Wales from that of Ireland or the reverse. There is really no good
  historical evidence, and there may have been a common or distinct
  origin on which ethnology only can throw light.[6] The Welsh like the
  Irish harp was often an hereditary instrument to be preserved with
  great care and veneration, and used by the bards of the family, who
  were alike the poet-musicians and historians. A slave was not allowed
  to touch a harp, and it was exempted by the Welsh laws from seizure
  for debt. The old Welsh harp appears to have been at one time strung
  with horse-hair, and by the Eisteddfod laws the pupil spent his
  noviciate of three years in the practice of a harp with that
  stringing. The comparatively modern Welsh triple harp (fig. 4) is
  always strung with gut. It has a rising neck as before stated, and
  three rows of strings,--the outer rows tuned diatonic, the centre one
  chromatic for the sharps and flats. Jones gives it 98 strings and a
  compass of 5 octaves and one note, from violoncello C. As in all
  Celtic harps, the left is the treble hand, and in the triple harps
  there are 27 strings on that side, the right or bass hand having 37,
  and the middle or chromatic row 34.

  [Illustration: FIG. 3. Irish (Dalway) Harp.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 4. Welsh Triple Harp.]

  The first pattern of the modern harp is discovered in German and
  Anglo-Saxon illuminated MSS. as far back as the 9th century.[7] A
  diatonic instrument, it must have been common throughout Europe, as
  Orcagna, Fra Angelico, and other famous Italian painters depict it
  over and over again in their masterpieces. No accidental semitones
  were possible with this instrument, unless the strings were shortened
  by the player's fingers. This lasted until the 17th century, when a
  Tirolese maker adapted hooks[8] (perhaps suggested by the fretted or
  bonded clavichord) that, screwed into the neck, could be turned
  downwards to fix the desired semitone at pleasure. At last, somewhere
  about 1720, Hochbrucker, a Bavarian, invented pedals that, acting
  through the pedestal of the instrument, governed by mechanism the
  stopping, and thus left the player's hands free, an indisputable
  advantage; and it became possible at once to play in no less than
  eight major scales. By a sequence of improvements, in which two
  Frenchmen named Cousineau took an important part, the various defects
  inherent in Hochbrucker's plan became ameliorated. The pedals were
  doubled, and, the tuning of the instrument being changed from the key
  of E[flat] to C[flat], it became possible to play in fifteen keys,
  thus exceeding the power of the keyboard instruments, over which the
  harp has another important advantage in the simplicity of the
  fingering, which is the same for every key.

  It is to Sebastian Erard we owe the perfecting of the pedal harp (fig.
  5), a triumph he gained in Paris by unremitting studies begun when he
  adopted a "fork" mechanism in 1786 and ended in 1810 when he had
  attained complete success with the double action pedal mechanism
  already described above. Erard's merit was not confined to this
  improvement only; he modified the structure of the comb that conceals
  the mechanism, and constructed the sound-body of the instrument upon a
  modern principle more advantageous to the tone.

  [Illustration: Fig. 5. Modern Erard Harp.]

  Notwithstanding these improvements and the great beauty of tone the
  harp possesses, the domestic use of it in modern times has almost
  disappeared. The great cost of a good harp, and the trouble to many
  amateurs of tuning, may have led to the supplanting of the harp by the
  more convenient and useful pianoforte. With this comes naturally a
  diminution in the number of solo-players on the instrument. Were it
  not for the increasing use of the harp in the orchestra, the colour of
  its tone having attracted the masters of instrumentation, so that the
  great scores of Meyerbeer and Gounod, of Berlioz, Liszt and Wagner are
  not complete without it, we should perhaps know little more of the
  harp than of the dulcimer, in spite of the efforts of distinguished
  virtuosi whose devotion to their instrument maintains its technique on
  an equality with that of any other, even the most in public favour.
  The first record of the use of harps in the orchestra occurs in the
  account of the _Ballet comique de la royne_ performed at the château
  de Moutiers on the occasion of the marriage of Mary of Lorraine with
  the duc de Joyeuse in 1581, when harps formed part of the _concert de
  musique_.

  See in addition to the works already referred to, Engel's _Musical
  Instruments in the South Kensington Museum_ (1874); and the articles
  "Harp," in Rees's _Cyclopaedia_, written by Dr Burney, in Stainer and
  Barrett's _Dictionary of Musical Terms_ (1876), and in Grove's
  _Dictionary of Music and Musicians_. On the origins of the instrument
  see _Proceedings of British Association_ (1904) (address of president
  of anthropological section).     (K. S.; A. J. H.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] _Poemata_, lib. vii. cap. 8, p. 245, Migne's _Patrologiae cursus
    completus_ (Paris, 1857-1866, vol. 88).

  [2] A few nangas (c. 1500 B.C.) are preserved among the Egyptian
    antiquities at the British Museum, fourth Egyptian room.

  [3] Bruce's harps are reproduced by Champollion, tome iii. p. 261.

  [4] Representations of these may be seen among the musical scenes in
    the Nimrod Gallery at the British Museum.

  [5] See also a woodcut in John Derrick's _Image of Ireland_ (1581),
    pl. iii. (Edinburgh ed. 1883).

  [6] See the fine volume _Musical Instruments_ on the Irish and
    Scottish harps by Robert Bruce Armstrong (1904), vol. i. Vol. ii.,
    which deals with the Welsh harp, has unfortunately been withdrawn
    from sale.

  [7] See for the medieval harp a careful article by Hortense Panum,
    "Harfe und Lyra im alten Nord-Europa," in _Intern. Mus. Ges._ vol.
    vii. pt. 1 (Leipzig, 1905); and for references as to illuminated
    MSS., early woodcuts, paintings, &c. see Hugo Leichtentritt, "Was
    lehren uns die Bildwerke des 14-17 Jahrhunderts über die
    Instrumentalmusik ihrer Zeit?" ibid. vol. vii. p. 3 (Leipzig, 1906).

  [8] See Nauwerk, "Die Hakenharfe, Die Vervollkommnung des Mechanismus
    an der deutschen Harfe." in _Allg. musik. Ztg._ (Leipzig, 1815), p.
    545 seq.



HARPENDEN, an urban district in the Mid or St Albans parliamentary
division of Hertfordshire, England, 25 m. N.W. by N. from London by the
Midland railway, served also by a branch of the Great Northern railway.
Pop. (1901) 4725. It is a favourite outlying residential district for
those whose work lies in London. The church of St Nicholas is a modern
reconstruction with the exception of the Perpendicular tower. In the
Lawes Testimonial Laboratory there is a vast collection of samples of
experimentally grown produce, annual products, ashes and soils. Sir John
Bennet Lawes (d. 1900) provided an endowment of £100,000 for the
perpetuation of the agricultural experiments which he inaugurated here
at his seat of Rothamsted Park. The success of his association of
chemistry with botany is shown by the fact that soil has been made to
bear wheat without intermission for upwards of half a century without
manure. The country neighbouring to Harpenden is very pleasant,
including the gorse-covered Harpenden Common and the narrow well-wooded
valley of the upper Lea.



HARPER'S FERRY, a town of Jefferson county, West Virginia, U.S.A.,
finely situated at the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers
(which here pass through a beautiful gorge in the Blue Ridge), 55 m.
N.W. of Washington. Pop. (1900) 896; (1910) 766. It is served by the
Baltimore & Ohio railway, which crosses the Potomac here, by the
Winchester & Potomac railway (Baltimore & Ohio) of which it is a
terminus, and by boats on the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, which passes
along the Maryland side of the Potomac. Across the Potomac on the north
rise the Maryland Heights; across the Shenandoah, on the West Virginia
side, the Virginia or Loudoun Heights; and behind the town to the W. the
Bolivar Heights. A United States arsenal and armoury were established at
Harper's Ferry in 1796, the site being chosen because of the good
water-power; these were seized on the 16th of October 1859 by John
Brown (q.v.), the abolitionist, and some 21 of his followers. For four
months before the raid Brown and his men lived on the Kennedy Farm, in
Washington county, Maryland, about 4 m. N.W. of Harper's Ferry. The
engine-house in which Brown was captured was exhibited at the Columbian
Exposition at Chicago and was later rebuilt on Bolivar Heights; a marble
pillar, marked "John Brown's Fort," has been erected on its original
site. On Camp Hill is Storer College (state-aided), a normal school for
negroes, which was established under Free Baptist control in 1867, and
has academic, normal, biblical, musical and industrial departments.

The first settlement here was made about 1747 by Robert Harper, who ran
a ferry across the Potomac. The position of Harper's Ferry at the lower
end of the Shenandoah Valley rendered it a place of strategic importance
during the Civil War. On the 18th of April 1861, the day after Virginia
passed her ordinance of secession, when a considerable force of Virginia
militia under General Kenton Harper approached the town--an attack
having been planned in Richmond two days before--the Federal garrison of
45 men under Lieutenant Roger Jones set fire to the arsenal and fled.
Within the next few days large numbers of Confederate volunteers
assembled here; and Harper was succeeded in command (27th April) by
"Stonewall" Jackson, who was in turn succeeded by Brigadier-General
Joseph E. Johnston on the 23rd of May. Johnston thought that the place
was unimportant, and withdrew when (15th June) the Federal forces under
General Robert Patterson and Colonel Lew Wallace approached, and
Harper's Ferry was again occupied by a Federal garrison. In September
1862, during General Lee's first invasion of the North, General
McClellan advised that the place be abandoned in order that the 10,000
men defending it might be added to his fighting force, but General
Halleck would not consent, so that when Lee needed supplies from the
Shenandoah Valley he was blocked by the garrison, then under the command
of Colonel Dixon S. Miles. On Jackson's approach they were distributed
as follows: about 7000 men on Bolivar Heights, about 2000 on Maryland
Heights, and about 1800 on the lower ground. On the 13th of September
General Lafayette McLaws carried Maryland Heights and General John G.
Walker planted a battery on Loudoun Heights. On the 14th there was some
fighting, but early on the 15th, as Jackson was about to make an assault
on Bolivar Heights, the garrison, surrounded by a superior force,
surrendered. The total Federal loss (including the garrisons at
Winchester and Martinsburg) amounted to 44 killed (the commander was
mortally wounded), 12,520 prisoners, and 13,000 small arms. For this
terrible loss to the Union army the responsibility seems to have been
General Halleck's, though the blame was officially put on Colonel Miles,
who died immediately after the surrender. Jackson rejoined Lee on the
following day in time to take part in the battle of Antietam, and after
the battle General McClellan placed a strong garrison (the 12th Corps)
at Harper's Ferry. In June 1863 the place was again abandoned to the
Confederates on their march to Pennsylvania. After their defeat at
Gettysburg, the town again fell into the hands of the Federal troops,
and it remained in their possession until the end of the war. On the 4th
of July 1864 General Franz Sigel, who was then in command here, withdrew
his troops to Maryland Heights, and from there resisted Early's attempt
to enter the town and to drive the Federal garrison from Maryland
Heights. Harper's Ferry was seriously damaged by a flood in the
Shenandoah in October 1878.



HARPIES (Gr. [Greek: Harpyiai], older form [Greek: Arepyiai], "swift
robbers"), in ancient mythology, the personification of the sweeping
storm-winds. In Homer, where they appear indifferently under the name of
[Greek: harpyiai] and [Greek: thyellai], their function is to carry off
those whose sudden disappearance is desired by the gods. Only one of
them is there mentioned (_Iliad_, xvi. 150) by name, Podarge, the mother
of the coursers of Achilles by Zephyrus, the generative wind. According
to Hesiod (_Theog._ 265) they are two in number, Aëllo and Ocypete,
daughters of Thaumas and Electra, winged goddesses with beautiful
locks, swifter than winds and birds in their flight, and their domain is
the air. In later times their number was increased (Celaeno being a
frequent addition and their leader in Virgil), and they were described
as hateful and repulsive creatures, birds with the faces of old women,
the ears of bears, crooked talons and hanging breasts; even in Aeschylus
(_Eumenides_, 50) they appear as ugly and misshapen monsters. Their
function of snatching away mortals to the other world brings them into
connexion with the Erinyes, with whom they are often confounded. On the
so-called Harpy monument from Lycia, now in the British Museum, the
Harpies appear carrying off some small figures, supposed to be the
daughters of Pandareus, unless they are intended to represent departed
souls. The repulsive character of the Harpies is more especially seen in
the legend of Phineus, king of Salmydessus in Thrace (Apollodorus i. 9,
21; see also Diod. Sic. iv. 43). Having been deprived of his sight by
the gods for his ill-treatment of his sons by his first wife (or for
having revealed the future to mortals), he was condemned to be tormented
by two Harpies, who carried off whatever food was placed before him. On
the arrival of the Argonauts, Phineus promised to give them particulars
of the course they should pursue and of the dangers that lay before
them, if they would deliver him from his tormentors. Accordingly, when
the Harpies appeared as usual to carry off the food from Phineus's
table, they were driven off and pursued by Calaïs and Zetes, the sons of
Boreas, as far as the Strophades islands in the Aegean. On promising to
cease from molesting Phineus, their lives were spared. Their place of
abode is variously placed in the Strophades, the entrance to the
under-world, or a cave in Crete. According to Cecil Smith, _Journal of
Hellenic Studies_, xiii. (1892-1893), the Harpies are the hostile
spirits of the scorching south wind; E. Rohde (_Rheinisches Museum_, i.,
1895) regards them as spirits of the storm, which at the bidding of the
gods carry off human beings alive to the under-world or some spot beyond
human ken.

  See articles in Roscher's _Lexikon der Mythologie_ and Daremberg and
  Saglio's _Dictionnaire des antiquités_. In the article GREEK ART, fig.
  14 gives a representation of the winged Harpies.



HARPIGNIES, HENRI (1819-   ), French landscape painter, born at
Valenciennes in 1819, was intended by his parents for a business career,
but his determination to become an artist was so strong that it
conquered all obstacles, and he was allowed at the age of twenty-seven
to enter Achard's atelier in Paris. From this painter he acquired a
groundwork of sound constructive draughtsmanship, which is so marked a
feature of his landscape painting. After two years under this exacting
teacher he went to Italy, whence he returned in 1850. During the next
few years he devoted himself to the painting of children in landscape
setting, and fell in with Corot and the other Barbizon masters, whose
principles and methods are to a certain extent reflected in his own
personal art. To Corot he was united by a bond of warm friendship, and
the two artists went together to Italy in 1860. On his return, he scored
his first great success at the Salon, in 1861, with his "Lisière de bois
sur les bords de l'Allier." After that year he was a regular exhibitor
at the old Salon; in 1886 he received his first medal for "Le Soir dans
la campagne de Rome," which was acquired for the Luxembourg Gallery.
Many of his best works were painted at Hérisson in the Bourbonnais, as
well as in the Nivernais and the Auvergne. Among his chief pictures are
"Soir sur les bords de la Loire" (1861), "Les Corbeaux" (1865), "Le
Soir" (1866), "Le Saut-du-Loup" (1873), "La Loire" (1882), and "Vue de
Saint-Privé" (1883). He also did some decorative work for the Paris
Opéra--the "Vallée d'Egérie" panel, which he showed at the Salon of
1870.



HARP-LUTE, or DITAL HARP, one of the many attempts to revive the
popularity of the guitar and to increase its compass, invented in 1798
by Edward Light. The harp-lute owes the first part of its name to the
characteristic mechanism for shortening the effective length of the
strings; its second name--dital harp--emphasizes the nature of the
stops, which are worked by the thumb in contradistinction to the pedals
of the harp worked by the feet. It consists of a pear-shaped body, to
which is added a curved neck supported on a front pillar or arm
springing from the body, and therefore reminiscent of the harp. There
are 12 catgut strings. The curved fingerboard, almost parallel with the
neck, is provided with frets, and has in addition a thumb-key for each
string, by means of which the accordance of the string is mechanically
raised a semitone at will. The dital or key, on being depressed, acts
upon a stop-ring or eye, which draws the string down against the fret,
and thus shortens its effective length. The fingers then stop the
strings as usual over the remaining frets. A further improvement was
patented in 1816 as the British harp-lute. Other attempts possessing
less practical merit than the dital harp were the lyra-guitarre, which
appeared in Germany at the beginning of the 19th century; the
accord-guitarre, towards the middle of the same century; and the keyed
guitar.     (K. S.)



HARPOCRATES, originally an Egyptian deity, adopted by the Greeks, and
worshipped in later times both by Greeks and Romans. In Egypt,
Harpa-khruti, Horus the child, was one of the forms of Horus, the
sun-god, the child of Osiris. He was supposed to carry on war against
the powers of darkness, and hence Herodotus (ii. 144) considers him the
same as the Greek Apollo. He was represented in statues with his finger
on his mouth, a symbol of childhood. The Greeks and Romans, not
understanding the meaning of this attitude, made him the god of silence
(Ovid, _Metam._ ix. 691), and as such he became a favourite deity with
the later mystic schools of philosophy.

  See articles by G. Lafaye in Daremberg and Saglio's _Dictionnaire des
  antiquités_, and by E. Meyer (_s.v._ "Horos") in Roscher's _Lexikon
  der Mythologie_.



HARPOCRATION, VALERIUS, Greek grammarian of Alexandria. He is possibly
the Harpocration mentioned by Julius Capitolinus (_Life of Verus_, 2) as
the Greek tutor of Antoninus Verus (2nd century A.D.); some authorities
place him much later, on the ground that he borrowed from Athenaeus. He
is the author of a [Greek: Lexikon] (or [Greek: Peri tôn lexeôn) tôn
deka rhêtorôn], which has come down to us in an incomplete form. The
work contains, in more or less alphabetical order, notes on well-known
events and persons mentioned by the orators, and explanations of legal
and commercial expressions. As nearly all the lexicons to the Greek
orators have been lost, Harpocration's work is especially valuable.
Amongst his authorities were the writers of Atthides (histories of
Attica), the grammarian Didymus, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and the
lexicographer Dionysius, son of Tryphon. The book also contains
contributions to the history of Attic oratory and Greek literature
generally. Nothing is known of an [Greek: 'Anthêrôn synagôgê], a sort of
anthology or chrestomathy attributed to him by Suidas. A series of
articles in the margin of a Cambridge MS. of the lexicon forms the basis
of the _Lexicon rhetoricum Cantabrigiense_ (see DOBREE, P. P.).

  The best edition is by W. Dindorf (1853); see also J. E. Sandys,
  _History of Classical Scholarship_, i. (1906), p. 325; C. Boysen, _De
  Harpocrationis fontibus_ (Kiel, 1876).



HARPOON (from Fr. _harpon_, a grappling-iron, O. Fr. _harpe_, a dog's
claw, an iron clamp for fastening stones together; the source of these
words is the Lat. _harpago_, _harpa_, &c., formed from Gr. [Greek:
harpagê], hook, [Greek: harpazein], to snatch, tear away, cf. "harpy"),
barbed spear, particularly one used for spearing whales or other large
fish, and either thrown by hand or fired from a gun (see WHALE-FISHERY).



HARPSICHORD, HARPSICON, DOUBLE VIRGINALS (Fr. _clavecin_; Ger.
_Clavicymbel_, _Kiel-Flügel_; Ital. _arpicordo_, _cembalo_,
_clavicembalo_, _gravecembalo_; Dutch, _clavisinbal_), a large keyboard
instrument (see PIANOFORTE), belonging to the same family as the
virginal and spinet, but having 2, 3, or even 4 strings to each note,
and a case of the harp or wing shape, afterwards adopted for the grand
pianoforte. J. S. Bach's harpsichord, preserved in the museum of the
Hochschule für Musik at Charlottenburg, has two manuals and 4 strings to
each note, one 16 ft., two 8 ft. and one 4 ft. By means of stops the
performer has within his power a number of combinations for varying the
tone and dynamic power. In all instruments of the harpsichord family
the strings, instead of being struck by tangents as in the clavichord,
or by hammers as in the pianoforte, are plucked by means of a quill
firmly embedded in the centred tongue of a jack or upright placed on the
back end of the key-lever. When the finger depresses a key, the jack is
thrown up, and in passing the crow-quill catches the string and twangs
it. It is this twanging of the string which produces the brilliant
incisive tone peculiar to the harpsichord family. What these instruments
gain in brilliancy of tone, however, they lose in power of expression
and of accent. The impossibility of commanding any emphasis necessarily
created for the harpsichord an individual technique which influenced the
music composed for it to so great an extent that it cannot be adequately
rendered upon the pianoforte.

The harpsichord assumed a position of great importance during the 16th
and 17th centuries, more especially in the orchestra, which was under
the leadership of the harpsichord player. The most famous of all
harpsichord makers, whose names form a guarantee for excellence, were
the Ruckers, established at Antwerp from the last quarter of the 16th
century.     (K. S.)



HARPY, a large diurnal bird of prey, so named after the mythological
monster of the classical poets (see HARPIES),--the _Thrasaëtus harpyia_
of modern ornithologists--an inhabitant of the warmer parts of America
from Southern Mexico to Brazil. Though known since the middle of the
17th century, its habits have come very little under the notice of
naturalists, and what is said of them by the older writers must be
received with some suspicion. A cursory inspection of the bird, which is
not unfrequently brought alive to Europe, its size, and its enormous
bill and talons, at once suggest the vast powers of destruction imputed
to it, and are enough to account for the stories told of its ravages on
mammals--sloths, fawns, peccaries and spider-monkeys. It has even been
asserted to attack the human race. How much of this is fabulous there
seems no means at present of determining, but some of the statements are
made by veracious travellers--D'Orbigny and Tschudi. It is not uncommon
in the forests of the isthmus of Panama, and Salvin says (_Proc. Zool.
Society_, 1864, p. 368) that its flight is slow and heavy. Indeed its
owl-like visage, its short wings and soft plumage, do not indicate a
bird of very active habits, but the weapons of offence with which it is
armed show that it must be able to cope with vigorous prey. Its
appearance is sufficiently striking--the head and lower parts, except a
pectoral band, white, the former adorned with an erectile crest, the
upper parts dark grey banded with black, the wings dusky, and the tail
barred; but the huge bill and powerful scutellated legs most of all
impress the beholder. The precise affinities of the harpy cannot be said
to have been determined. By some authors it is referred to the eagles,
by others to the buzzards, and by others again to the hawks; but
possibly the first of these alliances is the most likely to be true.
     (A. N.)

[Illustration: Harpy.]



HARRAN, HARAN or CHARRAN (Sept. [Greek: Charrhran] or [Greek: Charrha]:
Strabo, [Greek: Karrhai]: Pliny, _Carrae_ or _Carrhae_; Arab. _Harran_),
in biblical history the place where Terah halted after leaving Ur, and
apparently the birthplace of Abraham, a town on the stream Jullab, some
nine hours' journey from Edessa in Syria. At this point the road from
Damascus joins the highway between Nineveh and Carchemish, and Haran had
thus considerable military and commercial value. As a strategic position
it is mentioned in inscriptions as early as the time of Tiglath Pileser
I., about 1100 B.C., and subsequently by Sargon II., who restored the
privileges lost at the rebellion which led to the conquest referred to
in 2 Kings xix. 12 (= Isa. xxxvii. 12). It was the centre of a
considerable commerce (Ezek. xxvii. 23), and one of its specialities was
the odoriferous gum derived from the strobus (Pliny, _H.N._ xii. 40). It
was here that Crassus in his eastern expedition was attacked and slain
by the Parthians (53 B.C.); and here also the emperor Caracalla was
murdered at the instigation of Macrinus (A.D. 217). Haran was the chief
home of the moon-god Sin, whose temple was rebuilt by several kings,
among them Assur-bani-pal and Nabunidus and Herodian (iv. 13, 7)
mentions the town as possessing in his day a temple of the moon. In the
middle ages it is mentioned as having been the seat of a particular
heathen sect, that of the Haranite Sabeans. It retained its importance
down to the period of the Arab ascendancy; but by Abulfeda it is
mentioned as having before his time fallen into decay. It is now wholly
in ruins. The Yahwistic writer (Gen. xxvii. 43) makes it the home of
Laban and connects it with Isaac and Jacob. But we cannot thus put Haran
in Aramnaharaim; the home of the Labanites is rather to be looked for in
the very similar word Hauran.



HARRAR (or HARAR), a city of N.E. Africa, in 8° 45´ N., 42° 36´ E.,
capital of a province of Abyssinia and 220 m. S.S.W. of the ports of
Zaila (British) and Jibuti (French) on the Gulf of Aden. With Jibuti it
is connected by a railway (188 m. long) and carriage-road. Harrar is
built on the slopes of a hill at an elevation of over 5000 ft. A lofty
stone wall, pierced by five gates and flanked by twenty-four towers,
encloses the city, which has a population of about 40,000. The streets
are steep, narrow, dirty and unpaved, the roadways consisting of rough
boulders. The houses are in general made of undressed stone and mud and
are flat-topped, the general aspect of the city being Oriental and
un-Abyssinian. A few houses, including the palace of the governor and
the foreign consulates, are of more elaborate and solid construction
than the majority of the buildings. There are several mosques and an
Abyssinian church (of the usual circular construction) built of stone.
Harrar is a city of considerable commercial importance, through it
passing all the merchandise of southern Abyssinia, Kaffa and Galla land.
The chief traders are Abyssinians, Armenians and Greeks. The principal
article of export is coffee, which is grown extensively in the
neighbouring hills and is of the finest quality. Besides coffee there is
a large trade in durra, the kat plant (used by the Mahommedans as a
drug), ghee, cattle, mules and camels, skins and hides, ivory and gums.
The import trade is largely in cotton goods, but every kind of
merchandise is included.

Harrar is believed to owe its foundation to Arab immigrants from the
Yemen in the 7th century of the Christian era. In the region of
Somaliland, now the western part of the British protectorate of that
name, the Arabs established the Moslem state of Adel or Zaila, with
their capital at Zaila on the Gulf of Aden. In the 13th century the
sultans of Adel enjoyed great power. In 1521 the then sultan Abubekr
transferred the seat of government to Harrar, probably regarding Zaila
as too exposed to the attacks of the Turkish and Portuguese navies then
contending for the mastery of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. Abubekr's
successor was Mahommed III., Ahmed ibn Ibrahim el-Ghazi (1507-1543),
surnamed Gran (Granyé), the left-handed. He was not an Arab but,
probably, of Somali origin. The son of a noted warrior, he quickly rose
to supreme power, becoming sultan or amir in 1525. He is famous for his
invasion of Abyssinia, of which country he was virtual master for
several years. From the beginning of the 17th century Adel suffered
greatly from the ravages of pagan Galla tribes, and Harrar sank to the
position of an amirate of little importance. It was first visited by a
European in 1854 when (Sir) Richard Burton spent ten days there in the
guise of an Arab. In 1875 Harrar was occupied by an Egyptian force under
Raouf Pasha, by whose orders the amir was strangled. The town remained
in the possession of Egypt until 1885, when the garrison was withdrawn
in consequence of the rising of the Mahdi in the Sudan. The Egyptian
garrison and many Egyptian civilians, in all 6500 persons, left Harrar
between November 1884 and the 25th of April 1885, when a son of the
ruler who had been deposed by Egypt was installed as amir, the
arrangement being carried out under the superintendence of British
officers. The new amir held power until January 1887, in which month
Harrar was conquered by Menelek II., king of Shoa (afterwards emperor of
Abyssinia). The governorship of Harrar was by Menelek entrusted to Ras
Makonnen, who held the post until his death in 1906.

The Harrari proper are of a distinct stock from the neighbouring
peoples, and speak a special language. Harrarese is "a Semitic graft
inserted into an indigenous stock" (Sir R. Burton, _First Footsteps in
East Africa_). The Harrari are Mahommedans of the Shafa'i or Persian
sect, and they employ the solar year and the Persian calendar. Besides
the native population there are in Harrar colonies of Abyssinians,
Somalis and Gallas. By the Somalis the place is called Adari, by the
Gallas Adaray.

  See ABYSSINIA; SOMALILAND. Also P. Paulitschke, _Harar:
  Forschungsreise nach den Somâl- und Galla-Ländern Ost-Afrikas_
  (Leipzig, 1888).



HARRATIN, black Berbers, dwelling in Tidikelt and other Saharan oases.
Many of them are blacker than the average negro. In physique, however,
they are true to the Berber type, being of handsome appearance with
European features and well-proportioned bodies. They are the result of
an early crossing with the Sudanese negro races, though to-day they have
all the pride of the Berbers (q.v.), and do not live with or intermarry
among negroes.



HARRIER, or HEN-HARRIER, name given to certain birds of prey which were
formerly very abundant in parts of the British Islands, from their habit
of harrying poultry. The first of these names has now become used in a
generic sense for all the species ranked under the genus _Circus_ of
Lacépède, and the second confined to the particular species which is the
_Falco cyaneus_ of Linnaeus and the _Circus cyaneus_ of modern
ornithologists.

One European species, _C. aeruginosus_, though called in books the
marsh-harrier, is far more commonly known in England and Ireland as the
moor-buzzard. But harriers are not, like buzzards, arboreal in their
habits, and always affect open country, generally, though not
invariably, preferring marshy or fenny districts, for snakes and frogs
form a great part of their ordinary food. On the ground their carriage
is utterly unlike that of a buzzard, and their long wings and legs
render it easy to distinguish the two groups when taken in the hand. All
the species also have a more or less well-developed ruff or frill of
small thickset feathers surrounding the lower part of the head, nearly
like that seen in owls, and accordingly many systematists consider that
the genus _Circus_, though undoubtedly belonging to the _Falconidae_,
connects that family with the Striges. No osteological affinity,
however, can be established between the harriers and any section of the
owls, and the superficial resemblance will have to be explained in some
other way. Harriers are found almost all over the world,[1] and fifteen
species are recognized by Bowdler Sharpe (_Cat. Birds Brit. Museum_, i.
pp. 50-73). In most if not all the harriers the sexes differ greatly in
colour, so much so that for a long while the males and females of one of
the commonest and best known, the _C. cyaneus_ above mentioned, were
thought to be distinct species, and were or still are called in various
European languages by different names. The error was maintained with the
greater persistency since the young males, far more abundant than the
adults, wear much the same plumage as their mother, and it was not until
after Montagu's observations were published at the beginning of the 19th
century that the "ringtail," as she was called (the _Falco pygargus_ of
Linnaeus), was generally admitted to be the female of the "hen-harrier."
But this was not Montagu's only good service as regards this genus. He
proved the hitherto unexpected existence of a second species,[2] subject
to the same diversity of plumage. This was called by him the
ash-coloured falcon, but it now generally bears his name, and is known
as Montagu's harrier, _C. cineraceus_. In habits it is very similar to
the hen-harrier, but it has longer wings, and its range is not so
northerly, for while the hen-harrier extends to Lapland, Montagu's is
but very rare in Scotland, though in the south of England it is the most
common species. Harriers indeed in the British Islands are rapidly
becoming things of the past. Their nests are easily found, and the birds
when nesting are easily destroyed. In the south-east of Europe, reaching
also to the Cape of Good Hope and to India, there is a fourth species,
the _C. swainsoni_ of some writers, the _C. pallidus_ of others. In
North America _C. cyaneus_ is represented by a kindred form, _C.
hudsonius_, usually regarded as a good species, the adult male of which
is always to be recognized by its rufous markings beneath, in which
character it rather resembles _C. cineraceus_, but it has not the long
wings of that species. South America has in _C. cinereus_ another
representative form, while China, India and Australia possess more of
this type. Thus there is a section in which the males have a strongly
contrasted black and grey plumage, and finally there is a group of
larger forms allied to the European _C. aeruginosus_, wherein a grey
dress is less often attained, of which the South African _C. ranivorus_
and the New Zealand _C. gouldi_ are examples.     (A. N.)

[Illustration: Hen-Harrier (Male and Female).]


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The distribution of the different species is rather curious,
    while the range of some is exceedingly wide,--one, _C. maillardi_,
    seems to be limited to the island of Réunion (Bourbon).

  [2] A singular mistake, which has been productive of further error,
    was made by Albin, who drew his figure (_Hist. Birds_, ii. pi. 5)
    from a specimen of one species, and coloured it from a specimen of
    the other.



HARRIGAN, EDWARD (1845-   ), American actor, was born in New York of
Irish parents on the 26th of October 1845. He made his first appearance
in San Francisco in 1867, and soon afterwards formed a stage partnership
with Tony Hart, whose real name was Anthony Cannon. As "Harrigan and
Hart," they had a great success in the presentation of types of low life
in New York. Beginning as simple sketches, these were gradually worked
up into plays, with occasional songs, set to popular music by David
Braham. The titles of these plays indicate their character, _The
Mulligan Guards_, _Squatter Sovereignty_, _A Leather Patch_, _The
O'Regans_. The partnership with Hart lasted from 1871-1884. Subsequently
Harrigan played in different cities of the United States, one of his
favourite parts being George Coggswell in _Old Lavender_.



HARRIMAN, EDWARD HENRY (1848-1909), American financier and railroad
magnate, son of the Rev. Orlando Harriman, rector of St George's
Episcopal church, Hempstead, L.I., was born at Hempstead on the 25th of
February 1848. He became a broker's clerk in New York at an early age,
and in 1870 was able to buy a seat on the New York Stock Exchange on his
own account. For a good many years there was nothing sensational in his
success, but he built up a considerable business connexion and prospered
in his financial operations. Meanwhile he carefully mastered the
situation affecting American railways. In this respect he was assisted
by his friendship with Mr Stuyvesant Fish, who, on becoming
vice-president of the Illinois Central in 1883, brought Harriman upon
the directorate, and in 1887, being then president, made Harriman
vice-president; twenty years later it was Harriman who dominated the
finance of the Illinois Central, and Fish, having become his opponent,
was dropped from the board. It was not till 1898, however, that his
career as a great railway organizer began with his formation, by the aid
of the bankers, Kuhn, Loeb & Co., of a syndicate to acquire the Union
Pacific line, which was then in the hands of a receiver and was
generally regarded as a hopeless failure. It was soon found that a new
power had arisen in the railway world. Having brought the Union Pacific
out of bankruptcy into prosperity, and made it an efficient instead of a
decaying line, he utilized his position to draw other lines within his
control, notably the Southern Pacific in 1901. These extensions of his
power were not made without friction, and his abortive contest in 1901
with James J. Hill for the control of the Northern Pacific led to one of
the most serious financial crises ever known on Wall Street. But in the
result he became the dominant factor in American railway matters. At his
death, on the 9th of September 1909, his influence was estimated to
extend over 60,000 m. of track, with an annual earning power of
$700,000,000 or over. Astute and unscrupulous manipulation of the stock
markets, and a capacity for the hardest of bargaining and the most
determined warfare against his rivals, had their place in this success,
and Harriman's methods excited the bitterest criticism, culminating in a
stern denunciation from President Roosevelt himself in 1907.
Nevertheless, besides acquiring colossal wealth for himself, he helped
to create for the American public a vastly improved railway service, the
benefit of which survived all controversy as to the means by which he
triumphed over the obstacles in his way.



HARRIMAN, a city of Roane county, Tennessee, U.S.A., on the Emory river,
about 35 m. W. by S. of Knoxville. Pop. (1900) 3442 (516 being negroes);
(1910) 3061. Harriman is served by the Harriman & North Eastern, the
Tennessee Central, and the Southern railways. It is the seat of the East
Tennessee Normal and Industrial Institute, for negroes, and of the
American University of Harriman (Christian Church, coeducational; 1893),
which comprises primary, preparatory, collegiate, Bible school, civic
research, commercial, music and art departments, and in 1907-1908 had 12
instructors and 317 students. Near the city are large deposits of iron
and an abundance of coal and timber. Among manufactures are cotton
products, farming tools, leather, tannic acid, furniture and flour.
Harriman was founded in 1890 by a land company. A clause in this
company's by-laws requires that every conveyance of real estate by the
company "shall contain a provision forbidding the use of the property or
any building thereon, for the purpose of making, storing or selling
intoxicating beverages as such." Harriman was chartered as a city in
1891, and its charter was revised in 1899.



HARRINGTON, EARLS OF. The first earl of Harrington was the diplomatist
and politician, William Stanhope (c. 1690-1756), a younger son of John
Stanhope of Elvaston, Derbyshire, and a brother of Charles Stanhope
(1673-1760), an active politician during the reign of George I. His
ancestor, Sir John Stanhope (d. 1638), was a half-brother of Philip
Stanhope, 1st earl of Chesterfield. Educated at Eton, William Stanhope
entered the army and served in Spain, but soon he turned his attention
to more peaceful pursuits, went on a mission to Madrid and represented
his country at Turin. When peace was made between England and Spain in
1720 Stanhope became British ambassador to the latter country, and he
retained this position until March 1727, having built up his reputation
as a diplomatist during a difficult period. In 1729 he had some part in
arranging the treaty of Seville between England, France and Spain, and
for his services in this matter he was created Baron Harrington in
January 1730. Later in the same year he was appointed secretary of state
for the northern department under Sir Robert Walpole, but, like George
II., he was anxious to assist the emperor Charles VI. in his war with
France, while Walpole favoured a policy of peace. Although the latter
had his way Harrington remained secretary until the great minister's
fall in 1742, when he was transferred to the office of president of the
council and was created earl of Harrington and Viscount Petersham. In
1744, owing to the influence of his political allies, the Pelhams, he
returned to his former post of secretary of state, but he soon lost the
favour of the king, and this was the principal cause why he left office
in October 1746. He was lord lieutenant of Ireland from 1747 to 1751,
and he died in London on the 8th of December 1756.

The earl's successor was his son, William (1719-1779), who entered the
army, was wounded at Fontenoy and became a general in 1770. He was a
member of parliament for about ten years and he died on the 1st of April
1779. This earl's wife Caroline (1722-1784), daughter of Charles
Fitzroy, 2nd duke of Grafton, was a noted beauty, but was also famous
for her eccentricities. Their elder son, Charles (1753-1829), who became
the 3rd earl, was a distinguished soldier. He served with the British
army during the American War of Independence and attained the rank of
general in 1802. From 1805 to 1812 he was commander-in-chief in Ireland;
he was sent on diplomatic errands to Vienna and to Berlin, and he died
at Brighton on the 15th of September 1829.

Charles Stanhope, 4th earl of Harrington (1780-1851), the eldest son of
the 3rd earl, was known as Lord Petersham until he succeeded to the
earldom in 1829. He was very well known in society owing partly to his
eccentric habits; he dressed like the French king Henry IV., and had
other personal peculiarities. He married the actress, Maria Foote, but
when he died in March 1851 he left no sons, and his brother Leicester
Fitzgerald Charles (1784-1862) became the 5th earl. This nobleman was a
soldier and a politician of advanced views, who is best known as a
worker with Lord Byron in the cause of Greek independence. He was in
Greece in 1823 and 1824, where his relations with Byron were not
altogether harmonious. He wrote _A Sketch of the History and Influence
of the Press in British India_ (1823); and _Greece in 1821 and 1824_
(English edition 1824, American edition 1825). His son Sydney Seymour
Hyde, 6th earl (1845-1866), dying unmarried, was succeeded by a cousin,
Charles Wyndham Stanhope (1809-1881), as 7th earl, and in 1881 the
latter's son Charles Augustus Stanhope (b. 1844) became 8th earl of
Harrington.

  Before the time of the first earl of Harrington the Stanhope family
  had held the barony of Stanhope of Harrington, which was created in
  1605 in favour of Sir John Stanhope (c. 1550-1621) of Harrington,
  Northamptonshire. Sir John was a younger son of Sir Michael Stanhope
  (d. 1552) of Shelford, Nottinghamshire, who was a brother-in-law of
  the protector Somerset. Sir Michael's support of Somerset cost him his
  life, as he was beheaded on the 26th of February 1552. Sir John was
  treasurer of the chamber from 1596 to 1616 and was a member of
  parliament for several years. He died on the 9th of March 1621, and
  when his only son Charles, 2nd baron (c. 1595-1675), died without
  issue in 1675 the barony became extinct.



HARRINGTON, or HARINGTON, JAMES (1611-1677), English political
philosopher, was born in January 1611 of an old Rutlandshire family. He
was son of Sir Sapcotes Harrington of Rand, Lincolnshire, and
great-nephew of the first Lord Harington of Exton (d. 1615). In 1629 he
entered Trinity College, Oxford, as a gentleman commoner. One of his
tutors was the famous Chillingworth. After several years spent in
travel, and as a soldier in the Dutch army, he returned to England and
lived in retirement till 1646, when he was appointed to the suite of
Charles I., at that time being conveyed from Newcastle as prisoner.
Though republican in his ideas, Harrington won the king's regard and
esteem, and accompanied him to the Isle of Wight. He roused, however,
the suspicion of the parliamentarians and was dismissed: it is said that
he was for a short time put in confinement because he would not swear to
refuse assistance to the king should he attempt to escape. After
Charles's death Harrington devoted his time to the composition of his
_Oceana_, a work which pleased neither party. By order of Cromwell it
was seized when passing through the press. Harrington, however managed
to secure the favour of the Protector's favourite daughter, Mrs
Claypole; the work was restored to him, and appeared in 1656, dedicated
to Cromwell. The views embodied in _Oceana_, particularly that bearing
on vote by ballot and rotation of magistrates and legislators,
Harrington and others (who in 1659 formed a club called the "Rota")
endeavoured to push practically, but with no success. In November 1661,
by order of Charles II., Harrington was arrested, apparently without
sufficient cause, on a charge of conspiracy, and was thrown into the
Tower. Despite his repeated request no public trial could be obtained,
and when at length his sisters obtained a writ of _habeas corpus_ he was
secretly removed to St Nicholas Island off Plymouth. There his health
gave way owing to his drinking guaiacum on medical advice, and his mind
appeared to be affected. Careful treatment restored him to bodily
vigour, but his mind never wholly recovered. After his release he
married,--at what date does not seem to be precisely known. He died on
the 11th of September 1677, and was buried next to Sir Walter Raleigh in
St Margaret's, Westminster.

Harrington's writings consist of the _Oceana_, and of papers, pamphlets,
aphorisms, even treatises, in defence of the _Oceana_. The _Oceana_ is a
hard, prolix, and in many respects heavy exposition of an ideal
constitution, "Oceana" being England, and the lawgiver Olphaus
Megaletor, Oliver Cromwell. The details are elaborated with infinite
care, even the salaries of officials being computed, but the main ideas
are two in number, each with a practical corollary. The first is that
the determining element of power in a state is property generally,
property in land in particular; the second is that the executive power
ought not to be vested for any considerable time in the same men or
class of men. In accordance with the first of these, Harrington
recommends an agrarian law, limiting the portion of land held to that
yielding a revenue of £3000, and consequently insisting on particular
modes of distributing landed property. As a practical issue of the
second he lays down the rule of rotation by ballot. A third part of the
executive or senate are voted out by ballot every year (not being
capable of being elected again for three years). Harrington explains
very carefully how the state and its governing parts are to be
constituted by his scheme. _Oceana_ contains many valuable ideas, but it
is irretrievably dull.

  His _Works_ were edited with biography by John Toland in 1700;
  Toland's edition, with additions by Birch, appeared in 1747, and again
  in 1771. _Oceana_ was reprinted by Henry Morley in 1887. See Dwight in
  _Political Science Quarterly_ (March, 1887). Harrington has often been
  confused with his cousin Sir James Harrington, a member of the
  commission which tried Charles I., and afterwards excluded from the
  acts of pardon.



HARRIOT, or HARRIOTT, THOMAS (1560-1621), English mathematician and
astronomer, was born at Oxford in 1560. After studying at St Mary Hall,
Oxford, he became tutor to Sir Walter Raleigh, who appointed him in 1585
to the office of geographer to the second expedition to Virginia.
Harriot published an account of this expedition in 1588, which was
afterwards reprinted in Hakluyt's _Voyages_. On his return to England,
after an absence of two years, he resumed his mathematical studies, and
having made the acquaintance of Henry Percy, earl of Northumberland,
distinguished for his patronage of men of science, he received from him
a yearly pension of £120. He died at London on the 2nd of July 1621. A
manuscript of Harriot's entitled _Ephemeris chrysometria_ is preserved
in Sion College; and his _Artis analyticae praxis ad aequaliones
algebraicas resolvendas_ was published at London in 1631. His
contributions to algebra are treated in the article ALGEBRA; Wallis's
_History of Algebra_ (1685) may also be consulted. From some papers of
Harriot's, discovered in 1784, it would appear that he had either
procured a telescope from Holland, or divined the construction of that
instrument, and that he coincided in point of time with Galileo in
discovering the spots on the sun's disk.

  See Charles Hutton, _Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary_
  (1815), and J. E. Montucla, _Histoire des mathématiques_ (1758).



HARRIS, GEORGE, 1ST BARON (1746-1829), British general, was the son of
the Rev George Harris, curate of Brasted, Kent, and was born on the 18th
of March 1746. Educated at Westminster school and at the Royal Military
Academy, Woolwich, he was commissioned to the Royal Artillery in 1760,
transferring to an ensigncy in the 5th foot (Northumberland Fusiliers)
in 1762. Three years later he became lieutenant, and in 1771 captain.
His first active service was in the American War of Independence, in
which he served at Lexington, Bunker Hill (severely wounded) and in
every engagement of Howe's army except one up to November 1778. By this
time he had obtained his majority, and his next service was under
Major-General Medows at Santa Lucia in 1778-1779, after which his
regiment served as marines in Rodney's fleet. Later in 1779 he was for a
time a prisoner of war. Shortly before his promotion to
lieutenant-colonel in his regiment (1780) he married. After commanding
the 5th in Ireland for some years, he exchanged and went with General
Medows to Bombay, and served with that officer in India until 1792,
taking part in various battles and engagements, notably Lord
Cornwallis's attack on Seringapatam. In 1794, after a short period of
home service, he was again in India. In the same year he became
major-general, and in 1796 local lieutenant-general in Madras. Up to
1800 he commanded the troops in the presidency, and for a short time he
exercised the civil government as well. In December 1798 he was
appointed by Lord Wellesley, the governor-general, to command the field
army which was intended to attack Tipu Sahib, and in a few months Harris
reduced the Mysore country and stormed the great stronghold of
Seringapatam. His success established his reputation as a capable and
experienced commander, and its political importance led to his being
offered the reward (which he declined) of an Irish peerage. He returned
home in 1800, became lieutenant-general in the army the following year,
and attained the rank of full general in 1812. In 1815 he was made a
peer of the United Kingdom under the title Baron Harris of Seringapatam
and Mysore, and of Belmont, Kent. In 1820 he received the G.C.B., and in
1824 the governorship of Dumbarton Castle. Lord Harris died at Belmont
in May 1829. He had been colonel of the 73rd Highlanders since 1800.

His descendant, the 4th Baron Harris (b. 1851), best known as a
cricketer, was under-secretary for India (1885-1886), under-secretary
for war (1886-1889) and governor of Bombay (1890-1895).

  See Rt. Hon. S. Lushington, _Life of Lord Harris_ (London, 1840), and
  the regimental histories of the 5th Northumberland Fusiliers and 73rd
  Highlanders.



HARRIS, JAMES (1709-1780), English grammarian, was born at Salisbury on
the 20th of July 1709. He was educated at the grammar school in the
Close at Salisbury, and at Wadham College, Oxford. On leaving the
university he was entered at Lincoln's Inn as a student of law, though
not intended for the bar. The death of his father in 1733 placed him in
possession of an independent fortune and of the house in Salisbury
Close. He became a county magistrate, and represented Christchurch in
parliament from 1761 till his death, and was comptroller to the queen
from 1774 to 1780. He held office under Lord Grenville, retiring with
him in 1765. The decided bent of his mind had always been towards the
Greek and Latin classics; and to the study of these, especially of
Aristotle, he applied himself with unremitting assiduity during a period
of fourteen or fifteen years. He published in 1744 three treatises--on
art; on music, painting and poetry; and on happiness. In 1751 appeared
the work by which he became best known, _Hermes_, a philosophical
inquiry concerning universal grammar. He also published _Philosophical
Arrangements_ and _Philosophical Inquiries_. Harris was a great lover of
music, and adapted the words for a selection from Italian and German
composers, published by the cathedral organist, James Corfe. He died on
the 22nd of December 1780.

  His works were collected and published in 1801, by his son, the first
  earl of Malmesbury, who prefixed a brief biography.



HARRIS, JOEL CHANDLER (1848-1908), American author, was born in
Eatonton, Putnam county, Georgia, on the 8th of December 1848. He
started as an apprentice to the printer's trade in the office of the
_Countryman_, a weekly paper published on a plantation not far from his
home. He then studied law, and practised for a short time in Forsyth,
Ga., but soon took to journalism. He joined the staff of the Savannah
_Daily News_ in 1871, and in 1876 that of the Atlanta _Constitution_, of
which he was an editor from 1890 to 1901, and in this capacity did much
to further the cause of the New South. But his most distinctive
contribution to this paper, and to American literature, consisted of his
dialect pieces dealing with negro life and folk-lore. His stories are
characterized by quaint humour, poetic feeling and homely philosophy;
and "Uncle Remus," the principal character of most of them, is a
remarkably vivid and real creation. The first collection of his stories
was published in 1880 as _Uncle Remus: his Songs and his Sayings_. Among
his later works are _Nights with Uncle Remus_ (1883), _Mingo and Other
Sketches in Black and White_ (1884), _Free Joe and Other Georgian
Sketches_ (1887), _Balaam and His Master and Other Sketches and Stories_
(1891), _Uncle Remus and His Friends_ (1892), _On the Plantation_
(1892), which is partly autobiographic, _Sister Jane_ (1896), The
_Chronicles of Aunt Minervy Ann_ (1899), and _The Tar-Baby and Other
Rhymes of Uncle Remus_ (1904). More purely juvenile are _Daddy Jake the
Runaway and Other Stories_ (1889), _Little Mr Thimblefinger and his
Queer Country_ (1894) and its sequel _Mr Rabbit at Home_ (1895), _Aaron
in the Wildwoods_ (1897), _Plantation Pageants_ (1899), _Told by Uncle
Remus_ (1905), and _Uncle Remus and Br'er Rabbit_ (1907). He was one of
the compilers of the _Life of Henry W. Grady_, including his _Writings
and Speeches_ (1890) and wrote _Stories of Georgia_ (1896), and Georgia
from the Invasion of De Soto to Recent Times (1899). He died in Atlanta
on the 3rd of July 1908.



HARRIS, JOHN (c. 1666-1719), English writer. He is best known as the
editor of the _Lexicon technicum_, or _Dictionary of the Arts and
Sciences_ (1704), which ranks as the earliest of the long line of
English encyclopaedias, and as the compiler of the _Collection of
Voyages and Travels_ which passes under his name. He was born about
1666, probably in Shropshire, and was a scholar of Trinity College,
Oxford, from 1684 to 1688. He was presented to the vicarage of Icklesham
in Sussex, and subsequently to the rectory of St Thomas, Winchelsea. In
1698 he was entrusted with the delivery of the seventh series of the
Boyle lectures--_Atheistical Objections against the Being of God and His
Attributes fairly considered and fully refuted_. Between 1702 and 1704
he delivered at the Marine Coffee House in Birchin Lane the mathematical
lectures founded by Sir Charles Cox, and advertised himself as a
mathematical tutor at Amen Corner. The friendship of Sir William Cowper,
afterwards lord chancellor, secured for him the office of private
chaplain, a prebend in Rochester cathedral (1708), and the rectory of
the united parishes of St Mildred, Bread Street and St Margaret Moses,
in addition to other preferments. He showed himself an ardent supporter
of the government, and engaged in a bitter quarrel with the Rev. Charles
Humphreys, who afterwards was chaplain to Dr Sacheverel. Harris was one
of the early members of the Royal Society, and for a time acted as
vice-president. At his death on the 7th of September 1719, he was busy
completing an elaborate _History of Kent_. He is said to have died in
poverty brought on by his own bad management of his affairs.



HARRIS, THOMAS LAKE (1823-1906), American spiritualistic "prophet," was
born at Fenny Stratford in Buckinghamshire, England, on the 15th of May
1823. His parents were Calvinistic Baptists, and very poor. They settled
at Utica, New York, when Harris was five years old. When he was about
twenty Harris became a Universalist preacher, and then a Swedenborgian.
He became associated about 1847 with a spiritualist of indifferent
character named Davis. After Davis had been publicly exposed, Harris
established a congregation in New York. About 1850 he professed to
receive inspirations, and published some long poems. He had the gift of
improvisation in a very high degree. About 1859 he preached in London,
and is described as a man "with low, black eyebrows, black beard, and
sallow countenance." He was an effective speaker, and his poetry was
admired by many; Alfred Austin in his book _The Poetry of the Period_
even devoted a chapter to Harris. He founded in 1861 a community at
Wassaic, New York, and opened a bank and a mill, which he superintended.
There he was joined by about sixty converts, including five orthodox
clergymen, some Japanese people, some American ladies of position, and
especially by Laurence Oliphant (q.v.) with his wife and mother. The
community--the Brotherhood of the New Life--decided to settle at the
village of Brocton on the shore of Lake Erie. Harris established there a
wine-making industry. In reply to the objections of teetotallers he said
that the wine prepared by himself was filled with the divine breath so
that all noxious influences were neutralized. Harris also built a tavern
and strongly advocated the use of tobacco. He exacted complete surrender
from his disciples--even the surrender of moral judgment. He taught that
God was bi-sexual, and apparently, though not in reality, that the rule
of society should be one of married celibacy. He professed to teach his
community a change in the mode of respiration which was to be the
visible sign of possession by Christ and the seal of immortality. The
Oliphants broke away from the restraint about 1881, charging him with
robbery and succeeding in getting back from him many thousands of pounds
by legal proceedings. But while losing faith in Harris himself, they did
not abandon his main teaching. In Laurence Oliphant's novel _Masollam_
his view of Harris will be found. Briefly, he held that Harris was
originally honest, greatly gifted, and possessed of certain psychical
powers. But in the end he came to practise unbridled licence under the
loftiest pretensions, made the profession of extreme disinterestedness a
cloak to conceal his avarice, and demanded from his followers a blind
and supple obedience. Harris in 1876 discontinued for a time public
activities, but issued to a secret circle books of verse dwelling mainly
on sexual questions. On these his mind ran from the first. In 1891 he
announced that his body had been renewed, and that he had discovered the
secret of the resuscitation of humanity. He published a book, _Lyra
triumphalis_, dedicated to A. C. Swinburne. He also made a third
marriage, and visited England intending to remain there. He was called
back by a fire which destroyed large stocks of his wine, and remained in
New York till 1903, when he visited Glasgow. His followers believed that
he had attained the secret of immortal life on earth, and after his
death on the 23rd of March 1906 declared that he was only sleeping. It
was three months before it was acknowledged publicly that he was really
dead. There can be little or no doubt as to the real character of
Harris. His teaching was esoteric in form, but is a thinly veiled
attempt to alter the ordering of sexual relations.

  The authoritative biography from the side of his disciples is the
  _Life_ by A. A. Cuthbert, published in Glasgow in 1908. It is full of
  the jargon of Harris's sect, but contains some biographical facts as
  well as many quotations. Mrs Oliphant's _Life of Laurence Oliphant_
  (1891) has not been shaken in any important particular, and Oliphant's
  own portrait of Harris in _Masollam_ is apparently unexaggerated. But
  Harris had much personal magnetism, unbounded self-confidence, along
  with endless fluency, and to the last was believed in by some
  disciples of character and influence.     (W. R. Ni.)



HARRIS, SIR WILLIAM SNOW (1791-1867), English electrician, was descended
from an old family of solicitors at Plymouth, where he was born on the
1st of April 1791. He received his early education at the Plymouth
grammar-school, and completed a course of medical studies at the
university of Edinburgh, after which he established himself as a general
medical practitioner in Plymouth. On his marriage in 1824 he resolved to
abandon his profession on account of its duties interfering too much
with his favourite study of electricity. As early as 1820 he had
invented a new method of arranging the lightning conductors of ships,
the peculiarity of which was that the metal was permanently fixed in the
masts and extended throughout the hull; but it was only with great
difficulty, and not till nearly thirty years afterwards, that his
invention was adopted by the government for the royal navy. In 1826 he
read a paper before the Royal Society "On the Relative Powers of various
Metallic Substances as Conductors of Electricity," which led to his
being elected a fellow of the society in 1831. Subsequently, in 1834,
1836 and 1839, he read before the society several valuable papers on the
elementary laws of electricity, and he also communicated to the Royal
Society of Edinburgh various interesting accounts of his experiments and
discoveries in the same field of inquiry. In 1835 he received the Copley
gold medal from the Royal Society for his papers on the laws of
electricity of high tension, and in 1839 he was chosen to deliver the
Bakerian lecture. Meanwhile, although a government commission had
recommended the general adoption of his conductors in the royal navy,
and the government had granted him an annuity of £300 "in consideration
of services in the cultivation of science," the naval authorities
continued to offer various objections to his invention; to aid in
removing these he in 1843 published his work on _Thunderstorms_, and
also about the same time contributed a number of papers to the _Nautical
Magazine_ illustrative of damage by lightning. His system was actually
adopted in the Russian navy before he succeeded in removing the
prejudices against it in England, and in 1845 the emperor of Russia, in
acknowledgment of his services, presented him with a valuable ring and
vase. At length, the efficiency of his system being acknowledged, he
received in 1847 the honour of knighthood, and subsequently a grant of
£5000. After succeeding in introducing his invention into general use
Harris resumed his labours in the field of original research, but as he
failed to realize the advances that had been made by the new school of
science his application resulted in no discoveries of much value. His
manuals of _Electricity_, _Galvanism_ and _Magnetism_, published between
1848 and 1856, were, however, written with great clearness, and passed
through several editions. He died at Plymouth on the 22nd of January
1867, while having in preparation a _Treatise on Frictional
Electricity_, which was published posthumously in the same year, with a
memoir of the author by Charles Tomlinson.



HARRIS, WILLIAM TORREY (1835-1909), American educationist, was born in
North Killingly, Connecticut, on the 10th of September 1835. He studied
at Phillips Andover Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, and entered Yale,
but left in his junior year (1857) to accept a position as a teacher of
shorthand in the St Louis, Missouri, public schools. Advancing through
the grades of principal and assistant superintendent, he was city
superintendent of schools from 1867 until 1880. In 1858, under the
stimulus of Henry C. Brockmeyer, Harris became interested in modern
German philosophy in general, and in particular in Hegel, whose works a
small group, gathering about Harris and Brockmeyer, began to study in
1859. From 1867 to 1893 Harris edited _The Journal of Speculative
Philosophy_ (22 vols.), which was the quarterly organ of the
Philosophical Society founded in 1866. The Philosophical Society died
out before 1874, when Harris founded in St Louis a Kant Club, which
lived for fifteen years. In 1873, with Miss Susan E. Blow, he
established in St Louis the first permanent public-school kindergarten
in America. He represented the United States Bureau of Education at the
International Congress of Educators at Brussels in 1880. In 1889 he
represented the United States Bureau of Education at the Paris
Exposition, and from 1889 to 1906 was United States commissioner of
education. In 1899 the university of Jena gave him the honorary degree
of Doctor of Philosophy for his work on Hegel. In 1906 the Carnegie
Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching conferred upon him "as the
first man to whom such recognition for meritorious service is given, the
highest retiring allowance which our rules will allow, an annual income
of $3000." Besides being a contributor to the magazines and
encyclopedias on educational and philosophical subjects, he wrote _An
Introduction to the Study of Philosophy_ (1889); _The Spiritual Sense of
Dante's Divina Commedia_ (1889); _Hegel's Logic_ (1890); and
_Psychologic Foundations of Education_ (1898); and edited Appleton's
_International Education Series_ and Webster's _International
Dictionary_. He died on the 5th of November 1909.

  See Henry R. Evans, "A List of the Writings of William Torrey Harris"
  in the _Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1907_, vol. i.
  (Washington, 1908).



HARRISBURG, the capital of Pennsylvania, U.S.A., and the county-seat of
Dauphin county, on the E. bank of the Susquehanna river, about 105 m. W.
by N. of Philadelphia. Pop. (1890), 39,385; (1900), 50,167, of whom 2493
were foreign-born and 4107 were negroes; (1910 census) 64,186. It is
served by the Pennsylvania, the Philadelphia & Reading, the Northern
Central and the Cumberland Valley railways; and the Pennsylvania canal
gives it water communication with the ocean. The river here is a mile
wide, and is ordinarily very shallow and dotted with islets, but rises
from 4 to 6 ft. after a moderate rain; it is spanned by several bridges.

The city lies for the most part on the E. slope of a hill extending from
the river bank, several feet in height, across the Pennsylvania canal to
Paxton Creek. Front Street, along the river, is part of a parkway
connecting the park system with which the city is encircled. Overlooking
it are the finest residences, among them the governor's mansion. State
Street, 120 ft. in width, runs at right angles with Front Street through
the business centre of the city, being interrupted by the Capitol Park
(about 16 acres). The Capitol,[1] dedicated in 1906, was erected to
replace one burned in 1897; it is a fine building, with a dome modelled
after St Peter's at Rome. At the main entrance are bronze doors,
decorated in relief with scenes from the state's history; the floor of
the rotunda is of tiles made at Doylestown, in the style of the pottery
made by early Moravian settlers, and illustrating the state's resources;
the Senate Chamber and the House Chamber have stained-glass windows by
W. B. van Ingen and mural paintings by Edwin A. Abbey, who painted a
series, "The Development of the Law," for the Supreme Court room in the
eastern wing and decorated the rotunda. The mural decorations of the
south corridor, by W. B. van Ingen, portray the state's religious sects;
those in the north corridor, by John W. Alexander, represent the changes
in the physical and material character of the state; and there is a
frieze by Miss Violet Oakley, "The Founding of the State of Liberty
Spiritual," in the governor's reception room. Two heroic groups of
statuary for the building were designed by George Grey Barnard. The
state library in the Capitol contains about 150,000 volumes. In the same
park is also a monument 105 ft. high erected in 1868 to the memory of
the soldiers who fell in the Mexican War; it has a column of Maryland
marble 76 ft. high, which is surmounted by an Italian marble statue of
Victory, executed in Rome. At the base of the monument are muskets used
by United States soldiers in that war and guns captured at Cerro Gordo.
In State Street is the Dauphin County Soldiers' monument, a shaft 10 ft.
sq. at the base and 110 ft. high, with a pyramidal top.

For several years prior to 1902 Harrisburg suffered much from impure
water, a bad sewerage system, and poorly paved and dirty streets. In
that year, however, a League for Municipal Improvements was formed; in
February 1902 a loan of $1,000,000 for municipal improvements was voted,
landscape gardeners and sewage engineers were consulted, and a
non-partisan mayor was elected, under whom great advances were made in
street cleaning and street paving, a new filtration plant was completed,
the river front was beautified and protected from flood, sewage was
diverted from Paxton Creek, and the development of an extensive park
system was undertaken.

Harrisburg's charitable institutions include a city hospital, a home for
the friendless, a children's industrial home, and a state lunatic
hospital (1845). The city is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishopric.
Both coal and iron ore abound in the vicinity, and the city has numerous
manufacturing establishments. The value of its factory products in 1905
was $17,146,338 (14.3% more than in 1900), the more important being
those of steel works and rolling mills ($4,528,907), blast furnaces,
steam railway repair shops, cigar and cigarette factories ($1,258,498),
foundries and machine shops ($953,617), boot and shoe factories
($922,568), flouring and grist mills, slaughtering and meat-packing
establishments and silk mills.

Harrisburg was named in honour of John Harris, who, upon coming into
this region to trade early in the 18th century, was attracted to the
site as an easy place at which to ford the Susquehanna, and about 1726
settled here. He was buried in what is now Harris Park, where he erected
the first building, a small hut, within the present limits of
Harrisburg. In 1753 his son established a ferry over the river, and the
place was called Harris's Ferry until 1785, when the younger Harris laid
out the town and named it Harrisburg. In the same year it was made the
county-seat of the newly constituted county of Dauphin, and its name was
changed to Louisburg; but when, in 1791, it was incorporated as a
borough, the present name was again adopted. In 1812, after an effort
begun twenty-five years before, it was made the capital of the state;
and in 1860 it was chartered as a city. In the summer of 1827, through
the persistent efforts of persons most interested in the woollen
manufactures of Massachusetts and other New England states to secure
legislative aid for that industry, a convention of about 100
delegates--manufacturers, newspaper men and politicians--was held in
Harrisburg, and the programme adopted by the convention did much to
bring about the passage of the famous high tariff act of 1828.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] For this building the legislature in 1901 appropriated
    $4,000,000, stipulating that it should be completed before the 1st of
    January 1907. It was completed by that time, the net expenditure of
    the building commission being about $3,970,000. Although the
    legislature had made no provision for furniture and decoration, the
    state Board of Public Grounds and Buildings (governor,
    auditor-general and treasurer) undertook to complete the furnishing
    and decoration of the building within the stipulated time, and paid
    out for that purpose more than $8,600,000. In May 1906 a new
    treasurer entered office, who discovered that many items for
    furniture and decoration were charged twice, once at a normal and
    again at a remarkably high figure. In 1907 the legislature appointed
    a committee to investigate the charge of fraud. The committee's
    decision was that the Board of Grounds and Buildings was not
    authorized to let the decorating and furnishing of the state house;
    that it had illegally authorized certain expenditures; and that
    architect and contractors had made fraudulent invoices and
    certificates. Various indictments were found: in the first trial for
    conspiracy in the making and delivering of furniture the contractor
    and the former auditor-general, state treasurer and superintendent of
    public grounds and buildings were convicted and in December 1908 were
    sentenced to two years' imprisonment and fined $500 each; in 1910 a
    suit was brought for the recovery of about $5,000,000 from those
    responsible.



HARRISMITH, a town in the Orange Free State, 60 m. N.W. by rail of
Ladysmith, Natal, and 240 m. N.E. of Bloemfontein via Bethlehem. Pop.
(1904) 8300 (including troops 1921). It is built on the banks of the
Wilge, 5250 ft. above the sea and some 20 m. W. of the Drakensberg.
Three miles N. is the Platberg, a table-shaped mountain rising 2000 ft.
above the town, whence an excellent supply of water is derived. The town
is well laid out and several of the streets are lined with trees. Most
of the houses are built of white stone quarried in the neighbourhood.
The Kaffirs, who numbered in 1904 3483, live in a separate location.
Harrismith has a dry, bracing climate and enjoys a high reputation in
South Africa as a health resort. It serves one of the best-watered and
most fertile agricultural and pastoral districts of the province, of
which it is the chief eastern trading centre. Wool and hides are the
principal exports.

Harrismith was founded in 1849, the site first chosen being on the
Elands river, where the small town of Aberfeldig now is; but the
advantages of the present site soon became apparent and the settlement
was removed. The founders were Sir Harry Smith (after whom the town is
named), then governor of Cape Colony, and Major Henry D. Warden, at
that time British resident at Bloemfontein, whose name is perpetuated in
that of the principal street. In a cave about 2 m. from the town are
well-preserved Bushman paintings.



HARRISON, BENJAMIN (1833-1901), the twenty-third president of the United
States, was born at North Bend, near Cincinnati, Ohio, on the 20th of
August 1833. His great-grandfather, Benjamin Harrison of Virginia (c.
1740-1791), was a signer of the Declaration of Independence. His
grandfather, William Henry Harrison (1773-1841), was ninth president of
the United States. His father, John Scott Harrison (1804-1878),
represented his district in the national House of Representatives in
1853-1857. Benjamin's youth was passed upon the ancestral farm, and as
opportunity afforded he attended school in the log school-house near his
home. He was prepared for college by a private tutor, studied for two
years at the Farmers' College, near Cincinnati, and in 1852 graduated
from Miami University, at that time the leading educational institution
in the State of Ohio. From his youth he was diligent in his studies and
a great reader, and during his college life showed a marked talent for
extemporaneous speaking. He pursued the study of law, partly in the
office of Bellamy Storer (1798-1875), a leading lawyer and judge of
Cincinnati, and in 1853 he was admitted to the bar. At the age of
twenty-one he removed to Indianapolis. He had but one acquaintance in
the place, the clerk of the federal court, who permitted him to occupy a
desk in his office and place at the door his sign as a lawyer. Waiting
for professional business, he was content to act as court crier for two
dollars and a half a day; but he soon gave indications of his talent,
and his studious habits and attention to his cases rapidly brought him
clients. Within a few years he took rank among the leading members of
the profession at a bar which included some of the ablest lawyers of the
country. His legal career was early interrupted by the Civil War. His
whole heart was enlisted in the anti-slavery cause, and during the
second year of the war he accepted a commission from the governor of the
state as second-lieutenant and speedily raised a regiment. He became its
colonel, and as such continued in the Union Army until the close of the
war, and on the 23rd of January 1865 was breveted a brigadier-general of
volunteers for "ability and manifest energy and gallantry in command of
brigade." He participated with his regiment in various engagements
during General Don Carlos Buell's campaigns in Kentucky and Tennessee in
1862 and 1863; took part in General W. T. Sherman's march on Atlanta in
1864 and in the Nashville campaign of the same year; and was transferred
early in 1865 to Sherman's army in its march through the Carolinas. As
the commander of a brigade he served with particular distinction in the
battles of Kenesaw Mountain (June 29-July 3, 1864), Peach Tree Creek
(20th of July 1864) and Nashville (15th-16th of December 1864).

Allowing for this interval of military service, he applied himself
exclusively for twenty-four years to his legal work. The only office he
held was that of reporter of the supreme court of Indiana for two terms
(1860-1862 and 1864-1868), and this was strictly in the line of his
profession. He was a devoted member of the Republican party, but not a
politician in the strict sense. Once he became a candidate for governor,
in 1876, but his candidature was a forlorn hope, undertaken from a sense
of duty after the regular nominee had withdrawn. He took a deep interest
in the campaign which resulted in the election of James A. Garfield as
president, and was offered by him a place in his cabinet; but this he
declined, having been elected a member of the United States Senate, in
which he took his seat on the 4th of March 1881. He was chairman of the
committee on territories, and took an active part in urging the
admission as states of North Dakota, South Dakota, Washington, Idaho and
Montana, which finally came into the Union during his presidency. He
served also on the committee of military and Indian affairs, the
committee on foreign relations and others, was prominent in the
discussion of matters brought before the Senate from these committees,
advocated the enlargement of the navy and the reform of the civil
service, and opposed the pension veto messages of President Cleveland.
Having failed to secure a re-election to the Senate in 1887, Harrison
was nominated by the Republican party for the presidency in 1888, and
defeated Grover Cleveland, the candidate of the Democratic party,
receiving 233 electoral votes to Cleveland's 168. Among the measures and
events distinguishing his term as president were the following: The
meeting of the Pan-American Congress at Washington; the passage of the
McKinley Tariff Bill and of the Sherman Silver Bill of 1890; the
suppressing of the Louisiana Lottery; the enlargement of the navy;
further advance in civil service reform; the convocation by the United
States of an international monetary conference; the establishment of
commercial reciprocity with many countries of America and Europe; the
peaceful settlement of a controversy with Chile; the negotiation of a
Hawaiian Annexation Treaty, which, however, before its ratification, his
successor withdrew from the Senate; the settlement of difficulties with
Germany concerning the Samoan Islands, and the adjustment by arbitration
with Great Britain of the Bering Sea fur-seal question. His
administration was marked by a revival of American industries and a
reduction of the public debt, and at its conclusion the country was left
in a condition of prosperity and on friendly terms with foreign nations.
He was nominated by his party in 1892 for re-election, but was defeated
by Cleveland, this result being due, at least in part, to the labour
strikes which occurred during the presidential campaign and arrayed the
labour unions against the tariff party.

After leaving public life he resumed the practice of the law, and in
1898 was retained by the government of Venezuela as its leading counsel
in the arbitration of its boundary dispute with Great Britain. In this
capacity he appeared before the international tribunal of arbitration at
Paris in 1899, worthily maintaining the reputation of the American bar.
After the Spanish-American War he strongly disapproved of the colonial
policy of his party, which, however, he continued to support. He
occupied a portion of his leisure in writing a book, entitled _This
Country of Ours_ (1897), treating of the organization and administration
of the government of the United States, and a collection of essays by
him was published posthumously, in 1901, under the title _Views of an
Ex-President_. He died at Indianapolis on the 13th of March 1901.
Harrison's distinguishing trait of character, to which his success is to
be most largely attributed, was his thoroughness. He was somewhat
reserved in manner, and this led to the charge in political circles that
he was cold and unsympathetic; but no one gathered around him more
devoted and loyal friends, and his dignified bearing in and out of
office commanded the hearty respect of his countrymen.

President Harrison was twice married; in 1853 to Miss Caroline Lavinia
Scott, by whom he had a son and a daughter, and in 1896 to Mrs Mary
Scott Lord Dimmock, by whom he had a daughter.

  A "campaign" biography was published by Lew Wallace (Philadelphia,
  1888), and a sketch of his life may be found in _Presidents of the
  United States_ (New York, 1894), edited by James Grant Wilson.
       (J. W. Fo.)



HARRISON, FREDERIC (1831-   ), English jurist and historian, was born in
London on the 18th of October 1831. Members of his family (originally
Leicestershire yeomen) had been lessees of Sutton Place, Guildford, of
which he wrote an interesting account (_Annals of an Old Manor House_,
1893). He was educated at King's College school and at Wadham College,
Oxford, where, after taking a first-class in _Literae Humaniores_ in
1853, he became fellow and tutor. He was called to the bar in 1858, and,
in addition to his practice in equity cases, soon began to distinguish
himself as an effective contributor to the higher-class reviews. Two
articles in the _Westminster Review_, one on the Italian question, which
procured him the special thanks of Cavour, the other on _Essays and
Reviews_, which had the probably undesigned effect of stimulating the
attack on the book, attracted especial notice. A few years later Mr
Harrison worked at the codification of the law with Lord Westbury, of
whom he contributed an interesting notice to Nash's biography of the
chancellor. His special interest in legislation for the working classes
led him to be placed upon the Trades Union Commission of 1867-1869; he
was secretary to the commission for the digest of the law, 1869-1870;
and was from 1877 to 1889 professor of jurisprudence and international
law under the council of legal education. A follower of the positive
philosophy, but in conflict with Richard Congreve (q.v.) as to details,
he led the Positivists who split off and founded Newton Hall in 1881,
and he was president of the English Positivist Committee from 1880 to
1905; he was also editor and part author of the Positivist _New Calendar
of Great Men_ (1892), and wrote much on Comte and Positivism. Of his
separate publications, the most important are his lives of Cromwell
(1888), William the Silent (1897), Ruskin (1902), and Chatham (1905);
his _Meaning of History_ (1862; enlarged 1894) and _Byzantine History in
the Early Middle Ages_ (1900); and his essays on _Early Victorian
Literature_ (1896) and _The Choice of Books_ (1886) are remarkable alike
for generous admiration and good sense. In 1904 he published a "romantic
monograph" of the 10th century, _Theophano_, and in 1906 a verse
tragedy, _Nicephorus_. An advanced and vehement Radical in politics and
Progressive in municipal affairs, Mr Harrison in 1886 stood
unsuccessfully for parliament against Sir John Lubbock for London
University. In 1889 he was elected an alderman of the London County
Council, but resigned in 1893. In 1870 he married Ethel Berta, daughter
of Mr William Harrison, by whom he had four sons. George Gissing, the
novelist, was at one time their tutor; and in 1905 Mr Harrison wrote a
preface to Gissing's _Veranilda_ (see also Mr Austin Harrison's article
on Gissing in the _Nineteenth Century_, September 1906). As a religious
teacher, literary critic, historian and jurist, Mr Harrison took a
prominent part in the life of his time, and his writings, though often
violently controversial on political and social subjects, and in their
judgment and historical perspective characterized by a modern Radical
point of view, are those of an accomplished scholar, and of one whose
wide knowledge of literature was combined with independence of thought
and admirable vigour of style. In 1907 he published _The Creed of a
Layman, Apologia pro fide mea_, in explanation of his religious
position.



HARRISON, JOHN (1693-1776), English horologist, was the son of a
carpenter, and was born at Faulby, near Pontefract in Yorkshire, in the
year 1693. Thence his father and family removed in 1700 to Barrow in
Lincolnshire. Young Harrison at first learned his father's trade, and
worked at it for several years, at the same time occasionally making a
little money by land-measuring and surveying. The bent of his mind,
however, was towards mechanical pursuits. In 1715 he made a clock with
wooden wheels, which is in the patent museum at South Kensington, and in
1726 he devised his ingenious "gridiron pendulum," which maintains its
length unaltered in spite of variations of temperature (see CLOCK).
Another invention of his was a recoil clock escapement in which friction
was reduced to a minimum, and he was the first to employ the commonly
used and effective form of "going ratchet," which is a spring
arrangement for keeping the timepiece going at its usual rate during the
interval of being wound up.

In Harrison's time the British government had become fully alive to the
necessity of determining more accurately the longitude at sea. For this
purpose they passed an act in 1713 offering rewards of £10,000, £15,000
and £20,000 to any who should construct chronometers that would
determine the longitude within 60, 40 and 30 m. respectively. Harrison
applied himself vigorously to the task, and in 1735 went to the Board of
Longitude with a watch which he also showed to Edmund Halley, George
Graham and others. Through their influence he was allowed to proceed in
a king's ship to Lisbon to test it; and the result was so satisfactory
that he was paid £500 to carry out further improvements. Harrison worked
at the subject with the utmost perseverance, and, after making several
watches, went up to London in 1761 with one which he considered almost
perfect. His son William was sent on a voyage to Jamaica to test it;
and, on his return to Portsmouth in 1762, it was found to have lost
only 1 minute 54½ seconds. This was surprisingly accurate, as it
determined the longitude within 18 m., and Harrison claimed the full
reward of £20,000; but though from time to time he received sums on
account, it was not till 1773 that he was paid in full. In these watches
compensation for changes of temperature was applied for the first time
by means of a "compensation-curb," designed to alter the effective
length of the balance-spring in proportion to the expansion or
contraction caused by variations of temperature. Harrison died in London
on the 24th of March 1776. His want of early education was felt by him
greatly throughout life. He was unfortunately never able to express his
ideas clearly in writing, although in conversation he could give a very
precise and exact account of his many intricate mechanical contrivances.

  Among his writings were a _Description concerning such Mechanism as
  will afford a Nice or True Mensuration of Time_ (1775), and _The
  Principles of Mr Harrison's Timekeeper_, published by order of the
  Commissioners of Longitude (1767).



HARRISON, THOMAS (1606-1660), English parliamentarian, a native of
Newcastle-under-Lyme in Staffordshire, the son of a butcher and mayor of
that town, was baptized in 1606. He was placed with an attorney of
Clifford's Inn, but at the beginning of the war in 1642 he enlisted in
Essex's lifeguards, became major in Fleetwood's regiment of horse under
the earl of Manchester, was present at Marston Moor, at Naseby, Langport
and at the taking of Winchester and Basing, as well as at the siege of
Oxford. At Basing Harrison was accused of having killed a prisoner in
cold blood. In 1646 he was returned to parliament for Wendover, and
served in Ireland in 1647 under Lord Lisle, returning to England in May,
when he took the side of the army in the dispute with the parliament and
obtained from Fairfax a regiment of horse. In November he opposed the
negotiations with the king, whom he styled "a man of blood" to be called
to account, and he declaimed against the House of Lords. At the surprise
of Lambert's quarters at Appleby on the 18th of July 1648, in the second
civil war, he distinguished himself by his extraordinary daring and was
severely wounded. He showed a special zeal in bringing about the trial
of the king. Charles was entrusted to his care on being brought up from
Hurst Castle to London, and believed that Harrison intended his
assassination, but was at once favourably impressed by bis bearing and
reassured by his disclaiming any such design. Harrison was assiduous in
his attendance at the trial, and signed the death-warrant with the
fullest conviction that it was his duty. He took part in suppressing the
royalist rising in the midlands in May 1649, and in July was appointed
to the chief command in South Wales, where he is said to have exercised
his powers with exceptional severity. On the 20th of February 1651 he
became a member of the council of state, and during Cromwell's absence
in Scotland held the supreme military command in England. He failed in
stopping the march of the royalists into England at Knutsford on the
16th of August 1651, but after the battle of Worcester he rendered great
service in pursuing and capturing the fugitives. Later he pressed on
Cromwell the necessity of dismissing the Long Parliament, and it was he
who at Cromwell's bidding, on the 20th of April 1653, laid hands on
Speaker Lenthall and compelled him to vacate the chair. He was president
of the council of thirteen which now exercised authority, and his idea
of government appears to have been an assembly nominated by the
congregations, on a strictly religious basis, such as Barebone's
Parliament which now assembled, of which he was a member and a ruling
spirit. Harrison belonged to the faction of Fifth Monarchy men, whose
political ideals were entirely destroyed by Cromwell's assumption of the
protectorate. He went immediately into violent opposition, was deprived
of his commission on the 22nd of December 1653, and on the 3rd of
February 1654 was ordered to confine himself to his father's house in
Staffordshire. Suspected of complicity in the plots of the anabaptists,
he was imprisoned for a short time in September, and on that occasion
was sent for by Cromwell, who endeavoured in a friendly manner to
persuade him to desist. He, however, incurred the suspicions of the
administration afresh, and on the 15th of February 1655 he was
imprisoned in Carisbrooke Castle, being liberated in March 1656 when he
took up his residence at Highgate with his family. In April 1657 he was
arrested for supposed complicity in Venner's conspiracy, and again once
more in February 1658, when he was imprisoned in the Tower. At the
Restoration, Harrison, who was excepted from the Act of Indemnity,
refused to take any steps to save his life, to give any undertaking not
to conspire against the government or to flee. "Being so clear in the
thing," he declared, "I durst not turn my back nor step a foot out of
the way by reason I had been engaged in the service of so glorious and
great a God." He was arrested in Staffordshire in May 1660 and brought
to trial on the 11th of October. He made a manly and straightforward
defence, pleading the authority of parliament and adding, "May be I
might be a little mistaken, but I did it all according to the best of my
understanding, desiring to make the revealed will of God in His holy
scriptures a guide to me." At his execution, which took place at Charing
Cross on the 13th of October 1660, he behaved with great fortitude.

Richard Baxter, who was acquainted with him, describes Harrison as "a
man of excellent natural parts for affection and oratory, but not well
seen in the principles of his religion of a sanguine complexion,
naturally of such a vivacity, hilarity and alacrity as another man hath
when he hath drunken a cup too much, but naturally also so far from
humble thoughts of himself that it was his ruin." Cromwell also
complained of his excessive eagerness. "Harrison is an honest man and
aims at good things, yet from the impatience of his spirit will not wait
the Lord's leisure but hurries me on to that which he and all honest men
will have cause to repent." Harrison was an eloquent and fluent
expounder of the scriptures, and his "raptures" on the field of victory
are recorded by Baxter. He was of the chief of those "fiery spirits"
whose ardent and emotional religion inspired their political action, and
who did wonders during the period of struggle and combat, but who later,
in the more sober and difficult sphere of constructive statesmanship,
showed themselves perfectly incapable.

Harrison married about 1648 Katherine, daughter and heiress of Ralph
Harrison of Highgate in Middlesex, by whom he had several children, all
of whom, however, appear to have died in infancy.

  See the article on Harrison by C. H. Firth in the _Dict. of Nat.
  Biog.; Life of Harrison_ by C. H. Simpkinson (1905); _Notes and
  Queries_, 9 series, xi. 211.



HARRISON, THOMAS ALEXANDER (1853-   ), American artist, was born in
Philadelphia on the 17th of January 1853. He was a pupil of the
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and of the École des Beaux-Arts,
Paris, whither he went in 1878, having previously been with a United
States government survey expedition on the Pacific coast. Chafing under
the restraints of the schools, he went into Brittany, and at Pont Aven
and Concarneau turned his attention to marine painting and landscape. In
1882 he sent a figure-piece to the Salon, a fisher boy on the beach,
which he called "Châteaux en Espagne." This attracted attention, and in
1885 he received an honourable mention, the first of many awards
conferred upon him, including the Temple gold medal (Pennsylvania
Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, 1887), first medal, Paris Exhibition
(1889), and medals in Munich, Brussels, Ghent, Vienna and elsewhere. He
became a member of the Legion of Honour and _officier_ of Public
Instruction, Paris; a member of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts,
Paris; of the Royal Institute of Painters in Oil Colours, London; of the
Secession societies of Munich, Vienna and Berlin; of the National
Academy of Design, the Society of American Artists, New York, and other
art bodies. In the Salon of 1885 he had a large canvas of several nude
women, called "In Arcady," a remarkable study of flesh tones in light
and shade which had a strong influence on the younger men of the day.
But his reputation rests rather on his marine pictures, long waves
rolling in on the beach, and great stretches of open sea under poetic
conditions of light and colour.

His brother, BIRGE HARRISON (1854-   ), also a painter, particularly
successful in snow scenes, was a pupil of the École des Beaux Arts,
Paris, under Cabanel and Carolus Duran; his "November" (honourable
mention, 1882) was purchased by the French government. Another brother,
BUTLER HARRISON (d. 1886), was a figure painter.



HARRISON, WILLIAM (1534-1593), English topographer and antiquary, was
born in London on the 18th of April 1534. He was educated, according to
his own account, at St Paul's school and at Westminster under Alexander
Nowell. In 1551 he was at Cambridge, but he took his B.A. degree from
Christ Church, Oxford, in 1560. He was inducted early in 1559 to the
rectory of Radwinter, Essex, on the presentation of Sir William Brooke,
Lord Cobham, to whom he had formerly acted as chaplain; and from 1571 to
1581 he held from another patron, Francis de la Wood, the living of
Wimbish in the same county. He became canon of Windsor in 1586, and his
death and burial are noted in the chapter book of St George's chapel on
the 24th of April 1593.

His famous and amusing _Description of England_ was undertaken for the
queen's printer, Reginald Wolfe, who designed the publication of "an
universall cosmographie of the whole world ... with particular histories
of every knowne nation." After Wolfe's death in 1576 this comprehensive
plan was reduced to descriptions and histories of England, Scotland and
Ireland. The historical section was to be supplied by Raphael Holinshed,
the topographical by Harrison. The work was eventually published as _The
Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland ..._ by Raphael Holinshed
and others, and was printed in two black-letter folio volumes in 1577.
Harrison's _Description of England_, humbly described as his "foule
frizeled treatise," and dedicated to his patron Cobham, is an invaluable
survey of the condition of England under Elizabeth, in all its
political, religious and social aspects. Harrison is a minute and
careful observer of men and things, and his descriptions are enlivened
with many examples of a lively and caustic humour which makes the book
excellent reading. In spite of his Puritan prejudices, which lead him to
regret that the churches had not been cleared of their "pictures in
glass" ("by reason of the extreme cost thereof"), and to exhaust his wit
on the effeminate Italian fashions of the younger generation, he had an
eye for beauty and is loud in his praise of such architectural gems as
Henry VII.'s chapel at Westminster. He is properly contemptuous of the
snobbery that was even then characteristic of English society; but his
account of "how gentlemen are made in England" must be read in full to
be appreciated. He is especially instructive on the condition and
services of the Church immediately after the Reformation; notably in the
fact that, though an ardent Protestant, he is quite unconscious of any
breach of continuity in the life and organization of the Church of
England.

Harrison also contributed the translation from Scots into English of
Bellenden's version of Hector Boëce's Latin _Description_ of Scotland.
His other works include a "Chronologie," giving an account of events
from the creation to the year 1593, which is of some value for the
period covered by the writer's lifetime. This, with an elaborate
treatise on weights and measures, remains in MS. in the diocesan library
of Londonderry.

  For the later editions of the _Chronicles of England ..._ see
  HOLINSHED. The second and third books of Harrison's _Description_ were
  edited by Dr F. J. Furnivall for the New Shakspere Society, with
  extracts from his "Chronologie" and from other contemporary writers,
  as _Shakspere's England_ (2 vols., 1877-1878).



HARRISON, WILLIAM HENRY (1773-1841), ninth president of the United
States, was born at Berkeley, Charles City county, Virginia, on the 9th
of February 1773, the third son of Benjamin Harrison (c. 1740-1791). His
father was long prominent in Virginia politics, and became a member of
the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1764, opposing Patrick Henry's Stamp
Act resolutions in the following year; he was a member of the
Continental Congress in 1774-1777, signing the Declaration of
Independence and serving for a time as president of the Board of War;
speaker of the Virginia House of Delegates in 1777-1782; governor of
Virginia in 1781-1784; and in 1788 as a member of the Virginia
Convention he actively opposed the ratification of the Federal
Constitution by his state. William Henry Harrison received a classical
education at Hampden-Sidney College, where he was a student in
1787-1790, and began a medical course in Philadelphia, but the death of
his father caused him to discontinue his studies, and in November 1791
he entered the army as ensign in the Tenth Regiment at Fort Washington,
Cincinnati. In the following year he became a lieutenant, and
subsequently acted as aide-de-camp to General Anthony Wayne in the
campaign which ended in the battle of Fallen Timbers on the 10th of
August 1794. He was promoted to a captaincy in 1797 and for a brief
period served as commander of Fort Washington, but resigned from the
army in June 1798. Soon afterwards he succeeded Winthrop Sargent as
secretary of the North-west Territory. In 1799 he was chosen by the
Jeffersonian party of this territory as the delegate of the territory in
Congress. While serving in this capacity he devised a plan for disposing
of the public lands upon favourable terms to actual settlers, and also
assisted in the division of the North-west Territory. It was his
ambition to become governor of the more populous eastern portion, which
retained the original name, but instead, in January 1800, President John
Adams appointed him governor of the newly created Indiana Territory,
which comprised until 1809 a much larger area than the present state of
the same name. (See INDIANA: _History_.) He was not sworn into office
until the 10th of January 1801, and was governor until September 1812.
Among the legislative measures of his administration may be mentioned
the attempted modification of the slavery clause of the ordinance of
1787 by means of an indenture law--a policy which Harrison favoured;
more effective land laws; and legislation for the more equitable
treatment of the Indians and for preventing the sale of liquor to them.
In 1803 Harrison also became a special commissioner to treat with the
Indians "on the subject of boundary or lands," and as such negotiated
various treaties--at Fort Wayne (1803 and 1809), Vincennes (1804 and
1809) and Grouseland (1805)--by which the southern part of the present
state of Indiana and portions of the present states of Illinois,
Wisconsin and Missouri were opened to settlement. For a few months after
the division in 1804 of the Louisiana Purchase into the Orleans
Territory and the Louisiana Territory he also acted as governor of the
Louisiana Territory--all of the Louisiana Purchase N. of the
thirty-third parallel, his jurisdiction then being the greatest in
extent ever exercised by a territorial official in the United States.

The Indian cessions of 1809, along the Wabash river, aroused the
hostility of Tecumseh (q.v.) and his brother, familiarly known as "The
Prophet," who were attempting to combine the tribes between the Ohio and
the Great Lakes in opposition to the encroachment of the whites. Several
fruitless conferences between the governor and the Indian chiefs, who
were believed to be encouraged by the British, resulted in Harrison's
advance with a force of militia and regulars to the Tippecanoe river,
where (near the present Lafayette, Ind.) on the 7th of November 1811 he
won over the Indians a victory which established his military reputation
and was largely responsible for his subsequent nomination and election
to the presidency of the United States. From one point of view the
battle of Tippecanoe may be regarded as the opening skirmish of the war
of 1812. When in the summer of 1812 open hostilities with Great Britain
began, Harrison was appointed by Governor Charles Scott of Kentucky
major-general in the militia of that state. A few weeks later (22nd
August 1812) he was made brigadier-general in the regular U.S. army, and
soon afterwards was put in command of all the troops in the north-west,
and on the 2nd of March 1813 he was promoted to the rank of
major-general. General James Winchester, whom Harrison had ordered to
prepare to cross Lake Erie on the ice and surprise Fort Malden, turned
back to rescue the threatened American settlement at Frenchtown (now
Monroe), on the Raisin river, and there on the 22nd of January 1813 was
forced to surrender to Colonel Henry A. Proctor. Harrison's offensive
operations being thus checked, he accomplished nothing that summer
except to hold in check Proctor, who (May 1-5) besieged him at Fort
Meigs, the American advanced post after the disaster of the river
Raisin. After Lieutenant O. H. Perry's naval victory on the 10th of
September 1813, Harrison no longer had to remain on the defensive; he
advanced to Detroit, re-occupied the territory surrendered by General
William Hull, and on the 5th of October administered a crushing defeat
to Proctor at the battle of the Thames.

In 1814 Harrison received no active assignments to service, and on this
account and because the secretary of war (John Armstrong) issued an
order to one of Harrison's subordinates without consulting him, he
resigned his commission. Armstrong accepted the resignation without
consulting President Madison, but the president later utilized Harrison
in negotiating with the north-western Indians, the greater part of whom
agreed (22nd July 1814) to a second treaty of Greenville, by which they
were to become active allies of the United States, should hostilities
with Great Britain continue. This treaty publicly marked an American
policy of alliance with these Indians and caused the British peace
negotiators at Ghent to abandon them. In the following year Harrison
held another conference at Detroit with these tribes in order to settle
their future territorial relations with the United States.

From 1816 to 1819 Harrison was a representative in Congress, and as such
worked in behalf of more liberal pension laws and a better militia
organization, including a system of general military education, of
improvements in the navigation of the Ohio, and of relief for purchasers
of public lands, and for the strict construction of the power of
Congress over the Territories, particularly in regard to slavery. In
accordance with this view in 1819 he voted against Tallmadge's amendment
(restricting the extension of slavery) to the enabling act for the
admission of Missouri. He also delivered forcible speeches upon the
death of Kosciusko and upon General Andrew Jackson's course in the
Floridas, favouring a partial censure of the latter.

Harrison was a member of the Ohio senate in 1819-1821, and was an
unsuccessful candidate for the National House of Representatives in
1822, when his Missouri vote helped to cause his defeat; he was a
presidential elector in 1824, supporting Henry Clay, and from 1825 to
1828 was a member of the United States Senate. In 1828 after
unsuccessful efforts to secure for him the command of the army, upon the
death of Major-General Jacob Brown, and the nomination for the
vice-president, on the ticket with John Quincy Adams, his friends
succeeded in getting Harrison appointed as the first minister of the
United States to Colombia. He became, however, an early sacrifice to
Jackson's spoils system, being recalled within less than a year, but not
until he had involved himself in some awkward diplomatic complications
with Bolivar's autocratic government.

For some years after his return from Colombia he lived in retirement at
North Bend, Ohio. He was occasionally "mentioned" for governor, senator
or representative, by the anti-Jackson forces, and delivered a few
addresses on agricultural or political topics. Later he became clerk of
the court of common pleas of Hamilton county--a lucrative position that
was then most acceptable to him. Early in 1835 Harrison began to be
mentioned as a suitable presidential candidate, and later in the year he
was nominated for the presidency at large public meetings in
Pennsylvania, New York and Maryland. In the election of the following
year he attracted a large part of the Whig and Anti-Masonic vote of the
Middle and Western states and led among the candidates opposing Van
Buren, but received only 73 electoral votes while Van Buren received
170. His unexpected strength, due largely to his clear, if
non-committal, political record, rendered him the most "available"
candidate for the Whig party for the campaign of 1840, and he was
nominated by the Whig convention at Harrisburg, Pa., in December 1839,
his most formidable opponent being Henry Clay, who, though generally
regarded as the real leader of his party, was less "available" because
as a mason he would alienate former members of the old Anti-Masonic
party, and as an advocate of a protective tariff would repel many
Southern voters. The convention adjourned without adopting any
"platform" of principles, the party shrewdly deciding to make its
campaign merely on the issue of whether the Van Buren administration
should be continued in power and thus to take full advantage of the
popular discontent with the administration, to which was attributed the
responsibility for the panic of 1837 and the subsequent business
depression. Largely to attract the votes of Democratic malcontents the
Whig convention nominated for the vice-presidency John Tyler, who had
previously been identified with the Democratic party. The campaign was
marked by the extraordinary enthusiasm exhibited by the Whigs, and by
their skill in attacking Van Buren without binding themselves to any
definite policy. Because of his fame as a frontier hero, of the
circumstance that a part of his home at North Bend, Ohio, had formerly
been a log cabin, and of the story that cider, not wine, was served on
his table, Harrison was derisively called by bis opponents the "log
cabin and hard cider" candidate; the term was eagerly accepted by the
Whigs, in whose processions miniature log cabins were carried and at
whose meetings hard cider was served, and the campaign itself has become
known in history as the "log cabin and hard cider campaign." Harrison's
canvass was conspicuous for the immense Whig processions and mass
meetings, the numerous "stump" speeches (Harrison himself addressing
meetings at Dayton, Chillicothe, Columbus and other places), and the use
of campaign songs, of party insignia, and of campaign cries (such as
"Tippecanoe and Tyler too"); and in the election he won by an
overwhelming majority of 234 electoral votes to 60 cast for Van Buren.

President Harrison was inaugurated on the 4th of March 1841. He chose
for his cabinet Daniel Webster as secretary of state, Thomas Ewing as
secretary of the treasury, John Bell as secretary of war, George E.
Badger as secretary of the navy, Francis Granger as postmaster-general,
and John J. Crittenden as attorney-general. He survived his inauguration
only one month, dying on the 4th of April 1841, and being succeeded by
the vice-president, John Tyler. The immediate cause of his death was an
attack of pneumonia, but the disease was aggravated by the excitement
attending his sudden change in circumstances and the incessant demands
of office seekers. After temporary interment at Washington, his body was
removed to the tomb at North Bend, Ohio, where it now lies. A few of
Harrison's public addresses survive, the most notable being _A Discourse
on the Aborigines of the Ohio_. It has been said of him: "He was not a
great man, but he had lived in a great time, and he had been a leader in
great things." He was the first territorial delegate in the Congress of
the United States and was the author of the first step in the
development of the country's later homestead policy; the first
presidential candidate to be selected upon the ground of "expediency"
alone; and the first president to die in office. In 1795 he married Anna
Symmes (1775-1864), daughter of John Cleves Symmes. Their grandson,
Benjamin Harrison, was the twenty-third president of the United States.

  AUTHORITIES.--In 1824 Moses Dawson published at Cincinnati the
  _Historical Narrative of the Civil and Military Services of
  Major-General William H. Harrison_. This is a combined defence and
  political pamphlet, but it is the source of all the subsequent "lives"
  that have appeared. There are several "campaign" biographies,
  including one by Richard Hildreth (1839) and one by Caleb Cushing
  (1840); and there is a good sketch in _Presidents of the United
  States_ (New York, 1894), edited by J. G. Wilson. An excellent study
  of Harrison's career in Indiana appears in vol. 4 of the _Indiana
  Historical Society Publications_. Selections from his scanty
  correspondence appear in vols. ii. and iii. of the _Quarterly
  Publications_ of the Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio.



HARRISON, a town of Hudson county, New Jersey, U.S.A., on the Passaic
river, opposite Newark (with which it is connected by bridges and
electric railways), and 7 m. W. of Jersey City. Pop. (1890) 8338; (1900)
10,596, of whom 3633 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 14,498. It is
served by the Pennsylvania, the Erie, and the Delaware, Lackawanna &
Western railways. Harrison was chosen as the eastern terminal of the
Pennsylvania railroad for steam locomotive service, transportation
thence to New York being by electric power through the railway's Hudson
river tunnels. The town has an extensive river-front, along which are
many of its manufactories; among their products are steam-pumps, steel,
iron, machinery, roller bearings, brass tubing, iron and brass
castings, marine engines, hoisting engines, metal novelties, dry
batteries, electric lamps, concrete blocks, cotton thread, wire cloth,
leather, trunks, beer, barrels, lumber, inks and cutlery. The factory
product in 1905 was valued at $8,408,924. The town is governed by a
mayor and a common council. Harrison was settled toward the close of the
17th century, and for many years constituted the S. portion of the
township of Lodi. In 1840, however, it was set off from Lodi and named
in honour of President William Henry Harrison, and in 1873 it was
incorporated. Harrison originally included what is now the town of
Kearny (q.v.).



HARRODSBURG, a city and the county-seat of Mercer county, Kentucky,
U.S.A., 32 m. S. of Frankfort, on the Southern railway. Pop. (1890)
3230; (1900) 2876, of whom 1150 were negroes; (1910 U.S. census) 3147.
On account of its sulphur springs Harrodsburg became early in the 19th
century a fashionable resort, and continues to attract a considerable
number of visitors. The city is the seat of Harrodsburg Academy,
Beaumont College for women (1894; founded as Daughters' College in
1856); and Wayman College (African M.E.) for negroes. Among its
manufactures are flour, whisky, dressed lumber and ice. About 7 m. E. of
Harrodsburg is Pleasant Hill, or Union Village, a summer resort and the
home, since early in the 19th century, of a Shaker community.
Harrodsburg was founded on the 16th of June 1774 by James Harrod
(1746-1793) and a few followers, and is the oldest permanent settlement
in the state. It was incorporated in 1875. Harrodsburg was formerly the
seat of Bacon College (see LEXINGTON, Kentucky).



HARROGATE, a municipal borough and watering-place in the Ripon
parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 203 m.
N. by W. from London, on the North-Eastern railway. Pop. (1891) 16,316;
(1901) 28,423. It is indebted for its rise and importance to its
medicinal springs, and is the principal inland watering-place in the
north of England. It consists of two scattered townships, Low Harrogate
and High Harrogate, which have gradually been connected by a continuous
range of handsome houses and villas. A common called the Stray, of 200
acres, secured by act of parliament from ever being built upon,
stretches in front of the main line of houses, and on this account
Harrogate, notwithstanding its rapid increase, has retained much of its
rural charm. As regards climate a choice is offered between the more
bracing atmosphere of High Harrogate and the sheltered and warm climate
of the low town. The waters are chalybeate, sulphureous and saline, and
some of the springs possess all these qualities to a greater or less
extent. The principal chalybeate springs are the Tewitt well, called by
Dr Bright, who wrote the first account of it, the "English Spa,"
discovered by Captain William Slingsby of Bilton Hall near the close of
the 16th century; the Royal Chalybeate Spa, more commonly known as
John's Well, discovered in 1631 by Dr Stanhope of York; Muspratt's
chalybeate or chloride of iron spring discovered in 1819, but first
properly analysed by Dr Sheridan Muspratt in 1865; and the Starbeck
springs midway between High Harrogate and Knaresborough. The principal
sulphur springs are the old sulphur well in the centre of Low Harrogate,
discovered about the year 1656; the Montpellier springs, the principal
well of which was discovered in 1822, situated in the grounds of the
Crown Hotel and surmounted by a handsome building in the Chinese style,
containing pump-room, baths and reading-room; and the Harlow Car
springs, situated in a wooded glen about a mile west from Low Harrogate.
Near Harlow Car is Harlow observatory, a square tower 100 ft. in height,
standing on elevated ground and commanding a very extensive view. A
saline spring situated in Low Harrogate was discovered in 1783. Some
eighty springs in all have been discovered. The principal bath
establishments are the Victoria Baths (1871) and the Royal Baths (1897).
There are also a handsome kursaal (1903), a grand opera house, numerous
modern churches, and several hospitals and benevolent institutions,
including the Royal Bath hospital. The corporation owns the Stray, and
also the Spa concert rooms and grounds, Harlow Moor, Crescent Gardens,
Royal Bath gardens and other large open spaces, as well as Royal Baths,
Victoria Baths and Starbeck Baths. The mineral springs are vested in the
corporation. The high-lying moorland of the surrounding district is
diversified by picturesque dales; and Harrogate is not far from many
towns and sites of great interest, such as Ripon, Knaresborough and
Fountains Abbey. The town was incorporated in 1884, and the corporation
consists of a mayor, 8 aldermen and 24 councillors. Area, 3276 acres.



HARROW,[1] an agricultural implement used for (1) levelling ridges left
by the plough and preparing a smooth surface for the reception of seeds;
(2) covering in seeds after sowing; (3) tearing up and gathering weeds;
(4) disintegrating and levelling the soil of meadows and pastures; (5)
forming a surface tilth by pulverizing the top soil and so conserving
moisture.

The harrow rivals the plough in antiquity. In its simplest form it
consists of the boughs of trees interlaced into a wooden frame, and this
form survives in the "bush-harrow." Another old type, found in the
middle ages and still in use, consists of a wooden framework in which
iron pegs or "tines" are set. This is now generally superseded by the
"zig-zag" harrow patented by Armstrong in 1839, built of iron bars in
which the tines are so arranged that each follows its own track and has
a separate line of action. This harrow is usually made in two or three
sections which fold over one another and are thus easily portable, the
arrangement at the same time giving a flexibility on uneven ground.
Additional flexibility may be imparted to the implement by jointing the
stays of the frame which are in the line of draught. The liability that
the tines may snap off is the chief weakness of this type, and
improvements have consisted chiefly in alterations in their shape and
the method of fixing them to the frame.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Jointed Zig-zag Harrow. (Ransomes, Sims &
Jefferies, Ltd.)]

The other type of harrow most used is the chain harrow, consisting of a
number of square-link chains connected by cross links and attached to a
draught-bar, the whole being kept expanded by stretchers and trailing
weights. It is used for levelling and spreading manure over grass-land,
from which it at the same time tears up moss and coarse herbage. Mention
may also be made of the drag-harrow, a heavy implement with long tines,
approximating closely to the cultivator, and of the Norwegian harrow
with its revolving rows of spikes.

  A few variations and developments of the ordinary harrow require
  notice. In the adjustable harrow (fig. 2) the teeth are secured to
  bars pivoted at their ends in the side bars of the frame, and provided
  with crank arms connected to a common link bar, which may be moved
  horizontally by means of a lever for the purpose of adjusting the
  angle which the teeth make with the ground, and thus convert the
  machine from a pulverizer to a smoothing harrow. The small figure
  illustrates a spring connexion between the adjusting lever and its
  locking bar, which allows the teeth to yield upon striking an
  obstruction. As the briskness of the operation adds to its
  effectiveness, the harrow is often made with a seat from which the
  operator can hasten the team without fatiguing himself.

  [Illustration: Showing tooth mechanism of harrow.

  FIG. 2.--Adjustable Harrow.]

  Fig. 3 illustrates a spring-tooth harrow. In this harrow the
  independent frames are carried upon wheels, and a seat for the
  operator is mounted upon standards supported by the two frames. The
  teeth consist of flat steel springs of scroll form, which yield to
  rigid obstructions and are mounted on rock shafts in the same manner
  as in the walking harrow before described. The levers enable the
  operator to raise the teeth more or less, and thus free them from
  rubbish and also regulate the depth of action.

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.--Spring-tooth Harrow.]

  Another variation of the harrow with great pulverizing and loosening
  capabilities consists of a main frame, having a pole and whipple-trees
  attached: to this frame are pivoted two supplemental frames, each of
  which has mounted on it a shaft carrying a series of concavo-convex
  disks. The supplemental frames may be swung by the adjusting levers to
  any angle with relation to the line of draught, and the disks then act
  like that of the disk plough (see PLOUGH), throwing the soil outward
  with more or less force, according to the angle at which they are set,
  and thus thoroughly breaking up and pulverizing the clods. Above the
  disks is a bar to which are pivoted a series of scrapers, one for each
  disk, which are held to their work with a yielding action, being
  thrown out of operation when desired by the levers shown in connexion
  with the operating bar. Pans on the main frame are used to carry
  weights to hold the disks down to their work. The cut away disk harrow
  differs from the ordinary disk harrow in that its disks are notched
  and so have greater penetrating power. The curved knife-tooth harrow
  consists of a frame to which a row of curved blades is attached. Other
  forms of the implement are illustrated and discussed in _Farm
  Machinery and Farm Motors_ by J. B. Davidson and L. W. Chase (New
  York, 1908).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] In Mid. Eng. _harwe_; the O. Eng. appears to have been _hearge_;
    the word is cognate with the Dutch _hark_, Swed. _harke_, Ger.
    _Harke_, rake, and with Danish _harv_, and Swed. _harf_, harrow, but
    the ultimate origin is unknown; the Fr. _herse_ is a different word,
    cf. HEARSE.



HARROWBY, DUDLEY RYDER, 1ST EARL OF (1762-1847), the eldest son of
Nathaniel Ryder, 1st Baron Harrowby (1735-1803), was born in London on
the 22nd of December 1762. His grandfather Sir Dudley Ryder (1691-1756)
became a member of parliament and solicitor-general owing to the favour
of Sir Robert Walpole in 1733; in 1737 he was appointed attorney-general
and three years later he was knighted; in 1754 he was made lord chief
justice of the king's bench and a privy councillor, the patent creating
him a peer having been just signed by the king, but not passed, when he
died on the 25th of May 1756. His only son Nathaniel, who was member of
parliament for Tiverton for twenty years, was created Baron Harrowby in
1776. Educated at St John's College, Cambridge, Dudley Ryder became
member of parliament for Tiverton in 1784 and under-secretary for
foreign affairs in 1789. In 1791 he was appointed paymaster of the
forces and vice-president of the board of trade, but he resigned the
positions and also that of treasurer of the navy when he succeeded to
his father's barony in June 1803. In 1804 he was secretary of state for
foreign affairs and in 1805 chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster under
his intimate friend William Pitt; in the latter year he was sent on a
special and important mission to the emperors of Austria and Russia and
the king of Prussia, and for the long period between 1812 and 1827 he
was lord president of the council. After Canning's death in 1827 he
refused to serve George IV. as prime minister and he never held office
again, although he continued to take part in politics, being especially
prominent during the deadlock which preceded the passing of the Reform
Bill in 1832. Harrowby's long association with the Tories did not
prevent him from assisting to remove the disabilities of Roman Catholics
and Protestant dissenters, or from supporting the movement for electoral
reform; he was also in favour of the emancipation of the slaves. The
earl died at his Staffordshire residence, Sandon Hall, on the 26th of
December 1847, being, as Charles Greville says, "the last of his
generation and of the colleagues of Mr Pitt, the sole survivor of those
stirring times and mighty contests."

Harrowby's eldest son, Dudley Ryder, 2nd earl (1798-1882), was born in
London on the 19th of May 1798, his mother being Susan (d. 1838),
daughter of Granville Leveson-Gower, marquess of Stafford, a lady of
exceptional attainments. As Viscount Sandon he became member of
parliament for Tiverton in 1819, in 1827 he was appointed a lord of the
admiralty, and in 1830 secretary to the India board. From 1831 to 1847
Sandon represented Liverpool in the House of Commons. For a long time he
was out of office, but in 1855, eight years after he had become earl of
Harrowby, he was appointed chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster by Lord
Palmerston; in a few months he was transferred to the office of lord
privy seal, a position which he resigned in 1857. He was chairman of the
Maynooth commission and a member of other important royal commissions,
and was among the most stalwart and prominent defenders of the
established church. He died at Sandon on the 19th of November 1882. His
successor was his eldest son, Dudley Francis Stuart Ryder (1831-1900),
vice-president of the council from 1874 to 1878, president of the board
of trade from 1878 to 1880, and lord privy seal in 1885 and 1886. He
died without sons on the 26th of March 1900, and was succeeded by his
brother, Henry Dudley Ryder (1836-1900), whose son, John Herbert Dudley
Ryder (b. 1864), became 5th earl of Harrowby.



HARROWING OF HELL, an English poem in dialogue, dating from the end of
the 13th century. It is written in the East Midland dialect, and is
generally cited as the earliest dramatic work of any kind preserved in
the language, though it was in reality probably intended for recitation
rather than performance; It is closely allied to the kind of poem known
as a _débat_, and the opening words--"Alle herkneth to me nou A strif
wille I tellen ou Of Jesu and of Satan"--seem to indicate that the piece
was delivered by a single performer. The subject--the descent of Christ
into Hades to succour the souls of the just, as related in the
apocryphal gospel of Nicodemus--is introduced in a kind of prologue;
then follows the dispute between "Dominus" and "Satan" at the gate of
Hell; the gatekeeper runs away, and the just are set free, while Adam,
Eve, Habraham, David, Johannes and Moyses do homage to the deliverer.
The poem ends with a short prayer: "God, for his moder loue Let ous
never thider come." Metrically, the poem is characterized by frequent
alliteration imposed upon the rhymed octosyllabic couplet:--

  Welcome, louerd, god of londe
  Godes sone and godes sonde (ii. 149-150).

The piece is obviously connected with the Easter cycle of liturgical
drama, and the subject is treated in the York and Townley plays.

  MSS. are: Brit. Mus., Harl. MS. 2253; Edinburgh, Auchinleck MS., W 41;
  Oxford, Bodleian, Digby 86. It was privately printed by J. P. Collier
  and by J. O. Halliwell, but is available in Appendix III. of A. W.
  Pollard's _English Miracle Plays ..._ (4th ed., 1904) K. Böddeker,
  _Altengl. Dichtungen des MS. Harl. 2253_ (Berlin, 1878); and E. Mall,
  _The Harrowing of Hell_ (Breslau, 1871). See also E. K. Chambers, _The
  Medieval Stage_ (2 vols., 1903).



HARROW-ON-THE-HILL, an urban district in the Harrow parliamentary
division of Middlesex, England, 12 m. W.N.W. of St Paul's cathedral,
London, served by the London and North Western, Metropolitan and
District railways. Pop. (1901), 10,220. It takes its name from its
position on an isolated hill rising to a height of 345 ft. On the
summit, and forming a conspicuous landmark, is the church of St Mary,
said to have been founded by Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury, in the
reign of William I., and Norman work appears at the base of the tower.
The remainder of the church is of various later dates, and there are
several ancient monuments and brasses.

Harrow is celebrated for its public school, founded in 1571 by John
Lyon, whose brass is in the church, a yeoman of the neighbouring village
of Preston who had yearly during his life set aside 20 marks for the
education of poor children of Harrow; though a school existed before his
time. Though the charter was granted by Queen Elizabeth in 1571, and the
statutes drawn up by the founder in 1590, two years before his death, it
was not till 1611 that the first building was opened for scholars. Lyon
originally settled about two-thirds of his property on the school,
leaving the remainder for the maintenance of the highway between London
and Harrow, but in the course of time the values of the respective
endowments have changed so far that the benefit accruing to the school
is a small proportion of the whole. About 1660 the headmaster, taking
advantage of a concession in Lyon's statutes, began to receive
"foreigners," i.e. boys from other parishes, who were to pay for their
education. From this time the prosperity of the school may be dated. In
1809 the parishioners of Harrow appealed to the court of chancery
against the manner in which the school was conducted, but the decision,
while it recognized their privileges, confirmed the right of admission
to foreigners. The government of the school was originally vested in six
persons of standing in the parish who had the power of filling vacancies
in their number by election among themselves; but under the Public
Schools Act of 1868 the governing body now consists of the surviving
members of the old board, besides six new members who are elected
respectively by the lord chancellor, the universities of Oxford,
Cambridge and London, the Royal Society, and the assistant masters of
the school. There are several scholarships in connexion with the school
to Oxford and Cambridge Universities. Harrow was originally an
exclusively classical school, but mathematics became a compulsory study
in 1837; modern languages, made compulsory in the upper forms In 1851,
were extended to the whole school in 1855; while English history and
literature began to be especially studied about 1869. The number of boys
is about 600. The principal buildings are modern, including the chapel
(1857), the library (1863), named after the eminent headmaster Dr
Charles John Vaughan, and the speech-room (1877), the scene of the
brilliant ceremony on "Speech Day" each summer term. The fourth form
room, however, dates from 1611, and on its panels are cut the names of
many eminent _alumni_, such as Byron, Robert Peel, R. B. Sheridan and
Temple (Lord Palmerston). Several of the buildings were erected out of
the Lyon Tercentenary Fund, subscribed after the tercentenary
celebration in 1871.

A considerable extension of Harrow as an outer residential suburb of
London has taken place north of the hill, where is the urban district of
Wealdstone (pop. 5901), and there are also important printing and
photographic works.



HARRY THE MINSTREL, or BLIND HARRY (fl. 1470-1492), author of the Scots
historical poem _The Actis and Deidis of the Illustere and Vailzeand
Campioun Schir William Wallace, Knicht of Ellerslie_, flourished in the
latter half of the 15th century. The details of his personal history are
of the scantiest. He appears to have been a blind Lothian man, in humble
circumstances, who had some reputation as a story-teller, and who
received, on five occasions, in 1490 and 1491, gifts from James IV. The
entries of these, in the _Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer_, occur
among others to harpers and singers. He is alluded to by Dunbar (q.v.)
in the fragmentary _Interlude of the Droichis Part of the Play_, where a
"droich," or dwarf, personates

      "the nakit blynd Harry
  That lang has bene in the fary
  Farleis to find;"

and again in Dunbar's _Lament for the Makaris_. John Major (q.v.) in his
Latin _History_ speaks of "one Henry, blind from his birth, who, in the
time of my childhood, fashioned a whole book about William Wallace, and
therein wrote down in our popular verse--and this was a kind of
composition in which he had much skill--all that passed current among
the people in his day. I, however, can give but partial credence to
these writings. This Henry used to recite his tales before nobles, and
thus received food and clothing as his reward" (Bk. iv. ch. xv.).

The poem (preserved in a unique MS., dated 1488, in the Advocates'
library, Edinburgh) is divided into eleven books and runs to 11,853
lines. Its poetic merits are few, and its historical accuracy is easily
impugned. It has the formal interest of being one of the earliest,
certainly one of the most extensive verse-documents in Scots written in
five-accent, or heroic, couplets. It is also the earliest outstanding
work which discloses that habit of Scotticism which took such strong
hold of the popular Northern literature during the coming years of
conflict with England. In this respect it is in marked contrast with all
the patriotic verse of preceding and contemporary literature. This
attitude of the _Wallace_ may perhaps be accepted as corroborative
evidence of the humble milieu and popular sentiment of its author. The
poem owed its subsequent widespread reputation to its appeal to this
sentiment rather than to its literary quality. On the other hand, there
are elements in the poem which show that it is not entirely the work of
a poor crowder; and these (notably references to historical and literary
authorities, and occasional reminiscences of the literary tricks of the
Scots Chaucerian school) have inclined some to the view that the text,
as we have it, is an edited version of the minstrel's rough song-story.
It has been argued, though by no means conclusively, that the "editor"
was John Ramsay, the scribe of the Edinburgh MS. and of the companion
Edinburgh MS. of the _Brus_ by John Barbour (q.v.).

  The poem appears, on the authority of Laing, to have been printed at
  the press of Chepman & Myllar about 1508, but the fragments which
  Laing saw are not extant. The first complete edition, now available,
  was printed by Lekprevik for Henry Charteris in 1570 (Brit. Museum).
  It was reprinted by Charteris in 1594 and 1601, and by Andro Hart in
  1611 and 1620. At least six other editions appeared in the 17th
  century. There are many later reprints, including some of William
  Hamilton of Gilbertfield's modern Scots version of 1722. The first
  critical edition was prepared by Dr. Jamieson and published in 1820.
  In 1889 the Scottish Text Society completed their edition of the text,
  with prolegomena and notes by James Moir.

  See, in addition to Jamieson's and Moir's volumes (_u.s._), J. T. T.
  Brown's _The Wallace and the Bruce Restudied_ (Bonner, _Beiträge zur
  Anglistik_, vi., 1900), a plea for Ramsay's authorship of the known
  text; also W. A. Craigie's article in _The Scottish Review_ (July
  1903), a comparative estimate of the _Brus and Wallace_, in favour of
  the latter.



HARSDÖRFFER, GEORG PHILIPP (1607-1658), German poet, was born at
Nuremberg on the 1st of November 1607. He studied law at Altdorf and
Strassburg, and subsequently travelled through Holland, England, France
and Italy. His knowledge of languages gained for him the appellation
"the learned," though he was as little a learned man as he was a poet.
As a member of the _Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft_ he was called _der
Spielende_ (the player). Jointly with Johann Klaj (q.v.) he founded in
1644 at Nuremberg the order of the Pegnitzschäfer, a literary society,
and among the members thereof he was known by the name of Strephon. He
died at Nuremberg on the 22nd of September 1658. His writings in German
and Latin fill fifty volumes, and a selection of his poems, interesting
mostly for their form, is to be found in Müller's _Bibliothek deutscher
Dichter des 17ten Jahrhunderts_, vol. ix. (Leipzig, 1826).

  His life was written by Widmann (Altdorf, 1707). See also Tittmann,
  _Die Nürnberger Dichterschule_ (Göttingen, 1847); Hodermann, _Eine
  vornehme Gesellschaft, nach Harsdörffers "Gesprächspielen"_
  (Paderborn, 1890); T. Bischoff, "Georg Philipp Harsdörffer" in the
  _Festschrift zur 250 jährigen Jubelfeier des Pegnesischen
  Blumenordens_ (Nuremberg, 1894); and Krapp, _Die ästhetischen
  Tendenzen Harsdörffers_ (Berlin, 1904).



HARSHA, or HARSHAVARDHANA (fl. A.D. 606-648), an Indian king who ruled
northern India as paramount monarch for over forty years. The events of
his reign are related by Hsüan Tsang, the Chinese pilgrim, and by Bana,
a Brahman author. He was the son of a raja of Thanesar, who gained
prominence by successful wars against the Huns, and came to the throne
in A.D. 606, though he was only crowned in 612. He devoted himself to a
scheme of conquering the whole of India, and carried on wars for thirty
years with success, until (A.D. 620) he came in contact with Pulakesin
II., the greatest of the Chalukya dynasty, who made himself lord of the
south, as Harsha was lord of the north. The Nerbudda river formed the
boundary between the two empires. In the latter years of his reign
Harsha's sway over the whole basin of the Ganges from the Himalayas to
the Nerbudda was undisputed. After thirty-seven years of war he set
himself to emulate Asoka and became a patron of art and literature. He
was the last native monarch who held paramount power in the north prior
to the Mahommedan conquest; and was succeeded by an era of petty states.

  See Bana, _Sri-harsha-charita_, trans. Cowell and Thomas (1897);
  Ettinghausen, _Harsha Vardhana_ (Louvain, 1906).



HARSNETT, SAMUEL (1561-1631), English divine, archbishop of York, was
born at Colchester in June 1561, and was educated at Pembroke Hall,
Cambridge, where he was successively scholar, fellow and master
(1605-1616). He was also vice-chancellor of the university in 1606 and
1614. His ecclesiastical career began somewhat unpromisingly, for he was
censured by Archbishop Whitgift for Romanist tendencies in a sermon
which he preached against predestination in 1584. After holding the
living of Chigwell (1597-1605) he became chaplain to Bancroft (then
bishop of London), and afterwards archdeacon of Essex (1603-1609),
rector of Stisted and bishop of Chichester (1609-1619) and archbishop of
York (1629). He died on the 25th of May 1631. Harsnett was no favourite
with the Puritan community, and Charles I. ordered his _Considerations
for the better Settling of Church Government_ (1629) to be circulated
among the bishops. His _Declaration of Egregious Popish Impostures_
(1603) furnished Shakespeare with the names of the spirits mentioned by
Edgar in _King Lear_.



HART, ALBERT BUSHNELL (1854-   ), American historian, was born at
Clarksville, Mercer county, Pennsylvania, on the 1st of July 1854. He
graduated at Harvard College in 1880, studied at Paris, Berlin and
Freiburg, and received the degree of Ph.D. at Freiburg in 1883. He was
instructor in history at Harvard in 1883-1887, assistant professor in
1887-1897, and became professor in 1897. Among his writings are:
_Introduction to the Study of Federal Government_ (1890), _Formation of
the Union_ (1892, in the Epochs of American History series), _Practical
Essays on American Government_ (1893), _Studies in American Education_
(1895), _Guide to the Study of American History_ (with Edward Channing,
1897), _Salmon Portland Chase_ (1899, in the American Statesman series),
_Foundations of American Foreign Policy_ (1901), _Actual Government_
(1903), _Slavery and Abolition_ (1906, the volume in the American
Nation series dealing with the period 1831-1841), _National Ideals
Historically Traced_ (1907), the 26th volume of the American Nation
series, and many historical pamphlets and articles. In addition he
edited _American History told by Contemporaries_ (4 vols., 1898-1901),
and _Source Readers in American History_ (4 vols., 1901-1903), and two
co-operative histories of the United States, the Epochs of American
History series (3 small text-books), and, on a much larger scale, the
American Nation series (27 vols., 1903-1907); he also edited the
American Citizen series.



HART, CHARLES (d. 1683), English actor, grandson of Shakespeare's sister
Joan, is first heard of as playing women's parts at the Blackfriars'
theatre as an apprentice of Richard Robinson. In the Civil War he was a
lieutenant of horse in Prince Rupert's regiment, and after the king's
defeat he played surreptitiously at the Cockpit and at Holland House and
other noblemen's residences. After the Restoration he is known to have
been in 1660 the original Dorante in _The Mistaken Beauty_, adapted from
Corneille's _Le Menteur_. In 1663 he went to the Theatre Royal in
Killigrew's company, with which he remained until 1682, taking leading
parts in Dryden's, Jonson's and Beaumont and Fletcher's plays. He is
highly spoken of by contemporaries in such Shakespearian parts as
Othello and Brutus. He is often mentioned by Pepys. Betterton praised
him, and would not himself play the part of Hotspur until after Hart's
retirement. He died in 1683 and was buried on the 20th of August. Hart
is said to have been the first lover of Nell Gwyn, and to have trained
her for the stage.



HART, ERNEST ABRAHAM (1835-1898), English medical journalist, was born
in London on the 26th of June 1835, the son of a Jewish dentist. He was
educated at the City of London school, and became a student at St
George's hospital. In 1856 he became a member of the Royal College of
Surgeons, making a specialty of diseases of the eye. He was appointed
ophthalmic surgeon at St Mary's hospital at the age of 28, and occupied
various other posts, introducing into ophthalmic practice some
modifications since widely adopted. His name, too, is associated with a
method of treating popliteal aneurism, which he was the first to use in
Great Britain. His real life-work, however, was as a medical journalist,
beginning with the _Lancet_ in 1857. He was appointed editor of the
_British Medical Journal_ in 1866. He took a leading part in the
exposures which led to the inquiry into the state of London workhouse
infirmaries, and to the reform of the treatment of sick poor throughout
England, and the Infant Life Protection Act of 1872, aimed at the evils
of baby-farming, was largely due to his efforts. The record of his
public work covers nearly the whole field of sanitary legislation during
the last thirty years of his life. He had a hand in the amendments of
the Public Health and of the Medical Acts; in the measures relating to
notification of infectious disease, to vaccination, to the registration
of plumbers; in the improvement of factory legislation; in the remedy of
legitimate grievances of Army and Navy medical officers; in the removal
of abuses and deficiencies in crowded barrack schools; in denouncing the
sanitary shortcomings of the Indian government, particularly in regard
to the prevention of cholera. His work on behalf of the British Medical
Association is shown by the increase from 2000 to 19,000 in the number
of members, and the growth of the _British Medical Journal_ from 20 to
64 pages, during his editorship. From 1872 to 1897 he was chairman of
the Association's Parliamentary Bill Committee. He died on the 7th of
January 1898. For his second wife he married Alice Marion Rowland, who
had herself studied medicine in London and Paris, and was no less
interested than her husband in philanthropic reform. She was most active
in her encouragement of Irish cottage industries, and was the founder of
the Donegal Industrial Fund.



HART, SIR ROBERT, Bart. (1835-   ), Anglo-Chinese statesman, was born at
Milltown, Co. Armagh, on the 20th of February 1835. He was educated at
Taunton, Dublin and Belfast, and graduated at Queen's College, Belfast,
in 1853. In the following year he received an appointment as
student-interpreter in the China consular service, and after serving
for a short time at the Ningpo vice-consulate, he was transferred to
Canton, where after acting as secretary to the allied commissioners
governing the city, he was appointed the local inspector of customs.
There he first gained an insight into custom-house work. One effect of
the Taiping rebellion was to close the native custom-house at Shanghai;
and as the corrupt alternatives proposed by the Chinese were worse than
useless, it was arranged by Sir Rutherford Alcock, the British consul,
with his French and American colleagues, that they should undertake to
collect the duties on goods owned by foreigners entering and leaving the
port. Sir T. Wade was appointed to the post of collector in the first
instance, and after a short tenure of office was succeeded by Mr H. N.
Lay, who held the post until 1863, when he resigned owing to a
disagreement with the Chinese government in connexion with the
Lay-Osborn fleet. During his tenancy of office the system adopted at
Shanghai was applied to the other treaty ports, so that when on Mr Lay's
resignation Mr Hart was appointed inspector-general of foreign customs,
he found himself at the head of an organization which collected a
revenue of upwards of eight million taels per annum at fourteen treaty
ports. From the date when Mr Hart took up his duties at Peking, in 1863,
he unceasingly devoted the whole of his energies to the work of the
department, with the result that the revenue grew from upwards of eight
million taels to nearly twenty-seven million, collected at the
thirty-two treaty ports, and the customs staff, which in 1864 numbered
200, reached in 1901 a total of 5704. From the first Mr Hart gained the
entire confidence of the members of the Chinese government, who were
wise enough to recognize his loyal and able assistance. Of all their
numerous sources of revenue, the money furnished by Mr Hart was the only
certain asset which could be offered as security for Chinese loans. For
many years, moreover, it was customary for the British minister, as well
as the ministers of other powers, to consult him in every difficulty;
and such complete confidence had Lord Granville in his ability and
loyalty, that on the retirement of Sir T. Wade he appointed him minister
plenipotentiary at Peking (1885). Sir Robert Hart, however--who was made
a K.C.M.G. in 1882--recognized the anomalous position in which he would
have been placed had he accepted the proposal, and declined the
proffered honour. On all disputed points, whether commercial, religious
or political, his advice was invariably sought by the foreign ministers
and the Chinese alike. Thrice only did he visit Europe between 1863 and
1902, the result of this long comparative isolation, and of his constant
intercourse with the Peking officials, being that he learnt to look at
events through Chinese spectacles; and his work, _These from the Land of
Sinim_, shows how far this affected his outlook. The faith which he put
in the Chinese made him turn a deaf ear to the warnings which he
received of the threatening Boxer movement in 1900. To the last he
believed that the attacking force would at least have spared his house,
which contained official records of priceless value, but he was doomed
to see his faith falsified. The building was burnt to the ground with
all that it contained, including his private diary for forty years. When
the stress came, and he retreated to the British legation, he took an
active part in the defence, and spared neither risk nor toil in his
exertions. In addition to the administration of the foreign customs
service, the establishment of a postal service in the provinces devolved
upon him, and after the signing of the protocol of 1901 he was called
upon to organize a native customs service at the treaty ports.

The appointment of Sir Robert Hart as inspector-general of the imperial
maritime customs secured the interests of European investors in Chinese
securities, and helped to place Chinese finance generally on a solid
footing. When, therefore, in May 1906 the Chinese government appointed a
Chinese administrator and assistant administrator of the entire customs
of China, who would control Sir Robert Hart and his staff, great anxiety
was aroused. The Chinese government had bound itself in 1896 and 1898
that the imperial maritime customs services should remain as then
constituted during the currency of the loan. The British government
obtained no satisfactory answer to its remonstrances, and Sir Robert
Hart, finding himself placed in a subordinate position after his long
service, retired in July 1907. He received formal leave of absence in
January 1908, when he received the title of president of the board of
customs. Both the Chinese and the British governments from time to time
conferred honours upon Sir Robert Hart. By giving him a Red Button, or
button of the highest rank, a Peacock's Feather, the order of the Double
Dragon, a patent of nobility to his ancestors for three generations, and
the title of Junior Guardian of the heir apparent, the Chinese showed
their appreciation of his manifold and great services; while under the
seal of the British government there were bestowed upon him the orders
of C.M.G.(1880), K.C.M.G.(1882), G.C.M.G. (1889), and a baronetcy
(1893). He has also been the recipient of many foreign orders. Sir
Robert Hart married in 1886 Hester, the daughter of Alexander Bredon,
Esq., M.D., of Portadown.

  See his life by Julia Bredon (_Sir Robert Hart_, 1909).



HART, WILLIAM (1823-1894), American landscape and cattle painter, was
born in Paisley, Scotland, on the 31st of March 1823, and was taken to
America in early youth. He was apprenticed to a carriage painter at
Albany, New York, and his first efforts in art were in making landscape
decorations for the panels of coaches. Subsequently he returned to
Scotland, where he studied for three years. He opened a studio in New
York in 1853, and was elected an associate of the National Academy of
Design in 1857 and an academician in the following year. He was also a
member of the American Water Colour Society, and was its president from
1870 to 1873. As one of the group of the Hudson River School he enjoyed
considerable popularity, his pictures being in many well-known American
collections. He died at Mount Vernon, New York, on the 17th of June
1894.

His brother, JAMES MCDOUGAL HART (1828-1901), born in Kilmarnock,
Scotland, was also a landscape and cattle painter. He was a pupil of
Schirmer in Düsseldorf, and became an associate of the National Academy
of Design in 1857 and a full member in 1859. He was survived by two
daughters, both figure painters, Letitia B. Hart (b. 1867) and Mary
Theresa Hart (b. 1872).



HARTE, FRANCIS BRET (1839-1902), American author, was born at Albany,
New York, on the 25th of August 1839. His father, a professor of Greek
at the Albany College, died during his boyhood. After a common-school
education he went with his mother to California at the age of seventeen,
afterwards working in that state as a teacher, miner, printer,
express-messenger, secretary of the San Francisco mint, and editor. His
first literary venture was a series of _Condensed Novels_ (travesties of
well-known works of fiction, somewhat in the style of Thackeray),
published weekly in _The Californian_, of which he was editor, and
reissued in book form in 1867. _The Overland Monthly_, the earliest
considerable literary magazine on the Pacific coast, was established in
1868, with Harte as editor. His sketches and poems, which appeared in
its pages during the next few years, attracted wide attention in the
eastern states and in Europe.

Bret Harte was an early master of the short story, and his Californian
tales were regarded as introducing a new _genre_ into fiction. "The Luck
of Roaring Camp" (1868), "The Outcasts of Poker Flat" (1869), the later
sketch "How Santa Claus came to Simpson's Bar," and the verses entitled
"Plain Language from Truthful James," combined humour, pathos and power
of character portrayal in a manner that indicated that the new land of
mining-gulches, gamblers, unassimilated Asiatics, and picturesque and
varied landscape had found its best delineator; so that Harte became, in
his pioneer pictures, a sort of later Fenimore Cooper. Forty-four
volumes were published by him between 1867 and 1898. After a year as
professor in the university of California, Harte lived in New York,
1871-1878; was United States consul at Crefeld, Germany, 1878-1880;
consul at Glasgow, 1880-1885; and after 1885 resided in London, engaged
in literary work. He died at Camberley, England, on the 5th of May
1902.

  A library edition of his _Writings_ (16 vols.) was issued in 1900, and
  increased to 19 vols. in 1904. See also H. W. Boynton, _Bret Harte_
  (1905) in the Contemporary Men of Letters series; T. E. Pemberton,
  _Life of Bret Harte_ (1903), which contains a list of his poems,
  tales, &c.



HARTEBEEST, the Boer name for a large South African antelope (also known
as caama) characterized by its red colour, long face with naked muzzle
and sharply angulated lyrate horns, which are present in both sexes.
This antelope is the _Bubalis cama_ or _Alcelaphus cama_ of naturalists;
but the name hartebeest has been extended to include all the numerous
members of the same genus, some of which are to be found in every part
of Africa, while one or two extend into Syria. Some of the species of
the allied genus _Damaliscus_, such as Hunter's antelope (_D. hunteri_),
are also often called hartebeests. (See ANTELOPE).

[Illustration: Cape Hartebeest (_Bubalis cama_).]



HARTFORD, a city and the capital of Connecticut, U.S.A., the county-seat
of Hartford county, and a port of entry, coterminous with the township
of Hartford, in the west central part of the state, on the W. bank of
the Connecticut river, and about 35 m. from Long Island Sound. Pop.
(1890), 53,230; (1900), 79,850, of whom 23,758 were foreign-born
(including 8076 Irish, 2700 Germans, 2260 Russians, 1952 Italians, 1714
Swedes, 1634 English and 1309 English Canadians); (1910 census) 98,915.
Of the total population in 1900, 43,872 were of foreign parentage (both
parents foreign-born), and of these 18,410 were of Irish parentage.
Hartford is served by two divisions of the New York, New Haven &
Hartford railway, by the Central New England railway, by the several
electric lines of the Connecticut Company which radiate to the
surrounding towns, and by the steamboats of the Hartford & New York
Transportation Co., all of which are controlled by the N.Y., N.H. & H.
The river, which is navigable to this point, is usually closed from the
middle of December to the middle of March.

The city covers an area of 17.7 sq. m.; it is well laid out and
compactly built, and streets, parks, &c., are under a city-plan
commission authorized in 1907. It is intersected by the sluggish Park
river, which is spanned by ten bridges. A stone arch bridge, with nine
arches, built of granite at a cost of $1,700,000 and dedicated in 1908,
spans the Connecticut (replacing the old Connecticut river bridge built
in 1818 and burned in 1895), and connects Hartford with the village of
East Hartford in the township of East Hartford (pop. 1900, 6406), which
has important paper-manufacturing and tobacco-growing interests. The
park system of Hartford is the largest in any city of the United States
in proportion to the city's population. In 1908 there were 21 public
parks, aggregating more than 1335 acres. In the extreme S. of the city
is Goodwin Park (about 200 acres); in the S.E. is Colt Park (106 acres),
the gift of Mrs Elizabeth Colt, the widow of Samuel Colt, inventor of
the Colt revolver; in the S.W. is Pope Park (about 90 acres); in the W.
is Elizabeth (100 acres); in the E., along the Connecticut river front,
is Riverside (about 80 acres); and in the extreme N. is Keney Park (680
acres), the gift of Henry Keney, and, next to the Metropolitan
Reservations near Boston, the largest park in the New England states.
Near the centre of the city are the Capitol Grounds (27 acres; until
1872 the campus of Trinity College) and Bushnell Park (41 acres),
adjoining Capitol Park. Bushnell Park, named in honour of Horace
Bushnell, contains the Corning Memorial Fountain, erected in 1899 and
designed by J. Massey Rhind, and three bronze statues, one, by J. Q. A.
Ward, of General Israel Putnam; one, by Truman H. Bartlett, of Dr Horace
Wells (1815-1848), the discoverer of anaesthesia; and one, by E. S.
Woods, of Colonel Thomas Knowlton (1749-1776), a patriot soldier of the
War of Independence, killed at the battle of Harlem Heights. On the
Capitol Grounds is the state capitol (Richard M. Upjohn, architect), a
magnificent white marble building, which was completed in 1880 at a cost
of $2,534,000. Its exterior is adorned with statues and busts of
Connecticut statesmen and carvings of scenes in the history of the
state. Within the building are regimental flags of the Civil War, a
bronze statue by Olin L. Warner of Governor William A. Buckingham, a
bronze statue by Karl Gerhardt of Nathan Hale, a bronze tablet (also by
Karl Gerhardt) in memory of John Fitch (1743-1798), the inventor; a
portrait of Washington, purchased by the state in 1800 from the artist,
Gilbert Stuart; and a series of oil portraits of the colonial and state
governors. The elaborately carved chair of the lieutenant-governor in
the senate chamber, made of wood from the historic Charter Oak, and the
original charter of 1662 (or its duplicate of the same date) are
preserved in a special vault in the Connecticut state library. A new
state library and supreme court building and a new state armoury and
arsenal, both of granite, have been (1910) erected upon lands recently
added to the Capitol Grounds, thus forming a group of state buildings
with the Capitol as the centre. Near the Capitol, at the approach of the
memorial bridge across the Park river, is the Soldiers' and Sailors'
memorial arch, designed by George Keller and erected by the city in 1885
in memory of the Hartford soldiers and sailors who served in the
American Civil War.

Near the centre of the city is the old town square (now known as the
City Hall Square), laid off in 1637. Here, facing Main Street, stands
the city hall, a beautiful example of Colonial architecture, which was
designed by Charles Bulfinch, completed in 1796, and until 1879 used as
a state capitol; it has subsequently been restored. In Main Street is
the present edifice of the First Church of Christ, known as the Centre
Congregational Church, which was organized in Cambridge, Massachusetts,
in 1632, and removed to Hartford, under the leadership of Thomas Hooker
and Samuel Stone, in 1636. In the adjoining cemetery are the graves of
Thomas Hooker, Governor William Leete (1603-1683), and Governor John
Haynes, and a monument in memory of 100 early residents of Hartford. In
the same thoroughfare is the Wadsworth Atheneum (built in 1842; enlarged
in 1892-1893 and 1907) and its companion buildings, the Colt memorial
(built in 1908 to accommodate the Elizabeth Colt art collection) and the
Morgan art gallery (built in 1908 by J. Pierpont Morgan in memory of his
father, Junius Morgan, a native of Hartford). In this group of buildings
are the Hartford public library (containing 90,000 volumes in 1908), the
Watkinson library of reference (70,000 volumes in 1908), the library of
the Connecticut historical society (25,000 volumes in 1908) and a public
art gallery. Other institutions of importance in Hartford are the
American school for the deaf (formerly the American asylum for the deaf
and dumb), founded in 1816 by Thomas H. Gallaudet; the retreat for the
insane (opened for patients in 1824); the Hartford hospital; St Francis
hospital; St Thomas's seminary (Roman Catholic); La Salette Missionary
college (R.C.; 1898); Trinity college (founded by members of the
Protestant Episcopal church, and now non-sectarian), which was
chartered as Washington College in 1823, opened in 1824, renamed
Trinity College in 1845, and in 1907-1908 had 27 instructors and 208
students; the Hartford Theological seminary, a Congregational
institution, which was founded at East Windsor Hill in 1834 as the
Theological Institute of Connecticut, was removed to Hartford in 1865,
and adopted its present name in 1885; and, affiliated with the last
mentioned institution, the Hartford School of Religious Pedagogy. The
Hartford grammar school, founded in 1638, long managed by the town and
in 1847 merged with the classical department of the Hartford public high
school, is the oldest educational institution in the state. In
Farmington Avenue is St Joseph's cathedral (Roman Catholic), the city
being the seat of the diocese of Hartford.

During the 18th century Hartford enjoyed a large and lucrative commerce,
but the railway development of the 19th century centralized commerce in
New York and Boston, and consequently the principal source of the city's
wealth has come to be manufacturing and insurance. In 1905 the total
value of the "factory" product was $25,975,651. The principal industries
are the manufacture of small arms (by the Colt's Patent Fire-Arms
Manufacturing Co., makers of the Colt revolver and the Gatling gun),
typewriters (Royal and Underwood), automobiles, bicycles, cyclometers,
carriages and wagons, belting, cigars, harness, machinists' tools and
instruments of precision, coil-piping, church organs, horse-shoe nails,
electric equipment, machine screws, drop forgings, hydrants and valves,
and engines and boilers. In 1788 the first woollen mill in New England
was opened in Hartford; and here, too, about 1846, the Rogers process of
electro-silver plating was invented. The city is one of the most
important insurance centres in the United States. As early as 1794
policies were issued by the Hartford Fire Insurance Company (chartered
in 1810). In 1909 Hartford was the home city of six fire insurance and
six life insurance companies, the principal ones being the Aetna (fire),
Aetna Life, Phoenix Mutual Life, Phoenix Fire, Travelers (Life and
Accident), Hartford Fire, Hartford Life, National Fire, Connecticut
Fire, Connecticut General Life and Connecticut Mutual Life. In 1906 the
six fire insurance companies had an aggregate capital of more than
$10,000,000; on the 1st January 1906 they reported assets of about
$59,000,000 and an aggregate surplus of $30,000,000. In the San
Francisco disaster of that year they paid more than $15,000,000 of
losses. Since the fire insurance business began in Hartford, the
companies of that city now doing business there have paid about
$340,000,000 in losses. Several large and successful foreign companies
have made Hartford their American headquarters. The life insurance
companies have assets to the value of about $225,000,000. The Aetna
(fire), Aetna Life, Connecticut Fire, Connecticut Mutual Life,
Connecticut General Life, Hartford Fire, Hartford Life, Hartford Steam
Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co., National Fire, Orient Fire, Phoenix
Mutual Life and Travelers companies have their own homes, some of these
being among the finest buildings in Hartford. The city has also large
banking interests.

The first settlement on the site of Hartford was made by the Dutch from
New Amsterdam, who in 1633 established on the bank of the Connecticut
river, at the mouth of the Park river, a fort which they held until
1654. The township of Hartford was one of the first three original
townships of Connecticut. The first English settlement was made in 1635
by sixty immigrants, mostly from New Town (now Cambridge),
Massachusetts; but the main immigration was in 1636, when practically
all the New Town congregation led by Thomas Hooker and Samuel Stone
joined those who had preceded them. Their settlement was called Newtown
until 1637, when the present name was adopted from Hertford, England,
the birthplace of Stone. In 1636 Hartford was the meeting-place of the
first general court of the Connecticut colony; the Fundamental Orders,
the first written constitution, were adopted at Hartford in 1639; and
after the union of the colonies of New Haven and Connecticut,
accomplished by the charter of 1662, Hartford became the sole capital:
but from 1701 until 1873 that honour was shared with New Haven. At
Hartford occurred in 1687 the meeting of Edmund Andros and the
Connecticut officials (see CONNECTICUT). Hartford was first chartered in
1784, was rechartered in 1856 (the charter of that date has been
subsequently revised), and in 1881 was made coterminous with the
township of Hartford. The city was the literary centre of Federalist
ideas in the latter part of the 18th century, being the home of Lemuel
Hopkins, John Trumbull, Joel Barlow and David Humphreys, the leading
members of a group of authors known as the "Hartford Wits"; and in
1814-1815 the city was the meeting-place of the famous Hartford
Convention, an event of great importance in the history of the
Federalist party. The War of 1812, with the Embargo Acts (1807-1813),
which were so destructive of New England's commerce, thoroughly aroused
the Federalist leaders in this part of the country against the National
government as administered by the Democrats, and in 1814, when the
British were not only threatening a general invasion of their territory
but had actually occupied a part of the Maine coast, and the National
government promised no protection, the legislature of Massachusetts
invited the other New England states to join with her in sending
delegates to a convention which should meet at Hartford to consider
their grievances, means of preserving their resources, measures of
protection against the British, and the advisability of taking measures
to bring about a convention of delegates from all the United States for
the purpose of revising the Federal constitution. The legislatures of
Connecticut and Rhode Island, and town meetings in Cheshire and Grafton
counties (New Hampshire) and in Windham county (Vermont) accepted the
invitation, and the convention, composed of 12 delegates from
Massachusetts, 7 from Connecticut, 4 from Rhode Island, 2 from New
Hampshire and 1 from Vermont, all Federalists, met on the 15th of
December 1814, chose George Cabot of Massachusetts president and
Theodore Dwight of Connecticut secretary, and remained in secret session
until the 5th of January 1815, when it adjourned _sine die_. At the
conclusion of its work it recommended greater military control for each
of the several states and that the Federal constitution be so amended
that representatives and direct taxes should be apportioned among the
several states "according to their respective numbers of free persons,"
that no new state should be admitted to the Union without the
concurrence of two-thirds of both Houses of Congress, that Congress
should not have the power to lay an embargo for more than sixty days,
that the concurrence of two-thirds of the members of both Houses of
Congress should be necessary to pass an act "to interdict the commercial
intercourse between the United States and any foreign nation or the
dependencies thereof" or to declare war against any foreign nation
except in case of actual invasion, that "no person who shall hereafter
be naturalized shall be eligible as a member of the Senate or House of
Representatives of the United States, nor capable of holding any civil
office under the authority of the United States," and that "the same
person shall not be elected president of the United States a second
time; nor shall the president be elected from the same state two terms
in succession." After making these recommendations concerning amendments
the Convention resolved: "That if the application of these states to the
government of the United States, recommended in a foregoing resolution,
should be unsuccessful, and peace should not be concluded, and the
defence of these states should be neglected, as it has been since the
commencement of the war, it will, in the opinion of this convention, be
expedient for the legislatures of the several states to appoint
delegates to another convention, to meet at Boston in the state of
Massachusetts on the third Thursday of June next, with such powers and
instructions as the exigency of a crisis so momentous may require." The
legislatures of Massachusetts and Connecticut approved of these proposed
amendments and sent commissioners to Washington to urge their adoption,
but before their arrival the war had closed, and not only did the
amendments fail to receive the approval of any other state, but the
legislatures of nine states expressed their disapproval of the Hartford
Convention itself, some charging it with sowing "seeds of dissension and
disunion." The cessation of the war brought increased popularity to the
Democratic administration, and the Hartford Convention was vigorously
attacked throughout the country.

Hartford was the birthplace of Noah Webster, who here published his
_Grammatical Institute of the English Language_ (1783-1785), and of
Henry Barnard, John Fiske and Frederick Law Olmsted, and has been the
home of Samuel P. Goodrich (Peter Parley), George D. Prentice, Harriet
Beecher Stowe, Charles Dudley Warner, Samuel L. Clemens (Mark Twain) and
Horace Bushnell. More than 100 periodicals have been established in
Hartford, of which the oldest is the _Hartford Courant_ (1764), the
oldest newspaper in the United States. This paper was very influential
in shaping public opinion in the years preceding the War of
Independence; after the war it was successively Federalist, Whig and
Republican. _The Times_ (semi-weekly 1817; daily 1841) was one of the
most powerful Democratic organs in the period before the middle of the
19th century, and had Gideon Wells for editor 1826-1836. The
_Congregationalist_ (afterwards published in Boston) and the _Churchman_
(afterwards published in New York) were also founded at Hartford.

  See _Scaeva, Hartford in the Olden Times: Its First Thirty Years_
  (Hartford, 1853), edited by W. M. B. Hartley; and J. H. Trumbull,
  _Memorial History of Hartford County_ (Boston, 1886). For the Hartford
  Convention see _History of the Hartford Convention_ (Boston, 1833),
  published by its secretary, Theodore Dwight; H. C. Lodge, _Life and
  Letters of George Cabot_ (Boston, 1877); and Henry Adams, _Documents
  Relating to New England Federalism_ (Boston, 1877).



HARTFORD CITY, a city and the county-seat of Blackford county, Indiana,
U.S.A., 62 m. N.E. of Indianapolis. Pop. (1890) 2287; (1900) 5912 (572
foreign-born); (1910) 6187. The city is served by the Fort Wayne,
Cincinnati & Louisville, and the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St
Louis railways, and the Indiana Union Traction line (electric). There
are oil and natural gas wells in the vicinity, and the city has pulp and
paper mills, glass and tile works, and manufactories of woodenware, and
nitro-glycerine and powder. The municipality owns and operates its
water-works system. The first settlement in the vicinity was made in
1832. Hartford City became the county-seat of Blackford county when that
county was erected in 1837; it was laid out in 1839 and was first
incorporated as a town in 1867.



HARTIG, GEORG LUDWIG (1764-1837), German agriculturist and writer on
forestry, was born at Gladenbach, near Marburg, on the 2nd of September
1764. After obtaining a practical knowledge of forestry at Harzburg, he
studied from 1781 to 1783 at the university of Giessen. In 1786 he
became manager of forests to the prince of Solms-Braunfels at Hungen in
the Wetterau, where he founded a school for the teaching of forestry.
After obtaining in 1797 the appointment of inspector of forests to the
prince of Orange-Nassau, he continued his school of forestry at
Dillenburg, where the attendance thereat increased considerably. On the
dissolution of the principality by Napoleon I. in 1805 he lost his
position, but in 1806 he went as chief inspector of forests to
Stuttgart, whence in 1811 he was called to Berlin in a like capacity.
There he continued his school of forestry, and succeeded in connecting
it with the university of Berlin, where in 1830 he was appointed an
honorary professor. He died at Berlin on the 2nd of February 1837. His
son Theodor (1805-1880), and grandson Robert (1839-1901), were also
distinguished for their contributions to the study of forestry.

  G. L. Hartig was the author of a number of valuable works: _Lehrbuch
  für Jäger_ (Stuttgart, 1810); _Lehrbuch für Förster_ (3 vols.,
  Stuttgart, 1808); _Kubiktabellen für geschnittene, beschlagene, und
  runde Hölzer_ (1815, 10th ed. Berlin, 1871); and _Lexikon für Jäger
  und Jagdfreunde_ (1836, 2nd ed. Berlin, 1859-1861). Theodor Hartig and
  his son Robert also published numerous works dealing with forestry,
  one of the latter's books being translated into English by W.
  Somerville and H. Marshall Ward as _Diseases of Trees_ (1894).



HARTLEPOOL, a parliamentary borough of Durham, England, embracing the
municipal borough of Hartlepool or East Hartlepool and the municipal and
county borough of West Hartlepool. Pop. (1901) of Hartlepool, 22,723; of
West Hartlepool, 62,627. The towns are on the coast of the North Sea
separated by Hartlepool Bay, with a harbour, and both have stations on
branches of the North Eastern railway, 247 m. N. by W. from London. The
surrounding country is bleak, and the coast is low. Caves occur in the
slight cliffs, and protection against the attacks of the waves has been
found necessary. The ancient market town of Hartlepool lies on a
peninsula which forms the termination of a south-eastward sweep of the
coast and embraces the bay. Its naturally strong position was formerly
fortified, and part of the walls, serving as a promenade, remain. The
parish church of St Hilda, standing on an eminence above the sea, is
late Norman and Early English, with a massive tower, heavily buttressed.
There is a handsome borough hall in Italian style. West Hartlepool, a
wholly modern town, has several handsome modern churches, municipal
buildings, exchange, market hall, Athenaeum and public library. The
municipal area embraces the three townships of Seaton Carew, a seaside
resort with good bathing, and golf links; Stranton, with its church of
All Saints, of the 14th century, on a very early site; and Throston.

The two Hartlepools are officially considered as one port. The harbour,
which embraces two tidal basins and six docks aggregating 83½ acres, in
addition to timber docks of 57 acres, covers altogether 350 acres. There
are five graving docks, admitting vessels of 550 ft. length and 10 to 21
ft. draught. The depth of water on the dock sills varies from 17½ ft. at
neap tides to 25 ft. at spring tides. A breakwater three-quarters of a
mile long protects the entrance to the harbour. An important trade is
carried on in the export of coal, ships, machinery, iron and other
metallic ores, woollens and cottons, and in the import of timber, sugar,
iron and copper ores, and eggs. Timber makes up 59% of the imports, and
coal and ships each about 30% of the exports. The principal industries
are shipbuilding (iron), boiler and engineering works, iron and brass
foundries, steam saw and planing mills, flour-mills, paper and paint
factories, and soapworks.

The parliamentary borough (falling within the south-east county
division) returns one member. The municipal borough of Hartlepool is
under a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors, and has an area of 972
acres. The municipal borough of West Hartlepool is under a mayor, 8
aldermen and 24 councillors, and has an area of 2684 acres.

Built on the horns of a sheltered bay, Hartlepool (Hertepull, Hertipol),
grew up round the monastery founded there in 640, but was destroyed by
the Danes in 800 and rebuilt by Ecgred, bishop of Lindisfarne. In 1173
Bishop Hugh de Puiset allowed French and Flemish troops to land at
Hartlepool to aid the Scots. It is not mentioned in Boldon Book as,
being part of the royal manor of Sadberg held at this time by the family
of Bruce, it did not become the property of the see of Durham until the
purchase of that manor in 1189. The bishops did not obtain possession
until the reign of John, who during the interval in 1201 gave Hartlepool
a charter granting the burgesses the same privileges that the burgesses
of Newcastle enjoyed; in 1230 Bishop Richard Poor granted further
liberties, including a gild merchant. Edward II. seized the borough as a
possession of Robert Bruce, but he could control it very slightly owing
to the bishop's powers. In 1328 Edward III. granted the borough 100
marks towards the town-wall and Richard II. granted murage for seven
years, the term being extended in 1400. In 1383 Bishop Fordham gave the
burgesses licence to receive tolls within the borough for the
maintenance of the walls, while Bishop Neville granted a commission for
the construction of a pier or mole. In the 16th century Hartlepool was
less prosperous; in 1523 the haven was said to be ruined, the
fortifications decayed. An act of 1535 declared Hartlepool to be in
Yorkshire, but in 1554 it was reinstated in the county of Durham. It
fell into the hands of the northern earls in 1563, and a garrison was
maintained there after the rebellion was crushed. In 1593 Elizabeth
incorporated it, and gave the burgesses a town hall and court of pie
powder. During the civil wars Hartlepool, which a few years before was
said to be the only port town in the country, was taken by the Scots,
who maintained a garrison there until 1647. As a borough of the
Palatinate Hartlepool was not represented in parliament until the 19th
century, though strong arguments in its favour were advanced in the
Commons in 1614. The markets of Hartlepool were important throughout
the middle ages. In 1216 John confirmed to Robert Bruce the market on
Wednesday granted to his father and the fair on the feast of St
Lawrence; this fair was extended to fifteen days by the grant of 1230,
while the charter of 1595 also granted a fair and market. During the
14th century trade was carried on with Germany, Spain and Holland, and
in 1346 Hartlepool provided five ships for the French war, being
considered one of the chief seaports in the kingdom. The markets were
still considerable in Camden's day, but declined during the 18th
century, when Hartlepool became fashionable as a watering-place.



HARTLEY, SIR CHARLES AUGUSTUS (1825-   ), English engineer, was born in
1825 at Heworth, Durham. Like most engineers of his generation he was
engaged in railway work in the early part of his career, but
subsequently he devoted himself to hydraulic engineering and the
improvement of estuaries and harbours for the purposes of navigation. He
was employed in connexion with some of the largest and most important
waterways of the world. After serving in the Crimea as a captain of
engineers in the Anglo-Turkish contingent, he was in 1856 appointed
engineer-in-chief for the works carried out by the European Commission
of the Danube for improving the navigation at the mouths of that river,
and that position he retained till 1872, when he became consulting
engineer to the Commission (see Danube). In 1875 he was one of the
committee appointed by the authority of the U.S.A. Congress to report on
the works necessary to form and maintain a deep channel through the
south pass of the Mississippi delta; and in 1884 the British government
nominated him a member of the international technical commission for
widening the Suez Canal. In addition he was consulted by the British and
other governments in connexion with many other river and harbour works,
including the improvement of the navigation of the Scheldt, Hugli, Don
and Dnieper, and of the ports of Odessa, Trieste, Kustendjie, Burgas,
Varna and Durban. He was knighted in 1862, and became K.C.M.G. in 1884.



HARTLEY, DAVID (1705-1757), English philosopher, and founder of the
Associationist school of psychologists, was born on the 30th of August
1705. He was educated at Bradford grammar school and Jesus College,
Cambridge, of which society he became a fellow in 1727. Originally
intended for the Church, he was deterred from taking orders by certain
scruples as to signing the Thirty-nine Articles, and took up the study
of medicine. Nevertheless, he remained in the communion of the English
Church, living on intimate terms with the most distinguished churchmen
of his day. Indeed he asserted it to be a duty to obey ecclesiastical as
well as civil authorities. The doctrine to which he most strongly
objected was that of eternal punishment. Hartley practised as a
physician at Newark, Bury St Edmunds, London, and lastly at Bath, where
he died on the 28th of August 1757. His _Observations on Man_ was
published in 1749, three years after Condillac's _Essai sur l'origine
des connaissances humaines_, in which theories essentially similar to
his were expounded. It is in two parts--the first dealing with the frame
of the human body and mind, and their mutual connexions and influences,
the second with the duty and expectations of mankind. His two main
theories are the doctrine of vibrations and the doctrine of
associations. His physical theory, he tells us, was drawn from certain
speculations as to nervous action which Newton had published in his
_Principia_. His psychological theory was suggested by the _Dissertation
concerning the Fundamental Principles of Virtue or Morality_, which was
written by a clergyman named John Gay (1699-1745), and prefixed by
Bishop Law to his translation[1] of Archbishop King's Latin work on the
_Origin of Evil_, its chief object being to show that sympathy and
conscience are developments by means of association from the selfish
feelings.

  The outlines of Hartley's theory are as follows. With Locke he
  asserted that, prior to sensation, the human mind is a blank. By a
  growth from simple sensations those states of consciousness which
  appear most remote from sensation come into being. And the one law of
  growth of which Hartley took account was the law of contiguity,
  synchronous and successive. By this law he sought to explain, not only
  the phenomena of memory, which others had similarly explained before
  him, but also the phenomena of emotion, of reasoning, and of voluntary
  and involuntary action (see ASSOCIATION OF IDEAS).

  By his physical theory Hartley gave the first strong impulse to the
  modern study of the intimate connexion of physiological and psychical
  facts which has proved so fruitful, though his physical theory in
  itself is inadequate, and has not been largely adopted. He held that
  sensation is the result of a vibration of the minute particles of the
  medullary substance of the nerves, to account for which he postulated,
  with Newton, a subtle elastic ether, rare in the interstices of solid
  bodies and in their close neighbourhood, and denser as it recedes from
  them. Pleasure is the result of moderate vibrations, pain of
  vibrations so violent as to break the continuity of the nerves. These
  vibrations leave behind them in the brain a tendency to fainter
  vibrations or "vibratiuncles" of a similar kind, which correspond to
  "ideas of sensation." Thus memory is accounted for. The course of
  reminiscence and of the thoughts generally, when not immediately
  dependent upon external sensation, is accounted for on the ground that
  there are always vibrations in the brain on account of its heat and
  the pulsation of its arteries. What these vibrations shall be is
  determined by the nature of each man's past experience, and by the
  influence of the circumstances of the moment, which causes now one now
  another tendency to prevail over the rest. Sensations which are often
  associated together become each associated with the ideas
  corresponding to the others; and the ideas corresponding to the
  associated sensations become associated together, sometimes so
  intimately that they form what appears to be a new simple idea, not
  without careful analysis resolvable into its component parts.

  Starting, like the modern Associationists, from a detailed account of
  the phenomena of the senses, Hartley tries to show how, by the above
  laws, all the emotions, which he analyses with considerable skill, may
  be explained. Locke's phrase "association of ideas" is employed
  throughout, "idea" being taken as including every mental state but
  sensation. He emphatically asserts the existence of pure disinterested
  sentiment, while declaring it to be a growth from the self-regarding
  feelings. Voluntary action is explained as the result of a firm
  connexion between a motion and a sensation or "idea," and, on the
  physical side, between an "ideal" and a motory vibration. Therefore in
  the Freewill controversy Hartley took his place as a determinist. It
  is singular that, as he tells us, it was only with reluctance, and
  when his speculations were nearly complete, that he came to a
  conclusion on this subject in accordance with his theory.

  See life of Hartley by his son in the 1801 edition of the
  _Observations_, which also contains notes and additions translated
  from the German of H. A. Pistorius; Sir Leslie Stephen, _History of
  English Thought in the Eighteenth Century_ (3rd ed., 1902), and
  article in the _Dictionary of National Biography_; G. S. Bower,
  _Hartley and James Mill_ (1881); B. Schönlank, _Hartley und Priestley
  die Begründer des Assoziationismus in England_ (1882). See also the
  histories of philosophy and bibliography in J. M. Baldwin's
  _Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology_ (1905), vol. iii.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Anonymously in the 1731 ed., with acknowledgment in the 1758 ed.



HARTLEY, JONATHAN SCOTT (1845-   ), American sculptor, was born at
Albany, New York, on the 23rd of September 1845. He was a pupil of E. D.
Palmer, New York, and of the schools of the Royal Academy, London; he
later studied for a year in Berlin and for a year in Paris. His first
important work (1882) was a statue of Miles Morgan, the Puritan, for
Springfield, Mass. Among his other works are the Daguerre monument in
Washington; "Thomas K. Beecher," Elmira, New York, and "Alfred the
Great," Appellate Court House, New York. He devoted himself particularly
to the making of portrait busts, in which he attained high rank. In 1891
he became a member of the National Academy of Design.



HARTLIB, SAMUEL (c. 1599-c. 1670), English writer on education and
agriculturist, was born towards the close of the 16th century at Elbing
in Prussia, his father being a refugee merchant from Poland. His mother
was the daughter of a rich English merchant at Danzig. About 1628
Hartlib went to England, where he carried on a mercantile agency, and at
the same time found leisure to enter with interest into the public
questions of the day. An enthusiastic admirer of Comenius, he published
in 1637 his _Conatuum Comenianorum praeludia_, and in 1639 _Comenii
pansophiae prodromus et didactica dissertatio_. In 1641 appeared his
_Relation of that which hath been lately attempted to procure
Ecclesiastical Peace among Protestants_, and _A Description of Macaria_,
containing his ideas of what a model state should be. During the civil
war Hartlib occupied himself with the peaceful study of agriculture,
publishing various works by himself, and printing at his own expense
several treatises by others on the subject. In 1652 he issued a second
edition of the _Discourse of Flanders Husbandry_ by Sir Richard Weston
(1645); and in 1651 _Samuel Hartlib, his Legacy, or an Enlargement of
the Discourse of Husbandry used in Brabant and Flanders_, by Robert
Child. For his various labours Hartlib received from Cromwell a pension
of £100, afterwards increased to £300, as he had spent all his fortune
on his experiments. He planned a school for the sons of gentlemen, to be
conducted on new principles, and this probably was the occasion of his
friend Milton's _Tractate on Education_, addressed to him in 1644, and
of Sir William Petty's _Two Letters_ on the same subject, in 1647 and
1648. At the Restoration Hartlib lost his pension, which had already
fallen into arrears; he petitioned parliament for a new grant of it, but
what success he met with is unknown, as his latter years and death are
wrapped in obscurity. A letter from him is known to have been written in
February 1661-1662, and apparently he is referred to by Andrew Marvell
as alive in 1670 and fleeing to Holland from his creditors.

  _A Biographical Memoir of Samuel Hartlib_, by H. Dircks, appeared in
  1865.



HARTMANN, KARL ROBERT EDUARD VON (1842-1906), German philosopher, was
born in Berlin on the 23rd of February 1842. He was educated for the
army, and entered the artillery of the Guards as an officer in 1860, but
a malady of the knee, which crippled him, forced him to quit the service
in 1865. After some hesitation between music and philosophy, he decided
to make the latter the serious work of his life, and in 1867 the
university of Rostock conferred on him the degree of doctor of
philosophy. He subsequently returned to Berlin, and died at
Grosslichterfelde on the 5th of June 1906. His reputation as a
philosopher was established by his first book, _The Philosophy of the
Unconscious_ (1869; 10th ed. 1890). This success was largely due to the
originality of its title, the diversity of its contents (von Hartmann
professing to obtain his speculative results by the methods of inductive
science, and making plentiful use of concrete illustrations), the
fashionableness of its pessimism and the vigour and lucidity of its
style. The conception of the Unconscious, by which von Hartmann
describes his ultimate metaphysical principle, is not at bottom as
paradoxical as it sounds, being merely a new and mysterious designation
for the Absolute of German metaphysicians. The Unconscious appears as a
combination of the metaphysic of Hegel with that of Schopenhauer. The
Unconscious is both Will and Reason and the absolute all-embracing
ground of all existence. Von Hartmann thus combines "pantheism" with
"panlogism" in a manner adumbrated by Schelling in his "positive
philosophy." Nevertheless Will and not Reason is the primary aspect of
the Unconscious, whose melancholy career is determined by the primacy of
the Will and the subservience of the Reason. Precosmically the Will is
potential and the Reason latent, and the Will is void of reason when it
passes from potentiality to actual willing. This latter is absolute
misery, and to cure it the Unconscious evokes its Reason and with its
aid creates the best of all possible worlds, which contains the promise
of its redemption from actual existence by the emancipation of the
Reason from its subjugation to the Will in the conscious reason of the
enlightened pessimist. When the greater part of the Will in existence is
so far enlightened by reason as to perceive the inevitable misery of
existence, a collective effort to will non-existence will be made, and
the world will relapse into nothingness, the Unconscious into
quiescence. Although von Hartmann is a pessimist, his pessimism is by no
means unmitigated. The individual's happiness is indeed unattainable
either here and now or hereafter and in the future, but he does not
despair of ultimately releasing the Unconscious from its sufferings. He
differs from Schopenhauer in making salvation by the "negation of the
Will-to-live" depend on a collective social effort and not on
individualistic asceticism. The conception of a redemption of the
Unconscious also supplies the ultimate basis of von Hartmann's ethics.
We must provisionally affirm life and devote ourselves to social
evolution, instead of striving after a happiness which is impossible; in
so doing we shall find that morality renders life less unhappy than it
would otherwise be. Suicide, and all other forms of selfishness, are
highly reprehensible. Epistemologically von Hartmann is a transcendental
realist, who ably defends his views and acutely criticizes those of his
opponents. His realism enables him to maintain the reality of Time, and
so of the process of the world's redemption.

  Von Hartmann's numerous works extend to more than 12,000 pages. They
  may be classified into--A. Systematical, including _Grundprobleme der
  Erkenntnistheorie_; _Kategorienlehre_; _Das sittliche Bewusstsein_;
  _Die Philosophie des Schönen_; _Die Religion des Geistes_; _Die
  Philosophie des Unbewussten_ (3 vols., which now include his,
  originally anonymous, self-criticism, _Das Unbewusste vom Standpunkte
  der Physiologie und Descendenztheorie_, and its refutation, Eng. trs.
  by W. C. Coupland, 1884); _System der Philosophie im Grundriss_, i.;
  _Grundriss der Erkenntnislehre_. B. Historical and critical--_Das
  religiöse Bewusstsein der Menschheit_; _Geschichte der Metaphysik_ (2
  vols.); _Kant's Erkenntnistheorie_; _Kritische Grundlegung des
  transcendentalen Realismus_; _Über die dialektische Methode_; studies
  of Schelling, Lotze, von Kirchmann; _Zur Geschichte des Pessimismus_;
  _Neukantianismus, Schopenhauerismus, Hegelianismus_; _Geschichte der
  deutschen Ästhetik seit Kant_; _Die Krisis des Christentums in der
  modernen Theologie_; _Philosophische Fragen der Gegenwart_; _Ethische
  Studien_; _Moderne Psychologie_; _Das Christentum des neuen
  Testaments_; _Die Weltanschauung der modernen Physik_, C.
  Popular--_Soziale Kernfragen_; _Moderne Probleme_; _Tagesfragen_;
  _Zwei Jahrzehnte deutscher Politik_; _Das Judentum in Gegenwart und
  Zukunft_; _Die Selbstzersetzung des Christentums_; _Gesammelte
  Studien_; _Der Spiritismus_ and _Die Geisterhypothese des
  Spiritismus_; _Zur Zeitgeschichte_. His select works have been
  published in 10 volumes (2nd ed., 1885-1896). On his philosophy see R.
  Köber, _Das philosophische System Eduard von Hartmanns_ (1884); O.
  Plümacher, _Der Kampf ums Unbewusste_ (2nd ed., 1890), with a
  chronological table of the Hartmann literature from 1868 to 1890; A.
  Drews, _E. von Hartmanns Philosophie und der Materialismus in der
  modernen Kultur_ (1890) and _E. von Hartmanns philosophisches System
  im Grundriss_ (1902), with biographical introduction; and for further
  authorities, J. M. Baldwin, _Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology_
  (1901-1905).



HARTMANN, MORITZ (1821-1872), German poet and author, was born of Jewish
parentage at Duschnik in Bohemia on the 15th of October 1821. Having
studied philosophy at Prague and Vienna, he travelled in south Germany,
Switzerland and Italy, and became tutor in a family at Vienna. In 1845 he
proceeded to Leipzig and there published a volume of patriotic poems,
_Kelch und Schwert_ (1845). Fearing in consequence prosecution at the
hands of the authorities, he abided events in France and Belgium, and
after issuing in Leipzig _Neuere Gedichte_ (1846) returned home, suffered
a short term of imprisonment, and in 1848 was elected member for
Leitmeritz in the short-lived German parliament at Frankfort-on-Main, in
which he sided with the extreme Radical party. He took part with Robert
Blum (1807-1848) in the revolution of that year in Vienna, but contrived
to escape to London and Paris. In 1849 he published _Reimchronik des
Pfaffen Mauritius_, a satirical political poem in the style of Heine.
During the Crimean War (1854-56) Hartmann was correspondent of the
_Kölnische Zeitung_, settled in 1860 in Geneva as a teacher of German
literature and history, became in 1865 editor of the _Freya_ in Stuttgart
and in 1868 a member of the staff of the _Neue Freie Presse_ in Vienna.
He died at Oberdöbling near Vienna on the 13th of May 1872.

Among Hartmann's numerous works may be especially mentioned _Der Krieg
um den Wald_ (1850), a novel, the scene of which is laid in Bohemia;
_Tagebuch aus Languedoc und Provence_ (1852); _Erzählungen eines
Unsteten_ (1858); and _Die letzten Tage eines Königs_ (1867). His idyll,
_Adam und Eva_ (1851), and his collection of poetical tales, _Schatten_
(1851), show that the author possessed but little talent for epic
narrative. Hartmann's poems are often lacking in genuine poetical
feeling, but the love of liberty which inspired them, and the fervour,
ease and clearness of their style compensated for these shortcomings and
gained for him a wide circle of admirers.

  His _Gesammelte Werke_ were published in 10 vols, in 1873-1874, and a
  selection of his _Gedichte_ in the latter year. The first two volumes
  of a new edition of his works contain a biography of Hartmann by O.
  Wittner. See also E. Ziel, "Moritz Hartmann" (in _Unsere Zeit_, 1872);
  A. Marchand, _Les Poètes lyriques de l'Autriche_ (1892); Brandes, _Das
  junge Deutschland_ (Charlottenburg, 1899).



HARTMANN VON AUE (c. 1170-c. 1210), one of the chief Middle High German
poets. He belonged to the lower nobility of Swabia, where he was born
about 1170. After receiving a monastic education, he became retainer
(_dienstman_) of a nobleman whose domain, Aue, has been identified with
Obernau on the Neckar. He also took part in the Crusade of 1196-97. The
date of his death is as uncertain as that of his birth; he is mentioned
by Gottfried von Strassburg (_c._ 1210) as still alive, and in the
_Krone_ of Heinrich von dem Türlin, written about 1220, he is mourned
for as dead. Hartmann was the author of four narrative poems which are
of importance for the evolution of the Middle High German court epic.
The oldest of these, _Erec_, which may have been written as early as
1191 or 1192, and the latest and ripest, _Iwein_, belong to the
Arthurian cycle and are based on epics by Chrétien de Troyes (q.v.);
between them lie the romance, _Gregorius_, also an adaptation of a
French epic, and _Der arme Heinrich_, one of the most charming specimens
of medieval German poetry. The theme of the latter--the cure of the
leper, Heinrich, by a young girl who is willing to sacrifice her life
for him--Hartmann had evidently found in the annals of the family in
whose service he stood. Hartmann's most conspicuous merit as a poet lies
in his style; his language is carefully chosen, his narrative lucid,
flowing and characterized by a sense of balance and proportion which is
rarely to be found in German medieval poetry. _Gregorius, Der arme
Heinrich_ and his lyrics, which are all fervidly religious in tone,
imply a tendency towards asceticism, but, on the whole, Hartmann's
striving seems rather to have been to reconcile the extremes of life; to
establish a middle way of human conduct between the worldly pursuits of
knighthood and the ascetic ideals of medieval religion.

_Erec_ has been edited by M. Haupt (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1871);
_Gregorius_, by H. Paul (2nd ed., Halle, 1900); _Der arme Heinrich_, by
W. Wackernagel and W. Toischer (Basel, 1885) and by H. Paul (2nd ed.,
Halle, 1893); by J. G. Robertson (London, 1895), with English notes;
_Iwein_, by G. F. Benecke and K. Lachmann (4th ed., Berlin, 1877) and E.
Henrici (Halle, 1891-1893). A convenient edition of all Hartmann's poems
by F. Bech, 3 vols. (3rd ed., Leipzig, 1891-1893, vol. 3 in 4th ed.,
1902).

  The literature on Hartmann is extensive. See especially L. Schmid,
  _Des Minnesingers Hartmann von Aue Stand, Heimat und Geschlecht_
  (Tübingen, 1874); H. Rötteken, _Die epische Kunst Heinrichs von
  Veldeke und Hartmanns von Aue_ (Halle, 1887); F. Saran, _Hartmann von
  Aue als Lyriker_ (Halle, 1889); A. E. Schönbach, _Über Hartmann von
  Aue_ (Graz, 1894); F. Piquet, _Étude sur Hartmann d'Aue_ (Paris,
  1898). Translations have been made into modern German of all
  Hartmann's poems, while _Der arme Heinrich_ has repeatedly attracted
  the attention of modern poets, both English (Longfellow, Rossetti) and
  German (notably, Gerhart Hauptmann). See H. Tardel, _Der arme Heinrich
  in der neueren Dichtung_ (Berlin, 1905).



HARTSHORN, SPIRITS OF, a name signifying originally the ammoniacal
liquor obtained by the distillation of horn shavings, afterwards applied
to the partially purified similar products of the action of heat on
nitrogenous animal matter generally, and now popularly used to designate
the aqueous solution of ammonia (q.v.).



HARTZENBUSCH, JUAN EUGENIO (1806-1880), Spanish dramatist, was born at
Madrid on the 6th of September 1806. The son of a German carpenter, he
was educated for the priesthood, but he had no religious vocation and,
on leaving school, followed his father's trade till 1830, when he
learned shorthand and joined the staff of the _Gaceta_. His earliest
dramatic essays were translations from Molière, Voltaire and the elder
Dumas; he next recast old Spanish plays, and in 1837 produced his first
original play, _Los Amantes de Teruel_, the subject of which had been
used by Rey de Artieda, Tirso de Molina and Perez de Montalbán. _Los
Amantes de Teruel_ at once made the author's reputation, which was
scarcely maintained by _Doña Mencia_ (1839) and _Alfonso el Casto_
(1841); it was not till 1845 that he approached his former success with
_La Jura en Santa Gadea_. Hartzenbusch was chief of the National Library
from 1862 to 1875, and was an indefatigable--though not very
judicious--editor of many national classics. Inferior in inspiration to
other contemporary Spanish dramatists, Hartzenbusch excels his rivals in
versatility and in conscientious workmanship.



HARUN AL-RASHID (763 or 766-809), i.e. "Harun the Orthodox," the fifth
of the 'Abbasid caliphs of Bagdad, and the second son of the third
caliph Mahdi. His full name was Harun ibn Muhammad ibn 'Abdallah ibn
Muhammad ibn 'Ali ibn 'Abdallah ibn 'Abbas. He was born at Rai (Rhagae)
on the 20th of March A.D. 763, according to some accounts, and according
to others on the 15th of February A.D. 766. Harun al-Rashid was
twenty-two years old when he ascended the throne. His father Mahdi just
before his death conceived the idea of superseding his elder son Musa
(afterwards known as Hadi, the fourth caliph) by Harun. But on Mahdi's
death Harun gave way to his brother. For the campaigns in which he took
part prior to his accession see CALIPHATE, section C, _The Abbasids_, §§
3 and 4.

Rashid owed his succession to the throne to the prudence and sagacity of
Yahya b. Khalid the Barmecide, his secretary, whom on his accession he
appointed his lieutenant and grand vizier (see BARMECIDES). Under his
guidance the empire flourished on the whole, in spite of several revolts
in the provinces by members of the old Alid family. Successful wars were
waged with the rulers of Byzantium and the Khazars. In 803, however,
Harun became suspicious of the Barmecides, whom with only a single
exception he caused to be executed. Henceforward the chief power was
exercised by Fadl b. Rabi', who had been chamberlain not only under
Harun himself but under his predecessors, Mansur, Madhi and Hadi. In the
later years of Harun's reign troubles arose in the eastern parts of the
empire. These troubles assumed proportions so serious that Harun himself
decided to go to Khorasan. He died, however, at Tus in March 809.

The reign of Harun (see CALIPHATE, section C, § 5) was one of the most
brilliant in the annals of the caliphate, in spite of losses in
north-west Africa and Transoxiana. His fame spread to the West, and
Charlemagne and he exchanged gifts and compliments as masters
respectively of the West and the East. No caliph ever gathered round him
so great a number of learned men, poets, jurists, grammarians, cadis and
scribes, to say nothing of the wits and musicians who enjoyed his
patronage. Harun himself was a scholar and poet, and was well versed in
history, tradition and poetry. He possessed taste and discernment, and
his dignified demeanour is extolled by the historians. In religion he
was extremely strict; he prostrated himself a hundred times daily, and
nine or ten times made the pilgrimage to Mecca. At the same time he
cannot be regarded as a great administrator. He seems to have left
everything to his viziers Yahya and Fadl, to the former of whom
especially was due the prosperous condition of the empire. Harun is best
known to Western readers as the hero of many of the stories in the
_Arabian Nights_; and in Arabic literature he is the central figure of
numberless anecdotes and humorous stories. Of his incognito walks
through Bagdad, however, the authentic histories say nothing. His Arabic
biographers are unanimous in describing him as noble and generous, but
there is little doubt that he was in fact a man of little force of
character, suspicious, untrustworthy and on occasions cruel.

  See the Arabic histories of Ibn al-Athir and Ibn Khaldun. Among modern
  works see Sir W. Muir, _The Caliphate_ (London, 1891); R. D. Osborn,
  _Islam under the Khalifs of Bagdad_ (London, 1878); Gustav Weil,
  _Geschichte der Chalifen_ (Mannheim and Stuttgart, 1846-1862); G. le
  Strange, _Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliphate_ (Oxford, 1900); A.
  Müller, _Der Islam_, vol. i. (Berlin, 1885); E. H. Palmer, _The Caliph
  Haroun Alraschid_ (London, 1880); J. B. Bury's edition of Gibbon's
  _Decline and Fall_ (London, 1898), vol. vi. pp. 34 foll.



HARUSPICES, or ARUSPICES (perhaps "entrail observers," cf. Skt. hira,
Gr. [Greek: chordê]), a class of soothsayers in Rome. Their art
(_disciplina_) consisted especially in deducing the will of the gods
from the appearance presented by the entrails of the slain victim. They
also interpreted all portents or unusual phenomena of nature, especially
thunder and lightning, and prescribed the expiatory ceremonies after
such events. To please the god, the victim must be without spot or
blemish, and the practice of observing whether the entrails presented
any abnormal appearance, and thence deducing the will of heaven, was
also very important in Greek religion. This art, however, appears not to
have been, as some other modes of ascertaining the will of the gods
undoubtedly were, of genuine Aryan growth. It is foreign to the Homeric
poems, and must have been introduced into Greece after their
composition. In like manner, as the Romans themselves believed, the art
was not indigenous in Rome, but derived from Etruria.[1] The Etruscans
were said to have learned it from a being named Tages, grandson of
Jupiter, who had suddenly sprung from the ground near Tarquinii.
Instructions were contained in certain books called _libri haruspicini_,
_fulgurales_, _rituales_. The art was practised in Rome chiefly by
Etruscans, occasionally by native-born Romans who had studied in the
priestly schools of Etruria. From the regal period to the end of the
republic, haruspices were summoned from Etruria to deal with prodigies
not mentioned in the pontifical and Sibylline books, and the Roman
priests carried out their instructions as to the offering necessary to
appease the anger of the deity concerned. Though the art was of great
importance under the early republic, it never became a part of the state
religion. In this respect the haruspices ranked lower than the augurs,
as is shown by the fact that they received a salary; the augurs were a
more ancient and purely Roman institution, and were a most important
element in the political organization of the city. In later times the
art fell into disrepute, and the saying of Cato the Censor is well
known, that he wondered how one haruspex could look another in the face
without laughing (Cic. _De div._ ii. 24). Under the empire, however, we
hear of a regular collegium of sixty haruspices; and Claudius is said to
have tried to restore the art and put it under the control of the
pontifices. This collegium continued to exist till the time of Alaric.

  See A. Bouché-Leclercq, _Histoire de la divination dans l'antiquité_
  (1879-1881); Marquardt, _Römische Staatsverwaltung_, iii. (1885), pp.
  410-415; G. Schmeisser, _Die etruskische Disciplin vom
  Bundesgenossenkriege bis zum Untergang des Heidentums_ (1881), and
  _Quaestionum de Etrusca disciplina particula_ (1872); P. Clairin, _De
  haruspicibus apud Romanos_ (1880). Also OMEN.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The statement of Dionysius of Halicarnassus (ii. 22) that the
    haruspices were instituted by Romulus is due to his confusing them
    with the augurs.



HARVARD UNIVERSITY, the oldest of American educational institutions,
established at Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 1636 the General Court of
the colony voted £400 towards "a schoale or colledge," which in the next
year was ordered to be at "New Towne." In memory of the English
university where many (probably some seventy) of the leading men of the
colony had been educated, the township was named Cambridge in 1638. In
the same year John Harvard (1607-1638), a Puritan minister lately come
to America, a bachelor and master of Emmanuel college, Cambridge, dying
in Charlestown (Mass.), bequeathed to the wilderness seminary half his
estate (£780) and some three hundred books; and the college, until then
unorganized, was named Harvard College (1639) in his honour. Its history
is unbroken from 1640, and its first commencement was held in 1642. The
spirit of the founders is beautifully expressed in the words of a
contemporary letter which are carved on the college gates: "After God
had carried us safe to New-England, and wee had builded our houses,
provided necessaries for our liveli-hood, rear'd convenient places for
Gods worship, and setled the Civill Government; One of the next things
we longed for, and looked after was to advance _Learning_, and
perpetuate it to Posterity; dreading to leave an illiterate Ministry to
the Churches, when our present Ministers shall lie in the Dust." The
college charter of 1650 dedicated it to "the advancement of all good
literature, arts, and sciences," and "the education of the English and
Indian youth ... in knowledge and godlynes." The second building (1654)
on the college grounds was called "the Indian College." In it was set up
the College press, which since 1638 had been in the president's house,
and here, it is believed, was printed the translation of the Bible
(1661-1663) by John Eliot into the language of the natives, with primer,
catechisms, grammars, tracts, &c. A fair number of Indians were
students, but only one, Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck, took a bachelor's degree
(1665). By generous aid received from abroad for this special object,
the college was greatly helped in its infancy.

The charter of 1650 has been in the main, and uninterruptedly since
1707, the fundamental source of authority in the administration of the
university. It created a co-optating corporation consisting of the
president, treasurer and five fellows, who formally initiate
administrative measures, control the college funds, and appoint officers
of instruction and government; subject, however, to confirmation by the
Board of Overseers (established in 1642), which has a revisory power
over all acts of the corporation. Circumstances gradually necessitated
ordinary government by the resident teachers; and to-day the various
faculties, elaborately organized, exercise immediate government and
discipline over all the students, and individually or in the general
university council consider questions of policy. The Board of Overseers
was at first jointly representative of state and church. The former, as
founder and patron, long regarded Harvard as a state institution,
controlling or aiding it through the legislature and the overseers; but
the controversies and embarrassments incident to legislative action
proved prejudicial to the best interests of the college, and its organic
connexion with the state was wholly severed in 1866. Financial aid and
practical dependence had ceased some time earlier; indeed, from the very
beginning, and with steadily increasing preponderance, Harvard has been
sustained and fostered by private munificence rather than by public
money. The last direct subsidy from the state determined in 1824,
although state aid was afterwards given to the Agassiz museum, later
united with the university. The church was naturally sponsor for the
early college. The changing composition of its Board of Overseers marked
its liberation first from clerical and later from political control;
since 1865 the board has been chosen by the alumni (non-residents of
Massachusetts being eligible since 1880), who therefore really control
the university. When the state ceased to repress effectually the rife
speculation characteristic of the first half of the seventeenth century,
in religion as in politics, and in America as in England, the unity of
Puritanism gave way to a variety of intense sectarianisms, and this, as
also the incoming of Anglican churchmen, made the old faith of the
college insecure. President Henry Dunster (c. 1612-1659), the first
president, was censured by the magistrates and removed from office for
questioning infant baptism. The conservatives, who clung to pristine and
undiluted Calvinism, sought to intrench themselves in Harvard,
especially in the Board of Overseers. The history of the college from
about 1673 to 1725 was exceedingly troubled. Increase and Cotton Mather,
forceful but bigoted, were the bulwarks of reaction and fomenters of
discord. One episode in the struggle was the foundation and
encouragement of Yale College by the reactionaries of New England as a
truer "school of the prophets" (Cotton Mather being particularly zealous
in its interests), after they had failed to secure control of the
government of Harvard. It represented conservative secession. In 1792
the first layman was chosen to the corporation; in 1805 a Unitarian
became professor of theology; in 1843 the board of overseers was opened
to clergymen of all denominations; in 1886 attendance on prayers by the
students ceased to be compulsory. Thus Harvard, in response to changing
ideas and conditions, grew away from the ideas of its founders.

Harvard, her alumni, and her faculty have been very closely connected
with American letters, not only in the colonial period, when the
Mathers, Samuel Sewall and Thomas Prince were important names, or in the
revolutionary and early national epoch with the Adamses, Fisher Ames,
Joseph Dennie and Robert Treat Paine, but especially in the second third
of the 19th century, when the great New England movements of
Unitarianism and Transcendentalism were led by Harvard graduates. In
1805 Henry Ware (1764-1845) was elected the first anti-Trinitarian to be
Hollis professor of divinity, and this marked Harvard's close connexion
with Unitarianism, in the later history of which Ware, his son Henry
(1794-1843), and Andrews Norton (1786-1852), all Harvard alumni and
professors, and Joseph Buckminster (1751-1812) and William Ellery
Channing were leaders of the conservative Unitarians, and Joseph Stevens
Buckminster (1784-1812), James Freeman Clarke, and Theodore Parker were
liberal leaders. Of the "Transcendentalists," Emerson, Francis Henry
Hedge (1805-1890), Clarke, Convers Francis (1795-1863), Parker, Thoreau
and Christopher Pearse Cranch (1813-1892) were Harvard graduates.
Longfellow's professorship at Harvard identified him with it rather than
with Bowdoin; Oliver Wendell Holmes was professor of anatomy and
physiology at Harvard in 1847-1882; and Lowell, a Harvard alumnus, was
Longfellow's successor in 1855-1886 as Smith Professor of the French and
Spanish languages and literatures. Ticknor and Charles Eliot Norton are
other important names in American literary criticism. The historians
Sparks, Bancroft, Hildreth, Palfrey, Prescott, Motley and Parkman were
graduates of Harvard, as were Edward Everett, Charles Sumner and Wendell
Phillips.

In organization and scope of effort Harvard has grown, especially after
1869, under the direction of President Charles W. Eliot, to be in the
highest sense a university; but the "college" proper, whose end is the
liberal culture of undergraduates, continues to be in many ways the
centre of university life, as it is the embodiment of university
traditions. The medical school (in Boston) dates from 1782, the law
school from 1817, the divinity school[1] (though instruction in theology
was of course given from the foundation of the college) from 1819, and
the dental school (in Boston) from 1867. The Bussey Institution at
Jamaica Plain was established in 1871 as an undergraduate school of
agriculture, and reorganized in 1908 for advanced instruction and
research in subjects relating to agriculture and horticulture. The
Graduate School of Arts and Sciences dates from 1872, the Graduate
School of Applied Science (growing out of the Lawrence Scientific
School) from 1906, and the Graduate School of Business Administration
(which applies to commerce the professional methods used in
post-graduate schools of medicine, law, &c.) from 1908. The Lawrence
Scientific School, established in 1847, was practically abolished in
1907-1908, when its courses were divided between the College (which
thereafter granted a degree of S.B.) and the Graduate School of Applied
Science, which was established in 1906 and gives professional degrees in
civil, mechanical and electrical engineering, mining, metallurgy,
architecture, landscape architecture, forestry, applied physics, applied
chemistry, applied zoology and applied geology. A school of veterinary
medicine, established in 1882, was discontinued in 1901. The university
institutions comprise the botanic garden (1807) and the (Asa) Gray
herbarium (1864); the Arnold arboretum (1872), at Jamaica Plain, for the
study of arboriculture, forestry and dendrology; the university museum
of natural history, founded in 1859 by Louis Agassiz as a museum of
comparative zoology, enormously developed by his son, Alexander Agassiz,
and transferred to the university in 1876, though under an independent
faculty; the Peabody museum of American archaeology and ethnology,
founded in 1866 by George Peabody; the William Hayes Fogg art museum
(1895); the Semitic museum (1889); the Germanic Museum (1902),
containing rich gifts from Kaiser Wilhelm II., the Swiss government, and
individuals and societies of Germanic lands; the social museum (1906);
and the astronomical observatory (1843; location 42° 22´ 48´´ N. lat.,
71° 8´ W. long.), which since 1891 has maintained a station near
Arequipa, Peru. A permanent summer engineering camp is maintained at
Squam Lake, New Hampshire. In Petersham, Massachusetts, is the Harvard
Forest, about 2000 acres of hilly wooded country with a stand in 1908 of
10,000,000 ft. B.M. of merchantable timber (mostly white pine); this
forest was given to the university in 1907, and is an important part of
the equipment of the division of forestry. The university library is the
largest college library in the country, and from its slow and competent
selection is of exceptional value. In 1908 it numbered, including the
various special libraries, 803,800 bound volumes, about 496,600
pamphlets, and 27,450 maps. Some of its collections are of great value
from associations or special richness, such as Thomas Carlyle's
collection on Cromwell and Frederick the Great; the collection on
folk-lore and medieval romances, supposed to be the largest in existence
and including the material used by Bishop Percy in preparing his
_Reliques_; and that on the Ottoman empire. The law library has been
described by Professor A. V. Dicey of Oxford as "the most perfect
collection of the legal records of the English people to be found in any
part of the English-speaking world." There are department libraries at
the Arnold arboretum, the Gray herbarium, the Bussey Institution, the
astronomical observatory, the dental school, the medical school, the law
school, the divinity school, the Peabody museum, and the museum of
comparative zoology. In 1878 the library published the first of a
valuable series of _Bibliographical Contributions_. Other publications
of the university (apart from annual reports of various departments)
are: the _Harvard Oriental Series_ (started 1891), _Harvard Studies in
Classical Philology_ (1890), _Harvard Theological Review_ (1907), the
_Harvard Law Review_ (1889), _Harvard Historical Studies_ (1897),
_Harvard Economic Studies_ (1906), _Harvard Psychological Studies_
(1903), the _Harvard Engineering Journal_ (1902), the _Bulletin_ (1874)
of the Bussey Institution, the _Archaeological and Ethnological Papers_
(1888) of the Peabody museum, and the Bulletin (1863), _Contributions
and Memoirs_ (1865) of the museum of comparative zoology. The students'
publications include the _Crimson_ (1873), a daily newspaper; the
_Advocate_ (1831), a literary bi-weekly; the _Lampoon_ (1876), a comic
bi-weekly; and the _Harvard Monthly_ (1885), a literary monthly. The
_Harvard Bulletin_, a weekly, and the _Harvard Graduates' Magazine_
(1892), a quarterly, are published chiefly for the alumni.

In 1908-1909 there were 743 officers of instruction and administration
(including those for Radcliffe) and 5250 students (1059 in 1869), the
latter including 2238 in the college, 1641 in the graduate and
professional schools, and 1332 in the summer school. Radcliffe College,
for women, had 449 additional students. The whole number of degrees
conferred up to 1905 was 31,805 (doctors of science and of philosophy by
examination, 408; masters of arts and of science by examination, 1759).
The conditions of the time when Harvard was a theological seminary for
boys, governed like a higher boarding school, have left traces still
discernible in the organization and discipline, though no longer in the
aims of the college. The average age of students at entrance, only 14
years so late as 1820, had risen by 1890 to 19 years, making possible
the transition to the present régime of almost entire liberty of life
and studies without detriment, but with positive improvement, to the
morals of the student body. A strong development toward the university
ideal marked the opening of the 19th century, especially in the widening
of courses, the betterment of instruction, and the suggestions of
quickening ideas of university freedom, whose realization, along with
others, has come since 1870. The elimination of the last vestiges of
sectarianism and churchly discipline, a lessening of parietal oversight,
a lopping off of various outgrown colonial customs, a complete
reconstruction of professional standards and methods, the development of
a great graduate school in arts and sciences based on and organically
connected with the undergraduate college, a great improvement in the
college standard of scholarship, the allowance of almost absolute
freedom to students in the shaping of their college course (the
"elective" system), and very remarkable material prosperity marked the
administration (1860-1909) of President Eliot. In the readjustment in
the curricula of American colleges of the elements of professional
training and liberal culture Harvard has been bold in experiment and
innovation. With Johns Hopkins University she has led the movement that
has transformed university education, and her influence upon secondary
education in America has been incomparably greater than that of any
other university. Her entrance requirements to the college and to the
schools of medicine, law, dentistry and divinity have been higher than
those of any other American university. A bachelor's degree is
requisite for entrance to the professional schools (except that of
dentistry), and the master's degree (since 1872) is given to students
only for graduate work in residence, and rarely to other persons as an
honorary degree. In scholarship and in growth of academic freedom
Germany has given the quickening impulse. This influence began with
George Ticknor and Edward Everett, who were trained in Germany, and was
continued by a number of eminent German scholars, some driven into exile
for their liberalism, who became professors in the second half of the
19th century, and above all by the many members of the faculty still
later trained in German universities. The ideas of recognizing special
students and introducing the elective system were suggested in 1824,
attaining establishment even for freshmen by 1885, the movement
characterizing particularly the years 1865-1885. The basis of the
elective system (as in force in 1910) is freedom in choice of studies
within liberal limits; and, as regards admission to college[2]
(completely established 1891), the idea that the admission is of minds
for the quality of their training and not for their knowledge of
particular subjects, and that any subject may be acceptable for such
training if followed with requisite devotion and under proper methods.
Except for one course in English in the Freshman year, and one course in
French or German for those who do not on entrance present both of these
languages, no study is prescribed, but the student is compelled to
select a certain number of courses in some one department or field of
learning, and to distribute the remainder among other departments, the
object being to secure a systematic education, based on the principle of
knowing a little of everything and something well.

The material equipment of Harvard is very rich. In 1909 it included
invested funds of $22,716,760 ($2,257,990 in 1869) and lands and
buildings valued at $12,000,000 at least. In 1908-1909 an income of more
than $130,000 was distributed in scholarships, fellowships, prizes and
other aids to students. The yearly income available for immediate use
from all sources in 1899-1904 averaged $1,074,229, of which $452,760
yearly represented gifts. The total gifts, for funds and for current
use, in the same years aggregated $6,152,988. The income in 1907-1908
was $1,846,976; $241,924 was given for immediate use, and $449,822 was
given for capital. The medical school is well endowed and is housed in
buildings (1906) on Longwood Avenue, Boston; the gifts for its buildings
and endowments made in 1901-1902 aggregate $5,000,000. Among the
university buildings are two dining-balls accommodating some 2500
students, a theatre for public ceremonies, a chapel, a home for
religious societies, a club-home (the Harvard Union) for graduates and
undergraduates, an infirmary, gymnasium, boat houses and large
playgrounds, with a concrete stadium capable of seating 27,000
spectators. Massachusetts Hall (1720) is the oldest building. University
Hall (1815), the administration building, dignified, of excellent
proportions and simple lines, is a good example of the work of Charles
Bulfinch. Memorial Hall (1874), an ambitious building of cathedral
suggestion, commemorates the Harvard men who fell in the Civil War, and
near it is an ideal statue (1884) of John Harvard by Daniel C. French.
The medical and dental schools are in Boston, and the Bussey Institution
and Arnold Arboretum are at Jamaica Plain.

RADCLIFFE COLLEGE, essentially a part of Harvard, dates from the
beginning of systematic instruction of women by members of the Harvard
faculty in 1879, the Society for the Collegiate Instruction of Women
being formally organized in 1882. The present name was adopted in 1894
in honour of Ann Radcliffe, Lady Mowlson (_ob. c._ 1661), widow of Sir
Thomas Mowlson, alderman and (1634) lord mayor of London, who in 1643
founded the first scholarship in Harvard College. From 1894 also dates
the present official connexion of Radcliffe with Harvard. The
requirements for admission and for degrees are the same as in Harvard
(whose president countersigns all diplomas), and the president and
fellows of Harvard control absolutely the administration of the college,
although it has for immediate administration a separate government.
Instruction is given by members of the university teaching force, who
repeat in Radcliffe many of the Harvard courses. Many advanced courses
in Harvard, and to a certain extent laboratory facilities, are directly
accessible to Radcliffe students, and they have unrestricted access to
the library.

The presidents of Harvard have been: Henry Dunster (1640-1654); Charles
Chauncy (1654-1672); Leonard Hoar (1672-1675); Urian Oakes (1675-1681);
John Rogers (1682-1684); Increase Mather (1685-1701); Charles Morton
(vice-president) (1697-1698); Samuel Willard (1700-1707); John Leverett
(1708-1724); Benjamin Wadsworth (1725-1737); Edward Holyoke (1737-1769);
Samuel Locke (1770-1773); Samuel Langdon (1774-1780); Joseph Willard
(1781-1804); Samuel Webber (1806-1810); John Thornton Kirkland
(1810-1828); Josiah Quincy (1829-1845); Edward Everett (1846-1849);
Jared Sparks (1849-1853); James Walker (1853-1860); Cornelius Conway
Felton (1860-1862); Thomas Hill (1862-1868); Charles William Eliot
(1869-1909); Abbott Lawrence Lowell (appointed 1909).

  AUTHORITIES.--Benjamin Peirce, _A History of Harvard University_
  1636-1775 (Boston, 1883); Josiah Quincy, _A History of Harvard
  University_ (2 vols., Boston, 1840); Samuel A. Eliot, _Harvard College
  and its Benefactors_ (Boston, 1848); H. C. Shelley, _John Harvard and
  his Times_ (Boston, 1907); _The Harvard Book_ (2 vols., Cambridge,
  1874); G. Birkbeck Hill, _Harvard College, by an Oxonian_ (New York,
  1894); William R. Thayer, "History and Customs of Harvard University,"
  in _Universities and their Sons_, vol. i. (Boston, 1898); _Official
  Guide to Harvard_, and the various other publications of the
  university; also the _Harvard Graduates' Magazine_ (1892 sqq.).


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Affiliated with the university, but autonomous and independent,
    is the Andover Theological Seminary, which in 1908 removed from
    Andover to Cambridge.

  [2] The requirements for admission as changed in 1908 are based on
    the "unit system"; satisfactory marks must be got in subjects
    aggregating 26 units, the unit being a measure of preparatory study.
    Of these 26 units, English (4 units), algebra (2), plane geometry
    (2), some science or sciences (2), history (2; either Greek and
    Roman, or American and English), a modern language (2; French and
    German) are prescribed; prospective candidates for the degree of A.B.
    are required to take examinations for 4 additional units in Greek or
    Latin, and for the other 8 points have large range of choice; and
    candidates for the degree of S.B. must take additional examinations
    in French or German (2 units) and have a similar freedom of choice in
    making up the remaining 10 units.



HARVEST (A.S. _hærfest_ "autumn," O.H. Ger. _herbist_, possibly through
an old Teutonic root representing Lat. carpere, "to pluck"), the season
of the ingathering of crops. Harvest has been a season of rejoicing from
the remotest ages. The ancient Jews celebrated the Feast of Pentecost as
their harvest festival, the wheat ripening earlier in Palestine. The
Romans had their Cerealia or feasts in honour of Ceres. The Druids
celebrated their harvest on the 1st of November. In pre-reformation
England Lammas Day (Aug. 1st, O.S.) was observed at the beginning of the
harvest festival, every member of the church presenting a loaf made of
new wheat. Throughout the world harvest has always been the occasion for
many queer customs which all have their origin in the animistic belief
in the Corn-Spirit or Corn-Mother. This personification of the crops has
left its impress upon the harvest customs of modern Europe. In west
Russia, for example, the figure made out of the last sheaf of corn is
called the Bastard, and a boy is wrapped up in it. The woman who binds
this sheaf represents the "Cornmother," and an elaborate simulation of
childbirth takes place, the boy in the sheaf squalling like a new-born
child, and being, on his liberation, wrapped in swaddling bands. Even in
England vestiges of sympathetic magic can be detected. In
Northumberland, where the harvest rejoicing takes place at the close of
the reaping and not at the ingathering, as soon as the last sheaf is set
on end the reapers shout that they have "got the kern." An image formed
of a wheatsheaf, and dressed in a white frock and coloured ribbons, is
hoisted on a pole. This is the "kern-baby" or harvest-queen, and it is
carried back in triumph with music and shouting and set up in a
prominent place during the harvest supper. In Scotland the last sheaf if
cut before Hallowmas is called the "maiden," and the youngest girl in
the harvest-field is given the privilege of cutting it. If the reaping
finishes after Hallowmas the last corn cut is called the _Cailleach_
(old woman). In some parts of Scotland this last sheaf is kept till
Christmas morning and then divided among the cattle "to make them
thrive all the year round," or is kept till the first mare foals and is
then given to her as her first food. Throughout the world, as J. G.
Frazer shows, the semi-worship of the last sheaf is or has been the
great feature of the harvest-home. Among harvest customs none is more
interesting than harvest cries. The cry of the Egyptian reapers
announcing the death of the corn-spirit, the rustic prototype of Osiris,
has found its echo on the world's harvest-fields, and to this day, to
take an English example, the Devonshire reapers utter cries of the same
sort and go through a ceremony which in its main features is an exact
counterpart of pagan worship. "After the wheat is cut they 'cry the
neck.' ... An old man goes round to the shocks and picks out a bundle of
the best ears be can find ... this bundle is called 'the neck'; the
harvest hands then stand round in a ring, the old man holding 'the neck'
in the centre. At a signal from him they take off their hats, stooping
and holding them with both hands towards the ground. Then all together
they utter in a prolonged cry 'the neck!' three times, raising
themselves upright with their hats held above their heads. Then they
change their cry to 'Wee yen! way yen!' or, as some report, 'we haven!'"
On a fine still autumn evening "crying the neck" has a wonderful effect
at a distance. In East Anglia there still survives the custom known as
"Hallering Largess." The harvesters beg largess from passers, and when
they have received money they shout thrice "Halloo, largess," having
first formed a circle, bowed their heads low crying "Hoo-Hoo-Hoo," and
then jerked their heads backwards and uttered a shrill shriek of "Ah!
Ah!"

  For a very full discussion of harvest customs see J. G. Frazer, _The
  Golden Bough_, and Brand's _Antiquities of Great Britain_ (Hazlitt's
  edit., 1905).



HARVEST-BUG, the familiar name for mites of the family Trombidiidae,
belonging to the order Acari of the class Arachnida. Although at one
time regarded as constituting a distinct species, described as _Leptus
autumnalis_, harvest-bugs are now known to be the six-legged larval
forms of several British species of mites of the genus _Trombidium_.
They are minute, rusty-brown organisms, barely visible to the naked eye,
which swarm in grass and low herbage in the summer and early autumn, and
cause considerable, sometimes intense, irritation by piercing and
adhering to the skin of the leg, usually lodging themselves in some part
where the clothing is tight, such as the knee when covered with gartered
stockings. They may be readily destroyed, and the irritation allayed, by
rubbing the affected area with some insecticide like turpentine or
benzine. They are not permanently parasitic, and if left alone will
leave their temporary host to resume the active life characteristic of
the adult mite, which is predatory in habits, preying upon minute living
animal organisms.



HARVESTER, HARVEST-SPIDER, or HARVEST-MAN, names given to Arachnids of
the order Opiliones, referable to various species of the family
Phalangiidae. Harvest-spiders or harvest-men, so-called on account of
their abundance in the late summer and early autumn, may be at once
distinguished from all true spiders by the extreme length and thinness
of their legs, and by the small size and spherical or oval shape of the
body, which is not divided by a waist or constriction into an anterior
and a posterior region. They may be met with in houses, back yards,
fields, woods and heaths; either climbing on walls, running over the
grass, or lurking under stones and fallen tree trunks. They are
predaceous, feeding upon small insects, mites and spiders. The males are
smaller than the females, and often differ from them in certain
well-marked secondary sexual characters, such as the mandibular
protuberance from which one of the common English spiders, _Phalangium
cornutum_, takes its scientific name. The male is also furnished with a
long and protrusible penis, and the female with an equally long and
protrusible ovipositor. The sexes pair in the autumn, and the female, by
means of her ovipositor, lays her eggs in some cleft or hole in the soil
and leaves them to their fate. After breeding, the parents die with the
autumn cold; but the eggs retain their vitality through the winter and
hatch with the warmth of spring and early summer, the young gradually
attaining maturity as the latter season progresses. Hence the
prevalence of adult individuals in the late summer and autumn, and at no
other time of the year. They are provided with a pair of glands,
situated one on each side of the carapace, which secrete an
evil-smelling fluid believed to be protective in nature. Harvest-men are
very widely distributed and are especially abundant in temperate
countries of the northern hemisphere. They are also, however, common in
India, where they are well known for their habit of adhering together in
great masses, comparable to a swarm of bees, and of swaying gently
backwards and forwards. The long legs of harvest-men serve them not only
as organs of rapid locomotion, but also as props to raise the body well
off the ground, thus enabling the animals to stalk unmolested from the
midst of an army of raiding ants.     (R. I. P.)

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Harvest-man (_Phalangium cornutum_, Linn.);
profile of male, with legs and palpi truncated.

  a, Ocular tubercle.
  b, Mandible.
  c, Labrum (upper lip).
  d, Sheath of penis protruded.
  e, Penis.
  f, The glans.]



HARVEY, GABRIEL (c. 1545-1630), English writer, eldest son of a
ropemaker of Saffron-Walden, Essex, was born about 1545. He matriculated
at Christ's College, Cambridge, in 1566, and in 1570 was elected fellow
of Pembroke Hall. Here he formed a lasting friendship with Edmund
Spenser, and it has been suggested (_Athen. Cantab._, ii. 258) that he
may have been the poet's tutor. Harvey was a scholar of considerable
weight, who has perhaps been judged too exclusively from the brilliant
invectives directed against him by Thomas Nashe. Henry Morley, writing
in the _Fortnightly Review_ (March 1869), brought evidence from Harvey's
Latin writings which shows that he was distinguished by quite other
qualities than the pedantry and conceit usually associated with his
name. He desired to be "epitaphed as the Inventour of the English
Hexameter," and was the prime mover in the literary clique that desired
to impose on English verse the Latin rules of quantity. In a "gallant,
familiar letter" to M. Immerito (Edmund Spenser) he says that Sir Edward
Dyer and Sir Philip Sidney were helping forward "our new famous
enterprise for the exchanging of Barbarous and Balductum Rymes with
Artificial Verses." The document includes a tepid appreciation of the
_Faerie Queene_ which had been sent to him for his opinion, and he gives
examples of English hexameters illustrative of the principles enunciated
in the correspondence. The opening lines--

  "What might I call this Tree? A Laurell? O bonny Laurell
   Needes to thy bowes will I bow this knee, and vayle my bonetto"--

afford a fair sample of the success of Harvey's metrical experiments,
which presented a fair mark for the wit of Thomas Nashe. "He (Harvey)
goes twitching and hopping in our language like a man running upon
quagmires, up the hill in one syllable, and down the dale in another,"
says Nashe in _Strange Newes_, and he mimics him in the mocking couplet:

  "But eh! what news do you hear of that good Gabriel Huffe-Snuffe,
   Known to the world for a foole, and clapt in the Fleete for a Runner?"

Harvey exercised great influence over Spenser for a short time, and the
friendship lasted even though Spenser's genius refused to be bound by
the laws of the new prosody. Harvey is the Hobbinoll of his friend's
_Shepheards Calender_, and into his mouth is put the beautiful song in
the fourth eclogue in praise of Eliza. If he was really the author of
the verses "To the Learned Shepheard" signed "Hobynoll" and prefixed to
the _Faerie Queene_, he was a good poet spoiled. But Harvey's genuine
friendship for Spenser shows the best side of a disposition
uncompromising and quarrelsome towards the world in general. In 1573
ill-will against him in his college was so strong that there was a delay
of three months before the fellows would agree to grant him the
necessary grace for his M.A. degree. He became reader in rhetoric about
1576, and in 1578, on the occasion of Queen Elizabeth's visit to Sir
Thomas Smith at Audley End, he was appointed to dispute publicly before
her. In the next year he wrote to Spenser complaining of the
unauthorized publication of satirical verses of his which were supposed
to reflect on high personages, and threatened seriously to injure
Harvey's career. In 1583 he became junior proctor of the university, and
in 1585 he was elected master of Trinity Hall, of which he had been a
fellow from 1578, but the appointment appears to have been quashed at
court. He was a protégé of the Earl of Leicester, to whom he introduced
Spenser, and this connexion may account for his friendship with Sir
Philip Sidney. But in spite of patronage, a second application for the
mastership of Trinity Hall failed in 1598. In 1585 he received the
degree of D.C.L. from the university of Oxford, and is found practising
at the bar in London. Gabriel's brother, Richard, had taken part in the
Marprelate controversy, and had given offence to Robert Greene by
contemptuous references to him and his fellow wits. Greene retorted in
his _Quip for an Upstart Courtier_ with some scathing remarks on the
Harveys, the worst of which were expunged in later editions, drawing
attention among other things to Harvey's modest parentage. In 1599
Archbishop Whitgift made a raid on contemporary satire in general, and
among other books the tracts of Harvey and Nashe were destroyed, and it
was forbidden to reprint them. Harvey spent the last years of his life
in retirement at his native place, dying in 1630.

  His extant Latin works are: _Ciceronianus_ (1577); _G. Harveii rhetor,
  sive 2 dierum oratio de natura, arte et exercitatione rhetorica_
  (1577); _Smithus, vel Musarum lachrymae_ (1578), in honour of Sir
  Thomas Smith; and _G. Harveii gratulationum Valdensium libri quatuour_
  (sic), written on the occasion of the queen's visit to Audley End
  (1578). _The Letter-Book of Gabriel Harvey, A.D. 1573-80_ (1884, ed.
  E. J. L. Scott, Camden Society), contains rough drafts of the
  correspondence between Spenser and Harvey, letters relative to the
  disputes at Pembroke Hall, and an extraordinary correspondence dealing
  with the pursuit of his sister Mercy by a young nobleman. A copy of
  Quintilian (1542), in the British Museum, is extensively annotated by
  Gabriel Harvey. After Greene's death Harvey published _Foure Letters
  and certaine Sonnets_ (1592), in which in a spirit of righteous
  superiority he laid bare with spiteful fulness the miserable details
  of Greene's later years. Thomas Nashe, who in power of invective and
  merciless wit was far superior to Harvey, took upon himself to avenge
  Greene's memory, and at the same time settle his personal account with
  the Harveys, in _Strange Newes_ (1593). Harvey refuted the personal
  charges made by Nashe in _Pierce's Supererogation, or a New Prayse Of
  the Old Asse ..._ (1593). In _Christes Teares_ over Jerusalem (1593)
  Nashe made a full apology to Harvey, who refused to be appeased, and
  resumed what had become a very scurrilous controversy in a _New Letter
  of Notable Contents_ (1593). Nashe thereupon withdrew his apology in a
  new edition (1594) of _Christes Teares_, and hearing that Harvey had
  boasted of victory he produced the most biting satire of the series in
  _Have with you to Saffron Walden_ (1596). Harvey retorted in _The
  Trimming of Thomas Nashe Gentleman, by the high-tituled patron Don
  Richardo de Medico campo ..._ (1597).

  His complete works were edited by Dr A. B. Grosart with a "Memorial
  Introduction" for the _Huth Library_ (1884-1885). See also Isaac
  Disraeli, on "Literary Ridicule," in _Calamities of Authors_ (ed.
  1840); T. Warton's _History of English Poetry_ (ed. W. C. Hazlitt,
  1871); J. P. Collier's _Bibliographical and Critical Account of the
  Rarest Books in the English Language_ (1865), and the _Works_ of
  Thomas Nashe.



HARVEY, SIR GEORGE (1806-1876), Scottish painter, the son of a
watchmaker, was born at St Ninians, near Stirling, in February 1806.
Soon after his birth his parents removed to Stirling, where George was
apprenticed to a bookseller. His love for art having, however, become
very decided, in his eighteenth year he entered the Trustees' Academy
at Edinburgh. Here he so distinguished himself that in 1826 he was
invited by the Scottish artists, who had resolved to found a Scottish
academy, to join it as an associate. Harvey's first picture, "A Village
School," was exhibited in 1826 at the Edinburgh Institution; and from
the time of the opening of the Academy in the following year he
continued annually to exhibit. His best-known pictures are those
depicting historical episodes in religious history from a puritan or
evangelical point of view, such as "Covenanters Preaching,"
"Covenanters' Communion," "John Bunyan and his Blind Daughter," "Sabbath
Evening," and the "Quitting of the Manse." He was, however, equally
popular in Scotland for subjects not directly religious; and "The
Bowlers," "A Highland Funeral," "The Curlers," "A Schule Skailin'," and
"Children Blowing Bubbles in the Churchyard of Greyfriars', Edinburgh,"
manifest the same close observation of character, artistic conception
and conscientious elaboration of details. In "The Night Mail" and "Dawn
Revealing the New World to Columbus" the aspects of nature are made use
of in different ways, but with equal happiness, to lend impressiveness
and solemnity to human concerns. He also painted landscapes and
portraits. In 1829 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Scottish
Academy; in 1864 he succeeded Sir J. W. Gordon as president; and he was
knighted in 1867. He died at Edinburgh on the 22nd of January 1876.

  Sir George Harvey was the author of a paper on the "Colour of the
  Atmosphere," read before the Edinburgh Royal Society, and afterwards
  published with illustrations in _Good Words_; and in 1870 he published
  a small volume entitled _Notes of the Early History of the Royal
  Scottish Academy. Selections from the Works of Sir George Harvey,
  P.R.S.A., described by the Rev. A. L. Simpson, F.S.A. Scot., and
  photographed by Thomas Annan_, appeared at Edinburgh in 1869.



HARVEY, WILLIAM (1578-1657), English physician, the discoverer of the
circulation of the blood, was the eldest son of Thomas Harvey, a
prosperous Kentish yeoman, and was born at Folkestone on the 1st of
April 1578. After passing through the grammar school of Canterbury, on
the 31st of May 1593, having just entered his sixteenth year, he became
a pensioner of Caius College, Cambridge, at nineteen he took his B.A.
degree, and soon after, having chosen the profession of medicine, he
went to study at Padua under H. Fabricius and Julius Casserius. At the
age of twenty-four Harvey became doctor of medicine, in April 1602.
Returning to England in the first year of James I., he settled in
London; and two years later he married the daughter of Dr Lancelot
Browne, who had been physician to Queen Elizabeth. In the same year he
became a candidate of the Royal College of Physicians, and was duly
admitted a fellow (June 1607). In 1609 he obtained the reversion of the
post of physician to St Bartholomew's hospital. His application was
supported by the king himself and by Dr Henry Atkins (1558-1635), the
president of the college, and on the death of Dr Wilkinson in the course
of the same year he succeeded to the post. He was thrice censor of the
college, and in 1615 was appointed Lumleian lecturer.

In 1616 he began his course of lectures, and first brought forward his
views upon the movements of the heart and blood. Meantime his practice
increased, and he had the lord chancellor, Francis Bacon, and the earl
of Arundel among his patients. In 1618 he was appointed physician
extraordinary to James I., and on the next vacancy physician in ordinary
to his successor. In 1628, the year of the publication of the
_Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis_, he was elected
treasurer of the College of Physicians, but at the end of the following
year he resigned the office, in order, by command of Charles I., to
accompany the young duke of Lennox (James Stuart, afterwards duke of
Richmond) on his travels. He appears to have visited Italy, and returned
in 1632. Four years later he accompanied the earl of Arundel on his
embassy to the emperor Ferdinand II. He was eager in collecting objects
of natural history, sometimes causing the earl anxiety for his safety by
his excursions in a country infested by robbers in consequence of the
Thirty Years' War. In a letter written on this journey, he says: "By the
way we could scarce see a dogg, crow, kite, raven, or any bird, or
anything to anatomise; only sum few miserable people, the reliques of
the war and the plague, whom famine had made anatomies before I came."
Having returned to his practice in London at the close of the year 1636,
he accompanied Charles I. in one of his journeys to Scotland (1639 or
1641). While at Edinburgh he visited the Bass Rock; he minutely
describes its abundant population of sea-fowl in his treatise _De
generatione_, and incidentally speaks of the account then credited of
the solan goose growing on trees as a fable. He was in attendance on the
king at the battle of Edgehill (October 1642), where he withdrew under a
hedge with the prince of Wales and the duke of York (then boys of twelve
and ten years old), "and took out of his pocket a book and read. But he
had not read very long before a bullet of a great gun grazed on the
ground near him, which made him remove his station," as he afterwards
told John Aubrey. After the indecisive battle, Harvey followed Charles
I. to Oxford, "where," writes the same gossiping narrator, "I first saw
him, but was then too young to be acquainted with so great a doctor. I
remember he came several times to our college (Trinity) to George
Bathurst, B.D. who had a hen to hatch eggs in his chamber, which they
opened daily to see the progress and way of generation." In Oxford he
remained three years, and there was some chance of his being superseded
in his office at St Bartholomew's hospital, "because he hath withdrawn
himself from his charge, and is retired to the party in arms against the
Parliament." It was no doubt at this time that his lodgings at Whitehall
were searched, and not only the furniture seized but also invaluable
manuscripts and anatomical preparations.[1]

While with the king at Oxford he was made warden of Merton College, but
a year later, in 1646, that city surrendered to Fairfax, and Harvey
returned to London. He was now sixty-eight years old, and, having
resigned his appointments and relinquished the cares of practice, lived
in learned retirement with one or other of his brothers. It was in his
brother Daniel's house at Combe that Dr (afterwards Sir George) Ent, a
faithful friend and disciple (1604-1689), visited him in 1650. "I found
him," he says, "with a cheerful and sprightly countenance investigating,
like Democritus, the nature of things. Asking if all were well with
him--'How can that be,' he replied, 'when the state is so agitated with
storms and I myself am yet in the open sea? And indeed, were not my mind
solaced by my studies and the recollection of the observations I have
formerly made, there is nothing which should make me desirous of a
longer continuance. But thus employed, this obscure life and vacation
from public cares which would disgust other minds is the medicine of
mine.'" The work on which he had been chiefly engaged at Oxford, and
indeed since the publication of his treatise on the circulation in 1628,
was an investigation into the recondite but deeply interesting subject
of generation. Charles I. had been an enlightened patron of Harvey's
studies, had put the royal deer parks at Windsor and Hampton Court at
his disposal, and had watched his demonstration of the growth of the
chick with no less interest than the movements of the living heart.
Harvey had now collected a large number of observations, though he would
probably have delayed their publication. But Ent succeeded in obtaining
the manuscripts, with authority to print them or not as he should find
them. "I went from him," he says, "like another Jason in possession of
the golden fleece, and when I came home and perused the pieces singly,
I was amazed that so vast a treasure should have been so long hidden."
The result was the publication of the _Exercitationes de generatione_
(1651).

This was the last of Harvey's labours. He had now reached his
seventy-third year. His theory of the circulation had been opposed and
defended, and was now generally accepted by the most eminent anatomists
both in his own country and abroad. He was known and honoured throughout
Europe, and his own college (Caius) voted a statue in his honour (1652)
_viro monumentis suis immortali_. In 1654 he was elected to the highest
post in his profession, that of president of the college; but the
following day he met the assembled fellows, and, declining the honour
for himself on account of the infirmities of age, recommended the
re-election of the late president Dr Francis Prujean (1593-1666). He
accepted, however, the office of consiliarius, which he again held in
the two following years. He had already enriched the college with other
gifts besides the honour of his name. He had raised for them "a noble
building of Roman architecture (rustic work with Corinthian pilasters),
comprising a great parlour or conversation room below and a library
above"; he had furnished the library with books, and filled the museum
with "simples and rarities," as well as with specimens of instruments
used in the surgical and obstetric branches of medicine. At last he
determined to give to his beloved college his paternal estate at
Burmarsh in Kent. His wife had died some years before, his brothers were
wealthy men, and he was childless, so that he was defrauding no heir
when, in July 1656, he made the transfer of this property, then valued
at £56 per annum, with provision for a salary to the college librarian
and for the endowment of an annual oration, which is still given on the
anniversary of the day. The orator, so Harvey orders in his deed of
gift, is to exhort the fellows of the college "to search out and study
the secrets of nature by way of experiment, and also for the honour of
the profession to continue mutual love and affection among themselves."

Harvey, like his contemporary and great successor Thomas Sydenham, was
long afflicted with gout, but he preserved his activity of mind to an
advanced age. In his eightieth year, on the 3rd of June 1657, he was
attacked by paralysis, and though deprived of speech was able to send
for his nephews and distribute his watch, ring, and other personal
trinkets among them. He died the same evening, "the palsy giving him an
easy passport," and was buried with great honour in his brother Eliab's
vault at Hempstead in Essex, _annorum et famae satur_. In 1883 the lead
coffin containing his remains was enclosed in a marble sarcophagus and
moved to the Harvey chapel within the church.

John Aubrey, to whom we owe most of the minor particulars about Harvey
which have been preserved, says: "In person he was not tall, but of the
lowest stature, round faced, olivaster complexion, little eyes, round,
very black, full of spirits; his hair black as a raven, but quite white
twenty years before he died." The best portrait of him extant is by
Cornelius Jansen in the library of the College of Physicians, one of
those rescued from the great fire, which destroyed their original hall
in 1666. It has been often engraved, and is prefixed to the fine edition
of his works published in 1766.

_Harvey's Work on the Circulation._--In estimating the character and
value of the discovery announced in the _Exercitatio de motu cordis et
sanguinis_, it is necessary to bear in mind the previous state of
knowledge on the subject. Aristotle taught that in man and the higher
animals the blood was elaborated from the food in the liver, thence
carried to the heart, and sent by it through the veins over the body.
His successors of the Alexandrian school of medicine, Erasistratus and
Herophilus, further elaborated his system, and taught that, while the
veins carried blood from the heart to the members, the arteries carried
a subtle kind of air or spirit. For the practical physician only two
changes had been made in this theory of the circulation between the
Christian era and the 16th century. Galen had discovered that the
arteries were not, as their name implies, merely air-pipes, but that
they contained blood as well as vital air or spirit. And it had been
gradually ascertained that the nerves ([Greek: neura]) which arose from
the brain and conveyed "animal spirits" to the body were different from
the tendons or sinews ([Greek: neura]) which attach muscles to bones.
_First_, then, the physicians of the time of Thomas Linacre knew that
the blood is not stagnant in the body. So did Shakespeare and Homer, and
every augur who inspected the entrails of a victim, and every village
barber who breathed a vein. Plato even uses the expression to [Greek: to
aima kata panta ta melê sphodrôs peripheresthai]. But no one had a
conception of a continuous stream returning to its source (a circulation
in the true sense of the word) either in the system or in the lungs. If
they used the word _circulatio_, as did Caesalpinus,[2] it was as
vaguely as the French policeman cries "Circulez." The movements of the
blood were in fact thought to be slow and irregular in direction as well
as in speed, like the "circulation" of air in a house, or the
circulation of a crowd in the streets of a city. _Secondly_, they
supposed that one kind of blood flowed from the liver to the right
ventricle of the heart, and thence to the lungs and the general system
by the veins, and that another kind flowed from the left ventricle to
the lungs and general system by the arteries. _Thirdly_, they supposed
that the septum of the heart was pervious and allowed blood to pass
directly from the right to the left side. _Fourthly_, they had no
conception of the functions of the heart as the motor power of the
movement of the blood. They doubted whether its substance was muscular;
they supposed its pulsation to be due to expansion of the spirits it
contained; they believed the only dynamic effect which it had on the
blood to be sucking it in during its active diastole, and they supposed
the chief use of its constant movements to be the due mixture of blood
and spirits.

Of the great anatomists of the 16th century, Sylvius (_In Hipp. et Gal.
phys. partem anatom. isagoge_) described the valves of the veins;
Vesalius (_De humani corporis fabrica_, 1542) ascertained that the
septum between the right and left ventricles is complete, though he
could not bring himself to deny the invisible pores which Galen's system
demanded. Servetus, in his _Christianismi restitutio_ (1553), goes
somewhat farther than his fellow-student Vesalius, and says: "Paries
ille medius non est aptus ad communicationem et elaborationem illam;
licet aliquid resudare possit"; and, from this anatomical fact and the
large size of the pulmonary arteries he concludes that there is a
communication in the lungs by which blood passes from the pulmonary
artery to the pulmonary vein: "Eodem artificio quo in hepate fit
transfusio a vena porta ad venam cavam propter sanguinem, fit etiam in
pulmone transfusio a vena arteriosa ad arteriam venosam propter
spiritum." The natural spirit of the left side and the vital spirit of
the right side of the heart were therefore, he concluded, practically
the same, and hence two instead of three distinct _spiritus_ should be
admitted. It seems doubtful whether even Servetus rightly conceived of
the entire mass of the blood passing through the pulmonary artery and
the lungs. The transference of the _spiritus naturalis_ to the lungs,
and its return to the left ventricle as _spiritus vitalis_, was the
function which he regarded as important. Indeed a true conception of the
lesser circulation as a transference of the whole blood of the right
side to the left was impossible until the corresponding transference in
the greater or systematic circulation was discovered. Servetus, however,
was the true predecessor of Harvey in physiology, and his claims to that
honour are perfectly authentic and universally admitted.[3]

The way then to Harvey's great work had been paved by the discovery of
the valves in the veins, and by that of the lesser circulation--the
former due to Sylvius and Fabricius, the latter to Servetus--but the
significance of the valves was unsuspected and the fact of even the
pulmonary circulation was not generally admitted in its full meaning.

In his treatise Harvey proves (1) that it is the contraction, not the
dilatation, of the heart which coincides with the pulse, and that the
ventricles as true muscular sacs squeeze the blood which they contain
into the aorta and pulmonary artery; (2) that the pulse is not produced
by the arteries enlarging and so filling, but by the arteries being
filled with blood and so enlarging; (3) that there are no pores in the
septum of the heart, so that the whole blood in the right ventricle is
sent to the lungs and round by the pulmonary veins to the left
ventricle, and also that the whole blood in the left ventricle is again
sent into the arteries, round by the smaller veins into the venae cavae,
and by them to the right ventricle again--thus making a complete
"circulation"; (4) that the blood in the arteries and that in the veins
is the same blood; (5) that the action of the right and left sides of
the heart, auricles, ventricles and valves, is the same, the mechanism
in both being for reception and propulsion of liquid and not of air,
since the blood on the right side, though mixed with air, is still
blood; (6) that the blood sent through the arteries to the tissues is
not all used, but that most of it runs through into the veins; (7) that
there is no to and fro undulation in the veins, but a constant stream
from the distant parts towards the heart; (8) that the dynamical
starting-point of the blood is the heart and not the liver.

The _method_ by which Harvey arrived at his complete and almost
faultless solution of the most fundamental and difficult problem in
physiology has been often discussed, and is well worthy of attention. He
begins his treatise by pointing out the many inconsistencies and defects
in the Galenical theory, quoting the writings of Galen himself, of
Fabricius, Columbus and others, with great respect, but with unflinching
criticism. For, in his own noble language, wise men must learn anatomy,
not from the decrees of philosophers, but from the fabric of nature
herself, "nec ita in verba jurare antiquitatis magistrae, ut veritatem
amicam in apertis relinquant, et in conspectu omnium deserant." He had,
as we know, not only furnished himself with all the knowledge that books
and the instructions of the best anatomists of Italy could give, but, by
a long series of dissections, had gained a far more complete knowledge
of the comparative anatomy of the heart and vessels than any
contemporary--we may almost say than any successor--until the times of
John Hunter and J. F. Meckel. Thus equipped, he tells us that he began
his investigations into the movements of the heart and blood by looking
at them--i.e. by seeing their action in living animals. After a modest
preface, he heads his first chapter "Ex vivorum dissectione, qualis sit
cordis motus." He minutely describes what he saw and handled in dogs,
pigs, serpents, frogs and fishes, and even in slugs, oysters, lobsters
and insects, in the transparent _minima squilla_, "quae Anglice dicitur
_a shrimp_," and lastly in the chick while still in the shell. In these
investigations he used a _perspicillum_ or simple lens. He particularly
describes his observations and experiments on the ventricles, the
auricles, the arteries and the veins. He shows how the arrangement of
the vessels in the foetus supports his theory. He adduces facts observed
in disease as well as in health to prove the rapidity of the
circulation. He explains how the mechanism of the valves in the veins is
adapted, not, as Fabricius believed, to moderate the flow of blood from
the heart, but to favour its flow to the heart. He estimates the
capacity of each ventricle, and reckons the rate at which the whole mass
of blood passes through it. He elaborately and clearly demonstrates the
effect of obstruction of the blood-stream in arteries or in veins, by
the forceps in the case of a snake, by a ligature on the arm of a man,
and illustrates his argument by figures. He then sums up his conclusion
thus: "Circulari quodam motu, in circuitu, agitari in animalibus
sanguinem, et esse in perpetuo motu; et hanc esse actionem sive
functionem cordis quam pulsu peragit; et omnino motus et pulsus cordis
causam unam esse." Lastly, in the 15th, 16th and 17th chapters, he adds
certain confirmatory evidence, as the effect of position on the
circulation, the absorption of animal poisons and of medicines applied
externally, the muscular structure of the heart and the necessary
working of its valves. The whole treatise, which occupies only 67 pages
of large print in the quarto edition of 1766, is a model of accurate
observation, patient accumulation of facts, ingenious experimentation,
bold yet cautious hypothesis and logical deduction.

In one point only was the demonstration of the circulation incomplete.
Harvey could not discover the capillary channels by which the blood
passes from the arteries to the veins. This gap in the circulation was
supplied several years later by the great anatomist Marcello Malpighi,
who in 1661 saw in the lungs of a frog, by the newly invented
microscope, how the blood passes from the one set of vessels to the
other. Harvey saw all that could be seen by the unaided eye in his
observations on living animals; Malpighi, four years after Harvey's
death, by another observation on a living animal, completed the splendid
chain of evidence. If this detracts from Harvey's merit it leaves
Servetus no merit at all. But in fact the existence of the channels
first seen by Malpighi was as clearly pointed to by Harvey's reasoning
as the existence of Neptune by the calculations of Leverrier and of
Adams.

  Harvey himself and all his contemporaries were well aware of the
  novelty and importance of his theory. He says in the admirable letter
  to Dr Argent, president of the College of Physicians, which follows
  the dedication of his treatise to Charles I., that he should not have
  ventured to publish "a book which alone asserts that the blood pursues
  its course and flows back again by a new path, contrary to the
  received doctrine taught so many ages by innumerable learned and
  illustrious men," if he had not set forth his theory for more than
  nine years in his college lectures, gradually brought it to
  perfection, and convinced his colleagues by actual demonstrations of
  the truth of what he advanced. He anticipates opposition, and even
  obloquy or loss, from the novelty of his views. These anticipations,
  however, the event proved to have been groundless. If we are to credit
  Aubrey indeed, he found that after the publication of the _De motu_
  "he fell mightily in his practice; 'twas believed by the vulgar that
  he was crackbrained, and all the physicians were against him." But the
  last assertion is demonstrably untrue; and if apothecaries and
  patients ever forsook him, they must soon have returned, for Harvey
  left a handsome fortune. By his own profession the book was received
  as it deserved. So novel a doctrine was not to be accepted without due
  inquiry, but his colleagues had heard his lectures and seen his
  demonstrations for years; they were already convinced of the truth of
  his theory, urged its publication, continued him in his lectureship,
  and paid him every honour in their power. In other countries the book
  was widely read and much canvassed. Few accepted the new theory; but
  no one dreamt of claiming the honour of it for himself, nor for
  several years did any one pretend that it could be found in the works
  of previous authors. The first attack on it was a feeble tract by one
  James Primerose, a pupil of Jean Riolan (_Exerc. et animadv. in libr.
  Harvei de motu cord. et sang._, 1630). Five years later Parisanus, an
  Italian physician, published his _Lapis Lydius de motu cord. et
  sang_. (Venice, 1635), a still more bulky and futile performance.
  Primerose's attacks were "imbellia pleraque" and "sine ictu"; that of
  Parisanus "in quamplurimis turpius," according to the contemporary
  judgment of Johann Vessling. Their dulness has protected them from
  further censure. Caspar Hoffmann, professor at Nuremberg, while
  admitting the truth of the lesser circulation in the full Harveian
  sense, denied the rest of the new doctrine. To him the English
  anatomist replied in a short letter, still extant, with great
  consideration yet with modest dignity, beseeching him to convince
  himself by actual inspection of the truth of the facts in question. He
  concludes: "I accept your censure in the candid and friendly spirit in
  which you say you wrote it; do you also the same to me, now that I
  have answered you in the same spirit." This letter is dated May 1636,
  and in that year Harvey passed through Nuremberg with the earl of
  Arundel, and visited Hoffmann. But he failed to convince him; "nec
  tamen valuit Harveius vel coram," writes P. M. Schlegel, who, however,
  afterwards succeeded in persuading the obstinate old Galenist to
  soften his opposition to the new doctrine, and thinks that his
  complete conversion might have been effected if he had but lived a
  little longer--"nec dubito quin concessisset tandem in nostra castra."
  While in Italy the following year Harvey visited his old university of
  Padua, and demonstrated his views to Professor Vessling. A few months
  later this excellent anatomist wrote him a courteous and sensible
  letter, with certain objections to the new theory. The answer to this
  has not been preserved, but it convinced his candid opponent, who
  admitted the truth of the circulation in a second letter (both were
  published in 1640), and afterwards told a friend, "Harveium nostrum si
  audis, agnosces coelestem sanguinis et spiritus ingressum ex arteriis
  per venas in dextrum cordis sinum." Meanwhile a greater convert, R.
  Descartes, in his _Discours sur la méthode_ (1637) had announced his
  adhesion to the new doctrine, and refers to "the English physician to
  whom belongs the honour of having first shown that the course of the
  blood in the body is nothing less than a kind of perpetual movement in
  a circle." J. Walaeus of Leyden, H. Regius of Utrecht and Schlegel of
  Hamburg successively adopted the new physiology. Of these professors,
  Regius was mauled by the pertinacious Primerose and mauled him in
  return (_Spongia qua eluuntur sordes quae Jac. Primirosius_, &c., and
  _Antidotum adv. Spongiam venenatam Henr. Regii_). Descartes afterwards
  repeated Harvey's vivisections, and, more convinced than ever,
  demolished Professor V. F. Plempius of Louvain, who had written on the
  other side. George Ent also published an _Apologia pro circulatione
  sanguinis_ in answer to Parisanus.

  At last Jean Riolan ventured to publish his _Enchiridium anatomicum_
  (1648), in which he attacks Harvey's theory, and proposes one of his
  own. Riolan had accompanied the queen dowager of France (Maria de'
  Medici) on a visit to her daughter at Whitehall, and had there met
  Harvey and discussed his theory. He was, in the opinion of the
  judicious Haller, "vir asper et in nuperos suosque coaevos immitis ac
  nemini parcens, nimis avidus suarum laudum praeco, et se ipso fatente
  anatomicorum princeps." Harvey replied to the _Enchiridium_ with
  perfectly courteous language and perfectly conclusive arguments, in
  two letters _De circulatione sanguinis_, which were published at
  Cambridge in 1649, and are still well worth reading. He speaks here of
  the "circuitus sanguinis a me inventus." Riolan was unconvinced, but
  lived to see another professor of anatomy appointed in his own
  university who taught Harvey's doctrines. Even in Italy, Trullius,
  professor of anatomy at Rome, expounded the new doctrine in 1651. But
  the most illustrious converts were Jean Pecquet of Dieppe, the
  discoverer of the thoracic duct, and of the true course of the lacteal
  vessels, and Thomas Bartholinus of Copenhagen, in his _Anatome ex
  omnium veterum recentiorumque observationibus, imprimis
  institutionibus beati mei parentis Caspari Bartholini, ad
  circulationem Harveianam et vasa lymphatica renovata_ (Leiden, 1651).
  At last Plempius also retracted all his objections; for, as he
  candidly stated, "having opened the bodies of a few living dogs, I
  find that all Harvey's statements are perfectly true." Hobbes of
  Malmesbury could thus say in the preface to his _Elementa
  philosophiae_ that his friend Harvey, "solus quod sciam, doctrinam
  novam superata invidia vivens stabilivit."

  It has been made a reproach to Harvey that he failed to appreciate the
  importance of the discoveries of the lacteal and lymphatic vessels by
  G. Aselli, J. Pecquet and C. Bartholinus. In three letters on the
  subject, one to Dr R. Morison of Paris (1652) and two to Dr Horst of
  Darmstadt (1655), a correspondent of Bartholin's, he discusses these
  observations, and shows himself unconvinced of their accuracy. He
  writes, however, with great moderation and reasonableness, and excuses
  himself from investigating the subject further on the score of the
  infirmities of age; he was then above seventy-four. The following
  quotation shows the spirit of these letters: "Laudo equidem summopere
  Pecqueti aliorumque in indaganda veritate industriam singularem, nec
  dubito quin multa adhuc in Democriti puteo abscondita sint, a venturi
  saeculi indefatigabili diligentia expromenda." Bartholin, though
  reasonably disappointed in not having Harvey's concurrence, speaks of
  him with the utmost respect, and generously says that the glory of
  discovering the movements of the heart and of the blood was enough for
  one man.

_Harvey's Work on Generation._--We have seen how Dr. Ent persuaded his
friend to publish this book in 1651. It is between five and six times as
long as the _Exerc. de motu cord. et sang._, and is followed by excursus
_De partu, De uteri membranis, De conceptione_; but, though the fruit of
as patient and extensive observations, its value is far inferior. The
subject was far more abstruse, and in fact inaccessible to proper
investigation without the aid of the microscope. And the field was
almost untrodden since the days of Aristotle. Fabricius, Harvey's
master, in his work _De formatione ovi et pulli_ (1621), had alone
preceded him in modern times. Moreover, the seventy-two chapters which
form the book lack the co-ordination so conspicuous in the earlier
treatise, and some of them seem almost like detached chapters of a
system which was never completed or finally revised.

  Aristotle had believed that the male parent furnished the body of the
  future embryo, while the female only nourished and formed the seed;
  this is in fact the theory on which, in the _Eumenides_ of Aeschylus,
  Apollo obtains the acquittal of Orestes. Galen taught almost as
  erroneously that each parent contributes seeds, the union of which
  produced the young animal. Harvey, after speaking with due honour of
  Aristotle and Fabricius, begins rightly "ab ovo"; for, as he remarks,
  "eggs cost little and are always and everywhere to be had," and
  moreover "almost all animals, even those which bring forth their young
  alive, and man himself, are produced from eggs" ("omnia omnino
  animalia, etiam vivipara, atque hominem adeo ipsum, ex ovo progigni").
  This dictum, usually quoted as "omne vivurn ex ovo," would alone stamp
  this work as worthy of the discoverer of the circulation of the blood,
  but it was a prevision of genius, and was not proved to be a fact
  until K. E. von Baer discovered the mammalian ovum in 1827. Harvey
  proceeds with a careful anatomical description of the ovary and
  oviduct of the hen, describes the new-laid egg, and then gives an
  account of the appearance seen on the successive days of incubation,
  from the 1st to the 6th, the 10th and the 14th, and lastly describes
  the process of hatching. He then comments upon and corrects the
  opinions of Aristotle and Fabricius, declares against spontaneous
  generation (though in one passage he seems to admit the current
  doctrine of production of worms by putrefaction as an exception),
  proves that there is no _semen foemineum_, that the chalazae of the
  hen's eggs are not the _semen galli_, and that both parents contribute
  to the formation of the egg. He describes accurately the first
  appearance of the ovarian ova as mere specks, their assumption of yelk
  and afterwards of albumen. In chapter xlv. he describes two methods of
  production of the embryo from the ovum: one is _metamorphosis_, or the
  direct transformation of pre-existing material, as a worm from an egg,
  or a butterfly from an _aurelia_ (chrysalis); the other is
  _epigenesis_, or development with addition of parts, the true
  generation observed in all higher animals. Chapters xlvi.-l. are
  devoted to the abstruse question of the efficient cause of generation,
  which, after much discussion of the opinions of Aristotle and of
  Sennertius, Harvey refers to the action of both parents as the
  efficient instruments of the first great cause.[4] He then goes on to
  describe the order in which the several parts appear in the chick. He
  states that the _punctum saliens_ or foetal heart is the first organ
  to be seen, and explains that the nutrition of the chick is not only
  effected by yelk conveyed directly into the midgut, as Aristotle
  taught, but also by absorption from yelk and white by the umbilical
  (omphalomeseraic) veins; on the fourth day of incubation appear two
  masses (which he oddly names _vermiculus_), one of which develops into
  three vesicles, to form the cerebrum, cerebellum and eyes, the other
  into the breastbone and thorax; on the sixth or seventh day come the
  viscera, and lastly, the feathers and other external parts. Harvey
  points out how nearly this order of development in the chick agrees
  with what he had observed in mammalian and particularly in human
  embryos. He notes the bifid apex of the foetal heart in man and the
  equal thickness of the ventricles, the soft cartilages which represent
  the future bones, the large amount of liquor amnii and absence of
  placenta which characterize the foetus in the third month; in the
  fourth the position of the testes in the abdomen, and the uterus with
  its Fallopian tubes resembling the uterus bicornis of the sheep; the
  large thymus; the caecum, small as in the adult, not forming a second
  stomach as in the pig, the horse and the hare; the lobulated kidneys,
  like those of the seal ("_vitulo_," sc. _marino_) and porpoise, and
  the large suprarenal veins, not much smaller than those of the kidneys
  (li.-lvi). He failed, however, to trace the connexion of the urachus
  with the bladder. In the following chapters (lxiii.-lxxii.) he
  describes the process of generation in the fallow deer or the roe.
  After again insisting that all animals arise from ova, that a
  "conception" is an internal egg and an egg an extruded conception, he
  goes on to describe the uterus of the doe, the process of
  impregnation, and the subsequent development of the foetus and its
  membranes, the _punctum saliens_, the cotyledons of the placenta, and
  the "uterine milk," to which Sir William Turner recalled attention in
  later years. The treatise concludes with detached notes on the
  placenta, parturition and allied subjects.

_Harvey's other Writings and Medical Practice._--The remaining writings
of Harvey which are extant are unimportant. A complete list of them will
be found below, together with the titles of those which we know to be
lost. Of these the most important were probably that on respiration, and
the records of post-mortem examinations. From the following passage (_De
partu_, p. 550) it seems that he had a notion of respiration being
connected rather with the production of animal heat than, as then
generally supposed, with the cooling of the blood. "Haec qui diligenter
perpenderit, naturamque aeris diligenter introspexerit, facile opinor
fatebitur eundem nec refrigerationis gratia nec in pabulum animalibus
concedi. Haec autem obiter duntaxat de respiratione diximus, proprio
loco de eadem forsitan copiosius disceptaturi."

Of Harvey as a practising physician we know very little. Aubrey tells us
that "he paid his visits on horseback with a foot-cloth, his man
following on foot, as the fashion then was." He adds--"Though all of his
profession would allow him to be an excellent anatomist, I never heard
any that admired his therapeutic way. I knew several practitioners that
would not have given threepence for one of his bills" (the apothecaries
used to collect physicians' prescriptions and sell or publish them to
their own profit), "and that a man could hardly tell by his bill what he
did aim at." However this may have been,--and rational therapeutics was
impossible when the foundation stone of physiology had only just been
laid,--we know that Harvey was an active practitioner, performing such
important surgical operations as the removal of a breast, and he turned
his obstetric experience to account in his book on generation. Some good
practical precepts as to the conduct of labour are quoted by Percivall
Willughby (1596-1685). He also took notes of the anatomy of disease;
these unfortunately perished with his other manuscripts. Otherwise we
might regard him as a forerunner of G. B. Morgagni; for Harvey saw that
pathology is but a branch of physiology, and like it must depend first
on accurate anatomy. He speaks strongly to this purpose in his first
epistle to Riolan: "Sicut enim sanorum et boni habitus corporum
dissectio plurimum ad philosophiam et rectam physiologiam facit, ita
corporum morbosorum et cachecticorum inspectio potissimum ad pathologiam
philosophicam." The only specimen we have of his observations in morbid
anatomy is his account of the post-mortem examination made by order of
the king on the body of the famous Thomas Parr, who died in 1635, at the
reputed age of 152. Harvey insists on the value of physiological truths
for their own sake, independently of their immediate utility; but he
himself gives us an interesting example of the practical application of
his theory of the circulation in the cure of a large tumour by tying the
arteries which supplied it with blood (_De generat._ Exerc. xix.).

  The following is believed to be a complete list of all the known
  writings of Harvey, published and unpublished:--

  _Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis_, 4to
  (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1628); _Exercitationes duae anatomicae de
  circulatione sanguinis, ad Johannem Riolanum, filium, Parisiensem_
  (Cambridge, 1649); _Exercitationes de generatione animalium, quibus
  accedunt quaedam de partu, de membranis ac humoribus uteri, et de
  conceptione_, 4to (London, 1651); _Anatomia Thomae Parr_, first
  published in the treatise of Dr John Betts, _De ortu et natura
  sanguinis_, 8vo (London, 1669). Letters: (1) to Caspar Hoffmann of
  Nuremberg, May 1636; (2) to Schlegel of Hamburg, April 1651; (3) three
  to Giovanni Nardi of Florence, July 1651, Dec. 1653 and Nov. 1655; (4)
  two to Dr Morison of Paris, May 1652; (5) two to Dr Horst of
  Darmstadt, Feb. 1654-1655 and July 1655; (6) to Dr Vlackveld of
  Haarlem, May 1657. His letters to Hoffmann and Schlegel are on the
  circulation; those to Morison, Horst and Vlackveld refer to the
  discovery of the lacteals; the two to Nardi are short letters of
  friendship. All these letters were published by Sir George Ent in his
  collected works (Leiden, 1687). Of two MS. letters, one on official
  business to the secretary Dorchester was printed by Dr Aveling, with a
  facsimile of the crabbed handwriting (_Memorials of Harvey_, 1875),
  and the other, about a patient, appears in Dr Robert Willis's _Life of
  Harvey_ (1878). _Praelectiones anatomiae universalis per me Gul.
  Harveium medicum Londinensem, anat. et chir. professorem, an. dom._
  (1616), _aetat._ 37,--MS. notes of his Lumleian lectures in
  Latin,--are in the British Museum library; an autotype reproduction
  was issued by the College of Physicians in 1886. An account of a
  second MS. in the British Museum, entitled _Gulielmus Harveius de
  musculis, motu locali_, &c., was published by Sir G. E. Paget (_Notice
  of an unpublished MS. of Harvey_, London, 1850). The following
  treatises, or notes towards them, were lost either in the pillaging of
  Harvey's house, or perhaps in the fire of London, which destroyed the
  old College of Physicians: _A Treatise on Respiration_, promised and
  probably at least in part completed (pp. 82, 550, ed. 1766);
  _Observationes de usu Lienis_; _Observationes de motu locali_, perhaps
  identical with the above-mentioned manuscript; _Tractatum
  physiologicum_; _Anatomia medicalis_ (apparently notes of morbid
  anatomy); _De generatione insectorum_. The fine 4to edition of
  Harvey's Works, published by the Royal College of Physicians in 1766,
  was superintended by Dr Mark Akenside; it contains the two treatises,
  the account of the post-mortem examination of old Parr, and the six
  letters enumerated above. A translation of this volume by Dr Willis,
  with Harvey's will, was published by the Sydenham Society, 8vo
  (London, 1849).

  The following are the principal biographies of Harvey: in Aubrey's
  _Letters of Eminent Persons_, &c., vol. ii. (London, 1813), first
  published in 1685, the only contemporary account; in Bayle's
  _Dictionnaire historique et critique_ (1698 and 1720; Eng. ed., 1738);
  in the _Biographia Britannica_, and in Aitken's _Biographical
  Memoirs_; the Latin Life by Dr Thomas Lawrence, prefixed to the
  college edition of Harvey's _Works_ in 1766; memoir in _Lives of
  British Physicians_ (London, 1830); a Life by Dr Robert Willis,
  founded on that by Lawrence, and prefixed to his English edition of
  Harvey in 1847; the much enlarged Life by the same author, published
  in 1878; the biography by Dr William Munk in the _Roll of the College
  of Physicians_, vol. i. (2nd ed., 1879).

  The literature which has arisen on the great discovery of Harvey, on
  his methods and his merits, would fill a library. The most important
  contemporary writings have been mentioned above. The following list
  gives some of the most remarkable in modern times: the article in
  Bayle's dictionary quoted above; _Anatomical Lectures_, by Wm. Hunter,
  M.D. (1784); Sprengell, _Geschichte der Arzneikunde_ (Halle, 1800),
  vol. iv.; Flourens, _Histoire de la circulation_ (1854); Lewes,
  _Physiology of Common Life_ (1859), vol. i. pp. 291-345; Ceradini, _La
  Scoperta della circolazione del sangue_ (Milan, 1876); Tollin, _Die
  Entdeckung des Blutkreislaufs durch Michael Servet_ (Jena, 1876);
  Kirchner, _Die Entdeckung des Blutkreislaufs_ (Berlin, 1878); Willis,
  in his Life of Harvey; Wharton Jones, "Lecture on the Circulation of
  the Blood," _Lancet_ for Oct. 25 and Nov. 1, 1879; and the various
  _Harveian Orations_, especially those by Sir E. Sieveking, Dr Guy and
  Professor George Rolleston.     (P. H. P.-S.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] "Ignoscant mihi niveae animae, si, summarum injuriarum memor,
    levem gemitum effudero. Doloris mihi haec causa est: cum, inter
    nuperos nostros tumultus et bella plusquam civilia, serenissimum
    regem (idque non solum senatus permissione sed et jussu) sequor,
    rapaces quaedam manus non modo aedium mearum supellectilem omnem
    expilarunt, sed etiam, quae mihi causa gravior querimoniae,
    adversaria mea, multorum annorum laboribus parta, e museo meo
    summoverunt. Quo factum est ut observationes plurimae, praesertim de
    generatione insectorum, cum republicae literariae (ausim dicere)
    detrimento, perierint."--_De gen._, Ex. lxviii. To this loss Cowley
    refers--

      "O cursed war! who can forgive thee this?
          Houses and towns may rise again,
            And ten times easier 'tis
       To rebuild Paul's than any work of his."

  [2] Indeed the same word, [Greek: periodos haimatos], occurs in the
    Hippocratic writings, and was held by Van der Linden to prove that to
    the father of medicine himself, and not to Columbus or Caesalpinus,
    belonged the laurels of Harvey.

  [3] Realdo Columbus (_De re anatomica_, 1559) formally denies the
    muscularity of the heart, yet correctly teaches that blood and
    spirits pass from the right to the left ventricle, not through the
    septum but through the lungs, "quod nemo hactenus aut animadvertit
    aut scriptum reliquit." The fact that Harvey quotes Columbus and not
    Servetus is explained by the almost entire destruction of the
    writings of the latter, which are now among the rarest curiosities.
    The great anatomist Fabricius, Harvey's teacher at Padua, described
    the valves of the veins more perfectly than had Sylvius. Carlo Ruini,
    in his treatise on the _Anatomy and Diseases of the Horse_ (1590),
    taught that the left ventricle sends blood and vital spirits to all
    parts of the body except the lungs--the ordinary Galenical doctrine.
    Yet on the strength of this phrase Professor J. B. Ercolani actually
    put up a tablet in the veterinary school at Bologna to Ruini as the
    discoverer of the circulation of the blood! The claims of
    Caesalpinus, a more plausible claimant to Harvey's laurels, are
    scarcely better founded. In his _Quaestiones peripateticae_ (1571) he
    followed Servetus and Columbus in describing what we now know as the
    pulmonary "circulation" under that name, and this is the only
    foundation for the assertion (first made in Bayle's dictionary) that
    Caesalpinus knew "the circulation of the blood." He is even behind
    Servetus, for he only allows part of the blood of the right ventricle
    to go round by this "circuit"; some, he conceives, passes through the
    hypothetical pores in the septum, and the rest by the superior cava
    to the head and arms, by the inferior to the rest of the body: "Hanc
    esse venarum utilitatem ut omnes partes corporis sanguinem pro
    nutrimento deferant. Ex dextro ventr° cordis vena cava sanguinem
    crassiorem, in quo calor intensus est magis, ex altero autern ventr°,
    sanguinem temperatissimum ac sincerissimum habente, egreditur aorta."
    Caesalpinus seems to have had no original views on the subject; all
    that he writes is copied from Galen or from Servetus except some
    erroneous observations of his own. His greatest merit was as a
    botanist; and no claim to the "discovery of the circulation" was made
    by him or by his contemporaries. When it was made, Haller decided
    conclusively against it. The fact that an inscription has been placed
    on the bust of Caesalpinus at Rome, which states that he preceded
    others in recognizing and demonstrating "the general circulation of
    the blood," is only a proof of the blindness of misplaced national
    vanity.

  [4] So in Exerc. liv.: "Superior itaque et divinior opifex, quam est
    homo, videtur hominem fabricare et conservare, et nobilior artifex,
    quam gallus, pullum ex ovo producere. Nempe agnoscimus Deum,
    creatorem summum atque omnipotentem, in cunctorum animalium fabrica
    ubique praesentem esse, et in operibus suis quasi digito monstrari:
    cujus in procreatione pulli instrumenta sint gallus et gallina....
    Nec cuiquam sane haec attributa conveniunt nisi omnipotenti rerum
    Principio, quocunque demum nomine idipsum appellare libuerit: sive
    Mentem divinam cum Aristotele, sive cum Platone Animam Mundi, aut cum
    aliis Naturam naturantem, vel cum ethnicis Saturnum aut Iovem; vel
    potius (ut nos decet) Creatorem ac Patrem omnium quae in coelis et
    terris, a quo animalia eorumque origines dependent, cujusque nutu
    sive effatu fiunt et generantur omnia."



HARVEY, a city of Cook county, Illinois, U.S.A., about 18 m. S. of the
Chicago Court House. Pop. (1900) 5395 (982 foreign-born); (1910) 7227.
It is served by the Chicago Terminal Transfer, the Grand Trunk and the
Illinois Central railways. Harvey is a manufacturing and residence
suburb of Chicago. Among its manufactures are railway, foundry and
machine-shop supplies, mining and ditching machinery, stone crushers,
street-making and street-cleaning machinery, stoves and motor-vehicles.
It was named in honour of Turlington W. Harvey, a Chicago capitalist,
founded in 1890, incorporated as a village in 1891 and chartered as a
city in 1895.



HARWICH, a municipal borough and seaport in the Harwich parliamentary
division of Essex, England, on the extremity of a small peninsula
projecting into the estuary of the Stour and Orwell, 70 m. N.E. by E. of
London by the Great Eastern railway. Pop. (1901), 10,070. It occupies an
elevated situation, and a wide view is obtained from Beacon Hill at the
southern end of the esplanade. The church of St Nicholas was built of
brick in 1821; and there are a town hall and a custom-house. The harbour
is one of the best on the east coast of England, and in stormy weather
is largely used for shelter. A breakwater and sea-wall prevent the
blocking of the harbour entrance and encroachments of the sea; and there
is another breakwater at Landguard Point on the opposite (Suffolk) shore
of the estuary. The principal imports are grain and agricultural
produce, timber and coal, and the exports cement and fish. Harwich is
one of the principal English ports for continental passenger traffic,
steamers regularly serving the Hook of Holland, Amsterdam, Rotterdam,
Antwerp, Esbjerg, Copenhagen and Hamburg. The continental trains of the
Great Eastern railway run to Parkeston Quay, 1 m. from Harwich up the
Stour, where the passenger steamers start. The fisheries are important,
principally those for shrimps and lobsters. There are cement and
shipbuilding works. The port is the headquarters of the Royal Harwich
Yacht Club. There are batteries at and opposite Harwich, and modern
works on Shotley Point, at the fork of the two estuaries. There are also
several of the Martello towers of the Napoleonic era. At Landguard Fort
there are important defence works with heavy modern guns commanding the
main channel. This has been a point of coast defence since the time of
James I. Between the Parkeston Quay and Town railway stations is that of
Dovercourt, an adjoining parish and popular watering-place. Harwich is
under a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors. Area, 1541 acres.

Harwich (Herewica, Herewyck) cannot be shown to have been inhabited very
early, although in the 18th century remains of a camp, possibly Roman,
existed there. Harwich formed part of the manor of Dovercourt. It became
a borough in 1319 by a charter of Edward II., which was confirmed in
1342 and 1378, and by each of the Lancastrian kings. The exact nature
and degree of its self-government is not clear. Harwich received
charters in 1547, 1553 and 1560. In 1604 James I. gave it a charter
which amounted to a new constitution, and from this charter begins the
regular parliamentary representation. Two burgesses had attended
parliament in 1343, but none had been summoned since. Until 1867 Harwich
returned two members; it then lost one, and in 1885 it was merged in the
county. Included in the manor of Dovercourt, Harwich from 1086 was for
long held by the de Vere family. In 1252 Henry III. granted to Roger
Bigod a market here every Tuesday, and a fair on Ascension day, and
eight days after. In 1320 a grant occurs of a Tuesday market, but no
fair is mentioned. James I. granted a Friday market, and two fairs, at
the feast of St Philip and St James, and on St Luke's day. The fair has
died out, but markets are still held on Tuesday and Friday. Harwich has
always had a considerable trade; in the 14th century merchants came even
from Spain, and there was much trade in wheat and wool with Flanders.
But the passenger traffic appears to have been as important at Harwich
in the 14th century as it is now. Shipbuilding was a considerable
industry at Harwich in the 17th century.



HARZBURG, a town of Germany, in the duchy of Brunswick, beautifully
situated in a deep and well-wooded vale at the north foot of the Harz
Mountains, at the terminus of the Brunswick-Harzburg railway, 5 m.
E.S.E. from Goslar and 18 m. S. from Wolfenbüttel. Pop. (1905), 4396.
The Radau, a mountain stream, descending from the Brocken, waters the
valley and adds much to its picturesque charm. The town is much
frequented as a summer residence. It possesses brine and carbonated
springs, the Juliushall saline baths being about a mile to the south of
the town, and a hydropathic establishment. A mile and a half south from
the town lies the Burgberg, 1500 ft. above sea-level, on whose summit,
according to tradition, was once an altar to the heathen idol Krodo,
still to be seen in the Ulrich chapel at Goslar. There are on the summit
of the hill the remains of an old castle, and a monument erected in 1875
to Prince Bismarck, with an inscription taken from one of his speeches
against the Ultramontane claims of Rome--"_Nach Canossa gehen wir
nicht_."

The castle on the Burgberg called the Harzburg is famous in German
history. It was built between 1065 and 1069, but was laid in ruins by
the Saxons in 1074; again it was built and again destroyed during the
struggle between the emperor Henry IV. and the Saxons. By Frederick I.
it was granted to Henry the Lion, who caused it to be rebuilt about
1180. It was a frequent residence of Otto IV., who died therein, and
after being frequently besieged and taken, it passed to the house of
Brunswick. It ceased to be of importance as a fortress after the Thirty
Years' War, and gradually fell into ruins.

  See Delius, _Untersuchungen über die Geschichte der Harzburg_
  (Halberstadt, 1826); Dommes, _Harzburg und seine Umgebung_ (Goslar,
  1862); Jacobs, _Die Harzburg und ihre Geschichte_ (1885); and Stolle,
  _Führer von Bad Harzburg_ (1899).



HARZ MOUNTAINS (also spelt HARTZ, Ger. _Harzgebirge_, anc. _Silva
Hercynia_), the most northerly mountain-system of Germany, situated
between the rivers Weser and Elbe, occupy an area of 784 sq. m., of
which 455 belong to Prussia, 286 to Brunswick and 43 to Anhalt. Their
greatest length extends in a S.E. and N.W. direction for 57 m., and
their maximum breadth is about 20 m. The group is made up of an
irregular series of terraced plateaus, rising here and there into
rounded summits, and intersected in various directions by narrow, deep
valleys. The north-western and higher part of the mass is called the
Ober or Upper Harz; the south-eastern and more extensive part, the Unter
or Lower Harz; while the N.W. and S.W. slopes of the Upper Harz form the
Vorharz. The Brocken group, which divides the Upper and Lower Harz, is
generally regarded as belonging to the first. The highest summits of the
Upper Harz are the Brocken (3747 ft.), the Heinrichshöhe (3425 ft.), the
Königsberg (3376 ft.) and the Wurmberg (3176 ft.); of the Lower Harz,
the Josephshöhe in the Auerberg group and the Viktorhöhe in the Ramberg,
each 1887 ft. Of these the Brocken (q.v.) is celebrated for the legends
connected with it, immortalized in Goethe's _Faust_. Streams are
numerous, but all small. While rendered extensively useful, by various
skilful artifices, in working the numerous mines of the district, at
other parts of their course they present the most picturesque scenery in
the Harz. Perhaps the finest valley is the rocky Bodethal, with the
Rosstrappe, the Hexentanzplatz, the Baumannshöhle and the Bielshöhle.

  The Harz is a mass of Palaeozoic rock rising through the Mesozoic
  strata of north Germany, and bounded on all sides by faults. Slates,
  schists, quartzites and limestones form the greater part of the hills,
  but the Brocken and Victorshöhe are masses of intrusive granite, and
  diabases and diabase tuffs are interstratified with the sedimentary
  deposits. The Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous systems are
  represented--the Silurian and Devonian forming the greater part of the
  hills S.E. of a line drawn from Lauterberg to Wernigerode, while N.W.
  of this line the Lower Carboniferous predominates. A few patches of
  Upper Carboniferous are found on the borders of the hills near Ilfeld,
  Ballenstedt, &c., lying unconformably upon the Devonian. The structure
  of the Harz is very complicated, but the general strike of the folds,
  especially in the Oberharz plateau, is N.E. or N.N.E. The whole mass
  evidently belongs to the ancient Hercynian chain of North Europe
  (which, indeed, derives its name from the Harz), and is the
  north-easterly continuation of the rocks of the Ardennes and the
  Eifel. The folding of the old rocks took place towards the close of
  the Palaeozoic era; but the faulting to which they owe their present
  position was probably Tertiary. Metalliferous veins are common,
  amongst the best-known being the silver-bearing lead veins of
  Klausthal, which occur in the Culm or Lower Carboniferous.

Owing to its position as the first range which the northerly winds
strike after crossing the north German plain, the climate on the summit
of the Harz is generally raw and damp, even in summer. In 1895 an
observatory was opened on the top of the Brocken, and the results of the
first five years (1806-1900) showed a July mean of 50° Fahr., a February
mean of 24.7°, and a yearly mean of 36.6°. During the same five years
the rainfall averaged 64(1/3) ins. annually. But while the summer is
thus relatively ungenial on the top of the Harz, the usual summer heat
of the lower-lying valleys is greatly tempered and cooled; so that,
adding this to the natural attractions of the scenery, the deep forests,
and the legendary and romantic associations attaching to every fantastic
rock and ruined castle, the Harz is a favourite summer resort of the
German people. Among the more popular places of resort are Harzburg,
Thale and the Bodethal; Blankenburg, with the Teufelsmauer and the
Hermannshöhle; Wernigerode, Ilsenburg, Grund, Lauterberg, Hubertusbad,
Alexisbad and Suderode. Some of these, and other places not named, add
to their natural attractions the advantage of mineral springs and baths,
pine-needle baths, whey cures, &c. The Harz is penetrated by several
railways, among them a rack-railway up the Brocken, opened in 1898. The
district is traversed by excellent roads in all directions.

The northern summits are destitute of trees, but the lower slopes of the
Upper Harz are heavily wooded with pines and firs. Between the forests
of these stretch numerous peat-mosses, which contain in their spongy
reservoirs the sources of many small streams. On the Brocken are found
one or two arctic and several alpine, plants. In the Lower Harz the
forests contain a great variety of timber. The oak, elm and birch are
common, while the beech especially attains an unusual size and beauty.
The walnut-tree grows in the eastern districts.

The last bear was killed in the Harz in 1705, and the last lynx in 1817,
and since that time the wolf too has become extinct; but deer, foxes,
wild cats and badgers are still found in the forests.

The Harz is one of the richest mineral storehouses in Germany, and the
chief industry is mining, which has been carried on since the middle of
the 10th century. The most important mineral is a peculiarly rich
argentiferous lead, but gold in small quantities, copper, iron, sulphur,
alum and arsenic are also found. Mining is carried on principally at
Klausthal and St Andreasberg in the Upper Harz. Near the latter is one
of the deepest mining shafts in Europe, namely the Samson, which goes
down 2790 ft. or 720 ft. below sea-level. For the purpose of getting rid
of the water, and obviating the flooding of such deep workings, it has
been found necessary to construct drainage works of some magnitude. As
far back as 1777-1799 the Georgsstollen was cut through the mountains
from the east of Klausthal westward to Grund, a distance of 4 m.; but
this proving insufficient, another sewer, the Ernst-Auguststollen, no
less than 14 m. in length, was made from the same neighbourhood to
Gittelde, at the west side of the Harz, in 1851-1864. Marble, granite
and gypsum are worked; and large quantities of vitriol are manufactured.
The vast forests that cover the mountain slopes supply the materials for
a considerable trade in timber. Much wood is exported for building and
other purposes, and in the Harz itself is used as fuel. The sawdust of
the numerous mills is collected for use in the manufacture of paper.
Turf-cutting, coarse lace-making and the breeding of canaries and native
song-birds also occupy many of the people. Agriculture is carried on
chiefly on the plateaus of the Lower Harz; but there is excellent
pasturage both in the north and in the south. In the Lower Harz, as in
Switzerland, the cows, which carry bells harmoniously tuned, are driven
up into the heights in early summer, returning to the sheltered regions
in late autumn.

The inhabitants are descended from various stocks. The Upper and Lower
Saxon, the Thuringian and the Frankish races have all contributed to
form the present people, and their respective influences are still to be
traced in the varieties of dialect. The boundary line between High and
Low German passes through the Harz. The Harz was the last stronghold of
paganism in Germany, and to that fact are due the legends, in which no
district is richer, and the fanciful names given by the people to
peculiar objects and appearances of nature.

  See _Zeitschrift des Harzvereins_ (Wernigerode, annually since 1868);
  Günther, _Der Harz in Geschichts- Kultur- und Landschaftsbildern_
  (Hanover, 1885), and "Der Harz" in Scobel's _Monographien zur
  Erdkunde_ (Bielefeld, 1901); H. Hoffmann and others, _Der Harz_
  (Leipzig, 1899), _Harzwanderungen_ (Leipzig, 1902); Hampe, _Flora
  Hercynica_ (Halle, 1873); von Groddeck, _Abriss der Geognosie des
  Harzes_ (2nd ed., Klausthal, 1883); Pröhle, _Harzsagen_ (2nd ed.,
  Leipzig, 1886); Hautzinger, _Der Kupfer- und Silbersegen des Harzes_
  (Berlin, 1877); Hoppe, _Die Bergwerke im Ober- und Unterharz_
  (Klausthal, 1883); Schulze, _Lithia Hercynica_ (Leipzig, 1895);
  Lüdecke, _Die Minerale des Harzes_ (Berlin, 1896).



HASA, EL (_Ahsa_, _Al Hasa_), a district in the east of Arabia
stretching along the shore of the Persian Gulf from Kuwét in 29° 20´ N.
to the south point of the Gulf of Bahrein in 25° 10´ N., a length of
about 360 m. On the W. it is bounded by Nejd, and on the S.E. by the
peninsula of El Katr which forms part of Oman. The coast is low and flat
and has no deep-water port along its whole length with the exception of
Kuwét; from that place to El Katif the country is barren and without
villages or permanent settlements, and is only occupied by nomad
tribes, of which the principal are the Bani Hajar, Ajman and Khalid. The
interior consists of low stony ridges rising gradually to the inner
plateau. The oases of Hofuf and Katif, however, form a strong contrast
to the barren wastes that cover the greater part of the district. Here
an inexhaustible supply of underground water (to which the province owes
its name Hasa) issues in strong springs, marking, according to Arab
geographers, the course of a great subterranean river draining the Nejd
highlands. Hofuf the capital, a town of 15,000 to 20,000 inhabitants,
with its neighbour Mubariz scarcely less populous, forms the centre of a
thriving district 50 m. long by 15 m. in breadth, containing numerous
villages each with richly cultivated fields and gardens. The town walls
enclose a space of 1½ by 1 m., at the north-west angle of which is a
remarkable citadel attributed to the Carmathian princes. Mubariz is
celebrated for its hot spring, known as Um Saba or "mother of seven,"
from the seven channels by which its water is distributed. Beyond the
present limits of the oasis much of the country is well supplied with
water, and ruined sites and half-obliterated canals show that it has
only relapsed into waste in recent times. Cultivation reappears at
Katif, a town situated on a small bay some 35 m. north-west of Bahrein.
Date groves extend for several miles along the coast, which is low and
muddy. The district is fertile but the climate is hot and unhealthy;
still, owing to its convenient position, the town has a considerable
trade with Bahrein and the gulf ports on one side and the interior of
Nejd on the other. The fort is a strongly built enclosure attributed,
like that at Hofuf, to the Carmathian prince Abu Tahir.

'Uker or 'Ujer is the nearest port to Hofuf, from which it is distant
about 40 m.; large quantities of rice and piece goods transhipped at
Bahrein are landed here and sent on by caravan to Hofuf, the great
entrepôt for the trade between southern Nejd and the coast. It also
shares in the valuable pearl fishery of Bahrein and the adjacent coast.

Politically El Hasa is a dependency of Turkey, and its capital Hofuf is
the headquarters of the sanjak or district of Nejd. Hofuf, Katif and El
Katr were occupied by Turkish garrisons in 1871, and the occupation has
been continued in spite of British protest as to El Katr, which
according to the agreement made in 1867, when Bahrein was taken under
British protection, was tributary to the latter. Turkish claims to Kuwet
have not been admitted by Great Britain.

  AUTHORITIES.--W. G. Palgrave, _Central and Eastern Arabia_ (London,
  1865); L. Pelly, _Journal R.G.S._ (1866); S. M. Zwemer, _Geog.
  Journal_ (1902); G. F. Sadlier, _Diary of a Journey across Arabia_
  (Bombay, 1866); V. Chirol, _The Middle East_ (London, 1904).
       (R. A. W.)



HASAN AND HOSAIN (or HUSEIN), sons of the fourth Mahommedan caliph Ali
by his wife Fatima, daughter of Mahomet. On Ali's death Hasan was
proclaimed caliph, but the strength of Moawiya who had rebelled against
Ali was such that he resigned his claim on condition that he should have
the disposal of the treasure stored at Kufa, with the revenues of
Darabjird. This secret negotiation came to the ears of Hasan's
supporters, a mutiny broke out and Hasan was wounded. He retired to
Medina where he died about 669. The story that he was poisoned at
Moawiya's instigation is generally discredited (see CALIPHATE, sect. B,
§ 1). Subsequently his brother Hosain was invited by partisans in Kufa
to revolt against Moawiya's successor Yazid. He was, however, defeated
and killed at Kerbela on the 10th of October (Muharram) 680 (see
CALIPHATE, sect. B, § _2 ad init._). Hosain is the hero of the Passion
Play which is performed annually (e.g. at Kerbela) on the anniversary of
his death by the Shi'ites of Persia and India, to whom from the earliest
times the family of Ali are the only true descendants of Mahomet. The
play lasts for several days and concludes with the carrying out of the
coffins (_tabut_) of the martyrs to an open place in the neighbourhood.

  See Sir Wm. Muir, _The Caliphate_ (1883); Sir Lewis Pelly, _The
  Miracle Play of Hasan and Hosein_ (1879).



HASAN UL-BASRI [Abu Sa'ud ul-Hasan ibn Abi-l-Hasan Yassar ul-Basri],
(642-728 or 737), Arabian theologian, was born at Medina. His father
was a freedman of Zaid ibn Thabit, one of the _Ansar_ (Helpers of the
Prophet), his mother a client of Umm Salama, a wife of Mahomet.
Tradition says that Umm Salama often nursed Hasan in his infancy. He was
thus one of the _Tabi'un_ (i.e. of the generation that succeeded the
Helpers). He became a teacher of Basra and founded a school there. Among
his pupils was Wasil ibn 'Ata, the founder of the Mo'tazilites. He
himself was a great supporter of orthodoxy and the most important
representative of asceticism in the time of its first development. With
him fear is the basis of morality, and sadness the characteristic of his
religion. Life is only a pilgrimage, and comfort must be denied to
subdue the passions. Many writers testify to the purity of his life and
to his excelling in the virtues of Mahomet's own companions. He was "as
if he were in the other world." In politics, too, he adhered to the
earliest principles of Islam, being strictly opposed to the inherited
caliphate of the Omayyads and a believer in the election of the caliph.

  His life is given in Nawawi's _Biographical Dictionary_ (ed. F.
  Wüstenfeld, Göttingen, 1842-1847). Cf. R. Dozy, _Essai sur l'histoire
  de l'islamisme_, pp. 201 sqq. (Leiden and Paris, 1879); A. von Kremer,
  _Culturgeschichtliche Streifzüge_, p. 5 seq.; R. A. Nicholson, _A
  Literary History of the Arabs_, pp. 225-227 (London, 1907).
       (G. W. T.)



HASBEYA, or HASBEIYA, a town of the Druses, about 36 m. W. of Damascus,
situated at the foot of Mt. Hermon in Syria, overlooking a deep
amphitheatre from which a brook flows to the Hasbani. The population is
about 5000 (4000 Christians). Both sides of the valley are planted in
terraces with olives, vines and other fruit trees. The grapes are either
dried or made into a kind of syrup. In 1846 an American Protestant
mission was established in the town. This little community suffered much
persecution at first from the Greek Church, and afterwards from the
Druses, by whom in 1860 nearly 1000 Christians were massacred, while
others escaped to Tyre or Sidon. The castle in Hasbeya was held by the
crusaders under Count Oran; but in 1171 the Druse emirs of the great
Shehab family (see DRUSES) recaptured it. In 1205 this family was
confirmed in the lordship of the town and district, which they held till
the Turkish authorities took possession of the castle in the 19th
century. Near Hasbeya are bitumen pits let by the government; and to the
north, at the source of the Hasbani, the ground is volcanic. Some
travellers have attempted to identify Hasbeya with the biblical Baal-Gad
or Baal-Hermon.



HASDAI IBN SHAPRUT, the founder of the new culture of the Jews in
Moorish Spain in the 10th century. He was both physician and minister to
Caliph Abd ar-Rahman III. in Cordova. A man of wide learning and
culture, he encouraged the settlement of Jewish scholars in Andalusia,
and his patronage of literature, science and art promoted the Jewish
renaissance in Europe. Poetry, philology, philosophy all flourished
under his encouragement, and his name was handed down to posterity as
the first of the many Spanish Jews who combined diplomatic skill with
artistic culture. This type was the creation of the Moors in Andalusia,
and the Jews ably seconded the Mahommedans in the effort to make life at
once broad and deep.     (I. A.)



HASDEU, or HAJDEU, BOGDAN PETRICEICU (1836-1907), Rumanian philologist,
was born at Khotin in Bessarabia in 1836, and studied at the university
of Kharkov. In 1858 he first settled in Jassy as professor of the high
school and librarian. He may be considered as the pioneer in many
branches of Rumanian philology and history. At Jassy he started his
_Archiva historica a Romaniei_ (1865-1867), in which a large number of
old documents in Slavonic and Rumanian were published for the first
time. In 1870 he inaugurated _Columna lui Traian_, the best philological
review of the time in Rumania. In his _Cuvente den Batrani_ (2 vols.,
1878-1881) he was the first to contribute to the history of apocryphal
literature in Rumania. His _Historia critica a Romanilor_ (1875), though
incomplete, marks the beginning of critical investigation into the
history of Rumania. Hasdeu edited the ancient Psalter of Coresi of 1577
(_Psaltirea lui Coresi_, 1881). His _Etymologicum magnum Romaniae_
(1886, &c.) is the beginning of an encyclopaedic dictionary of the
Rumanian language, though never finished beyond the letter B. In 1876
he was appointed director of the state archives in Bucharest and in 1878
professor of philology at the university of Bucharest. His works, which
include one drama, _Rasvan si Vidra_, bear the impress of great
originality of thought, and the author is often carried away by his
profound erudition and vast imagination. Hasdeu was a keen politician.
After the death of his only child Julia in 1888 he became a mystic and a
strong believer in spiritism. He died at Campina on the 7th of September
1907.     (M. G.)



HASDRUBAL, the name of several Carthaginian generals, among whom the
following are the most important:--

1. The son-in-law of Hamilcar Barca (q.v.), who followed the latter in
his campaign against the governing aristocracy at Carthage at the close
of the First Punic War, and in his subsequent career of conquest in
Spain. After Hamilcar's death (228) Hasdrubal, who succeeded him in the
command, extended the newly acquired empire by skilful diplomacy, and
consolidated it by the foundation of New Carthage (Cartagena) as the
capital of the new province, and by a treaty with Rome which fixed the
Ebro as the boundary between the two powers. In 221 he was killed by an
assassin.

  Polybius ii. 1; Livy xxi. 1; Appian, _Hispanica_, 4-8.

2. The second son of Hamilcar Barca, and younger brother of Hannibal.
Left in command of Spain when Hannibal departed to Italy (218), he
fought for six years against the brothers Gnaeus and Publius Scipio. He
had on the whole the worst of the conflict, and a defeat in 216
prevented him from joining Hannibal in Italy at a critical moment; but
in 212 he completely routed his opponents, both the Scipios being
killed. He was subsequently outgeneralled by Publius Scipio the Younger,
who in 209 captured New Carthage and gained other advantages. In the
same year he was summoned to join his brother in Italy. He eluded Scipio
by crossing the Pyrenees at their western extremity, and, making his way
thence through Gaul and the Alps in safety, penetrated far into Central
Italy (207). He was ultimately checked by two Roman armies, and being
forced to give battle was decisively defeated on the banks of the
Metaurus. Hasdrubal himself fell in the fight; his head was cut off and
thrown into Hannibal's camp as a sign of his utter defeat.

  Polybius x. 34-xi. 3; Livy xxvii. 1-51; Appian, _Bellum Hannibalicum_,
  ch. lii. sqq.; R. Oehler, _Der letzte Feldzug des Barkiden Hasdrubals_
  (Berlin, 1897); C. Lehmann, _Die Angriffe der drei Barkiden auf
  Italien_ (Leipzig, 1905). See also PUNIC WARS.



HASE, CARL BENEDICT (1780-1864), French Hellenist, of German extraction,
was born at Sulza near Naumburg on the 11th of May 1780. Having studied
at Jena and Helmstedt, in 1801 he made his way on foot to Paris, where
he was commissioned by the comte de Choiseul-Gouffier, late ambassador
to Constantinople, to edit the works of Johannes Lydus from a MS. given
to Choiseul by Prince Mourousi. Hase thereupon decided to devote himself
to Byzantine history and literature, on which he became the acknowledged
authority. In 1805 he obtained an appointment in the MSS. department of
the royal library; in 1816 became professor of palaeography and modern
Greek at the École Royale, and in 1852 professor of comparative grammar
in the university. In 1812 he was selected to superintend the studies of
Louis Napoleon (afterwards Napoleon III.) and his brother. He died on
the 21st of March 1864. His most important works are the editions of Leo
Diaconus and other Byzantine writers (1819), and of Johannes Lydus, _De
ostentis_ (1823), a masterpiece of textual restoration, the difficulties
of which were aggravated by the fact that the MS. had for a long time
been stowed away in a wine-barrel in a monastery. He also edited part of
the Greek authors in the collection of the Historians of the Crusades
and contributed many additions (from the fathers, medical and technical
writers, scholiasts and other sources) to the new edition of Stephanus's
_Thesaurus_.

  See J. D. Guigniaut, _Notice historique sur la vie et les travaux de
  Carl Benedict Hase_ (Paris, 1867); articles in _Nouvelle Biographie
  générale_ and _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_; and a collection of
  autobiographical letters, _Briefe von der Wanderung und aus Paris_,
  edited by O. Heine (1894), containing a vivid account of Hase's
  journey, his enthusiastic impressions of Paris and the hardships of
  his early life.



HASE, KARL AUGUST VON (1800-1890), German Protestant theologian and
Church historian, was born at Steinbach in Saxony on the 25th of August
1800. He studied at Leipzig and Erlangen, and in 1829 was called to Jena
as professor of theology. He retired in 1883 and was made a baron. He
died at Jena on the 3rd of January 1890. Hase's aim was to reconcile
modern culture with historical Christianity in a scientific way. But
though a liberal theologian, he was no dry rationalist. Indeed, he
vigorously attacked rationalism, as distinguished from the rational
principle, charging it with being unscientific inasmuch as it ignored
the historical significance of Christianity, shut its eyes to
individuality and failed to give religious feeling its due. His views
are presented scientifically in his _Evangelisch-protestantische
Dogmatik_ (1826; 6th ed., 1870), the value of which "lies partly in the
full and judiciously chosen historical materials prefixed to each dogma,
and partly in the skill, caution and tact with which the permanent
religious significance of various dogmas is discussed" (Otto
Pfleiderer). More popular in style is his _Gnosis oder prot.-evang.
Glaubenslehre_ (3 vols., 1827-1829; 2nd ed. in 2 vols., 1869-1870). But
his reputation rests chiefly on his treatment of Church history in his
_Kirchengeschichte, Lehrbuch zunächst für akademische Vorlesungen_
(1834, 12th ed., 1900).

  His biographical studies, Franz von Assisi (1856; 2nd ed., 1892),
  _Katerina von Siena_ (1864; 2nd ed., 1892), _Neue Propheten_ (Die
  Jungfrau von Orleans, Savonarola, Thomas Münzer) are judicious and
  sympathetic. Other works are: _Hutterus redivivus oder Dogmatik der
  evang.-luth. Kirche_ (1827; 12th ed., 1883), in which he sought to
  present the teaching of the Protestant church in such a way as Hutter
  would have reconstructed it, had he still been alive; _Leben Jesu_
  (1829; 5th ed., 1865; Eng. trans., 1860); in an enlarged form,
  _Geschichte Jesu_ (2nd ed., 1891); and _Handbuch der prot. Polemik
  gegen die röm.-kath. Kirche_ (1862; 7th ed., 1900; Eng. trans., 1906).

  For his life see his _Ideale und Irrtümer_ (1872; 5th ed., 1894) and
  _Annalen meines Lebens_ (1891); and cf. generally Otto Pfleiderer,
  _Development of Theology_ (1890); F. Lichtenberger, _Hist. of German
  Theology_ (1889).



HASHISH, or HASHEESH, the Arabic name, meaning literally "dried herb,"
for the various preparations of the Indian hemp plant (_Cannabis
indica_), used as a narcotic or intoxicant in the East, and either
smoked, chewed or drunk (see HEMP and BHANG). From the Arabic
_hashishin_, i.e. "hemp-eaters," comes the English "assassin" (see
ASSASSIN).



HASLEMERE, a market-town in the Guildford parliamentary division of
Surrey, England, 43 m. S.W. from London by the London & South-Western
railway. It is situated in an elevated valley between the bold ridges of
Hindhead (895 ft.) and Blackdown (918 ft.). Their summits are open and
covered with heath, but their flanks and the lower ground are
magnificently wooded. The hills are deeply scored by steep and
picturesque valleys, of which the most remarkable is the Devil's Punch
Bowl, a hollow of regular form on the west flank of Hindhead. The
invigorating air has combined with scenic attraction to make the
district a favourite place of residence. Professor Tyndall built a house
on the top of Hindhead, setting an example followed by many others. On
Blackdown, closely screened by plantations, is Aldworth, built for
Alfred, Lord Tennyson, who died here in 1892. George Eliot stayed for a
considerable period at Shottermill, a neighbouring village. Pop. of
Haslemere (1901), 2614; of Hindhead, 666.



HASLINGDEN, a market-town and municipal borough in the Rossendale and
Heywood parliamentary divisions of Lancashire, England, 19 m. N. by W.
from Manchester by the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway. Pop. (1901),
18,543. It lies in a hilly district on the borders of the forest of
Rossendale, and is supposed by some to derive its name from the hazel
trees which formerly abounded in its neighbourhood. The old town stood
on the slope of a hill, but the modern part has extended about its base.
The parish church of St James was rebuilt in 1780, with the exception of
the tower, which dates from the time of Henry VIII. The woollen
manufacture was formerly the staple. The town, however, steadily
increasing in importance, has cotton, woollen and engineering
works--coal-mining, quarrying and brickmaking are carried on in the
neighbourhood. The borough, as incorporated in 1891, comprised several
townships and parts of townships, but under the Local Government Act of
1894 these were united into one civil parish. The corporation consists
of a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors. Area, 8196 acres.



HASPE, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, in the
valley of the Ennepe, at the confluence of the Hasper, and on the
railway from Düsseldorf to Dortmund, 10 m. N.E. of Barmen by rail. Pop.
(1905), 19,813. Its industries include iron foundries, rolling mills,
puddling furnaces, and manufactures of iron, steel and brass wares and
of machines. Haspe was raised to the rank of a town in 1873.



HASSAM, CHILDE (1859-   ), American figure and landscape painter, born
in Boston, Massachusetts, was a pupil of Boulanger and Lefebvre in
Paris. He soon fell under the influence of the Impressionists, and took
to painting in a style of his own, in brilliant colour, with effective
touches of pure pigment. He won a bronze medal at the Paris Exhibition
of 1889; medals at the World's Fair, Chicago, 1893; Boston Art Club,
1896; Philadelphia Art Club, 1892; Carnegie Institute, Pittsburg, 1898;
Buffalo Pan-American, 1901; Temple gold medal, Pennsylvania Academy of
Fine Arts, Philadelphia, 1899; and silver medal, Paris Exhibition, 1900.
He became a member of the National Academy of Design, the Society of
American Artists, the Ten Americans, the American Water Colour Society,
the Société Nationale des Beaux Arts, Paris, and the Secession Society,
Munich.



HASSAN, a town and district of Mysore, India. The town dates from the
11th century and had in 1901 a population of 8241. The district
naturally divides into two portions, the Malnad, or hill country, which
includes some of the highest ranges of the Western Ghats, and the Maidan
or plain country, sloping towards the south. The Hemavati, which flows
into the Cauvery in the extreme south, is the most important river of
the district. The upper slopes of the Western Ghats are abundantly
clothed with magnificent forests, and wild animals abound. Among the
mineral products are kaolin, felspar and quartz. The soil of the valleys
is a rich red alluvial loam. The area is 2547 sq. m. Population (1901),
568,919, showing an increase of 11% in the decade. The district contains
some of the most remarkable archaeological monuments in India, such as
the colossal Jain image at Sravana Belgola (a monolith 57 ft. high on
the summit of a hill) and the great temple at Halebid. Coffee
cultivation has been on the increase of late years. The first plantation
was opened in 1843, and now there are many coffee estates owned by
Europeans and also native holdings. The exports are large, consisting
chiefly of food-grains and coffee. The imports are European piece-goods,
hardware of all sorts and spices. The largest weekly fair is held at
Alur. A great annual religious gathering and fair, attended by about
10,000 persons, takes place every year at Melukot. The Southern Mahratta
railway traverses the north-east of the district.

The real history of Hassan does not begin until the epoch of the Hoysala
dynasty, which lasted from the 11th till the 14th century. Their capital
was at Dwarasamundra (Dwaravati-pura), the ruins of which are still to
be seen scattered round the village of Halebid. The earlier kings
professed the Jain faith, but the finest temples were erected to Siva by
the later monarchs of the line. While they were at the zenith of their
power the whole of southern India acknowledged their sway.



HASSANIA, an African tribe of Semitic stock. They inhabit the desert
between Merawi and the Nile at the 6th Cataract, and the left bank of
the Blue Nile immediately south of Khartum.



HASSAN IBN THABIT (died 674), Arabian poet, was born in Yathrib
(Medina), a member of the tribe Khazraj. In his youth he travelled to
Hira and Damascus, then settled in Medina, where, after the advent of
Mahomet, he accepted Islam and wrote poems in defence of the prophet.
His poetry is regarded as commonplace and lacking in distinction.

  His diwan has been published at Bombay (1864), Tunis (1864) and Lahore
  (1878). See H. Hirschfeld's "Prolegomena to an edition of the Diwan of
  Hassan" in _Transactions of Oriental Congress_ (London, 1892).
       (G. W. T.)



HASSE, JOHANN ADOLPH (1699-1783), German musical composer, was born at
Bergedorf near Hamburg, on the 25th of March 1699, and received his
first musical education from his father. Being possessed of a fine tenor
voice, he chose the theatrical career, and joined the operatic troupe
conducted by Reinhard Keiser, in whose orchestra Handel had played the
second violin some years before. Hasse's success led to an engagement at
the court theatre of Brunswick, and it was there that, in 1723, he made
his début as a composer with the opera _Antigonus_. The success of this
first work induced the duke to send Hasse to Italy for the completion of
his studies, and in 1724 he went to Naples and placed himself under
Porpora, with whom, however, he seems to have disagreed both as a man
and as an artist. On the other hand he gained the friendship of
Alessandro Scarlatti, to whom he owed his first commission for a
serenade for two voices, sung at a family celebration of a wealthy
merchant by two of the greatest singers of Italy, Farinelli and Signora
Tesi. This event established Hasse's fame; he soon became very popular,
and his opera _Sesostrato_, written for the Royal Opera at Naples in
1726, made his name known all over Italy. At Venice, where he went in
1727, he became acquainted with the celebrated singer Faustina Bordogni
(born at Venice in 1700), who became the composer's wife in 1730. The
two artists soon afterwards went to Dresden, in compliance with a
brilliant offer made to them by the splendour-loving elector of Saxony,
Augustus II. There Hasse remained for two years, after which he again
journeyed to Italy, and also in 1733 to London, in which latter city he
was tempted by the aristocratic clique inimical to Handel to become the
rival and antagonist of that great master. But this he modestly and
wisely declined, remaining in London only long enough to superintend the
rehearsals for his opera _Artaserse_ (first produced at Venice, 1730).
All this while Faustina had remained at Dresden, the declared favourite
of the public and unfortunately also of the elector, nor was her
husband, who remained attached to her, allowed to see her except at long
intervals. In 1739, after the death of Augustus II., Hasse settled
permanently at Dresden till 1763, when he and his wife retired from
court service with considerable pensions. But Hasse was still too young
to rest on his laurels. He went with his family to Vienna, and added
several operas to the great number of his works already in existence.
His last work for the stage was the opera _Ruggiero_ (1771), written for
the wedding of Archduke Ferdinand at Milan. On the same occasion a work
by Mozart, then fourteen years old, was performed, and Hasse observed
"this youngster will surpass us all." By desire of his wife Hasse
settled at her birthplace Venice, and there he died on the 23rd of
December 1783. His compositions include as many as 120 operas, besides
oratorios, cantatas, masses, and almost every variety of instrumental
music. During the siege of Dresden by the Prussians in 1760, most of his
manuscripts, collected for a complete edition to be brought out at the
expense of the elector, were burnt. Some of his works, amongst them an
opera _Alcide al Bivio_ (1760), have been published, and the libraries
of Vienna and Dresden possess the autographs of others. Hasse's
instrumentation is certainly not above the low level attained by the
average musicians of his time, and his _ensembles_ do not present any
features of interest. In dramatic fire also he was wanting, but he had a
fund of gentle and genuine melody, and by this fact his enormous
popularity during his life must be accounted for. The two airs which
Farinelli had to repeat every day for ten years to the melancholy king
of Spain, Philip V., were both from Hasse's works. Of Faustina Hasse it
will be sufficient to add that she was, according to the unanimous
verdict of the critics (including Dr Burney), one of the greatest
singers of a time rich in vocal artists. The year of her death is not
exactly known. Most probably it shortly preceded that of her husband.



HASSELQUIST, FREDERIK (1722-1752), Swedish traveller and naturalist, was
born at Törnevalla, East Gothland, on the 3rd of January 1722. On
account of the frequently expressed regrets of Linnaeus, under whom he
studied at Upsala, at the lack of information regarding the natural
history of Palestine, Hasselquist resolved to undertake a journey to
that country, and a sufficient subscription having been obtained to
defray expenses, he reached Smyrna towards the end of 1749. He visited
parts of Asia Minor, Egypt, Cyprus and Palestine, making large natural
history collections, but his constitution, naturally weak, gave way
under the fatigues of travel, and he died near Smyrna on the 9th of
February 1752 on his way home. His collections reached home in safety,
and five years after his death his notes were published by Linnaeus
under the title _Resa till Heliga Landet förättad från år 1749 till
1752_, which was translated into French and German in 1762 and into
English in 1766.



HASSELT, ANDRÉ HENRI CONSTANT VAN (1806-1874), Belgian poet, was born at
Maastricht, in Limburg, on the 5th of January 1806. He was educated in
his native town, and at the university of Liége. In 1833 he left
Maastricht, then blockaded by the Belgian forces, and made his way to
Brussels, where he became a naturalized Belgian, and was attached to the
Bibliothèque de Bourgogne. In 1843 be entered the education department,
and eventually became an inspector of normal schools. His native
language was Dutch, and as a French poet André van Hasselt had to
overcome the difficulties of writing in a foreign language. He had
published a _Chant hellénique_ in honour of Canaris in the columns of
_La Sentinelle des Pays-Bas_ as early as 1826, and other poems followed.
His first volume of verse, _Primevères_ (1834), shows markedly the
influence of Victor Hugo, which had been strengthened by a visit to
Paris in 1830. His relations with Hugo became intimate in 1851-1852,
when the poet was an exile in Brussels. In 1839 he became editor of the
_Renaissance_, a paper founded to encourage the fine arts. His chief
work, the epic of the _Quatre Incarnations du Christ_, was published in
1867. In the same volume were printed his _Études rythmiques_, a series
of metrical experiments designed to show that the French language could
be adapted to every kind of musical rhythm. With the same end in view he
executed translations of many German songs, and wrote new French
libretti for the best-known operas of Mozart, Weber and others. Hasselt
died at Saint Josse ten Noode, a suburb of Brussels, on the 1st of
December 1874.

  A selection from his works (10 vols., Brussels, 1876-1877) was edited
  by MM. Charles Hen and Louis Alvin. He wrote many books for children,
  chiefly under the pseudonym of Alfred Avelines; and studies on
  historical and literary subjects. The books written in collaboration
  with Charles Hen are signed Charles André. A bibliography of his
  writings is appended to the notice by Louis Alvin in the _Biographie
  nat. de Belgique_, vol. vii. Van Hasselt's fame has continued to
  increase since his death. A series of tributes to his memory are
  printed in the _Poésies choisies_ (1901), edited by M. Georges Barral
  for the _Collection des poètes français de l'étranger_. This book
  contains a biographical and critical study by Jules Guillaume, and
  some valuable notes on the poet's theories of rhythm.



HASSELT, the capital of the Belgian province of Limburg. Pop. (1904),
16,179. It derives its name from _Hazel-bosch_ (hazel wood). It stands
at the junction of several important roads and railways from Maaseyck,
Maastricht and Liége. It has many breweries and distilleries, and the
spirit known by its name, which is a coarse gin, has a certain
reputation throughout Belgium. On the 6th of August 1831 the Dutch
troops obtained here their chief success over the Belgian nationalists
during the War of Independence. Hasselt is best known for its great
septennial fête held on the day of Assumption, August 15th. The curious
part of this fête, which is held in honour of the Virgin under the name
of Virga Jesse, is the conversion of the town for the day into the
semblance of a forest. Fir trees and branches from the neighbouring
forest are collected and planted in front of the houses, so that for a
few hours Hasselt has the appearance of being restored to its primitive
condition as a wood. The figure of the giant who is supposed to have
once held the Hazel-bosch under his terror is paraded on this occasion
as the "lounge man." Originally this celebration was held annually, but
in the 18th century it was restricted to once in seven years. There was
a celebration in 1905.



HASSENPFLUG, HANS DANIEL LUDWIG FRIEDRICH (1794-1862), German statesman,
was born at Hanau in Hesse on the 26th of February 1794. He studied law
at Göttingen, graduated in 1816, and took his seat as _Assessor_ in the
judicial chamber of the board of government (_Regierungskollegium_) at
Cassel, of which his father Johann Hassenpflug was also a member. In
1821 he was nominated by the new elector, William II., _Justizrat_
(councillor of justice); in 1832 he became _Ministerialrat_ and reporter
(_Referent_) to the ministry of Hesse-Cassel, and in May of the same
year was appointed successively minister of justice and of the interior.
It was from this moment that he became conspicuous in the constitutional
struggles of Germany.

The reactionary system introduced by the elector William I. had broken
down before the revolutionary movements of 1830, and in 1831 Hesse had
received a constitution. This development was welcome neither to the
elector nor to the other German governments, and Hassenpflug
deliberately set to work to reverse it. In doing so he gave the lie to
his own early promise; for he had been a conspicuous member of the
revolutionary _Burschenschaft_ at Göttingen, and had taken part as a
volunteer in the War of Liberation. Into the causes of the change it is
unnecessary to inquire; Hassenpflug by training and tradition was a
strait-laced official; he was also a first-rate lawyer; and his
naturally arbitrary temper had from the first displayed itself in an
attitude of overbearing independence towards his colleagues and even
towards the elector. To such a man constitutional restrictions were
intolerable, and from the moment he came into power he set to work to
override them, by means of press censorship, legal quibbles,
unjustifiable use of the electoral prerogatives, or frank supersession
of the legislative rights of the Estates by electoral ordinances. The
story of the constitutional deadlock that resulted belongs to the
history of Hesse-Cassel and Germany; so far as Hassenpflug himself was
concerned, it made him, more even than Metternich, the Mephistopheles of
the Reaction to the German people. In Hesse itself he was known as
"Hessen's Hass und Fluch" (Hesse's hate and curse). In the end, however,
his masterful temper became unendurable to the regent (Frederick
William); in the summer of 1837 he was suddenly removed from his post as
minister of the interior and he thereupon left the elector's service.

In 1838 he was appointed head of the administration of the little
principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, an office which he exchanged
in the following year for that of civil governor of the grand-duchy of
Luxemburg. Here, too, his independent character suffered him to remain
only a year: he resented having to transact all business with the
grand-duke (king of the Netherlands) through a Dutch official at the
Hague; he protested against the absorption of the Luxemburg surplus in
the Dutch treasury; and, failing to obtain redress, he resigned (1840).
From 1841 to 1850 he was in Prussian service, first as a member of the
supreme court of justice (_Obertribunal_) and then (1846) as president
of the high court of appeal (_Oberappellationsgericht_) at Greifswald.
In 1850 he was tried for peculation and convicted; and, though this
judgment was reversed on appeal, he left the service of Prussia.

With somewhat indecent haste (the appeal had not been heard) he was now
summoned by the elector of Hesse once more to the head of the
government, and he immediately threw himself again with zeal into the
struggle against the constitution. He soon found, however, that the
opinion of all classes, including the army, was solidly against him, and
he decided to risk all on an alliance with the reviving fortunes of
Austria, which was steadily working for the restoration of the _status
quo_ overthrown by the revolution of 1848. On his advice the elector
seceded from the Northern Union established by Prussia and, on the 13th
of September, committed the folly of flying secretly from Hesse with his
minister. They went to Frankfort, where the federal diet had been
re-established, and on the 21st persuaded the diet to decree an armed
intervention in Hesse. This decree, carried out by Austrian troops, all
but led to war with Prussia, but the unreadiness of the Berlin
government led to the triumph of Austria and of Hassenpflug, who at the
end of the year was once more installed in power at Cassel as minister
of finance. His position was, however, not enviable; he was loathed and
despised by all, and disliked even by his master. The climax came in
November 1853, when he was publicly horse-whipped by the count of
Isenburg-Wächtersbach, the elector's son-in-law. The count was
pronounced insane; but Hassenpflug was conscious of the method in his
madness, and tendered his resignation. This was, however, not accepted;
and it was not till the 16th of October 1855 that he was finally
relieved of his offices. He retired to Marburg, where he died on the
15th of October 1862. He lived just long enough to hear of the
restoration of the Hesse constitution of 1831 (June 21, 1862), which it
had been his life's mission to destroy. Of his publications the most
important is _Actenstücke, die landständischen Anklagen wider den
Kurfürstlichen hessischen Staatsminister Hassenpflug. Ein Beitrag zur
Zeitgeschichte und zum neueren deutschen Staatsrechte_, anonym.
(Stuttgart and Tübingen, 1836). He was twice married, his first wife
being the sister of the brothers Grimm. His son Karl Hassenpflug
(1824-1890) was a distinguished sculptor.

  See the biography by Wippermann in _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_,
  with authorities.



HASTINAPUR, an ancient city of British India, in the Meerut district of
the United Provinces, lying on the bank of a former bed of the Ganges,
22 m. N.E. of Meerut. It formed the capital of the great Pandava
kingdom, celebrated in the _Mahabharata_, and probably one of the
earliest Aryan settlements outside the Punjab. Tradition points to a
group of shapeless mounds as the residence of the Lunar princes of the
house of Bharata whose deeds are commemorated in the great national
epic. After the conclusion of the famous war which forms the central
episode of that poem, Hastinapur remained for some time the metropolis
of the descendants of Parikshit, but the town was finally swept away by
a flood of the Ganges, and the capital was transferred to Kausambi.



HASTINGS, a famous English family. JOHN, BARON HASTINGS (c. 1262-c.
1313), was a son of Sir Henry de Hastings (d. 1268), who was summoned to
parliament as a baron by Simon de Montfort in 1264. Having joined
Montfort's party Sir Henry led the Londoners at the battle of Lewes and
was taken prisoner at Evesham. After his release he continued his
opposition to Henry III.; he was among those who resisted the king at
Kenilworth, and after the issue of the _Dictum de Kenilworth_ he
commanded the remnants of the baronial party when they made their last
stand in the isle of Ely, submitting to Henry in July 1267. His younger
son, Edmund, was specially noted for his military services in Scotland
during the reign of Edward I. John Hastings married Isabella (d. 1305),
daughter of William de Valence, earl of Pembroke, a half-brother of
Henry III., and fought in Scotland and in Wales. Through his mother,
Joanna de Cantilupe, he inherited the extensive lordship of Abergavenny,
hence he is sometimes referred to as lord of Bergavenny, and in 1295 he
was summoned to parliament as a baron. Before this date, however, he had
come somewhat prominently to the front. His paternal grandmother, Ada,
was a younger daughter of David, earl of Huntingdon, and a niece of the
Scottish king, William the Lion; and in 1290 when Margaret, the maid of
Norway, died, Hastings came forward as a claimant for the vacant throne.
Although unsuccessful in the matter he did not swerve from his loyalty
to Edward I. He fought constantly either in France or in Scotland; he
led the bishop of Durham's men at the celebrated siege of Carlaverock
castle in 1300; and with his brother Edmund he signed the letter which
in 1301 the English barons sent to Pope Boniface VIII. repudiating papal
interference in the affairs of Scotland; on two occasions he represented
the king in Aquitaine. Hastings died in 1312 or 1313. His second wife
was Isabella, daughter of the elder Hugh le Despenser. Hastings, who was
one of the most wealthy and powerful nobles of his time, stood high in
the regard of the king and is lauded by the chroniclers.

His eldest son JOHN (d. 1325), who succeeded to the barony, was the
father of Laurence Hastings, who was created earl of Pembroke in 1339,
the earls of Pembroke retaining the barony of Hastings until 1389. A
younger son by a second marriage, Sir Hugh Hastings (c. 1307-1347), saw
a good deal of military service in France; his portrait and also that
of his wife may still be seen on the east window of Elsing church, which
contains a beautiful brass to his memory.

On the death of John, the third and last earl of Pembroke of the
Hastings family, in 1389, Sir Hugh's son JOHN had, according to a
decision of the House of Lords in 1840, a title to the barony of
Hastings, but he did not prosecute his claim and he died without sons in
1393. However his grand-nephew and heir, Hugh (d. 1396), claimed the
barony, which was also claimed by Reginald, Lord Grey of Ruthyn. Like
the earls of Pembroke, Grey was descended through his grandmother,
Elizabeth Hastings, from John, Lord Hastings, by his first wife; Hugh,
on the other hand, was descended from John's second wife. After Hugh's
death his brother, Sir Edward Hastings (c. 1382-1438), claimed the
barony, and the case as to who should bear the arms of the Hastings
family came before the court of chivalry. In 1410 it was decided in
favour of Grey, who thereupon assumed the arms. Both disputants still
claimed the barony, but the view seems to have prevailed that it had
fallen into abeyance in 1389. Sir Edward was imprisoned for refusing to
pay his rival's costs, and he was probably still in prison when he died
in January 1438. After his death the Hastings family, which became
extinct during the 16th century, tacitly abandoned the claim to the
barony. Then in 1840 the title was revived in favour of Sir Jacob
Astley, Bart. (1797-1859), who derived his claim from a daughter of Sir
Hugh Hastings who died in 1540. Sir Jacob's descendant, Albert Edward
(b. 1882), became 21st Baron Hastings in 1904.

A distant relative of the same family was William, Baron Hastings (c.
1430-1483), a son of Sir Leonard Hastings (d. 1455). He became attached
to Edward IV., whom he served before his accession to the throne, and
after this event he became master of the mint, chamberlain of the royal
household and one of the king's most trusted advisers. Having been made
a baron in 1461, he married Catherine, daughter of Richard Neville, earl
of Salisbury, and was frequently sent on diplomatic errands to Burgundy
and elsewhere. He was faithful to Edward IV. during the king's exile in
the winter of 1470-1471, and after his return he fought for him at
Barnet and at Tewkesbury; he has been accused of taking part in the
murder of Henry VI.'s son, prince Edward, after the latter battle.
Hastings succeeded his sovereign in the favour of Jane Shore. He was
made captain of Calais in 1471, and was with Edward IV. when he met
Louis XI. of France at Picquigny in 1475, on which occasion he received
gifts from Louis and from Charles the Bold of Burgundy. After Edward
IV.'s death Hastings behaved in a somewhat undecided manner. He disliked
the queen, Elizabeth Woodville, but he refused to ally himself with
Richard, duke of Gloucester, afterwards King Richard III. Suddenly
Richard decided to get rid of him, and during a meeting of the council
on the 13th of June 1483 he was seized and at once put to death. This
dramatic incident is related by Sir Thomas More in his _History of
Richard III._, and has been worked by Shakespeare into his play _Richard
III._ Hastings is highly praised by his friend Philippe de Commines, and
also by More. He left a son, Edward (d. 1508), the father of George,
Baron Hastings (c. 1488-1545), who was created earl of Huntingdon (q.v.)
in 1529.

When Francis, 10th earl of Huntingdon, died in October 1789, the barony
of Hastings passed to his sister Elizabeth (1731-1808), wife of John
Rawdon, earl of Moira, and from her it came to her son Francis
Rawdon-Hastings (see below), who was created marquess of Hastings in
1817.



HASTINGS, FRANCIS RAWDON-HASTINGS, 1st MARQUESS OF (1754-1826), British
soldier and governor-general of India, born on the 9th of December 1754,
was the son of Sir John Rawdon of Moira in the county of Down, 4th
baronet, who was created Baron Rawdon of Moira, and afterwards earl of
Moira, in the Irish peerage. His mother was the Lady Elizabeth Hastings,
daughter of Theophilus, 9th earl of Huntingdon. Lord Rawdon, as he was
then called, was educated at Harrow and Oxford, and joined the army in
1771 as ensign in the 15th foot. His life henceforth was entirely spent
in the service of his country, and may be divided into four periods:
from 1775 to 1782 he was engaged with much distinction in the American
war; from 1783 to 1813 he held various high appointments at home, and
took an active part in the business of the House of Lords; from 1813 to
1823 was the period of his labours in India; after retiring from which,
in the last years of his life (1824-1826), he was governor of Malta.

In America Rawdon served at the battles of Bunker Hill, Brooklyn, White
Plains, Monmouth and Camden, at the attacks on Forts Washington and
Clinton, and at the siege of Charleston. In fact he was engaged in many
important operations of the war. Perhaps his most noted achievements
were the raising of a corps at Philadelphia, called the Irish
Volunteers, who under him became famous for their fighting qualities,
and the victory of Hobkirk's Hill, which, in command of only a small
force, he gained by superior military skill and determination against a
much larger body of Americans. In 1781 he was invalided. The vessel in
which he returned to England was captured and carried into Brest. He was
speedily released, and on his arrival in England was much honoured by
George III., who created him an English peer (Baron Rawdon) in March
1783. In 1789 his mother succeeded to the barony of Hastings, and Rawdon
added the surname of Hastings to his own.

In 1793 Rawdon succeeded his father as earl of Moira. In 1794 he was
sent with 7000 men to Ostend to reinforce the duke of York and the
allies in Flanders. The march by which he effected a junction was
considered extraordinary. In 1803 he was appointed commander-in-chief in
Scotland, and in 1804 he married Flora Mure Campbell, countess of
Loudoun in her own right. When Fox and Grenville came into power in
1806, Lord Moira, who had always voted with them, received the place of
master-general of the ordnance. He was now enabled to carry a
philanthropic measure, of which from his first entry into the House of
Lords he had been a great promoter, namely, the Debtor and Creditor Bill
for relief of poor debtors. Ireland was another subject to which he had
given particular attention: in 1797 there was published a _Speech by
Lord Moira on the Dreadful and Alarming State of Ireland_. Lord Moira's
sound judgment on public affairs, combined with his military reputation
and the uprightness of his character, won for him a high position among
the statesmen of the day, and he gained an additional _prestige_ from
his intimate relations with the prince of Wales. As a mark of the
regent's regard Lord Moira received the order of the Garter in 1812, and
in the same year was appointed governor-general of Bengal and
commander-in-chief of the forces in India. He landed at Calcutta, and
assumed office in succession to Lord Minto in October 1813. One of the
chief questions which awaited him was that of relations with the Gurkha
state of Nepal. The Gurkhas, a brave and warlike little nation, failing
to extend their conquests in the direction of China, had begun to
encroach on territories held or protected by the East India Company;
especially they had seized the districts of Batwal and Seoraj, in the
northern part of Oudh, and when called upon to relinquish these, they
deliberately elected (April 1814) to go to war rather than do so. Lord
Moira, having travelled through the northern provinces and fully studied
the question, declared war against Nepal (November 1814). The enemy's
frontier was 600 m. long, and Lord Moira, who directed the plan of the
campaign, resolved to act offensively along the whole line. It was an
anxious undertaking, because the native states of India were all
watching the issue and waiting for any serious reverse to the English to
join against them. At first all seemed to go badly, as the British
officers despised the enemy, and the sepoys were unaccustomed to
mountain warfare, and thus alternate extremes of rashness and
despondency were exhibited. But this rectified itself in time,
especially through the achievements of General (afterwards Sir David)
Ochterlony, who before the end of 1815 had taken all the Gurkha posts to
the west, and early in 1816 was advancing victoriously within 50 m. of
Khatmandu, the capital. The Gurkhas now made peace; they abandoned the
disputed districts, ceded some territory to the British, and agreed to
receive a British resident. For his masterly conduct of these affairs
Lord Moira was created marquess of Hastings in February 1817.

He had now to deal with internal dangers. A combination of Mahratta
powers was constantly threatening the continuance of British rule, under
the guise of plausible assurances severally given by the peshwa,
Sindhia, Holkar and other princes. At the same time the existence of the
Pindari state was not only dangerous to the British, as being a warlike
power always ready to turn against them, but it was a scourge to India
itself. In 1816, however, the Pindaris entered British territory in the
Northern Circars, where they destroyed 339 villages. On this, permission
was obtained to act for their suppression. Before the end of 1817 the
preparations of Lord Hastings were completed, when the peshwa suddenly
broke into war, and the British were opposed at once to the Mahratta and
Pindari powers, estimated at 200,000 men and 500 guns. Both were utterly
shattered in a brief campaign of four months (1817-18). The peshwa's
dominions were annexed, and those of Sindhia, Holkar, and the raja of
Berar lay at the mercy of the governor-general, and were saved only by
his moderation. Thus, after sixty years from the battle of Plassey, the
supremacy of British power in India was effectively established. The
Pindaris had ceased to exist, and peace and security had been
substituted for misery and terror.

  "It is a proud phrase to use," said Lord Hastings, "but it is a true
  one, that we have bestowed blessings upon millions. Nothing can be
  more delightful than the reports I receive of the sensibility
  manifested by the inhabitants to this change in their circumstances.
  The smallest detachment of our troops cannot pass through that
  district without meeting everywhere eager and exulting gratulations,
  the tone of which proves them to come from glowing hearts. Multitudes
  of people have, even in this short interval, come from the hills and
  fastnesses in which they had sought refuge for years, and have
  reoccupied their ancient deserted villages. The ploughshare is again
  in every quarter turning up a soil which had for many seasons never
  been stirred, except by the hoofs of predatory cavalry."

While the natives of India appreciated the results of Lord Hastings's
achievements, the court of directors grumbled at his having extended
British territory. They also disliked and opposed his measures for
introducing education among the natives and his encouraging the freedom
of the press. In 1819 he obtained the cession by purchase of the island
of Singapore. In finance his administration was very successful, as
notwithstanding the expenses of his wars he showed an annual surplus of
two millions sterling. Brilliant and beneficent as his career had been,
Lord Hastings did not escape unjust detraction. His last years of office
were embittered by the discussions on a matter notorious at the time,
namely, the affairs of the banking-house of W. Palmer and Company. The
whole affair was mixed up with insinuations against Lord Hastings,
especially charging him with having been actuated by favouritism towards
one of the partners in the firm. From imputations which were
inconsistent with his whole character he has subsequently been
exonerated. But while smarting under them he tendered his resignation in
1821, though he did not leave India till the first day of 1823. He was
much exhausted by the arduous labours which for more than nine years he
had sustained. Among his characteristics it is mentioned that "his ample
fortune absolutely sank under the benevolence of his nature"; and, far
from having enriched himself in the appointment of governor-general, he
returned to England in circumstances which obliged him still to seek
public employment. In 1824 he received the comparatively small post of
governor of Malta, in which island he introduced many reforms and
endeared himself to the inhabitants. He died on the 28th of November
1826, leaving a request that his right hand should be cut off and
preserved till the death of the marchioness of Hastings, and then be
interred in her coffin.

Hastings was succeeded by his son, Francis George Augustus (1808-1844),
who in 1840 succeeded through his mother to the earldom of Loudoun. When
his second son, Henry Weysford, the 4th marquess, died childless on the
10th of November 1868 the marquessate became extinct; the earldom of
Loudoun devolved upon his sister, Edith Mary (d. 1874), wife of Charles
Frederick Abney-Hastings, afterwards Baron Donington; the barony of
Hastings, which fell into abeyance, was also revived in 1871 in her
favour.

  See Ross-of-Bladensburg, _The Marquess of Hastings_ ("Rulers of India"
  series) (1893); and _Private Journal of the Marquess of Hastings_,
  edited by his daughter, the marchioness of Bute (1858).



HASTINGS, FRANK ABNEY (1794-1828), British naval officer and
Philhellene, was the son of Lieut.-general Sir Charles Hastings, a
natural son of Francis Hastings, tenth earl of Huntingdon. He entered
the navy in 1805, and was in the "Neptune" (100) at the battle of
Trafalgar; but in 1820 a quarrel with his flag captain led to his
leaving the service. The revolutionary troubles of the time offered
chances of foreign employment. Hastings spent a year on the continent to
learn French, and sailed for Greece on the 12th of March 1822 from
Marseilles. On the 3rd of April he reached Hydra. For two years he took
part in the naval operations of the Greeks in the Gulf of Smyrna and
elsewhere. He saw that the light squadrons of the Greeks must in the end
be overpowered by the heavier Turkish navy, clumsy as it was; and in
1823 he drew up and presented to Lord Byron a very able memorandum which
he laid before the Greek government in 1824. This paper is of peculiar
interest apart from its importance in the Greek insurrection, for it
contains the germs of the great revolution which has since been effected
in naval gunnery and tactics. In substance the memorandum advocated the
use of steamers in preference to sailing ships, and of direct fire with
shells and hot shot, as a more trustworthy means of destroying the
Turkish fleet than fire-ships. It will be found in Finlay's _History of
the Greek Revolution_, vol. ii. appendix i. The application of
Hastings's ideas led necessarily to the disuse of sailing ships, and the
introduction of armour. The incompetence of the Greek government and the
corrupt waste of its resources prevented the full application of
Hastings's bold and far-seeing plans. But largely by the use of his own
money, of which he is said to have spent £7000, he was able to some
extent to carry them out. In 1824 he came to England to obtain a
steamer, and in 1825 he had fitted out a small steamer named the
"Karteria" (Perseverance), manned by Englishmen, Swedes and Greeks, and
provided with apparatus for the discharge of shell and hot shot. He did
enough to show that if his advice had been vigorously followed the Turks
would have been driven off the sea long before the date of the battle of
Navarino. The great effect produced by his shells in an attack on the
sea-line of communication of the Turkish army, then besieging Athens at
Oropus and Volo in March and April 1827, was a clear proof that much
more could have been done. Military mismanagement caused the defeat of
the Greeks round Athens. But Hastings, in co-operation with General Sir
R. Church (q.v.), shifted the scene of the attack to western Greece.
Here his destruction of a small Turkish squadron at Salona Bay in the
Gulf of Corinth (29th of September 1827) provoked Ibrahim Pasha into the
aggressive movements which led to the destruction of his fleet by the
allies at Navarino (q.v.) on the 20th of October 1827. On the 25th of
May 1828 he was wounded in an attack on Anatolikon, and he died in the
harbour of Zante on the 1st of June. General Gordon, who served in the
war and wrote its history, says of him: "If ever there was a
disinterested and really useful Philhellene it was Hastings. He received
no pay, and had expended most of his slender fortune in keeping the
'Karteria' afloat for the last six months. His ship, too, was the only
one in the Greek navy where regular discipline was maintained."

  See Thomas Gordon, _History of the Greek Revolution_ (London, 1832);
  George Finlay, _History of the Greek Revolution_ (Edinburgh, 1861).



HASTINGS, WARREN (1732-1818), the first governor-general of British
India, was born on the 6th of December 1732 in the little hamlet of
Churchill in Oxfordshire. He came of a family which had been settled for
many generations in the adjoining village of Daylesford; but his
great-grandfather had sold the ancestral manor-house, and his
grandfather had been unable to maintain himself in possession of the
family living. His mother died a few days after giving him birth; his
father, Pynaston Hastings, drifted away to perish obscurely in the West
Indies. Thus unfortunate in his birth, young Hastings received the
elements of education at a charity school in his native village. At the
age of eight he was taken in charge by an elder brother of his father,
Howard Hastings, who held a post in the customs. After spending two
years at a private school at Newington Butts, he was moved to
Westminster, where among his contemporaries occur the names of Lord
Thurlow and Lord Shelburne, Sir Elijah Impey, and the poets Cowper and
Churchill. In 1749, when his headmaster Dr Nichols was already
anticipating for him a successful career at the university, his uncle
died, leaving him to the care of a distant kinsman, Mr Creswicke, who
was afterwards in the direction of the East India Company; and he
determined to send his ward to seek his fortune as a "writer" in Bengal.

When Hastings landed at Calcutta in October 1750 the affairs of the East
India Company were at a low ebb. Throughout the entire south of the
peninsula French influence was predominant. The settlement of Fort St
George or Madras, captured by force of arms, had only recently been
restored in accordance with a clause of the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle.
The organizing genius of Dupleix everywhere overshadowed the native
imagination, and the star of Clive had scarcely yet risen above the
horizon. The rivalry between the English and the French, which had
already convulsed the south, did not penetrate to Bengal. That province
was under the able government of Ali Vardi Khan, who peremptorily
forbade the foreign settlers at Calcutta and Chandernagore to introduce
feuds from Europe. The duties of a young "writer" were then such as are
implied in the name. At an early date Hastings was placed in charge of
an _aurang_ or factory in the interior, where his duties would be to
superintend the weaving of silk and cotton goods under a system of money
advances. In 1753 he was transferred to Cossimbazar, the river-port of
the native capital of Murshidabad. In 1756 the old nawab died, and was
succeeded by his grandson Surajud-Dowlah, a young madman of 19, whose
name is indelibly associated with the tragedy of the Black Hole. When
that passionate young prince, in revenge for a fancied wrong, resolved
to drive the English out of Bengal, his first step was to occupy the
fortified factory at Cossimbazar, and make prisoners of Hastings and his
companions. Hastings was soon released at the intercession of the Dutch
resident, and made use of his position at Murshidabad to open
negotiations with the English fugitives at Falta, the site of a Dutch
factory near the mouth of the Hugli. In later days he used to refer with
pride to his services on this occasion, when he was first initiated into
the wiles of Oriental diplomacy. After a while he found it necessary to
fly from the Mahommedan court and join the main body of the English at
Falta. When the relieving force arrived from Madras under Colonel Clive
and Admiral Watson, Hastings enrolled himself as a volunteer, and took
part in the action which led to the recovery of Calcutta. Clive showed
his appreciation of Hastings's merits by appointing him in 1758 to the
important post of resident at the court of Murshidabad. It was there
that he first came into collision with the Bengali Brahman, Nuncomar,
whose subsequent fate has supplied more material for controversy than
any other episode in his career. During his three years of office as
resident he was able to render not a few valuable services to the
Company; but it is more important to observe that his name nowhere
occurs in the official lists of those who derived pecuniary profit from
the necessities and weakness of the native court. In 1761 he was
promoted to be member of council, under the presidency of Mr Vansittart,
who had been introduced by Clive from Madras. The period of Vansittart's
government has been truly described as "the most revolting page of our
Indian history." The entire duties of administration were suffered to
remain in the hands of the nawab, while a few irresponsible English
traders had drawn to themselves all real power. The members of council,
the commanders of the troops, and the commercial residents plundered on
a grand scale. The youngest servant of the Company claimed the right of
trading on his own account, free from taxation and from local
jurisdiction, not only for himself but also for every native subordinate
whom he might permit to use his name. It was this exemption,
threatening the very foundations of the Mussulman government, that
finally led to a rupture with the nawab. Macaulay, in his celebrated
essay, has said that "of the conduct of Hastings at this time little is
known." As a matter of fact, the book which Macaulay was professing to
review describes at length the honourable part consistently taken by
Hastings in opposition to the great majority of the council. Sometimes
in conjunction only with Vansittart, sometimes absolutely alone, he
protested unceasingly against the policy and practices of his
colleagues. On one occasion he was stigmatized in a minute by Mr Batson
with "having espoused the nawab's cause, and as a hired solicitor
defended all his actions, however dishonourable and detrimental to the
Company." An altercation ensued. Batson gave him the lie and struck him
in the council chamber. When war was actually begun, Hastings officially
recorded his previous resolution to have resigned, in order to repudiate
responsibility for measures which he had always opposed. Waiting only
for the decisive victory of Buxar over the allied forces of Bengal and
Oudh, he resigned his seat and sailed for England in November 1764.

After fourteen years' residence in Bengal Hastings did not return home a
rich man, estimated by the opportunities of his position. According to
the custom of the time he had augmented his slender salary by private
trade. At a later date he was charged by Burke with having taken up
profitable contracts for supplying bullocks for the use of the Company's
troops. It is admitted that he conducted by means of agents a large
business in timber in the Gangetic Sundarbans. When at Falta he had
married Mrs Buchanan, the widow of an officer. She bore him two
children, of whom one died in infancy at Murshidabad, and was shortly
followed to the grave by her mother. Their common gravestone is in
existence at the present day, bearing date July 11, 1759. The other
child, a son, was sent to England, and also died shortly before his
father's return. While at home Hastings is said to have attached himself
to literary society; and it may be inferred from his own letters that he
now made the personal acquaintance of Samuel Johnson and Lord Mansfield.
In 1766 he was called upon to give evidence before a committee of the
House of Commons upon the affairs of Bengal. The good sense and
clearness of the views which he expressed caused attention to be paid to
his desire to be again employed in India. His pecuniary affairs were
embarrassed, partly from the liberality with which he had endowed his
few surviving relatives. The great influence of Lord Clive was also
exercised on his behalf. At last, in the winter of 1768, he received the
appointment of second in council at Madras. Among his companions on his
voyage round the Cape were the Baron Imhoff, a speculative
portrait-painter, and his wife, a lady of some personal attractions and
great social charm, who was destined henceforth to be Hastings's
lifelong companion. Of his two years' work at Madras it is needless to
speak in detail. He won the good-will of his employers by devoting
himself to the improvement of their manufacturing business, and he kept
his hands clean from the prevalent taint of pecuniary transactions with
the nawab of the Carnatic. One fact of some interest is not generally
known. He drew up a scheme for the construction of a pier at Madras, to
avoid the dangers of landing through the surf, and instructed his
brother-in-law in England to obtain estimates from the engineers
Brindley and Smeaton.

In the beginning of 1772 his ambition was stimulated by the nomination
to the second place in council in Bengal with a promise of the reversion
of the governorship when Mr Cartier should retire. Since his departure
from Bengal in 1764 the situation of affairs in that settlement had
scarcely improved. The second governorship of Clive was marked by the
transfer of the diwani or financial administration from the Mogul
emperor to the Company, and by the enforcement of stringent regulations
against the besetting sin of peculation. But Clive was followed by two
inefficient successors; and in 1770 occurred the most terrible Indian
famine on record, which is credibly estimated to have swept away
one-third of the population. In April 1772 Warren Hastings took his seat
as president of the council at Fort William. His first care was to
carry out the instructions received from home, and effect a radical
reform in the system of government. Clive's plan of governing through
the agency of the native court had proved a failure. The directors were
determined "to stand forth as _diwan_, and take upon themselves by their
own servants the entire management of the revenues." All the officers of
administration were transferred from Murshidabad to Calcutta, which
Hastings boasted at this early date that he would make the first city in
Asia. This reform involved the ruin of many native reputations, and for
a second time brought Hastings into collision with the wily Brahman,
Nuncomar. At the same time a settlement of the land revenue on leases
for five years was begun, and the police and military systems of the
country were placed upon a new footing. Hastings was a man of immense
industry, with an insatiable appetite for detail. The whole of this
large series of reforms was conducted under his own personal
supervision, and upon no part of his multifarious labours did he dwell
in his letters home with greater pride. As an independent measure of
economy, the stipend paid to the titular nawab of Bengal, who was then a
minor, was reduced by one-half--to sixteen _lakhs_ a year (say
£160,000). Macaulay imputes this reduction to Hastings as a
characteristic act of financial immorality; but in truth it had been
expressly enjoined by the court of directors, in a despatch dated six
months before he took up office. His pecuniary bargains with
Shuja-ud-Dowlah, the nawab wazir of Oudh, stand on a different basis.
Hastings himself always regarded them as incidents in his general scheme
of foreign policy. The Mahrattas at this time had got possession of the
person of the Mogul emperor, Shah Alam, from whom Clive obtained the
grant of Bengal in 1765, and to whom he assigned in return the districts
of Allahabad and Kora and a tribute of £300,000. With the emperor in
their camp, the Mahrattas were threatening the province of Oudh, and
causing a large British force to be cantoned along the frontier for its
defence. Warren Hastings, as a deliberate measure of policy, withheld
the tribute due to the emperor, and resold Allahabad and Kora to the
wazir of Oudh. The Mahrattas retreated, and all danger for the time was
dissipated by the death of their principal leader. The wazir now
bethought him that he had a good opportunity for satisfying an old
quarrel against the adjoining tribe of Rohillas, who had played fast and
loose with him while the Mahratta army was at hand. The Rohillas were a
race of Afghan origin, who had established themselves for some
generations in a fertile tract west of Oudh, between the Himalayas and
the Ganges, which still bears the name of Rohilkhand. They were not so
much the occupiers of the soil as a dominant caste of warriors and
freebooters. But in those troubled days their title was as good as any
to be found in India. After not a little hesitation, Hastings consented
to allow the Company's troops to be used to further the ambitious
designs of his Oudh ally, in consideration of a sum of money which
relieved the ever-pressing wants of the Bengal treasury. The Rohillas
were defeated in fair fight. Some of them fled the country, and so far
as possible Hastings obtained terms for those who remained. The
fighting, no doubt, on the part of the wazir was conducted with all the
savagery of Oriental warfare; but there is no evidence that it was a war
of extermination.

Meanwhile, the affairs of the East India Company had come under the
consideration of parliament. The Regulating Act, passed by Lord North's
ministry in 1773, effected considerable changes in the constitution of
the Bengal government. The council was reduced to four members with a
governor-general, who were to exercise certain indefinite powers of
control over the presidencies of Madras and Bombay. Hastings was named
in the act as governor-general for a term of five years. The council
consisted of General Clavering and the Hon. Colonel Monson, two
third-rate politicians of considerable parliamentary influence; Philip
Francis (q.v.), then only known as an able permanent official; and
Barwell, of the Bengal Civil Service. At the same time a supreme court
of judicature was appointed, composed of a chief and three puisne
judges, to exercise an indeterminate jurisdiction at Calcutta. The
chief-justice was Sir Elijah Impey, already mentioned as a schoolfellow
of Hastings at Westminster. The whole tendency of the Regulating Act was
to establish for the first time the influence of the crown, or rather of
parliament, in Indian affairs. The new members of council disembarked at
Calcutta on the 19th of October 1774; and on the following day commenced
the long feud which scarcely terminated twenty-one years later with the
acquittal of Warren Hastings by the House of Lords. Macaulay states that
the members of council were put in ill-humour because their salute of
guns was not proportionate to their dignity. In a contemporary letter
Francis thus expresses the same petty feeling: "Surely Mr H. might have
put on a ruffled shirt." Taking advantage of an ambiguous clause in
their commission, the majority of the council (for Barwell uniformly
sided with Hastings) forthwith proceeded to pass in review the recent
measures of the governor-general. All that he had done they condemned;
all that they could they reversed. Hastings was reduced to the position
of a cipher at their meetings. After a time they lent a ready ear to
detailed allegations of corruption brought against him by his old enemy
Nuncomar. To charges from such a source, and brought in such a manner,
Hastings disdained to reply, and referred his accuser to the supreme
court. The majority of the council, in their executive capacity,
resolved that the governor-general had been guilty of peculation, and
ordered him to refund. A few days later Nuncomar was thrown into prison
on a charge of forgery preferred by a private prosecutor, tried before
the supreme court sitting in bar, found guilty by a jury of Englishmen
and sentenced to be hanged. Hastings always maintained that he did not
cause the charge to be instituted, and the legality of Nuncomar's trial
is thoroughly proved by Sir James Stephen. The majority of the council
abandoned their supporter, who was executed in due course. He had
forwarded a petition for reprieve to the council, which Clavering took
care should not be presented in time, and which was subsequently burnt
by the common hangman on the motion of Francis. While the strife was at
its hottest, Hastings had sent an agent to England with a general
authority to place his resignation in the hands of the Company under
certain conditions. The agent thought fit to exercise that authority.
The resignation was promptly accepted, and one of the directors was
appointed to the vacancy. But in the meantime Colonel Monson had died,
and Hastings was thus restored, by virtue of his casting vote, to the
supreme management of affairs. He refused to ratify his resignation; and
when Clavering attempted to seize on the governor-generalship, he
judiciously obtained an opinion from the judges of the supreme court in
his favour. From that time forth, though he could not always command an
absolute majority in council, Hastings was never again subjected to
gross insult, and his general policy was able to prevail.

A crisis was now approaching in foreign affairs which demanded all the
experience and all the genius of Hastings for its solution. Bengal was
prosperous, and free from external enemies on every quarter. But the
government of Bombay had hurried on a rupture with the Mahratta
confederacy at a time when France was on the point of declaring war
against England, and when the mother-country found herself unable to
subdue her rebellious colonists in America. Hastings did not hesitate to
take upon his own shoulders the whole responsibility of military
affairs. All the French settlements in India were promptly occupied. On
the part of Bombay, the Mahratta war was conducted with procrastination
and disgrace. But Hastings amply avenged the capitulation of Wargaon by
the complete success of his own plan of operations. Colonel Goddard with
a Bengal army marched across the breadth of the peninsula from the
valley of the Ganges to the western sea, and achieved almost without a
blow the conquest of Gujarat. Captain Popham, with a small detachment,
stormed the rock fortress of Gwalior, then deemed impregnable and the
key of central India; and by this feat held in check Sindhia, the most
formidable of the Mahratta chiefs. The Bhonsla Mahratta raja of Nagpur,
whose dominions bordered on Bengal, was won over by the diplomacy of an
emissary of Hastings. But while these events were taking place, a new
source of embarrassment had arisen at Calcutta. The supreme court,
whether rightly or wrongly, assumed a jurisdiction of first instance
over the entire province of Bengal. The English common law, with all the
absurdities and rigours of that day, was arbitrarily extended to an
alien system of society. _Zamíndárs_, or government renters, were
arrested on mesne process; the sanctity of the _zenána_, or women's
chamber, as dear to Hindus as to Mahommedans, was violated by the
sheriff's officer; the deepest feelings of the people and the entire
fabric of revenue administration were alike disregarded. On this point
the entire council acted in harmony. Hastings and Francis went
joint-bail for imprisoned natives of distinction. At last, after the
dispute between the judges and the executive threatened to become a
trial of armed force, Hastings set it at rest by a characteristic stroke
of policy. A new judicial office was created in the name of the Company,
to which Sir Elijah Impey was appointed, though he never consented to
draw the additional salary offered to him. The understanding between
Hastings and Francis, originating in this state of affairs, was for a
short period extended to general policy. An agreement was come to by
which Francis received patronage for his circle of friends, while
Hastings was to be unimpeded in the control of foreign affairs. But a
difference of interpretation arose. Hastings recorded in an official
minute that he had found Francis's private and public conduct to be
"void of truth and honour." They met as duellists. Francis fell wounded,
and soon afterwards returned to England.

The Mahratta war was not yet terminated, but a far more formidable
danger now threatened the English in India. The imprudent conduct of the
Madras authorities had irritated beyond endurance the two greatest
Mussulman powers in the peninsula, the nizam of the Deccan and Hyder
Ali, the usurper of Mysore, who began to negotiate an alliance with the
Mahrattas. A second time the genius of Hastings saved the British empire
in the east. On the arrival of the news that Hyder had descended from
the highlands of Mysore, cut to pieces the only British army in the
field, and swept the Carnatic up to the gates of Madras, he at once
adopted a policy of extraordinary boldness. He signed a blank treaty of
peace with the Mahrattas, who were still in arms, reversed the action of
the Madras government towards the nizam, and concentrated all the
resources of Bengal against Hyder Ali. Sir Eyre Coote, a general of
renown in former Carnatic wars, was sent by sea to Madras with all the
troops and treasure that could be got together; and a strong body of
reinforcements subsequently marched southwards under Colonel Pearse
along the coast line of Orissa. The landing of Coote preserved Madras
from destruction, though the war lasted through many campaigns and only
terminated with the death of Hyder. Pearse's detachment was decimated by
an epidemic of cholera (perhaps the first mention of this disease by
name in Indian history); but the survivors penetrated to Madras, and not
only held in check Bhonsla and the nizam, but also corroborated the
lesson taught by Goddard--that the Company's sepoys could march
anywhere, when boldly led. Hastings's personal task was to provide the
ways and means for this exhausting war. A considerable economy was
effected by a reform in the establishment for collecting the land tax.
The government monopolies of opium and salt were then for the first time
placed upon a remunerative basis. But these reforms were of necessity
slow in their beneficial operation. The pressing demands of the military
chest had to be satisfied by loans, and in at least one case from the
private purse of the governor-general. Ready cash could alone fill up
the void; and it was to the hoards of native princes that Hastings's
fertile mind at once turned. Chait Sing, raja of Benares, the greatest
of the vassal chiefs who had grown rich under the protection of the
British rule, lay under the suspicion of disloyalty. The wazir of Oudh
had fallen into arrears in the payment due for the maintenance of the
Company's garrison posted in his dominions, and his administration was
in great disorder. In his case the ancestral hoards were under the
control of his mother, the begum of Oudh, into whose hands they had been
allowed to pass at the time when Hastings was powerless in council.
Hastings resolved to make a progress up country in order to arrange the
affairs of both provinces, and bring back all the treasure that could be
squeezed out of its holders by his personal intervention. When he
reached Benares and presented his demands, the raja rose in
insurrection, and the governor-general barely escaped with his life. But
the faithful Popham rapidly rallied a force for his defence. The
insurgents were defeated again and again; Chait Sing took to flight, and
an augmented permanent tribute was imposed upon his successor. The Oudh
business was managed with less risk. The wazir consented to everything
demanded of him. The begum was charged with having abetted Chait Sing in
his rebellion; and after the severest pressure applied to herself and
her attendant eunuchs, a fine of more than a million sterling was
exacted from her. Hastings appears to have been not altogether satisfied
with the incidents of this expedition, and to have anticipated the
censure which it received in England. As a measure of precaution, he
procured documentary evidence of the rebellious intentions of the raja
and the begum, to the validity of which Impey obligingly lent his
extra-judicial sanction.

The remainder of Hastings's term of office in India was passed in
comparative tranquillity, both from internal opposition and foreign war.
The centre of interest now shifts to the India House and to the British
parliament. The long struggle between the Company and the ministers of
the crown for the supreme control of Indian affairs and the attendant
patronage had reached its climax. The decisive success of Hastings's
administration alone postponed the inevitable solution. His original
term of five years would have expired in 1778; but it was annually
prolonged by special act of parliament until his voluntary resignation.
Though Hastings was thus irremovable, his policy did not escape censure.
Ministers were naturally anxious to obtain the reversion to his vacant
post, and Indian affairs formed at this time the hinge on which party
politics turned. On one occasion Dundas carried a motion in the House of
Commons, censuring Hastings and demanding his recall. The directors of
the Company were disposed to act upon this resolution; but in the court
of proprietors, with whom the decision ultimately lay, Hastings always
possessed a sufficient majority. Fox's India Bill led to the downfall of
the Coalition ministry in 1783. The act which Pitt successfully carried
in the following year introduced a new constitution, in which Hastings
felt that he had no place. In February 1785 he finally sailed from
Calcutta, after a dignified ceremony of resignation, and amid
enthusiastic farewells from all classes.

On his arrival in England, after a second absence of sixteen years, he
was not displeased with the reception he met with at court and in the
country. A peerage was openly talked of as his due, while his own
ambition pointed to some responsible office at home. Pitt had never
taken a side against him, while Lord Chancellor Thurlow was his
pronounced friend. But he was now destined to learn that his enemy
Francis, whom he had discomfited in the council chamber at Calcutta, was
more than his match in the parliamentary arena. Edmund Burke had taken
the subject races of India under the protection of his eloquence.
Francis, who had been the early friend of Burke, supplied him with the
personal animus against Hastings, and with the knowledge of detail,
which he might otherwise have lacked. The Whig party on this occasion
unanimously followed Burke's lead. Dundas, Pitt's favourite subordinate,
had already committed himself by his earlier resolution of censure; and
Pitt was induced by motives which are still obscure to incline the
ministerial majority to the same side. To meet the oratory of Burke and
Sheridan and Fox, Hastings wrote an elaborate minute with which he
wearied the ears of the House for two successive nights, and he
subsidized a swarm of pamphleteers. The impeachment was decided upon in
1786, but the actual trial did not commence until 1788. For seven long
years Hastings was upon his defence on the charge of "high crimes and
misdemeanours." During this anxious period he appears to have borne
himself with characteristic dignity, such as is consistent with no other
hypothesis than the consciousness of innocence. At last, in 1795, the
House of Lords gave a verdict of not guilty on all charges laid against
him; and he left the bar at which he had so frequently appeared, with
his reputation clear, but ruined in fortune. However large the wealth he
brought back from India, all was swallowed up in defraying the expenses
of his trial. Continuing the line of conduct which in most other men
would be called hypocrisy, he forwarded a petition to Pitt praying that
he might be reimbursed his costs from the public funds. This petition,
of course, was rejected. At last, when he was reduced to actual
destitution, it was arranged that the East India Company should grant
him an annuity of £4000 for a term of years, with £90,000 paid down in
advance. This annuity expired before his death; and he was compelled to
make more than one fresh appeal to the bounty of the Company, which was
never withheld. Shortly before his acquittal he had been able to satisfy
the dream of his childhood, by buying back the ancestral manor of
Daylesford, where the remainder of his life was passed in honourable
retirement. In 1813 he was called on to give evidence upon Indian
affairs before the two houses of parliament, which received him with
exceptional marks of respect. The university of Oxford conferred on him
the honorary degree of D.C.L.; and in the following year he was sworn of
the privy council, and took a prominent part in the reception given to
the duke of Wellington and the allied sovereigns. He died on the 22nd of
August 1818, in his 86th year, and lies buried behind the chancel of the
parish church, which he had recently restored at his own charges.

In physical appearance, Hastings "looked like a great man, and not like
a bad man." The body was wholly subjugated to the mind. A frame
naturally slight had been further attenuated by rigorous habits of
temperance, and thus rendered proof against the diseases of the tropics.
Against his private character not even calumny has breathed a reproach.
As brother, as husband and as friend, his affections were as steadfast
as they were warm. By the public he was always regarded as reserved, but
within his own inner circle he gave and received perfect confidence. In
his dealings with money, he was characterized rather by liberality of
expenditure than by carefulness of acquisition. A classical education
and the instincts of family pride saved him from both the greed and the
vulgar display which marked the typical "nabob," the self-made man of
those days. He could support the position of a governor-general and of a
country gentleman with equal credit. Concerning his second marriage, it
suffices to say that the Baroness Imhoff was nearly forty years of age,
with a family of grown-up children, when the complaisant law of her
native land allowed her to become Mrs Hastings. She survived her
husband, who cherished towards her to the last the sentiments of a
lover. Her children he adopted as his own; and it was chiefly for her
sake that he desired the peerage which was twice held out to him.

Hastings's public career will probably never cease to be a subject of
controversy. It was his misfortune to be the scapegoat upon whose head
parliament laid the accumulated sins, real and imaginary, of the East
India Company. If the acquisition of the Indian empire can be supported
on ethical grounds, Hastings needs no defence. No one who reads his
private correspondence will admit that even his least defensible acts
were dictated by dishonourable motives. It is more pleasing to point out
certain of his public measures upon which no difference of opinion can
arise. He was the first to attempt to open a trade route with Tibet, and
to organize a survey of Bengal and of the eastern seas. It was he who
persuaded the _pundits_ of Bengal to disclose the treasures of Sanskrit
to European scholars. He founded the Madrasa or college for Mahommedan
education at Calcutta, primarily out of his own funds; and he projected
the foundation of an Indian institute in England. The Bengal Asiatic
Society was established under his auspices, though he yielded the post
of president to Sir W. Jones. No Englishman ever understood the native
character so well as Hastings; none ever devoted himself more heartily
to the promotion of every scheme, great and small, that could advance
the prosperity of India. Natives and Anglo-Indians alike venerate his
name, the former as their first beneficent administrator, the latter as
the most able and the most enlightened of their own class. If Clive's
sword conquered the Indian empire, it was the brain of Hastings that
planned the system of civil administration, and his genius that saved
the empire in its darkest hour.

  See G. B. Malleson, _Life of Warren Hastings_ (1894); G. W. Forrest,
  _The Administration of Warren Hastings_ (Calcutta, 1892); Sir Charles
  Lawson, _The Private Life of Warren Hastings_ (1895); L. J. Trotter,
  _Warren Hastings_ ("Rulers of India" series) (1890); Sir Alfred Lyall,
  _Warren Hastings_ ("English Men of Action" series) (1889); F. M.
  Holmes, _Four Heroes of India_ (1892); G. W. Hastings, _A Vindication
  of Warren Hastings_ (1909). Macaulay's famous essay, though a classic,
  is very partial and inaccurate; and Burke's speech, on the impeachment
  of Warren Hastings, is magnificent rhetoric. The true historical view
  has been restored by Sir James Stephen's _Story of Nuncomar_ (1885)
  and by Sir John Strachey's _Hastings and the Rohilla War_ (1892), and
  it is enforced in some detail in Sydney C. Grier's _Letters of Warren
  Hastings to his Wife_ (1905), material for which existed in a mass of
  documents relating to Hastings, acquired by the British Museum.
       (J. S. Co.)



HASTINGS, a municipal, county and parliamentary borough and
watering-place of Sussex, England, one of the Cinque Ports, 62 m. S.E.
by S. from London, on the South Eastern & Chatham and the London,
Brighton & South Coast railways. Pop. (1901), 65,528. It is
picturesquely situated at the mouth of two narrow valleys, and, being
sheltered by considerable hills on the north and east, has an especially
mild climate. Eastward along the coast towards Fairlight, and inland,
the country is beautiful. A parade fronts the English Channel, and
connects the town on the west with St Leonard's, which is included
within the borough. This is mainly a residential quarter, and has four
railway stations on the lines serving Hastings. Both Hastings and St
Leonard's have fine piers; there is a covered parade known as the
Marina, and the Alexandra Park of 75 acres was opened in 1891. There are
also numerous public gardens. The sandy beach is extensive, and affords
excellent bathing. On the brink of the West Cliff stand a square and a
circular tower and other fragments of the castle, probably erected soon
after the time of William the Conqueror; together with the ruins, opened
up by excavation in 1824, of the castle chapel, a transitional Norman
structure 110 ft. long, with a nave, chancel and aisles. Besides the
chapel there was formerly a college, both being under the control of a
dean and secular canons. The deanery was held by Thomas Becket, and one
of the canonries by William of Wykeham. The principal public buildings
are the old parish churches of All Saints and St Clements, the first
containing in its register for 1619 the baptism of Titus Oates, whose
father was rector of the parish; numerous modern churches, the town hall
(1880); theatre, music hall and assembly rooms. The Brassey Institute
contains a public library, museum and art school. The Albert Memorial
clock-tower was erected in 1864. Educational institutions include the
grammar school (1883), school of science and art (1878) and technical
schools. At the west end of the town are several hospitals and
convalescent homes. The prosperity of the town depends almost wholly on
its reputation as a watering-place, but there is a small fishing and
boat-building industry. In 1890 an act of parliament authorized the
construction of a harbour, but the work, begun in 1896, was not
completed. The fish-market beneath the castle cliff is picturesque. The
parliamentary borough, returning one member, falls within the Rye
division of the county. The county borough was created in 1888. The
municipal borough is under a mayor, 10 aldermen and 30 councillors.
Area, 4857 acres.

Rock shelters on Castle Hill and numerous flint instruments which have
been discovered at Hastings point to an extensive neolithic population,
and there are ancient earthworks and a promontory camp of unknown date.
There is no evidence that Hastings was a Roman settlement, but it was a
place of some note in the Anglo-Saxon period. In 795 land at Hastings
(Haestingaceaster, Haestingas, Haestingaport) is included in a grant,
which may possibly be a forgery, of a South Saxon chieftain to the abbey
of St Denis in France; and a royal mint was established at the town by
Æthelstan. The battle of Hastings in 1066 described below was the first
and decisive act of the Norman Conquest. It was fought near the present
Battle Abbey, about 6 m. inland. After the Conquest William I. erected
the earthworks of the existing castle. By 1086 Hastings was a borough
and had given its name to the rape of Sussex in which it lay. The town
at that time had a harbour and a market. Whether Hastings was one of the
towns afterwards known as the Cinque Ports at the time when they
received their first charter from Edward the Confessor is uncertain, but
in the reign of William I. it was undoubtedly among them. These combined
towns, of which Hastings was the head, had special liberties and a
separate jurisdiction under a warden. The only charter peculiar to
Hastings was granted in 1589 by Elizabeth, and incorporated the borough
under the name of "mayor, jurats and commonalty," instead of the former
title of "bailiff, jurats and commonalty." Hastings returned two members
to parliament probably from 1322, and certainly from 1366, until 1885,
when the number was reduced to one.

_Battle of Hastings._--On the 28th of September 1066, William of
Normandy, bent on asserting by arms his right to the English crown,
landed at Pevensey. King Harold, who had destroyed the invaders of
northern England at the battle of Stamford Bridge in Yorkshire, on
hearing the news hurried southward, gathering what forces he could on
the way. He took up his position, athwart the road from Hastings to
London, on a hill[1] some 6 m. inland from Hastings, with his back to
the great forest of Anderida (the Weald) and in front of him a long
glacis-like slope, at the bottom of which began the opposing slope of
Telham Hill. The English army was composed almost entirely of infantry.
The shire levies, for the most part destitute of body armour and with
miscellaneous and even improvised weapons, were arranged on either flank
of Harold's guards (_huscarles_), picked men armed principally with the
Danish axe and shield.

Before this position Duke William appeared on the morning of the 14th of
October. His host, composed not only of his Norman vassals but of
barons, knights and adventurers from all quarters, was arranged in a
centre and two wings, each corps having its archers and arblasters in
the front line, the rest of the infantry in the second and the heavy
armoured cavalry in the third. Neither the arrows nor the charge of the
second line of foot-men, who, unlike the English, wore defensive mail,
made any impression on the English standing in a serried mass behind
their interlocked shields.[2]

Then the heavy cavalry came on, led by the duke and his brother Odo, and
encouraged by the example of the minstrel Taillefer, who rode forward,
tossing and catching his sword, into the midst of the English line
before he was pulled down and killed. All along the front the cavalry
came to close quarters with the defenders, but the long powerful Danish
axes were as formidable as the halbert and the bill proved to be in
battles of later centuries, and they lopped off the arms of the
assailants and cut down their horses. The fire of the attack died out
and the left wing (Bretons) fled in rout. But as the _fyrd_ levies broke
out of the line and pursued the Bretons down the hill in a wild,
formless mob, William's cavalry swung round and destroyed them, and this
suggested to the duke to repeat deliberately what the Bretons had done
from fear. Another advance, followed by a feigned retreat, drew down a
second large body of the English from the crest, and these in turn, once
in the open, were ridden over and slaughtered by the men-at-arms.
Lastly, these two disasters having weakened the defenders both
materially and morally, William subjected the _huscarles_, who had stood
fast when the _fyrd_ broke its ranks, to a constant rain of arrows,
varied from time to time by cavalry charges. These magnificent soldiers
endured the trial for many hours, from noon till close on nightfall; but
at last, when the Norman archers raised their bows so as to pitch the
arrows at a steep angle of descent in the midst of the _huscarles_, the
strain became too great. While some rushed forward alone or in twos and
threes to die in the midst of the enemy, the remainder stood fast, too
closely crowded almost for the wounded to drop. At last Harold received
a mortal wound, the English began to waver, and the knights forced their
way in. Only a remnant of the defenders made its way back to the forest;
and William, after resting for a night on the hardly-won ground, began
the work of the Norman Conquest.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Freeman called this hill Senlac and introduced the fashion of
    describing the battle as "the battle of Senlac." Mr J. H. Round,
    however, proved conclusively that this name, being French
    (Senlecque), could not have been in use at the time of the Conquest,
    that the battlefield had in fact no name, pointing out that in
    William of Malmesbury and in Domesday Book the battle is called "of
    Hastings" (_Bellum Hastingense_), while only one writer, Ordericus
    Vitalis, describes it two hundred years after the event as _Bellum
    Senlacium_. See Round, _Feudal England_ (London, 1895), p. 333 et
    seq.

  [2] There is still a difference of opinion as to whether the English
    were, or were not, defended by any other rampart than that of the
    customary "shield-wall." Freeman, apparently as a result of a
    misunderstanding of a passage in Henry of Huntingdon and the slightly
    ambiguous verse of Wace in the _Roman du Rou_ (ll. 6991-6994 and ll.
    7815-7826), affirms that Harold turned "the battle as far as possible
    into the likeness of a siege," by building round his troops a
    "palisade" of solid timber (_Norman Conquest_, iii. 444). This was
    proved to be a fable by J. H. Round, in the course of a general
    attack on Freeman's historical method, which provoked the professor's
    defenders to take up the cudgels on his behalf in a very long and
    lively controversy. The result of this was that Freeman's account was
    wholly discredited, though Round's view--that there was no wall of
    any kind save the shield-wall--is not generally accepted. Professor
    Oman (_Academy_, June 9, 1894), for instance, holds that there was
    "an _abattis_ of some sort" set to hamper the advance of cavalry (see
    also ENGLISH HISTORY, vol. ix., p. 474). Mr Round sums up the
    controversy, from his point of view, in his _Feudal England_, p. 340
    et seq., where references to other monographs on the subject will be
    found.



HASTINGS, a city and the county-seat of Adams county, Nebraska, U.S.A.,
about 95 m. W. by S. of Lincoln. Pop. (1890) 13,584; (1900) 7188 (1253
foreign-born); (1910) 9338. Hastings is served by the Chicago,
Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago & North-western, the Missouri Pacific
and the St Joseph & Grand Island railways. It is the seat of Hastings
College (Presbyterian, coeducational), opened in 1882, and having 286
students in 1908, and of the state asylum for the chronic insane. The
city carries on a considerable jobbing business for the farming region
of which it is the centre and produce market. There are a large foundry
and several large brickyards here. Hastings was settled in 1872, was
incorporated in 1874 and was chartered as a city in the same year.



HAT, a covering for the head worn by both sexes, and distinguished from
the cap or bonnet by the possession of a brim. The word in O.E. is
_hoet_, which is cognate with O. Frisian _hatt_, O.N. _hotte_, &c.,
meaning head-covering, hood; it is distantly related to the O.E. _hod_,
hood, which is cognate with the German for "hat," _Hut_. The history of
the hat as part of the apparel of both sexes, with the various changes
in shape which it has undergone, is treated in the article COSTUME.

Hats were originally made by the process of felting, and as tradition
ascribed the discovery of that very ancient operation to St Clement, he
was assumed as the patron saint of the craft. At the present day the
trade is divided into two distinct classes. The first and most ancient
is concerned with the manufacture of felt hats, and the second has to do
with the recent but now most extensive and important manufacture of silk
or dress hats. In addition to these there is the important manufacture
of straw or plaited hats (see STRAW AND STRAW MANUFACTURES); and hats
are occasionally manufactured of materials and by processes not included
under any of these heads, but such manufactures do not take a large or
permanent position in the industry.

  _Felt Hats._--There is a great range in the quality of felt hats: the
  finer and more expensive qualities are made entirely of fur; for
  commoner qualities a mixture of fur and wool is used; and for the
  cheapest kinds wool alone is employed. The processes and apparatus
  necessary for making hats of fur differ also from those required in
  the case of woollen bodies; and in large manufactories machinery is
  now generally employed for operations which at no distant date were
  entirely manual. An outline of the operations by which the old beaver
  hat was made will give an idea of the manual processes in making a fur
  napped hat, and the apparatus and mechanical processes employed in
  making ordinary hard and soft felts will afterwards be noticed.

  Hatters' fur consists principally of the hair of rabbits (technically
  called coneys) and hares, with some proportion of nutria, musquash and
  beavers' hair; and generally any parings and cuttings from furriers
  are also used. Furs intended for felting are deprived of their long
  coarse hairs, after which they are treated with a solution of nitrate
  of mercury, an operation called carroting or _secretage_, whereby the
  felting properties of the fur are greatly increased. The fur is then
  cut by hand or machine from the skin, and in this state it is
  delivered to the hat maker.

  [Illustration: FIG. 1.]

  The old process of making a beaver hat was as follows. The materials
  of a proper beaver consisted, for the body or foundation, of rabbits'
  fur, and for the nap, of beaver fur, although the beaver was often
  mixed with or supplanted by a more common fur. In preparing the fur
  plate, the hatter weighed out a sufficient quantity of rabbit fur for
  a single hat, and spread it out and combined it by the operation of
  bowing. The bow or stang ABC (fig. 1) was about 7 ft. long, and it
  stretched a single cord of catgut D, which the workman vibrated by
  means of a wooden pin E, furnished with a half knob at each end.
  Holding the bow in his left hand, and the pin in his right, he caused
  the vibrating string to come in contact with the heap of tangled fur,
  which did not cover a space greater than that of the hand. At each
  vibration some of the filaments started up to the height of a few
  inches, and fell away from the mass, a little to the right of the bow,
  their excursions being restrained by a concave frame of wicker work
  called the basket. One half of the material was first operated on, and
  by bowing and gathering, or a patting use of the basket, the stuff was
  loosely matted into a triangular figure, about 50 by 36 in., called a
  bat. In this formation care was taken to work about two-thirds of the
  fur down towards what was intended for the brim, and this having been
  effected, greater density was induced by gentle pressure with the
  basket. It was then covered with a wettish linen cloth, upon which was
  laid the hardening skin, a piece of dry half-tanned horse hide. On
  this the workman pressed until the stuff adhered closely to the damp
  cloth, in which it was then doubled up, freely pressed with the hand,
  and laid aside. By this process, called basoning, the bat became
  compactly felted and thinned toward the sides and point. The other
  half of the fur was next subjected to precisely the same processes,
  after which a cone-shaped slip of stiff paper was laid on its surface,
  and the sides of the bat were folded over its edges to its form and
  size. It was then laid paper-side downward upon the first bat, which
  was now replaced on the hurdle, and its edges were transversely
  doubled over the introverted side-lays of the second bat, thus giving
  equal thickness to the whole body. In this condition it was
  reintroduced between folds of damp linen cloth, and again hardened, so
  as to unite the two halves, the knitting together of which was quickly
  effected. The paper was then withdrawn, and the body in the form of a
  large cone removed to the plank or battery room.

  [Illustration: FIG. 2.]

  The battery consisted of an open iron boiler or kettle A (fig. 2),
  filled with scalding hot water, with shelves, B, C, partly of mahogany
  and partly of lead, sloping down to it. Here the body was first dipped
  in the water, and then withdrawn to the plank to cool and drain, when
  it was unfolded, rolled gently with a pin tapering towards the ends,
  turned, and worked in every direction, to toughen and shrink it, and
  at the same time prevent adhesion of its sides. Stopping or thickening
  any thin spots seen on looking through the body, was carefully
  performed by dabbing on additional stuff in successive supplies from
  the hot liquor with a brush frequently dipped into the kettle, until
  the body was shrunk sufficiently (about one-half) and thoroughly
  equalized. When quite dried, stiffening was effected with a brush
  dipped into a thin varnish of shellac, and rubbed into the body, the
  surface intended for the inside having much more laid on it than the
  outer, while the brim was made to absorb many times the quantity
  applied to any other part.

  On being again dried, the body was ready to be covered with a nap of
  beaver hair. For this, in inferior qualities, the hair of the otter,
  nutria or other fine fur was sometimes substituted. The requisite
  quantity of one or other of these was taken and mixed with a
  proportion of cotton, and the whole was bowed up into a thin uniform
  lap. The cotton merely served to give sufficient body to the material
  to enable the workman to handle the lap. The body of the hat being
  damped, the workman spread over it a covering of this lap, and by
  moistening and gentle patting with a brush the cut ends of the hair
  penetrated and fixed themselves in the felt body. The hat was then put
  into a coarse hair cloth, dipped and rolled in the hot liquor until
  the fur was quite worked in, the cotton being left on the surface
  loose and ready for removal. The blocking, dyeing and finishing
  processes in the case of beaver hats were similar to those employed
  for ordinary felts, except that greater care and dexterity were
  required on the part of the workmen, and further that the coarse hairs
  or kemps which might be in the fur were cut off by shaving the surface
  with a razor. The nap also had to be laid in one direction, smoothed
  and rendered glossy by repeated wettings, ironings and brushings. A
  hat so finished was very durable and much more light, cool and
  easy-fitting to the head than the silk hat which has now so largely
  superseded it.

  The first efficient machinery for making felt hats was devised in
  America, and from the United States the machine-making processes were
  introduced into England about the year 1858; and now in all large
  establishments machinery such as that alluded to below is employed.
  For the forming of hat bodies two kinds of machine are used, according
  as the material employed is fur or wool. In the case of fur, the
  essential portion of the apparatus is a "former," consisting of a
  metal cone of the size and form of the body or bat to be made,
  perforated all over with small holes. The cone is made to revolve on
  its axis slowly over an orifice under which there is a powerful fan,
  which maintains a strong inward draught of air through the holes in
  the cone. At the side of the cone, and with an opening towards it, is
  a trunk or box from which the fur to be made into a hat is thrown out
  by the rapid revolution of a brushlike cylinder, and as the cloud of
  separate hairs is expelled from the trunk, the current of air being
  sucked through the cone carries the fibres to it and causes them to
  cling closely to its surface. Thus a coating of loose fibres is
  accumulated on the copper cone, and these are kept in position only by
  the exhaust at work under it. When sufficient for a hat body has been
  deposited, it is damped and a cloth is wrapped round it; then an outer
  cone is slipped over it and the whole is removed for felting, while
  another copper cone is placed in position for continuing the work. The
  fur is next felted by being rolled and pressed, these operations being
  performed partly by hand and partly by machine.

  In the case of wool hats the hat or body is prepared by first carding
  in a modified form of carding machine. The wool is divided into two
  separate slivers as delivered from the cards, and these are wound
  simultaneously on a double conical block of wood mounted and geared to
  revolve slowly with a reciprocating horizontal motion, so that there
  is a continual crossing and recrossing of the wool as the sliver is
  wound around the cone. This diagonal arrangement of the sliver is an
  essential feature in the apparatus, as thereby the strength of the
  finished felt is made equal in every direction; and when strained in
  the blocking the texture yields in a uniform manner without rupture.
  The wool wound on the double block forms the material of two hats,
  which are separated by cutting around the median or base line, and
  slipping each half off at its own end. Into each cone of wool or bat
  an "inlayer" is now placed to prevent the inside from matting, after
  which they are folded in cloths, and placed over a perforated iron
  plate through which steam is blown. When well moistened and heated,
  they are placed between boards, and subjected to a rubbing action
  sufficient to harden them for bearing the subsequent strong planking
  or felting operations. The planking of wool hats is generally done by
  machine, in some cases a form of fulling mill being used; but in all
  forms the agencies are heat, moisture, pressure, rubbing and turning.

  When by thorough felting the hat bodies of any kind have been reduced
  to dense leathery cones about one-half the size of the original bat,
  they are dried, and, if hard felts are to be made, the bodies are at
  this stage hardened or stiffened with a varnish of shellac. Next
  follows the operations of blocking, in which the felt for the first
  time assumes approximately the form it is ultimately to possess. For
  this purpose the conical body is softened in boiling water, and
  forcibly drawn over and over a hat-shaped wooden block. The operation
  of dyeing next follows, and the finishing processes include shaping on
  a block, over which crown and brim receive ultimately their accurate
  form, and pouncing or pumicing, which consists of smoothing the
  surface with fine emery paper, the hat being for this purpose mounted
  on a rapidly revolving block. The trimmer finally binds the outer brim
  and inserts the lining, after which the brim may be given more or less
  of a curl or turn over according to prevailing fashion.

  _Silk Hats._--The silk hat, which has now become co-extensive with
  civilization, is an article of comparatively recent introduction. It
  was invented in Florence about 1760, but it was more than half a
  century before it was worn to any great extent.

  A silk hat consists of a light stiff body covered with a plush of
  silk, the manufacture of which in a brilliant glossy condition is the
  most important element in the industry. Originally the bodies were
  made of felt and various other materials, but now calico is chiefly
  used. The calico is first stiffened with a varnish of shellac, and
  then cut into pieces sufficient for crown, side and brim. The
  side-piece is wound round a wooden hat block, and its edges are
  joined by hot ironing, and the crown-piece is put on and similarly
  attached to the side. The brim, consisting of three thicknesses of
  calico cemented together, is now slipped over and brought to its
  position, and thereafter a second side-piece and another crown are
  cemented on. The whole of the body, thus prepared, now receives a coat
  of size, and subsequently it is varnished over, and thus it is ready
  for the operation of covering. In covering this body, the under brim,
  generally of merino, is first attached, then the upper brim, and
  lastly the crown and side sewn together are drawn over. All these by
  hot ironing and stretching are drawn smooth and tight, and as the
  varnish of the body softens with the heat, body and cover adhere all
  over to each other without wrinkle or pucker. Dressing and polishing
  by means of damping, brushing and ironing, come next, after which the
  hat is "velured" in a revolving machine by the application of
  haircloth and velvet velures, which cleans the nap and gives it a
  smooth and glossy surface. The brim has only then to be bound, the
  linings inserted, and the brim finally curled, when the hat is ready
  for use.



HATCH, EDWIN (1835-1889), English theologian, was born at Derby on the
14th of September 1835, and was educated at King Edward's school,
Birmingham, under James Prince Lee, afterwards bishop of Manchester. He
had many struggles to pass through in early life, which tended to
discipline his character and to form the habits of severe study and the
mental independence for which he came to be distinguished. Hatch became
scholar of Pembroke College, Oxford, took a second-class in classics in
1857, and won the Ellerton prize in 1858. He was professor of classics
in Trinity College, Toronto, from 1859 to 1862, when he became rector of
the high school at Quebec. In 1867 he returned to Oxford, and was made
vice-principal of St Mary Hall, a post which he held until 1885. In 1883
he was presented to the living of Purleigh in Essex, and in 1884 was
appointed university reader in ecclesiastical history. In 1880 he was
Bampton lecturer, and from 1880 to 1884 Grinfield lecturer on the
Septuagint. In 1883 the university of Edinburgh conferred on him the
D.D. degree. He was the first editor of the university official
_Gazette_ (1870), and of the _Student's Handbook to the University_. A
reputation acquired through certain contributions to the _Dictionary of
Christian Antiquities_ was confirmed by his treatises _On the
Organization of the Early Christian Churches_ (1881, his Bampton
lectures), and on _The Influence of Greek Ideas and Usages on the
Christian Church_ (the Hibbert lectures for 1888). These works provoked
no little criticism on account of the challenge they threw down to the
high-church party, but the research and fairness displayed were admitted
on all hands. The Bampton lectures were translated into German by
Harnack. Among his other works are _The Growth of Church Institutions_
(1887); _Essays in Biblical Greek_ (1889); _A Concordance to the
Septuagint_ (in collaboration with H. A. Redpath); _Towards Fields of
Light_ (verse, 1889); _The God of Hope_ (sermons with memoir, 1890).
Hatch died on the 10th of November 1889.

  An appreciation by W. Sanday appeared in _The Expositor_ for February
  1890.



HATCH. 1. (In Mid. Eng. _hacche_; the word is of obscure origin, but
cognate forms appear in Swed. _häcka_, and Dan. _hackke_; it has been
connected with "hatch," grating, with possible reference to a coop, and
with "hack" in the sense "to peck," of chickens coming out of the
shell), to bring out young from the egg, by incubation or other process,
natural or artificial. The word is also used as a substantive of a brood
of chickens brought out from the eggs. "Hatchery" is particularly
applied to a place for the hatching of fish spawn, where the natural
process is aided by artificial means. In a figurative sense "to hatch"
is often used of the development or contrivance of a plot or conspiracy.

2. (From the Fr. _hacher_, to cut, _hache_, hatchet), to engrave or draw
by means of cutting lines on wood, metal, &c., or to ornament by
inlaying with strips of some other substance as gold or silver. Engraved
lines, especially those used in shading, are called "hatches" or
"hachures" (see HACHURE).

3. (O.E. _hæc_, a gate, rack in a stable; found in various Teutonic
languages; cf. Dutch _hek_, Dan. _hekke_; the ultimate origin is
obscure; Skeat suggests a connexion with the root seen in "hook"), the
name given to the lower half of a divided door, as in "buttery-hatch,"
the half-door leading from the buttery or kitchen, through which the
dishes could be passed into the dining-hall. It was used formerly as
another name for a ship's deck, and thus the phrase "under hatches"
meant properly below deck; the word is now applied to the doors of
grated framework covering the openings (the "hatchways") which lead from
one deck to another into the hold through which the cargo is lowered. In
Cornwall the word is used to denote certain dams or mounds used to
prevent the tin-washes and the water coming from the stream-works from
flowing into the fresh rivers.



HATCHET (adapted from the Fr. _hachette_, diminutive of _hache_, axe,
_hacher_, to cut, hack), a small, light form of axe with a short handle
(see TOOL); for the war-hatchet of the North American Indians and the
symbolical ceremonies connected with it see Tomahawk.



HATCHETTITE, sometimes termed _Mountain Tallow_, _Mineral Adipocire_, or
_Adipocerite_, a mineral hydrocarbon occurring in the Coal-measures of
Belgium and elsewhere, occupying in some cases the interior of hollow
concretions of iron-ore, but more generally the cavities of fossil
shells or crevices in the rocks. It is of yellow colour, and
translucent, but darkens and becomes opaque on exposure. It has no
odour, is greasy to the touch, and has a slightly glistening lustre. Its
hardness is that of soft wax. The melting point is 46° to 47° C., and
the composition is C. 85.55, H. 14.45.



HATCHMENT, properly, in heraldry, an escutcheon or armorial shield
granted for some act of distinction or "achievement," of which word it
is a corruption through such forms as _atcheament_, _achement_,
_hachement_, &c. "Achievement" is an adaptation of the Fr. _achèvement_,
from _achever_, _à chef venir_, Lat. _ad caput venire_, to come to a
head, or conclusion, hence accomplish, achieve. The term "hatchment" is
now usually applied to funeral escutcheons or armorial shields enclosed
in a black lozenge-shaped frame suspended against the wall of a deceased
person's house. It is usually placed over the entrance at the level of
the second floor, and remains for from six to twelve months, when it is
removed to the parish church. This custom is falling into disuse, though
still not uncommon. It is usual to hang the hatchment of a deceased head
of a house at the universities of Oxford and Cambridge over the entrance
to his lodge or residence.

[Illustration]

If for a bachelor the hatchment bears upon a shield his arms, crest, and
other appendages, the whole on a black ground. If for a single woman,
her arms are represented upon a lozenge, bordered with knotted ribbons,
also on a black ground. If the hatchment be for a married man (as in the
illustration), his arms upon a shield impale those of his surviving
wife; or if she be an heiress they are placed upon a scutcheon of
pretence, and crest and other appendages are added. The dexter half of
the ground is black, the sinister white. For a wife whose husband is
alive the same arrangement is used, but the sinister ground only is
black. For a widower the same is used as for a married man, but the
whole ground is black; for a widow the husband's arms are given with her
own, but upon a lozenge, with ribbons, without crest or appendages, and
the whole ground is black. When there have been two wives or two
husbands the ground is divided into three parts per pale, and the
division behind the arms of the survivor is white. Colours and military
or naval emblems are sometimes placed behind the arms of military or
naval officers. It is thus easy to discern from the hatchment the sex,
condition and quality, and possibly the name of the deceased.

In Scottish hatchments it is not unusual to place the arms of the father
and mother of the deceased in the two lateral angles of the lozenge, and
sometimes the 4, 8 or 16 genealogical escutcheons are ranged along the
margin.



HATFIELD, a town in the Mid or St Albans parliamentary division of
Hertfordshire, England, 17½ m. N. of London by the Great Northern
railway. Pop. (1901), 4754. It lies picturesquely on the flank of a
wooded hill, and about its foot, past which runs the Great North Road.
The church of St Etheldreda, well situated towards the top of the hill,
contains an Early English round arch with the dog-tooth moulding, but
for the rest is Decorated and Perpendicular, and largely restored. The
chapel north of the chancel is known as the Salisbury chapel, and was
erected by Robert Cecil, first earl of Salisbury (d. 1612), who was
buried here. It is in a mixture of classic and Gothic styles. In a
private portion of the churchyard is buried, among others of the family,
the third marquess of Salisbury (d. 1903). In the vicinity is Hatfield
House, close to the site of a palace of the bishops of Ely, which was
erected about the beginning of the 12th century. From this palace comes
the proper form of the name of the town, Bishop's Hatfield. In 1538 the
manor was resigned to Henry VIII. by Bishop Thomas Goodrich of Ely, in
exchange for certain lands in Cambridge, Essex and Norfolk; and after
that monarch the palace was successively the residence of Edward VI.
immediately before his accession, of Queen Elizabeth during the reign of
her sister Mary, and of James I. The last-named exchanged it in 1607 for
Theobalds, near Cheshunt, in the same county, an estate of Robert Cecil,
earl of Salisbury, in whose family Hatfield House has since remained.
The west wing of the present mansion, built for Cecil in 1608-1611, was
destroyed by fire in November 1835, the dowager marchioness of
Salisbury, widow of the 1st marquess, perishing in the flames. Hatfield
House was built, and has been restored and maintained, in the richest
style of its period, both without and within. The buildings of mellowed
red brick now used as stables and offices are, however, of a period far
anterior to Cecil's time, and are probably part of the erection of John
Morton, bishop of Ely in 1478-1486. The park measures some 10 m. in
circumference. From the eminence on which the mansion stands the ground
falls towards the river Lea, which here expands into a small lake.
Beyond this is a rare example of a monks' walled vineyard. In the park
is also an ancient oak under which Elizabeth is said to have been seated
when the news of her sister's death was brought to her. Brocket Park is
another fine demesne, at the neighbouring village of Lemsford, and the
Brocket chapel in Hatfield church contains memorials of the families who
have held this seat.



HATHERLEY, WILLIAM PAGE WOOD, 1ST BARON (1801-1881), lord chancellor of
Great Britain, son of Sir Matthew Wood, a London alderman and lord mayor
who became famous for befriending Queen Caroline and braving George IV.,
was born in London on the 29th of November 1801. He was educated at
Winchester, Geneva University, and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he
became a fellow after being 24th wrangler in 1824. He entered Lincoln's
Inn, and was called to the bar in 1824, studying conveyancing in Mr John
Tyrrell's chambers. He soon obtained a good practice as an equity
draughtsman and before parliamentary committees, and in 1830 married
Miss Charlotte Moor. In 1845 he became Q.C., and in 1847 was elected to
parliament for the city of Oxford as a Liberal. In 1849 he was appointed
vice-chancellor of the county palatine of Lancaster, and in 1851 was
made solicitor-general and knighted, vacating that position in 1852.
When his party returned to power in 1853, he was raised to the bench as
a vice-chancellor. In 1868 he was made a lord justice of appeal, but
before the end of the year was selected by Mr Gladstone to be lord
chancellor, and was raised to the peerage as Lord Hatherley of Down
Hatherley. He retired in 1872 owing to failing eyesight, but sat
occasionally as a law lord. His wife's death in 1878 was a great blow,
from which he never recovered, and he died in London on the 10th of July
1881. Dean Hook said that Lord Hatherley--who was a sound and benevolent
supporter of the Church of England--was the best man he had ever known.
He was a particularly clear-headed lawyer, and his judgments--always
delivered extempore--commanded the greatest confidence both with the
public and the legal profession. He left no issue and the title became
extinct on his death.



HATHERTON, EDWARD JOHN LITTLETON, 1ST BARON (1791-1863), was born on the
18th of March 1791 and was educated at Rugby school and at Brasenose
College, Oxford. He was the only son of Moreton Walhouse of Hatherton,
Staffordshire; but in 1812, in accordance with the will of his
great-uncle Sir Edward Littleton, Bart. (d. 1812), he took the name of
Littleton. From 1812 to 1832 he was member of parliament for
Staffordshire and from 1832 to 1835 for the southern division of that
county, being specially prominent in the House of Commons as an advocate
of Roman Catholic emancipation. In January 1833, against his own wish,
he was put forward by the Radicals as a candidate for the office of
speaker, but he was not elected and in May 1833 he became chief
secretary to the lord-lieutenant of Ireland in the ministry of Earl
Grey. His duties in this capacity brought him frequently into conflict
with O'Connell, but he was obviously unequal to the great Irishman,
although he told his colleagues to "leave me to manage Dan." He had to
deal with the vexed and difficult question of the Irish tithes on which
the government was divided, and with his colleagues had to face the
problem of a new coercion act. Rather hastily he made a compact with
O'Connell on the assumption that the new act could not contain certain
clauses which were part of the old act. The clauses, however, were
inserted; O'Connell charged Littleton with deception; and in July 1834
Grey, Althorp (afterwards Earl Spencer) and the Irish secretary
resigned. The two latter were induced to serve under the new premier,
Lord Melbourne, and they remained in office until Melbourne was
dismissed in November 1834. In 1835 Littleton was created Baron
Hatherton, and he died at his Staffordshire residence, Teddesley Hall,
on the 4th of May 1863. In 1888 his grandson, Edward George Littleton
(b. 1842), became 3rd Baron Hatherton.

  See Hatherton's _Memoirs and Correspondence relating to Political
  Occurrences, June-July 1834_, edited by H. Reeve (1872); and Sir S.
  Walpole, _History of England_, vol. iii. (1890).



HATHRAS, a town of British India, in the Aligarh district of the United
Provinces, 29 m. N. of Agra. Pop. (1901), 42,578. At the end of the 18th
century it was held by a Jat chieftain, whose ruined fort still stands
at the east end of the town, and was annexed by the British in 1803, but
insubordination on the part of the chief necessitated the siege of the
fort in 1817. Since it came under British rule, Hathras has rapidly
risen to commercial importance, and now ranks second to Cawnpore among
the trading centres of the Doab. The chief articles of commerce are
sugar and grain, there are also factories for ginning and pressing
cotton, and a cotton spinning-mill. Hathras is connected by a light
railway with Muttra, and by a branch with Hathras junction, on the East
Indian main line.



HATTIESBURG, a city and the county-seat of Forrest county, Mississippi,
U.S.A., on the Hastahatchee (or Leaf) river, about 90 m. S.E. of
Jackson. Pop. (1890) 1172; (1900) 4175 (1687 negroes); (1910) 11,733.
Hattiesburg is served by the Gulf & Ship Island, the Mississippi
Central, the New Orleans, Mobile & Chicago and the New Orleans & North
Eastern railways. The officers and employees of the Gulf & Ship Island
railway own and maintain a hospital here. The city is in a rich farming,
truck-gardening and lumbering country. Among its manufactures are lumber
(especially yellow-pine), wood-alcohol, turpentine, paper and pulp,
fertilizers, wagons, mattresses and machine-shop products. Hattiesburg
was founded about 1882 and was named in honour of the wife of W. H.
Hardy, a railway official, who planned a town at the intersection of the
New Orleans & North-Eastern (which built a round house and repair shops
here in 1885) and the Gulf & Ship Island railways. The latter railway
was opened from Gulfport to Hattiesburg in January 1897, and from
Hattiesburg to Jackson in September 1900. Hattiesburg was incorporated
as a town in 1884 and was chartered as a city in 1899. Formerly the
"court house" of the second judicial district of Perry county,
Hattiesburg became on the 1st of January 1908 the county-seat of Forrest
county, erected from the W. part of Perry county.



HATTINGEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, on
the river Ruhr, 21 m. N.E. of Düsseldorf. Pop. (1900), 8975. It has two
Evangelical and a Roman Catholic church. The manufactures include
tobacco, and iron and steel goods. In the neighbourhood are the ruins of
the Isenburg, demolished in 1226. Hattingen, which received communal
rights in 1396, was one of the Hanse towns.



HATTO I. (c. 850-913), archbishop of Mainz, belonged to a Swabian
family, and was probably educated at the monastery of Reichenau, of
which he became abbot in 888. He soon became known to the German king,
Arnulf, who appointed him archbishop of Mainz in 891; and he became such
a trustworthy and confidential counsellor that he was popularly called
"the heart of the king." He presided over the important synod at Tribur
in 895, and accompanied the king to Italy in 894 and 895, where he was
received with great favour by Pope Formosus. In 899, when Arnulf died,
Hatto became regent of Germany, and guardian of the young king, Louis
the Child, whose authority he compelled Zwentibold, king of Lorraine, an
illegitimate son of Arnulf, to recognize. During these years he did not
neglect his own interests, for in 896 he secured for himself the abbey
of Ellwangen and in 898 that of Lorsch. He assisted the Franconian
family of the Conradines in its feud with the Babenbergs, and was
accused of betraying Adalbert, count of Babenberg, to death. He retained
his influence during the whole of the reign of Louis; and on the king's
death in 911 was prominent in securing the election of Conrad, duke of
Franconia, to the vacant throne. When trouble arose between Conrad and
Henry, duke of Saxony, afterwards King Henry the Fowler, the attitude of
Conrad was ascribed by the Saxons to the influence of Hatto, who wished
to prevent Henry from securing authority in Thuringia, where the see of
Mainz had extensive possessions. He was accused of complicity in a plot
to murder Duke Henry, who in return ravaged the archiepiscopal lands in
Saxony and Thuringia. He died on the 15th of May 913, one tradition
saying he was struck by lightning, and another that he was thrown alive
by the devil into the crater of Mount Etna. His memory was long regarded
in Saxony with great abhorrence, and stories of cruelty and treachery
gathered round his name. The legend of the Mouse Tower at Bingen is
connected with Hatto II., who was archbishop of Mainz from 968 to 970.
This Hatto built the church of St George on the island of Reichenau, was
generous to the see of Mainz and to the abbeys of Fulda and Reichenau,
and was a patron of the chronicler Regino, abbot of Prüm.

  See E. Dümmler, _Geschichte des ostfränkischen Reichs_ (Leipzig,
  1887-1888); G. Phillips, _Die grosse Synode von Tribur_ (Vienna,
  1865); J. Heidemann, _Hatto I., Erzbischof von Mainz_ (Berlin, 1865);
  G. Waitz, _Jahrbücher der deutschen Geschichte unter Heinrich I._
  (Berlin and Leipzig, 1863); and J. F. Böhmer, _Regesta
  archiepiscoporum Maguntinensium_, edited by C. Will (Innsbruck,
  1877-1886).



HATTON, SIR CHRISTOPHER (1540-1591), lord chancellor of England and
favourite of Queen Elizabeth, was a son of William Hatton (d. 1546) of
Holdenby, Northamptonshire, and was educated at St Mary Hall, Oxford. A
handsome and accomplished man, being especially distinguished for bis
elegant dancing, he soon attracted the notice of Queen Elizabeth, became
one of her gentlemen pensioners in 1564, and captain of her bodyguard in
1572. He received numerous estates and many positions of trust and
profit from the queen, and suspicion was not slow to assert that he was
Elizabeth's lover, a charge which was definitely made by Mary queen of
Scots in 1584. Hatton, who was probably innocent in this matter, had
been made vice-chamberlain of the royal household and a member of the
privy council in 1578, and had been a member of parliament since 1571,
first representing the borough of Higham Ferrers and afterwards the
county of Northampton. In 1578 he was knighted, and was now regarded as
the queen's spokesman in the House of Commons, being an active agent in
the prosecutions of John Stubbs and William Parry. He was one of those
who were appointed to arrange a marriage between Elizabeth and Francis,
duke of Alençon, in 1581; was a member of the court which tried Anthony
Babington in 1586; and was one of the commissioners who found Mary queen
of Scots guilty. He besought Elizabeth not to marry the French prince;
and according to one account repeatedly assured Mary that he would fetch
her to London if the English queen died. Whether or no this story be
true, Hatton's loyalty was not questioned; and he was the foremost
figure in that striking scene in the House of Commons in December 1584,
when four hundred kneeling members repeated after him a prayer for
Elizabeth's safety. Having been the constant recipient of substantial
marks of the queen's favour, he vigorously denounced Mary Stuart in
parliament, and advised William Davison to forward the warrant for her
execution to Fotheringay. In the same year (1587) Hatton was made lord
chancellor, and although he had no great knowledge of the law, he
appears to have acted with sound sense and good judgment in his new
position. He is said to have been a Roman Catholic in all but name, yet
he treated religious questions in a moderate and tolerant way. He died
in London on the 20th of November 1591, and was buried in St Paul's
cathedral. Although mention has been made of a secret marriage, Hatton
appears to have remained single, and his large and valuable estates
descended to his nephew, Sir William Newport, who took the name of
Hatton. Sir Christopher was a knight of the Garter and chancellor of the
university of Oxford. Elizabeth frequently showed her affection for her
favourite in an extravagant and ostentatious manner. She called him her
_mouton_, and forced the bishop of Ely to give him the freehold of Ely
Place, Holborn, which became his residence, his name being perpetuated
in the neighbouring Hatton Garden. Hatton is reported to have been a
very mean man, but he patronized men of letters, and among his friends
was Edmund Spenser. He wrote the fourth act of a tragedy, _Tancred and
Gismund_, and his death occasioned several panegyrics in both prose and
verse.

When Hatton's nephew, Sir William Hatton, died without sons in 1597, his
estates passed to a kinsman, another Sir Christopher Hatton (d. 1619),
whose son and successor, Christopher (c. 1605-1670), was elected a
member of the Long Parliament in 1640, and during the Civil War was a
partisan of Charles I. In 1643 he was created Baron Hatton of Kirby;
and, acting as comptroller of the royal household, he represented the
king during the negotiations at Uxbridge in 1645. Later he lived for
some years in France, and after the Restoration was made a privy
councillor and governor of Guernsey. He died at Kirby on the 4th of July
1670, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. By his wife Elizabeth (d.
1672), daughter of Sir Charles Montagu of Boughton, he had two sons and
three daughters. His eldest son Christopher (1632-1706), succeeded his
father as Baron Hatton and also as governor of Guernsey in 1670. In 1683
he was created Viscount Hatton of Grendon. He was married three times,
and left two sons: William (1690-1760), who succeeded to his father's
titles and estates, and Henry Charles (c. 1700-1762), who enjoyed the
same dignities for a short time after his brother's death. When Henry
Charles died, the titles became extinct, and the family is now
represented by the Finch-Hattons, earls of Winchilsea and Nottingham,
whose ancestor, Daniel Finch, 2nd earl of Nottingham, married Anne (d.
1743), daughter of the 1st Viscount Hatton.

  See Sir N. H. Nicolas, _Life and Times of Sir Christopher Hatton_
  (London, 1847); and _Correspondence of the Family of Hatton, being
  chiefly Letters addressed to Christopher, first Viscount Hatton_,
  1601-1704, edited with introduction by E. M. Thompson (London, 1878).



HATTON, JOHN LIPTROT (1809-1886), English musical composer, was born at
Liverpool on the 12th of October 1809. He was virtually a self-taught
musician, and besides holding several appointments as organist in
Liverpool, appeared as an actor on the Liverpool stage, subsequently
finding his way to London as a member of Macready's company at Drury
Lane in 1832. Ten years after this he was appointed conductor at the
same theatre for a series of English operas, and in 1843 his own first
operetta, _Queen of the Thames_, was given with success. Staudigl, the
eminent German bass, was a member of the company, and at his suggestion
Hatton wrote a more ambitious work, _Pascal Bruno_, which, in a German
translation, was presented at Vienna, with Staudigl in the principal
part; the opera contained a song, "Revenge," which the basso made very
popular in England, though the piece as a whole was not successful
enough to be produced here. Hatton's excellent pianoforte playing
attracted much attention in Vienna; he took the opportunity of studying
counterpoint under Sechter, and wrote a number of songs, obviously
modelled on the style of German classics. In 1846 he appeared at the
Hereford festival as a singer, and also played a pianoforte concerto of
Mozart. He undertook concert tours about this time with Sivori,
Vieuxtemps and others. From 1848 to 1850 he was in America; on his
return he became conductor of the Glee and Madrigal Union, and from
about 1853 was engaged at the Princess's theatre to provide and conduct
the music for Charles Kean's Shakespearean revivals. He seems to have
kept this appointment for about five years. In 1856 a cantata, _Robin
Hood_, was given at the Bradford festival, and a third opera, _Rose, or
Love's Ransom_, at Covent Garden in 1864, without much success. In 1866
he went again to America, and from this year Hatton held the post of
accompanist at the Ballad Concerts, St James's Hall, for nine seasons.
In 1875 he went to Stuttgart, and wrote an oratorio, _Hezekiah_, given
at the Crystal Palace in 1877; like all his larger works it met with
very moderate success. Hatton excelled in the lyrical forms of music,
and, in spite of his distinct skill in the severer styles of the
madrigal, &c., he won popularity by such songs as "To Anthea,"
"Good-bye, Sweetheart," and "Simon the Cellarer," the first of which may
be called a classic in its own way. His glees and part-songs, such as
"When Evening's Twilight," are still reckoned among the best of their
class; and he might have gained a place of higher distinction among
English composers had it not been for his irresistible animal spirits
and a want of artistic reverence, which made it uncertain in his younger
days whether, when he appeared at a concert, he would play a fugue of
Bach or sing a comic song. He died at Margate on the 20th of September
1886.



HAUCH, JOHANNES CARSTEN (1790-1872), Danish poet, was born of Danish
parents residing at Frederikshald in Norway, on the 12th of May 1790. In
1802 he lost his mother, and in 1803 returned with his father to
Denmark. In 1807 he fought as a volunteer against the English invasion.
He entered the university of Copenhagen in 1808, and in 1821 took his
doctor's degree. He became the friend and associate of Steffens and
Oehlenschläger, warmly adopting the romantic views about poetry and
philosophy. His first two dramatic poems, _The Journey to Ginistan_ and
_The Power of Fancy_, appeared in 1816, and were followed by a lyrical
drama, _Rosaura_ (1817); but these works attracted little or no
attention. Hauch therefore gave up all hope of fame as a poet, and
resigned himself entirely to the study of science. He took his doctor's
degree in zoology in 1821, and went abroad to pursue his studies. At
Nice he had an accident which obliged him to submit to the amputation of
one foot. He returned to literature, publishing a dramatized fairy tale,
the _Hamadryad_, and the tragedies of _Bajazet_, _Tiberius_, _Gregory
VII._, in 1828-1829, _The Death of Charles V._ (1831), and _The Siege of
Maestricht_ (1832). These plays were violently attacked and enjoyed no
success. Hauch then turned to novel-writing, and published in succession
five romances--_Vilhelm Zabern_ (1834); _The Alchemist_ (1836); _A
Polish Family_ (1839); _The Castle on the Rhine_ (1845); and _Robert
Fulton_ (1853). In 1842 he collected his shorter _Poems_. In 1846 he was
appointed professor of the Scandinavian languages in Kiel, but returned
to Copenhagen when the war broke out in 1848. About this time his
dramatic talent was at its height, and he produced one admirable tragedy
after another; among these may be mentioned _Svend Grathe_ (1841); _The
Sisters at Kinnekulle_ (1849); _Marshal Stig_ (1850); _Honour Lost and
Won_ (1851); and _Tycho Brahe's Youth_ (1852). From 1858 to 1860 Hauch
was director of the Danish National Theatre; he produced three more
tragedies--_The King's Favourite_ (1859); _Henry of Navarre_ (1863); and
_Julian the Apostate_ (1866). In 1861 he published another collection
of _Lyrical Poems and Romances_; and in 1862 the historical epic of
_Valdemar Seir_, volumes which contain his best work. From 1851, when he
succeeded Oehlenschläger, to his death, he held the honorary post of
professor of aesthetics at the university of Copenhagen. He died in Rome
in 1872. Hauch was one of the most prolific of the Danish poets, though
his writings are unequal in value. His lyrics and romances in verse are
always fine in form and often strongly imaginative. In all his writings,
but especially in his tragedies, he displays a strong bias in favour of
what is mystical and supernatural. Of his dramas _Marshal Stig_ is
perhaps the best, and of his novels the patriotic tale of _Vilhelm
Zabern_ is admired the most.

  See G. Brandes, "Carsten Hauch" (1873) in _Danske Digtere_ (1877); F.
  Rönning, _J. C. Hauch_ (1890), and in _Dansk Biografisk-Lexicon_,
  (vol. vii. Copenhagen, 1893). Hauch's novels were collected
  (1873-1874) and his dramatic works (3 vols., 2nd ed., 1852-1859).



HAUER, FRANZ, RITTER VON (1822-1899), Austrian geologist, born in Vienna
on the 30th of January 1822, was son of Joseph von Hauer (1778-1863),
who was equally distinguished as a high Austrian official and authority
on finance and as a palaeontologist. He was educated in Vienna,
afterwards studied geology at the mining academy of Schemnitz
(1839-1843), and for a time was engaged in official mining work in
Styria. In 1846 he became assistant to W. von Haidinger at the
mineralogical museum in Vienna; three years later he joined the imperial
geological institute, and in 1866 he was appointed director. In 1886 he
became superintendent of the imperial natural history museum in Vienna.
Among his special geological works are those on the Cephalopoda of the
Triassic and Jurassic formations of Alpine regions (1855-1856). His most
important general work was that of the _Geological Map of
Austro-Hungary_, in twelve sheets (1867-1871; 4th ed., 1884, including
Bosnia and Montenegro). This map was accompanied by a series of
explanatory pamphlets. In 1882 he was awarded the Wollaston medal by the
Geological Society of London. In 1892 von Hauer became a life-member of
the upper house of the Austrian parliament. He died on the 20th of March
1899.

  PUBLICATIONS.--_Beiträge zur Paläontolographie von Österreich_
  (1858-1859); _Die Geologie und ihre Anwendung auf die Kenntnis der
  Bodenbeschaffenheit der österr.-ungar. Monarchie_ (1875; ed. 2, 1878).

  _Memoir_ by Dr E. Tietze; _Jahrbuch der K. K. geolog. Reichsanstalt_
  (1899, reprinted 1900, with portrait).



HAUFF, WILHELM (1802-1827), German poet and novelist, was born at
Stuttgart on the 29th of November 1802, the son of a secretary in the
ministry of foreign affairs. Young Hauff lost his father when he was but
seven years of age, and his early education was practically self-gained
in the library of his maternal grandfather at Tübingen, to which place
his mother had removed. In 1818 he was sent to the Klosterschule at
Blaubeuren, whence he passed in 1820 to the university of Tübingen. In
four years he completed his philosophical and theological studies, and
on leaving the university became tutor to the children of the famous
Württemberg minister of war, General Baron Ernst Eugen von Hügel
(1774-1849), and for them wrote his _Märchen_, which he published in his
_Märchenalmanach auf das Jahr_ 1826. He also wrote there the first part
of the _Mitteilungen aus den Memoiren des Satan_ (1826) and _Der Mann im
Monde_ (1825). The latter, a parody of the sentimental and sensual
novels of H. Clauren (pseudonym of Karl Gottlieb Samuel Heun
[1771-1854]), became, in course of composition, a close imitation of
that author's style and was actually published under his name. Clauren,
in consequence, brought an action for damages against Hauff and gained
his case. Whereupon Hauff followed up the attack in his witty and
sarcastic _Kontroverspredigt über H. Clauren und den Mann im Monde_
(1826) and attained his original object--the moral annihilation of the
mawkish and unhealthy literature with which Clauren was flooding the
country. Meanwhile, animated by Sir Walter Scott's novels, Hauff wrote
the historical romance _Lichtenstein_ (1826), which acquired great
popularity in Germany and especially in Swabia, treating as it did the
most interesting period in the history of that country, the reign of
Duke Ulrich (1487-1550). While on a journey to France, the Netherlands
and north Germany he wrote the second part of the _Memoiren des Satan_
and some short novels, among them the charming _Bettlerin vom Pont des
Arts_ and his masterpiece, the _Phantasien im Bremer Ratskeller_ (1827).
He also published some short poems which have passed into _Volkslieder_,
among them _Morgenrot, Morgenrot, leuchtest mir zum frühen Tod_; and
_Steh' ich in finstrer Mitternacht_. In January 1827, Hauff undertook
the editorship of the Stuttgart _Morgenblatt_ and in the following month
married, but his happiness was prematurely cut short by his death from
fever on the 18th of November 1827.

Considering his brief life, Hauff was an extraordinarily prolific
writer. The freshness and originality of his talent, his inventiveness,
and his genial humour have won him a high place among the south German
prose writers of the early nineteenth century.

  His _Sämtliche Werke_ were published, with a biography, by G. Schwab
  (3 vols., 1830-1834; 5 vols., 18th ed., 1882), and by F. Bobertag
  (1891-1897), and a selection by M. Mendheim (3 vols., 1891). For his
  life cf. J. Klaiber, _Wilhelm Hauff, ein Lebensbild_ (1881); M.
  Mendheim, _Hauffs Leben und Werke_ (1894); and H. Hofmann, _W. Hauff_
  (1902).



HAUG, MARTIN (1827-1876), German Orientalist, was born at Ostdorf near
Balingen, Württemberg, on the 30th of January 1827. He became a pupil in
the gymnasium at Stuttgart at a comparatively late age, and in 1848 he
entered the university of Tübingen, where he studied Oriental languages,
especially Sanskrit. He afterwards attended lectures in Göttingen, and
in 1854 settled as _Privatdozent_ at Bonn. In 1856 he removed to
Heidelberg, where he assisted Bunsen in his literary undertakings; and
in 1859 he accepted an invitation to India, where he became
superintendent of Sanskrit studies and professor of Sanskrit in Poona.
Here his acquaintance with the Zend language and literature afforded him
excellent opportunities for extending his knowledge of this branch of
literature. The result of his researches was a volume of _Essays on the
sacred language, writings and religion of the Parsees_ (Bombay, 1862).
Having returned to Stuttgart in 1866, he was called to Munich as
professor of Sanskrit and comparative philology in 1868. He died on the
3rd of June 1876.

  Besides the _Essays on the Parsees_, of which a new edition, by E. W.
  West, greatly enriched from the posthumous papers of the author,
  appeared in 1878, Haug published a number of works of considerable
  importance to the student of the literatures of ancient India and
  Persia. They include _Die Pehlewisprache und der Bundehesch_ (1854);
  _Die Schrift und Sprache der zweiten Keilschriftgattung_ (1855); _Die
  fünf Gathas_, edited, translated and expounded (1858-1860); an
  edition, with translation and explanation, of the _Aitareya Brahmana
  of the Rigveda_ (Bombay, 1863), which is accounted his best work in
  the province of ancient Indian literature; _A Lecture on an original
  Speech of Zoroaster_ (1865); _An old Zend-Pahlavi Glossary_ (1867);
  _Über den Charakter der Pehlewisprache_ (1869); _Das 18. Kapitel des
  Wendidad_ (1869); _Über das Ardai-Virafnameh_ (1870); _An old
  Pahlavi-Pazand Glossary_ (1870); and _Vedische Rätselfragen und
  Rätselsprüche_ (1875).

  For particulars of Haug's life and work, see A. Bezzenberger,
  _Beiträge zur Kunde der indogermanischen Sprachen_, vol. i. pp. 70
  seq.



HAUGE, HANS NIELSEN (1771-1824), Norwegian Lutheran divine, was born in
the parish of Thunö, Norway, on the 3rd of April 1771, the son of a
peasant. With the aid of various religious works which he found in his
father's house, he laboured to supplement his scanty education. In his
twenty-sixth year, believing himself to be a divinely-commissioned
prophet, he began to preach in his native parish and afterwards
throughout Norway, calling people to repentance and attacking
rationalism. In 1800 he passed to Denmark, where, as at home, he gained
many followers and assistants, chiefly among the lower orders.
Proceeding to Christiansand in 1804, Hauge set up a printing-press to
disseminate his views more widely, but was almost immediately arrested
for holding illegal religious meetings, and for insulting the regular
clergy in his books, all of which were confiscated; he was also heavily
fined. After being in confinement for some years, he was released in
1814 on payment of a fine, and retiring to an estate at Breddwill, near
Christiania, he died there on the 29th of March 1824. His adherents, who
did not formally break with the church, were called _Haugianer or Leser_
(i.e. Readers). He unquestionably did much to revive the spiritual life
of the northern Lutheran Church. His views were of a pietistic nature.
Though he cannot be said to have rejected any article of the Lutheran
creed, the peculiar emphasis which he laid upon the evangelical
doctrines of faith and grace involved considerable antagonism to the
rationalistic or sacerdotal views commonly held by the established
clergy.

  Hauge's principal writings are _Forsög til Afhandeling om Guds Visdom_
  (1796); _Anvisning til nogle mörkelige Sprog i Bibelen_ (1798);
  _Forklaring over Loven og Evangelium_ (1803). For an account of his
  life and doctrines see C. Bang's _Hans Nielsen Hauge og hans Samtid_
  (Christiania; 2nd ed., 1875); O. Rost, _Nogle Bemaerkninger om Hans
  Nielsen Hauge og hans Retning_ (1883), and the article in
  Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_.



HAUGESUND, a seaport of Norway in Stavanger _amt_ (county), on the west
coast, 34 m. N. by W. of Stavanger. Pop. (1900), 7935. It is an
important fishing centre. Herrings are exported to the annual value of
£100,000 to £200,000, also mackerel and lobsters. The principal imports
are coal and salt. There are factories for woollen goods and a margarine
factory. Haugesund is the reputed death-place of Harald Haarfager, to
whom an obelisk of red granite was erected in 1872 on the thousandth
anniversary of his victory at the Hafsfjord (near Stavanger) whereby he
won the sovereignty of Norway. The memorial stands 1¼ m. north of the
town, on the Haraldshaug, where the hero's supposed tombstone is shown.



HAUGHTON, SAMUEL (1821-1897), Irish scientific writer, the son of James
Haughton (1795-1873), was born at Carlow on the 21st of December 1821.
His father, the son of a Quaker, but himself a Unitarian, was an active
philanthropist, a strong supporter of Father Theobald Mathew, a
vegetarian, and an anti-slavery worker and writer. After a distinguished
career in Trinity College, Dublin, Samuel was elected a fellow in 1844.
He was ordained priest in 1847, but seldom preached. In 1851 he was
appointed professor of geology in Trinity College, and this post he held
for thirty years. He began the study of medicine in 1859, and in 1862
took the degree of M.D. in the university of Dublin. He was then made
registrar of the Medical School, the status of which he did much to
improve, and he represented the university on the General Medical
Council from 1878 to 1896. He was elected F.R.S. in 1858, and in course
of time Oxford conferred upon him the hon. degree of D.C.L., and
Cambridge and Edinburgh that of LL.D. He was a man of remarkable
knowledge and ability, and he communicated papers on widely different
subjects to various learned societies and scientific journals in London
and Dublin. He wrote on the laws of equilibrium and motion of solid and
fluid bodies (1846), on sun-heat, terrestrial radiation, geological
climates and on tides. He wrote also on the granites of Leinster and
Donegal, and on the cleavage and joint-planes in the Old Red Sandstone
of Waterford (1857-1858). He was president of the Royal Irish Academy
from 1886 to 1891, and for twenty years he was secretary of the Royal
Zoological Society of Ireland. He died in Dublin on the 31st of October
1897.

  PUBLICATIONS.--_Manual of Geology_ (1865); _Principles of Animal
  Mechanics_ (1873); _Six Lectures on Physical Geography_ (1880). In
  conjunction with his friend, Professor J. Galbraith, he issued a
  series of Manuals of Mathematical and Physical Science.



HAUGHTON, WILLIAM (fl. 1598), English playwright. He collaborated in
many plays with Henry Chettle, Thomas Dekker, John Day and Richard
Hathway. The only certain biographical information about him is derived
from Philip Henslowe, who on the 10th of March 1600 lent him ten
shillings "to release him out of the Clink." Mr Fleay credits him with a
considerable share in _The Patient Grissill_ (1599), and a merry comedy
entitled _English-Men for my Money, or A Woman will have her Will_
(1598) is ascribed to his sole authorship. _The Devil and his Dame_,
mentioned as a forthcoming play by Henslowe in March 1600, is identified
by Mr Fleay as _Grim, the Collier of Croydon_, which was printed in
1662. In this play an emissary is sent from the infernal regions to
report on the conditions of married life on earth.

  _Grim_ is reprinted in vol. viii., and _English-Men for my Money_ in
  vol. x., of W. C. Hazlitt's edition of Dodsley's _Old Plays_.



HAUGWITZ, CHRISTIAN AUGUST HEINRICH KURT, COUNT VON, FREIHERR VON
KRAPPITZ (1752-1831), Prussian statesman, was born on the 11th of June
1752, at Peucke near Öls. He belonged to the Silesian (Protestant)
branch of the ancient family of Haugwitz, of which the Catholic branch
is established in Moravia. He studied law, spent some time in Italy,
returned to settle on his estates in Silesia, and in 1791 was elected by
the Silesian estates general director of the province. At the urgent
instance of King Frederick William II. he entered the Prussian service,
became ambassador at Vienna in 1792 and at the end of the same year a
member of the cabinet at Berlin.

Haugwitz, who had attended the young emperor Francis II. at his
coronation and been present at the conferences held at Mainz to consider
the attitude of the German powers towards the Revolution, was opposed to
the exaggerated attitude of the French _émigrés_ and to any interference
in the internal affairs of France. After the war broke out, however, the
defiant temper of the Committee of Public Safety made an honourable
peace impossible, while the strained relations between Austria and
Prussia on the question of territorial "compensations" crippled the
power of the Allies to carry the war to a successful conclusion. It was
in these circumstances that Haugwitz entered on the negotiations that
resulted in the subsidy treaty between Great Britain and Prussia, and
Great Britain and Holland, signed at the Hague on the 19th of April
1794. Haugwitz, however, was not the man to direct a strong and
aggressive policy; the failure of Prussia to make any effective use of
the money supplied broke the patience of Pitt, and in October the
denunciation by Great Britain of the Hague treaty broke the last tie
that bound Prussia to the Coalition. The separate treaty with France,
signed at Basel on the 5th of April 1795, was mainly due to the
influence of Haugwitz.

His object was now to save the provinces on the left bank of the Rhine
from being lost to the Empire. No guarantee of their maintenance had
been inserted in the Basel treaty; but Haugwitz and the king hoped to
preserve them by establishing the armed neutrality of North Germany and
securing its recognition by the French Republic. This policy was
rendered futile by the victories of Napoleon Bonaparte and the virtual
conquest of South Germany by the French. Haugwitz, who had continued to
enjoy the confidence of the new king, Frederick William III., recognized
this fact, and urged his master to join the new Coalition in 1798. But
the king clung blindly to the illusion of neutrality, and Haugwitz
allowed himself to be made the instrument of a policy of which he
increasingly disapproved. It was not till 1803, when the king refused
his urgent advice to demand the evacuation of Hanover by the French,
that he tendered his resignation. In August 1804 he was definitely
replaced by Hardenberg, and retired to his estates.

In his retirement Haugwitz was still consulted, and he used all his
influence against Hardenberg's policy of a _rapprochement_ with France.
His representations had little weight, however, until Napoleon's
high-handed action in violating Prussian territory by marching troops
through Ansbach, roused the anger of the king. Haugwitz was now once
more appointed foreign minister, as Hardenberg's colleague, and it was
he who was charged to carry to Napoleon the Prussian ultimatum which was
the outcome of the visit of the tsar Alexander I. to Berlin in November.
But in this crisis his courage failed him; his nature was one that ever
let "I dare not wait upon I will"; he delayed his journey pending some
turn in events and to give time for the mobilization of the duke of
Brunswick's army; he was frightened by reports of separate negotiations
between Austria and Napoleon, not realizing that a bold declaration by
Prussia would nip them in the bud. Napoleon, when at last they met, read
him like a book and humoured his diplomatic weakness until the whole
issue was decided at Austerlitz. On the 15th of December, instead of
delivering an ultimatum, Haugwitz signed at Schönbrunn the treaty which
gave Hanover to Prussia in return for Ansbach, Cleves and Neuchâtel.

The humiliation of Prussia and her minister was, however, not yet
complete. In February 1806 Haugwitz went to Paris to ratify the treaty
of Schönbrunn and to attempt to secure some modifications in favour of
Prussia. He was received with a storm of abuse by Napoleon, who insisted
on tearing up the treaty and drawing up a fresh one, which doubled the
amount of territory to be ceded by Prussia and forced her to a breach
with Great Britain by binding her to close the Hanoverian ports to
British commerce. The treaty, signed on the 15th of February, left
Prussia wholly isolated in Europe. What followed belongs to the history
of Europe rather than to the biography of Haugwitz. He remained, indeed,
at the head of the Prussian ministry of foreign affairs, but the course
of Prussian policy it was beyond his power to control. The Prussian
ultimatum to Napoleon was forced upon him by overwhelming circumstances,
and with the battle of Jena, on the 14th of October, his political
career came to an end. He accompanied the flight of the king into East
Prussia, there took leave of him and retired to his Silesian estates. In
1811 he was appointed _Curator_ of the university of Breslau; in 1820,
owing to failing health, he went to live in Italy, where he remained
till his death at Venice in 1831.

Haugwitz was a man of great intellectual gifts, of dignified presence
and a charming address which endeared him to his sovereigns and his
colleagues; but as a statesman he failed, not through want of
perspicacity, but through lack of will power and a fatal habit of
procrastination. During his retirement in Italy he wrote memoirs in
justification of his policy, a fragment of which dealing with the
episode of the treaty of Schönbrunn was published at Jena in 1837.

  See J. von Minutoli, _Der Graf von Haugwitz und Job von Witzleben_
  (Berlin, 1844); L. von Ranke, _Hardenberg u. d. Gesch. des preuss.
  Staates_ (Leipzig, 1879-1881), note on Haugwitz's memoirs in vol. ii.;
  _Denkwürdigkeiten des Staatskanzlers Fürsten von Hardenberg_, ed.
  Ranke (5 vols., Leipzig, 1877); A. Sorel, _L'Europe et la Révol.
  Franç., passim_.



HAUNTINGS (from "to haunt," Fr. _hanter_, of uncertain origin, but
possibly from Lat. _ambitare_, _ambire_, to go about, frequent), the
supposed manifestations of existence by spirits of the dead in houses or
places familiar to them in life. The savage practice of tying up the
corpse before burying it is clearly intended to prevent the dead from
"walking"; and cremation, whether in savage lands or in classical times,
may have originally had the same motive. The "spirit" manifests himself,
as a rule, either in his bodily form, as when he lived, or in the shape
of some animal, or by disturbing noises, as in the case of the
poltergeist (q.v.). Classical examples occur in Plautus (_Mostellaria_),
Lucian (_Philopseudes_), Pliny, Suetonius, St Augustine, St Gregory,
Plutarch and elsewhere, while Lucretius has his theory of apparitions of
the dead. He does not deny the fact; he explains it by "films" diffused
from the living body and persisting in the atmosphere.

A somewhat similar hypothesis, to account for certain alleged phenomena,
was invented by Mr Edmund Gurney. Some visionary appearances in haunted
houses do not suggest the idea of an ambulatory spirit, but rather of
the photograph of a past event, impressed we know not how on we know not
what. In this theory there is no room for the agency of spirits of the
dead. The belief in hauntings was naturally persistent through the
middle ages, and example and theory abound in the _Loca infesta_
(Cologne, 1598) of Petrus Thyraeus, S.J.; Wierius (c. 1560), in _De
praestigiis daemonum_, is in the same tale. According to Thyraeus,
hauntings appeal to the senses of sight, hearing and touch. The auditory
phenomena are mainly thumping noises, sounds of footsteps, laughing and
moaning. Rackets in general are caused by _lares domestici_ ("brownies")
or the Poltergeist. In the tactile way ghosts _push_ the living; "I have
been thrice pushed by an invisible power," writes the Rev. Samuel
Wesley, in 1717, in his narrative of the disturbances at his rectory at
Epworth. Once he was pushed against the corner of his desk in the study;
once up against the door of the matted chamber; and thirdly, "against
the right-hand side of the frame of my study door, as I was going in."
We have thus Protestant corroboration of the statement of the learned
Jesuit.

Thyraeus raises the question, Are the experiences hallucinatory? Did Mr
Wesley (to take his case) receive a mere hallucinatory set of pushes?
Was the hair of a friend of the writer's, who occupied a haunted house,
only pulled in a subjective way? Thyraeus remarks that, in cases of
noisy phenomena, not all persons present hear them; and, rather
curiously, Mr Wesley records the same experience; he sometimes did not
hear sounds that seemed violently loud to his wife and family, who were
with him at prayers. Thyraeus says that, as collective hallucinations of
sight are rare--all present not usually seeing the apparition--so
audible phenomena are not always experienced by all persons present. In
such cases, he thinks that the sights and sounds have no external cause,
he regards the sights and sounds as delusions--caused by spirits. This
is a difficult question. He mentions that we hear all the furniture
being tossed about (as Sir Walter and Lady Scott heard it at Abbotsford;
see Lockhart's _Life_, v. 311-315). Yet, on inspection, we find all the
furniture in its proper place. There is abundant evidence to experience
of this phenomenon, which remains as inexplicable as it was in the days
of Thyraeus. When the sounds are heard, has the atmosphere vibrated, or
has the impression only been made on "the inner ear"? In reply, Mr.
Procter, who for sixteen years (1831-1847) endured the unexplained
disturbances at Willington Mill, avers that the material objects on
which the knocks appeared to be struck did certainly vibrate (see
POLTERGEIST). Is then the felt vibration part of the hallucination?

As for visual phenomena, "ghosts," Thyraeus does not regard them as
space-filling entities, but as hallucinations imposed by spirits on the
human senses; the spirit, in each case, not being necessarily the soul
of the dead man or woman whom the phantasm represents.

In the matter of alleged hauntings, the symptoms, the phenomena, to-day,
are exactly the same as those recorded by Thyraeus. The belief in them
is so far a living thing that it greatly lowers the letting value of a
house when it is reported to be haunted. (An action for libelling a
house as haunted was reported in the London newspapers of the 7th of
March 1907). It is true that ancient family legends of haunts are
gloried in by the inheritors of stately homes in England, or castles in
Scotland, and to discredit the traditional ghost--in the days of Sir
Walter Scott--was to come within measurable distance of a duel. But the
time-honoured phantasms of old houses usually survive only in the memory
of "the oldest aunt telling the saddest tale." Their historical basis
can no more endure criticism than does the family portrait of Queen
Mary,--signed by Medina about 1750-1770, and described by the family as
"given to our ancestor by the Queen herself." After many years'
experience of a baronial dwelling credited with seven distinct and
separate phantasms, not one of which was ever seen by hosts, guests or
domestics, scepticism as regards traditional ghosts is excusable. Legend
reports that they punctually appear on the anniversaries of their
misfortunes, but no evidence of such punctuality has been produced.

The Society for Psychical Research has investigated hundreds of cases of
the alleged haunting of houses, and the reports are in the archives of
the society. But, as the mere rumour of a haunt greatly lowers the value
of a house, it is seldom possible to publish the names of the witnesses,
and hardly ever permitted to publish the name of the house. From the
point of view of science this is unfortunate (see _Proceedings S.P.R._
vol. viii. pp. 311-332 and _Proceedings_ of 1882-1883, 1883-1884). As
far as inquiry had any results, they were to the following effect. The
spectres were of the most shy and fugitive kind, seen now by one person,
now by another, crossing a room, walking along a corridor, and entering
chambers in which, on inspection, they were not found. There was almost
never any story to account for the appearances, as in magazine
ghost-stories, and, if story there were, it lacked evidence.
Recognitions of known dead persons were infrequent; occasionally there
was recognition of a portrait in the house. The apparitions spoke in
only one or two recorded cases, and, as a rule, seemed to have no motive
for appearing. The "ghost" resembles nothing so much as a somnambulist,
or the dream-walk of one living person made visible, telepathically, to
another living person. Almost the only sign of consciousness given by
the appearances is their shyness; on being spoken to or approached they
generally vanish. Not infrequently they are taken, at first sight, for
living human beings. In darkness they are often luminous, otherwise they
would be invisible! Unexplained noises often, but not always, occur in
houses where these phenomena are perceived. Evidence is only good,
approximately, when a series of persons, in the same house, behold the
same appearance, without being aware that it has previously been seen by
others. Naturally it is almost impossible to prove this ignorance.

When inquirers believe that the appearances are due to the agency of
spirits of the dead, they usually suppose the method to be a telepathic
impact on the mind of the living by some "mere automatic projection from
a consciousness which has its centre elsewhere" (Myers, _Proceedings
S.P.R._ vol. xv. p. 64). Myers, in _Human Personality_, fell back on
"palaeolithic psychology," and a theory of a phantasmogenetic agency
producing a phantasm which had some actual relation to space. But space
forbids us to give examples of modern experiences in haunted houses,
endured by persons sane, healthy and well educated. The cases,
abundantly offered in _Proceedings S.P.R._, suggest that certain
localities, more than others, are "centres of permanent possibilities of
being hallucinated in a manner more or less uniform." The causes of this
fact (if causes there be, beyond a casual hallucination or illusion of
A, which, when reported, begets by suggestion, or, when not reported, by
telepathy, hallucinations in B, C, D and E), remain unknown
(_Proceedings S.P.R._ vol. viii. p. 133 et seq.). Mr Podmore proposed
this hypothesis of causation, which was not accepted by Myers; he
thought that the theory laid too heavy a burden on telepathy and
suggestion. Neither cause, nor any other cause of similar results, ever
affects members of the S.P.R. who may be sent to dwell in haunted
houses. They have no weird experiences, except when they are visionaries
who see phantoms wherever they go.     (A. L.)



HAUPT, MORITZ (1808-1874), German philologist, was born at Zittau, in
Lusatia, on the 27th of July 1808. His early education was mainly
conducted by his father, Ernst Friedrich Haupt, burgomaster of Zittau, a
man of good scholarly attainment, who used to take pleasure in turning
German hymns or Goethe's poems into Latin, and whose memoranda were
employed by G. Freytag in the 4th volume of his _Bilder aus der
deutschen Vergangenheit_. From the Zittau gymnasium, where he spent the
five years 1821-1826, Haupt removed to the university of Leipzig with
the intention of studying theology; but the natural bent of his mind and
the influence of Professor G. Hermann soon turned all his energies in
the direction of philosophy. On the close of his university course
(1830) he returned to his father's house, and the next seven years were
devoted to quiet work, not only at Greek, Latin and German, but at Old
French, Provençal and Bohemian. He formed with Lachmann at Berlin a
friendship which had great effect on his intellectual development. In
September 1837 he "habilitated" at Leipzig as _Privatdozent_, and his
first lectures, dealing with such diverse subjects as Catullus and the
_Nibelungenlied_, indicated the twofold direction of his labours. A new
chair of German language and literature being founded for his benefit,
he became professor extraordinarius (1841) and then professor ordinarius
(1843); and in 1842 he married Louise Hermann, the daughter of his
master and colleague. But the peaceful and prosperous course opening out
before him at the university of Leipzig was brought to a sudden close.
Having taken part in 1849 with Otto Jahn and Theodor Mommsen in a
political agitation for the maintenance of the imperial constitution,
Haupt was deprived of his professorship by a decree of the 22nd of April
1851. Two years later, however, he was called to succeed Lachmann at the
university of Berlin; and at the same time the Berlin academy, which had
made him a corresponding member in 1841, elected him an ordinary member.
For twenty-one years he continued to hold a prominent place among the
scholars of the Prussian capital, making his presence felt, not only by
the prestige of his erudition and the clearness of his intellect, but by
the tirelessness of his energy and the ardent fearlessness of his
temperament. He died, of heart disease, on the 5th of February 1874.

  Haupt's critical work is distinguished by a happy union of the most
  painstaking investigation with intrepidity of conjecture, and while in
  his lectures and addresses he was frequently carried away by the
  excitement of the moment, and made sharp and questionable attacks on
  his opponents, in his writings he exhibits great self-control. The
  results of many of his researches are altogether lost, because he
  could not be prevailed upon to publish what fell much short of his own
  high ideal of excellence. To the progress of classical scholarship he
  contributed by _Quaestiones Catullianae_ (1837), _Observationes
  criticae_ (1841), and editions of Ovid's _Halieutica_ and the
  _Cynegetica_ of Gratius and Nemesianus (1838), of Catullus, Tibullus
  and Propertius (3rd ed., 1868), of Horace (3rd ed., 1871) and of
  Virgil (2nd ed., 1873). As early as 1836, with Hoffmann von
  Fallersleben, he started the _Altdeutsche Blätter_, which in 1841 gave
  place to the _Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum_, of which he
  continued editor till his death. Hartmann von Aue's _Erec_ (1839) and
  his _Lieder_, _Büchlein_ and _Der arme Heinrich_ (1842), Rudolf von
  Ems's _Guter Gerhard_ (1840) and Conrad von Würzburg's _Engelhard_
  (1844) are the principal German works which he edited. To form a
  collection of the French songs of the 16th century was one of his
  favourite schemes, but a little volume published after his death,
  _Französische Volkslieder_ (1877), is the only monument of his labours
  in that direction. Three volumes of his _Opuscula_ were published at
  Leipzig (1875-1877).

  See Kirchhoff, "Gedächtnisrede," in _Abhandl. der Königl. Akad. der
  Wissenschaften zu Berlin_ (1875); Otto Belger, _Moritz Haupt als
  Lehrer_ (1879); Sandys, _Hist. Class. Schol._ iii. (1908).



HAUPTMANN, GERHART (1862-   ), German dramatist, was born on the 15th of
November 1862 at Obersalzbrunn in Silesia, the son of an hotel-keeper.
From the village school of his native place he passed to the Realschule
in Breslau, and was then sent to learn agriculture on his uncle's farm
at Jauer. Having, however, no taste for country life, he soon returned
to Breslau and entered the art school, intending to become a sculptor.
He then studied at Jena, and spent the greater part of the years 1883
and 1884 in Italy. In May 1885 Hauptmann married and settled in Berlin,
and, devoting himself henceforth entirely to literary work, soon
attained a great reputation as one of the chief representatives of the
modern drama. In 1891 he retired to Schreiberhau in Silesia. Hauptmann's
first drama, _Vor Sonnenaufgang_ (1889) inaugurated the realistic
movement in modern German literature; it was followed by _Das
Friedensfest_ (1890), _Einsame Menschen_ (1891) and _Die Weber_ (1892),
a powerful drama depicting the rising of the Silesian weavers in 1844.
Of Hauptmann's subsequent work mention may be made of the comedies
_Kollege Crampton_ (1892), Der Biberpelz (1893) and _Der rote Hahn_
(1901), a "dream poem," _Hannele_ (1893), and an historical drama
_Florian Geyer_ (1895). He also wrote two tragedies of Silesian peasant
life, _Fuhrmann Henschel_ (1898) and _Rose Berndt_ (1903), and the
"dramatic fairy-tales" _Die versunkene Glocke_ (1897) and _Und Pippa
tanzt_ (1905). Several of his works have been translated into English.

  Biographies of Hauptmann and critical studies of his dramas have been
  published by A. Bartels (1897); P. Schlenther (1898); and U. C.
  Woerner (2nd ed., 1900). See also L. Benoist-Hanappier, _Le Drame
  naturaliste en Allemagne_ (1905).



HAUPTMANN, MORITZ (1792-1868), German musical composer and writer, was
born at Dresden, on the 13th of October 1792, and studied music under
Scholz, Lanska, Grosse and Morlacchi, the rival of Weber. Afterwards he
completed his education as a violinist and composer under Spohr, and
till 1820 held various appointments in private families, varying his
musical occupations with mathematical and other studies bearing chiefly
on acoustics and kindred subjects. For a time also Hauptmann was
employed as an architect, but all other pursuits gave place to music,
and a grand tragic opera, _Mathilde_, belongs to the period just
referred to. In 1822 he entered the orchestra of Cassel, again under
Spohr's direction, and it was then that he first taught composition and
musical theory to such men as Ferdinand David, Burgmüller, Kiel and
others. His compositions at this time chiefly consisted of motets,
masses, cantatas and songs. His opera _Mathilde_ was performed at Cassel
with great success. In 1842 Hauptmann obtained the position of cantor
at the Thomas-school of Leipzig (long previously occupied by the great
Johann Sebastian Bach) together with that of professor at the
conservatoire, and it was in this capacity that his unique gift as a
teacher developed itself and was acknowledged by a crowd of enthusiastic
and more or less distinguished pupils. He died on the 3rd of January
1868, and the universal regret felt at his death at Leipzig is said to
have been all but equal to that caused by the loss of his friend
Medelssohn many years before. Hauptmann's compositions are marked by
symmetry and perfection of workmanship rather than by spontaneous
invention.

  Amongst his vocal compositions--by far the most important portion of
  his work--may be mentioned two masses, choral songs for mixed voices
  (_Op._ 32, 47), and numerous part songs. The results of his scientific
  research were embodied in his book _Die Natur der Harmonik und Metrik_
  (1853), a standard work of its kind, in which a philosophic
  explanation of the forms of music is attempted.



HAURÉAU, (JEAN) BARTHÉLEMY (1812-1896), French historian and
miscellaneous writer, was born in Paris. At the age of twenty he
published a series of apologetic studies on the _Montagnards_. In later
years he regretted the youthful enthusiasm of these papers, and
endeavoured to destroy the copies. He joined the staff of the
_National_, and was praised by Théophile Gautier as the "tribune" of
romanticism. At that time he seemed to be destined to a political
career, and, indeed, after the revolution of the 24th of February 1848
was elected member of the National Assembly; but close contact with
revolutionary men and ideas gradually cooled his old ardour. Throughout
his life he was an enemy to innovators, not only in politics and
religion, but also in literature. This attitude sometimes led him to
form unjust estimates, but only on very rare occasions, for his
character was as just as his erudition was scrupulous. After the _coup
d'état_ he resigned his position as director of the MS. department of
the Bibliothèque Nationale, to which he had been appointed in 1848, and
he refused to accept any administrative post until after the fall of the
empire. After having acted as director of the national printing press
from 1870 to 1881, he retired, but in 1893 accepted the post of director
of the Fondation Thiers. He was also a member of the council of
improvement of the École des Chartes. He died on the 29th of April 1896.
For over half a century he was engaged in writing on the religious,
philosophical, and more particularly the literary history of the middle
ages. Appointed librarian of the town of Le Mans in 1838, he was first
attracted by the history of Maine, and in 1843 published the first
volume of his _Histoire littéraire du Maine_ (4 vols., 1843-1852), which
he subsequently recast on a new plan (10 vols., 1870-1877). In 1845 he
brought out an edition of vol. ii. of G. Ménage's _Histoire de Sablé_.
He then undertook the continuation of the _Gallia Christiana_, and
produced vol. xiv. (1856) for the province of Tours, vol. xv. (1862) for
the province of Besançon, and vol. xvi. (1865-1870) for the province of
Vienne. This important work gained him admission to the Académie des
Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres (1862). In the _Notices et extraits des
manuscrits_ he inserted several papers which were afterwards published
separately, with additions and corrections, under the title _Notices et
extraits de quelques manuscrits de la Bibliothèque Nationale_ (6 vols.,
1890-1893). To the _Histoire littéraire de la France_ he contributed a
number of studies, among which must be mentioned that relating to the
sermon-writers (vol. xxvi., 1873), whose works, being often anonymous,
raise many problems of attribution, and, though deficient in originality
of thought and style, reflect the very spirit of the middle ages. Among
his other works mention must be made of his remarkable _Histoire de la
philosophie scolastique_ (1872-1880), extending from the time of
Charlemagne to the 13th century, which was expanded from a paper crowned
by the Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques in 1850; _Les
Mélanges poétiques d'Hildebert de Lavardin_ (1882); an edition of the
_Works_ of Hugh of St Victor (1886); a critical study of the Latin poems
attributed to St Bernard (1890); and _Bernard Délicieux et l'inquisition
albigeoise_ (1877). To these must be added his contributions to the
_Dictionnaire des sciences philosophiques_, Didot's _Biographie
générale_, the _Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes_, and the _Journal
des savants_. From the time of his appointment to the Bibliothèque
Nationale up to the last days of his life he was engaged in making
abstracts of all the medieval Latin writings (many anonymous or of
doubtful attribution) relating to philosophy, theology, grammar, canon
law, and poetry, carefully noting on cards the first words of each
passage. After his death this index of _incipits_, arranged
alphabetically, was presented to the Académie des Inscriptions, and a
copy was placed in the MS. department of the Bibliothèque Nationale.

  See obituary notice read by Henri Wallon at a meeting of the Académie
  des Inscriptions on the 12th of November 1897; and the notice by Paul
  Meyer prefixed to vol. xxxiii. of the _Histoire littéraire de la
  France_.



HAUSA, sometimes incorrectly written HAUSSA, HOUSSA or HAOUSSA, a people
inhabiting about half a million square miles in the western and central
Sudan from the river Niger in the west to Bornu in the east. Heinrich
Barth identifies them with the Atarantians of Herodotus. According to
their own traditions the earliest home of the race was the divide
between the Sokoto and Chad basins, and more particularly the eastern
watershed, whence they spread gradually westward. In the middle ages, to
which period the first authentic records refer, the Hausa, though never
a conquering race, attained great political power. They were then
divided into seven states known as "Hausa bokoy" ("the seven Hausa") and
named Biram, Daura, Gober, Kano, Rano, Katsena and Zegzeg, after the
sons of their legendary ancestor. This confederation extended its
authority over many of the neighbouring countries, and remained
paramount till the Fula under Sheikh Dan Fodio in 1810 conquered the
Hausa states and founded the Fula empire of Sokoto (see FULA).

The Hausa, who number upwards of 5,000,000, form the most important
nation of the central Sudan. They are undoubtedly nigritic, though in
places with a strong crossing of Fula and Arab blood. Morally and
intellectually they are, however, far superior to the typical Negro.
They are a powerful, heavily built race, with skin as black as most
Negroes, but with lips not so thick nor hair so woolly. They excel in
physical strength. The average Hausa will carry on his head a load of
ninety or a hundred pounds without showing the slightest signs of
fatigue during a long day's march. When carrying their own goods it is
by no means uncommon for them to take double this weight. They are a
peaceful and industrious people, living partly in farmsteads amid their
crops, partly in large trading centres such as Kano, Katsena and Yakoba
(Bauchi). They are extremely intelligent and even cultured, and have
exercised a civilizing effect upon their Fula conquerors to whose
oppressive rule they submitted. They are excellent agriculturists, and,
almost unaided by foreign influence, they have developed a variety of
industries, such as the making of cloth, mats, leather and glass. In
Sierra Leone and the Gold Coast territory they form the backbone of the
military police, and under English leadership have again and again shown
themselves to be admirable fighters and capable of a high degree of
discipline and good conduct. Their food consists chiefly of guinea corn
(_sorghum vulgare_), which is ground up and eaten as a sort of porridge
mixed with large quantities of red pepper. The Hausa attribute their
superiority in strength to the fact that they live on guinea corn
instead of yams and bananas, which form the staple food of the tribes on
the river Niger. The Hausa carried on agriculture chiefly by slave
labour; they are themselves born traders, and as such are to be met with
in almost every part of Africa north of the equator. Small colonies of
them are to be found in towns as far distant from one another as Lagos,
Tunis, Tripoli, Alexandria and Suakin.

  _Language._--The Hausa language has a wider range over Africa north of
  the equator, south of Barbary and west of the valley of the Nile, than
  any other tongue. It is a rich sonorous language, with a vocabulary
  containing perhaps 10,000 words. As an example of the richness of the
  vocabulary Bishop Crowther mentions that there are eight names for
  different parts of the day from cockcrow till after sunset. About a
  third of the words are connected with Arabic roots, nor are these such
  as the Hausa could well have borrowed in anything like recent times
  from the Arabs. Many words representing ideas or things with which
  the Hausa must have been familiar from the very earliest time are
  obviously connected with Arabic or Semitic roots. There is a certain
  amount of resemblance between the Hausa language and that spoken by
  the Berbers to the south of Tripoli and Tunis. This language, again,
  has several striking points of resemblance with Coptic. If, as seems
  likely, the connexion between these three languages should be
  demonstrated, such connexion would serve to corroborate the Hausa
  tradition that their ancestors came from the very far east away beyond
  Mecca. The Hausa language has been reduced to writing for at least a
  century, possibly very much longer. It is the only language in
  tropical Africa which has been reduced to writing by the natives
  themselves, unless the Vai alphabet, introduced by a native inventor
  in the interior of Liberia in the first half of the 19th century be
  excepted; the character used is a modified form of Arabic. Some
  fragments of literature exist, consisting of political and religious
  poems, together with a limited amount of native history. A volume,
  consisting of history and poems reproduced in facsimile, with
  translations, has been published by the Cambridge University Press.

  _Religion._--About one-third of the people are professed Mahommedans,
  one-third are heathen, and the remainder have apparently no definite
  form of religion. Their Mahommedanism dates from the 14th century, but
  became more general when the Fula sheikh Dan Fodio initiated the
  religious war which ended in the founding of the Fula empire. Ever
  since then the ruler of Sokoto has been acknowledged as the religious
  head of the whole country, and tribute has been paid to him as such.
  The Hausa who profess Mahommedanism are extremely ignorant of their
  own faith, and what little religious fanaticism exists is chiefly
  confined to the Fula. Large numbers of the Hausa start every year on
  the pilgrimage to Mecca, travelling sometimes across the Sahara desert
  and by way of Tripoli and Alexandria, sometimes by way of Wadai,
  Darfur, Khartum and Suakin. The journey often occupies five or six
  years, and is undertaken quite as much from trading as from religious
  motives. Mahommedanism is making very slow, if any, progress amongst
  the Hausa. The greatest obstacle to its general acceptance is the
  institution of the Ramadan fast. In a climate so hot as that of
  Hausaland, the obligation to abstain from food and drink from sunrise
  to sunset during one month in the year is a serious difficulty. Until
  the last decade of the 19th century no important attempt had been made
  to introduce Christianity, but the fact that the Hausa are fond of
  reading, and that native schools exist in all parts of the country,
  should greatly facilitate the work of Christian missionaries.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--El Hage Abd Salam Shabeeny, _Account of Timbuctoo and
  Haussa Territories_ (1820); Norris, _Dialogues and part of the New
  Testament in the English, Arabic, Haussa and Bornu Languages_ (1853);
  Koelle, _Polyglotta Africana_ (1854); Schön, _Grammar of the Hausa
  Language_ (London, 1862), _Hausa Reading Book_ (1877), and also _A
  Dictionary of the Hausa Language_ (1877). Schön has also produced
  Hausa translations of Gen. (1858), Matt. (1857) and Luke (1858).
  Heinrich Barth, _Travels in North and Central Africa_ (2 vols.,
  London, 1857); _Central-afrikanische Vokabularien_ (Gotha, 1867); C.
  H. Robinson, _Hausaland, or Fifteen Hundred Miles through the Central
  Soudan_ (1896); _Specimens of Hausa Literature_ (1896); _Hausa
  Grammar_ (1897); _Hausa Dictionary_ (1899); P. L. Monteil, _De
  St-Louis à Tripoli par le lac Tchad_ (Paris, 1895); Lt. Seymour
  Vandeleur, _Campaigning on the Upper Nile and Niger_ (1898).



HAUSER, KASPAR, a German youth whose life was remarkable from the
circumstances of apparently inexplicable mystery in which it was
involved. He appeared on the 26th of May 1828, in the streets of
Nuremberg, dressed in the garb of a peasant, and with such a helpless
and bewildered air that he attracted the attention of the passers-by. In
his possession was found a letter purporting to be written by a poor
labourer, stating that the boy was given into his custody on the 7th of
October 1812, and that according to agreement he had instructed him in
reading, writing, and the Christian religion, but that up to the time
fixed for relinquishing his custody he had kept him in close
confinement. Along with this letter was enclosed another purporting to
be written by the boy's mother, stating that he was born on the 30th of
April 1812, that his name was Kaspar, and that his father, formerly a
cavalry officer in the 6th regiment at Nuremberg, was dead. The
appearance, bearing, and professions of the youth corresponded closely
with these credentials. He showed a repugnance to all nourishment except
bread and water, was seemingly ignorant of outward objects, wrote his
name as Kaspar Hauser, and said that he wished to be a cavalry officer
like his father. For some time he was detained in prison at Nuremberg as
a vagrant, but on the 18th of July 1828 he was delivered over by the
town authorities to the care of a schoolmaster, Professor Daumer, who
undertook to be his guardian and to take the charge of his education.
Further mysteries accumulated about Kaspar's personality and conduct,
not altogether unconnected with the vogue in Germany, at that time, of
"animal magnetism," "somnambulism," and similar theories of the occult
and strange. People associated him with all sorts of possibilities. On
the 17th of October 1829 he was found to have received a wound in the
forehead, which, according to his own statement, had been inflicted on
him by a man with a blackened face. Having on this account been removed
to the house of a magistrate and placed under close surveillance, he was
visited by Earl Stanhope, who became so interested in his history that
he sent him in 1832 to Ansbach to be educated under a certain Dr Meyer.
After this he became clerk in the office of Paul John Anselm von
Feuerbach, president of the court of appeal, who had begun to pay
attention to his case in 1828; and his strange history was almost
forgotten by the public when the interest in it was suddenly revived by
his receiving a deep wound on his left breast, on the 14th of December
1833, and dying from it three or four days afterwards. He affirmed that
the wound was inflicted by a stranger, but many believed it to be the
work of his own hand, and that he did not intend it to be fatal, but
only so severe as to give a sufficient colouring of truth to his story.
The affair created a great sensation, and produced a long literary
agitation. But the whole story remains somewhat mysterious. Lord
Stanhope eventually became decidedly sceptical as to Kaspar's stories,
and ended by being accused of contriving his death!

  In 1830 a pamphlet was published at Berlin, entitled _Kaspar Hauser
  nicht unwahrscheinlich ein Betrüger_; but the truthfulness of his
  statements was defended by Daumer, who published _Mitteilungen über
  Kaspar Hauser_ (Nuremberg, 1832), and _Enthüllungen über Kaspar
  Hauser_ (Frankfort, 1859); as well as _Kaspar Hauser, sein Wesen,
  seine Unschuld_, &c. (Regensburg, 1873), in answer to Meyer's (a son
  of Kaspar's tutor) _Authentische Mitteilungen über Kaspar Hauser_
  (Ansbach, 1872). Feuerbach awakened considerable psychological
  interest in the case by his pamphlet _Kaspar Hauser, Beispiel eines
  Verbrechens am Seelenleben_ (Ansbach, 1832), and Earl Stanhope also
  took part in the discussion by publishing _Materialien zur Geschichte
  K. Hausers_ (Heidelberg, 1836). The theory of Daumer and Feuerbach and
  other pamphleteers (finally presented in 1892 by Miss Elizabeth E.
  Evans in her _Story of Kaspar Hauser from Authentic Records_) was that
  the youth was the crown prince of Baden, the legitimate son of the
  grand-duke Charles of Baden, and that he had been kidnapped at
  Karlsruhe in October 1812 by minions of the countess of Hochberg
  (morganatic wife of the grand-duke) in order to secure the succession
  to her offspring; but this theory was answered in 1875 by the
  publication in the Augsburg _Allgemeine Zeitung_ of the official
  record of the baptism, post-mortem examination and burial of the heir
  supposed to have been kidnapped. See _Kaspar Hauser und sein badisches
  Prinzentum_ (Heidelberg, 1876). In 1883 the story was again revived in
  a Regensburg pamphlet attacking, among other people, Dr Meyer; and the
  sons of the latter, who was dead, brought an action for libel, under
  the German law, to which no defence was made; all the copies of the
  pamphlet were ordered to be destroyed. The evidence has been subtly
  analyzed by Andrew Lang in his _Historical Mysteries_ (1904), with
  results unfavourable to the "romantic" version of the story. Lang's
  view is that possibly Kaspar was a sort of "ambulatory automatist," an
  instance of a phenomenon, known by other cases to students of
  psychical abnormalities, of which the characteristics are a mania for
  straying away and the persistence of delusions as to identity; but he
  inclines to regard Kaspar as simply a "humbug." The "authentic
  records" purporting to confirm the kidnapping story Lang stigmatizes
  as "worthless and impudent rubbish." The evidence is in any case in
  complete confusion.



HAUSMANN, JOHANN FRIEDRICH LUDWIG (1782-1859), German mineralogist, was
born at Hanover on the 22nd of February 1782. He was educated at
Göttingen, where he obtained the degree of Ph.D. After making a
geological tour in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 1807, he was two years
later placed at the head of a government mining establishment in
Westphalia, and he established a school of mines at Clausthal in the
Harz mountains. In 1811 he was appointed professor of technology and
mining, and afterwards of geology and mineralogy in the university of
Göttingen, and this chair he occupied until a short time before his
death. He was also for many years secretary of the Royal Academy of
Sciences of Göttingen. He published observations on geology and
mineralogy in Spain and Italy as well as in central and northern Europe:
he wrote on gypsum, pyrites, felspar, tachylite, cordierite and on some
eruptive rocks, and he devoted much attention to the crystals developed
during metallurgical processes. He died at Hanover on the 26th of
December 1859.

  PUBLICATIONS.--_Grundlinien einer Encyklopädie der
  Bergwerkswissenschaften_ (1811); _Reise durch Skandinavien_ (5 vols.,
  1811-1818); _Handbuch der Mineralogie_ (3 vols., 1813; 2nd ed.,
  1828-1847).



HAUSRATH, ADOLPH (1837-1909), German theologian, was born at Karlsruhe
on the 13th of January 1837 and was educated at Jena, Göttingen, Berlin
and Heidelberg, where he became _Privatdozent_ in 1861, professor
extraordinary in 1867 and ordinary professor in 1872. He was a disciple
of the Tübingen school and a strong Protestant. Among other works he
wrote _Der Apostel Paulus_ (1865), _Neutestamentliche Zeitgeschichte_
(1868-1873, 4 vols.; Eng. trans.), _D. F. Strauss und die Theologie
seiner Zeit_ (1876-1878, 2 vols.), and lives of _Richard Rothe_ (2 vols.
1902), and _Luther_ (1904). His scholarship was sound and his style
vigorous. Under the pseudonym George Taylor he wrote several historical
romances, especially _Antinous_ (1880), which quickly ran through five
editions, and is the story of a soul "which courted death because the
objective restraints of faith had been lost." _Klytia_ (1883) was a
16th-century story, _Jetta_ (1884) a tale of the great immigrations, and
_Elfriede_ "a romance of the Rhine." He died on the 2nd of August 1909.



HÄUSSER, LUDWIG (1818-1867), German historian, was born at Kleeburg, in
Alsace. Studying philology at Heidelberg in 1835, he was led by F. C.
Schlosser to give it up for history, and after continuing his historical
work at Jena and teaching in the gymnasium at Wertheim he made his mark
by his _Die teutschen Geschichtsschreiber vom Anfang des Frankenreichs
bis auf die Hohenstaufen_ (1839). Next year appeared his _Sage von
Tell_. After a short period of study in Paris on the French Revolution,
he spent some time working in the archives of Baden and Bavaria, and
published in 1845 _Die Geschichte der rheinischen Pfalz_, which won for
him a professorship _extraordinarius_ at Heidelberg. In 1850 he became
_professor ordinarius_. Häusser also interested himself in politics
while at Heidelberg, publishing in 1846 _Schleswig-Holstein, Dänemark
und Deutschland_, and editing with Gervinus the _Deutsche Zeitung_. In
1848 he was elected to the lower legislative chamber of Baden, and in
1850 advocated the project of union with Prussia at the parliament held
at Erfurt. Another timely work was his edition of Friedrich List's
_Gesammelte Schriften_ (1850), accompanied with a life of the author.
His greatest achievement, and the one on which his fame as an historian
rests, is his _Deutsche Geschichte vom Tode Friedrichs des Grossen bis
zur Gründung des deutschen Bundes_ (Leipzig, 1854-1857, 4 vols.). This
was the first work covering that period based on a scientific study of
the archival sources. In 1859 he again took part in politics, resuming
his place in the lower chamber, opposing in 1863 the project of Austria
for the reform of the Confederation brought forward in the assembly of
princes at Frankfort, in his book _Die Reform des deutschen
Bundestages_, and becoming one of the leaders of the "little German"
(_kleindeutsche_) party, which advocated the exclusion of Austria from
Germany. In addition to various essays (in his _Gesammelte Schriften_,
Berlin, 1869-1870, 2 vols.), Häusser's lectures have been edited by W.
Oncken in the _Geschichte des Zeitalters der Reformation_ (1869, 2nd ed.
1880), and _Geschichte der französischen Revolution_ (1869, 2nd ed.
1870). These lectures reveal all the charm of style and directness of
presentation which made Häusser's work as a professor so vital.

  See W. Wattenbach, _Lud. Häusser, ein Vortrag_ (Heidelberg, 1867).



HAUSSMANN, GEORGES EUGÈNE, BARON (1809-1891), whose name is associated
with the rebuilding of Paris, was born in that city on the 27th of March
1809 of a Protestant family, German in origin. He was educated at the
Collège Henri IV, and subsequently studied law, attending simultaneously
the classes at the Paris conservatoire of music, for he was a good
musician. He became sous-préfet of Nérac in 1830, and advanced rapidly
in the civil service until in 1853 he was chosen by Persigny prefect of
the Seine in succession to Jean Jacques Berger, who hesitated to incur
the vast expenses of the imperial schemes for the embellishment of
Paris. Haussmann laid out the Bois de Boulogne, and made extensive
improvements in the smaller parks. The gardens of the Luxembourg Palace
were cut down to allow of the formation of new streets, and the
Boulevard de Sebastopol, the southern half of which is now the Boulevard
St Michel, was driven through a populous district. A new water supply, a
gigantic system of sewers, new bridges, the opera, and other public
buildings, the inclusion of outlying districts--these were among the new
prefect's achievements, accomplished by the aid of a bold handling of
the public funds which called forth Jules Ferry's indictment, _Les
Comptes fantastiques de Haussmann_, in 1867. A loan of 250 million
francs was sanctioned for the city of Paris in 1865, and another of 260
million in 1869. These sums represented only part of his financial
schemes, which led to his dismissal by the government of Émile Ollivier.
After the fall of the Empire he spent about a year abroad, but he
re-entered public life in 1877, when he became Bonapartist deputy for
Ajaccio. He died in Paris on the 11th of January 1891. Haussmann had
been made senator in 1857, member of the Academy of Fine Arts in 1867,
and grand cross of the Legion of Honour in 1862. His name is preserved
in the Boulevard Haussmann. His later years were occupied with the
preparation of his _Mémoires_ (3 vols., 1890-1893).



HAUSSONVILLE, JOSEPH OTHENIN BERNARD DE CLÉRON, COMTE D' (1809-1884),
French politician and historian, was born in Paris on the 27th of May
1809. His grandfather had been "grand louvetier" of France; his father
Charles Louis Bernard de Cléron, comte d'Haussonville (1770-1846), was
chamberlain at the court of Napoleon, a count of the French empire, and
under the Restoration a peer of France and an opponent of the Villéle
ministry. Comte Joseph had filled a series of diplomatic appointments at
Brussels, Turin and Naples before he entered the chamber of deputies in
1842 for Provins. Under the Second Empire he published a liberal
anti-imperial paper at Brussels, _Le Bulletin français_, and in 1863 he
actively supported the candidature of Prévost Paradol. He was elected to
the French Academy in 1869, in recognition of his historical writings,
_Histoire de la politique extérieure du gouvernement français de 1830 à
1848_ (2 vols., 1850), _Histoire de la réunion de la Lorraine à la
France_ (4 vols., 1854-1859), _L'Église romaine et le premier empire
1800-1814_ (5 vols., 1864-1879). In 1870 he published a pamphlet
directed against the Prussian treatment of France, _La France et la
Prusse devant l'Europe_, the sale of which was prohibited in Belgium at
the request of King William of Prussia. He was the president of an
association formed to provide new homes in Algeria for the inhabitants
of Alsace-Lorraine who elected to retain their French nationality. In
1878 he was made a life-senator, in which capacity he allied himself
with the Right Centre in defence of the religious associations against
the anti-clericals. He died in Paris on the 28th of May 1884.

His wife Louise (1818-1882), a daughter of Duc Victor de Broglie,
published in 1858 a novel _Robert Emmet_, followed by _Marguerite de
Valois reine de Navarre_ (1870), _La Jeunesse de Lord Byron_ (1872), and
_Les Dernières Années de Lord Byron_ (1874).

His son, GABRIEL PAUL OTHERIN DE CLÉRON, comte d'Haussonville, was born
at Gurcy de Châtel (Seine-et-Marne) on the 21st of September 1843, and
married in 1865 Mlle Pauline d'Harcourt. He represented Seine-et-Marne
in the National Assembly (1871) and voted with the Right Centre. Though
he was not elected to the chamber of deputies he became the right-hand
man of his maternal uncle, the duc de Broglie, in the attempted coup of
the 16th of May. His _Établissements pénitentiaires en France et aux
colonies_ (1875) was crowned by the Academy, of which he was admitted a
member in 1888. In 1891 the resignation of Henri Édouard Bocher from the
administration of the Orleans estates led to the appointment of M
d'Haussonville as accredited representative of the comte de Paris in
France. He at once set to work to strengthen the Orleanist party by
recruiting from the smaller nobility the officials of the local
monarchical committees. He established new Orleanist organs, and sent
out lecturers with instructions to emphasize the modern and democratic
principles of the comte de Paris; but the prospects of the party were
dashed in 1894 by the death of the comte de Paris. In 1904 he was
admitted to the Academy of Moral and Political Science. The comte
d'Haussonville published:--_C. A. Sainte-Beuve, sa vie et ses oeuvres_
(1875), _Études biographiques et littéraires_, 2 series (1879 and 1888),
_Le Salon de Mme Necker_ (1882, 2 vols.), _Madame de La Fayette_ (1891),
_Madame Ackermann_ (1892), _Le Comte de Paris, souvenirs personnels_
(1895), _La Duchesse de Bourgogne et l'alliance savoyarde_ (1898-1903),
_Salaire et misères de femme_ (1900), and, with G. Hanotaux, _Souvenirs
sur Madame de Maintenon_ (3 vols., 1902-1904).



HAUTE-GARONNE, a frontier department of south-western France, formed in
1790 from portions of the provinces of Languedoc (Toulousain and
Lauraguais) and Gascony (Comminges and Nébouzan). Pop. (1906), 442,065.
Area, 2458 sq. m. It is bounded N. by the department of Tarn-et-Garonne,
E. by Tarn, Aude and Ariége, S. by Spain and W. by Gers and
Hautes-Pyrénées. Long and narrow in shape, the department consists in the
north of an undulating stretch of country with continual interchange of
hill and valley nowhere thrown into striking relief; while towards the
south the land rises gradually to the Pyrenees, which on the Spanish
border attain heights of upwards of 10,000 ft. Two passes, the Port d'Oo,
near the beautiful lake and waterfall of Oo, and the Port de Vénasque,
exceed 9800 and 7900 ft. in altitude respectively. Entering the
department in the south-east, the Garonne flows in a northerly direction
and traverses almost its entire length, receiving in its course the
Pique, the Salat, the Louge, the Ariége, the Touch and the Save. Except
in the mountainous region the climate is mild, the mean annual
temperature being rather higher than that of Paris. The rainfall, which
averages 24 in. at Toulouse, exceeds 40 in. in some parts of the
mountains; and sudden and destructive inundations of the Garonne--of
which that of 1875 is a celebrated example--are always to be feared. The
valley of the Garonne is also frequently visited by severe hail-storms.
Thick forests of oak, fir and pine exist in the mountains and furnish
timber for shipbuilding. The arable land of the plains and valleys is
well adapted for the cultivation of wheat, maize and other grain crops;
and the produce of cereals is generally much more than is required for
the local consumption. Market-gardening flourishes around Toulouse. A
large area is occupied by vineyards, though the wine is only of medium
quality; and chestnuts, apples and peaches are grown. As pasture land is
abundant a good deal of attention is given to the rearing of cattle and
sheep, and co-operative dairies are numerous in the mountains; but
deforestation has tended to reduce the area of pasture-land, because the
soil, unretained by the roots of trees, has been gradually washed away.
Haute-Garonne has deposits of zinc and lead, and salt-workings; there is
an ancient and active marble-working industry at St Béat. Mineral springs
are common, those of Bagnères-de-Luchon Encausse, Barbazan and
Salies-du-Salat being well known. The manufactures are various though not
individually extensive, and include iron and copper goods, woollen,
cotton and linen goods, leather, paper, boots and shoes, tobacco and
table delicacies. Flour-mills, iron-works and brick-works are numerous.
Railway communication is furnished by the Southern and the Orléans
railways, the main line of the former from Bordeaux to Cette passing
through Toulouse. The Canal du Midi traverses the department for 32 m.
and the lateral canal of the Garonne for 15 m. The Garonne is navigable
below its confluence with the Salat. There are four
arrondissements--Toulouse, Villefranche, Muret and St Gaudens, subdivided
into 39 cantons and 588 communes. The chief town is Toulouse, which is
the seat of a court of appeal and of an archbishop, the headquarters of
the XVIIth army corps and the centre of an academy; and St Gaudens,
Bagnères-de-Luchon and, from an architectural and historical standpoint,
St Bertrand-de-Comminges are of importance and receive separate
treatment. Other places of interest are St Aventin, Montsaunès and
Vénerque, which possess ancient churches in the Romanesque style. The
church of St Just at Valcabrère is of still greater age, the choir dating
from the 8th or 9th century and part of the nave from the 11th century.
There are ruins of a celebrated Cistercian abbey at Bonnefont near St
Martory. Gallo-Roman remains and works of art have been discovered at
Martres. Near Revel is the fine reservoir of St Ferréol, constructed for
the canal du Midi in the 17th century.



HAUTE-LOIRE, a department of central France, formed in 1790 of Velay and
portions of Vivarais and Gévaudan, three districts formerly belonging to
the old province of Languedoc, of a portion of Forez formerly belonging
to Lyonnais, and a portion of lower Auvergne. Pop. (1906), 314,770.
Area, 1931 sq. m. It is bounded N. by Puy-de-Dôme and Loire, E. by Loire
and Ardèche, S. by Ardèche and Lozère and W. by Lozère and Cantal.
Haute-Loire, which is situated on the central plateau of France, is
traversed from north to south by four mountain ranges. Its highest
point, the Mont Mézenc (5755 ft.), in the south-east of the department,
belongs to the mountains of Vivarais, which are continued along the
eastern border by the Boutières chain. The Lignon divides the Boutières
from the Massif du Mégal, which is separated by the Loire itself from
the mountains of Velay, a granitic range overlaid with the eruptions of
more than one hundred and fifty craters. The Margeride mountains run
along the western border of the department. The Loire enters the
department at a point 16 m. distant from its source in Ardèche, and
first flowing northwards and then north-east, waters its eastern half.
The Allier, which joins the Loire at Nevers, traverses the western
portion of Haute-Loire in a northerly direction. The chief affluents of
the Loire within the limits of the department are the Borne on the left,
joining it near Le Puy, and the Lignon, which descends from the Mézenc,
between the Boutières and Mégal ranges, on the right. The climate, owing
to the altitude, the northward direction of the valleys, and the winds
from the Cévennes, is cold, the winters being long and rigorous. Storms
and violent rains are frequent on the higher grounds, and would give
rise to serious inundations were not the rivers for the most part
confined within deep rocky channels. Cereals, chiefly rye, oats, barley
and wheat, are cultivated in the lowlands and on the plateaus, on which
aromatic and medicinal plants are abundant. Lentils, peas,
mangel-wurzels and other forage and potatoes are also grown. Horned
cattle belong principally to the Mézenc breed; goats are numerous. The
woods yield pine, fir, oak and beech. Lace-making, which employs about
90,000 women, and coal-mining are main industries; the coal basins are
those of Brassac and Langeac. There are also mines of antimony and
stone-quarries. Silk-milling, caoutchouc-making, various kinds of
smith's work, paper-making, glass-blowing, brewing, wood-sawing and
flour-milling are also carried on. The principal imports are flour,
brandy, wine, live-stock, lace-thread and agricultural implements.
Exports include fat stock, wool, aromatic plants, coal, lace. The
department is served chiefly by the Paris-Lyon-Méditerranée company.
There are three arrondissements--Le Puy, Brioude and Yssingeaux, with 28
cantons and 265 communes.

Haute-Loire forms the diocese of Le Puy and part of the ecclesiastical
province of Bourges, and belongs to the academie (educational division)
of Clermont-Ferrand. Its court of appeal is at Riom. Le Puy the capital,
Brioude and La Chaise-Dieu the principal towns of the department,
receive separate treatment. It has some notable churches, of which those
of Chamalières, St Paulien and Sainte-Marie-des-Chazes are Romanesque in
style; Le Monastier preserves the church, in part Romanesque, and the
buildings of the abbey to which it owes its origin. Arlempdes and
Bouzols (near Coubon) have the ruins of large feudal châteaus. The rocky
plateau overlooking Polignac is occupied by the ruins of the imposing
stronghold of the ancient family of Polignac, including a square donjon
of the 14th century. Interesting Gallo-Roman remains have been found on
the site.



HAUTE-MARNE, a department of north-eastern France, made up for the most
part of districts belonging to the former province of Champagne
(Bassigny, Perthois, Vallage), with smaller portions of Lorraine and
Burgundy, and some fragments of Franche-Comté. Area, 2415 sq. m. Pop.
(1906), 221,724. It is bounded N.E. by Meuse, E. by Vosges, S.E. by
Haute-Saône, S. and S.W. by Côte d'Or, W. by Aube, and N.W. by Marne.
Its greatest elevation (1693 ft.) is in the plateau of Langres in the
south between the sources of the Marne and those of the Aube; the
watershed between the basin of the Rhone on the south and those of the
Seine and Meuse on the north, which is formed by the plateau of Langres
continued north-east by the Monts Faucilles, has an average height of
1500 or 1600 ft. The country descends rapidly towards the south, but in
very gentle slopes northwards. To the north is Bassigny (the paybas or
low country, as distinguished from the highlands), a district
characterized by monotonous flats of little fertility and extensive
wooded tracts. The lowest level of the department is 361 ft.
Hydrographically Haute-Marne belongs for the most part to the basin of
the Seine, the remainder to those of the Rhone and the Meuse. The
principal river is the Marne, which rises here, and has a course of 75
m. within the department. Among its more important affluents are, on the
right the Rognon, and on the left the Blaise. The Saulx, another
tributary of the Marne on the right, also rises in Haute-Marne. Westward
the department is watered by the Aube and its tributary the Aujon, both
of which have their sources on the plateau of Langres. The Meuse also
rises in the Monts Faucilles, and has a course of 31 m. within the
department. On the Mediterranean side the department sends to the Saône
the Apance, the Amance, the Salon and the Vingeanne. The climate is
partly that of the Seine region, partly that of the Vosges, and partly
that of the Rhone; the mean temperature is 51° F., nearly that of Paris;
the rainfall is slightly below the average for France.

The agriculture of the department is carried on chiefly by small
proprietors. The chief crops are wheat and oats, which are more than
sufficient for the needs of the inhabitants; potatoes, lucerne and
mangel-wurzels are next in importance. Natural pasture is abundant,
especially in Bassigny, where horse and cattle-raising flourish. The
vineyards produce some fair wines, notably the white wine of Soyers.
More than a quarter of the territory is under wood. The department is
rich in iron and building and other varieties of stone are quarried. The
warm springs of Bourbonne-les-Bains are among the earliest known and
most frequented in France. The leading industry is the metallurgical;
its establishments include blast furnaces, foundries, forges,
plate-rolling works, and shops for nailmaking and smith's work of
various descriptions. St Dizier is the chief centre of manufacture and
distribution. The cutlery trade occupies thousands of hands at
Nogent-en-Bassigny and in the neighbourhood of Langres. Val d'Osne is
well known for its production of fountains, statues, &c., in metal-work.
Flour-milling, glove-making (at Chaumont), basket-making, brewing,
tanning and other industries are also carried on. The principal import
is coal, while manufactured goods, iron, stone, wood and cereals are
exported. The department is served by the Eastern railway, of which the
line from Paris to Belfort passes through Chaumont and Langres. The
canal from the Marne to the Saône and the canal of the Haute-Marne,
which accompany the Marne, together cover 99 m.; there is a canal 14 m.
long from St Dizier to Wassy. There are three arrondissements (Chaumont,
Langres and Wassy), with 28 cantons and 550 communes. Chaumont is the
capital. The department forms the diocese of Langres; it belongs to the
VII. military region and to the educational circumscription (académie)
of Dijon, where also is its court of appeal. The principal
towns--Chaumont, Langres, St Dizier and Bourbonne-les-Bains--receive
separate notice. At Montier-en-Der the remains of an abbey founded in
the 7th century include a fine church with nave and aisles of the 10th,
and choir of the 13th century. Wassy, the scene in 1562 of the
celebrated massacre of Protestants by the troops of Francis, duke of
Guise, has among its old buildings a church much of which dates from the
Romanesque period. Vignory has a church of the 11th century. Joinville,
a metallurgical centre, preserves a chateau of the dukes of Guise in the
Renaissance style. Pailly, near Langres, has a fine chateau of the last
half of the 16th century.



HAUTERIVE, ALEXANDRE MAURICE BLANC DE LANAUTTE, COMTE D' (1754-1830),
French statesman and diplomatist, was born at Aspres (Hautes-Alpes) on
the 14th of April 1754, and was educated at Grenoble, where he became a
professor. Later he held a similar position at Tours, and there he
attracted the attention of the duc de Choiseul, who invited him to visit
him at Chanteloup. Hauterive thus came in contact with the great men who
visited the duke, and one of these, the comte de Choiseul-Goiffier, on
his appointment as ambassador to Constantinople in 1784 took him with
him. Hauterive was enriched for a time by his marriage with a widow,
Madame de Marchais, but was ruined by the Revolution. In 1790 he applied
for and received the post of consul at New York. Under the Consulate,
however, he was accused of embezzlement and recalled; and, though the
charge was proved to be false, was not reinstated. In 1798, after trying
his hand at farming in America, Hauterive was appointed to a post in the
French foreign office. In this capacity he made a sensation by his
_L'État de la France à la fin de l'an VIII_ (1800), which he had been
commissioned by Bonaparte to draw up, as a manifesto to foreign nations,
after the _coup d'état_ of the 18th Brumaire. This won him the
confidence of Bonaparte, and he was henceforth employed in drawing up
many of the more important documents. In 1805 he was made a councillor
of state and member of the Legion of Honour, and between 1805 and 1813
he was more than once temporarily minister of foreign affairs. He
attempted, though vainly, to use his influence to moderate Napoleon's
policy, especially in the matter of Spain and the treatment of the pope.
In 1805 a difference of opinion with Talleyrand on the question of the
Austrian alliance, which Hauterive favoured, led to his withdrawal from
the political side of the ministry of foreign affairs, and he was
appointed keeper of the archives of the same department. In this
capacity he did very useful work, and after the Restoration continued in
this post at the request of the duc de Richelieu, his work being
recognized by his election as a member of the Académie des Inscriptions
et Belles-Lettres in 1820. He died at Paris on the 28th of July 1830.

  There is a detailed account of Hauterive, with considerable extracts
  from his correspondence with Talleyrand, in the _Biographie
  universelle_ by A. F. Artand de Montor, who published a separate life
  in 1831. Criticisms of his _État de la France_ appeared in Germany and
  England by F. von Gentz (_Von dem politischen Zustände_, 1801), and by
  T. B. Clarke (_A Hist. and Pol. View ..._, 1803).



HAUTES ALPES, a department in S.E. France, formed in 1790 out of the
south-eastern portion of the old province of Dauphiné, together with a
small part of N. Provence. It is bounded N. by the department of Savoie,
E. by Italy and the department of the Basses Alpes, S. by the last-named
department and that of the Drôme, and W. by the departments of the Drôme
and of the Isère. Its area is 2178 sq. m., its greatest length is 85 m.
and its greatest breadth 62 m. It is very mountainous, and includes the
Pointe des Écrins (13,462 ft.), the loftiest summit in France before the
annexation of Savoy in 1860, as well as the Meije (13,081 ft.), the
Ailefroide (12,989 ft.) and the Mont Pelvoux (12,973 ft.), though Monte
Viso (12,609 ft.) is wholly in Italy, rising just over the border. The
department is to a large extent made up of the basins of the upper
Durance (with its tributaries, the Guisane, the Gyronde and the Guil),
of the upper Drac and of the Buëch--all being to a very large extent
wild mountain torrents in their upper course. The department is divided
into three arrondissements (Gap, Briançon and Embrun), 24 cantons and
186 communes. In 1906 its population was 107,498. It is a very poor
department owing to its great elevation above the sea-level. There are
no industries of any extent, and its commerce is almost wholly of local
importance. The prolonged winter greatly hinders agricultural
development, while the pastoral region has been greatly damaged and the
forests destroyed by the ravages of the Provençal sheep, vast flocks of
which are driven up here in the summer, as the pastures are leased out
to a large extent, and but little utilized by the inhabitants. It now
forms the diocese of Gap (this see is first certainly mentioned in the
6th century), which is in the ecclesiastical province of Aix en
Provence; in 1791 there was annexed to it the archiepiscopal see of
Embrun, which was then suppressed. There are 114 m. of railway in the
department. This includes the main line from Briançon past Gap towards
Grenoble. About 16½ m. W. of Gap is the important railway junction of
Veynes, whence branch off the lines to Grenoble, to Valence by Die and
Livron, and to Sisteron for Marseilles. The chief town is Gap, while
Briançon and Embrun are the only other important places.

See J. Roman, _Dictionnaire topographique du dép. des Htes-Alpes_
(Paris, 1884), _Tableau historique du dép. des Htes-Alpes_ (Paris,
1887-1890, 2 vols.), and _Répertoire archéologique du dép. des
Htes-Alpes_(Paris, 1888); J. C. F. Ladoucette, _Histoire, topographie,
&c., des Hautes-Alpes_ (3rd ed., Paris, 1848).     (W. A. B. C.)



HAUTE-SAÔNE, a department of eastern France, formed in 1790 from the
northern portion of Franche Comté. It is traversed by the river Saône,
bounded N. by the department of the Vosges, E. by the territory of
Belfort, S. by Doubs and Jura, and W. by Côte-d'Or and Haute-Marne. Pop.
(1906), 263,890; area, 2075 sq. m. On the north-east, where they are
formed by the Vosges, and to the south along the course of the Ognon the
limits are natural. The highest point of the department is the Ballon de
Servance (3970 ft.), and the lowest the confluence of the Saône and
Ognon (610 ft.). The general slope is from north-east to south-west, the
direction followed by those two streams. In the north-east the
department belongs to the Vosgian formation, consisting of forest-clad
mountains of sandstone and granite, and is of a marshy nature; but
throughout the greater part of its extent it is composed of limestone
plateaus 800 to 1000 ft. high pierced with crevasses and subterranean
caves, into which the rain water disappears to issue again as springs in
the valleys 200 ft. lower down. In its passage through the department
the Saône receives from the right the Amance and the Salon from the
Langres plateau, and from the left the Coney, the Lanterne (augmented by
the Breuchin which passes by Luxeuil), the Durgeon (passing Vesoul), and
the Ognon. The north-eastern districts are cold and have an annual
rainfall ranging from 36 to 48 in. Towards the south-west the climate
becomes more temperate. At Vesoul and Gray the rainfall only reaches 24
in. per annum.

Haute-Saône is primarily agricultural. Of its total area nearly half is
arable land; wheat, oats, meslin and rye are the chief cereals and
potatoes are largely grown. The vine flourishes mainly in the
arrondissement of Gray. Apples, plums and cherries (from which the
kirsch, for which the department is famous, is distilled) are the chief
fruits. The woods which cover a quarter of the department are composed
mainly of firs in the Vosges and of oak, beech, hornbeam and aspen in
the other districts. The river-valleys furnish good pasture for the
rearing of horses and of horned cattle. The department possesses mines
of coal (at Ronchamp) and rock-salt (at Gouhenans) and stone quarries
are worked. Of the many mineral waters of Haute-Saône the best known are
the hot springs of Luxeuil (q.v.). Besides iron-working establishments
(smelting furnaces, foundries and wire-drawing mills), Haute-Saône
possesses copper-foundries, engineering works, steel-foundries and
factories at Plancher-les-Mines and elsewhere for producing ironmongery,
nails, pins, files, saws, screws, shot, chains, agricultural implements,
locks, spinning machinery, edge tools. Window-glass and glass wares,
pottery and earthenware are manufactured; there are also brick and
tile-works. The spinning and weaving of cotton, of which Héricourt (pop.
in 1906, 5194) is the chief centre, stand next in importance to metal
working, and there are numerous paper-mills. Print-works, fulling mills,
hosiery factories and straw-hat factories are also of some account; as
well as sugar works, distilleries, dye-works, saw-mills, starch-works,
the chemical works at Gouhenans, oil-mills, tanyards and flour-mills.
The department exports wheat, cattle, cheese, butter, iron, wood,
pottery, kirschwasser, plaster, leather, glass, &c. The Saône provides a
navigable channel of about 70 m., which is connected with the Moselle
and the Meuse at Corre by the Canal de l'Est along the valley of the
Coney. Gray is the chief emporium of the water-borne trade of the Saône.
Haute-Saône is served chiefly by the Eastern railway. There are three
arrondissements--Vesoul, Gray, Lure--comprising 28 cantons, 583
communes. Haute-Saône is in the district of the VII. army corps, and in
its legal, ecclesiastical and educational relations depends on Besançon.

Vesoul, the capital of the department, Gray and Luxeuil are the
principal towns. There is an important school of agriculture at St Rémy
in the arrondissement of Vesoul. The Roman ruins and mosaics at Membrey
in the arrondissement of Gray and the church (13th and 15th centuries)
and abbey buildings at Faverney, in the arrondissement of Vesoul, are of
antiquarian interest.



HAUTE-SAVOIE, a frontier department of France, formed in 1860 of the old
provinces of the Genevois, the Chablais and the Faucigny, which
constituted the northern portion of the duchy of Savoy. It is bounded N.
by the canton and Lake of Geneva, E. by the Swiss canton of the Valais,
S. by Italy and the department of Savoie, and W. by the department of
the Ain. It is mainly made up of the river-basins of the Arve (flowing
along the northern foot of the Mont Blanc range, and receiving the
Giffre, on the right, and the Borne and Foron, on the left--the Arve
joins the Rhone, close to Geneva), of the Dranse (with several branches,
all flowing into the Lake of Geneva), of the Usses and of the Fier (both
flowing direct into the Rhone, the latter after forming the Lake of
Annecy). The upper course of the Arly is also in the department, but the
river then leaves it to fall into the Isère. The whole of the department
is mountainous. But the hills attain no very great height, save at its
south-east end, where rises the snowclad chain of Mont Blanc, with many
high peaks (culminating in Mont Blanc, 15,782 ft.) and many glaciers.
That portion of the department is alone frequented by travellers, whose
centre is Chamonix in the upper Arve valley. The lowest point (945 ft.)
in the department is at the junction of the Fier with the Rhone. The
whole of the department is included in that portion of the duchy of
Savoy which was neutralized in 1815. In 1906 the population of the
department was 260,617. Its area is 1775 sq. m., and it is divided into
four arrondissements (Annecy, the chief town, Bonneville, St Julien and
Thonon), 28 cantons and 314 communes. It forms the diocese of Annecy.
There are in the department 176 m. of broad-gauge railways, and 70 m. of
narrow-gauge lines. There are also a number of mineral springs, only
three of which are known to foreigners--the chalybeate waters of Évian
and Amphion, close to each other on the south shore of the Lake of
Geneva, and the chalybeate and sulphurous waters of St Gervais, at the
north-west end of the chain of Mont Blanc. Anthracite and asphalte mines
are numerous, as well as stone quarries. Cotton is manufactured at
Annecy, while Cluses is the centre of the clock-making industry. There
is a well-known bell foundry at Annecy le Vieux. Thonon (the old capital
of the Chablais) is the most important town on the southern shore of the
Lake of Geneva and, after Annecy, the most populous place in the
department.     (W. A. B. C.)



HAUTES-PYRÉNÉES, a department of south-western France, on the Spanish
frontier, formed in 1790, half of it being taken from Bigorre and the
remainder from Armagnac, Nébouzan, Astarac and Quatre Vallées, districts
which all belonged to the province of Gascony. Pop. (1906), 209,397.
Area, 1750 sq. m. Hautes-Pyrénées is bounded S. by Spain, W. by the
department of Basses-Pyrénées (which encloses on its eastern border five
communes belonging to Hautes-Pyrénées), N. by Gers and E. by
Haute-Garonne. Except on the south its boundaries are conventional. The
south of the department, comprising two-thirds of its area, is occupied
by the central Pyrénées. Some of the peaks reach or exceed the height of
10,000 ft., the Vignemale (10,820 ft.) being the highest in the French
Pyrénées. The imposing _cirques_ (Cirques de Troumouse, Gavarnie and
Estaubé), with their glaciers and waterfalls, and the pleasant valleys
attract a large number of tourists, the most noted point being the
Cirque de Gavarnie. The northern portion of the department is a region
of plains and undulating hills clothed with cornfields, vineyards and
meadows. To the north-east, however, the cold and wind-swept plateau of
Lannemezan (about 2000 ft.), the watershed of the streams that come down
on the French side of the Pyrenees, presents in its bleakness and
barrenness a striking contrast to the plain that lies below. The
department is drained by three principal streams, the Gave de Pau, the
Adour and the Neste, an affluent of the Garonne. The sources of the
first and third lie close together in the Cirque of Gavarnie and on the
slopes of Troumouse, whence they flow respectively to the north-west and
north-east. An important section of the Pyrenees, which carries the
Massif Néouvielle and the Pic du Midi de Bigorre (with its
meteorological observatory), runs northward between these two valleys.
From the Pic du Midi descends the Adour, which, after watering the
pleasant valley of Campan, leaves the mountains at Bagnères and then
divides into a multitude of channels, to irrigate the rich plain of
Tarbes. The chief of these is the Canal d'Alaric with a length of 36 m.
Beyond Hautes-Pyrénées it receives on the right the Arros, which flows
through the department from south to north-northwest; on the left it
receives the Gave de Pau. This latter stream, rising in Gavarnie, is
joined at Luz by the Gave de Bastan from Néouvielle, and at Pierrefitte
by the Gave de Cauterets, fed by streams from the Vignemale. The Gave de
Pau, after passing Argelès, a well-known centre for excursions, and
Lourdes, leaves the mountains and turns sharply from north to west; it
has a greater volume of water than the Adour, but, being more of a
mountain torrent, is regarded as a tributary of the Adour, which is
navigable in the latter part of its course. The Neste d'Aure, descending
from the peaks of Néouvielle and Troumouse, receives at Arreau the Neste
de Louron from the pass of Clarabide and flows northwards through a
beautiful valley as far as La Barthe, where it turns east; it is
important as furnishing the plateau of Lannemezan with a canal, the
Canal de la Neste, the waters of which are partly used for irrigation
and partly for supplying the streams that rise there and are dried up in
summer--the Gers and the Baïse, affluents of the Garonne. This latter
only touches the department. The climate of Hautes-Pyrénées, though very
cold on the highlands, is warm and moist in the plains, where there are
hot summers, fine autumns, mild winters and rainy springs. On the
plateau of Lannemezan, while the summers are dry and scorching, the
winters are very severe. The average annual rainfall at Tarbes, in the
north of the department, is about 34 in.; at the higher altitudes it is
much greater. The mean annual temperature at Tarbes is 59° Fahr.

Hautes-Pyrénées is agricultural in the plains, pastoral in the
highlands. The more important cereals are wheat and maize, which is much
used for the feeding of pigs and poultry, especially geese; rye, oats
and barley are grown in the mountain districts. The wines of Madiran and
Peyriguère are well known and tobacco is also cultivated; chestnut trees
and fruit trees are grown on the lower slopes. In the neighbourhood of
Tarbes and Bagnères-de-Bigorre horse-breeding is the principal
occupation and there is a famous stud at Tarbes. The horse of the region
is the result of a fusion of Arab, English and Navarrese blood and is
well fitted for saddle and harness; it is largely used by light cavalry
regiments. Cattle raising is important; the milch-cows of Lourdes and
the oxen of Tarbes and the valley of the Aure are highly esteemed. Sheep
and goats are also reared. The forests, which occur chiefly in the
highlands, contain bears, boars, wolves and other wild animals. There
are at Campan and Sarrancolin quarries of fine marble, which is sawn and
worked at Bagnères. There is a group of slate quarries at Labassère.
Deposits of lignite, lead, manganese and zinc are found. The mineral
springs of Hautes-Pyrénées are numerous and much visited. The principal
in the valley of the Gave de Pau are Cauterets (hot springs containing
sulphur and sodium), St Sauveur (springs with sulphur and sodium), and
Barèges (hot springs with sulphur and sodium), and in the valley of the
Adour Bagnères (hot or cold springs containing calcium sulphates, iron,
sulphur and sodium) and Capvern near Lannemezan (springs containing
calcium sulphates).

The department has flour-mills and saw-mills, a large military arsenal
at Tarbes, paper-mills, tanneries and manufactories of agricultural
implements and looms. The spinning and weaving of wool and the
manufacture of knitted goods are carried on; Bagnères-de-Bigorre is the
chief centre of the textile industry.

Of the passes (_ports_) into Spain, even the chief, Gavarnie (7398 ft.),
is not accessible to carriages. The department is served by the Southern
railway and is traversed from west to east by the main line from Bayonne
to Toulouse. There are three arrondissements, those of Tarbes, Argelès
and Bagnères-de-Bigorre, 26 cantons and 480 communes. Tarbes is the
capital of Hautes-Pyrénées, which constitutes the diocese of Tarbes, and
is attached to the appeal court of Pau; it forms part of the region of
the XVIII. army corps. In educational matters it falls within the
circumscription of the académie of Toulouse. Tarbes, Lourdes,
Bagnères-de-Bigorre and Luz-St Sauveur are the principal towns. St
Savin, in the valley of the Gave de Pau, and Sarrancolin have
interesting Romanesque churches. The church of Maubourguet built by the
Templars in the 12th century is also remarkable.



HAUTE-VIENNE, a department of central France, formed in 1790 of
Haut-Limousin and of portions of Marche, Poitou and Berry. Pop. (1906),
385,732. Area, 2144 sq. m. It is bounded N. by Indre, E. by Creuse, S.E.
by Corrèze, S.W. by Dordogne, W. by Charente and N.W. by Vienne.
Haute-Vienne belongs to the central plateau of France, and drains partly
to the Loire and partly to the Garonne. The highest altitude (2549 ft.)
is in the extreme south-east, and belongs to the treeless but
well-watered plateau of Millevaches, formed of granite, gneiss and mica.
From that point the department slopes towards the west, south-west and
north. To the north-west of the Millevaches are the Ambazac and Blond
Hills, both separating the valley of the Vienne from that of the
Gartempe, a tributary of the Creuse. The Vienne traverses the department
from east to west, passing Eymoutiers, St Léonard, Limoges and St
Junien, and receiving on the right the Maude and the Taurion. The Isle,
which flows into the Dordogne, with its tributaries the Auvézère and the
Dronne, and the Tardoire and the Bandiat, tributaries of the Charente,
all rise in the south of the department. The altitude and inland
position of Haute-Vienne, its geological character, and the northern
exposure of its valleys make the winters long and severe; but the
climate is milder in the west and north-west. The annual rainfall often
reaches 36 or 37 in. and even more in the mountains. Haute-Vienne is on
the whole unproductive. Rye, wheat, buckwheat and oats are the cereals
most grown, but the chestnut, which is a characteristic product of the
department, still forms the staple food of large numbers of the
population. Potatoes, mangolds, hemp and colza are cultivated. After the
chestnut, walnuts and cider-apples are the principal fruits. Good breeds
of horned cattle and sheep are reared and find a ready market in Paris.
Horses for remount purposes are also raised. The quarries furnish
granite and large quantities of kaolin, which is both exported and used
in the porcelain works of the department. Amianthus, emeralds and
garnets are found. Limoges is the centre of the porcelain industry and
has important liqueur distilleries. Woollen goods, starch, paper and
pasteboard, wooden and leather shoes, gloves, agricultural implements
and hats are other industrial products, and there are flour-mills,
breweries, dye-works, tanneries, iron foundries and printing works. Wine
and alcohol for the liqueur-manufacture, coal, raw materials for textile
industries, hops, skins and various manufactured articles are among the
imports.

The department is served almost entirely by the Orléans Railway. It is
divided into the arrondissements of Limoges, Bellac, Rochechouart and St
Yrieix (29 cantons and 205 communes), and belongs to the académie
(educational division) of Poitiers and the ecclesiastical province of
Bourges. Limoges, the capital, is the seat of a bishopric and of a court
of appeal, and is the headquarters of the XII. army corps. The other
principal towns are St Yrieix and St Junien. Solignac, St Léonard and Le
Dorat have fine Romanesque churches. The remains of the chateau of
Chalusset (S.S.E. of Limoges), the most remarkable feudal ruins in
Limousin, and the château of Rochechouart, which dates from the 13th,
15th and 16th centuries, are also of interest.



HAUT-RHIN, before 1871 a department of eastern France, formed in 1790
from the southern portion of Alsace. The name "Haut-Rhin" is sometimes
used of the territory of Belfort (q.v.).



HAÜY, RENÉ JUST (1743-1822), French mineralogist, commonly styled the
Abbé Haüy, from being an honorary canon of Notre Dame, was born at St
Just, in the department of Oise, on the 28th of February 1743. His
parents were in a humble rank of life, and were only enabled by the
kindness of friends to send their son to the college of Navarre and
afterwards to that of Lemoine. Becoming one of the teachers at the
latter, he began to devote his leisure hours to the study of botany; but
an accident directed his attention to another field in natural history.
Happening to let fall a specimen of calcareous spar belonging to a
friend, he was led by examination of the fragments to make experiments
which resulted in the statement of the geometrical law of
crystallization associated with his name (see CRYSTALLOGRAPHY). The
value of this discovery, the mathematical theory of which is given by
Haüy in his _Traité de minéralogie_, was immediately recognized, and
when communicated to the Academy, it secured for its author a place in
that society. Haüy's name is also known for the observations he made in
pyro-electricity. When the Revolution broke out, he was thrown into
prison, and his life was even in danger, when he was saved by the
intercession of E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. In 1802, under Napoleon, he
became professor of mineralogy at the museum of natural history, but
after 1814 he was deprived of his appointments by the government of the
Restoration. His latter days were consequently clouded by poverty, but
the courage and high moral qualities which had helped him forward in his
youth did not desert him in his old age; and he lived cheerful and
respected till his death at Paris on the 3rd of June 1822.

  The following are his principal works: _Essai d'une théorie sur la
  structure des cristaux_ (1784); _Exposition raisonnée de la théorie de
  l'électricité et du magnétisme, d'après les principes d'Aepinus_
  (1787); _De la structure considérée comme caractère distinctif des
  minéraux_ (1793); _Exposition abrégée de la théorie de la structure
  des cristaux_ (1793); _Extrait d'un traité élémentaire de minéralogie_
  (1797); _Traité de minéralogie_ (4 vols., 1801); _Traité élémentaire
  de physique_ (2 vols., 1803, 1806); _Tableau comparatif des résultats
  de la cristallographie, et de l'analyse chimique relativement à la
  classification des minéraux_ (1809); _Traité des pierres précieuses_
  (1817); _Traité de cristallographie_ (2 vols., 1822). He also
  contributed papers, of which 100 are enumerated in the Royal Society's
  catalogue, to various scientific journals, especially the _Journal de
  physique_ and the _Annals du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle_.



HAVANA (the name is of aboriginal origin; Span. Habana or, more fully,
San Cristóbal de la Habana), the capital of Cuba, the largest city of
the West Indies, and one of the principal seats of commerce in the New
World, situated on the northern coast of the island in 23° 9´ N. lat.
and 82° 22´ W. long. Pop. (1899), 235,981; (1907), 297,159. The city
occupies a peninsula to the W. of the harbour, between its waters and
those of the sea. Several small streams, of which the Almendares river
is the largest, empty into the harbour. The pouch-shaped, landlocked bay
is spacious and easy of access. Large merchantmen and men-of-war can
come up and unload along at least a considerable part of the
water-front. The entrance, which is encumbered by neither bar nor rock,
averages about 260 yds. in width and is about 1400 yds. long. Within,
the bay breaks up into three distinct arms, Marimalena or Regla Bay,
Guanabacoa Bay and the Bay of Atarés. On the left hand of the entrance
stands the lofty lighthouse tower of the Morro. The sewage of the city
and other impurities were for centuries allowed to pollute the bay, but
the extent to which the harbour was thereby filled up has been
exaggerated. Though certainly very much smaller than it once was, there
is a difference of opinion as to whether the harbour has grown smaller
since the end of the 18th century.

From the sea the city presents a picturesque appearance. The Havana
side of the bay has a sea-wall and an excellent drive. The city walls,
begun in 1671 and completed about 1740, were almost entirely demolished
between 1863 and 1880, only a few insignificant remnants having survived
the American military occupation of 1899-1902; but it is still usual to
speak of the "intramural" and the "extramural" city. The former, the old
city, lying close to the harbour front, has streets as narrow as is
consistent with wheel traffic. Obispo (Pi y Margall in the new
republican nomenclature), O'Reilly and San Rafael are the finest retail
business streets, and the Prado and the Cerro the handsomest residential
streets in the city proper. The new city, including the suburbs to the
W. overlooking the sea, has been laid out on a somewhat more spacious
plan, with isolated dwellings and wide thoroughfares, some planted with
trees. Most of the houses, and especially those of the planter
aristocracy, are massively built of stone, with large grated windows,
flat roofs with heavy parapets and inner courts. As the erection of
wooden buildings was illegal long after 1772, it is only in the suburban
districts that they are to be seen. The limestone which underlies almost
all the island affords excellent building stone. The poorer houses are
built of brick with plaster fronts. Three-fourths of all the buildings
of the city are of one very high storey; there are but a few dozen
buildings as high as four storeys. Under Spanish rule, Havana was
reputed to be a city of noises and smells. There was no satisfactory
cleaning of the streets or draining of the subsoil, and the harbour was
rendered visibly foul by the impurities of the town. A revolution was
worked in this respect during the United States military occupation of
the city, and the republic continued the work.

  _Climate._--The general characteristics of the climate of Havana are
  described in the article Cuba. A temperature as low as 40° F. is
  extraordinary; and freezing point is only reached on extremely rare
  occasions, such as during hurricanes or electric storms. The mean
  annual temperature is about 25.7° C. (78° F.); that of the hottest
  month is about 28.8° C. (84° F.), and that of the coldest, 21° C. (70°
  F.). The means of the four seasons are approximately--for December,
  January, February and successive quarters--23°, 27°, 28° and 26° C.
  (73.4°, 80.6°, 82.4° and 78.8° F.). The mean relative humidity is
  between 75 and 80 for all seasons save spring, when it is least and
  may be from 65 upward. A difference of 30° C. (54° F.) at mid-day in
  the temperature of two spots close together, one in sun and one in
  shade, is not unusual. The daily variation of temperature is also
  considerable. The depressing effect of the heat and humidity is
  greatly relieved by afternoon breezes from the sea, and the nights are
  invariably comfortable and generally cool.

  _Defences._--The principal defences of Havana under Spanish rule, when
  the city was maintained as a military stronghold of the first rank,
  were (to use the original and unabbreviated form of the names) the
  Castillo de San Salvador de la Punta, to the W. of the harbour
  entrance; the Castillo de Los Tres Reyes del Morro and San Carlos de
  la Cabaña, to the E.; the Santo Domingo de Atarés, at the head of the
  western arm of the bay, commanding the city and its vicinity; and the
  Castillo del Príncipe (1767-1780), situated inland on an eminence to
  the W. El Morro, as it is popularly called, was first erected in
  1590-1640, and La Punta, a much smaller fort, is of the same period;
  both were reconstructed after the evacuation of the city by the
  English in 1763, from which time also date the castles of Príncipe,
  Atarés and the Cabaña. The Cabaña, which alone can accommodate some
  6000 men, fronts the bay for a distance of more than 800 yds., and was
  long supposed, at least by Spaniards, to be the strongest fortress of
  America. Here is the "laurel ditch" or "dead-line"--commemorated by a
  handsome bronze relief set in the wall of the fortress--where scores
  of Cuban patriots were shot. To the E. and W. inland are several small
  forts. The military establishment of the republic is very small.

  _Churches._--Of the many old churches in the city, the most noteworthy
  is the cathedral. The original building was abandoned in 1762. The
  present one, originally the church of the Jesuits, was erected in
  1656-1724. The interior decoration dates largely from the last decade
  of the 18th century and the first two decades of the 19th. In the wall
  of the chancel, a medallion and inscription long distinguished the
  tomb of Columbus, whose remains were removed hither from Santo Domingo
  in 1796. In 1898 they were taken to Spain. Mention may also be made of
  the churches of Santo Domingo (begun in 1578), Santa Catalina (1700),
  San Agustin (1608), Santa Clara (1644), La Merced (1744, with a
  collection of oil paintings) and San Felipe (1693). Monasteries and
  nunneries were very numerous until the suppression of the religious
  orders in 1842, when many became simple churches. Some of the convents
  were successful in conserving their wealth. The former monastery of
  the Jesuits, now the Jesuit church of Belén (1704), at the corner of
  Luz and Compostela Streets, is one of the most elegant and richly
  ornamented in Cuba.

  _Public Buildings._--The Palace, which served as a residence for the
  captains-general during the Spanish rule, is the home of the city
  government and the residence of the president of the republic. It is a
  large and handsome stone structure (tinted in white and yellow), and
  stands on the site of the original parish church, facing the Plaza de
  Armas from the east. It was erected in 1773-1792 and radically altered
  in 1835 and 1851. A large municipal gaol (1834-1837), capable of
  receiving 500 inmates, with barracks for a regiment, is a striking
  object on the Prado. The Castillo del Príncipe now serves as the state
  penitentiary. Among other public buildings are the exchange (El
  Muelle), the custom-house (formerly the church of San Francisco; begun
  about 1575, rebuilt in 1731-1737), and the Maestranza (c. 1723), once
  the navy yard and the headquarters of the artillery and now the home
  of the national library. All these are in the old city. Some of the
  older structures--notably the church of Santo Domingo and the
  Maestranza--are built of grey limestone. In the old city also are the
  Plaza Vieja, dating from the middle of the 16th century (with the
  modern Mercado de Cristina, of 1837--destroyed 1908), the old
  stronghold La Fuerza, erected by Hernando de Soto in 1538, once the
  treasury of the flotas and galleons, and residence of the governors,
  with its old watch-tower (La Vigía); and the Plaza de Armas, with the
  palace, the Senate building, a statue of Fernando VII. (1833), and a
  commemorative chapel (El Templete, 1828) to mark the supposed spot
  where mass was first said at the establishment of the city. Mention
  must be made of the large and interesting markets, especially those of
  Colón and Tacón. Of the theatres, which until the end of the Spanish
  period had to compete with the bull-ring and the cockpit, the most
  important is the Tacón (now "Nacional") erected in 1838.

  Havana is famous for its promenades, drives and public gardens. On the
  city's E. harbour front runs the Paseo (Alameda) de Paula (1772-1775,
  improved 1844-1845), an embanked drive, continued by the Paseo de
  Rocali and the Cortina de Valdes, with fine views of the forts and the
  harbour. On the N., along the sea, beginning at the Punta fortress and
  running W. for several miles along the sea-wall, is a speedway and
  pleasure-drive, known--from the wall--as the Malecón. Beginning at the
  Punta fortress--where a park was laid out in 1899 in the place of an
  ugly quarter, with a memorial to the students judicially murdered by
  the Spanish volunteers in 1871--and running along the line of the
  former city walls, past the Parque Central, through the Parque de
  Isabel II. and the Parque de la India (these two names are now
  practically abandoned) to the Parque de Colón or Campo de Marte, is
  the Prado,[1] a wide and handsome promenade and drive, shaded with
  laurels and lined with fine houses and clubs. In 1907 a hurricane
  destroyed the greater part of the laurels of the Prado and the royal
  palms of the Parque de Colón. Central Park is surrounded by hotels,
  theatres, cafés and clubs, the last including the Centro Asturiano and
  Casino Español. In the centre is a monument to José Martí (1853-1895),
  "the apostle of independence," and in an adjoining square is the
  city's fine monument to the Cuban engineer Francisco de Albear, to
  whom she owes her water system. From the Parque de Colón the Calle (or
  Calzada) de la Reina--an ordinary business street, once a promenade
  and known as the Alameda de Isabel II.--with its continuations, the
  Paseo de Carlos III. and Paseo de Tacón, runs westward through the
  city past the botanical gardens and the Quinta de los Molinos to the
  citadel of El Príncipe (1774-1794). A statue of Charles III. by Canova
  (1803), fountains, pavilions and four rows of trees adorn the Paseo de
  Carlos III. The gardens of Los Molinos, where the captains-general
  formerly maintained their summer residence, and the adjoining
  botanical gardens of the university, contain beautiful avenues of palm
  trees. Near El Príncipe is the Columbus cemetery, with a fine gateway,
  a handsome monument (1888) to the students shot in 1871, and another
  (1897; 75 ft. high) to the firemen lost in a great fire in 1890,
  besides many smaller memorials. The Calzada de la Infanta is a fine
  street at the W. end of the new city; the Cerro, in the S.W., is lined
  with massive residences, once the homes of Cuban aristocracy.

  _Suburbs._--In the coral rock of the coast sea-baths are excavated, so
  that bathers may run no risk from sharks. On the S. and W. the city is
  backed by an amphitheatre of hills, which are crowned in the W. by the
  conspicuous fortifications of Castillo del Príncipe. On the lower
  heights near the city lie Vedado, Jesus del Monte, Luyano and other
  healthy suburbs. Chorrera, Puentes Grandes, Marianao (founded 1830;
  pop. 1907, 9332) and Guanabacoa (with mineral springs), are attractive
  places of resort. Regla, just across the bay (now part of the
  _municipio_), has large business interests.

  _Charities and Education._--Among the numerous charitable institutions
  the most important hospital is the Casa de Beneficencia y Maternidad
  (Charity and Maternity Asylum), opened in 1794, and containing an
  orphan asylum, a maternity ward, a home for vagrants, a lunatic asylum
  and an infirmary. There is also in the city an immense lazaretto for
  lepers. The Centro Asturiano, a club with a membership of some ten or
  fifteen thousand (not limited to Asturians), maintains for the
  benefit of its members a large and well-managed sanatorium in spacious
  grounds in the midst of the city.

  Of the schools of the city the most noteworthy is the university (581
  regular students, 1907), founded in 1728. Its quarters were in the old
  convent of Santo Domingo until 1900, when the American military
  government prepared better quarters for it in the former Pirotecnica
  Militar, near El Príncipe. There are various laboratories in the city.
  Other schools are the provincial Institute of Secondary Education (490
  regular students in 1907; library of 12,863 vols.), a provincial
  school of arts and trades (opened 1882), a theological seminary, a
  boys' technical school, a school of painting and sculpture, a
  conservatory of music, normal school, mercantile school and a military
  academy. The Jesuit church (Belén) has a large college for boys,
  laboratories, an observatory, a museum of natural history, and an
  historical library. Great progress has been made in education, which
  was extremely backward until after the end of Spanish rule. The
  Sociedad Economica de Amigos del Pais, established in 1792, has always
  had considerable influence. It has a library of some 42,000 volumes,
  rich in material for Cuban history. Among other similar organizations
  are an Academy of Medical, Physical and Natural Sciences (1863); a
  national library, established in 1901, and having in 1908 about 40,000
  volumes, including the finest collection in the world of materials for
  Cuban history; an anthropological society; various medical societies;
  and a Bar association. An association of sugar planters is a very
  important factor in the economic development of the island.

  Of the newspapers of Havana the most notable is the _El Diario de la
  Marina_ (established in 1838; under its present name, 1844; morning
  and evening), which was almost from its foundation an official organ
  of the Spanish government, and generally the mouthpiece of the most
  intransigent peninsular opinion in all that concerned the politics of
  the island. _El Ansador Comercial_ (1868; evening) is devoted almost
  exclusively to commercial and financial news. Of the other newspapers
  the leading ones in 1909 were _La Discusion_ (1888; evening), _La
  Luchu_ (1884; evening) and _El Mundo_ (1902; morning).

  _Trade._--Havana commands the wholesale trade of all the western half
  of the island, and is the centre of commercial and banking interests.
  Its foreign trade in the five calendar years 1902-1906 (average
  imports $57,201,276; exports, $40,563,637) amounted to 68.9% of the
  imports and 44.6% of the exports of the island. The average number of
  vessels entering the port annually in the ten years from 1864 to 1873
  was 1981 (771,196 tons), and the average entries in the five years
  1902-1906 were 3698 of 3,904,906 gross tons (coast trade alone, 2162
  of 333,795 tons).

  In spite of high tariffs and civil wars, and the competition of
  Matanzas, Cárdenas, Cienfuegos and other Cuban ports opened to foreign
  trade in modern times, the commerce of Havana has steadily increased.
  The chief foreign customers are Great Britain and the United States.
  The two staple articles of export are sugar and tobacco-wares. Other
  exports of importance are rum, wax and honey; and of less primary
  importance, fruits, fine cabinet woods, oils and starch. The leading
  imports are grains, flour, lard and various other foodstuffs, coal,
  lumber, petroleum and machinery, all mainly from the United States;
  wines and olive oil from Spain; jerked beef from South America;
  fabrics and other staples from varied sources. Rice is a principal
  food of the people; it was formerly taken from the East Indies, but is
  now mostly raised in the island.

  The chief manufacturing industry of Havana is that of tobacco. Of the
  cigar factories, some of which are in former public and private
  palaces, more than a hundred may be reckoned as of the first class.
  Besides the making of boxes and barrels and other articles necessarily
  involved in its sugar and tobacco trade, Havana also, to some extent,
  builds carriages and small ships, and manufactures iron and machinery;
  but the weight of taxation during the Spanish period was always a
  heavy deterrent on the development of any business requiring great
  capital. There are minor manufacturing interests in tanneries, and in
  the manufacture of sweetmeats, malt and distilled liquors, especially
  rum, besides soaps, candles, starch, perfume, &c. There is one large
  and complete petroleum refinery (1905).

  Havana has frequent steam-boat communication with New York, Baltimore,
  Philadelphia, Tampa, Mobile, New Orleans and other ports of the United
  States; and about as frequent with several ports in England, Spain and
  France. It is the starting-point of a railway system which reaches the
  six provincial capitals between Pinar del Rio and Santiago, Cárdenas,
  Cienfuegos and other ports. Telegraphs radiate to all parts of the
  island; a submarine cable to Key West forms part of the line of
  communication between Colon and New York, and by other cables the
  island has connexion with various parts of the West Indies and with
  South America.

  _Population and Health._--The population of Havana was reported as
  51,307 in 1791; 96,304 in 1811; 94,023 in 1817; 184,508 in 1841. In
  1899 the American census showed 235,981, of whom about 25% were
  foreign (20% Spanish); and the census of 1907 showed 297,159 (not
  including the attached country districts) and 302,526 (including these
  country districts), the last being for the "municipio" of Havana. The
  industrial population is very densely crowded. Owing to this, as well
  as to the entire lack of proper sanitary customs among the people, the
  horrible condition of sewerage and the prevalence of yellow fever
  (first brought to Havana, it is thought, in 1761, from Vera Cruz), the
  reputation of the city as regards health was long very bad. The
  practical extermination of yellow fever during the U.S. military
  occupation following 1899 was a remarkable achievement. In 1895-1899,
  owing to the war, there were few non-immune persons in the city, and
  there was no trouble with the fever, but from the autumn of 1899 a
  heavy immigration from Spain began, and a fever epidemic was raging in
  1900. The American military authorities found that the most
  extraordinary measures for cleansing the city--involving repeated
  house-to-house inspection, enforced cleanliness, improved drainage and
  sewerage, the destruction of various public buildings, and thorough
  cleansing of the streets--although decidedly effective in reducing the
  general death-rate of the city (average, 1890-1899, 45.83; 1900,
  24.40; 1901, 22.11; 1902, 20.63; general death-rate of U.S. soldiers
  in 1898, 67.94; in 1901-1902, 7.00), apparently did not affect yellow
  fever at all. In 1900-1901 Major Walter Reed (1851-1902), a surgeon in
  the United States army, proved by experiments on voluntary human
  subjects that the infection was spread by the _Stegomyia_ mosquito,[2]
  and the prevention of the disease was then undertaken by Major William
  C. Gorgas--all patients being screened and mosquitoes practically
  exterminated.[3] The number of subsequent deaths from yellow fever has
  depended solely on the degree to which the necessary precautionary
  measures were taken.

  The entire administrative system of the island, when a Spanish colony,
  was centred at Havana. Under the republic this remains the capital and
  the residence of the president, the supreme court, Congress when in
  session and the chief administrative officers. None of the public
  services was good in the Spanish period, except the water-supply,
  which was excellent. The water is derived from the Vento springs, 9 m.
  from Havana, and is conducted through aqueducts constructed between
  1859 and 1894 at a cost of some $5,000,000. About 40,000,000 gallons
  are supplied daily. The system is owned by the municipality. The older
  Fernando VII. aqueduct (1831-1835) is still usable in case of need;
  its supply was the Almendares river (until long after the construction
  of this, a still older aqueduct, opened at the end of the 16th
  century, was in use). The sewerage system and conditions of house
  sanitation were found extremely inadequate when the American army
  occupied the city in 1899. Several public buildings were so foul that
  they were demolished and burned. The improvement since the end of
  Spanish rule has been steady.

_History._--Havana, originally founded by Diego Velasquez in 1514 on an
unhealthy site near the present Batabanó (pop. in 1907, 15,435,
including attached country districts), on the south coast, was soon
removed to its present position, was granted an ayuntamiento (town
council), and shortly came to be considered one of the most important
places in the New World. Its commanding position gained it in 1634, by
royal decree, the title of "Llave del Nuevo Mundo y Antemural de las
Indias Occidentales" (Key of the New World and Bulwark of the West
Indies), in reference to which it bears on its coat of arms a symbolic
key and representations of the Morro, Punta and Fuerza. In the history
of the place in the 16th century few things stand out except the
investments by buccaneers: in 1537 it was sacked and burned, and in 1555
plundered by French buccaneers, and in 1586 it was threatened by Drake.
In 1589 Philip II. of Spain ordered the erection of the Punta and the
Morro. In the same year the residence of the governor of the island was
moved from Santiago de Cuba to Havana. Philip II. granted Havana the
title of "ciudad" in 1592. Sugar plantations in the environs appeared
before the end of the 16th century. The population of the city, probably
about 3000 at the beginning of the 17th century, was doubled in the
years following 1655 by the coming of Spaniards from Jamaica. In the
course of the 17th century the port became the great rendezvous for the
royal merchant and treasure fleets that monopolized trade with America,
and the commercial centre of the Spanish-American possessions. It was
blockaded four times by the Dutch (who were continually molesting the
treasure fleets) in the first half of the 17th century. In 1671 the city
walls were begun; they were completed in 1702. The European wars of the
17th and 18th centuries were marked by various incidents in local
history. After the end of the Spanish War of Succession (1713) came a
period of comparative prosperity in slave-trading and general commerce.
The creation in 1740 of a monopolistic trading-company was an event of
importance in the history of the island. English squadrons threatened
the city several times in the first half of the 18th century, but it was
not until 1762 that an investment, made by Admiral Sir George Pocock and
the earl of Albemarle, was successful. The siege lasted from June to
August and was attended by heavy loss to both besiegers and besieged.
The British commanders wrung great sums from the church and the city as
prize of war and price of good order. By the treaty of the 10th of
February 1763, at the close of the Seven Years' War, Havana was restored
to Spain in exchange for the Floridas. The English turned over the
control of the city on the 6th of July. Their occupation greatly
stimulated commerce, and from it dates the modern history of the city
and of the island (see CUBA). The gradual removal of obstacles from the
commerce of the island from 1766 to 1818 particularly benefited Havana.
At the end of the 18th century the city was one of the seven or eight
great commercial centres of the world, and in the first quarter of the
19th century was a rival in population and in trade of Rio Janeiro,
Buenos Aires and New York. In 1789 a bishopric was created at Havana
suffragan to the archbishopric at Santiago. From the end of the 18th
century Havana, as the centre of government, was the centre of movement
and interest. During the administration of Miguel Tacón Havana was
improved by many important public works; his name is frequent in the
nomenclature of the city. The railway from Havana to Güines was built
between 1835 and 1838. Fifty Americans under Lieut. Crittenden, members
of the Bahia Honda filibustering expedition of Narciso Lopez, were shot
at Fort Atarés in 1851. Like the rest of Cuba, Havana has frequently
suffered severely from hurricanes, the most violent being those of 1768
(St Theresa's), 1810 and 1846. The destruction of the U.S. battleship
"Maine" in the harbour of Havana on the 15th of February 1898 was an
influential factor in causing the outbreak of the Spanish-American War,
and during the war the city was blockaded by a United States fleet.

  See J. de la Pezuela, _Diccionario de la Isla de Cuba_, vol. iii.
  (Madrid, 1863), for minute details of history, administration and
  economic conditions down to 1862; J. M. de la Torre, _Lo que fuimos y
  lo que somos, ó la Habana antigua y moderna_ (Habana, 1857); P.J.
  Guitéras, _Historia de la conquista de la Habana 1762_ (Philadelphia,
  1856); J. de la Pezuela, _Sitio y rendicion de la Habana en 1762_
  (Madrid, 1859); A. Bachiller y Morales, _Monografía historica_
  (Habana, 1883), minutely covering the English occupation (the best
  account) of 1762-1763; Maria de los Mercedes, comtesse de Merlin, _La
  Havana_ (3 vols., Paris, 1844); and the works cited under Cuba.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Renamed Paseo de Marti by the republic, but the name is never
    used.

  [2] Dr Carlos Finlay of Havana, arguing from the coincidence between
    the climatic limitation of yellow fever and the geographical
    limitation of the mosquito, urged (1881 sqq.) that there was some
    relation between the disease and the insect. Reed worked from the
    observation of Dr H. R. Carter (U.S. Marine Hospital Service) that
    although the incubation of the disease was 5 days, 15 to 20 days had
    to elapse before the "infection" of the house, and from Ross's
    demonstration of the part played in malaria by the _Anopheles_. See
    H. A. Kelly, _Walter Reed and Yellow Fever_ (New York, 1907).

  [3] The average number of deaths from yellow fever annually from 1885
    (when reliable registration began) to 1898 was 455; maximum 1282 in
    1896 (supposed average for 4 years, 1856-1859, being 1489.8 and for 7
    years, 1873-1879, 1395.1), minimum 136, in 1898; average deaths of
    military, 1885-1898, 278.4 (in 1896-1897 constituting 1966 out of a
    total of 2140); deaths of American soldiers, 1899-1900, 18 out of
    431.



HAVANT, a market-town in the Fareham parliamentary division of
Hampshire, England, 67 m. S.W. from London by the London & South Western
and the London, Brighton & South Coast railways. Pop. of urban district
(1901), 3837. The urban district of Warblington, 1 m. S.E. (pop. 3639),
has a fine church, Norman and later, with traces of pre-Norman work, and
some remains of a Tudor castle. Havant lies in a flat coastal district,
near the head of Langstone Harbour, a wide shallow inlet of the English
Channel. The church of St Faith was largely rebuilt in 1875, but retains
some good Early English work. There are breweries and tanneries, and the
manufacture of parchment is carried on. Off the mainland near Havant
lies Hayling, a flat island of irregular form lying between the harbours
of Langstone and Chichester. It measures 4 m. in length from N. to S.,
and is nearly the same in breadth at the south, but the breadth
generally is about 1½ m. It is well wooded and fertile. A railway serves
the village of South Hayling, which is in some favour as a seaside
resort, having a wide sandy beach and good golf links. The island was in
the possession of successive religious bodies from the Conquest (when it
was given to the Benedictines of Jumièges, near Rouen), until the
Dissolution. The church of South Hayling is a fine Early English
building.



HAVEL, a river of Prussia, Germany, having its origin in Lake Dambeck
(223 ft.) on the Mecklenburg plateau, a few miles north-west of
Neu-Strelitz, and after threading several lakes flowing south as far as
Spandau. Thence it curves south-west, past Potsdam and Brandenburg,
traversing another chain of lakes, and finally continues north-west
until it joins the Elbe from the right some miles above Wittenberge
after a total course of 221 m. and a total fall of only 158 ft. Its
banks are mostly marshy or sandy, and the stream is navigable from the
Mecklenburg lakes downwards. Several canals connect it with these lakes,
as well as with other rivers--e.g. the Finow canal with the Oder, the
Ruppin canal with the Rhin, the Berlin-Spandau navigable canal (5½ m.)
with the Spree, and the Plaue-Ihle canal with the Elbe. The
Sakrow-Paretz canal, 11 m. long, cuts off the deep bend at Potsdam. The
most notable of the tributaries is the Spree (227 m. long), which
bisects Berlin and joins the Havel at Spandau. Area of river basin,
10,159 sq. m.



HAVELBERG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Brandenburg,
on the Havel and the railway Glöwen-Havelberg. Pop. (1905), 5988. The
town is built partly on an island in the Havel, and partly on hills on
the right bank of the river, on one of which stands the fine Romanesque
cathedral dating from the 12th century. The two parts, which are
connected by a bridge, were incorporated as one town in 1875. The
inhabitants are chiefly engaged in tobacco manufacturing, sugar-refining
and boat-building, and in the timber trade.

Otto I. founded a bishopric at Havelberg in 946; the bishop, however,
who was a prince of the Empire, generally resided at Plattenburg, or
Wittstock, a few miles to the north. In 1548 the bishopric was seized by
the elector of Brandenburg, who finally took possession of it fifty
years later, and the cathedral passed to the Protestant Church,
retaining its endowments till the edict of 1810, by which all former
ecclesiastical possessions were assumed by the crown. The final
secularization was delayed till 1819. Havelberg was formerly a strong
fortress, but in the Thirty Years' War it was taken from the Danish by
the imperial troops in 1627. Recaptured by the Swedes in 1631, and again
in 1635 and 1636, it was in 1637 retaken by the Saxons. It suffered
severely from a conflagration in 1870.



HAVELOCK, SIR HENRY (1795-1857), British soldier, one of the heroes of
the Indian Mutiny, the second of four brothers (all of whom entered the
army), was born at Ford Hall, Bishop-Wearmouth, Sunderland, on the 5th
of April 1795. His parents were William Havelock, a wealthy shipbuilder
in Sunderland, and Jane, daughter of John Carter, solicitor at
Stockton-on-Tees. When about five years old Henry accompanied his elder
brother William to Mr Bradley's school at Swanscombe, whence at the age
of ten he removed for seven years to Charterhouse school. In accordance
with the desire of his mother, who had died in 1811, he entered the
Middle Temple in 1813, studying under Chitty the eminent special
pleader. His legal studies having been abridged by a misunderstanding
with his father, he in 1815 accepted a second lieutenancy in the Rifle
Brigade (95th), procured for him by the interest of his brother William.
During the following eight years of service in Britain he read
extensively and acquired a good acquaintance with the theory of war. In
1823, having exchanged into the 21st and thence into the 13th Light
Infantry, he followed his brothers William and Charles to India, first
qualifying himself in Hindustani under Dr Gilchrist, a celebrated
Orientalist.

At the close of twenty-three years' service he was still a lieutenant,
and it was not until 1838 that, after three years' adjutancy of his
regiment, he became captain. Before this, however, he had held several
staff appointments, notably that of deputy assistant-adjutant-general of
the forces in Burma till the peace of Yandabu, of which he, with Lumsden
and Knox, procured the ratifications at Ava from the "Golden Foot," who
bestowed on him the "gold leaf" insignia of Burmese nobility. His first
command had been at a stockade capture in the war, and he was present
also at the battles of Napadee, Patanago and Pagan. He had also held
during his lieutenancy various interpreterships and the adjutancy of the
king's troops at Chinsura. In 1828 he published at Serampore Campaigns
in Ava, and in 1829 he married Hannah Shepherd, daughter of Dr Marshman,
the eminent missionary. About the same time he became a Baptist, being
baptized by Mr John Mack at Serampore. During the first Afghan war he
was present as aide-de-camp to Sir Willoughby Cotton at the capture of
Ghazni, on the 23rd of July 1839, and at the occupation of Kabul. After
a short absence in Bengal to secure the publication of his _Memoirs of
the Afghan Campaign_, he returned to Kabul in charge of recruits, and
became interpreter to General Elphinstone. In 1840, being attached to
Sir Robert Sale's force, he took part in the Khurd-Kabul fight, in the
celebrated passage of the defiles of the Ghilzais (1841) and in the
fighting from Tezeen to Jalalabad. Here, after many months' siege, his
column in a sortie _en masse_ defeated Akbar Khan on the 7th of April
1842. He was now made deputy adjutant-general of the infantry division
in Kabul, and in September he assisted at Jagdalak, at Tezeen, and at
the release of the British prisoners at Kabul, besides taking a
prominent part at Istaliff. Having obtained a regimental majority he
next went through the Mahratta campaign as Persian interpreter to Sir
Hugh (Viscount) Gough, and distinguished himself at Maharajpore in 1843,
and also in the Sikh campaign at Moodkee, Ferozeshah and Sobraon in
1845. For these services he was made deputy adjutant-general at Bombay.
He exchanged from the 13th to the 39th, then as second major into the
53rd at the beginning of 1849, and soon afterwards left for England,
where he spent two years. In 1854 he became quartermaster-general, then
full colonel, and lastly adjutant-general of the troops in India.

In 1857 he was selected by Sir James Outram for the command of a
division in the Persian campaign, during which he was present at the
actions of Muhamra and Ahwaz. Peace with Persia set him free just as the
Mutiny broke out; and he was chosen to command a column "to quell
disturbances in Allahabad, to support Lawrence at Lucknow and Wheeler at
Cawnpore, to disperse and utterly destroy all mutineers and insurgents."
At this time Lady Canning wrote of him in her diary: "General Havelock
is not in fashion, but all the same we believe that he will do well. No
doubt he is fussy and tiresome, but his little old stiff figure looks as
active and fit for use as if he were made of steel." But in spite of
this lukewarm commendation Havelock proved himself the man for the
occasion, and won the reputation of a great military leader. At
Fatehpur, on the 12th of July, at Aong and Pandoobridge on the 15th, at
Cawnpore on the 16th, at Unao on the 29th, at Busherutgunge on the 29th
and again on the 5th of August, at Boorhya on the 12th of August, and at
Bithur on the 16th, he defeated overwhelming forces. Twice he advanced
for the relief of Lucknow, but twice prudence forbade a reckless
exposure of troops wasted by battle and disease in the almost
impracticable task. Reinforcements arriving at last under Outram, he was
enabled by the generosity of his superior officer to crown his successes
on the 25th of September 1857 by the capture of Lucknow. There he died
on the 24th of November 1857, of dysentery, brought on by the anxieties
and fatigues connected with his victorious march and with the subsequent
blockade of the British troops. He lived long enough to receive the
intelligence that he had been created K.C.B. for the first three battles
of the campaign; but of the major-generalship which was shortly
afterwards conferred he never knew. On the 26th of November, before
tidings of his death had reached England, letters-patent were directed
to create him a baronet and a pension of £1000 a year was voted at the
assembling of parliament. The baronetcy was afterwards bestowed upon his
eldest son; while to his widow, by royal order, was given the rank to
which she would have been entitled had her husband survived and been
created a baronet. To both widow and son pensions of £1000 were awarded
by parliament.

  See Marshman, _Life of Havelock_ (1860); L. J. Trotter, _The Bayard of
  India_ (1903); F. M. Holmes, _Four Heroes of India_; G. B. Smith,
  _Heroes of the Nineteenth Century_ (1901); and A. Forbes, _Havelock_
  ("English Men of Action" series, 1890).



HAVELOK THE DANE, an Anglo-Danish romance. The hero, under the name of
CUHERAN or CUARAN, was a scullion-jongleur at the court of Edelsi (Alsi)
or Godric, king of Lincoln and Lindsey. At the same court was brought up
Argentille or Goldborough, the orphan daughter of Adelbrict, the Danish
king of Norfolk, and his wife Orwain, Edelsi's sister; and Edelsi, to
humiliate his ward, married her to the scullion Cuaran. But, inspired by
a vision, Cuaran and Goldborough set out for Grimsby, where Cuaran
learned that Grim, his supposed father, was dead. His foster-sister,
moreover, told him that his real name was Havelok, that he was the son
of Gunter (or Birkabeyn), king of Denmark, and had been rescued by Grim,
who though a poor fisherman was a noble in his own country, when Gunter
perished by treason. The hero then wins back his own and Goldborough's
kingdoms, punishing traitors and rewarding the faithful. The story
exists in two French versions: as an interpolation between Geffrei
Gaimar's _Brut_ and his _Estorie des Engles_ (_c._ 1150) and in the
Anglo-Norman _Lai d'Havelok_ (12th century). The English _Havelok_ (_c._
1300) is written in a Lincolnshire dialect and embodies abundant local
tradition. A short version of the tale is interpolated in the Lambeth
MS. of Robert Mannyng's _Handlyng Synne_. The story reappears more than
once in English literature, notably in the ballad of "Argentille and
Curan" in William Warner's _Albion's England_. The name of Havelok
(Habloc, Abloec, Abloyc) is said to correspond in Welsh to Anlaf or
Olaf. Now the historical Anlaf Curan was the son of a Viking chief
Sihtric, who was king of Northumbria in 925 and died in 927. Anlaf
Sihtricson was driven into exile by his stepmother's brother Æthelstan,
and took refuge in Scotland at the court of Constantine II., whose
daughter he married. He was defeated with Constantine[1] at Brunanburh
(937), but was nevertheless for two short periods joint ruler in
Northumbria with his cousin Anlaf Godfreyson. He reigned in Dublin till
980, when he was defeated. He died the next year as a monk at Iona.
Round the name of Anlaf Curan a number of legends rapidly gathered, and
the legend of the Danish hero probably filtered through Celtic channels,
as the Welsh names of Argentille and Orwain indicate. The close
similarity between the Havelok saga and the story of Hamlet (Amlethus)
as told by Saxo Grammaticus was pointed out long ago by Scandinavian
scholars. The individual points they have in common are found in other
legends, but the series of coincidences between the adventurous history
of Anlaf Curan and the life of Amlethus can hardly be fortuitous.
Interesting light is thrown on the whole question by Professor I.
Gollancz (_Hamlet in Iceland_, 1898) by the identification of
Amhlaide--who is said by Queen Gormflaith[2] in the _Annals of Ireland
by the Four Masters_ to have slain Niall Glundubh--with Anlaf's father
Sihtric. The exploits of father and son were likely to be confused.

The mythical elements in the Havelok story are numerous. Argentille, as
H. L. Ward points out, is a disguised Valkyrie. Like Svava she inspired
a dull and nameless youth, and as Hild raised the dead to fight by
magic, so Argentille in _Havelok_ and Hermuthruda in _Amleth_ prop up
dead or wounded men with stakes to bluff the enemy. Havelok's royal
lineage is betrayed by his flame breath when he is asleep, a phenomenon
which has parallels in the history of Servius Tullius and of Dietrich of
Bern. Part of the Havelok legend lingers in local tradition. Havelok
destroyed his enemies in Denmark by casting down great stones upon them
from the top of a tower, and Grim is said to have kicked three of the
turrets from the church tower in his efforts to destroy the enemy's
ships. John Weever (_Antient Funerall Monuments_, 1631, p. 749) says
that the privilege of the town in Elsinore, where its merchants were
free from toll, was due to the interest of Havelok, the Danish prince,
and the common seal of the town of Grimsby represents Grim, with
"Habloc" on his right hand and Goldeburgh on his left.

  The English MS. of _Havelok_ (MSS. Laud Misc. 108) in the Bodleian
  library is unique. It was edited for the Roxburghe Club by Sir F.
  Madden in 1828. This edition contains, besides the English text, the
  two French versions. There are subsequent editions by W. W. Skeat
  (1868) for the E.E. Text Society, by F. Holthausen (London, New York
  and Heidelberg, 1901), and by W. W. Skeat (Clarendon Press, Oxford,
  1902, where further bibliographical references will be found); and a
  modern English version by Miss E. Hickey (London, 1902). Gaimar's text
  and the French lai are edited by Sir T. D. Hardy and C. F. Martin in
  _Rerum Brit. med. aev. scriptores_, vol. i. (1888). See also the
  account of the saga by H. L. Ward (_Cat. of Romances_, i. 423-446);
  for the identification of Havelok with Anlaf Curan see G. Storm,
  _Englische Studien_ (1880), iii. 533, a reprint of an earlier article;
  E. K. Putnam, _The Lambeth Version of Havelok_ (Baltimore, 1900).


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] H. L. Ward (_Cat. of Romances_, i. 426) suggests that it was the
    mention of Constantine in the Havelock legend which led Gaimar to
    place the tale in the 6th century in the days of the Constantine who
    succeeded King Arthur. Gaimar voices more than once an Anglo-Danish
    legend of a Danish dynasty in Britain anterior to the Saxon invasion.

  [2] A different person from the second wife of Anlaf Curan, also
    Gormflaith, who forms another link with Amlethus, as she was a woman
    of the Hermuthruda type and married her husband's conqueror.



HAVERFORDWEST (Welsh _Hwlfordd_, the English name being perhaps a
corruption of the Scandinavian _Hafna-Fjord_), the chief town of
Pembrokeshire, S. Wales, a contributory parliamentary and municipal
borough, and a county of itself with its own lord-lieutenant. Pop.
(1901), 6007. It is picturesquely situated on the slopes overlooking the
West Cleddau river, which is here crossed by two stone bridges. It has a
station on the Great Western Railway on the east side of the river, and
when viewed from this point the town presents an imposing appearance
with its castle-keep and its many ancient buildings. The river is tidal
and navigable for vessels of not more than 150 tons. Coal, cattle,
butter and grain are exported, but the commercial importance of the
place has greatly declined, as the many ruined warehouses near the river
plainly testify. The old walls and fortifications have almost
disappeared, but Haverfordwest is still rich in memorials of its past
greatness. The huge castle-keep, which dominates the town, was probably
built by Gilbert de Clare, early in the 12th century; formerly used as
the county gaol, it now serves as the police-station. The large church
of St Mary, at the top cf the steep High Street, has fine clerestory
windows, clustered columns and an elaborate carved-oak ceiling of the
15th century; it contains several interesting monuments of the 17th and
18th centuries, some of which commemorate members of the family of
Philipps of Picton Castle. At the N. corner of the adjacent churchyard
stands an ancient building with a vaulted roof, once the record office,
but now used as a fish-market. St Martin's, with a low tower and spire,
close to the castle, is probably the oldest church in the town, but has
been much modernized. Near St Thomas's church on the Green stands an old
Moravian chapel which is closely associated with the great scholar and
divine, Bishop John Gambold (1711-1771). In a meadow on the W. bank of
the river are the considerable remains of the Augustinian Priory of St
Mary and St Thomas, built by Robert de Hwlfordd, lord of Haverford,
about the year 1200. On the E. bank are the suburbs of Cartlet and
Prendergast, the latter of which contains the ancient parish church of
St David and the ruins of a large mansion originally built by Maurice de
Prendergast (12th century) and subsequently the seat of the Stepney
family. A little to the S. of the town are the remains of Haroldstone,
once the residence of the powerful Perrot family. The charities
belonging to the town, which include John Perrot's bequest (1579),
yielding about £350 annually for the improvement of the town, and
Tasker's charity school (1684), are very considerable.

Haverfordwest owes its origin to the advent of the Flemings, who were
permitted by Henry I. to settle in the hundred of Roose, or Rhôs, in the
years 1106-1108, in 1111, and again in 1156. English is exclusively
spoken in the town and district, and its inhabitants exhibit their
foreign extraction by their language, customs and appearance.
Haverfordwest is, in fact, the capital of that English-speaking portion
of Pembrokeshire, which has been nicknamed "Little England beyond
Wales." This new settlement of intruding foreigners had naturally to be
protected against the infuriated natives, and the castle was accordingly
built c. 1113 by Gilbert de Clare, first earl of Pembroke, who
subsequently conferred the seignory of Haverford on his castellan,
Richard Fitz-Tancred. On the death of Robert de Hwlfordd, the benefactor
and perhaps founder of the priory of St Mary and St Thomas, in 1213, the
lordship of the castle reverted to the Crown, and was purchased for 1000
marks from King John by William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, who gave
various privileges to the town. Of the numerous charters the earliest
known (through an allusion found in a document of Bishop Houghton of St
Davids, c. 1370) is one from Henry II., who therein confirms all former
rights granted by his grandfather, Henry I. John in 1207 gave certain
rights to the town concerning the Port of Milford, while William Marshal
II., earl of Pembroke, presented it with three charters, the earliest of
which is dated 1219. An important charter of Edward V., as prince of
Wales and lord of Haverford, enacted that the town should be
incorporated under a mayor, two sheriffs and two bailiffs, duly chosen
by the burgesses. In 1536, under Henry VIII., Haverfordwest was declared
a town and county of itself and was further empowered to send a
representative burgess to parliament.

The town long played a prominent part in South Welsh history. In 1220
Llewelyn ap Iorwerth, prince of North Wales, during the absence of
William Marshal II., earl of Pembroke, attacked and burnt the suburbs,
but failed to reduce the castle by assault. Several of the Plantagenet
kings visited the town, including Richard II., who stopped here some
time on his return from Ireland in 1299, and is said to have performed
here his last regal act--the confirmation of the grant of a burgage to
the Friars Preachers. Oliver Cromwell spent some days here on his way to
Ireland, and his original warrant to the mayor and council for the
demolition of the castle is still preserved in the council chamber. The
prosperity and local importance of Haverfordwest continued unimpaired
throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, and Richard Fenton, the
historian of Pembrokeshire, describes it in 1810, as "the largest town
in the county, if not in all Wales." With the rise of Milford, however,
the shipping trade greatly declined, and Haverfordwest has now the
appearance of a quiet country town.



HAVERGAL, FRANCES RIDLEY (1836-1879), English hymn-writer, daughter of
the Rev. William Henry Havergal, was born at Astley, Worcestershire, on
the 14th of December 1836. At the age of seven she began to write verse,
most of it of a religious character. As a hymn-writer she was
particularly successful, and the modern English Church collections
include several of her compositions. Her collected _Poetical Works_ were
published in 1884. She died at Caswell Bay, Swansea, on the 3rd of June
1879.

  See _Memorials of Frances Ridley Havergal_ (1880), by her sister.



HAVERHILL, a market town of England, in the Sudbury parliamentary
division of Suffolk, and the Saffron Walden division of Essex. Pop. of
urban district (1901), 4862. It is 55 m. N.N.E. from London by the Great
Eastern railway, on the Long Melford-Cambridge branch, and is the
terminus of the Colne Valley railway from Chappel in Essex. The church
of St Mary is Perpendicular, but extensively restored. There are large
manufactures of cloth, silk, matting, bricks, and boots and shoes, and a
considerable agricultural trade.



HAVERHILL, a city of Essex county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., situated on
the Merrimac river, at the head of tide and navigation, and on the
Boston & Maine railway, 33 m. N. of Boston. Pop. (1880) 18,472; (1890)
27,412; (1900) 37,175, of whom 8530 were foreign-born (including 2403
French Canadians, 1651 English Canadians and 2144 Irish), and 15,077
were of foreign parentage (both parents foreign-born); (1910 census)
44,115. The city, 3 m. wide and 10 m. long, lies for its entire length
along the Merrimac river, from which it rises picturesquely, its surface
being undulating, with several detached round hills (maximum 330 ft.).
Like all old New England cities, it is irregularly laid out. A number of
lakes within its limits are the source of an abundant and excellent
water supply. There are fifteen public parks, the largest of which,
Winnikenni Park (214 acres), contiguous to Lake Kenoza, is of great
natural beauty. The city has three well-equipped hospitals, the
beautiful Pentucket club house, a children's home, an old ladies' home
and numerous charitable organizations. The schools of the city, both
public and private, are of high standing; they include Bradford Academy
(1803) for girls and the St James School (Roman Catholic). The public
library is generously endowed, and in 1908 had about 90,000 volumes.
Almost from the beginning of its history Haverhill was active
industrially. Thomas Dustin, the husband of Hannah Dustin, manufactured
bricks, and this industry has been carried on in the same locality for
more than two hundred years. The large Stevens woollen mills are the
outgrowth of mills established in 1835. The manufacture of woollen hats,
established in the middle of the 18th century, is one of the prominent
industries. There are large morocco factories. By far the leading
industry of the city is the manufacture of boots, shoes and slippers,
chiefly of the finer kinds, of which it is one of the largest producers
in the world. In 1905 Haverhill ranked fourth among the cities of the
United States in the product value of this manufacture, which was 4.8%
of the total value of boots and shoes made in the United States. This
industry began about 1795. In 1905 Haverhill's manufacturing
establishments produced goods valued at $24,446,594, 83.9% of this
output being represented by boots and shoes or their accessories. One of
the largest sole-leather manufactories in the world is here.

Haverhill was settled in June 1640 by a small colony from Newbury and
Ipswich, and its Indian name, Pentucket, was replaced by that of
Haverhill in compliment to the first minister, Rev. John Ward, who was
born at Haverhill, England. In its earlier years this frontier town
suffered severely from the forays of the Indians, and in 1690 the
abandonment of the settlement was contemplated. Two Indian attacks are
particularly noteworthy--one in 1698, in which Hannah Dustin, her
new-born babe, and her nurse were carried away to the vicinity of
Penacook, now Concord, New Hampshire. Here in the night Mrs Dustin,
assisted by her nurse and by a captive English boy, tomahawked and
scalped ten Indians (two men, the others children and women) and escaped
down the river to Haverhill; a monument to her stands in City Hall Park.
In 1708 250 French and Indians attacked the village, killing 40 of its
inhabitants. In 1873 a destructive fire caused the loss of 35 places of
business, and on the 17th of February 1882 almost the entire shoe
district (consisting of 10 acres) was burned, with a loss of more than
$2,000,000; but a greater business district was built on the ruins of
the old. Haverhill was the birthplace of Whittier, who lived here in
1807-1836, and who in his poem _Haverhill_, written for the 250th
anniversary of the town in 1890, and in many of his other poems, gave
the poet's touch to the history, the legends and the scenery of his
native city. His birthplace, the scene of _Snow-Bound_ in the eastern
part of the city, is owned by the Whittier Association and is open to
visitors. A petition from Haverhill to the national House of
Representatives in 1842, praying for a peaceable dissolution of the
Union, raised about J. Q. Adams, its presenter, perhaps the most violent
storm in the long course of his defence of the right of petition.
Haverhill was incorporated as a town in 1645 and became a city in 1869.
Bradford, a town (largely residential) lying on the opposite bank of the
river, became a part of the city in 1897. In October 1908, by popular
vote, the city adopted a new charter providing for government by
commission.



HAVERSACK, or HAVRESACK (through the French from Ger. _Habersack_, an
oat-sack, a nose-bag, _Hafer_ or _Haver_, oats), the bag in which
horsemen carried the oats for their horses. In Scotland and the north of
England _haver_, meaning oats, is still used, as haver-meal or
haver-bread. Haversack is now used for the strong bag made of linen or
canvas, in which soldiers, sportsmen or travellers, carry their personal
belongings, or more usually the provisions for the day.



HAVERSTRAW, a village of Rockland county, New York, U.S.A., in a
township of the same name, 32 m. N. of New York City, and finely
situated on the W. shore of Haverstraw Bay, an enlargement of the Hudson
river. Pop. of the village (1890), 5070; (1900) 5935, of whom 1231 were
foreign-born and 568 were negroes; (1905, state census) 6182; (1910)
5669; of the township (1910) 9335. Haverstraw is served by the West
Shore, the New Jersey & New York (Erie), and the New York, Ontario &
Western railways, and is connected by steamboat lines with Peekskill and
Newburgh. The village lies at the N. base of High Tor (832 ft.). It has
a public library, founded by the King's Daughters' Society in 1895 and
housed in the Fowler library building. Excellent clay is found in the
township, and Haverstraw is one of the largest brick manufacturing
centres in the world; brick-machines also are manufactured here. The
Minesceongo creek furnishes water power for silk mills, dye works and
print works. Haverstraw was settled by the Dutch probably as early as
1648. Near the village of Haverstraw (in the township of Stony Point),
in the Joshua Hett Smith House, or "Old Treason House," as it is
generally called, Benedict Arnold and Major André met before daylight on
the 22nd of September 1780 to arrange plans for the betrayal of West
Point. In 1826 a short-lived Owenite Community (of about 80 members) was
established near West Haverstraw and Garnerville (in the township of
Haverstraw). The members of the community established a Church of
Reason, in which lectures were delivered on ethics, philosophy and
science. Dissensions soon arose in the community, the experiment was
abandoned within five months, and most of the members joined in turn the
Coxsackie Community, also in New York, and the Kendal Community, near
Canton, Ohio, both of which were also short-lived. The village of
Haverstraw was originally known as Warren and was incorporated under
that name in 1854; in 1873 it became officially the village of
Haverstraw--both names had previously been used locally. The village of
West Haverstraw (pop. in 1890, 180; in 1900, 2079; and in 1910, 2369),
also in Haverstraw township, was founded in 1830, was long known as
Samsondale, and was incorporated under its present name in 1883.

  See F. B. Green, _History of Rockland County_ (New York, 1886).



HAVET, EUGÈNE AUGUSTE ERNEST (1813-1889), French scholar, was born in
Paris on the 11th of April 1813. Educated at the Lycée Saint-Louis and
the École Normale, he was for many years before his death on the 21st of
December 1889 professor of Latin eloquence at the Collège de France. His
two capital works were a commentary on the works of Pascal, _Pensées de
Pascal publiées dans leur texte authentique avec un commentaire suivi_
(1852; 2nd ed. 2 vols., 1881), and _Le Christianisme et ses origines_ (4
vols., 1871-1884), the chief thesis of which was that Christianity owed
more to Greek philosophy than to the writings of the Hebrew prophets.
His elder son, Pierre Antoine Louis Havet (b. 1849), was professor of
Latin philology at the Collège de France and a member of the Institute.
The younger, Julien, is separately noticed.



HAVET, JULIEN (PIERRE EUGÈNE) (1853-1893), French historian, was born at
Vitry-sur-Seine on the 4th of April 1853, the second son of Ernest
Havet. He early showed a remarkable aptitude for learning, but had a
pronounced aversion for pure rhetoric. His studies at the École des
Chartes (where he took first place both on entering and leaving) and at
the École des Hautes Études did much to develop his critical faculty,
and the historical method taught and practised at these establishments
brought home to him the dignity of history, which thenceforth became his
ruling passion. His valedictory thesis at the École des Chartes, _Série
chronologique des gardiens et seigneurs des Îles Normandes_ (1876), was
a definitive work and but slightly affected by later research. In 1878
he followed his thesis by a study called _Les Cours royales dans les
Îles Normandes_. Both these works were composed entirely from the
original documents at the Public Record Office, London, and the archives
of Jersey and Guernsey. On the history of Merovingian institutions,
Havet's conclusions were widely accepted (see _La Formule N. rex
Francor., v. inl._, 1885). His first work in this province was _Du sens
du mot "romain" dans les lois franques_ (1876), a critical study on a
theory of Fustel de Coulanges. In this he showed that the status of the
_homo Romanus_ of the barbarian laws was inferior to that of the German
freeman; that the Gallo-Romans had been subjected by the Germans to a
state of servitude; and, consequently, that the Germans had conquered
the Gallo-Romans. He aimed a further blow at Fustel's system by showing
that the Frankish kings had never borne the Roman title of _vir
inluster_, and that they could not therefore be considered as being in
the first place Roman magistrates; and that in the royal diplomas the
king issued his commands as _rex Francorum_ and addressed his
functionaries as _viri inlustres_. His attention having been drawn to
questions of authenticity by the forgeries of Vrain Lucas, he devoted
himself to tracing the spurious documents that encumbered and perverted
Merovingian and Carolingian history. In his _A propos des découvertes de
Jérome Vignier_ (1880), he exposed the forgeries committed in the 17th
century by this priest. He then turned his attention to a group of
documents relating to ecclesiastical history in the Carolingian period
and bearing on the question of false decretals, and produced _Les
Chartes de St-Calais_ (1887) and _Les Actes de l'évêché du Mans_ (1894).
On the problems afforded by the chronology of Gerbert's (Pope Silvester
II.) letters and by the notes in cipher in the MS. of his letters, he
wrote _L'Écriture secrète de Gerbert_ (1877), which may be compared with
his _Notes tironiennes dans les diplômes mérovingiens_ (1885). In 1889
he brought out an edition of Gerbert's letters, which was a model of
critical sagacity. Each new work increased his reputation, in Germany as
well as France. At the Bibliothèque Nationale, where he obtained a post,
he rendered great service by his wide knowledge of foreign languages,
and read voraciously everything that related, however remotely, to his
favourite studies. He was finally appointed assistant curator in the
department of printed books. He died prematurely at St Cloud on the 19th
of August 1893.

  After his death his published and unpublished writings were collected
  and published (with the exception of _Les Cours royales des Îles
  Normandes_ and _Lettres de Gerbert_) in two volumes called _Questions
  mérovingiennes_ and _Opuscules inédits_ (1896), containing, besides
  important papers on diplomatic and on Carolingian and Merovingian
  history, a large number of short monographs ranging over a great
  variety of subjects. A collection of his articles was published by his
  friends under the title of _Mélanges Havet_ (1895), prefixed by a
  bibliography of his works compiled by his friend Henri Omont.
       (C. B.*)



HAVRE, LE, a seaport of north-western France, in the department of
Seine-Inférieure, on the north bank of the estuary of the Seine, 143 m.
W.N.W. of Paris and 55 m. W. of Rouen by the Western railway. Pop.
(1906), 129,403. The greater part of the town stands on the level strip
of ground bordering the estuary, but on the N. rises an eminence, la
Côte, covered by the gardens and villas of the richer quarter. The
central point of the town is the Place de l'hôtel de ville in which are
the public gardens. It is crossed by the Boulevard de Strasbourg,
running from the sea on the west to the railway station and the barracks
on the east. The rue de Paris, the busiest street, starts at the Grand
Quai, overlooking the outer harbour, and, intersecting the Place
Gambetta, runs north and enters the Place de l'hôtel de ville on its
southern side. The docks start immediately to the east of this street
and extend over a large area to the south and south-east of the town.
Apart from the church of Notre-Dame, dating from the 16th and 17th
centuries, the chief buildings of Havre, including the hôtel de ville,
the law courts, and the exchange, are of modern erection. The museum
contains a collection of antiquities and paintings. Havre is the seat of
a sub-prefect, and forms part of the maritime arrondissement of
Cherbourg. Among the public institutions are a tribunal of first
instance, a tribunal of commerce, a board of trade arbitrators, a
tribunal of maritime commerce, a chamber of commerce and a branch of the
Bank of France. There are lycées for boys and girls, schools of commerce
and other educational establishments. Havre, which is a fortified place
of the second class, ranks second to Marseilles among French seaports.
There are nine basins (the oldest of which dates back to 1669) with an
area of about 200 acres and more than 8 m. of quays. They extend to the
east of the outer harbour which on the west opens into the new outer
harbour, formed by two breakwaters converging from the land and leaving
an entrance facing west. The chief docks (see Dock for plan) are the
Bassin Bellot and the Bassin de l'Eure. In the latter the mail-steamers
of the Compagnie Générale Transatlantique are berthed; and the
Tancarville canal, by which river-boats unable to attempt the estuary of
the Seine can make the port direct, enters the harbour by this basin.
There are, besides, several repairing docks and a petroleum dock for the
use of vessels carrying that dangerous commodity. The port, which is an
important point of emigration, has regular steam-communication with New
York (by the vessels of the Compagnie Générale Transatlantique) and with
many of the other chief ports of Europe, North, South and Central
America, the West Indies and Africa. Imports in 1907 reached a value of
£57,686,000. The chief were cotton, for which Havre is the great French
market, coffee, copper and other metals, cacao, cotton goods, rubber,
skins and hides, silk goods, dye-woods, tobacco, oil-seeds, coal,
cereals and wool. In the same year exports were valued at £47,130,000,
the most important being cotton, silk and woollen goods, coffee, hides,
leather, wine and spirits, rubber, tools and metal ware, earthenware and
glass, clothes and millinery, cacao and fancy goods. In 1907 the total
tonnage of shipping (with cargoes) reached its highest point, viz.
5,671,975 tons (4018 vessels) compared with 3,816,340 tons (3832
vessels) in 1898. Forty-two per cent of this shipping sailed under the
British flag. France and Germany were Great Britain's most serious
rivals. Havre possesses oil works, soap works, saw mills, flour mills,
works for extracting dyes and tannin from dye-woods, an important
tobacco manufactory, chemical works and rope works. It also has
metallurgical and engineering works which construct commercial and
war-vessels of every kind as well as engines and machinery, cables,
boilers, &c.

Until 1516 Havre was only a fishing village possessing a chapel
dedicated to Notre-Dame de Grâce, to which it owes the name, Havre
(harbour) de Grâce, given to it by Francis I. when he began the
construction of its harbour. The town in 1562 was delivered over to the
keeping of Queen Elizabeth by Louis I., prince de Condé, leader of the
Huguenots, and the command of it was entrusted to Ambrose Dudley, earl
of Warwick; but the English were expelled in 1563, after a most
obstinate siege, which was pressed forward by Charles IX. and his
mother, Catherine de' Medici, in person. The defences of the town and
the harbour-works were continued by Richelieu and completed by Vauban.
In 1694 it was vainly besieged by the English, who also bombarded it in
1759, 1794 and 1795. It was a port of considerable importance as early
as 1572, and despatched vessels to the whale and cod-fishing at
Spitsbergen and Newfoundland. In 1672 it became the entrepôt of the
French East India Company, and afterwards of the Senegal and Guinea
companies. Napoleon I. raised it to a war harbour of the first rank, and
under Napoleon III. works begun by Louis XVI. were completed.

  See A. E. Borely, _Histoire de la ville du Havre_ (Le Havre,
  1880-1881).



HAWAII (HAWAIIAN or SANDWICH ISLANDS), a Territory of the United States
of America, consisting of a chain of islands in the North Pacific Ocean,
eight inhabited and several uninhabited. The inhabited islands lie
between latitudes 18° 54´ and 22° 15´ N., and between longitudes 154°
50´ and 160° 30´ W., and extend about 380 m. from E.S.E. to W.N.W.; the
uninhabited ones, mere rocks and reefs, valuable only for their guano
deposits and shark-fishing grounds, continue the chain several hundred
miles farther W.N.W. From Honolulu, the capital, which is about 100 m.
N.W. of the middle of the inhabited group, the distance to San Francisco
is about 2100 m.; to Auckland, New Zealand, about 3810 m.; to Sydney,
New South Wales, about 4410 m.; to Yokohama, about 3400 m.; to
Hong-Kong, about 4920 m.; to Manila, about 4890 m. The total area of the
inhabited islands is 6651 sq. m., distributed as follows: Hawaii, 4210;
Maui, 728; Oahu, about 600; Kauai, 547; Molokai, 261; Lanai, 139;
Niihau, 97; Kahoolawe, 69.

  All the islands are of volcanic origin, and have been built up by the
  eruptive process from a base about 15,000 ft. below the sea to a
  maximum height (Mauna Kea) on the largest island (Hawaii) of 13,823
  ft. above the sea; altogether there are forty volcanic peaks. Evidence
  of slight upheaval is occasionally afforded by an elevated coral-reef
  along the shore, and evidence of the subsidence of the S. portion of
  Oahu for several hundred feet has been discovered by artesian borings
  through coral-rock. In some instances, notably the high and nearly
  vertical wall along the N. shore of the E. half of Molokai, there is
  evidence of a fracture followed by the submergence of a portion of a
  volcano. With the exception of the coral and a small amount of
  calcareous sandstone, the rocks are entirely volcanic and range from
  basalt to trachyte, but are mainly basalt. Cinder cones and tufa cones
  abound, but one of the most distinguishing features of the Hawaiian
  volcanoes is the great number of craters of the engulfment type, i.e.
  pit-craters which enlarge slowly by the breaking off and falling in of
  their walls, and discharge vast lava-flows with comparatively little
  violence. The age of the several inhabited islands, or at least the
  time since the last eruptions on them, decreases from W. to E., and on
  the most easterly (Hawaii) volcanic forces are still in operation.
  That those to the westward have long been inactive is shown by the
  destruction of craters by denudation, by deep ravines, valleys and
  tall cliffs eroded on the mountain sides, especially on the windward
  side, by the depth of soil formed from the disintegrated rocks, and by
  the amount as well as variety of vegetable life.

_Hawaii Island_, from which the group and later the Territory was named,
has the shape of a rude triangle with sides of 90 m., 75 m. and 65 m.
Its coast, unlike that of the other islands of the archipelago, has few
coral reefs. Its surface consists mainly of the gentle slopes of five
volcanic mountains which have encroached much upon one another by their
eruptions.

  Mauna Loa ("Great Mountain"), on the S., is by far the largest volcano
  in the world; from a base measuring at sea-level about 75 m. from N.
  to S. and 50 m. from E. to W., it rises gradually to a height of
  13,675 ft. On its E.S.E. side, at an elevation of 4000 ft. above the
  sea (300 ft. above the adjoining plain on the W.) is Kilauea, from
  whose lava-flows the island has been extended to form its S.E. angle.
  To the N.N.E. of Mauna Loa, and blending with it in an intervening
  plateau, is Mauna Kea ("White Mountain," so named from the snow on its
  summit), with a much smaller base but with steeper slopes and a
  crowning cinder cone 13,823 ft. above the sea, the maximum height in
  the Pacific Ocean; blending with Mauna Loa on the N.N.W. is Mauna
  Hualalai, 8269 ft. in height; and rising abruptly from the extreme
  N.W. shore are the remains of the oldest mountains of the island, the
  Kohala, with a summit 5505 ft. in height. On the land side the Kohala
  Mountains have been covered with lava from Mauna Kea, and form the
  broad plains of Kohala, having a maximum elevation of about 3000 ft.;
  on the ocean side, wherever this lava has not extended, erosion has
  gone on until bluffs 1000 ft. in height face the sea and the enormous
  gorges of Waipio and Waimanu, with nearly perpendicular walls as much
  as 3000 ft. high and extending inland 5-6 m., have been formed. Mauna
  Kea is not nearly so old as the Kohala Mountains, but there is no
  record of its eruption, nor have its lavas a modern aspect. The last
  eruption of Mauna Hualalai was in 1801. Mauna Loa and Kilauea are
  still active. Cinder cones are the predominant type of craters on both
  Mauna Kea and the Kohala Mountains, and they are also numerous on the
  upper slopes of Mauna Hualalai; but the more typically Hawaiian pit or
  engulfment craters also abound on Mauna Hualalai and Mokuaweoweo,
  crowning the summit of Mauna Loa, as well as Kilauea, to the S.E. of
  it, are prominent representatives of this type. Kilauea is the largest
  active crater in the world (8 m. in circumference) and is easily
  accessible. Enclosed by a circular wall from 200 to 700 ft. in height
  is a black and slightly undulating plain having an area of 4.14 sq.
  m., and within this plain is a pit, Halemaumau, of varying area (about
  2000 ft. in diameter in 1905), now full of boiling lava, now empty to
  a depth of perhaps 1000 ft. When most active, Halemaumau affords a
  grand spectacle, especially at night: across the crust run glowing
  cracks, the crust is then broken into cakes, the cakes plunge beneath,
  lakes of liquid lava are formed, over whose surface play
  fire-fountains 10 to 50 ft. in height, the surface again solidifies
  and the process is repeated.[1] According to an account of the
  natives, a violent eruption of Kilauea occurred in 1789, or about that
  time, and deposits of volcanic sand, large stones, sponge-like scoria
  (pumice) and ashes for miles around are evidence of such an eruption.
  Since the Rev. William Ellis and a party of American missionaries
  first made the volcano known to the civilized world in 1823, the
  eruptions have consisted mainly in the quiet discharge of lava through
  a subterranean passage into the sea. In the eruptions of 1823, 1832,
  1840 and 1868 the floor of the crater rose on the eve of an eruption
  and then sank, sometimes hundreds of feet, with the discharge of lava;
  but since 1868 (in 1879, 1886, 1891, 1894 and 1907; and once, before
  1868, in 1855) this action has been confined to Halemaumau and such
  other pits as at the time existed.

  [Illustration: Map of Hawaii.]

  Mokuaweoweo, on the flat top of Mauna Loa, is a pit crater with a
  floor 3.7 sq. m. in area and sunk 500-600 ft. within walls that are
  almost vertical and that measure 9.47 m. in circumference. Formerly,
  on the eve of a great eruption of Mauna Loa, this crater often spouted
  forth great columns of flame and emitted clouds of vapour, but in
  modern times this action has usually been followed by a fracture of
  the mountain side from the summit down to a point 1000 ft. or more
  below where the lava was discharged in great streams, the action at
  the summit diminishing or wholly ceasing when this discharge began.
  The first recorded eruption of Mauna Loa was in 1832; since then there
  have been eruptions in 1851, 1852, 1855, 1859, 1868, 1880-1881, 1887,
  1896, 1899 and 1907. The eruptions of 1868, 1887 and 1907 were
  attended by earthquakes; in 1868 huge sea waves, 40 ft. in height,
  were raised, and, as they broke on the S. shore, they destroyed the
  villages of Punaluu, Ninole, Kawaa and Honuapo. But the eruptions of
  Mauna Loa have consisted mainly in the quiet discharge of enormous
  flows of lava: in 1859 the lava-stream, which began to run on the 23rd
  of January, flowed N.W., reached the sea, 33 m. distant, eight days
  later, and continued to flow into it until the 25th of November; and
  the average length of the flows from seven other eruptions is nearly
  14 m. The surface of the upper slopes of Mauna Loa is almost wholly of
  two widely different kinds of barren lava-flows, called by the
  Hawaiians the _pahoehoe_ and the _aa_. The _pahoehoe_ has a smooth but
  billowy or hummocky surface, and is marked by lines which show that it
  cooled as it flowed. The _aa_ is lava broken into fragments having
  sharp and jagged edges. As the same stream sometimes changes abruptly
  from one kind to the other, the two kinds must be due to different
  conditions affecting the flow, and among the conditions which may
  cause a stream to break up into the _aa_ have been mentioned the
  greater depth of the stream, a sluggish current, impediments in its
  course just as it is granulating, and, what is more probable,
  subterranean moisture which causes it to cool from below upward
  instead of from above downward as in the _pahoehoe_. The natives are
  in the habit of making holes in the _aa_, and planting in them banana
  shoots or sweet-potato cuttings, and though the holes are simply
  filled with stones or fern leaves, the plants grow and in due time are
  productive. Another curious feature of Mauna Loa, and to some extent
  of other Hawaiian volcanoes, is the great number of caves, some of
  them as much as 60 to 80 ft. in height and several miles in length;
  they were produced by the escape of lava over which a crust had
  formed. In the midst of barren wastes to the S.E. and S.W. of Kilauea
  are small channels with steam cracks, along which appears the only
  vegetation of the region.

_Maui_, lying 26 m. N.W. of Hawaii, is composed of two mountains
connected by an isthmus, Wailuku, 7 or 8 m. long, about 6 m. across, and
about 160 ft. above the sea in its highest part.

  Mauna Haleakala, on the E. peninsula, has a height of 10,032 ft., and
  forms a great dome-like mass, with a circumference at the base of 90
  m. and regular slopes of only 8° or 9°. It has numerous cinder cones
  on its S.W. slope, is well wooded on the N. and E. slopes, and has on
  its summit an extinct pit-crater which is one of the largest in the
  world. This crater is 7.48 m. long, 2.37 m. wide, and covers 19 sq.
  m.; the circuit of its walls, which are composed of a hard grey
  clinkstone much fissured, is 20 m.; its greatest depth is 2720 ft. At
  opposite ends are breaks in the walls a mile or more in width--one
  about 1000 ft., the other at least 3000 ft. in depth--through which
  poured the lava of probably the last great eruption. From the floor of
  the crater rise sixteen well-preserved cinder-cones, which range from
  more than 400 ft. to 900 ft. in height. Along the N. base of the
  mountain are numerous ravines (several hundred feet deep), to the
  bottom of which small streams of water fall in long cascades, but
  elsewhere on the eastern mountain there is little erosion or other
  mark of age. That the mountainous mass of western Maui is much older
  is shown by the destruction of its crater, by its sharp ridges and by
  deeply eroded gorges or valleys. Its highest peak, Puu Kukui, rises
  5788 ft. above the sea, and directly under this is the head of Iao
  Valley, 5 m. long and 2 m. wide, which has been cut in the mountain to
  a depth of 4000 ft. This and the smaller valleys are noted for the
  beauty of their tropical scenery.

_Kahoolawe_ is a small island 6 m. S.W. of Maui. It is 14 m. long by 6
m. wide. Its mountains, which rise to a height of 1472 ft., are rugged
and nearly destitute of verdure, but the intervening valleys afford
pasturage for sheep.

_Lanai_ is another small island, 7 m. W. of Maui, about 18 m. long and
12 m. wide. It has a mountain range which rises to a maximum height,
S.E. of its centre, of about 3480 ft. The N.E. slope is cut by deep
gorges, and at the bottom of one of these, which is 2000 ft. deep, is
the only water-supply on the island. On the S. side is a rolling
table-land affording considerable pasturage for sheep, but over the
whole N.W. portion of the island the trade winds, driving through the
channel between Maui and Molokai, sweep the rocks bare. Kahoolawe and
Lanai are both privately owned.

_Molokai_, 8 m. N.W. of Maui, extends 40 m. from E. to W. and has an
average width of nearly 7 m. From the S.W. extremity of the island rises
the backbone of a ridge which extends E.N.E. about 10 m., where it
culminates in the round-topped hill of Mauna Loa, 1382 ft. above the
sea. Both the northern and southern slopes of this ridge are cut by
ravines and gulches, and along the N. shore is a steep sea-cliff. At the
E. extremity of the ridge there is a sudden drop to a low and gently
rolling plain, but farther on the surface rises gradually towards a
range of mountains which comprises more than one-half the island and
attains a maximum height of 4958 ft. in the peak of Kamakou. The S.
slope of this range is gradual but is cut by many straight and narrow
ravines, in some instances to a great depth. The N. slope is abrupt,
with precipices from 1000 to 4000 ft. in height. Extending N. from the
foot of the precipice, a little E. of the centre of the island, is a
comparatively low peninsula (separated from the mainland by a rock wall
2000 ft. high), on which is a famous leper settlement. The peninsula
forms a separate county, Kalawao.

_Oahu_, 23 m. N.W. of Molokai, has an irregular quadrangular form. It is
traversed from S.E. to N.W. by two roughly parallel ranges of hill
separated by a plain that is 20 m. long and in some parts 9 to 10 m.
wide. The highest point in the island is Mauna Kaala, 4030 ft., in the
Waianae or W. range; but the Koolau or E. range is much longer than the
other, and its ridge is very much broken; on the land side there are
many ravines formed by lateral spurs, but to the sea for 30 m. it
presents a nearly vertical wall without a break. The valleys are
remarkable for beautiful scenery,--peaks, cliffs, lateral ravines,
cascades and tropical vegetation. There are few craters on the loftier
heights, but on the coasts there are several groups of small cones with
craters, some of lava, others of tufa. The greater part of the coast is
surrounded by a coral reef, often half a mile wide; in several
localities an old reef upheaved, sometimes 100 ft. high, forms part of
the land.

_Kauai_, 63 m. W.N.W. of Oahu, has an irregularly circular form with a
maximum diameter of about 25 m. On the N.W. is a precipice 2000 ft. or
more in height and above this is a mountain plain, but elsewhere around
the island is a shore plain, from which rises Mount Waialeale to a
height of 5250 ft. The peaks of the mountain are irregular, abrupt and
broken; its sides are deeply furrowed by gorges and ravines; the shore
plain is broken by ridges and by broad and deep valleys; no other island
of the group is so well watered on all sides by large mountain streams;
and it is called "garden isle."

_Niihau_, the most westerly of the inhabited islands, is 18 m. W. by S.
of Kauai. It is 16 m. long and 6 m. wide. The western two-thirds
consists of a low plain, composed of an uplifted coral reef and matter
washed down from the mountains; but on the E. side the island rises
precipitously from the sea and attains a maximum height of 1304 ft. at
Paniau. There are large salt lagoons on the southern coast.

  _Climate_.--The climate is cooler than that of other regions in the
  same latitude, and is very healthy. The sky is usually cloudless or
  only partly cloudy. The N.E. trades blow with periodic variations from
  March to December; and the leeward coast, being protected by high
  mountains, is refreshed by regular land and sea breezes. During
  January, February and a part of March the wind blows strongly from the
  S. or S.W.; and at this season an unpleasant hot, damp wind is
  sometimes felt. More rain falls from January to May than during the
  other months; very much more falls on the windward side of the
  principal islands than on the leeward; and the amount increases with
  the elevation also up to about 4000 ft. The greatest recorded extremes
  of local rainfall for a year within the larger islands range from 12
  to 300 in. For Honolulu the mean annual rainfall (1884-1899) was 28.18
  in.; the maximum 49.82; and the minimum 13.46. At sea level the daily
  average temperature for July is 76.4° F., for December 70.7° F.; the
  mean annual temperature is about 73° F.--68° during the night, 80°
  during the day--and for each 200 ft. of elevation the temperature
  falls about 1° F., and snow lies for most of the time on the highest
  mountains.

  _Flora._--The Hawaiian Islands have a peculiar flora. As a result of
  their isolation, the proportion of endemic plants is greater here than
  in any other region, and the great elevation of the mountains, with
  the consequent variation in temperature, moisture and barometric
  pressure, has multiplied the number of species. Towards the close of
  the 19th century William Hillebrand found 365 genera and 999 species,
  and of this number of species 653 were peculiar to this part of the
  Pacific. The number of species is greatest on the older islands,
  particularly Kauai and Oahu, and the total number for the group has
  been constantly increasing, some being introduced, others possibly
  being produced by the varying climatic conditions from those already
  existing. Among the peculiar dicotyledonous plants there is not a
  single annual, and by far the greater number are perennial and woody.
  Hawaiian forests are distinctly tropical, and are composed for the
  most part of trees below the medium height. They are most common
  between elevations of 2000 and 8000 ft.; there are only a few species
  below 2000 ft., and above 8000 ft. the growth is stunted. The
  destruction of considerable portions of the forests by cattle, goats,
  insects, fire and cutting has been followed by reforesting, the
  planting of hitherto barren tracts, the passage of severe forest fire
  laws, and the establishment of forest reserves, of which the area in
  1909 was 545,746 acres, of which 357,180 were government land. In
  regions of heavy rainfall the ohia-lehua (_Metrosideros polymorpha_),
  a tree growing from 30 to 100 ft. in height, is predominant, and on
  account of the dense undergrowth chiefly of ferns and climbing vines,
  forms the most impenetrable of the forests; its hard wood is used
  chiefly for fuel. The koa (_Acacia koa_), from the wood of which the
  natives used to make the bodies of their canoes, and the only tree of
  the islands that furnishes much valuable lumber (a hard cabinet wood
  marketed as "Hawaiian mahogany"), forms extensive forests on Hawaii
  and Maui between elevations of 2000 and 4000 ft. The mamane (_Sophora
  chrysophylla_), which furnishes the best posts, grows principally on
  the high slopes of Mauna Kea and Hualalai. Posts and railway ties are
  also made from ohia-ha (_Eugenia sandwicensis_). In many districts
  between elevations of 2000 and 6000 ft., where there is only a
  moderate amount of moisture, occur mixed forests of koa, koaia
  (_Acacia koaia_), kopiko (_Straussia oncocarpa_ and _S. hawaiiensis_),
  kolea (_Myrsine kauaiensis_ and _M. lanaiensis_), naio or bastard
  sandalwood (_Myoporum sandwicense_) and pua (_Olea sandwicensis_); of
  these the koaia furnishes a hard wood suitable for the manufacture of
  furniture, and out of it the natives formerly made spears and fancy
  paddles. The wood of the naio when dry has a fragrance resembling that
  of sandalwood, and is used for torches in fishing. The kukui
  (_Aleurites triloba_) and the algaroba (_Prosopis juliflora_) are the
  principal species of forest trees that occur below elevations of 2000
  ft. The kukui grows along streams and gulches; from its nuts, which
  are very oily, the natives used to make candles, and it is still
  frequently called the candlenut tree. On the leeward side, from near
  the sea level to elevations of 1500 ft., and on ground that was
  formerly barren, the algaroba tree has formed dense forests since its
  introduction in 1837. Forests of iron-wood and blue gum have also been
  planted. Sandalwood (_Santalum album_ or _freycinetianum_) was once
  abundant on rugged and rather inaccessible heights, but so great a
  demand arose for it in China,[2] where it was used for incense and for
  the manufacture of fancy articles, that the supply was nearly
  exhausted between 1802 and 1836; since then some young trees have
  sprung up, but the number is relatively small. Other peculiar trees
  prized for their wood are: the kauila (_Alphitonia ponderosa_), used
  for making spears, mallets and other tools; the kela (_Mezoneuron
  kauaiense_), the hard wood of which resembles ebony; the halapepe
  (_Dracaena aurea_), out of the soft wood of which the natives carved
  many of their idols; and the wiliwili (_Erythrina monosperma_), the
  wood of which is as light as cork and is used for outriggers. In 1909,
  on six large rubber plantations, mostly on the windward side of the
  island of Maui, there were planted 444,450 ceara trees, 66,700 hevea
  trees, and 600 castilloa trees. About the only indigenous
  fruit-bearing plants are the Chilean strawberry (_Fragaria chilensis_)
  and the ohelo berry (_Vaccinium reticulatum_), both of which grow at
  high elevations on Hawaii and Maui. The ohelo berry is famous in song
  and story, and formerly served as a propitiatory offering to Pele. The
  number of fruit-bearing trees, shrubs and plants that have been
  introduced and are successfully cultivated or grow wild is much
  greater; among them are the mango, orange, banana, pineapple, coconut,
  palm, grape, fig, strawberry, litchi (_Nephelium litchi_)--the
  favourite fruit of the Chinese--avocado or alligator pear (_Persea
  gratissima_), Sapodilla pear (_Achras sapota_), loquat or mespilus
  plum (_Eriobotrya japonica_), Cape gooseberry (_Physalis peruviana_),
  tamarind (_Tamarindus indica_), papaw (_Carica papaya_), resembling in
  appearance the cantaloupe, granadilla (_Passiflora quadrangularis_)
  and guava (_Psidium guajava_). Most of the native grasses are too
  coarse for grazing, and some of them, particularly the hilo grass
  (_Paspalum conjugatum_), which forms a dense mat over the ground,
  prevent the spread of forests. The pili grass (_Heteropogon
  contortus_) is also noxious, for its awns get badly entangled in the
  wool of sheep. The native manienie (_Stenotaphrum americanum_) and
  kukai (_Panicum pruriens_), however, are relished by stock and are
  found on all the inhabited islands; the Bermuda grass (_Cynodon
  dactylon_), a June grass (_Poa annua_), and Guinea grass (_Panicum
  jumentorum_) have also been successfully introduced. The _Paspalum
  orbiculare_ is the large swamp grass with which the natives covered
  their houses. On the island of Niihau is a fine grass (_Cyperus
  laevigatus_), out of which the beautiful Niihau mats were formerly
  made; it is used in making Panama hats. Mats were also made of the
  leaves of the hala tree (_Pandanus odoratissimus_). The wauke plant
  (_Broussonetia papyrifera_), and to a less extent the mamake
  (_Pipturus albidus_) and _Boehmeria stipularis_, furnished the bark
  out of which the famous kapa cloth was made, while the olopa
  (_Cheirodendron gaudichaudii_) and the koolea (_Myrsine lessertiana_)
  furnished the dyes with which it was coloured. From several species of
  _Cibotium_ is obtained a glossy yellowish wool, used for making
  pillows and mattresses. Ferns, of which there are about 130 species
  varying from a few inches to 30 ft. in height, form a luxuriant
  undergrowth in the ohia-lehua and the koa forests, and the islands are
  noted for the profusion and beautiful colours of their flowering
  plants. Kalo (_Colocasia antiquorum_, var., _esculenta_), which
  furnishes the principal food of the natives, and sugar cane
  (_Saccharum officinarum_), the cultivation of which has become the
  chief industry of the islands, were introduced before the discovery of
  the group by Captain Cook in 1778. Sisal hemp has been introduced, and
  there is a large plantation of it W. of Honolulu.

  Over seventy varieties of seaweeds, growing in the fresh-water pools
  and in the waters near the coast, are used by the natives as food.
  These _limus_, as they are called by the Kanakas, are washed, salted,
  broken and eaten as a relish or as a flavouring for fish or other
  meat. The culture of such algae may prove of economic importance;
  gelatine, glue and agar-agar would be valuable by-products.

  _Fauna_.--A day-flying bat, whales and dolphins are about the only
  indigenous mammals; hogs, dogs and rats had been introduced before
  Cook's discovery. Fish in an interesting variety of colours and shapes
  abound in the sea and in artificial ponds along the coasts.[3] There
  are some fine species of birds, and the native avifauna is so
  distinctive that Wallace argued from it that the Hawaiian Archipelago
  had long been separated from any other land. There were native names
  for 89 varieties. The most typical family is the _Drepanidae_, so
  named for the stout sickle-shaped beak with which the birds extract
  insects from heavy-barked trees; Gadow considers the family American
  in its origin, and thinks that the _Moho_,[4] a family of
  honey-suckers, were later comers and from Australia. The _mamo_
  (_Drepanis pacifica_) has large golden feathers on its back; it is now
  very rare, and is seldom found except on Mauna Loa, Hawaii, about 4000
  ft. above the sea. The smaller yellow feathers, once used for the war
  cloaks of the native chiefs, were furnished by the _oo_ (_Moho
  nobilis_) and the _aa_ (_Moho braccatus_), now found only occasionally
  in the valleys of Kauai near Hanalei, on the N. side of the island;
  scarlet feathers for similar mantles were taken from the _iiwi_
  (_Vestiaria coccinea_), a black-bodied, scarlet-winged song-bird,
  which feeds on nectar and on insects found in the bark of the koa and
  ohia trees, and from the _Fringilla coccinea_. In the old times birds
  were protected by the native belief that divine messages were conveyed
  by bird cries, and by royal edict forbidding the killing of species
  furnishing the material for feather cloaks, contributions towards
  which were long almost the only taxes paid. Thus the downfall of the
  monarchy and of the ancient cults have been nearly fatal to some of
  the more beautiful birds; feather ornaments, formerly worn only by
  nobles, came to be a common decoration; and many species (for example
  the Hawaiian gallinule, _Gallinula sandwicensis_, which, because of
  its crimson frontal plate and bill, was said by the natives to have
  played the part of Prometheus, burning its head with fire stolen from
  the gods and bestowed on mortals) have been nearly destroyed by the
  mongoose, or have been driven from their lowland homes to the
  mountains, such being the fate of the mamo, mentioned above, and of
  the Sandwich Island goose (_Bernicla sandwicensis_), which is here a
  remarkable example of adaptation, as its present habitat is quite
  arid. This goose has been introduced successfully into Europe. A bird
  called moho, but actually of a different family, was the _Pennula
  ecaudata_ or _millsi_, which had hardly any tail, and had wings so
  degenerate that it was commonly thought wingless. The turnstone
  (_Strepsilas interpres_) arrives in the islands in August after
  breeding in Alaska. There are no parrots. The only reptiles are three
  species of skinks and four of the gecko; the islands are famed for
  their freedom from snakes. Land-snails, mostly _Achatinellidae_, are
  remarkably frequent and diverse; over 300 varieties exist. Insects are
  numerous, and of about 500 species of beetle some 80% are not known to
  exist elsewhere; cockroaches and green locusts are pests, as are,
  also, mosquitoes,[5] wasps, scorpions, centipedes and white ants,
  which have all been introduced from elsewhere.

  _Soil._--The soil of the Territory is almost wholly a decomposition of
  lava, and in general differs much from the soils of the United States,
  particularly in the large amount of nitrogen (often more than 1.25% in
  cane and coffee soil, and occasionally 2.2%) and iron, and in the high
  degree of acidity. High up on the windward side of a mountain it is
  thin, light red or yellow, and of inferior quality. Low down on the
  leeward side it is dark red and fertile, but still too pervious to
  retain moisture well. In the older valleys on the islands of Kauai,
  Oahu and Maui, as well as on the lowland plain of Molokai, the soil is
  deeper and usually, too, the moisture is retained by a heavy clay. In
  some places along the coast there is a narrow strip of decomposed
  coral limestone; often, too, a coral reef has served to catch the
  sediment washed down the mountain side until a deep sedimentary soil
  has been deposited. On the still lower levels the soil is deepest and
  most productive.

  _Agriculture._--The tenure by which lands were held before 1838 was
  strictly feudal, resembling that of Germany in the 11th century, and
  lands were sometimes enfeoffed to the seventh degree. But in the
  "Great Division" which took place in 1848 and forms the foundation of
  present land titles, about 984,000 acres, nearly one-fourth of the
  inhabited area, were set apart for the crown, about 1,495,000 acres
  for the government, and about 1,619,000 acres for the several chiefs;
  and the common people received fee-simple titles[6] for their house
  lots and the pieces of land which they cultivated for themselves,
  about 28,600 acres, almost entirely in isolated patches of irregular
  shape hemmed in by the holdings of the crown, the government or the
  great chiefs. Generally the chiefs ran into debt; many died without
  heirs; and their lands passed largely into the hands of foreigners. At
  the abolition of the monarchy in 1893, the crown domains were declared
  to be public lands, and, with the other government lands, were by the
  terms of annexation turned over to the United States in 1898. They had
  been offered for sale or lease in accordance with land acts (of 1884
  and 1895--the latter corresponding generally to the land laws of New
  Zealand) designed to promote division into small farms and their
  immediate improvement. In 1909 the area of the public land was about
  1,700,000 acres. In 1900 there were in the Territory 2273 farms, of
  which 1209 contained less than 10 acres, 785 contained between 10 and
  100 acres, and 116 contained 1000 acres or more. The natives seldom
  cultivate more than half an acre apiece, and the Portuguese settlers
  usually only 25 or 30 acres at most. Of the total area of the
  Territory only 86,854 acres, or 2.77%, were under cultivation in 1900,
  and of this 65,687 acres, or 75.6%, were divided into 170 farms and
  planted to sugar-cane. In 1909 it was estimated that 213,000 acres
  (about half of which was irrigated) were planted to sugar, one half
  being cropped each year. The average yield per acre of cane-sugar is
  the greatest in the world, 30 to 40 tons of cane being an average per
  acre, and as much as 10¼ tons of sugar having been produced from a
  single acre under irrigation. The cultivation of the cane was greatly
  encouraged by the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875, which established
  practically free trade between the islands and the United States, and
  since 1879 it has been widely extended by means of irrigation, the
  water being obtained both by pumping from numerous artesian wells and
  by conducting surface water through canals and ditches. The sugar
  farms are mostly on the islands of Hawaii, Oahu, Maui and Kauai, at
  the bases of mountains; those on the leeward side have the better
  soil, but require much more irrigating. The product increased from
  26,072,429 lb. in 1876 to 259,789,462 lb. in 1890, 542,098,500 lb. in
  1899 and about 1,060,000,000 lb. (valued at more than $40,000,000) in
  1909. Nearly all of it is exported to the United States. Rice was the
  second product in importance until competition with Japan, Louisiana
  and Texas made the crop a poor investment; improved culture and
  machinery may restore rice culture to its former importance. It is
  grown almost wholly by Japanese and Chinese on small low farms along
  the coasts, mostly on the islands of Kauai and Oahu. In 1899 the
  product amounted to 33,442,400 lb.; in 1907 about 12,000 acres were
  planted, and the crop was estimated to be worth $2,500,000. Coffee of
  good quality is grown at elevations ranging between 1000 to 3000 ft.
  above the sea; the Hawaiian product is called Kona coffee--from Kona,
  a district of the S. side of Hawaii island, where much of it is grown.
  In 1909 about 4500 acres were in coffee, the value of the crop was
  $350,000; and 1,763,119 lb. of coffee, valued at $211,535, were
  exported from Hawaii to the mainland of the United States. A few
  bananas and (especially from Oahu) pineapples of fine quality are
  exported; since 1901 the canning of pineapples has been successfully
  carried on, and in the year ending May 31, 1907, 186,700 cases were
  exported, being packed in nine canneries. Oranges, lemons, limes,
  figs, mangoes, grapes and peaches, besides a considerable variety of
  vegetables, are raised in small quantities for local consumption. In
  1909 the exports of fruits and nuts to the continental United States
  were valued at $1,457,644. An excellent quality of sisal is grown.
  Rubber trees have been planted with some success, particularly on the
  eastern part of the island of Maui; they were not tapped for
  commercial use until 1909. In 1907 there were vanilla plantations in
  the islands of Oahu and Hawaii. Tobacco of a high grade, especially
  for wrappers, has been grown at the Agricultural Experiment Station's
  farm at Hamakua, on the island of Hawaii, where the tobacco is
  practically "shade grown" under the afternoon fogs from Mauna Kea.
  Cotton and silk culture have been experimented with on the islands;
  and the work of the Hawaiian Agricultural Experiment Station is of
  great value, in introducing new crops, in improving old, in studying
  soils and fertilizers and in entomological research. Honey is a crop
  of some importance; in 1908 the yield was about 950 tons of honey and
  15 tons of wax. The small islands of Lanai, Niihau and Kahoolawe are
  devoted chiefly to the raising of sheep and cattle--Niihau is one
  large privately owned sheep-ranch. There are large cattle-ranches on
  the islands supplying nearly all the meat for domestic consumption,
  and cattle-raising is second in importance to the sugar industry. It
  was estimated in 1908 that there were about 130,500 cattle and about
  99,500 sheep on the islands. The "native" cattle, descended from those
  left on the islands by early navigators, are being improved by
  breeding with imported Hereford, Shorthorn, Angus and Holstein bulls,
  the Herefords being the best for the purpose. In the fiscal year 1908,
  359,413 lb. of wool (valued at $58,133) and 928,599 lb. of raw hides
  (valued at $87,599) were shipped from the Territory to the United
  States.

  _Minerals._--The islands have large (unworked) supplies of pumice,
  sandstone, sulphur, gypsum, alum and mineral-paint ochres, and some
  salt, kaolin and sal-ammoniac, but otherwise they are without mineral
  wealth other than lava rocks for building purposes.

  _Manufactures._--The manufactures are chiefly sugar, fertilizers, and
  such products of the foundry and machine shop as are required for the
  machinery of the sugar factories. Most of the manufacturing
  industries, indeed, are maintained for supplying the local market,
  there being only three important exceptions--the manufacture of sugar,
  the cleaning of coffee and the cleaning and polishing of rice. The
  manufacture of sugar, which began between 1830 and 1840, has long been
  much the most important of the manufacturing industries: thus in 1900
  the value of the sugar production was $19,254,773, and the total value
  of all manufactures, including custom work and repairing, was only
  $24,992,068. Next to sugar, fertilizers were the most important
  manufactured product, their value being $1,150,625; the products of
  the establishments for the polishing and cleaning of rice were valued
  at $664,300. Of the total product in 1900, only 18.5% (by value) is to
  be credited to the city of Honolulu. The growth of manufacturing is
  much hampered by the lack of labour. Excellent water power is utilized
  on the island of Kauai in an electric plant.

  _Communications._--There are good wagon roads on the islands, some of
  them macadamized, built of the hard blue lava rock. Hawaii had in 1909
  about 200 m. of railway, of which the principal line is that of the
  Oahu Railway & Land Company (about 89 m.), extending from Honolulu W.
  and N. along the coast to Kahuku about one-half the distance around
  Oahu; another line from Kahuku Mill, the most northerly point of the
  island, S.E. to Honolulu, was projected in 1905; on the island of
  Hawaii is the Hilo Railroad (about 46 m.), carrying sugar, pineapples,
  rubber and lumber; other railways are for the most part short lines on
  sugar estates and in coffee-producing sections of the islands of
  Hawaii and Maui. Each of the larger islands has one or more ports
  which a local steamboat serves regularly, and Honolulu has the regular
  service of seven trans-Pacific lines (the American-Hawaiian Steamship
  Co., the Canadian-Australian Steamship Co., the Matson Navigation Co.,
  the Oceanic Steamship Co., the Pacific Mail Steamship Co., the Mexican
  Oriental and the Toyo Kisen Kaisha); it is a midway station for
  vessels between the United States (mainland) and Australia and
  Southern Asia. In 1908 five steamship companies were engaged in
  traffic between island ports and the mainland (including Mexico).
  Honolulu has cable connexion with San Francisco and the East, and the
  several islands of the group are served by wireless telegraph.

  _Commerce._--The position of the archipelago, at the "cross-roads" of
  the North Pacific, has made it commercially important since the days
  of the whale fishery, and it has a practical monopoly of coaling,
  watering and victualling. Its main disadvantage is the lack of
  harbours--Honolulu and Pearl Harbor are the only ones in the
  archipelago; but under the River and Harbour Act of 1905 examinations
  and surveys were made to improve Hilo Bay on the island of Hawaii.
  Pearl Harbor is the U.S. naval station, and a great naval dock, nearly
  1200 ft. long, was projected for the station in 1908. Within recent
  years commerce has grown greatly in volume; it has always been almost
  entirely with the United States. In 1880 the value of imports from the
  United States was $2,086,000, that of exports to the United States was
  $4,606,000; in 1907 the value of shipments of domestic merchandise
  from the United States to Hawaii was $5,357,907, and the value of
  shipments of domestic merchandise from Hawaii to the United States was
  $31,984,433, of which $30,111,524 was the value of brown sugar,
  $133,133 the value of rice, $601,748 the value of canned fruits,
  $124,146 the value of green, ripe or dried fruits, $117,403 the value
  of hides and skins, and $105,515 the value of green or raw coffee. The
  shipments of foreign merchandise each way are relatively
  insignificant. In the fiscal year 1908 the exports from Hawaii to
  foreign countries were valued at $597,640, ten times as much as in
  1905 ($59,541); the imports into Hawaii from foreign countries were
  valued at $4,682,399 in the fiscal year 1908, as against $3,014,964 in
  1905.

_Population._--The total population of the islands in 1890 was 89,990;
in 1900 it was 154,001, an increase within the decade of 71.13%; in 1910
it was 191,909. In 1908 there were about 72,000 Japanese, 18,000
Chinese, 5000 Koreans, 23,000 Portuguese, 2000 Spanish, 2000 Porto
Ricans, 35,000 Hawaiians and part Hawaiians and 12,000 Teutons. Of the
total for 1900 there were 61,111 Japanese, 25,767 Chinese and 233
negroes; of the same total there were 90,780 foreign-born, of whom
56,234 were natives of Japan, and 6512 were natives of Portugal. There
were in all in 1900, 106,369 males (69.1%; a preponderance due to the
large number of Mongolian labourers, whose wives are left in Asia) and
only 47,632 females. About three-fifths of the Hawaiians and nearly all
of American, British or North European descent are Protestants. Most of
the Portuguese and about one-third of the native Hawaiians are Roman
Catholics. The Mormons claim more than 4000 adherents, whose principal
settlement is at Laie, on the north-east shore of Oahu; the first Mormon
missionaries came to the islands in 1850. The population of 1910 was
distributed among the several islands as follows: Oahu, 82,028; Hawaii,
55,382; Kauai and Niihau, 23,952; Kalawao, 785; and Maui, Lanai,
Kahoolawe and Molokai, 29,762. The population of Honolulu district, the
entire urban population of the Territory, was 22,907 in 1890, 39,306 in
1900, and 52,183 in 1910.


  Native population.

The aboriginal Hawaiians (sometimes called Kanakas, from a Hawaiian word
_kanaka_, meaning "man") belong to the Malayo-Polynesian race; they
probably settled in Hawaii in the 10th century, having formerly lived in
Samoa, and possibly before that in Tahiti and the Marquesas. Their
reddish-brown skin has been compared in hue to tarnished copper. Their
hair is dark brown or black, straight, wavy or curly; the beard is thin,
the face broad, the profile not prominent, the eyes large and
expressive, the nose somewhat flattened, the lips thick, the teeth
excellent in shape and of a pearly whiteness. The skull is
sub-brachycephalic in type, with an index of 82.6 from living
"specimens" and 79 from a large collection of skulls; it is never
prognathous. Most of the people are of moderate stature, but the chiefs
and the women of their families have been remarkable for their height,
and 400 pounds was formerly not an unusual weight for one of this class.
This corpulence was due not alone to over-feeding but to an almost
purely vegetable diet; stoutness was a part of the ideal of feminine
beauty. The superiority in physique of the nobles to the common people
may have been due in part to a system of massage, the _lomi-lomi_; it is
certainly contrary to the belief in the bad effects of inbreeding--among
the upper classes marriage was almost entirely between near relatives.

The Rev. William Ellis, an early English missionary, described the
natives as follows: "The inhabitants of these islands are, considered
physically, amongst the finest races in the Pacific, bearing the
strongest resemblance to the New Zealanders in stature, and in their
well-developed muscular limbs. The tattooing of their bodies is less
artistic than that of the New Zealanders, and much more limited than
among some of the other islanders. They are also more hardy and
industrious than those living nearer the equator. This in all
probability arises from their salubrious climate, and the comparative
sterility of their soil rendering them dependent upon the cultivation of
the ground for the yam, the arum, and the sweet potato, their chief
articles of food. Though, like all undisciplined races, the Sandwich
Islanders [Hawaiians] have proved deficient in firm and steady
perseverance, they manifest considerable intellectual capability. Their
moral character, when first visited by Europeans, was not superior to
that of other islanders; and excepting when improved and preserved by
the influence of Christianity, it has suffered much from the vices of
intemperance and licentiousness introduced by foreigners. Polygamy
prevailed among the chiefs and rulers, and women were subject to all the
humiliations of the tabu system, which subjected them to many
privations, and kept them socially in a condition of inferiority to the
other sex. Infanticide was practised to some extent, the children
destroyed being chiefly females. Though less superstitious than the
Tahitians, the idolatry of the Sandwich Islanders was equally barbarous
and sanguinary, as, in addition to the chief objects of worship included
in the mythology of the other islands, the supernatural beings supposed
to reside in the volcanoes and direct the action of subterranean fires
rendered the gods objects of peculiar terror. Human sacrifices were
slain on several occasions, and vast offerings presented to the spirits
supposed to preside over the volcanoes, especially during the periods of
actual eruptions. The requisitions of their idolatry were severe and its
rites cruel and bloody. Grotesque and repulsive wooden figures, animals
and the bones of chiefs were the objects of worship. Human sacrifices
were offered whenever a temple was to be dedicated, or a chief was sick,
or a war was to be undertaken; and these occasions were frequent. The
apprehensions of the people with regard to a future state were
undefined, but fearful. The lower orders expected to be slowly devoured
by evil spirits, or to dwell with the gods in burning mountains. The
several trades, such as that of fisherman, the tiller of the ground, and
the builder of canoes and houses, had each their presiding deities.
Household gods were also kept, which the natives worshipped in their
habitations. One merciful provision, however, had existed from time
immemorial, and that was [the _puuhonuas_] sacred inclosures, places of
refuge, into which those who fled in time of war, or from any violent
pursuer, might enter and be safe. To violate their sanctity was one of
the greatest crimes of which a man could be guilty." The native religion
was an admixture of idolatry and hero-worship, of some ethical but
little moral force. The king was war chief, priest and god in one, and
the shocking licence at the death of a king was probably due to the
feeling that all law or restraint was annulled by the death of the
king--incarnate law. The mythic and religious legends of the people were
preserved in chants, handed down from generation to generation; and in
like poetic form was kept the knowledge of the people of botany,
medicine and other sciences. Name-songs, written at the birth of a
chief, gave his genealogy and the deeds of his ancestors; dirges and
love-songs were common. These were without rhyme or rhythm, but had
alliteration and a parallelism resembling Hebrew poetry. Drums, gourd
and bamboo flutes, and a kind of guitar, were known before Cook's day.

When the islands first became known to Europeans, the Hawaiian family
was in a stage including both polyandry and polygyny, and, according to
Morgan, older than either: two or more brothers, with their wives, or
two or more sisters with their husbands, cohabited with seeming
promiscuity. This system called _punalua_ (a word which in the modern
vernacular means merely "dear friend") was first brought to the
attention of ethnologists in 1871 by Lewis H. Morgan (who was incorrect
in many of his premises) and was made the basis of his second stage, the
_punaluan_, in the evolution of the family. These conditions did not
last long after the coming of the missionaries. Descent was more
commonly traced through the female line. As regard cannibalism, it
appears that the heart and liver of the human victims offered in the
temples were eaten as a religious rite, and that the same parts of any
prominent warrior slain in battle were devoured by the victor chiefs,
who believed that they would thereby inherit the valour of the dead man.
Under _taboo_ as late as 1819 women were to be put to death if they ate
bananas, cocoa-nuts, pork, turtles or certain fish. In the days of
idolatry the only dress worn by the men was a narrow strip of cloth
wound around the loins and passed between the legs. Women wore a short
petticoat made of _kapa_ cloth (already referred to), which reached from
the waist to the knee. But now the common class of men wear a shirt and
trousers; the better class are attired in the European fashion. The
women are clad in the holoka, a loose white or coloured garment with
sleeves, reaching from the neck to the feet. A coloured handkerchief is
twisted around the head or a straw hat is worn. Both sexes delight in
adorning themselves with garlands (_leis_) of flowers and necklaces of
coloured seeds. The Hawaiians are a good-tempered, light-hearted and
pleasure-loving race. They have many games and sports, including boxing,
wrestling (both in and out of water), hill-sliding, spear-throwing, and
a game of bowls played with stone discs. Both sexes are passionately
fond of riding. They delight to be in the water and swim with remarkable
skill and ease. In the exciting sport of surf-riding, which always
astonishes strangers, they balance themselves lying, kneeling or
standing on a small board which is carried landwards on the curling
crest of a great roller. All games were accompanied by gambling. Dances,
especially the indecent _hula_, "danse du ventre," were favourite
entertainments.

Even at the time when they were first known to Europeans, they had stone
and lava hatchets, shark's-tooth knives, hardwood spades, _kapa_ cloth
or paper, mats, fans, fish-hooks and nets, woven baskets, &c., and they
had introduced a rough sort of irrigation of the inland country with
long canals from highlands to plains. They derived their sustenance
chiefly from pork and fish (both fresh and dried), from seaweed
(_limu_), and from the kalo (_Colocasia antiquorum_, var. _esculenta_),
the banana, sweet potato, yam, bread-fruit and cocoa-nut. From the root
of the kalo is made the national dish called _poi_; after having been
baked and well beaten on a board with a stone pestle it is made into a
paste with water and then allowed to ferment for a few days, when it is
ready to be eaten. One of the table delicacies of former days was a
particular breed of dog which was fed exclusively on poi before it was
killed, cooked and served. Like other South Sea Islanders they made an
intoxicating drink, _awa_ or _kava_, from the roots of the _Macropiper
latifolium_ or _Piper methysticum_; in early times this could be drunk
only by nobles and priests. The native dwellings are constructed of
wood, or occasionally are huts thatched with grass at the sides and top.
What little cooking is undertaken among the poorer natives is usually
done outside. The oven consists of a hole in the ground in which a fire
is lighted and stones made hot; and the fire having been removed, the
food is wrapped up in leaves and placed in the hole beside the hot
stones and covered up until ready; or else, as is now more common, the
cooking is done in an old kerosene-oil can over a fire.

The Hawaiian language is a member of the widely-diffused
Malayo-Polynesian group and closely resembles the dialect of the
Marquesas; Hawaiians and New Zealanders, although occupying the most
remote regions north and south at which the race has been found, can
understand each other without much difficulty. Various unsuccessful
attempts have been made to prove the language Aryan in its origin. It is
soft and harmonious, being highly vocalic in structure. Every syllable
is open, ending in a vowel sound, and short sentences may be constructed
wholly of vocalic sounds. The only consonants are _k_, _l_, _m_, _n_ and
_p_, which with the gently aspirated _h_, the five vowels, and the
vocalic _w_, make up all the letters in use. The letters _r_ and _t_
have been discarded in favour of _l_ and _k_, as expressing more
accurately the native pronunciation, so that, for example, _taro_, the
former name of the _Colocasia_ plant, is now _kalo_. The language was
not reduced to a written form until after the arrival of the
missionaries. A Hawaiian spelling book was printed in 1822; in 1834 two
newspapers were founded; and in 1839 the first translation of the Bible
was published.

In spite of moral and material progress--indeed largely because of
changes in their food, clothing, dwellings and of other "advantages" of
civilization--the race is probably dying out. Captain Cook estimated the
number of natives at 400,000, probably an over-estimate; in 1823 the
American missionaries estimated their number at 142,000; the census of
1832 showed the population to be 130,313; the census of 1878 proved that
the number of natives was no more than 44,088. In 1890 they numbered
34,436; in 1900, 29,834, a decrease of 4602 or 13.3% within the decade.
To account for this it is said that the blood of the race has become
poisoned by the introduction of foreign diseases. The women are much
less numerous than the men; and the married ones have few children at
the most; two out of three have none. Moreover, the mothers appear to
have little maternal instinct and neglect their offspring. It is,
however, thought by some that these causes are now diminishing in force,
and that the "fittest" of the race may survive. The part-Hawaiians, the
offspring of intermarriage between Hawaiian women and men of other
races, increased from 3420 in 1878 to 6186 in 1890 and 7835 in 1900.


    Immigration.

  The pressing demand for labour created by the Reciprocity Treaty of
  1875 with the United States led to great changes in the population of
  the Hawaiian Islands. It became the policy of the government to assist
  immigrants from different countries. In 1877 arrangements were made
  for the importation of Portuguese families from the Azores and
  Madeira, and during the next ten years about 7000 of these people were
  brought to the islands; in 1906-1907 there was a second immigration
  from the Azores and Madeira of 1325 people. In 1900 the total number
  of Portuguese in the islands, including those born there, was not far
  from 16,000, about 2400 of whom were employed in sugar plantations.
  They have shown themselves to be industrious, thrifty and law-abiding.
  In 1907 2201 Spanish immigrants from the sugar district about Malaga
  arrived in Hawaii, and about the same number of Portuguese immigrated
  in the same year. The Board of Immigration, using funds contributed by
  planters, was very active in its efforts to encourage the immigration
  of suitable labourers, but the general immigration law of 1907
  prohibited the securing of such immigration through contributions from
  corporations. Persistent efforts have also been made to introduce
  Polynesian islanders, as being of a cognate race with the Hawaiians,
  but the results have been wholly unsatisfactory. About 2000, mainly
  from the Gilbert Islands, were brought in at the expense of the
  government between 1878 and 1884; but they did not give satisfaction
  either as labourers or as citizens, and most of them have been
  returned to their homes. There never existed any treaty or labour
  convention between Hawaii and China. In early days a limited number of
  Chinese settled in the islands, intermarried with the natives and by
  their industry and economy generally prospered. About 750 of them were
  naturalized under the monarchy. The first importation of Chinese
  labourers was in 1852. In 1878 the number of Chinese had risen to
  5916. During the next few years there was such a steady influx of
  Chinese free immigrants that in the spring of 1881 the Hawaiian
  government sent a despatch to the governor of Hong Kong to stop this
  invasion. Again, in April 1883, it was suddenly renewed, and within
  twenty days five steamers arrived from Hong Kong bringing 2253 Chinese
  passengers, followed the next month by 1100 more, with the news that
  several thousand more were ready to embark. Accordingly, the Hawaiian
  government sent another despatch to the governor of Hong Kong,
  refusing to permit any further immigration of male Chinese from that
  port. Various regulations restricting Chinese immigration were enacted
  from time to time, until in 1886 the landing of any Chinese passenger
  without a passport was prohibited. The number of Chinese in the
  islands had then risen to 21,000. The consent of the Japanese
  government to the immigration of its subjects to Hawaii was obtained
  with difficulty in 1884, and in 1886 a labour convention was ratified.
  Subsequently the increase of the Japanese element in the population
  was rapid. It rose from 116 in 1884 to 12,360 in 1890 and 24,400 in
  1896. Most of these were recruited from the lowest classes in Japan.
  Unlike the Chinese, they show no inclination to intermarry with the
  Hawaiians. The effect of making Hawaii a Territory of the United
  States was to put an end to all assisted immigration, of whatever
  race, and to exclude all Chinese labourers. No Chinese labourer is
  allowed to enter any other Territory of the Union from Hawaii; and the
  act of Congress of the 26th of February 1885, "to prohibit the
  importation and migration of foreigners and aliens under contract or
  agreement to perform labour in the United States, its Territories and
  the District of Columbia," and the amending and supplementary acts,
  are extended to it. But in the treaty of 1894 between the United
  States and Japan there is nothing to limit the free immigration of
  Japanese; and several companies have been formed to promote it. The
  system of contract labour, which was abolished by the act of Congress
  in 1900, and under which labourers had been restrained from leaving
  their work before the end of the contract term, concerned few
  labourers except the Japanese. Various methods of co-operation or
  profit-sharing are in successful operation on some plantations.

  An interesting sociological problem is raised by the presence of the
  large Asiatic element in the population. The Japanese and Koreans, and
  in less measure the Chinese, act as domestic servants, work under
  white contractors on irrigating ditches and reservoirs, do most of the
  plantation labour and compete successfully with whites and native
  islanders in all save skilled urban occupations, such as printing and
  the manufacture, of machinery. The "Yellow Peril" is considered less
  dangerous in Hawaii than formerly, although it was used as a political
  cry in the campaign for American annexation. No success met the
  apparently well-meaning efforts of the Central Japanese League which
  was organized in November and December 1903 to promote the observance
  of law and order by the Japanese in the islands, who assumed a too
  independent attitude and felt themselves free from governmental
  control whether Japanese or American; indeed, after the League had
  been in operation for a year or more, it almost seemed that it
  contributed to industrial disorders among the Japanese. At about the
  same time Japanese immigration to Hawaii fell off upon the opening of
  new fields for colonization by the Russo-Japanese War, and Korean
  immigration was promoted by employers on the islands. From the first
  of January 1903 to the 30th of June 1905 Japanese immigrants numbered
  18,027; Koreans 7388 (four Koreans to every ten Japanese); but in the
  last twelve months of this same period there were 4733 Koreans to 5941
  Japanese (eight Koreans to every ten Japanese). Another fact which is
  possibly contributing to the solution of the problem is that the
  Japanese are leaving the islands in large numbers as compared with the
  Koreans. The Japanese leaving Hawaii between the 14th of June 1900 and
  the 31st of December 1905 numbered 42,313, or 4284 more than the
  number of Japanese immigrants arriving during the same period. The
  corresponding figures for Koreans during the same period are as
  follows: number leaving between the 14th of June 1900 and the 31st of
  December 1905, 721, or 6673 less than the Korean immigrants for the
  same period. The acceleration of the departure of the Japanese is
  shown by the fact that in the eighteen months (July 1904 to January
  1906) occurred 19,114 of the 42,313 departures in the sixty-six months
  from July 1900 to January 1906.[7] After 1906, owing to restrictions
  by the Japanese government, immigration to Hawaii greatly decreased.
  At the same time the number of departures was decreasing rapidly. The
  change in the character of the immigration of Japanese is shown by the
  fact that in the fiscal year 1906-1907 the ratio of female immigrants
  to males was as 1 to 8, in the fiscal year 1907-1908 it was as 1 to 2,
  and in the latter year, of 4593 births in the Territory, 2445 were
  Japanese.

_Administration._--The Hawaiian Islands are governed under an Act of
Congress, signed by the president on the 30th of April 1900, which first
organized them as a Territory of the United States. The legislature,
which meets biennially at Honolulu, consists of a Senate of 15 members
holding office for four years, and a House of Representatives of 30
members holding office for two years. In order to vote for
Representatives or Senators, the elector must be a male citizen of the
United States who has attained the age of twenty-one years, has lived in
the Territory not less than one year preceding, and is able to speak,
read and write the English or Hawaiian language. No person is allowed to
vote by reason of being in or attached to the army or navy. The
executive power is vested in a governor, appointed by the president and
holding office for four years. He must not be less than thirty-five
years of age and must be a citizen of the Territory. The secretary of
the Territory is appointed in like manner for a term of the same length.
The governor appoints, by and with the consent of the Senate of the
Territory, an attorney-general, treasurer, commissioner of public lands,
commissioner of agriculture and forestry, superintendent of public
works, superintendent of public instruction, commissioners of public
instruction, auditor and deputy-auditor, surveyor, high sheriff, members
of the board of health, board of prison inspectors, board of
registration, inspectors of election, &c. All such officers are
appointed for four years except the commissioners of public instruction
and the members of the said boards, whose terms are as provided by the
laws of the Territory; all must be citizens of the Territory. The
judicial power is vested in a supreme court, 5 circuit courts, and 29
district courts, each having a jurisdiction corresponding to similar
courts in each state in the Union; and, entirely distinct from these
territorial courts, Hawaii has a United States district court. A
Supplementary Act of the 3rd of March 1905 provides that writs of error
and appeals may be taken from the Supreme Court of Hawaii to the Supreme
Court of the United States "in all cases where the amount involved
exclusive of costs or value exceeds the sum of five thousand dollars."
The Territory was without the forms of local government common to the
United States until 1905, when the Territorial legislature divided it
into five counties[8] without, however, giving to them the usual powers
of taxation. Each county has the following officers: a board of
supervisors, a clerk, a treasurer, an auditor, an assessor and
tax-collector, a sheriff and coroner, and an attorney. The members (from
five to nine) of the board of supervisors are elected by districts into
which the county is divided, usually only one from each. All county
officers are elected for a term of two years. The act of 1900 provides
for the election of a delegate to Congress, and prescribes that the
delegate shall have the qualifications necessary for membership in the
Hawaiian Senate, and shall be elected by voters qualified to vote for
members of the House of Representatives of Hawaii. As usual, the
delegate has a right to take part in the debates in the national House
of Representatives, but may not vote.

  _Charities._--The principal public charity of the Territory is the
  leper asylum on a peninsula almost 10 sq. m. in area on the N. side of
  the island of Molokai. A steep precipice forms a natural wall between
  it and the rest of the island. The place became an asylum for lepers
  and the caring for them began to be a charity under government charge
  in 1866; but conditions here were at first unspeakably unhygienic,
  their improvement being largely due to Father Damien, who devoted
  himself to this work in 1873. The patients are almost exclusively
  native Hawaiians, and their number is slowly but steadily decreasing;
  in 1908 they numbered 791, and there were at Molokai 46 non-leprous
  helpers and 27 officers and assistants, including the Roman Catholic
  brothers and sisters in charge of the homes. In 1905 the United States
  government appropriated $100,000 for a hospital station and laboratory
  "for the study of the methods of transmission, cause and treatment of
  leprosy," and $50,000 a year for their maintenance; the station and
  laboratory to be established when the territorial government should
  have ceded to the United States a tract of 1 sq. m. on the leper
  reservation. The cession was made soon afterward by the territorial
  government. In 1907-1908 a home for non-leprous boys of leprous
  parents was established at Honolulu. Another public charity of Hawaii
  is the general free dispensary maintained by the territorial
  government at Honolulu.

  _Education._--Education is universal, compulsory and free. Every child
  between the ages of six and fifteen must attend either a public school
  or a duly authorized private school. Consequently the percentage of
  illiteracy is extremely low. The school system is essentially American
  in its text-books and in its methods, thanks to the foundations laid
  by American missionaries. Between 1820 and 1824 the missionaries
  taught about 2000 natives to read. Several important schools were
  founded before 1840, when the first written laws were published. Among
  these was a law providing for compulsory education, and decreeing that
  no illiterate born after the beginning of Liholiho's reign should hold
  office, and that no illiterate man or woman, born after the same date,
  could marry. The first Hawaiian minister of public instruction was the
  Rev. William Richards (1792-1847), who held office from 1843 to 1847,
  and was followed by Richard Armstrong (1805-1860), an American
  Presbyterian missionary, the father of General S. C. Armstrong. He
  laid stress on the importance of manual and industrial training during
  his term of office (1847-1855), and was succeeded by a board of
  education (1855-1865), of which he was first president; then an
  inspector-general of schools was appointed, Judge Abraham Fornander
  being the first inspector; in 1896 an executive department was created
  under a minister of public instruction and six commissioners; in 1900
  a superintendent of public instruction was first appointed. English is
  by law the medium of instruction in all schools, both public and
  private, although other languages may be taught in addition. Formal
  instruction in Hawaiian ceased in 1898. The schools are in session
  forty weeks during the year. In 1908 there were 154 public schools
  with 18,564 pupils (27.06% of whom were Japanese, 20.89% Hawaiian,
  13.54% part Hawaiian, 18.72% Portuguese and 10.63% Chinese) and 51
  private schools with 4881 pupils. A normal school has been established
  at Honolulu, with a practice school attached to it. The territorial
  legislature of 1907 established the College of Agriculture and
  Mechanic Arts of the Territory of Hawaii, and also founded a public
  library. The Honolulu high school does excellent work and has
  beautiful buildings and grounds. The Lahainaluna Seminary on west
  Maui, founded in 1831 as a training school for teachers, furnishes
  instruction to Hawaiian boys in agriculture, carpentry, printing and
  mechanical drawing. The boys in the industrial school (1902) at
  Waialee, on the island of Oahu, are taught useful trades. The teaching
  of sewing in the public schools has met with great success, and a
  simple form of the Swedish sloid was introduced into many of the
  schools in 1894. Lace work was introduced into the public schools in
  1903. But the best industrial instruction is furnished by the
  independent schools, among which the Kamehameha schools take the first
  place. They were founded by Mrs Bernice Pauahi Bishop (1831-1884), the
  last lineal descendant of Kamehameha I., who left her extensive landed
  estates in the hands of trustees for their support. They furnish a
  good manual and technical training to Hawaiian boys and girls, in
  addition to a primary and grammar school course of study, and exert a
  strong religious influence. There are six boarding schools for
  Hawaiian girls, supported by private resources. The most advanced
  courses of study are offered by Oahu College, which occupies a
  beautiful site near the beach just E. of Honolulu; it was founded in
  1841 as the Punahou School for missionaries' children, and was
  chartered as Oahu College in 1852. It is well equipped with buildings
  and apparatus, and has an endowment of about $300,000.

  _Finance_.--The revenue of the Territory for the fiscal year ending
  the 30th of June 1908 amounted to $2,669,748.32, of which $640,051.42
  was the proceeds of the tax on real estate, $635,265.81 was the
  proceeds of the tax on personal property; and among the larger of the
  remaining items were the income tax ($266,241.74), waterworks
  ($141,898.04), public lands (sales, $37,585.75; revenue, $122,541.71)
  and licences ($206,374.28). On the 30th of June 1908 the bonded debt
  of the Territory was $3,979,000; there was on hand net cash, without
  floating debt, $677,648.48.

_History_.--The history of the islands before their discovery by Captain
James Cook, in 1778, is obscure.[9] This famous navigator, who named the
islands in honour of the earl of Sandwich, was received by the natives
with many demonstrations of astonishment and delight; and offerings and
prayers were presented to him by their priest in one of the temples; and
though in the following year he was killed by a native when he landed in
Kealakekua Bay in Hawaii, his bones were preserved by the priests and
continued to receive offerings and homage from the people until the
abolition of idolatry. At the time of Cook's visit the archipelago seems
to have been divided into three distinct kingdoms: Hawaii; Oahu and
Maui; and Lanai and Molokai. On the death of the chief who ruled Hawaii
at that time there succeeded one named Kamehameha (1736-1819), who
appears to have been a man of quick perception and great force of
character. When Vancouver visited the islands in 1792, he left sheep and
neat cattle,[10] protected by a ten years' taboo, and laid down the keel
of a European ship for Kamehameha. Ten or twelve years later Kamehameha
had 20 vessels (of 25 to 50 tons), which traded among the islands. He
afterwards purchased others from foreigners. Having encouraged a warlike
spirit in his people and having introduced firearms, Kamehameha attacked
and overcame the chiefs of the other kingdoms one after another, until
(in 1795) he became undisputed master of the whole group. He made John
Young (c. 1775-1835) and Isaac Davis, Americans from one of the ships of
Captain Metcalf which visited the island in 1789, his advisers,
encouraged trade with foreigners, and derived from its profits a large
increase of revenue as well as the means of consolidating his power. He
died in 1819, and was succeeded by his son, Lilohilo, or Kamehameha II.,
a mild and well-disposed prince, but destitute of his father's energy.
One of the first acts of Kamehameha II. was, for vicious and selfish
reasons, to abolish taboo and idolatry throughout the islands. Some
disturbances were caused thereby, but the insurgents were defeated.

On the 31st of March 1820 missionaries of the American Board of
Commissioners for Foreign Missions--two clergymen, two teachers, a
physician, a farmer, and a printer, each with his wife--and three
Hawaiians educated in the Cornwall (Connecticut) Foreign Missionary
School, arrived from America and began their labours at Honolulu. A
short time afterwards the British government presented a small schooner
to the king, and this afforded an opportunity for the Rev. William
Ellis, the well-known missionary, to visit Honolulu with a number of
Christian natives from the Society Islands. Finding the language of the
two groups nearly the same, Mr Ellis, who had spent several years in the
southern islands, was able to assist the American missionaries in
reducing the Hawaiian language to a written form. In 1825 the ten
commandments were recognized by the king as the basis of a code of laws.
In the years 1830-1845 the educational work of the American missionaries
was so successful that hardly a native was unable to read and write. A
law prohibiting drunkenness (1835) was followed in 1838 by a licence law
and in 1839 by a law prohibiting the importation of spirits and taxing
wines fifty cents a gallon; in 1840 another prohibitory law was enacted;
but licence laws soon made the sale of liquor common. Missionary effort
was particularly fruitful in Hilo, where Titus Coan (1801-1882), sent
out in 1835 by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions,
worked in repeated revivals, induced most of his church members to give
up tobacco even, and received prior to 1880 more than 12,000 members
into a church which became self-supporting and sent missions to the
Gilbert Islands and the Marquesas. In 1823 Keopuolani, the king's
mother, was baptized; and on a single Sunday in 1838 Coan baptized 1705
converts at Hilo. In 1864 the American Board withdrew its control of
evangelical work.

In 1824 the king and queen of the Hawaiian Islands paid a visit to
England, and both died there of measles. His successor, Kamehameha III.
ruled from 1825 to 1854. In 1839 Kamehameha III. signed a Bill of Rights
and in 1840 he promulgated the first constitution of the realm; in 1842
a code of laws was proclaimed; by 1848 the feudal system of land tenure
was completely abolished; the first legislature met in 1845 and full
suffrage was granted in 1852, but in 1864 suffrage was restricted.
Progress was at times interrupted by the conduct of the officers of
foreign powers. On one occasion (July 1839) French officers abrogated
the laws (particularly against the importation of liquor), dictated
treaties, extorted $20,000 and by force of arms procured privileges for
Roman Catholic[11] priests in the country; and at another time (February
1843) a British officer, Captain Paulet of the "Carysfort," went so far
as to take possession of Oahu and establish a commission for its
government. The act of the British officer was disavowed by his
superiors as soon as known.

These incidents led to a representation on the part of the native
sovereign to the governments of Great Britain, France and the United
States, and the independence of the islands (recognized by the United
States in 1842) was recognized in 1844 by France and Great Britain. In
1844 John Ricord, an American lawyer, became the first minister of
foreign affairs. A new constitution came into effect in 1852. It was the
aim of Kamehameha III. and his advisers to combine the native and the
foreign elements under one government; to make the king the sovereign
not of one race or class, but of all; and to extend equal and impartial
laws over all inhabitants of the country. Kamehameha IV. and his queen,
Emma, ruled from 1855 to 1863 and were succeeded by his brother,
Kamehameha V., who died in 1872, and in whose reign a third (and a
reactionary) constitution went into effect in 1864, by mere royal
proclamation. Lunalilo, a grandson of Kamehameha I., was king for two
years, and in 1874, backed by American influence, Kalakaua was elected
his successor, in preference to Queen Emma, a member of the Anglican
Church and the candidate of the pro-British party. Kalakaua considered
residents of European or American descent as alien invaders, and he
aimed to restore largely the ancient system of personal government,
under which he should have control of the public treasury. On the 2nd of
July 1878, and again on the 14th of August 1880, he dismissed a ministry
without assigning any reason, after it had been triumphantly sustained
by a test vote of the legislature. On the latter occasion he appointed
C. C. Moreno, who had come to Honolulu in the interest of a Chinese
steamship company, as Premier and minister of foreign affairs. This
called forth the protest of the representatives of Great Britain, France
and the United States, and aroused such opposition on the part of both
the foreigners and the better class of natives that the king was
obliged, after four days of popular excitement, to remove the obnoxious
minister. During the king's absence on a tour round the world in 1881,
his sister, Mrs Lydia Dominis (b. 1838), also styled Liliuokalani, acted
as regent. After his return the contest was renewed between the
so-called National party, which favoured absolution, and the Reform
party, which sought to establish parliamentary government. The king took
an active part in the elections, and used his patronage to the utmost to
influence legislation. For three successive sessions a majority of the
legislature was composed of office-holders, dependent on the favour of
the executive. Among the measures urged by the king and opposed by the
Reform party were the project of a ten-million dollar loan, chiefly for
military purposes; the removal of the prohibition of the sale of
alcoholic liquor to Hawaiians, which was carried in 1882; the licensing
of the sale of opium; the chartering of a lottery company; the licensing
of kahunas, or medicine men, &c. Systematic efforts were made to turn
the constitutional question into a race issue, and the party cry was
raised of "Hawaii for Hawaiians." Adroit politicians flattered the
king's vanity, defended his follies and taught him how to violate the
spirit of the constitution while keeping the letter of the law. From
1882 till 1887 his prime minister was Walter Murray Gibson (1823-1888),
a singular and romantic genius, a visionary adventurer and a shrewd
politician, who had been imprisoned by the Dutch government in Batavia
in 1852 on a charge of inciting insurrection in Sumatra, and had arrived
at Honolulu in 1861 with the intention of leading a Mormon colony to the
East Indies. To exalt his royal dignity, which was lowered, he thought,
by his being only an elected king, Kalakaua caused himself to be crowned
with imposing ceremonies on the ninth anniversary of his election (Feb.
12, 1883).

Kalakaua was now no longer satisfied with being merely king of Hawaii,
but aspired to what was termed the "Primacy of the Pacific." Accordingly
Mr Gibson addressed a protest to the great powers, deprecating any
further annexation of the islands of the Pacific Ocean, and claiming for
Hawaii the exclusive right "to assist them in improving their political
and social condition." In pursuance of this policy, two commissioners
were sent to the Gilbert Islands in 1883 to prepare the way for a
Hawaiian protectorate. On the 23rd of December 1886 Mr J. E. Bush was
commissioned as minister plenipotentiary to the king of Samoa, the king
of Tonga and the other independent chiefs of Polynesia. He arrived in
Samoa on the 3rd of January 1887, and remained there six months, during
which time he concluded a treaty of alliance with Malietoa, which was
ratified by his government. The "Explorer," a steamer of 170 tons, which
had been employed in the copra trade, was purchased for $20,000, and
refitted as a man-of-war, to form the "nest-egg" of the future Hawaiian
navy. She was renamed the "Kaimiloa," and was despatched to Samoa on the
17th of May 1887 to strengthen the hands of the embassy. As R. L.
Stevenson wrote: "The history of the 'Kaimiloa' is a story of
debauchery, mutiny and waste of government property." At length the
intrigues of the Hawaiian embassy gave umbrage to the German government,
and it was deemed prudent to recall it to Honolulu in July 1887.
Meanwhile a reform league had been formed to stop the prevailing misrule
and extravagance; it was supported by a volunteer military force, the
"Honolulu Rifles." The king carried through the legislature of 1886 a
bill for an opium licence, as well as a Loan Act, under which a million
dollars were borrowed in London. Under his influence the Hale Naua
Society was organized in 1886 for the spread of idolatry and
king-worship; and in the same year a "Board of Health" was formed which
revived the vicious practices of the _kahunas_ or medicine-men.

The king's acceptance of two bribes--one of $75,000 and another of
$80,000 for the assignment of an opium licence--precipitated the
revolution of 1887. An immense mass meeting was held on the 30th of
June, which sent a committee to the king with specific demands for
radical reforms. Finding himself without support, he yielded without a
struggle, dismissed his ministry and signed a constitution on the 7th of
July 1887, revising that of 1864, and intended to put an end to personal
government and to make the cabinet responsible only to the legislature;
this was called the "bayonet constitution," because it was so largely
the result of the show of force made by the Honolulu Rifles. By its
terms office-holders were made ineligible for seats in the legislature,
and no member of the legislature could be appointed to any civil office
under the government during the term for which he had been elected. The
members of the Upper House, instead of being appointed by the king for
life, were henceforth to be elected for terms of six years by electors
possessing a moderate property qualification. The remainder of
Kalakaua's reign teemed with intrigues and conspiracies to restore
autocratic rule. One of these came to a head on the 30th of July 1889,
but this "Wilcox rebellion," led by R. W. Wilcox, a half-breed, educated
in Italy, and a friend of the king and of his sister, was promptly
suppressed. Seven of the insurgents were killed and a large number
wounded. For his health the king visited California in the United States
cruiser "Charleston" in November 1890, and died on the 20th of January
1891 in San Francisco. On the 29th of January at noon his sister, the
regent, took the oath to maintain the constitution of 1887, and was
proclaimed queen, under the title of Liliuokalani.

The history of her reign shows that it was her constant purpose to
restore autocratic government. The legislative session of 1892, during
which four changes of ministry took place, was protracted to eight
months chiefly by her determination to carry through the opium and
lottery bills and to have a pliable cabinet. She had a new constitution
drawn up, practically providing for an absolute monarchy, and
disfranchising a large class of citizens who had voted since 1887; this
constitution (drawn up, so the royal party declared, in reply to a
petition signed by thousands of natives) she undertook to force on the
country after proroguing the legislature on the 14th of January 1893,
but her ministers shrank from the responsibility of so revolutionary an
act, and with difficulty prevailed upon her to postpone the execution of
her design. An uprising similar to that of 1887 declared the monarchy
forfeited by its own act. A third party proposed a regency during the
minority of the heir-apparent, Princess Kaiulani, but in her absence
this scheme found few supporters. A Committee of Safety was appointed at
a public meeting, which formed a provisional government and reorganized
the volunteer military companies, which had been disbanded in 1890. Its
leading spirits were the "Sons of Missionaries" (as E. L. Godkin styled
them), who were accused of using their knowledge of local affairs and
their inherited prestige among the natives for private ends--of founding
a "Gospel Republic" which was actually a business enterprise. The
provisional government called a mass meeting of citizens, which met on
the afternoon of the 6th and ratified its action. The United States
steamer "Boston," which had unexpectedly arrived from Hilo on the 14th,
landed a small force on the evening of the 16th, at the request of the
United States minister, Mr J. L. Stevens, and a committee of residents,
to protect the lives and property of American citizens in case of riot
or incendiarism. On the 17th the Committee of Safety took possession of
the government building, and issued a proclamation declaring a monarchy
to be abrogated, and establishing a provisional government, to exist
"until terms of union with the United States of America shall have been
negotiated and agreed upon." Meanwhile two companies of volunteer troops
arrived and occupied the grounds. By the advice of her ministers, and to
avoid bloodshed, the queen surrendered under protest, in view of the
landing of United States troops, appealing to the government of the
United States to reinstate her in authority. A treaty of annexation was
negotiated with the United States during the next month, just before the
close of President Benjamin Harrison's administration, but it was
withdrawn on the 9th of March 1893 by President Harrison's successor,
President Cleveland, who then despatched James H. Blount (1837-1903) of
Macon, Georgia, as commissioner paramount, to investigate the situation
in the Hawaiian Islands. On receiving Blount's report to the effect that
the revolution had been accomplished by the aid of the United States
minister and by the landing of troops from the "Boston," President
Cleveland sent Albert Sydney Willis (1843-1897) of Kentucky to Honolulu
with secret instructions as United States minister. Willis with much
difficulty and delay obtained the queen's promise to grant an amnesty,
and made a formal demand on the provisional government for her
reinstatement on the 19th of December 1893. On the 23rd President
Sanford B. Dole sent a reply to Willis, declining to surrender the
authority of the provisional government to the deposed queen. The United
States Congress declared against any further intervention by adopting on
the 31st of May 1894 the Turpie Resolution. On the 30th of May 1894 a
convention was held to frame a constitution for the republic of Hawaii,
which was proclaimed on the 4th of July following, with S. B. Dole as
its first president. Toward the end of the same year a plot was formed
to overthrow the republic and to restore the monarchy. A cargo of arms
and ammunition from San Francisco was secretly landed at a point near
Honolulu, where a company of native royalists were collected on the 6th
of January 1895, intending to capture the government buildings by
surprise that night, with the aid of their allies in the city. A
premature encounter with a squad of police alarmed the town and broke up
their plans. There were several other skirmishes during the following
week, resulting in the capture of the leading conspirators, with most of
their followers. The ex-queen, on whose premises arms and ammunition and
a number of incriminating documents were found, was arrested and was
imprisoned for nine months in the former palace. On the 24th of January
1895 she formally renounced all claim to the throne and took the oath of
allegiance to the republic. The ex-queen and forty-eight others were
granted conditional pardon on the 7th of September, and on the following
New Year's Day the remaining prisoners were set at liberty.

On the inauguration of President McKinley, in March 1897, negotiations
with the United States were resumed, and on the 16th of June a new
treaty of annexation was signed at Washington. As its ratification by
the Senate had appeared to be uncertain, extreme measures were taken:
the Newlands joint resolution, by which the cession was "accepted,
ratified and confirmed," was passed by the Senate by a vote of 42 to 21
and by the House of Representatives by a vote of 209 to 91, and was
signed by the president on the 7th of July 1898. The formal transfer of
sovereignty took place on the 12th of August 1898, when the flag of the
United States (the same flag hauled down by order of Commissioner
Blount) was raised over the Executive Building with impressive
ceremonies.

The sovereigns of the monarchy, the president of the republic and the
governors of the Territory up to 1910 were as follows: Sovereigns:
Kamehameha I., 1795-1819; Kamehameha II., 1819-1824; Kaahumanu (regent),
1824-1832; Kamehameha III., 1832-1854; Kamehameha IV., 1855-1863;
Kamehameha V., 1863-1872; Lunalilo, 1873-1874; Kalakaua, 1874-1891;
Liliuokalani, 1891-1893. President: Sanford B. Dole, 1893-1898.
Governors: S. B. Dole, 1898-1904; George R. Carter, 1904-1907; W. F.
Frear, 1907.

  AUTHORITIES.--Consult the bibliography in Adolf Marcuse, _Die
  hawaiischen Inseln_ (Berlin, 1894); A. P. C. Griffen, _List of Books
  relating to Hawaii_ (Washington, 1898); C. E. Dutton, _Hawaiian
  Volcanoes_, in the fourth annual report of the United States
  Geological Survey (Washington, 1884); J. D. Dana, _Characteristics of
  Volcanoes with Contribution of Facts and Principles from the Hawaiian
  Islands_ (New York, 1890); W. H. Pickering, _Lunar and Hawaiian
  Physical Features compared_ (1906); C. H. Hitchcock, _Hawaii and its
  Volcanoes_ (Honolulu, 1909); Augustin Kramer, _Hawaii, Ostmikronesien
  und Samoa_ (Stuttgart, 1906); Sharp, _Fauna_ (London, 1899); Walter
  Maxwell, _Lavas and Soils of the Hawaiian Islands_ (Honolulu, 1898);
  W. Hillebrand, _Flora of the Hawaiian Islands_ (London, 1888); G. P.
  Wilder, _Fruits of the Hawaiian Islands_ (3 vols., Honolulu, 1907); H.
  W. Henshaw, _Birds of the Hawaiian Islands_ (Washington, 1902); A.
  Fornander, _Account of the Polynesian Race and the Ancient History of
  the Hawaiian People to the Times of Kamehameha I._ (3 vols., London,
  1878-1885); W. D. Alexander, _A Brief History of the Hawaiian People_
  (New York, 1899); C. H. Forbes-Lindsay, _American Insular Possessions_
  (Philadelphia, 1906); José de Olivares, _Our Islands and their People_
  (New York, 1899); J. A. Owen, _Story of Hawaii_ (London, 1898); E. J.
  Carpenter, _America in Hawaii_ (Boston, 1899); W. F. Blackman, _The
  Making of Hawaii, a Study in Social Evolution_ (New York, 1899), with
  bibliography; T. G. Thrum, _Hawaiian Almanac and Annual_ (Honolulu);
  Lucien Young, _The Real Hawaii_ (New York, 1899), written by a
  lieutenant of the "Boston," an ardent defender of Stevens;
  Liliuokalani, _Hawaii's Story_ (Boston, 1898); C. T. Rodgers,
  _Education in the Hawaiian Islands_ (Honolulu, 1897); Henry E.
  Chambers, _Constitutional History of Hawaii_ (Baltimore, 1896), in
  _Johns Hopkins University Studies_; W. Ellis, _Tour Around Hawaii_
  (London, 1829); J. J. Jarves, _History of the Sandwich Islands_
  (Honolulu, 1847); H. Bingham, _A Residence of Twenty-one Years in the
  Sandwich Islands_ (Hartford, 1848); Isabella Bird, _Six Months in the
  Sandwich Islands_ (New York, 1881); Adolf Bastian, _Zur Kenntnis
  Hawaiis_ (Berlin, 1883); the annual _Reports_ of the governor of
  Hawaii, of the Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, of the Hawaiian
  Sugar Planters' Experiment Station, of the Board of Commissioners on
  Agriculture and Forestry, and of the Hawaii Promotion Committee; and
  the _Papers of the Hawaiian Historical Society_.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Among the minor phenomena of Hawaiian volcanoes are the delicate
    glassy fibres called Pele's hair by the Hawaiians, which are spun by
    the wind from the rising and falling drops of liquid lava, and blown
    over the edge or into the crevices of the crater. Pele in idolatrous
    times was the dreaded goddess of Kilauea.

  [2] The Chinese name for the Hawaiian Islands means "Sandalwood
    Islands."

  [3] Partly described by T. S. Streets, _Contributions to the Natural
    History of the Hawaiian and Fanning Islands_, Bulletin 7 of U.S.
    National Museum (Washington, 1877). Several new species are described
    in U.S. Bureau of Fisheries Document, No. 623 (Washington, 1907).

  [4] So Lesson called the family from the native name in 1831; Cabanis
    (1847) suggested _Acrulocercus_.

  [5] The entomological department of the Hawaii Experiment Station
    undertakes "mosquito control," and in 1905-1906 imported top-minnows
    (_Poeciliidae_) to destroy mosquito larvae.

  [6] These and other title-holders received corresponding rights to
    the use of irrigation ditches, and to fish in certain sea areas
    adjacent to their holdings.

  [7] Large numbers of Japanese immigrants have used the Hawaiian
    Islands merely as a means of gaining admission at the mainland ports
    of the United States. For, as the Japanese government would issue
    only a limited number of passports to the mainland but would quite
    readily grant passports to Honolulu, the latter were accepted, and
    after a short stay on some one of the islands the immigrants would
    depart on a "coastwise" voyage to some mainland port. The increasing
    numbers arriving by this means, however, provoked serious hostility
    in the Pacific coast states, especially in San Francisco, and to
    remedy the difficulty Congress inserted a clause in the general
    immigration act of the 20th of February 1907 which provides that
    whenever the president is satisfied that passports issued by any
    foreign government to any other country than the United States, or to
    any of its insular possessions, or to the Canal Zone, "are being used
    for the purpose of enabling the holders to come to the continental
    territory of the United States to the detriment of labour conditions
    therein," he may refuse to admit them. This provision has been
    successful in reducing the number of Japanese coming to the mainland
    from Hawaii.

  [8] These are: the county of Hawaii, consisting of the island of the
    same name; the county of Maui, including the islands of Maui, Lanai
    and Kahoolawe, and the greater part of Molokai; the county of
    Kalawao, being the leper settlement on Molokai; the city and county
    of Honolulu (created from the former county of Oahu by an act of
    1907, which came into effect in 1909), consisting of the island of
    Oahu and various small islands, of which the only ones of any
    importance are the Midway Islands, 1232 m. from Honolulu, a Pacific
    cable relay station and a post of the U.S. navy marines; and the
    county of Kauai, including Kauai and Niihau islands.

  [9] Their discovery in the 16th century (in 1542 or 1555 by Juan
    Gaetan, or in 1528 when two of the vessels of Alvaro de Saavedra were
    shipwrecked here and the captain of one, with his sister, survived
    and intermarried with the natives) seems probable, because there are
    traces of Spanish customs in the islands; and they are marked in
    their correct latitude on an English chart of 1687, which is
    apparently based on Spanish maps; a later Spanish chart (1743) gives
    a group of islands 10° E. of the true position of the Hawaiian
    Islands.

  [10] The first horses were left by Captain R. J. Cleveland in 1803.

  [11] The first Roman Catholic priests came in 1827 and were banished
    in 1831, but returned in 1837. An edict of toleration in 1839 shortly
    preceded the visit of the "Artemise."



HAWARDEN (pronounced Harden, Welsh _Penarlâg_), a market-town of
Flintshire, North Wales, 6 m. W. of Chester, on a height commanding an
extensive prospect, connected by a branch with the London &
North-Western railway. Pop. (1901), 5372. It lies in a coal district,
with clay beds near. Coarse earthenware, draining tiles and fire-clay
bricks are the chief manufactures. The Maudes take the title of viscount
from the town. Hawarden castle--built in 1752, added to and altered in
the Gothic style in 1814--stands in a fine wooded park near the old
castle of the same name, which William the Conqueror gave to his nephew,
Hugh Lupus. It was taken in 1282 by Dafydd, brother of Llewelyn, prince
of Wales, destroyed by the Parliamentarians in the Civil War, and came
into the possession of Sergeant Glynne, lord chief justice of England
under Cromwell. The last baronet, Sir Stephen R. Glynne, dying in 1874,
Castell Penarlâg passed to his brother-in-law, William Ewart Gladstone.
St Deiniol church, early English, was restored in 1857 and 1878. There
are also a grammar school (1606), a Gladstone golden-wedding fountain
(1889), and St Deiniol's Hostel (with accommodation for students and an
Anglican clerical warden); west of the church, on Truman's hill, is an
old British camp.



HAWAWIR (HAUHAUIN), an African tribe of Semitic origin, dwelling in the
Bayuda desert, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. They are found along the road from
Debba to Khartum as far as Bir Ganir, and from Ambigol to Wadi Bishara.
They have adopted none of the negro customs, such as gashing the cheeks
or elaborate hairdressing. They own large herds of oxen, sheep and
camels.



HAWEIS, HUGH REGINALD (1838-1901), English preacher and writer, was born
at Egham, Surrey, on the 3rd of April 1838. On leaving Trinity College,
Cambridge, he travelled in Italy and served under Garibaldi in 1860. On
his return to England he was ordained and held various curacies in
London, becoming in 1866 incumbent of St James's, Marylebone. His
unconventional methods of conducting the service, combined with his
dwarfish figure and lively manner, soon attracted crowded congregations.
He married Miss M. E. Joy in 1866, and both he and Mrs Haweis (d. 1898)
contributed largely to periodical literature and travelled a good deal
abroad. Haweis was Lowell lecturer at Boston, U.S.A., in 1885, and
represented the Anglican Church at the Chicago Parliament of Religions
in 1893. He was much interested in music, and wrote books on violins and
church bells, besides contributing an article to the 9th edition of the
_Encyclopaedia Britannica_ on bell-ringing. His best-known book was
_Music and Morals_ (3rd ed., 1873); and for a time he was editor of
_Cassell's Magazine_. He also wrote five volumes on _Christ and
Christianity_ (a popular church history, 1886-1887). Other writings
include _Travel and Talk_ (1896), and similar chatty and entertaining
books. He died on the 29th of January 1901.



HAWES, STEPHEN (fl. 1502-1521), English poet, was probably a native of
Suffolk, and, if his own statement of his age may be trusted, was born
about 1474. He was educated at Oxford, and travelled in England,
Scotland and France. On his return his various accomplishments,
especially his "most excellent vein" in poetry, procured him a place at
court. He was groom of the chamber to Henry VII. as early as 1502. He
could repeat by heart the works of most of the English poets, especially
the poems of John Lydgate, whom he called his master. He was still
living in 1521, when it is stated in Henry VIII.'s household accounts
that £6. 13s. 4d. was paid "to Mr Hawes for his play," and he died
before 1530, when Thomas Field, in his "Conversation between a Lover and
a Jay," wrote "Yong Steven Hawse, whose soule God pardon, Treated of
love so clerkly and well." His capital work is _The Passetyme of
Pleasure, or the History of Graunde Amour and la Bel Pucel, conteining
the knowledge of the Seven Sciences and the Course of Man's Life in this
Worlde_, printed by Wynkyn de Worde, 1509, but finished three years
earlier. It was also printed with slightly varying titles by the same
printer in 1517, by J. Wayland in 1554, by Richard Tottel and by John
Waley in 1555. Tottel's edition was edited by T. Wright and reprinted by
the Percy Society in 1845. The poem is a long allegory in seven-lined
stanzas of man's life in this world. It is divided into sections after
the manner of the Morte Arthur and borrows the machinery of romance. Its
main motive is the education of the knight, Graunde Amour, based,
according to Mr W. J. Courthope (_Hist. of Eng. Poetry_, vol. i. 382),
on the _Marriage of Mercury and Philology_, by Martianus Capella, and
the details of the description prove Hawes to have been well acquainted
with medieval systems of philosophy. At the suggestion of Fame, and
accompanied by her two greyhounds, Grace and Governance, Graunde Amour
starts out in quest of La Bel Pucel. He first visits the Tower of
Doctrine or Science where he acquaints himself with the arts of grammar,
logic, rhetoric and arithmetic. After a long disputation with the lady
in the Tower of Music he returns to his studies, and after sojourns at
the Tower of Geometry, the Tower of Doctrine, the Castle of Chivalry,
&c., he arrives at the Castle of La Bel Pucel, where he is met by Peace,
Mercy, Justice, Reason and Memory. His happy marriage does not end the
story, which goes on to tell of the oncoming of Age, with the
concomitant evils of Avarice and Cunning. The admonition of Death brings
Contrition and Conscience, and it is only when Remembraunce has
delivered an epitaph chiefly dealing with the Seven Deadly Sins, and
Fame has enrolled Graunde Amour's name with the knights of antiquity,
that we are allowed to part with the hero. This long imaginative poem
was widely read and esteemed, and certainly exercised an influence on
the genius of Spenser.

  The remaining works of Hawes are all of them bibliographical rarities.
  _The Conversyon of Swerers_ (1509) and _A Joyfull Medytacyon to all
  Englonde_, a coronation poem (1509), was edited by David Laing for the
  Abbotsford Club (Edinburgh, 1865). A _Compendyous Story ... called
  the Example of Vertu_ (pr. 1512) and the _Comfort of Lovers_ (not
  dated) complete the list of his extant work.

  See also G. Saintsbury, _The Flourishing of Romance and the Rise of
  Allegory_ (Edin. and Lond., 1897); the same writer's _Hist. of English
  Prosody_ (vol. i. 1906); and an article by W. Murison in the
  _Cambridge History of English Literature_ (vol. ii. 1908).



HAWES, WILLIAM (1785-1846), English musician, was born in London in
1785, and was for eight years (1793-1801) a chorister of the Chapel
Royal, where he studied music chiefly under Dr Ayrton. He subsequently
held various musical posts, being in 1817 appointed master of the
children of the Chapel Royal. He also carried on the business of a music
publisher, and was for many years musical director of the Lyceum
theatre, then devoted to English opera. In the last-named capacity (July
23rd, 1824), he introduced Weber's _Der Freischütz_ for the first time
in England, at first slightly curtailed, but soon afterwards in its
entirety. Winter's _Interrupted Sacrifice_, Mozart's _Cosi fan tutte_,
Marschner's _Vampyre_ and other important works were also brought out
under his auspices. Hawes also wrote or compiled the music for numerous
pieces. Better were his glees and madrigals, of which he published
several collections. He also superintended a new edition of the
celebrated _Triumph of Oriana_. He died on the 18th of February 1846.



HAWFINCH, a bird so called from the belief that the fruit of the
hawthorn (_Crataegus Oxyacantha_) forms its chief food, the _Loxia
coccothraustes_ of Linnaeus, and the _Coccothraustes vulgaris_ of modern
ornithologists, one of the largest of the finch family (_Fringillidae_),
and found over nearly the whole of Europe, in Africa north of the Atlas
and in Asia from Palestine to Japan. It was formerly thought to be only
an autumnal or winter-visitor to Britain, but later experience has
proved that, though there may very likely be an immigration in the fall
of the year, it breeds in nearly all the English counties to Yorkshire,
and abundantly in those nearest to London. In coloration it bears some
resemblance to a chaffinch, but its much larger size and enormous beak
make it easily recognizable, while on closer inspection the singular
bull-hook form of some of its wing-feathers will be found to be very
remarkable. Though not uncommonly frequenting gardens and orchards, in
which as well as in woods it builds its nest, it is exceedingly shy in
its habits, so as seldom to afford opportunities for observation.
     (A. N.)



HAWICK, a municipal and police burgh of Roxburghshire, Scotland. Pop.
(1891), 19,204; (1901), 17,303. It is situated at the confluence of the
Slitrig (which flows through the town) with the Teviot, 10 m. S.W. of
Jedburgh by road and 52¾ m. S.E. of Edinburgh by the North British
railway. The name has been derived from the O. Eng. _heaih-wic_, "the
village on the flat meadow," or _haga-wic_, "the fenced-in dwelling,"
the Gadeni being supposed to have had a settlement at this spot. Hawick
is a substantial and flourishing town, the prosperity of which dates
from the beginning of the 19th century, its enterprise having won for it
the designation of "The Glasgow of the Borders." The municipal
buildings, which contain the free library and reading-room, stand on the
site of the old town hall. The Buccleuch memorial hall, commemorating
the 5th duke of Buccleuch, contains the Science and Art Institute and a
museum rich in exhibits illustrating Border history. The Academy
furnishes both secondary and technical education. The only church of
historical interest is that of St Mary's, the third of the name, built
in 1763. The first church, believed to have been founded by St Cuthbert
(d. 687), was succeeded by one dedicated in 1214, which was the scene of
the seizure of Sir Alexander Ramsay of Dalhousie in 1342 by Sir William
Douglas. The modern Episcopal church of St Cuthbert was designed by Sir
Gilbert Scott. The Moat or Moot hill at the south end of the town--an
earthen mound 30 ft. high and 300 ft. in circumference--is conjectured
to have been the place where formerly the court of the manor met; though
some authorities think it was a primitive form of fortification. The
Baron's Tower, founded in 1155 by the Lovels, lords of Branxholm and
Hawick, and afterwards the residence of the Douglases of Drumlanrig, is
said to have been the only building that was not burned down during the
raid of Thomas Radcliffe, 3rd earl of Sussex, in April 1570. At a later
date it was the abode of Anne, duchess of Buccleuch and Monmouth, after
the execution of her husband, James, duke of Monmouth in 1585, and
finally became the Tower Hotel. Bridges across the Teviot connect Hawick
with the suburb of Wilton, in which a public park has been laid out, and
St Leonard's Park and race-course are situated on the Common, 2 m. S.W.
The town is governed by a provost, bailies and council, and unites with
Selkirk and Galashiels (together known as the Border burghs) to send a
member to parliament. The leading industries are the manufacture of
hosiery, established in 1771, and woollens, dating from 1830, including
blankets, shepherd's plaiding and tweeds. There are, besides, tanneries,
dye works, oil-works, saw-mills, iron-founding and engineering works,
quarries and nursery gardens. The markets for live stock and grain are
also important.

In 1537 Hawick received from Sir James Douglas of Drumlanrig a charter
which was confirmed by the infant Queen Mary in 1545, and remained in
force until 1861, when the corporation was reconstituted by act of
parliament. Owing to its situation Hawick was often imperilled by Border
warfare and marauding freebooters. Sir Robert Umfraville (d. 1436),
governor of Berwick, burned it about 1417, and in 1562 the regent Moray
had to suppress the lawless with a strong hand. Neither of the Jacobite
risings aroused enthusiasm. In 1715 the discontented Highlanders
mutinied on the Common, 500 of them abandoning their cause, and in 1745
Prince Charles Edward's cavalry passed southward through the town. In
1514, the year after the battle of Flodden, in which the burghers had
suffered severely, a number of young men surprised an English force at
Hornshole, a spot on the Teviot 2 m. below the town, routed them and
bore away their flag. This event is celebrated every June in the
ceremony of "Riding the Common"--in which a facsimile of the captured
pennon is carried in procession to the accompaniment of a chorus
"Teribus, ye Teri Odin," supposed to be an invocation to Thor and
Odin--a survival of Northumbrian paganism. Two of the most eminent
natives of the burgh were Dr Thomas Somerville (1741-1830), the
historian, and James Wilson (1805-1860), founder of the _Economist_
newspaper and the first financial member of the council for India.

  Minto House, 5 m. N.E., is the seat of the earl of Minto. Denholm,
  about midway between Hawick and Jedburgh, was the birthplace of John
  Leyden the poet. The cottage in which Leyden was born is now the
  property of the Edinburgh Border Counties Association, and a monument
  to his memory has been erected in the centre of Denholm green. Cavers,
  nearer Hawick, was once the home of a branch of the Douglases, and it
  is said that in Cavers House are still preserved the pennon that was
  borne before the Douglas at the battle of Otterburn (Chevy Chase), and
  the gauntlets that were then taken from the Percy (1388). Two m. S.W.
  of Hawick is the massive peel of Goldielands--the "watch-tower of
  Branxholm," a well-preserved typical Border stronghold. One mile
  beyond it, occupying a commanding site on the left bank of the Teviot,
  stands Branxholm Castle, the Branksome Hall of _The Lay of the Last
  Minstrel_, once owned by the Lovels, but since the middle of the 15th
  century the property of the Scotts of Buccleuch, and up to 1756 the
  chief seat of the duke. It suffered repeatedly in English invasions
  and was destroyed in 1570. It was rebuilt next year, the peel,
  finished five years later, forming part of the modern mansion. About 3
  m. W. of Hawick, finely situated on high ground above Harden Burn, a
  left-hand affluent of Borthwick Water, is Harden, the home of Walter
  Scott (1550-1629), an ancestor of the novelist.



HAWK (O. Eng. _hafoc_ or _heafoc_, a common Teutonic word, cf. Dutch
_havik_, Ger. _Habicht_; the root is _hab_-, _haf_-, to hold, cf. Lat.
_accipiter_, from _capere_), a word of somewhat indefinite meaning,
being often used to signify all diurnal birds-of-prey which are neither
vultures nor eagles, and again more exclusively for those of the
remainder which are not buzzards, falcons, harriers or kites. Even with
this restriction it is comprehensive enough, and will include more than
a hundred species, which have been arrayed in genera varying in number
from a dozen to above a score, according to the fancy of the
systematizer. Speaking generally, hawks may be characterized by
possessing comparatively short wings and long legs, a bill which begins
to decurve directly from the cere (or soft bare skin that covers its
base), and has the cutting edges of its maxilla (or upper mandible)
sinuated[1] but never notched. To these may be added as characters,
structurally perhaps of less value, but in other respects quite as
important, that the sexes differ very greatly in size, that in most
species the irides are yellow, deepening with age into orange or even
red, and that the immature plumage is almost invariably more or less
striped or mottled with heart-shaped spots beneath, while that of the
adults is generally much barred, though the old males have in many
instances the breast and belly quite free from markings. Nearly all are
of small or moderate size--the largest among them being the gos-hawk
(q.v.) and its immediate allies, and the male of the smallest,
_Accipiter tinus_, is not bigger than a song-thrush. They are all birds
of great boldness in attacking a quarry, but if foiled in the first
attempts they are apt to leave the pursuit. Thoroughly arboreal in their
habits, they seek their prey, chiefly consisting of birds (though
reptiles and small mammals are also taken), among trees or bushes,
patiently waiting for a victim to shew itself, and gliding upon it when
it appears to be unwary with a rapid swoop, clutching it in their
talons, and bearing it away to eat it in some convenient spot.

[Illustration: European Sparrow-Hawk (Male and Female).]

Systematic ornithologists differ as to the groups into which the
numerous forms known as hawks should be divided. There is at the outset
a difference of opinion as to the scientific name which the largest and
best known of these groups should bear--some authors terming it _Nisus_,
and others, who seem to have the most justice on their side,
_Accipiter_. In Europe there are two species--first, _A. nisus_, the
common sparrow-hawk, which has a wide distribution from Ireland to
Japan, extending also to northern India, Egypt and Algeria, and
secondly, _A. brevipes_ (by some placed in the group _Micronisus_ and by
others called an _Astur_), which only appears in the south-east and the
adjoining parts of Asia Minor and Persia. In North America the place of
the former is taken by two very distinct species, a small one, _A.
fuscus_, usually known in Canada and the United States as the
sharp-shinned hawk, and Stanley's or Cooper's hawk, _A. cooperi_ (by
some placed in another genus, _Cooperastur_), which is larger and has
not so northerly a range. In South America there are four or five more,
including _A. tinus_, before mentioned as the smallest of all, while a
species not much larger, _A. minullus_, together with several others of
greater size, inhabits South Africa. Madagascar and its neighbouring
islands have three or four species sufficiently distinct, and India has
_A. badlus_. A good many more forms are found in south-eastern Asia, in
the Indo-Malay Archipelago, and in Australia three or four species, of
which _A. cirrhocephalus_ most nearly represents the sparrow-hawk of
Europe and northern Asia, while _A. radiatus_ and _A. approximans_ show
some affinity to the gos-hawks (_Astur_) with which they are often
classed. The differences between all the forms above named and the much
larger number here unnamed are such as can be only appreciated by the
specialist. The so-called "sparrow-hawk" of New Zealand (_Hieracidea_)
does not belong to this group of birds at all, and by many authors has
been deemed akin to the falcons. For hawking see FALCONRY.     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] In one form, _Nisoides_, which on that account has been
    generically separated, they are said to be perfectly straight.



HAWKE, EDWARD HAWKE, BARON (1705-1781), British admiral, was the only
son of Edward Hawke, a barrister. On his mother's side he was the nephew
of Colonel Martin Bladen (1680-1746), a politician of some note, and was
connected with the family of Fairfax. Edward Hawke entered the navy on
the 20th of February 1720 and served the time required to qualify him to
hold a lieutenant's commission on the North American and West Indian
stations. Though he passed his examination on the 2nd of June 1725, he
was not appointed to a ship to act in that rank till 1729, when he was
named third lieutenant of the "Portland" in the Channel. The continuance
of peace allowed him no opportunities of distinction, but he was
fortunate in obtaining promotion as commander of the "Wolf" sloop in
1733, and as post captain of the "Flamborough" (20) in 1734. When war
began with Spain in 1739, he served as captain of the "Portland" (50) in
the West Indies. His ship was old and rotten. She nearly drowned her
captain and crew, and was broken up after she was paid off in 1742. In
the following year Hawke was appointed to the "Berwick" (70), a fine new
vessel, and was attached to the Mediterranean fleet then under the
command of Thomas Mathews. The "Berwick" was manned badly, and suffered
severely from sickness, but in the ill-managed battle of Toulon on the
11th of January 1744 Hawke gained great distinction by the spirit with
which he fought his ship. The only prize taken by the British fleet, the
Spanish "Poder" (74), surrendered to him, and though she was not kept by
the admiral, Hawke was not in any degree to blame for the loss of the
only trophy of the fight. His gallantry attracted the attention of the
king. There is a story that he was dismissed from the service for having
left the line to engage the "Poder," and was restored by the king's
order. The legend grew not unnaturally out of the confusing series of
courts martial which arose out of the battle, but it has no foundation.
There is better reason to believe that when at a later period the
Admiralty intended to pass over Hawke's name in a promotion of admirals,
the king, George II., did insist that he should not be put on the
retired list.

He had no further chance of making his energy and ability known out of
the ranks of his own profession, where they were fully realized, till
1747. In July of that year he attained flag rank, and was named second
in command of the Channel fleet. Owing to the ill health of his superior
he was sent in command of the fourteen ships detached to intercept a
French convoy on its way to the West Indies. On the 14th of October 1747
he fell in with it in the Bay of Biscay. The French force, under M.
Desherbiers de l'Étenduère, consisted of nine ships, which were,
however, on the average larger than Hawke's. He attacked at once. The
French admiral sent one of his liners to escort the merchant ships on
their way to the West Indies, and with the other eight fought a very
gallant action with the British squadron. Six of the eight French ships
were taken. The French admiral did for a time succeed in saving the
trading vessels under his charge, but most of them fell into the hands
of the British cruisers in the West Indies. Hawke was made a knight of
the Bath for this timely piece of service, a reward which cannot be said
to have been lavish.

In 1747 Hawke had been elected M.P. for Portsmouth, which he continued
to represent for thirty years, though he can seldom have been in his
place, and it does not appear that he often spoke. A seat in parliament
was always valuable to a naval officer at that time, since it enabled
him to be useful to ministers, and increased his chances of obtaining
employment. Hawke had married a lady of fortune in Yorkshire, Catherine
Brook, in 1737, and was able to meet the expenses entailed by a seat in
parliament, which were considerable at a time when votes were openly
paid for by money down. In the interval between the war of the Austrian
Succession and the Seven Years' War, Hawke was almost always on active
service. From 1748 till 1752 be was in command at home, and he rehoisted
his flag in 1755 as admiral in command of the Western Squadron. Although
war was not declared for some time, England and France were on very
hostile terms, and conflicts between the officers of the two powers in
America had already taken place. Neither government was scrupulous in
abstaining from the use of force while peace was still nominally
unbroken. Hawke was sent to sea to intercept a French squadron which had
been cruising near Gibraltar, but a restriction was put on the limits
within which he might cruise, and he failed to meet the French. The
fleet was much weakened by ill-health. In June 1756 the news of John
Byng's retreat from Minorca reached England and aroused the utmost
indignation. Hawke was at once sent out to relieve him in the
Mediterranean command, and to send him home for trial. He sailed in the
"Antelope," carrying, as the wits of the day put it, "a cargo of
courage" to supply deficiencies in that respect among the officers then
in the Mediterranean. Minorca had fallen, from want of resources rather
than the attacks of the French, before he could do anything for the
assistance of the garrison of Fort St Philip. In winter he was recalled
to England, and he reached home on the 14th of January 1757. On the 24th
of February following he was promoted full admiral.

It is said, but on no very good authority, that he was not on good terms
with Pitt (afterwards earl of Chatham), and it is certain that when
Pitt's great ministry was formed in June 1757, he was not included in
the Board of Admiralty. Yet as he was continued in command of important
forces in the Channel, it is obvious that his great capacity was fully
recognized. In the late summer of 1757 he was entrusted with the naval
side of an expedition to the coast of France. These operations, which
were scoffingly described at the time as breaking windows with guineas,
were a favourite device of Pitt's for weakening the French and raising
the confidence of the country. The expedition of 1757 was directed
against Rochefort, and it effected nothing. Hawke, who probably expected
very little good from it, did his own work as admiral punctually, but he
cannot be said to have shown zeal, or any wish to inspirit the military
officers into making greater efforts than they were disposed naturally
to make. The expedition returned to Spithead by the 6th of October. No
part of the disappointment of the public, which was acute, was visited
on Hawke. During the end of 1757 and the beginning of 1758 be continued
cruising in the Channel in search of the French naval forces, without
any striking success. In May of that year he was ordered to detach a
squadron under the command of Howe to carry out further combined
operations. Hawke considered himself as treated with a want of due
respect, and was at the time in bad humour with the Admiralty. He
somewhat pettishly threw up his command, but was induced to resume it by
the board, which knew his value, and was not wanting in flattery. He
retired in June for a time on the ground of health, but happily for his
own glory and the service of the country he was able to hoist his flag
in May 1759, the "wonderful year" of Garrick's song.

France was then elaborating a scheme of invasion which bears much
resemblance to the plan afterwards formed by Napoleon. An army of
invasion was collected at the Morbihan in Brittany, and the intention
was to transport it under the protection of a powerful fleet which was
to be made up by uniting the squadron at Brest with the ships at Toulon.
The plan, like Napoleon's, had slight chance of success, since the naval
part of the invading force must necessarily be brought together from
distant points at the risk of interruption by the British squadrons. The
naval forces of England were amply sufficient to provide whatever was
needed to upset the plans of the French government. But the country was
not so confident in the capacity of the navy to serve as a defence as it
was taught to be in later generations. It had been seized by a most
shameful panic at the beginning of the war in face of a mere threat of
invasion. Therefore the anxiety of Pitt to baffle the schemes of the
French decisively was great, and the country looked on at the
development of the naval campaign with nervous attention. The proposed
combination of the French fleet was defeated by the annihilation of the
Toulon squadron on the coast of Portugal by Boscawen in May, but the
Brest fleet was still untouched and the troops were still at Morbihan.
It was the duty of Hawke to prevent attack from this quarter. The manner
in which he discharged his task marks an epoch in the history of the
navy. Until his time, or very nearly so, it was still believed that
there was rashness in keeping the great ships out after September. Hawke
maintained his blockade of Brest till far into November. Long cruises
had always entailed much bad health on the crews, but by the care he
took to obtain fresh food, and the energy he showed in pressing the
Admiralty for stores, he was able to keep his men healthy. Early in
November a series of severe gales forced him off the French coast, and
he was compelled to anchor in Torbay. His absence was brief, but it
allowed the French admiral, M. de Conflans (1690?-1777), time to put to
sea, and to steer for the Morbihan. Hawke, who had left Torbay on the
13th of November, learnt of the departure of the French at sea on the
17th from a look-out ship, and as the French admiral could have done
nothing but steer for the Morbihan, he followed him thither. The news
that M. de Conflans had got to sea spread a panic through the country,
and for some days Hawke was the object of abuse of the most irrational
kind. There was in fact no danger, for behind Hawke's fleet there were
ample reserves in the straits of Dover, and in the North Sea. Following
his enemy as fast as the bad weather, a mixture of calms and head winds
would allow, the admiral sighted the French about 40 m. to the west of
Belleisle on the morning of the 20th of November. The British fleet was
of twenty-one sail, the French of twenty. There was also a small
squadron of British ships engaged in watching the Morbihan as an inshore
squadron, which was in danger of being cut off. M. de Conflans had a
sufficient force to fight in the open sea without rashness, but after
making a motion to give battle, he changed his mind and gave the signal
to his fleet to steer for the anchorage at Quiberon. He did not believe
that the British admiral would dare to follow him, for the coast is one
of the most dangerous in the world, and the wind was blowing hard from
the west and rising to a storm. Hawke, however, pursued without
hesitation, though it was well on in the afternoon before he caught up
the rear of the French fleet, and dark by the time the two fleets were
in the bay. The action, which was more a test of seamanship than of
gunnery, or capacity to manoeuvre in order, ended in the destruction of
the French. Five ships only were taken or destroyed, but others ran
ashore, and the French navy as a whole lost all confidence. Two British
vessels were lost, but the price was little to pay for such a victory.
No more fighting remained to be done. The fleet in Quiberon Bay suffered
from want of food, and its distress is recorded in the lines:--

  "Ere Hawke did bang
   Mounseer Conflang
        You sent us beef and beer;
   Now Mounseer's beat
   We've nought to eat,
        Since you have nought to fear."

Hawke returned to England in January 1760 and had no further service at
sea. He was not made a peer till the 20th of May 1776, and then only as
Baron Hawke of Towton. From 1776 to 1771 he was first lord of the
Admiralty. His administration was much criticized, perhaps more from
party spirit than because of its real defects. Whatever his relations
with Lord Chatham may have been he was no favourite with Chatham's
partizans. It is very credible that, having spent all his life at sea,
his faculty did not show in the uncongenial life of the shore. As an
admiral at sea and on his own element Hawke has had no superior. It is
true that he was not put to the test of having to meet opponents of
equal strength and efficiency, but then neither has any other British
admiral since the Dutch wars of the 17th century. On his death on the
17th of October 1781 his title passed to his son, Martin Bladen
(1744-1805), and it is still held by his descendants, the 7th Baron (b.
1860) being best known as a great Yorkshire cricketer.

  There is a portrait of Hawke in the Painted Hall at Greenwich. His
  _Life_ by Montagu Burrows (1883) has superseded all other authorities;
  it is supplemented in a few early particulars by Sir J. K. Laughton's
  article in the _Dict. Nat. Biog._ (1891).



HAWKER, ROBERT STEPHEN (1803-1874), English antiquary and poet, was born
at Stoke Damerel, Devonshire, on the 3rd of December 1803. His father,
Jacob Stephen Hawker, was at that time a doctor, but afterwards curate
and vicar of Stratton, Cornwall. Robert was sent to Liskeard grammar
school, and when he was about sixteen was apprenticed to a solicitor. He
was soon removed to Cheltenham grammar school, and in April 1823
matriculated at Pembroke College, Oxford. In the same year he married
Charlotte I'Ans, a lady much older than himself. On returning to Oxford
he migrated to Magdalen Hall, where he graduated in 1828, having already
won the Newdigate prize for poetry in 1827. He became vicar of
Morwenstow, a village on the north Cornish coast, in 1834. Hawker
described the bulk of his parishioners as a "mixed multitude of
smugglers, wreckers and dissenters of various hues." He was himself a
high churchman, and carried things with a high hand in his parish, but
was much beloved by his people. He was a man of great originality, and
numerous stories were told of his striking sayings and eccentric
conduct. He was the original of Mortimer Collins's Canon Tremaine in
_Sweet and Twenty_. His first wife died in 1863, and in 1864 he married
Pauline Kuczynski, daughter of a Polish exile. He died in Plymouth on
the 15th of August 1875. Before his death he was formally received into
the Roman Catholic Church, a proceeding which aroused a bitter newspaper
controversy. The best of his poems is _The Quest of the Sangraal: Chant
the First_ (Exeter, 1864). Among his _Cornish Ballads_ (1869) the most
famous is on "Trelawny," the refrain of which, "And shall Trelawny die,"
&c., he declared to be an old Cornish saying.

  See _The Vicar of Morwenstow_ (1875; later and corrected editions,
  1876 and 1886), by the Rev. S. Baring-Gould, which was severely
  criticized by Hawker's friend, W. Maskell, in the _Athenaeum_ (March
  26, 1876); _Memorials of the late Robert Stephen Hawker_ (1876), by
  the late Dr F. G. Lee. These were superseded in 1905 by _The Life and
  Letters of R. S. Hawker_, by his son-in-law, C. E. Byles, which
  contains a bibliography of his works, now very valuable to collectors.
  See also Boase and Courtney, _Bibliotheca Cornubiensis_. His _Poetical
  Works_ (1879) and his _Prose Works_ (1893) were edited by J. G.
  Godwin. Another edition of his _Poetical Works_ (1899) has a preface
  and bibliography by Alfred Wallis, and a complete edition of his poems
  by C. E. Byles, with the title _Cornish Ballads and other Poems_,
  appeared in 1904.



HAWKERS and PEDLARS, the designation of itinerant dealers who convey
their goods from place to place to sell. The word "hawker" seems to have
come into English from the Ger. _Höker_ or Dutch _heuker_ in the early
16th century. In an act of 1533 (25 Henry VIII. c. 9, § 6) we find
"Sundry evill disposed persons which commonly beane called haukers ...
buying and selling of Brasse and Pewter." The earlier word for such an
itinerant dealer is "huckster," which is found in 1200. "For that they
have turned God's house intill hucksteress bothe" (_Ormulum_, 15,817).
The base of the two words is the same, and is probably to be referred to
German _hocken_, to squat, crouch; cf. "hucklebone," the hip-bone; and
the hawkers or hucksters were so called either because they stooped
under their packs, or squatted at booths in markets, &c. Another
derivation finds the origin in the Dutch _hock_, a hole, corner. It may
be noticed that the termination of "huckster" is feminine; though there
are examples of its application to women it was always applied
indiscriminately to either sex.

"Pedlar" occurs much earlier than the verbal form "to peddle," which is
therefore a derivative from the substantive. The origin is to be found
in the still older word "pedder," one who carries about goods for sale
in a "ped," a basket or hamper. This is now only used dialectically and
in Scotland. In the _Ancren Riwle_ (c. 1225), _peoddare_ is found with
the meaning of "pedlar," though the _Promptorium parvulorum_ (c. 1440)
defines it as _calathasius_, i.e. a maker of panniers or baskets.

The French term for a hawker or pedlar of books, _colporteur_ (_col_,
neck, _porter_, to carry), has been adopted by the Bible Society and
other English religious bodies as a name for itinerant vendors and
distributors of Bibles and other religious literature.

  The occupation of hawkers and pedlars has been regulated in the United
  Kingdom, and the two classes have also been technically distinguished.
  The Pedlars Act 1871 defines a pedlar as "any hawker, pedlar, petty
  chapman, tinker, caster of metals, mender of chairs, or other person
  who, _without_ any horse or other beast bearing or drawing burden,
  travels and trades on foot and goes from town to town or to other
  men's houses, carrying to sell or exposing for sale any goods, wares
  or merchandise ... or selling or offering for sale his skill in
  handicraft." Any person who acts as a pedlar must have a certificate,
  which is to be obtained from the chief officer of police of the police
  district in which the person applying for the certificate has resided
  during one month previous to his application. He must satisfy the
  officer that he is above seventeen years of age, is of good character,
  and in good faith intends to carry on the trade of a pedlar. The fee
  for a pedlar's certificate is five shillings, and the certificate
  remains in force for a year from the date of issue. The act requires a
  register of certificates to be kept in each district, and imposes a
  penalty for the assigning, borrowing or forging of any certificate. It
  does not exempt any one from vagrant law, and requires the pedlar to
  show his certificate on demand to certain persons. It empowers the
  police to inspect a pedlar's pack, and provides for the arrest of an
  uncertificated pedlar or one refusing to show his certificate. A
  pedlar's certificate is not required by commercial travellers, sellers
  of vegetables, fish, fruit or victuals, or sellers in fairs. The
  Hawkers Act 1888 defines a hawker as "any one who travels _with_ a
  horse or other beast of burden, selling goods," &c. An excise licence
  (expiring on the 31st of March in each year) must be taken out by
  every hawker in the United Kingdom. The duty imposed upon such licence
  is £2. A hawker's licence is not granted, otherwise than by way of
  licence, except on production of a certificate signed by a clergyman
  and two householders of the parish or place wherein the applicant
  resides, or by a justice of the county or place, or a superintendent
  or inspector of police for the district, attesting that the person is
  of good character and a proper person to be licenced as a hawker.
  There are certain exemptions from taking out a licence--commercial
  travellers, sellers of fish, coal, &c., sellers in fairs, and the real
  worker or maker of any goods. The act also lays down certain
  provisions to be observed by hawkers and others, and imposes penalties
  for infringements. In the United States hawkers and pedlars must take
  out licences under State laws and Federal laws.



HAWKESWORTH, JOHN (c. 1715-1773), English miscellaneous writer, was born
in London about 1715. He is said to have been clerk to an attorney, and
was certainly self-educated. In 1744 he succeeded Samuel Johnson as
compiler of the parliamentary debates for the _Gentleman's Magazine_,
and from 1746 to 1749 he contributed poems signed Greville, or H.
Greville, to that journal. In company with Johnson and others he started
a periodical called _The Adventurer_, which ran to 140 numbers, of which
70 were from the pen of Hawkesworth himself. On account of what was
regarded as its powerful defence of morality and religion, Hawkesworth
was rewarded by the archbishop of Canterbury with the degree of LL.D. In
1754-1755 he published an edition (12 vols.) of Swift's works, with a
life prefixed which Johnson praised in his _Lives of the Poets_. A
larger edition (27 vols.) appeared in 1766-1779. He adapted Dryden's
_Amphitryon_ for the Drury Lane stage in 1756, and Southerne's
_Oronooko_ in 1759. He wrote the libretto of an oratorio _Zimri_ in
1760, and the next year _Edgar and Emmeline: a Fairy Tale_, was produced
at Drury Lane. His _Almoran and Hamet_ (2 vols., 1761) was first of all
drafted as a play, and a tragedy founded on it by S. J. Pratt, _The Fair
Circassian_ (1781), met with some success. He was commissioned by the
admiralty to edit Captain Cook's papers relative to his first voyage.
For this work, _An Account of the Voyages undertaken ... for making
discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere and performed by Commodore
Byrone, Captain Wallis, Captain Carteret and Captain Cook (from 1764 to
1771) drawn up from the Journals ..._ (3 vols., 1773), Hawkesworth is
said to have received from the publishers the sum of £6000. His
descriptions of the manners and customs of the South Seas were, however,
regarded by many critics as inexact and hurtful to the interests of
morality, and the severity of their strictures is said to have hastened
his death, which took place on the 16th of November 1773. He was buried
at Bromley, Kent, where he and his wife had kept a school. Hawkesworth
was a close imitator of Johnson both in style and thought, and was at
one time on very friendly terms with him. It is said that he presumed on
his success, and lost Johnson's friendship as early as 1756.



HAWKHURST, a town in the southern parliamentary division of Kent,
England, 47 m. S.E. of London, on a branch of the South-Eastern &
Chatham railway. Pop. (1901), 3136. It lies mainly on a ridge above the
valley of the Kent Ditch, a tributary of the Rother. The neighbouring
country is hilly, rich and well wooded, and the pleasant and healthy
situation has led to the considerable extension of the old village as a
residential locality. The Kent Sanatorium and one of the Barnardo homes
are established here. The church of St Lawrence, founded from Battle
Abbey in Sussex, is Decorated and Perpendicular and its east window, of
the earlier period, is specially beautiful.



HAWKINS, CAESAR HENRY (1798-1884), British surgeon, son of the Rev. E.
Hawkins and grandson of the Sir Caesar Hawkins (1711-1786), who was
serjeant-surgeon to Kings George II. and George III., was born at
Bisley, Gloucestershire, on the 19th of September 1798, was educated at
Christ's Hospital, and entered St George's Hospital, London, in 1818. He
was surgeon to the hospital from 1829 to 1861, and in 1862 was made
serjeant-surgeon to Queen Victoria. He was president of the College of
Surgeons in 1852, and again in 1861; and he delivered the Hunterian
oration in 1849. His success in complex surgical cases gave him a great
reputation. For long he was noted as the only surgeon who had succeeded
in the operation of ovariotomy in a London hospital. This occurred in
1846, when anaesthetics were unknown. He did much to popularize
colotomy. A successful operator, he nevertheless was attached to
conservative surgery, and was always more anxious to teach his pupils
how to save a limb than how to remove it. He reprinted his contributions
to the medical journals in two volumes, 1874, the more valuable papers
being on _Tumours_, _Excision of the Ovarium_, _Hydrophobia and
Snake-bites_, _Stricture of the Colon_, and _The Relative Claims of Sir
Charles Bell and Magendie to the Discovery of the Functions of the
Spinal Nerves_. He died on the 20th of July 1884. His brother, Edward
Hawkins (1789-1882), was the well-known provost of Oriel, Oxford, who
played so great a part in the Tractarian movement.



HAWKINS, or HAWKYNS, SIR JOHN (1532-1595), British admiral, was born at
Plymouth in 1532, and belonged to a family of Devonshire shipowners and
skippers--occupations then more closely connected than is now usual. His
father, William Hawkins (d. 1553), was a prosperous freeman of Plymouth,
who thrice represented that town in parliament, and is described by
Hakluyt as one of the principal sea-captains in the west parts of
England; his elder brother, also called William (d. 1589), was closely
associated with him in his Spanish expeditions, and took an active part
in fitting out ships to meet the Armada; and his nephew, the eldest son
of the last named and of the same name, sailed with Sir Francis Drake to
the South Sea in 1577, and served as lieutenant under Edward Fenton
(q.v.) in the expedition which started for the East Indies and China in
1582. His son, Sir Richard Hawkins, is separately noticed.

Sir John Hawkins was bred to the sea in the ships of his family. When
the great epoch of Elizabethan maritime adventure began, he took an
active part by sailing to the Guinea coast, where he robbed the
Portuguese slavers, and then smuggled the negroes he had captured into
the Spanish possessions in the New World. After a first successful
voyage in 1562-1563, two vessels which he had rashly sent to Seville
were confiscated by the Spanish government. With the help of friends,
and the open approval of the queen, who hired one of her vessels to him,
he sailed again in 1564, and repeated his voyage with success, trading
with the Creoles by force when the officials of the king endeavoured to
prevent him. These two voyages brought him reputation, and he was
granted a coat of arms with a demi-Moor, or negro, chained, as his
crest. The rivalry with Spain was now becoming very acute, and when
Hawkins sailed for the third time in 1567, he went in fact, though not
technically, on a national venture. Again he kidnapped negroes, and
forced his goods on the Spanish colonies. Encouraged by his discovery
that these settlements were small and unfortified, he on this occasion
ventured to enter Vera Cruz, the port of Mexico, after capturing some
Spaniards at sea to be held as hostages. He alleged that he had been
driven in by bad weather. The falsity of the story was glaring, but the
Spanish officers on the spot were too weak to offer resistance. Hawkins
was allowed to enter the harbour, and to refit at the small rocky island
of San Juan de Ulloa by which it is formed. Unfortunately for him, and
for a French corsair whom he had in his company, a strong Spanish force
arrived, bringing the new viceroy. The Spaniards, who were no more
scrupulous of the truth than himself, pretended to accept the
arrangement made before their arrival, and then when they thought he was
off his guard attacked him on the 24th of September. Only two vessels
escaped, his own, the "Minion," and the "Judith," a small vessel
belonging to his cousin Francis Drake. The voyage home was miserable,
and the sufferings of all were great.

For some years Hawkins did not return to the sea, though he continued to
be interested in privateering voyages as a capitalist. In the course of
1572 he recovered part of his loss by pretending to betray the queen for
a bribe to Spain. He acted with the knowledge of Lord Burleigh. In 1573
he became treasurer of the navy in succession to his father-in-law
Benjamin Gonson. The office of comptroller was conferred on him soon
after, and for the rest of his life he remained the principal
administrative officer of the navy. Burleigh noted that he was suspected
of fraud in his office, but the queen's ships were kept by him in good
condition. In 1588 he served as rear-admiral against the Spanish Armada
and was knighted. In 1590 he was sent to the coast of Portugal to
intercept the Spanish treasure fleet, but did not meet it. In giving an
account of his failure to the queen he quoted the text "Paul doth plant,
Apollo doth water, but God giveth the increase," which exhibition of
piety is said to have provoked the queen into exclaiming, "God's death!
This fool went out a soldier, and has come home a divine." In 1595 he
accompanied Drake on another treasure-hunting voyage to the West Indies,
which was even less successful, and he died at sea off Porto Rico on the
12th of November 1595.

Hawkins was twice married, first to Katharine Gonson and then to
Margaret Vaughan. He was counted a puritan when puritanism meant little
beyond hatred of Spain and popery, and when these principles were an
ever-ready excuse for voyages in search of slaves and plunder. In the
course of one of his voyages, when he was becalmed and his negroes were
dying, he consoled himself by the reflection that God would not suffer
His elect to perish. Contemporary evidence can be produced to show that
he was greedy, unscrupulous and rude. But if he had been a more delicate
man he would not have risked the gallows by making piratical attacks on
the Portuguese and by appearing in the West Indies as an armed smuggler;
and in that case he would not have played an important part in history
by setting the example of breaking down the pretension of the Spaniards
to exclude all comers from the New World. His morality was that of the
average stirring man of his time, whether in England or elsewhere.

  See R. A. J. Walling, _A Sea-dog of Devon_ (1907); and Southey in his
  _British Admirals_, vol. iii. The original accounts of his voyages
  compiled by Hakluyt have been reprinted by the Hakluyt Society, with a
  preface by Sir C. R. Markham.



HAWKINS, SIR JOHN (1719-1789), English writer on music, was born on the
30th of March 1719, in London, the son of an architect who destined him
for his own profession. Ultimately, however, Hawkins took to the law,
devoting his leisure hours to his favourite study of music. A wealthy
marriage in 1753 enabled him to indulge his passion for acquiring rare
works of music, and he bought, for example, the collection formed by Dr
Pepusch, and subsequently presented by Hawkins to the British Museum. It
was on such materials that Hawkins founded his celebrated work on the
_General History of the Science and Practice of Music_, in 5 vols.
(republished in 2 vols., 1876). It was brought out in 1776, the same
year which witnessed the appearance of the first volume of Burney's work
on the same subject. The relative merits of the two works were eagerly
discussed by contemporary critics. Burney no doubt is infinitely
superior as a literary man, and his work accordingly comes much nearer
the idea of a systematic treatise on the subject than Hawkins's, which
is essentially a collection of rare and valuable pieces of music with a
more or less continuous commentary. But by rescuing these from oblivion
Hawkins has given a permanent value to his work. Of Hawkins's literary
efforts apart from music it will be sufficient to mention his occasional
contributions to the _Gentleman's Magazine_, his edition (1760) of the
_Complete Angler_ (1787) and his biography of Dr Johnson, with whom he
was intimately acquainted. He was one of the original members of the Ivy
Lane Club, and ultimately became one of Dr Johnson's executors. If there
were any doubt as to his intimacy with Johnson, it would be settled by
the slighting way in which Boswell refers to him. Speaking of the Ivy
Lane Club, he mentions amongst the members "Mr John Hawkins, an
attorney," and adds the following footnote, which at the same time may
serve as a summary of the remaining facts of Hawkins's life: "He was for
several years chairman of the Middlesex justices, and upon presenting an
address to the king accepted the usual offer of knighthood (1772). He is
the author of a _History of Music_ in five volumes in quarto. By
assiduous attendance upon Johnson in his last illness he obtained the
office of one of his executors--in consequence of which the booksellers
of London employed him to publish an edition of Dr Johnson's works and
to write his life." Sir John Hawkins died on the 21st of May 1789, and
was buried in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey.



HAWKINS, or HAWKYNS, SIR RICHARD (c. 1562-1622), British seaman, was the
only son of Admiral Sir John Hawkins (q.v.) by his first marriage. He
was from his earliest days familiar with ships and the sea, and in 1582
he accompanied his uncle, William Hawkins, to the West Indies. In 1585
he was captain of a galliot in Drake's expedition to the Spanish main,
in 1588 he commanded a queen's ship against the Armada, and in 1590
served with his father's expedition to the coast of Portugal. In 1593 he
purchased the "Dainty," a ship originally built for his father and used
by him in his expeditions, and sailed for the West Indies, the Spanish
main and the South Seas. It seems clear that his project was to prey on
the oversea possessions of the king of Spain. Hawkins, however, in an
account of the voyage written thirty years afterwards, maintained, and
by that time perhaps had really persuaded himself, that his expedition
was undertaken purely for the purpose of geographical discovery. After
visiting the coast of Brazil, the "Dainty" passed through the Straits of
Magellan, and in due course reached Valparaiso. Having plundered the
town, Hawkins pushed north, and in June 1594, a year after leaving
Plymouth, arrived in the bay of San Mateo. Here the "Dainty" was
attacked by two Spanish ships. Hawkins was hopelessly outmatched, but
defended himself with great courage. At last, when he himself had been
severely wounded, many of his men killed, and the "Dainty" was nearly
sinking, he surrendered on the promise of a safe-conduct out of the
country for himself and his crew. Through no fault of the Spanish
commander this promise was not kept. In 1597 Hawkins was sent to Spain,
and imprisoned first at Seville and subsequently at Madrid. He was
released in 1602, and, returning to England, was knighted in 1603. In
1604 he became member of parliament for Plymouth and vice-admiral of
Devon, a post which, as the coast was swarming with pirates, was no
sinecure. In 1620-1621 he was vice-admiral, under Sir Robert Mansell, of
the fleet sent into the Mediterranean to reduce the Algerian corsairs.
He died in London on the 17th of April 1622.

  See his _Observations in his Voiage into the South Sea_ (1622),
  republished by the Hakluyt Society.



HAWKS, FRANCIS LISTER (1798-1866), American clergyman, was born at
Newbern, North Carolina, on the 10th of June 1798, and graduated at the
university of his native state in 1815. After practising law with some
distinction he entered the Episcopalian ministry in 1827 and proved a
brilliant and impressive preacher, holding livings in New Haven,
Philadelphia, New York and New Orleans, and declining several
bishoprics. On his appointment as historiographer of his church in 1835,
he went to England, and collected the abundant materials afterwards
utilized in his _Contributions to the Ecclesiastical History of U.S.A._
(New York, 1836-1839). These two volumes dealt with Maryland and
Virginia, while two later ones (1863-1864) were devoted to Connecticut.
He was the first president of the university of Louisiana (now merged in
Tulane). He died in New York on the 26th of September 1866.



HAWKSHAW, SIR JOHN (1811-1891), English engineer, was born in Yorkshire
in 1811, and was educated at Leeds grammar school. Before he was
twenty-one he had been engaged for six or seven years in railway
engineering and the construction of roads in his native county, and in
the year of his majority he obtained an appointment as engineer to the
Bolivar Mining Association in Venezuela. But the climate there was more
than his health could stand, and in 1834 he was obliged to return to
England. He soon obtained employment under Jesse Hartley at the
Liverpool docks, and subsequently was made engineer in charge of the
railway and navigation works of the Manchester, Bury and Bolton Canal
Company. In 1845 he became chief engineer to the Manchester & Leeds
railway, and in 1847 to its successor, the Lancashire & Yorkshire
railway, for which he constructed a large number of branch lines. In
1850 he removed to London and began to practise as a consulting
engineer, at first alone, but subsequently in partnership with Harrison
Hayter. In that capacity his work was of an extremely varied nature,
embracing almost every branch of engineering. He retained his connexion
with the Lancashire & Yorkshire Company until his retirement from
professional work in 1888, and was consulted on all the important
engineering points that affected it in that long period. In London he
was responsible for the Charing Cross and Cannon Street railways,
together with the two bridges which carried them over the Thames; he was
engineer of the East London railway, which passes under the Thames
through Sir M. I. Brunel's well-known tunnel; and jointly with Sir J.
Wolfe Barry he constructed the section of the Underground railway which
completed the "inner circle" between the Aldgate and Mansion House
stations. In addition, many railway works claimed his attention in all
parts of the world--Germany, Russia, India, Mauritius, &c. One
noteworthy point in his railway practice was his advocacy, in opposition
to Robert Stephenson, of steeper gradients than had previously been
thought desirable or possible, and so far back as 1838 he expressed
decided disapproval of the maintenance of the broad gauge on the Great
Western, because of the troubles he foresaw it would lead to in
connexion with future railway extension, and because he objected in
general to breaks of gauge in the lines of a country. The construction
of canals was another branch of engineering in which he was actively
engaged. In 1862 he became engineer of the Amsterdam ship-canal, and in
the succeeding year he may fairly be said to have been the saviour of
the Suez Canal. About that time the scheme was in very bad odour, and
the khedive determined to get the opinion of an English engineer as to
its practicability, having made up his mind to stop the works if that
opinion was unfavourable. Hawkshaw was chosen to make the inquiry, and
it was because his report was entirely favourable that M. de Lesseps was
able to say at the opening ceremony that to him he owed the canal. As a
member of the International Congress which considered the construction
of an interoceanic canal across central America, he thought best of the
Nicaraguan route, and privately he regarded the Panama scheme as
impracticable at a reasonable cost, although publicly he expressed no
opinion on the matter and left the Congress without voting. Sir John
Hawkshaw also had a wide experience in constructing harbours (e.g.
Holyhead) and docks (e.g. Penarth, the Albert Dock at Hull, and the
south dock of the East and West India Docks in London), in
river-engineering, in drainage and sewerage, in water-supply, &c. He
was engineer, with Sir James Brunlees, of the original Channel Tunnel
Company from 1872, but many years previously he had investigated for
himself the question of a tunnel under the Strait of Dover from an
engineering point of view, and had come to a belief in its feasibility,
so far as that could be determined from borings and surveys.
Subsequently, however, he became convinced that the tunnel would not be
to the advantage of Great Britain, and thereafter would have nothing to
do with the project. He was also engineer of the Severn Tunnel, which,
from its magnitude and the difficulties encountered in its construction,
must rank as one of the most notable engineering undertakings of the
19th century. He died in London on the 2nd of June 1891.



HAWKSLEY, THOMAS (1807-1893), English engineer, was born on the 12th of
July 1807, at Arnold, near Nottingham. He was at Nottingham grammar
school till the age of fifteen, but was indebted to his private studies
for his knowledge of mathematics, chemistry and geology. In 1822 he was
articled to an architect in Nottingham, subsequently becoming a partner
in the firm, which also undertook engineering work; and in 1852 he
removed to London, where he continued in active practice till he was
well past eighty. His work was chiefly concerned with water and gas
supply and with main-drainage. Of waterworks he used to say that he had
constructed 150, and a long list might be drawn up of important towns
that owe their water to his skill, including Liverpool, Sheffield,
Leicester, Leeds, Derby, Darlington, Oxford, Cambridge and Northampton
in England, and Stockholm, Altona and Bridgetown (Barbados) in other
countries. To his native town of Nottingham he was water engineer for
fifty years, and the system he designed for it was noteworthy from the
fact that the principle of constant supply was adopted for the first
time. The gas-works at Nottingham, and at many other towns for which he
provided water supplies were also constructed by him. He designed
main-drainage systems for Birmingham, Worcester and Windsor among other
places, and in 1857 he was called in, together with G. P. Bidder and Sir
J. Bazalgette, to report on the best solution of the vexed question of a
main-drainage scheme for London. In 1872 he was president of the
Institution of Civil Engineers--an office in which his son Charles
followed him in 1901. He died in London on the 23rd of September 1893.



HAWKSMOOR, NICHOLAS (1661-1736), English architect, of Nottinghamshire
birth, became a pupil of Sir Christopher Wren at the age of eighteen,
and his name is intimately associated with those of Wren and Sir J.
Vanbrugh in the English architecture of his time. Through Wren's
influence he obtained various official posts, as deputy-surveyor at
Chelsea hospital, clerk of the works and deputy-surveyor at Greenwich
hospital, clerk of the works at Whitehall, St James's and Westminster,
and he succeeded Wren as surveyor-general of Westminster Abbey. He took
part in much of the work done by Wren and Vanbrugh, and it is difficult
often to assign among them the credit for the designs of various
features. Hawksmoor appears, however, to have been responsible for the
early Gothic designs of the two towers of All Souls' (Oxford) north
quadrangle, and the library and other features at Queen's College
(Oxford). At the close of Queen Anne's reign he had a principal part in
the scheme for building fifty new churches in London, and himself
designed five or six of them, including St Mary Woolnoth (1716-1719) and
St George's, Bloomsbury (1720-1730). A number of his drawings have been
preserved. He died in London on the 25th of March 1736.



HAWKWOOD, SIR JOHN (d. 1394), an English adventurer who attained great
wealth and renown as a condottiere in the Italian wars of the 14th
century. His name is variously spelt as Haccoude, Aucud, Aguto, &c., by
contemporaries. It is said that he was the son of a tanner of Hedingham
Sibil in Essex, and was apprenticed in London, whence he went, in the
English army, to France under Edward III. and the Black Prince. It is
said also that he obtained the favour of the Black Prince, and received
knighthood from King Edward III., but though it is certain that he was
of knightly rank, there is no evidence as to the time or place at which
he won it. On the peace of Bretigny in 1360, he collected a band of
men-at-arms, and moved southward to Italy, where we find the White
Company, as his men were called, assisting the marquis of Monferrato
against Milan in 1362-63, and the Pisans against Florence in 1364. After
several campaigns in various parts of central Italy, Hawkwood in 1368
entered the service of Bernabò Visconti. In 1369 he fought for Perugia
against the pope, and in 1370 for the Visconti against Pisa, Florence
and other enemies. In 1372 he defeated the marquis of Monferrato, but
soon afterwards, resenting the interference of a council of war with his
plans, Hawkwood resigned his command, and the White Company passed into
the papal service, in which he fought against the Visconti in 1373-1375.
In 1375 the Florentines entered into an agreement with him, by which
they were to pay him and his companion 130,000 gold florins in three
months on condition that he undertook no engagement against them; and in
the same year the priors of the arts and the gonfalonier decided to give
him a pension of 1200 florins per annum for as long as he should remain
in Italy. In 1377, under the orders of the cardinal Robert of Geneva,
legate of Bologna, he massacred the inhabitants of Cesena, but in May of
the same year, disliking the executioner's work put upon him by the
legate, he joined the anti-papal league, and married, at Milan, Donnina,
an illegitimate daughter of Bernabò Visconti. In 1378 and 1379 Hawkwood
was constantly in the field; he quarrelled with Bernabò in 1378, and
entered the service of Florence, receiving, as in 1375, 130,000 gold
florins. He rendered good service to the republic up to 1382, when for a
time he was one of the English ambassadors at the papal court. He
engaged in a brief campaign in Naples in 1383, fought for the marquis of
Padua against Verona in 1386, and in 1388 made an unsuccessful effort
against Gian Galeazzo Visconti, who had murdered Bernabò. In 1390 the
Florentines took up the war against Gian Galeazzo in earnest, and
appointed Hawkwood commander-in-chief. His campaign against the Milanese
army in the Veronese and the Bergamask was reckoned a triumph of
generalship, and in 1392 Florence exacted a satisfactory peace from Gian
Galeazzo. His latter years were spent in a villa in the neighbourhood of
Florence. On his death in 1394 the republic gave him a public funeral of
great magnificence, and decreed the erection of a marble monument in the
cathedral. This, however, was never executed; but Paolo Uccelli painted
his portrait in terre-verte on the inner façade of the building, where
it still remains, though damaged by removal from the plaster to canvas.
Richard II. of England, probably at the instigation of Hawkwood's sons,
who returned to their native country, requested the Florentines to let
him remove the good knight's bones, and the Florentine government
signified its consent.

Of his children by Donnina Visconti, who appears to have been his second
wife, the eldest daughter married Count Brezaglia of Porciglia, podestá
of Ferrara, who succeeded him as Florentine commander-in-chief, and
another a German condottiere named Conrad Prospergh. His son, John,
returned to England and settled at Hedingham Sibil, where, it is
supposed, Sir John Hawkwood was buried. The children of the first
marriage were two sons and three daughters, and of the latter the
youngest married John Shelley, an ancestor of the poet.

  AUTHORITIES.--Muratori, _Rerum Italicarum scriptores_, and supplement
  by Tartinius and Manni; _Archivio storico italiano_; Temple-Leader and
  Marcotti, _Giovanni Acuto_ (Florence, 1889; Eng. transl., Leader
  Scott, London, 1889); Nichol, _Bibliotheca topographica Britannica_,
  vol. vi.; J. G. Alger in _Register and Magazine of Biography_, v. 1.;
  and article in _Dict. Nat. Biog._



HAWLEY, HENRY (c. 1679-1759), British lieut.-general, entered the army,
it is said, in 1694. He saw service in the War of Spanish Succession as
a captain of Erle's (the 19th) foot. After Almanza he returned to
England, and a few years later had become lieut.-colonel of the 19th.
With this regiment he served at Sheriffmuir in 1715, where he was
wounded. After this for some years he served in the United Kingdom,
obtaining promotion in the usual course, and in 1739 he arrived at the
grade of major general. Four years later he accompanied George II. and
Stair to Germany, and, as a general officer of cavalry under Sir John
Cope, was present at Dettingen. Becoming lieut.-general somewhat later,
he was second-in-command of the cavalry at Fontenoy, and on the 20th of
December 1745 became commander-in-chief in Scotland. Less than a month
later Hawley suffered a severe defeat at Falkirk at the hands of the
Highland insurgents. This, however, did not cost him his command, for
the duke of Cumberland, who was soon afterwards sent north, was
captain-general. Under Cumberland's orders Hawley led the cavalry in the
campaign of Culloden, and at that battle his dragoons distinguished
themselves by their ruthless butchery of the fugitive rebels. After the
end of the "Forty-Five" he accompanied Cumberland to the Low Countries
and led the allied cavalry at Lauffeld (Val). He ended his career as
governor of Portsmouth and died at that place in 1759. James Wolfe, his
brigade-major, wrote of General Hawley in no flattering terms. "The
troops dread his severity, hate the man and hold his military knowledge
in contempt," he wrote. But, whether it be true or false that he was the
natural son of George II., Hawley was always treated with the greatest
favour by that king and by his son the duke of Cumberland.



HAWLEY, JOSEPH ROSWELL (1826-1905), American political leader, was born
on the 31st of October at Stewartsville, Richmond county, North
Carolina, where his father, a native of Connecticut, was pastor of a
Baptist church. The father returned to Connecticut in 1837 and the son
graduated at Hamilton College (Clinton, N.Y.) in 1847. He was admitted
to the bar in 1850, and practised at Hartford, Conn., for six years. An
ardent opponent of slavery, he became a Free Soiler, was a delegate to
the National Convention which nominated John P. Hale for the presidency
in 1852, and subsequently served as chairman of the State Committee,
having at the same time editorial control of the _Charter Oak_, the
party organ. In 1856 he took a leading part in organizing the Republican
party in Connecticut, and in 1857 became editor of the Hartford _Evening
Press_, a newly established Republican newspaper. He served in the
Federal army throughout the Civil War, rising from the rank of captain
(April 22, 1861) to that of brigadier-general of volunteers (Sept.
1864); took part in the Port Royal Expedition, in the capture of Fort
Pulaski (April 1862), in the siege of Charleston and the capture of Fort
Wagner (Sept. 1863), in the battle of Olustee (Feb. 20, 1864), in the
siege operations about Petersburg, and in General W. T. Sherman's
campaign in the Carolinas; and in September 1865 received the brevet of
major-general of volunteers. From April 1866 to April 1867 he was
governor of Connecticut, and in 1867 he bought the Hartford _Courant_,
with which he combined the _Press_, and which became under his
editorship the most influential newspaper in Connecticut and one of the
leading Republican papers in the country. He was the permanent chairman
of the Republican National Convention in 1868, was a delegate to the
conventions of 1872, 1876 and 1880, was a member of Congress from
December 1872 until March 1875 and again in 1879-1881, and was a United
States senator from 1881 until the 3rd of March 1905, being one of the
Republican leaders both in the House and the Senate. From 1873 to 1876
he was president of the United States Centennial Commission, the great
success of the Centennial Exhibition being largely due to him. He died
at Washington, D.C., on the 17th of March 1905.



HAWORTH, an urban district in the Keighley parliamentary division of the
West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 10 m. N.W. of Bradford, on a branch
of the Midland railway. Pop. (1901), 7492. It is picturesquely situated
on a steep slope, lying high, and surrounded by moorland. The Rev.
Patrick Brontë (d. 1861) was incumbent here for forty-one years, and a
memorial near the west window of St Michael's church bears his name and
the names of his gifted daughters upon it. The grave of Charlotte and
Emily Brontë is also marked by a brass. In 1895 a museum was opened by
the Brontë society. There is a large worsted industry.



HAWSER (in sense and form as if from "hawse," which, from the
16th-century form _halse_, is derived from Teutonic _hals_, neck, of
which there is a Scandinavian use in the sense of the forepart of a
ship; the two words are not etymologically connected; "hawser" is from
an O. Fr. _haucier_, _hausser_, to raise, tow, hoist, from the Late Lat.
_altiare_, to lift, _altus_, high), a small cable or thick rope used at
sea for the purposes of mooring or warping, in the case of large vessels
made of steel. When a cable or tow line is made of three or more small
ropes it is said to be "hawser-laid." The "hawse" of a ship is that part
of the bows where the "hawse-holes" are made. These are two holes cut in
the bows of a vessel for the cables to pass through, having small
cast-iron pipes, called "hawse-pipes," fitted into them to prevent
abrasion. In bad weather at sea these holes are plugged up with
"hawse-plugs" to prevent the water entering. The phrase to enter the
service by the "hawse-holes" is used of those who have risen from before
the mast to commissioned rank in the navy. When the ship is at anchor
the space between her head and the anchor is called "hawse," as in the
phrase "athwart the hawse." The term also applies to the position of the
ship's anchors when moored; when they are laid out in a line at right
angles to the wind it is said to be moored with an "open hawse"; when
both cables are laid out straight to their anchors without crossing, it
is a "clear hawse."



HAWTHORN, a city of Bourke county, Victoria, Australia, 4½ m. by rail E.
of and suburban to Melbourne. Pop. (1901), 21,339. It is the seat of the
important Methodist Ladies' College. The majority of the inhabitants are
professional and business men engaged in Melbourne and their residences
are numerous at Hawthorn.



HAWTHORN (O. Eng. _haga_-, _hæg_-, or _hege-thorn_, i.e. "hedge-thorn"),
the common name for _Crataegus_, in botany, a genus of shrubs or small
trees belonging to the natural order Rosaceae, native of the north
temperate regions, especially America. It is represented in the British
Isles by the hawthorn, white-thorn or may (Ger. _Hagedorn_ and
_Christdorn_; Fr. _aubépine_), C. _Oxyacantha_, a small, round-headed,
much-branched tree, 10 to 20 ft. high, the branches often ending in
single sharp spines. The leaves, which are deeply cut, are 1 to 2 in.
long and very variable in shape. The flowers are sweet-scented, in
flat-topped clusters, and ½ to ¾ in. in diameter, with five spreading
white petals alternating with five persistent green sepals, a large
number of stamens with pinkish-brown anthers, and one to three carpels
sunk in the cup-shaped floral axis. The fruit, or haw, as in the apple,
consists of the swollen floral axis, which is usually scarlet, and forms
a fleshy envelope surrounding the hard stone.

The common hawthorn is a native of Europe as far north as 60½° in
Sweden, and of North Africa, western Asia and Siberia, and has been
naturalized in North America and Australia. It thrives best in dry
soils, and in height varies from 4 or 5 to 12, 15 or, in exceptional
cases, as much as between 20 and 30 ft. It may be propagated from seed
or from cuttings. The seeds must be from ripe fruit, and if fresh
gathered should be freed from pulp by maceration in water. They
germinate only in the second year after sowing; in the course of their
first year the seedlings attain a height of 6 to 12 in. Hawthorn has
been for many centuries a favourite park and hedge plant in Europe, and
numerous varieties have been developed by cultivation; these differ in
the form of the leaf, the white, pink or red, single or double flowers,
and the yellow, orange or red fruit. In England the hawthorn, owing to
its hardiness and closeness of growth, has been employed for enclosure
of land since the Roman occupation, but for ordinary field hedges it is
believed it was generally in use till about the end of the 17th century.
James I. of Scotland, in his _Quair_, ii. 14 (early 15th century),
mentions the "hawthorn hedges knet" of Windsor Castle. The first
hawthorn hedges in Scotland are said to have been planted by soldiers of
Cromwell at Inch Buckling Brae in East Lothian and Finlarig in
Perthshire. Annual pruning, to which the hawthorn is particularly
amenable, is necessary if the hedge is to maintain its compactness and
sturdiness. When the lower part shows a tendency to go bare the strong
stems may be "plashed," i.e. split, bent over and pegged to the ground
so that new growths may start. The wood of the hawthorn is white in
colour, with a yellowish tinge. Fresh cut it weighs 68 lb. 12 oz. per
cubic foot, and dry 57 lb. 3 oz. It can seldom be obtained in large
portions, and has the disadvantage of being apt to warp; its great
hardness, however, renders it valuable for the manufacture of various
articles, such as the cogs of mill-wheels, flails and mallets, and
handles of hammers. Both green and dry it forms excellent fuel. The bark
possesses tanning properties, and in Scotland in past times yielded with
ferrous sulphate a black dye for wool. The leaves are eaten by cattle,
and have been employed as a substitute for tea. Birds and deer feed upon
the haws, which are used in the preparation of a fermented and highly
intoxicating liquor. The hawthorn serves as a stock for grafting other
trees. As an ornamental feature in landscapes, it is worthy of notice;
and the pleasing shelter it affords and the beauty of its blossoms have
frequently been alluded to by poets. The custom of employing the
flowering branches for decorative purposes on the 1st of May is of very
early origin; but since the alteration in the calendar the tree has
rarely been in full bloom in England before the second week of that
month. In the Scottish Highlands the flowers may be seen as late as the
middle of June. The hawthorn has been regarded as the emblem of hope,
and its branches are stated to have been carried by the ancient Greeks
in wedding processions, and to have been used by them to deck the altar
of Hymen. The supposition that the tree was the source of Christ's crown
of thorns gave rise doubtless to the tradition current among the French
peasantry that it utters groans and cries on Good Friday, and probably
also to the old popular superstition in Great Britain and Ireland that
ill-luck attended the uprooting of hawthorns. Branches of the
Glastonbury thorn, _C. Oxyacantha_, var. _praecox_, which flowers both
in December and in spring, were formerly highly valued in England, on
account of the legend that the tree was originally the staff of Joseph
of Arimathea.

The number of species in the genus is from fifty to seventy, according
to the view taken as to whether or not some of the forms, especially of
those occurring in the United States, represent distinct species. _C.
coccinea_, a native of Canada and the eastern United States, with bright
scarlet fruits, was introduced into English gardens towards the end of
the 17th century. _C. Crus-Galli_, with a somewhat similar distribution
and introduced about the same time, is a very decorative species with
showy, bright red fruit, often remaining on the branches till spring,
and leaves assuming a brilliant scarlet and orange in the autumn;
numerous varieties are in cultivation. _C. Pyracantha_, known in gardens
as pyracantha, is evergreen and has white flowers, appearing in May, and
fine scarlet fruits of the size of a pea which remain on the tree nearly
all the winter. It is a native of south Europe and was introduced into
Britain early in the 17th century.

HAWTHORNE, NATHANIEL (1804-1864), American writer, son of Nathaniel
Hathorne (1776-1808), was born at Salem, Massachusetts, on the 4th of
July 1804. The head of the American branch of the family, William
Hathorne of Wilton, Wiltshire, England, emigrated with Winthrop and his
company, and arrived at Salem Bay, Mass., on the 12th of June 1630. He
had grants of land at Dorchester, where he resided for upwards of six
years, when he was persuaded to remove to Salem by the tender of further
grants of land there, it being considered a public benefit that he
should become an inhabitant of that town. He represented his
fellow-townsmen in the legislature, and served them in a military
capacity as a captain in the first regular troop organized in Salem,
which he led to victory through an Indian campaign in Maine. Originally
a determined "Separatist," and opposed to compulsion for conscience, he
signalized himself when a magistrate by the active part which he took in
the Quaker persecutions of the time (1657-1662), going so far on one
occasion as to order the whipping of Anne Coleman and four other Friends
through Salem, Boston and Dedham. He died, an old man, in the odour of
sanctity, and left a good property to his son John, who inherited his
father's capacity and intolerance, and was in turn a legislator, a
magistrate, a soldier and a bitter persecutor of witches. Before the
death of Justice Hathorne in 1717, the destiny of the family suffered a
sea-change, and they began to be noted as mariners. One of these
seafaring Hathornes figured in the Revolution as a privateer, who had
the good fortune to escape from a British prison-ship; and another,
Captain Daniel Hathorne, has left his mark on early American
ballad-lore. He too was a privateer, commander of the brig "Fair
American," which, cruising off the coast of Portugal, fell in with a
British scow laden with troops for General Howe, which scow the bold
Hathorne and his valiant crew at once engaged and fought for over an
hour, until the vanquished enemy was glad to cut the Yankee grapplings
and quickly bear away. The last of the Hathornes with whom we are
concerned was a son of this sturdy old privateer, Nathaniel Hathorne. He
was born in 1776, and about the beginning of the 19th century married
Miss Elizabeth Clarke Manning, a daughter of Richard Manning of Salem,
whose ancestors emigrated to America about fifty years after the arrival
of William Hathorne. Young Nathaniel took his hereditary place before
the mast, passed from the forecastle to the cabin, made voyages to the
East and West Indies, Brazil and Africa, and finally died of fever at
Surinam, in the spring of 1808. He was the father of three children, the
second of whom was the subject of this article. The form of the family
name was changed by the latter to "Hawthorne" in his early manhood.

After the death of her husband Mrs Hawthorne removed to the house of her
father with her little family of children. Of the boyhood of Nathaniel
no particulars have reached us, except that he was fond of taking long
walks alone, and that he used to declare to his mother that he would go
to sea some time and would never return. Among the books that he is
known to have read as a child were Shakespeare, Milton, Pope and
Thomson, _The Castle of Indolence_ being an especial favourite. In the
autumn of 1818 bis mother removed to Raymond, a town in Cumberland
county, Maine, where his uncle, Richard Manning, had built a large and
ambitious dwelling. Here the lad resumed his solitary walks, exchanging
the narrow streets of Salem for the boundless, primeval wilderness, and
its sluggish harbour for the fresh bright waters of Sebago lake. He
roamed the woods by day, with his gun and rod, and in the moonlight
nights of winter skated upon the lake alone till midnight. When he found
himself away from home, and wearied with his exercise, he took refuge in
a log cabin where half a tree would be burning upon the hearth. He had
by this time acquired a taste for writing, that showed itself in a
little blank-book, in which he jotted down his woodland adventures and
feelings, and which was remarkable for minute observation and nice
perception of nature.

After a year's residence at Raymond, Nathaniel returned to Salem in
order to prepare for college. He amused himself by publishing a
manuscript periodical, which he called the _Spectator_, and which
displayed considerable vivacity and talent. He speculated upon the
profession that he would follow, with a sort of prophetic insight into
his future. "I do not want to be a doctor and live by men's diseases,"
he wrote to his mother, "nor a minister to live by their sins, nor a
lawyer and live by their quarrels. So I don't see that there is anything
left for me but to be an author. How would you like some day to see a
whole shelf full of books, written by your son, with 'Hawthorne's Works'
printed on their backs?"

Nathaniel entered Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine, in the autumn of
1821, where he became acquainted with two students who were destined to
distinction--Henry W. Longfellow and Franklin Pierce. He was an
excellent classical scholar, his Latin compositions, even in his
freshman year, being remarkable for their elegance, while his Greek
(which was less) was good. He made graceful translations from the Roman
poets, and wrote several English poems which were creditable to him.
After graduation three years later (1825) he returned to Salem, and to a
life of isolation. He devoted his mornings to study, his afternoons to
writing, and his evenings to long walks along the rocky coast. He was
scarcely known by sight to his townsmen, and he held so little
communication with the members of his own family that his meals were
frequently left at his locked door. He wrote largely, but destroyed
many of his manuscripts, his taste was so difficult to please. He
thought well enough, however, of one of his compositions to print it
anonymously in 1828. A crude melodramatic story, entitled _Fanshawe_, it
was unworthy even of his immature powers, and should never have been
rescued from the oblivion which speedily overtook it. The name of
Nathaniel Hawthorne finally became known to his countrymen as a writer
in _The Token_, a holiday annual which was commenced in 1828 by Mr S. G.
Goodrich (better known as "Peter Parley"), by whom it was conducted for
fourteen years. This forgotten publication numbered among its
contributors most of the prominent American writers of the time, none of
whom appear to have added to their reputation in its pages, except the
least popular of all--Hawthorne, who was for years the obscurest man of
letters in America, though he gradually made admirers in a quiet way.
His first public recognition came from England, where his genius was
discovered in 1835 by Henry F. Chorley, one of the editors of the
_Athenaeum_, in which he copied three of Hawthorne's most characteristic
papers from _The Token_. He had but little encouragement to continue in
literature, for Mr Goodrich was so much more a publisher than an author
that he paid him wretchedly for his contributions, and still more
wretchedly for his work upon an _American Magazine of Useful and
Entertaining Knowledge_, which he persuaded him to edit. This
author-publisher consented, however, at a later period (1837) to bring
out a collection of Hawthorne's writings under the title of _Twice-told
Tales_. A moderate edition was got rid of, but the great body of the
reading public ignored the book altogether. It was generously reviewed
in the _North American Review_ by his college friend Longfellow, who
said it came from the hand of a man of genius, and praised it for the
exceeding beauty of its style, which was as clear as running waters.

The want of pecuniary success which had so far attended his authorship
led Hawthorne to accept a situation which was tendered him by George
Bancroft, the historian, collector of the port of Boston under the
Democratic rule of President Van Buren. He was appointed a weigher in
the custom-house at a salary of about $1200 a year, and entered upon the
duties of his office, which consisted for the most part in measuring
coal, salt and other bulky commodities on foreign vessels. It was
irksome employment, but faithfully performed for two years, when he was
superseded through a change in the national administration. Master of
himself once more, he returned to Salem, where he remained until the
spring of 1841, when he wrote a collection of children's stories
entitled _Grandfather's Chair_, and joined an industrial association at
West Roxbury, Mass. Brook Farm, as it was called, was a social Utopia,
composed of a number of advanced thinkers, whose object was so to
distribute manual labour as to give its members time for intellectual
culture. The scheme worked admirably--on paper; but it was suited
neither to the temperament nor the taste of Hawthorne, and after trying
it patiently for nearly a year he returned to the everyday life of
mankind.

One of Hawthorne's earliest admirers was Miss Sophia Peabody, a lady of
Salem, whom he married in the summer of 1842. He made himself a new home
in an old manse, at Concord, Mass., situated on historic ground, in
sight of an old revolutionary battlefield, and devoted himself
diligently to literature. He was known to the few by his _Twice-told
Tales_, and to the many by his papers in the _Democratic Review_. He
published in 1842 a further portion of _Grandfather's Chair_, and also a
second volume of _Twice-told Tales_. He also edited, during 1845, the
_African Journals_ of Horatio Bridge, an officer of the navy, who had
been at college with him; and in the following year he published in two
volumes a collection of his later writings, under the title of _Mosses
from an Old Manse_.

After a residence of nearly four years at Concord, Hawthorne returned to
Salem, having been appointed surveyor of the custom-house of that port
by a new Democratic administration. He filled the duties of this
position until the incoming of the Whig administration again led to his
retirement. He seems to have written little during his official term,
but, as he had leisure enough and to spare, he read much, and pondered
over subjects for future stories. His next work, _The Scarlet Letter_,
which was begun after his removal from the custom-house, was published
in 1850. If there had been any doubt of his genius before, it was
settled for ever by this powerful romance.

Shortly after the publication of _The Scarlet Letter_ Hawthorne removed
from Salem to Lenox, Berkshire, Mass., where he wrote _The House of the
Seven Gables_ (1851) and _The Wonder-Book_ (1851). From Lenox he removed
to West Newton, near Boston, Mass., where he wrote _The Blithedale
Romance_ (1852) and _The Snow Image and other Twice-told Tales_ (1852).
In the spring of 1852 he removed back to Concord, where he purchased an
old house which he called The Wayside, and where he wrote a _Life of
Franklin Pierce_ (1852) and _Tanglewood Tales_ (1853). Mr Pierce was the
Democratic candidate for the presidency, and it was only at his urgent
solicitation that Hawthorne consented to become his biographer. He
declared that he would accept no office in case he were elected, lest it
might compromise him; but his friends gave him such weighty reasons for
reconsidering his decision that he accepted the consulate at Liverpool,
which was understood to be one of the best gifts at the disposal of the
president.

Hawthorne departed for Europe in the summer of 1853, and returned to the
United States in the summer of 1860. Of the seven years which he passed
in Europe five were spent in attending to the duties of his consulate at
Liverpool, and in little journeys to Scotland, the Lakes and elsewhere,
and the remaining two in France and Italy. They were quiet and
uneventful, coloured by observation and reflection, as his note-books
show, but productive of only one elaborate work, _Transformation, or The
Marble Faun_, which he sketched out during his residence in Italy, and
prepared for the press at Leamington, England, whence it was despatched
to America and published in 1860.

Hawthorne took up his abode at The Wayside, not much richer than when he
left it, and sat down at his desk once more with a heavy heart. He was
surrounded by the throes of a great civil war, and the political party
with which he had always acted was under a cloud. His friend
ex-President Pierce was stigmatized as a traitor, and when Hawthorne
dedicated his next book to him--a volume of English impressions entitled
_Our Old Home_ (1863)--it was at the risk of his own popularity. His pen
was soon to be laid aside for ever; for, with the exception of the
unfinished story of _Septimius Felton_, which was published after his
death by his daughter Una (1872), and the fragment of _The Dolliver
Romance_, the beginning of which was published in the _Atlantic Monthly_
in July 1864, he wrote no more. His health gradually declined, his hair
grew white as snow, and the once stalwart figure that in early manhood
flashed along the airy cliffs and glittering sands sauntered idly on the
little hill behind his house. In the beginning of April 1864 he made a
short southern tour with his publisher Mr William D. Ticknor, and was
benefited by the change of scene until he reached Philadelphia, where he
was shocked by the sudden death of Mr Ticknor. He returned to The
Wayside, and after a short season of rest joined his friend ex-President
Pierce. He died at Plymouth, New Hampshire, on the 19th of May 1864, and
five days later was buried at Sleepy Hollow, a beautiful cemetery at
Concord, where he used to walk under the pines when he was living at the
Old Manse, and where his ashes moulder under a simple stone, inscribed
with the single word "Hawthorne."

The writings of Hawthorne are marked by subtle imagination, curious
power of analysis and exquisite purity of diction. He studied
exceptional developments of character, and was fond of exploring secret
crypts of emotion. His shorter stories are remarkable for originality
and suggestiveness, and his larger ones are as absolute creations as
_Hamlet_ or _Undine_. Lacking the accomplishment of verse, he was in the
highest sense a poet. His work is pervaded by a manly personality, and
by an almost feminine delicacy and gentleness. He inherited the gravity
of his Puritan ancestors without their superstition, and learned in his
solitary meditations a knowledge of the night-side of life which would
have filled them with suspicion. A profound anatomist of the heart, he
was singularly free from morbidness, and in his darkest speculations
concerning evil was robustly right-minded. He worshipped conscience with
his intellectual as well as his moral nature; it is supreme in all he
wrote. Besides these mental traits, he possessed the literary quality of
style--a grace, a charm, a perfection of language which no other
American writer ever possessed in the same degree, and which places him
among the great masters of English prose.

  His _Complete Writings_ (22 vols., Boston, 1901) were edited, with
  introduction, including a bibliography, by H. S. Scudder. The standard
  authority for Hawthorne's biography is _Nathaniel Hawthorne and his
  Wife_ (2 vols., Boston, 1884), by his son Julian Hawthorne (b. 1846),
  himself a novelist and critic of distinction. See also Henry James,
  _Hawthorne_ (London, 1879), in the "English Men of Letters" series;
  Julian Hawthorne, _Hawthorne and his Circle_ (New York, 1903); a paper
  in R. H. Hutton's _Essays Theological and Literary_ (London, 1871);
  George B. Smith, _Poets and Novelists_ (London, 1875); Moncure D.
  Conway, _Life of Nathaniel Hawthorne_ (London, 1890, in the "Great
  Writers" series); Horatio Bridge, _Personal Recollections of Nathaniel
  Hawthorne_ (New York, 1893); Rose Hawthorne Lathrop, _Memories of
  Hawthorne_ (Boston, 1897); W. C. Lawton, _The New England Poets_ (New
  York, 1898); Sir L. Stephen, _Hours in a Library_ (1874); Annie
  Fields, _Nathaniel Hawthorne_ (Boston, 1899); G. E. Woodberry, _Life
  of Hawthorne_ (1902); and bibliography by N. E. Browne (1905).
       (R. H. S.)



HAWTREY, CHARLES HENRY (1858-   ), English actor, was born at Eton, where
his father was master of the lower school, and educated at Rugby and
Oxford. He took to the stage in 1881, and in 1883 adapted von Moser's
_Bibliothekar_ as _The Private Secretary_, which had an enormous
success. He then appeared in London in a number of modern plays, in
which he was conspicuous as a comedian. He was unapproachable for parts
in which cool imperturbable lying constituted the leading
characteristic. Among his later successes _A Message from Mars_ was
particularly popular in London and in America.



HAWTREY, EDWARD CRAVEN (1789-1862), English educationalist, was born at
Burnham on the 7th of May 1789, the son of the vicar of the parish. He
was educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge, and in 1814 was
appointed assistant master at Eton under Dr Keate. In 1834 he became
headmaster of the college, and his administration was a vigorous one.
New buildings were erected, including the school library and the
sanatorium, the college chapel was restored, the Old Christopher Inn was
closed, and the custom of "Montem," the collection by street begging of
funds for the university expenses of the captain of the school, was
suppressed. He is supposed to have suggested the prince consort's modern
language prizes, while the prize for English essay he founded himself.
In 1852 he became provost of Eton, and in 1854 vicar of Mapledurham. He
died on the 27th of January 1862, and was buried in the Eton College
chapel. On account of his command of languages ancient and modern, he
was known in London as "the English Mezzofanti," and he was a book
collector of the finest taste. Among his own books are some excellent
translations from the English into Italian, German and Greek. He had a
considerable reputation as a writer of English hexameters and as a judge
of Homeric translation.



HAXO, FRANÇOIS NICOLAS BENOÎT, Baron (1774-1838), French general and
military engineer, was born at Lunéville on the 24th of June 1774, and
entered the Engineers in 1793. He remained unknown, doing duty as a
regimental officer for many years, until, as major, he had his first
chance of distinction in the second siege of Saragossa in 1809, after
which Napoleon made him a colonel. Haxo took part in the campaign of
Wagram, and then returned to the Peninsula to direct the siege
operations of Suchet's army in Catalonia and Valencia. In 1810 he was
made general of brigade, in 1811 a baron, and in the same year he was
employed in preparing the occupied fortresses of Germany against a
possible Russian invasion. In 1812 he was chief engineer of Davout's I.
corps, and after the retreat from Moscow he was made general of
division. In 1813 he constructed the works around Hamburg which made
possible the famous defence of that fortress by Davout, and commanded
the Guard Engineers until he fell into the enemy's hands at Kulm. After
the Restoration Louis XVIII. wished to give Haxo a command in the Royal
Guards, but the general remained faithful to Napoleon, and in the
Hundred Days laid out the provisional fortifications of Paris and fought
at Waterloo. It was, however, after the second Restoration that the best
work of his career as a military engineer was done. As inspector-general
he managed, though not without meeting considerable opposition, to
reconstruct in accordance with the requirements of the time, and the
designs which he had evolved to meet them, the old Vauban and
Cormontaigne fortresses which had failed to check the invasions of 1814
and 1815. For his services he was made a peer of France by Louis
Philippe (1832). Soon after this came the French intervention in Belgium
and the famous scientific siege of Antwerp citadel. Under Marshal Gérard
Haxo directed the besiegers and completely outmatched the opposing
engineers, the fortress being reduced to surrender after a siege of a
little more than three weeks (December 23, 1832). He was after this
regarded as the first engineer in Europe, and his latter years were
spent in urging upon the government and the French people the
fortification of Paris and Lyons, a project which was partly realized in
his time and after his death fully carried out. General Haxo died at
Paris on the 25th of June 1838. He wrote _Mémoire sur le figuré du
terrain dans les cartes topographiques_ (Paris, N.D.), and a memoir of
General Dejean (1824).



HAXTHAUSEN, AUGUST FRANZ LUDWIG MARIA, FREIHERR VON (1792-1866), German
political economist, was born near Paderborn in Westphalia on the 3rd of
February 1792. Having studied at the school of mining at Klausthal, and
having served in the Hanoverian army, he entered the university of
Göttingen in 1815. Finishing his course there in 1818 he was engaged in
managing his estates and in studying the land laws. The result of his
studies appeared in 1829 when he published _Über die Agrarverfassung in
den Fürstentümern Paderborn und Corvey_, a work which attracted much
attention and which procured for its author a commission to investigate
and report upon the land laws of the Prussian provinces with a view to a
new code. After nine years of labour he published in 1839 an exhaustive
treatise, _Die ländliche Verfassung in der Provinz Preussen_, and in
1843, at the request of the emperor Nicholas, he undertook a similar
work for Russia, the fruits of his investigations in that country being
contained in his _Studien über die innern Zustände des Volkslebens, und
insbesondere die ländlichen Einrichtungen Russlands_ (Hanover,
1847-1852). He received various honours, was a member of the combined
diet in Berlin in 1847 and 1848, and afterwards of the Prussian upper
house. Haxthausen died at Hanover on the 31st of December 1866.

  In addition to the works already mentioned he wrote _Die ländliche
  Verfassung Russlands_ (Leipzig, 1866). His _Studien_ has been
  translated into French and into English by R. Farie as _The Russian
  Empire_ (1856). Other works of his which have appeared in English are:
  _Transcaucasia; Sketches of the Nations and Races between the Black
  Sea and the Caspian_ (1854), and _The Tribes of the Caucasus_ (1855).
  Haxthausen edited _Das konstitutionelle Prinzip_ (Leipzig, 1864), a
  collection of political writings by various authors, which has been
  translated into French (1865).



HAY, GEORGE (1729-1811), Scottish Roman Catholic divine, was born at
Edinburgh on the 24th of August 1729. He was accused of sympathizing
with the rebellion of 1745 and served a term of imprisonment 1746-1747.
He then entered the Roman Catholic Church, studied in the Scots College
at Rome, and in 1759 accompanied John Geddes (1735-1799), afterwards
bishop of Morocco, on a Scottish mission. Ten years later he was
appointed bishop of Daulis _in partibus_ and coadjutor to Bishop James
Grant (1706-1778). In 1778 he became vicar apostolic of the lowland
district. During the Protestant riots in Edinburgh in 1779 his furniture
and library were destroyed by fire. From 1788 to 1793 he was in charge
of the Scalan seminary; in 1802 he retired to that of Aquhorties near
Inverury which he had founded in 1799. He died there on the 15th of
October 1811.

  His theological works, including _The Sincere Christian, The Devout
  Christian, The Pious Christian_ and _The Scripture Doctrine of
  Miracles_, were edited by Bishop Strain in 1871-1873.



HAY, GILBERT, or "SIR GILBERT THE HAYE" (fl. 1450), Scottish poet and
translator, was perhaps a kinsman of the house of Errol. If he be the
student named in the registers of the university of St Andrews in
1418-1419, his birth may be fixed about 1403. He was in France in 1432,
perhaps some years earlier, for a "Gilbert de la Haye" is mentioned as
present at Reims, in July 1430, at the coronation of Charles VII. He has
left it on record, in the Prologue to his _Buke of the Law of Armys_,
that he was "chaumerlayn umquhyle to the maist worthy King Charles of
France." In 1456 he was back in Scotland, in the service of the
chancellor, William, earl of Orkney and Caithness, "in his castell of
Rosselyn," south of Edinburgh. The date of his death is unknown.

Hay is named by Dunbar (q.v.) in his _Lament for the Makaris_, and by
Sir David Lyndsay (q.v.) in his _Testament and Complaynt of the
Papyngo_. His only political work is _The Buik of Alexander the
Conquerour_, of which a portion, in copy, remains at Taymouth Castle. He
has left three translations, extant in one volume (in old binding) in
the collection of Abbotsford: (_a_) _The Buke of the Law of Armys_ or
_The Buke of Bataillis_, a translation of Honoré Bonet's _Arbre des
batailles_; (_b_) _The Buke of the Order of Knichthood_ from the _Livre
de l'ordre de chevalerie_; and (_c_) _The Buke of the Governaunce of
Princes_, from a French version of the pseudo-Aristotelian _Secreta
secretorum_. The second of these precedes Caxton's independent
translation by at least ten years.

  For the _Buik of Alexander_ see Albert Herrmann's _The Taymouth Castle
  MS. of Sir Gilbert Hay's Buik, &c._ (Berlin, 1898). The complete
  Abbotsford MS. has been reprinted by the Scottish Text Society (ed. J.
  H. Stevenson). The first volume, containing _The Buke of the Law of
  Armys_, appeared in 1901. _The Order of Knichthood_ was printed by
  David Laing for the Abbotsford Club (1847). See also S.T.S. edition
  (u.s.) "Introduction" and Gregory Smith's _Specimens of Middle Scots_,
  in which annotated extracts are given from the Abbotsford MS., the
  oldest known example of literary Scots prose.



HAY, JOHN (1838-1905), American statesman and author, was born at Salem,
Indiana, on the 8th of October 1838. He graduated from Brown University
in 1858, studied law in the office of Abraham Lincoln, was admitted to
the bar in Springfield, Illinois, in 1861, and soon afterwards was
selected by President Lincoln as assistant private secretary, in which
capacity he served till the president's death, being associated with
John George Nicolay (1832-1901). Hay was secretary of the U.S. legation
at Paris in 1865-1867, at Vienna in 1867-1869 and at Madrid in
1869-1870. After his return he was for five years an editorial writer on
the New York _Tribune_; in 1879-1881 he was first assistant secretary of
state to W. M. Evarts; and in 1881 was a delegate to the International
Sanitary Conference, which met in Washington, D.C., and of which he was
chosen president. Upon the inauguration of President McKinley in 1897
Hay was appointed ambassador to Great Britain, from which post he was
transferred in 1898 to that of secretary of state, succeeding W. R. Day,
who was sent to Paris as a member of the Peace Conference. He remained
in this office until his death at Newburg, New Hampshire, on the 1st of
July 1905. He directed the peace negotiations with Spain after the war
of 1898, and not only secured American interests in the imbroglio caused
by the Boxers in China, but grasped the opportunity to insist on "the
administrative entity" of China; influenced the powers to declare
publicly for the "open door" in China; challenged Russia as to her
intentions in Manchuria, securing a promise to evacuate the country on
the 8th of October 1903; and in 1904 again urged "the administrative
entity" of China and took the initiative in inducing Russia and Japan to
"localize and limit" the area of hostilities. It was largely due to his
tact and good management, in concert with Lord Pauncefote, the British
ambassador, that negotiations for abrogating the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
and for making a new treaty with Great Britain regarding the Isthmian
Canal were successfully concluded at the end of 1901; subsequently he
negotiated treaties with Colombia and with Panama, looking towards the
construction by the United States of a trans-isthmian canal. He also
arranged the settlement of difficulties with Germany over Samoa in
December 1899, and the settlement, by joint commission, of the question
concerning the disputed Alaskan boundary in 1903. John Hay was a man of
quiet and unassuming disposition, whose training in diplomacy gave a
cool and judicious character to his statesmanship. As secretary of state
under Presidents McKinley and Roosevelt his guidance was invaluable
during a rather critical period in foreign affairs, and no man of his
time did more to create confidence in the increased interest taken by
the United States in international matters. He also represented, in
another capacity, the best American traditions--namely in literature. He
published _Pike County Ballads_ (1871)--the most famous being "Little
Breeches"--a volume worthy to rank with Bret Harte, if not with the
Lowell of the _Biglow Papers; Castilian Days_ (1871), recording his
observations in Spain; and a volume of _Poems_ (1890); with John G.
Nicolay he wrote _Abraham Lincoln: A History_ (10 vols., 1890), a
monumental work indispensable to the student of the Civil War period in
America, and published an edition of Lincoln's _Complete Works_ (2
vols., 1894). The authorship of the brilliant novel _The Breadwinners_
(1883) is now certainly attributed to him. Hay was an excellent public
speaker: some of his best addresses are _In Praise of Omar; On the
Unveiling of the Bust of Sir Walter Scott in Westminster Abbey_, May 21,
1897; and a memorial address in honour of President McKinley.

  The best of his previously unpublished speeches appeared in _Addresses
  of John Hay_ (1906).



HAY, a town of Waradgery county, New South Wales, Australia, on the
Murrumbidgee river, 454 m. by rail W.S.W. of Sydney. Pop. (1901), 3012.
It is the cathedral town of the Anglican diocese of Riverina, the
terminus of the South Western railway, and the principal depot for the
wool produced at the numerous stations on the banks of the Murrumbidgee
and Lachlan rivers.



HAY, a market town and urban district of Breconshire, south Wales, on
the Hereford and Brecon section of the Midland railway, 164½ m. from
London, 20 m. W. of Hereford and 17 m. N.E. of Brecon by rail. Pop.
(1901), 1680. The Golden Valley railway to Pontrilas (18¾ m.), now a
branch of the Great Western, also starts from Hay. The town occupies
rising ground on the south (right) bank of the Wye, which here separates
the counties of Brecknock and Radnor but immediately below enters
Herefordshire, from which the town is separated on the E. by the river
Dulas.

Leland and Camden ascribe a Roman origin to the town, and the former
states that quantities of Roman coin (called by the country people
"Jews' money") and some pottery had been found near by, but of this no
other record is known. The Wye valley in this district served as the
gate between the present counties of Brecknock and Hereford, and, though
Welsh continued for two or three centuries after the Norman Conquest to
be the spoken language of the adjoining part of Herefordshire south of
the Wye (known as Archenfield), there must have been a "burh" serving as
a Mercian outpost at Glasbury, 4 m. W. of Hay, which was itself several
miles west of Offa's Dyke. But the earliest settlement at Hay probably
dates from the Norman conquest of the district by Bernard Newmarch about
1088 (in which year he granted Glasbury, probably as the first fruits of
his invasion, to St Peter's, Gloucester). The manor of Hay, which
probably corresponded to some existing Welsh division, he gave to Sir
Philip Walwyn, but it soon reverted to the donor, and its subsequent
devolution down to its forfeiture to the crown as part of the duke of
Buckingham's estate in 1521, was identical with that of the lordship of
Brecknock (see BRECONSHIRE). The castle, which was probably built in
Newmarch's time and rebuilt by his great-grandson William de Breos,
passed on the latter's attainder to the crown, but was again seized by
de Breos's second son, Giles, bishop of Hereford, in 1215, and retaken
by King John in the following year. In 1231 it was burnt by Llewelyn ab
Iorwerth, and in the Barons' War it was taken in 1263 by Prince Edward,
but in the following year was burnt by Simon Montfort and the last
Llewelyn. From the 16th century the castle has been used as a private
residence.

The Welsh name of the town is Y Gelli ("the wood"), or formerly in full
(Y) Gelli ganddryll (literally "the wood all to pieces"), which roughly
corresponds to _Sepes Inscissa_, by which name Walter Map (a native of
the district) designates it. Its Norman name, La Haia (from the Fr.
_haie_, cf. English "hedge"), was probably intended as a translation of
Gelli. The same word is found in Urishay and Oldhay, both between Hay
and the Golden Valley. The town is still locally called _the_ Hay, as it
also is by Leland.

Even down to Leland's time Hay was surrounded by a "right strong wall,"
which had three gates and a postern, but the town within the wall has
"wonderfully decayed," its ruin being ascribed to Owen Glendower, while
to the west of it was a flourishing suburb with the church of St Mary on
a precipitous eminence overlooking the river. This was rebuilt in 1834.
The old parish church of St John within the walls, used as a
school-house in the 17th century, has entirely disappeared. The
Baptists, Calvinistic Methodists, Congregationalists and Primitive
Methodists have a chapel each. The other public buildings are the market
house (1833); a masonic hall, formerly the town hall, its basement still
serving as a cheese market; a clock tower (1884); parish hall (1890);
and a drill hall. The Wye is here crossed by an iron bridge built in
1864. There are also eighteen almshouses for poor women, built and
endowed by Miss Frances Harley in 1832-1836, and Gwyn's almshouses for
six aged persons, founded in 1702 and rebuilt in 1878.

Scarcely anything but provisions are sold in the weekly market, the
farmers of the district now resorting to the markets of Brecon and
Hereford. There are good monthly stock fairs and a hiring fair in May.
There is rich agricultural land in the district.

Hay was reputed to be a borough by prescription, but it never had any
municipal institutions. Its manor, like that of Talgarth, consisted of
an Englishry and a Welshery, the latter, known as Haya Wallensis,
comprising the parish of Llanigon with the hamlet of Glynfach, and in
this Welsh tenures and customs prevailed. The manor is specially
mentioned in the act of Henry VIII. (1535) as one of those which were
then taken to constitute the new county of Brecknock.     (D. Ll. T.)



HAY (a word common in various forms to Teutonic languages; cf. Ger.
_Heu_, Dutch _hooi;_ the root from which it is derived, meaning "to
cut," is also seen in "to hew"; cf. "hoe"), grass mown and dried in the
sun and used as fodder for cattle. It is properly applied only to the
grass when cut, but is often also used of the standing crop. (See
_Haymaking_ below). Another word "hay," meaning a fence, must be
distinguished; the root from which it is derived is seen in its doublet
"hedge," cf. "haw-thorn," i.e. "hedge thorn." In this sense it survives
in legal history in "hay bote," _i.e._ hedge-bote, the right of a
tenant, copyholder, &c. to take wood to repair fences, hedges, &c. (see
ESTOVERS), and also in "hayward," an official of a manor whose duty was
to protect the enclosed lands from cattle breaking out of the common
land.

_Haymaking._--The term "haymaking" signifies the process of drying and
curing grass or other herbage so as to fit it for storage in stacks or
sheds for future use. As a regular part of farm work it was unknown in
ancient times. Before its introduction into Great Britain the animals
intended for beef and mutton were slaughtered in autumn and salted down;
the others were turned out to fend for themselves, and often lost all
the fat in winter they had gained the previous summer. The introduction
of haymaking gave unlimited scope for the production of winter food, and
improved treatment of live stock became possible.

Though every country has its own methods of haymaking, the principal
stages in the process everywhere are: (1) mowing, (2) drying or
"making," (3) "carrying" and storage in stacks or sheds.

In a wet district such as the west of Ireland the "making" is a
difficult affair and large quantities of hay are often spoiled, while
much labour has to be spent in cocking up, turning over, ricking, &c.,
before it is fit to be stacked up. On the other hand, in the dry
districts of south-eastern England it is often possible to cut and carry
the hay without any special "making," as the sun and wind will dry it
quickly enough to fit it for stacking up without the expenditure of much
labour. This rule also applies to dry countries like the United States
and several of the British colonies, and it is for this reason that most
of the modern implements used for quickly handling a bulk of hay have
been invented or improved in those countries. Forage of all kinds
intended for hay should be cut at or before the flowering stage if
possible. The full growth and food value of the plant are reached then,
and further change consists in the formation and ripening of the seed at
the expense of the leaves and stems, leaving these hard and woody and of
less feeding value.

Grass or other forage, when growing, contains a large proportion of
water, and after cutting must be left to dry in the sun and wind, a
process which may at times be assisted by turning over or shaking up. In
fine weather in the south of England grass is sufficiently dried in from
two to four days to be stacked straight away. In Scotland or other
districts where the rainfall is heavy and the air moist, it is first put
into small field-ricks or "pykes" of from 10 to 20 cwt. each. In the
drying process the 75% of water usually present in grass should be
reduced to approximately 15% in the hay, and in wet or broken weather it
is exceedingly difficult to secure this reduction. With a heavy crop or
in damp weather grass may need turning in the swathe, raking up into
"windrows," and then making up into cocks or "quiles," i.e. round
beehive-like heaps, before it can be "carried." A properly made cock
will stand bad weather for a week, as only the outside straws are
weathered, and therefore the hay is kept fresh and green. Indeed, it is
a good rule always to cock hay, for even in sunny weather undue exposure
ends in bleaching, which is almost as detrimental to its quality as
wet-weathering.

In the last quarter of the 19th century the methods of haymaking were
completely changed, and even some of the principles underlying its
practice were revised. Generally speaking, before that time the only
implements used were the scythe, the rake and the pitchfork;
nowadays--with the exception of the pitchfork--these implements are
seldom used, except where the work is carried on in a small way. Instead
of the scythe, for instance, the mowing machine is employed for cutting
the crop, and with a modern improved machine taking a swathe as wide as
5 or 6 ft. some 10 acres per day can easily be mown by one man and a
pair of horses (figs. 1 and 2).

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Mower (viewed from above) with enlarged detail
of Blade. (Harrison, M'Gregor & Co.)]

  It will be seen from the figures that a mower consists of three
  principal parts: (1) a truck or carriage on two high wheels carrying
  the driving gear; (2) the cutting mechanism, comprising a
  reciprocating knife or sickle operating through slots in the guards or
  "fingers" fastened to the cutting bar which projects to either the
  right or left of the truck; and (3) the pole with whipple-trees, by
  which the horses are attached to give the motive power. The
  reciprocating knife has a separate blade to correspond to each finger,
  and is driven by a connecting rod and crank on the fore part of the
  truck. In work the pointed "fingers" pass in between the stalks of
  grass and the knives shear them off, acting against the fingers as the
  crank drives them backwards and forwards. In the swathe of grass left
  behind by the machine, the stalks are, in a manner, thatched over one
  another, so that it is in the best position for drying in the sun, or,
  per contra, for shedding off the rain if the weather is wet. This is a
  great point in favour of the use of the machine, because the swathe
  left by the scythe required to be "tedded" out, i.e. the grass had
  to be shaken out or spread to allow it to be more easily dried.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Mower (side view).]

After the grass has lain in the swathe a day or two till it is partly
dried, it is necessary to turn it over to dry the other side. This used
to be done with the hand rake, and a band of men or women would advance
in _échelon_ across a field, each turning the swathe of hay by regular
strokes of the rake at each step: "driving the dusky wave along the
mead" as described in Thomson's _Seasons._ This part of the work was the
act of "haymaking" proper, and the subject of much sentiment in both
prose and poetry. The swathes as laid by the mowing machine lent
themselves to this treatment in the old days when the swathe was only
some 3 to 4 ft. wide, but with the wide cut of the present day it
becomes impracticable. If the hay is turned and "made" at all, the
operation is now generally performed by a machine made for the purpose.
There is a wide selection of "tedders" or "kickers," and
"swathe-turners" on the market. The one illustrated in fig. 3 is the
first prize winner at the Royal Agricultural Society's trials (1907). It
takes two swathes at a time, and it will be seen that the working part
consists of a wheel or circle of prongs or tines, which revolves
_across_ the line of the swathe. Each prong in turn catches the edge of
the swathe of grass and kicks it up and over, thus turning it and
leaving it loose for the wind to blow through.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Swathe-turner. (Blackstone & Co., Ltd.).]

The "kicker" is mounted on two wheels, and carries in bearings at the
rear of the frame a multiple-cranked shaft, provided with a series of
forks sleeved on the cranks and having their upper ends connected by
links to the frame. As the crankshaft is driven from the wheels by
proper gearing the forks move upward and forward, then downward and
rearward, in an elliptical path, and kick the hay sharply to the rear,
thus scattering and turning it.

It is a moot point, however, whether grass should be turned at all, or
left to "make" as it falls from the mowing machine. In a dry sunny
season and with a moderate crop it is only a waste of time and labour to
turn it, for it will be cured quite well as it lies, especially if raked
up into loose "windrows" a little before carrying to the stack. On the
other hand, where the crop is heavy (say over 2 tons per acre) or the
climate is wet, turning will be necessary.

With heavy crops of clover, lucerne and similar forage crops, turning
may be an absolute necessity, because a thick swathe of a succulent crop
will be difficult to dry or "make" excepting in hot sunny weather, but
with ordinary meadow grass or with a mixture of "artificial" grasses it
may often be dispensed with. It must be remembered, however, that the
process of turning breaks the stalks (thus letting out the albuminoid
and saccharine juices), and should be avoided as far as possible in
order to save both labour and the quality of the hay.

  One of the earlier mechanical inventions in connexion with haymaking
  was that of the horse rake (fig. 4). Before its introduction the hay,
  after making, had to be gathered up by the hand rake--a tedious and
  laborious process--but the introduction of this implement, whereby one
  horse and one man can do work before requiring six or eight men,
  marked a great advance. The horse rake is a framework on two wheels
  carrying hinged steel teeth placed 3 in. apart, so that their points
  slide along the ground below the hay. In work it gathers up the loose
  hay, and when full a tipping mechanism permits the emptying of the
  load.

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.--Self-acting Horse Rake. (Ransomes, Sims &
  Jefferies, Ltd.).]

  The tipping is effected by pulling down a handle which sets a leverage
  device in motion, whereby the teeth are lifted up and the load of hay
  dropped below and left behind. On some rakes a clutch is worked by the
  driver's foot, and this put in action causes the ordinary forward
  revolving motion of the driving wheels to do the tipping.

  The loads are tipped end to end as the rake passes and repasses at the
  work, and thus the hay is left loose in long parallel rows on the
  field. Each row is termed a "windrow," the passage of the wind through
  the hay greatly aiding the drying and "making" thereof. When hay is in
  this form it may either be carried direct to the stack if sufficiently
  "made," or else put into cocks to season a little longer. The original
  width of horse rakes was about 8 ft., but nowadays they range up to 16
  and 18 ft. The width should be suited to that of the swathes as left
  by the mower, and as the latter is now made to cut 5 and 6 ft. wide,
  it is necessary to have a rake to cover two widths. The very wide
  rakes are only suitable for even, level land; those of less width must
  be used where the land has been laid down in ridge and furrow. As the
  swathes lie in long parallel rows, it is a great convenience in
  working for two to be taken in width at a time, so that the horse can
  walk in the space between.

  The side-delivery rake, a development of the ordinary horse rake, is a
  useful implement, adapted for gathering and laying a quantity of hay
  in one continuous windrow. It is customary with this to go up the
  field throwing two swathes to one side, and then back down on the
  adjacent swathes, so that thus four are thrown into one central
  windrow. The implement consists of a frame carried on two wheels with
  shafts for a horse; across the frame are fixed travelling or revolving
  prongs of different varieties which pick up the hay off the ground and
  pass it along sideways across the line of travel, leaving it in one
  continuous line. Some makes of swathe-turners are designed to do this
  work as well as the turning of the hay.

  [Illustration: FIG. 5.--Sweep Rake.]

  Perhaps the greatest improvement of modern times is the method of
  carrying the hay from the field to the stack. An American invention
  known as the sweep rake was introduced by the writer into England in
  1894, and now in many modified forms is in very general use in the
  Midlands and south of England, where the hay is carried from the cock,
  windrow or swathe straight to the stack. This implement consists of a
  wheeled framework fitted with long wooden iron-pointed teeth which
  slide along the ground; two horses are yoked to it--one at each
  side--the driver directing from a central seat behind the framework.
  When in use it is taken to the farther end of a row of cocks, a
  windrow, or even to a row of untouched swathes on the ground, and
  walked forward. As it advances it scoops up a load, and when full is
  drawn to where the stack is being erected (fig. 5). In ordinary
  circumstances the sweep rake will pick up at a load two-thirds of an
  ordinary cart-load, but, where the hay is in good order and it is
  swept down hill, a whole one-horse cart-load can be carried each time.
  The drier the hay the better will the sweep rake work, and if it is
  not working sweetly but has a tendency to clog or make rolls of hay,
  it may be inferred that the latter is not in a condition fit for
  stacking. Where the loads must be taken through a gateway or a long
  distance to the stack, it is necessary to use carts or wagons, and the
  loading of these in the field out of the windrow is largely expedited
  by the use of the "loader," also an American invention of which many
  varieties are in the market. Generally speaking, it consists of a
  frame carrying a revolving web with tines or prongs. The implement is
  hitched on behind a cart or wagon, and as it moves forward the web
  picks the loose hay off the ground and delivers it on the top, where a
  man levels it with a pitchfork and builds it into a load ready to move
  to the stack. At the stack the most convenient method of transferring
  the hay from a cart, wagon or sweep rake is the elevator, a tall
  structure with a revolving web carrying teeth or spikes (fig. 6). The
  hay is thrown in forkfuls on at the bottom, a pony-gear causes the web
  to revolve, and the hay is carried in an almost continuous stream up
  the elevator and dropped over the top on to the stack. The whole
  implement is made to fold down, and is provided with wheels so that it
  can be moved from stack to stack. In the older forms there is a
  "hopper" or box at the bottom into which the hay is thrown to enable
  the teeth of the web to catch it, but in the modern forms there is no
  hopper, the web reaching down to the ground so that hay can be picked
  up from the ground level. Where the hay is brought to the stack on
  carts or wagons it can be unloaded by means of the horse fork. This is
  an adaptation of the principle of the ordinary crane; a central pole
  and jib are supported by guy ropes, and from the end of the jib a rope
  runs over a pulley. At the end of this rope is a "fork" formed of two
  sets of prongs which open and shut. This is lowered on to the load of
  hay, the prongs are forced into it, a horse pulls at the other end of
  the rope, and the prongs close and "grab" several cwt. of hay which
  are swung up and dropped on the stack. In this way a large cart or
  wagon load is hoisted on to the stack in three or four "forkfuls." The
  horse fork is not suited for use with the sweep rake, however, because
  the hay is brought up to the stack in a loose flat heap without
  sufficient body for the fork to get hold of.

In northern and wet districts of England it is customary to "make" the
hay as in the south, but it is then built up into little stacks in the
field where it grew (ricks, pykes or tramp-cocks are names used for
these in different districts), each containing about 10 to 15 cwt. These
are made in the same way as the ordinary stack--one person on top
building, another on the ground pitching up the hay--and are carefully
roped and raked down. In these the hay gets a preliminary sweating or
tempering while at the same time it is rendered safe from the weather,
and, thus stored, it may remain for weeks before being carried to the
big stacks at the homestead. The practice of putting up the hay into
little ricks in the field has brought about the introduction of another
set of implements for carrying these to the stackyard.

  Various forms of rick-lifters are in use, the characteristic feature
  of which is a tipping platform on wheels to which a horse is attached
  between shafts. The vehicle is backed against a rick, and a chain
  passed round the bottom of the latter, which is then pulled up the
  slant of the tipped platform by means of a small windlass. When the
  centre of the balance is passed, the platform carrying the rick tips
  back to the level, and the whole is thus loaded ready to move. Another
  variety of loader is formed of three shear-legs with block and tackle.
  These are placed over a rick, under which the grab-irons are passed,
  and the whole hauled up by a horse. When high enough a cart is backed
  in below, the rick lowered, and the load is ready to carry away.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Hay Elevator. (Maldon Iron Works Co.).]

When put into a stack the next stage in curing the hay begins--the
heating or sweating. In the growing plants the tissues are composed of
living cells containing protoplasm. This continues its life action as
long as it gets sufficient moisture and air. As life action involves the
development of heat, the temperature in a confined space like a stack
where the heat is not dissipated may rise to such a point that
spontaneous combustion occurs. The chemical or physical reasons for this
are not very well understood. The starch and sugar contents of the
tissues are changed in part into alcohol. In the analogous process of
making silage (i.e. stacking wet green grass in a closed building) the
alcohol develops into acetic acid, thus making "sour" silage. In a
haystack the intermediate bod