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Title: Photographic Amusements, Ninth Edition - Including A Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera
Author: Fraprie, Frank R., Woodbury, Walter E.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS

Including A Description of a Number of
Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera

by

WALTER E. WOODBURY

Formerly Editor of "The Photographic Times," Author of "The
Encyclopedic Dictionary of Photography," "Aristotypes and How to
Make Them," etc., etc.

Revised and Enlarged by

FRANK R. FRAPRIE, S. M., F. R. P. S.

Editor of "American Photography"

NINTH EDITION



American Photographic Publishing Co.
Boston 17, Mass.
1922

Copyright 1896
By the Scovill & Adams Co., of New York.

Copyright 1905, 1909, 1914
By the Photographic Times Publishing Association, New York.

Copyright 1922
By American Photographic Publishing Co.

Printed in the U. S. A.

The Plimpton Press · Norwood · Mass ·



CONTENTS.


    INTRODUCTION
    THE MIRROR AND THE CAMERA
    THE PHOTO-ANAMORPHOSIS
    STATUETTE PORTRAITS
    MAGIC PHOTOGRAPHS
    SPIRIT PHOTOGRAPHY
    PHOTOGRAPHY FOR HOUSEHOLD DECORATION
    LEAF PRINTS
    TO MAKE A PEN AND INK SKETCH FROM A PHOTOGRAPH
    PHOTOGRAPHS ON SILK
    PHOTOGRAPHING A CATASTROPHE
    PHOTOGRAPHS ON VARIOUS FABRICS
    SILHOUETTES
    PHOTOGRAPHING THE INVISIBLE
    HOW TO MAKE A PHOTOGRAPH INSIDE A BOTTLE
    PHOTOGRAPHS IN ANY COLOR
    THE DISAPPEARING PHOTOGRAPH
    FREAK PICTURES WITH A BLACK BACKGROUND
    HOW TO COPY DRAWINGS
    SYMPATHETIC PHOTOGRAPHS
    DRY PLATES THAT WILL DEVELOP WITH WATER
    CARICATURE PHOTOGRAPHS
    PHOTOGRAPHING SEAWEEDS
    STAMP PORTRAITS
    LUMINOUS PHOTOGRAPHS
    FLORAL PHOTOGRAPHY
    DISTORTED IMAGES
    PHOTOGRAPHS WITHOUT LIGHT
    ELECTRIC PHOTOGRAPHS
    MAGIC VIGNETTES
    A SIMPLE METHOD OF ENLARGING
    MOONLIGHT EFFECTS
    PHOTOGRAPHING SNOW AND ICE CRYSTALS
    PHOTOGRAPHING INK CRYSTALS
    PINHOLE PHOTOGRAPHY
    FREAK PICTURES BY SUCCESSIVE EXPOSURES
    WIDE-ANGLE STUDIES
    CONICAL PORTRAITS
    MAKING DIRECT POSITIVES IN THE CAMERA
    INSTANTANEOUS PHOTOGRAPHY
    ARTIFICIAL MIRAGES BY PHOTOGRAPHY
    THE PHOTO-CHROMOSCOPE
    COMPOSITE PHOTOGRAPHY
    TELE-PHOTO PICTURES
    LIGHTNING PHOTOGRAPHS
    PHOTOGRAPHING FIREWORKS
    DOUBLES
    DOUBLE EXPOSURES
    COMICAL PORTRAITS
    THE TWO-HEADED MAN
    DUPLICATORS AND TRIPLICATORS
    PICTURES WITH EYES WHICH OPEN AND CLOSE
    PHOTOGRAPHIC BOOKPLATES
    LANDSCAPES AND GROUPS ON THE DINING-ROOM TABLE
    NIGHT PHOTOGRAPHY
    PHOTOGRAPHS ON APPLES AND EGGS



INTRODUCTION


As Mr. Woodbury stated in his introduction to the original edition of
this book, in order to avoid misunderstanding, it would be well to
explain at the outset that it is not intended as an instruction book
in the art of photography in any sense of the word. It is assumed that
the reader has already mastered the technical difficulties of
photographic practice and is able to make a good negative or print.

It was the purpose of the author to describe a number of novel and
curious effects that can be obtained by the aid of the camera,
together with some instructive and interesting photographic
experiments.

The contents of the work were compiled from various sources, chiefly
from "The Photographic Times," "The Scientific American," "The
American Annual of Photography," "La Nature," "Photographischer
Zeitvertreib," by Herman Schnauss, and "Les Recreations
Photographiques," by A. Bergeret et F. Drewin; and the illustrations
were likewise taken from various sources.

In conclusion the author or compiler modestly lays claim to very
little himself, quoting the words of Montaigne, who said:--

     "_I have gathered me a posie of other men's flowers, of which
     nothing but the thread that binds them is mine own._"

And yet so popular did the book prove that in the course of its first
ten years of life, it ran through edition after edition.

The publishers of "The Photographic Times" later acquired the
copyright of the popular volume and published three editions.

The publishers of AMERICAN PHOTOGRAPHY acquired the book during the
Great War through their purchase of "The Photographic Times," but in
spite of a steady demand for the book after the limited stock had been
sold out, did not find it advisable to reprint it until now.

In putting the book to press at this time, most of the original plates
have been used. A number of the old pictures have been replaced by
more modern examples and 14 pages have been added to the book,
including several new topics.

The publishers would be glad to receive manuscripts and pictures
describing and illustrating novel and interesting photographic effects
not mentioned in this volume, to be published in AMERICAN PHOTOGRAPHY
and incorporated in the next edition of PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. They
also request that photographers who make photographs illustrating any
of the topics treated in the book, and especially those illustrated by
wood cuts, may submit them for consideration, as they are prepared to
purchase such as may seem available for the next edition.

FRANK ROY FRAPRIE.

BOSTON, January, 1922.



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS



THE MIRROR AND THE CAMERA.


[Illustration: FIG. 1.--EFFECT OBTAINED WITH PARALLEL MIRRORS.]

Quite a number of novel effects can be obtained by the aid of one or
more mirrors. If two mirrors are taken and placed parallel to one
another, and a person placed between, the effect obtained is as shown
in Fig. 1, where one soldier appears as a whole regiment drawn up into
line. To make this experiment we require two large-sized mirrors, and
they must be so arranged that they do not reflect the camera and the
photographer, but give only multiple images of the sitter. This will
be found quite possible; all that is necessary is to make a few
preliminary experiments, adjusting the mirrors at different angles
until the desired effect is obtained.

A process of multiphotography which was at one time quite popular
consisted in posing the sitter with his back to the camera as shown in
Figs. 2 and 3. In front of him are arranged two mirrors, set at the
desired angle to each other, their inner edges touching. In the
illustrations here given the mirrors are inclined at an angle of 75
deg., and five reflected images are produced. When an exposure is made
and the negative developed, we not only have the back view of the
sitter but the full reflected images in profile and three-quarter
positions as well.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--DIAGRAM OF THE PRODUCTION OF FIVE VIEWS OF ONE
SUBJECT BY MULTIPHOTOGRAPHY.]

In the diagram, Fig. 2, reproduced from "The Scientific American" the
course taken by the rays of light, determined by the law that the
angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection, is plainly
marked out. We see here their passage from the sitter to the mirror
and back to the camera. Provided the mirror be large enough, images of
the full length figure can be made as shown in Fig. 4.

For photographing articles where it is of advantage to secure a number
of different views of the same object this method of photographing
with mirrors opens up quite a wide field of possibilities. In France
it is used for photographing criminals, and thus obtaining a number of
different portraits with one exposure.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--GALLERY ARRANGED FOR MULTIPHOTOGRAPHY.]

The use of an ordinary mirror in portrait work has enabled
photographers to produce very pleasing results. There is often a very
striking difference between the full and side views of a person's
face, and by means of such a combination as this, one is enabled to
secure a perfect representation of both at the same time. In making
reflection portraits it has often been noted that the reflection has a
more pleasing effect than the direct portrait. The reason of this is
that it is softer and the facial blemishes are not so distinctly
brought out. There is naturally a slight loss of detail, but this is
by no means a drawback. The worst fault of the camera in portrait
photography is the tendency to include every little detail which the
artist would suppress. It not only includes all the detail, but often
exaggerates it to a painful extent. By making a portrait by reflection
this defect is avoided. Of course the image is reversed, but this is
in most cases of little consequence; in fact, the sitter himself would
be more likely to consider it a far more truthful likeness, for when
we look into a mirror we do not see ourselves as others see us, but a
reversed image. With some faces the difference is quite striking.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--MULTIPHOTOGRAPH OF A FULL-LENGTH FIGURE.]

[Illustration: By H. L. Bostwick. FIG. 5.--MULTIPHOTOGRAPH OF CISSY
FITZGERALD]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--ELONGATED REFLECTION IN A SPOON.]

Very many amusing effects can be obtained by the use of a convex
mirror. Even an ordinary, well-polished spoon may be made to give some
curious results. (See Fig. 6.) The thin man becomes an elongated mass
of humanity to whom Barnum would have given a big salary, while the
fat man may be reduced to the proportions of a walking-stick.

Convex mirrors for producing these ludicrous effects can be purchased
at any mirror manufacturer's store. The advantage of the camera lies
in the ability to secure permanently the curious images produced.

Even more ridiculous-looking images can be secured by the use of a
piece of uneven glass silvered. For a method of silvering glass we are
indebted to the kindness of Dr. James H. Stebbins, Jr., the well-known
analytical chemist. Dissolve pure nitrate of silver in distilled water
in the proportion of 10 grains to 1 ounce, and add carefully, drop by
drop, sufficient strong ammonia solution to just dissolve the brown
precipitate at first formed, stirring constantly during the addition.

Make a solution of Rochelle salt, 1 grain to the ounce of distilled
water. Clean the plate of glass thoroughly with a little wet rouge and
polish dry with a piece of chamois leather. Warm it before the fire or
in the sun to about 70 to 80 deg. Fahr., and lay it on a perfectly
level surface. Then mix 1 ounce of the silver solution with half an
ounce of the Rochelle salt solution and pour the mixture on the glass
so that every part of the surface will be evenly covered with it.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--CURIOUS EFFECT OBTAINED WITH A CONVEX MIRROR.]

Allow this to stand in the warm sunshine from half to one hour, when
the reduced silver will be deposited as a fine film over the surface
of the glass. When this is done wash off the glass with distilled
water and wipe the entire surface very gently with a little wet
wadding, which will take off the roughness and render it easier to
polish. When perfectly dry the silver should be polished by rubbing
with some smooth, hard surface. The plate is then varnished by pouring
over it a suitable varnish and is ready for use.



THE PHOTO-ANAMORPHOSIS.


The name anamorphosis has been given to two kinds of pictures
distorted according to a certain law, and which are of such a
grotesque appearance that it is often impossible to recognize the
subject of them; while viewed with proper apparatus they appear as
perfectly correct images. One kind is designed to be viewed by
reflection and the other is reconstituted by means of a special rotary
apparatus.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--ANAMORPHOSIS VIEWED IN CONVEX CYLINDRICAL
MIRROR.[1]]

[1] From "Experimental Science." Published by Munn & Co., New York.

Until quite recently, these pictures were drawn approximately from the
reflection of the object as seen in a convex mirror, the position of
which was indicated on the drawing and which restored it to its real
form. M. Fenant conceived the idea of employing photography for
obtaining these pictures. Fig. 9 reproduces a photo-anamorphosis from
a negative by M. Fenant. If a cylindrical mirror be placed on the
black circle shown in the reproduction the photograph will appear in
its original form. Our illustration represents a portrait, although
the features are barely recognizable. Similar pictures may be obtained
by photographing the drawing or subject reflected in a cylindrical
concave mirror placed perpendicularly.

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--A PHOTO-ANAMORPHOSIS.]

The second kind of anamorphosis is produced by the distortion of the
picture in the sense of one of its dimensions. To reconstruct it, it
is caused to rotate rapidly, at the same time that a disc, perforated
with a slit through which the picture is viewed, is rotated in front
of it at a slightly different speed.

The apparatus invented by M. Linde for producing the anamorphosis is
shown in Figs. 10 and 11. _G_ is a camera provided with a revolving
plate-holder, _T H_ are revolving discs the movement of which is made
to bear a certain relation to that of the plate-holder by means of the
band F and the pulleys _D D_. The whole is set in operation by a piece
of clockwork and the cord _F_. _A_ is the axis of the camera, _B_ that
of the plate-holder, and _C_ that of the revolving disc. On this disc
is fixed the picture from which it is desired to make an anamorphosis.
The relative motions are so regulated that when the plate-holder has
made a complete revolution the disc has turned through an angle of 60
to 80 degrees in the opposite direction. Between the plate-holder and
the lens is a diaphragm pierced with a slit about 10 millimetres wide.
The action of the light on the plate takes place through this slit.
The negative obtained, prints are made upon plain salted paper and
rendered transparent with wax or vaseline. These pictures can be
viewed in the ordinary apparatus used for showing anamorphoses of this
kind. The print is fastened to a revolving apparatus and in front of
it is another disc painted black and provided with a number of slits.
The latter revolves at one-fourth the speed of the picture, and the
image when viewed through the slit resumes its normal proportions.

[Illustration: FIGS. 10 AND 11.--LINDE'S APPARATUS FOR
PHOTO-ANAMORPHOSIS.]



STATUETTE PORTRAITS.


These were at one time quite popular, and if properly managed can be
rendered very effective. There are several methods of making this kind
of picture. If the photographer possesses a pedestal large enough, all
that is necessary is to place this on a stand and the person to be
photographed is arranged behind.

[Illustration: FIG. 12.]

The breast is uncovered and some white soft material artistically
arranged in folds over the shoulders and in such a way as to appear
connected with the pedestal. A black background is placed behind and
the exposure made. To give a more realistic effect the hair, face, and
all other parts showing should be liberally powdered over with a white
powder or rice flour. The negative produced will have a clear glass
background, but the body of the figure will still be visible. This is
removed by cutting away the film round the pedestal and to the arms on
each side, leaving only those parts remaining that are required to
produce the statuette. In printing we get a white statuette portrait
on a dark background.

If the photographer does not possess a pedestal, the next best means
to produce these pictures is to get a large sheet of cardboard and cut
it out to the shape shown in the figure beneath, and with white paint
make the picture of a pedestal, shading with a little gray to give
rotundity. The figure is stationed behind it, and a black background
used.

A third method involves still less trouble. This is to purchase a
ready made pedestal negative. These are film negatives of a pedestal
that can be adjusted to the negative of the subject desired to be
produced as a statue. After the negative is taken and varnished the
film is scraped off round the figure, cutting off the body as shown in
the first illustration, after which the pedestal negative is adjusted,
fastened, and then printed. The negative is reversible and can also be
used for different subjects. The picture shown in Fig. 13 was made by
Mr. G. B. Bradshaw, of Beach House, Altrincham, England, by means of
one of his pedestal negatives.

[Illustration: By G. B. Bradshaw. FIG. 13.--STATUETTE PORTRAIT.]



MAGIC PHOTOGRAPHS.


[Illustration: FIG. 14.--CIGARETTE TUBE FOR MAGIC PHOTOGRAPHS.]

Take an ordinary silver print and fix it without toning. Thoroughly
well wash it to remove all traces of the fixing solution and then
immerse it in a saturated solution of bichloride of mercury, when the
image will disappear. The bichloride of mercury changes the photograph
into white chloride of silver and chloride of mercury which is also
white. The image when on white paper is thus rendered invisible.

Next soak some strong bibulous paper in a saturated solution of sodium
hyposulphite, and, when dry, paste a piece of the paper to the back of
the invisible print with a little starch paste, attaching it by the
edges only. Of course the image can also be made to appear by soaking
the invisible print, without the bibulous paper attached, in a
solution of sodium sulphite, hypo, or water with a little ammonia
added.

[Illustration: FIG. 15.--DEVELOPING THE IMAGE.]

Magic photographs made in the manner above described can also be
developed by smoke. A novelty, introduced in Paris some time ago,
consisted of a cigarette or cigar holder, shown in Fig. 14, containing
in its stem a little chamber for the insertion of a small piece of
apparently plain paper, but in reality an invisible photograph
produced in the manner already described. The ammonia vapor in the
smoke passing through the chamber attacked the print and developed the
image. By blowing the smoke on the latent image it may be made to
appear, but the operation is rather tedious, and anyone with a little
ingenuity can easily construct a cigarette holder with an arrangement
to hold small pictures and allow the smoke to pass through.

The chamber of the cigarette or cigar holder must of course be
sufficiently large to allow of the print being inserted in such a
manner that the smoke can readily attack its surface, otherwise uneven
development of the image will take place.



SPIRIT PHOTOGRAPHY.


[Illustration: FIG. 16.--A "SPIRIT" PHOTOGRAPH.]

Many years ago, in the old wet-collodion days, a well-known
photographer was one day surprised by the visitation of a spirit. The
apparition did not make its appearance during the nocturnal hours, as
is, we have been given to understand, the custom of these ladies and
gentlemen from the other world, but, strangely enough, in broad
daylight; and not by his bedside to disturb his peaceful slumber, but
upon the photograph he was in the act of producing. Had this gentleman
been of that soft-brained kind, so easily gulled by the professional
spiritualist, it is possible that he would not have done what he did,
which was to make a thorough and scientific examination as to the
probable cause of the phenomenon. The case was this: A gentleman
sitter had been taken in the usual manner upon a collodion plate. Upon
taking a positive print from the negative, he was surprised to find a
dim white figure of a lady apparently hovering over the unconscious
sitter. Upon examination of the negative, the image of the figure was
also visible, but not so plainly as in the positive. The explanation
of the whole matter was soon discovered. In those days glass was not
so cheap as at present, and all old or spoilt negatives were cleaned
off and freshly prepared with collodion for further use. In this case
the glass had previously supported the negative image of a lady
dressed in white. Some chemical action had evidently taken place
between the image and the glass itself, turning the latter slightly
yellow in some parts. This faint yellow image, although hardly visible
in the negative, had, being of a non-actinic color, given quite a
distinct image in the positive. The case was not an isolated one, as
these spirit photographs, as they were called, often made their
appearance when old negatives were cleaned and the glass used again.
The precise action producing the image has never, we think, been
satisfactorily explained. It could often be made more distinct by
breathing on the glass. We do not know if any enterprising humbug ever
took advantage of this method of producing spirit photographs to
extort money from the unwary, but about ten years ago a work was
published, entitled "Chronicles of the Photographs of Spiritual Beings
and Phenomena Invisible to the Material Eye," by a Miss Houghton. In
this a number of reproductions of photographs of "spirits" were given
with a detailed explanation of how they were obtained and the
difficulties attending their production, the "spirits" being
apparently of very independent natures, only making their appearance
when they felt so inclined. It is quite possible that a person
entirely ignorant of photographic methods might be led into the belief
that they were actually photographic images of the dead, but we fear
that the book is hardly well enough written to deceive the experienced
photographer. At certain and most unfortunate periods in the process
employed, some of the plates had a convenient habit of slipping into
the washing tank and there, according to the author, becoming utterly
ruined; also we learn that many were ruined by being accidentally
smudged by the photographer's finger. We should not, we fear, have a
very high opinion of an operator who was in the constant habit of
"smudging" negatives with his fingers so as to entirely spoil them,
nor can we quite understand what brand of plates was used that "got
spoiled by falling into the water."

[Illustration: From La Nature. FIG. 17.--SPIRIT PICTURE.]

[Illustration: From La Nature. FIG. 18.--SPIRIT PICTURE.]

It is not difficult to explain how these pictures were produced. There
are quite a number of methods. With a weak-minded sitter, over whom
the operator had complete control, the matter would be in no wise a
difficult one. It would then only be necessary for the spirit,
suitably attired for the occasion, to appear for a few seconds behind
the sitter during the exposure and be taken slightly out of focus, so
as not to appear too corporeal.

If, however, the sitter be of another kind, anxious to discover how it
was done and on the alert for any deceptive practices, the method
described would be rather a risky one, as he might turn round suddenly
at an inconvenient moment and detect the _modus operandi_. In such a
case it becomes necessary to find some other method where it would not
be requisite for the "spirit" to make its appearance during the
presence of the sitter.

[Illustration: FIG. 19.--SPIRIT PICTURE DISTURBED SLUMBER]

The ghostly image can be prepared upon the plate, either before or
after the exposure of the sitter. The method is this: In a darkened
room the draped figure to represent the spirit is posed in a
spirit-like attitude (whatever that may be) in front of a dark
background with a suitable magnesium or other artificial light thrown
upon the figure, which is then focused in the "fuzzy-type" style; or,
better still, a fine piece of muslin gauze is placed close to the lens
which gives a hazy, indistinct appearance to the image. The exposure
is made and the latent image remains upon the sensitive plate, which
is again used to photograph the sitter. Upon developing we get the two
images, the "spirit" mixed up with the figure. The spirit should be as
indistinct as possible, as it will then be less easy for the subject
to dispute the statement that it is the spirit-form of his dead and
gone relative. Some amount of discretion in this part of the
performance must be used, we fancy, otherwise the same disaster might
happen as did to a spiritualist some little time ago. An elderly
gentleman had come for a _seance_, and, after some mysterious
maneuvers, the gentleman was informed that the spirit of his mother
was there. "Indeed!" replied the old gentleman, somewhat astonished.
"What does she say?" "She says she will see you soon," informed the
medium. "You are getting old now and must soon join her." "Quite
right," replied the old gentleman; "I am going round to her house to
tea to-night."--Total collapse of spiritualist.

[Illustration: FIG. 20.--PHOTOGRAPH OF "SPIRITS."]

Fluorescent substances, such as bisulphate of quinine, can also be
employed. This compound, although almost invisible to the eye,
photographs nearly black. If a white piece of paper be painted with
the substance, except on certain parts, the latter only will appear
white in the picture.

[Illustration: FIG. 21.-PAINTING BY N. SICHEL. From which the "Spirit"
Photograph opposite was made.]

We hope that it will not be inferred that we desire to explain how to
deceive persons with regard to photographs of spirits, for this is not
so; we only hope that they will be made merely for amusement, and if
possible to expose persons who practice on the gullibility of
inexperienced persons.

Fig. 20 is a reproduction of a "spirit" photograph made by a
photographer, claiming to be a "spirit photographer," and to have the
power to call these ladies and gentlemen from the "vasty deep" and
make them impress their image upon the sensitive plate by the side of
the portraits of their living relatives.

Fortunately, however, we were in this case able to expose this fraud.
Mr. W. M. Murray, a prominent member of the Society of Amateur
Photographers of New York, called our attention to the similarity
between one of the "spirit" images and a portrait painting by Sichel,
the artist.

A reproduction of the picture is given herewith, Fig. 21, and it will
be seen at once that the spirit image is copied from it.

In a recent number of _The Australian Photographic Journal_ we read of
the following novel method of making so-called spirit photographs:
"Take a negative of any supposed spirit that is to be represented, put
it in the printing frame with the film side out; lay on the glass side
a piece of platinotype paper with the sensitive side up; clamp in
place the back of the printing frame and expose to the sun for half a
minute. Now place in the printing frame the negative of another person
to whom the spirit is to appear, and over it put the previously
exposed sheet film side down; expose to the sun for two minutes until
the image is faintly seen, then develop in the usual way and the
blurred spirit photograph will appear faintly to one side or directly
behind the distinct image. Sheets of paper with different ghost
exposures can be prepared beforehand."

Spirit photographs might easily be made by means of Prof. Roentgen's
well-known X-ray process of impressing an image upon a photographic
dry-plate without uncovering the shutter. The process would however
entail considerable expense and would necessitate the use of so much
costly apparatus that we will content ourselves with the simple
mention of the possibility.



PHOTOGRAPHY FOR HOUSEHOLD DECORATION


How few amateur photographers there are who thoroughly enter into the
enjoyment of the art-science as a pastime. Many of these, perhaps,
must be excused for the reason that they are ignorant of its
capabilities. Indeed, how many there are who imagine that the art of
photography consists in making negatives and, from these,
prints--good, bad and indifferent. All the friends and relations are
called into requisition "to be taken." At first they do not mind,
thinking it a fine thing to have a portrait made for nothing; but when
they see the result they very naturally object to be caricatured, and
the amateur loses many a friend, and the maiden aunt leaves all her
money to the home for stray cats. If he is a married man and delights
in a happy, cosy home, neatly and artistically decorated, photography
can be of very great assistance to him--how much, few realize. There
are a thousand different ways in which it can be of use, and the
photographer has always before him some permanent record of his
travels and skill.

[Illustration: FIG. 22.]

Let us take, for instance, the making of transparencies. These are
very simply made. Any moderately rapid dry plate can be used for the
purpose. Every amateur becomes possessed after a time of a large
number of negatives, good, bad, and indifferent. Let him carefully go
through these, selecting all the printable ones and the pictures that
he most admires. From these, transparencies can be made, either by
contact, or enlarged or reduced in the camera. Persons residing in
cities often have a nicely furnished room utterly marred by an
unsightly outlook. Perhaps a view of chimney pots and dirty back
yards. In such a case all that is necessary is to fit in place of the
lower panes some neat photographs on glass, backed with thin
ground-glass. These can be puttied in or they can be fitted in neat
brass frames and hung up against the windows.

The craze of the present day appears to be in the direction of bright
and gaudy colors, except with the more highly cultivated, who
recognize the artistic value of unobtrusive colors and delicate tints.
A photograph, provided it is a good one, is always to be preferred to
colored pictures unless the latter are by good artists. We once
constructed with a half dozen of transparencies a very neat lamp
shade. Some idea of it can be obtained from Fig. 23.

[Illustration: FIG. 23.]

A brass frame is first constructed, and any wire worker will execute
this so as to hold the six or eight pictures. The transparencies are
made, cut down to the size and shape required and fitted in; then
ground glass of the same size and shape is fitted, small brass tabs at
the back being used to keep them in their places behind the
transparency. The glasses should not fit too tightly in the brass
frames or, on expanding by the heat, they will crack.

A hall lamp can be treated in the same way, the colored glass removed
and photographic transparencies substituted. Photos on glass can in
the same way be used for a variety of other purposes, such as fire
screens, candle shades, etc.

Next look up your stock of prints, scraps, waste prints, etc.

[Illustration: FIG. 24.]

Often from a large, spoilt picture you can get a neat little bit about
a couple of inches square or less; look up all these and from them a
photographic chess-board can be made. Our illustration in Fig. 24 is
intended to show what is meant, although our artist has not been happy
in the selection of his material to represent photographic views and
portraits. First mark out a square the size you wish the chess-board
to be. Divide it into sixty-four squares and draw a neat border round
it. Thirty-two of the squares are then neatly pasted over with
selected photographs as varied as possible in subjects. Sixteen are
fitted one way and sixteen the other. Our illustration is incorrect in
this respect. The sixteen pictures should be placed the right way on
the sixteen squares nearest to each player. When the photographs have
all been pasted on and dried the whole is sized and varnished. If,
however, it is desired to preserve this photographic chess-board, and
at the same time to use it frequently, a better plan is to cover over
with a glass plate and bind all round the edges to prevent dust from
entering.

In a similar way a neat card table can be manufactured. Fig. 25 is
intended to illustrate the top of the table covered with photographs
and protected by a glass plate.

A little consideration will no doubt give various other similar ideas
to the reader.

Those who can work the carbon process successfully have it in their
power to transfer photographs in various colors to all kinds of
supports, to wood for instance. The panels of a door can be very
considerably improved by the insertion of photographs on fine grain
wood, varnished.

[Illustration: FIG. 25.]

Pictures can in this manner be transferred to plates, china and
ornaments of every description.

Various methods of printing on silk and various fabrics have from time
to time been given. Perhaps the best for our purpose is the primuline
process, as various colored images can be produced, with but little
trouble, on all kinds of material. A description of the process will
be found in another part of this work. (See Page 39.)

These the amateur can hand over to his better half or female
relations, who with the natural feminine abilities will produce all
sorts of pretty artistic articles for decorating the room.

We are well aware that we have by no means enumerated one half of the
various means in which photography can be employed for decorating the
house, but hope at least to have given the reader some idea of what
its capabilities are.



LEAF PRINTS.


[Illustration: FIG. 26.--LEAF PRINT. BY T. GAFFIELD.]

Nothing can exceed the beauty of form and structure of the leaves of
different plants. Ruskin observes: "Leaves take all kinds of strange
shapes, as if to invite us to examine them. Star-shaped, heart-shaped,
spear-shaped, fretted, fringed, cleft, furrowed, serrated, sinuated;
in whirls, in tufts, in spires, in wreaths; endlessly expressive,
deceptive, fantastic, never the same, from footstalk to blossom, they
seem perpetually to tempt our watchfulness and take delight in
outstripping our wonder." Photography has placed in our hands a simple
method of preserving facsimiles of their ever varying shapes that will
last long after the leaf has died and crumbled to dust. Although the
discovery of the darkening action of silver chloride when exposed to
light was discovered by Scheele as far back as 1777, little was
apparently known of the possibilities attending the discovery until
1839, when Fox Talbot read a paper on "A Method of Photogenic
Drawing," in which he described various experiments that could be made
with paper coated with this substance, and showed many pictures of
leaves, ferns, and pieces of lace which he had obtained.

[Illustration: FIG. 27.--LEAF PRINT. BY T. GAFFIELD.]

The illustrations which we reproduce herewith are reproductions from
leaf prints made by Mr. Thomas Gaffield, who has made quite a study of
this fascinating pastime. In a little work entitled "Photographic Leaf
Prints," published in 1869, he describes his method. The leaves and
ferns are first selected and pressed between the leaves of a book.
They must not be dried, as in that state they do not so readily permit
the light to pass through and the delicate structure of the leaf would
not be reproduced. They should therefore only be pressed sufficiently
to allow the excess of moisture to be extracted. A sheet of glass is
put into the printing frame and the leaves artistically arranged. When
the arrangement is satisfactory the leaves are attached to the glass
with a little mucilage to prevent them from slipping out of their
places. A sheet of sensitive paper, albumen, gaslight, or platinum is
then inserted, the frame closed up and exposed to the light until a
very dark print is obtained. The time required in printing must be
found by practice; it will, of course, differ according to the
intensity of the light. It is a good plan to employ an actinometer to
judge the correct exposure. It is not possible to open the frame, as a
double or blurred picture would result. The halves should be exposed
sufficiently long to enable the light to penetrate through them and
give a distinct image of the veins and structure.

When the printing is completed the paper is removed and toned and
fixed in the usual manner. If platinotype or gaslight paper is used,
this, of course, requires development. The resulting picture gives us
a light impression of the leaves on a dark background, but if so
desired, the print thus obtained can be used as a negative. It can be
made transparent with wax or vaseline, and prints obtained from it
giving a dark image on a white ground. It is difficult to say which
picture is the more beautiful. We give illustrations of pictures of
both kinds. (Figs. 26 and 27.)

Naturally enough, the beauty of these pictures lies in the careful
selection and arrangement of the leaves. Those which are too thick
should not be used. Delicate ones, showing all the veins by
transmitted light, are the most suitable. They can be arranged
artistically, in any shape or form. We prefer, however, a life-like
arrangement to the construction of various shapes and designs.



TO MAKE A PEN AND INK SKETCH FROM A PHOTOGRAPH.


By the following method anyone can, without any knowledge of drawing,
produce from a photograph a pen and ink sketch suitable for
reproduction as an illustration. From the negative a silver print is
made on albumen or gelatine or collodion paper. This is fixed without
toning in a solution of hyposulphite of soda. It must then be
thoroughly washed to remove all traces of hypo, and when dry, the
outlines of the photograph are traced over with a fine pen and a
waterproof ink, obtainable at any artist's material store. If the
photographer possesses a little knowledge of drawing, some of the
shading can also be attempted. When the ink is dry the picture is
immersed in a saturated solution of bichloride of mercury (poison)
when the photograph will disappear, leaving the outline sketch intact.
The picture is again well washed and dried. Newspaper sketches are
often made from photographs in this manner, a zincotype being quickly
produced from the drawing. Gaslight paper can also be used.



PHOTOGRAPHS ON SILK.


Photographs can be very effectively printed upon silk, satin, or other
fabrics. There are several methods of accomplishing this. A simple one
is the following:[2] The silk best suited for the purpose is that
known as Chinese silk, and this is first washed in warm water with
plentiful lather of soap, then rinse in hot water, and gradually cool
until the final washing water is quite cold. Next prepare the
following solutions: Tannin, 4 parts; distilled water, 100 parts.
Sodium chloride, 4 parts; arrowroot, 4 parts; acetic acid, 12 parts;
distilled water, 100 parts.

[2] From the "Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Photography," by the author.

The arrowroot is mixed up into a paste with a little of the distilled
water, and the remainder added boiling hot, with the acid and the salt
previously dissolved in it. When the solution is quite clear the
tannin solution is added, and the whole allowed to get fairly cool.
The silk is then immersed for about three minutes, being kept under
without air in the folds, and then hung up to dry, or stretched out
with pins on a flat board. The material is then sensitized by brushing
over with the following solution: Silver nitrate, 12 parts; distilled
water, 100 parts; nitric acid, 2 drops to every 3 ounces. Other
methods of sensitizing are by immersing in or floating on the silver
solution. After sensitizing, the material is dried by pinning on to a
board to keep flat. It is then cut up as required, and printed behind
the negative. Every care must be taken in printing to keep the
material flat, and without wrinkles or folds. It must also be kept
quite straight; otherwise, the image will be distorted. Printing is
carried on in the same manner as with printing-out paper. It is then
washed and toned in any toning bath. The sulphocyanide gives the best
action. Fix in a 10 per cent. solution of hyposulphite of soda for ten
minutes; wash and dry spontaneously. When just damp, it is ironed out
flat with a not over-heated iron. Black tones can be obtained with a
platinum toning bath, or with the uranium and gold toning bath, made
up as follows: Gold chloride, 1 part; uranium nitrate, 1 part.
Dissolved and neutralized with sodium carbonate, and then added to
sodium chloride, 16 parts; sodium acetate, 16 parts; sodium phosphate,
16 parts; distilled water, 4,000 parts.

Very effective results may be made by printing with wide white
margins, obtained by exposing with a non-actinic mask.

Another method is the following: Ammonium chloride, 100 grains;
Iceland moss, 60 grains; water (boiling), 20 ounces.

When nearly cold this is filtered, and the silk immersed in it for
about fifteen minutes. To sensitize, immerse the silk in a 20 grain
solution of silver nitrate for about sixteen minutes. The silver
solution should be rather acid.

Or immerse the silk in water, 1 ounce; sodium chloride, 5 grains;
gelatine, 5 grains. When dry, float for thirty seconds on a 50 grain
solution of silver nitrate. Dry, slightly overprint and tone in the
following bath: Gold chloride, 4 grains; sodium acetate, 2 drachms;
water, 29 ounces. Keep twenty-four hours before using. Fix for twenty
minutes in hypo, 4 ounces to the pint of water.



PHOTOGRAPHING A CATASTROPHE.


On this page we reproduce a curious photograph by M. Bracq, which
appeared some time ago in the _Photo Gazette_.

[Illustration: By M. Bracq. From Photo Gazette. FIG. 28.--A
CATASTROPHE.]

Despite all the terrible catastrophe which it represents, carrying
pictures along with him in his fall, the subject has not experienced
the least uneasiness, not even so much as will certainly be felt by
our readers at the sight of the tumble represented.

The mode of operating in this case is very simple and we are indebted
to _La Nature_ for the description of the method employed by M. Bracq.
The photographic apparatus being suspended at a few yards from the
floor of the room, in such a way as to render the ground-glass
horizontal (say between the two sides of a double ladder--a
combination that permits of easy focusing and putting the plates in
place), there is spread upon the floor a piece of wall paper, about 6
feet in length by 5 feet in width, at the bottom of which a wainscot
has been drawn. A ladder, a few pictures, a statuette, and a bottle
are so arranged as to give an observer the illusion of the wall of a
room, that of a dining room for instance. A hammer, some nails, etc.,
are placed at the proper points. Finally, a 5 feet by 2-1/2 feet
board, to which a piece of carpet, a cardboard plate, etc., have been
attached, is placed under the foot of a chair, which then seems to
rest upon this false floor at right angles with that of the room.

[Illustration: FIG. 29.]

Everything being ready, the operator lies down quietly in the midst of
these objects, assumes a frightened expression, and waits until the
shutter announces to him that he can leave his not very painful
position. This evidently is merely an example that our readers will be
able to modify and vary at their will.



PHOTOGRAPHS ON VARIOUS FABRICS.


By means of a dye process known as the "Primuline Process," very
pretty images in various colored dyes can be made upon silks, satins,
cotton goods, etc. The material is first dyed in a hot solution of
primuline, made by adding about 15 to 30 grains of the dye to a gallon
of hot water; a little common salt should also be added. On immersing
the fabric, and stirring it about in the solution, it becomes of a
primrose yellow color, when it is removed and washed under a
cold-water tap. The next process is to diazotize it by immersion for
half a minute or so in a cold solution of sodium nitrate, one-quarter
per cent., which has been sharply acidified with hydrochloric or other
acid. The material is again washed in cold water, but it must be kept
in a weak light. It can be hung up to dry, in the dark, or exposed
while wet beneath the object of which it is required to produce a
positive reproduction. This process gives a positive from a positive,
so that any ordinary picture on a sufficiently translucent
material--flowers, ferns, etc.--can be reproduced. Printing requires
about half a minute in the direct sunlight to half an hour or more in
dull weather, or if the material to be printed through is not very
transparent. The high lights become of a pale yellow, so that a faint
image is perceptible; but this is made visible in almost any color by
development in a weak solution (about one-fourth per cent.) of a
suitable phenol or amine. The following have been found suitable:

_For Red._--An alkaline solution of [Greek: b]-napthol.

_For Maroon._--An alkaline solution of [Greek: b]-napthol-disulphonic
acid.

_For Yellow._--An alkaline solution of phenol.

_For Orange._--An alkaline solution of resorcin.

_Brown._--A slightly alkaline solution of pyrogallol, or a solution of
phenylene-diamine-hydrochloride.

_For Purple._--A solution of [Greek: a]-napthylamine hydrochloride.

_For Blue._--A slightly acid solution of amido-[Greek:
b]-napthol-sulphonate of sodium, now better known as "eikonogen."

If the design is to be made in several colors, this can be done by
painting on the different developers, suitably thickened with starch.
After developing, the material is well washed and dried. With the
purple and blue developers it is necessary to wash the material
finally in a weak solution of tartaric acid. Wool and silk require a
longer exposure to light than other fabrics, and cannot be
successfully developed with the maroon or blue developer.



SILHOUETTES


[Illustration: AA. The sky and side light. BB. Two dark backgrounds.
C. The white screen in oblique position. D. The subject. E. The
camera. FIG. 30.]

[Illustration: FIG. 31.]

Silhouette portraits were at one time very popular. They are simply
made, and if the effect is well carried out will afford considerable
amusement. The best description of their manufacture was given some
time ago by Herr E. Sturmann, in _Die Photographische Korrespondenz_.
His method is as follows:

Place two dark backgrounds in parallel position about 4 feet from the
sky and side light of the studio and distant from each other about six
feet. Improvise a dark tunnel by drawing a black cloth, of
non-reflecting material, over the two dark grounds, and arrange a
white screen, somewhat larger than the distance between the two dark
grounds, in an oblique position so as to be fully illuminated.

The subject to be silhouetted must be placed in the centre of the
tunnel, one side of the face turned towards one ground, but
comparatively nearer to the white screen so that the side of the face
turned towards the camera is as much as possible in the shade.

[Illustration: FIG. 32.]

Focus must be taken accurately, so that the outlines of the figure are
perfectly sharp.

As it is the object to obtain a perfectly transparent, glass-clear
silhouette upon an absolutely opaque ground, but a very short time of
exposure is required.

Develop as usual and to secure perfect opacity intensify more than
usual. Plates of lower sensitiveness invariably give the best results.
A slow plate or one made particularly for reproduction is well adapted
for this kind of work. With ferrous oxalate or hydrochinon developer
there is scarcely any need of intensifying.

[Illustration: FIG. 33.]

[Illustration: FIG. 34.]

To obviate the shadows cast upon the floor by the lower parts of the
figure, place it upon a thick, large plate-glass, supported by props
of five or six inches in height, and spread upon the floor under the
glass a piece of white muslin. The muslin must be free of folds or
wrinkles, and be so connected with the white screen, that the division
line between is not reproduced upon the plate.

The very feeble shadows of the feet can be easily touched away with
pencil.

Single persons or groups of two or three figures can be photographed
in this peculiar style with very good effect.

For heads and busts expose in the usual manner, but to obtain
silhouettes similar to those our grandmothers had cut in black paper,
and long before photography was thought of, cut an appropriate mask of
black paper to cover the part not wanted during printing.

[Illustration: FIG. 35.]

It should be borne in mind that in this class of work the white
background only is the object to be photographed, hence the necessity
of but very short exposures. With longer exposures absolute blacks and
whites are impossible.



PHOTOGRAPHING THE INVISIBLE.


The following is a curious and interesting experiment, based upon the
peculiar property possessed by fluorescent substances of altering the
refrangibility of the chemical light rays. Take a colorless solution
of bisulphate of quinine, and write or draw with it on a piece of
white paper. When dry the writing or design will be invisible, but a
photograph made of it will show them very nearly black.



HOW TO MAKE A PHOTOGRAPH INSIDE A BOTTLE.


Get a glass-blower to make an ordinary shaped wine-bottle of very thin
and clear glass, and clean it well. Next take the white of two eggs
and add to it 29 grains of ammonium chloride dissolved in 1 drachm of
spirits of wine, and one-half ounce of water. Beat this mixture into a
thick froth and then allow it to stand and settle. Filter through a
tuft of cotton-wool, and pour into the specially made bottle. By
twisting the bottle round, an even layer of the solution will deposit
itself on the sides. Pour off the remaining solution, allow the film
in the bottle to dry, and again repeat the operation.

The next operation is to sensitize the film with a solution of nitrate
of silver, 40 grains to 1 ounce of water. Pour this in and turn the
bottle round for a few minutes, then pour off the superfluous solution
and again dry. Hold the neck of the bottle for a few seconds over
another bottle containing ammonia, so as to allow the fumes to enter
it. Printing is the next operation; this is accomplished by tying a
film negative round the bottle, and covering up all the other parts
from the light. Print very deeply, keeping the bottle turning round
all the time. Toning, fixing, and washing can be done in the ordinary
way by filling the bottle up with the different solutions. The effect
is very curious, and can be improved by coating the inside of the
bottle with white enamel.



PHOTOGRAPHS IN ANY COLOR.


These can be produced by what is known as the powder or dusting-on
process. The principle of the process is this: An organic, tacky
substance is sensitized with potassium bichromate, and exposed under a
reversed positive to the action of light. All the parts acted upon
become hard, the stickiness disappearing according to the strength of
the light action, while those parts protected by the darker parts of
the positive retain their adhesiveness. If a colored powder be dusted
over, it will be understood that it will adhere to the sticky parts
only, forming a complete reproduction of the positive printed form.
Prepare--Dextrine, one-half ounce; grape sugar, one-half ounce;
bichromate of potash, one-half ounce; water, one-half pint: or
saturated solution bichromate of ammonia, 5 drachms; honey, 3
drachms; albumen, 3 drachms; distilled water, 20 to 30 drachms.

Filter, and coat clean glass plates with this solution, and dry with a
gentle heat over a spirit lamp. While still warm the plate is exposed
under a positive transparency for from two to five minutes in
sunlight, or from ten to twenty minutes in diffused light. On removing
from the printing frame, the plate is laid for a few minutes in the
dark in a damp place to absorb a little moisture. The next process is
the dusting on. For a black image Siberian graphite is used, spread
over with a soft flat brush. Any colored powder can be used, giving
images in different colors. When fully developed the excess of powder
is dusted off and the film coated with collodion. It is then well
washed to remove the bichromate salt. The film can, if desired, be
detached and transferred to ivory, wood, or any other support.

If a black support be used, a ferrotype plate on Japanned wood, for
instance, pictures can be made from a negative, but in this case a
light colored powder must be used. The Japanese have lately succeeded
in making some very beautiful pictures in this manner. Wood is coated
over with that black enamel for which they are so famous, and pictures
made upon it in this manner. They use a gold or silver powder.

With this process an almost endless variety of effects can be
obtained. For instance, luminous powder can be employed and an image
produced which is visible in the dark.

Some time ago we suggested a plan of making what might be termed
"post-mortem" photographs of cremated friends and relations. A plate
is prepared from a negative of the dead person in the manner
described, and the ashes dusted over. They will adhere to the parts
unexposed to light, and a portrait is obtained composed entirely of
the person it represents, or rather what is left of him. The idea is
not particularly a brilliant one, nor do we desire to claim any credit
for it, but we give it here for the benefit of those morbid
individuals who delight in sensationalism, and who purchase and
treasure up pieces of the rope used by the hangman.



THE DISAPPEARING PHOTOGRAPH.


A method of making a photograph which can be made to appear at will is
thus described in _Les Recreations Photographiques_.

Take a convex watch crystal, V, or any similar larger glass if
desired--for instance, those used for colored photographs; clean the
glass well, place it perfectly level, convex side down, and fill it
even full with a mixture of white wax and hog's lard. When it has
solidified, apply to the back a flat glass plate, P, cut exactly to
the largest dimensions of the convex glass, secure the glasses
together with a strip, B, of gold-beater's skin, fastened by strong
glue as shown in the figure. Now mount a portrait, with the front
towards the convex glass, on the plate P. The combination is now
ready; by heating it the wax between the two glasses melts and becomes
transparent, allowing the portrait to be seen; on cooling it will lose
its transparence and the portrait will disappear.

[Illustration: FIG. 36.]



FREAK PICTURES WITH A BLACK BACKGROUND.


If an object be placed against a non-actinic background and an
exposure made, the black parts surrounding it will not have any effect
upon the plate, and the object can be shifted to another part and
another exposure made. In a recent article published in _La Nature_,
and translated in the _Scientific American_, a number of
curious effects obtained by photography by M. R. Riccart, of
Sainte-Foix-les-Lyons, are described and illustrated.

[Illustration: FIG. 37.--A DECAPITATION.]

The system employed by the author of these photographs is that of the
natural black background obtained through the open door of a dark
room, combined with diaphragms skillfully arranged in the interior of
the apparatus, between the objective and sensitized plate. This is the
surest method of obtaining the desired effect with the greatest
precision, without the junctions being visible, and with perfect
sharpness in the cutting of the parts removed. For this effect, it is
necessary to place the diaphragm at three or four centimeters from the
ground glass, in the last folds of the bellows of the camera.

[Illustration: FIG. 38.--ANOTHER DECAPITATION.]

The following are a few data as to the manner in which the scenes that
we reproduce were obtained. The first, representing a decapitation by
means of a saber (Fig. 37), was taken by means of an exposure in which
the head was placed upon the block, the subject inclining forward upon
his knees, and a diaphragm, occupying about two-thirds of the plate,
completely masking the body up to the neck. Then, without changing the
position of the apparatus, the diaphragm was placed on the other side
in order to conceal the head, and the body was photographed in the
second position along with the person representing the executioner. It
would have been possible, by a third exposure, to so arrange things as
to make the executioner the decapitated person. It was by the same
process that the three following scenes were obtained: A person with
his head placed before him in a plate (Fig. 38); a man carrying his
head in a wheelbarrow (Fig. 39); and a person to whom his own head is
served in a plate (Fig. 40). Such scenes may be varied to any extent.
Fig. 41 is a photograph of a decapitation, while Fig. 42 is made by
two exposures of an individual at different distances but so combined
as to give the appearance of one exposure. Fig. 43 is that of a person
in a bottle. The individual represented was first photographed on a
sufficiently reduced scale to allow him to enter the bottle. This
exposure was by using a screen containing an aperture, as for the
Russian background. But this precaution was taken merely to conceal
the floor, and yet it would perhaps be preferable in such a case to
have the subject stand upon a stool covered with a very black fabric.
However this may be, when once the first impression has been made,
there is nothing more to be done than to photograph the bottle on a
larger scale and the result is obtained.

[Illustration: FIG. 39.--THE HEAD IN THE WHEELBARROW]

[Illustration: FIG. 40.--THE HEAD UPON A PLATE.]



HOW TO COPY DRAWINGS.


There are three principal methods of copying mechanical drawings,
tracings, sketches, etc. These are: (1) A process to obtain white
lines upon a blue ground; (2) a process by which blue lines upon a
white ground are obtained; and (3) a process giving black or
violet-black lines upon a white ground.

[Illustration: FIG. 41.--THE SAWED-OFF HEAD.]

The first process is undoubtedly the simplest, as after printing upon
the paper it is developed and fixed by simple immersion in cold water;
but, at the same time, the white lines on the blue ground are not so
clear and effective as the other processes. The cyanotype paper, as it
is called, can be obtained ready for use at any draughtsman's stores,
but if you prefer to make it yourself, here is the recipe: Two
solutions are made--20 parts of red prussiate of potash are dissolved
in 100 parts of water, and 10 parts of ammonio-citrate of iron in 60
parts of water. These two solutions should be mixed together
immediately before using, and the operation must be performed in the
dark. Paper is floated on this solution, or applied with a broad
camels-hair brush, and hung up to dry. If it is well dried and
carefully preserved from light, moisture and air, this paper will keep
for some time. After printing--which, when sufficient, should show the
lines copied of a yellow color upon a blue ground--the prints should
be washed in several waters, and if a few drops of chlorine water or
dilute hydrochloric acid be added to the washing water, the blue
ground will appear much darker and the lines rendered clearer and
whiter. The commercial paper sold is generally prepared by this
method.

[Illustration: FIG. 42.--THE REDUCTION.]

[Illustration: FIG. 43.--MAN IN A BOTTLE.]

Blue prints may be given a black tone by plunging them into a solution
of 4 parts of caustic potash in 100 parts of water; then, when the
blue color has entirely disappeared under the action of the potash,
and a yellowish color has taken its place, they are immersed in a
solution of 4 parts of tannin in 100 parts of water; then washing them
again, we obtain prints whose tone may be assimilated to that of pale
writing ink.

In the process giving blue lines upon a white ground, it is necessary
that the action of the light shall be to convert the iron compound
into one that can be discharged from instead of being fixed on the
paper, so that we obtain a positive from a positive. Abney describes
the process as follows: Thirty volumes of gum solution (water 5 parts,
gum 1 part) are mixed with 8 volumes of a citrate of iron and ammonia
solution (water 2 parts, double citrate 1 part), and to this is added
5 volumes of a solution of ferric chloride (water 2 parts, ferric
chloride 1 part). This solution thus formed is limpid at first, but
will gradually become thicker, and should be used soon after mixing.
It is then applied with a brush to the paper (which should be well
sized) and dried in the dark. Exposure is accomplished in a few
minutes, the paper being placed under the drawing in the printing
frame. It is then developed with potassium ferrocyanide, 50 grains,
water 1 ounce, applied with a brush until all the details appear of a
dark-blue color. The print is then rapidly rinsed, and placed in a
dish containing the clearing solution, made of 1 ounce of hydrochloric
acid and 10 ounces of water.

The third process, which gives violet-black lines on a white ground,
is the following: Make up the sensitive solution with water, 16
ounces; gelatine, 4 drachms; perchloride of iron (in a syrup
condition), 1 ounce; tartaric acid, 1 ounce; sulphate of iron, 4
drachms. The paper is floated on or brushed over with this and dried.
The exposure is about the same as with the last process. When
sufficient, the greenish-yellow color will turn white, except the
lines, which should be somewhat dark. The developing solution is
composed of 1 part of gallic acid in 10 parts of alcohol and 50 of
water. When immersed in this solution the lines will turn blacker. The
finish is then made by thoroughly washing in water.



SYMPATHETIC PHOTOGRAPHS.


These are obtained as follows: A sheet of paper is coated with a ten
per cent solution of gelatine, and when dry this is floated on a ten
per cent solution of bichromate of potash. Again dry and expose
beneath a positive transparency. The print thus obtained is then
immersed in a ten per cent solution of chloride of cobalt. The parts
unacted upon by light will absorb the solution. Wash and dry. We then
have a faint image which will alter its color according to the state
of the atmosphere. In damp weather it will be almost if not entirely
invisible, but when the weather is fine and dry, or if the image be
heated before a fire it will turn to a bright blue color.



DRY-PLATES THAT WILL DEVELOP WITH WATER.


Some time ago dry-plates were placed on the market which would
develop, apparently, with water and a little ammonia only. The secret
of the method was that the backs of the plates were coated with a
soluble gum, containing the developing agents, and, of course, when
the plate was immersed in the water, they instantly dissolved and
formed the developer. Plates thus prepared are useful in traveling
where it is not always possible to get the necessary developing
solutions. To prepare them the backs are coated with the following
mixture:

    Pyrogallic acid              154 grains
    Salicylic acid                15 grains
    Gum or dextrine              154 grains
    Alcohol                        1 fluid dr.
    Water                          5 fluid dr.

This is allowed to dry at an ordinary temperature. After exposure, all
that is necessary to develop is to immerse the plates in water
containing a small quantity of ammonia.



CARICATURE PHOTOGRAPHS.


There are quite a number of different methods of making caricature
portraits. A simple one is to make two photographs of an individual,
one of the head alone and another of the entire body on a much smaller
scale. From these two negatives prints are made, and the larger head
is cut out and pasted on the shoulders of the full length figure. Any
signs of the cutting out are removed by the use of a brush and a
little coloring matter. From this combined print another negative is
made so that any number of these caricature prints can be made without
extra trouble. The effect is shown in Fig. 44.

[Illustration: From Tissandier's Handbook. FIG. 44.--CARICATURE
PORTRAIT.]

Foregrounds for making caricature portraits are sold in this country.
The method of using them is shown in Fig. 45. The card containing the
grotesque drawing is held by the sitter on his knees and arranged by
the photographer in such a way that his head rests just above the neck
of the painted body. A white background is arranged behind and when
the negative is made all traces of the edges of the foreground are
removed by careful re-touching.

[Illustration: FIG. 45.--CARICATURE]

[Illustration: FIG. 46.--MAKING THE CARICATURE PORTRAIT.]

Another method of obtaining grotesque caricature portraits has been
devised by M. Ducos du Hauron. His apparatus, which he calls "La
Photographie Transformiste," is thus described by Schnauss in his
"Photographic Pastimes." A, Fig. 47, is the front of the box, which is
furnished with an exposing shutter formed of a simple sliding piece
fitting into the grooves R R, R R. B P are two screens pierced with
slits _a a_, _c c_. C is the rear end of the box where the dark slide
is placed. D is the lid of the box, which is lifted either for placing
the slotted screens or for putting in the sensitive plate. When not
working direct from nature, the transparency is placed in the grooves
R R, R R, at A.

[Illustration: FIG. 47.--THE HAURON "TRANSFORMISTE."]

[Illustration: FIG. 48.--PHOTOGRAPH AND DISTORTIONS WITH THE
"TRANSFORMISTE."]

According to the arrangement of the slits, the caricatures obtained
will be different. If, for instance, the first slit be a vertical one,
and the other, _i.e._, the one nearest the picture, a horizontal one,
the picture, in comparison with the original, will be distorted
lengthwise. If, however, one of the slits forms no straight line, but
a curved one, the transformed picture will show either lengthwise or
sideways curved lines, according to the slit being a vertical or a
horizontal one. The form of the resulting picture will also be
different according to which one of the slotted plates is placed more
or less obliquely in the box.

[Illustration: FIG. 49.]

[Illustration: FIG. 50.]

[Illustration: FIG. 51.]

[Illustration: FIG. 52.]

The slits must be made very exactly; above all, their edges must be
absolutely sharp, every incorrectness being transferred to the
picture. They may be made about one-third of a millimeter wide; if
they are too narrow the picture will not turn out sharp. In making the
slits it is a good plan to cut them in thin black paper, and to mount
the latter on glass plates.

[Illustration: FIG. 53.]

In a later description of the apparatus we learn that the discs
containing the slits are often made circular in shape and so arranged
that they can be revolved as shown in Fig. 53. This, of course, allows
of a still greater variety of positions of the two apertures in
relation to each other and an increasing number of grotesque effects.
Reproductions of some of the pictures obtained are given.[3] See Figs.
48 to 52.

[3] Reprinted from _La Science en Famille_.



PHOTOGRAPHING SEAWEEDS.


[Illustration: FIG. 54.--SEAWEED PHOTOGRAPH.]

Of all the glorious creations of nature few are more beautiful than
the delicate sea mosses to be found by the sea shore. Many delight in
preserving them in a dry state, mounted on cards, but unfortunately
they are usually so fragile that after a little while they fall to
pieces. The photographer, however, is able to reproduce these
beautiful formations and preserve them in a more permanent form by
means of his camera. It is true that he cannot reproduce their
delicate colorings, but the photographs can, if so desired, be lightly
printed on platinum paper and colored as well as possible by hand.



STAMP PORTRAITS.


A SPECIAL camera is sold for making these little pictures.

[Illustration: FIG. 55.--STAMP CAMERA.]

It contains a number of lenses all of the same focus. In front is an
easel where the portrait is attached, surrounded by a suitable border.
The images given are about the size of postage stamps (see Fig. 56),
and when the negative is printed on a printing out or developing
paper, toned or developed, they can be perforated and gummed at the
back. They are very useful for sticking to letters, envelopes, and for
business purposes.

[Illustration: FIG. 56. STAMP PHOTO.]



LUMINOUS PHOTOGRAPHS.


There are several different ways of making these. Obtain some
Balmain's luminous paint, and coat a piece of cardboard with it. Place
this in the dark until it is no longer luminous; place this behind a
glass transparency and expose to light, either daylight or, if at
night-time, burn a small piece of magnesium wire. Return to the dark,
remove the transparency, and a luminous photograph is obtained on the
prepared card. A simple plan is to merely expose a piece of the
prepared cardboard to the light and place it behind a transparency;
then retire to a darkened room. The luminous paint, showing through
it, will have a very pretty effect. If no glass transparency is at
hand, a silver print can be used, if previously oiled and rendered
translucent by vaseline or any other means.



FLORAL PHOTOGRAPHY.


Perhaps the beauties of nature are nowhere better exemplified than in
flowers, and nothing can be prettier than photographs of them
carefully arranged. When we say carefully arranged we mean, of course,
artistically. The secret of arranging flowers--an art in itself--is to
hide the fact that they have been arranged.

Among the best pictures of flowers which have appeared in print, are
those by John Carpenter, an English gentleman, who has made this
particular branch of photography his chief study, and has been awarded
many prizes and medals for flower studies.

Some time ago we wrote to him asking for a few particulars of his
method adopted, and he has been so very kind as to send the following
valuable notes:

_Suitable Flowers._--I find that the best colors to photograph are
pale pink, yellow, white or variegated colors. Reds, browns, and dark
colors generally, do _not_ answer well.

Flowers of irregular form are most suitable, such, for example, as
chrysanthemums, lilies, poppies, etc. These give beautiful gradations
of light and shade.

_Grouping._--There is great scope here for artistic feeling. All
appearance of formal arrangement must be avoided and a natural
grouping should be aimed at. This becomes more difficult as the
flowers must be somewhat on one plane to get them in proper focus. A
round bunch of flowers which may appear very pretty to the eye would
probably be utterly wrong to make a picture of.

[Illustration: Fannie Cassidy. FIG. 57.--A BOWL OF ROSES.]

_Lighting._--I have never worked in a studio, but have a small lean-to
glass house in which I work. The top light is softened down by light
shades so that the strongest light comes from the side. This gives
solidity to the subject and is more pleasing than a flat lighting. Of
course, the sun should never shine on the subject.

_Plates and Exposure._--If colored flowers are being photographed,
orthochromatic plates are a necessity, but for white flowers and
light-green foliage ordinary plates may be employed. I generally use a
medium isochromatic, stop the lens to _f_:22 and give exposure of from
thirty to sixty seconds in summer and vary according to the season;
sometimes twenty _minutes_ is not too much.

_Development._--My usual and favorite developer is pyro-ammonia, and
in careful hands it cannot be beaten. I commence development with a
minimum of pyro and work tentatively.

Using such a solution, for 2 ounces of developer I should commence
with 1-1/2 grains pyro, 1 grain bromide, and 2 grains ammonia. If the
image does not gain sufficient density add more pyro and bromide, but
unless very fully exposed it is difficult to avoid too much density,
especially if white flowers are being photographed.

I find a plain gray or dark background most useful, and to avoid
flatness it may be set at an angle and not too near the subject.

Flowers should be photographed as soon as gathered, and if possible be
placed in water. I have often found a plate spoiled by movement of the
leaves or flowers, even with short exposures, although the movement
was not perceptible to the eye. This is more especially the case in
hot weather.



DISTORTED IMAGES.


Take a portrait negative that is no longer of any use, and immerse it
in a weak solution of hydrofluoric acid. The film will leave the
glass. It is then washed and returned to the glass support. By
stretching the film one way or the other, and allowing it to dry in
this position, the most amusing prints can be made. Keep your fingers
out of the acid!



PHOTOGRAPHS WITHOUT LIGHT.


A curious experiment showing that a photographic dry-plate can be
otherwise affected than by light, so as to form an image upon it, is
the following:

An image of copper in relief is necessary--a penny will do for this
purpose. Place an unexposed dry-plate in a normal pyro developer, and
on it lay the copper coin. After about five minutes or so, remove the
penny, fix and wash the plate, when a perfect image of the penny will
be found on it.



ELECTRIC PHOTOGRAPHS.


Similar experiments to that described above have been carried out by
Prof. Fernando Sanford. He placed a coin on a dry-plate and connected
it with the terminal of a small induction coil, capable of giving a
spark of three or four millimeters, while a piece of tin foil upon the
opposite side of the plate was connected with the other terminal of
the coil.

Several negatives were made in this way, the accompanying photograph,
Fig. 58, being from one of them. With one exception, they all show a
fringe around them, due to the escape of the charge from the edge of
the coin, which accounts for the formation of the dark ring observed
around the breath figures made upon glass.

Later on he undertook to photograph in the same way objects insulated
from the photographic plate, and has since made negatives of coins
separated from the plate by paraffine, shellac, mica, and gutta
percha. The accompanying photograph, Fig. 59, was made with the coin
insulated from the photographic plate by a sheet of mica about 0.04
mm. thick. The mica was laid directly upon the film side of the plate,
and the coin was placed upon it and connected to one terminal of the
small induction coil already mentioned. A circular piece of tin foil
of the circumference of the coin was placed upon the glass side of the
plate directly opposite the coin, and was connected to the other
terminal of the induction coil. The little condenser thus made was
clamped between two boards, and was covered up in a dark room. Two
small discharging knobs were also attached to the terminals of the
induction coil, and were separated by a space of less than a
millimeter, so that, when a single cell was connected with the primary
coil, the spark between the knobs seemed continuous.

[Illustration: FIG. 58.]

[Illustration: FIG. 59.]

The plate was exposed to the action of the waves set up in this
condenser for one hour, when it was taken out and the negative image
developed upon it by the usual process.



MAGIC VIGNETTES.


These are reversed vignettes, that is to say, the margins round the
portrait instead of being white as in the ordinary vignette are black.
A method of making them was recently described by "Teinte" in _The
Photogram_. This was as follows:

Two methods can be adopted. The first of these about to be detailed,
though entailing, perhaps, in the first place a trifle more trouble,
produces the best results. We require a black background, preferably
of black velveteen, large enough for a head and shoulders. As the
material is not usually obtainable of a width greater than twenty
inches or so, there will have to be a seam, and this must be very
neatly done. The seamed velveteen is then stretched taut on a frame,
which should preferably be covered first with calico, to prevent
"sagging." Always, before use, dust the velveteen with a soft
brush--say, a hat brush--to remove any adhering dust or fluff. Instead
of velveteen, a good paper background can be used, only it must be
seen that the surface is smooth and free from cracks or creases, and
is _dead black_.

[Illustration: FIG. 60.--MAGIC VIGNETTER.]

We require also a vignetting mask suitable to the subject, with a
serrated edge. This has to be fixed inside the camera between the lens
and plate.[4] The proper position can be found by trial; the further
the card is away from the plate the softer and more gradual the
vignetting. No special arrangement for holding this is required beyond
what can be prepared by any one who can use his fingers. We take a
piece of stout card, the outside of which will just fit into the
folds of the camera's bellows, and by a little twisting it can be
sprung in between the folds which will hold it. There is an opening in
the center, square in shape, about quarter plate size. This acts as a
frame to hold the vignetting mask, which has the opening of proper
size and shape. By using a frame as described the vignetter can be
moved about up and down and from side to side, and when the correct
position is found fixed by drawing pins. The frame and vignetter
should be blacked all over. For this purpose take some lampblack
ground in turps, and mix with it a little gold size sufficient (found
by trial) to prevent the lampblack from rubbing off when dry, but not
enough to cause the paint to dry shiny.

[4] A vignetter for the purpose, as shown in Fig. 60, has been placed
on the market.

A good distance to fix the vignetter is about one-third the extension
of the camera when the object is in focus, measuring from the lens.

We adjust the camera so that the image of the figure falls in the
correct position on the screen, and the vignette is made of such a
size and shape as to give the amount required.

The shadow of the mask protects the edges of the plate surrounding the
image, and in development we obtain a negative in which the image is
vignetted into clear glass, and on printing from such the margins
print dark. The printing of such a negative should be prolonged until
the margins of the picture are quite lost, or they are apt to show
after toning.

The sketch shows the arrangement of vignetter inside camera.

The other plan consists in making an ordinary negative, using
preferably a dark background. From this is made a vignette in the
ordinary manner. When this comes from the frame it is placed on a
piece of clean glass--face up--and another piece of glass free from
flaws placed over it. Now cut a piece of card to the size and shape of
the vignetted portion of the print, and fix this with glue to a piece
of cork. This piece of cork must vary in thickness with various
pictures. Now place the cork on the glass so that the mask covers the
picture and fix with glue to prevent slipping. Place the whole out in
diffused light, and allow the darkening of the margins to go on until
sufficiently deep. The print is then toned.

The height of the card from the print must be such that no abrupt line
is produced between the first printing and the darkened margin, but
that one will shade into the other without break.



A SIMPLE METHOD OF ENLARGING.


If we have an ordinary gelatine negative, say, of half-plate size, and
require to enlarge it to a whole plate, the simplest plan is to
thoroughly wash it and immerse in a solution composed of citric acid,
2 ounces; hydrofluoric acid, 1 ounce; acetic acid (glacial), 1 ounce;
glycerine, 1/2 ounce; water, 20 ounces. The action of the hydrofluoric
acid will be to detach the film from the glass, while the other acids
will cause the film to spread out considerably; the action being even
all over, the image is completely enlarged. It is then carefully
removed and washed in plenty of clean water, after which it can be
transferred to a larger piece of glass. The action is sometimes to
weaken the negative in density; it is therefore occasionally necessary
to intensify it.



MOONLIGHT EFFECTS.


Curious as it sounds, very good moonlight effects can be procured on a
bright sunshiny day. A photograph is made of a landscape in dazzling
sunlight, a small stop and rapid exposure being given. The plate
should, if possible, be backed with any of the substances recommended
to prevent halation. Choose a landscape, with the reflection of the
sun's rays in water, and include this and the sun itself on the plate.
It is best to wait, however, until the sun just disappears behind a
cloud. Shade the lens so that the rays do not shine on it direct, and
expose rapidly. Use an old or weak developer. The sun and its
reflection will, of course, make their appearance first. Continue the
development until the detail in the under-exposed parts is just
visible, and fix. Print very darkly, and slightly over tone. If
printing is done upon green developing paper, and a little re-touching
with Chinese white, the effect is very good.

[Illustration: Photographed from Nature by Fred. Graf. FIG.
61.--MOONLIGHT PHOTOGRAPH.]



PHOTOGRAPHING SNOW AND ICE CRYSTALS.


There are few photographers who appear to be aware of the many
beautiful phenomena of nature that can be studied by the aid of
photography. Under the title of "Schnee Crystalle," Dr. G. Hellmann
has published[5] a book on this subject profusely illustrated with
engravings and photo-micrographic collotypes from direct photographs
by Dr. R. Neuhaus.

[5] Rudolph Muckenberger, Berlin.

[Illustration: FIG. 62.--SNOW CRYSTALS. PHOTO BY DR. NEUHAUS.]

Dr. Neuhaus describes his method of photographing snowflakes in Dr.
Eder's Jarbuch, from which article we extract the most important and
interesting paragraphs: Were we to attempt to photograph snow crystals
in a perfectly cold room, the temperature is still higher than that
out of doors; moisture at once precipitates upon the carrier of the
object; the crystals would melt and evaporate after a short time. The
work must be done in the open, and perfect success can be expected
only when the temperature is near zero.

[Illustration: FIG. 63.--SNOW CRYSTALS. PHOTO BY DR. NEUHAUS.]

Snow crystals evaporate rapidly even in low temperature, and the work
requires to be done rapidly and with caution. Freshly fallen snow only
will give a good photograph, and as we are compelled to work in the
midst of the snow storm, the task becomes still more complicated and
difficult. Snow crystals but a short time after falling break, the
broken pieces freeze together and crystallization is destroyed. For
the illumination of snow crystals, transmitted light only can be used;
reflected light destroys the shadows, and injures the high lights,
and the result is necessarily but a very imperfect picture of the
object.

[Illustration: Photo by Martin. FIG. 64.--A NATURAL PHENOMENON IN
ICE.]

Diffused light, especially that of a dark winter's day, and during a
snow storm, is not fit for this kind of photo-micrographic work, and
we must resort to artificial light, preferably to that of a petroleum
lamp. To prevent heat action emanating from the illuminating ray cone,
an absorptive cell of alum solution should be interposed. As alum
solution freezes at about 20° Fahr., chloride of sodium is added. With
Hartnark's projection system, at 31 mm. focus distance, from 5 to 7
seconds upon an erythrosine plate is ample.

[Illustration: FIG. 65.--PHOTOGRAPH OF FROST CRYSTALS. BY JAS.
LEADBEATER.]

Dr. Neuhaus has made photographs of more than 60 different ice and
snow specimens. The pictures of ice crystals much resemble those of
hoar frost, deposited after a cold winter's night. Of snow crystals,
the doublets are highly interesting, two crystals merged into one, and
those having passed through a moist stratum of air, when microscopic
drops of water will freeze into the hexagonal form, giving the picture
an appearance very much resembling cauliflower.

[Illustration: FIG. 66.--PHOTOGRAPH OF FROST. BY JAS. LEADBEATER.]

The most difficult question of all remains, the cause of the various
forms of the hexagonal crystals, which frequently change in the same
snowfall. Instead of advancing a new hypothesis, says Hellmann, it is
better to acknowledge that we know nothing positively in regard to
this. In our knowledge of the form and structure of the snow we have
made great advance since the time of Kepler, but after nearly four
hundred years, we cannot give a satisfactory answer to his question,
"_Cur autem sexangula? Why six-sided?_"

We do not know the special conditions which determine the formation of
one or the other form of snow crystals. We have found that a low
temperature favors the formation of tabular crystals; a higher
temperature the star shaped crystals; these groups show such
multifarious forms that it is necessary to seek for other causes which
influence the formation of snow figures. There is offered here a broad
field for new investigation and study.

We give a reproduction (Fig. 64) of a photograph of a curious group of
crystals. Some water had been left in a 10×8 dish on a winter day, and
a film of ice was seen floating on the surface. The formation of the
crystals and the floral design were so beautiful that it was taken out
and photographed. The delicate lace-like edging of the glacial tracery
is the result of the deposition of hoar frost while draining off the
water from the ice leaves and flowers and fixing the image in the
camera.

Quite recently Mr. Jas. Leadbeater has favored us with some account of
his beautiful work in this fascinating branch of photography, some
samples of which are here given. He first makes his windows perfectly
clear and waits for a keen frost. The camera is inside the room and a
dark cloth-covered board is placed on the outside, leaning against a
low balcony of wood. The exposure varies with the thickness of the
crystals, from two to ten seconds, principally with a very small stop.
Two reproductions of his pictures will be found on pp. 76-77.



PHOTOGRAPHING INK CRYSTALS.


The study of crystallization is undoubtedly an interesting and
fascinating one, and photography may be made to play an important part
in securing permanent records of these curious formations. If a drop
of water containing a salt be allowed to drop upon a glass plate, it
will, upon evaporation, deposite crystals of various kinds. In a
recent article in _La Nature_, by Dr. E. Trouessart, a description is
given of the beautiful crystallic forms deposited by a drop of ink on
evaporation. The article is translated in the _Literary Digest_, from
which we make extracts:

"Take a sheet of glass, deposit on it a drop of ink and spread the
drop a little, uniformly; let it dry for a few minutes; then examine
with a microscope, magnifying from 50 to 200 diameters, and you will
be able to see the flowers of ink in process of formation under your
eyes; that is to say, regular white crystal particles which detach
themselves from the black or violet medium, and arrange themselves so
as to form regular figures.

"If you are pressed for time, this beautiful result will easily be
obtained by passing the sheet of glass over a spirit lamp or a candle
to evaporate the moisture. The crystals will then be smaller and more
numerous, presenting the appearance of a dark firmament densely
sprinkled with bright silvery stars. But if you have patience to wait
for evaporation without heat, you will obtain larger crystals of more
varied forms, arranging themselves as crosses, flowers, etc.

"These crystals may be varied indefinitely by modifying the
compositions of evaporation, adding more ink, etc. But it is quite
possible that different inks will give different results. The inks I
use, like all the other inks in use, have a basis of sulphate of iron
and gallic acid.

[Illustration: From "The Literary Digest." FIG. 67.--INK-CRYSTALS, AS
SEEN THROUGH A MICROSCOPE.]

"By allowing the evaporation to proceed slowly, it is quite easy to
watch the formation of the crystals. The geometrical figures are more
or less perfect cubes, pyramids, lozenges, crosses, needles, etc., the
pyramids being formed by cubes superposed one on the other, as in the
pyramids of Egypt. The _flowers_ in our illustration are formed by the
union of crystals, each of which represents the petals or sepals of a
flower. The Maltese cross--the crucifer or four-leafed flower--is the
normal regular form, but multiples of four frequently occur, by the
formation of new crystals in the intervals; and also by the accidents
of crystallization, we get flowers of three and five petals,
resembling _Rubiaceae_, lilies, orchids, violets, etc."



PINHOLE PHOTOGRAPHY.


Although a lens is the most important part of the photographer's
apparatus, it is not absolutely necessary for the production of
photographs. Very good pictures can be made by means of a pinhole.
Remove the lens from the camera, and insert in its place a sheet of
thin, hard cardboard. In the centre make a tiny hole with a
fine-pointed needle made red-hot. Another method is to make a large
hole in the cardboard, and paste over it a piece of tinfoil and make
the pinhole in this. The essential point is that the hole be perfectly
round without any burring at the edges. The most perfect arrangement
can be obtained by getting a watchmaker to drill a fine hole through a
piece of sheet metal. The diameter of the hole should not be greater
than one-fiftieth of an inch. Whatever is used, cardboard or metal, it
should be blackened all over to prevent the reflection of light in the
camera. The focusing glass should be brought within about 6 inches of
the hole. Owing to the small amount of light admitted, focusing is
very difficult. It can be done by pointing the camera towards the sun
and focusing its image. For the same reason the exposure is very long,
ranging from ten minutes to half an hour; it is, in fact, difficult to
overexpose.

[Illustration: Negative by F. C. Lambert. From Anthony's International
Annual, 1894. FIG. 68.--PINHOLE PHOTOGRAPHY.]

[Illustration: (Photograph made through a slit without a lens.) By
Roland Briant. FIG. 69.--THE WHITE ROBE OF NATURE.]

It is usually stated that no focusing is required, the larger the
plate the wider the angle, but according to Prof. Pickering, 12 inches
is the maximum distance for sharp work.

Peculiar diffused effects can be obtained by using a fine slit in
place of the pinhole. The picture shown on page 82 is an example.



FREAK PICTURES BY SUCCESSIVE EXPOSURES.


We have already described the various remarkable photographic pictures
which may be taken by successive exposures with the same individual in
different positions against a perfectly black and non-actinic
background. This, however, is not easily obtained, and a French
photographer, M. Bracq, has invented an ingenious attachment to a
camera by which the same effects may be obtained with any background
and under the ordinary conditions of amateur photography. The
following description is from _La Nature_ translated in the _Popular
Science News_.

[Illustration: FIG. 70.]

The apparatus, Fig. 70, is attached to the back of the camera, and
consists of a frame suitable for holding the usual ground glass, or
plate holder. Directly in front of the plate holder is placed an
opaque screen perforated with a horizontal slit the width of the
photographic plate used. By means of a screw and a crank the screen
with its opening may be made to move up and down before the plate,
thus allowing all parts of it to be successively exposed. A pointer
connected with the screen shows the position of the slit at any time
when it is covered by the plate holder.

The operation of the apparatus is evident from the above description.
To take the picture illustrated in Fig. 71, for instance, the table
with the boy upon it is placed in the proper position and supported by
planks, another table, or in any convenient way. After properly
focusing it on the ground glass, the screen is screwed down till the
opening is at the bottom of the camera, and the plate holder being
placed in position, the slide is drawn and the handle turned till the
indicator shows that the opening has reached a point corresponding to
the image of the bottom of the table on the plate. The slide is then
replaced in the plate holder, the table and its support removed, and
the boy placed in the second position, and the exposure continued by
screwing up the screen until the entire plate has been impressed with
the double image, which, upon development, appears as shown in the
illustration.

[Illustration: FIG. 71.]

The perforated screen may also be made to move horizontally as well as
vertically across the plate, and by a combination of the two
directions the same individual may be taken four or more times in
different positions in the same photograph. Many amusing and
astonishing effects may be obtained by the simple means which will
readily suggest themselves to any practical photographer.



WIDE-ANGLE STUDIES.


[Illustration: Copyright, 1894, by W. J. Demorest. FIG. 72.--A
PHOTOGRAPHIC FEAT.]

By the use, or rather the abuse, of a lens having a very wide angle,
say, 100 degrees, some very amusing effects can be obtained by
apparent exaggeration of perspective. We say apparent advisedly, for
if a view made with one of these lenses, say of 5 inches focus, be
viewed by the observer at a distance of 5 inches from the eye, the
perspective will appear correct; but, of course, this is never done
under ordinary circumstances. Every person, unless extremely
short-sighted, will hold a photograph at a distance from the eye of
about 12 or 14 inches.

[Illustration: FIG. 73.--A WIDE-ANGLE STUDY.]

The effect of using a wide-angle lens under ordinary conditions is to
make objects in the foreground appear ridiculously large, while those
in the background have a diminished appearance. Fig. 72 is an example
of this; it is hardly necessary to observe that the gentleman's pedal
extremities were not so gigantic as represented in the photograph.
Fig. 73 is another and scarcely less painful example of this
exaggeration.

In the _Practical Photographer_, some time ago, it was humorously
suggested that sportsmen could, by means of the camera, bring home
apparently indisputable evidence as to their skill or prowess. Thus,
for instance, you and your friend Jones have been out fishing
together, and realized the truth of the old saying about
anglers--_i.e._, "a worm at one end of a rod and a fool at the other."
You have, however, managed to catch a fish (any sort will do) about
the dimensions of a good-sized sprat. It is the usual custom of
anglers, I believe, to view their captures through magnifying-glasses
before discoursing upon them. A better plan, however, is to photograph
your fish, and then there can be no dispute whatever, because it is
the popular belief that photography cannot lie. However, all that is
necessary is to hang the fish in front of the camera to the bough of a
tree, we will say, with a piece of black thread. You then retire
several paces behind it, holding up your arm as if you were holding up
the fish. Your friend will then adjust the camera so that the fish
just comes under your hand, focuses, places a very small stop on, so
as to get everything sharply defined, and makes the necessary
exposure. Thus it is possible, with a little trouble, to obtain
everlasting records of your marvelous day's sport, for you can
easily make yourself appear to be holding a fish of gigantic
proportions--say, 5 ft. long, or so. Fig. 74, 75.

[Illustration: FIG. 74.]

[Illustration: FIG. 75.]

Our illustrations are from "Photographic Pastimes" by Herman Schauss.

With a very wide-angle lens it is also possible to make a photograph
of a little suburban garden, and it will appear to resemble a park or
palace grounds. This is a trick often adopted by auctioneers and
estate agents, so that in viewing photographs of property, it is
really impossible to form any safe idea regarding the place itself.



CONICAL PORTRAITS.


Amusing caricatures may be obtained by deforming the sensitive surface
of the negative. The accompanying conical portrait is one.[6]

[6] From "Les Recreations Photographiques."

[Illustration: FIG. 76.]

To depict the features of a person on a paper cone is not an easy
matter; whilst to obtain them by photography is a tolerably simple
operation.

[Illustration: FIG. 77.]

[Illustration: FIG. 78.]

Having glued on the interior face of a plate-holder (the slide being
drawn), in the place of a sensitive plate, a cone made of strong
cardboard, superpose on it an unexposed film which has been cut to
the form of the development of the cone (as shown in Fig. 77). The
film is secured by means of two or three pins. Having focused on a
point of the subject in a middle plane, the ground glass is afterwards
drawn back a distance equal to half the height of the cone, taking
care not to derange either the subject or the objective. To obtain a
sharp image a very small diaphragm must necessarily be used, but with
a rapid plate and good light that is of little moment. The camera
should be placed in the dark room, the lens being inserted in a hole
in the partition just its size, and the subject in the adjoining
apartment opposite the lens--this because the cone will not allow the
plate-holder to be closed by the slide.

Fig. 76 shows the arrangement of the camera and holder. The exposure
made, the film is developed, as usual. The negative gives a print
deformed as shown in Fig. 76. The original, if not grotesque
appearance of the head disappears when the print is rolled into a
conical form and the observer places his eye in the prolongation of
the axis of the cone. Fig. 78 shows the head as seen under these
conditions.



MAKING DIRECT POSITIVES IN THE CAMERA.


Prepare a saturated solution in water of the crystals of thiosinamine,
and add from two to eight minims of it to an ordinary pyro or
eikonogen developer. Expose rather less than usual. The effect of this
addition to the developing agent is an entire reversal of the image, a
positive instead of a negative being obtained. Ammonia will assist the
reversal. Colonel Waterhouse, the discoverer of this process,
recommends in some cases the plates being subjected to a bath of 5 per
cent nitric acid and 3 per cent potassium bichromate before exposure,
followed by a thorough washing.



INSTANTANEOUS PHOTOGRAPHY.


In the very earliest days of photography this term was applied to what
would now be considered very slow work indeed. We now usually apply
this term when the exposure does not exceed one second. In some cases
this only amounts to the one-thousandth part of a second. This
exceedingly brief exposure is usually given to the plate by means of a
suitably constructed shutter.

The immense strides that have recently been made in instantaneous
photography, owing chiefly to the advent of the dry-plate process,
have caused photography to become useful to almost every branch of
science.

To Muybridge and Anschutz we are greatly indebted for the strides made
in instantaneous photography. These gentlemen have succeeded in
photographing moving objects hitherto considered impossible to be
photographed. Galloping horses, swift-flying birds, and even bullets
and cannon balls projected from guns have been successfully
photographed, showing even the little head of air driven along in
front of the bullet.

[Illustration: FIG. 79.]

Both Muybridge and Anschutz also succeeded in making series of
twenty-four or more photographs of a horse during the time it makes a
single leap, and thus illustrated its every movement. The value of
these and other possibilities with the camera for artists cannot be
overestimated. Its aid to meteorologists in photographing the
lightning, to astronomers in stellar, lunar and solar photography, and
to all other sciences would require a work as large as this to
describe.

[Illustration: By Lt. Joachim Steiner. FIG. 80.--INSTANTANEOUS
STUDIES.]

For the making of instantaneous pictures a large number of suitable
cameras have been devised. In most of these the lens is a very rapid
one, and in some cases so arranged that all objects beyond a certain
distance are in focus. With an instantaneous camera a secondary image
is necessary, so that the right second can be judged for making the
exposure. This is usually produced by a finder. In making
instantaneous exposures the following tables may be useful:

                                                Approximate distance
                                                 feet per second
    A man walking 3 miles per hour moves             4-1/2
    A man walking 4 miles per hour moves                 6
    A vessel traveling at 9 knots per hour moves        15
    A vessel traveling at 12 knots per hour moves       19
    A vessel traveling at 17 knots per hour moves       28
    A torpedo boat traveling at 20 knots per hour moves 35
    A trotting horse                                    36
    A galloping horse (1,000 yards per minute)          50
    An express train traveling at 38 miles an hour      59
    Flight of a pigeon or falcon                        61
    Waves during a storm                                65
    Express train (60 miles an hour)                    88
    Flight of the swiftest birds                       294
    A cannon ball                                    1,625

    An object moving--

      1  mile per hour moves             1-1/2 feet per second.
      2     "          "                 3        "        "
      5     "          "                 7-1/2    "        "
      6     "          "                 9        "        "
      7     "          "                10-1/2    "        "
      8     "          "                12        "        "
      9     "          "                13        "        "
     10     "          "                14-1/2    "        "
     11     "          "                15        "        "
     12     "          "                17-1/2    "        "
     15     "          "                22        "        "
     20     "          "                29        "        "
     25     "          "                37        "        "
     30     "          "                44        "        "
     35     "          "                51        "        "
     40     "          "                59        "        "
     45     "          "                66        "        "
     50     "          "                73        "        "
     55     "          "                80        "        "
     60     "          "                88        "        "
     75     "          "               110        "        "
    100     "          "               147        "        "
    125     "          "               183        "        "
    150     "          "               220        "        "
    200     "          "               257        "        "

With these tables it will be very easy to find the distance that the
image of the object will move on the ground-glass screen of the camera.
To do this, multiply the focus of the lens in inches by the distance
moved by the object in the second, and divide the result by the
distance of the object in inches.

[Illustration: FIG. 81.--"A RISE IN THE WORLD." BY THE MARQUIS DE
ALFARRAS.]

Example, find the movement of the image of an object moving 50 miles
per hour at a distance of 100 yards with a lens of 9-inch focus.

    9 × 876 = 7,884 ÷ 3,600 = 2-1/5 inches per second.

We must also find out the speed of the shutter required to take the
object in motion, so that it will appear as sharply defined as
possible under the circumstances. To do this the circle of confusion
must not exceed 1/100th of an inch in diameter. We therefore divide
the distance of the object by the focus of the lens multiplied by 100,
and then divide the rapidity of the object in inches per second by the
result obtained. This will give the longest exposure permissible in
the fraction of a second. For example, we require to know the speed of
a shutter required to photograph an express train travelling at the
rate of 50 miles per hour at a distance of 50 yards with an 8-1/2-inch
focus lens.

The train moves 876 inches per second.

    1,800 distance in inches ÷ (8-1/2 × 100) = 1,800 ÷ 850 = 36/17.

    876 speed of object per second ÷ 36/17 = (876 × 17)/36 = 413
                                           = 1/413 second.

Given the rapidity of the shutter, and the speed of the moving object,
we require to find the distance from the object the camera should be
placed to give a circle of confusion less than 1/100th of an inch.
Multiply 100 times the focus of the lens by the space through which
the object would pass during the exposure, and the result obtained
will be the nearest possible distance between the object and the
camera. For example, we have a shutter working at one-fiftieth of a
second, and the object to be photographed moves at the rate of 50
miles per hour. How near can a camera fitted with a lens of 8-1/2-inch
focus be placed to the moving object?

Object moving 50 miles per hour moves per second 876 inches, and in
the one-fiftieth part of a second it moves 17.52 inches, so that--

    8-1/2 × 17.52 = 8.5 × 100 × 17.52 = 14,892 inches = 413 yards.

Instantaneous photography can only be successfully performed in very
bright and actinic light, and should never be attempted on dull days,
as underexposure will be the inevitable result. In developing it is
necessary to employ a strong developer to bring up the detail. Some
operators make use of an accelerator for this purpose, but it is not
to be recommended; the simplest is a few drops of hyposulphite
solution added to about 10 ounces of water. In this the plate is
bathed for a few seconds previous to development.

The following is a table by H. E. Tolman showing displacement on
ground glass of objects in motion:

    ==============================================================
              |         | Distance on  |              |
              |         |Ground Glass  |              |
              |         |  in Inches   |  Same with   | Same with
    Miles per |Feet per |with Object 30|Object 60 Feet| Object 120
      Hour.   | Second. | Feet Away.   |    Away.     | Feet Away.
    ----------+---------+--------------+--------------+-----------
         1    |   1-1/2 |      .29     |      .15     |   .073
         2    |   3     |      .59     |      .29     |   .147
         3    |   4-1/2 |      .88     |      .44     |   .220
         4    |   6     |     1.17     |      .59     |   .293
         5    |   7-1/2 |     1.47     |      .73     |   .367
         6    |   9     |     1.76     |      .88     |   .440
         7    |  10-1/2 |     2.05     |     1.03     |   .513
         8    |  12     |     2.35     |     1.17     |   .587
         9    |  13     |     2.64     |     1.32     |   .660
        10    |  14-1/2 |     2.93     |     1.47     |   .733
        11    |  16     |     3.23     |     1.61     |   .807
        12    |  17-1/2 |     3.52     |     1.76     |   .880
        13    |  19     |     3.81     |     1.91     |   .953
        14    |  20-1/2 |     4.11     |     2.05     |  1.027
        15    |  22     |     4.40     |     2.20     |  1.100
        20    |  29     |     5.87     |     2.93     |  1.467
        25    |  37     |     7.33     |     3.67     |  1.833
        30    |  44     |     8.80     |     4.40     |  2.200
        35    |  51     |    10.27     |     5.13     |  2.567
        40    |  59     |    11.73     |     5.97     |  2.933
        45    |  66     |    13.20     |     6.60     |  3.300
        50    |  73     |    14.67     |     7.33     |  3.667
        55    |  80     |    16.13     |     8.06     |  4.033
        60    |  88     |    17.60     |     8.80     |  4.400
        75    | 110     |    22.00     |    11.00     |  5.500
       100    | 117     |    29.33     |    14.67     |  7.333
       125    | 183     |    36.67     |    18.33     |  9.167
       150    | 220     |    44.00     |    22.00     | 11.000
    ----------+---------+--------------+--------------+-----------

[Illustration: FIG. 82.--ARTIFICIAL REPRODUCTION AND PHOTOGRAPHING OF
A MIRAGE]



ARTIFICIAL MIRAGES BY PHOTOGRAPHY.


Some time ago a photographer made quite a sensation by the publication
of a fine photograph of a mirage, a phenomenon frequently observed on
the plains of Egypt. The wily photographer had, however, never
traveled away from this country. He had simply produced the effect by
artificial means. A method of making these pictures was given some
time ago in the _Scientific American_. A very even plate of sheet iron
is taken and placed horizontally on two supports. The plate is heated
uniformly and sprinkled with sand. Then a small Egyptian landscape is
arranged at one end of the plate, and the photographic instrument is
so placed that the visual ray shall properly graze the plate. A sketch
of the arrangement is shown in Fig. 82.



THE PHOTO-CHROMOSCOPE.


This instrument was devised by M. Paul Nadar, the celebrated French
photographer, but anyone can construct a similar apparatus. The
arrangement is shown in Fig. 83.

The slides A and B B are adjustable so that any sized picture can be
inserted and the sides closed round it to shut out the light from
behind. A silver print unmounted is made transparent with vaseline and
placed on the glass. Pieces of paper of various colors are placed in
the reflector, C, and by this means all kinds of effects can be
obtained. A landscape can be viewed as though under the pale reflected
light of the rising sun behind the mountains, which may be changed
gradually to the full light of day.

[Illustration: FIG. 83.--NADAR'S PHOTO-CHROMOSCOPE.]



COMPOSITE PHOTOGRAPHY.


This is a process of combining a number of images in such a way that
the result obtained is an aggregate of its components. Francis Galton
was one of the first to employ this system. In the appendix to his
"Inquiries into Human Faculty," Galton has described the very
elaborate and perfect form of apparatus which he has used in his
studies; but entirely satisfactory results may be obtained with much
more simple contrivances. The instrument used by Prof. Bowditch[7] is
merely an old-fashioned box camera, with a hole cut in the top for the
reception of the ground-glass plate upon which the image is to be
reflected for purposes of adjustment. The reflection is effected by a
mirror set at an angle of 45 degrees in the axis of the camera, and
pivoted on its upper border so that, after the adjustment of the
image, the mirror can be turned against the upper side of the box, and
the image allowed to fall on the sensitive plate at the back of the
camera. The original negatives are used as components, and are placed
in succession in a small wooden frame which is pressed by elliptical
springs against a sheet of glass fastened vertically in front of the
camera. By means of this arrangement it is possible to place each
negative in succession in any desired position in a plane
perpendicular to the axis of the camera, and thus to adjust it so that
the eyes and the mouth of its optical image shall fall upon the
fiducial lines drawn upon the ground-glass plate at the top of the
camera. An Argand gas burner with a condensing lens furnishes the
necessary illumination.

[7] From _McClure's Magazine_, September, 1894.

"For our amateur photographers," writes Prof. Bowditch, "who are
constantly seeking new worlds to conquer, the opportunity of doing
useful work in developing the possibilities of composite photography
ought to be very welcome. Not only will the science of ethnology
profit by their labors, but by making composites of persons nearly
related to each other, a new and very interesting kind of family
portrait may be produced. The effect of occupation on the physiognomy
may also be studied in this way. By comparing, for instance, the
composite of a group of doctors with that of a group of lawyers, we
may hope to ascertain whether there is such a thing as a distinct
legal or medical physiognomy."

[Illustration: By Prof. Bowditch. FIG. 84.--COMPOSITE PORTRAITS OF
BOSTON PHYSICIANS AND SAXON SOLDIERS.]



TELEPHOTO PICTURES.


[Illustration: FIG. 85.--CAMERA WITH OPERA GLASS ATTACHED.]

During the last few years many so-called telephotographic lenses have
been placed upon the market. These instruments enable one to
photograph objects in the distance and obtain images very much larger
than those given by the ordinary photographic lens. These lenses are,
however, very costly. In an article by Mr. O. G. Mason, published in
_The Photographic Times_ for June, 1895, that gentleman described a
simple method of obtaining telephoto pictures by replacing the
ordinary lens with an opera glass. He says: "Several devices have been
brought forward with a view of decreasing the expense of telephoto
lenses, but I have seen no others so satisfactory, cheap and simple,
as the utilization of the ordinary opera glass for the camera
objective, which was described, figured and finally constructed for me
about a year ago by Mr. Alvin Lawrence, the horologist of Lowell,
Mass. An opera or field glass is a convenient and useful instrument in
the kit of any touring photographer; and when he can easily and
quickly attach it to his camera-box as an objective its great value is
at once made apparent. Mr. Lawrence's method of doing this at little
cost is a good illustration of Yankee ingenuity. It is not claimed
that such a device will do all or as well as a telephotographic lens
costing ten times as much; but it will do far more than most people
could or would expect. Of course the field is quite limited, which, in
fact, is the case with the most expensive telephotographic objective,
and the sharpness of the image depends much upon the quality of the
opera or field glass used. The accompanying views show the relative
size and character of image by a forty-five dollar rapid rectilinear
view lens and a four-dollar opera glass attached to the same camera
and used at the same point. The other illustrations show the camera as
used and the method of opera glass attachment to the lens-board. It
will be seen that the eye end of the opera glass is placed against the
lens-board, one eye-piece in a slight depression around the hole
through the centre, and by a quarter turn the brace between the two
barrels passes behind a projecting arm on the board, the focusing
barrel resting in a slot in this arm, where it is firmly held in
position by friction alone.

[Illustration: FIG. 86.--CAMERA SHOWING ARRANGEMENT FOR OPERA GLASS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 87.--VIEW TAKEN WITH OPERA GLASS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 88.--VIEW TAKEN FROM SAME SPOT WITH AN ORDINARY
VIEW LENS.]

As opera glasses are usually constructed for vision only, no attempt
is made by the optician to make correction for securing coincidence of
foci of the visual and chemical rays of light as in the well-made
photographic objective. Hence, it is often found that the actinic
focus falls within, or is shorter than, the visual. When this is the
case, the proper allowance is easily made after a few trials.



LIGHTNING PHOTOGRAPHS.


[Illustration: FIG. 89.--PHOTOGRAPH OF LIGHTNING MADE AT BLUE HILL.]

The method of making photographs of lightning flashes is very simple.
The camera is focused for distant objects. During a thunderstorm the
camera is pointed in the direction of the flashes, a plate is
inserted, the cap is removed from the lens, and as soon as a flash
takes place the lens is covered up and the plate is ready for
development. To avoid halation a backed or non-halation plate should
be used.



PHOTOGRAPHING FIREWORKS.


Photographs of pyrotechnical displays can also be made at night. The
method of procedure is the same as described for photographs of
lightning. The camera is focused for distant objects and the lens
pointed towards the place where the discharge takes place. Fig. 90.



DOUBLES.


[Illustration: FIG. 91.--A DOUBLE. BY H. G. READING.]

Some very amusing pictures can be made by double exposure. For
instance, Fig. 91 represents a man playing cards with himself. A
method of making these is thus described by W. J. Hickmott in "The
American Annual of Photography for 1894":

[Illustration: By Leonard M. Davis. FIG. 90.--FAREWELL RECEPTION TO
THE PRINCE OF WALES.]

[Illustration: FIG. 91.]

[Illustration: FIG. 92.]

[Illustration: FIG. 93.]

Fit an open square box into the back of the camera, having it fully as
large as, or a little larger than, the negatives you wish to make. My
attachment is made for 8 × 10 plates and under, and fits into the back
of a 10 × 12 camera. In shape it is like Fig. 91, and I will designate
it as A. The box is about 3 inches deep. When put into the camera it
appears as in Fig. 92. Now have a plain strip of wood just one-half
the size of the opening in A like B, Fig. 93. Have B fit very nicely
in A, at the opening toward the lens, and so that it can be moved
freely from one side to the other. It is very convenient to have a
rabbet on the top and bottom of A so that B can be moved from side to
side and maintained in any position.

[Illustration: FIG. 94.]

To make a "Double," attach A to the camera as shown, put B into its
place in the opening in A, say on the right-hand side as you stand
back of your camera, thus covering up the right-hand side of the plate
when exposure is made. Pose your subject on the left hand side, which
will give you an image on the right-hand side of your ground glass and
plate, draw the slide and expose, immediately returning the slide.
This finishes one half of the operation. Shift B over to the left-hand
side of A, which will cover up that portion of the plate just exposed,
pose your subject again, but on the left-hand side, which will give
you the image on the right-hand side of the ground glass and plate,
draw the slide and expose out for the exact length of time as at
first. On development, if the exposure on both sides has been correct,
and of equal length, a perfect negative will be the result.

The camera must on no account be moved between the exposures, nor the
focus changed. After making the first exposure the correct focus for
the second is obtained by moving the subject backward or forward until
an exact focus is secured, and not by moving the camera or ground
glass. The whole apparatus should be painted a dead black.

When the attachment is in place it will be noted on the ground glass
that while the strip B is just one-half the size of the opening in A,
it does not cut off just one-half of the ground glass, a line drawn
through the center of which shows that a space in the center of the
plate about one-half an inch in width receives a double exposure, but
this is not apparent in the finished negative. The figure should be
posed as near the center of the plate as possible in each instance.
This apparatus, as described, is only available for making two
figures. By making B narrower, or one-third of the width of the
opening in A, three figures may be made, using each time a separate
piece to cover up that portion of the plate exposed, and by changing
the form of B to that shown in Fig. 95, four positions can be secured.

[Illustration: FIG. 95.]

Val Starnes describes[8] another and still simpler method. He says:
Take a light card, mount and carefully cut from it a disc that will
fit snugly inside the rim of the hood of your lens, resting against
the circular interior shoulder (Fig. 96). Cut from this, in a
straight, true line, a small segment (Fig. 97). The exact amount to
cut off you can determine by slowly thrusting with one hand a card
with a straight edge across the lens hood, looking the while at the
ground glass; when the shadow has crept _almost_ to the center of the
focusing screen, hold the card firmly in place and notice how much of
the circle of the hood is covered by it: cut from your disc a segment
corresponding to the amount _left uncovered_. Don't let the shadow
creep _quite_ to the center of the ground glass, for you might go the
least bit beyond, and an unexposed strip would result. Now paint your
disc a dull black; loosen the hood of your lens on its threads, so
that it will revolve easily and freely, and you are ready for
business.

[8] "American Annual for 1895."

[Illustration: FIG. 96.]

[Illustration: FIG. 97.]

Get your focus and then place disc in hood of lens, straight edge
perpendicular (Fig. 98). Cover lens with cap or shutter; insert
plate-holder and draw slide; pose your figure _directly in front of
uncovered portion of lens_; expose. Next, without touching disc,
slide, or anything but the hood, gently revolve the hood on its
threads one-half turn (Fig. 99), and pose your figure on opposite
side; expose. The trick's accomplished.

[Illustration: FIG. 98.]

[Illustration: FIG. 99.]

Another arrangement devised by Mr. Frank A. Gilmore, of Auburn, R. I.,
is shown in Fig. 100.

A black-lined box is fitted to the front of a camera. The front of the
box is closed by two doors. On opening one door a picture may be taken
on one side of the plate; on closing this door and opening the other,
the other half of the plate is ready for exposure.

[Illustration: FIG. 100.--CAMERA FITTED WITH ARRANGEMENT FOR DUPLEX
PHOTOGRAPHY.]

The subject poses in one position and is photographed with one door
open, care being taken to bring the figure within the proper area of
the negative. The finder enables this detail to be attended to. Then
the door is closed, the other is opened and the second exposure for
the other half of the plate is made with the subject in the other
position. It is not necessary to touch the plate-holder between the
exposures. The cover is withdrawn, the one door is opened and the
shutter is sprung. The doors are then changed and the shutter is
sprung a second time. Time exposures are rather risky, as involving
danger of shaking. A picture made by Mr. Gilmore will be found on the
next page.

[Illustration: By F. A. Gilmore. From _Scientific American_. FIG.
101.--SPARRING WITH HIMSELF]



DOUBLE EXPOSURES.


[Illustration: By C. A. Bates. FIG. 102.--RESULTS OF A DOUBLE
EXPOSURE.]

[Illustration: Copyright, 1894, by W. J. Demorest. FIG. 103.--RESULT
OF A DOUBLE EXPOSURE.]

Amateurs often obtain unexpected results from carelessness in exposing
their plates. Some very amusing pictures can, however, be obtained by
making two different exposures on one plate. The subject should, of
course, be of a very different nature. Our illustrations, Figs. 102-3,
are examples. In making these it is necessary to give a very short
exposure in each case, about one-half the amount that would be
ordinarily required. The negative must be carefully developed, using
plenty of restrainer. Similar effects can, of course, be obtained by
printing from two different negatives, but the results are, as a rule,
inferior.



COMICAL PORTRAITS.


If the photographer be skilled in drawing he can make some laughable
pictures that will amuse his friends by drawing a sketch of a comical
body without a head, as shown in Fig. 104; a photograph of anyone is
then cut out and the head pasted on.

[Illustration: FIG. 104.]

[Illustration: FIG. 105.--THE TWO-HEADED MAN. BY IVAN SOKOLOFF.]



THE TWO-HEADED MAN.


This picture shows a variation of the theme illustrated in Fig. 94,
and is a type of doublet usually avoided by amateurs, who prefer to
have one figure complete and shown in two positions. The monster is an
amusing variation and will be new to most people. The subject sits in
the same spot for both exposures, except that he bends his head and
shoulders first to one side and then to the other. It is advisable to
keep the background very simple, otherwise objects on the wall may
show through the head, as in some of the spirit photography methods
given on previous pages.



DUPLICATORS AND TRIPLICATORS.


[Illustration: FIG. 106.--MOUNTINGS FOR TRIPLICATORS.]

While doubles are well known to many amateurs, the making of three
exposures of one subject on a single plate is not so common. Mr. Chas.
A. Barnard has furnished particulars of his method of making the
pictures shown in Figs. 107 and 108. Fig. 106 shows two methods of
mounting the attachment in front of the camera lens, one being
designed to slip over, while the other screws into the lens barrel,
the front of which is often fitted with a screw thread. Fig. 109
shows the stops which slide in this mounting; in making them, first
mark on each the position of the center of the lens by measuring up
from the stud which holds the stop in place. Draw your circles for
stops with this as a centre, and as large as diameter of lens. Leaf A
is used for the sides of the triplicator, reversing between the
exposures. With an inch circle, the width of this is 0.2 inch. The
edges should be filed down as thin as possible without nicking. Leaf B
is for the centre exposure of the triplicator, and the slot is 0.012
inch wide and 1 inch long. Leaf C is the duplicator stop, its width
being 0.3 inch. Leaves D1 and D2 are for top and bottom exposures of a
vertical double, and are the same size as C. The proportions might
have to be slightly varied for some other lens, in all these cases. A
triplicate exposure is made as follows. First focus, using the whole
lens, at any stop, and determine the limits of your picture spaces. As
the leeway is small, do not get the figures too large. Pose the model
in the centre, stop down till properly lighted, and note the stop and
mark edges of view on ground glass. Focus on model at one side, stop
down till edge blends into edge of previous view, and note stop. Do
the same in third position. This may take some time, and a chair may
be used instead of a model. Finally, put in the plate and make the
three exposures, giving four times the exposures ordinarily required
for the same stops. The order is immaterial. Stops recommended for a
3-1/4 × 5-1/2 camera are as follows: For a horizontal doublet, leaf C,
U. S. 16; for a vertical doublet, leaf D1, U. S. 54, leaf D2, U. S.
40; for a horizontal triplet, leaf A, U. S. 16, leaf B, U. S. 90; for
a vertical triplet (leaves not shown in drawing), leaf A for top, U.
S. 32; for bottom, U. S. 20, leaf B, U. S. 90. Vertical pictures are
extremely difficult to figure.

[Illustration: FIG. 107.--TRIPLICATE EXPOSURE. BY CHARLES A. BARNARD.]

[Illustration: FIG. 108.--FARM WORK (TRIPLICATE EXPOSURE). BY CHARLES
A. BARNARD.]

[Illustration: FIG. 109.--STOPS FOR DUPLICATORS AND TRIPLICATOR.]



PICTURES WITH EYES WHICH OPEN AND CLOSE.


To make a photograph with this peculiarity, it is necessary to make
two exposures of a head in exactly the same position, one with the
eyes closed and the other with them open. Two positives are made from
the two negatives and bound in contact by means of lantern slide
binders, so that the outlines coincide. If they are now held in front
of a flickering lamp or match flame, the combined portrait will be
seen to rapidly open and close its eyes, giving a very weird effect.
This effect depends upon the fact that the human eye receives
impressions slowly and has a tendency to judge that a motion is
uniform, when rapidly varying phases of it are seen. The flickering
flame, moving sideways, shows first one and then the other of the two
images, which are separated by the thickness of the glass. The same
effect can be produced by sliding the pictures slightly sideways on
each other, but the perfection of the illusion will depend somewhat on
the regularity of the movement, and the flame method is better. If the
two pictures are printed on one piece of paper, the combined image may
show the same illusion.



PHOTOGRAPHIC BOOKPLATES.


We have all of us seen and many of us have made collections of those
attractive little bits of paper so frequently stuck on the front
cover of a book to designate its ownership. Invented almost
contemporaneously with the first printed books, they have been
designed and engraved by artists of the highest standing and used by
the world's greatest men and women. Who would not be proud to own a
book containing a bookplate made by Albrecht Durer or Paul Revere, or
one whose bookplate proved it had belonged to George Washington or
Theodore Roosevelt, irrespective of the great money value of such
items?

The bookplate is an intensely personal possession. The first were
heraldic, identifying the possessors by their coats of arms. Modern
bookplates usually reflect some personal taste of the owner, his
hobby, his house, his portrait, or the type of books he collects.
Nothing could be more fitting than one made from a photograph taken by
its possessor, and yet in the writer's collection of many thousand
bookplates covering several centuries and many countries, there are
less than a dozen photographic examples.

They are easily made. The most usual method is to choose a suitable
photograph, a view of the home or library interior, a loved landscape
or view, a symbolical figure with a book, a genre which may be a pun
on the owner's name, or a picture relating to his chief hobby, and
draw a more or less ornamental frame containing the words "Ex Libris"
or "His Book," together with the name, about it. There are other
wordings, but the above are the commonest. The whole is then
photographed down to the proper size, usually three or four inches
high, and prints made either by photography or from a halftone block.

The nude female figure is a frequent motive in bookplates, whether
photographic, or etched or engraved. The example we show is the work
of two artists, one of whom made the photograph while the other
designed the framework.

[Illustration: By A. E. Goetting and Will Ransom. FIG. 110.--A
PHOTOGRAPHIC BOOKPLATE.]



LANDSCAPES AND GROUPS ON THE DINING-ROOM TABLE


Did you ever try building landscapes on the dining-room table? If not,
learn how easy it is and try it out some evening or rainy Sunday, when
you don't feel like tramping across country with muddy roads and flat
lightings.

The easiest kind of pictures to make in this way is an imitation of
snow scenes. Any white material may be used, as snow, i.e., fine salt,
powdered sugar, flour, or whatever the kitchen closet or the chemical
shelf may produce. A range of mountains may easily be made by merely
heaping up the material and then modeling ravines and broken slopes
with a sharp pencil. A brilliant side lighting should be used to give
the effect of sunrise or sunset, and clouds may be printed in from a
cloud negative or obtained by means of a roughly painted background.

Perhaps mountains are more naturally represented by the use of a few
sharp-angled pieces of coal from the cellar, or fragments of broken
stone from the nearest quarry or monument maker. On these, after
arranging, the white powder may be sifted, lodging in a close
imitation of nature. If a highly polished table is used, reflections
may be obtained as in a lake, or a sheet of glass with a dark cloth
under it may be used for the same purpose.

More complicated landscapes may be made by using twigs as leafless
trees, fence posts, etc., and children's toy houses may be introduced,
particularly if well screened by brush and half buried in snow. Only
the merest hint of the possibilities can be given, for they are
endless.

The introduction of figures, in the shape of dolls, china and metal
animals, carts, autos, railroad trains, etc., greatly widens the scope
of such landscape work, but of recent years these figures have been
more frequently used for tableaux, such as the one shown opposite.
Extremely comical pictures have been made with kewpies, billikens and
other queer creatures and their animal friends, and with grotesque
figures made of vegetables, fruit and eggs.

[Illustration: By Clark H. Rutter. FIG. 111.--FRIEND OR FOE.]



NIGHT PHOTOGRAPHY.


The night photographer has to be more or less immune to criticism, and
willing to endure all kinds of conversational interruptions, from
friendly questions to unmannerly jeers and imputations of insanity.
The general public knows from personal experience with hand cameras
provided with slow lenses and small stops that picture taking can be
done only by sunlight and in the middle of the day, and does not
understand the setting up of a camera in a poorly-lighted place at
night for the taking of a picture. Nevertheless, this branch of
photography is very interesting and results are possible even in
villages and the open fields, wherever the least artificial
illumination or glimpse of moonlight is present.

Naturally, much light means shorter exposures than are possible with
very sparing illumination, but too many light sources do not tend to
artistic results. One of the finest night pictures we ever saw was
that of an old farmhouse, nearly buried in snow, with one or two
windows showing the light of a kerosene lamp. The snow was illuminated
by the light of the full moon, and only two or three minutes' exposure
was given.

As a matter of fact, 15 to 30 minutes' exposure on any landscape at
_f_: 8 by the light of the full moon high in the sky will give a
picture hardly to be distinguished from one made in daylight except by
the softness of the shadows, and such pictures sometimes have a
softness and wealth of detail in ordinarily shadowed parts which
cannot be obtained by exposures in daylight.

The best night pictures are perhaps those taken in city streets
brilliantly illuminated by arc lights, especially when the pavements
are wet. Care must be taken not to have brilliant lights shining
directly into the lens, for even double-coated plates will not prevent
halation and reversal of the image under such circumstances. Ghosts,
or wheel-shaped images of the lights, in other parts of the plate, are
sure to occur with all double lenses in such cases. The night picture
shown opposite shows how interesting a simple subject, poorly
illuminated, may turn out in the print. This shows typical star
radiation about the single visible light, caused by the blades of the
iris diaphragm, and also a slight ghost from this light on the face of
the tower, caused by a double reflection within the lens.

[Illustration: By F. A. Northrup. FIG. 112.--A GLIMPSE OF THE
EXPOSITION.]

Other forms of night photographs, treated elsewhere in this book, are
photographs of fireworks and lightning. Very interesting and
scientifically valuable pictures of the latter phenomenon have been
made by swinging the camera during the exposure, thus getting a dozen
or more paths of the same flash parallel to each other.



PHOTOGRAPHS ON APPLES AND EGGS.


To make a photograph in green on the red skin of an apple is a
wonderful but simple feat. Tie up the selected fruit on a sunny bough
in a thick yellow or black paper bag for about three weeks before
harvest time. Immediately after taking off the bag, paste a black
paper stencil or a very contrasty negative to the apple with white of
egg. It should be small, to fit the curved surface quite closely.
Clear away leaves, so the sun gets clear access to the fruit, and
leave on the tree till it becomes red. If not then ripe, put it back
into the opaque bag for a day or two till ready to pick. The negative
may then be soaked off. Don't use a valuable negative, but make a
duplicate for this experiment. A paper stencil is better, anyway.

To put a photograph on an egg, take one which is perfectly clean,
sponge it over several times with 1 to 50 solution of table salt, dry,
then sponge over with 1 to 12 solution of silver nitrate. Keep your
fingers out of this, or they will turn fast black. Then take a black
paper stencil or a small contrasty film negative, cut a hole in a
piece of black flannel somewhat smaller than the negative, and tie
around the egg to hold the negative. Then bring into light, print out,
wash and tone and fix like any printing-out paper. And don't eat the
egg, for chemicals will go through the shell.

[Illustration: By A. H. Blake. FIG. 113.--THE EMBANKMENT, LONDON.]


       *       *       *       *       *


BOOKS ON PHOTOGRAPHY


Optics for Photographers, by Hans Harting, Ph.D. Translated by Frank
R. Fraprie, S.M., F.R.P.S. 232 pages. Cloth, $2.50.

Chemistry for Photographers, by William R. Flint. 2nd edition. 218
pages. Cloth, $2.50.

Pictorial Composition in Photography, by Arthur Hammond. 234 pages, 49
illustrations. Cloth, $3.50.

Photo-Engraving Primer, by Stephen H. Horgan. Cloth, $1.50.

Cash from Your Camera. Edited by Frank R. Fraprie, S.M., F.R.P.S.
Paper, $1.00.

Pictorial Landscape Photography, by the Photo Pictorialists of
Buffalo. 252 pages, 55 illustrations. Cloth, $3.50.

Photographic Amusements, by Walter E. Woodbury. 9th edition. 128
pages, 100 illustrations. Cloth, $1.50.

Practical Color Photography by E. J. Wall, F.C.S., F.R.P.S. Cloth,
$3.00.


PRACTICAL PHOTOGRAPHY SERIES

Edited by Frank R. Fraprie, S.M., F.R.P.S.

Editor of _American Photography_

    1. The Secret of Exposure.
    2. Beginners' Troubles.
    3. How to Choose and Use a Lens.
    4. How to Make Prints in Color.
    5. How to Make Enlargements.
    6. How to Make Portraits.
    7. How to Make Lantern Slides.
    8. The Elements of Photography.
    9. Practical Retouching.

_Each volume sold separately._ Cloth, $1.00; paper, 50 cents.

American Photography Exposure Tables, 101st thousand. Cloth, 35 cents.

Thermo Development Chart. 25 cents.

_American Photography_, a monthly magazine, representing all that its
name implies. 25 cents a copy. $2.50 a year.


    PUBLISHED BY

    AMERICAN PHOTOGRAPHIC PUBLISHING CO.
    428 Newbury St., Boston 17, Massachusetts



       *       *       *       *       *



Transcriber's note:

1. Figure 83.--COMPOSITE PORTRAITS OF BOSTON PHYSICIANS AND SAXON
SOLDIERS was corrected to Figure 84.

2. Figure 91.--A DOUBLE. BY H. G. READING. is out of sequence. Another
Figure 91 comes later in the text.

3. Mismatched quotation marks are as they were in the original book.





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