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´╗┐Title: Extinct Birds - An attempt to unite in one volume a short account of those - Birds which have become extinct in historical times.
Author: Rothschild, Walter
Language: English
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       *       *       *       *       *

                              EXTINCT BIRDS.

           An attempt to unite in one volume a short account of
           those Birds which have become extinct in historical
               times--that is, within the last six or seven
                       hundred years. To which are
                         added a few which still
                            exist, but are on
                               the verge of


                       The Hon. WALTER ROTHSCHILD,
                              Ph. D., F.Z.S.

           With 45 Coloured Plates, embracing 63 subjects, and
                           other illustrations.

                 Hutchinson & Co., Paternoster Row, E.C.

                        A. CHRIS. FOWLER, PRINTER,
                              TENTER STREET,

       *       *       *       *       *


When I decided to read a paper before the Ornithological Congress of 1905
on Extinct and Vanishing Birds, I found it necessary to illustrate my paper
by a number of drawings. These drawings roused special interest among those
who listened to my lecture, and I was asked by many if I could not see my
way to publish the lecture and drawings, in book form, as these plates were
far too numerous for the proceedings of the Congress. After some hesitation
I determined to do this, greatly owing to the persuasion of the late Dr.
Paul Leverkuhn. The preparation of a book required considerably more
research than the lecture, and therefore my readers will find, in the
following pages, a totally different account to that in the lecture, as
well as corrections and numerous additions. The lecture itself has been
published in the "Proceedings of the IVth International Ornithological

I wish to thank very heartily all those of my ornithological friends, who
have kindly helped me with the loan of specimens or otherwise, and
especially Dr. H. O. Forbes, Dr. Scharff, Professor Dr. K. Lampert, Dr. O.
Finsch, Professor Dr. A. Koenig, Dr. Kerbert, Mr. Fleming, Dr. von Lorenz,
and others.


       *       *       *       *       *



The study of the forms of life no longer existing on the earth, from the
scanty remains preserved to us, has provoked a very great interest almost
from the commencement of historical times. The very small portion of this
vast field I am treating of in the following pages has a special
attraction, as it deals to a great extent with forms familiar in a living
state to our immediate forefathers and even to some of ourselves. Although
I have here arranged the species systematically, they fall into two
distinct categories, namely those known externally as well as internally,
and those of which we know bones and egg-shells only. Under the former
category might be included those merely known from descriptions or figures
in ancient books, as well as those of which specimens exist. In the present
work several plates have been reconstructed from such descriptions in order
to give some idea of their probable appearance. There is considerable
difference of opinion as to the approximate date of the disappearance of
many of the species known from bones dug from deposits which have been
variously determined as pleistocene and post-pleistocene. It seems to me
that this problem can never be entirely solved, but the significant fact
remains, that while many bones of these species in one locality have been
collected in the kitchen-middens of the former inhabitants, in other
localities the same bones occur in what seem to be much older formations.

In view of this and kindred facts, I have mentioned many species which some
ornithologists will probably consider outside the range of the present
treatise, viz., birds which have become extinct in the last seven- or
eight-hundred years. Taking my first category, viz., those species whose
exterior is more or less known, our knowledge is very variable in scope;
about some we have a very full and even redundant literature, such as the
Great Auk, the Labrador Duck, and Notornis, while of others, such as most
of the extinct Parrots from the West Indies, the "Giant" of Mauritius, the
"Blue Bird" of Bourbon, and so forth, we have the very scantiest knowledge.
Even in the times of Leguat and Labat there must have been many species,
now extinct, of which no mention has ever been made, for {viii} these old
writers only mentioned such species which impressed themselves on their
memories either from their size, peculiar shape, beauty of plumage, or
excellence and usefulness for food--in fact the culinary property of the
various birds seems to have been their principal interest. One of the most
interesting phenomena connected with recently extinct birds is the
resemblance of the fauna of the Mascarene Islands and that of the Chatham
Islands in the possession of a number of large flightless Rails, though the
significance of this fact has been much exaggerated.

On the whole, this book is confined to species actually known to be
extinct, but a few are included of which a small number is still known to
exist, because firstly there seems no doubt that they will vanish soon, and
secondly, as in the case of _Notornis_, it was necessary to clear up
certain misconceptions and contradictory statements. In the case of a few
species believed to be quite extinct, it is possible that some individuals
may still exist in little known parts of their range, while on the other
hand it is more than likely that several of the species referred to in my
lecture (Proc. Orn. Congress pp. 191-207, 1907) as threatened with
destruction, have already ceased to live. This may also be the case with
some birds not alluded to at all.

In several instances I have treated of extinct flightless species under
genera including existing species capable of flight. This may appear to be
inconsistent, seeing that I maintain _Notornis_ separate from _Porphyrio_,
but, while not considering flightlessness in itself a generic character,
the great development of the wing-coverts and the modification of the toes
appear of sufficient generic value in this case. I know that several of the
most eminent ornithologists of the day, among them Dr. Sharpe, differ from
me, and are convinced that the loss of the power of flight is so profound a
modification, that it is imperative that we should treat it as sufficient
for generic distinction.

While agreeing that many genera are founded on much less striking
modifications, I cannot concur in this opinion, for, unless the loss of the
power of flight is also accompanied by other changes, in some cases it is
difficult to find at first sight even specific differences other than the
aborted wings.

The cause of recent extinction among birds is in most cases due directly or
indirectly to man, but we also have instances of birds becoming extinct for
no apparent reason whatever.

Man has destroyed, and is continually destroying species directly, either
for {ix} food or for sport, but also in many other ways he contributes to
their destruction. Some species have been exterminated by the introduction
of animals of prey, such as rats, cats, mongoose, etc., and we know that
also the acclimatisation of other birds, such as the mynah, etc., has
proved to be harmful to the native birds. Again we find that the
introduction of domestic creatures or others kept as pets has brought
diseases which may prove fatal to the indigenous fauna. Another means by
which man causes immense destruction, is by destroying the natural habitat
of various species. By cutting down or burning the forests, prairies, or
scrub, and by bringing the land under cultivation, man indirectly kills off
a species through starvation, from extermination of certain insects or
plants on which it depends for food. Many species, such as the Moas, were
evidently greatly reduced in numbers by cataclysms of Nature, such as
volcanic outbreaks, earthquakes, floods, bush fires, etc., and then died
out from what appears only explicable by the natural exhaustion of their
vitality. The chief cause of the extermination of the Moas was undoubtedly
their slaughter by the Maoris for food, but in several inaccessible parts
of the interior large numbers of Moa remains have been found which
undoubtedly had died for no apparent reason.

This cause also seems to be the only explanation of the dying out of such
birds as _Aechmorhynchus_, _Chaetoptila_, _Camptolaimus_ and others.

The melancholy fact however remains that man and his satellites, cats,
rats, dogs, and pigs are the worst and in fact the only important agents of
destruction of the native avifaunas wherever they go.

I have not included in the body of this work the fossil species from the
pleistocene of Europe, Asia, Australia and America, as I believe that these
belonged to an avifauna of an epoch considerably anterior to those
attributed to the pleistocene of New Zealand and the adjacent islands, as
well as that of the Mascarenes and Madagascar. I, however, give here the
list of the species described from the above mentioned regions which I have
been able to find in our literature, to serve as a guide to those who may
think I ought to have included them in the work itself.

  _Strix melitensis_ Lydekker                  Malta.
  _Vultur melitensis_ Lydekker                 Malta.
  _Pelecanus proavus_ De Vis                   Queensland.
  _Phalacrocorax sp._ Lydekker                 New Zealand.
  _Aythya robusta_ De Vis                      Queensland.
  _Anas elapsa_ De Vis                         Queensland.
  _Anas benedeni_ Sharpe                       Belgium.
  _Alopochen pugil_ Winge                      Brazil.
  _Dendrocygna validipennis_ (De Vis)          Queensland.
  _Branta hypsibata_ Cope                      Oregon.
  _Branta propinqua_ Schufeldt                 Oregon.
  _Anser scaldii_ Van Beneden                  Belgium.
  _Anser sp._ Lydekker                         England.
  _Anser coudoni_ Schufeldt                    Oregon.
  _Cygnus sp._ Lydekker                        Malta.
  _Cygnus falconeri_ Parker                    Malta.
  _Palaeopelargus nobilis_ De Vis              Queensland.
  _Prociconia lydekkeri_ Ameghino              Brazil.
  _Platibis subtenuis_ De Vis                  Queensland.
  _Grus proavus_ Marsh                         New Jersey.
  _Grus melitensis_ Lydekker                   Malta.
  _Grus turfa_ Portis                          Italy.
  _Grus primigenia_ Milne Edwards              France.
  _Fulica prior_ De Vis                        Queensland.
  _Fulica pisana_ Portis                       Italy.
  _Porphyrio mackintoshi_ De Vis               Queensland.
  _Gallinula strenuipes_ De Vis                Queensland.
  _Gallinula peralata_ De Vis                  Queensland.
  _Microtribonyx effluxus_ De Vis              Queensland.
  _Progura gallinacea_ De Vis                  Queensland.
  _Columba melitensis_ Lydekker                Malta.
  _Lithophaps ulnaris_ De Vis                  Queensland.
  _Gallus sp._ Lydekker                        New Zealand.
  _Gallus sp._ Lydekker                        Central Germany.
  _Phasianus sp._ Lydekker                     Germany.
  _Perdix sp._ Issel                           Italy.
  _Tetrao sp._ Issel                           Italy.
  _Metapteryx bifrons_ De Vis                  Queensland.
  _Dromaius queenslandiae_ (De Vis)            Queensland.
  _Dromaius gracilipes_ (De Vis)               Queensland.
  _Dromaius patricius_ (De Vis)                East Australia.
  _Genyornis newtoni_ Sterling & Zeitz         South Australia.
  _Casuarius lydekkeri_ nom. nov.

"The distal extremity of the tibio-tarsus is narrow, without a semilunar
pit on the lateral surface of the ectocondyle, and with a very deep
extensor groove" (Lydekker, Cat. Fossil B. Brit. Mus., p. 353). {xi}

Type, a caste of the distal portion of the right tibio-tarsus, in the
British Museum. The original is preserved in the Museum at Sydney and was
obtained from the pleistocene cavern-deposits in the Wellington Valley in
New South Wales.

A bird usually stated to be extinct is _Monarcha dimidiata_, from
Rara-Tonga, but in March, 1901, two specimens, male and female, were
procured by the Earl of Ranfurly. Doubtless this is a species which will
one day vanish entirely, but at present it hardly comes within the scope of
this work.

The birds known to be more or less on the verge of extinction which I have
not thought advisable to give in the main part of this book might, for
convenience of reference and to avoid possible controversy as to my having
omitted any species, be given here, but it must be understood that of these
species I only know the fact that their numbers have been greatly reduced
and mostly almost to vanishing point. I have already mentioned before that
some of them may already have disappeared, but in many cases recent
investigations are wanting, and all, therefore, that can be said of them is
that they are threatened and may soon become extinct, if they still exist.

  _Myadestes sibilans_                    St. Vincent.
  _Myadestes genibarbis_                  Martinique.
  _Cinclocerthia gutturalis_              Martinique.
  _Rhamphocinclus brachyurus_             Martinique.
  _Ixocincla olivacea_                    Mauritius.
  _Phedina borbonica_                     Mascarene Islands.
  _Trochocercus borbonicus_               Mascarene Islands.
  _Oxynotus typicus_                      Mauritius.
  _Foudia newtoni_                        Bourbon.
  _Drymoeca rodericana_                   Rodriguez.
  _Cyanorhamphus cooki_                   Norfolk Island.
  _Cyanorhamphus erythrotis_              Antipodes Island.
  _Cyanorhamphus unicolor_                Antipodes Island.
  _Turnagra tanagra_                      North Island, New Zealand.
  _Sceloglaux albifacies_                 Middle Island, New Zealand.
  _Miro albifrons_                        North Island, New Zealand.
  _Miro australis_                        Middle Island, New Zealand.
  _Clitonyx albicilla_                    North Island, New Zealand.
  _Pogonornis cincta_                     North Island, New Zealand.
  _Hypotaenidia mulleri_                  Auckland Island.
  _Mergus australis_                      Auckland Island.
  _Nesonetta aucklandica_                 Auckland Island.
  _Ocydromus? sylvestris_                 Lord Howe's Island.
  _Puffinus newelli_                      Hawaiian Islands.
  _Telespiza flaviceps_                   Hawaii.
  _Nesochen sandvicensis_                 Hawaii.
  _Pareudiastes pacificus_                Samoa.
  _Nesomimus trifasciatus_                Charles? and Gardener
                                            Island, Galapagos Islands.
  _Phalacrocorax harrisi_                 Galapagos Islands.
  _Meleagris americana_                   United States.
  _Conurus carolinensis_                  Southern United States.
  _Pseudgryphus californianus_            California.
  _Amazona guildingi_                     St. Vincent.
  _Campephilus principalis_               Southern United States.
  _Pyrrhula pyrrhula murina_              Azores.
  _Stringops habroptilus_                 New Zealand.
  _Anthornis melanocephala_               Chatham Islands.
  _Gallinago pusilla_                     Chatham Islands.
  _Thinornis novaezealandiae_             Chatham Islands.
  _Amazona augusta_                       Dominica.
  _Amazona bouqueti_                      St. Lucia.
  _Amazona versicolor_                    Dominica.
  _Hemignathus lanaiensis_                Lanai, Sandwich Islands.

Many of my readers will, I fear, find fault with me for having bestowed
names on a number of forms, known only from fragments of bones, single
bones, or two or three bones. Especially will they, I fear, blame me for
doing this when these forms have been described by other authors who have
refrained from giving names. My reasons for doing so are very simple: in
such cases as Dr. Parker's species which are fully described, but quoted
under the formula _Pachyornis species A_ or _Anomalopteryx species B_, the
danger lies in different authors using the same formula for quite other
species. In the case of others, where an author fears to name a form, but
gives the distinctive characters and quotes only _Casuarius species_ or
_Emeus sp._, unless the author and page are quoted, confusion must arise,
and so in both cases I have thought it easier for reference and also more
concise to name all these forms which have been described or differentiated
without a binomial or trinomial appellation. I have, however, refrained
from doing so in the foregoing list of Pleistocene species in the {xiii}
following eight cases as I was not able to decide anything about them with
the material or literature at my disposal, viz.:--

  _Phalacrocorax sp._ Lydekker            New Zealand.
  _Anser sp._ Lydekker                    England.
  _Cygnus sp._ Lydekker                   Malta.
  _Gallus sp._ Lydekker                   New Zealand.
  _Gallus sp._ Lydekker                   Central Germany.
  _Phasianus sp._ Lydekker                Germany.
  _Perdix sp._ Issel                      Italy.
  _Tetrao sp._ Issel                      Italy.

       *       *       *       *       *



No attempt has been made to quote all books in which extinct birds have
been mentioned; not only would that mean a tedious, long work, and a book
in itself, but, the repetitions being so numerous, it would have been of
very little use. On the other hand, I have tried to quote the most
important literature referring to Extinct Birds, and I have specially been
anxious to cite and verify the principal ancient literature. Well known
general works on birds in which extinct species have, of course, also been
mentioned, are, as a rule, not quoted; such as: The 27 volumes of the
Catalogue of Birds; Brisson's Ornithology; Daubenton's, Buffon's and
Montbeillard's works; Latham's Ornithological Writings; Linnaeus' Systema
Naturae in all its editions; Vieillot's writings; popular natural histories
and school books; Brehm's Thierleben in its various editions; Finsch's
Papageien; Gray's and Sharpe's Hand-lists; Dubois' Synopsis Avium, lists of
specimens in Museums, and many others, in which extinct birds are as a
matter of course mentioned.

Three most complete detailed bibliographies must be named: The
"Bibliography of the Didinae," forming Appendix B. of Strickland's "Dodo
and its Kindred" (1848), the Bibliography of _Alca impennis_ by Wilhelm
Blasius in the new Edition of Naumann, vol. XII, pp. 169-176 (1903), and
the Bibliography referring to the Moas by Hamilton, in the Trans. New
Zealand Institute XXVI and XXVII (1894, 1895).

Most of the books and pamphlets quoted hereafter are in my library at the
Zoological Museum at Tring, in the ornithological part of which Dr. Hartert
and I have been specially interested for many years. Those books that are
not in my library are marked with an asterisk, but several of these I have
been able to consult in other libraries.

The chronological order appeared to be best suited to the particular
subject treated of. {xvi}

    1580 or 90. COLLAERT, ADRIAN. Avium vivae icones, in aes incisae &
    editae ab Adriano Collardo.

        (On one of the plates is figured the "Avis Indica." This figure
        seems to have been the original of the representations in Dubois'
        and Leguat's works.)

    1601. JACOB CORNELISZ NECK. Het tweede Boek, Journael oft
    Dagh-register, inhoudende een warachtig verhael, etc., etc.
    Middelburch, Anno 1601.

        (On picture No. 2, page 7, the Dodo is figured and described as
        follows: "Desen Voghel de is soo groot als een Swaen, gaven hem de
        naem Walchvoghel, want doen wy de leckere Duyfkens ende ande cleyn
        ghevoghelte ghenoech vinghen, doen taelden wy niet meer naer desen
        Voghel." This appears to be the first mention of the Dodo in

    1605. CLUSIUS. Caroli Clusii Atrebatis ... Exoticorum libri decem:
    Quibus Animalium, Plantarum, Aromatum historiae describuntur. Ex
    Officina Plantiniana Raphelengii, 1605.

        (On p. 100 van Neck's Dodo is reproduced, on p. 103 the Great Auk,
        sub nomine "Mergus Americanus.")

    1606. DE BRY. Achter Theil der Orientalischen Indien, begreiffend
    erstlich ein Histor. Beschr. d. Schiffahrt, so der Adm. Jacob von Neck
    ausz Hollandt, etc., etc. Frankf. 1606.

        (Figure and mention of the Dodo.)

    1619. JACOB CORNELISZ NECK. Historiale Beschryvinghe, Inhoudende een
    waerachtich verhael vande veyse ghedaen met acht Schepen van Amsterdam,
    etc., etc. Amsterdam, 1619.

        (Evidently another edition of Neck's voyage of 1601. On page 5 and
        on Picture No. 2 (page 7), which is the same as in the other
        editions of Neck's voyage, the Dodo is described. There is also a
        French edition of 1601.)

    1625. CASTLETON. Purchas his Pilgrimes. In five books.

        (On p. 331, in chapter XV., first mention of the Reunion Dodo.)

    1626. SIR THOMAS HERBERT. A relation of some years' Travaile.

        (First mention of _Aphanapteryx bonasia_.)

    1635. NIEREMBERG. Joannis Evsebii Nierembergii ... Historia Naturae,
    maxime peregrinae, libris XVI distincta. In quibus rarissima Naturae
    arcana, etc., etc., etc. Antverpiae MDCXXXV.

        (Clusius' account and figure of the Dodo reproduced on pp. 231,
        232. On p. 237 the Great Auk ("Goifugel") mentioned).

    *1638 and 1651. CAUCHE. Relations veritables et curieuses de l'isle de
    Madagascar. (Two editions.)

        (See _Aphanapteryx bonasia_.)

    1640. PERE BOUTON. Relation de l'etabl. des Francais dep. 1635, en
    l'ile Martinique, l'vne des antilles de l'Amerique.

        (Describes, among other birds, the Aras and Parrots of the island
        of Martinique.)

    1646. BONTEKOE. Journ. of te gedenckw. beschr. van de Ost. Ind. Reyse.
    Haarlem 1646.

        (On p. 6 mention of the Reunion Dodo.)

    1655. WORM. Museum Wormianum.

        (On pp. 300, 301, lib. III, description and figure of a Great Auk
        from the Faroe Islands.)

    Enrichie de pleusieurs belles figures des Raretez les plus
    considerables qui y sont d'ecrites. Avec un vocabulaire caraibe.
    Rotterdam 1658.

        (The title-page has no author's name, but according to Pere du
        Tertre the author is "Le Sieur de Rochefort, Ministre de
        Rotterdam." Contains important notes on former bird-life on the

    1665. The same. Second Edition. Rotterdam 1665. {xvii}

    1658. BONTIUS. Gulielmi Pisonis Medici Amstelaedamensis de Indiae
    Utriusque re naturali et medica libri quatuordecim. Third Part: Jacobi
    Bontii, medici civitatis Bataviae Novae in Java Ordinarii, Historiae
    Natur. et Medici Indiae Orientalis libri sex.

        (On p. 70 an excellent figure of the Dodo. Caput XVII. Appendix: De
        Dronte, aliis Dod-aers.)

    1667. DU TERTRE. Histoire generale des Antilles habitees par les
    Francois. Tome II, contenant l'Histoire Naturelle. Paris 1667.

        (On p. 246. Traite V. Des animaux de l'air. s. I, Les Arras. s. II,
        Des Perroquets. s. III, Des Perriques.)

    In sich begreiffend deroselben Gelegenheit, darinnen befindl. naturl.
    Sachen, sampt deren Einwohner Sitten und Gebrauchen. Von dem Herrn de
    Rochefort, zum zweiten mahl in Franzosischer sprach an den Tag gegeben,
    nunmehr aber in die Teutsche ubersetzet. Frankfurt 1668.

        (Translation of the second edition of Rochefort's book.)

    *1668. CARRE, Voyage des Indes Orientales.

        (Page 12 the "Solitaire." Cf. _Didus solitarius_.)

    1668. J. MARSHALL. Memorandums concerning India.

        (In the article on Mauritius occurs a mention of Geese.)

    1674. PERE DUBOIS. Les Voyages faits par le Sieur D.B. aux Isles
    Dauphine ou Madagascar, et Bourbon, ou Mascarenne, es annees

        (Of this extremely rare work I possess a beautiful copy, together
        with the map of Sanson belonging to it.)

        (On p. 168 we find "Description de quelques Oyseaux de l'Isle de
        Bourbon," with figures of the "Geant" and "Solitaire.")

    1696. THEVENOT, M. MELCHISEDEC. Relations de divers voyages curieux qui
    nont point este' publie'es. Nouvelle Edition. Vol. I, II, 1696.

        (A very interesting collection of ancient voyages, translated into
        French. In Vol. II is a translation of Bontekoe's travels to the
        "East Indies," with figures of the Dodo and other interesting

    1707. LEGUAT, FRANCOIS. Voyages et Avantures de Francois Leguat, et de
    ses Compagnons, en deux Isles desertes des Indes Orientales. Londres

    1708. LEGUAT, FRANCIS. A New Voyage to the East Indies by Francis
    Leguat and his companions. Containing their adventures in two desert
    islands. London 1708.

        (Valuable notes on the birds of Rodriguez and Mauritius.)

    1707. SLOANE, HANS. A Voyage to the islands Madera, Barbados, Nieves,
    S. Christofers and Jamaica, with the Natural History of the Herbs and
    Trees, four-footed Beasts, Fishes, Insects, Birds, Reptiles, etc. Vol.
    I, 1707; vol. II, 1725.

        (Gives most valuable notes on the birds, including the Goatsucker,
        _Aestrelata_ and Parrots.)

    1722. LABAT, JEAN BAPTISTE. Nouveau Voyage aux Iles de l'Amerique
    contenant l'histoire naturelle de ces pays. Paris 1722. 6 vols.

        (In Vol. II, chapter VIII, the different species of Parrots are
        described, and it is stated that each island had three kinds, viz.,
        an "Aras," a "Perroquet" and a "Perrique," evidently meaning a
        Macaw, an Amazona and a Conurus.)

    1742. Nouvelle Edition. 8 vols.

    {xviii} 1752. MOEHRING. Avium Genera.

        (In this ominous work, which, through an article by Poche in Zool.
        Anz. 1904, has recently caused so much quite unnecessary
        disturbance among nomenclatorists--cf. Hartert, Zool. Anz. 1904, p.
        154, and Proc. IV. Int. Orn. Congress, pp. 276-283. The Dodo is
        mentioned under the name "Raphus.")

    1763. L'ABBE DE LA CAILLE. Journal Historique du Voyage fait au Cap de

        (Some birds from Mauritius mentioned, but no descriptions.)

    1773. VOYAGE A L'ISLE DE FRANCE, a l'isle de Bourbon, au Cap de Bonne
    Esperance, etc. Avec des observations nouvelles sur la nature et sur
    les hommes. Par un officier du roi. Neuchatel 1773.

    1775. A voyage to the island of Mauritius, etc. By a French Officer.
    (Translation of the above).

        (Lettre IX, page 67, treats of the "Animals natural to the isle of

    1782. SONNERAT. Voyage aux iles orientales et a la Chine. Two volumes,

        (In Volume II, on plate 101, opposite page 176, the extinct
        _Alectroenas nitidissima_ is figured, under the name of "Pigeon

    *1783 (?) CALLAM. Voyage Botany Bay.

        (According to Gray _Notornis alba_ is mentioned under the name of
        "White Gallinule.")

    1786. SPARRMANN. Museum Carlsonianum I.

        (On pl. 23 _Pomarea nigra_ Sparrm.)

    1789. G. DIXON. Voyage round the World.

        (On p. 357 is note and figure of the extinct _Moho apicalis_, under
        the name of the "Yellow-tufted Bee-eater.")

    1789. BROWNE, PATRICK. The Civil and Natural History of Jamaica.

    1789. THE VOYAGE OF GOVERNOR PHILLIP to Botany Bay, etc. London 1789.

        (Among other interesting birds _Notornis stanleyi_ is figured on
        the plate opposite p. 273.)

    1790. J. WHITE. Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales with sixty-five
    Plates of Nondescript Animals, Birds, Lizards, Serpents, etc. London

        (I have a copy with black and white, and another with coloured
        plates. _Notornis alba_.)

    1804. HERMANN. Observationes Zoolog.

        (On page 125 the extinct Bourbon _Palaeornis_ is described as
        _Psittacus semirostris_.)

    1807. M. F. PERON. Voyage de decouvertes aux terres australes, execute
    par ordre de Sa Majeste l'Empereur et Roi, etc., etc. 2 vols. 1807 and
    1816 and Atlas.

        (On p. 467 is described the Little Emu from Kangaroo Island, which
        I have named _Dromaius peronii_, in honour of its discoverer,
        Francois Peron. A memoir of this extraordinary and admirable man's
        short and brilliant life will be found in Vol. VI of the
        "Naturalist's Library," Edinburgh, 1843.)

    1810. ANDRE PIERRE LEDRU. Voyage aux iles de Teneriffe, la Trinite,
    Saint-Thomas, Sainte-Croix et Porto-Ricco, execute par ordre du
    Gouvern. francais, etc., etc. Two volumes, 1810.

        (In Vol. II, page 39, are mentioned various birds as occurring on
        the Danish West-Indian Islands, which are not found there at
        present. "Un todier, nomme vulgairement perroquet de terre" and
        seven species of Humming-Birds!)

    *1826. BLOXAM. Voyage of the Blonde.

        (See _Phaeornis oahensis_, _Loxops coccinea rufa_. Also interesting
        notes on other Sandwich-Islands Birds.)

    1827. PALLAS. Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat. II p. 305: _Phalacrocorax
    perspicillatus_, the now extinct Cormorant from Bering Island.

    {xix} 1830. QUOY ET GAIMARD. Voy. Astrolabe, Zool. I p. 242 pl. 24.

        (_Coturnix novaezealandiae_ described.)

    1830. KITTLITZ. Memoires Acad. Sc. Petersburg I.

        (Kittlitz describes _Turdus terrestris_ and _Fringilla papa_.)

    *1838. POLACK. New Zealand.

        (First mention of Moas.)

    *1838. DON DE NAVARETTE. Rel. Quat. voy. Christ.

    1838. LICHTENSTEIN. Abhandl. K. Akademie d. Wissenschaften p. 448,
    plate V.

        (_Hemignathus ellisianus_--sub nomine _obscurus_--and _Hemignathus
        lucidus_ described.)

    1843. DIEFFENBACH'S Travels in New Zealand, 1843. Appendix, Birds, by
    J. E. Gray. On page 197 _Rallus dieffenbachii_ described.

    1843. OWEN. P.Z.S. 1843, p. 1., letter read from Rev. W. C. Cotton,
    mentioning remains of gigantic birds in New Zealand, p. 8 the name
    _Dinornis novaezealandiae_ given to the first Moa-bones exhibited.

    1846. In the "VOYAGE OF EREBUS AND TERROR," Birds, Gray describes and
    figures _Nesolimnas dieffenbachii_.

    1847. GOSSE. Birds of Jamaica.

        (Cf. _Ara erythrocephala_, _Siphonorhis americanus_ and other
        Jamaican birds.)

    1848. EDM. DE SELYS-LONGCHAMPS. Resume concern, les Oiseaux brevipennes
    mentionnes dans l'ouvrage de M. Strickland sur le Dodo.

        In Rev. Zool. 1848, pp. 292-295.

    1848. STRICKLAND AND MELVILLE. The Dodo and its kindred; or the
    history, affinities, and Osteology of the Dodo, Solitaire, and other
    extinct birds of the islands Mauritius, Rodriguez and Bourbon. London

        (141 pages and 15 plates.)

    *1848. PEALE. U.S. Expl. Exp. Birds.

        (On p. 147, pl. XL, is described and figured the extinct
        _Chaetoptila augustipluma_, under the name of _Entomiza
        augustipluma_. This work is not available, as only 3 or 4 copies
        exist of it, but see:

        CASSIN. U.S. Expl. Exp. Mamm. and Orn. p. p. 148 pl. XI (1858).

    1851. IS. GEOFFROY-SAINT-HILAIRE. Notice sur des ossements et des oeufs
    trouves a Madagascar dans les alluvions modernes, et provenant d'un
    oiseau gigantesque.

        In Annales des Scienc. Naturelles, 13 serie. Zoologie, tome 40.

        (This volume is dated "1850," but the above article is said to have
        been read before the Academy on January 27, 1851, therefore the
        date of publication must be rather 1851 than 1850.)

    1854. H. SCHLEGEL. Ook een woordje over den Dodo en zijne verwanten.

        In: Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninglijke Akademie der
        Wetenschappen, Afdeel. Naturkunde, Deel II, p. 254.

    1857. JAPETUS STEENSTRUP. Bidrag til Geirfuglens Naturhistorie, etc.

        In: Naturh. Forening. Vidensk. Meddel. for 1855, Nos. 3-7.

        (The first history and bibliography of the Great Auk.)

    1858. H. SCHLEGEL. Over eenige uitgestorvene reusachtige Vogels van de
    Mascarenhas-eilanden. (Een tegenhanger tot zijne geschiedenis der

        In: Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninglijke Akademie van
        Wetenschappen, Afdeel. Naturkunde, Deel VII, pp. 116-128.

        (_Leguatia gigantea_, _Porphyrio (Notornis?) caerulescens_.)

    {xx} 1860. A. V. PELZELN. Zur Ornithologie der Insel Norfolk.

        In: Sitzungsberichte der Mathemat. Naturwiss. Cl. Akademie Wien Bd.
        XLI, No. 15, pp. 319-332. (Mit 1 Tafel.)

        (Lengthy account of _Nestor norfolcensis_, from Bauer's Manuscript,
        _Notornis alba_, etc.)

    1861. ALFRED NEWTON. Abstract of Mr. Wolley's Researches in Iceland
    respecting the Gare-fowl.

        In Ibis, 1861, pp. 374-399.

    1862. W. J. BRODERIP. Notice of an Original Painting, including a
    figure of the Dodo.

        In Trans. Zool. Soc. London IV, p. 197.

    1862. WILLIAM PREYER. Ueber _Plautus impennis_.

        In Journ. f. Orn. 1862, pp. 110-124, 337-356.

    1865. ALFRED NEWTON. The Gare-fowl and its Historians.

        In Natural Hist. Review XII (1865), pp. 467-488; id. in Encylcl.
        Britannica Ed. IX, Vol. III; id. Dict. Birds, p. 220-221.

    1866. OWEN. _Psittacus mauritianus_ named, in Ibis p. 168; also
    mentioned in Trans. Zool. Soc. VI, p. 53, 1866.

        (See _Lophopsittacus_.)

    1866-1873. ALPH. MILNE-EDWARDS. Recherches sur la Faune Ornithologique
    Eteinte des iles Mascareignes et de Madagascar. Paris 1866-1873.

        (With 37 plates. This volume consists of reprints of the author's
        articles on the subject in French periodicals, though not a word of
        this is mentioned. To the plates originally issued with the
        articles, several new ones are added.)

    1867. ALFRED NEWTON. On a Picture supposed to represent the Didine Bird
    of the Island of Bourbon (Reunion).

        In Trans. Zool. Soc. London VI, pp. 373-376. Plate 62.

    1867. GEORGE DAWSON ROWLEY. On the Egg of _Aepyornis_, the Colossal
    Bird of Madagascar.

        In Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1867, pp. 892-895.

    1868. FRAUENFELD, GEORGE RITTER VON. Neu aufgefundene Abbildung des
    _Dronte_ und eines zweiten kurzflugligen Vogels, wahrscheinlich des
    poule rouge au bec de becasse der Maskarenen, in der Privatbibliothek
    S.M. des verstorbenen Kaisers Franz. Wien 1868. Mit 4 Tafeln.

    1868. SCHLEGEL & POLLEN. Mammiferes et Oiseaux, in: Pollen et von Dam,
    Recherches sur la faune de Madagascar et de ses dependances. Leyde

    1868. OWEN, on Moas in Trans. Zool. Soc. London, VI.

        (_Dinornis maximus_ established.)

    *1868. H. C. MILLIES. Over eene nieuw ontdekte afbeelding van den Dodo.

        In: Verhandelingen der Koningl. Akad. d. Wetenschappen, Deel XI,
        Amsterdam 1868.

    1869. OWEN. On the osteology of the Dodo.

        In: Trans. Zool. Soc. London VI, 1869, p. 70.

    1869. ELLIOT. New and heretofore unfig. sp. N. American Birds.

        (In Vol. II, part 14, No. 3, the now extinct _Carbo perspicillatus_
        from Bering Island figured.)

    {xxi} 1872. F. W. HUTTON. On the Microscopical structure of the
    Egg-shell of the Moa.

        In Trans. & Proceed. New Zealand Inst. IV, pp. 166-167, with

    1872. F. W. HUTTON. Notes on some Birds from the Chatham Islands,
    collected by H. H. Travers, Esq.

        In Ibis 1872, pp. 243-250.

        (_Miro traversi_ and _Sphenoeacus rufescens_ (_Bowdleria rufescens_
        of this book) only found on Mangare. First description of "_Rallus
        modestus_" (_Cabalus modestus_), "_Rallus dieffenbachi_" already

    1872. J. HECTOR. On Recent Moa Remains in New Zealand.

        In Trans. and Proc. N. Zealand Inst. IV, p. 110.

    1872. JULIUS HAAST. Notes on Harpagornis Moorei.

        In Trans. and Proc. N. Zealand Inst. IV, p. 192.

    1873. A. V. PELZELN. On the Birds in the Imperial Collection at Vienna
    obtained from the Leverian Museum.

        In Ibis 1873, pp. 14-54, 103-124.

        (Most important notes on some of Latham's types. Cf. _Drepanis
        pacifica_, _Platycercus ulietanus_, _Notornis alba_.)


        (On pages 138-144 a popular account and wood cuts--from Brehm's
        Thierleben--of Moas and other Gigantic Birds.)

    1873. BULLER. The Birds of New Zealand.

    1874. A. MILNE-EDWARDS. Recherches sur la faune ancienne des iles

        In Ann. Sciences naturelles ser. V, Tome XIX, article 3
        (_Erythromachus_, _Strix murivora_, _Columba rodericana_, etc.)

    1875. ROWLEY. _Porphyrio Stanleyi_.

        In Ornith. Miscell. I, pp. 37-48, plate.

    1875. HUTTON. Description of the Moa Swamp at Hamilton.

        In Trans. & Proc. N. Zealand Inst. VII, p. 123, pl. V.

    1875. HUTTON & COUGHTREY. Description of some Moa Remains from the
    Knobby Ranges.

        In Trans. & Proc. N. Zealand Inst. VII, p. 266, pl. XIX.

    1875. ALFRED NEWTON. P.Z.S. 1875, p. 350: the name _Lophopsittacus_

    1875. HUTTON. On the Dimensions of Dinornis bones.

        In Trans. & Proc. N. Zealand Inst. VII, p. 274.

    1875. JULIUS VON HAAST. Researches and Excavations on, in and near the
    Moa-bone Point Cave, Sumner Road, in the year 1872.

        In Trans. and Proceed. New Zealand Institute VII, pp. 54-85, pls.
        I, II.

    *1875. VAN BENEDEN. Journ. Zool. IV, p. 267.

        (Description of _Anas finschi_.)

    1876. A. & E. NEWTON. On the Psittaci of the Mascarene Islands.

        In Ibis 1876, pp. 281-288, plate VI.

    1876. TOMMASO SALVADORI. Nota intorno al _Fregilupus varius_.

        In: Atti della Reale Accademia delle Scienze di Torino, Vol. XI,
        pp. 482-488.

    1877. G. D. ROWLEY. On the Extinct Birds of the Mascarene Islands.

        In Orn. Miscell. II, pp. 124-133, plates LII, LIII.

    {xxii} 1878. G. D. ROWLEY. Remarks on the Extinct Gigantic Birds of
    Madagascar and New Zealand.

        In Ornith. Miscell. III, pp. 237-247, pls. CXII-CXV.

    1879. DOLE. List of Birds of the Hawaiian Islands. Corrected from the
    Hawaiian Almanack.
    Reprint: Ibis 1881, p. 241.

        (_Pennula millsi_, _Ciridops anna_.)

    1879. OWEN, RICHARD. Memoirs on the Extinct Wingless Birds of New
    Zealand; with an Appendix on those of England, Australia, Newfoundland,
    Mauritius and Rodriguez.

        (Memoirs on the _Dinornithidae_, their bones, eggs, integument and
        plumage, _Notornis_, _Aptornis_, _Cnemiornis_, _Alca impennis_,
        _Didus_ and _Pezophaps_. With many wood-cuts and plates.)

        (See also Owen's articles in Trans. Zool. Soc. London III, IV, VI,
        X, XI.)

    1879. GUNTHER AND E. NEWTON, on _Aphanapteryx leguati_ in Philosophical
    Transactions. Vol. 168, pp. 431-432, pl. XLIII.

    1879. W. A. FORBES. On the systemat. position and scientific name of
    "Le Perroquet mascarin" of Brisson.

        In Ibis 1879, p. 303.

    1884. WILHELM BLASIUS. Zur Geschichte von _Alca impennis_.

        In Journ. f. Orn. 1884, pp. 58-176.

        (The most accurate and complete list--till 1884--of specimens of
        _Alca impennis_.)

    1885. A. B. MEYER. _Notornis hochstetteri_.

        In: Zeitschr. ges. Orn. II, p. 45, pl. I.

    1885. SYMINGTON GRIEVE. The Great Auk or Garefowl. Its History,
    Archaeology, and Remains. London 1885.

    1897. Id.: Supplementary note on the Great Auk; in Trans. Edinburgh
    Field Nat. Soc. 1897, pp. 238-273.

    1886. December. JULIUS VON HAAST. On _Megalapteryx hectori_, a new
    Gigantic Species of Apterygian Bird.

        In Trans. Zool. Soc. London XII, p. 161, pl. XXX.

    1887. HENRY SEEBOHM. The Geographical Distribution of the family

        (Plates of _Prosobonia leucoptera_ and _Aechmorhynchus

    1888. BULLER. A History of the Birds of New Zealand.

        In two volumes. Second Edition. (See 1873.)

    1889. SIR EDWARD NEWTON. Presidential address.

        In Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Natural. Society IV, pp. 540-547.

    1889. A. DE QUATREFAGES. Nouvelle Preuve de l'Extinction recente des

        In: Le Naturaliste 1889, p. 117.

    1889. F. C. NOLL. Die Veranderung in der Vogelwelt im Laufe der Zeit.

        In: Bericht uber die Senckenberg. Naturf. Gesellsch. in
        Frankf.-a.-M. 1887-1888, pp. 77-142.

    1890. STEJNEGER AND LUCAS. Contributions to the History of Pallas'
    Cormorant. With plates II-IV.

        In Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. XII, pp. 83-94.

    1890-99. SCOTT B. WILSON & EVANS. Aves Hawaiienses: The Birds of the
    Sandwich Islands. With numerous plates.

    1891. RICHARD LYDEKKER. Catalogue of the Fossil Birds in the British
    Museum. London 1891.

        (Pages I-XXVII, 1-368. With 75 figures in the text.)


    1891. FREDERIC A. LUCAS. Animals recently extinct or threatened with
    extermination, as represented in the collection of the U.S. National

        In Report of the Smithson Inst. (U.S. Nat. Mus.) 1889 (1891!), pp.
        609-649, pls. XCV-CV.

        (An account of some of the larger animals which have become extinct
        within historic times, or are threatened with extinction, with
        reasons suggested for their disappearance.)

    1891. HARTERT. Katalog der Vogelsammlung im Museum der Senchenberg.
    Naturf. Ges. Frankfurt-a-M.

        (_Alca impennis_, _Turdus terrestris_, _Chaunoproctus
        ferreorostris_, _Hemiphaga spadicea_ mentioned.)

    1891. WILL. DUTCHER. The Labrador Duck. A revised list of the extant
    specimens in North America, with some historical notes.

        In Auk 1891, pp. 301-316, pl. 2.

    1894. WILL. DUTCHER. The Labrador Duck. With additional data respecting
    extant specimens.

        In Auk 1894, pp. 4-12.

    1892. FORBES, H. O. Preliminary Notice of Additions to the Extinct
    Avifauna of New Zealand (Abstract).

        In Trans. and Proceed. New Zealand Inst. Vol. XXIV, pp. 185-189.

        (The editors say that the paper is published in abstract, as it had
        been impossible to prepare the drawings for its illustrations in
        time.--It is a most pitiful and unscientific proceeding to publish
        such preliminary abstracts containing insufficiently founded names
        and complete "nomina nuda" without publishing a fuller account;
        such, as far as I know, has never appeared.)

    1892. H. O. FORBES. _Aphanapteryx_ and other remains in the Chatham

        In Nature, Vol. XLVI, p. 252.

        (Short notes on avian remains which, unfortunately, were never
        properly studied afterwards.)

    1892. HUTTON. The Moas of New Zealand.

        In Trans. and Proceed. New Zealand Institute Vol. XXIV, pp. 93-172,
        pls. XV-XVII.

    1892. HAMILTON. Notes on Moa Gizzard-stones, t.c. p. 172.

    1892. HAMILTON. On the genus _Aptornis_, t.c. pp. 175-184.

    1892. HARTLAUB. Vier seltene Rallen.

        In: Abhandl. d. Naturwiss. Vereins zu Bremen XII.

    1893. H. O. FORBES. A List of the Birds inhabiting the Chatham Islands.

        In Ibis 1893, pp. 521-546.

        (Notes on the living and extinct forms. The genus _Palaeolimnas_
        established. Egg of _Cabalus modestus_ figured, etc.)

    1893. W. W. SMITH. Notes on certain species of New Zealand Birds.

        In Ibis 1893, pp. 509-520.

        (Methods of colonization and their disastrous results to the birds

    1893. MILNE-EDWARDS & OUSTALET. Notice sur quelques especes d'oiseaux
    actuellement eteintes qui se trouvent representees dans les collections
    du museum d'histoire naturelle. In: Centenaire de la fondation du
    museum d'histoire naturelle. Volume commemoratif publie par les
    professeurs du Museum. Pp. 189-252, pls. I-V.

        (Only 6 species: _Mascarinus mascarinus_, _Alectroenas
        nitidissima_, _Alca impennis_, _Fregilupus varius_, _Camptolaemus
        labradorius_, _Dromaius_ "_ater_," but these beautifully figured
        and masterly described and discussed.)

    1893. SIR E. NEWTON AND GADOW. On additional Bones of the Dodo and
    other Extinct Birds of Mauritius obtained by Mr. Theodore Sauzier.

        In Trans. Zool. Soc. London XIII, pp. 281-302. Pls. XXXIII-XXXVII.

        (_Strix sauzieri_, _Astur alphonsi_, _Butorides mauritianus_,
        _Plotus nanus_, _Sarcidiornis mauritianus_, _Anas theodori_, etc.)

    {xxiv} 1893. A. DE QUATREFAGES. The Moas and Moa-hunters.

        In Trans. and Proceed. New Zealand Inst. XXV, pp. 17-49.

        (Translation of the French article which appeared in the Nos. for
        June and July of the "Journal des Savants" by Laura Buller.)

    1893. PARKER. On the classification and mutual relations of the
    _Dinornithidae_. By T. J. Parker.

        In Trans. and Proc. New Zealand Inst. XXV, pp. 1-6, pls. I-III.

    1893. F. W. HUTTON. New Species of Moas.

        In Trans. and Proc. New Zealand Inst. Vol. XXV, pp. 6-13.

        (_Dinornis strenuus_, _Anomalopteryx fortis_, _Euryapteryx
        compacta_, _Pachyornis inhabilis_, _P. valgus_.)

    1893. F. W. HUTTON. On _Anomalopteryx antiqua_. T.c. p. 14, pl. IV.

    *1893. R. BURCKHARDT, in Palaontolog. Abhandl. VI, Heft 2, pp. 127-145,
    Taf. 1-4.


    1893. H. O. FORBES. The Moas of New Zealand.

        In Natural Science II, pp. 374-380.

    1893. A. HAMILTON. On the Fissures and Caves at the Castle Rocks,
    Southland; with a description of the remains of the Existing and
    Extinct Birds found in them.

        (In Trans. and Proceed. New Zealand Inst. XXV, pp. 88-106; with

    1893. A. NEWTON. "Extermination." In A Dictionary of Birds.

        (See also in Encyclopaedia Britannica.)

    1893-1900. WALTER ROTHSCHILD. The Avifauna of Laysan and the
    Neighbouring Islands: with a complete history to date of the Birds of
    the Hawaiian Possessions. London 1893-1900. With numerous plates.

        (Account and coloured plates of the extinct birds of Oahu and

    1894. MILNE-EDWARDS ET GRANDIDIER. Observations sur les _Aepyornis_ de

        In: Comptes Rendus hebd. des Seances de l'Acad. d. Sciences, Paris,
        Vol. CXVIII, Part I, pp. 122-127.

    1894. J. PARKER. Notes on Three Moa-Skulls.

        In Trans. and Proc. N. Zealand Inst. XXVI, p. 223.

    1894. HAMILTON. On Avian Remains in Southland.

        In Trans. and Proc. N. Zealand Inst. XXVI, p. 226.

    1894. HAMILTON. Materials for a Bibliography of the _Dinornithidae_.

        In Trans. and Proc. N. Zealand Inst. XXVI, pp. 229-257.

        (A careful list to which I refer my readers.)

    1895. C. W. ANDREWS. On some remains of Aepyornis in the Hon. Walter
    Rothschild's Museum at Tring.

        In: Novitates Zoologicae II, pp. 23-25.

    1895. HAMILTON. Further contributions towards a Bibliography of the

        In Trans. and Proc. N. Zealand Inst. XXVII, p. 228-232.

    1895. JEFFERY PARKER. On the Cranial Osteology, Classification, and
    Phylogeny of the Dinornithidae.

        In Trans. Zool. Soc. London Vol. XIII, pp. 373-431, pls. LVI-LXII.

    {xxv} 1895. HAMILTON. On the Feathers of a small Moa.

        In Trans. and Proc. N. Zealand Inst. XXVII, pp. 232-238.

    *1895. C. W. ANDREWS. On Aepyornis bones, etc., in Geological Magazine

    1896. HUTTON. On a deposit of Moa-bones at Kapua.

        In Trans. and Proc. N. Zealand Inst. XXVIII, p. 627. Id. On the
        Moa-bones from Enfield, t.c. p. 645.

    1896. C. W. ANDREWS. On the Extinct Birds of the Chatham Islands.

        In Novit Zoolog. III, p. 73-84 and 260-271.

        (_Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi_, _Palaeolimnas chathamensis_,
        _Nesolimnas dieffenbachii_.)

    1896. G. HARTLAUB. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der ausgestorbenen Vogel
    der Neuzeit, sowie derjenigen, deren Fortbestehen bedroht erscheint.

        In: Abhandl. d. Naturwiss. Vereins gn. Bremen XIV Band, 1 Heft.

        (Also: Second edition of the same, printed as manuscript, with a
        few alterations and additions.)

        (The most useful, comprehensive pamphlet on recently extinct

    1897. ANDREWS. On some fossil remains of Carinate Birds from Central

        In Ibis 1897, pp. 343-359, pls. VIII and IX.

    1897. H. O. FORBES. On an apparently new, and supposed to be now
    extinct, species of Bird from the Mascarene Islands, provisionally
    referred to the genus _Necropsar_. With plate.

        In Bull. Liverpool Museums, I, p. 34, pl. Sturn. I (_Necropsar

    1897. FORBES AND ROBINSON. Note on Two Species of Pigeon, t.c. p. 35.

        (_Hemiphaga spadicea_.)

        (On pl. I of the same vol. is figured _Nestor norfolcensis_. See p.

    1900. W. WOLTERSTORFF. Ausgestorbene Riesenvogel. Vortrag, gehalten im
    Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein zu Magdeburg. Mit zwei Abbildungen.
    Stuttgart. Verlag von E. Nagele.

    1900. A. MERTENS. Die Moas im Naturwissenschaftl. Museum zu Magdeburg.
    Mit 2 Abbildungen.

        In: Jahresbericht Naturwiss. Vereins zu Magdeburg fur 1898-1900.
        (Pp. 1-24 in separate copy.)

    1901. W. A. BRYAN. Key to the Birds of the Hawaiian group.

    1902. WALTER ROTHSCHILD AND ERNST HARTERT. Further notes on the fauna
    of the Galapagos Islands.

        In Nov. Zool. 1902, pp. 381-418; cf. also Nov. Zool. 1899, pp. 154,

        (_Geospiza magnirostris_ and _dentirostris_.)

    1902. H. W. HENSHAW. Birds of the Hawaiian Islands, being a complete
    list of the Birds of the Hawaiian Possessions, with notes on their
    habits. Honolulu 1902.

    1903. GRAHAM RENSHAW. The Black Emu.

        In: Zoologist 1903, pp. 81-88.

    1903. WILHELM BLASIUS. Der Riesenalk, _Alca impennis_ L. In the New
    Edition of Naumann called "Naumann, Naturgeschichte der Vogel
    Mitteleuropas" (sic), vol. XII, pp. 169-208, pls. 17, 17A-17D, 1903.

        (Among others the most complete bibliography and very detailed

    1903. FLEMING, J. H. On the Passenger Pigeon.

        In Auk 1903, p. 66.


    1903. M. GUILLAUME GRANDIDIER. Contribution a l'etude de l'Epiornis de

        In: Comptes Rendus des Seances de l'Acad. Sc., Paris 1903 (pp. 1-3
        in separate copy.)

    1903. G. GRANDIDIER. Note au sujet du squelette de l'_Aepyornis

        In Bull. Mus. Paris 1903, pp. 318-323, with figures.

    1903. PAUL CARIE. Observations sur quelques oiseaux de l'ile Maurice.

        In Ornis XII, p. 121-128.

        (We are informed that neither _Palaeornis echo_--sub nomine
        _eques_--nor _Nesoenas mayeri_ are extinct.)

    1905. A. H. CLARK. Extirpated West Indian Birds.

        In Auk 1905, pp. 259-266.

    1905. A. H. CLARK. The Lesser Antillean Macaws.

        In Auk 1905, pp. 266-273.

    1905. A. H. CLARK. The West Indian Parrots.

        In Auk 1905, pp. 337-344.

    1905. A. H. CLARK. The Greater Antillean Macaws.

        In Auk 1905, pp. 345-348.

    1905-1906. SIR WALTER BULLER. Supplement to the "Birds of New Zealand."
    Two volumes.

        (Though containing very interesting notes on extinct and threatened
        birds, these two volumes are rather disappointing. They contain
        very little that is new, and are mainly composed of quotations from
        other people's writings or letters. Buller's former great book on
        the Birds of New Zealand was a most important and creditable work,
        though not without shortcomings. Our knowledge of New Zealand Birds
        might have been brought up to date in his supplement, but we cannot
        say that this has been done properly, and errors are frequent.)

    1906. BALDWIN SPENCER. The King Island Emu.

        In The Victorian Naturalist XXIII (1906), pp. 139, 140.

        (_Dromaius minor_ described.)

    1907. WALTER ROTHSCHILD. On Extinct and Vanishing Birds. A short Essay
    on the Birds which have presumably become extinct within the last 500
    years, and also of those birds which are on the verge of extinction,
    including a few which, though not yet so far gone, are threatened with
    extinction in the near future.

        In Proceed, of the IV Intern. Ornith. Congress, London 1905, pp.

       *       *       *       *       *


                             LIST OF PLATES.

     1. _Fregilupus varius_. From the plate in the "Volume Centenaire,"
    Mus. Hist. Naturelle, Paris.

     2. 1. _Foudia bruante_. From the figure in Daubenton's work.

        2. _Necropsar rodericanus_. Made up from description.

        3. _Necropsar leguati_. From the type specimen in Liverpool.

     3. 1. _Geospiza magnirostris_. From the type specimen in London.

        2. _Geospiza strenua_. Head. From specimen at Tring.

        3. _Nesoenas mayeri_. From specimen in the British Museum.

        4. _Chaunoproctus ferreorostris_ [male] [female]. From the pair in
    the British Museum.

     4. 1. _Hemignathus ellisianus_. After a drawing from the type in the
    Berlin Museum.

        2. _Heterorhynchus lucidus_. From a specimen in the Paris Museum.

        3. _Psittirostra psittacea deppei_. From the type in the Tring

        4. _Ciridops anna_. From a specimen in the Tring Museum.

    4A. 1. _Moho apicalis_. From specimen in the Tring Museum.

        2. _Chaetoptila angustipluma_. From specimen in the Tring Museum.

     5. 1. _Miro traversi_. From skin in the Tring Museum.

        2. _Traversia lyalli_ [male] and [female]. From the type specimens
    in the Tring Museum.

        3. _Bowdleria rufescens_. From a skin in the Tring Museum.

    5A. _Siphonorhis americanus_. From skin in the British Museum.

     6. 1. _Nestor norfolcensis_. From the plate in the Bulletin of the
    Liverpool Museum.

        2. Head of _Nestor productus_. From a specimen in the Tring Museum.

     7. _Lophopsittacus mauritianus_. From ancient drawing and description.

     8. _Necropsittacus borbonicus_. From a description.

     9. _Mascarinus mascarinus_. From the drawing in the Volume
    commemoratif, Centenaire Mus. Paris.

    10. _Ara tricolor_. From specimen in the Liverpool Museum. {xxviii}

    11. _Ara gossei_. From Gosse's description.

    12. _Ara erythrocephala_. From Gosse's description.

    13. _Anadorhynchus purpurascens_. From description.

    14. _Ara martinicus_. From description.

    15. _Ara erythrura_. From description.

    16. _Conurus labati_. From description.

    17. _Amazona violaceus_. From description.

    18. _Amazona martinicana_. From description.

    19. _Palaeornis exsul_. From the plate in the "Ibis."

    20. _Palaeornis wardi_. From the plate in the "Ibis."

    21. _Hemiphaga spadicea_. From the specimen in the Tring Museum.

    22. _Alectroenas nitidissima_. From the plate in the Volume
    commemoratif du Centenaire, Mus. Paris.

    23. _Pezophaps solitaria_. Made up from descriptions and ancient

    24. _Didus cucullatus_. From drawings.

    24A. _Didus cucullatus_. See explanation, page 172.

    24B. _Didus cucullatus_. See explanation, page 172.

    24C. _Didus cucullatus_. See explanation, page 172.

    25. _Didus solitarius_. From a picture supposed to be taken from a
    living specimen in Amsterdam, but beak and wing restored.

    25A. _Didus solitarius_. After Dubois' description.

    25B. 1, 2, 3. _Pezophaps solitarius_. Reproduction of ancient figures,
    see page 177.

         4, 5, 7, 8. _Didus solitarius_. Reproduction of ancient figures,
    see page 177.

    {xxix} 26. 1. _Hypotaenidia pacifica_. From Forster's unpublished
    drawing in the British Museum.

        2. _Pennula sandwichensis_. From the unique specimen in the Leyden

        3. _Pennula millsi_. From skin in the Tring Museum.

    27. _Nesolimnas dieffenbachi_. From the unique specimen in the British

    28. 1. _Cabalus modestus_. From skin in the Tring Museum.

        2. _Coturnix novaezealandiae_. From skin in the Tring Museum.

    29. _Aphanapteryx bonasia_. From ancient drawing.

    30. _Erythromachus leguati_. Made up from ancient outline figure and

    31. _Leguatia gigantea_. Made up from ancient figures and descriptions.

    32. _Apterornis coerulescens_. From description.

    33. _Notornis alba_. From the plate in "Ibis," 1873.

    34. _Notornis hochstetteri_. From the plate in the Zeitschr. f.d. ges.

    35. 1. _Aechmorhynchus cancellatus_. From the plate in Seebohm's

        2. _Prosobonia leucoptera_. After the unpublished drawings in the
    British Museum, but the artist has not shown the white patch on the

    36. _Camptolaimus labradorius_. From the two specimens in the Tring

    37. _Aestrelata caribbaea_. From the type specimen in the Dublin

    38. _Alca impennis_. From the stuffed specimen in the Tring Museum.

    39. _Carbo perspicillatus_. From a specimen in the British Museum.

    40. _Dromaius peroni_. From the type of the species in the Paris

    41. _Megalapteryx huttoni_. Restored from osteological remains and

    42. _Dinornis ingens_. Restoration from skeleton and some feathers.

       *       *       *       *       *


                           PALAEOCORAX FORBES.

This genus is founded on cranial characters: Basipterygoid processes of
parasphenoid present but rudimentary. The vomer broad, flat, and
three-pointed in front. Maxillaries anchylosed to the premaxillaries, the
latter anchylosed to the expanded ossified base of the nasal septum. The
ossified mesethmoid stretches backward and is lodged in the concavity of
the upper surface of the vomer, so that it presents a form intermediate
between the complete aegithognathous forms, such as _Corvus_, and the
compound aegithognathous forms, such as _Gymnorhina_, in which
desmognathism was superadded by "anchylosis of the inner edge of the
maxillaries with a highly ossified alinasal wall and nasal septum"

                      PALAEOCORAX MORIORUM (FORBES).

    _Corvus moriorum_ Forbes, Nature XLVI p. 252 (1892).

    _Palaeocorax moriorum_ Forbes, Bull. B.O.C. I p. XXI (1892).

Dr. Forbes says this bird is of about half the size again of a _Corvus
cornix_. The principal characters are cranial, and the same as those of the

Habitat: Chatham Islands, and possibly the Middle Island, New Zealand.

Many skulls and bones in the Tring Museum.


    _Palaeocorax antipodum_ Forbes, Ibis 1893, p. 544.

This is said to be distinguished from _P. moriorum_ by its considerably
smaller size. Habitat: North Island, New Zealand.


                            FREGILUPUS LESSON.

Huge crest, bill long and curved. One species, extinct.

                         FREGILUPUS VARIA (BODD.)

                               (PLATE 1.)

    _Huppes ou Callendres_, Voyages du Sieur D.B. (Dubois) aux Iles
    Dauphine ou Madagascar, et Bourbon ou Mascarenne, etc., p. 172

    _Huppe du Cap de Bonne Esperance_ Daubenton, Pl. Enl. 697.

    _Huppe noire et blanche du Cap de Bonne Esperance_ Montbeillard, Hist.
    Nat. Ois. VI, p. 463 (1779).

    _Madagascar Hoopoe_ Latham, Gen. Syn. B. II pt. I, p. 690 (1783).

    _Upupa varia_ Boddaert, Tabl. Pl. Enl. p. 43 (1783--ex Daubenton).

    _Upupa capensis_ Gmelin, Syst. Nat. I, p. 466 (1788--ex Montbeillard).

    _La Huppe grise_ Audebert et Vieillot, Ois. Dor., "Promerops" p. 15 pl.
    III (1802).

    _Le Merops huppe_ Levaillant, Hist. Nat. Promerops, etc., p. 43, pl. 18

    _Upupa madagascariensis_ Shaw, Gen. Zool. VIII, pt. I, p. 140 (1812).

    _Coracia cristata_ Vieillot, Nouv. Dict. d'Hist. Nat. VIII, p. 3

    _Pastor upupa_ Wagler, Syst. Avium, Pastor, sp. 13 (1827).

    _Fregilupus borbonicus_ Vinson, Bull. Soc. d'Acclimat 1868, p. 627.

    _Fregilupus varius_ Hartlaub, Vog. Madagasc. p. 203 (1877); Sharpe,
    Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XIII p. 194 (1890); Milne-Edwards & Oustalet,
    Centenaire Mus. Hist. Nat., p. 205, pl. II (1893).

As long ago as 1674 a note about the "Huppe" exists, by "Le Sieur D.B.,"
_i.e._, Dubois. He says, when describing the birds of Reunion (translated):
"Hoopoes or 'Callendres,' having a white tuft on the head, the rest of the
plumage white and grey, the bill and the feet like a bird of prey; they are
a little larger than the young pigeons; this is another good game (_i.e._,
to eat) when it is fat."

This description has generally been accepted as referring to the
_Fregilupus_, though that of the bill and feet is then due to an error of
the author, for _Fregilupus_ has the bill and feet of a member of the
_Sturnidae_ or family of Starlings.

Good descriptions and representations of the "Huppe" have been given in
many places (see literature), but whether they were taken from males or
females is generally not known. The sexes seem to be alike in colour, but
the female is smaller, and has a shorter and straighter bill than the male.
At least, this is the conclusion of Dr. Hartert, who saw the four examples
in the museum at Troyes. As far as he could see through the glass all four
{4} seemed to be adult birds, but two were larger with longer and more
curved bills, two smaller and with shorter and straighter beaks, so that
they are evidently two pairs.

This bird seems to have become extirpated about the middle of the last
century. The late Monsieur Pollen wrote in 1868 (translated): "This species
has become so rare that one did not hear them mentioned for a dozen years.
It has been destroyed in all the littoral districts, and even in the
mountains near the coast. Trustworthy persons, however, have assured us
that they must still exist in the forests of the interior, near St. Joseph.
The old creoles told me that, in their youth, these birds were still
common, and that they were so stupid that one could kill them with sticks.
They call this bird the "Hoopoe." It is, therefore, not wrong what a
distinguished inhabitant of Reunion, Mr. A. Legras, wrote about this bird
with the following words: "The Hoopoe has become so rare that we have
hardly seen a dozen in our wanderings to discover birds; we were even
grieved to search for it in vain in our museum."

We are certain that _Fregilupus_ existed still on Reunion in 1835, as
Monsieur Desjardins, living on Mauritius, wrote in a manuscript formerly
belonging to the late Professor Milne-Edwards: "My friend, Marcelin
Sauzier, has sent me four alive from Bourbon in May, 1835. They eat
everything. Two have escaped some months afterwards, and it might well
happen that they will stock our forests."

It seems, indeed, that specimens were killed in 1837 on Mauritius, where
they did not originally exist. Verreaux shot an example in Reunion in 1832.

The names "La Huppe du Cap" and "_Upupa madagascariensis_" arose out of the
mistaken notions that this bird lived in South Africa or Madagascar, but we
know now that its real home was Reunion or Bourbon.


    2 stuffed ones, one in good, one in bad condition, and two in spirits,
    in the Paris Museum.

    4 stuffed in Troyes.

    1 stuffed, from the Riocour collection, in the British Museum.

    1 in the Florence Museum.

    1 in Turin.

    1 in Pisa.

    1, rather poor and old, in Leyden.

    1 in Stockholm.

    1 in the Museum at Port Louis, on the island of Mauritius.

    1 in the collection of the late Baron de Selys Longchamps.

    1 in Genoa.


                       NECROPSAR GUNTHER & NEWTON.

The authors state that this genus was very closely allied to _Fregilupus_,
and, besides some minor differences, give as the principal difference the
shorter and less curved bill.


                           (PLATE 2, FIG. 2.)

    _Necropsar rodericanus_ Gunther & Newton, Phil. Trans. vol. 168, p.
    427, pl. XLII, figs. A-G (1879).

The original description given by the anonymous author of the "Relation de
l'Ile Rodrigue" is as follows:--"These birds are a little larger than a
blackbird, and have white plumage, part of the wings and the tail black,
the beak and the legs yellow, and make a wonderful warbling." Our author
also says they inhabited the Islet au Mat, and fed on seabirds' eggs and
dead turtle.

The bird evidently became extinct on Rodriguez before 1730, and lingered a
little longer on the outlying islets. Only known from bones, mostly
collected by the Rev. H. H. Slater, and the above description.

Habitat: Rodriguez and neighbouring islets.

There is one tibia in the Tring Museum.

The figure is coloured according to the description, while the shape of the
bird is evident from its bones and relation. {6}

                        NECROPSAR LEGUATI FORBES.

                           (PLATE 2, FIG. 3.)

    _Necropsar leguati_ Forbes, Bull. Liverp. Mus. I, p. 34, pl.
    _Sturnidae_ I (1897-1898).

Dr. Forbes' description is as follows:--"General colour white everywhere,
except on the outer webs of distal half of the primaries and secondaries
and the outer webs of the newly moulted and both webs of the unmoulted
rectrices, which are marked with lighter or darker ferruginous."

Dr. Forbes then gives an exhaustive description of the structure, to which
I refer my readers, and the following measurements:--

  Culmen    32  mm.
  Wing     109   "
  Tail      98   "
  Tarsus    31.5 "

I should have been inclined to consider this bird an albinistic specimen of
the bird described in "Relation de l'Ile Rodrigue," but for the fact that
the tibia of _Necropsar rodericanus_ is 52-59 mm. in length, while this is
only 46 mm. in length, while the metatarsus measures 31.5 mm. as opposed to
36-41 mm. in _N. rodericanus_. I cannot accept the theory that this is the
Islet au Mat bird, and therefore different from _N. rodericanus_, as the
islet is too close to Rodriguez to have had a different starling. I
therefore believe this bird to have been an albinistic specimen of the
Mauritius species of _Necropsar_, for there can be little doubt that it is
albinistic, as the ferruginous colour is much stronger on one wing than on
the other; and I conclude that the colour in the wings and tail in normal
specimens was black like the Rodriguez bird, and that _N. leguati_ was a
close ally of _N. rodericanus_, from which it differed principally in its
much smaller size.

Habitat doubtful.--The type specimen bears Lord Derby's Museum number,
1792, and a label of Verreaux giving Madagascar as the habitat, which is
certainly erroneous.


                      FOUDIA BRUANTE (P.L.S. MULL.)

                           (PLATE 2, FIG. 1.)

    _Bruant de l'isle de Bourbon_ Daubenton, Pl. Enl. 321.

    _Le Mordore_, Montbeillard, Hist. Nat. Ois., Quarto Edition IV., p. 366

    _Fringilla bruante_ P.L.S. Mull., Natursyst., Suppl. p. 164, No. 51
    (1776--ex Daubenton Pl. enl).

    _Emberiza fuscofulva_ Boddaert, Table Pl. Enl. p. 20 (1783--based on
    Pl. Enl. 321 and Montbeillard's "Mordere").

    _Emberiza borbonica_ Gmelin, Syst. Nat. I p. 886 (1788--ex Daubenton
    and Montbeillard).

    _Foudia bruante_ Newton, Trans. Norf. and Norw. Nat. Soc. IV., pp. 543
    and 548 (1889).

    _Nesacanthis fusco-fulvus_ Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XIII p. 484

We know absolutely nothing about this bird, except Daubenton's figure and
the description by Montbeillard. In the plate the whole body, including the
back, is uniform red, about the same red as in other species of _Foudia_,
while the wings and tail are dark brown with yellowish-brown borders. In
the description the body plumage is described as rufous ("mordere") and the
wings, wing-coverts and tail as more or less bright rufous ("d'un mordore
plus ou moins clair"). The size is said to be about that of a Bunting, but
the tail shorter and the wings longer.

According to Dr. Sharpe (Cat. B. XIII, p. 484) "it has generally been
considered identical with _Foudia madagascariensis_," but the latter has
the back marked with longitudinal black spots, while both the figure and
description of _F. bruante_ represent a uniform red upperside; moreover the
locality of the latter is expressly stated, and as we know other forms of
_Foudia_ from the Seychelles, Mauritius, Comoros, Aldabra and Madagascar,
we have no reason to doubt the statement. We are not aware of any specimen
existing of this doubtless extinct bird, though it would be worth while to
search the Paris Museum for this treasure.

Habitat: Reunion or Bourbon.


                            CHAUNOPROCTUS BP.

    _Chaunoproctus Bonaparte_, Consp. Av. I p. 526 (1850).

The genus _Chaunoproctus_ contains only one species, which is characterized
by its enormous bill, the depth of the mandible being greater than the
distance between the nasal apertures. The cutting-edge of the maxilla is
nearly straight, and there is no tooth in the posterior half of the
maxilla. The total length is about seven to eight inches. The adult male
has red in the plumage, the female is brown, above and below.

Dr. Hartert (Vogel pal. Fauna I, p. 115) is of opinion that this bird is
connected with _Carpodacus_ and allies, and not with the Greenfinches and
Hawfinches, among which it is placed in the Catalogue of Birds in the
British Museum.


                           (PLATE 3, FIG. 4.)

    _Coccothraustes ferreorostris_ (_sic_) Vigors, Zool. Journ. IV p. 354
    (1828); id. in Beechey's Voy. Blossom, p. 22, pl. 8 (1839).

    _Fringilla papa_ Kittlitz, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sc. Petersbourg I p. 239,
    pl. 15 (1830); id. Kupfertaf. Vog. p. 24, pl. 32, 2 (1832).

    _Chaunoproctus papa_ Bonaparte, Consp. I p. 526 (1850); Bp. and
    Schlegel, Monogr. Loxiens p. 32 pls. 37, 38 (1850).

    _Chaunoproctus ferreirostris_ Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XII p. 31

Vigors' original description, translated from the Latin, is as follows:
"Dark brown; head, breast and upper part of abdomen scarlet. Bill very
strong, feet plumbeous. Length of body 8-1/2, bill 7/8, at gape 1-3/16,
height 7/8; wings from the carpus to the third quill 4-1/2; tail 3, tarsus
7/8 inches."

In the "Catalogue of Birds," XII, p. 31, both sexes are carefully

It appears that only one pair, now in the British Museum, was obtained
during Captain Beechey's voyage. Curiously enough, Vigors suggested that
the brilliantly coloured adult male might be the young, the female the
adult bird, "as is the case in the Pine-Grosbeak" (_Sic!_).

Kittlitz, who visited the largest of the Bonin Islands in May, 1828,
obtained a number of specimens, of which some are in St. Petersburg, two in
Frankfurt-a.-M., one or two in Leyden, and, I believe, in Paris. {10} These
seem to be all the specimens known in European museums. Mr. Seebohm's
collector, the late Holst, failed to obtain it, and Mr. Alan Owston's men,
who several times went to the Bonin group to obtain it, and who were
promised good prices for specimens, did not get one. I am therefore
convinced that for some unknown reason this bird became extinct, though
there is still the possibility that the recent collectors did not collect
on the main island of the group, which alone was visited by Kittlitz.

Kittlitz tells us that he found it in the woods along the coast, but not
numerous. That it keeps concealed, is very phlegmatic, and is so little shy
that one is obliged to go back for some distance, before shooting, if one
wishes to preserve the specimen. Kittlitz saw it but seldom on high trees,
mostly on the ground. Its frequently heard note is a very fine piping
sound. In the crop and stomach small fruit and buds of one kind of tree
were found.

Habitat: The largest of the Bonin Islands, south of Japan.


                       GEOSPIZA MAGNIROSTRIS GOULD.

                           (PLATE 3, FIG. 1.)

    _Geospiza magnirostris_ Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1837, p. 5
    (Galapagos Islands); Rothschild & Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1899 p. 154, 1902
    p. 388; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XII, pp. 6, 7 (Fig.); Ridgway, B.
    North and Middle America I, p. 495 (1901).

As explained in Nov. Zool. 1899, p. 154, it is uncertain where Darwin
obtained the type specimens of Gould's _G. magnirostris_, as
"Unfortunately, most of the specimens of the finch-tribe were mingled
together," as Darwin tells us in his "Journal of Researches" (New Edition
1890, p. 420), and he had only "strong reasons to suspect that some of the
species of the sub-group _Geospiza_ are confined to separate islands." We
are, however, convinced that the types of _G. magnirostris_ can only have
come from Charles Island, where it is, probably, the representative of _G.
strenua strenua_. It seems, however, that _G. magnirostris_ exists no
longer, for all subsequent collectors have failed to obtain specimens,
unless an immature specimen in the U. S. Nat. Mus., from Charles Island
(No. 115,905), is a young _magnirostris_ (cf. Nov. Zool. 1902, p. 388).

The dimensions of the three black specimens in the British Museum are as
follows: Culmen 26.5, 27, 27; height of bill at base 23.5-24; wing 91, 91,
95; tarsus 25 mm. These measurements--a culmen of over 26.5 and a wing of
91 mm. combined--do not occur among our large series of _strenua_, and
therefore it is hardly possible that _G. magnirostris_ is composed of huge
examples of _strenua_ only.

As Charles Island has been inhabited for many years it is not at all
unlikely that a bird became extinct on that place. On plate 3 is figured
_G. magnirostris_ and a head of _G. strenua_ for comparison. {12}

                       GEOSPIZA DENTIROSTRIS GOULD.

    _Geospiza dentirostris_ Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1837, p. 6;
    Rothschild & Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1899 p. 163, 1902 p. 396.

This curious form differs from _G. fortis fortis_ (Charles Island!) in its
bill, which is bowed in towards the end of the upper mandible, and slightly
"toothed" on its cutting edge. The one specimen in the British Museum
certainly came from Charles Island, and we may, therefore, conclude that
the other also came from there, and there is certainly no reason to think
that it came from Chatham Island. As the skins in the British Museum
slightly differ from each other, there is some reason to suspect that they
are both aberrations of _G. fortis fortis_. Otherwise it must have become
extinct, as, in spite of special attention being paid to it, none of the
recent collectors met with _G. dentirostris_.


                         POMAREA NIGRA (SPARRM.)

    _Muscicapa nigra Sparrmann_, Mus. Carlson. I, pl. 23 and text
    (1786--Society Islands).

    _Pomarea nigra_ Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. IV, p. 434 (1879--Full
    synonymy, description, etc., Society Islands, Marquesas group).

In the list of birds now fully extinct, in the Proceedings of the Fourth
Intern. Orn. Congress, I enumerated _Pomarea nigra_, on the strength of E.
L. Layard's statement, P.Z.S. 1876, p. 501, who says: "This bird has
undoubtedly become extinct. Large sums have been offered by Messrs.
Godeffroy's collectors for the acquisition of a single specimen, but in
vain! The very old natives say they remember the bird and call it "Moho."

I, however, overlooked the fact that this note of Layard's referred to the
Friendly Islands only, and that this bird has afterwards been obtained in
numbers on the Marquesas group. It would, nevertheless, be very interesting
to compare specimens from the various islands, viz.: the Society group,
Marquesas and Tongatabu, to see if they are perfectly similar.


                          MIRO TRAVERSI BULLER.

                           (PLATE 5, FIG. 1.)

    _Miro traversi_ Buller, B. New Zealand, Ed. I p. 123 (1873--Chatham

    _Petroeca traversi_ Hutton, Ibis 1872, p. 245.

    _Myiomoira traversi_ Finsch, Journ.-f.-Orn. 1874, p. 189.

    _Miro traversi_ Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. IV p. 236 (1879).

    _Miro traversi_ (partim) Buller, Suppl. B. N. Zealand II p. 125? pl.
    XII (October, 1906).

The late Sir Walter Buller described, in 1873, _Miro traversi_ as follows:
"Adult male. The whole of the plumage black, the base of the feathers dark
plumbeous; wing-feathers and their coverts tinged with brown, the former
greyish on their inner surface; tail-feathers black, very slightly tinged
with brown. Irides dark brown; bill black; tarsi and toes blackish brown,
the soles of the feet dull yellow. Total length 6 inches; wing, from
flexure, 3.4; tail 2.6; bill 0.5, tarsus 1.1; middle toe and claw 0.1, hind
toe and claw 0.8 inch."

"Female. Slightly smaller than the male, and without the brown tinge on the
wings and tail."

It may be added that _Miro traversi_ is not pure black, but of a somewhat
brownish slaty black.

_Miro traversi_ is only known from the Chatham Islands, where it was
formerly very common, but, according to a letter from the late W. Hawkins,
the cats, which have been introduced to destroy rats and rabbits, have
exterminated it. It seems to have disappeared from Warekauri, the main
island of the Chatham group, long ago, for H. O. Forbes (Ibis 1893, p. 524)
and Henry Palmer found it, in 1890 and 1892, only on the outlying islets of
Mangare and Little Mangare.

The bird from the Snares is quite different, being deep glossy black and
having a shorter and narrower first primary. I named it _M. dannefaerdi_.
It is to be feared that a similar fate will one day befall it as has,
apparently, already befallen its congener from the Chatham Islands.

Sir Walter Buller (Suppl. B.N.Z. II, p. 125) has confounded _M. traversi_
and _dannefaerdi_, and the figure he gave on his plate looks so black, that
I do not doubt it represents rather the latter than the former. Of course
_M. dannefaerdi_ alone occurs on the Snares, and Buller's _traversi_ from
the Snares were all dannefaerdi. Dr. Finsch's statement (Ibis 1888, p. 308)
that Reischek's specimen from the Snares "agreed in every respect with
specimens from the Chatham Islands" is entirely wrong, for, even if {16}
one prefers unscientifically to lump allied forms, one cannot say that a
_Miro_ from the Chathams agrees in every respect with one from the Snares.
Buller's doubts about the distinctness of the latter might easily have been
removed, if he had taken the trouble to compare them, for it does not
require any genius to see the differences. I admit that with my present
views on geographical forms I would regard the two _Miro_ as sub-species,
and call them _M. traversi traversi_ and _M. traversi dannefaerdi_, but
most ornithologists would still consider them to be "good species."

I may add that Buller, l.c., p. 125, has not quoted my description
correctly, for in his rendering are several disturbing misprints, and in
the fourth line from the bottom occurs a "not" which ought not to be there,
and which makes the sentence incomprehensible. Also the name itself is
spelt incorrectly.

I have a series from Mangare and Little Mangare, taken by Henry Palmer in
1890. The egg seems to be unknown.

Habitat: Chatham Islands.


                         TURDUS TERRESTRIS KITTL.

    _Turdus terrestris_ Kittlitz, Mem. Acad. Sc. Petersburg I p. 245, pl.
    17 (1830--Boninsima).

    _Geocichla terrestris_ Bonaparte, Consp. Av. I, p. 268 (1850); Seebohm,
    Cat. B. Brit. Mus. V, p. 183 (1881); Hartert, Kat. Vogels. Senckenb, p.
    6 (1891); Sharpe, Monograph Turdidae, I p. 107, pl. 33 (1902).

    _Cichlopasser terrestris_ Bonaparte, C.R. XXXVIII, p. 6 (1854).

The following is Dr. Sharpe's description from a specimen in the Leyden
Museum: "General colour of the upper parts olive-brown, shading into
chestnut-brown on the rump, upper tail-coverts, and tail; the inside web of
each feather much darker, approaching black on the back; lores dark brown;
eye-stripe very obscure; lesser wing-coverts brown, darkest on the inside
web; median coverts dark brown, with large olive-brown tips; greater
coverts nearly black, broadly tipped, and narrowly margined towards the
base with olive-brown; primary coverts black, with a broad olive-brown
patch on the outer webs; tertials dark brown on the inner web, and
olive-brown on the outer web; secondaries brown, margined with olive-brown
on the outer webs; primaries brown, with the basal half of the outer webs,
and a spot where the emargination begins, olive-brown; tail-feathers
chestnut-brown; ear-coverts brown; underparts olive-brown, shading into
white on the chin, throat, and centre of belly; under tail-coverts dark
brown, with irregular diamond-shaped white tips; axillaries brown; under
wing-coverts brown. Geocichline markings on inner webs of quills dirty
white. Wing 3.8 inches, tail 2.6, culmen 0.85, tarsus 1.07, bastard primary

The only person who ever collected this short-tailed Ground-Thrush was
Kittlitz, who obtained four specimens, one of which is in St. Petersburg,
one in Frankfurt, one in Vienna, and one in Leyden. Neither Holst, nor Alan
Owston's Japanese collectors obtained specimens, though their special
attention was called to it. Therefore, unless these recent collectors left
unvisited the most important island of the group, we must suppose that it
became extinct.

Habitat: Bonin Islands, south-east of Japan.



    _Phaeornis oahensis_ Wilson & Evans, Aves Hawaiienses, Introd. p. XIII
    (1899--Based on _Turdus sandwichensis_ var. Bloxam, Voy. "Blonde" App.
    p. 250 (1826--Oahu) and _Turdus woahensis_ Bloxam M.S.)

Nothing is known about this evidently extinct bird, which formerly existed
on the island of Oahu, except Bloxam's short description, which is as
follows:--"Length 7-1/2 inches; upper parts olive-brown, extremities of the
feathers much lighter colour; tail and wings brown; bill bristled at the

The corresponding description of _Phaeornis obscura_ in Bloxam's M.S. notes
is:--"Length 8 inches; belly light ash; back, tail and wings an ash-brown;
bill slender, 3/4-in. long, bristled at the base. A beautiful songster."

It is thus evident that Bloxam considered both forms to be distinct, and
Messrs. Wilson and Evans were perfectly justified in naming the extinct
Oahu form.

We are not aware of any specimens being preserved in any Museum, though
Bloxam obtained a skin. Messrs. Wilson and Evans (l.c.) write:--"All the
specimens obtained by Mr. Andrew Bloxam, properly prepared and labelled,
were placed at the disposal of the Lords of the Admiralty, as shewn by a
copy of the letter he wrote to their Secretary, and probably all were sent,
as some certainly were, to the British Museum; but no other trace of this
unique specimen of a vanished species, which may be properly called
_Phaeornis oahensis_, is now forthcoming."


                      BOWDLERIA RUFESCENS (BULLER).

                           (PLATE 5, FIG. 3.)

    _Sphenoeacus rufescens_ Buller, Ibis 1869, p. 38.

    _Megalurus rufescens_ Gray Hand-l. B. I, p. 206. No. 2913. (1869.)

Buller's original description is as follows: "Upper parts, sides, and tail
dark rufous brown, brightest on the crown and hind-neck; the feathers of
the shoulders and sides centred with black. Quills dusky black, margined
with rufous brown. Streak over the eye, throat, breast and abdomen pale
fawn colour; sides of the head and ear-coverts marked with black. Bill
light brown with the ridge black, feet dark brown." Buller's type probably
had been preserved in spirit, as the colouration of fresh specimens is very
different to his description. The general colour above and on the flanks
chestnut rufous, most feathers with darker or black centres; chin, throat,
breast and abdomen pure white; crissum and under tail-coverts whity buff or
buffy brown. Wing 2.6 inches, tail 3.9 inches, culmen 0.65 inch.

Habitat: Chatham Islands.

Cats, rats and weasels have exterminated this fine species, which is now
quite extinct. Messrs. Travers and Dannefaerd have supplied the specimens
in most colonial museums, while Henry Palmer collected the 14 at Tring. A
few in Liverpool and two in the British Museum are all known to me in
Europe, in addition to those at Tring.


                            TRAVERSIA ROTHSCH.

See description below. Only one species known.

                        TRAVERSIA LYALLI ROTHSCH.

                           (PLATE 5, FIG. 3.)

    _Traversia lyalli_ Rothschild, Bull. B.O.C. IV p. X (December 29th,
    1894); Nov. Zool. 1895, p. 81.

    _Xenicus insularis_ Buller, Ibis 1895, p. 236, pl.

    _Traversia insularis_ Buller, Suppl. B.N.Z. II p. 109, pl. X (1906).

In 1894 I described this remarkable little bird as follows: "_Traversia_,
gen. nov. _Xenicidarum_. Differs in several important points both from
_Xenicus_ and _Acanthidositta_. Bill much larger and stouter, very little
shorter, if at all, than the tarsus; the latter about as long as middle toe
without claw, or the hind toe and claw, while in _Xenicus_ and
_Acanthidositta_ it is about twice as long as the hind toe. The principal
difference, however, is the weakness of the wing, which suggests
flightlessness, as does also the very soft and loose character of the
entire plumage, and the very Ralline aspect of the bird. There are only ten
tail-feathers, and the scutellation of the tarsus is like that of
_Xenicus_. These two points determine its position in the _Xenicidae_ at
once (cf. Sclater, Cat. B. XIV, p. 450).

"The type is: _Traversia lyalli_, sp. nov.

"Male. Above dark brownish olive-yellow, each feather with a brownish-black
border. A narrow distinct yellow superciliary line. Wings and tail
umber-brown, the inner webs darker; wing-coverts like back. Chin, throat,
and breast chrome-yellow, each feather slightly edged with greyish brown.
Flanks, abdomen, and vent pale brown, centre of feathers paler.

"Female. Upper surface umber-brown, each feather bordered with very dark
brown; wings and tail similar. Under surface buffy grey, the feathers edged
with pale brown. Total length about 4 inches, culmen 0.6, wing 1.8 to 1.9,
tail 0.8, but much concealed, tarens 0.75, middle toe 0.65, hind toe
without claw 0.5. {24}

"Habitat: Stephens Island, New Zealand. Discovered by Mr. Dr. Lyall,
lighthouse-keeper, and sent to me by Mr. Henry H. Travers."

I received nine specimens of this new bird, and was not aware that any
others had been taken at that time. As I was unable to attend the December
meeting, 1894, of the British Ornithologists Club, I asked Dr. Hartert to
exhibit the birds in my name. When he had done so and had read the
description, the Chairman, Dr. P. L. Sclater, said that the bird had also
been received for illustration and description in the Ibis, from Sir Walter
Buller, and he asked Dr. Hartert if I would not withdraw my description.
Dr. Hartert said that this was unfortunate, but he had no authority to
withdraw my description, and he and Dr. Sharpe thought that the proceedings
of the meeting should be printed without consideration of any manuscripts
which might refer to the same bird. No doubt this was hard luck on Sir
Walter Buller, but it would have been equally hard luck for me if he had
forestalled me with the new bird. He had only one specimen, I had nine, of
both sexes, and I had paid a high price for them, as types of a new bird.
My type is in Tring, and, as everybody knows, available for study by any
competent ornithologist, while Buller's type was not in any museum, and it
was uncertain to whom he would sell it afterwards. I suppose it is now in
the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, to which Buller's third collection, 625
specimens, was sold for a thousand pounds, as Buller himself tells us in
his Supplement II, p. 167, under the heading of _Glaucopis wilsoni_! On the
same page Sir Walter Buller also tells us that his "second collection" was
sold to me, but he makes a mistake about the price, as I certainly did not
pay a thousand pounds for it.

I mentioned these unimportant details, because Buller rather bitterly and
severely complained about my describing the Stephens' Island Wren, on p.
111 of his supplement. I may only add that of course my name, being
published in December, 1894, has the priority over his, which was not
published before April, 1895.

The history of _Traversia lyalli_ is perhaps the most extraordinary of any
bird known. All the specimens I am aware of, viz., the eight now in my
collection, the type of "_Xenicus insularis_" in Buller's former
collection, one in the late Canon Tristram's collection, one in the British
Museum (ex Tring), and two or more offered some years ago by Mr. Travers,
were brought in by the lighthouse-keeper's cat. Evidently this feline
discoverer has at the same time been the exterminator of _Traversia
lyalli_, and many may have been digested by that unique cat, as in letters
received from Mr. Travers I {25} have been told that no more specimens
could be obtained, and Buller (l.c.) says: "Very diligent search has been
made on Stephen Island for further specimens of the Island Wren, but
without success, and there is too much reason to fear that this species has
almost immediately after its discovery become extinct."

Habitat: Stephen Island, a small, partly wooded islet, about a square mile
in extent, in Cook Strait. It is almost impossible that this bird has only
existed on Stephen Island. It must have been overlooked on d'Urville Island
or the "mainland," where it probably became extinct--through rats and cats,
and similar pests--long ago.


                           MOHO APICALIS GOULD.

                              (PLATE 4A, 1.)

    _Yellow-tufted Bee-eater_ (non Latham!), Dixon, Voyage round the World,
    p. 357, plate (1789).

    _Moho apicalis_ Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1860, p. 381 (? Hawaii).

    _Acrulocercus apicalis_ Wilson & Evans, Av. Hawaii, pt. V text and
    plate (1894).

    _Moho apicalis_ Rothschild, Avif. Laysan, etc., p. 223 and plate

This rarest species of the Mohos formerly inhabited the island of Oahu,
where specimens were obtained in 1837, near Enero, by Herr Deppe. The
localities of the specimens figured by Dixon and that of the type of Gould
are uncertain, but they must have been obtained on Oahu. Since 1837 we have
no further traces of _Moho apicalis_.

The only specimens known are those in Berlin, collected by Deppe, two in
the British Museum, and one in my Museum at Tring. The latter, which I
obtained in exchange from the British Museum, is the one brought home from
the Sandwich Islands by Capt. Lord Byron. There is no specimen of _Moho
apicalis_ in the Vienna Museum.

Habitat: Oahu.


                             CHAETOPTILA SCL.

    _Chaetoptila_ Sclater, Ibis 1871 p. 358.

Dr. Sclater justly proposed a new generic term for the "_Entomyza_" or
"_Moho_" _angustipluma_ of former authors. This bird belongs doubtless to
the family of _Meliphagidae_ or Honey-eaters, and the genus is sufficiently
distinct from all others. There are no fleshy wattles anywhere. The tail is
long and strongly graduated; all the rectrices are obliquely pointed at
their tips. The plumage of the body is very soft, that of the head, throat
and chest almost fluffy; the feathers of the chin, throat and forehead end
in hair-like bristles.

We know only one species.


                           (PLATE 4A, FIG. 2.)

    _Entomiza angustipluma_ Peale, U.S. Expl. Exp., Birds p. 147 pl. XL
    fig. 2 (1848--Hawaii).

    _Mohoa angustipluma_ Cassin, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1855 p. 440.

    _Moho angustipluma_ Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exp., Mamm. & Orn. p. 148 pl. XI
    fig. 1 (1858--Hawaii).

    Wilson & Evans, Aves. Hawai. pt. II and plate (1891--Hawaii).

    Rothschild, Avif. Laysan, etc., p. 215 and plate (1900).

This remarkable bird, belonging to the family _Meliphagidae_, used to
inhabit the island of Hawaii in the Sandwich Archipelago. It has been said
by Mr. Dole to inhabit Molokai, but this is evidently an error. At present
nobody on the island of Hawaii has any recollection of its presence, and
its former native name is unknown--the name "Kiowea" erroneously quoted by
Mr. Dole being that of _Numenius tahitiensis_. The bird is extinct, though
we do not know the reason why it disappeared.


    1. The type in the Museum at Washington, U.S.A.

    2. One in the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum in Honolulu.

    3. One in the Museum of the University at Cambridge, obtained in
    exchange from Honolulu by Mr. Scott Wilson.

    4. One in my Museum at Tring, obtained in exchange from the Honolulu

The type was obtained by Peale, the three others by the late Mr. Mills on
the island of Hawaii.


                       STRIGICEPS LEUCOPOGON LESS.

    _Strigiceps leucopogon_ Lesson, Echo du Monde Savant 1840 (?); Rev.
    Zool. 1840, p. 266; Suppl. aux oeuvres compl. de Buffon, Descr. de
    Mammif. & Ois, recemm. decouverts, p. 277 (1847--Nouvelle Hollande);
    Hartlaub, Beitrag Gesch ausgest Vogel, in Abhandl. Naturw. Ver. Bremen,
    2te Ausgabe, als M.S. gedr., p. 40 (1896).

Nobody has hitherto identified the curious bird described by Lesson, l.c.,
under the above name. From the generic characters he gives it is evident
that it was a bird with a long, curved bill, lanceolate feathers on the
head and throat, and long, strongly graduated tail, doubtless belonging to
the _Meliphagidae_. The description of the colouration is as follows:--

"Back, wings and tail bright greenish-olive; quills brown inside; shafts of
the rectrices canary-yellow from below, glossy brown-red from above; top of
head and neck chestnut, each feather being narrow and streaked with white,
then with fawn-colour on the top; the feathers of the throat are elongated
and fringed out on their edges, very narrow and lanceolate, grey at base,
white at the tips; cheeks, sides of neck and chest ferruginous, some white
streaks on the feathers of the chest and in the middle of the throat;
flanks and belly clear rufous, passing into canary-yellow on the under
tail-coverts. Tail from below greenish-yellow; tarsi horn-colour, bill
above brownish, below yellowish with brown tip. Length about eight french
inches and a half (0.23 centimetres)." (_Translated._)

This bird was said to have come from Australia. I have made enquiries, but
the type seems to have disappeared. There is something in the description
reminding us of _Chaetoptila angustipluma_. Unless the description is
faulty, this bird came probably not from Australia, but from one of the
Pacific Islands. It has not been observed since, and is possibly extinct.


                              DREPANIS TEMM.

    _Drepanis_ Temminck, Man. d'Orn. Ed. II, I p. LXXXVI (1820--"Especes:
    _Certhia pacifica--obscura--vestiaria_ et probablement _falcata_, que
    je n'ai pas vu.") Type by elimination: _Drepanis pacifica_.

The name _Drepanis_ is now restricted to the practically extinct "Mamo" of
the natives of the Sandwich Islands. _Drepanis pacifica_ has a very
striking black and yellow colouration; the somewhat loose-webbed under
tail-coverts cover about three-quarters of the tail. The bill is long,
curved, non-serrated, the upper mandible a few millimetres longer than the
lower jaw. Nostrils large, covered by an operculum. First primary
rudimentary, hidden by its covert. There is a silky, soft and fluffy
axillary patch of feathers. The tail is slightly rounded. The metatarsus is
covered with large, partly fused scutes.

Only one species known.

                         DREPANIS PACIFICA (GM.)

    _Great Hook-billed Creeper_ Latham, Gen. Synops. I p. 703 (1782).

    _Certhia pacifica_ Gmelin, Syst. Nat. I p. 470 (1788--ex Latham).

Both Mr. Scott Wilson and myself have at length discussed this beautiful
bird in our books on the Hawaiian Avifauna. Of the actual status of this
bird in former times we know nothing. Latham described it first (Gmelin
named this species after Latham's description) from a pair in the Leverian
collection, which is now preserved in the Vienna Museum. About half a
century ago several specimens were collected by the late W. Mills near
Hilo, on the island of Hawaii, the only island where it existed. Nothing
certain was heard of the "Mamo" until, in 1892, my collector Henry Palmer
obtained a fine male, which was caught before his eyes by a native
birdcatcher. In July, 1898, Mr. H. W. Henshaw saw "at least a pair,
possibly a whole family," in the woods of Kaumana, and in 1899 a native
heard the, to him, well-known call near the same place. This brings the
existence of the Mamo down to the year 1898 or 1899. In view of the futile
efforts of Messrs. Henry Palmer, {32} Perkins, Henshaw and others to
observe this rare bird again, we may well suppose that this species is
either extinct, or will very soon vanish if any are left.

In former times the Mamo was probably more or less common. Its golden
yellow feathers were of great value, and, though the majority of the famous
war-cloaks are composed of the feathers of _Moho nobilis_, a few such
cloaks are known to consist of Mamo feathers. It is supposed that it took
generations to complete such a cape.

I only know of specimens of this bird in Vienna, Leyden, Paris, Honolulu,
Cambridge and Tring.

The two examples in the Vienna Museum were obtained by Fichtel at the sale
of the Leverian collection. One is perfect, the other has the upper portion
of the bill wanting.



                           (PLATE 4, FIG. 1.)

    _Hemignathus obscurus_ Lichtenstein (non Gmelin!), Abh. Akad. Wiss.
    Berlin, 1838, p. 440    pl. 5 fig. 1 (Oahu).

    _Drepanis_ (_Hemignathus_) _ellisiana_ Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Is. Pac. Oc.
    p. 9 (1859--based on    Lichtenstein's _H. obscurus_ from Oahu).

    _Hemignathus lichtensteini_ Scott Wilson, Ann. & Mag. N. H. ser. 6,
    vol. IV, p. 401 (1889--Oahu,    based on the Berlin specimen).

    _Hemignathus ellisianus_ Rothschild, Avif. of Laysan, etc., p. 87
    (1893) p. 310 (1900).

We know only of one single specimen, the type of the names _ellisianus_ and
_lichtensteini_, figured and described by Lichtenstein, in 1838, under the
name of _Hemignathus obscurus_. It is true that Lichtenstein says, that
Herr Deppe procured several specimens, but there is only one in the Berlin
Museum, and we have no knowledge where the others may be, if they are still
in existence.

There can hardly be any doubt that _H. obscurus ellisianus_ is extinct on
Oahu, where it was discovered by Deppe. All recent collectors, from Wilson
and Palmer to this day, have failed to find a trace of it. Although
collecting in the dense forests and rugged mountains of Oahu is most
difficult, we may suppose that at least one of these collectors would have
come across it, if it still existed.

The following is the description made by Dr. Hartert of the type in

"Above greenish olive-brown, more greenish on the back and rump, and
somewhat more greyish on the head and hind-neck; the dark bases of the
feathers on the head showing through, lores deep brown. A distinct yellow
superciliary stripe. Chin, throat, and middle of abdomen dull brownish
white (apparently somewhat faded). Upper breast olive-greenish, sides of
breast and flanks dull olive-greenish, more olive-brown on the flanks.
Wings and tail deep brown, bordered with yellowish green. Under-wing
coverts dull white. Bill brown, somewhat horn-brown, but not blackish, as
in the other forms of _Hemignathus_.

It is not probable that the bill and feet are faded, as in specimens of
_Heterorhynchus lucidus_ collected and stuffed at the same time and kept
side by side with _H. o. ellisianus_, the bill and feet are still blackish
and not brown.

Wing 83.5, tail 53, culmen 56, bill from gape to tip in a straight line
47.5, lower mandible from mental apex to tip 40 mm."


                     HETERORHYNCHUS LUCIDUS (LICHT.)

                           (PLATE 4, FIG. 2.)

    _Hemignathus lucidus_ Lichtenstein, Abh. d. Kon. Akad. Wissensch.
    Berlin 1838 p. 451, pl. V    figs. 2 [male] 3 [female] (1839--Oahu).

    _Heterorhynchus olivaceus_ Lafresnaye, Mag. de Zool. 1839 pl. X. and
    text (Oct. 1839).

The Oahu form of _Heterorhynchus_ is now extinct, and specimens are only,
as far as we know, preserved in the Museums of Berlin (types of _H.
lucidus_), Boston (type of _H. olivaceus_), Francfort, Paris, Leyden,
London, Cambridge, Liverpool.

In 1838 Deppe saw this bird in great numbers flying round the flowers of
the banana plantations. As the bird was apparently common, it is quite
possible that specimens are preserved in several other collections, and it
would be most welcome if the officials of continental Museums would give
information in case they should find specimens of this interesting extinct

Habitat: Oahu.



                           (PLATE 4, FIG. 3.)

    _Psittirostra olivacea_ Rothschild, Avifauna of Laysan p. 193
    (1900--Oahu, ex Lichtenstein    nomen nudum & M.S.)

    _Psittirostra psittacea deppei_ Rothschild, Bull. B.O.C. XV. p. 45
    (1905--new name for the above, the name _olivacea_ being preoccupied by

_Psittirostra psittacea psittacea_ is still one of the commoner birds on
most of the Hawaiian Islands, except Oahu, where it was formerly replaced
by a closely allied form, _P. p. deppei_, distinguishable by slightly
smaller dimensions, more whitish abdomen in the male, and somewhat more
olivaceous upperside. Specimens have been collected on Oahu by Prof. Behn
and Herr Deppe, and besides a pair in my collection, I only know of
examples in the museums of Berlin and Vienna. There is no trace left of
this species in Oahu, and in spite of great efforts Mr. Palmer and all
other recent collectors did not come across it. This form has thus shared
the fate of _Hemignathus ellisianus_, _Heterorhynchus lucidus_, _Moho
apicalis_ and _Phaeornis oahensis_, which have all disappeared from Oahu,
while _Loxops rufa_ may still exist in a few pairs, or has possibly
followed suit already.


                       LOXOPS COCCINEA RUFA BLOXAM.

    _Fringilla rufa_ Bloxam, Voy. "Blonde" p. 250 (1826).

    _Loxops wolstenholmei_ Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club I, p. LVI

    _Loxops rufa_ Wilson, Aves Hawaiienses part VI, plate and text (1896);
    Rothschild, Avif.    of Laysan, etc., p. 177 (1900).

This form of _Loxops_ is only found on Oahu, where it is doubtless very
rare now, if not already extinct. The last known specimen was shot on April
20th, 1893, in the mountains of the Wailua district, on Oahu, and is in my
collection. This is the only specimen obtained by the efforts of recent
collectors, and, if any should still exist, we may suppose that their fate
is sealed.

_L. c. rufa_ differs from _L. coccinea coccinea_ of Hawaii by its smaller
size and more brownish, somberer coloration.

We know of specimens in the British Museum, including the type of Bloxam's
_Fringilla rufa_, in Liverpool, Philadelphia, Berlin, Berlepsch Castle,
Vienna and Tring.


                             CIRIDOPS WILSON.

    _Ciridops_ Wilson, Nature 1892, p. 469.

Though formerly supposed to belong to the _Fringillidae_, it is now
generally acknowledged to belong to the family _Drepanidae_, a peculiar
family of different forms restricted in its distribution to the Hawaiian
Islands. The genus _Ciridops_ seems to stand nearest to _Loxops_, from
which, however, it is easily distinguished by the form of the bill, the
pattern of colouration, stronger feet, and the structure of its plumage,
which is somewhat stiff and scanty, while it is soft and rich in _Loxops_.
The feathers of the crown and throat are pointed.

We only know one species belonging to this genus.

                          CIRIDOPS ANNA (DOLE).

                           (PLATE 4, FIG. 4.)

    _Fringilla anna_ Dole, Hawaiian Almanac 1879, p. 49 (Hawaii); reprint
    in Ibis 1880.

    _Ciridops anna_ Wilson & Evans, Aves Hawaienses, Part IV, text and
    plate; Rothschild, Avifauna of Laysan, p. 183.

The "Ulaaihawane" of the natives of Hawaii is one of the rarest birds
known, only three specimens being on record--one, the type, in the Bernice
Pauahi Bishop Museum in Honolulu, and two in my collection. One of these
was brought home by Mr. Scott Wilson, who obtained it from Mr. Bishop in
Honolulu, the other was shot by a native for my former collector, Mr.
Palmer. No other examples have been obtained. As there are still a good
many hawane palms in elevated districts of Hawaii, there is, of course, a
possibility that a few examples still exist there; but to all intents and
purposes _Ciridops anna_ may be looked upon as extinct.


                             SIPHONORHIS SCL.

    _Siphonorhis_ Sclater, P.Z.S. 1861, p. 77. Type: _Caprimulgus
    americanus_ L.

"The bill is extremely broad at base, the tip strong and heavily decurved;
nostrils tubular and very prominent; rictal bristles strongly developed.
Wing pointed, third primary longest; tail rounded, almost graduated. Tarsi
long and naked. The sexes differ slightly in coloration. (Hartert.)"

                       SIPHONORHIS AMERICANUS (L.)

                               (PLATE 5A.)

    _Small Wood-Owle_ Sloane, Voy. Jamaica II, p. 296, pl. 255, fig. 1

    _Caprimulgus americanus_ Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, p. 193 (1758--Ex
    Sloane. "Habitat in America calidiore").

    _Chordeiles americanus_ Bonaparte, Consp. Av. I, p. 63 (1850).

    _Siphonorhis americanus_ Sclater, P.Z.S. 1861, p. 77; id. P.Z.S. 1866,
    p. 144; Cory, B. W. Indies, p. 139 (1889); Hartert, Cat. B. Brit. Mus.
    XVI, p. 592 (1892).

The whole diagnosis of Linnaeus is "Caprimulgus narium tubulis
eminentibus," but the prominent tubular nostrils are just the character
which distinguishes _S. americanus_ most strikingly from all the other
goatsuckers, and I think that Sloane's figure and description are
sufficient to indicate this bird. Sloane says as follows:--

"This was seven Inches from the end of the Bill to that of the Tail, and
ten from the end of Wing to Wing expanded, it had a quarter of an Inch long
crooked black bill, with two _Tubuli_ about one eight Part of an Inch long
for the Nostrills, along the upper Mandible were several bristly Hairs in a
Line, like those of a Cat's Mustachoes of a black Colour, the _Aperture_ of
Chaps or Swallow was extraordinary large. The Feathers on the Head and
under the Chaps were many, the Tail was four Inches long, the Head and Back
were cover'd with Feathers of a mixt Colour of _Feuille Morte_, grey and
black, the Wings and Tail were of the same Colour only Lighter under the
Chaps, Breast and Belly was also of the same, the Legs and Feet were an
Inch and half cover'd with brown Scales, the Toes four, three before, that
in the middle three-quarters of an Inch long, and one behind. {44}

"Its Stomach was not very muscular, it was fill'd with Scarabei, &c. The
rest of the Bowells agreed in everything with those of the greater Sort,
concerning which see the description above.

"They feed on _Scarabei_ and other Insects of that Kind.

"They are found with the former."

Specimens of this Goatsucker are very rare in collections, and I am only
aware of the existence of examples in American museums and of the pair
obtained by Osburn in Jamaica about half a century ago, and now in the
British Museum. Recent collectors have failed to procure it, and it is
therefore to be feared that, like _Aestrelata caribbaea_, it has been
exterminated by the introduced mongoose and other animals.

Habitat: Jamaica.


                        NESTOR PRODUCTUS (GOULD.)

                             (PLATE 6, head.)

    _Wilson's Parrakeet_ Latham, Gen. Hist. B. II, p. 170 (1822).

    _Plyctolophus productus_ Gould, P.Z.S. 1836, p. 19.

    _Nestor productus_ Gould, Syn. Austr. B. and adj. Isl. pt. I, pl., fig.
    1 (183--?).

    _Centrurus productus_ Bp., Naumannia 1856, Consp. Psitt. No. 265.

Latham's original description is as follows: "Length thirteen inches. Bill
very long and hooked, and upper mandible measuring almost two inches, the
under three-quarters, colour dusky; plumage in general greenish ash,
inclining to brown, and clouded here and there with orange as in the
'Crossbill,' but the edges of the feathers of the back dun colour; all the
under parts of the body mixed yellow and dull orange; rump dull red; under
wing coverts dull yellow; thighs brown; the quills reach almost to the end
of the tail, which is somewhat, but not greatly, cuneiform; both quills and
tail are brown, the former marked on the inner webs with five or six
whitish bars; legs dusky, toes very long. Inhabits New South Wales. I met
with a fine specimen of it in the collection of Thomas Wilson, Esqre."

It has long been a question whether _Nestor productus_ of Gould and _Nestor
norfolcensis_ of Pelzeln were really distinct or only individual varieties
of one species. I had for a long time considered them to be merely
individual varieties, for I could not persuade myself that a small island
like Philip Island, almost contiguous to Norfolk Island, could have a
different species of _Nestor_ to that found on the larger island. Since
commencing to write this book, however, I have come to somewhat different
conclusions. In the first place no special locality is given for _N.
productus_ by the earlier authors, in the same way as in the case of
_Notornis alba_, which, like the _Nestor_, was said to come from N. S.
Wales. This fact is easily explained, as N. S. Wales and Norfolk Island
were both penal settlements in the early days, and there was intercourse by
regular vessels plying between these colonies and Lord Howe's Island. Now
we find in the case of several other birds that distinct local forms occur
on Norfolk and Lord Howe's Islands, while as far as I know there is no
other record of a distinct bird from Philip Island. I therefore believe
that _Nestor productus_ inhabited both Norfolk and Philip Islands, and that
all specimens extant are from Philip Island, where it lingered some years
longer than on the main island, while the specimens of Ferdinand Bauer and
Governor Hunter, and possibly the supposed _N. norfolcensis_ of {46} Canon
Tristram's collection, now in Liverpool, had been brought from Lord Howe's
Island in cages and were kept as pets in Norfolk Island; and then, as the
value of exact data in those early days of our science was unknown, the
references were made to the place whence the specimens were seen or
brought. One thing however is certain, the bill in Ferdinand Bauer's sketch
is evidently a monstrous growth produced by captivity, for Latham expressly
describes the bill of Governor Hunter's bird as ending in a long thin
point. The differences of _N. norfolcensis_ are the dull crimson sides of
face, chin, and throat; dull green head and hind neck, and the total
absence of bars on the tail. The plate given herewith is a reproduction of
the Liverpool bird, with the bill of Ferdinand Bauer's sketch added, as
this is wanting in that bird, and in the corner a head of the specimen of
_N. productus_, purchased for the Tring Museum, when the late Mr. Wallace's
Museum at Distington, Cumberland, was dispersed.

I have carefully examined the three fine specimens of _Nestor productus_ in
the British Museum, and the conclusion I have come to is that the bird
described by Gould as the adult of his _N. productus_ was an abnormal
specimen, and was in relation to normal _N. productus_ what the aberrations
called "_superbus_" and "_esslingi_" are to _N. meridionalis_. The bills of
the British Museum specimens are very different. The one from the Bell
collection has the long, thin bill, but it is at least half-an-inch to
three-quarters shorter than those in the Tring and Florence specimens.

Habitat: Philip Island and probably Norfolk Island.

One in Tring, three in London, one in Florence, two in Vienna, one in
Prague, two in Leyden, one in Amsterdam, are known to me.

The two specimens in the Vienna Museum were both bought in 1839. One from
Ward, with a short bill, brown chest and throat, and a very wide yellow
breast-band. The other from Baron von Hugel, which has a long bill and very
red cheeks and chin. {47}

                       NESTOR NORFOLCENSIS PELZELN.

                         (PLATE 6, full figure.)

    _Long-billed Parrakeet_ Latham, Gen. Hist. II, p. 171 (1822).

    _Nestor norfolcensis_ Pelzeln, Sitzb. k. Akad. Wiss. XLI, pp. 322-325,
    pl.--(1860--detailed description from the manuscript of the late
    botanist, Ferdinand Lucas Bauer, and figure of head with an evidently
    abnormally developed bill. The specimen was from Norfolk Island; it had
    disappeared before Pelzeln's time).

Latham's original description is as follows: "Length above 12 inches. Bill
very long and curved, thick halfway from the base, but tapering quite to a
point at the tip, and under mandible truncated at the end, colour of both,
dusky; head and neck dull green; sides under the eyes, chin and throat pale
crimson; upper parts of the body, wings and tail dusky; breast yellowish;
belly, thighs and vent more or less crimson; tail cuneiform; legs brown."

"One of these was in possession of Governor Hunter, who brought it from
Norfolk Island; from the bill it seems related to the other, but the tail
is cuneiform in a much greater degree, without any bars across it."

The only bird of this species extant is the one in Liverpool, from the
Tristram collection.

Governor Hunter's specimen and Bauer's bird were both brought from Norfolk
Island, but as they were cage-birds, and differed so markedly from _N.
productus_, I, for reasons given under _N. productus_, believe this bird
came from Lord Howe's Island.

Habitat: Lord Howe's Island (?).


                          LOPHOPSITTACUS NEWTON.

The huge bill and peculiar shaped crest, together with the--apparently,
_i.e.,_ if the figure is correct--very short wings are characteristic of
this genus. (P.Z.S. 1875, p. 350.)


                               (PLATE 7.)

    _Broad-billed Parrot_ Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. VI, p. 53 (1866).

    _Psittacus mauritianus_ Owen, Ibis, p. 168 (1866).

    _Psittacus (Lophopsittacus) mauritianus_ A. Newton, P.Z.S. (1875), pp.
    349, 350.

    _Lophopsittacus mauritianus_ Newton, Enc. Brit. (ed. 9) III, p. 732,
    ff. 44, 46 (1875).

This extraordinary parrot was first described and made known to science by
Professor Owen in 1866. He described it from 2 lower mandibles, much
damaged, which were dug up from the Mare aux Songes. Except a few further
osseous remains, mostly collected by Sir Edward Newton, nothing more of
importance was found relating to this bird till Professor Schlegel
discovered in the Library of Utrecht the manuscript journal kept during the
voyage to Mauritius in A.D. 1601-1602 of Wolphart Harmanszoon, in which
among other items of natural history there is a sketch of _Lophopsittacus_
from life, and the statement that it was wholly of a grey-blue colour. From
the fact that this bird is not mentioned by the voyagers who visited
Mauritius in the 2nd and 3rd decades of the 18th century, it is probable
that it was one of the first of the Mascarene birds to become extinct. This
is easily understood when we consider that the bird was apparently unable
to fly, and would like all big parrots prove excellent eating.

Only known from osseous remains and the above-quoted drawing and notes.

35 tarsi and tibiae, and 60 complete and incomplete lower mandibles and
fragments of palatine bones in the Tring Museum.

Habitat: Mauritius.


                           ARA TRICOLOR BECHST.

                               (PLATE 10.)

    _Le petit Ara_ D'Aubenton, Pl. Enl. 641.

    _L'Ara tricolor_ Levaill., Perr. I p. 17, pl. 5 (1801).

    _Psittacus tricolor_ Bechst., Kurze Ueb. p. 64, pl. I (1811).

    _Sittace? lichtensteini_ Wagl., fide Bp., Naumannia 1856, Consp. Psitt.

Bechstein's description, taken from Levaillant, is (translated) as follows:
"This _Aras_, which others have held to be only a variety of _Macao_, is
according to Vaillant a distinct species. It is one third smaller than the
red-fronted species, or 1 ft. 10 in. long, of which the tail takes 11
inches and the bill 18 lines. The latter is of a black colour and has the
upper mandible less curved, and the sides of the lower mandible more
swollen than is the case in the other _Ara_ species. The cheeks are naked
and white, with three lines of red feathers. Head, front and sides of the
neck, breast, belly and thighs red; back of the neck pale yellow; back,
shoulders and smaller wing coverts brownish red bordered with yellow or
green; flanks yellowish, primaries above dark azure blue, below coppery
red. Crissum violet blue, undertail coverts pale blue with green and
brown-red borders; under-wing coverts red, the larger yellow, and brownish
green. Two centre tail feathers all red with blue tips, the outer ones blue
on outer webs and tips, red on the rest of the feather."

Of this bird I know only of two in the British Museum, one in Paris, one in
Leyden, one in Liverpool. The specimen in the Paris Museum bears the
inscription "Macrocercus tricolor (Bechst.) M. E. Rosseau. Cuba. Menagerie
1842." Probably, however, there are more specimens in other museums.

Apparently the last specimen was shot in 1864 at La Vega (Bangs, Americ.
Nat. XXXIX, p. 200).

Like all the extinct West Indian Macaws, Amazons and Conures, it became
extinct through its persecution by the inhabitants for food.

Habitat: Formerly Cuba and Isle of Pines. {52}

                           ARA GOSSEI ROTHSCH.

                               (PLATE 11.)

    _Yellow-headed Macaw_ Gosse, Birds of Jamaica, p. 260 (1847).

    _Ara gossei_ Rothsch., Bull. B.O.C., XVI, p. 14 (1905); Proc. IV, Orn.
    Congr., p. 201 (1907).

    _Ara tricolor_ (non Bechstein) Clark, Auk 1905, p. 348.

Mr. Gosse's description is as follows:--"Basal half of upper mandible
black; apical half, ash coloured; lower mandible, black, tip only ash
coloured; forehead, crown, and back of neck, bright yellow; sides of face,
around eyes, anterior and lateral parts of the neck, and back, a fine
scarlet; wing coverts and breast deep sanguine red; winglet and primaries
an elegant light blue. The legs and feet are said to have been black; the
tail, red and yellow intermixed (Rob.)"

Mr. Gosse also remarks, "If this is not the _tricolor_ of Le Vaillant,
which is the only Macaw I am aware of marked with a yellow nape, it is
probably new."

In spite of the evident differences in the description, the Jamaican _Ara_
has always been united with the Cuban _A. tricolor_, even as lately as
October, 1905, by Mr. Austin H. Clark (Auk, 1905, p. 348), though he
queries it in a footnote. The specimen described by Dr. Robinson, here
quoted by Gosse, was shot about 1765, by Mr. Odell, in the mountains of
Hanover parish, about ten miles east of Lucea.

Habitat: Jamaica.

The specimen described no longer exists, and there are none in any
collection known.

There was a third member of the _tricolor_ group of Macaws found on the
large island of Haiti, which Mr. Clark has also united under _A. tricolor_,
but I believe it must have been different, just as the Jamaica bird. {53}

                       ARA ERYTHROCEPHALA ROTHSCH.

                               (PLATE 12.)

    _Ara militaris_ Gosse, Birds of Jamaica, p. 261 (1847).

    _Ara erythrocephala_ Rothsch., Bull. B.O.C., XVI, p. 14 (1905); Proc.
    IV Orn. Congr., p. 201 (1907).

Gosse says the description given to him in a letter, just received from Mr.
Hill, was as follows:--"Head red; neck, shoulders, and underparts of a
light and lively green; the greater wing coverts and quills, blue; and the
tail scarlet and blue on the upper surface, with the under plumage, both of
wings and tail, a mass of intense orange yellow."

"The specimen here described was procured in the mountains of Trelawny and
St. Anne's by Mr. White, proprietor of the Oxford estate." No specimen now

Habitat: Jamaica.

Mr. Gosse also relates that the Rev. Mr. Coward, in 1842, saw two large
Macaws flying near the foot of the mountains in the parish of St. James,
near the centre of the island. These birds were said to have been blue and
yellow; if so, probably they were my _Ara erythrura_, whose precise island
home is unknown.

                        ARA MARTINICUS (ROTHSCH.)

                               (PLATE 14.)

    _Les Aras_ Pere Bouton, Rel. de l'etab. d. Francais dep. 1635, en l'ile
    Martinique pp. 71. 72 (1640).

    _Anadorhynchus martinicus_ Rothsch. Bull. B.O.C. XVI, p. 14 (1905);
    Proc. IV Orn. Congr., p. 202 (1907).

Pere Bouton says, "Les Aras sont deux ou trois fois gros comme les
Perroquets et ont un plumage bien different en couleur. Ceux que j'ai vus
avaient les plumes leleucs et orangees."

No specimen preserved.

Habitat: Martinique. {54}

                        ARA GUADALOUPENSIS CLARK.

    _Les Arras_ Du Tertre, Hist. gen. des Antilles Vol. II p. 248 (1667).

    _Ara Rouge_ D'Aubenton, Pl. Enl. 12 (1779).

    _Ara guadaloupensis_ Clark, Auk, XXII, p. 272 (1905).

Du Tertre gives the following description:--"The Arras is a sort of Parrot
bigger than all the others. This is proved because those of Guadaloupe are
larger than all the other Parrots, both those from the Islands as well as
from the Mainland; while this Arras is larger than these by one third. It
has the head, the neck, the belly and the back of the colour of fire; its
wings are a mixture of yellow azure, and crimson feathers; while the tail
is entirely red and a foot-and-a-half long."

Macaws of this colouration are mentioned by Du Tertre, De Rochefort, and
others of the older authors as being found on Guadaloupe, Dominica and
Martinique, and Mr. Clark has united them under one name. This I feel sure
is wrong, and I believe each of the three islands had a distinct species of
Red Macaw, so I confine this name to the Guadaloupe form.

Habitat: Guadaloupe.

No specimen existing.

                         ARA ERYTHRURA NOM. NOV.

                               (PLATE 15.)

    De Rochefort, Histoire Nat. & Mor. des Iles Antilles, &c. (1658), p.
    154, Art. IX (Des Arras).

    _Anadorhynchus coeruleus_ (non Gmelin) Rothsch., Bull. B.O.C., XVI, p.
    15 (1905).

In the Bull. B.O.C. XVI, p. 15 (1905), I unfortunately described this bird
under the name of _Anadorhynchus coeruleus_ (Gm.), having misread his
description, and also said it came from Jamaica. Professor Salvadori, in
the Ibis (1906) Series 8, Vol. VI, "Notes on Parrots," p. 451, calls
attention to my double error, but failed entirely to realise what bird I
really meant. The original description is (translated) as follows:--

"Among them are some which have the head, the upper side of the neck, and
the back of a satiny sky blue; the underside of the neck, the belly, and
undersurface of the wings, yellow, and the tail entirely red."

No specimen existing.

Habitat: One of the West Indian Islands.



                               (PLATE 13.)

    _Le gros Perroquet de la Guadaloupe_ Don de Navarette, Rel. Quat. voy.
    Christ. p. 425 pl. II (1838).

    _Anadorhynchus purpurascens_ Rothsch. Bull. B.O.C. XVI, p. 13 (1905);
    Proc. IV Orn. Congr., p. 202 (1907).

The original description of this bird says it was entirely deep violet.
Native name _One couli_. No specimen extant. I have placed this species in
the genus _Anodorhynchus_ on account of its uniform bluish colour.

Habitat: Guadaloupe.


                         AMAZONA VIOLACEUS (GM.)

                               (PLATE 17.)

    _Perroquet de la Guadeloupe_ Du Tertre, Hist. Nat. Antill. II, p. 250,
    fig. p. 246 (1667).

    _Perroquets_ Labat, Voy. aux iles de l'Amer., vol. II p. 214 (1742).

    _Psittacus violaceus_ Gmelin, Syst. Nat. I, p. 337 (1788).

Labat's translated original description is as follows:--"Those of
Guadaloupe are a little smaller than the _Aras_; they have the head, the
neck, and the belly slate colour with a few green and black feathers, the
back is entirely green, and the wings are yellow and red."

Gmelin's description reads thus:--"Ps. violaceus viridi et nigro admisto
varius, dorso ex fusco viridi, remigibus majoribus nigris, reliquis ex
luteo, viridi, et rubro variis, tectricum macula rosea. Rostrum et orbitae

Du Tertre's description is as follows:--"He is about as big as a fowl, has
the beak and eyes bordered with red. All the feathers of the head, neck and
belly are of a violet colour, a little mixed with black and green, shot
like the throat of a pigeon. All the upper part of the back is green,
strongly washed with brown. Outer primaries black, rest yellow, green and

No specimens in collections.

Habitat: Guadaloupe.

                        AMAZONA MARTINICANA CLARK.

                               (PLATE 18.)

    _Perroquets_ Labat's Voy. aux iles de l'Amer. II p. 214 (1742).

    _Amazona martinicana_ Clark, Auk. XXII, p. 343 (1905).

Labat's description reads thus:--"Those of Dominica have some red feathers
on the wings, under the throat, and in the tail; all the rest is green
(Amazona bouqueti, W.R.). Those of Martinique have the same plumage as the
last mentioned, but the top of the head is slate colour with a small amount
of red."

No specimen now known.

Habitat: Martinique.


                         CONURUS LABATI ROTHSCH.

                               (PLATE 16.)

    _Perriques_ Labat, Voy. aux iles de l'Amer. II p. 218 (1742).

    _Conurus labati_ Rothsch. Bull. B.O.C. XVI, p. 13 (1905); Proc. IV Orn.
    Congr., p. 202 (1907).

Labat's translated description of this bird is as follows:--"Those of
Guadaloupe are about the size of a blackbird, entirely green, except a few
small red feathers, which they have on their head. Their bill is white.
They are very gentle, loving, and learn to speak easily."

No specimens known.

Habitat: Island of Guadaloupe.


                        NECROPSITTACUS MILNE-EDW.

    _Necropsittacus_ Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sc. Nat. (5) XIX, Art. 3, p. 18

Milne-Edwards considered _Necropsittacus_ closely allied to the genus
_Palaeornis_, and at the same time to show affinities with the _Loriidae_.
At the same time the two mandibles were sufficient, in his opinion, to show
that this bird belonged to a little generic group standing near


    _Psittacus Rodricanus_ A. Milne-Edw., Ann. Sc. Nat. (5) VIII, pp.
    151-155, pl. 7, ff. 1, 2 (1867).

    _Necropsittacus rodericanus_ A. Newt., P.Z.S. p. 41 (1875).

This parrot was described from a portion of the upper mandible by Professor
Milne-Edwards, and then was more fully described by Dr. Gunther and Sir
Edward Newton, who examined a nearly complete skull and other bones.

A manuscript discovered in the Archives of the Ministry of Marine in Paris
proves that this bird only became extinct at a not very distant date, it
having been seen alive by the writer of the manuscript about the year 1731.
In this manuscript the bird was said to have a body considerably larger
than a pigeon, with a _very_ long tail and a _very_ large head and bill.
Unfortunately the writer does not mention the colour, but adds that the
smaller green and blue parrot (_Palaeornis exsul_) was much handsomer; so
we can safely assume that our bird was of sombre colouration. It was
undoubtedly closely allied to the genus _Palaeornis_. The two following,
though much brighter coloured and but scantily described, apparently belong
to the same genus.

Habitat: Rodriguez. {62}


                               (PLATE 8.)

This parrot is described by the Sieur D.B. (Dubois) in the following
terms:--"Body the size of a large pigeon, green; head, tail and upper part
of wings the colour of fire." As he compares it with the other parrots
which are true _Palaeornis_, it is evident that this bird must have been a

This description is the sole evidence we have of the existence of this

Habitat: Bourbon or Reunion.


    _Necropsittacus francicus_ Rothsch., Proceedings Int. Ornith. Congress
    1905, p. 197 (1907).

Original description:--"Head and tail fiery red, rest of body and wings
green." We only know this bird from the descriptions in the various
"Voyages" to Mauritius in the 17th and early 18th centuries.

Habitat: Mauritius.


                            MASCARINUS LESSON.

    _Mascarinus_ Lesson, Traite d'Orn. p. 188 (1831--A mixture of forms. By
    elimination the name _Mascarinus_ has been restricted to the Mascarine

The generic affinities of this bird have been discussed by various authors.
Wagler, Gray, Pelzeln, Hartlaub (1877) and Messrs. A. and E. Newton united
it with the Vaza Parrots in the genus _Coracopsis_, Finsch included it,
together with the Vazas and the Grey Parrot (_Psittacus erithacus_), in the
genus _Psittacus_. Recent authors--Oustalet 1893, W. A. Forbes 1879, and
Salvadori (Cat. B. XX, p. 421, 1891)--have admitted a separate genus,
_Mascarinus_. This is evidently the proper course, and I agree with W. A.
Forbes, Oustalet and Salvadori that its nearest affinities appear to be the
genus _Tanygnathus_ rather than _Coracopsis_, and that the place of
_Mascarinus_ is among the _Palaeornithinae_ of Salvadori.

The large red bill, with distinctly ridged gonys, concealed nostrils and
moderately long, strongly rounded tail, are peculiar characters. The
colouration is unique. Only one species is known. {64}

                        MASCARINUS MASCARINUS (L.)

                            MASCARINE PARROT.

                               (PLATE 9.)

    "_Perroquets un peu plus gros que pigeons, ayant le plumage de couleur
    de petit gris, un chaperon noir sur la teste, le becq fort gros, &
    couleur de feu_" Le Sieur D.B, (Dubois), Voyages aux Iles Dauphine ou
    Madagascar, et Bourbon ou Mascarenne. p. 172 (1674--"Bourbon ou

    _Psittacus Mascarinus_ Brisson, Orn. IV., p. 315 (1760); Hahn, Orn.
    Atlas, Papageien p. 54, pl. 39 (1835).

    _Psittacus mascarin._ Linnaeus, Mantissa Plantarum, regni animalis
    appendix p. 524 (1771--"Habitat in Mascarina." Ex Brisson).

    _Perroquet Mascarin_ Levaillant, Perroquets II, p. 171, pl. 189
    (1805--"Madagascar," errore).

    _Mascarinus madagascariensis_ Lesson, Traite d'Orn, p. 189
    (1831--"Madagascar," ex Levaillant).

    _Coracopsis mascarina_ Wagler, Mon. Psittac. p. 679 (1832); Pelzeln,
    Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 1863, p. 934.

    _Mascarinus obscurus_ (non _Psittacus obscurus_ L.) Bonaparte, Rev. &
    Mag. de Zool. 1854 p. 154 (Linnaeus, _Psittacus obscurus_--Syst. Nat.
    Ed. X, p. 97, 1758, ex Hasselquist M.S.--though identified by himself
    with the Mascarine Parrot in 1766--Syst. Nat. Ed. XII, I, p.
    140--cannot be the same as _P. mascarinus_; the description disagrees
    entirely, and the bird was described from a specimen probably seen
    alive by Hasselquist, with uncertain locality. What Linnaeus' _P.
    obscurus_ was, is difficult to say; if it was not for the long tail,
    one might consider it a variety of the Grey Parrot).

    _Psittacus madagascarensis_ Finsch, Papageien II pp. 306, 955
    (1868--Finsch was not acquainted with the history of this Parrot, as he
    still considered Madagascar to be its home, and wondered why it had not
    been found there by recent collectors).

    _Psittacus madagascariensis_ Pelzeln, Ibis 1873, p. 32.

    _Mascarinus duboisi_ W. A. Forbes, Ibis 1879, pp. 304, 305 (figures),
    306; Milne-Edwards & Oustalet, Centenaire Mus. d'Hist. Nat. pp.
    191-205, pl. I (1893--excellent lengthy account).

    _Mascarinus mascarinus_ Salvadori, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XX, p. 421

It has been mentioned above that "Le Sieur D.B." (Dubois) described this
Parrot clearly in 1674, and that it lived on Reunion, and not on
Madagascar. Linnaeus in 1771 (see above) was the first to bestow a
scientific name on it, though Brisson had already again described it in
1760. Linnaeus' diagnosis is, as usual, rather poor, and not quite
correct[1], but his reference to Brisson leaves no doubt as to what he

This parrot is one of the rarest of extinct birds, only two stuffed
specimens being known. One normally coloured specimen is preserved in the
Museum of Natural History in Paris, and it is evidently this which has been
figured by Daubenton and Levaillant, and in the "Centenaire du Museum
d'Historie Naturelle." From the latter plate my figure has been taken.

The example in Vienna is unfortunately semi-albinistic, there being some
white feathers on the back, wings and tail. Another normal individual,
however, lived formerly in the Menagerie of the King of Bavaria, where it
was depicted by Hahn in 1835. Unfortunately this specimen has not been


                         PALAEORNIS EXSUL NEWTON.

                               (PLATE 19.)

    _Palaeornis exsul_ A. Newton, Ibis 1872, p. 33.

Leguat was the first to mention these parrots as "Perroquets verds et
bleus," and that they were wonderfully good to eat and also delightful

Professor Newton's description is as follows: "Female: Of moderate size.
General appearance greyish-glaucous, darker above than beneath. From the
corner of the mouth proceeds an ill-defined dull black chin stripe, which
becomes broader as it passes backward and upward, ceasing somewhat abruptly
on reaching the level of the ears. Head, nape and shoulders, upper
wing-coverts, and rectrices above dull greyish-glaucous, the blue tinge in
which predominates when the bird is seen against the light, and the green
when seen in the contrary aspect; the outer rectrices paler. Rump verditer
blue. Primaries with their outer, and most part of their inner, webs deep
greenish blue, the former with narrow, lighter edges, and the latter
broadly bordered with pitch black; shafts and lower surfaces greyish black.
Secondaries much the same as the primaries, but of a still deeper shade.
Breast dull greyish-glaucous, but lighter than the upper parts and passing
on the belly into verditer, which becomes lighter and greener on the vent.
Rectrices beneath yellowish grey, darker toward the tips of the longer
feathers. Bill black."

The specimen was sent in spirits to Sir Edward Newton in 1871 by Mr.
Jenner, the Magistrate of Rodriguez.

The male differs from the female in having the upper mandible crimson,
fading into horn at the tip. Top of head more glaucous. Black stripe from
nostril to eye. Black chin stripe prolonged almost to meet on nape of neck.
Most of primaries with dull black patch on inner webs. Middle secondaries
dusky black.

The male was sent to Sir Edward Newton in 1875 by Mr. J. Caldwell.

  Total length     16   inches.
  Wing              7.5    "
  Tail              8.5    "

Probably almost if not quite extinct. Recent investigations about its
status are very desirable.

Habitat: Rodriguez Island. {66}

                       PALAEORNIS WARDI E. NEWTON.

                               (PLATE 20.)

    _Palaeornis wardi_ E. Newton, P.Z.S. 1867, p. 346 (Seychelles).

The translation of Sir Edward Newton's diagnosis is as follows: "Similar to
_P. alexandri_, but with a stouter bill, purple red shoulder patches, and
the hind neck without a red band.

"_Adult Male._ Crown of head and throat bluish, cheeks ochraceous green,
chin and line round base of mandible black, continued in a stripe from the
gape to the hind neck; back and wings grass green; rump brighter; a single
wide band (or patch) on the shoulders purplish red; remiges and rectrices
deep green washed with blue, the latter yellowish, the former dusky below;
belly yellowish green; bill vivid scarlet with paler tip; feet dusky. Total
length 16 inches, wings 7.75, tail 9."

Female similar to the male but duller, and with the bill all black, and
without the black mandibular stripe.

Formerly abundant on most of the islands in the Seychelles, especially
Mahe, but now confined to the little islet of Silhouette, where it will in
all probability become extinct. According to E. Newton its name was "Cateau

Habitat: Seychelles Islands. {67}

                         PALAEORNIS EQUES (BODD).

    _Psittaca borbonica torquata_ Briss., Orn. IV p. 328, pl. XXVII f. 1
    (1760). (Bourbon.)

    _Psittacus alexandri var._ [gamma] Linnaeus, S.N. p. 142 (1766).

    _Perruche a collier de l'Isle de Bourbon_ Daubenton, Pl. enl. 215.

    _Perruche a double collier_ Buff., Hist. Nat. Ois. VI, p. 143 (1779).

    _Alexandrine Parrakeet var. C. Double Ringed Parrakeet_ Latham, Syn. I
    p. 326 (1781).

    _Psittacus eques_ Boddaert, Tabl. Pl. Enl. p. 13 (1783).

    _Psittacus semirostris_ Hermann, Obs. Zool. p. 125 (1804).

    _Psittacus bitorquatus_ Kuhl, Consp. Psitt. p. 92 (1820).

    Rose Ringed Parrakeet var. B. Latham, Gen. Hist. II p. 161 (1822).

    _Psittacus bicollaris_ Vieillot, Enc. Meth. III p. 1385 (1823).

    _Palaeornis bitorquatus_ Vigors, Zool. Journ. II p. 51 (1825).

    _Palaeornis borbonicus_ Bp., Rev. and Mag. Zool. 1854, p. 152. No. 140.

There has been considerable confusion with regard to this parrot. It was
first asserted that it occurred on both Bourbon and Mauritius. Then
Professor Newton separated the Mauritius bird as _Pal. echo_. Salvadori,
however, in Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. XX, p. 442, reunited the Bourbon and
Mauritius birds, while quite unaccountably stating only Mauritius as the

The Abbe Dubois describes this bird as follows: "Green Parrots as large as
pigeons having a black collar."

Now the species of _Palaeornis_ from Rodriguez, the Seychelles, and the
mainland of Africa are all distinct, and the other land birds of Mauritius
are and were different from those of Bourbon. I therefore feel quite
certain that Professor Newton is right, and that his _Palaeornis echo_ is
distinct from _P. eques_, though, unfortunately, we do not know in which
way the two forms differed.

Habitat: Bourbon or Reunion, but now extinct. No specimens known. {68}

                         PALAEORNIS ECHO NEWTON.

    _Palaeornis echo_ Newton, Ibis 1876, p. 284.

    _Palaeornis eques_ Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. XX, p. 442 (1891).

Description of Male: Green, the occiput tinged with bluish; a narrow black
stripe from the nostrils to the eyes; broad black mandibular stripes
passing down and across the sides of the neck where they meet a pink
collar, which is interrupted on the hind neck; under wing-coverts yellowish
green; central tail feathers scarcely tinged with bluish; tail below dark
yellowish grey; upper mandible red, under mandible almost black with only a
brownish tinge in places. Iris yellow. Naked skin round eyes orange. Wing
7.5 inches, tail 8.75 inches, bill 9 inches. The female differs by the
absence of the collar, no bluish tint on occiput, and the bill entirely

It differs from _P. torquatus_ in the incomplete collar, darker green
colour and broader tail feathers. This bird is still found in the interior
of the island, but is rare and apparently on the verge of extinction.

Habitat: Mauritius.

Three specimens at Tring, four in the British Museum.



    _Red Rumped Parrakeet_ Latham, Syn. I, p. 249, No. 50 (1781).

    _Psittacus novae seelandiae_ Gmelin (nec. Sparrm.), S.N. I, p. 328, No.
    83 (1788).

    _Psittacus zealandicus_ Latham, Ind. Orn. I, p. 102, No. 58 (1790).

    _Psittacus novae-zealandiae_ Kuhl, Consp. Psitt. p. 44, var. 1 (1820).

    _Psittacus erythronotus_ Kuhl, Consp. Psitt. p. 45, No. 67 (1820).

    _Psittacus pacificus_ var. No. 3, Vieillot, Enc. Meth., p. 1387 (1823).

    _Platycercus pacificus_, part. Vigors, Zool. Journ. I, p. 529 (1825).

    _Platycercus erythronotus_ Stephens, Gen. Zool. XIV., p. 129, No. 9

    _Conurus phaeton_ Des Murs, Rev. Zool. 1845, p. 449.

    _Platycercus phaeton_ Des Murs, Icon. Orn. pl. 16 (1845).

    _Cyanorhamphus pacificus_ Bonaparte, Rev. et. Mag. 1854, p. 153, No.

    _Cyanorhamphus erythronotus_ Gray, Hand-list II, p. 140, No. 8029

    _Cyanorhamphus forsteri_ Finsch, Papag. II, p. 270 (1868).

This bird has received a variety of names owing to the adult bird being
very different to the younger and quite young birds. _Adult_, forehead
black; stripe from lores passing through eye almost to hind-neck scarlet;
rump scarlet; back and breast dull green; cheeks, head, neck, belly,
under-tail coverts and wing coverts, bright green. Flight-feathers blue on
outer, brown on inner, webs; bend of wing blue; tail feathers blue, edged
with green.

_Young_ differs in having a dull bluish-black forehead, brownish head, back
mixed brown and green, rump and eye stripe chestnut red, and the underside
greyish green.

This species was confined to the Society Islands, where it was obtained
during Cook's Voyage by Ellis and by Forster, and lastly by Lieutenant de
Marolles in 1844. We only know for certain at the present day of the
existence of two specimens, one in the British Museum, ex Massena
collection, whose origin is doubtful, and one in Paris, collected by
Lieutenant de Marolles. What became of the other two specimens of the
latter's collecting, and of Forster's and Ellis' specimens, I cannot say.

Habitat: Society Islands.

Evidently extinct. {70}

                      CYANORHAMPHUS ULIETANUS (GM.)

    _Society Parrot_ Latham, Syn. I p. 250 (1781).

    _Psittacus ulietanus_ Gmelin, S.N. I p. 328, n. 85 (1788).

    _Platycercus ulietanus_ Vig., Zool. I p. 533, Suppl. pl. 3 (1825).

    _Cyanorhamphus ulietanus_ Bonaparte, Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, p.
    153, n. 188.

    _Platycercus tannaensis_ Finsch, Papag. II, p. 272 (1868).

    _Psittacus fuscatus_ Pelz., Ibis 1873, p. 30.

_Adult_: "Olive brown, the head brown-black; rump and basal upper
tail-coverts brown-red, the longest upper tail-coverts olive brown like the
back; underparts olive-yellow; quills, primary-coverts, under wing coverts
and tail-feathers grey; bill black, base of upper mandible grey; feet
brown." (Salvadori, Cat. B. XX p. 579). Wing 5.3 inches, bill 0.8 inches,
tarsus 0.8 inches, tail 5 inches.

Habitat: Ulietea, Society Islands (fide Latham).

The type from the Leverian Museum is in Vienna, and a specimen from
Bullock's collection is in the British Museum. These are the only two
specimens known, and as it is now more than a hundred years since anyone
has procured a specimen, we may suppose that this is an extinct species.
The specimen in Vienna, which I have recently been able to examine, has the
head, back, wings, and tail deep umber-brown, the rump dark-crimson, upper
tail-coverts olive, underside brownish yellow.


    _Parrot from Lord Howe Island_ Phillips, Bot. Bay, p. 225 (1789).

    _Cyanorhamphus subflavescens_ Salvadori, Ann. & Mag. (6) VII, p. 68

Very similar to _C. cooki_ and _C. saisseti_ and intermediate in size.
Above more yellowish than _C. saisseti_, below more greenish, tail shorter
than in either of the latter.

This species is believed to be extinct. Last year I received some specimens
of a _Cyanorhamphus_ from an inhabitant of Lord Howe's Island, but from
subsequent letters these appear to have been collected on Norfolk or Philip
Island, and they certainly are _C. cooki_.

Habitat: Lord Howe's Island.

A pair in the British Museum appear to be the only known specimens.


                        BUBO(?) LEGUATI NOM. NOV.

    _Strix sp._ Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. (5) XIX p. 13 (art. 3.) 1874.

Milne-Edwards had only a single tibio-tarsus of this form and described
this bone, but refrained from giving it a specific name, though he stated
it was probably a small _Bubo_, in the hopes of getting more material.

As, however, we have no further specimens, I think I am justified in naming
it after Leguat, who first mentions Owls on Rodriguez. Milne-Edwards'
description of this tibio-tarsus is that it equals in length that bone in
_Asio accipitrinus_, but was distinguished from the latter by the strong
inward curvature and the great development in width of its distal


  Total length                                 77   mm.
  Length from the proximal extremity to the
    top of the peronial ridge                  25   "
  Width at distal extremity                    10.5 "
  Width at proximal extremity                   9   "
  Width of shaft                                3.7 "

Habitat: Rodriguez.


                          SCOPS COMMERSONI OUST.

    _Scops commersoni_ Oustalet, Ann. Sci. Nat. (8) III, p. 35 fig. 3

This owl, I believe, is not a true _Scops_, being much too big, but we must
leave it in that genus for the present, as there are no specimens or bones
extant, and only Jossigny's drawing to guide us as to its appearance. The
first mention of owls on Mauritius was in the year 1606, when Admiral
Matlief says that owls were common in the Island. Monsieur Desjardins, in
1837, gave the first accurate description of the bird, of which I here
reproduce the translation. "The digits and even the tarsi are not
feathered, only on the front portion of these latter one sees some short,
stiff feathers running down to a point nearly to the centre. The digits are
very strong, they being armed with hooked nails.

The beak is very stout, arched from its base; the upper mandible, which is
much longer than the other and covering it, is as if cut square at the
point. The nostrils pierce the bill pretty high up in the horny portion.
The eyes, of which I could not see the colour, are round, and placed, like
in the entire family, in front. They are surrounded by a circle or disc of
stiff, thread-like feathers, which is interrupted at the sides. A sort of
collar is perceptible on the throat. Two tufts, similar to those of the
Eagle Owls and Eared Owls, and very apparent, are behind the eyes and
towards the top of the occiput.

The wings are a little longer than the tail, the fourth and fifth primaries
being the longest, the third and sixth are shorter, and the second still
shorter, being equal to the eighth, and the first is shortest of all. The
tail reaches to the end of the digits; it is rounded and not much
lengthened: all the retrices are equal in length. The ear-tufts are brown,
with some slight buff shading, the discal plumes being white marked with
buff. All the upper side is of a dark brown colour, the feathers of the
head, the neck and the back are edged with rufous, but not very distinctly
so; this rufous colour is more apparent on the scapulars, and some of these
even have on the outer web one or two whitish patches surrounded with

The large tail feathers are less brown and more rufous in colour, with
lighter rufous marbling mixed with brown.

The tertials and secondaries have a darker brown bar towards the centre,
and their outer web is pleasantly marked with somewhat square ocelli or
irregular bands of white, pale buff, and brown. The large primaries or {74}
flight feathers present the same ornamentation, but more strongly
developed, and the blotches are buffy white on the inner web, which
produces a regular spotting on a brown ground colour; the tip of these
large feathers is finely stippled with brown on a fairly pale ground; and
there is a large patch of white on the wings in addition.

The throat and abdomen are nicely adorned with dark buff feathers, which
have a black brown centre and two to four large round white spots. The
large feathers on the flanks are whitish, with a brown shaft line and
marked with buff. All the well feathered parts, underneath the feathers are
covered by a very thick black down."

The colour of bill and feet is reddish brown. Total length, 13-1/2 inches =
345 mm. Desjardins says the specimen he described was killed at the end of
October, 1836, in the forest crowning the hills close to "Bamboo Creek." In
1837 several were still seen near "La Savane," and one was killed at
Curepipe by Dr. Dobson of the 99th Regiment. This latter is believed to
have been one of, if not the last of this species, so we have to thank that
excellent naturalist, Desjardins, and Monsieur Jossigny, the companion of
Commerson, that we know what this extinct species was like.

Habitat: Mauritius.


                      ATHENE MURIVORA MILNE-EDWARDS.

    _Strix (Athene) murivora_ Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. (5) XIX p. 13
    (Art. 3.) (1874).

Professor Milne-Edwards described this bird from a tibio-tarsus and a
tarso-metatarsus collected in Rodriguez by Sir Edward Newton, and says that
he considers it to belong to the genus _Athene_, because the proportions of
the tibio-tarsus and tarso-metatarsus agree with those of that genus. The
most remarkable specific characters appear to be that the ridge to which
the fibula is articulated is stout, and extends very far along the outer
edge of the bone. The diaphysis is large and nearly straight; the distal
extremity is furnished with two equal condyles separated by a deep channel.


  Total length                                  71 mm.
  Length from proximal extremity to end of
    peronial ridge                              25 "
  Width of distal extremity                     10 "
  Width of proximal extremity                    9 "
  Width of shaft                                 4 "


  Total length                                  46 mm.
  Width at proximal extremity                   10 "
  Width at distal extremity                     15 "
  Width of shaft                                 5 "

Habitat: Rodriguez.



    _Sceloglaux rufifacies_ Buller, Ibis 1904, p. 639; id. Suppl. B. New
    Zealand II, p. 65, pl. VII (1906).

Original description: "Adult female: Similar to _Sceloglaux albifacies_,
but appreciably smaller; face dull rufous brown, instead of being white;
crown and nape blackish brown; entire upper surface strongly suffused with
rufous; quills marked with regular transverse bars and a terminal edging of
rufous brown; tail-feathers uniform yellowish brown, obscurely barred with
pale brown; bill lemon-yellow; feet dull yellow."

"Wairarapa district, near Wellington, North Island, in the summer 1868-9."

This supposed "species" is a very doubtful one. A close examination in the
Tring Museum of the type (which was offered me for such a high price that I
did not feel justified in buying it, fond as I am of possessing extinct
forms, types and varieties) by Messrs. Hartert, Hellmayr and myself proved
beyond doubt to all three of us that the specimen was not fully adult, but
showed signs of immaturity. If I said to Sir Walter Buller that it was an
extremely young, hardly fledged _Sceloglaux_ this was certainly incorrect,
and was perhaps just an exclamation after a hasty preliminary examination,
for the bird is of course fully fledged and has passed, at least partially,
through one moult of the feathers. On the other hand, both Professor
Newton's and Dr. Sharpe's reputed statements that the owl in question is
fully adult are not correct. It certainly shows unmistakable signs of
immaturity, as noticed at once by Dr. Gadow (cf. Newton's letter on p. 66,
l.c.), by Hartert, Hellmayr and myself. Moreover Professor Newton--though
Buller says he "pronounced it to be an adult bird"--also admits that the
bird "had moulted, though not necessarily to be in adult plumage," and he
continues that he thinks the character of the markings continues to be

Having thus discussed the age of this owl, the question must be considered
if it is different from _S. albifacies_ from the South Island. This is less
easily done. Buller described it as a "new species," and mentions among the
distinctive characters (see above) the colour of the tail. The tail,
however, is "skillfully" (as Buller calls it, though I should use a less
complimentary adverb) stuck in, and does not belong to a _Sceloglaux_, but
to an Australian _Ninox_, and also some feathers on the neck are foreign.
The wings being abraded, its slightly smaller length is not very
significant. Certainly, however, the colouration in general is slightly
more rufous than {78} in _S. albifacies_, though some of my specimens
approach it almost completely, and the face is more rufescent. Professor
Newton cautiously warned Sir Walter Buller, suggesting that _S. albifacies_
might possibly have a red "phase," like _Syrnium aluco_, and this North
Island specimen represented the latter. As for myself, I do not think that
_S. albifacies_ has two phases, as I have seen too many specimens, and
found them to vary but little. I have now in my collection eight specimens
from the South Island. On the other hand, I have not seen juvenile
examples; but it is very likely that the rufous face of the North Island
specimen is a character peculiar to the North Island form, which would then
be a sub-species of _S. albifacies_ from the South Island, and should be
called _S. albifacies rufifacies_. The type from Wairapara is said to have
been killed in the summer of 1868-9, and, since no further evidence of its
existence has come forth, I presume that the North Island race of this owl
must be extinct by this time.


                         STRIX NEWTONI NOM. NOV.

    _Strix sp._ Newton and Gadow, Trans. Zool. Soc. XIII, p. 287 (1893).

Messrs. Newton and Gadow give the measurements of, and describe a pair of
metatarsi procured with the remains described as _Strix sauzieri_, and
state that they do not fit in with that species. For, as they are fully
adult bones, it is impossible to attribute their much smaller size to
youth. They then add a sentence of which this is the first part: "Unless we
assume, what is unlikely, that the Island of Mauritius possessed two
different species of _Strix_, we have to conclude that the short pair of
metatarsals belonged to a small individual of _Strix sauzieri_, ----."
Evidently Messrs. Gadow and Newton, when they wrote this, did not remember
the fact that throughout a very large portion of the range of _Strix
flammea_, its various geographical races are found side by side with
another species of the group of _Strix_, namely, _S. candida_ and _S.
capensis_, popularly called "_Grass owls_"; these in nearly every case have
the legs considerably longer than in the true _Barn Owls_ (_Strix flammea_
and its races).

Therefore I consider it not in the least unlikely that two species of
_Strix_ inhabited Mauritius, and that _Strix sauzieri_ was the Mauritian
representative of the "Grass Owls," while these two short metatarsals
belonged to the representative of the "Barn Owls." I therefore have much
pleasure in naming this form after the collector of these bones, the late
Sir Edward Newton.

Length of tarso-metatarsi, 56 mm.

Habitat: Mauritius. {80}

                       STRIX SAUZIERI NEWT. & GAD.

    _Strix sauzieri_ Newton & Gadow, Trans. Zool. Soc. XIII, p. 286, pl.
    XXXIII, figs. 11-18 (1893).

Messrs. Newton and Gadow describe this species from four metatarsi, three
tibiae, and two humeri. They state that the relative length of the tibia to
the metatarsus is very constant and characteristic of the various families
and genera of owls. In the present instance this comparison indicates a
species of _Strix_.

The longer and higher cnemial process of the tibia and the shortness of the
humerus serve amply to justify the specific separation of this Mauritian

The following are the measurements:--

  Humerus, length                71 mm.
  Tibia-tarsus, length        90-93 "
  Tarso-metatarsus, length    63-66 "

Habitat: Mauritius.


                        "CIRCUS HAMILTONI" FORBES.

    _Circus hamiltoni_ Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 186 (1892--no
    proper description).

A very large harrier, much larger than _Circus gouldi_, but not so big as

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand.

                       "CIRCUS TEAUTEENSIS" FORBES.

    _Circus teauteensis_ Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 186 (1892--no
    proper description).

Another very large harrier from Teaute, which has never yet been properly

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand.


                       ASTUR ALPHONSI NEWT. & GAD.

    _Astur sp._ Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. (5) XIX, Art. II, pp. 25, 26,
    pl. 15 fig. 2. (1874).

    _Astur alphonsi_ Newton and Gadow, Trans. Zool. Soc. XIII p. 285, pl.
    XXXIII, figs. 9, 10. (1893).

Messrs. Newton and Gadow bestowed the name _Astur alphonsi_ on a pair of
tibiae, a pair of metatarsals, and the metacarpals of the left side of a
goshawk apparently of the same size and relative proportions as _A.
melanoleucus_ of South Africa. They justified their description of this
goshawk as a distinct species, first of all by the fact that most of the
Mascarene extinct species were distinct; and then because the bony ridge
for the _M. flexor digitorum communis_ was more strongly developed, the
fibula reached further down the tibia, the peroneal crest was straighter
and longer, and the cnemial crest slanted more gradually into the anterior
inner edge of the shaft of the tibia.

Milne-Edwards gives the measurements of the solitary tarso-metatarsus of
this bird which he had for examination as follows:--

  Total length                          80 mm.
  Width at proximal extremity           11 "
  Width at distal extremity             13 "
  Width at smallest part of shaft        6 "

Messrs. Gadow and Newton give the length of their tarso-metatarsi as 81
mm., of their tibiae as 117 mm., and of the metacarpals as 55 mm.

Habitat: Mauritius.

Seven tarsi in the Tring Museum.


                            HARPAGORNIS HAAST.

Allied to _Aquila_, from which it is distinguished by the ulna being
relatively shorter and the tarso-metatarsus stouter.

                        HARPAGORNIS MOOREI HAAST.

    _Harpagornis moorei_ Haast, Trans. N.Z. Inst. IV, p. 192 (1872).

Description of femur (from Haast): The cylindrical shaft bent forward, and
above the distal extremity it is slightly curved back. The hollow on the
top of the head is very large and measures .42 inch across.

The trochanteric ridge is well developed and the outer side is very rough,
showing that muscles of great strength and thickness must have been
attached to it.

The inter-muscular linear ridges are well raised above the shaft, of which
the one extending from the fore and outer angle of the epitrochanteric
articular surface to the outer condyle is the most prominent. The pits for
the attachment of the ligaments in the inter-condyloid fossa are strongly
marked. The femur is pneumatic, the proximal orifice is large and
ear-shaped, resembling in form most closely that of the Australian Sea

      Total length                                 6.66 inches.
      Circumference at proximal end                4.66   "
      Circumference at distal end                  5.58   "
      Circumference at thinnest part of shaft      2.50   "

  Ungual phalanx (probably of left hallux):
      Length                                       2.92 inches.
      Circumference at articular end               3.17   "

  Ungual phalanx (probably of right second toe):
      Length                                       2.75 inches.
      Circumference                                2.92   "

Type locality: Glenmark Swamp.

Habitat: New Zealand.

Type bones: 1 left femur, 2 ungual phalanges, and 1 rib.

For a more detailed description my readers must refer to the Transactions
of the New Zealand Institute VI, pp. 64-75 (1874).


                       CARBO PERSPICILLATUS (PALL.)

                               (PLATE 39.)

    _Phalacrocorax perspicillatus_ Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso.-Asiat. II, p. 305
    (1827--Berings Island); Gould, Zool. Voy. Sulphur, p. 49, pl. XXXII
    (1844); Stejneger, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., No. 29, p. 180 (1885); id.
    Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. XII, pp. 83-94, pls. II-IV (1889--Osteology);
    Grant, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXVI, p. 357 (1898).

    _Graculus perspicillatus_ Elliot, New and heret. unfig. sp. N. Amer. B.
    II, part 14, No. 3, text and plate (1869).

    _Pallasicarbo perspicillatus_ Coues, Osprey III, p. 144 (1899).

Pallas gives the first recognizable description of this bird, which, as
translated from the Latin, is as follows: "Of the size of a very large
goose. Of the shape of the former (sc. Cormorants), which it also resembles
in the white patches on the flanks. The body is entirely black. A few long,
white, narrow pendant plumes round the neck, as in Herons. Occiput with a
huge tuft, doubly crested. Skin round the base of the bill bare, red, blue
and white, mixed, as in a turkey. Round the eyes a thick, bare white patch
of skin, about six lines wide, like a pair of spectacles. Weight 12 to 14
pounds. Female smaller, without crest and spectacles. (From Steller.)"

Steller, who was shipwrecked on Bering Island in 1741, was the discoverer
of _C. perspicillatus_, and Pallas took his diagnosis from Steller's notes.

The Spectacled or Pallas's Cormorant is one of the rarest of all birds. It
is generally said that four specimens are known, but five are really in
existence: Two in the St. Petersburg Museum, one in Leyden, and two in
London. One of these latter is perfect, while the other has no tail.
Probably all five have been obtained by Kuprianoff, the Russian Governor at
Sitka, who, in 1839, gave one to Captain Belcher, and sent some others to
St. Petersburg. The careful researches of Stejneger and others on Bering
Island have clearly shown that this Cormorant exists no longer. Formerly it
is said to have been numerous, but the natives were fond of its flesh,
which formed their principal diet when other meat was difficult to obtain.
Probably it would not so soon have become extinct if it had not been that
their rather short wings resulted in a certain slowness of locomotion on
land and in the air. A good description is given in the Catalogue of Birds,
and a still more detailed one by Stejneger (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1899, p.
86) from Brandt's manuscript.

Habitat: Bering Island. {88}

                          CARBO MAJOR (FORBES).

    _Phalacrocorax novaezealandiae var. major_ Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst.
    XXIV, p. 189 (1892--no proper description).

Dr. Forbes only informed us that this shag was of greater dimensions than
_Ph. novaezealandiae_ (a very closely allied form of _Ph. carbo_). It would
be interesting to know more about it, and, especially, if this extinct form
was incapable of flight, like _Ph. harrisi_ of the Galapagos Islands.

Habitat: New Zealand.


                        PLOTUS NANUS NEWT. & GAD.

    _Plotus nanus_ Newton and Gadow, Trans. Zool. Soc. XIII p. 288, pl.
    XXXIV figs 1-5. (1893).

The humerus, the pelvis with sacrum, and the tibia were the materials on
which our authors founded this new species. They state that all the
strongly developed characters in these bones leave no possible doubt as to
its being a species of _Plotus_, and its diminutive size at once
distinguishes it from the three known species--_P. anhinga_, _P.
melanogaster_, and _P. novaehollandiae_.

The measurements are as follows:--

  Left humerus, length                           89 mm.
  Left tibia, length                             61 "

Distance from acetabular axis to anterior end of sacrum 30 mm.

Distance between ventral inner margins of the acetabula 14.5 mm.

Habitat: Mauritius. (Also recorded from Madagascar.)


                      "CHENOPIS SUMNERENSIS" FORBES.

    _Chenopis sumnerensis_ Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 188 (1892)
    (Nomen nudum).

This appears to have been a very large species, with not very great powers
of flight, if not flightless.

Habitat: New Zealand and Chatham Islands.

Bones from Chatham Islands in my collection.



    _Chenalopex sirabensis_ Andrews, Ibis 1897, p. 355, pl. IX, figs. 1-3.

This species of which skull, sternum, pelvis, the bones of fore and hind
limbs, &c., are preserved, appears to be closely allied to _Chenalopex
aegyptiacus_, but has such a number of small differences that Mr. Andrews
is, I think, quite justified in separating it; I do not, however, agree
with him when he suggests that perhaps it is the same as Newton and Gadow's
_Sarcidiornis mauritianus_, although many of the bones agree. Of course,
his line of comparison was strengthened by the fact of subfossil bones of
_Plotus nanus_ occurring both in Mauritius and Madagascar; but it does not
follow that because in one family of birds the same species occurred in two
places the others must do likewise, and, therefore, one must not
necessarily regard a certain similarity of osteological characters as proof
of identity. I must here again refer my readers to Mr. Andrews' very full

Habitat: Sirabe in C. Madagascar.

The measurements are:--

  Coracoid                    67-75  mm.
  Humerus                    132-147 "
  Radius                     126-134 "
  Ulna                       129-142 "
  Metacarpus                  76-85  "

The smaller bones, undoubtedly, belonged to female, and the larger to male


                           CENTRORNIS ANDREWS.

Allied to _Chenalopex_ and _Chenopis_, but differs from _Chenalopex_ in the
form and proportion of its metatarsus, and from all other Anserine forms by
the extreme length and slenderness of the shaft of the tibio-tarsus and the
relative shortness of the fibular crest. From _Chenopis_ it differs in
several respects, and the very long fibular crest of the latter at once
separates them.

                        CENTRORNIS MAJORI ANDREWS.

    _Centrornis majori_ Andrews, Ibis 1897, p. 344, pl. VIII.

This species was discovered by Dr. Forsyth Major and Monsieur Robert in the
bed of an old lake at Sirabe, Central Madagascar, in 1896-1897. It was
similar in many respects to _Sarcidiornis_ and _Chenalopex_ but differed in
its large size and the great length of its legs. Indeed, judging from the
slenderness of the metatarsus and femur and the slight degree of inflection
of the lower end of the long tibia, it seems probable that this bird was
ill adapted for swimming, though a good runner. The wings were long and
powerful and armed with a long spur. I must refer my readers for a fuller
description to Mr. Andrews, as quoted above.

The measurements are:--


  Length (exclusive of cnemial crest)            213-215  mm.
  Width of upper articular surface                20-21   "
  Width of middle of shaft                        11-11.5 "
  Thickness of shaft                               8.5-9  "
  Width of distal extremity                       20-21   "


  Length                                         103-107  mm.
  Width of proximal extremity                     25-26   "
  Width of distal extremity                          26   "
  Width of shaft                                     11   "


  Length                                             130  mm. approx.
  Width of shaft                                      8.5 "
  Width of middle trochlea                             10 "


  Length                                               31 mm.
  Width of glenoidal surface                           13 "


  Width at proximal extremity                          23 mm.


  Length                                               24 mm.


  Width at middle of shaft                             10 mm.


  Greatest width at proximal extremity                 31 mm.
  Length of spur                                       26 "
  Width of second metacarpal                            9 "

Habitat: Madagascar.


                             CNEMIORNIS OWEN.

Skull short and massive, with beak rounded and stout. Carina of sternum
aborted. Limb-bones short and very stout, the ulna being shorter than the
humerus, and having very prominent tubercles for the secondaries; cnemial
crest of tibia greatly developed. No foramen between third and fourth
trochleae of tarso-metatarsus. Spines of dorsal vertebrae tall. The power
of flight was absent. The chief differences from _Cereopsis_ were the
presence of extra pre-sacral vertebrae, so that two only instead of three
ribs articulate with the sacrum; and an elevated pent-roof arrangement of
the _ossa innominata_, which indicate more decided cursorial habits.

                       CNEMIORNIS CALCITRANS OWEN.

    _Cnemiornis calcitrans_ Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. V, p. 396 (1865).

"The type species. Very considerably larger than the existing _Cereopsis
novaehollandiae_, with the limbs relatively much stouter and shorter"

  Height of back from ground                       26 inches.
  Length from beak to tail                         34   "

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand.

For full description see Trans. N. Z. Inst. VI, pp. 76-84, pls. X-XII
(1874). {98}

                      "CNEMIORNIS GRACILIS" FORBES.

    _Cnemiornis gracilis_ Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 187 (1892)
    (_Nomen nudum_).

"A most elegantly moulded goose from the North Island." Unfortunately this
is all that has been published about this form!

Habitat: North Island, New Zealand.

                         CNEMIORNIS MINOR FORBES.

    _Cnemiornis minor_ Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 187 (1892); vide
    also Trans. N.Z. Inst. VI, pp. 76-84 (Hector).

This species appears to be distinguished from _Cnemiornis calcitrans_ by
its very small size, being hardly bigger than _Cereopsis novaehollandiae_.

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand.



    _Cereopsis novaezealandiae_ Forbes, Trans. N. Zealand Inst. XXIV, p.
    188 (1892).

This species was founded on an incomplete skull, and differed from _C.
novaehollandiae_ by its slightly larger size.

Habitat: New Zealand.



    _Sarcidiornis mauritianus_ Newton & Gadow, Trans. Zool. Soc. XIII, p.
    290, pl. XXXIV, figs. 9-10.

The evidence on which this species is founded is a single left metacarpal
and an incomplete left half of the pelvis. Its specific character is the
very large size as compared to the two existing species.

Habitat: Mauritius.

In an old work entitled "Memorandums concerning India" by J. Marshall
(1668) in the article on the Island of Mauritius, there occurs this
passage: "They are many Geese; the halfe of their wings towards the end are
black and the other halfe white; they are not large, but fat and good.
Plenty of Ducks." As there is no mention of the caruncle on the bill here
or in other authors alluding to geese in Mauritius, Oustalet doubted that
these geese were this _Sarcidiornis_, but I believe this merely to have
been an oversight of Marshall's and that his description goes far to prove
the distinctness of Newton and Gadow's species.

The allusion to the small size also points to the geese of Marshall being
the _Sarcidiornis_. L'Abbe Dubois in "Les Voyages du Sieur D.B." records
the fact that on Bourbon were some wild geese slightly smaller than the
geese of Europe but having the same plumage. Their bill and feet were red.
It is also probable that wild geese were found on Rodriguez. There is
nothing to show what these Bourbon geese were, and as no osseous remains of
such birds have been found as yet it is impossible to do more than mention
the fact of such birds having been recorded.


                        ANAS FINSCHI VAN BENEDEN.

    _Anas finschi_ Van Beneden, Journ. Zool. IV, p. 267 (1875); Ann. de la
    Soc. Geol. Belg. II, p. 123 (1876).

This duck is most peculiar, as it stands intermediate between _Querquedula_
and _Dendrocygna_ in structure, and its nearest known ally seems to be the
extinct _A. blanchardi_ of Europe, and of living forms apparently _Clangula

Skull nearest to that of _Clangula clangula_ but wider, nostrils more
elongated, eye-sockets smaller, and the whole skull more regularly rounded
off. _Sternum_ differs from that of _C. clangula_ by having the notch
lower, more faint behind and shorter in front. Clavicle and coracoid
resemble those of _Fuligula marila_. Humerus larger and stronger than in
_F. marila_ and _C. clangula_, as are the femur, tibio-tarsus and
tarso-metatarsus, which are almost double as long and thick.

Judging from the shape of its leg-bones this bird must have been a strong
runner, and probably at the same time was a poor flyer.

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand.

                        ANAS THEODORI NEWT. & GAD.

    _Anas theodori_ Newton & Gadow, Trans. Zool. Soc. XIII, p. 291, pl.
    XXXIV, figs 11-17 (1893--Mauritius).

Messrs. Newton and Gadow founded this species on a fragment of a sternum, a
pair of coracoids, eight humeri, and a pair of tarso-metatarsi. These are
referable to a duck of larger size than _Nettion bernieri_, and somewhat
intermediate between _N. punctata_ and _Anas melleri_.

The sternum differs from that of _A. melleri_ by the lesser height of the
keel and by the shape and direction of the anterior margin of the latter.
The coracoid is longer and larger than in _N. bernieri_, but is much
shorter than in _A. melleri_, though agreeing with that of the latter in
shape, and by the plain almost ridgeless ventral surface of the shaft. The
seven humeri vary in length from 70-78 mm., and agree in size with those of
_N. punctata_, thus proving our species to be smaller than _A. melleri_.

The two tarso-metatarsi are in poor condition; the right one measuring 42
mm. in length, thus indicating that _A. theodori_ was a bird with a shorter
foot than _A. melleri_.

Habitat: Mauritius.


                      CAMPTOLAIMUS LABRADORIA (GM.)

                               (PLATE 36.)

    _Anas labradoria_ Gmelin, Syst. Nat. I, 2, p. 537 (1788--"Habitat
    gregaria in America, boreali." Ex Pennant and Latham.)

    _Anas labradora_ Latham, Ind. Orn. II, p. 859 (1790).

    _Rhynchaspis labradora_ Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool. XII, 2, p. 121

    _Fuligula labradora_ Bonaparte, Ann. Lyceum N.Y. II, p. 391 (1826).

    _Somateria labradora_ Boie, Isis 1828, p. 329.

    _Kamptorhynchus labradorus_ Eyton, Mon. Anat. p. 151 (1838).

    _Fuligula grisea_ Leib, Journ. Acad. Sc. Philad. VIII, p. 170
    (1840--young bird).

    _Camptolaimus labradorus_ Gray, List. Gen. B. ed. 2, p. 95 (1841);
    Dutcher, Auk. 1891, p. 201, pl. II; 1894, pp. 4-12; Hartl. Abh. naturw.
    Ver. Bremen XVI, p. 23 (1895).

    _Camptolaemus labradorius_ Baird, B.N. Amer. p. 803 (1858); Baird,
    Brewer and Ridgway, Water--B. N. Amer. II, p. 63 (1884); Milne-Edw. and
    Oustalet, Centen. Mus. d'Hist. Nat., Notice Ois. eteint. p. 51, pl. IV
    (1893); Salvadori, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXVII, p. 416 (1895).

The adult male and a young male, both in my museum, are represented on
plate 36, but the young bird became too rufous, through the colour type
reproduction, and should be somewhat more mouse-gray. Though first
technically named by Gmelin in 1788, this duck was first described in 1785
by Pennant, in the Arctic Zoology II, p. 559, as follows:--

"Pied Duck. With the lower part of the bill black, the upper yellow, on the
summit of the head is an oblong black spot; forehead, cheeks, rest of the
head and neck, white; the lower part encircled with black; scapulars and
coverts of wings white; back, breast, belly, and primaries, black; tail
cuneiform, and dusky; legs black. The bill of the supposed female?
resembles that of the male, head and neck mottled with cinereous brown and
dirty white; primaries dusky; speculum white; back, breast, and belly
clouded with different shades of ash-colour; tail dusky and cuneiform; legs
black. Size of a common Wild Duck.

"Sent from Connecticut, to Mrs. Blackburn. Possibly the great flocks of
pretty Pied Ducks, which whistled as they flew, or as they fed, seen by Mr.
Lawson in the western branch of Cape Fear inlet, were of this kind."

The Labrador-Duck is one of those birds, the disappearance of which is not
easily explained. As Mr. Dutcher truly said, "we can speculate as to the
cause of its disappearance, but we have no facts to warrant a conclusion."
Formerly _Camptolaimus_ was of regular occurrence along the northern
Atlantic shores of North America, in winter south to New Jersey and New
York. It has often been sold on the markets of New York and Baltimore, and
nobody anticipated even fifty years ago that they might become extinct, but
they {106} appear never to have been very numerous, at least we have no
proof of this. It is true that Professor Newton tells us that this duck
used to breed on rocky islets, and that "its fate is easily understood,"
since "man began yearly to visit its breeding haunts, and, not content in
plundering its nests, mercilessly to shoot the birds." This, however, seems
to be mere conjecture, as we do not know for certain where the breeding
haunts of this Duck have been, and that anyone has ever visited them. All
information known about the breeding of this bird is that of Audubon, who
says that his son was shown empty nests on the top of bushes, which a clerk
of the fishing establishment told him were those of the Labrador Duck. This
information is certainly too uncertain to draw any conclusions from, but
the breeding places might just as well have been much further to the north,
and probably were.

  The number of specimens extant is 48.

    Amiens, Town Museum: 1 [male] ad. (Auk. 1897, p. 87).

    Berlin Museum: 1, bought from Salmin (Hartl. p. 23).

    Paris: [male] adult, presented 1810 by M. Hyde de Neuville.

    London, British Museum: 2, a [male] ad. and a [female] ad., neither of
    them with exact locality or date.

    Liverpool: 2 [male] ad., 1 [female], 1 [male] jun.

    Cambridge: 1 [male]

    Dublin: 1 fine mounted [male] (Dr. Scharff in litt.)

    Tring: 1 [male] ad., 1 [male] jun. (See below.)

    Brussels: 1 [male] ad.

    St. Petersburg: 1 [male] ad., purchased from Salmin.

    Heine Museum in Germany: 1 poor specimen.

    Munich: The Museum possesses a male from the collection of the Duke of

    Dresden: 1 [male] and two doubtful eggs--the latter doubtless wrong I
    should say.

    Vienna: 1 [male] ad., exchanged from Baron von Lederer in 1830.
    Locality New York; 1 [female] ad., bought from Brandt in Hamburg in
    1846, for 4 Gulden!

    Leiden Museum: [male] [female], from the Prince of Wied.

    American Museum, New York: 7, three of which formerly belonged to
    George N. Lawrence.

    Long Island Historical Society, Brooklyn: 1 [male] ad.

    Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. York: 1 [male] ad.

    New York State Museum, Albany: [male] [female] ad.

    Cory collection: [male] [female] ad.

    University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont: 1 [male] ad.

    Philadelphia: 2 [male] jun., 1 [female]

    U.S. National Museum, Washington: 2 [male], 1 [female], 1 [male] jun.

    Collection of Mr. William Brewster: 1 [male] jun., 1 [female]

    Boston Society of Natural History: 1 [male] jun.

    Collection of Dalhousie College, Halifax: [male] [female]

This makes a total of 48 known specimens. {107}

The last specimens killed were those shot in May, 1871, at Grand Manan
Island, the date of which is absolutely certain, and the specimen bought
from a Mr. J. G. Bell in 1879, for the Smithsonian Institution, which is
said to have been shot in 1875, but this date seems not quite certain (Cf.
Auk, 1894, p. 9). That several other specimens were shot later than 1852 is
perfectly certain. As the specimen of 1875, or thereabouts, is a young
male, Mr. Lawrence's question about the old birds is certainly justified.
As, however, no Labrador Duck has been recorded later than 1871 or 1875 we
may suppose that it is now extinct.

My young male was bought in the Fulton Market, New York, about 1860, and
probably came from Long Island. It was mounted by John Bell, a
bird-stuffer, through whose hands several Labrador Ducks have gone, and is
in the finest possible condition. I bought this bird from the late Gordon
Plummer, shortly before his death. He died at his home in Brookline, Mass.,
in November, 1893. (Cf. Auk, 1891, p. 206.)

My adult male is the one of which the history is given in Auk, 1894, p.
176. It is described there in detail and then added: "Shot in the bay of
Laprairie this spring (1862) by a habitant, and purchased by Mr. Thompson
of this city, who has kindly placed it at my disposal for examination." Mr.
William Dutcher of New York City bought this specimen from the widow of the
Mr. Thompson, mentioned in the above note as the original owner, and I
purchased it from Mr. William Dutcher, who informs me that "the Bay of
Laprairie" is simply a name given to a wide part of the River St. Lawrence,
just south of Montreal, Quebec. The name is found on good maps of Quebec.


                        "BIZIURA LAUTOURI" FORBES.

    _Biziura lautouri_ Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 188 (1892--nomen

Dr. Forbes, unfortunately, gives no description whatever of this bird. It
would be interesting to know something about it, and especially if its
powers of flight were impaired, as it seems to have been the case in so
many extinct birds.



    _Butors Leguat_, Relation du Voyage (1708).

    _Ardea megacephala_ Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. (5) XIX, 1874, p. 10.

Leguat's description, here translated, is as follows:--"We had Bitterns as
big and as fat as capons. They are tamer and more easily caught than the
'gelinotes.'" He also says, "The lizards often serve as prey for the birds,
especially for the Bitterns. When we shook them down from the branches with
a pole, these birds ran up and gobbled them down in front of us, in spite
of all we could do to prevent them; and even if we only pretended to do so
they came in the same manner and always followed us about."

Milne-Edwards remarks, among other notes, that "This bird is not a true
Bittern, but its head is so large and its feet so short that it is easy to
understand that Leguat should have called it so."

The bony structure of the head is remarkable on account of its massive and
thick proportions; the skull itself is strongly enlarged posteriorly, and
the temporal fossae are bordered by very pronounced ridges, especially
those on the occipital region. The upper side of the skull is hardly
convex, and the interorbital region is large, but only slightly depressed
along its middle line. The bill is stout, almost straight, a good deal
enlarged at its base and rounded beneath. The nostrils are large and
preceded by a large groove, which extends very far towards the tip.

It is impossible to confound this skull with that of any Bittern, the
latter having the beak relatively slender and only barely exceeding the
skull in length. These also have the skull much constricted at the temporal
region. The fossil skull from Rodriguez therefore presents characters
essentially those of a Heron, but differs from all known species in its
massive appearance. In the Grey, Purple and Goliath Herons, as well as in
the Egrettes, the head is narrower, more elongated, the bill less conical
and less strong. In _Ardea atricollis_, now inhabiting Madagascar, the beak
much resembles that of our extinct species, but it is longer and less
enlarged at the base. The interorbital area is much wider, while on the
other hand the hinder portion of the skull is narrower and more elongated,
which gives to the skull a totally different aspect.

The feet relatively to the head are extremely short, and from this I
conclude that we know no species of Heron which can be compared to that of
Rodriguez. Nevertheless, the tarso-metatarsus presents all the characters
{112} of _Ardea_, and is far removed from that of _Botaurus_. The tibia is
big and short; it surpasses in length the tarso-metatarsus by about a
third, as is usual in the Herons; but the femur on the contrary is strongly
developed, being quite as large as in the _Ardea cinerea_; which shows us
that the body of this creature was of large size, and that the reduction in
size of the feet had only taken place at their extremities.

The sternum is puny and small as compared with the creature's size. It is
clearly that of a bird not furnished with powerful wings, and is even much
less elongated than in the Bittern, but the coracoidal bones are very long
and slender. The wings also were short and feeble, the humerus being hardly
as big as in _Butorides atricapilla_. It is conspicuously slenderer and
shorter than in the Bittern. The main body of the bone is slightly curved
on the outside, and the lower articular condyle is large and flattened. I
have not been able to examine any bone of the "manus," but the metacarpal
bone shows exactly the same proportions for the wing as does the humerus,
as it also barely reaches the size of that of _Butorides atricapilla_. The
measurements are as follows:--


  Total length                                     154 mm.
  Length of upper mandible                          94 "
  Width of upper mandible at base                   22 "
  Width of interorbital region                      22 "
  Space between the mastoid apophyses               40 "
  Width of skull at level of postorbital apophyses  40 "
  Length of lower mandible                         147 "


  Total length                                  95-162 mm.
  Width at proximal extremity                       14 "
  Width at distal extremity                    13.5-14 "
  Width of shaft                                 6.2-7 "


  Total length                                 140-210 mm.
  Width at distal extremity                      12-13 "
  Width at proximal extremity                    13-14 "
  Width of shaft                                 6-6.5 "


  Total length                                   90-92 mm.
  Width of distal extremity                      15-16 "
  Width of proximal extremity                    14-16 "
  Width of shaft                                 6.2-7 "


  Total length                                   64-88 mm.
  Width in front                                 35-48 "
  Width behind costal facets                     26-36 "
  Width at posterior border                      27-35 "


  Total length                                   59-67 mm.
  Width at lower extremity                       17-18 "


  Total length                                 118-180 mm.
  Width of proximal extremity                    20-27 "
  Width of distal extremity                    16.5-24 "
  Width of shaft                                  7-11 "


  Total length                                   62-98 mm.
  Width of proximal extremity                    12-17 "
  Width of distal extremity                       7-11 "  "

The anonymous author of the manuscript "Relation de l'ile Rodrigue" (see
Ann. Sci. Nat. (6) II p. 133 et seq. 1875) about the year 1830 mentions
this bird as follows:--"There are not a few Bitterns which are birds which
only fly a very little, and run uncommonly well when they are chased. They
are of the size of an Egret and something like them."

Habitat: Rodriguez Island.

2 Humeri, 2 Femora, 2 Tibiae, and 2 Metatarsi in the Tring Museum. {114}

                         ARDEA DUBOISI NOM. NOV.

    _Butors ou Grands Gauziers_ Dubois, Les Voyages faits par le Sieur D.B.
    (1674) p. 169.

L'Abbe Dubois is the only author who has, as far as I can ascertain, told
us that the Island of Reunion also had a large almost flightless Heron as
well as Mauritius and Rodriguez; and so feeling sure that it, like most
other birds of this island, was distinct I name it after him.

The translation of his original description is as follows:--"Bitterns or
Great Egrets, large as capons, but very fat and good. They have grey
plumage, each feather spotted with white, the neck and beak like a Heron,
and the feet green, made like the feet of Poullets d'Inde (_Porphyrio_,
W.R.). This bird lives on fish."

Habitat: Reunion or Bourbon. {115}

                     ARDEA MAURITIANA (NEWT. & GAD.)

    _Butorides mauritianus_ Newton & Gadow, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. XIII, p.
    289 (1893).

The bones on which this species is founded are a pair of ulnae, one radius,
four metatarsi, and one coracoid. The description is as follows:--"The
bones in question are all considerably shorter than the corresponding bones
of _A. (Nycticorax) megacephala_. The metatarsi agree otherwise in every
detail with those of the latter species; this relative stoutness indicates
that they belonged to a Night-Heron or Bittern like _A. megacephala_. The
two ulnae cannot, unfortunately, be compared with those of _A.
megacephala_; their length, 110 mm., compared with the length of the
humerus of _A. megacephala_, 119 mm., shows, however, likewise that they
were those of a considerably smaller bird. The single left coracoid agrees
in all the features of its dorsal or scapular half with _A. megacephala_,
but its ventral or sternal half differs considerably, first by the much
more strongly marked ridge of the _linea intermuscularis_ on its ventral
surface, secondly by the almost straight instead of inwardly curved margin
between the _processus lateralis_ and the lateral distal corner of the
sternal articulation, thirdly by a very low but very distinct and sharp
ridge, which arises from the median margin of the coracoid, a little above
its median articulating corner. This roughness or prominent ridge is
entirely absent in _A. megacephala_ and in all other Herons which we have
been able to examine, but at least a slight indication of it occurs in an
individually varying degree in _Nycticorax_ and _Botaurus_. That this
coracoid bone belonged, however, to an Ardeine bird is clearly indicated by
its whole configuration, notably by the shape and position of the
precoracoid process, the various articulating facets at the dorsal end, and
the prominent lip on the visceral or internal surface of the median portion
of the sternal articulating facet."

The following are the measurements:--

  Length of ulna            111-112 mm.
  Length of metatarsus       81- 87 "
  Length of coracoid             48 "

Habitat: Mauritius.

Although _megacephala_ and _mauritiana_ have been placed in _Ardea_ and
_Butorides_ respectively, from the short, stout legs and general build, I
am inclined to think that all three of these Herons belong to the genus


                              PROSOBONIA BP.

This genus is, in the Catalogue of Birds, placed in a section with somewhat
long tarsus, the latter being longer than the culmen, containing in
addition to _Prosobonia_ the genera _Tringites_, and _Aechmorhynchus_ (see
afterwards), and it differs from the latter by its long hind toe, from the
former by its square tail. The position of this singular bird is, however,
not quite certain. The late Henry Seebohm placed it in the genus
_Phegornis_, though the latter has no hind toe whatever, and it has
even--but doubtless wrongly--been suggested that it belonged to the
_Rallidae_, rather than to the _Charadriidae_. We know only one species. It
is true that Dr. Sharpe bestowed a new name on the figure of Ellis, which
is said to have been taken from an Eimeo-specimen, but it is hardly
creditable that it belongs to a different species. Latham appears to have
had three specimens, which were all three different from each other. Both
Forster and Ellis, in their unpublished drawings in the British Museum, as
well as Latham, evidently considered all three to belong to the same
species, and it is not advisable now to over-rule their verdict, given with
the specimens before them, merely on account of the different plumages,
since we all know that most waders, and especially brightly-coloured ones,
differ considerably in plumage, according to age and seasons. We are
convinced that "_P. ellisi_" has been a younger bird. Sharpe attaches
importance to the different habitat, but this is no argument in this
instance, because Eimeo is, at the nearest point, not more than seven and a
half miles from Tahiti,[2] and it is quite against all precedents among
_Charadriidae_ and beyond all plausibility that two such closely situated
islands have closely allied forms of a Wader.


                       PROSOBONIA LEUCOPTERA (GM.)

                               (PLATE 35.)

    _White-winged Sandpiper_ Latham, Gen. Syn. III, pt. 1, p. 172, pl.
    LXXXII (1785--Otaheite and Eimeo).

    _Tringa leucoptera_ Gmelin, Syst. Nat. I, p. 678 (1788--ex Latham!);
    Westermann, Bijdr. Dierk. I, p. 51, pl. 15 (1854--Figure of the type).

    _Totanus leucopterus_ Vieillot, Nouv. Dict. d'Hist. Nat. (Ed. II) VI,
    p. 396 (1817).

    _Calidris leucopterus_ Cuvier, Regne Anim. I, p. 526 (1829).

    _Tringa pyrrhetraea_ Lichtenstein, Forster's descr. anim. p. 174

    _Prosobonia leucoptera_ Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. XXXI, p. 562 (1850);
    Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXIV, p. 525 (1896).

    _Tringoides leucopterus_ Gray, Handl. B. III, p. 46 (1871).

    _Phegornis leucopterus_ Seebohm, Geogr. Distrib. Charad. p. 452 pl. 18

    _Prosobonia ellisi_ Sharpe, Bull. B.O.C. XVI, p. 86 (1906--"Eimeo").

Dr. Sharpe's description, made from the type in the Leyden Museum, is as
follows: "Adult. General colour of upper surface blackish brown; the lower
back and rump ferruginous; centre tail-feathers blackish, the rest rufous,
banded with black, less distinctly on the two next the middle pair;
wing-coverts blackish, with a white spot near the carpal bend of the wing,
formed by some of the lesser coverts; crown of head blackish, the hind-neck
browner, mixed with black; sides of face brown, the lores and ear-coverts
slightly more reddish, behind the eye a little white spot; cheeks and under
surface of body ferruginous red, the throat buffy white. Length 6.7 inches,
culmen 0.9, wing 4.45, tail 2.15, tarsus 1.3 (Mus. Lugd.)"

We know nothing of this bird, but the one specimen in the Leyden Museum,
which is the type, or at least one of the types. As no other specimens have
been obtained for nearly a century and a quarter, there is every reason to
fear that this bird is extinct. My plate has been made up by Mr. Lodge from
the unpublished drawings of Ellis and Forster in the British Museum.

Habitat: Tahiti, and the adjacent islet of Eimeo.


                          AECHMORHYNCHUS COUES.

This genus appears to be closely allied to _Prosobonia_, but has a much
shorter hind toe. Its colouration is very different, and quite that of a
Sandpiper, while the pattern of _Prosobonia_ is most singular. Seebohm
placed _Aechmorhynchus_, together with _Prosobonia_, in the genus

We know only one species.

                     AECHMORHYNCHUS CANCELLATA (GM.)

                               (PLATE 35.)

    _Barred Phalarope_ Latham, Gen. Syn. III. pt. 1, p. 274
    (1785--Christmas Island in the Pacific Ocean).

    _Tringa cancellata_ Gmelin, Syst. Nat. I, p. 675 (1788--ex Latham).

    _Tringa parvirostris_ Peale, U.S. Expl. Exp., Birds p. 235, pl. LXVI, 2
    (1848--Paumotu) Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exp. p. 321, pl. 38, 2

    _Totanus_ (_Tryngites?_) _cancellatus_ Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Islands Pac.
    Ocean, p. 51 (1859).

    _Phegornis cancellatus_ Seebohm, Geogr. Distrib. Charadr. p. 451, pl.
    17 (1888).

    _Aechmorhynchus cancellatus_ Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXIV, p. 525

"Bill short, straight, and slender; wings long, first, second, and third
quills very nearly equal; tertiaries but very little longer than the
secondaries; tail rather long, wide, rounded; legs and toes long, the
former robust; tibia feathered for more than half its length. A distinct
stripe over and behind the eye ashy-white. Entire upper parts umber-brown,
unspotted on the top of the head, but on the other upper parts edged and
tipped with ashy-white and reddish fulvous. Tail-feathers umber-brown, with
irregular and imperfect transverse narrow bands of ashy and pale
reddish-white, and tipped with the same. Underparts white, with a tinge of
ashy; throat and middle of the abdomen unspotted; breast, sides, and under
coverts of the tail spotted, and with irregular transverse bars of brown,
the latter most apparent on the sides, flanks, and under tail-coverts.
Under wing-coverts ashy-white, irregularly spotted with brown. Bill
greenish, darker at the tip; legs dark green. Sexes very nearly alike,
female slightly paler. (Cassin.)" {120}

I have here given the synonymy of this bird, as it has now been generally
accepted by Seebohm, Sharpe, and others. An actual comparison of the types
would, however, be very desirable, but, unfortunately, we do not know where
the type of Latham is, and if it still exists. Christmas Island lies much
to the north of the Paumotu group! As no specimens have been obtained since
the U.S. Exploring Expedition, we may safely suppose that the species has
ceased to exist for some reason.

Habitat: "Christmas Island in the Pacific Ocean and Paumotu Islands."


                       GALLINAGO CHATHAMICA FORBES.

    _Gallinago chathamica_ Forbes, Ibis 1893, p. 545.

Evidently a species allied to _G. pusilla_, but very much larger. Bill
three inches long.

Habitat: Chatham Islands.

Several skulls and a few bones in the Tring Museum. This is a snipe only a
little larger than the existing _Gallinago aucklandica_.


                     HYPOTAENIDIA (?) PACIFICUS (GM.)

                               (PLATE 26.)

    _Pacific rail_ Latham, Gen. Syn. III, pt. I, p. 255 (1785).

    _Rallus pacificus_ Gmelin, Syst. Nat. I, p. 717 (1788).

Forster's description is as follows, in translation: "Black with white
spots or bars; abdomen, throat, and eyebrow white; hind neck ferruginous;
breast grey; bill blood-red; iris red. Bill straight, compressed, narrowed
at the top, thicker at the base, and blood-red. The mandibles subequal,
pointed; the upper slightly curved, with the tip pale fuscous; gape medium.
Nostrils almost at the base of bill, linear. Eyes placed above the gape of
the mouth. Iris blood-red. Feet four-toed, split, built for running, flesh
coloured. Femora semi-bare, slender, of medium length.

"Tibiae slightly compressed, shorter than the femora. Four toes, slender,
of which three point forward (are front toes). The middle one almost as
long as the Tibia, the side ones of equal length shorter, the back one
short, raised from the ground. Nails short, small, slightly incurved,
pointed, and light coloured. Head oval, slightly depressed, fuscous. A
superciliary line from bill to occiput whitish. Throat white. Hindneck
ferruginous. Neck very short. Back and rump black, sparsely dotted with
minute white dots. Breast bluish grey. Abdomen, crissum, and loins white.
Wings short, wholly black, variegated with broken white bands. Remiges
short. Rectrices extremely short, black spotted with white, hardly to be
distinguished from the coverts.

  Total length from bill to tail         9      inches.
  Total length to middle toe            12-3/4    "
  Bill                                   1-1/10   "
  Tibiae                                 2        "
  Middle toe                             1-3/10   "   "

Mr. Keulemans' plate was done from Forster's unpublished drawing in the
British Museum, and no specimen is in existence. The legs should, however,
be less bright red, more flesh-colour.

Habitat: Tahiti, but evidently long extinct.

This bird, according to Forster, was called "Oomnaa" or "Eboonaa," on
Otaheite, and the neighbouring islands.


                           NESOLIMNAS ANDREWS.

Differs from _Cabalus_ by the relatively shorter bill; by having the whole
culmen convex with the tip sharply decurved, by having a close instead of a
loose plumage, and a much less reduced sternum, with a well-developed
instead of almost obsolete keel. Type of genus _Nesolimnas dieffenbachi_


                               (PLATE 27.)

    _Rallus Dieffenbachii_ Gray, Dieffenb., Trav. N.Z. II App. p. 197

    _Ocydromus dieffenbachi_ Gray, Voy. Ereb. and Terr., Birds p. 14, pl.
    15 (1846).

    _Hypotaenidia dieffenbachi_ Bonaparte, C. R. XLIII, p. 599 (1856).

    _Cabalus dieffenbachi_ Sharpe, Voy. Ereb. and Terr., Birds p. 29, pl.
    15 (1875), id., Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXIII p. 47 (1894).

    _Nesolimnas dieffenbachi_ Andrews, Novit. Zool. III. p. 266, pl. X,
    figs 3-15 (1896).

Adult: "General colour above, brown, banded on the mantle and scapulars,
and spotted on the upper back with ochreous buff, these buff markings being
margined with black, which takes the form of broad bars on the mantle;
lower back and rump uniform brown; upper tail coverts brown, barred across
with light rufous and black; lesser wing coverts like the back; median and
greater coverts, as well as the primary coverts and quills, light chestnut,
barred with black, the inner secondaries spotted and barred with ochre and
black, like the back; tail feathers brown, mottled with chestnut near the
base; crown of the head and nape uniform brown, followed by an indistinct
patch of chestnut on the hindneck; lores dull rufous, surmounted by a broad
line of bluish grey, extending from the base of the nostrils to the sides
of the nape; rest of the sides of the face bluish grey, extending on to the
lower throat; this grey area of the face separated from the grey eyebrow by
a broad band of dark chestnut, which extends from the lores through the eye
along the upper part of the ear-coverts; chin and upper throat white; lower
throat black, barred across with white; fore neck and chest ochreous buff,
banded rather narrowly with black, this pattern of colouration {126}
extending up the sides of the neck to the chestnut on the ear coverts;
lower breast and abdomen black, banded with white, the light bars on the
flanks and vent feathers being tinged with ochreous; under-tail coverts
broadly banded with black and ochre; under-wing coverts and axillaries
blackish, barred with white; under surface of quills chestnut, with broad
black bars.

Wing 4.8 inches, culmen 1.35, tail 2.7" (Sharpe).

Habitat: Chatham Islands.

The type and only known specimen is that in the British Museum.


                             CABALUS HUTTON.

    _Cabalus_ Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. Vol. VI p. 108, pl. XX (1874--Type
    and unique species _Cabalus modestus_).

Captain Hutton characterized his new genus as follows: "Bill longer than
the head, moderately slender and slightly curved, compressed in the middle
and slightly expanding towards the tip; nostrils placed in a membranous
groove which extends beyond the middle of the bill, openings exposed, oval,
near the middle of the groove. Wings very short, rounded; quills soft, the
outer webs as soft as the inner, fourth and fifth the longest, first nearly
as long as the second; a short, compressed claw at the end of the thumb.
Tail very short and soft, hidden by the coverts. Tarsi moderate, shorter
than the middle toe, flattened in front, and covered with transverse
scales; toes long and slender, inner nearly as long as the outer, hind toe
short, very slender, and placed on the inner side of the tarsus; claws
short, compressed, blunt.

"The bird is incapable of flight, and the stomach of the specimen,
dissected by Dr. Knox, contained only the legs and elytra of beetles."

Captain Hutton also adds, l.c., a valuable description of the skeleton.

One species known.

                        CABALUS MODESTUS (HUTTON).

                               (PLATE 28.)

    _Rallus modestus_ Hutton, Ibis 1872, p. 247. (Mangare, Chatham

    _Cabalus modestus_ Hutton, Trans. New Zeal. Inst. VI p. 108. (The genus
    _Cabalus_ established.)

    _Rallus dieffenbachii_ juv. Buller, B. New Zealand, Ed. I pp. 179, 180;
    Ed. II p. 121 (1888).

    _Cabalus dieffenbachii_ (part., juv.!) Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXIII
    p. 47 (1894); corr. p. 331.

    _Cabalus modestus_ Forbes, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club. No. IV. p. XX (Dec.
    1892); Salvadori, op. cit. V p. XXIII (Jan., 1893); Forbes, Ibis 1893,
    pp. 532, 544, pl. XIV, fig. 4, egg; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXIII p.
    331 (1893); Buller, Suppl. B.N.Z. I p. 45, pl. III (1905).

    _Ocydromus pygmaeus_ Forbes, Nature XLVI, p. 252 (1892--nomen nudum!
    cf. Ibis 1893, p. 544).

Captain Hutton (Ibis 1872, p. 247) described this interesting species as
follows: "Olivaceous brown, bases of the feathers plumbeous; feathers of
the breast slightly tipped with pale fulvous, those of the abdomen and
flanks with two narrow bars of the same colour; {128} throat dark grey,
each feather slightly tipped with brown. Quills soft brown, the first three
faintly barred with reddish fulvous, fourth and fifth the longest. Tail
very soft and short, brown. Irides light brown, bill and legs light brown.
Length 8.75 inches, wing 3.15, bill from gape 1.4, tarsus 1, middle toe and
claw 1.4.

_Young._ Uniform brownish black.

A single specimen and young from Mangare; also a specimen in spirits."

The author knew perfectly well what he was doing when he described this
excellent species. Sir Walter Buller afterwards (B. New Zealand, Ed. I, pp.
179, 180) declared "after carefully comparing it with the type of _Rallus
dieffenbachii_, and submitting the matter to the judgment of other
competent ornithologists, I have no hesitation in considering it the same
species, in an immature state of plumage." (_Sic!_) Unfortunately, Dr.
Sharpe, in the Catalogue of Birds XXIII, repeated Buller's error, and, on
Plate VI, figured _Cabalus modestus_ under the name of _Cabalus
dieffenbachii_, though the latter is not congeneric with _C. modestus_, and
must be called _Nesolimnas dieffenbachii_, while the third form included in
_Cabalus_ by Dr. Sharpe, viz. _sylvestris_ of Lord Howe's Island, must also
be separated genetically from _Cabalus_.

Formerly _Cabalus modestus_ inhabited Great Chatham Island, as Dr. Forbes
proved by bones found by himself at Warekauri, but when the species was
discovered it existed there no more, though being plentiful on the little
outlying island of Mangare. Unfortunately even there it is evidently
extinct now, this island being overrun with cats and rats, besides which,
according to Buller, the original vegetation has been ruthlessly burnt down
for the purpose of sowing grass-seed, as even this bleak little island has
been claimed by an enterprising sheep-farmer. Fortunately a good many
specimens have been secured by the late W. Hawkins. I have fifteen in my
museum, and there are specimens in the British Museum, in Liverpool, and
one in Cambridge. Henry Palmer failed to get specimens when he visited

I have also the egg described and figured in the Ibis by Dr. Forbes. It
measures 40 by 21.4 mm., and is creamy white, with faint pale reddish and
purplish roundish spots.

Habitat: Chatham Islands, east of New Zealand.


                        OCYDROMUS MINOR HAMILTON.

    _Ocydromus sp._ Hamilton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXV, p. 103 (1893).

    _Ocydromus minor_ Hamilton (nec. Forbes) l.c.

This species is nearest allied to _sylvestris_ Scl., which has quite
erroneously been placed in the genus _Cabalus_ by Dr. Sharpe; _sylvestris_
will have to form the type of a new genus, but until the skull of _minor_
is known I prefer to leave the latter temporarily in _Ocydromus_.

The present species is known from two pelves, seven femora, six tibiae, and
five metatarsi, as well as the front portion of a sternum. The measurements
all show that _minor_ was a slightly larger form than _sylvestris_, but
owing to having a much shorter tibio-tarsus it must have been a much
stumpier bird.

                                 _Minor._      _Sylvestris._

  Pelvis extreme length          65   mm.        62.5 mm.
  Pelvis extreme breadth         28   "          25   "
  Femur length                   64   "          63   "
  Tibio-tarsus length            93   "          98   "
  Tarso-metatarsus length        53   "          51   "
  Sternum greatest width         24.5 "          24.5 "

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand. Extinct.

                        OCYDROMUS INSIGNIS FORBES.

    _Ocydromus insignis_ Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 188
    (1892--insufficient description).

This bird "far exceeded in size any of the existing species of
_Ocydromus_." That is all that is published about this bird.

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand.


                         APHANAPTERYX FRAUENFELD.

Bill produced, not cut short, rather curved. The nostrils are exposed and
situated at the base of the bill. Halluces of the naked fowl-like legs of
moderate length. Front of legs apparently scutellated. Wings abortive, no
rectrices apparent.

                       APHANAPTERYX BONASIA SELYS.

                               (PLATE 29.)

    _A Hen_ Sir Thomas Herbert, A relation of some years' Travaile (1626).

    _Velt-hoenders_ Reyer Cornelisz, Van der Hagen's voyage (1646).

    _Poules rouges au bec de Becasse_ Cauche, Relations veritables et
    curieuses de l'Isle de Madagascar (1651).

    _Apterornis bonasia_ Edm. de Selys-Longchamps, Revue Zoologique, p. 292

    _Didus herberti_ Schlegel, Vers. Med. Ak. Wetensch., II, p. 256 (1854).

    _Didus broecki_ Schlegel, l.c.

    _Aphanapteryx imperialis_ Frauenfeld, Neu aufgef. Abbild. Dronte, p. 6

    _Aphanapteryx broeckii_ Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. (5), X, pp.
    325-346, pls. 15-18 (1868).

    _Pezophaps broeckii_ Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Struthiones, p. 4 (1873).

I here give a translation of Frauenfeld's original diagnosis: "Of the size
of a fowl, of a uniform brown red all over. Bill and legs dark. Iris
yellowish. Feathers decomposed, as in the _Apteryx_, somewhat lengthened on
the nape."

This description was made by Frauenfeld from a drawing by G. Hoefnagels, in
the Imperial Library, Vienna, executed about the year 1610, and, together
with that of the Dodo, apparently drawn from life in the Imperial Menagerie
at Ebersdorf. This drawing proves Van den Broecke, Herbert, and Cauche's
descriptions to have been correct, though their drawings are somewhat
startlingly different in shape. Only known from these four drawings and
osseous remains. 18 fragments of beaks, 5 pelves, 35 tibiae, 1 sacrum and
fragments, and 1 vertebra in the Tring Museum.

Habitat: Mauritius.


                          DIAPHORAPTERYX FORBES.

This genus is closely allied to _Aphanapteryx_ and _Erythromachus_, but, on
the whole, is nearer to _Aphanapteryx_. It differs from both these genera
and _Ocydromus_ in the large protuberances on the basi-temporal region of
the skull, and the tarso-metatarsus was much shorter than in
_Aphanapteryx_. For complete diagnosis of this genus see Andrews in
Novitates Zoologicae, Vol. III, pp. 73-76 (1896).


    _Aphanapteryx hawkinsi_ Forbes, Nature XLVI, p. 252.

    _Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi_ Forbes, Bull. B.O.C.I. p. XXI, 1893.

The remains of this bird were first sent to Dr. H. O. Forbes in 1892 by the
late W. Hawkins, from the Chatham Islands, 500 miles E.S.E. of New Zealand.
It appears to have been confined to the Island of Wharekauri. Dr. Forbes
subsequently went to the Chathams himself and collected a large number of
bones of various extinct birds, including those of _Diaphorapteryx_. In
1895 I received a consignment of bones through the agency of Mr.
Dannefaerd, from the Chathams, such as has never been equalled from any
deposit elsewhere, for literally there were many hundreds of thousands of
bones of a considerable number of species of birds. From this collection
Mr. C. W. Andrews was able to draw up a most minute description of the
skeleton of _Diaphorapteryx_, founded on several practically complete
skeletons, some thirty or more skulls, and several thousand individual
bones of various portions of the skeleton. This description, published in
Novitates Zoologicae, Vol. III, pp. 73-84, is too long for reproduction
here, and so I must refer my readers to it.

This bird, as well as the _Palaeolimnas_, shows an apparent relationship
between the Chatham Islands and the Mascarene Islands; but I believe that
{134} this is not a real relationship, as has been asserted, due to a
former land-connection, but merely a case of parallel development owing to
similar conditions of existence.

Habitat: Wharekauri Island, Chatham Islands.

In the Tring Museum are two complete skeletons, more than a thousand bones,
and about fifteen skulls.

One almost complete skeleton, and the type, skull, and bones, are in the
British Museum.


                       ERYTHROMACHUS MILNE-EDWARDS.

"Legs stout, made for running, and from a quarter to one-fifth shorter than
in _Ocydromus_, the three anterior digits well developed and the hallux
very small. Body less massive than in _Ocydromus_, with the wings slightly
more developed, but not serviceable for flight. Head small; bill red,
straight, pointed, and about 60 mm. = 2.4 inches. A red naked patch round
the eye; plumage pale grey."


    _Gelinote_ Leguat, t. II p. 71 (1708).

    _Erythromachus leguati_ Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. (5) XIX, pp. 6,
    7, pls. XI, XII (1874).

    _Aphanopteryx leguati_ Gunther & E. Newton, Phil. Trans. Vol. 168, pp.
    431-432, pl. XLIII (1879).

Of the older writers only Leguat appears to have described the Rodriguez
flightless rail. There are several references to "_Hens_," "_Veld
Hoenders_," &c., but all appear to refer to the Mauritius bird
_Aphanapteryx bonasia_. Leguat's description is as follows:--

"Our 'gelinotes' are fat all the year round and of a most delicate taste.
Their colour is always of a bright grey, and there is very little
difference in plumage between the two sexes. They hide their nests so well
that we could not find them out, and consequently did not taste their eggs.
They have a red naked area round their eyes, their beaks are straight and
pointed, near two and two-fifths inches long, and red also. They cannot
fly, their fat makes them too heavy for it. If you offer them anything red,
they are so angry they will fly at you to catch it out of your hand, and in
the heat of the combat we had an opportunity to take them with ease."

Quite extinct. Only known from descriptions and osseous remains. One tibia
in the Tring Museum.

Habitat: Rodriguez Island.


                              PENNULA DOLE.

    _Pennula_ Dole, Hawaiian Alman. 1879 p. 54 (Reprint in Ibis 1880 p.

I believe that the genus _Pennula_ should be placed near _Porzanula_, but
its wings are softer, the rectrices are next to invisible, but can be felt,
as they have stiff shafts and are about 13 mm. long, though being entirely
hidden by the soft tail-coverts. The tibia is bare for about 7 mm., the
metatarsus covered in front with nearly a dozen transverse, very distinct
scales, and distinctly reticulated behind. The bill much as in
_Poliolimnas_ and _Porzanula_.

Two species can be recognized: _Pennula millsi_, with a uniform upper
surface, and _Pennula sandwichensis_, with a distinctly spotted upper side.
Both forms are now extinct.

                           PENNULA MILLSI DOLE.

                           MOHO OF THE NATIVES.

                           (PLATE 26, FIG. 3.)

    _Pennula millei_ (misprint for _millsi_) Dole, Hawaiian Almanac 1879 p.
    54 (reprint in Ibis 1880 p. 241. "Uplands of Hawaii: named in honour of
    Mr. Mills, spec. in Mills's Coll., nearly extinct"); Rothsch., Avif.
    Laysan, etc., p. 241 pl. LXXVI.

    _Pennula ecaudata_ apud Wilson & Evans, Aves. Hawaii., part V, text and

All we know of this bird are the five specimens caught by an old native
bird-catcher named Hawelu for the late Mr. Mills of Hawaii. Two of these
are now in my Museum, one in Cambridge, and two in the Bishop-Pauahi Museum
in Honolulu. There can be no doubt that this bird is now extinct. All
recent attempts to find specimens have been futile. Mr. Palmer, whom I sent
a specially trained dog, also failed to find even traces of it. It lived
formerly in the country between Hilo and the volcano Kilauea, in places
where thick grass, _Vaccinium_ and _Dianella_, forms the thickest cover
possible. In former times the "Moho" was a dainty on the tables of the
Hawaiian kings, but its disappearance is probably due to the introduction
of the obnoxious mongoose and to bush fires. {138}

                       PENNULA SANDWICHENSIS (GM.)

                           (PLATE 26, FIG. 2.)

    _Rallus Sandwichensis_ Gmelin, Syst. Nat I p. 717 (1788--ex Latham!
    "Habitat exilis in insulis Sandwich").

    _Pennula Wilsoni_ Finsch, Notes Leyden Mus. XX p. 77 (1898--Finsch
    explains that the specimen in the Leyden Museum is not the type of
    Latham--and therefore of Gmelin's name--and therefore renames it).

    For full synonymy and explanations of name, etc., cf. Avifauna of
    Laysan, p. 239, 240 and 243, also plate LXXVI.

Latham's description--from which Gmelin's diagnosis was taken--distinctly
says that the feathers were "darkest in the middle," and in the Index
Ornith. "supra maculis obscuris." Moreover, the unpublished drawing of
Ellis, well reproduced in Mr. Scott Wilson's book, shows beyond doubt the
identity of the bird of the old authors with the specimen in the Leyden

The Leyden specimen is all we are acquainted with, and of the history of
this bird we know nothing but Latham's statement that it came from the
Sandwich Islands.


                        TRIBONYX ROBERTI ANDREWS.

    _Tribonyx roberti Andrews_, Ibis 1897, p. 356, pl. IX, figs 4-7.

This bird is described from an imperfect pelvis, a perfect left
tibio-tarsus and a femur. The pelvis differs from that of _T. mortieri_ in
not having the deep depression in the ilia in front of the acetabulum and
above the pectineal process. It also differs in having a rather wider
pelvic escutcheon and wider renal fossal, and the supra-acetabular ridges
of the ilia are smaller than in the Australian bird. The
beautifully-preserved left tibia differs from that of _T. mortieri_ in
having the intercondylar groove wider and shallower, the inner condyle less
massive, thus making the difference between the inner and outer condyle
more marked; _T. roberti_ also has the shaft immediately above the extensor
bridge wider, the bridge itself less oblique, and the fibular crest is

The measurements are:--


  Length of Ilium                                    82 mm. approx.
  Least width of acetabular region of Pelvis         14 "
  Width at Antitrochanter                            40 "
  Width at anterior angle of Pelvic Escutcheon       36 "
  Width at Posterior angle of Pelvic Escutcheon      40 "
  Length of Sacrum                                   68 "


  Length                                            143 mm.
  Width at distal extremity                          12 "
  Width at middle of shaft                            7 "


  Length                                             83 mm.
  Width at distal extremity                          17 "
  Width at middle of shaft                            7 "

Habitat: Sirabe in C. Madagascar.


                              NOTORNIS OWEN.

Differs from _Porphyrio_ by the secondaries being nearly as long as the
primaries, and the wing-coverts more or less elongated, sometimes nearly
hiding the quills.

Type: _Notornis mantelli_.

                         NOTORNIS MANTELLI OWEN.

    _Notornis mantelli_ Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. III, p. 377, pl. LVI, figs.
    7-11 (1848).

This species was founded on a nearly entire skull, collected by Walter
Mantell at Waingongoro, North Island, New Zealand. This skull is more than
twice the size of that of _Porphyrio melanotus_. The basisphenoidal
surface, however, is flatter, the anterior angle projects below the base of
the presphenoid, and there is a slender ridge continued from each
paroccipital to the lateral angles of the platform, the posterior angles
being hemispheric tubercles as in _Palapteryx_.

The occipital region inclines forwards as it rises, while the same is more
vertical in _Porphyrio_. The post-frontal is broader than in _Porphyrio_.
The chief distinction from that of _Porphyrio_ is, however, the almost
regular four-sided figure of the skull. The breadth of the anterior part is
almost exactly that of the occipital region, and the extent of the sides is
not much more than that of the front and back part. The parieto-frontal
region of the skull is very unlike that of _Porphyrio_, being convex and
oblong, and _Notornis_ also lacks cerebral or hemispheric convexities. Owen
gives a large number of other differences, but I refer my readers to the
original article as above, pp. 366-371. I, however, must state here, as is
already mentioned by Mr. Hamilton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 176, 1892,
that the _Dinornis_ skull, with which Professor Owen compared _Notornis_,
referred by him to _D. casuarinus_ is really that of _Aptornis defossor_
(_vide_ Trans. Zool. Soc. III, pl. 52, figs. 1-7), and, therefore, it is
quite natural that Professor Owen found a great likeness to _Dinornis_ in
_Notornis_, as the skull he compared it with was really that of the Ralline
_Aptornis_, and not the Struthious _Dinornis_ at all.

Habitat: North Island, New Zealand.

Dr. H. O. Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst., discusses at length measurements of
tibiae and femora of _Notornis_, provisionally naming the skeleton in the
Otago Museum _Notornis parkeri_, as a new species, but I consider we must
wait for confirmation till we get an associated skeleton of _N. mantelli_.

                       NOTORNIS HOCHSTETTERI A.B.M.

                               (PLATE 34.)

    _Notornis Hochstetteri_ A. B. Meyer, Abbild. Vogelskelett, Lief. IV &
    V, p. 28, pl. XXXIV-XXXVII   (1883--South Island, New Zealand);
    Zeitschr. ges. Orn. II, p. 45, pl. I   (1885--figures of the bird).

    _Notornis mantelli_ (non Owen 1848!) Gould, P.Z.S. London, 1850, pl.
    21; Trans. Zool. Soc.   London IV, pl. 25 (1850); Gould, B. Austr.
    Suppl., pl. 76 (1869); Buller, B. New   Zealand, pl. (1873); Sharpe,
    Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXIII, p. 208 (1894).

The name _Notornis mantelli_ having been based on a cranium and some
leg-bones from the North Island, and the bones of a specimen from the South
Island, showing marked differences, Dr. A. B. Meyer was fully justified in
describing the latter form as different, under the name of _N.

According to the describer there are considerable differences in the
cranial bones, but the comparison of the leg-bones shows such differences
in size that these alone would be sufficient to separate the North and
South Island forms. The femur of _N. hochstetteri_ measures 109, that of
_N. mantelli_ 122, the tibia of the former 165, the tarso-metatarsus 109,
the tibia of the latter 200, the tarso-metatarsus 129 mm. For further
measurements see A. B. Meyer, Abbild. Vogelskelett I, p. 30.

The upper surface is olive-green with some slaty-blue shading, the quills
are black with purplish blue outer webs; rectrices blackish, green on the
outer webs. Head, neck, and under surface purplish blue, thighs more
blackish. Under tail-coverts white, frontal plate and bill bright red,
yellow towards the tip of both mandibles. Feet red.

Although this bird is evidently not extinct, a specimen having been
captured as late as 1898, it seems that not many examples live at present
in New Zealand, as they have been sought after a good deal, and yet only
four have been taken so far, _i.e._, the two in the British Museum, one in
the Dresden Museum, and the last-mentioned one.

Full accounts of the capture of this last specimen have been given in the
Trans. New Zealand Institute, XXXI, pp. 146-150, and in Sir Walter Buller's
Supplement to the Birds of New Zealand, I, pp. 66-74, where, however, the
year of the capture is not mentioned, though one can guess that it must
have taken place shortly before the articles on it appeared.

Habitat: Middle Island, usually called South Island, apparently nearly
extinct. {143}

                       NOTORNIS STANLEYI (ROWLEY).

    _White gallinule_, Voy. of Gov. Phillip to N.S.W., p. 273, cum tab.

    _Porphyrio stanleyi_ Rowley, Orn. Misc. I, p. 36, pl. IX (1875).

    _Porphyrio melanotus_ (part.) Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. XXIII, p.
    205 (1894).

    _Porphyrio alba_ G. R. Gray, List Birds N.Z., &c., Ibis 1862, p. 214.

The first to point out the differences between the bird now in the
Liverpool Museum and the specimen in Vienna was Mr. Dawson Rowley. The
original description of the anonymous author of Phillip's Voyage is as

"This beautiful bird greatly resembles the purple Gallinule in shape and
make, but is much superior in size, being as large as a dunghill fowl. The
length from end of bill to that of the claws is two feet three inches. The
bill is very stout, and the colour of it, the whole of the top of the head
and the irides red; the sides of the head round the eyes are reddish, very
thinly sprinkled with white feathers; the whole of the plumage is, without
exception, white. The legs the colour of the bill. This species is pretty
common on Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, and other places, and is a very
tame species. The other sex, supposed to be the male, is said to have some
blue on the wings."

Gray states under _Porphyrio alba_, in Ibis 1862, p. 214: "It is stated
that a similar kind was found on Lord Howe Island which was incapable of
flight. The wings of the male were beautifully mottled with blue."

Dr. H. O. Forbes, in the Bulletin of the Liverpool Museums, Vol. III, No.
2, pp. 62-68 (1901), gives an exhaustive account of Rowley's type, in which
he comes to the conclusion that the bird is not a _Porphyrio_ but a
_Notornis_, and that it is also probably a specimen of _Notornis alba_.
That it is a _Notornis_ I equally believe; but I think the length of the
wing-coverts in the type of _N. alba_, puts it out of the question that the
two birds could be the same. Moreover, the two original pictures of Phillip
and White show this difference of the wings very well. I have therefore
kept the two separate, and I feel sure if we had other specimens with exact
data we should find this a parallel case to that of _Nesonetta aucklandica_
of the Auckland Islands and _Anas chlorotis_ of New Zealand, and that
_Notornis alba_ of Norfolk Island was a still further degenerate form to
the already flightless _N. stanleyi_ of Lord Howe Island. Wing nine inches.

Habitat: Lord Howe Island. {144}

                          NOTORNIS ALBA (WHITE).

                               (PLATE 33.)

    ? _White gallinule_ Callam, Voy. Botany Bay (1783?) (teste Gray).

    _Fulica alba_ White, Journ. Voy. N.S.W., p. 238 and plate (1790).

    _Gallinula alba_ Latham, Ind. Orn. I, p. 768 (1790).

    _Porphyrio albus_ Temminck, Man. d'Orn. II, p. 701 (1820).

    _Porphyrio melanotus var. alba_ Gray, Voy. Ereb. and Terror, Birds, p.
    19 (1844).

    _Porphyrio melanotus_ Gray, Voy. Ereb. and Terror, Ed. II (1846), p.

    _Notornis ? alba_ Pelzeln, Sitz. k. Akad. Wiss. Wien. XLI, p. 328

    _Notornis alba_ Salvin, Ibis 1873, p. 295, pl. X.

There has been considerable confusion in connection with this bird and the
following species, owing to the fact of White not having given any locality
for the specimen on which Latham founded his _Gallinula alba_, and which is
now in the Vienna Museum. That the Vienna specimen is really White's bird
is proved because it was bought at the sale of the Leverian Museum, and
White expressly states that all his birds were deposited in the Leverian

It is quite impossible to say with _certainty_ which of the two forms,
_Notornis alba_ or _N. stanleyi_, came from Norfolk Island, as we have no
indication of the origin of the Liverpool specimen. But seeing that in the
anonymous work, "The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay," the first
mentioned habitat is Lord Howe Island, and the figure shows a bird with the
shorter wing-coverts of _N. stanleyi_, I think I am justified in taking the
bird with longer wing-coverts--viz., _Notornis alba_, to be the bird from
Norfolk Island.

White's description is as follows:--"White Fulica, with bill and front red,
shoulders spined, legs and feet yellow." White's figure clearly shows the
long wing coverts characteristic of the genus _Notornis_. Von Pelzeln says
in his account of this bird that there is a label on it bearing the number
102, and giving as place of origin Norfolk Island, but White makes no
mention of this. There are traces of a bluish shade, and two or three dark
spots on the plumage, which has led many ornithologists to consider _N.
alba_ an albino. Gray, in "A List of Birds from New Zealand, &c.,"[3]
remarked that some Norfolk Island specimens had blue between the shoulders,
and the back spotted with the same colour. He also states that the young
are said to be black, then become bluish grey, and afterwards pure white.
From these and other authors' similar remarks I believe we have not here a
case of albinism, but a bird which was in a stage of evolution towards
becoming a fixed white species. Wing 9 inches (measured by myself in the
Vienna Museum).

Habitat: Norfolk Island.


                            APTERORNIS SELYS.

"Differed widely from _Didus_ and _Pezophaps_ in its long beak, which
resembles a little that of a woodcock, but is much stronger. These birds
were high on the leg, ran swiftly, and were far removed from pigeons like
the Dodo and the Solitaire, but to which they had a certain resemblance,
owing to their rudimentary wings, apology for a tail, and the disposition
of their digits."

The above is a translation of de Selys-Longchamps' diagnosis of the genus,
but owing to his inclusion therein of _Didus solitarius_ and _Aphanapteryx
bonasia_, it does not fit when restricted to the "Oyseau bleu" of Le Sieur
D.B. It might be described as: Resembling _Aptornis_, but with shorter bill
and feet, thus more approaching _Notornis_.

One species.


                               (PLATE 32.)

    _Oyseaux bleus_ Le Sieur D.B., Les Voyages aux Isles Dauphine and
    Bourbon,   pp. 170, 171 (1674).

    _Apterornis coerulescens_ Selys-Longchamps, Rev. Zool. 1848, p. 294.

The original description of the Sieur D.B. (Dubois) is as follows
(translated):--"_Oyseaux bleus_: As big as the Solitaires; they have the
plumage entirely blue, the beak and the feet red and made like those of
fowls; they do not fly at all, but run extremely quickly, so that a dog can
hardly catch them; they are very good."

Habitat: Bourbon or Reunion.

Dubois gives the size of these birds as the same as that of a big goose and
the feet as being like those of a fowl: I have, therefore, in
reconstructing the plate of this bird, had it made intermediate in
structure between the New Zealand _Notornis_ and _Aptornis_, which were
evidently its nearest allies.


                              APTORNIS OWEN.

Differs from _Dinornis_, _Palapteryx_ and _Notornis_ in having an articular
surface for a very strong hind toe, and the tarso-metatarsus of a
conformation more nearly resembling that found in the _Dodo_, but shorter
and thicker than in the latter. In addition, the strong calcaneal process,
perforated by a complete bony canal for the tendon at the back part of the
proximal end of the tarso-metatarsus; the perforation above the interspace
between the condyles for the middle and outer toes; and the more posterior
position for the condyle for the inner toe all prove the distinctness of
this genus.

Type: _Aptornis otidiformis_.

                       APTORNIS OTIDIFORMIS (OWEN).

    _Dinornis otidiformis_ Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. III, p. 247, pls. XXV
    and XXVI, fig. 5 (1844).

    _Aptornis otidiformis_ Owen, ibidem p. 347 (1848).

This is the North Island form, and I must refer my readers to Owen's
description, only remarking that Mr. Hamilton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p.
179, says the vertebrae assigned by Owen to _Cnemiornis_ all belong to

Locality of type tibia: Poverty Bay, North Island, New Zealand; collected
by Rev. Wm. Williams in 1842. {148}

                         APTORNIS DEFOSSOR OWEN.

    _Aptornis defossor_ Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. VII, pp. 353 to 366, pls.
    40-44 (1871).

The skull differs from that of _A. otidiformis_ by the vertical surface of
the descending part of the occiput being less deeply concave, the occipital
foramen relatively smaller. The hind part of the base of the alisphenoid is
more produced and tuberous outside the end of the hyoid process of the
paroccipital in _A. defossor_.

The chief other differences in size, according to Owen, are as follows:--

                                       _A. defossor_.    _A. otidiformis_.
  Length                                 7.2 inches.         6.2 inches.
  Breadth across paroccipitals           3.3   "             2.9   "
  Breadth across postfrontals            3.2   "             2.10  "
  Breadth across temporal fossae         2.3   "             1.1   "
  Breadth of base of upper mandible      1.6   "             1.3   "
  Breadth of middle of upper mandible    1.4   "             1.1   "
  Breadth of fore end of upper mandible  0.7   "             0.6   "
  Length of premaxillary                 5.0   "             4.3   "

  Length                                 7.6   "             6.2   "
  Breadth of proximal end                2.2   "             1.9   "
  Breadth of distal end                  2.2   "             1.9   "
  Circumference of middle of shaft       2.9   "             2.3   "

  Length                                10.3   "             8.9   "
  Breadth of  proximal end               2.3   "             1.9   "
  Breadth of distal end                  1.10  "             1.3   "
  Circumference of middle of shaft       2.6   "             1.11  "

  Length                                 4.4   "             3.10  "
  Breadth of proximal end                1.8   "             1.5   "
  Breadth of distal end                  1.9   "             1.6   "
  Breadth of middle of shaft             1.6   "             1.4   "

Locality of type: Oamaru.

Habitat: South Island.

A nearly perfect skeleton in the Tring Museum, collected by Mr. W. S.
Mitchel in limestone cave on Oreti River, Southland.


                           PALAEOLIMNAS FORBES.

Differs from _Fulica_ by the much more curved shape of the skull, the
deeply marked glandular impressions over the eyes, and the great
pneumaticity of the frontal bones.


    _Fulica chathamensis_ H. O. Forbes, Nature, vol. XLVI p. 252 (1892).

    _Fulica newtoni_ H. O. Forbes, l.c. (non Milne-Edwards).

    _Palaeolimnas newtoni_ H. O. Forbes, Ibis 1893, p. 544.

    _Palaeolimnas chathamensis_ Milne Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. (VIII) 2,
    1896 p. 130.

Dr. Forbes says in Nature "I procured from the same beds which contained
_Aphanapteryx_ a certain number of bones of a _Fulica_ which much resemble
those of _Fulica newtoni_; like the bones of _Aphanapteryx_ (should be
_Diaphorapteryx_, W.R.) they vary much in size, some being equal to, while
others were considerably larger than similar bones of _Fulica newtoni_.
This variation is so great that I am inclined to consider them as belonging
to different species, or at least different races. I have given the name
_Fulica chathamensis_" to the larger species.

Later, in the Ibis, Dr. Forbes says, "The limb-bones and pelvis correspond
so closely to those of _F. newtoni_ that I am not able to separate them.
The head of the type is, however, unknown."

Professor Milne-Edwards, however, points out numerous differences. In the
humerus the sub-trochanterial groove is bigger, and particularly wider than
in typical _Fulica_. The iliac grooves are larger than in _Fulica newtoni_,
the pelvic knob is more extended, and the sciatic foramen is larger. The
first sacral vertebrae are stunted below the median sinus, while in the
Mauritius species one observes a very stout one, occupying the four first
vertebrae of the pelvis. The feet were also larger and stronger than in the

Habitat: Chatham Islands.

An almost complete skeleton and numerous bones in the Tring Museum, and an
almost complete skeleton in the British Museum. {150}


    _Poules d'eau_ Sieur D.B., Voyages 1674.

    _Fulica newtoni_ Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. (5) VIII pp. 194-220,
    pls. 10-13 (1867).

The translation of the Sieur D.B.'s (Abbe Dubois) description is as
follows:--"Waterhens which are as large as fowls. They are always black,
and have a large white crest on the head." For the anatomical description I
must refer my readers to Professor Milne-Edwards.

Habitat: Bourbon.

Milne-Edwards gives so many details in which _Fulica newtoni_ agrees with
_Palaeolimnas chathamensis_ that I feel convinced that the former is not a
true _Fulica_, and, until we know its skull and can decide for certain, I
think it is best to include it in the genus _Palaeolimnas_. 16 tibiae, 30
metatarsi, 8 humeri, 2 sternums, 4 fragments and an entire pelvis and
sacrum, and 3 cervical vertebrae in the Tring Museum.

                     PALAEOLIMNAS PRISCA (HAMILTON).

    _Fulica prisca_ Hamilton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXV, p. 98 (1893).

This bird was nearly as large as _Notornis_, but with a very small head and
with a frontal shield. It was probably a poor flier, though not flightless,
as _Fulica chathamensis_ was. It was smaller than the latter. Measurements,
according to Hamilton:--

                             _prisca_.    _newtoni_.    _chathamensis_.

  Femur: Length               78-93 mm.       --               85 mm.
  Tibio-tarsus: Length      143-162 "       144 mm.       152-163 "
  Tarso-metatarsus: Length    81-98 "        88 "              96 "

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand.


                            LEGUATIA SCHLEGEL.

Body not larger than that of a goose; wings rather short but still fitted
for flight; feathers of the legs reaching down almost to the top of the
tarso-metatarsus; toes long and completely free, middle toe almost as long
as tarso-metatarsus. Bill with a naked shield reaching back beyond the eye.
Height about 6 feet.

                       LEGUATIA GIGANTEA SCHLEGEL.

                               (PLATE 31.)

    _Le Geant_ Leguat, Voyages (1708), p. 171, English edition.

    _Leguatia gigantea_ Schlegel, Versl. Med. Akad. Wetensch. Amst. VII, p.
    142 (1858).

Leguat's description is as follows: "... and many of those birds called
giants, because they are six feet high. They are extremely high mounted,
and have very long necks. Their bodies are not bigger than that of a goose.
They are all white, except a little place under their wings, which is
reddish. They have a goose's bill, only a little sharper; their claws are
very long and divided." This bird was apparently confined to the island of

Professor Newton asserts that Leguat's "Geants" were Flamingos, principally
because bones of Flamingos have been found in Mauritius and not a single
bone has ever been got of the "geant." This argument is, in my opinion,
insufficient, and no evidence at all. We know that a Didine bird and a
gigantic rail existed on Reunion, but no bones are yet known of these. I
think, like Professor Schlegel, that Leguat's figure and description cannot
be meant for a Flamingo and that they prove the former existence of a
gigantic ralline bird in Mauritius.

The figure is made up from Leguat's description. The bill is drawn like
that of a gigantic moorhen, and so are the feet.

Habitat: Mauritius.


                             ALCA IMPENNIS L.

                              THE GREAT AUK.

                               (PLATE 38.)

        _Penguin_ Hore, in Hakluyt's Coll. Voyages III p. 129 (Ed. 1600--ex

        _Anser Magelanicus s. Pinguinus_ Worm, Museum Wormianum, Lib. III,
        Cap. 19, p. 300, 301 (1655--Figured from a specimen from the Faroe

        _Penguin_ Willoughby, Orn. Lib. III p. 242 pl. 65 (1676).

        _Northern Penguin_ Edwards, Nat. Hist. Uncommon B. etc., III p. 147
        pl. 147 (1750--First good coloured plate, from a specimen from

        _Geyervogel_ Linnaeus, Fauna Suecica p. 43 no. 119 (1746).

        _Alca impennis_ Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. Ed. X p. 130 (1758--Ex fauna
        Sueciva no. 119, Mus. Worm. l.c., Willoughby l.c., and Edwards
        l.c.); Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. Ed. XII, I, p. 210 (1766); Naumann,
        Nat. Voy. Deutschl. XII p. 630 pl. 337 (1844); Dresser, B. Europe
        VIII p. 563, pl. 620 (1880); Seebohm, Hist. Brit. B. III p. 371

        _Alca borealis_ Forster, Syn. Cat. Brit. B. p. 29 (1817--nomen

        _Plautus impennis_ Brunnich, Zool. Fundamenta p. 78 (1772); Baird,
        Brewer and Ridgway, Water Birds N. Amer., II p. 467 (1884); Grant,
        Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXVI p. 563 (1898).


        _Japetus Steenstrup_: Bidrag til Geirfuglens Naturhistorie etc.,
        Kjobenhavn (Copenhagen) 1857 (In Naturh-Forening. Vidensk. Meddel.
        1855, nos. 3-7).

        _Alfred Newton_: Abstract of Mr. Wolley's Researches in Iceland
        respecting the Gare-fowl. (In Ibis, 1861, pp. 374-399).

        _William Preyer_: Ueber Plautus impennis. (In Journal f. Orn. 1862
        pp. 110-124, 337-356.)

        _Alfred Newton_: The Gare-fowl and its Historians. (In Natural
        History Review XII, 1865 pp. 467-488); id. in Encycl. Britannica
        Ed. IX vol. III; id. Dict. B. p. 220-221.

        _Wilhelm Blasius_: Zur Geschichte von _Alca impennis_. Journ. f.
        Orn. 1884 pp. 58-176.

        _Symington Grieve_: The Great Auk, or Garefowl. Its History,
        Archaeology, and Remains. London 1885; Supplem. note on the Great
        Auk; in Trans. Edinburgh Field Nat. Soc. (1897) p. 238-273.

        _Wilhelm Blasius_: Der Riesenalk, Alca impennis L. (In the New
        Edition of Naumann Naumann, Naturg. d. Vogel Mitteleuropas) Vol.
        XII p. 169-208, plates 17, 17a-17d (1903).

Probably the first mention of Great Auks is that in Andre Thevet's book
"Les singularitez de la France antarctique ...," Anvers 1558, where a large
bird was mentioned under the name of "Aponars," Apponatz or "Aponath." But
evidently this name covered several other sea-birds, and it is at least
doubtful if it was solely applied to the Great Auk. The same applies to the
remarks by Jacques Cartier, as translated in R. Hakluyt's collection of
voyages. On the other hand there is no doubt that the "Penguin" mentioned
by Robert Hore in 1536 (Hakluyt, Collection of Voyages III, p. 129--1600,
and other Editions) was actually the Great Auk. In fact "Penguin" has been
the name usually applied to the Great Auk {154} and is even now used for it
by the French, while in most other languages it has been transferred, from
an early date, to the Antarctic flightless birds, the _Spheniscidae_.

All the first reports are from Newfoundland and thereabout, and even
Clusius (Exoticorum libri decem, Lib. V, p. 103--1605), who gives a rather
poor but perfectly recognizable figure, describes it first (p. 103) as a
native of America, under the name of "Mergus Americanus." Later on,
however, in the "Auctarium," on p. 367, he mentions it, on the authority of
Henricus Hojerus, as found in the Faroe Islands, under the name
"Goirfugel." Hojerus was also the authority for the account given in
Nieremberg, Hist. Nat., etc., p. 215 (1635). The first comparatively good
figure was published in 1655, in the "Museum Wormianum," on p. 301, from a
specimen brought alive from the Faroe Islands. Curiously enough the figure
shows a white ring round the neck, which no Great Auk, of course,

Linnaeus, when first bestowing a scientific name on the Great Auk, in 1758,
l.c., gave the following short diagnosis and references:--

    "Alca rostro compresso--ancipiti sulcato, macula ovata utrinque ante
    oculos. Fn. Svec. 119.

    Anser magellanicus. Worm. mus. 300 t. 301.

    Penguin. Will. ornith. 244 t. 65 Edw. av. 147 t. 147.

    _Habitat in_ Europa _arctica_."

From referring to the literature he quotes, there can, of course, be no
doubt as to what species he refers.

The most detailed descriptions are probably those given in the New Edition
of Naumann (see above), where also a list of literature and figures is
given, fully seven folio pages long! As regards the difference in the sexes
little is known, because very few specimens exist of which the sex has been
ascertained. We find, however, some with the grooves and ridges on the bill
more marked, and the grooves purer white, while others have the grooves of
a dirtier white and less strongly developed; as these latter are apparently
mostly smaller, I think they must be females, the former males. In this
case my two specimens would be females, and the one now in Professor
Koenig's possession an adult male. Probably somewhat similar seasonal
changes took place as in _Alca torda_, and Professor Blasius (l.c.) has
described them. It must, however, be remembered, that the date of capture
is known of but a few examples, and that by far the majority of all those
that exist in collections have been killed in spring, on their

Nobody can doubt that the Great Auk is extinct. The last specimens were
obtained on Eldey, near Iceland, in 1844, and the seas and islands {155}
where the great bird used to live are frequented by vessels every year. It
is true that a certain Lorenz Brodtkorb told that in April, 1848, he saw
four Great Auks, of which he shot one, near the Varanger Fjord, east of the
North-Cape, but Professor Newton and Wolley have, in 1855, had an interview
with Brodtkorb, and came to the conclusion that he saw and shot the Great
Northern Diver. This is the more likely to be the case, as the occurrence
north of the Arctic Circle is as yet uncertain, the finding of Great Auks
both on the island of Disco (west-coast of Greenland) and on Grimsey and
Mevenklint on the north coast of Iceland being open to doubt.

From sub-fossil and prehistoric finds, we know that the Great Auk formerly
inhabited Norway and Sweden, Denmark, with Seeland, Sejero and Havno, the
British Islands (Cleadon Hills in County Durham, Scotland, Ireland), the
east coast of North America from Labrador to Florida.

In historic times we know of the occurrence on the islands near Labrador,
Greenland--where it certainly used to breed on the east coast, but was
probably only of rare and exceptional occurrence on the west
coast--Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Fair Island between the Orkney and
Shetland Islands (doubtful), Orkneys (Papa Westra), St. Kilda, Skye, and
Waterford Harbour in Ireland. But as breeding stations within historic
times the following only are absolutely certain:--

  1. Funk Islands near Newfoundland.
  2. Iceland (Geirfuglasker, Grimsey, Eldey).
  3. Faroe Islands.
  4. St. Kilda.
  5. Orkney Islands.

While we know of regular occurrence and may assume that the bird has been
breeding on the north and west side of Newfoundland, and in east Greenland
(opposite Iceland).

The remains of the Great Auk and its eggs in collections are more numerous
than one would think, considering the enormous prices paid for mounted
specimens and eggs. There are at present known 79 or 80 skins, 26 or 27
skeletons, a great quantity of detached bones, and about 73 eggs.


    1. One adult female, formerly in the collection of the late Comte de
    Riocour at Vitry-le-Francois, in France. I bought this specimen from
    the late Alphonse Boucard, together with the bulk of the birds of the
    Riocour collection. It is evidently an adult female, having the white
    lines on the bill not very much developed, and showing a distinct grey
    tinge on the flanks. This shade is present in both my Great Auks; the
    feathers of the flanks, just under the wing, are nearly white, with a
    conspicuous, very light grey border. This grey tinge is present in all
    females, but appears to be absent in adult males. My bird is apparently
    in worn breeding plumage. As it was not very well mounted and the feet
    slightly damaged, I had it reduced to a "skin."

    {156} 2. Another adult female. I purchased this from Mr. Rowland Ward,
    who had it from Mr. Leopold Field in London, in 1897. According to a
    letter, dated Paris le 20 Jan., 1890, written by the late A. Boucard,
    who sold it in that year to Mr. Field, the history is as follows: "This
    bird was captured in Iceland in 1837, did first belong to Mr. Eimbeck
    of Brunswick and afterwards in the collection of Mr. Bruch from
    Mayence." We must accept this information by the late A. Boucard as
    correct, though it is difficult to understand that in the most
    painstaking and exact list of remains of the Great Auk, by Prof.
    Wilhelm Blasius of Braunschweig, or anywhere else, no mention is made
    of a specimen in the possession of the late Eimbeck, or the late Bruch.
    Moreover, we have no explanation where this Auk has been between the
    time of Bruch's death and 1890, when Boucard sold it to Mr. Field in

    This specimen has been described as "immature," but this is a mistake.
    Evidently it arose from some white speckles being visible on the neck
    _in the photograph_ (see Symington Grieve, Trans. Edinburgh Field Nat.
    and Micros. Society, explanation to plate III, on page 269). The
    specimen itself, however, shows no white speckles, but only worn
    feathers, out of which the illusion arose in the photograph. This error
    has also been transferred to the admirable treatise on the Great Auk in
    the New Edition of Naumann. The grey shade "on the body lower than the
    wing," mentioned by Mr. Symington Grieve, is not a sign of immaturity,
    but appears in all adult females, though it is said to be absent in

Some years ago an extraordinary rumour was current in Germany about the
Great Auk in the Brehm collection; it was said to have been exchanged by
the widow of Pastor C. L. Brehm for a rare Dresden cup, and that its
present resting-place was unknown. I do not know who invented this story,
or how it arose, but suffice it to say, that the Auk which was in the Brehm
collection was sold to the late King of Italy, in 1868 or 1869. The
business was concluded by Dr. Otto Finsch, and the money was used for the
benefit of a brother of the late Dr. A. E. Brehm, as it had been the wish
of his father, Pastor Brehm. The specimen was re-stuffed by the late
taxidermist Schwerdtfeger in Bremen and forwarded to a professor in
Florence. It was kept for years at the "Veneria Reale," and recently, when
the collection at that castle was dissolved, was placed in the Museum at
Rome. It is one of the finest Great Auks known.


                      AESTRELATA CARIBBAEA (CARTE).

                               (PLATE 37.)

    _Procellaria jamaicensis_ Bancroft, Zoological Journal V, p. 81
    (1835--Nomen nudum!).

    _Pterodroma caribbaea_ Carte, P.Z.S. 1866, p. 93, pl. 10 ("Blue
    Mountains in insula Jamaica").

    _Aestrelata caribbaea_ Giglioli & Salvadori, Ibis 1869, p. 66.

    _Fulmarus caribbaeus_ Gray, Handlist B. III, p. 107 (1871).

    _Aestrelata jamaicensis_ Ridgway, Man. N. Am. B., p. 67; Cory, Cat.
    West-Indian B., p. 84 (1892).

    _Oestrelata jamaicensis_ Salvin, Cat. B. Brit. Mus, p. 403 (1896).

It is surprising that the name _jamaicensis_ has generally been adopted for
this species, as Bancroft gave no description whatever. The first
description is that of Carte, in 1866, which is as follows:--"Head, neck,
back, and wings of a uniform dark sooty brown; vertex and external webs of
the primaries a shade or so darker; abdominal feathers and under
tail-coverts a shade or two lighter than those of the back; upper
tail-coverts and basal portion of tail-feathers of a light grey or dirty
white. The light-coloured patch on the rump is conspicuous when the wings
are expanded, but completely concealed when they are closed. Irides dark
hazel. Tarsi, toes, webs, and nails jet-black.

"Length about 12-3/4 inches; expanse of wings 34 inches; length from carpal
joint to tip of first primary 10-3/4 inches; length of bill, measured from
gape, 1-5/8 inches; length of nasal tubes 5/16 inch; length of interval
between nostrils and commencement of apical curve of upper mandible 1/4
inch; length of tarsi 1-5/10 inches; length of toes, outer and middle,
sub-equal 2 inches; length of inner toe 1-5/8 inches. First and second
primaries sub-equal, and about 1/2 inch longer than the third. Tail about
4-1/2 inches long and round at extremity. The closed wings extend about
1-1/2 inches beyond the tail. Hallux small, and in shape triangular."

"With respect to the habits of the bird, Mr. March has most kindly
furnished me with the following interesting details:--

"It is a night-bird, living in burrows in the marly clefts of the mountains
at the east and north-east end of the island. The burrows form a gallery 6
to 10 feet long, terminating in a chamber sufficiently commodious to
accommodate the pair; from this they sally forth at night, flying over the
sea in search of food (fishes), returning before dawn. It is often seen on
moonlight nights and at sunrise running about the neighbourhood of its
domicile, and sometimes crossing the road, regardless of the labourers
going to their work. I know nothing of its nidification." {158}

The type of "_Pterodroma caribbaea_" is preserved in the Dublin Museum, and
three specimens are in the British Museum. This bird is one of the rarest
in collections, and all modern collectors have failed to obtain specimens.
Quite recently (1906) Mr. B. Hyatt Verrill published a pamphlet entitled
"Additions to the Avifauna of Dominica." In this unpaginated essay he said
under the heading "_Aestrelata jamaicensis_": "Not uncommon (on Dominica),
but seldom seen during the day. Breeds at La Bime, Pointe Guignarde, and
Lance Bateaux, as well as at Morne Rouge and Scott's Head. In many of the
above localities the musky odour of these birds is very pronounced when
passing the cliffs, wherein they breed, on a calm evening. At dusk they may
often be seen flying about the cliffs in company with myriads of bats that
spend the day in the fissures and crevices. They are very difficult to
procure, and although shot at repeatedly only two specimens have been

From all former evidence we might have well considered this species to be
extinct, but if Mr. Verrill's statement is correct it would be far from
exterminated. I do not, however, know if the Dominica specimens have been
compared with Jamaica examples, and if Mr. Verrill's determination
(apparently made on Dominica) is therefore correct.

Habitat: Jamaica. {159}

                       AESTRELATA HASITATA (KUHL).

    _Procellaria hasitata_ (sic) Kuhl, Beitr. z. Zool. Temminck, Pl. Col.
    416 (1826); Gould, B Australia VII, pl. 47 (1845).

    _Procellaria diabolica_ Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool. 1844, p. 168.

    _Procellaria meridionalis_ Lawrence, Ann. Lyceum N.Y. IV, p. 475
    (1848-- ), V, pl. 15, p. 220 (1852).

    _Procellaria rubritarsi_ Newton, Zoologist 1852, p. 3692 (ex Gould's
    MS., descr. nulla).

    _Aestrelata haesitata_ Bonaparte, Compt. Rend. XLII, p. 768 (1856),
    Elliot, B. N. America II. pl. 60, fig. 1 (1868); Rothsch. & Hart, New
    Edition of "Naumann" XII, p. 20 (1903).

    _Aestrelata diabolica_ Bonap., Consp. Av. II, p. 189 (1855).

    _Oestrelata haesitata_ Newton, Ibis 1870, p. 277; Dresser, B. Europe
    VIII, p. 545, pl. 618 (1880); Stevens, B. of Norfolk, III, p. 361, pl.
    4 (1890); Salvin, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXV, p. 403 (1896).

Mr. Saunders describes this bird as follows: "The adult has the crown and
nape dark brown, hind-neck white, cheeks and ear-coverts greyish; mantle
dark brown; upper tail-coverts white; central tail-feathers chiefly
brownish-black, the rest more or less white on their basal portions but
broadly edged with brown; forehead and under-parts white; bill black; legs
and feet dusky-yellow. Length 16 inches, wing 11.3 inches. The immature
bird is believed to be mottled with brown on the forehead and to be duller
in tint on the upper parts."

Though evidently not quite extinct, it seems certain that the fate of this
bird is sealed. In former times it used to breed in great numbers on
several of the West Indian Islands: Hayti, Guadeloupe, and Dominica. Its
last breeding place was the Morne au Diable or Morne Diablotin on Dominica.
There it was searched for in vain by Colonel Feilden, in 1889, who wrote a
lengthy article about it in the "Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Nat. Society"
V. p. 24-39. Mr. Selwyn Branch again, ten years later, ascended La Morne au
Diable, and found the old breeding places deserted. The "Manicou,"
evidently an introduced North-American Opossum, Mongoose and rats had
entirely extirpated the "Diable."

Two-and-a-half centuries ago Pere du Tertre found this Petrel breeding on
Guadeloupe, and Pere Labat, about forty years later, found it in great
numbers, and gave a long, graphic description of it in his "Nouveau Voyage
aux isles de l'Amerique" (Edit. I, Vol. II, pp. 349-353). These birds were
then known as the "Diable" or "Diablotin," and their flesh was highly
esteemed, and they were even salted and exported to Martinique and other
French islands in great numbers. {160}

In 1876 Mr. F. A. Ober searched already unsuccessfully for our birds.

It seems that the disturbance and destruction on their breeding places has
scattered these Petrels about, for specimens have at various times been
taken on the coast of Florida and Virginia, and even as late as 1893 and
1895, inland of the State of New York on Oneida Lake, in Ulster County,
Vermont and Ontario; moreover, a specimen has been killed in 1850 in
Norfolk, England, and an example in the Museum of Boulogne is said to have
been killed in the neighbourhood of that town.

In an undated and unpaginated pamphlet, received last year in Europe, Mr.
A. Hyatt Verrill informs us that this bird is "not uncommon on the fishing
grounds and in Martinique and Guadeloupe channels," and that he took a
specimen in September, 1904. This statement requires confirmation.

In collections this bird is very rare. I have the male (in moult) which was
caught on August 28th, 1893 on Oneida Lake, in the State of New York.

Habitat: West Indian Islands.


                        HEMIPHAGA SPADICEA (LATH.)

                               (PLATE 21.)

    _Chestnut-shouldered Pigeon_ Latham, Gen. Syn. Suppl. II, add. p. 375
    (1802--Norfolk Island).

    _Columba spadicea_ Latham, Ind. Orn., Suppl. p. LX, No. 7
    (1802--Norfolk Island); Temminck and Knip, Pigeons, II, p. 1, pl. 1
    (1808--"Friendly Islands."--Errore).

    _Columba gigas_ Ranzani, Elementi di Zool. III, 1, p. 223
    (1821--"Friendly Islands."--Errore).

    _Columba princeps_ Vigors, P.Z.S. 1833, p. 78 (Australia--errore).

    _Columba leucogaster_ Wagler, Syst. Av., Columba spec. 12
    (1827--Norfolk Island).

    _Hemiphaga spadicea_ Salvadori, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXI, p. 238 (1893).

The Norfolk Island Pigeon, _Hemiphaga spadicea spadicea_, is very similar
to the New Zealand Pigeon, _Hemiphaga spadicea novaezealandiae_, but
differs in having the hind-neck coppery or metallic green, sharply defined
from the chestnut back, the wings and upper wing-coverts more greyish, less
greenish, also the lower back and rump somewhat more greyish.

As far as we know this pigeon was only found on Norfolk Island, the
locality "Australia" being doubtless erroneous. Like so many other birds it
became extinct on Norfolk Island, probably more than half a century ago.

There are evidently quite a number of specimens in various museums, many of
which have never been recorded. I am aware of the following examples:

  1 in the British Museum (Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXI, p. 238).
  3 in the Liverpool Museum (Bull. Liverp. Mus. I, p. 35).
  1 in my own collection (Proc. IV. Orn. Congress, p. 215).
  1 in Philadelphia, U.S. America (Cassin, U.S. Expl. Exp. B, p. 225).
  1 in Frankfurt a.M. (Hartert, Kat. Vogelsamml., p. 189).
  1 in Wiesbaden (Lampe, Jahrb. Nassau Ver. 58).
  1 in Bremen (Hartlaub, Verz. Museum, p. 98).
  1 in Lisbon (Forbes and Rob., Bull. Liverp. Mus. II, p. 130).
  1 in Leyden (Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas).
  1 in Vienna (Ibis 1860, p. 422).
  1 in Naples, seen by myself.
  1 in Milan, examined by myself.

The specimen at Tring was bought at the auction of the "Cumberland Museum"
at Distington.


                     ALECTROENAS NITIDISSIMA (SCOP.)

                               (PLATE 22.)

    _Pigeon hollandais_ Sonnerat, Voy. Ind. Orient. II, p. 175, pl. 101

    _Hackled Pigeon_ Latham, Syn. B. II, 2, p. 641, No. 36 (1783).

    _Columba nitidissima_ Scopoli, Del. Flor. and Faun. Insubr. II, p. 93,
    No. 89 (1786) (ex Sonnerat).

    _Columba franciae_ Gmelin, Syst. Nat. I, 2, p. 779, No. 51 (1788). (ex

    _Columba botanica_ Bonnaterre, Enc. Meth. I, p. 233 (1790).

    _Ramier perisse_ Levaillant, Ois. d'Afr. VI, p. 74, pl. 267 (1808).

    _Columba jubata_ Wagler, Syst. Av., _Columba_, sp. 22 (1827).

    _Alectroenas nitidissima_ G. R. Gray, List Gen. B., p. 58 (1840).

    _Alectroenas franciae_ Reichenbach, Syn. Av., _Columbariae_, p. 2, f.
    1302 (1847).

    _Columbigallus franciae_ Des Murs, Encycl. d'Hist. Nat., Ois. VI., p.
    31, (1854?).

    _Ptilopus nitidissimus_ Schlegel and Pollen, Rech. Faun. Madag., p. 159

    _Alectroenas nitidissimus_ G. R. Gray, Hand-list II, p. 228, No. 9164

    _Alectoroenas nitidissimus_ A. Newton, P. Z. S. 1879, pp. 2-4.

Sonnerat's original description, translated into English, is as follows:
"It is much larger than the European Woodpigeon; the feathers of the head,
neck and breast are long, narrow, and end in a point. These feathers are
rather curiously constructed, they have the polish, brilliancy, and feel of
a cartilaginous blade. I could not, with the aid of a lens, distinguish
whether these blades were formed by the conglomeration of the barbules, but
we may take it for granted that they are constituted in a like manner to
the wing appendages of the Bohemian Waxwing and the cartilaginous blades of
Sonnerat's Jungle Fowl. The eye is surrounded by naked skin of a deep red;
the back, the wings and the belly are of a dark blue; the rump and tail are
of a very bright carmine red; the beak and iris are of the same colour, and
the feet are black."

Undoubtedly quite extinct. Only three specimens are known of this bird: one
in Edinburgh, one in Paris, and one in Mauritius. Some bones were collected
by the Rev. H. H. Slater.

Habitat: Mauritius. {164}


    _Columba rodericana_ Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sc. Nat. (5) XIX art. 3, p.
    16, pl. 12, ff. 1, 1a, 1b, 1c (1874).

The original description of the sternum is as follows:--"It belongs to a
species small in size, barely as large as _T. tympanistria_, but evidently
much better built for flight. In fact the most striking characters of this
sternum are the large size of the bouclier, the large size of the lateral
notches, and the shape of the keel, whose anterior angle is not much
produced in front. The coracoidal grooves are large and only slightly
oblique. The lateral branches detach themselves from the bone in front of
the costal facets--they are very widely spread, and stretch more directly
outwards than in the remainder of the species of the family. The lower
lateral branches are equally divergent, and the median blade of the
posterior edge is remarkable from its enlargement. The keel is moderately
prominent, its anterior angle is much rounded, and does not reach the level
of the episternal apophysis, as is the case, as a rule, in the pigeons. All
these peculiarities, to which must be added the general flattening of the
bone which is hardly at all sloped like a roof, separate the pigeon of
Rodriguez very widely, not only from _Erythroena_ and _Turtur_, but also
from _Vinago_. In its shape in general, by the little pronounced keel and
the direction of the latter, this sternum presents certain analogies to the
essentially arboreal species such as those of the genus _Carpophaga_, but
they all differ in having the space for the costal facets on the sides of
the sternum much more extended, the superior lateral branches larger, and
the latter arising further back, so that the lateral notches are smaller.
Up to the present I do not know any genus of the family of _Columbidae_ in
which the sternum can at all be likened to that found recently in
Rodriguez, and therefore in all probability this fossil remainder is of yet
another vanished species, which I propose to call _Columba rodericana_."

It is probable that Milne-Edwards's _C. rodericana_ belonged to the genus
_Alectroenas_, and was the representative on Rodriguez of the _Alectroenas
nitidissima_ of Mauritius. 1 humerus in the Tring Museum.

Habitat: Rodriguez.


                             NESOENAS SALVAD.

Soles normal, not very broad, only the hind toe with the skin prominently
expanded on the sides. First primary about equal to the sixth. Tail
entirely rufous, composed of twelve feathers.

                        NESOENAS MAYERI (PREVOST).

                           (PLATE 3, FIG. 3.)

    _Columba mayeri_ Prevost & Knip, Pigeons II, pl. 60 (1843).

    _Columba meyeri_ Schlegel & Pollen, Rech. Faun. Mad. p. 111, pl. 36

    _Peristera meyeri_ G. R. Gray, Gen. B. III App. p. 24 (1849).

    _Carpophaga meyeri_ G. R. Gray, fide Bp. Consp. Av. II p. 45 (1854).

    _Trocaza meyeri_ Bonaparte, Consp. Av. II p. 45 (1854).

    _Trocaza meijeri_ Pollen, N.T.D. I p. 318 (1863).

    _Nesoenas mayeri_ Salvadori, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. vol. XXI p. 327

The following is the description by Salvadori in the "Catalogue of
Birds":--"Head, neck and underparts pale pink, fading into whitish towards
the forehead, cheeks and upper throat, and passing into rather darker pink
on the mantle; remainder of the upper back and the entire wings brown, with
a slight shade of olive and rufous; lower back and rump greyish, the latter
mottled with chestnut; upper tail coverts and tail cinnamon, the outer tail
feathers fading into buff on the outer webs and towards the tips;
undertail-coverts pink, like the mantle; undersurface of the wings ashy
brown, slightly pale on the axillaries, and under wing-coverts iris yellow;
bill yellow, shaded with red towards the base; legs red (fide Shelley).
Total length about 15.5 inches, wing 8.5, tail 6.5, bill 0.86, tarsus 1.3."

In the live bird the pink soon fades away almost entirely, and the olive
shade on the wings is strongly developed.

This bird was not found by the Rev. H. H. Slater, during his visit to
Mauritius. As observed by Mons. Paul Carie (Ornis XII, p. 127), the idea
that it is extinct is, however, incorrect, as it can still easily be
procured, though it is rare. M. Georges Antelme, of Mauritius, possesses
the eggs of this pigeon. That it still exists is also evident from two
specimens which were sent to the Zoological Gardens, London, last year, and
are still living there.

Habitat: Mauritius. {166}

                        NESOENAS DUBOISI SP. NOV.

    _Pigeons sauvages d'un rouge roussastre_ Le Sieur D.B., Voyages aux
    Iles Dauphine ou Madagascar, etc., p. 171 (1674--Bourbon).

Talking of Wild Pigeons, "Le Sieur D.B." tells us that there were on the
island of Bourbon "others of a russet red colour, a little larger than
European pigeons, with the beak larger, red at base near the head, the eyes
surrounded by a fiery colour, as in the pheasants. At a certain season they
are so fat 'qu'on ne leur voit point de croupion;' they taste very good."

This passage cannot be meant for a turtle-dove, but the description of the
bill and surrounding of the eyes shows that it refers to a form allied to
_Nesoenas mayeri_. The latter, however, is not entirely russet red, but the
head, neck, underside and back are creamy white, washed with a greyish-rose
colour. Therefore the bird mentioned by Le Sieur D.B. was evidently a
representative of N. _mayeri_ or Bourbon. I name it in memory of Monsieur
Dubois, who was the author of the Voyages of the "Sieur D.B."

Habitat: Bourbon or Reunion.


                            ECTOPISTES SWAINS.

    _Ectopistes_ Swainson, Zoological Journal III p. 362 (1827--Partim!
    _Columba speciosa_ and _C. migratoria_ mentioned as types, but ten
    years later the genus _Ectopistes_ was restricted to _C. migratoria_ by
    the same author).

Tail very long and excessively cuneate, the central rectrices sharply
pointed. First primary of the wing longest. Tarsus very short, in front
half covered with feathers. Now, only the Passenger Pigeon is included in
this genus, while formerly the _Zenaidura carolinensis_ auct. used to be
associated with it.

                         ECTOPISTES MACROURA (L.)

                            PASSENGER PIGEON.

    _Columba macroura_ Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. Ed. X p. 164 (1758--Ex Catesby,
    Carolina I p. 23, pl. 23 [1754]. "Habitat in Canada, hybernat in
    Carolina." Regarding the necessity of accepting this name see Bangs,
    Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington XIX p. 42, and Auk 1906, pp. 474, 475. The
    conclusions of Messrs. Bangs and Allen are perfectly correct).

    _Columba canadensis_ Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. Ed. XII, p. 284 (1766--Ex
    Brisson, Orn. I p. 118. Habitat in Canada. Cf. note of Salvadori, Cat.
    B. Brit. Mus. XXI, p. 369).

    _Columba migratoria_ Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. Ed. XII p. 285 (Ex Frisch,
    pl. 142, Kalm., Brisson I, p. 100, Catesby. "Habitat in America
    Septentrionali copiosissima ..."); Wilson, Amer. Orn. I p. 102, pl.
    XLIX (1808); Temminck & Knip, Pigeons I, seconde fam., pls. 48, 49
    (1808-11); Audubon, Orn. Biogr. I, p. 319 (1831); Baird, Brewer &
    Ridgway, Hist. N.A.B., Land-Birds III, p. 368, pl. 57, 4 (1874).

    _Pigeon de Passage_ Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois. II, p. 527 (1771).

    _Tourterelle du Canada_ Daubenton, Pl. Enl. 176.

    _Columba Histrio_ P.L.S. Muller, Natursyst. Suppl. p. 134 (1776--ex

    _Columba ventralis_ id., l.c. p. 134 (1776--ex Buffon).

    _Ectopistes migratoria_ Swainson, Zool. Journal III, p. 362 (1827);
    Gould, B. Europe, pl. 247 (1848); Coues, B. North-West, p. 387 (1874);
    Maynard, B. E. North America, p. 335 (1881).

    _Trygon migratoria_ Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl., p. 495

    _Ectopistes migratorius_ G. R. Gray, Gen. B. II, p. 471 (1844);
    Brewster, Auk 1889, pp. 286-291; Bendire, Life-History N. Amer. B., p.
    132; Salvadori, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. XXI, p. 370; Proc. Delaware Valley
    Ornith. Club II, p. 17 (1898); A.O.U. Check-List (Ed. II) p. 120, No.
    315 (1895); Wintle, B. Montreal, p. 51 (1896); Minot, B. New England,
    p. 395 (1895); Auk 1903, p. 66.

    _Trygon gregaria_ Brehm, Vogelfang, p. 258 (1855).

It is true that Linnaeus' diagnosis of his _Columba macroura_ is very
short, reading, as it does, as follows: "Columba cauda cuneiformi longa,
pectore purpurascente." These words, however, are clearly taken from
Catesby, who gives an excellent figure and description, as is also the
"Habitat," viz.: {168} Habitat in Canada, hybernat in Carolina, though
Linnaeus first quotes Edwards 15, pl. 15, where an entirely different bird
is described and figured. (Cf. Bangs, l.c.)

The Passenger Pigeon in former times occurred throughout North America in
great abundance, from the Atlantic to the great Central Plains, and from
the Southern States, where it rarely occurred, north to at least 62deg
northern latitude. Being a migrant, this bird used to migrate southwards
after the breeding season, and to return to their homes in spring, but it
also shifted its quarters according to the abundance or scarcity of food,
like our Pigeons. Sometimes incredible numbers flocked together. Such
stupendous flights have been described independently by Audubon, Wilson and
others. In 1813 Audubon says that during his whole journey from Hardensburg
to Louisville, fifty-five miles, countless masses of Pigeons continued to
pass over, and also did so during the three following days. "At times they
flew so low, that multitudes were destroyed, and for many days the entire
population seemed to eat nothing else but Pigeons." Where they roosted in
millions, the dung soon covered the ground and destroyed the grass and
undergrowth, limbs and even small trees broke down from the weight of the
birds. "One of the breeding places visited by Wilson, not far from
Shelbyville, Kentucky, stretched through the forest in nearly a north and
south direction. This was several miles in breadth, and upwards of forty
miles in extent. In this immense tract nearly every tree was furnished with
nests wherever there were branches to accommodate them. He was informed by
those who sought to plunder the nests of the squabs, that the noise in the
woods was so great as to terrify their horses, and that it was difficult
for one person to hear another speak. The ground was strewed with broken
limbs, eggs and young Pigeons. Hawks were sailing about in great numbers,
while from twenty feet upwards to the tops of the trees there was a
perpetual tumult of crowding and fluttering multitudes of Pigeons, their
wings resounding like thunder, and mingled with the frequent crash of
falling trees. In one instance he counted ninety nests in a single tree."

It is only natural that man took advantage of such vast multitudes, and
that they were killed in great numbers, for food, and, maybe, sometimes
wantonly destroyed. Yet it is difficult to understand what brought on their
total destruction, as their power of flight was great, and their vision
remarkably keen. In 1874 Messrs. Baird, Brewer and Ridgway considered them
still common birds, though "their abundance in large extents of the country
had {169} been very sensibly reduced." At that time "in the New England
States and in the more cultivated part of the country, these birds no
longer bred in large communities. The instance near Montpelier, in 1849, is
the only marked exception that has come within my knowledge. They now breed
in isolated pairs, their nests being scattered through the woods and seldom
near one another." In 1895, in the A.O.U. check-list, the authors say:
"Breeding range now mainly restricted to portions of the Canadas and the
northern borders of the United States, as far west as Manitoba and the

At the present time the Passenger Pigeon seems to have entirely
disappeared, a small flock in an aviary apparently being all that is left
of it alive. Mr. James H. Fleming, of Toronto, kindly sends me the
following notes, which I think are of the greatest interest:--

"The disappearance of the Passenger Pigeon in Ontario dates back at least
forty years, though as late as 1870 some of the old roosts were still
frequented, but the incredible flocks, of which so much has been said, had
gone long before that date, and by 1880 the pigeon was practically
exterminated, not only in Ontario, but over the greater part of its old
range. There are however occasional records of birds taken, for some years
later. An immature bird taken September 9, 1887, in Chester County,
Pennsylvania, is said to be the last for that part of the State[4]; a bird,
also immature, is in my collection, taken in December, 1888, at Montreal,
Quebec. There are other Montreal records of the same date,[5] but with the
exception of one taken at Tadousac, July 26, 1889,[6] these are the last
Quebec records of birds actually taken. In Ontario two were taken at
Toronto in 1890, on September 20, and October 11, both immature females,
the latter is in my collection, as is an adult female taken by Mr. Walter
Brett, at Riding Mountain, Manatoba, May 12, 1892, one of a pair seen. I
also have an adult male taken at Waukegon, Illinois, December 19, 1892. I
was in New York in the latter part of November, 1892, and was then assured
by Mr. Rowland, a well known taxidermist, that he had recently seen several
barrels of pigeons that had been condemned as unfit for food; they had come
to New York from Indian Territory, and I believe had had their tails pulled
out to permit tighter packing. Mr. William Brewster has recorded the
sending of several hundred dozens of pigeons to the Boston market in
December of the same year, and in January, 1893; these were also from
Indian Territory[7]; these are the last records we have of the Passenger
Pigeon as anything more than a casual migrant. The records ceased after
this till 1898, when three birds were taken at points widely apart, {170}
an adult male at Winnipegosis, Manatoba, on April 14,[8] an immature male
at Owensboro, Kentucky, on July 27, now in the Smithsonian Institution, and
another immature bird taken at Detroit, Michigan, on September 14, now in
my collection; these are the last records that can be based on specimens.

"In 1903 I published a list including sight records, one as late as May,
1902; this latter is possibly open to doubt, but the ones I gave for 1900
are, I feel confident, correct, as the birds were seen more than once and
by different observers. For all practical purposes, the close of the
Nineteenth Century saw the final extinction of the Passenger Pigeon in a
wild state, and there remained only the small flock, numbering in 1903 not
more than a dozen, that had been bred in captivity by Prof. C. O. Whitman,
of Chicago; these birds are the descendants of a single pair, and have long
ago ceased to breed. It was in an effort to obtain fresh blood for this
flock that I started a newspaper enquiry that brought many replies, none of
which could be substantiated as records of the Passenger Pigeon, and many
referred to the Mourning Dove. I am aware that there has been lately
wide-spread and persistent rumours of the return of the pigeons, but no
rumour has borne investigation, and I feel that Prof. Whitman's small
flock, now reduced (in 1906) to five birds, are the last representatives of
a species around whose disappearance mystery and fable will always gather."


                           FAMILY DIDIDAE. (L.)

Includes very large and massively-built forms, agreeing with the
_Columbidae_ in the truncation of the angle of the mandible, but with the
extremity of the cranial rostrum strongly hooked. They were totally
incapable of flight, the wing-bones being small, the carina of the sternum
aborted, and the caracoidal grooves shallow and separated from one another.

Two genera: _Didus_ and _Pezophaps_.

                               DIDUS LINN.

Skull with a very large and deeply hooked rostrum, and the nasal and
maxillary processes of the praemaxilla converging anteriorly; the front
region inflated into a sub-conical prominence of cancellous tissue. Neck
and feet shorter than in the succeeding genus. Delto-pectoral crest of
humerus distinct.

Two species: _Didus cucullatus_ and _Didus solitarius_. {172}

                          DIDUS CUCULLATUS (L.)


                       (PLATES 24, 24A, 24B, 24C.)

    _Walchvoghel_ Van Neck, Voy., p. 7, pl. 2 (1601).

    _Walchvogel_ De Bry, Orient. Ind. pt. VIII, t. 11 (1606).

    _Gallinaceus gallus peregrinus_ Clusius, Exot. Libr. V p. 99 t. 100

    _Dod-eersen_ or _Valgh-vogel_ Herbert's travels 1st ed. (1634) t. page

    _Cygnus cucullatus_ Nieremberg, Nat p. 231 (with fig. ex. Clus.)

    _Dronte_ Bontius, Ind. Orient t. p. 70 (1658).

    _Raphus_ Moehring, Av. gen. 57 (1752).

    _Dodo_ Edwards, Glean. Nat Hist. III p. 179 pl. 296 (1757).

    _Struthio cucullatus_ Linn., S. N. I p. 155 No. 4 (1758).

    _Didus ineptus_ Linn., S. N. I p. 267 No. 1 (1766).

The first description of this very remarkable bird was given in the account
of the voyage of Admiral Jacob van Neck in 1598, which was published by
Corneille Nicolas at Amsterdam in 1601. It is as follows:--"Blue parrots
are very numerous there, as well as other birds; among which are a kind,
conspicuous for their size, larger than our swans, with huge heads only
half covered with skin as if clothed with a hood. These birds lack wings,
in the place of which 3 or 4 blackish feathers protrude. The tail consists
of a few soft incurved feathers, which are ash coloured. These we used to
call 'Walghvogel,' for the reason that the longer and oftener they were
cooked, the less soft and more insipid eating they became. Nevertheless
their belly and breast were of a pleasant flavour and easily masticated."

In a large number of works on travel and voyages published in the 17th and
18th Centuries we find all sorts of notices about the Dodo, and numerous
pictures of which I have given outline drawings. From these sources it
appears that the Dodo became extinct about the end of the 17th Century,
_i.e._, 1680-1690. The causes of the extermination of this, perhaps the
best known and most talked about of the recently extinct birds, are not far
to seek. The total inability of flight, the heavy slow gait, and the utter
fearlessness from long immunity from enemies, led to a continual slaughter
for food by the sailors and others who came to and dwelt on Mauritius. But
the final cause of the extermination of this and many other birds in the
Mascarene Islands was probably the introduction of pigs, and also of the
Ceylon Monkey. These animals increased enormously in numbers, ran wild in
the woods, and soon destroyed all the eggs and young birds they could find.

It is strange that for many years after great attention had been paid to
the _Dodo_, ornithologists differed conspicuously as to what family it and
the other two Didine species belonged. Many asserted that it was a
Struthious bird, in fact Linnaeus called it calmly _Struthio cucullatus_,
while others just as forcibly declared it to be an abnormal Vulture. The
truth is, that although the _Didunculus strigirostis_ of Samoa, which was
supposed to be its near representative, is not at all closely allied, yet
the two species of _Didus_ and _Pezophaps solitarius_ form a group of very
specialized pigeons.


     1. _Vienna_, in the Library of the Emperor Francis. By Hufnagel, 1626,
    reproduced by von Frauenfeldt in his book, 1868.

     2. _Berlin._ "Altes Museum," Cabinet 3, Division 2, No. 710. By
    Roelandt Savery, 1626.

     3. _Sion House._ Duke of Northumberland. By John Goeimare, 1627.

     4. _Vienna._ Kunsthistorisches Hofmuseum, formerly Belvedere. By
    Roelandt Savery, 1628

     5. _London._ Zoological Society, formerly Broderip. By Roelandt
    Savery, undated.

     6. _Pommersfelden, Bavaria._ Count Schonborn, "Orpheus charming the
    Beasts." By Roelandt Savery, undated.

     7. _Haag._ Mauritshuis. "Orpheus charming the Beasts." By Roelandt

     8. _Stuttgart._ Formerly Dr. Seyffer, but sold at his death and since
    disappeared. By Roelandt Savery.

     9. _London._ British Museum, formerly belonging to G. Edwards.
    Probably by Roelandt Savery.

    10. _Emden._ Galerie der Gesellschaft fur Bildende Kunst. "Orpheus
    charming the Beasts." By Roelandt Savery.

    11. _Oxford._ Ashmolean Museum. By John Savery, 1651.

    12. _Haarlem._ Dr. A. van der Willigen, Pz. By Pieter Holsteyn
    (1580-1662), not dated.

    13. _Dresden._ Kgl. Gemalde-Galerie. "Circe and Ulysses." By C.
    Ruthart, 1666.

    14. _Dresden._ Kgl. Gemalde-Galerie. "The Creation of the Animals."
    Supposed to be by Franz Francken (1581-1642), no date, and said to be
    by a different artist.

At least 2 _Mauritius Dodos_ have been exhibited alive in Europe, one
brought back by Van Neck in 1599, and which most likely served as the model
for nearly all Roelandt Savery's pictures, and one exhibited in London in
the year 1638, mentioned by Sir Hamon Lestrange. This is almost certainly
the bird afterwards preserved in Tradescant's Museum (1656), and finally in
Oxford (Ashmolean Museum), and probably served for the model of the
supposed Savery picture in the British Museum.

The Dodo inhabited Mauritius.

    NOTE.--_Didus nazarenus_ Gmelin, based on the "Oiseau de Nazareth" of
    Cauche (Descr. de l'ile de Madagascar, p. 130, ff, 1651) is evidently
    founded on a mistaken and partly fictitious description of a Dodo, or
    rather a mixture of that of the Dodo and a Cassowary. The name was,
    perhaps, also a mistake, derived from that of "_Oiseau de nausee_,"
    which has a similar meaning as "Walghvogel."


                      Explanation of Plates of Dodo.

_Plate 24._

    This was taken from the picture by Roelandt Savery in Berlin, but the
    wings, tail and bill have been altered, partly from Pierre Witthoos'
    picture of the Bourbon Dodo, and partly from anatomical examination.
    The tail, however, appears to have been curled over the back in life,
    according to most authors.

_Plate 24 (a)._

    _Fig. 1._ Reproduction in outline of the Dodo in Savery's Orpheus at
    Haag. Vide antea No. 7 in the List of Paintings.

    _Fig. 2._ Outline of Dodo (and Pelican?) in Ruthart's "Circe and
    Ulysses" at Dresden. Vide antea No. 13 in the List of Paintings.

    _Fig. 3._ Outline of Dodo (and Pelican?) in Frans Franckens (?) picture
    in Dresden. Vide antea No. 14 in the List of Paintings.

_Plates 24 (b and c)._

    _No. 1._ Outline of Dodo in Roelandt Savery's picture at Berlin. Vide
    antea No. 2 in the List of Paintings.

    _No. 2._ Outline of picture by Roelandt Savery in the British Museum.
    Vide antea No. 9 in the List of Paintings.

    _No. 3._ Outline of Dodo in Jacob van Neck's Voyage, Plate 2 (1598).

    _No. 4._ Outline of Roelandt Savery's Dodo, Vienna. Vide antea No. 4 in
    the List of Paintings.

    _No. 5._ Outline of Dodo in Broeck's Voyage (Peter van Broeck's Voyage,

    _No. 6._ Outline of Dodo in Piso's additions to Jacob Bontiu's Oriental
    Natural History, 1658.

    _No. 7._ Outline of Dodo in Sir Thomas Herbert's Relation of some
    yeares Travels, 1626.

    _No. 8._ Outline of Dodo in Clusius Exoticorum libri decem, 1605.

    _No. 9._ Outline of Dodo in Joan Nievhof's Gedenkwaerdige Zee and
    Lantreize, 1682.

    _No. 10._ Outline of Dodo in John Goeimare's picture at Sion House,
    1627. Vide antea No. 3 in the List of Paintings.

    _No. 11._ Outline of Dodo in Roelandt Savery's picture at
    Pommersfelden. Vide antea No. 6 in the List of Paintings.

    _No. 12._ Outline of Dr. H. Schlegel's restoration of the Dodo in
    Transactions, &c., of the Amsterdam Academy, vol. 2, 1854.

    _No. 13._ Outline of Dodo in Roelandt Savery's picture, Zoological
    Society, London. Vide antea No. 5 in the List of Paintings.


                        DIDUS SOLITARIUS (SELYS).

                              REUNION DODO.

                          (PLATES 25, 25A, 25B.)

    _Great Fowl_ Tatton, Voy. Castleton, Purchas his Pilgrimes, ed. (1625)
    I p. 331 (Bourbon or Reunion).

    _Dod-eersen_ Bontekoe, Journ. ofte gedenck. beschr. van de Ost. Ind.
    Reyse Haarlem (1646) p. 6.

    _Oiseau Solitaire_ Carre, Voy. Ind. Or. I p. 12 (1699).

    _Solitaire_ Voy. fait par Le Sieur D.B. (1674) p. 170.

    _Apterornis solitarius_ de Selys, Rev. Zool (1848) p. 293.

    _Didus apterornis_ Schlegel, Ook een Wordje over den Dodo p. 15 f. 2

    _Pezophaps borbonica_ Bp., Consp. Av. II p. 2 (1854).

    _Ornithaptera borbonica_ Bp., Consp. Av. II. p. 2 (1854).

    _Didine Bird of the Island of Bourbon_ (_Reunion_) A. Newt. Tr. Zool.
    Soc. VI pp. 373-376, pl. 62 (1867).

    _Apterornis solitaria_ Milne-Edw., Ibis (1869) p. 272.

    _? Didus borbonica_ Schleg., Mus. P.B. Struthiones p. 3 (1873).

    _Solitaire of Reunion_ A. Newton, Enc. Brit. II p. 732 (1875).

The Didine bird of Reunion was first mentioned by Mr. Tatton, the Chief
Officer of Captain Castleton, in his account of their voyage given in
Purchas his Pilgrimes. His account is as follows:--

"There is store of land fowle both small and great, plenty of Doves, great
Parrats, and such like; and a great fowle of the bignesse of a Turkie, very
fat, and so short winged, that they cannot fly, being white, and in a
manner tame: and so be all other fowles, as having not been troubled nor
feared with shot. Our men did beat them down with sticks and stones. Ten
men may take fowle enough to serve fortie men a day."

We then find frequent mention of this bird by Bontekoe in 5 separate
treatises or editions, from 1646 to 1650, and by Carre in 1699. But the
first more detailed description is given by the Sieur D.B. (Dubois) in
1674, which is as follows:--

"_Solitaires._ These birds are thus named because they always go alone.
They are as big as a big goose and have white plumage, black at the
extremity of the wings and of the tail. At the tail there are some feathers
resembling those of the Ostrich. They have the neck long and the beak
formed like that of the Woodcocks (he refers to the woodrails,
_Erythromachus_--W.R.), but larger, and the legs and feet like those of
Turkey-chicks. This bird betakes itself to running, only flying but very
little. It is the best game on the Island." {176}

It will be seen that, while Dubois says the wings and tail are black,
Pierre Witthoos's picture, from which the accompanying plate was partly
drawn, shows the wings yellow. This may either be due to Dubois' faulty
description, or, what is much more probable, the bird brought to Amsterdam,
which Witthoos painted, was somewhat albinistic. The bill in the picture by
Witthoos shows a distinctly mutilated bill, evidently done by the bird's
keeper to prevent being injured by the formidable hook of the untrimmed
bill. In addition to two pictures (the one formerly in the possession of
Mr. C. Dare, of Clatterford, in the Isle of Wight, and a second in Holland,
both by Pieter Witthoos, painted about the year 1670), we know of this bird
only the drawing given in Zaagman's edition of Bontekoe, 1646. In all these
drawings the first four primaries point down and forward, which is probably
owing to the injured condition of the specimen figured, so in the
accompanying plate I had the wing drawn like the true Dodo's and the bill

Habitat: Island of Bourbon or Reunion.

Only known from the above-mentioned descriptions and two drawings. No
specimens existing.

This bird became extinct between the years 1735 and 1801, because in the
latter year Monsieur Bory St. Vincent made his scientific survey of the
Island, and no such bird existed then; while we know that Monsieur de la
Bourdonnaye, who was governor of the Mascarene Islands from 1735 to 1746,
sent one alive to one of the directors of the French East Indian Company.
Of this, the second living specimen brought to Europe, we unfortunately
have neither drawing nor history.

                          Explanation of Plates.

_Plate 25._

    Drawing of White Dodo from Pierre Witthoos' picture, the bill and tail
    being reconstructed from the model of the common Dodo.

_Plate 25 (a)._

    _Fig. 5._ Outline of figure of White Dodo in the picture by Pieter
    Witthoos circa 1670 vide supra.

    _Fig. 8._ Outline of Woodcut in Zaagman's edition of Bontekoe van
    Hoorn, 1646.

    _Fig. 7._ Outline of figure of White Dodo in an edition of Plinius
    Secundus about 1643 but without date.

    _Fig. 4._ Outline of Dr. H. Schlegel's reconstruction of the Reunion

_Plate 25 (b)._

    Drawing from description of the Sieur D.B. (Dubois), 1674.



Skull with a moderate rostrum, slightly hooked, and the nasal and maxillary
processes of the praemaxillae diverging anteriorly; the frontal region flat
with but little cancellous tissue. Coracoid stout. Manus armed with an
ossified tuberosity. Neck and feet long. Delto-pectoral crest of humerus

This genus connects _Didus_ with the _Columbidae_. The male is much larger
than the female.

                        PEZOPHAPS SOLITARIUS (GM.)

                              THE SOLITAIRE.

                     (PLATE 23, 25A, FIGS. 1, 2, 3.)

    _Solitaire_ Leguat, Voy. deux iles desertes Ind. Or. I pp. 98. 102

    _Didus solitarius_ Gmelin, S. N. I p. 728, n. 2 (1788).

    _Pezophaps solitaria_ Strickland, the Dodo, &c., p. 46 (1848).

    _Didus nazarenus_ Bartl. (nec. Gmel.), P. Z. S. 1851, p. 284, pl. XLV.

    _Pezophaps minor_ Strickland, Contr. to Orn. 1852, p. 19 (?).

This bird was first made known by Leguat in 1708, but some confusion seems
to have arisen, owing to his applying the same name to them as the Sieur
D.B. (Dubois) gave to the Bourbon Dodo in 1674. This is the original

"The feathers of the males are of a brown-grey colour, the feet and beak
are like a turkey's, but a little more crooked. They have scarce any tail,
but their hind part covered with feathers is roundish, like the crupper of
a hare. They are taller than turkeys. Their neck is straight, and a little
longer in proportion than a turkey's when it lifts up his head. Its eye is
black and lively, and its head without comb on cop. They never fly, their
wings are too little to support the weight of their bodies; they serve only
to beat themselves and flutter when they call one another. They will whirl
about for twenty or thirty times together on the same side during the space
of 4 or 5 minutes. The motions of their wings make then a noise very like
that of a rattle, and one may hear it two hundred paces off. The bone of
their {178} wings grows greater towards the extremity, and forms a little
round mass under the feathers as big as a musket ball. That and its beak
are the chief defences of this bird. 'Tis very hard to catch in the woods,
but easy in open places, because we run faster than they, and sometimes we
approach them without much trouble. From March to September they are very
fat, and taste admirably well, especially while they are young, some of the
males weigh 45 pounds. The females are wonderfully beautiful, some fair,
some brown. I call them fair, because they are the colour of fair hair;
they have a sort of peak like a widow's, upon their breasts, which is of a
dun colour. No one feather is straggling from the other all over their
bodies, they being very careful to adjust themselves, and make them all
even with their beaks. The feathers on their thighs are round like shells
at the end, and being there very thick, have an agreeable effect. They have
two risings on their craws, and the feathers are whiter there than the
rest, which livelily represents the fine neck of a beautiful woman. They
walk with so much stateliness and good grace that one cannot help admiring
them and loving them, by which means their fine mien often saves their

The unfortunate Solitaires, owing to the depredations by the pigs and
monkeys introduced by the settlers, and the unceasing slaughter by the
latter, became extinct between the years 1760 and 1780.

Of their habits we only have the accounts of Leguat:--

"Though these birds will sometimes very familiarly come up near enough to
one, when we do not run after them, yet they will never grow tame, as soon
as they are caught they shed tears, without crying, and refuse all manner
of sustenance till they die.

When these birds build their nests, they choose a clean place, gather
together some palm leaves for that purpose, and heap them up a foot and a
half high from the ground, on which they sit. They never lay but one egg,
which is much bigger than that of a goose. The male and female both cover
it in their turns, and the young is not hatched till at 7 weeks end. All
the while they are sitting upon it, or are bringing up their young one,
which is not able to provide for itself in several months, they will not
suffer any other bird of their species to come within two hundred yards
round of the place. But what is very singular is, the males will never
drive away the females, only when they perceive one they make a noise with
their wings to call their own female--she drives away the unwelcome
stranger, not leaving it till it was without her bounds. The female does
the same as to males, which she leaves to the male who drives them away. We
have observed this several times, and I {179} affirm it to be true. The
combats between them on this occasion last sometimes pretty long, because
the stranger only turns about, and does not fly directly from the nest.
However, the others do not forsake it till they have quite driven it out of
their limits. After these birds have raised their young one, and left it to
itself, they are always together, which the other birds are not, and though
they happen to mingle with other birds of the same species, these two
companions never disunite.

We have often remarked, that some days after the young one leaves the nest,
a company of 30 or 40 bring another young one to it, and the new fledged
bird, joining the band with its father and mother, they march to some bye
place. We frequently followed them, and found that afterwards the old ones
went each their way alone, or in couples, and left the two young ones
together, which we called a marriage."

Leguat's, d'Heguerty's, and the Abbe Pingre's descriptions were all we had
of this great ground pigeon down to 1866, except a few bones. When Mr.
Strickland proved its distinctness from the Dodo of Mauritius in 1844, and
up to 1852, these bones numbered 18. In 1864 Mr. E. Newton and Captain
Barclay got 3 more bones, in 1865 Mr. Jenner, the resident magistrate,
collected 8 bones, and in 1866 nearly 2,000 bones were collected, but
during the Transit of Venus expedition in 1874, a thorough search was made,
and a number of complete skeletons was collected.

Habitat: Island of Rodriguez.

Represented in Museums by a number of complete skeletons and a large number
of bones.

                          Explanation of Plates.

_Plate 23._

    Coloured drawing made from Leguat's description and figure.

_Plate 25 (a)._

    _Fig. 1._ Outline of figure in Leguat's Voyage, 1708.

    _Fig. 2._ Outline of Schlegel's reconstructed figure of the Solitaire,

    _Fig. 3._ Outline of Solitaire in Frontispiece to Leguat's Voyage,


                         TYMPANUCHUS CUPIDO (L.)

                                HEATH HEN.

    _Tetrao cupido_ Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. Ed. X, p. 160 (1758--ex Catesby,
    Carolina II, App. p. 1, pl. 1, 1743. "Habitat in Virginia"); Vieillot,
    Gal. Ois. II, p. 55, p. 219 (1825).

    _Pinnated Grouse_ Latham, Gen. Syn. II, 2, p. 740 (1783).

    _Bonasa cupido_ Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool. XI, p. 299 (1819--New
    Jersey and Long Island).

    _Cupidonia cupido_ Baird, B. N. Am. p. 628 (1860--partim); Maynard, B.
    E. Massach. p. 138 (1870--Martha's Vineyard and Naushon Island);
    Brewster, Auk 1885, p. 82 (Massachusetts).

    _Cupidonia cupido var. cupido_ Baird, Brewer & Ridgway, N. Amer. B.
    III, p. 440 (1874).

    _Cupidonia cupido brewsteri_ Coues, Key N.A.B., App. p. 884 (1887).

    _Tympanuchus cupido_ Ridgway, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. VIII, p. 355 (1885);
    Bendire, Life-Hist. N. Amer. B. I, p. 93 (1892); Grant, Cat. B. Brit.
    B. XXII, p. 77; Check-List N. Amer. B. Ed. II, p. 115, No. 306 (1895);
    Hartlaub, Abh. Naturw. Ver. Bremen XIV, 1 (second ed. of separate copy,
    p. 15) (1896).

Linnaeus' brief diagnosis is: "Tetrao pedibus hirsutis alis succenturiatis
cervicalibus." After the habitat he adds: "Color Tetricis feminae; vertex
subcristatus; a tergo colli duae parvae alae: singulae pennis quinque."
This diagnosis is taken from Catesby, who gives a fairly good description
and a recognizable coloured plate. He specially mentions that the
neck-tufts are composed of five feathers, and in his figure they are shown
to be much pointed. Catesby expressly states that he does not know exactly
from which part of America his specimen came--yet Linnaeus says "Habitat in

Formerly the Heath Hen inhabited New England and part of the Middle States
(Southern Connecticut, Long Island, New Jersey, Nantucket, Eastern
Pennsylvania), but in 1887 Ridgway stated already that it was then
apparently extinct, except on Martha's Vineyard. About that time it was
still common on that island, inhabiting the woods and chiefly haunting oak
scrub and feeding on acorns. They were then "strictly protected by law,"
but this protection seems not to have been effectual, as from 1893 to 1897
a number were killed, skinned, and sold to various museums. This was,
perhaps, fortunate rather than unfortunate, because Mr. Hoyle (the man who
collected them) told us that in 1894 a fire destroyed many of them, and in
the fall of 1897 they were practically gone. But almost worse than this,
perhaps, two pairs of "Prairie Chicken" (_Tympanuchus americanus_) were
liberated and broods of young (of the latter apparently) were seen, so that
it {182} is to be feared that birds shot now on Martha's Vineyards Island
may have blood of _T. americanus_ in them, the two forms being closely
related, somewhat difficult to distinguish, and evidently sub-species of
each other. Nevertheless, a bird taken in 1901 was pronounced to be typical
_cupido_ by Mr. Brewster.

From these facts it is pretty clear that the Heath Hen is among the birds
the fate of which is sealed, and which, if not already exterminated or
mixed with foreign blood, will soon have disappeared. The footnote in the
Proceedings of the IV. International Ornithological Congress, p. 203, is
herewith corrected.



                           (PLATE 28, FIG. 2.)

    _Coturnix Novae-Zelandiae_ Quoy and Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe, Zool. I.
    p. 242, pl. 24, fig. 1 (1830--"Il habit la baie Chouraki (riviere
    Tamise de Cook), a la Nouvelle-Zelande"); Gould, Syn. B. Austr., text
    and pl. fig 2 (1837-38); Buller, B. New Zealand, p. 161, pl. (1873);
    Hist. B. New Zealand, 2nd ed. I, p. 225, pl. XXIII (1888); Grant, Cat.
    B. Brit. Mus. XXII p. 245 (1893).

This Quail, though a typical _Coturnix_, is easily distinguished from all
other species. The male has the upper-side almost black, each feather
bordered and indistinctly barred with rufous-brown, and with a wide, creamy
white shaft-line. The throat and sides of the head are rufous-cinnamon, the
feathers of the chest and breast at their basal half buff with a broken
black cross-bar, the distal half black, with two pale buff spots near the
tip, or with a continuous white border.

This sole representative of the "gamebirds" in New Zealand was in former
days very numerous in both islands, but especially so in the South Island,
wherever there was open grass-land, but is now evidently extinct. Its
disappearance is apparently not due to excessive shooting, but rather to
the introduction of rats, cats, and dogs, and last, but not least, to
bush-fires and to the regular burning of the sheep-runs, according to Sir
Walter Buller. No doubt the establishment itself of extensive sheep-farms
in the once, more or less, uninhabited grass-land was ominous for the
future of the Quail.

It is not quite clear when the Quail disappeared. The last on the North
Island was shot by Captain Mair at Whangarei in 1860. Specimens were
recorded in 1867 and 1869, but were apparently not procured. In Haast's
"Journal of Exploration in the Nelson Province" it is said to be still very
abundant in 1861 on the grassy plains of the interior.

Sir Walter Buller mentions two specimens said to be from an island in Blue
Skin Bay, shot in "1867 or 1868." In his Second Edition of the Birds of New
Zealand he informs us that it was found occasionally in the South Island
down to 1875, but in the "Supplement" he speaks of a specimen said to have
been shot in 1871, but adds, "There is no absolute evidence of it," and "if
true, this individual bird must have been about the last of its race."
Therefore, evidently the note about 1875 was erroneous. {184}

The statement of Mr. Cheeseman, that he took eggs on Three Kings Islands is
erroneous. The eggs belonged to a _Synoecus_, and the egg given to Sir
Walter Buller is now in my collection.

I have, however, also two eggs of _Coturnix novaezealandiae_, brought home
by Dr. H. O. Forbes. They have a brownish-white shell, covered and washed
all over with deep brown patches and lighter brown underlying markings.
They show distinctly the character of Quails' eggs, but, besides being much
larger, are easily distinguished from eggs of _Coturnix coturnix_. They
measure 34.3 by 25 and 34.5 by 21.3 mm.

Of birds I have in my collection: One [male] ad. Shot at Whangarei, North
Island, by Major Mair, in 1860. (This is the specimen figured in the Second
Edition of the "Birds of New Zealand." I bought it with Sir Walter Buller's
collection eighteen years ago. By a curious _lapsus memoriae_ Sir Walter
Buller, in the "Supplement," p. 35, in 1905, states that this bird was in
his son's collection.) One [female] ad. and one [male] in the first year's
plumage, shot by Messrs. Walter Buller and E. French near Kaiapoi, South
Island, in the summer of 1859.

Seven specimens are in the British Museum, the types in Paris, three in
Cambridge, a pair in Christchurch in New Zealand, some in the Canterbury
Museum, and doubtless many others, most of which have never been recorded.




The first announcement of the former existence of large Struthious birds in
New Zealand was made by Mr. J. S. Polack in 1838. In his book _New
Zealand_, he states that he found large bird bones near East Cape in the
North Island. The first specimen, however, that came into the hands of a
scientific man was the bone sent to Professor Owen in 1839 by Mr. Rule, who
reported that the natives had told him that it was the bone of a large
Eagle which they called "_Movie_." Professor Owen, with his extraordinary
knowledge, at once saw that far from any connection with the _Raptores_,
Mr. Rule's bone was a portion of a femur of a gigantic Struthious bird. He
described it on November 12th, 1839, at a meeting of the Zoological
Society, and it was figured on Plate 3 of Volume III of the Transactions of
the Zoological Society.

The next notice of the Moas takes the form of a letter, received by
Professor Owen from the Rev. W. C. Cotton, dated Waimate, near the Bay of
Islands, New Zealand, July 11th, 1842; and in it the writer gives an
account of his meeting with the Rev. Mr. Wm. Williams, a fellow missionary
at East Cape. The latter had collected a lot of "Moa" bones and sent them
to a Dr. Buckland. Mr. Williams also reported a conversation with two
Englishmen, who declared they had been taken out by a native at night and
had seen a Moa alive, but had been too frightened to shoot it.

On January 24th, 1843, Professor Owen exhibited a number of bones from Mr.
Williams' collection, and described them, giving the bird the name of
"_Megalornis novaezealandiae_," afterwards changing the generic title into
_Dinornis_, as _Megalornis_ was preoccupied. Afterwards, when describing
these bones and those contained in the second box of Mr. Williams'
collection more fully, he somewhat inconsistently changed the specific name
to _struthioides_, which Captain Hutton, in his later classification,
retained. Following the laws of priority, however (_novaezealandiae_ has 10
months' priority over _struthioides_), we must reinstate the name

A number of other finds occurred between 1842 and 1847, but by far the
largest and most important collections were made and sent home between 1847
and 1852 by the Hon. W. Mantell, who sent to Professor Owen many hundreds
of bones and eggshells, from which the Professor was enabled to determine
and describe a large number of species, and even as early as this to
separate some genera. {186}

The bulk of later finds were made by Sir Julius von Haast, Captain Hutton,
and Mr. Aug. Hamilton, and the two most famous deposits were Glenmark Swamp
and Te Aute; but it would take too much space to give here an account of
all the other extraordinary discoveries of Moa deposits made by such men as
Dr. Thomson, Mr. Earl, Mr. Thorne, Dr. H. O. Forbes, and many others.
Besides many fragments of eggshell, a number of eggs have been found, which
will be enumerated elsewhere.

Feathers have been found at Clutha River, near Roxburgh, and also in caves
near Queenstown. Those from Clutha are mostly dark, being black with white
tips; while the Queenstown ones resemble feathers of _Apteryx australis_ in
colours. Professor Owen has shown that _Megalapteryx huttoni_ was feathered
down to the toes, and in the plate I have represented it clothed with
feathers similar to the Clutha ones, which I believe belong to this
species. The Moas at one time must have been extraordinarily numerous, both
in numbers and species, and they varied in height from 2-1/2 feet to 12
feet. Professor Parker has shown that some of the species had crests of
long feathers on the head, and, as some adult skulls of the same forms show
no signs of this, he infers that the males alone had this appendage. There
has been much discussion as to the time when the Moas became extinct, and
we know for certain that the two species, _Dinornis maximus_ and
_Anomalopteryx antiquus_, belong to a much earlier geological epoch than
the bulk of the other species. It would be too lengthy for my purpose to go
into the arguments, but we can, by the study of the "_kitchen middens_" of
Maoris and their traditions, fairly adduce that the Maoris arrived in the
North Island some 600 years ago, that they hunted Moas, and that they
exterminated them about 100 to 150 years after their arrival. In the South,
or rather Central, Island, the Maoris appear to have arrived about 100
years later, and to have exterminated the Moas about 350 years ago. It is
only fair to say, however, that Monsieur de Quatrefages adduces evidence in
his paper which goes far to prove that Moas existed down to the end of the
18th or even beginning of the 19th century in those parts of the Middle
Island not, or scantily, inhabited by Maoris.

The _Dinornithidae_ form a separate group of the order _Ratitae_, in no way
closely related to the Australian Emu (_Dromaius_), as many ornithologists
have asserted, but nearer to the South American Nandu (_Rhea_) than any
other living _Ratitae_, though exhibiting many characters in common with
the _Apterygidae_. There have been a number of classifications set up of
this family. The first by Reichenbach, in 1850, with 7 species and 7
genera! {187} The next was by Von Haast, in 1873, who enumerated 10
species, divided into 4 genera. The third was Lydekker's, in 1891, who
acknowledged 23 species, divided into 5 genera. Then came Hutton's, in
1892, which left out _Megalapteryx_, with its then known 2 species, and
acknowledged 26 species, divided into 7 genera. Lastly we have Professor
Parker's, in 1895, in which again _Megalapteryx_ is left out, and 21
species are acknowledged, divided into 5 genera. There has been a great
amount of controversy as to the number of species of Moas which really
ought to be distinguished, and of late years there has been a tendency to
unite most of the species as synonyms, the authors declaring that bones
vary to such a degree that all the characters relied on for the
distinguishing of the various species were individual variations, and that,
besides, it was impossible that so many distinct forms could have occurred
in such a small area. The extreme of this lumping was reached when
Professor Forbes, in the Bulletin of the Liverpool Museums, III, pp. 27 and
28 (1900), divided the Moas into six genera, each with a single species. He
thus ignores the fact that by doing so he has united forms which were
founded on FULLY ADULT bones, and yet some of them were only about half or
two-thirds the size of the others. I personally think that too many species
have been made, and at least 7 of Captain Hutton's forms must be sunk. On
the other hand some have been described since 1895 and 1900, and I have
been obliged to name others rather against my will, so that in spite of
uniting so many species of others I find I am obliged to acknowledge more
species than anyone else. I have divided these into genera according to
Professor Parker's classification, only adding _Palaeocasuarius_ of Forbes,
with 3 species, and _Megalapteryx_, with 5, which brings my number up to 38
species, divided into 7 genera. My reasons for not uniting these into 7
species and 7 genera, as those of the "lumping school" do, are
twofold,--first, the bones of the _Ratitae_ are much more solid than those
of other birds, and are not given to so much individual variation; and,
secondly, in the face of the great number of species of Paradise Birds and
Cassowaries found on New Guinea, the contention that there could not be so
many species of Moa on so small an area is not easily maintained. Moreover,
we have strong support in the present fauna and flora for the presumption
that, when the Moas first came into existence and differentiated into
species, New Zealand was a much larger area, stretching at least from the
Macquarie Islands in the south to the Kermadecs in the north, and from Lord
Howe's Island on the west to the Chatham Islands on the east. So that, like
the giant tortoises on the Galapagos Islands, {188} they only got driven so
closely together after their specific differentiation, when the land
gradually subsided, owing to volcanic action. The differentiation of the
family is as follows:--


Skull with a short and wide beak. Pectoral girdle very small or absent,
wing absent, only an indication in _Dinornis dromioides_. Hallux absent or
present. An extension bridge to the tibio-tarsus, which is placed near the
inner border of the bone. No superior notch to the sternum. Most of the
species of very large size. The tarso-metatarsus is either long and slender
or short and wide, and its anterior surface may or may not be grooved. The
second trochlea is longer than the fourth, the third is not pedunculated,
and there is no perforation in the groove between the third and fourth
trochlea. In the tibio-tarsus the cnemial crest rises well above the head;
the extensor groove is separated by a considerable interval from the inner
border of the bone. There is a well-defined intercondylar tubercle; the
intercondylar gorge is deep, and there is no deep pit on the lateral
surface of the entocondyle. The femur may be either slender or stout, but
is not markedly curved forwards. The popliteal depression is deep, and the
summit of the great trochanter rises considerably above the level of the
head. The pelvis approximates to that of the _Apterygidae_, but the
pectineal process of the pubis is less developed, and the ischium and pubis
may be longer and more slender. The coracoid and scapula are aborted and
may be absent. The sternum, which may be either long and narrow, or broad
and short, differs from that of the _Apterygidae_ by the absence of the
superior notch, the divergent lateral processes, and the reduction of the
coracoidal grooves to small facets or their total disappearance. The
cervical vertebrae are relatively short, an expanded neural platform as far
as the sixth.

In _Anomalopteryx_ and _Megalapteryx_ the number of cervical vertebrae is
21, and there are 2 cervico-dorsal and 4 free dorsal vertebrae, so it is
fair to assume that this is the correct number throughout the family.

The feathers had after-shafts.


    _Dinornis_ Owen.
  _Palapteryx_ Owen, part.
  _Palapteryx_ Hutton.
  _Tylapteryx_ Hutton.

    _Megalapteryx_ Haast.
  _Anomalopteryx_ Lydekker, part.
  *_Mesopteryx_ Hutton.

    _Cela_ Reichenbach.
  _Dinornis_ Owen, part.
  _Meionornis_ Haast.
  _Anomalopteryx_ Lydekker.
  _Mesopteryx_ Parker.

    _Emeus_ Reichenbach.
  _Euryapteryx_ Haast.
  _Syornis_ Hutton.
  _Dinornis_ Owen, part.

    _Pachyornis_ Lydekker.
  _Palapteryx_ Haast.
  _Dinornis_ Owen, part.
  _Euryapteryx_ Hutton.

    _Palaeocasuarius_ Forbes.
  *_Megalapteryx_ Forbes, part.

    _Anomalopteryx_ Reichenbach.
  _Meionornis_ Haast.
  _Dinornis_ Owen, part.

I have adopted Professor Parker's classification in the genera, only
substituting _Cela_ Reichenbach for _Mesapteryx_ Hutton, which is a synonym
of _Megalapteryx_ Haast. As to the species I have used my own judgment; I
felt obliged to name a number of species acknowledged by Parker and
Lydekker but not named, because this system of indicating species by the
letters A, B, C, &c., which has crept into our nomenclature, will make all
understanding impossible, as not always the same species is denoted by the
same letter. A few of these species will naturally later have to be sunk,
as some have been founded on skulls and others on leg bones, or so, which,
when we get perfect individual skeletons may prove to be identical, but I
do not think these will be many.

Besides a number of imperfect eggs, particulars of which will be found in
Dr. A. B. Meyer's article in the Ibis, 1903, pp. 188-196, there are known
two perfect Moa eggs and one almost perfect one.

    1. Otago Museum. Molyneux River, 1901. _Pachyornis pondorosus_.

    2. Tring Museum. Molyneux River, 1901. _Megalapteryx huttoni_.

    3. Rowley Collection. South Island, 1859. _Dinornis novaezealandiae_.



The skull is broad and much depressed, with a comparatively wide, somewhat
pointed and deflected beak. Breadth at the squamosals twice the height at
basi-temporal. It has a flattened frontal region, and a wide median ridge
on the upper surface of the praemaxillae. The mandible is in the form of a
narrow U, with the angle much inflected, no distinct anticular process, and
the symphysis moderately wide, narrowing anteriorly, with a prominent and
broad inferior ridge, widest in front. The quadrate is elongated, with a
very large pneumatic foramen. The sternum is nearly as long as broad, very
convex, with distinct coracoidal facets, 3 costal articulations, very small
and reflected costal processes, the lateral processes very broad and widely
divergent, and a wide xiphisternal notch. The pelvis is narrow with a high
ilium, in which the inferior border of the postacetabular portion is flat,
and does not descend as a sharp ridge below the level of the anterior
postacetabular vertebrae. The pubis has a small pectineal process; and the
ventral aspect of the true and postacetabular vertebrae is very broad and
much flattened.

The distal extremity of the tibio-tarsus is not inflected. A hallux is
present in some species. The tibio-tarsus and tarso-metatarsus are long and
slender, the length of the latter equalling and more often exceeding the
length of the femur, and also exceeding half the length of the
tibio-tarsus. The femur is comparatively long and slender, with a short
neck, the head rising but slightly and projecting only a small distance,
the linear aspera in the form of a long irregular line, the outer side of
the distal extremity moderately expanded, the popliteal depression small,
deep, and sharply defined, the profile of the inner condyle semi-ovoid and
narrow, and the interior trochlear surface nearly flat. The phalangeals of
the pes are long and comparatively slender, the proximal surface of the
terminal segments not being trefoil-shaped. In the vertebral column the
middle cervicals are long and narrow, with the postzygapophyses directed
much outwardly and separated by a very deep channel, and the posterior face
of the centrum low and wide. The dorsals have short transverse processes
and neural spine, the anterior and middle ones (those with a haemal spine
or carina) having a large anterior pneumatic foramen between the nib-facet,
the foramen being triangular in shape. All the species of this genus are of
comparatively large size, and include the tallest members of the family.

Type of the genus: _Dinornis novaezealandiae_ (Owen).

Number of species: 7. {192}

                          DINORNIS MAXIMUS OWEN.

    _Dinornis maximus_ Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. VI. p. 497 (1868).

    _D. excelsus_ Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV. p. 110 (1892).

    _D. giganteus_ Haast, Trans. N.Z. Inst. I p. 88, No. 20 part.

This is the largest species of Moa, the tibio-tarsus being from 37.5 to
39.2 inches in length, while that of the largest _D. giganteus_ does not
exceed 35 inches, but by far the largest number of the latter are
considerably shorter.

The type bones were obtained in Glenmark Swamp, Middle Island of New
Zealand, and were sent to Professor Owen by Major J. Michael of the Madras
Staff Corps. Casts of these bones are in the British Museum, No. A 161 in
the Palaeontological Department.

This bird was the tallest of all known birds, though it must have been
considerably exceeded in bulk by _Aepyornis ingens_ and _Aepyornis titan_
of Madagascar.

Locality: Glenmark Swamp, Middle Island, New Zealand.

                           DINORNIS ALTUS OWEN.

    _Dinornis maximus_ Owen, Ext. Birds N.Z. p. 253 (Dr. Lillie's specimen)

    _D. altus_ Owen, Ext. Birds N.Z. (1879) p. 361.

    _D. giganteus var maximus_ Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. VI p. 497 (1868).

Only known by a tarso-metatarsus, femur and tibio-tarsus from the Middle
Island, New Zealand. The bones at once noticeable by their great length,
and are more slender than the same bones in _D. maximus_. This form must
therefore, till further material comes to hand, be treated as a separate

Locality: Middle Island, New Zealand. Collected by Dr. Lillie. {193}

                         DINORNIS GIGANTEUS OWEN.

    _Dinornis giganteus_ Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. III p. 237 (1843) and p.
    307 (1846).

    _Moa giganteus_ Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. der Vog. p. XXX (1850).

    _Dinornis maximus_ (non _D. maximus_ Owen of 1867!) Trans. Zool. Soc. X
    p. 147 (1877).

    _D. validus_ Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. p. 111 (1892).

This is, as regards size, one of the more variable forms in the
tarso-metatarsus, while the tibio-tarsus is remarkably constant. The
tibio-tarsus is almost invariably 35 inches in length, while the
tarso-metatarsus varies from 17.5 to 19 inches in length.

The type of _D. giganteus_ Owen is from Poverty Bay; the type of _D.
validus_ is from Glenmark.

Habitat: North and Middle Islands, New Zealand.

Portion of skeleton in Tring Museum, from Kopua Swamps, Canterbury, New

                          DINORNIS INGENS OWEN.

                               (PLATE 42.)

    _Dinornis ingens_ Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. III p. 237 (1843).

    _Movia ingens_ Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. der Vog. p. xxx (1850).

    _D. ingens var. robustus_ Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. III p. 307 (1846).

    _Palapteryx robustus_ Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. III p. 345 (1848).

    _D. firmus_ Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV p. 114 (1892).

    _D. potens_ Hutton, l.c. p. 115.

_D. ingens_ shows considerable variation in size, but the inter-gradation
is so complete that it seems impossible to retain the four species
_ingens_, _firmus_, _potens_ and _robustus_, which Captain Hutton admits.
This form was widely distributed over the North and Middle Islands. The
type skull of _P. robustus_ came from Timaru, the type of _firmus_ from
Wanganui, that of _ingens_ from Poverty Bay, while that of _potens_ is
quoted from the East side of Middle Island, without specific type locality.

Habitat: North and Middle Islands.

The plate of this species was reconstructed by Mr. Frohawk from the
skeleton and feathers in my museum, and the feathers found with the
skeleton now in the York Museum. The only criticism that might be made in
connection with this picture is that the feathers are drawn a little too
much like those of _Apteryx australis_, but this is not of any consequence,
as the Moa feathers in the Tring Museum and elsewhere vary considerably in
appearance, though being more or less coloured like _Apteryx_ feathers.

There is an almost perfect skeleton in the Tring Museum. {194}

                         DINORNIS GRACILIS OWEN.

    _Dinornis gracilis_ Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. IV (1855) p. 141.

    _D. torosus_ Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV p. 117 (1892).

If we acknowledge that _D. novaezealandiae_ occurs both on the North and
Middle Islands, then I feel sure that the distinctness of _D. gracilis_ and
_D. torosus_ cannot be maintained, as the measurements intergrade

The type of _D. gracilis_ came from Wanganui, while that of _D. torosus_ is
a nearly perfect skeleton found in a cave at Takaka, near Nelson.

Habitat: New Zealand.

There is an imperfect skeleton in the Tring Museum, from a limestone cave
at Takaka, near Motueka, Province of Nelson, New Zealand.

                        DINORNIS DROMIOIDES OWEN.

    _Dinornis dromioides_ Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. III. p. 235 (1843).

    _Palapteryx dromioides_ Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. der Vog. p. XXX (1850).

    _Palapteryx plenus_ Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV p. 122 (1892).

This form also inhabited both islands, but was probably one of the rarest.
The type of _D. dromioides_ came from Poverty Bay, and that of _P. plenus_
from Glenmark.

Habitat: New Zealand.


    _Dinornis novaezealandiae_ Owen, P.Z.S. (1843) p. 8.

    _D. struthioides_ Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. III p. 244 (1844).

    _D. strennus_ Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXV p. 8 (1893).

Professor Owen changed the name of this form, but we cannot accept this
change, as it is against the laws of nomenclatorial priority, though we all
appreciate the motive the Professor had in making this change. The type
came from Poverty Bay, but the bird inhabits both islands.

This species had wings.

Habitat: New Zealand.

A nearly perfect skeleton in the Tring Museum from Waitomo district,
Auckland, New Zealand.


                           MEGALAPTERYX HAAST.

Originally distinguished by Haast from the _Dinornithidae_ as an ancient
form of the _Apterygidae_, but afterwards united by Lydekker with the
_Dinornithidae_. Mr. Lydekker's diagnosis of the genus is as follows:--

"Distinguished from _Dinornis_ by the extreme slenderness and length of the
femur and tibio-tarsus, and the relatively shorter tarso-metatarsus, of
which latter the length is considerably shorter than that of the femur. The
pelvis is much narrower than in Dinornis, with the ventral surface of the
postacetabular sacrals ridged and narrower, and a more developed pectineal
process to the pubis. The femur is markedly curved forwards, with the
distal extremity moderately expanded, the popliteal depression larger and
less defined, the linea aspera narrower and sharper, and a more distinct
anterior intermuscular ridge."

The following additional diagnostic characters are taken from Mr. Charles
W. Andrews' description of the complete skeleton of _Megalapteryx tenuipes_
in the Tring Museum (Nov. Zool. IV, pp. 188-194, fig. 1-2 in text and pl.

Width of cranium at paroccipital processes less than half the length of the
basis cranii. Length of premaxilla less than two-and-a-half times that of
the basis cranii. Body of the premaxilla pointed and slightly decurved; its
length and breadth less than the basis cranii. The occipital plane slightly
declined backwards. Occipital condyle projecting slightly beyond the
paroccipital processes. Anterior and posterior lambdoidal ridges separated
by a very narrow interval in their middle region only. Width at squamosals
slightly more than double the length of the basis cranii. Mammillary
tuberosities not very prominent. Margin of tympanic cavity evenly curved.
Temporal fossae very large. The distance between the temporal ridges about
four-fifths the width of the cranium at the fossae. The posterior temporal
ridge confluent with the lambdoidal ridge. Post-temporal fossae very large.

The inferior temporal ridge is strongly marked, and there is a pretympanic
process. The zygomatic process is well developed. Rostrum dilated towards
its anterior end, compressed and carinate beneath the large presphenoid
fossae. Mandible very slender. Posterior angular process small. Sternum
very convex, and with a very nearly straight anterior border between the
tuberosities for the coracoscapular ligaments. Costal processes short but
large, with distinct {196} coracoidal facets. The lateral processes are
long and distally expanded. The sternum is just as wide as it is long.
There are three costal articulations. The most notable character is the
enormous length of the toes, the middle one being longer than the
tarso-metatarsus. The ungual phalanges are peculiarly long, narrow and
curved, instead of being comparatively short and broad, as in most other

Type of the genus _Megalapteryx hectori_, Haast.

Number of species 4. {197}

                       MEGALAPTERYX HECTORI HAAST.

    _Megalapteryx hectori_ Haast, Trans. Zool. Soc. XII, p. 161 (1886);
    Lydekker, Cat. Fossil B. Brit. Mus., p. 252.

This form was described by Sir Julius von Haast as a gigantic _Apteryx_.
This error arose from the absence of the skull. There is, however, no doubt
now, since the skulls of _Megalapteryx_ are known, that although
sufficiently aberrant to form a distinct sub-family, the birds included in
this genus are _Dinornithidae_ and not _Apterygidae_.

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand.


    Lydekker, Cat. Fossil Birds in Brit. Mus., p. 252, under _M. tenuipes_

The type is a left femur, No. 32145 in the British Museum. It is smaller
and relatively narrower than the femur, of either _M. hectori_ or _M.
tenuipes_. This is most noticeable at the distal extremity.

Habitat: North Island, New Zealand. (Type locality Waingongoro.)

Named after Mr. A. Hamilton, who did so much in discovering deposits of
extinct New Zealand birds. {198}

                        MEGALAPTERYX TENUIPES LYD.

    _Megalapteryx tenuipes_ Lydekker, Cat. Foss. Birds Brit. Mus. p. 251

This species was described from the tibio-tarsus, which is longer and
relatively more slender than in _M. hectori_. Its distal width is about
one-ninth of its length, while in _M. hectori_ it is about one-seventh. The
length of the tibio-tarsus is approximately 0.405 mm. = 16 inches, and
width of distal extremity about 0.044 = 1.74 inches. Type specimens Nos.
49989 and 49990, British Museum.

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand, and perhaps North Island. (Type
locality Lake Wakatipa, Queenstown, Otago.)

Complete skeleton in the Tring Museum.

Mr. Lydekker mentions also a right femur from the North Island, of the same
proportions as those of _M. tenuipes_ and 0.255 m. (= 10.1 inches) long. It
may probably belong to a different form, as we know _M. tenuipes_ otherwise
only from the Middle Island. {199}

                      MEGALAPTERYX HUTTONII (OWEN).

                               (PLATE 41.)

    _Dinornis huttonii_ Owen, Ext. Birds, N.Z., p. 430 (1879).

    _Dinornis didinus_ Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. XI, p. 257 (1883).

    _D. didiformis_ Haast, (non Owen 1844) Trans. N.Z. Inst. I, p. 83, Nos.
    5 & 6 (1869).

    _Mesopteryx didinus_ Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 129 (1892).

The synonymy of this form is somewhat confused, but I think it is clear
that _huttonii_ of Owen is its proper name. Professor Owen (Ext. B. p. 430)

"In the collection from the Glenmark Swamp, South Island, are bones that
scarcely differ, save in size, from the dimensions (? W.R.) of the type
bones of _Dinornis didiformis_ from the NORTH ISLAND. They are noted as of
a large variety of that species." Captain Hutton remarks: "The bones that I
have arranged under the name _D. didiformis_ belong probably to a new
species. The tibia is well marked and quite distinct, but the femur and
metatarsus, that I have associated with it, pass almost into _D.
casuarinus_, but are rather smaller. _D. casuarinus_ is undoubtedly a good
species, easily distinguished by its tibia." Possibly the _Dinornis_ of the
SOUTH ISLAND, with the tibia characteristic of _D. didiformis_ of the NORTH
ISLAND, may need to be noted for the convenience of naming the bones as
_Dinornis huttonii_.

When describing his _D. didinus_, Professor Owen failed to recognise its
identity with his previously named _D. huttonii_, doubtless owing to the
leg bones being hidden by the dry integument. This being the case, it is
necessary to reinstate the name _huttonii_, as it has four years' priority
over _didinus_.

Captain Hutton says that a few bones of this form have been obtained in the
North Island at Poverty Bay and Te Aute; but I am convinced he is in error
and that these bones are aberrant individual bones of _A. didiformis_ and
that _M. huttonii_ is confined to the South or rather Middle Island. The
plate of this species has been reconstructed by Mr. Lodge from the
mummified remains which form the type specimen of _Didornis didinus_, and
the feathers found in the alluvial sands of the CLUTHA RIVER. The type of
_Dinornis didinus_ was found at Queenstown by Mr. Squires.

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand.

Mr. C. W. Andrews, in his description of my complete skeleton of
_Megalapteryx tenuipes_ has shown that Owen's type specimens of his
_Dinornis didinus_ are certainly of a species of the genus _Megalapteryx_,
and closely {200} allied to _M. tenuipes_. Mr. Andrews, however, throws
some doubt as to whether the pelvis and femora, referred to this species by
Hutton, really belong to it.

A complete egg which I consider must be of this species is preserved in the
Tring Museum. Its measurements are as follows:--

  Large circumference, 21.4 inches = 535 mm.
  Small        "       17.5   "    = 437.5 mm.

This egg was dredged up on the Molyneux River, near Otago, during gold
dredging operations in 1901; a second perfect egg was dredged up a few
months before in the same river, and was referred by Dr. Benham to
_Pachyornis ponderosus_.


                        ANOMALOPTERYX REICHENBACH.

The skull is narrow and vaulted, with a long, sharp and slightly deflected
beak. Breadth at the squamosals 1-1/2 times the height at basi-temporal,
which has a constricted praemaxillary ridge, and the quadrate with a very
small pneumatic foramen. The mandible is V-shaped, with a slight inflection
of the angle, and a distinct postarticular process. The symphysis is very
narrow and pointed, with a long and narrow inferior ridge, not expanding
markedly at either extremity. The sternum is longer, flatter and narrower
than in _Dinornis_, having no distinct xiphisternal notch, three costal
articulations, long and narrow costal processes, slender lateral processes
which are often elongated, and usually no coracoidal facets. The pelvis is
wider and lower than in _Dinornis_, with the lower border of the
postacetabular portion of the ilium descending as a sharp ridge much below
the level of the sacral ribs, and without any distinct pectineal process. A
hallux is present. The tibio-tarsus and tarso-metatarsus are relatively
shorter and stouter than in _Dinornis_, the latter being shorter than the
femur, which is usually stouter and relatively shorter than in
_Megalapteryx_. The length of the tarso-metatarsus is less than half that
of the tibio-tarsus. The femur, besides being usually relatively shorter is
readily distinguished from that of _Dinornis_ by its more expanded
extremities, the rather longer neck, and the much larger and ill-defined
popliteal depression.

The vertebrae are of the general type of those of _Pachyornis_, but the
anterior pneumatic foramen commences in the third dorsal. The phalangeals
are intermediate between those of _Dinornis_ and _Pachyornis_. Haast
considered that the coracoid was aborted and often absent in this genus, in
_Emeus_, and _Pachyornis_. As additional characters of the skull it may be
mentioned that there is a prominent supra-occipital protuberance, and a
depression on the squamosal above the quadrate; the par-occipital processes
are pointed, and the basi-occipital processes only slightly prominent; so
that the posterior profile of the basi-occipital is nearly straight. The
quadrate has a very short anterior process.

All the species of the genus are small, in fact _parvus_ is the smallest
but one of the family.

Type of the genus: _Anomalopteryx didiformis_ (Owen).

Number of species: 4. {202}


    _Dinornis didiformis_ Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. III, p. 242 (1844).

    _Anomalopteryx didiformis_ Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. der Vog. p. 30

    _A. didiformis_ Lydekker, Cat. Fossil B. Brit. Mus., p. 275.

The present form is confined to the North Island. Owen's type was collected
by the Revd. Wm. Williams, and came from Poverty Bay.

Habitat: North Island, New Zealand.

Portion of skeleton in Tring Museum.

                       ANOMALOPTERYX PARVUS (OWEN.)

    _Dinornis parvus_ Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. XI, pp. 233-256, pls. LI-LVII

    _Anomalopteryx didiformis_ Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 123
    (1892), part.

    _A. parva_ Lydekker, t.c., p. 278.

This small form is confined to the Middle Island. The type, a skeleton in
almost complete condition, was dug up in a cave at Takaka, near Nelson, and
is now in the British Museum. A much less perfect skeleton is in my museum
at Tring.

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand.

                       ANOMALOPTERYX ANTIQUUS HUTT.

    _Avian Remains_ Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIII, p. 369 (1891).

    _Anomalopteryx antiquus_ Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 124 (1892).

_A. antiquus_ was named by Captain Hutton from the photographs of bones
described by Dr. Forbes in the above-quoted article. The evidence is very
slight on which to found a species, but I prefer to treat it as one, for
the bones were discovered in the Upper Miocene, a much older stratum than
most remains of _Dinornithidae_ occur in.

Locality: Timaru, Middle Island, New Zealand. {203}

                        ANOMALOPTERYX FORTIS HUTT.

    Anomalopteryx fortis Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXV, p. 9 (1893).

This is the largest of the genus, and the type bones came from Glenmark. I
append comparative table of Measurements:

                | Tarso-metatarsus. |  Tibio-tarsus.   | Femur.
  A. fortis     |    8.0 inches.    |   17.5 inches.   | 9.8 inches.
  A. didiformis |    6.3   "        |   13.3   "       | 8.0   "
  A. parvus     |    6.3   "        |   13.7   "       | 8.5   "

Locality of Type: Glenmark.

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand.


                            CELA REICHENBACH.

Skull convex, the temporal fossae very large. Breadth at the squamosals
1.6-1.7 times the height at the basi-temporal. Length from the
supra-occipital to the nasals rather less than the breadth at the
squamosals. Occipital condyle hidden by the supra-occipital. Ridge between
temporal fossae and supra-occipital narrow. Beak short, slightly compressed
and rounded at the tip, though more pointed than in _Anomalopteryx_. Lower
mandible nearly straight and rather slighter than in _Anomalopteryx_,
V-shaped. Sternum with coracoid pits faintly indicated or absent; length
less than breadth. Costal processes well developed, lateral processes
diverging at different angles.

Pelvis broader in proportion than in _Dinornis_, the acetabula set more
forward. Tarso-metatarsus shorter than the femur, and less than half the
length of the tibio-tarsus. Hallux present in some species. The smallest
species of Moa is _Cela curtus_.

Type of the genus: _Cela curtus_.

Number of species: 5.

                           CELA CURTUS (OWEN.)

    _Dinornis curtus_ Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. III, p. 325 (1846).

    _Cela curtus_ Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. der Vog. p. 30 (1850).

    _Cela curta_ Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIX, p. 550, pl. XLVII, Fig. B.

This and the following are the two smallest species of _Moa_, having been
about the size of a large turkey. It also is the most abundant species at
Whangarei, and appears to have been most common in the North of the Island.
The type is from Poverty Bay.

Habitat: North Island, New Zealand. {206}

                           CELA OWENI (HAAST).

    _Dinornis oweni_ Haast, Trans. Zool. Soc. XII, p. 171, pl. XXXI, XXXII

    _Cela curtus_ Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., XXIV, p. 127 (1892), portion.

Dr. von Haast (Sir Julius von Haast) took as his type of _Dinornis oweni_
the almost complete skeleton collected by Mr. Cheeseman in a cave at
Patana, Whangarei, and now in the Auckland Museum. While referring my
readers to the original diagnosis for the specific characters, I wish to
specially draw attention to the fact that Dr. von Haast says that in the
collections he examined, made by Mr. Thorne and Mr. Cheeseman, there are
bones belonging to at least 20 skeletons of his _D. oweni_, and that some
were even smaller than the type, and the only difference was the constant
average difference due to sex. I draw special notice to this, as Captain
Hutton has united this form with _curtus_, saying Haast's type is only a
small individual of that species. The fact of bones of at least 20
different individuals, showing the same characters and the same differences
from _curtus_, is quite sufficient evidence for me to consider Dr. von
Haast's _D. oweni_ as a distinct species. I append measurements of the leg
bones of the types of _Cela curtus_ and _C. oweni_:--

               | Tarso-metatarsus. | Tibio-tarsus.  |     Femur.
  _Cela curtus_|    5.0 inches     |  11.25 inches  |  5.65 inches
  _Cela oweni_ |    4.4   "        |   9.6    "     |  6.5  "

Locality: Whangarei.

Habitat: North Island, New Zealand.

                         CELA GERANOIDES (OWEN.)

    _Palapteryx geranoides_ Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. III, p. 345 (1848).

    _Cela geranoides_ Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 126 (1892).

This species is confined to the North Island. The type came from
Waingongoro. It is most commonly found in the South of the Island.

Habitat: North Island, New Zealand. {207}

                           CELA RHEIDES (OWEN).

    _Dinornis rheides_ Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. IV, p. 8 (1850--partim).

    _Syornis rheides_ Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 131 (1892).

This is a very difficult form to consider, as the type bones consisted of
those of three different forms. Whether Professor Owen, were he now alive,
would concur in Captain Hutton's treatment is very questionable, and I
doubt if it ought not to be united to _Emeus crassus_, while Haast united
it to _P. gravis_. I have kept it separate as no bones of a single
individual united are known, and it might prove sufficiently distinct if a
good skeleton were obtained. The type bones were sent from Waikawaite,
Middle Island, by Colonel Wakefield, in 1849.

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand.

                         CELA CASUARINUS (OWEN).

    _Dinornis casuarinus_ Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. III, p. 307 (1846).

    _Syornis casuarinus_ Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. der Vog, p. XXX (1850).

    _Meionornis casuarinus_ Haast, Trans. N.Z. Inst., VII, pp. 54-91

    _Syornis casuarinus_ Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., XXIV, p. 133 (1892).

_C. casuarinus_ is found in both Islands, and is abundant in the Middle

The type came from Waikowaiti.

Habitat: New Zealand.

Portions of one skeleton and two almost complete skeletons in Tring Museum;
one of the latter from Kapua Swamps.


                            EMEUS REICHENBACH.

The skull is very short and wide, with a blunt and slightly deflected
rostrum, and a very small pneumatic foramen to the quadrate. The mandible
is in the shape of a wide U, with a slightly inflected angle, and a large
post-articular process. The symphysis is very wide and deeply excavated,
with a broad and slightly prominent inferior ridge narrowing in front. The
sternum resembles that of _Anomalopteryx_, but the pelvis is much wider and
approaches that of _Pachyornis_. The tibio-tarsus and tarso-metatarsus are
relatively shorter and thicker than in _Anomalopteryx_, but less stout than
in _Pachyornis_; the distal extremity of the tibio-tarsus is not inflected.
A hallux is present. The length of the tarso-metatarsus is considerably
less than that of the femur, and than half that of the tibio-tarsus, its
width at the middle of the shaft being rather more than one-fourth of its

The vertebrae are of the type of _Anomalopteryx_. The species are larger
than most of those of _Cela_ and _Anomalopteryx_. Additional cranial
characters are that the skull usually has very broad and blunt paroccipital
processes; there is no distinct supraoccipital prominence, and no
well-marked depression upon the frontal aspect of the squamosal above the
head of the quadrate. The basi-occipital tubercles are prominent, and give
an arched posterior profile to this bone. The quadrate is elongated with a
long anterior bar; the cavity of the squamosal for the reception of its
head is inclined much more outwardly than in either of the other genera.

Type of genus: _Emeus crassus_ (Owen).

Number of species: 6.

                          EMEUS CRASSUS (OWEN).

    _Dinornis crassus_ Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. III, p. 307 (1846--partim).

    _Emeus crassus_ Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. der Vog., p. XXX (1850).

    _Syornis crassus_ Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 132 (1892).

This species has led to much confusion, owing to Professor Owen having
associated with the real portions of _crassus_ in his possession bones of
_elephantopus_, _ponderosus_ and _struthioides_. The type came from

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand.

Imperfect skeleton in Tring Museum. {210}

                          EMEUS BOOTHI NOM. NOV.

    _Emeus_, Species [Alpha], Parker, Trans. Zool. Soc. XIII, p. 379
    (1895), pl. XVI.

Easily distinguished by the shorter and narrower beak. Type specimen--the
skull found by Mr. R. S. Booth at Stag Point--now in Otago University
Museum, figured as above.

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand.

                           EMEUS GRAVIPES LYD.

    _Emeus gravipes_ Lydekker, Cat. Foss. Birds Brit. Mus., p. 298 (1891)
    Nos. A95, on p. 299, to 47444d, on p. 300.

    _Dinornis gravis_ (portion) Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. VIII, p. 361

    _Euryapteryx gravis_ Haast, Ibis 1874, p. 213.

The present species is smaller than _E. crassus_ and has the
tarso-metatarsus relatively wider. Length, 198 mm. = 7.8 inches; width at
middle of shaft, 51 mm. = 2 inches.

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand.

                          EMEUS HAASTI NOM. NOV.

    _Emeus_ species [Beta], Parker, Trans. Zool. Soc. XIII p. 379 (1895).

    _Emeus gravipes_ Lydekker, Cat. Foss. Birds Brit. Mus. p. 301 Nos.
    32017, 32016, a-e and c to 32044 e on p. 307 (1891).

Sir J. von Haast united this form with _Dinornis gravis_, and the skull
which is the type of _E. haasti_ is put on a skeleton of _D. gravis_ in the
Canterbury Museum. The measurements of this species are much smaller than
those of the other species.

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand. {211}

                         EMEUS PARKERI NOM. NOV.

    _Emeus_ species [Gamma], Parker, Trans. Zool. Soc. XIII, p. 380 (1895).

This species is at once distinguished from the other species of the genus
by having right-angled orbits. The type is a skull from Hamilton Swamp,
named _Euryapteryx gravis_, by Prof. Hutton, in the Otago Museum.

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand.

                           EMEUS EXILIS (HUTT.)

    _Dinornis didiformis_ Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. III, pl. 24 (1846), part.

    _Euryapteryx exilis_ Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIX, p. 552, pl.
    XLVIII, Fig. C (1897).

Differs from _E. crassus_ in the tibia being more convex on the anterior
surface. The skull, among other differences, has a very slight frontal
rising to the cranial roof, as opposed to the very conspicuous one in the
remaining species. The type is a nearly complete skeleton in the Wanganui
Museum. For full description see Hutton, l.c.

Habitat: North Island, New Zealand.


                           PACHYORNIS LYDEKKER.

The skull is either vaulted or flattened, with a sharp and narrow beak. The
paroccipital processes are shorter and more rounded, and the basi-occipital
tubercles more prominent than in _Anomalopteryx_, while the quadrate and
mandible resemble the same bones in that genus somewhat closely. The
sternum is flat and very broad and short, with no coracoidal facets, a very
small xiphisternal notch, broad and short costal processes, and widely
divergent lateral processes; while there are only two costal articulations.
The pelvis is extremely low and wide, with the anterior wall of the
acetabulum very deeply concave, the ventral surface of all the vertebrae
behind the true sacrals narrow and convex, and from which the very broad
sacral ribs ascend to join the ilium, of which the inferior postacetabular
border is very sharp, and descends far below the level of the ribs. There
is no pectineal process to the pubis. The tibio-tarsus is very short, with
the shaft curved outwards, the distal extremity markedly inflected, and the
fibular ridge much shorter than in the other genera. The fibular border
below the smooth space at the distal extremity of the fibular ridge is
extremely rough; and the distal extensor tubercle is very prominent, being
situated partly on the line of the upper half of the extensor groove,
instead of being altogether external to the same.

The tarso-metatarsus is still shorter and wider than in _Emeus_, the width
at the middle of the shaft being usually rather more than one third of the
length. The third trochlea is more prominent than in the other genera, and
rises very abruptly from the shaft, the outer border of the anterior
surface usually expanding suddenly at the proximal extremity, and the outer
ridge of this surface being always more prominent than the inner, whereas
in the other genera the opposite condition obtains. The femur, as compared
with that of _Dinornis_, is very much shorter and thicker, with a longer
neck, and the head rising and projecting very considerably, the linea
aspera mainly forming a rough nodule near the distal end of the shaft, the
outer surface of the distal extremity more suddenly expanded, and the
popliteal depression larger, more open, and leading to the inner surface of
the shaft by a more distinct channel. The profile of the inner condyle is
wider antero-posteriorly, and more rounded, the anterior intertrochlear
surface being deeply channelled.

The phalangeals of the pes are much shorter and stouter than in _Dinornis_,
the proximal surface of the terminal segments generally presenting a
trefoil-shaped contour. The length of the tarso-metatarsus is very much
{214} less than half that of the tibio-tarsus. In the vertebral column the
cervicals are short with very stout centra, the prezygopophyses in the
middle region being nearly horizontal and separated from one another by a
wide channel. The posterior face of the centra is tall and narrow, and the
neural spines of the last two vertebrae much inclined forward. In the
dorsals there is usually no anterior pneumatic foramen till the fourth (or
the last with a distinct haemal carina), this foramen being situated on the
line of the anterior border of the rib-facet. The third and fourth dorsals
are extremely compressed. Throughout the series also the neural spines and
transverse processes are comparatively long. Additional characters of the
skull are that the sphenoidal rostrum is expanded in a lance-like shape at
the anterior extremity, in a manner unlike that of any of the other genera.

Then the supraoccipital never has a very strongly developed median
prominence, and the temporal fossae are comparatively short. The mandible
may be readily distinguished from that of the other genera by the low
position of the inner aperture of the dental canal, which pierces the bone
obliquely to join the small lateral vacuity.

Type of the genus: _Pachyornis elephantopus_ (Owen).

Number of species: 8.

                     PACHYORNIS ELEPHANTOPUS (OWEN.)

    _Dinornis elephantopus_ Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. IV, p. 149 (1853).

    _Palapteryx elephantopus_ Haast, Ibis, Ser. 3, vol. IV, p. 212 (1874).

    _Euryapteryx elephantopus_ Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 135

Until Mr. Lydekker described _Pachyornis immanis_, and Mr. Andrews
_Aepyornis titan_, this was undoubtedly the most bulky and ponderous of all
known Ratitae, extinct and living.

Type: Awamoa, near Oamanu.

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand.

Two imperfect skeletons in the Tring Museum; one from Kapua Swamps. {215}

                         PACHYORNIS IMMANIS LYD.

    _Pachyornis immanis_ Lydekker, Cat. Foss. Birds Brit. Mus., p. 343

This is the most bulky and largest member of the genus, and also of all
_Dinornithidae_. Its living parallel to-day is _Casuarius philipi_
Rothschild, which, though by no means the tallest species of _Casuarius_,
is the most bulky, and has the shortest and stoutest legs--the
tarso-metatarsus is specially short and stout.

The type tarso-metatarsus measures 228 mm. = 8.9 inches, and in width
(shaft) 84 mm. = 3.3 inches, while the type tarso-metatarsus of
_elephantopus_ measures 239 mm. = 9.4 inches and 65 mm. = 2.55 inches.

The skull is much more depressed than in _elephantopus_ and with deeper
temporal fossae and a shorter post orbital region.

Type: No. A168 British Museum.

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand.

                       PACHYORNIS ROTHSCHILDI LYD.

    _Pachyornis rothschildi_ Lydekker, P.Z.S. 1891, pp. 479-482, pl.

The bones in the Tring Museum, which form the type of this species,
unfortunately have no history and their locality is unknown. It differs
from the other species of the genus by the slenderer proportions of the
tibio-tarsus, which is 22 inches long by 2.9 inches distal width, as
opposed to 24 inches by 4.2 in _elephantopus_ and 20 inches by 3.5 in
_ponderosus_, the two nearest in size. Femur: length 10.6 as opposed to
12.5 inches in _elephantopus_. {216}

                      PACHYORNIS PONDEROSUS (HUTT.)

    _Euryapteryx ponderosus_ Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst., p. 137 (1892).

This species is slightly smaller than _P. elephantopus_, the
tarso-metatarsus varying from 8.25 to 8.0 inches, as opposed to from 9.4 to
9.25 in _elephantopus_; the tibio-tarsus varies from 18.5 to 18.6, as
opposed to 24 to 24.1; femur, 10, as opposed to 13 to 11.8.

The skull can be distinguished by the processes at the hinder angles of the
basi-sphenoid, which are higher and rounder in _ponderosus_, flatter and
more elongated in _elephantopus_. Type: Hamilton.

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand.

Cast of egg in Tring Museum, taken from specimen in Otago Museum, dredged
up in 1901 in the Molyneux River, also incomplete skeleton from Kapua

                        PACHYORNIS INHABILIS HUTT.

    _Pachyornis inhabilis_ Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXV, p. 11 (1893).

Differs from _ponderosus_ by having the great inward expansion at the
distal end of the tibio-tarsus. This expansion has induced some
ornithologists to separate the species of _Pachyornis_ into two
genera--_Euryapteryx_ and _Pachyornis_--but I do not think this expansion
of sufficient importance to warrant generic separation.

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand.

                        PACHYORNIS VALGUS (HUTT.)

    _Euryapteryx valgus_ Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXV, p. 12 (1893).

This species is at once distinguishable from all others by the
extraordinary internal expansion of the distal end of the tibio-tarsus. The
tarso-metatarsus is 8.5 inches = 216 mm. in length and the proximal width
3.5 inches = 89 mm., and does not differ much from _crassus_ except in the
great proximal width, necessary to articulate with the distal internal
expansion described above.

The type came from Enfield in New Zealand.

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand. {217}

                       PACHYORNIS PYGMAEUS (HUTT.)

    _Euryapteryx pygmaeus_ Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 739 (1892).

As implied by its name, this is the smallest species of _Pachyornis_, the
tarso-metatarsus only measuring 6 inches in length. The type came from

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand.

                       PACHYORNIS COMPACTA (HUTT.)

    _Euryapteryx compacta_ Hutton, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXV, p. 11 (1893).

Approaches nearest to _pygmaeus_ in size, but can be at once distinguished
by the distal extremity of the tibio-tarsus not being expanded inwards. The
tarso-metatarsus has the trochleae considerably more expanded than in

Type from Enfield in New Zealand.

Habitat: Middle Island, New Zealand.


                         PALAEOCASUARIUS FORBES.

Dr. Forbes founded this genus of _Dinornithidae_ on remains of Moas of
three distinct sizes as regards femora collected by him at Manitoto. Dr.
Forbes has kindly placed these bones at my disposal, and the following
summarises the results of my examination. I find that Dr. Forbes' original
idea as to the distinctness of _Palaeocasuarius_ is perfectly justified, as
not only are his characters of the tibio-tarsus, as opposed to those in the
other genera, correct, but the proportions between femur, tibio-tarsus and
tarso-metatarsus are quite different to those of other genera. I give the
proportions of the three bones in _Palaeocasuarius elegans_, _Megalapteryx
tenuipes_, and _Pachyornis elephantopus_, which are the three most nearly
allied genera:

                          | Pal. elegans. | M. tenuipes. | Pach.
                          |               |              | elephantopus.
  Femur, length           | 10-5/8 inches | 11    inches | 12    inches
  Width over condyles     |  3-1/2   "    |  3-1/2   "   |  5       "
  Tibio-tarsus, length    | 16       "    | 15-1/2   "   | 33       "
  Width at distal end     |  2       "    |  2-1/4   "   |  3-1/2   "
  Tarso-metatarsus, length|  7       "    |  6       "   |  9       "
  Width at centre         |  1-1/2   "    |  1-1/4   "   |  2-1/4   "

The original diagnosis was as follows, being founded on the tibio-tarsus:
"The tibio-tarsus differs from that of all other genera in being straighter
and less twisted on itself, so that the position of the ridge forming the
inner wall of the groove for the tendons of the extensor muscles run along
the inner side of the bone as in _Casuarius_. As in the latter genus it
takes a marked turn inwards and backwards before joining the epicnemial
crest, while a line joining the centre point between the distal condyles
and the epicnemial ridge leaves a considerable space between it and the
wall of the groove. There is no intercondylar eminence in the intercondylar
channel, and the orifice of the extensor foramen opens more longitudinally
than in the other genera, and points downwards."

Type of the genus: _Palaeocasuarius haasti_ Forbes.

Number of species: 3.

In the following descriptions of the three species I only rely on the
measurements of the femora, as not all the other leg bones of the three
species are available. {220}


    _Palaeocasuarius haasti_ Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 189 (1892).

Femur: length approximately 8.5 inches; width across head and great
trochanter 2.25 inches. Tarso-metatarsus: length 7 inches; width in centre
1.15 inches, at distal end 2.75 inches.

Type from Manitoto in Liverpool Museum.

This bird exceeded considerably the cassowary in size, is all the author
tells us of this bird. It is a pity that Dr. Forbes did not insist on the
publication in full of his paper, as proper descriptions of all the twelve
new species are wanting.

Habitat: New Zealand.


    _Palaeocasuarius velox_ Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 189 (1892).

Femur: length 9.5 inches; width across head and trochanter 2.75 inches,
across distal end 2.5 inches. Tarso-metatarsus: length 7 inches; width in
centre 1.5 inches, across distal end 3 inches.

Type specimen from Manitoto in Liverpool Museum.

Habitat: New Zealand.


    _Palaeocasuarius elegans_ Forbes, Trans. N.Z. Inst. XXIV, p. 189

Femur: length 10.75 inches; width across head and trochanter 3.25 inches,
across distal end 3.4 inches. Tarso-metatarsus: length 7.8 inches, width
over centre 1.75, over distal end about 3.3 inches.

Type specimen from Manitoto in the Liverpool Museum.

Habitat: New Zealand.



The first notice we have from a scientific man of the existence on
Madagascar of large Struthious birds is the description by Isidore
Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire of two eggs and a few osseous remains, in the
Annales des Sciences naturelles III, Zoologie, vol. XIV (1850). These
important objects were sent to the describer by a colonist of Reunion,
Monsieur de Malavois, but were obtained from the natives in Madagascar by
Captain M. Abadie. A third egg arrived smashed. The name given on this
evidence was _Aepyornis maximus_.

Since then some 40 eggs at least and a large number of odd bones have been
collected by Monsieur Grandidier, Messrs. Last and others, and Dr. Forsyth
Major, but only one practically complete, and one less complete skeleton of
a smaller species, named _Aepyornis hildebrandti_ by Dr. Burckhardt.

A large number of species has been diagnosed on the evidence of these bones
and eggs by Professor Milne-Edwards, Mr. Dawson Rowley and Mr. Andrews, and
a second genus, _Mullerornis_, established.

The following is the diagnosis of the family


Head less flattened than in the _Dinornithidae_, much longer and narrower.
Brain case much greater in volume. Occipital condyle strongly pedunculate.
Temporal fossae deep and narrow. The basisphenoid has on each side a well
marked pterygoidal apophysis. The lower mandible is straight and stout,
recalling somewhat that of _Rhea_, but the maxillary branches are higher
and stouter. The symphysis is long, contracted, and hollowed out in the
shape of a ladle. The sternum presents many affinities to that of
_Apteryx_. It is a thin plastron, flattened, and much widened. The
coracoidal articular surfaces similar to those of _Apteryx_. The
Coraco-scapulars are feeble, and have so faint an articular surface that
the humerus must have been rudimentary. Hallux absent, outer digit has
five, the middle digit four, and the inner digit three phalanges.

There are three genera and twelve species.

A striking character is that in the genus _Aepyornis_ the proximal
extremity of the tarso-metatarsus is larger than the distal extremity, a
feature not found in the majority of other birds.

Monsieur Grandidier has expressly pointed out that _Aepyornis_ had only
three toes, I cannot, therefore, understand why Messrs. Lydekker and Evans
both state that the hallux is present. {222}

In spite of the researches of Messrs. Grandidier, Last, and Forsyth Major
and the large collections sent home by them, the number of _Aepyornis_
bones is infinitesimal compared with the vast masses of bones of the
_Dinornithidae_ contained in the museums. This paucity of material quite
prohibits us from making a critical study of the described species, so that
we are at present unable to say if too many or too few species have been
diagnosed. I am inclined, however, to think that if we ever get complete
skeletons of the larger forms, _Ae. grandidieri_ and _Ae. cursor_ will
prove to be sexes of one species, and also _Ae. titan_ and _Ae. maximus_.
For the present, however, the measurements are too different to allow of
their being united without further investigation.

The three genera are as follows:--


    _Aepyornis_ Geoffroy Saint Hilaire.

    _Epiornis_ Geoffroy Saint Hilaire.

    _Epyornis_ Auct.


    _Mullerornis_ Milne-Edwards and Grandidier.


    _Flacourtia_ Andrews.

    _Mullerornis_ Milne-Edwards and Grandidier (part).


                             AEPYORNIS GEOFF.

Characters same as those of the family; but in opposition to _Mullerornis_
the species are very heavy, ponderous, and clumsy, the bones being both
actually and comparatively much stouter. Differs from _Flacourtia_ in not
having an ossified boney bridge over lower end of groove for adductor of
outer digit.

Type: _Aepyornis maximus_ Geoff.

Number of species: 9.

                          AEPYORNIS TITAN ANDR.

    _Aepyornis titan_ Andrews, Geol. Mag. 1895, p. 303.

This appears to be the largest species of the genus, though _Ae. maximus_
is considerably stouter. In the original description of _Ae. ingens_,
however, the tibio-tarsi referred to that species are really those of _Ae.

  Smallest Femur.

  Length about                                   430 mm.
  Circumference, narrowest point                 280 "
  Width, distal end                              190 "
  Width of shaft at narrowest part                97 "

  Largest Femur.

  Length                                         470 mm.
  Circumference at narrowest point               280 "
  Width, distal end                              210 "

  Distal part of tibio-tarsus.

  Width at distal end                            180 mm.
  Width of shaft at narrowest point               77 "
  Circumference of shaft at narrowest point      210 "


  Length                                         480 mm.
  Width at proximal end                          190 "
  Width at distal end                            165 "
  Width at narrowest point of shaft               80 "
  Circumference at narrowest point of shaft      200 "


The skull, pelvis, and most vertebrae, as well as the sternum of this form
are unknown.

Habitat: S. W. Madagascar.

Three Femora, two tarsi-metatarsi, and two incomplete tibia-tarsi are in
the Tring Museum, collected by Last in the Antinosy country.

There are two eggs of this species at Tring, the measurements of which are
as follows:--

  No. 1, Antinosy Country, Last.
  Large circumference      862.5 mm.
  Small circumference      631.5 "

  No. 2 (traded).
  Large circumference        883 mm.
  Small circumference        763 "

The egg mentioned by Mr. Lydekker in Cat. Foss. Birds B.M., page 214, No.
41847 is, judging from its size, undoubtedly an egg of this species, and I
quote the measurements, as they are very large:--

  Largest circumference      921 mm.
  Smallest circumference     768 "

The egg purchased in 1854 in the Paris Museum measures:--

  Large circumference        925 mm.
  Small circumference        753 "

In addition to these four eggs which are undoubtedly of _Ae. titan_, there
are the following which I consider to belong to that species:--

  1 Paris Museum, Mr. Armange.
  1 Hamburg.
  1 Messrs. Gilford, Orange, New Jersey.
  1 Rowley collection.

These four eggs range from 900 mm. to 863.5 mm. in large circumference, and
770 mm. to 736 mm. in small circumference. {225}

                         AEPYORNIS MAXIMUS GEOFF.

    _Aepyornis maximus_ I. Geoffrey St. Hilaire, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3,
    vol. XIV, p. 209 (1851).

    _Aepyornis ingens_ Milne-Edwards & Grandidier, C.R. CXVIII, pp. 122-127

This is the stoutest and bulkiest species, though not so tall as _Ae.
titan_. All the largest eggs next to those of _Ae. titan_ must belong to
this species. It will be argued that I have no right to use the name
_maximus_ for this form, but the name of _maximus_ is based on one of the
eggs in the Paris Museum, and as these evidently belong to this form and
not to the form subsequently called _maximus_, I must apply to that the
name of _grandidieri_, given by Mr. Dawson Rowley in 1867 to a portion of
eggshell of the lesser form.

The measurements of the limbs are as follows:--


  Total length                                440 mm.
  Width at proximal end                       190 "
  Width at distal end                         200 "
  Circumference at narrowest part of shaft    265 "


  Total length                                780 mm.
  Width at proximal end                       180 "
  Width at distal end                         160 "
  Circumference at narrowest part of shaft    210 "


  Total length                                420 mm.
  Width at proximal end                       170 "
  Width at distal end                         160 "
  Circumference at narrowest part of shaft    200 "

The description of the foot in the diagnosis of the family is based on the
pes of this species. It is true that the two mounted skeletons in the
British and Tring Museums of _Aepyornis hildebrandti_ show a larger number
of phalanges; but as neither is composed of the bones of a single
individual it is more than likely that the articulator made a mistake.

The dimensions of the type egg are as follows:--

  Large diameter                              340 mm.
  Small diameter                              225 "
  Large circumference                         850 "
  Small circumference                         710 "

Habitat: S. W. Madagascar.

There are about 16 eggs known of this form, varying from 854 mm. to 816 mm.
in large circumference, and from 743 mm. to 715 mm. in small circumference.


    _Aepyornis Maximus_ Auct.

    _Aepyornis grandidieri_ Rowley, P.Z.S. 1867, p. 892.

This is the form which nearly all the bones, referred erroneously to
Geoffroy's _Ae. maximus_, belong. The original description of Dawson Rowley
was founded on a piece of eggshell, and is as follows:--

"The granulation is in a marked degree different from that of the other
pieces. The air pores which in the other specimens appear like a comet with
a tail are here only small indentations without any tail; the shell also is
only half the thickness, is much finer, and presents an aspect so diverse
that the difference is detected by the most careless observer, even when
the pieces are all mixed. These fragments belonged to the egg of much
smaller birds, the embryo of which required less strength in the shell. Yet
the colour, quality and locality of that shell clearly point to a bird of
the same family as _Aepyornis maximus_--in short, a smaller and more
delicate _Aepyornis_. For this species I propose the name of _Aepyornis

The measurements of bones of the hind limb are as follows:--


  Length                                 320 mm.
  Width at distal end                    190 "


  Length                                 640 mm.

There are at Tring two eggs of this species.

  No. 1, traded.

  Length                               283.0 mm.
  Width                                215.0 "
  Large circumference                  777.5 "
  Small circumference                  670.0 "

  No. 2 Ambondo, Ambovombe in the district of Fort Dauphin.

  Large circumference                  775   mm.
  Small circumference                  662.5 "

There are recorded of these eggs, besides the two mentioned above, eight
further specimens, varying from 810 mm. to 771.5 mm. in large
circumference, and 686 mm. to 654 mm. in small circumference.

In addition to these there are in various collections about eight or nine
eggs whose species is doubtful. {227}

                     AEPYORNIS CURSOR M.-E. & GRAND.

    _Aepyornis cursor_ Milne-Edwards & Grandidier, C.R. CXVIII, p. 124

Original description as follows: _Ae. cursor_ is almost as large as _Ae.
grandidieri_ = _maximus_ auct., nec. Geoffroy, but is more slender.

  Length of tarso-metatarsus         380 mm.
  Width at proximal end              140 "
  Width at distal end                120 "
  Circumference of shaft             155 "
  Width of shaft                      65 "

Habitat: Madagascar.

                     AEPYORNIS MEDIUS M.-E. & GRAND.

    _Aepyornis medius_ Milne-Edwards & Grandidier, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. V,
    vol. XII, p. 179 (1869).

    _Aepyornis medius_ Milne-Edwards & Grandidier, Rech. Faune. Orn. Et.
    Masc. & Mad. (1866-73), p. 97, note 2.

This form was founded on a femur found at Amboulitsate in W. Madagascar,
and is described as follows: "It presents the same general characters, and
evidently belongs to an _Aepyornis_, but to a different species, which we
will call _Aepyornis medius_. The femur in question is not only
distinguished by its lesser proportions but by the narrower external face
of the bone; which variation results in causing the whole area between the
trochanter and the base of the femoral neck to be much less depressed. The
intermuscular line, which marks the insertion surface of the deep portion
of the femoral triceps muscle, is hardly indicated, whereas it is very
pronounced in the larger femur. The posterior side is also more rounded,
and the distance which separates the popliteal depression from the proximal
extremity is larger; the shape of this large depression is, however, the
same as in the larger femur, and although the articular surfaces above it
do show some differences, we know that these characters are not very
reliable as they are subject to individual variations.

Circumference of shaft 215 mm."

Habitat: West Madagascar. {228}


    _Aepyornis hildebrandti_ Burckhardt, Pal. Abh. (VI) II, p. 127 (1893).

I must refer my readers to Dr. Burckhardt's description, as it is too long
and too technical to be reproduced here, especially as it is not
comparative. I, however, give here some of his measurements:--


                               _A. grandidieri._  _A. hildebrandti._
  Length                             640 mm.            480 mm.
  Breadth at proximal end            190 "              130 "
  Breadth at distal end              135 "               82 "


  Length circa                       375 mm.            275 mm.
  Breadth at proximal end            145 "              103 "
  Breadth at distal end              145 "               95 "

The locality of the type is Sirabe.

Habitat: Madagascar.

                     AEPYORNIS LENTUS M.-E. & GRAND.

    _Aepyornis lentus_ Milne-Edwards & Grandidier, C.R. CXVIII, p. 124

Original description as follows: "_Ae. lentus_ is remarkable from its short
and massive feet.

  Length of tarso-metatarsus           360 mm.
  Width of proximal end                150 "
  Circumference of shaft               170 "
  Width of shaft                        68 "  "

Habitat: Madagascar. {229}

                     AEPYORNIS MULLERI M.-E. & GRAND.

    _Aepyornis mulleri_ Milne-Edwards & Grandidier, C.R. CXVII, pp. 124-125

The original description commences: "The new species which we owe to the
researches of M. G. Muller, and which we shall name _Ae. mulleri_, is
smaller. Nevertheless, it is superior in size to _Ae. hildebrandti_,
described by M. Burckhardt, which also came from Antsirabe. We possess the
almost complete skeleton of this bird, the skull, mandible, vertebrae,
ribs, sternum, a part of the pelvis, the leg bones, and a few phalanges of
the pes; so that we can now exactly define the position and affinities of
the genus _Aepyornis_." Then follows the diagnosis of the family, which I
have given before.

Habitat: Central Madagascar.

                    AEPYORNIS MODESTUS M.-E. & GRAND.

    _Aepyornis modestus_ Milne-Edwards & Grandidier, Ann. Sci. Nat. (5)
    XII, p. 189 (1869).

Messrs. Milne-Edwards & Grandidier state at pages 180-181 that the bone (a
portion of a femur) which is the type of the above name, had a
shaft-circumference of 120 mm., while in _Ae. medius_ this circumference
was 215 mm., and in _Ae. grandidieri_ (= _maximus_ auct. nec. Geoffroy), it
was 270 mm.

Type locality: Amboulitsate, in West Madagascar.



Birds of medium size, not having the heavy and massive build of
_Aepyornis_. They appear to resemble more closely the _Casuaridae_. Known
only from leg bones.

Number of species: 2.


    _Mullerornis betsilei_ Milne-Edwards and Grandidier, Compt. Rend.,
    CXVIII, p. 125 (1894).

Original description as follows:--"The leg bones are slender, the
tarso-metatarsus is not enlarged as in the preceding genus, and the section
through the shaft shows almost an isosceles triangle. The bone itself
having more the proportion of _Dromaius_.

  "Length of tibio-tarsus                    390 mm.
   Circumference of tibio-tarsus              90 "
   Width of tibio-tarsus                      30 "
   Width of proximal end                      75 "
   Width of distal end                        60 "
   Length of tarso-metatarsus                310 "
   Circumference of tarso-metatarsus          80 "
   Width of shaft of tarso-metatarsus         27 "
   Width of proximal end                      70 "

"_Mullerornis betsilei_ inhabited the same area as _Ae. mulleri_ but was
much rarer. (Translated.)"

Habitat: Central Madagascar. {232}


    _Mullerornis agilis_ Milne-Edwards and Grandidier, Compt. Rend.,
    CXVIII, pp. 125-126 (1894).

Original description as follows:--"_M. agilis_ inhabited the South-west
Coast; we only possess, of this species, one tibia, which is remarkable for
the manner in which the intermuscular bony ridges and the tendon-grooves
are marked. The exterior border of the bone above the lower articular
surface has developed into a very pronounced crista." (Translated.)

  "Length of tibio-tarsus                 440 mm.
   Circumference of tibio-tarsus           97 "
   Width of tibio-tarsus                   34 "
   Width at proximal end                   65 "
   Width at distal end                     75 " "

Habitat: South-west Madagascar.


                           FLACOURTIA ANDREWS.

Differs from _Mullerornis_ in having a completely ossified bony bridge over
the lower end of the groove for the adductor of the outer digit, in the

Number of species: 1.

                  FLACOURTIA RUDIS (MILNE-EDW. & GRAND.)

    _Mullerornis rudis_ Milne-Edwards & Grandidier, Compt. Rend. CXVIII, p.
    126 (1894).

    _Flacourtia rudis_ Andrews, Nov. Zool. II, p. 25 (1895).

Original description as follows:--"The third species _M. rudis_ (= _F.
rudis_) was discovered by M. Greve in the fossiliferous beds of the West
Coast. The tibio-tarsus is of about the same length as in _M. betsilei_,
but is more massive. The tarso-metatarsus is remarkable on account of the
great enlargement of the distal extremity, and of which the digital
articular attachments are extremely large. Between the middle and outer
ones there is a bony opening for the passage of the adductor muscle of the
outer digit, which passage is not present in _Aepyornis_ (or _Mullerornis_,
W.R.)." (Translation.)

  Length of tibio-tarsus                 400 mm.
  Circumference of tibio-tarsus          100 "
  Width of tibio-tarsus                   35 "
  Width of distal end                     75 "

Habitat: West Madagascar.


                        DROMAIUS PERONI NOM. NOV.

                               (PLATE 40.)

    _Casoar de la Nouvelle Hollande_ Peron, Relat. Voy. Terr. Austr. I p.
    467, pl. XXXVI (1807).

    _Dromoius ater_ Vieillot, Gal. des Ois, pl. 226 (not text).

    _Dromaeus ater_ Blyth, Ibis 1862, p. 93.

It is most unfortunate that the larger number of authors have neglected to
go carefully into the synonymy of this bird; if they had done so it would
not have been necessary, after 81 years, to reject the very appropriate
name of _ater_, and to rename the Emu of Kangaroo Island. Vieillot, in the
Nouveau Dictionnaire D'Histoire Naturelle X, page 212, distinctly states
that his _Dromaius ater_ was a name given to Latham's _Casuarius
novaehollandiae_, and makes no mention of Peron or of the Isle Decres.

The figures in Peron's work of the adult male and female are not good, but
those of the young and nestlings appear to me to be very accurate, and the
plate in the Galerie des Oiseaux is quite excellent. The latter and my own
are taken from the type specimen in the Paris Museum, while the plate in
Peron was done by Lessieur from a series of sketches from life made by
himself on Decres Island and in the menagerie of the Jardin des Plantes.
The only known specimens of this extinct species are the mounted skin and
skeleton in Paris and the skeleton in the Florence Museum. All these are
what remain of the three living birds brought to Paris by Peron, and no
other authentic specimens exist anywhere. There is in the Museum at
Liverpool a full-grown, though immature Emu of the same size as _Dromaius
peronii_, but owing to its proportionally longer legs and very scanty
plumage it is not absolutely safe to identify it as a second mounted
specimen of _D. peronii_. I will recur to this lower down.

Description of adult male (ex Cat. Birds Brit. Mus.): Similar to _D.
novaehollandiae_, but much smaller, and with feathers of the neck entirely
black; feathers of the body brown fulvous, with the apical half very dark
blackish brown; bill and feet blackish, naked skin of the sides of the neck
blue. Total length about 55 inches, tarsus 11.40, culmen 2.36.

Immature in first plumage entirely sooty black. Nestling whitish with
longitudinal bands of rufous brown. In addition to Decres or Kangaroo
Island, also Flinders, King Islands, and Tasmania had Emus living on them
{236} at the time of Peron's visit, and I believe, if authentic specimens
from these localities were in existence we should find that each of these
islands had had a distinct species or race of Emus. Taking this for
granted, and also taking into account that it is slightly different from
the type of _D. peronii_, I have come to the conclusion that the Liverpool
specimen is an immature, though full-grown individual from one of these
other islands; but it is not possible from this one rather poor specimen to
separate it from the Kangaroo Island species, especially as there is
absolutely no indication of the origin of this specimen.

Habitat: Island of Decres or Kangaroo Island.

One stuffed specimen (Type) and one skeleton in Paris, one skeleton in
Florence, and one stuffed specimen in Liverpool (an species diversa?). Also
some leg-bones in Adelaide, Australia.

Dr. H. O. Forbes, who kindly lent me the last-named specimen, was the first
to point out the differences of this bird from _D. novaehollandiae_. It is
certainly totally distinct from birds of similar age of either _D.
novaehollandiae_ or _D. n. irroratus_. {237}

                        DROMAIUS MINOR (SPENCER).

    _Dromaeus minor_ Baldwin Spencer, Vict. Nat. XXIII, p. 140 (1906).

As Mr. Bernard H. Woodward, of Perth, West Australia, was organising an
expedition to Kangaroo, Flinders, and King Islands (December, 1906), to
hunt for Emu remains on these islands, I had hoped to be the first to
describe what I felt sure would be two new species of _Dromaius_. I have,
however, been forestalled by Professor Baldwin Spencer in the case of King
Island, whence a collection of 17 femurs, 19 tibio-tarsi, 28
tarso-metatarsi, and portions of 8 pelves, made by Messrs. Alex. Morton and
R. M. Johnston, T.S.O., formed the material for the description of a new

The diagnosis is as follows: "Smaller than _D. ater_ (= _D. peronii_ mihi).
Tibia not or only slightly exceeding 330 mm. in greatest length.
Tarso-metatarsus not exceeding 280 mm. in greatest length. Pelvis, length
not or only slightly exceeding 280 mm."

_D. minor_ was a smaller but stouter bird than _D. peronii_. Comparative

                                           _D. peronii_.  _D. minor_.
  Tibio-tarsus                                 342 mm.    320-332 mm.
  Tarso-metatarsus                             290 "      277-287 "
  Femur                                        180 "      170-180 "
  Pelvis                                       340 "      274-280 "
  Pelvis, front width                           75 "           64 "
  Pelvis, width behind acetabular cavity        92 "        78-86 "

Habitat: King Island, Bass Strait. Now extinct.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Aechmorhynchus,                      119
  Aepyornis,                           223
  Aepyornithidae,                      221
  Aestrelata,                          157
  agilis (Mullerornis),                232
  alba (Notornis),                     144
  alba (Porphyrio),                    143
  albicilla (Clitonyx),                 XI
  albifacies (Sceloglaux),              XI
  albifrons (Miro),                     XI
  Alca,                                153
  Alectroenas,                         163
  Alopochen,                             X
  alphonsi (Astur),                     83
  altus (Dinornis),                    192
  Amazona,                              57
  americana (Meleagris),               XII
  americanus (Siphonorhis),             43
  Anas,                                103
  angustipluma (Chaetoptila),           29
  anna (Ciridops),                      41
  Anomalopteryx,                       201
  antiquus (Anomalopteryx),            202
  antipodum (Palaeocorax),               1
  Aphanapteryx,                        131
  apicalis (Moho),                      27
  Apterornis,                          145
  Aptornis,                            147
  Ara,                                  51
  Ardea,                               111
  Astur,                                83
  ater (Dromaeus),                     235
  Athene,                               75
  aucklandica (Nesonetta),              XI
  augusta (Amazona),                   XII
  australis (Mergus),                   XI
  australis (Miro),                     XI

  benedeni (Anas),                      IX
  betsilei (Mullerornis),              231
  bifrons (Metapteryx),                  X
  Biziura,                             109
  bonasia (Aphanapteryx),              131
  boothi (Emeus),                      210
  borbonica (Emberiza),                  7
  borbonica (Pezophaps),               175
  borbonica (Phedina),                  XI
  borbonicus (Fregilupus),               3
  borbonicus (Necropsittacus),          62
  borbonicus (Palaeornis),              67
  borbonicus (Trochocercus),            XI
  bouqueti (Amazona),                  XII
  Bowdleria,                            21
  brachyurus (Rhamphocinclus),          XI
  Branta,                                X
  brewsteri (Tympanuchus),             181
  broeckii (Aphanapteryx),             131
  bruante (Foudia),                      7
  Bubo,                                 71

  Cabalus,                             127
  caeruleus (Anadorhynchus),            54
  calcitrans (Cnemiornis),              97
  californianus (Pseudogryphus),       XII
  Camptolaimus,                        105
  canadensis (Columba),                167
  cancellata (Aechmorhynchus),         119
  capensis (Upupa),                      3
  Carbo,                                87
  carribbaea (Aestrelata),             157
  carolinensis (Conurus),              XII
  Casuarius,                             X
  casuarinus (Cela),                   207
  Cela,                                205
  Centrornis,                           95
  Cereopsis,                            99
  Chaetoptila,                          29
  chathamensis (Palaeolimnas),         149
  chathamica (Gallinago),              121
  Chaunoproctus,                         9
  Chenalopex,                           93
  Chenopis,                             91
  Cinclocerthia,                        XI
  cincta (Pogonornis),                  XI
  Circus,                               81
  Ciridops,                             41
  Clitonyx,                             XI
  Cnemiornis,                           97
  coerulescens (Apterornis),           145
  commersoni (Scops),                   73
  compacta (Pachyornis),               217
  Conurus,                              59
  cooki (Cyanorhamphus),                XI
  Coturnix,                            183
  coudoni (Anser),                       X
  crassus (Emeus),                     209
  cucullatus (Didus),                  172
  cupido (Tympanuchus),                181
  cursor (Aepyornis),                  227
  curtus (Cela),                       205
  Cyanorhamphus,                        69

  defossor (Aptornis),                 148
  dentirostris (Geospiza),              12
  deppei (Psittirostra),                37
  diabolica (Aestrelata),              159
  Diaphorapteryx,                      133
  Dididae,                             171
  didiformis (Anomalopteryx),          202
  didiformis (Dinornis),               199
  didinus (Dinornis),                  199
  Didus,                               171
  dieffenbachii (Nesolimnas),          125
  dimidiata (Monarcha),                 XI
  Dinornis,                            191
  Dinornithidae,                       185
  Drepanis,                             31
  Dromaius,                         X, 235
  dromioides (Dinornis),               194
  duboisi (Ardea),                     114
  duboisi (Mascarinus),                 64
  duboisi (Nesoenas),                  166

  ecaudata (Pennula),                  137
  echo (Palaeornis),                    68
  Ectopistes,                          167
  effluxus (Microtribonyx),              X
  elapsa (Anas),                        IX
  elegans (Palaeocasuarius),           220
  elephantopus (Pachyornis),           214
  ellisi (Prosobonia),                 118
  ellisianus (Hemignathus),             33
  Emeus,                               209
  eques (Palaeornis),                   67
  erythrocephala (Ara),                 53
  Erythromachus,                       135
  erythronotus (Cyanorhamphus),         69
  erythrotis (Cyanorhamphus),           XI
  erythrura (Ara),                      54
  excelsus (Dinornis),                 192
  exilis (Emeus),                      211
  exsul (Palaeornis),                   65

  falconeri (Cygnus),                    X
  ferreorostris (Chaunoproctus),         9
  finschi (Anas),                      103
  firmus (Dinornis),                   193
  Flacourtia,                          233
  flaviceps (Telespiza),                XI
  Foudia,                               XI
  forsteri (Cyanorhamphus),             69
  fortis (Anomalopteryx),              203
  franciae (Columba),                  163
  francicus (Necropsittacus),           62
  Fregilupus,                            3
  fuscatus (Psittacus),                 70
  fusco-fulvus (Nesacanthis),            7

  gallinacea (Progura),                  X
  Gallinago,                           121
  gigantea (Leguatia),                 151
  giganteus (Dinornis),                193
  genibarbis (Myadestes),               XI
  Geospiza,                         11, 12
  geranoides (Cela),                   206
  gossei (Ara),                         52
  gracilipes (Dromaius),                 X
  gracilis (Cnemiornis),                98
  gracilis (Dinornis),                 194
  grandidieri (Aepyornis),             226
  gravipes (Emeus),                    210
  Grus,                                  X
  guadaloupensis (Ara),                 54
  guildingi (Amazona),                 XII
  gutturalis (Cinclocerthia),           XI

  haasti (Emeus),                      210
  haasti (Palaeocasuarius),            220
  habroptilus (Stringops),             XII
  haesitata (Aestrelata),              159
  hamiltoni (Circus),                   81
  hamiltoni (Megalapteryx),            197
  Harpagornis,                          85
  harrisi (Phalacrocorax),             XII
  hasitata (Aestrelata),               159
  hawkinsi (Diaphorapteryx),           133
  hectori (Megalapteryx),              197
  Hemignathus,                          33
  Hemiphaga,                           161
  herberti (Didus),                    131
  Heterorhynchus,                       35
  hildebrandti (Aepyornis),            228
  hochstetteri (Notornis),             142
  huttonii (Megalapteryx),             199
  Hypotaenidia,                        123
  hypsibata (Branta),                   IX

  immanis (Pachyornis),                215
  impennis (Alca),                     153
  imperialis (Aphanapteryx),           131
  ineptus (Didus),                     172
  ingens (Dinornis),                   193
  inhabilis (Pachyornis),              216
  insignis (Ocydromus),                129
  insularis (Xenicus),                  23
  Ixocincla,                            XI

  jamaicensis (Aestrelata),            157

  labati (Conurus),                     59
  labradoria (Camptolaimus),           105
  lanaiensis (Hemignathus),            XII
  lautouri (Biziura),                  109
  leguati (Bubo),                       71
  leguati (Erythromachus),             135
  leguati (Necropsar),                   6
  Leguatia,                            151
  lentus (Aepyornis),                  228
  leucopogon (Strigiceps),              30
  leucoptera (Prosobonia),             118
  Lithophaps,                            X
  Lophopsittacus,                       49
  Loxops,                               39
  lucidus (Heterorhynchus),             35
  lyalli (Traversia),                   23
  lydekkeri (Casuarius),                 X
  lydekkeri (Prociconia),                X

  mackintoshi (Porphyrio),               X
  macroura (Ectopistes),               167
  madagascariensis (Mascarinus),        64
  madagascariensis (Upupa),           3, 4
  magnirostris (Geospiza),              11
  major (Carbo),                        88
  majori (Centrornis),                  95
  mantelli (Notornis),                 141
  martinicana (Amazona),                57
  martinicus (Ara),                     53
  Mascarinus,                           63
  mascarinus (Mascarinus),              64
  mauritiana (Ardea),                  115
  mauritianus (Lophopsittacus),         49
  mauritianus (Sarcidiornis),          101
  maximus (Aepyornis),                 225
  maximus (Dinornis),                  192
  mayeri (Nesoenas),                   165
  medius (Aepyornis),                  227
  megacephala (Ardea),                 111
  Megalapteryx,                        195
  melanocephala (Anthornis),           XII
  melitensis (Columba),                  X
  melitensis (Grus),                     X
  melitensis (Strix),                   IX
  melitensis (Vultur),                  IX
  Metapteryx,                            X
  meyeri (Columba),                    165
  Microtribonyx,                         X
  migratoria (Ectopistes),             167
  millsi (Pennula),                    137
  minor (Cnemiornis),                   98
  minor (Dromaius),                    237
  minor (Ocydromus),                   129
  minor (Pezophaps),                   177
  Miro,                             XI, 15
  modestus (Aepyornis),                229
  modestus (Cabalus),                  127
  Moho,                                 27
  Monarcha,                             XI
  moorei (Harpagornis),                 85
  moriorum (Palaeocorax),                1
  mulleri (Aepyornis),                 229
  mulleri (Hypotaenidia),               XI
  Mullerornis,                         231
  murina (Pyrrhula),                   XII
  murivora (Athene),                    75
  murivora (Strix),                     75

  nanus (Plotus),                       89
  nazarenus (Didus),                   177
  Necropsar,                             5
  Necropsittacus,                       61
  Nesoenas,                            165
  Nesolimnas,                          125
  Nestor,                               45
  newelli (Puffinus),                   XI
  newtoni (Foudia),                     XI
  newtoni (Genyornis),                   X
  newtoni (Palaeolimnas),         149, 150
  newtoni (Strix),                      79
  nigra (Pomarea),                      13
  nitidissima (Alectroenas),           163
  nobilis (Palaeopelargus),              X
  norfolcensis (Nestor),                47
  Notornis,                            141
  novaezealandiae (Cereopsis),          99
  novaezealandiae (Coturnix),          183
  novaezealandiae (Dinornis),          194
  novaezealandiae (Psittacus),          69
  novaezealandiae (Thinornis),         XII

  oahensis (Phaeornis),                 19
  Ocydromus,                           129
  Oestrelata,                          157
  olivacea (Ixocincla),                 XI
  olivacea (Psittirostra),              37
  otidiformis (Aptornis),              147
  oweni (Cela),                        206
  Oxynotus,                             XI

  Pachyornis,                          213
  pacifica (Drepanis),                  31
  pacifica (Hypotaenidia),             123
  pacificus (Cyanorhamphus),            69
  pacificus (Pareudiastes),            XII
  Palaeocasuarius,                     219
  Palaeocorax,                           1
  Palaeolimnas,                        149
  Pelaeopelargus,                        X
  Palaeornis,                           65
  papa (Fringilla),                      9
  parkeri (Emeus),                     211
  parvus (Anomalopteryx),              202
  patricius (Dromaius),                  X
  Pelecanus,                             X
  Pennula,                             137
  peralata (Gallinula),                  X
  peroni (Dromaius),                   235
  perspicillatus (Carbo),               87
  perspicillatus (Phalacrocorax),       87
  Pezophaps,                           177
  Phaeornis,                            19
  pisana (Fulica),                       X
  Platibis,                              X
  plenus (Palapteryx),                 194
  Plotus,                               89
  Pogonornis,                           XI
  Pomarea,                              13
  ponderosus (Pachyornis),             216
  potens (Dinornis),                   193
  primigenia (Grus),                     X
  principalis (Campephilus),           XII
  prior (Fulica),                        X
  prisca (Palaeolimnas),               150
  proavus (Grus),                        X
  proavus (Pelecanus),                  IX
  productus (Nestor),                   45
  propinqua (Branta),                   IX
  Prosobonia,                          117
  Psittirostra,                         37
  pugil (Alopochen),                    IX
  purpurascens (Anodorhynchus),         55
  pusilla (Gallinago),                 XII
  pygmaeus (Pachyornis),               217
  pygmaeus (Ocydromus),                127
  pyrrhetraea (Tringa),                118

  queenslandiae (Dromaius),              X

  Rhamphocinclus,                       XI
  rheides (Cela),                      207
  roberti (Tribonyx),                  139
  robusta (Aythya),                     IX
  robustus (Dinornis),                 193
  rodericana (Alectroenas?),           164
  rodericana (Drymoeca),                XI
  rodericanus (Necropsar),               5
  rodricanus (Necropsittacus),          61
  rothschildi (Pachyornis),            215
  rudis (Flacourtia),                  233
  rufa (Loxops),                        39
  rufescens (Bowdleria),                21
  rufifacies (Sceloglaux),              77

  sandviciensis (Nesochen),            XII
  sandwichensis (Pennula),             138
  Sarcidiornis,                        101
  sauzieri (Strix),                     80
  scaldii (Anser),                      IX
  Sceloglaux,                           77
  Scops,                                73
  sibilans (Myadestes),                 XI
  Siphonorhis,                          43
  sirabensis (Chenalopex),              93
  solitarius (Didus),                  175
  solitarius (Pezophaps),              177
  spadicea (Hemiphaga),                161
  subflavescens (Cyanorhamphus),        70
  subtenuis (Platibis),                  X
  sumnerensis (Chenopsis),              91
  stanleyi (Notornis),                 143
  strenuipes (Gallinula),                X
  strenuus (Dinornis),                 194
  Strigiceps,                           30
  Strix,                                79
  struthioides (Dinornis),             194
  sylvestris (Ocydromus),               XI

  tannaensis (Platycercus),             70
  tanagra (Turnagra),                   XI
  teauteensis (Circus),                 81
  tenuipes (Megalapteryx),             198
  terrestris (Cichlopasser),            17
  terrestris (Geocichla),               17
  terrestris (Turdus),                  17
  theodori (Anas),                     103
  titan (Aepyornis),                   223
  torosus (Dinornis),                  194
  traversi (Miro),                      15
  Traversia,                            23
  Tribonyx,                            139
  tricolor (Ara),                       51
  trifasciatus (Nesomimus),            XII
  Turnagra,                             XI
  Turdus,                               17
  turfa (Grus),                          X
  Tympanuchus,                         181
  typicus (Oxynotus),                   XI

  valgus (Pachyornis),                 216
  validipennis (Dendrocygna),           IX
  validus (Dinornis),                  193
  varia (Fregilupus),                    3
  varia (Upupa),                         3
  velox (Palaeocasuarius),             220
  versicolor (Amazona),                XII
  violaceus (Amazona),                  57

  ulietanus (Cyanorhamphus),            70
  ulnaris (Lithophaps),                  X
  unicolor (Cyanorhamphus),             XI

  wardi (Palaeornis),                   66
  wilsoni (Pennula),                   138
  wolstenholmei (Loxops),               39

  zealandicus (Cyanorhamphus),          69

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *




       *       *       *       *       *




  (TWO-THIRDS NATURAL SIZE--_from description_)


       *       *       *       *       *








       *       *       *       *       *







  (ALL FIVE-SIXTHS NATURAL SIZE--_from skins_: No. 3 _from type_)

       *       *       *       *       *





       *       *       *       *       *




  2 & 2A. TRAVERSIA LYALLI [male] [female]


       *       *       *       *       *




       *       *       *       *       *



  _From the plate in the Bulletin of the Liverpool Museum_

  _From the specimen in the Tring Museum_

       *       *       *       *       *



  (ELEVEN TWENTY-NINETHS NATURAL SIZE--_from drawing and description_)

       *       *       *       *       *



  (TWO-FIFTHS NATURAL SIZE--_from a description_)

       *       *       *       *       *




       *       *       *       *       *



  (ELEVEN-THIRTEENTHS NATURAL SIZE--_from specimen in Liverpool Museum_)

       *       *       *       *       *



  (FOUR-FIFTHS NATURAL SIZE--_from Gosse's description_)

       *       *       *       *       *



  (SIX-TENTHS NATURAL SIZE--_from Gosse's description_)

       *       *       *       *       *



  (TWO-FIFTHS NATURAL SIZE--_from a description_)

       *       *       *       *       *



  (TWO-FIFTHS NATURAL SIZE--_from description_)

       *       *       *       *       *



  (ONE-HALF NATURAL SIZE--_from description_)

       *       *       *       *       *



  (NATURAL SIZE--_from Labat's description_)

       *       *       *       *       *



  (TWO-THIRDS NATURAL SIZE--_from description_)

       *       *       *       *       *



  (TWO-THIRDS NATURAL SIZE--_from Labat's description_)

       *       *       *       *       *




       *       *       *       *       *




       *       *       *       *       *




       *       *       *       *       *




       *       *       *       *       *



  (ABOUT ONE-THIRD NATURAL SIZE--_from descriptions and drawings_)

       *       *       *       *       *



  (ONE-THIRD NATURAL SIZE--_from drawings_)

       *       *       *       *       *



  1, 2, 3. DIDUS CUCULLATUS (_see explanation_)

       *       *       *       *       *




       *       *       *       *       *




       *       *       *       *       *



  (ONE-THIRD NATURAL SIZE--_from a Dutch picture taken from living bird in
      Amsterdam, beak and wing restored_)

       *       *       *       *       *



  (ONE-THIRD NATURAL SIZE--_from Dubois' description_)

       *       *       *       *       *




       *       *       *       *       *



  (TWO-THIRDS NATURAL SIZE--_from Forster's drawing in British Museum_)



       *       *       *       *       *




       *       *       *       *       *





       *       *       *       *       *



  (ONE-HALF NATURAL SIZE--_from a drawing_)

       *       *       *       *       *



  (ONE-HALF NATURAL SIZE--_from a description and a tracing_)

       *       *       *       *       *



  (ONE-SIXTH NATURAL SIZE--_from description and drawings_)

       *       *       *       *       *



  (ONE-HALF NATURAL SIZE--_from descriptions_)

       *       *       *       *       *




       *       *       *       *       *




       *       *       *       *       *





       *       *       *       *       *



  (ONE-HALF NATURAL SIZE--_from Nature_)

       *       *       *       *       *



  (FIVE-SIXTHS NATURAL SIZE--_from stuffed specimen in Dublin Museum_)

       *       *       *       *       *



  (FIVE-EIGHTHS NATURAL SIZE--_from stuffed specimen_)

       *       *       *       *       *




       *       *       *       *       *



  (ONE-THIRD NATURAL SIZE--_from type specimen_)

       *       *       *       *       *



  (ONE-QUARTER NATURAL SIZE--_restored drawing from feathers and mummified

       *       *       *       *       *



  (ONE-ELEVENTH NATURAL SIZE--_restoration from skeleton and feathers_)

       *       *       *       *       *


[1] "_Psittacus_ brachyurus fuscus, facie nigra, cauda albente. Habitat in
Mascarina. Rostrum incarnatum. Caput caerulescens."

[2] See Findlay's South Pacific Ocean Directory, p. 642.

[3] Ibis 1862, p. 214.

[4] Proceedings of the Delaware Valley Ornithological Club, II, 1898, 17.

[5] Wintle, Birds of Montreal, 1896, 51.

[6] In collection of Dr. J. Dwight, Jr.

[7] Minot, Birds of New England, 1895, 395.

[8] Auk, XX, 1903, 66.

       *       *       *       *       *

Corrections made to printed original.

Page xvii, entry 1674. In "et Bourbon", the original ampersand in the title
of the French work was incongruously expanded to "and" in the present work.
So also in the same title on Pages 3 & 64, an on page xviii, entry 1773, in
"et sur les hommes".

Page xvii, entry 1707:--"Compagnons", printed as "Compagnos" in original.

Page xviii, entry 1782 at "aux iles orientales":--"aux", printed as "aus"
in original.

Page xix, entry 1830 (also on p. 184 and Plate 28). "Coturnix
novaezealandiae" retained as printed, but the correct spelling is
"novaezelandiae" as printed in the species heading.

Page xx, entry 1861:--"1861", printed as "1681" in original.

Page xx, entry 1868 (Millies):--"Verhandelingen", printed as
"Verhandlingen" in original.

Page xxv, entry 1896 (Hartlaub) in "Ein Beitrag":--"Ein", printed as "En"
in original.

Page xxv, entry 1902 (Henshaw):--first occurence of "Hawaiian" printed as
"Hawaian" in original.

Page 3, in "Dauphine ou Madagascar":--"ou", printed as "on" in original.

Page 15, in "disappeared from Warekauri":--"disappeared", printed as
"disapppeared" in original.

Page 64, in "identified by himself with the Mascarine
Parrot":--"Mascarine", printed as "Marcarine" in original.

Page 74. "13 1/2 inches = 345 mm": this seems the most likely intention of
the erroneous conversion "13 1/2 inches = 365 mm" of the original.

Page 112-3, table. Width at distal extremity "13.5" printed "0135". Four
other entries similarly.

Page 144, date for "Porphyrio melanotus var. alba":--"1844", printed as
"1144" in original.

Page 167, authors for "Columba migratoria":--"Audubon", printed as
"Andubon" in original.

Page 188, in "cervical vertebrae":--"cervical", printed as "cervicle" in

Page 191, in "profile of the inner condyle":--"condyle", printed as
"cordyle" in original.

Page 215. "228 mm. = 8.9 inches": this seems the most likely intention of
the erroneous conversion "228 mm. = 9.9 inches" of the original.

Page 216, in "24 to 24.1":--"24.1", printed as "21-1" in original.

Page 217, synonymy of "Pachyornis pygmaeus":--"Euryapteryx", printed as
"Euryapterxy" in original.

Page 237, Tarso-metatarsus upper limit:--"287", printed as "277" in

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