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Title: Every Girl's Library, Volume 8 of 10 - A Collection of Appropriate and Instructive Reading for - Girls of All Ages from the Best Authors of All Time
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Every Girl's Library, Volume 8 of 10 - A Collection of Appropriate and Instructive Reading for - Girls of All Ages from the Best Authors of All Time" ***

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WALLACE MORGAN'S (The Originator
of Fluffy Ruffles) FAMOUS PICTURE

[Illustration: W. MORGAN.]

[Illustration: Anna Sewell]


A Collection of Appropriate and Instructive Reading for Girls of All
Ages from the Best Authors of All Time

In Ten Volumes

Edited by

_With a General Introduction by the Editor and Critical and Interpretive
Essays by_




The Pearson Publishing Co.

Copyright, 1910, by


Entered at Stationers' Hall
London, England

_Typography, Plates, Presswork and Binding by
The J. J. Little & Ives Co., New York._


        Paul and Virginia                                         1

        Black Beauty's New Home (_Black Beauty_)                 49

        Portia and Shylock (_The Merchant of Venice_)            69
        Romeo and Juliet                                         86

        To a Skylark                                             95

        The Battle of Blenheim                                  100

        Will o' the Mill                                        104
        An Apology for Idlers                                   141
        The Wind                                                155
        Keepsake Mill                                           155
        The Moon                                                156
        Looking-glass River                                     157
        Winter-Time                                             158
        My Shadow                                               159
        Autumn Fires                                            160

        The Whistler                                            161

        Henrietta Maria, Wife of Charles I                      163

        Why So Pale and Wan?                                    211
        I Prithee, Send Me Back My Heart                        212

        A Voyage to Lilliput (_Gulliver's Travels_)             214

        The Braes o' Balquhither                                239
        The Flower o' Dumblane                                  240

        Lady Clare                                              242
        Lady Clara Vere de Vere                                 246
        Come Into the Garden, Maud                              249
        Break, Break, Break                                     251
        The Miller's Daughter                                   252
        St. Agnes                                               253

        The Princess Angelica (_The Rose and the Ring_)         255
        The Cane-bottom'd Chair                                 300
        A Tragic Story                                          302
        To Mary                                                 303
        Little Billee                                           304
        Fairy Days                                              305
        Mrs. Katherine's Lantern                                307
        Lucy's Birthday                                         309
        Piscator and Piscatrix                                  310
        Pocahontas                                              312


     SAINT PIERRE, BERNARDIN DE, was born in Havre, Jan., 1737, and died
     in Eragny-sur-Oise, Jan., 1814. His literary fame rests wholly on
     _Paul and Virginia_, one of the most beautiful works in romantic
     literature. He wrote much besides this celebrated tale, but his
     other works, though all of the first order of merit, are
     overshadowed by the little story which made him famous. _Paul and
     Virginia_ has been translated into every civilized language and its
     popularity has never waned. It has been published in cheap and
     costly editions; it has suggested works of art, and, like _Alice in
     Wonderland_, it has been imitated scores of times.


Rarely, indeed, has such an attachment been seen as that which the two
children already testified for each other. If Paul complained of
anything, his mother pointed to Virginia: at her sight he smiled, and
was appeased. If any accident befell Virginia, the cries of Paul gave
notice of the disaster; but the dear little creature would suppress her
complaints if she found that he was unhappy. When I came hither, I
usually found them quite naked, as is the custom of the country,
tottering in their walk, and holding each other by the hands and under
the arms, as we see represented the constellation of the Twins. At night
these infants often refused to be separated, and were found lying in the
same cradle, their cheeks, their bosoms pressed close together, their
hands thrown round each other's neck, and sleeping, locked in one
another's arms.

When they began to speak, the first name they learned to give each other
were those of brother and sister, and childhood knows no softer
appellation. Their education, by directing them ever to consider each
other's wants, tended greatly to increase their affection. In a short
time, all the household economy, the care of preparing their rural
repasts, became the task of Virginia, whose labours were always crowned
with the praises and kisses of her brother. As for Paul, always in
motion, he dug the garden with Domingo, or followed him with a little
hatchet into the woods; and if in his rambles he espied a beautiful
flower, any delicious fruit, or a nest of birds, even at the top of the
tree, he would climb up and bring the spoil to his sister. When you met
one of these children, you might be sure the other was not far off.

One day as I was coming down that mountain, I saw Virginia at the end of
the garden running towards the house with her petticoat thrown over her
head, in order to screen herself from a shower of rain. At a distance, I
thought she was alone; but as I hastened towards her in order to help
her on, I perceived she held Paul by the arm, almost entirely enveloped
in the same canopy, and both were laughing heartily at their being
sheltered together under an umbrella of their own invention. Those two
charming faces in the middle of a swelling petticoat, recalled to my
mind the children of Leda, enclosed in the same shell.

Their sole study was how they could please and assist one another; for
of all other things they were ignorant, and indeed could neither read
nor write. They were never disturbed by inquiries about past times, nor
did their curiosity extend beyond the bounds of their mountain. They
believed the world ended at the shores of their own island, and all
their ideas and all their affections were confined within its limits.
Their mutual tenderness, and that of their mothers, employed all the
energies of their minds. Their tears had never been called forth by
tedious application to useless sciences. Their minds had never been
wearied by lessons of morality, superfluous to bosoms unconscious of
ill. They had never been taught not to steal, because everything with
them was in common: or not to be intemperate, because their simple food
was left to their own discretion; or not to lie, because they had
nothing to conceal. Their young imaginations had never been terrified by
the idea that God has punishment in store for ungrateful children, since
with them, filial affection arose naturally from maternal tenderness.
All they had been taught of religion was to love it, and if they did not
offer up long prayers in the church, wherever they were, in the house,
in the fields, in the woods, they raised toward heaven their innocent
hands, and hearts purified by virtuous affections.

All their early childhood passed thus, like a beautiful dawn, the
prelude of a bright day. Already they assisted their mothers in the
duties of the household. As soon as the crowing of the wakeful cock
announced the first beam of the morning, Virginia arose, and hastened to
draw water from a neighbouring spring: then returning to the house she
prepared the breakfast. When the rising sun gilded the points of the
rocks which overhang the inclosure in which they lived, Margaret and her
child repaired to the dwelling of Madame de la Tour, where they offered
up their morning prayer together. This sacrifice of thanksgiving always
preceded their first repast, which they often took before the door of
the cottage, seated upon the grass, under a canopy of plantain: and
while the branches of that delicious tree afforded a grateful shade, its
fruit furnished a substantial food ready prepared for them by nature,
and its long glossy leaves, spread upon the table, supplied the place of
linen. Plentiful and wholesome nourishment gave early growth and vigour
to the persons of these children, and their countenances expressed the
purity and peace of their souls. At twelve years of age the figure of
Virginia was in some degree formed; a profusion of light hair shaded her
face, to which her blue eyes and coral lips gave the most charming
brilliancy. Her eyes sparkled with vivacity when she spoke; but when she
was silent they were habitually turned upwards with an expression of
extreme sensibility, or rather of tender melancholy. The figure of Paul
began already to display the graces of youthful beauty. He was taller
than Virginia: his skin was a darker tint; his nose more aquiline; and
his black eyes would have been too piercing, if the long eyelashes by
which they were shaded had not imparted to them an expression of
softness. He was constantly in motion, except when his sister appeared,
and then, seated by her side, he became still. Their meals often passed
without a word being spoken; and from their silence, the simple elegance
of their attitudes, and the beauty of their naked feet, you might have
fancied you beheld an antique group of white marble, representing some
of the children of Niobe, but for the glances of their eyes, which were
constantly seeking to meet, and their mutual soft and tender smiles,
which suggested rather the idea of happy celestial spirits, whose nature
is love, and who are not obliged to have recourse to words for the
expression of their feelings.

In the mean time Madame de la Tour, perceiving every day some unfolding
grace, some new beauty, in her daughter, felt her maternal anxiety
increase with her tenderness. She often said to me, "If I were to die,
what will become of Virginia without fortune?"

Madame de la Tour had an aunt in France, who was a woman of quality,
rich, old, and a complete devotee. She had behaved with so much cruelty
towards her niece upon her marriage, that Madame de la Tour had
determined no extremity of distress should ever compel her to have
recourse to her hard-hearted relation. But when she became a mother, the
pride of resentment was overcome by the stronger feelings of maternal
tenderness. She wrote to her aunt, informing her of the sudden death of
her husband, and the birth of her daughter, and the difficulties in
which she was involved, burdened as she was with an infant, and without
means of support. She received no answer; but notwithstanding the high
spirit natural to her character, she no longer feared exposing herself
to mortification; and, although she knew her aunt would never pardon her
for having married a man who was not of noble birth, however estimable,
she continued to write to her, with the hope of awakening her compassion
for Virginia. Many years, however, passed without receiving any token of
her remembrance.

At length, in 1738, three years after the arrival of Monsieur de la
Bourdonnais in this island, Madame de la Tour was informed that the
Governor had a letter to give her from her aunt. She flew to Port Louis;
maternal joy raised her mind above all trifling considerations, and she
was careless on this occasion of appearing in her homely attire.
Monsieur de la Bourdonnais gave her a letter from her aunt, in which she
informed her, that she deserved her fate for marrying an adventurer and
a libertine: that the passions brought with them their own punishment;
that the premature death of her husband was a just visitation from
Heaven; that she had done well in going to a distant island, rather than
dishonour her family by remaining in France; and that, after all, in the
colony where she had taken refuge, none but the idle failed to grow
rich. Having thus censured her niece, she concluded by eulogizing
herself. To avoid, she said, the almost inevitable evils of marriage,
she had determined to remain single. In fact, as she was of a very
ambitious disposition, she had resolved to marry none but a man of high
rank; but although she was very rich, her fortune was not found a
sufficient bribe, even at court, to counterbalance the malignant
dispositions of her mind, and the disagreeable qualities of her person.

After mature deliberations, she added, in a post-script, that she had
strongly recommended her niece to Monsieur de la Bourdonnais. This she
had indeed done, but in a manner of late too common, which renders a
patron perhaps even more to be feared than a declared enemy; for, in
order to justify herself for her harshness, she had cruelly slandered
her niece, while she affected to pity her misfortunes.

Madame de la Tour, whom no unprejudiced person could have seen without
feelings of sympathy and respect, was received with the utmost coolness
by Monsieur de la Bourdonnais, biased as he was against her. When she
painted to him her own situation and that of her child, he replied in
abrupt sentences,--"We will see what can be done--there are so many to
relieve--all in good time--why did you displease your aunt?--you have
been much to blame."

Madame de la Tour returned to her cottage, her heart torn with grief,
and filled with all the bitterness of disappointment. When she arrived
she threw her aunt's letter on the table, and exclaimed to her friend,
"There is the fruit of eleven years of patient expectation!" Madame de
la Tour being the only person in the little circle who could read, she
again took up the letter, and read it aloud. Scarcely had she finished,
when Margaret exclaimed, "What have we to do with your relations?
Has God then forsaken us? He only is our father! Have we not hitherto
been happy? Why then this regret? You have no courage." Seeing Madame de
la Tour in tears, she threw herself upon her neck, and pressing her in
her arms,--"My dear friend!" cried she, "my dear friend!"--but her
emotion choked her utterance. At this sight Virginia burst into tears,
and pressed her mother's and Margaret's hand alternately to her lips and
heart; while Paul, his eyes inflamed with anger, cried, clasping his
hands together, and stamping with his foot, not knowing whom to blame
for this scene of misery. The noise soon brought Domingo and Mary to the
spot, and the little habitation resounded with cries of distress,--"Ah,
madam!--My good mistress!--My dear mother!--Do not weep!" These tender
proofs of affection at length dispelled the grief of Madame de la Tour.
She took Paul and Virginia in her arms, and, embracing them, said, "You
are the cause of my affliction, my children, but you are also my only
source of delight! Yes, my dear children, misfortune has reached me, but
only from a distance: here I am surrounded with happiness." Paul and
Virginia did not understand this reflection; but when they saw that she
was calm, they smiled, and continued to caress her. Tranquillity was
thus restored in this happy family, and all that had passed was but as a
storm in the midst of fine weather, which disturbs the serenity of the
atmosphere but for a short time, and then passes away.

The amiable disposition of these children unfolded itself daily. One
Sunday, at daybreak, their mothers having gone to mass at the church of
the Shaddock Grove, the children perceived a negro woman beneath the
plantains which surrounded their habitation. She appeared almost wasted
to a skeleton, and had no other garment than a piece of coarse cloth
thrown around her. She threw herself at the feet of Virginia, who was
preparing the family breakfast, and said, "My good young lady, have pity
on a poor runaway slave. For a whole month I have wandered among these
mountains, half dead with hunger, and often pursued by the hunters and
their dogs. I fled from my master, a rich planter of the Black River,
who has used me as you see;" and she showed her body marked with scars
from the lashes she had received. She added, "I was going to drown
myself, but hearing you lived here, I said to myself, Since there are
still some good white people in this country, I need not die yet."
Virginia answered with emotion,--"Take courage, unfortunate creature!
here is something to eat;" and she gave her the breakfast she had been
preparing, which the slave in a few minutes devoured. When her hunger
was appeased, Virginia said to her,--"Poor woman! I should like to go
and ask forgiveness for you of your master. Surely the sight of you will
touch him with pity. Will you show me the way?"--"Angel of heaven!"
answered the poor negro woman. "I will follow you where you please!"
Virginia called her brother and begged him to accompany her. The slave
led the way, by winding and difficult paths, through the woods, over
mountains, which they climbed with difficulty, and across rivers,
through which they were obliged to wade. At length, about the middle of
the day, they reached the foot of a steep descent upon the borders of
the Black River. There they perceived a well-built house, surrounded by
extensive plantations, and a number of slaves employed in their various
labours. Their master was walking among them with a pipe in his mouth,
and a switch in his hand. He was a tall thin man, of a brown complexion;
his eyes were sunk in his head, and his dark eyebrows were joined in
one. Virginia, holding Paul by the hand, drew near, and with much
emotion begged him, for the love of God, to pardon his poor slave, who
stood trembling a few paces behind. The planter at first paid little
attention to the children, who he saw, were meanly dressed. But when he
observed the elegance of Virginia's form, and the profusion of her
beautiful light tresses which had escaped from beneath her blue cap;
when he heard the soft tone of her voice, which trembled, as well as her
whole frame, while she implored his compassion; he took his pipe from
his mouth, and lifting up his stick, swore with a terrible oath, that he
pardoned his slave, not for the love of Heaven, but of her who asked his
forgiveness. Virginia made a sign to the slave to approach her master;
and instantly sprang away followed by Paul.

They climbed up the steep they had descended; and having gained the
summit, seated themselves at the foot of a tree, overcome with fatigue,
hunger, and thirst. They had left their home fasting, and walked five
leagues since sunrise. Paul said to Virginia,--"My dear sister, it is
past noon, and I am sure you are thirsty and hungry: we shall find no
dinner here; let us go down the mountain again, and ask the master of
the poor slave for some food."--"Oh, no," answered Virginia, "he
frightens me too much. Remember what mamma sometimes says, 'The bread of
the wicked is like stones in the mouth.'"--"What shall we do then?" said
Paul; "these trees produce no fruit fit to eat; and I shall not be able
to find even a tamarind or a lemon to refresh you."--"God will take care
of us," replied Virginia; "he listens to the cry even of the little
birds when they ask him for food." Scarcely had she pronounced these
words when they heard the noise of water falling from a neighbouring
rock. They ran thither, and having quenched their thirst at this crystal
spring, they gathered and ate a few cresses which grew on the border of
the stream. Soon afterwards, while they were wandering backwards and
forwards, in search of more solid nourishment, Virginia perceived in the
thickest part of the forest, a young palm-tree. The kind of cabbage
which is found at the top of the palm, enfolded within its leaves, is
well adapted for food; but, although the stock of the tree is not
thicker than a man's leg, it grows to above sixty feet in height. The
wood of the tree, indeed, is composed only of very fine filaments; but
the bark is so hard that it turns the edge of the hatchet, and Paul was
not furnished even with a knife. At length he thought of setting fire to
the palm-tree; but a new difficulty occurred: he had no steel with which
to strike fire; and although the whole island is covered with rocks, I
do not believe it is possible to find a single flint. Necessity,
however, is fertile in expedients, and the most useful inventions have
arisen from men placed in the most destitute situations. Paul determined
to kindle a fire after the manner of the negroes. With the sharp end of
a stone he made a small hole in the branch of a tree that was quite dry,
and which he held between his feet: he then, with the edge of the same
stone, brought to a point another dry branch of a different sort of
wood, and, afterwards, placing the piece of pointed wood in the small
hole of the branch which he held with his feet and turning it rapidly
between his hands, in a few minutes smoke and sparks of fire issued from
the point of contact. Paul then heaped together dried grass and
branches, and set fire to the foot of the palm-tree, which soon fell to
the ground with a tremendous crash. The fire was further useful to him
in stripping off the long, thick, and pointed leaves, within which the
cabbage was inclosed. Having thus succeeded in obtaining this fruit,
they ate part of it raw, and part dressed upon the ashes, which they
found equally palatable. They made this frugal repast with delight, from
the remembrance of the benevolent action they had performed in the
morning: yet their joy was embittered by the thoughts of the uneasiness
which their long absence from home would occasion their mothers.
Virginia often recurred to this subject; but Paul, who felt his strength
renewed by their meal, assured her that it would not be long before they
reached home, and, by the assurance of their safety, tranquillized the
minds of their parents.

After dinner they were much embarrassed by the recollection that they
had now no guide, and that they were ignorant of the way. Paul, whose
spirit was not subdued by difficulties, said to Virginia,--"The sun
shines full upon our huts at noon: we must pass, as we did this morning,
over that mountain with its three points, which you see yonder. Come,
let us be moving." This mountain was that of the Three Breasts, so
called from the form of its three peaks. They then descended the steep
bank of the Black River, on the northern side; and arrived, after an
hour's walk, on the banks of a large river, which stopped their further
progress. This large portion of the island, covered as it is with
forests, is even now so little known that many of its rivers and
mountains have not yet received a name. The stream, on the banks of
which Paul and Virginia were now standing, rolls foaming over a bed of
rocks. The noise of the water frightened Virginia, and she was afraid to
wade through the current: Paul therefore took her up in his arms, and
went thus loaded over the slippery rocks, which formed the bed of the
river, careless of the tumultuous noise of its waters. "Do not be
afraid," cried he to Virginia; "I feel very strong with you. If that
planter at the Black River had refused you the pardon of his slave, I
would have fought with him."--"What!" answered Virginia, "with that
great wicked man? To what have I exposed you! Gracious heaven! how
difficult it is to do good! and yet it is so easy to do wrong."

When Paul had crossed the river, he wished to continue the journey
carrying his sister: and he flattered himself that he could ascend in
that way the mountain of the Three Breasts, which was still at the
distance of half a league; but his strength soon failed, and he was
obliged to set down his burden, and to rest himself by her side.
Virginia then said to him, "My dear brother the sun is going down; you
have still some strength left, but mine has quite failed: do leave me
here, and return home alone to ease the fears of our mothers."--"Oh no,"
said Paul, "I will not leave you; if night overtakes us in this wood I
will light a fire, and bring down another palm-tree: you shall eat the
cabbage, and I will form a covering of the leaves to shelter you." In
the mean time, Virginia being a little rested, she gathered from the
trunk of an old tree, which overhung the bank of the river some long
leaves of the plant called hart's tongue, which grew near its root. Of
these leaves she made a sort of buskin, with which she covered her feet,
that were bleeding from the sharpness of the stony paths; for in her
eager desire to do good, she had forgotten to put on her shoes. Feeling
her feet cooled by the freshness of the leaves, she broke off a branch
of bamboo, and continued her walk, leaning with one hand on the staff,
and with the other on Paul.

They walked on in this manner slowly through the woods; but from the
height of the trees, and the thickness of their foliage, they soon lost
sight of the mountain of the Three Breasts, by which they had hitherto
directed their course, and also of the sun, which was now setting. At
length they wandered, without perceiving it, from the beaten path in
which they had hitherto walked, and found themselves in a labyrinth of
trees, underwood, and rocks, whence there appeared to be no outlet. Paul
made Virginia sit down, while he ran backwards and forwards, half
frantic, in search of a path which might lead them out of this thick
wood; but he fatigued himself to no purpose. He then climbed to the top
of a lofty tree, whence he hoped at least to perceive the mountain of
the Three Breasts: but he could discern nothing around him but the tops
of trees, some of which were gilded with the last beams of the setting
sun. Already the shadows of the mountains were spreading over the
forests in the valleys. The wind lulled, as is usually the case at
sunset. The most profound silence reigned in those awful solitudes,
which was only interrupted by the cry of the deer, who came to their
lairs in that unfrequented spot. Paul, in the hope that some hunter
would hear his voice, called out as loud as he was able,--"Come, come to
the help of Virginia." But the echoes of the forest alone answered his
call, and repeated again and again, "Virginia--Virginia."

Paul at length descended from the tree, overcome with fatigue and
vexation. He looked around in order to make some arrangement for passing
the night in that desert; but he could find neither fountain, nor
palm-tree, nor even a branch of dry wood fit for kindling a fire. He
was then impressed, by experience, with the sense of his own weakness,
and began to weep. Virginia said to him,--"Do not weep, my dear brother,
or I shall be overwhelmed with grief. I am the cause of all your sorrow,
and of all that our mothers are suffering at this moment. I find we
ought to do nothing, not even good, without consulting our parents. Oh,
I have been very imprudent!"--and she began to shed tears. "Let us pray
to God, my dear brother," she again said, "and he will hear us." They
had scarcely finished their prayer, when they heard the barking of a
dog. "It must be the dog of some hunter," said Paul, "who comes here at
night, to lie in wait for the deer." Soon after, the dog began barking
again with increased violence. "Surely," said Virginia, "it is Fidele,
our own dog: yes,--now I know his bark. Are we then so near home?--at
the foot of our own mountain?" A moment after Fidele was at their feet,
barking, howling, moaning, and devouring them with caresses. Before they
could recover from their surprise, they saw Domingo running towards
them. At the sight of the good old negro, who wept for joy, they began
to weep too, but had not the power to utter a syllable. When Domingo had
recovered himself a little, "Oh, my dear children," said he, "how
miserable have you made your mothers! How astonished they were when they
returned with me from mass, on not finding you at home! Mary, who was at
work at a little distance, could not tell us where you were gone. I ran
backwards and forwards in the plantation, not knowing where to look for
you. At last I took some of your old clothes, and showing them to
Fidele, the poor animal, as if he understood me, immediately began to
scent your path; and conducted me, wagging his tail all the while, to
the Black River. I there saw a planter, who told me you had brought back
a Maroon negro woman, his slave, and that he had pardoned her at your
request. But what a pardon; he showed her to me with her feet chained to
a block of wood, and an iron collar with three hooks fastened round her
neck! After that, Fidele, still on the scent, led me up the steep bank
of the Black River, where he again stopped, and barked with all his
might. This was on the brink of a spring, near which was a fallen
palm-tree, and a fire, still smoking. At last he led me to this very
spot. We are now at the foot of the mountain of the Three Breasts, and
still four good leagues from home. Come eat, and recover your strength."
Domingo then presented them with a cake, some fruit, and a large gourd
full of beverage composed of wine, water, lemon-juice, sugar, and
nutmeg, which their mothers had prepared to invigorate and refresh them.
Virginia sighed at the recollection of the poor slave, and at the
uneasiness they had given their mothers. She repeated several times,
"Oh, how difficult it is to do good!" While she and Paul were taking
refreshments, it being already night, Domingo kindled a fire: and having
found among the rocks a particular kind of twisted wood, called bois de
ronde, which burns when quite green, and throws out a great blaze, he
made a torch of it, which he lighted. But when they prepared to
continue their journey, a new difficulty occurred; Paul and Virginia
could no longer walk, their feet being violently swollen and inflamed.
Domingo knew not what to do; whether to leave them and go in search of
help, or remain and pass the night with them on that spot. "There was a
time," said he, "when I could carry you both together in my arms! But
now you are grown big, and I am grown old." While he was in this
perplexity, a troop of Maroon negroes appeared at a short distance from
them. The chief of the band, approaching Paul and Virginia, said to
them,--"Good little white people, do not be afraid. We saw you pass this
morning, with a negro woman of the Black River. You went to ask pardon
for her of her wicked master; and we, in return for this, will carry you
home upon our shoulders." He then made a sign, and four of the strongest
negroes immediately formed a sort of litter with the branches of trees
and lianas, and having seated Paul and Virginia on it, carried them upon
their shoulders. Domingo marched in front with his lighted torch, and
they proceeded amidst the rejoicings of the whole troop, who overwhelmed
them with their benedictions. Virginia, affected by this scene, said to
Paul, with emotion,--"Oh, my dear brother! God never leaves a good
action unrewarded."

It was midnight when they arrived at the foot of their mountain, on the
ridges of which several fires were lighted. As soon as they began to
ascend, they heard voices exclaiming--"Is it you, my children?" They
answered immediately, and the negroes also,--"Yes, yes, it is." A moment
after they could distinguish their mothers and Mary coming towards them
with lighted sticks in their hands. "Unhappy children," cried Madame de
la Tour, "where have you been? what agonies you have made us
suffer!"--"We have been," said Virginia, "to the Black River, where we
went to ask pardon for a poor Maroon slave, to whom I gave our breakfast
this morning, because she seemed dying of hunger; and these Maroon
negroes have brought us home." Madame de la Tour embraced her daughter,
without being able to speak; and Virginia, who felt her face wet with
her mother's tears, exclaimed, "Now I am repaid for all the hardships I
have suffered." Margaret, in a transport of delight, pressed Paul in her
arms, exclaiming, "And you also, my dear child, you have done a good
action." When they reached the cottages with their children, they
entertained all the negroes with a plentiful repast, after which the
latter returned to the woods praying Heaven to shower down every
description of blessing on those good white people.

Every day was to these families a day of happiness and tranquillity.
Neither ambition nor envy disturbed their repose. They did not seek to
obtain a useless reputation out of doors, which may be procured by
artifice and lost by calumny; but were contented to be the sole
witnesses and judges of their own actions. In this island, where, as is
the case in most colonies, scandal forms the principal topic of
conversation, their virtues, and even their names, were unknown. The
passer-by on the road to the Shaddock Grove, indeed, would sometimes ask
the inhabitants of the plain, who lived in the cottages up there? and
was always told, even by those who did not know them, "They are good
people." The modest violet thus, concealed in thorny places, sheds all
unseen its delightful fragrance around.

Slander, which, under an appearance of justice, naturally inclines the
heart to falsehood or to hatred, was entirely banished from their
conversation; for it is impossible not to hate men if we believe them to
be wicked, or to live with the wicked without concealing that hatred
under a false pretence of good feeling. Slander thus puts us ill at ease
with others and with ourselves. In this little circle, therefore, the
conduct of individuals was not discussed, but the best manner of doing
good to all; and although they had but little in their power, their
unceasing good-will and kindness of heart made them constantly ready to
do what they could for others. Solitude, far from having blunted these
benevolent feelings, had rendered their dispositions even more kindly.
Although the petty scandals of the day furnished no subject of
conversation to them, yet the contemplation of nature filled their minds
with enthusiastic delight. They adored the bounty of that Providence,
which, by their instrumentality, had spread abundance and beauty amid
these barren rocks, and had enabled them to enjoy those pure and simple
pleasures, which are ever grateful and ever new.

Paul, at twelve years of age, was stronger and more intelligent than
most European youths are at fifteen; and the plantations, which Domingo
merely cultivated, were embellished by him. He would go with the old
negro into the neighbouring woods, where he would root up the young
plants of lemon, orange, and tamarind trees, the round heads of which
are so fresh and green, together with date-palm trees, which produce
fruit filled with a sweet cream, possessing the fine perfume of the
orange flower. These trees, which had already attained to a considerable
size, he planted round their little enclosure. He had also sown the seed
of many trees which the second year bear flowers or fruit; such as the
agathis, encircled with long clusters of white flowers which hang from
it like the crystal pendants of a chandelier; the Persian lilac, which
lifts high in the air its grey flax-coloured branches; the pappaw tree,
the branchless trunk of which forms a column studded with green melons,
surmounted by a capital of broad leaves similar to those of the

The seeds and kernels of the gum tree, terminalia, mango, alligator
pear, the guava, the bread-fruit tree, and the narrow-leaved rose-apple,
were also planted by him with profusion: and the greater number of these
trees already afforded their young cultivator both shade and fruit. His
industrious hands diffused the riches of nature over even the most
barren parts of the plantation. Several species of aloes, the Indian
fig, adorned with yellow flowers spotted with red, and the thorny torch
thistle, grew upon the dark summits of the rocks, and seemed to aim at
reaching the long lianas, which, laden with blue or scarlet flowers,
hung scattered over the steepest parts of the mountain.

I loved to trace the ingenuity he had exercised in the arrangement of
these trees. He had so disposed them that the whole could be seen at a
single glance. In the middle of the hollow he had planted shrubs of the
lowest growth; behind grew the more lofty sorts; then trees of the
ordinary height; and beyond and above all, the venerable and lofty
groves which bordered the circumference. Thus this extensive inclosure
appeared, from its centre, like a verdant amphitheatre decorated with
fruits and flowers, containing a variety of vegetables, some strips of
meadow land, and fields of rice and corn. But, in arranging these
vegetable productions to his own taste, he wandered not too far from the
designs of Nature. Guided by her suggestions, he had thrown upon the
elevated spots such seeds as the winds would scatter about, and near the
borders of the springs those which float upon the water. Every plant
thus grew in its proper soil, and every spot seemed decorated by
Nature's own hand. The streams which fell from the summits of the rocks
formed in some parts of the valley sparkling cascades, and in others
were spread into broad mirrors, in which were reflected, set in verdure,
the flowering trees, the over-hanging rocks, and the azure heavens.

Notwithstanding the great irregularity of the ground, these plantations
were, for the most part, easy of access. We had, indeed, all given him
our advice and assistance, in order to accomplish this end. He had
conducted one path entirely round the valley, and various branches from
it led from the circumference to the centre. He had drawn some advantage
from the most rugged spots, and had blended, in harmonious union, level
walks with the inequalities of the soil, and trees which grow wild with
the cultivated varieties. With that immense quantity of large pebbles
which now block up these paths, and which are scattered over most of the
ground of this island, he formed pyramidal heaps here and there, at the
base of which he laid mold, and planted rose-bushes, the Barbadoes
flower-fence, and other shrubs which love to climb the rocks. In a short
time the dark and shapeless heaps of stones he had constructed were
covered with verdure, or with the glowing tints of the most beautiful
flowers. Hollow recesses on the borders of the streams shaded by the
overhanging boughs of aged trees, formed rural grottoes, impervious to
the rays of the sun, in which you might enjoy a refreshing coolness
during the mid day heat. One path led to a clump of forest trees, in the
centre of which, sheltered from the wind, you found a fruit-tree, laden
with produce. Here was a corn-field; there, an orchard; from one avenue
you had a view of the cottages; from another, of the inaccessible summit
of the mountain. Beneath one tufted bower of gum-trees, interwoven with
lianas, no object whatever could be perceived: while the point of the
adjoining rock, jutting out from the mountain, commanded a view of the
whole inclosure, and of the distant ocean, where, occasionally, we
could discern the distant sail, arriving from Europe, or bound thither.
On this rock the two families frequently met in the evening, and enjoyed
in silence the freshness of the flowers, the gentle murmurs of the
fountain, and the last blended harmonies of light and shade.

Nothing could be more charming than the names which were bestowed upon
some of the delightful retreats of this labyrinth. The rock of which I
have been speaking, whence they could discern my approach at a
considerable distance, was called the Discovery of Friendship. Paul and
Virginia had amused themselves by planting a bamboo on that spot; and
whenever they saw me coming, they hoisted a little white handkerchief,
by way of signal at my approach, as they had seen a flag hoisted on the
neighbouring mountain on the sight of a vessel at sea. The idea struck
me of engraving an inscription on the stalk of this reed; for I never,
in the course of my travels, experienced anything like the pleasure in
seeing a statue or other monument of ancient art, as in reading a
well-written inscription. It seems to me as if a human voice issued from
the stone, and, making itself heard after the lapse of ages, addressed
man in the midst of a desert, to tell him that he is not alone, and that
other men, on that very spot, had felt, and thought, and suffered like
himself. If the inscription belongs to an ancient nation, which no
longer exists, it leads the soul through infinite space, and strengthens
the consciousness of its immortality, by demonstrating that a thought
has survived the ruins of an empire. I inscribed then, on the little
staff of Paul and Virginia's flag, the following lines of Horace:--

       Fratres Helenæ, lucida sidera,
     Ventorumque regat pater,
     Obstrictis, aliis, præter Iapiga.

"May the brothers of Helen, bright stars like you, and the Father of the
winds, guide you; and may you feel only the breath of the zephyr."

There was a gum-tree, under the shade of which Paul was accustomed to
sit, to contemplate the sea when agitated by storms. On the bark of this
tree, I engraved the following lines from Virgil:--

     Fortunatus et ille deos qui novit agrestes!

"Happy art thou, my son, in knowing only the pastoral divinities."

And over the door of Madame de la Tour's cottage, where the families so
frequently met, I placed this line:--

     At secura quies, et nescia fallere vita.

"Here dwell a calm conscience, and a life that knows not deceit."

But Virginia did not approve of my Latin: she said, that what I had
placed at the foot of her flagstaff was too long and too learned. "I
should have liked better," added she, "to have seen inscribed, EVER
AGITATED, YET CONSTANT."--"Such a motto," I answered, "would have been
still more applicable to virtue." My reflection made her blush.

The delicacy of sentiment of these happy families was manifested in
everything around them. They gave the tenderest names to objects in
appearance the most indifferent. A border of orange, plantain, and
rose-apple trees, planted round a green sward where Virginia and Paul
sometimes danced, received the name of Concord. An old tree, beneath the
shade of which Madame de la Tour and Margaret used to recount their
misfortunes, was called the Burial-place of Tears. They bestowed the
names of Brittany and Normandy on two little plots of ground, where they
had sown corn, strawberries, and peas. Domingo and Mary, wishing, in
imitation of their mistresses, to recall to mind Angola and
Foullepointe, the places of their birth in Africa, gave those names to
the little fields where the grass was sown with which they wove their
baskets, and where they had planted a calabash-tree. Thus by cultivating
the productions of their respective climates, these exiled families
cherished the dear illusions which bind us to our native country, and
softened their regrets in a foreign land. Alas! I have seen these trees,
these fountains, these heaps of stones, which are now so completely
overthrown,--which now, like the desolated plains of Greece, present
nothing but masses of ruin and affecting remembrances, all but called
into life by the many charming appellations thus bestowed upon them!

But perhaps the most delightful spot of this inclosure was that called
Virginia's resting-place. At the foot of the rock which bore the name of
the Discovery of Friendship, is a small crevice, whence issues a
fountain, forming, near its source, a little spot of marshy soil in the
middle of a field of rich grass. At the time of Paul's birth I had made
Margaret a present of an Indian cocoa which had been given me, and which
she planted on the border of this fenny ground, in order that the tree
might one day serve to mark the epoch of her son's birth. Madame de la
Tour planted another cocoa with the same view, at the birth of Virginia.
These nuts produced two cocoa-trees, which formed the only records of
the two families; one was called Paul's tree, the other, Virginia's.
Their growth was in the same proportion as that of the two young
persons, not exactly equal: but they rose, at the end of twelve years,
above the roofs of the cottages. Already their tender stalks were
interwoven, and clusters of young cocoas hung from them over the basin
of the fountain. With the exception of these two trees, this nook of the
rock was left as it had been decorated by nature. On its embrowned and
moist sides broad plants of maiden-hair glistened with their green and
dark stars; and tufts of wave-leaved hart's tongue, suspended like long
ribbons of purpled green, floated on the wind. Near this grew a chain of
the Madagascar periwinkle, the flowers of which resemble the red
gilliflower; and the long-podded capsicum, the seed-vessels of which are
of the color of blood, and more resplendent than coral. Near them, the
herb balm, with its heart-shaped leaves, and the sweet basil, which has
the odour of the clove, exhaled the most delicious perfumes. From the
precipitous side of the mountain hung the graceful lianas, like floating
draperies, forming magnificent canopies of verdure on the face of the
rocks. The sea-birds, allured by the stillness of these retreats,
resorted here to pass the night. At the hour of sunset we could perceive
the curlew and the stint skimming along the seashore; the frigate-bird
poised high in air; and the white bird of the tropic, which abandons,
with the star of day, the solitudes of the Indian ocean. Virginia took
pleasure in resting herself upon the border of this fountain, decorated
with wild and sublime magnificence. She often went thither to wash the
linen of the family beneath the shade of the two cocoa-trees, and
thither too she sometimes led her goats to graze. While she was making
cheeses of their milk, she loved to see them browse on the maiden-hair
fern which clothed the steep sides of the rock, and hung suspended by
one of its cornices, as on a pedestal. Paul, observing that Virginia was
fond of this spot, brought thither, from the neighbouring forest, a
great variety of birds' nests. The old birds following their young, soon
established themselves in this new colony. Virginia, at stated times,
distributed amongst them grains of rice, millet, and maize. As soon as
she appeared, the whistling blackbird, the amadavid bird, whose note is
so soft, the cardinal, with its flame-coloured plumage, forsook their
bushes; the paroquet, green as an emerald, descended from the
neighbouring fan-palms, the partridge ran along the grass; all advanced
promiscuously towards her, like a brood of chickens: and she and Paul
found an exhaustless source of amusement in observing their sports,
their repasts, and their loves.

Amiable children! thus passed your earlier days in innocence, and in
obeying the impulses of kindness. How many times, on this very spot,
have your mothers, pressing you in their arms, blessed Heaven for the
consolation your unfolding virtues prepared for their declining years,
while they at the same time enjoyed the satisfaction of seeing you begin
life under the happiest auspices! How many times, beneath the shade of
those rocks, have I partaken with them of your rural repasts, which
never costs any animal its life! Gourds full of milk, fresh eggs, cakes
of rice served up on plantain leaves, with baskets of mangoes, oranges,
dates, pomegranates, pine-apples, furnished a wholesome repast, the most
agreeable to the eye, as well as delicious to the taste, that can
possibly be imagined.

Like the repast, the conversation was mild, and free from everything
having a tendency to do harm. Paul often talked of the labours of the
day and of the morrow. He was continually planning something for the
accommodation of their little society. Here he discovered that the paths
were rugged; there, that the seats were uncomfortable: sometimes the
young arbours did not afford sufficient shade, and Virginia might be
better pleased elsewhere.

During the rainy season the two families met together in the cottage,
and employed themselves in weaving mats of grass, and baskets of bamboo.
Rakes, spades, and hatchets were ranged along the walls in the most
perfect order; and near these instruments of agriculture were heaped its
products--bags of rice, sheaves of corn, and baskets of plantains. Some
degree of luxury usually accompanies abundance; and Virginia was taught
by her mother and Margaret to prepare sherbet and cordials from the
juice of the sugar-cane, the lemon and the citron.

When night came, they all supped together by the light of a lamp; after
which Madame de la Tour or Margaret related some story of travellers
benighted in those woods of Europe that are still infested by banditti;
or told a dismal tale of some shipwrecked vessel, thrown by the tempest
upon the rocks of a desert island. To these recitals the children
listened with eager attention, and earnestly hoped that Heaven would one
day grant them the joy of performing the rites of hospitality towards
such unfortunate persons. When the time for repose arrived, the two
families separated and retired for the night, eager to meet again the
following morning. Sometimes they were lulled to repose by the beating
of the rains, which fell in torrents upon the roofs of their cottages,
and sometimes by the hollow winds, which brought to their ear the
distant roar of the waves breaking upon the shore. They blessed God for
their own safety, the feeling of which was brought home more forcibly to
their minds by the sound of remote danger.

Madame de la Tour occasionally read aloud some affecting history of the
Old or New Testament. Her auditors reasoned but little upon these sacred
volumes, for their theology centered in a feeling of devotion towards
the Supreme Being, like that of nature; and their morality was an active
principle, like that of the Gospel. These families had no particular
days devoted to pleasure, and others to sadness. Every day was to them a
holiday, and all that surrounded them one holy temple, in which they
ever adored the Infinite Intelligence, the Almighty God, the friend of
human kind. A feeling of confidence in his supreme power filled their
minds with consolation for the past, with fortitude under present
trials, and with hope in the future. Compelled by misfortune to return
almost to a state of nature, these excellent women had thus developed in
their own and their children's bosoms the feelings most natural to the
human mind, and its best support under affliction.

But, as clouds sometimes arise, and cast a gloom over the best regulated
tempers, so whenever any member of this little society appeared to be
labouring under dejection, the rest assembled around, and endeavoured to
banish her painful thoughts by amusing the mind rather than by grave
arguments against them. Each performed this kind office in their own
appropriate manner: Margaret, by her gayety; Madame de la Tour, by the
gentle consolations of religion; Virginia, by her tender caresses; Paul,
by his frank and engaging cordiality. Even Mary and Domingo hastened to
offer their succour, and to weep with those that wept. Thus do weak
plants interweave themselves with each other, in order to withstand the
fury of the tempest.

During the fine season, they went every Sunday to the church of the
Shaddock Grove, the steeple of which you see yonder upon the plain. Many
wealthy members of the congregation, who came to church in palanquins,
sought the acquaintance of these united families, and invited them to
parties of pleasure. But they always repelled these overtures with
respectful politeness, as they were persuaded that the rich and powerful
seek the society of persons in an inferior station only for the sake of
surrounding themselves with flatterers, and that every flatterer must
applaud alike all the actions of his patron, whether good or bad. On the
other hand, they avoided, with equal care, too intimate an acquaintance
with the lower class, who are ordinarily jealous, calumniating, and
gross. They thus acquired, with some, the character of being timid, and
with others, of pride: but their reserve was accompanied with so much
obliging politeness, above all towards the unfortunate and the unhappy,
that they insensibly acquired the respect of the rich and the confidence
of the poor.

After service, some kind office was often required at their hands by
their poor neighbours. Sometimes a person troubled in mind sought their
advice; sometimes a child begged them to visit its sick mother, in one
of the adjoining hamlets. They always took with them a few remedies for
the ordinary diseases of the country, which they administered in that
soothing manner which stamps a value upon the smallest favours. Above
all, they met with singular success in administering to the disorders of
the mind, so intolerable in solitude, and under the infirmities of a
weakened frame. Madame de la Tour spoke with such sublime confidence of
the Divinity, that the sick, while listening to her, almost believed
him present. Virginia often returned home with her eyes full of tears,
and her heart overflowing with delight, at having had an opportunity of
doing good; for to her generally was confided the task of preparing and
administering the medicines--a task which she fulfilled with angelic
sweetness. After these visits of charity, they sometimes extended their
walk by the Sloping Mountain, till they reached my dwelling, where I
used to prepare dinner for them on the banks of the little rivulet which
glides near my cottage. I procured for these occasions a few bottles of
old wine, in order to heighten the relish of our Oriental repast by the
more genial productions of Europe. At other times we met on the seashore
at the mouth of some little river, or rather mere brook. We brought from
home the provisions furnished us by our gardens, to which we added those
supplied us by the sea in abundant variety. We caught on these shores
the mullet, the roach, and the sea-urchin, lobsters, shrimps, crabs,
oysters, and all other kinds of shell-fish. In this way, we often
enjoyed the most tranquil pleasures in situations the most terrific.
Sometimes, seated upon a rock, under the shade of the velvet
sunflower-tree, we saw the enormous waves of the Indian Ocean break
beneath our feet with a tremendous noise. Paul, who could swim like a
fish, would advance on the reefs to meet the coming billows; then, at
their near approach, would run back to the beach, closely pursued by the
foaming breakers, which threw themselves, with a roaring noise, far on
the sands. But Virginia, at this sight, uttered piercing cries, and said
that such sports frightened her too much.

Other amusements were not wanting on these festive occasions. Our
repasts were generally followed by the songs and dances of the two young
people. Virginia sang the happiness of pastoral life, and the misery of
those who were impelled by avarice to cross the raging ocean, rather
than cultivate the earth, and enjoy its bounties in peace. Sometimes she
performed a pantomime with Paul, after the manner of the negroes. The
first language of man is pantomime: it is known to all nations, and is
so natural and expressive, that the children of the European inhabitants
catch it with facility from the negroes. Virginia, recalling, from among
the histories which her mother had read to her, those which had affected
her most, represented the principal events in them with beautiful
simplicity. Sometimes at the sound of Domingo's tan-tam she appeared
upon the green sward, bearing a pitcher upon her head, and advanced with
a timid step towards the source of a neighbouring fountain to draw
water. Domingo and Mary, personating the shepherds of Midian, forbade
her to approach, and repulsed her sternly. Upon this Paul flew to her
succour, beat away the shepherds, filled Virginia's pitcher, and placing
it upon her head, bound her brows at the same time with a wreath of the
red flowers of the Madagascar periwinkle, which served to heighten the
delicacy of her complexion. Then joining in their sports, I took upon
myself the part of Raguel, and bestowed upon Paul my daughter Zephora
in marriage.

Another time Virginia would represent the unhappy Ruth, returning poor
and widowed with her mother-in-law, who, after so prolonged an absence,
found herself as unknown as in a foreign land. Domingo and Mary
personated the reapers. The supposed daughter of Naomi followed their
steps, gleaning here and there a few ears of corn. When interrogated by
Paul,--a part which he performed with the gravity of a patriarch,--she
answered his questions with a faltering voice. He then, touched with
compassion, granted an asylum to innocence, and hospitality to
misfortune. He filled her lap with plenty; and, leading her towards us
as before the elders of the city, declared his purpose to take her in
marriage. At this scene, Madame de la Tour, recalling the desolate
situation in which she had been left by her relations, her widowhood,
and the kind reception she had met with from Margaret, succeeded now by
the soothing hope of a happy union between their children, could not
forbear weeping; and these mixed recollections of good and evil caused
us all to unite with her in shedding tears of sorrow and of joy.

These dramas were performed with such an air of reality that you might
have fancied yourself transported to the plains of Syria or of
Palestine. We were not unfurnished with decorations, lights, or an
orchestra, suitable to the representation. The scene was generally
placed in an open space of the forest, the diverging paths from which
formed around us numerous arcades of foliage, under which we were
sheltered from the heat all the middle of the day; but when the sun
descended towards the horizon, its rays, broken by the trunks of the
trees, darted amongst the shadows of the forest in long lines of light,
producing the most magnificent effect. Sometimes its broad disk appeared
at the end of an avenue, lighting it up with insufferable brightness.
The foliage of the trees, illuminated from beneath by its saffron beams,
glowed with the lustre of the topaz and the emerald. Their brown and
mossy trunks appeared transformed into columns of antique bronze; and
the birds, which had retired in silence to their leafy shades to pass
the night, surprised to see the radiance of the second morning, hailed
the star of day all together with innumerable carols.

Night often overtook us during these rural entertainments; but the
purity of the air and the warmth of the climate, admitted of our
sleeping in the woods, without incurring any danger by exposure to the
weather, and no less secure from the molestation of robbers. On our
return the following day to our respective habitations, we found them in
exactly the same state in which they had been left. In this island, then
unsophisticated by the pursuits of commerce, such were the honesty and
primitive manners of the population, that the doors of many houses were
without a key, and even a lock itself was an object of curiosity to not
a few of the native inhabitants.

There were, however, some days in the years celebrated by Paul and
Virginia in a more peculiar manner; these were the birthdays of their
mothers. Virginia never failed the day before to prepare some wheaten
cakes, which she distributed among a few poor white families, born in
the island, who had never eaten European bread. These unfortunate
people, uncared for by the blacks, were reduced to live on tapioca in
the woods; and as they had neither the insensibility which is the result
of slavery, nor the fortitude which springs from a liberal education, to
enable them to support their poverty, their situation was deplorable.
These cakes were all that Virginia had it in her power to give away, but
she conferred the gift in so delicate a manner as to add tenfold to its
value. In the first place, Paul was commissioned to take the cakes
himself to these families, and get their promise to come and spend the
next day at Madame de la Tour's. Accordingly, mothers of families, with
two or three thin, yellow, miserable looking daughters, so timid that
they dared not look up, made their appearance. Virginia soon put them at
their ease; she waited upon them with refreshments, the excellence of
which she endeavoured to heighten by relating some particular
circumstance which, in her own estimation, vastly improved them. One
beverage had been prepared by Margaret; another, by her mother: her
brother himself had climbed some lofty tree for the very fruit she was
presenting. She would then get Paul to dance with them, nor would she
leave them till she saw that they were happy. She wished them to partake
of the joy of her own family. "It is only," she said, "by promoting the
happiness of others, that we can secure our own." When they left, she
generally presented them with some little article they seemed to fancy,
enforcing their acceptance of it by some delicate pretext, that she
might not appear to know they were in want. If she remarked that their
clothes were much tattered, she obtained her mother's permission to give
them some of her own, and then sent Paul to leave them secretly at their
cottage doors. She thus followed the divine precept,--concealing the
benefactor, and revealing only the benefit.

Your Europeans, whose minds are imbued from infancy with prejudices at
variance with happiness, cannot imagine all the instruction and pleasure
to be derived from nature. Your souls, confined to a small sphere of
intelligence, soon reach the limit of its artificial enjoyments: but
nature and the heart are inexhaustible. Paul and Virginia had neither
clock, nor almanack, nor books of chronology, history or philosophy. The
periods of their lives were regulated by those of the operations of
nature, and their familiar conversation had a reference to the changes
of the seasons. They knew the time of day by the shadows of the trees;
the seasons, by the times when those trees bore flowers or fruit; and
the years, by the number of their harvests. These soothing images
diffused an inexpressible charm over their conversation. "It is time to
dine," said Virginia, "the shadows of the plantain-trees are at their
roots:" or, "Night approaches, the tamarinds are closing their leaves."
"When will you come and see us?" inquired some of her companions in the
neighbourhood. "At the time of the sugar-canes," answered Virginia.
"Your visit will be then still more delightful," resumed her young
acquaintances. When she was asked what was her own age and that of
Paul,--"My brother," said she, "is as old as the great cocoa-tree of the
fountain; and I am as old as the little one: the mangoes have borne
fruit twelve times, and the orange-trees have flowered four-and-twenty
times, since I came into the world." Their lives seemed linked to that
of the trees, like those of Fauns or Dryads. They knew no other
historical epochs than those of the lives of their mothers, no other
chronology than that of their orchards, and no other philosophy than
that of doing good, and resigning themselves to the will of Heaven.

What need, indeed, had these young people of riches or learning such as
ours? Even their necessities and their ignorance increased their
happiness. No day passed in which they were not of some service to one
another, or in which they did not mutually impart some instruction. Yes,
instruction; for if errors mingled with it, they were, at least, not of
a dangerous character. A pure-minded being has none of that description
to fear. Thus grew these children of nature. No care had troubled their
peace, no intemperance had corrupted their blood, no misplaced passion
had depraved their hearts. Love, innocence, and piety, possessed their
souls; and those intellectual graces were unfolding daily in their
features, their attitudes, and their movements. Still in the morning of
life, they had all its blooming freshness: and surely such in the garden
of Eden appeared our first parents, when coming from the hands of God,
they first saw, and approached each other, and conversed together, like
brother and sister. Virginia was gentle, modest, and confiding as Eve;
and Paul, like Adam, united the stature of manhood with the simplicity
of a child.

Sometimes, if alone with Virginia, he has a thousand times told me, he
used to say to her, on his return from labor,--"When I am wearied, the
sight of you refreshes me. If from the summit of the mountain I perceive
you below in the valley, you appear to me in the midst of our orchard
like a blooming rosebud. If you go towards our mother's house, the
partridge, when it runs to meet its young, has a shape less beautiful,
and a step less light. When I lose sight of you through the trees, I
have no need to see you in order to find you again. Something of you, I
know not how, remains for me in the air through which you have passed,
on the grass whereon you have been seated. When I come near you, you
delight all my senses. The azure of the sky is less charming than the
blue of your eyes, and the song of the amadavid bird less soft than the
sound of your voice. If I only touch you with the tip of my finger, my
whole frame trembles with pleasure. Do you remember the day when we
crossed over the great stones of the river of the Three Breasts? I was
very tired before we reached the bank: but, as soon as I had taken you
in my arms, I seemed to have wings like a bird. Tell me by what charm
you have thus enchanted me? Is it by your wisdom?--Our mothers have more
than either of us. Is it by your caresses?--They embrace me much oftener
than you. I think it must be by your goodness. I shall never forget how
you walked barefooted to the Black River, to ask pardon for the poor
runaway slave. Here, my beloved, take this flowering branch of a
lemon-tree, which I have gathered in the forest: you will let it remain
at night near your bed. Eat this honeycomb too, which I have taken for
you from the top of a rock. But first lean on my bosom, and I shall be

Virginia would answer him,--"Oh, my dear brother, the rays of the sun in
the morning on the tops of the rocks give me less joy than the sight of
you. I love my mother,--I love yours; but when they call you their son,
I love them a thousand times more. When they caress you, I feel it more
sensibly than when I am caressed myself. You ask me what makes you love
me. Why, all creatures that are brought up together love one another.
Look at our birds; reared up in the same nests, they love each other as
we do; they are always together like us. Hark! how they call and answer
from one tree to another. So when the echoes bring to my ears the air
which you play on your flute on the top of the mountain, I repeat the
words at the bottom of the valley. You are dear to me more especially
since the day when you wanted to fight the master of the slave for me.
Since that time how often have I said to myself, 'Ah, my brother has a
good heart; but for him, I should have died of terror.' I pray to God
every day for my mother and for yours, and for our poor servants; but
when I pronounce your name, my devotion seems to increase;--I ask so
earnestly of God that no harm may befall you! Why do you go so far, and
climb so high, to seek fruits and flowers for me? Have we not enough in
our garden already? How much you are fatigued,--you look so warm!"--and
with her little white handkerchief she would wipe the damp from his
face, and then imprint a tender kiss on his forehead.

For some time past, however, Virginia had felt her heart agitated by new
sensations. Her beautiful blue eyes lost their lustre, her cheek its
freshness, and her frame was overpowered with a universal languor.
Serenity no longer sat upon her brow, nor smiles played upon her lips.
She would become all at once gay without cause for joy, and melancholy
without any subject for grief. She fled her innocent amusements, her
gentle toils, and even the society of her beloved family; wandering
about the most unfrequented parts of the plantations, and seeking
everywhere the rest which she could nowhere find. Sometimes, at the
sight of Paul, she advanced sportively to meet him; but, when about to
accost him, was overcome by a sudden confusion; her pale cheeks were
covered with blushes, and her eyes no longer dared to meet those of her
brother. Paul said to her,--"The rocks are covered with verdure, our
birds begin to sing when you approach, everything around you is gay, and
you only are unhappy." He then endeavoured to soothe her by his
embraces, but she turned away her head, and fled, trembling, towards her
mother. The caresses of her brother excited too much emotion in her
agitated heart, and she sought, in the arms of her mother, refuge from
herself. Paul, unused to the secret windings of the female heart, vexed
himself in vain in endeavouring to comprehend the meaning of these new
and strange caprices. Misfortunes seldom come alone, and a serious
calamity now impended over these families.

One of those summers, which sometimes desolate the countries situated
between the tropics, now began to spread its ravages over this island.
It was near the end of December, when the sun, in Capricorn, darts over
the Mauritius, during the space of three weeks, its vertical fires. The
southeast wind, which prevails throughout almost the whole year, no
longer blew. Vast columns of dust arose from the highways, and hung
suspended in the air; the ground was everywhere broken into clefts; the
grass was burnt up; hot exhalations issued from the sides of the
mountains, and their rivulets, for the most part, became dry. No
refreshing cloud ever arose from the sea: fiery vapours, only, during
the day, ascended from the plains, and appeared, at sunset, like the
reflection of a vast conflagration. Night brought no coolness to the
heated atmosphere; and the red moon rising in the misty horizon,
appeared of supernatural magnitude. The drooping cattle, on the sides
of the hills, stretching out their necks towards heaven, and panting for
breath, made the valleys re-echo with their melancholy lowings: even the
Caffre by whom they were led, threw himself upon the earth, in search of
some cooling moisture: but his hopes were vain; the scorching sun had
penetrated the whole soil, and the stifling atmosphere everywhere
resounded with the buzzing noise of insects, seeking to allay their
thirst with the blood of men and of animals.

During this sultry season, Virginia's restlessness and disquietude were
much increased. One night, in particular, being unable to sleep, she
arose from her bed, sat down, and returned to rest again; but could find
in no attitude either slumber or repose. At length she bent her way, by
the light of the moon, towards her fountain, and gazed at its spring,
which, notwithstanding the drought, still trickled, in silver threads
down the brown sides of the rock. She flung herself into the basin: its
coolness reanimated her spirits, and a thousand soothing remembrances
came to her mind. She recollected that in her infancy her mother and
Margaret had amused themselves by bathing her with Paul in this very
spot; that he afterwards, reserving this bath for her sole use, had
hollowed out its bed, covered the bottom with sand, and sown aromatic
herbs around its borders. She saw in the water, upon her naked arms and
bosom, the reflection of the two cocoa trees which were planted at her
own and her brother's birth, and which interwove above her head their
green branches and young fruit. She thought of Paul's friendship,
sweeter than the odour of the blossoms, purer than the waters of the
fountain, stronger than the intertwining palm-tree, and she sighed.
Reflecting on the hour of the night, and the profound solitude, her
imagination became disturbed. Suddenly she flew, affrighted, from those
dangerous shades, and those waters which seemed to her hotter than the
tropical sunbeam, and ran to her mother for refuge. More than once,
wishing to reveal her sufferings, she pressed her mother's hand within
her own; more than once she was ready to pronounce the name of Paul: but
her oppressed heart left her lips no power of utterance, and, leaning
her head on her mother's bosom, she bathed it with her tears.

Madame de la Tour, though she easily discerned the source of her
daughter's uneasiness, did not think proper to speak to her on the
subject. "My dear child," said she, "offer up your supplications to God,
who disposes at his will of health and of life. He subjects you to trial
now, in order to recompense you hereafter. Remember that we are only
placed upon earth for the exercise of virtue."

The excessive heat in the mean time raised vast masses of vapor from the
ocean, which hung over the island like an immense parasol, and gathered
round the summits of the mountains. Long flakes of fire issued from time
to time from these mist-embosomed peaks. The most awful thunder soon
after re-echoed through the woods, the plains, and the valleys; the
rains fell from the skies in cataracts; foaming torrents rushed down the
sides of this mountain; the bottom of the valley became a sea, and the
elevated platform on which the cottages were built, a little island. The
accumulated waters, having no other outlet, rushed with violence through
the narrow gorge which leads into the valley, tossing and roaring, and
bearing along with them a mingled wreck of soil, trees and rocks.

The trembling families meantime addressed their prayers to God all
together in the cottage of Madame de la Tour, the roof of which cracked
fearfully from the force of the winds. So incessant and vivid were the
lightnings, that although the doors and window-shutters were securely
fastened, every object without could be distinctly seen through the
joints in the woodwork! Paul, followed by Domingo, went with intrepidity
from one cottage to another, notwithstanding the fury of the tempest;
here supporting a partition with a buttress, there driving in a stake;
and only returning to the family to calm their fears, by the expression
of a hope that the storm was passing away. Accordingly, in the evening
the rains ceased, the trade-winds of the southeast pursued their
ordinary course, the tempestuous clouds were driven away to the
northward, and the setting sun appeared in the horizon.

Virginia's first wish was to visit the spot called her Resting-place.
Paul approached her with a timid air, and offered her the assistance of
his arm; she accepted it with a smile, and they left the cottage
together. The air was clear and fresh: white vapours arose from the
ridges of the mountain, which was furrowed here and there by the
courses of torrents, marked in foam, and now beginning to dry up on all
sides. As for the garden, it was completely torn to pieces by deep
water-courses, the roots of most of the fruit-trees were laid bare, and
vast heaps of sand covered the borders of the meadows, and had choked up
Virginia's bath. The two cocoa trees, however, were still erect, and
still retained their freshness; but they were no longer surrounded by
turf, or arbours, or birds, except a few amadavid birds, which, upon the
points of the neighbouring rocks, were lamenting, in plaintive notes,
the loss of their young.

At the sight of this general desolation, Virginia exclaimed to
Paul,--"You brought birds hither, and the hurricane has killed them. You
planted this garden, and it is now destroyed. Everything then upon earth
perishes, and it is only Heaven that is not subject to change."--"Why,"
answered Paul, "cannot I give you something that belongs to heaven? but
I have nothing of my own, even upon the earth." Virginia with a blush
replied, "You have the picture of St. Paul." As soon as she had uttered
the words, he flew in quest of it to his mother's cottage. This picture
was a miniature of Paul the Hermit, which Margaret, who viewed it with
feelings of great devotion, had worn at her neck while a girl, and
which, after she became a mother, she had placed round her child's. It
had even happened, that being, while pregnant, abandoned by all the
world, and constantly occupied in contemplating the image of this
benevolent recluse, her offspring had contracted some resemblance to
this revered object. She therefore bestowed upon him the name of Paul,
giving him for his patron a saint who had passed his life far from
mankind by whom he had been first deceived and then forsaken. Virginia,
on receiving this little present from the hands of Paul, said to him,
with emotion, "My dear brother, I will never part with this while I
live; nor will I ever forget that you have given me the only thing you
have in this world." At this tone of friendship,--this unhoped-for
return of familiarity and tenderness, Paul attempted to embrace her;
but, light as a bird, she escaped him, and fled away, leaving him
astonished, and unable to account for conduct so extraordinary.


     SEWELL, ANNA, was the daughter of Mary Sewell, an English authoress
     of Quaker family. She was born in 1820, and died in 1878.
     Considering the great fame of her book, _Black Beauty_, very little
     has been published in connection with Anna Sewell's life. She is
     said to have been of a retiring disposition, and to have shunned
     the literary fame which her charming story brought her. _Black
     Beauty_ made its first appearance in 1877, and since then has been
     published in countless editions, some very costly, and others in
     extremely cheap form. Several editions have been gotten out for the
     purpose of gratuitous distribution by humane societies. The sale of
     the book has been enormous, and it has been appropriately called
     the Uncle Tom's Cabin of animal stories. That a story which
     purports to be the autobiography of a horse should win and retain
     such popularity as _Black Beauty_ enjoys, leads one to seek (if any
     seeking be necessary), for the surviving quality in the book. For
     animal stories have been many, and among them _Black Beauty_ stands
     alone. Probably the secret is this,--that its author, by reason of
     her love for and understanding of horses, was able, with the aid of
     a powerful imagination, to assume, as well as a human being might,
     the mental attitude of an intelligent horse.

     The following selection embodies one of the most interesting
     incidents of the tale.


I had now lived in this happy place three years, but sad changes were
about to come over us.

We heard from time to time that our mistress was ill. The Doctor was
often at the house, and the master looked grave and anxious. Then we
heard that she must leave her home at once, and go to a warm country for
two or three years. The news fell upon the household like the tolling of
a death-bell. Everybody was sorry; but the master began directly to make
arrangements for breaking up his establishment and leaving England. We
used to hear it talked about in our stable; indeed, nothing else was
talked about.

John went about his work, silent and sad, and Joe scarcely whistled.
There was a great deal of coming and going; Ginger and I had full work.

The first of the party who went were Miss Jessie and Flora with their
governess. They came to bid us good-bye. They hugged poor Merrylegs like
an old friend, and so indeed he was. Then we heard what had been
arranged for us. Master had sold Ginger and me to his old friend, the
Earl of W----, for he thought we should have a good place there.
Merrylegs he had given to the Vicar, who was wanting a pony for Mrs.
Blomefield, but it was _on the condition that he should never be sold,
and that when he was past work he should be shot and buried_.

Joe was engaged to take care of him and to help in the house, so I
thought that Merrylegs was well off. John had the offer of several good
places, but he said he should wait a little and look round.

The evening before they left, the master came into the stable to give
some directions, and to give his horses the last pat. He seemed very
low-spirited; I knew that by his voice. I believe we horses can tell
more by the voice than many men can.

"Have you decided what to do, John?" he said. "I find you have not
accepted either of those offers."

"No, sir; I have made up my mind that if I could get a situation with
some first-rate colt-breaker and horse-trainer, it would be the right
thing for me. Many young animals are frightened and spoiled by wrong
treatment, which need not be if the right man took them in hand. I
always get on well with horses, and if I could help some of them to a
fair start I should feel as if I was doing some good. What do you think
of it, sir?"

"I don't know a man anywhere," said master, "that I should think so
suitable for it as yourself. You understand horses, and somehow they
understand you, and in time you might set up for yourself; I think you
could not do better. If in any way I can help you, write to me. I shall
speak to my agent in London, and leave your character with him."

Master gave John the name and address, and then he thanked him for his
long and faithful service; but that was too much for John. "Pray, don't,
sir, I can't bear it; you and my dear mistress have done so much for me
that I could never repay it. But we shall never forget you, sir, and
please God, we may some day see mistress back again like herself; we
must keep up hope, sir." Master gave John his hand, but he did not
speak, and they both left the stable.

The last sad day had come; the footman and the heavy luggage had gone
off the day before, and there were only master and mistress and her
maid. Ginger and I brought the carriage up to the Hall door for the last
time. The servants brought out cushions and rugs and many other things;
and when all were arranged, master came down the steps carrying the
mistress in his arms (I was on the side next the house, and could see
all that went on); he placed her carefully in the carriage, while the
house servants stood round crying.

"Good-bye again," he said; "we shall not forget any of you," and he got
in. "Drive on, John."

Joe jumped up, and we trotted slowly through the park and through the
village, where the people were standing at their doors to have a last
look and to say, "God bless them."

When we reached the railway station, I think mistress walked from the
carriage to the waiting-room. I heard her say in her own sweet voice,
"Good-bye, John. God bless you." I felt the rein twitch, but John made
no answer; perhaps he could not speak. As soon as Joe had taken the
things out of the carriage, John called him to stand by the horses,
while he went on the platform. Poor Joe! he stood close up to our heads
to hide his tears. Very soon the train came puffing up into the station;
then two or three minutes, and the doors were slammed to; the guard
whistled and the train glided away, leaving behind it only clouds of
white smoke and some very heavy hearts.

When it was quite out of sight, John came back.

"We shall never see her again," he said--"never." He took the reins,
mounted the box, and with Joe drove slowly home; but it was not our home

The next morning after breakfast, Joe put Merrylegs into the mistress'
low chaise to take him to the vicarage; he came first and said good-bye
to us, and Merrylegs neighed to us from the yard. Then John put the
saddle on Ginger and the leading rein on me, and rode us across the
country about fifteen miles to Earlshall Park, where the Earl of
W----lived. There was a very fine house and a great deal of stabling. We
went into the yard through a stone gateway and John asked for Mr. York.
It was some time before he came. He was a fine-looking, middle-aged man,
and his voice said at once that he expected to be obeyed. He was very
friendly and polite to John, and after giving us a slight look he called
a groom to take us to our boxes, and invited John to take some

We were taken to a light, airy stable, and placed in boxes adjoining
each other, where we were rubbed down and fed. In about half an hour
John and Mr. York, who was to be our new coachman, came in to see us.

"Now, Mr. Manly," he said, after carefully looking at us both, "I can
see no fault in these horses; but we all know that horses have their
peculiarities as well as men, and that sometimes they need different
treatment. I should like to know if there is anything particular in
either of these that you would like to mention."

"Well," said John, "I don't believe there is a better pair of horses in
the country, and right grieved I am to part with them, but they are not
alike. The black one is the most perfect temper I ever knew; I suppose
he has never known a hard word or blow since he was foaled, and all his
pleasure seems to be to do what you wish; but the chestnut, I fancy,
must have had bad treatment; we heard as much from the dealer. She came
to us snappish and suspicious, but when she found what sort of place
ours was, it all went off by degrees; for three years I have never seen
the smallest sign of temper, and if she is well treated there is not a
better, more willing animal than she is. But she has naturally a more
irritable constitution than the black horse; flies tease her more;
anything wrong in the harness frets her more; and if she were ill-used
or unfairly treated she would not be unlikely to give tit for tat. You
know that many high-mettled horses will do so."

"Of course," said York, "I quite understand; but you know it is not easy
in stables like these to have all the grooms just what they should be. I
do my best, and there I must leave it. I'll remember what you have said
about the mare."

They were going out of the stable, when John stopped, and said, "I had
better mention that we have never used the check-rein with either of
them; the black horse never had one on, and the dealer said it was the
gag-bit that spoiled the other's temper."

"Well," said York, "if they come here, they must wear the check-rein. _I
prefer a loose rein myself, and his lordship is always very reasonable
about horses; but, my lady--that's another thing_; she will have style,
and if her carriage horses are not reigned up tight she wouldn't look at
them. I always stand out against the gag-bit, and shall do so, but _it
must be tight up when my lady rides_!"

"I am sorry for it, very sorry," said John; "but I must go now, or I
shall lose the train."

He came round to each of us to pat and speak to us for the last time;
his voice sounded very sad.

I held my face close to him; that was all I could do to say good-bye;
and then he was gone, and I have never seen him since.

The next day Lord W----came to look at us; he seemed pleased with our

"I have great confidence in these horses," he said, "from the character
my friend Mr. Gordon has given me of them. Of course they are not a
match in colour, but my idea is that they will do very well for the
carriage whilst we are in the country. Before we go to London I must try
to match Baron; the black horse, I believe, is perfect for riding."

York then told him what John had said about us.

"Well," said he, "you must keep an eye to the mare, and put the
check-rein easy; I dare say they will do very well with a little
humouring at first. I'll mention it to your lady."

In the afternoon we were harnessed and put in the carriage, and as the
stable clock struck three we were led round to the front of the house.
It was all very grand, and three or four times as large as the old house
at Birtwick, but not half so pleasant, if a horse may have an opinion.
Two footmen were standing ready, dressed in drab livery, with scarlet
breeches and white stockings. Presently we heard the rustling sound of
silk as my lady came down the flight of stone steps. She stepped round
to look at us; she was a tall, proud-looking woman, and did not seem
pleased about something, but she said nothing, and got into the
carriage. This was the first time of wearing a check-rein, and I must
say, though it certainly was a nuisance not to be able to get my head
down now and then, it did not pull my head higher than I was accustomed
to carry it. I felt anxious about Ginger, but she seemed to be quiet and

The next day at three o'clock we were again at the door, and the footmen
as before; we heard the silk dress rustle, and the lady came down the
steps, and in an imperious voice she said: "_York, you must put those
horses' heads higher; they are not fit to be seen._"

York got down, and said very respectfully, "I beg your pardon, my lady,
but these horses have not been reined up for three years, and my lord
said it would be safer to bring them to it by degrees; but, if your
ladyship pleases, I can take them up a little more."

"Do so," she said.

York came round to our heads and shortened the rein himself, one hole, I
think; every little makes a difference, be it for better or worse, and
that day we had a steep hill to go up. Then I began to understand what I
had heard of. Of course I wanted to put my head forward and take the
carriage up with a will as we had been used to do; but no, I had to pull
with my head up now, and _that took all the spirit out of me, and the
strain came on my back and legs_. When we came in, Ginger said, "Now you
see what it is like; but this is not bad, and if it does not get much
worse than this I shall say nothing about it, for we are very well
treated here; but if they strain me up tight, why, let 'em look out! I
can't bear it, and I won't."

Day by day, hole by hole, our bearing-reins were shortened, and instead
of looking forward with pleasure to having my harness put on, as I used
to do, I began to dread it. Ginger too seemed restless, though she said
very little. At last I thought the worst was over; for several days
there was no more shortening, and I determined to make the best of it
and do my duty, though it was now a constant harass instead of a
pleasure; but the worst was not come.

One day my lady came down later than usual, and the silk rustled more
than ever.

"Drive to the Duchess of B----'s," she said, and then after a pause,
"Are you never going to get those horses' heads up, York? Raise them at
once, and let us have no more of this humouring and nonsense."

York came to me first, whilst the groom stood at Ginger's head. _He drew
my head back and fixed the rein so tight that it was almost
intolerable_; then he went to Ginger, who was impatiently jerking her
head up and down against the bit, as was her way now. She had a good
idea of what was coming, and the moment York took the rein off the
terret in order to shorten it, she took her opportunity, and reared up
so suddenly that York had his nose roughly hit and his hat knocked off;
the groom was nearly thrown off his legs. At once they both flew to her
head, but she was a match for them, and went on plunging, rearing, and
kicking in a most desperate manner; at last she kicked right over the
carriage pole and fell down, after giving me a severe blow on my near
quarter. There is no knowing what further mischief she might have done,
had not York promptly sat himself down flat on her head to prevent her
struggling, at the same time calling out, "Unbuckle the black horse! Run
for the winch and unscrew the carriage pole! Cut the trace here,
somebody, if you can't unhitch it!" One of the footmen ran for the
winch, and another brought a knife from the house. The groom soon set me
free from Ginger and the carriage, and led me to my box. He just turned
me in as I was, and ran back to York. I was much excited by what had
happened, and if I had ever been used to kick or rear I am sure I should
have done it then; but I never had, and there I stood, angry, sore in my
leg, my head still strained up to the terret on the saddle, and no power
to get it down. I was very miserable, and felt much inclined to kick the
first person who came near me.

Before long, however, Ginger was led in by two grooms, a good deal
knocked about and bruised. York came with her and gave his orders, and
then came to look at me. In a moment he let down my head.

"Confound these check-reins!" he said to himself; "I thought we should
have some mischief soon. Master will be sorely vexed. But here, if a
woman's husband can't rule her, of course a servant can't; so I wash my
hands of it, and if she can't get to the Duchess's garden party I can't
help it."

York did not say this before the men; he always spoke respectfully when
they were by. Now he felt me all over, and soon found the place above my
hock where I had been kicked. It was swelled and painful; he ordered it
to be sponged with hot water, and then some lotion was put on.

Lord W----was much put out when he learned what had happened; he blamed
York for giving way to his mistress, to which he replied that in future
he would much prefer to receive his orders only from his lordship; but I
think nothing came of it, for things went on the same as before. I
thought York might have stood up better for his horses, but perhaps I am
no judge.

Ginger was never put into the carriage again, but when she was well of
her bruises one of Lord W----'s younger sons said he should like to have
her; he was sure she would make a good hunter. As for me, I was obliged
still to go in the carriage, and had a fresh partner called Max; he had
always been used to the tight rein. I asked him how it was he bore it.

"Well," he said, "I bear it because I must; but it is shortening my
life, and it will shorten yours too, if you have to stick to it."

"Do you think," I said, "that our masters know how bad it is for us?"

"I can't say," he replied, "but the dealers and the horse-doctors know
it very well. I was at a dealer's once, who was training me and another
horse to go as a pair; he was getting our heads up, as he said, a little
higher and a little higher every day. A gentleman who was there asked
him why he did so. 'Because,' said he, 'people won't buy them unless we
do. The London people always want their horses to carry their heads high
and to step high. Of course it is very bad for the horses, _but then it
is good for trade_. The horses soon wear up, or get diseased, and they
come for another pair.' That," said Max, "is what he said in my hearing,
and you can judge for yourself."

What I suffered with that rein for four long months in my lady's
carriage would be hard to describe; but I am quite sure that, had it
lasted much longer, either my health or my temper would have given way.
Before that, I never knew what it was to foam at the mouth, but now the
action of the sharp bit on my tongue and jaw, and the constrained
position of my head and throat, always caused me to froth at the mouth
more or less. Some people think it very fine to see this, and say, "What
fine, spirited creatures!" _But it is just as unnatural for horses as
for men to foam at the mouth_; it is a sure sign of some discomfort, and
should be attended to. Besides this, there was a pressure on my
windpipe, which often made my breathing very uncomfortable; when I
returned from my work, my neck and chest were strained and painful, my
mouth and tongue tender, and I felt worn and depressed.

In my old home I always knew that John and my master were my friends;
but here, although in many ways I was well treated, I had no friend.
York might have known, and very likely did know, how that rein harassed
me; but I suppose he took it as a matter of course that could not be
helped; at any rate, nothing was done to relieve me.

Early in the spring Lord W----and part of his family went up to London,
and took York with them. I and Ginger and some other horses were left at
home for use, and the head groom was left in charge.

The Lady Harriet, who remained at the Hall, was a great invalid, and
never went out in the carriage, and the Lady Anne preferred riding on
horseback with her brother or cousins. She was a perfect horsewoman, and
as gay and gentle as she was beautiful. She chose me for her horse, and
named me "Black Auster." I enjoyed these rides very much in the clear
cold air, sometimes with Ginger, sometimes with Lizzie. This Lizzie was
a bright bay mare, almost thoroughbred, and a great favourite with the
gentlemen, on account of her fine action and lively spirit; but Ginger,
who knew more of her than I did, told me she was rather nervous.

There was a gentleman of the name of Blantyre staying at the Hall; he
always rode Lizzie and praised her so much that one day Lady Anne
ordered the side-saddle to be put on her, and the other saddle on me.
When we came to the door, the gentleman seemed very uneasy.

"How is this?" he said. "Are you tired of your good Black Auster?"

"Oh, no, not at all," she replied, "but I am amiable enough to let you
ride him for once, and I will try your charming Lizzie. You must confess
that in size and appearance she is far more like a lady's horse than my
own favourite."

"Do let me advise you not to mount her," he said; "she is a charming
creature, but she is too nervous for a lady. I assure you, she is not
perfectly safe; let me beg you to have the saddles changed."

"My dear cousin," said Lady Anne, laughing, "pray do not trouble your
good careful head about me. I have been a horsewoman ever since I was a
baby, and I have followed the hounds a great many times, though I know
you do not approve of ladies hunting; but still that is the fact, and I
intend to try this Lizzie that you gentlemen are all so fond of; so
please help me to mount, like a good friend as you are."

There was no more to be said; he placed her carefully on the saddle,
looked to the bit and curb, gave the reins gently into her hand, and
then mounted me. Just as we were moving off, a footman came out with a
slip of paper and message from the Lady Harriet. "Would they ask this
question for her at Dr. Ashley's, and bring the answer?"

The village was about a mile off, and the doctor's house was the last in
it. We went along gayly enough till we came to his gate. There was a
short drive up to the house between tall evergreens. Blantyre alighted
at the gate, and was going to open it for Lady Anne, but she said, "I
will wait for you here, and you can hang Auster's rein on the gate."

He looked at her doubtfully. "I will not be five minutes," he said.

"Oh, do not hurry yourself; Lizzie and I shall not run away from you."

He hung my rein on one of the iron spikes, and was soon hidden amongst
the trees. Lizzie was standing quietly by the side of the road a few
paces off, with her back to me. My young mistress was sitting easily
with a loose rein, humming a little song. I listened to my rider's
footsteps until they reached the house, and heard him knock at the door.
There was a meadow on the opposite side of the road, the gate of which
stood open; just then, some cart horses and several young colts came
trotting out in a very disorderly manner, whilst a boy behind was
cracking a great whip. The colts were wild and frolicsome, and one of
them bolted across the road, and blundered up against Lizzie's hind
legs; and whether it was the stupid colt, or the loud cracking of the
whip, or both together, I cannot say, but she gave a violent kick, and
dashed off into a head-long gallop. It was so sudden that Lady Anne was
nearly unseated, but she soon recovered herself. I gave a loud, shrill
neigh for help; again and again I neighed, pawing the ground
impatiently, and tossing my head to get the rein loose. I had not long
to wait. Blantyre came running to the gate; he looked anxiously about,
and just caught sight of the flying figure, now far away on the road. In
an instant he sprang to the saddle. I needed no whip, no spur, for I
was as eager as my rider; he saw it, and giving me a free rein, and
leaning a little forward, we dashed after them.

For about a mile and a half the road ran straight, and then bent to the
right, after which it divided into two roads. Long before we came to the
bend, she was out of sight. Which way had she turned? A woman was
standing at her garden gate, shading her eyes with her hand, and looking
eagerly up the road. Scarcely drawing the rein, Blantyre shouted, "Which
way?" "To the right!" cried the woman, pointing with her hand, and away
we went up the right-hand road; then for a moment we caught sight of
her; another bend and she was hidden again. Several times we caught
glimpses, and then lost them. We scarcely seemed to gain ground upon
them at all. An old road-mender was standing near a heap of stones, his
shovel dropped and his hands raised. As we came near he made a sign to
speak. Blantyre drew the rein a little. "To the common, to the common,
sir; she has turned off there." I knew this common very well; it was for
the most part very uneven ground, covered with heather and dark green
furze bushes, with here and there a scrubby old thorn-tree; there were
also open spaces of fine short grass, with ant-hills and mole-turns
everywhere; the worst place I ever knew for a head-long gallop.

We had hardly turned on the common, when we caught sight again of the
green habit flying on before us. My lady's hat was gone, and her long
brown hair was streaming behind her. Her head and body were thrown
back, as if she were pulling with all her remaining strength and as if
that strength were nearly exhausted. It was clear that the roughness of
the ground had very much lessened Lizzie's speed, and there seemed a
chance that we might overtake her.

Whilst we were on the high-road, Blantyre had given me my head; but now,
with a light hand and a practiced eye, he guided me over the ground in
such a masterly manner that my pace was scarcely slackened, and we were
decidedly gaining on them.

About half-way across the heath there had been a wide dike recently cut,
and the earth from the cutting was cast up roughly on the other side.
Surely this would stop them! But no; with scarcely a pause Lizzie took
the leap, stumbled among the rough clods, and fell. Blantyre groaned,
"Now, Auster, do your best!" He gave me a steady rein. I gathered myself
well together, and with one determined leap cleared both dike and bank.

Motionless among the heather, with her face to the earth, lay my poor
young mistress. Blantyre kneeled down and called her name; there was no
sound. Gently he turned her face upward; it was ghastly white, and the
eyes were closed. "Annie, dear Annie, do speak!" But there was no
answer. He unbuttoned her habit, loosened her collar, felt her hands and
wrist, then started up and looked wildly round him for help.

At no great distance there were two men cutting turf, who, seeing Lizzie
running wild without a rider, had left their work to catch her.

Blantyre's hallo soon brought them to the spot. The foremost man seemed
much troubled at the sight, and asked what he could do.

"Can you ride?"

"Well, sir, I bean't much of a horseman, but I'd risk my neck for Lady
Anne; she was uncommon good to my wife in the winter."

"Then mount this horse, my friend--your neck will be quite safe--and
ride to the doctor's and ask him to come instantly; then on to the Hall;
tell them all that you know, and bid them send me the carriage with Lady
Anne's maid and help. I shall stay here."

"All right, sir, I'll do my best, and I pray God the dear young lady may
open her eyes soon." Then seeing the other man, he called out, "Here,
Joe, run for some water, and tell my missis to come as quick as she can
to the Lady Anne."

He then somehow scrambled into the saddle, and with a "Gee up" and a
clap on my sides with both his legs, he started on his journey, making a
little circuit to avoid the dike. He had no whip, which seemed to
trouble him; but my pace soon cured that difficulty, and he found the
best thing he could do was to stick to the saddle; and hold me in, which
he did manfully. I shook him as little as I could help, but once or
twice on the rough ground he called out, "Steady! Woah! Steady!" On the
high-road we were all right; and at the doctor's and the Hall he did his
errand like a good man and true. They asked him in to take a drop of
something. "No, no," he said, "I'll be back to 'em again by a short cut
through the fields, and be there afore the carriage."

There was a great deal of hurry and excitement after the news became
known. I was just turned into my box; the saddle and bridle were taken
off, and a cloth thrown over me.

Ginger was saddled and sent off in great haste for Lord George, and I
soon heard the carriage roll out of the yard.

It seemed a long time before Ginger came back, and before we were left
alone; and then she told me all that she had seen.

"I can't tell much," she said. "We went a gallop nearly all the way, and
got there just as the doctor rode up. There was a woman sitting on the
ground with the lady's head in her lap. The doctor poured something into
her mouth, but all that I heard was, 'She is not dead.' Then I was led
off by a man to a little distance. After a while she was taken to the
carriage, and we came home together. I heard my master say to a
gentleman who stopped him to inquire, that he hoped no bones were
broken, but that she had not spoken yet."

When Lord George took Ginger for hunting, York shook his head; he said
it ought to be a steady hand to train a horse for the first season, and
not a random rider like Lord George.

Ginger used to like it very much, but sometimes when she came back I
could see that she had been very much strained, and now and then she
gave a short cough. She had too much spirit to complain, but I could not
help feeling anxious about her.

Two days after the accident, Blantyre paid me a visit: he patted me and
praised me very much; he told Lord George that he was sure the horse
knew of Annie's danger as well as he did. "I could not have held him in
if I would," said he. "She ought never to ride any other horse." I found
by their conversation that my young mistress was now out of danger, and
would soon be able to ride again. This was good news to me, and I looked
forward to a happy life.


    SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM, dramatist and poet, was born at
    Stratford-on-Avon, in England, in April, 1564. Of his early life
    almost nothing is known. It is believed that he was a student in the
    Free School of Stratford, and that in his youth he assisted his
    father in the latter's business, but even of this we are not
    certain. Neither of his parents could read or write. At the age of
    eighteen he married Ann Hathaway, who was eight years his senior. Of
    this marriage only a vague report that it proved uncongenial has
    come down to us. At about 1587 Shakespeare seems to have gone to
    London, and two years later he appears as one of the proprietors of
    the Blackfriars Theatre. In the few years next following he became
    known as a playwright, and in 1593 he published his first poem. The
    dates of the publication of his plays are not settled beyond doubt,
    but the best authorities say that _Henry the Sixth_, was the first
    and _The Tempest_ the last, all produced between the years 1589 and
    1611. Shakespeare was an actor as well as a writer of plays, and was
    on the stage until 1603. Two years later, he bought a handsome house
    at Stratford, where he settled down, enjoying the friendship and
    respect of his neighbours until his death in 1616. This is
    practically all that the world knows of the most colossal genius
    that ever lived. A mist seems to have settled over him almost wholly
    obscuring his personality from posterity. We know a great deal of
    all the illustrious contemporaries that surrounded him, for he lived
    at a time of great men. Yet of Shakespeare nothing is known beyond
    the foregoing facts. In his works, however, he lives, and will
    continue to live while written records survive. The name of
    Shakespeare is so pre-eminently famous, standing out in the
    firmament of literature like the moon among the lesser stars, that
    no attempt to convey an idea of his greatness seems either wise or
    necessary. Volumes have been written about his immortal plays. Lord
    Macaulay pronounced him the greatest poet that ever lived, and
    esteemed _Othello_ as the greatest literary work in the world. The
    following selections from _Romeo and Juliet_ and _The Merchant of
    Venice_ have been taken as coming within the scope of our editorial
    purpose, and the reader is advised to read in connection with them
    the stories of the plays from which they are taken, by Charles and
    Mary Lamb, which are to be found in a preceding volume of this set.


(See Lamb's tale of the _Merchant of Venice_ in a preceding volume.)

SCENE I. _Venice. A court of justice._

_Enter the_ DUKE, _the_ Magnificoes, ANTONIO, BASSANIO, GRATIANO,
SALERIO, _and others_.

_Duke._ What, is Antonio here?

_Ant._ Ready, so please your grace.

_Duke._ I am sorry for thee: thou art come to answer
A stony adversary, an inhuman wretch
Uncapable of pity, void and empty
From any dream of mercy.

_Ant._                   I have heard
Your grace hath ta'en great pains to qualify
His rigorous course; but since he stands obdurate
And that no lawful means can carry me
Out of his envy's reach, I do oppose
My patience to his fury, and am arm'd
To suffer, with a quietness of spirit,
The very tyranny and rage of his.

_Duke._ Go one, and call the Jew into the court.

_Saler._ He is ready at the door: he comes, my lord.

_Enter_ SHYLOCK.

_Duke._ Make room, and let him stand before our face.
Shylock, the world thinks, and I think so too,
That thou but lead'st this fashion of thy malice
To the last hour of act; and then 'tis thought
Thou'lt show thy mercy and remorse more strange
Than is thy strange apparent cruelty;
And where thou now exact'st the penalty,
Which is a pound of this poor merchant's flesh,
Thou wilt not only loose the forfeiture,
But, touch'd with human gentleness and love,
Forgive a moiety of the principal;
Glancing an eye of pity on his losses,
That have of late so huddled on his back,
Enow to press a royal merchant down
And pluck commiseration of his state
From brassy bosoms and rough hearts of flint.
From stubborn Turks and Tartars, never train'd
To offices of tender courtesy.
We all expect a gentle answer, Jew.

_Shy._ I have possess'd your grace of what I purpose;
And by our holy Sabbath have I sworn
To have the due and forfeit of my bond:
If you deny it, let the danger light
Upon your charter and your city's freedom.
You'll ask me, why I rather choose to have
A weight of carrion flesh than to receive
Three thousand ducats: I'll not answer that:
But, say, it is my humour: is it answer'd?
What if my house be troubled with a rat
And I be pleased to give ten thousand ducats
To have it baned? What, are you answer'd yet?
Some men there are love not a gaping pig;
Some, that are mad if they behold a cat:
And others, when the bagpipe sings i' the nose,
Cannot contain their urine: for affection,
Mistress of passion, sways it to the mood
Of what it likes or loathes. Now, for your answer:
As there is no firm reason to be render'd,
Why he cannot abide a gaping pig;
Why he, a harmless necessary cat;
Why he, a swollen bagpipe; but of force
Must yield to such inevitable shame
As to offend, himself being offended;
So can I give no reason, nor I will not,
More than a lodged hate and a certain loathing
I bear Antonio, that I follow thus
A losing suit against him. Are you answer'd?

_Bass._ This is no answer, thou unfeeling man,
To excuse the current of thy cruelty.

_Shy._ I am not bound to please thee with my answers.

_Bass._ Do all men kill the things they do not love?

_Shy._ Hates any man the thing he would not kill?

_Bass._ Every offence is not a hate at first.

_Shy._ What, wouldst thou have a serpent sting thee twice?

_Ant._ I pray you, think you question with the Jew:
You may as well go stand upon the beach
And bid the main flood bate his usual height;
You may as well use question with the wolf
Why he hath made the ewe bleat for the lamb;
You may as well forbid the mountain pines
To wag their high tops and to make no noise,
When they are fretten with the gusts of heaven;
You may as well do any thing most hard,
As seek to soften that--than which what's harder?--
His Jewish heart; therefore, I do beseech you,
Make no more offers, use no farther means,
But with all brief and plain conveniency.
Let me have judgment and the Jew his will.

_Bass._ For thy three thousand ducats here is six.

_Shy._ If every ducat in six thousand ducats
Were in six parts and every part a ducat,
I would not draw them; I would have my bond.

_Duke._ How shalt thou hope for mercy, rendering none?

_Shy._ What judgment shall I dread, doing no wrong?
You have among you many a purchased slave,
Which, like your asses and your dogs and mules,
You use in abject and in slavish parts,
Because you bought them: shall I say to you,
Let them be free, marry them to your heirs?
Why sweat they under burthens? let their beds
Be made as soft as yours, and let their palates
Be season'd with such viands? You will answer
"The slaves are ours:" so do I answer you:
The pound of flesh, which I demand of him,
Is dearly bought; 'tis mine and I will have it.
If you deny me, fie upon your law!
There is no force in the decrees of Venice.
I stand for judgment: answer; shall I have it?

_Duke._ Upon my power, I may dismiss this court,
Unless Bellario, a learned doctor,
Whom I have sent for to determine this,
Come here to-day.

_Saler._          My lord, here stays without
A messenger with letters from the doctor,
New come from Padua.

_Duke._ Bring us the letters: call the messenger.

_Bass._ Good cheer, Antonio! What, man, courage yet!
The Jew shall have my flesh, blood, bones and all,
Ere thou shalt lose for me one drop of blood.

_Ant._ I am a tainted wether of the flock,
Meetest for death; the weakest kind of fruit
Drops earliest to the ground; and so let me:
You cannot better be employ'd, Bassanio,
Than to live still and write mine epitaph.

_Enter_ NERISSA, _dressed like a lawyer's clerk_.

_Duke._ Come you from Padua, from Bellario?

_Ner._ From both, my lord. Bellario greets your grace. [_Presenting a

_Bass._ Why dost thou whet thy knife so earnestly?

_Shy._ To cut the forfeiture from that bankrupt there.

_Gra._ Not on thy sole, but on thy soul, harsh Jew,
Thou makest thy knife keen; but no metal can,
No, not the hangman's axe, bear half the keenness
Of thy sharp envy. Can no prayer pierce thee?

_Shy._ No, none that thou hast wit enough to make.

_Gra._ O, be thou damn'd, inexecrable dog!
And for thy life let justice be accused.
Thou almost makest me waver in my faith
To hold opinion with Pythagoras,
That souls of animals infuse themselves
Into the trunks of men: thy currish spirit
Govern'd a wolf, who, hang'd for human slaughter,
Even from the gallows did his fell soul fleet,
And, whilst thou lay'st in thy unhallow'd dam,
Infused itself in thee; for thy desires
Are wolfish, bloody, starved and ravenous.

_Shy._ Till thou canst rail the seal from off my bond,
Thou but offend'st thy lungs to speak so loud:
Repair thy wit, good youth, or it will fall
To cureless ruin. I stand here for law.

_Duke._ This letter from Bellario doth commend
A young and learned doctor to our court.
Where is he?

_Ner._       He attendeth here hard by,
To know your answer, whether you'll admit him.

_Duke._ With all my heart. Some three or four of you
Go give him courteous conduct to this place.
Meantime the court shall hear Bellario's letter.

_Clerk._ [_Reads_] Your grace understands that
at the receipt of your letter I am very sick; but in
the instant that your messenger came, in loving visitation
was with me a young doctor of Rome; his
name is Balthasar. I acquainted him with the cause
in controversy between the Jew and Antonio the
merchant: we turned o'er many books together: he
is furnished with my opinion; which, bettered with
his own learning, the greatness whereof I cannot
enough commend, comes with him, at my importunity,
to fill up your grace's request in my stead.
I beseech you, let his lack of years be no impediment
to let him lack a reverend estimation; for I
never knew so young a body with so old a head. I
leave him to your gracious acceptance, whose trial
shall better publish his commendation.

_Duke._ You hear the learn'd Bellario, what he writes:
And here, I take it, is the doctor come.

_Enter_ PORTIA, _dressed like a doctor of laws_.

Give me your hand. Come you from old Bellario?

_Por._ I did, my lord.

_Duke._ You are welcome; take your place.
Are you acquainted with the difference
That holds this present question in the court?

_Por._ I am informed thoroughly of the cause.
Which is the merchant here, and which the Jew?

_Duke._ Antonio and old Shylock, both stand forth.

_Por._ Is your name Shylock?

_Shy._                       Shylock is my name.

_Por._ Of a strange nature is the suit you follow;
Yet in such rule that the Venetian law
Cannot impugn you as you do proceed.
You stand within his danger, do you not?

_Ant._ Ay, so he says.

_Por._                Do you confess the bond?

_Ant._ I do.

_Por._       Then must the Jew be merciful.

_Shy._ On what compulsion must I? tell me that.

_Por._ The quality of mercy is not strain'd,
It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven
Upon the place beneath: it is twice blest;
It blesseth him that gives and him that takes:
'Tis mightiest in the mightiest: it becomes
The throned monarch better than his crown;
His sceptre shows the force of temporal power,
The attribute to awe and majesty,
Wherein doth sit the dread and fear of Kings:
But mercy is above this sceptred sway;
It is enthroned in the hearts of kings,
It is an attribute to God himself:
And earthly power doth then show likest God's
When mercy seasons justice. Therefore, Jew,
Though justice be thy plea, consider this,
That, in the course of justice, none of us
Should see salvation: we do pray for mercy;
And that same prayer doth teach us all to render
The deeds of mercy. I have spoken thus much
To mitigate the justice of thy plea;
Which if thou follow, this strict court of Venice
Must needs give sentence 'gainst the merchant there.

_Shy._ My deeds upon my head! I crave the law,
The penalty and forfeit of my bond.

_Por._ Is he not able to discharge the money?

_Bass._ Yes, here I tender it for him in the court;
Yea, twice the sum: if that will not suffice,
I will be bound to pay it ten times o'er,
On forfeit of my hands, my head, my heart:
If this will not suffice, it must appear
That malice bears down truth. And I beseech you,
Wrest once the law to your authority:
To do a great right, do a little wrong,
And curb this cruel devil of his will.

_Por._ It must not be: there is no power in Venice
Can alter a decree established:
'Twill be recorded for a precedent,
And many an error by the same example
Will rush into the state: it cannot be.

_Shy._ A Daniel come to judgment! yea, a Daniel!
O wise young judge, how I do honour thee!

_Por._ I pray you, let me look upon the bond.

_Shy._ Here 'tis, most reverend doctor, here it is.

_Por._ Shylock, there's thrice thy money offer'd thee.

_Shy._ An oath, an oath, I have an oath in heaven:
Shall I lay perjury upon my soul?
No, not for Venice.

_Por._              Why, this bond is forfeit:
And lawfully by this the Jew may claim
A pound of flesh, to be by him cut off
Nearest the merchant's heart. Be merciful:
Take thrice thy money: bid me tear the bond.

_Shy._ When it is paid according to the tenor.
It doth appear you are a worthy judge;
You know the law, your exposition
Hath been most sound: I charge you by the law,
Whereof you are a well-deserving pillar,
Proceed to judgment: by my soul I swear
There is no power in the tongue of man
To alter me: I stay here on my bond.

_Ant._ Most heartily I do beseech the court
To give the judgment.

_Por._                Why then, thus it is:
You must prepare your bosom for his knife.

_Shy._ O noble judge! O excellent young man!

_Por._ For the intent and purpose of the law
Hath full relation to the penalty,
Which here appeareth due upon the bond.

_Shy._ 'Tis very true: O wise and upright judge!
How much more elder art thou than thy looks!

_Por._ Therefore lay bare your bosom.

_Shy._                                Ay, his breast:
So says the bond: doth it not, noble judge?
"Nearest his heart:" those are the very words.

_Por._ It is so. Are there balance here to weigh
The flesh?

_Shy._ I have them ready.

_Por._ Have by some surgeon, Shylock, on your charge,
To stop his wounds, lest he do bleed to death.

_Shy._ Is it so nominated in the bond?

_Por._ It is not so express'd: but what of that?
'Twere good you do so much for charity.

_Shy._ I cannot find it; 'tis not in the bond.

_Por._ You, merchant, have you any thing to say?

_Ant._ But little: I am arm'd and well prepared.
Give me your hand, Bassanio: fare you well!
Grieve not that I am fallen to this for you:
For herein. Fortune shows herself more kind
Than is her custom: it is still her use
To let the wretched man outlive his wealth,
To view with hollow eye and wrinkled brow
An age of poverty; from which lingering penance
Of such misery doth she cut me off.
Commend me to your honourable wife:
Tell her the process of Antonio's end;
Say how I loved you, speak me fair in death;
And, when the tale is told, bid her be judge
Whether Bassanio had not once a love.
Repent not you that you shall lose your friend,
And he repents not that he pays your debt:
For if the Jew do cut but deep enough,
I'll pay it presently with all my heart.

_Bass._ Antonio, I am married to a wife
Which is as dear to me as life itself;
But life itself, my wife, and all the world,
Are not with me esteem'd above thy life:
I would lose all, ay, sacrifice them all
Here to this devil, to deliver you.

_Por._ Your wife would give you little thanks for that,
If she were by, to hear you make the offer.

_Gra._ I have a wife, whom, I protest, I love:
I would she were in heaven, so she could
Entreat some power to change this currish Jew.

_Ner._ 'Tis well you offer it behind her back;
The wish would make else an unquiet house.

_Shy._ These be the Christian husbands. I have a daughter;
Would any of the stock of Barabbas
Had been her husband rather than a Christian!      [_Aside._]
We trifle time: I pray thee, pursue sentence.

_Por._ A pound of that same merchant's flesh is thine:
The court awards it, and the law doth give it.

_Shy._ Most rightful judge!

_Por._ And you must cut this flesh from off his breast:
The law allows it, and the court awards it.

_Shy._ Most learned judge! A sentence! Come prepare!

_Por._ Tarry a little; there is something else.
This bond doth give thee here no jot of blood;
The words expressly are "a pound of flesh:"
Take then thy bond, take thou thy pound of flesh;
But, in the cutting it, if thou dost shed
One drop of Christian blood, thy land and goods
Are, by the laws of Venice, confiscate
Unto the state of Venice.

_Gra._ O upright judge! Mark, Jew: O learned judge!

_Shy._ Is that the law?

_Por._                  Thyself shalt see the act:
For as thou urgest justice, be assured
Thou shalt have justice, more than thou desirest.

_Gra._ O learned judge! Mark, Jew: a learned judge!

_Shy._ I take this offer, then: pay the bond thrice,
And let the Christian go.

_Bass._                   Here is the money.

_Por._ Soft!
The Jew shall have all justice; soft! no haste:
He shall have nothing but the penalty.

_Gra._ O Jew! an upright judge, a learned judge!

_Por._ Therefore prepare thee to cut off the flesh.
Shed thou no blood, nor cut thou less nor more
But just a pound of flesh: if thou cut'st more
Or less than a just pound, be it but so much
As makes it light or heavy in the substance,
Or the division of the twentieth part
Of one poor scruple, nay, if the scale do turn
But in the estimation of a hair,
Thou diest, and all thy goods are confiscate.

_Gra._ A second Daniel, a Daniel, Jew!
Now, infidel, I have you on the hip.

_Por._ Why doth the Jew pause? take thy forfeiture.

_Shy._ Give me my principal, and let me go.

_Bass._ I have it ready for thee: here it is.

_Por._ He hath refused it in the open court:
He shall have merely justice and his bond.

_Gra._ A Daniel, still say I, a second Daniel!
I thank thee, Jew, for teaching me that word.

_Shy._ Shall I not have barely my principal?

_Por._ Thou shalt have nothing but the forfeiture,
To be so taken at thy peril, Jew.

_Shy._ Why, then the devil give him good of it!
I'll stay no longer question.

_Por._                        Tarry, Jew:
The law hath yet another hold on you.
It is enacted in the laws of Venice,
If it be proved against an alien
That by direct or indirect attempts
He seek the life of any citizen,
The party 'gainst the which he doth contrive
Shall seize one half his goods; the other half
Comes to the privy coffer of the state;
And the offender's life lies in the mercy
Of the duke only, 'gainst all other voice.
In which predicament, I say, thou stand'st;
For it appears, by manifest proceeding,
That indirectly and directly too
Thou hast contrived against the very life
Of the defendant; and thou hast incurr'd
The danger formerly by me rehearsed.
Down therefore, and beg mercy of the duke.

_Gra._ Beg that thou mayst have leave to hang thyself:
And yet, thy wealth being forfeit to the state,
Thou hast not left the value of a cord;
Therefore thou must be hang'd at the state's charge.

_Duke._ That thou shalt see the difference of our spirits,
I pardon thee thy life before thou ask it:
For half thy wealth, it is Antonio's;
The other half comes to the general state,
Which humbleness may drive unto a fine.

_Por._ Ay, for the state, not for Antonio.

_Shy._ Nay, take my life and all; pardon not that:
You take my house when you do take the prop
That doth sustain my house; you take my life
When you do take the means whereby I live.

_Por._ What mercy can you render him, Antonio?

_Gra._ A halter gratis; nothing else, for God's sake.

_Ant._ So please my lord the duke and all the court
To quit the fine for one half of his goods,
I am content; so he will let me have
The other half in use, to render it,
Upon his death, unto the gentleman
That lately stole his daughter:
Two things provided more, that, for this favour,
He presently become a Christian;
The other, that he do record a gift,
Here in the court, of all he dies possess'd,
Unto his son Lorenzo and his daughter.

_Duke._ He shall do this, or else I do recant
The pardon that I late pronounced here.

_Por._ Art thou contented, Jew? what dost thou say?

_Shy._ I am content.

_Por._               Clerk, draw a deed of gift.

_Shy._ I pray you, give me leave to go from hence:
I am not well: send the deed after me,
And I will sign it.

_Duke._             Get thee gone, but do it.

_Gra._ In christening shalt thou have two god-fathers:
Had I been judge, thou shouldst have had ten more,
To bring thee to the gallows, not the font.
                                  [_Exit Shylock._

_Duke._ Sir, I entreat you home with me to dinner.

_Por._ I humbly do desire your grace of pardon!
I must away this night toward Padua.
And it is meet I presently set forth.

_Duke._ I am sorry that your leisure serves you not.
Antonio, gratify this gentleman,
For, in my mind, you are much bound to him.
                          [_Exeunt Duke and his train._

_Bass._ Most worthy gentleman, I and my friend
Have by your wisdom been this day acquitted
Of grievous penalties; in lieu whereof,
Three thousand ducats, due unto the Jew,
We freely cope your courteous pains withal.

_Ant._ And stand indebted, over and above,
In love and service to you evermore.

_Por._ He is well paid that is well satisfied;
And I, delivering you, am satisfied,
And therein do account myself well paid:
My mind was never yet more mercenary.
I pray you, know me when we meet again:
I wish you well, and so I take my leave.

_Bass._ Dear sir, of force I must attempt you further:
Take some remembrance of us, as a tribute,
Not as a fee: grant me two things, I pray you.
Not to deny me, and to pardon me.

_Por._ You press me far, and therefore I will yield.

[_To Ant._] Give me your gloves, I'll wear them for your sake;

[_To Bass._] And, for your love, I'll take this ring from you:
Do not draw back your hand: I'll take, no more;
And you in love shall not deny me this.

_Bass._ This ring, good sir, alas, it is a trifle!
I will not shame myself to give you this.

_Por._ I will have nothing else but only this;
And now methinks I have a mind to it.

_Bass._ There's more depends on this than on the value.
The dearest ring in Venice will I give you,
And find it out by proclamation:
Only for this, I pray you, pardon me.

_Por._ I see, sir, you are liberal in offers:
You taught me first to beg; and now methinks
You teach me how a beggar should be answer'd.

_Bass._ Good sir, this ring was given me by my wife;

And when she put it on, she made me vow
That I should neither sell nor give nor lose it.

_Por._ That 'scuse serves many men to save their gifts.
And if your wife be not a mad-woman,
And know how well I have deserved the ring,
She would not hold out enemy forever,
For giving it to me. Well, peace be with you!

[_Exeunt Portia and Nerissa._

_Ant._ My Lord Bassanio, let him have the ring:
Let his deservings and my love withal
Be valued 'gainst your wife's commandment.

_Bass._ Go, Gratiano, run and overtake him:
Give him the ring, and bring him, if thou canst,
Unto Antonio's house: away! make haste.      [_Exit Gratiano._
Come, you and I will hither presently;
And in the morning early will we both
Fly toward Belmont: come, Antonio.       [_Exeunt._


(See Lamb's tale of _Romeo and Juliet_ in a preceding volume.)

SCENE: _Capulet's orchard._

_Enter_ ROMEO.

_Rom._ He jests at scars that never felt a wound.    [_Juliet appears
                                                     above at a window._
But, soft, what light through yonder window breaks?
It is the east, and Juliet is the sun,
Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon,
Who is already sick and pale with grief,
That thou her maid art far more fair than she:
Be not her maid, since she is envious;
Her vestal livery is but sick and green,
And none but fools do wear it; cast it off.
It is my lady, O, it is my love!
O, that she knew she were!
She speaks, yet she says nothing: what of that?
Her eye discourses; I will answer it.
I am too bold, 'tis not to me she speaks:
Two of the fairest stars in all the heaven,
Having some business, do entreat her eyes
To twinkle in their spheres till they return.
What if her eyes were there, they in her head?
The brightness of her cheek would shame those stars,
As daylight doth a lamp; her eyes in heaven
Would through the airy region stream so bright
That birds would sing and think it were not night.
See, how she leans her cheek upon her hand!
O, that I were a glove upon that hand,
That I might touch that cheek!

_Jul._                         Ah, me!

_Rom._                                 She speaks:
O, speak again, bright angel! for thou art
As glorious to this night, being o'er my head,
As is a winged messenger of heaven
Unto the white-upturned wondering eyes
Of mortals that fall back to gaze on him
When he bestrides the lazy-pacing clouds
And sails upon the bosom of the air.

_Jul._ O Romeo, Romeo! wherefore art thou Romeo?
Deny thy father and refuse thy name:
Or, if thou wilt not, be but sworn my love,
And I'll no longer be a Capulet.

_Rom._ [_Aside_] Shall I hear more, or shall I speak at this?

_Jul._ 'Tis but thy name that is my enemy;
Thou art thyself, though not a Montague.
What's Montague? it is nor hand, nor foot,
Nor arm, nor face, nor any other part
Belonging to a man. O, be some other name!
What's in a name? that which we call a rose
By any other name would smell as sweet:
So Romeo would, were he not Romeo call'd,
Retain that dear perfection which he owes
Without that title. Romeo, doff thy name,
And for that name which is no part of thee
Take all myself.

_Rom._           I take thee at thy word:
Call me but love, and I'll be new baptized;
Henceforth I never will be Romeo.

_Jul._ What man art thou that thus bescreen'd in night
So stumblest on my counsel?

_Rom._                      By a name
I know not how to tell thee who I am:
My name, dear saint, is hateful to myself,
Because it is an enemy to thee;
Had I it written, I would tear the word.

_Jul._ My ears have not yet drunk a hundred words
Of that tongue's utterance, yet I know the sound:
Art thou not Romeo, and a Montague?

_Rom._ Neither, fair saint, if either thee dislike.

_Jul._ How camest thou hither, tell me, and wherefore?
The orchard walls are high and hard to climb,
And the place death, considering who thou art,
If any of my kinsmen find thee here.

_Rom._ With love's light wings did I o'erperch these walls;
For stony limits cannot hold love out,
And what love can do that dares love attempt;
Therefore thy kinsmen are no let to me.

_Jul._ If they do see thee, they will murder thee.

_Rom._ Alack, there lies more peril in thine eye
Than twenty of their swords: look thou but sweet,
And I am proof against their enmity.

_Jul._ I would not for the world they saw thee here.

_Rom._ I have night's cloak to hide me from their sight:
And but thou love me, let them find me here:
My life were better ended by their hate,
Than death prorogued, wanting of thy love.

_Jul._ By whose direction found'st thou out this place?

_Rom._ By love, who first did prompt me to inquire:
He lent me counsel, and I lent him eyes.
I am no pilot; yet, wert thou as far
As that vast shore wash'd with the farthest sea,
I would adventure for such merchandise.

_Jul._ Thou know'st the mask of night is on my face,
Else would a maiden blush bepaint my cheek
For that which thou hast heard me speak to-night.
Fain would I dwell on form, fain, fain deny
What I have spoke: but farewell compliment!
Dost thou love me? I know thou wilt say "Ay,"
And I will take thy word: yet, if thou swear'st,
Thou mayst prove false; at lovers' perjuries,
They say, Jove laughs. O gentle Romeo,
If thou dost love, pronounce it faithfully;
Or if thou think'st I am too quickly won,
I'll frown and be perverse and say thee nay,
So thou wilt woo; but else, not for the world.
In truth, fair Montague, I am too fond,
And therefore thou mayst think my 'havior light:
But trust me, gentleman, I'll prove more true
Than those that have more cunning to be strange.
I should have been more strange, I must confess,
But that thou overheard'st, ere I was 'ware,
My true love's passion: therefore pardon me,
And not impute this yielding to light love,
Which the dark night hath so discovered.

_Rom._ Lady, by yonder blessed moon I swear
That tips with silver all these fruit-tree tops--

_Jul._ O, swear not by the moon, the inconstant moon,
That monthly changes in her circled orb,
Lest that thy love prove likewise variable.

_Rom._ What shall I swear by?

_Jul._                       Do not swear at all;
Or, if thou wilt, swear by thy gracious self,
Which is the god of my idolatry,
And I'll believe thee.

_Rom._                 If my heart's dear love--

_Jul._ Well, do not swear: although I joy in thee.
I have no joy of this contract to-night:
It is too rash, too unadvised, too sudden;
Too like the lightning, which doth cease to be
Ere one can say "It lightens." Sweet, good night!
This bud of love, by summer's ripening breath,
May prove a beauteous flower when next we meet.
Good night, good night! as sweet repose and rest
Come to thy heart as that within my breast!

_Rom._ O, wilt thou leave me so unsatisfied?

_Jul._ What satisfaction canst thou have to-night?

_Rom._ The exchange of thy love's faithful vow for mine.

_Jul._ I gave thee mine before thou didst request it:
And yet I would it were to give again.

_Rom._ Wouldst thou withdraw it? for what purpose, love?

_Jul._ But to be frank, and give it thee again.
And yet I wish but for the thing I have;
My bounty is as boundless as the sea,
My love as deep; the more I give to thee,
The more I have, for both are infinite.      [_Nurse calls within._
I hear some noise within; dear love, adieu!
Anon, good nurse! Sweet Montague, be true,
Stay but a little, I will come again.      [_Exit above._

_Rom._ O blessed, blessed night! I am afeared,
Being in night, all this is but a dream,
Too flattering sweet to be substantial.

_Re-enter_ JULIET, _above_.

_Jul._ Three words, dear Romeo, and good night indeed.
If that thy bent of love be honourable,
Thy purpose marriage, send me word to-morrow,
By one that I'll procure to come to thee,
Where and what time thou wilt perform the rite;
And all my fortunes at thy foot I'll lay,
And follow thee, my lord, throughout the world.

_Nurse._ [_Within_] Madam!

_Jul._ I come, anon.--But if thou mean'st not well,
I do beseech thee--

_Nurse._ [_Within_] Madam!

_Jul._                 By and by, I come:--
To cease thy suit, and leave me to my grief:
To-morrow will I send.

_Rom._                 So thrive my soul--

_Jul._ A thousand times good night!

[_Exit above._

_Rom._ A thousand times the worse, to want thy light.
Love goes toward love, as schoolboys from their books,
But love from love, toward school with heavy looks.


_Re-enter_ JULIET, _above_.

_Jul._ Hist! Romeo, hist! O, for a falconer's voice,
To lure this tassel-gentle back again!
Bondage is hoarse, and may not speak aloud;
Else would I tear the cave where Echo lies,
And make her airy tongue more hoarse than mine,
With repetition of my Romeo's name.

_Rom._ It is my soul that calls upon my name;
How silver-sweet sound lovers' tongues by night,
Like softest music to attending ears!

_Jul._ Romeo!

_Rom._        My dear?

_Jul._                 At what o'clock to-morrow
Shall I send to thee?

_Rom._                At the hour of nine.

_Jul._ I will not fail: 'tis twenty years till then.
I have forgot why I did call thee back.

_Rom._ Let me stand here till thou remember it.

_Jul._ I shall forget, to have thee still stand there,
Remembering how I love thy company.

_Rom._ And I'll still stay, to have thee still forget,
Forgetting any other home but this.

_Jul._ 'Tis almost morning; I would have thee gone:
And yet no further than a wanton's bird:
Who lets it hop a little from her hand,
Like a poor prisoner in his twisted gyves,
And with a silk thread plucks it back again,
So loving-jealous of his liberty.

_Rom._ I would I were thy bird.

_Jul._                          Sweet, so would I:
Yet I should kill thee with much cherishing.
Good night, good night! parting is such sweet sorrow,
That I shall say good night till it be morrow.

[_Exit above._

_Rom._ Sleep dwell upon thine eyes, peace in thy breast!
Would I were sleep and peace, so sweet to rest!
Hence will I to my ghostly father's cell,
His help to crave, and my dear hap to tell.       [_Exit._


     SHELLEY, PERCY BYSSHE, an eminent English poet, was born in Sussex,
     August 4, 1792. He received his education at Eton and Oxford, but
     was expelled from the latter in 1811, because of a tract he had
     written in favour of atheism. Shortly afterward he married Harriet
     Westbrook, a girl but sixteen years of age. Their married happiness
     was short-lived, two years being the length of time which the young
     poet was able to remain true to this early love. On the death of
     his wife in 1816, he married Mary Wollstonecraft. In 1818 he left
     England for Italy, where he remained until his death by drowning in
     the Gulf of Spezia in 1822.


       Hail to thee, blithe spirit!
         Bird thou never wert,
       That from heaven, or near it,
         Pourest thy full heart
     In profuse strains of unpremeditated art.

       Higher still and higher,
         From the earth thou springest,
       Like a cloud of fire;
         The blue deep thou wingest,
     And singing still dost soar, and soaring ever singest.

       In the golden lightning
         Of the sunken sun,
       O'er which clouds are brightening,
         Thou dost float and run;
     Like an unbodied joy whose race is just begun.

       The pale purple even
         Melts around thy flight;
       Like a star of heaven
         In the broad day-light
     Thou art unseen, but yet I hear thy shrill delight.

       Keen as are the arrows
         Of that silver sphere,
       Whose intense lamp narrows
         In the white dawn clear,
     Until we hardly see, we feel that it is there.

       All the earth and air
         With thy voice is loud,
       As, when night is bare,
         From one lonely cloud
     The moon rains out her beams, and heaven is overflowed.

       What thou art we know not;
         What is most like thee?
       From rainbow clouds there flow not
         Drops so bright to see,
     As from thy presence showers a rain of melody.

        Like a poet hidden,
         In the light of thought,
       Singing hymns unbidden,
         Till the world is wrought
     To sympathy with hopes and fears it heeded not:

       Like a high-born maiden
         In a palace tower,
       Soothing her love-laden
         Soul in secret hour
     With music sweet as love, which overflows her bower:

       Like a glow-worm golden
         In a dell of dew,
       Scattering unbeholden
         Its aërial hue
     Among the flowers and grass which screen it from the view:

       Like a rose embowered
         In its own green leaves,
       By warm winds deflowered,
         Till the scent it gives
     Makes faint with too much sweet these heavy-winged thieves:

       Sound of vernal showers
         On the twinkling grass,
       Rain-awakened flowers,
         All that ever was
     Joyous, and clear, and fresh, thy music doth surpass:

       Teach us, sprite or bird,
         What sweet thoughts are thine;
       I have never heard
         Praise of love or wine
     That panted forth a flood of rapture so divine.

       Chorus hymeneal,
         Or triumphal chant,
       Matched with thine would be all
         But an empty vaunt,--
     A thing wherein we feel there is some hidden want.

       What objects are the fountains
         Of thy happy strain?
       What fields, or waves, or mountains?
         What shapes of sky or plain?
     What love of thine own kind? What ignorance of pain?

       With thy clear keen joyance
         Languor cannot be:
       Shadow of annoyance
         Never came near thee;
     Thou lovest; but ne'er knew love's sad satiety.

       Waking or asleep,
         Thou of death must deem
       Things more true and deep
         Than we mortals dream,
     Or how could thy notes flow in such a crystal stream?

       We look before and after,
         And pine for what is not:
       Our sincerest laughter
         With some pain is fraught:
     Our sweetest songs are those that tell of saddest thought.

       Yet if we could scorn
         Hate, and pride, and fear;
       If we were things born
         Not to shed a tear,
     I know not how thy joy we ever could come near.

       Better than all measures
         Of delight and sound,
       Better than all treasures
         That in books are found,
     Thy skill to poet were, thou scorner of the ground.

       Teach me half the gladness
         That thy brain must know,
       Such harmonious madness
         From my lips would flow,
     The world should listen then, as I am listening now.


     SOUTHEY, ROBERT, was born at Bristol, England, in August, 1774. He
     was educated at Westminster School and at Balliol College, Oxford.
     After some years of wandering he took up his residence (1803) at
     Greta Hall, near Keswick, where he continued to live until his
     death in 1843. In 1813 he was made poet laureate. Although Southey
     wrote much prose, he is chiefly known as a poet, and his poems are
     innumerable. His little piece, _The Battle of Blenheim_, though one
     of the least pretentious of his works, has been very widely quoted,
     and is here given for the sake of younger readers.


     It was a summer's evening;
       Old Kaspar's work was done;
     And he before his cottage door,
       Was sitting in the sun;
     And near him sported on the green,
     His little grandchild, Wilhelmine:

     She saw her brother, Peterkin,
       Roll something smooth and round,
     Which he, beside the rivulet,
       In playing there had found.
     He came to ask what he had found,
     Which looked so large, and smooth, and round.

     Old Kaspar took it from the lad,
       Who stood expecting by--
     And then the old man shook his head,
       And, with a natural sigh,
     "'Tis some poor fellow's skull," said he,
     "Who fell in the great victory.

     "I find them in the garden;
       There are many hereabout;
     And often, when I go to plough,
       The ploughshare turns them out;
     For many thousand men," said he,
     "Were slain in the great victory."

     "Now tell us what it was about,"
       Young Peterkin he cries;
     And little Wilhelmine looked up,
       With wonder-waiting eyes--
     "Now tell us all about the war,
     And what they killed each other for."

     "It was the English," Kaspar cried,
       "Who put the French to rout;
     But what they killed each other for,
       I never could find out;
     But things like this, you know, must be
     In every famous victory.

     "My father had a cottage then,
       Yon little stream hard by,
     They burnt his dwelling to the ground,
       And he was forced to fly;
     So with his wife and child he fled,
     And had not where to lay his head.

     "They burnt the country all around,
       And wasted far and wide,
     And many a tender mother then
       And new-born infant died;
     But things like this, you know, must be,
     At every famous victory.

     "Great praise the Duke of Marlborough won,
       And our good Prince Eugene."
     "But 'twas a very wicked thing,"
       Said little Wilhelmine.
     "Nay, nay, my little girl," said he,
     "It was a famous victory."


     STEVENSON, ROBERT LOUIS BALFOUR. An eminent poet, novelist,
     essayist, and miscellaneous writer; born in Edinburgh, November 13,
     1850; died at Samoa, December 4, 1894. His father and grandfather
     were famous lighthouse engineers and he was at first intended for
     the family profession. But he soon gave up the idea and turned to
     law. After duly qualifying for this calling he was admitted to the
     bar, but his career as a lawyer was short. Soon he found his true
     calling in the craft of letters and rapidly found his way into the
     front rank of contemporary writers, by the beauty and perfection of
     his style, no less than by a most charming personality, which shone
     through all he wrote. Some experiences which supplied impulse and
     material were leisurely trips through Europe by canoe and on foot,
     a voyage across the Atlantic in an emigrant ship, and, following
     this, a journey across the American continent in an emigrant train.
     Four masterpieces of English style followed these
     experiences--_Travels with a Donkey_, _An Inland Voyage_, _The
     Amateur Emigrant_ and _Across the Plains_. They are all models of
     graceful and perfect English. From his childhood, he had drunk deep
     at the richest wells of English, and from the first his writings
     showed a distinct individuality and a most subtle art. From early
     childhood his health was precarious, and having married an American
     lady (Mrs. Osborne), and sojourned in the Adirondack mountains a
     year or so in the hope of improving his health, he set sail with
     his wife and two stepchildren for an extended voyage in the
     tropical seas. After cruising about for some time, he finally
     settled in the island of Samoa, where he lived in great happiness
     and comparative health for five years. Here, among the simple
     natives who had grown to worship him, and who called him TUSITALA,
     which, in their language, meant "teller of tales," the greatest
     writer of his time, and one of the greatest of all time, died on
     the fourth of December, 1894, in the forty-fifth year of his age.

     But his books live. And through them shines one of the most
     winning personalities that mankind has known. If ever a writer was
     loved, that writer is Stevenson. If ever there was a literary model
     for young writers to study and emulate, that model is Stevenson.
     His work stands alone in literature as an illustration of what
     genius can do when reinforced by infinite pains. Money could not
     tempt him to write anything commonplace. He did not depend too much
     on his genius. He was a master of pathos but, like the true
     literary artist he was, he used it sparingly. There was something
     about his books which endeared their author to the world. This
     cannot be explained nor described. When you read _Treasure Island_
     or _Kidnapped_, you are amazed that you can so love an author whom
     you have never seen. And when you read _Will o' the Mill_, which is
     given here, you will feel the same way. Many have not the taste and
     training to appreciate Stevenson's technique, and to understand and
     be able to explain why he was such a master. These things can be
     left to the critics. But one does not need to know much of
     architecture to appreciate the beauty of a cathedral. And the
     general run of readers find the greatness of Stevenson in his
     personal charm. They care but little for the tools he used, and
     only see the structure which he reared. And leaving aside the
     question of "style," is it not wonderful that a sick man, far off
     in some savage island of the south Pacific ocean, could make the
     whole world love him and feel a personal bereavement in his loss?



The Mill where Will lived with his adopted parents stood in a falling
valley between pine-woods and great mountains. Above, hill after hill
soared upwards until they soared out of the depth of the hardiest
timber, and stood naked against the sky. Some way up, a long gray
village lay like a seam or a rag of vapour on a wooded hillside; and
when the wind was favourable, the sound of the church bells would drop
down, thin and silvery, to Will. Below, the valley grew ever steeper and
steeper, and at the same time widened out on either hand; and from an
eminence beside the mill it was possible to see its whole length and
away beyond it over a wide plain, where the river turned and shone, and
moved on from city to city on its voyage towards the sea. It chanced
that over this valley there lay a pass into a neighbouring kingdom; so
that, quiet and rural as it was, the road that ran along beside the
river was a high thoroughfare between two splendid and powerful
societies. All through the summer, travelling-carriages came crawling
up, or went plunging briskly downwards past the mill; and as it happened
that the other side was very much easier of ascent, the path was not
much frequented, except by people going in one direction; and of all the
carriages that Will saw go by, five-sixths were plunging briskly
downwards and only one-sixth crawling up. Much more was this the case
with foot-passengers. All the light-footed tourists, all the pedlars
laden with strange wares, were tending downward like the river that
accompanied their path. Nor was this all; for when Will was yet a child
a disastrous war arose over a great part of the world. The newspapers
were full of defeats and victories, the earth rang with cavalry hoofs,
and often for days together and for miles around the coil of battle
terrified good people from their labours in the field. Of all this,
nothing was heard for a long time in the valley; but at last one of the
commanders pushed an army over the pass by forced marches, and for three
days horse and foot, cannon and tumbril, drum and standard, kept pouring
downward past the mill. All day the child stood and watched them on
their passage--the rhythmical stride, the pale, unshaven faces tanned
about the eyes, the discoloured regimentals and the tattered flags,
filled him with a sense of weariness, pity, and wonder; and all night
long, after he was in bed, he could hear the cannon pounding and the
feet trampling, and the great armament sweeping onward and downward
past the mill. No one in the valley ever heard the fate of the
expedition, for they lay out of the way of gossip in those troublous
times; but Will saw one thing plainly, that not a man returned. Whither
had they all gone? Whither went all the tourists and pedlars with
strange wares? whither all the brisk barouches with servants in the
dicky? whither the water of the stream, ever coursing downward and ever
renewed from above? Even the wind blew oftener down the valley, and
carried the dead leaves along with it in the fall. It seemed like a
great conspiracy of things animate and inanimate; they all went
downward, fleetly and gaily downward, and only he, it seemed, remained
behind, like a stock upon the wayside. It sometimes made him glad when
he noticed how the fishes kept their heads up stream. They, at least,
stood faithfully by him, while all else were posting downward to the
unknown world.

One evening he asked the miller where the river went.

"It goes down the valley," answered he, "and turns a power of mills--six
score mills, they say, from here to Unterdeck--and is none the wearier
after all. And then it goes out into the lowlands, and waters the great
corn country, and runs through a sight of fine cities (so they say)
where kings live all alone in great palaces, with a sentry walking up
and down before the door. And it goes under bridges with stone men upon
them, looking down and smiling so curious at the water, and living folks
leaning their elbows on the wall and looking over too. And then it goes
on and on, and down through marshes and sands, until at last it falls
into the sea, where the ships are that bring parrots and tobacco from
the Indies. Ay, it has a long trot before it as it goes singing over our
weir, bless its heart!"

"And what is the sea?" asked Will.

"The sea!" cried the miller. "Lord help us all, it is the greatest thing
God made. That is where all the water in the world runs down into a
great salt lake. There it lies, as flat as my hand and as innocent-like
as a child; but they do say when the wind blows it gets up into
water-mountains bigger than any of ours, and swallows down great ships
bigger than our mill, and makes such a roaring that you can hear it
miles away upon the land. There are great fish in it five times bigger
than a bull, and one old serpent as long as our river and as old as all
the world, with whiskers like a man, and a crown of silver on her head."

Will thought he had never heard anything like this, and he kept on
asking question after question about the world that lay away down the
river, with all its perils and marvels, until the old miller became
quite interested himself, and at last took him by the hand and led him
to the hilltop that overlooks the valley and the plain. The sun was near
setting, and hung low down in a cloudless sky. Everything was defined
and glorified in golden light. Will had never seen so great an expanse
of country in his life; he stood and gazed with all his eyes. He could
see the cities, and the woods and fields, and the bright curves of the
river, and far away to where the rim of the plain trenched along the
shining heavens. An over-mastering emotion seized upon the boy, soul and
body; his heart beat so thickly that he could not breathe; the scene
swam before his eyes; the sun seemed to wheel round and round, and throw
off, as it turned, strange shapes which disappeared with the rapidity of
thought, and were succeeded by others. Will covered his face with his
hands, and burst into a violent fit of tears; and the poor miller, sadly
disappointed and perplexed, saw nothing better for it than to take him
up in his arms and carry him home in silence.

From that day forward Will was full of new hopes and longings. Something
kept tugging at his heart-strings; the running water carried his desires
along with it as he dreamed over its fleeting surface; the wind, as it
ran over innumerable tree-tops, hailed him with encouraging words;
branches beckoned downward; the open road, as it shouldered round the
angles and went turning and vanishing fast and faster down the valley,
tortured him with its solicitations. He spent long whiles on the
eminence, looking down the river-shed and abroad on the flat low-lands,
and watched the clouds that travelled forth upon the sluggish wind and
trailed their purple shadows on the plain; or he would linger by the
wayside, and follow the carriages with his eyes as they rattled downward
by the river. It did not matter what it was; everything that went that
way, were it cloud or carriage, bird or brown water in the stream, he
felt his heart flow out after it in an ecstasy of longing.

We are told by men of science that all the ventures of mariners on the
sea, all that counter-marching of tribes and races that confounds old
history with its dust and rumour, sprang from nothing more abstruse than
the laws of supply and demand, and a certain natural instinct for cheap
rations. To any one thinking deeply, this will seem a dull and pitiful
explanation. The tribes that came swarming out of the North and East, if
they were indeed pressed onward from behind by others, were drawn at the
same time by the magnetic influence of the South and West. The fame of
other lands had reached them; the name of the eternal city rang in their
ears; they were not colonists, but pilgrims; they travelled towards wine
and gold and sunshine, but their hearts were set on something higher.
That divine unrest, that old stinging trouble of humanity that makes all
high achievements and all miserable failures, the same that spread wings
with Icarus, the same that sent Columbus into the desolate Atlantic,
inspired and supported these barbarians on their perilous march. There
is one legend which profoundly represents their spirit, of how a flying
party of these wanderers encountered a very old man shod with iron. The
old man asked them whither they were going; and they answered with one
voice: "To the Eternal City!" He looked upon them gravely. "I have
sought it," he said, "over the most part of the world. Three such pairs
as I now carry on my feet have I worn out upon this pilgrimage, and
now the fourth is growing slender underneath my steps. And all this
while I have not found the city." And he turned and went his own way
alone, leaving them astonished.

And yet this would scarcely parallel the intensity of Will's feeling for
the plain. If he could only go far enough out there, he felt as if his
eye sight would be purged and clarified, as if his hearing would grow
more delicate, and his very breath would come and go with luxury. He was
transplanted and withering where he was; he lay in a strange country and
was sick for home. Bit by bit, he pieced together broken notions of the
world below: of the river, ever moving and growing until it sailed forth
into the majestic ocean; of the cities, full of brisk and beautiful
people, playing fountains, bands of music and marble palaces, and
lighted up at night from end to end with artificial stars of gold; of
the great churches, wise universities, brave armies, and untold money
lying stored in vaults; of the high-flying vice that moved in the
sunshine, and the stealth and swiftness of midnight murder. I have said
he was sick as if for home: the figure halts. He was like some one lying
in twilit, formless pre-existence, and stretching out his hands lovingly
towards many-coloured, many-sounding life. It was no wonder he was
unhappy, he would go and tell the fish: they were made for their life,
wished for no more than worms and running water, and a hole below a
falling bank; but he was differently designed, full of desires and
aspirations, itching at the fingers, lusting with the eyes, whom the
whole variegated world could not satisfy with aspects. The true life,
the true bright sunshine, lay far out upon the plain. And O! to see this
sunlight once before he died! to move with a jocund spirit in a golden
land! to hear the trained singers and sweet church bells, and see the
holiday gardens! "And O fish!" he would cry, "if you would only turn
your noses down stream, you could swim so easily into the fabled waters
and see the vast ships passing over your head like clouds, and hear the
great water-hills making music over you all day long!" But the fish kept
looking patiently in their own direction, until Will hardly knew whether
to laugh or cry.

Hitherto the traffic on the road had passed by Will, like something seen
in a picture: he had perhaps exchanged salutations with a tourist, or
caught sight of an old gentleman in a travelling cap at a carriage
window; but for the most part it had been a mere symbol, which he
contemplated from apart and with something of a superstitious feeling. A
time came at last when this was to be changed. The miller, who was a
greedy man in his way, and never forewent an opportunity of honest
profit, turned the mill-house into a little wayside inn, and, several
pieces of good fortune falling in opportunely, built stables and got the
position of post-master on the road. It now became Will's duty to wait
upon people, as they sat to break their fasts in the little arbour at
the top of the mill garden; and you may be sure that he kept his ears
open, and learned many new things about the outside world as he brought
the omelette or the wine. Nay, he would often get into conversation with
single guests, and by adroit questions and polite attention, not only
gratify his own curiosity, but win the good-will of the travellers. Many
complimented the old couple on their serving-boy; and a professor was
eager to take him away with him, and have him properly educated on the
plain. The miller and his wife were mightily astonished and even more
pleased. They thought it a very good thing that they should have opened
their inn. "You see," the old man would remark, "he has a kind of talent
for a publican; he never would have made anything else!" And so life
wagged on in the valley, with high satisfaction to all concerned but
Will. Every carriage that left the inn-door seemed to take a part of him
away with it; and when people jestingly offered him a lift, he could
with difficulty command his emotion. Night after night he would dream
that he was awakened by flustered servants, and that a splendid equipage
waited at the door to carry him down into the plain; night after night;
until the dream, which had seemed all jollity to him at first, began to
take on a colour of gravity, and the nocturnal summons and waiting
equipage occupied a place in his mind as something to be both feared and
hoped for.

One day, when Will was about sixteen, a fat young man arrived at sunset
to pass the night. He was a contented-looking fellow, with a jolly eye,
and carried a knapsack. While dinner was preparing, he sat in the arbour
to read a book; but as soon as he had begun to observe Will, the book
was laid aside; he was plainly one of those who prefer living people to
people made of ink and paper. Will, on his part, although he had not
been much interested in the stranger at first sight, soon began to take
a great deal of pleasure in his talk, which was full of good nature and
good sense, and at last conceived a great respect for his character and
wisdom. They sat far into the night; and about two in the morning Will
opened his heart to the young man, and told him how he longed to leave
the valley and what bright hopes he had connected with the cities of the
plain. The young man whistled, and then broke into a smile.

"My young friend," he remarked, "you are a very curious little fellow to
be sure, and wish a great many things which you will never get. Why, you
would feel quite ashamed if you knew how the little fellows in these
fairy cities of yours are all after the same sort of nonsense, and keep
breaking their hearts to get up into the mountains. And let me tell you,
those who go down into the plains are a very short while there before
they wish themselves heartily back again. The air is not so light nor so
pure; nor is the sun any brighter. As for the beautiful men and women,
you would see many of them in rags and many of them deformed with
horrible disorders; and a city is so hard a place for people who are
poor and sensitive that many choose to die by their own hand."

"You must think me very simple," answered Will. "Although I have never
been out of this valley, believe me, I have used my eyes. I know how
one thing lives on another; for instance, how the fish hangs in the
eddy to catch his fellows; and the shepherd, who makes so pretty a
picture carrying home the lamb, is only carrying it home for dinner. I
do not expect to find all things right in your cities. That is not what
troubles me; it might have been that once upon a time; but although I
live here always, I have asked many questions and learned a great deal
in these last years, and certainly enough to cure me of my old fancies.
But you would not have me die like a dog and not see all that is to be
seen, and do all that a man can do, let it be good or evil? you would
not have me spend all my days between this road here and the river, and
not so much as make a motion to be up and live my life?--I would rather
die out of hand," he cried, "than linger on as I am doing."

"Thousands of people," said the young man, "live and die like you, and
are none the less happy."

"Ah!" said Will, "if there are thousands who would like, why should not
one of them have my place?"

It was quite dark; there was a hanging lamp in the arbour which lit up
the table and the faces of the speakers; and along the arch, the leaves
upon the trellis stood out illuminated against the night sky, a pattern
of transparent green upon a dusky purple. The fat young man rose, and,
taking Will by the arm, led him out under the open heavens.

"Did you ever look at the stars?" he asked, pointing upwards.

"Often and often," answered Will.

"And do you know what they are?"

"I have fancied many things."

"They are worlds like ours," said the young man. "Some of them less;
many of them a million times greater; and some of the least sparkles
that you see are not only worlds, but whole clusters of worlds turning
about each other in the midst of space. We do not know what there may be
in any of them; perhaps the answer to all our difficulties or the cure
of all our sufferings: and yet we can never reach them; not all the
skill of the craftiest of men can fit out a ship for the nearest of
these our neighbours, nor would the life of the most aged suffice for
such a journey. When a great battle has been lost or a dear friend is
dead, when we are hipped or in high spirits, there they are unweariedly
shining overhead. We may stand down here, a whole army of us together,
and shout until we break our hearts, and not a whisper reaches them. We
may climb the highest mountain, and we are no nearer them. All we can do
is to stand down here in the garden and take off our hats; the starshine
lights upon our heads, and where mine is a little bald, I dare say you
can see it glisten in the darkness. The mountain and the mouse. That is
like to be all we shall ever have to do with Arcturus or Aldebaran. Can
you apply a parable?" he added, laying his hand upon Will's shoulder.
"It is not the same thing as a reason, but usually vastly more

Will hung his head a little, and then raised it once more to heaven. The
stars seemed to expand and emit a sharper brilliancy; and as he kept
turning his eyes higher and higher, they seemed to increase in
multitude under his gaze.

"I see," he said, turning to the young man. "We are in a rat-trap."

"Something of that size. Did you ever see a squirrel turning in a cage?
and another squirrel sitting philosophically over his nuts? I needn't
ask you which of them looked more of a fool."


After some years the old people died, both in one winter, very carefully
tended by their adopted son, and very quietly mourned when they were
gone. People who had heard of his roving fancies supposed he would
hasten to sell the property, and go down the river to push his fortunes.
But there was never any sign of such an intention on the part of Will.
On the contrary, he had the inn set on a better footing, and hired a
couple of servants to assist him in carrying it on; and there he settled
down, a kind, talkative, inscrutable young man, six feet three in his
stockings, with an iron constitution and a friendly voice. He soon began
to take rank in the district as a bit of an oddity: it was not much to
be wondered at from the first, for he was always full of notions, and
kept calling the plainest common-sense in question; but what most raised
the report upon him was the odd circumstance of his courtship with the
parson's Marjory.

The parson's Marjory was a lass about nineteen, when Will would be about
thirty; well enough looking, and much better educated than any other
girl in that part of the country, as became her parentage. She held her
head very high, and had already refused several offers of marriage with
a grand air, which had got her hard names among the neighbours. For all
that she was a good girl, and one that would have made any man well

Will had never seen much of her; for although the church and parsonage
were only two miles from his own door, he was never known to go there
but on Sundays. It chanced, however, that the parsonage fell into
disrepair, and had to be dismantled; and the parson and his daughter
took lodgings for a month or so, on very much reduced terms, at Will's

Now, what with the inn, and the mill, and the old miller's savings, our
friend was a man of substance; and besides that, he had a name for good
temper and shrewdness, which make a capital portion in marriage; and so
it was currently gossipped, among their ill-wishers, that the parson and
his daughter had not chosen their temporary lodging with their eyes
shut. Will was about the last man in the world to be cajoled or
frightened into marriage. You had only to look into his eyes, limpid and
still like pools of water, and yet with a sort of clear light that
seemed to come from within, and you would understand at once that here
was one who knew his own mind, and would stand to it immovably. Marjory
herself was no weakling by her looks, with strong, steady eyes and a
resolute and quiet bearing. It might be a question whether she was not
Will's match in steadfastness, after all, or which of them would rule
the roast in marriage. But Marjory had never given it a thought, and
accompanied her father with the most unshaken innocence and unconcern.

The season was still so early that Will's customers were few and far
between; but the lilacs were already flowering, and the weather was so
mild that the party took dinner under the trellice, with the noise of
the river in their ears and the woods ringing about them with the songs
of birds. Will soon began to take a particular pleasure in these
dinners. The parson was rather a dull companion, with a habit of dozing
at table; but nothing rude or cruel ever fell from his lips. And as for
the parson's daughter, she suited her surroundings with the best grace
imaginable; and whatever she said seemed so pat and pretty that Will
conceived a great idea of her talents. He could see her face, as she
leaned forward, against a background of rising pinewoods; her eyes shone
peaceably; the light lay around her hair like a kerchief; something that
was hardly a smile rippled her pale cheeks, and Will could not contain
himself from gazing on her in an agreeable dismay. She looked, even in
her quietest moments, so complete in herself, and so quick with life
down to her finger tips and the very skirts of her dress, that the
remainder of created things became no more than a blot by comparison;
and if Will glanced away from her to her surroundings, the trees looked
inanimate and senseless, the clouds hung in heaven like dead things,
and even the mountain tops were disenchanted. The whole valley could not
compare in looks with this one girl.

Will was always observant in the society of his fellow-creatures; but
his observation became almost painfully eager in the case of Marjory. He
listened to all she uttered, and read her eyes, at the same time, for
the unspoken commentary. Many kind, simple, and sincere speeches found
an echo in his heart. He became conscious of a soul beautifully poised
upon itself, nothing doubting, nothing desiring, clothed in peace. It
was not possible to separate her thoughts from her appearance. The turn
of her wrist, the still sound of her voice, the light in her eyes, the
lines of her body, fell in tune with her grave and gentle words, like
the accompaniment that sustains and harmonizes the voice of the singer.
Her influence was one thing, not to be divided or discussed, only to be
felt with gratitude and joy. To Will, her presence recalled something of
his childhood, and the thought of her took its place in his mind beside
that of dawn, of running water, and of the earliest violets and lilacs.
It is the property of things seen for the first time, or for the first
time after long, like the flowers in spring, to reawaken in us the sharp
edge of sense and that impression of mystic strangeness which otherwise
passes out of life with the coming of years; but the sight of a loved
face is what renews a man's character from the fountain upwards.

One day after dinner Will took a stroll among the firs; a grave
beatitude possessed him from top to toe, and he kept smiling to himself
and the landscape as he went. The river ran between the stepping-stones
with a pretty wimple; a bird sang loudly in the wood; the hill-tops
looked immeasurably high, and as he glanced at them from time to time
seemed to contemplate his movements with a beneficent but awful
curiosity. His way took him to the eminence which overlooked the plain;
and there he sat down upon a stone, and fell into deep and pleasant
thought. The plain lay abroad with its cities and silver river;
everything was asleep, except a great eddy of birds which kept rising
and falling and going round and round in the blue air. He repeated
Marjory's name aloud, and the sound of it gratified his ear. He shut his
eyes, and her image sprang up before him, quietly luminous and attended
with good thoughts. The river might run for ever; the birds fly higher
and higher till they touched the stars. He saw it was empty bustle after
all; for here, without stirring a foot, waiting patiently in his own
narrow valley, he also had attained the better sunlight.

The next day Will made a sort of declaration across the dinner-table,
while the parson was filling his pipe.

"Miss Marjory," he said, "I never knew any one I liked so well as you. I
am mostly a cold, unkindly sort of man; not from want of heart, but out
of strangeness in my way of thinking; and people seem far away from me.
'Tis as if there were a circle round me, which kept every one out but
you; I can hear the others talking and laughing; but you come quite
close. Maybe, this is disagreeable to you?" he asked.

Marjory made no answer.

"Speak up, girl," said the parson.

"Nay, now," returned Will, "I wouldn't press her, parson. I feel
tongue-tied myself, who am not used to it; and she's a woman, and little
more than a child, when all is said. But for my part, as far as I can
understand what people mean by it, I fancy I must be what they call in
love. I do not wish to be held as committing myself; for I may be wrong;
but that is how I believe things are with me. And if Miss Marjory should
feel any otherwise on her part, mayhap she would be so kind as shake her

Marjory was silent, and gave no sign that she had heard.

"How is that, parson?" asked Will.

"The girl must speak," replied the parson, laying down his pipe. "Here's
our neighbour who says he loves you, Madge. Do you love him, ay or no?"

"I think I do," said Marjory, faintly.

"Well then, that's all that could be wished!" cried Will, heartily. And
he took her hand across the table, and held it a moment in both of his
with great satisfaction.

"You must marry," observed the parson, replacing his pipe in his mouth.

"Is that the right thing to do, think you?" demanded Will.

"It is indispensable," said the parson.

"Very well," replied the wooer.

Two or three days passed away with great delight to Will, although a
bystander might scarce have found it out. He continued to take his meals
opposite Marjory, and to talk with her and gaze upon her in her father's
presence; but he made no attempt to see her alone, nor in any other way
changed his conduct towards her from what it had been since the
beginning. Perhaps the girl was a little disappointed, and perhaps not
unjustly; and yet if it had been enough to be always in the thoughts of
another person, and so pervade and alter his whole life, she might have
been thoroughly contented. For she was never out of Will's mind for an
instant. He sat over the stream, and watched the dust of the eddy, and
the poised fish, and straining weeds; he wandered out alone into the
purple even, with all the blackbirds piping round in the wood; he rose
early in the morning, and saw the sky turn from gray to gold, and the
light leap upon the hill-tops; and all the while he kept wondering if he
had never seen such things before, or how it was that they should look
so different now. The sound of his own mill-wheel, or of the wind among
the trees, confounded and charmed his heart. The most enchanting
thoughts presented themselves unbidden in his mind. He was so happy that
he could not sleep at night, and so restless that he could hardly sit
still out of her company. And yet it seemed as if he avoided her rather
than sought her out.

One day, as he was coming home from a ramble, Will found Marjory in the
garden picking flowers, and as he came up with her, slackened his pace
and continued walking by her side.

"You like flowers?" he said.

"Indeed I love them dearly," she replied. "Do you?"

"Why, no," said he, "not so much. They are a very small affair, when all
is done. I can fancy people caring for them greatly, but not doing as
you are just now."

"How?" she asked, pausing and looking up at him.

"Plucking them," said he. "They are a deal better off where they are,
and look a deal prettier, if you go to that."

"I wish to have them for my own," she answered, "to carry them near my
heart, and keep them in my room. They tempt me when they grow here; they
seem to say, 'Come and do something with us,' but once I have cut them
and put them by, the charm is laid, and I can look at them with quite an
easy heart."

"You wish to possess them," replied Will, "in order to think no more
about them. It's a bit like killing the goose with the golden eggs. It's
a bit like what I wished to do when I was a boy. Because I had a fancy
for looking out over the plain, I wished to go down there--where I
couldn't look out over it any longer. Was not that fine reasoning? Dear,
dear, if they only thought of it, all the world would do like me; and
you would let your flowers alone, just as I stay up here in the
mountains." Suddenly he broke off sharp. "By the Lord!" he cried. And
when she asked him what was wrong, he turned the question off, and
walked away into the house with rather a humorous expression of face.

He was silent at table; and after the night had fallen and the stars had
come out overhead, he walked up and down for hours in the courtyard and
garden with an uneven pace. There was still a light in the window of
Marjory's room: one little oblong patch of orange in a world of dark
blue hills and silver starlight. Will's mind ran a great deal on the
window; but his thoughts were not very lover-like. "There she is in her
room," he thought, "and there are the stars overhead:--a blessing upon
both!" Both were good influences in his life; both soothed and braced
him in his profound contentment with the world. And what more should he
desire with either? The fat young man and his councils were so present
to his mind, that he threw back his head, and, putting his hands before
his mouth, shouted aloud to the populous heavens. Whether from the
position of his head or the sudden strain of the exertion, he seemed to
see a momentary shock among the stars, and a diffusion of frosty light
pass from one to another along the sky. At the same instant, a corner of
the blind was lifted up and lowered again at once. He laughed a loud
ho-ho! "One and another!" thought Will. "The stars tremble, and the
blind goes up. Why, before Heaven, what a great magician I must be! Now
if I were only a fool, should not I be in a pretty way?" And he went
off to bed, chuckling to himself: "If I were only a fool!"

The next morning, pretty early, he saw her once more in the garden, and
sought her out.

"I have been thinking about getting married," he began abruptly; "and
after having turned it all over, I have made up my mind it's not worth

She turned upon him for a single moment; but his radiant, kindly
appearance would, under the circumstances, have disconcerted an angel,
and she looked down again upon the ground in silence. He could see her

"I hope you don't mind," he went on, a little taken aback. "You ought
not. I have turned it all over, and upon my soul there's nothing in it.
We should never be one whit nearer than we are just now, and, if I am a
wise man, nothing like so happy."

"It is unnecessary to go round about with me," she said. "I very well
remember that you refused to commit yourself; and now that I see you
were mistaken, and in reality have never cared for me, I can only feel
sad that I have been so far misled."

"I ask your pardon," said Will stoutly; "you do not understand my
meaning. As to whether I have ever loved you or not, I must leave that
to others. But for one thing, my feeling is not changed; and for
another, you may make it your boast that you have made my whole life and
character something different from what they were. I mean what I say; no
less. I do not think getting married is worth while. I would rather you
went on living with your father, so that I could walk over and see you
once, or maybe twice a week, as people go to church, and then we should
both be all the happier between whiles. That's my notion. But I'll marry
you if you will," he added.

"Do you know that you are insulting me?" she broke out.

"Not I, Marjory," said he; "if there is anything in a clear conscience,
not I. I offer all my heart's best affections; you can take it or want
it, though I suspect it's beyond either your power or mine to change
what has once been done, and set me fancy-free. I'll marry you, if you
like; but I tell you again and again, it's not worth while, and we had
best stay friends. Though I am a quiet man I have noticed a heap of
things in my life. Trust in me, and take things as I propose; or, if you
don't like that, say the word, and I'll marry you out of hand."

There was a considerable pause, and Will, who began to feel uneasy,
began to grow angry in consequence.

"It seems you are too proud to say your mind," he said. "Believe me
that's a pity. A clean shrift makes simple living. Can a man be more
downright or honourable to a woman than I have been? I have said my say,
and given you your choice. Do you want me to marry you? or will you take
my friendship, as I think best? or have you had enough of me for good?
Speak out for the dear God's sake! You know your father told you a girl
should speak her mind in these affairs."

She seemed to recover herself at that, turned without a word, walked
rapidly through the garden, and disappeared into the house, leaving Will
in some confusion as to the result. He walked up and down the garden,
whistling softly to himself. Sometimes he stopped and contemplated the
sky and hill-tops; sometimes he went down to the tail of the weir and
sat there, looking foolishly in the water. All this dubiety and
perturbation was so foreign to his nature and the life which he had
resolutely chosen for himself, that he began to regret Marjory's
arrival. "After all," he thought, "I was as happy as a man need be. I
could come down here and watch my fishes all day long if I wanted: I was
as settled and contented as my old mill."

Marjory came down to dinner, looking very trim and quiet; and no sooner
were all three at table than she made her father a speech, with her eyes
fixed upon her plate, but showing no other sign of embarrassment or

"Father," she began, "Mr. Will and I have been talking things over. We
see that we have each made a mistake about our feelings, and he has
agreed, at my request, to give up all idea of marriage, and be no more
than my very good friend, as in the past. You see, there is no shadow of
a quarrel, and indeed I hope we shall see a great deal of him in the
future, for his visits will always be welcome in our house. Of course,
father, you will know best, but perhaps we should do better to leave Mr.
Will's house for the present. I believe, after what has passed, we
should hardly be agreeable inmates for some days."

Will, who had commanded himself with difficulty from the first, broke
out upon this into an inarticulate noise, and raised one hand with an
appearance of real dismay, as if he were about to interfere and
contradict. But she checked him at once, looking up at him with a swift
glance and an angry flush upon her cheek.

"You will perhaps have the good grace," she said, "to let me explain
these matters for myself."

Will was put entirely out of countenance by her expression and the ring
of her voice. He held his peace, concluding that there were some things
about this girl beyond his comprehension, in which he was exactly right.

The poor parson was quite crestfallen. He tried to prove that this was
no more than a true lovers' tiff, which would pass off before night; and
when he was dislodged from that position, he went on to argue that where
there was no quarrel there could be no call for a separation; for the
good man liked both his entertainment and his host. It was curious to
see how the girl managed them, saying little all the time, and that very
quietly, and yet twisting them round her finger and insensibly leading
them wherever she would by feminine tact and generalship. It scarcely
seemed to have been her doing--it seemed as if things had merely so
fallen out--that she and her father took their departure that same
afternoon in a farm-cart, and went farther down the valley, to wait,
until their own house was ready for them, in another hamlet. But Will
had been observing closely, and was well aware of her dexterity and
resolution. When he found himself alone he had a great many curious
matters to turn over in his mind. He was very sad and solitary, to begin
with. All the interest had gone out of his life, and he might look up at
the stars as long as he pleased, he somehow failed to find support or
consolation. And then he was in such turmoil of spirit about Marjory. He
had been puzzled and irritated at her behaviour, and yet he could not
keep himself from admiring it. He thought he recognized a fine, perverse
angel in that still soul which he had never hitherto suspected; and
though he saw it was an influence that would fit but ill with his own
life of artificial calm, he could not keep himself from ardently
desiring to possess it. Like a man who has lived among shadows and now
meets the sun, he was both pained and delighted.

As the days went forward he passed from one extreme to another; now
pluming himself on the strength of his determination, now despising his
timid and silly caution. The former was, perhaps, the true thought of
his heart, and represented the regular tenor of the man's reflections;
but the latter burst forth from time to time with an unruly violence,
and then he would forget all consideration, and go up and down his house
and garden or walk among the firwoods like one who is beside himself
with remorse. To equable, steady-minded Will this state of matters was
intolerable; and he determined, at whatever cost, to bring it to an end.
So, one warm summer afternoon he put on his best clothes, took a thorn
switch in his hand, and set out down the valley by the river. As soon as
he had taken his determination, he had regained at a bound his customary
peace of heart, and he enjoyed the bright weather and the variety of the
scene without any admixture of alarm or unpleasant eagerness. It was
nearly the same to him how the matter turned out. If she accepted him he
would have to marry her this time, which perhaps was all for the best.
If she refused him, he would have done his utmost, and might follow his
own way in the future with an untroubled conscience. He hoped, on the
whole, she would refuse him; and then, again, as he saw the brown roof
which sheltered her, peeping through some willows at an angle of the
stream, he was half inclined to reverse the wish, and more than half
ashamed of himself for this infirmity of purpose.

Marjory seemed glad to see him, and gave him her hand without
affectation or delay.

"I have been thinking about this marriage," he began.

"So have I," she answered. "And I respect you more and more for a very
wise man. You understood me better than I understood myself; and I am
now quite certain that things are all for the best as they are."

"At the same time----" ventured Will.

"You must be tired," she interrupted. "Take a seat and let me fetch you
a glass of wine. The afternoon is so warm; and I wish you not to be
displeased with your visit. You must come quite often; once a week, if
you can spare the time; I am always so glad to see my friends."

"O, very well," thought Will to himself. "It appears I was right after
all." And he paid a very agreeable visit, walked home again in capital
spirits, and gave himself no further concern about the matter.

For nearly three years Will and Marjory continued on these terms, seeing
each other once or twice a week without any word of love between them;
and for all that time I believe Will was nearly as happy as a man can
be. He rather stinted himself the pleasure of seeing her; and he would
often walk half-way over to the parsonage, and then back again, as if to
whet his appetite. Indeed there was one corner of the road, whence he
could see the church-spire wedged into a crevice of the valley between
sloping fir woods, with a triangular snatch of plain by way of
background, which he greatly affected as a place to sit and moralize in
before returning homewards; and the peasants got so much into the habit
of finding him there in the twilight that they gave it the name of "Will
o' the Mill's Corner."

At the end of the three years Marjory played him a sad trick by suddenly
marrying somebody else. Will kept his countenance bravely, and merely
remarked that, for as little as he knew of women, he had acted very
prudently in not marrying her himself three years before. She plainly
knew very little of her own mind, and, in spite of a deceptive manner,
was as fickle and flighty as the rest of them. He had to congratulate
himself on an escape, he said, and would take a high opinion of his own
wisdom in consequence. But at heart, he was reasonably displeased, moped
a good deal for a month or two, and fell away in flesh, to the
astonishment of his serving-lads.

It was perhaps a year after this marriage that Will was awakened late
one night by the sound of a horse galloping on the road, followed by
precipitate knocking at the inn-door. He opened his window and saw a
farm servant, mounted and holding a led horse by the bridle, who told
him to make what haste he could and go along with him; for Marjory was
dying, and had sent urgently to fetch him to her bedside. Will was no
horseman, and made so little speed upon the way that the poor young wife
was very near her end before he arrived. But they had some minutes' talk
in private, and he was present and wept very bitterly while she breathed
her last.


Year after year went away into nothing, with great explosions and
outcries in the cities on the plain; red revolt springing up and being
suppressed in blood, battle swaying hither and thither, patient
astronomers in observatory towers picking out and christening new stars,
plays being performed in lighted theatres, people being carried into
hospitals on stretchers, and all the usual turmoil and agitation of
men's lives in crowded centres. Up in Will's valley only the winds and
seasons made an epoch; the fish hung in the swift stream, the birds
circled overhead, the pine-tops rustled underneath the stars, the tall
hills stood over all; and Will went to and fro, minding his wayside inn,
until the snow began to thicken on his head. His heart was young and
vigorous; and if his pulses kept a sober time, they still beat strong
and steady in his wrists. He carried a ruddy stain on either cheek, like
a ripe apple; he stooped a little, but his step was still firm; and his
sinewy hands were reached out to all men with a friendly pressure. His
face was covered with those wrinkles which are got in open air, and
which, rightly looked at, are no more than a sort of permanent
sunburning; such wrinkles heighten the stupidity of stupid faces; but to
a person like Will, with his clear eyes and smiling mouth, only give
another charm by testifying to a simple and easy life. His talk was full
of wise sayings. He had a taste for other people; and other people had a
taste for him. When the valley was full of tourists in the season, there
were merry nights in Will's arbour; and his views, which seemed
whimsical to his neighbours, were often enough admired by learned people
out of towns and colleges. Indeed, he had a very noble old age, and grew
daily better known; so that his fame was heard of in the cities of the
plain; and young men who had been summer travellers spoke together in
_cafés_ of Will o' the Mill and his rough philosophy. Many and many an
invitation, you may be sure, he had; but nothing could tempt him from
his upland valley. He would shake his head and smile over his
tobacco-pipe with a deal of meaning. "You come too late," he would
answer. "I am a dead man now: I have lived and died already. Fifty years
ago you would have brought my heart into my mouth; and now you do not
even tempt me. But that is the object of long living, that man should
cease to care about life." And again: "There is only one difference
between a long life and a good dinner: that, in the dinner, the sweets
come last." Or once more: "When I was a boy, I was a bit puzzled, and
hardly knew whether it was myself or the world that was curious and
worth looking into. Now, I know it is myself, and stick to that."

He never showed any symptoms of frailty, but kept stalwart and firm to
the last; but they say he grew less talkative towards the end, and would
listen to other people by the hour in an amused and sympathetic silence.
Only, when he did speak, it was more to the point and more charged with
old experience. He drank a bottle of wine gladly; above all, at sunset
on the hilltop or quite late at night under the stars in the arbour. The
sight of something attractive and unattainable seasoned his enjoyment,
he would say; and he professed he had lived long enough to admire a
candle all the more when he could compare it with a planet.

One night, in his seventy-second year, he awoke in bed, in such
uneasiness of body and mind that he arose and dressed himself and went
out to meditate in the arbour. It was pitch dark, without a star; the
river was swollen, and the wet woods and meadows loaded the air with
perfume. It had thundered during the day, and it promised more thunder
for the morrow. A murky, stifling night for a man of seventy-two!
Whether it was the weather or the wakefulness, or some little touch of
fever in his old limbs, Will's mind was besieged by tumultuous and
crying memories. His boyhood, the night with the fat young man, the
death of his adopted parents, the summer days with Marjory, and many of
those small circumstances, which seem nothing to another, and are yet
the very gist of a man's own life to himself--things seen, words heard,
looks misconstrued--arose from their forgotten corners and usurped his
attention. The dead themselves were with him, not merely taking part in
this thin show of memory that defiled before his brain, but revisiting
his bodily senses as they do in profound and vivid dreams. The fat young
man leaned his elbows on the table opposite; Marjory came and went with
an apronful of flowers between the garden and the arbour; he could hear
the old parson knocking out his pipe or blowing his resonant nose. The
tide of his consciousness ebbed and flowed: he was sometimes half-asleep
and drowned in his recollections of the past; and sometimes he was broad
awake, wondering at himself. But about the middle of the night he was
startled by the voice of the dead miller calling to him out of the house
as he used to do on the arrival of custom. The hallucination was so
perfect that Will sprang from his seat and stood listening for the
summons to be repeated; and as he listened he became conscious of
another noise besides the brawling of the river and the ringing in his
feverish ears. It was like the stir of the horses and the creaking of
harness, as though a carriage with an impatient team had been brought up
upon the road before the courtyard gate. At such an hour, upon this
rough and dangerous pass, the supposition was no better than absurd; and
Will dismissed it from his mind, and resumed his seat upon the arbour
chair; and sleep closed over him again like running water. He was once
again awakened by the dead miller's call, thinner and more spectral than
before; and once again he heard the noise of an equipage upon the road.
And so thrice and four times, the same dream, or the same fancy,
presented itself to his senses: until at length, smiling to himself as
when one humours a nervous child, he proceeded towards the gate to set
his uncertainty at rest.

From the arbour to the gate was no great distance, and yet it took Will
some time; it seemed as if the dead thickened around him in the court,
and crossed his path at every step. For, first, he was suddenly
surprised by an overpowering sweetness of heliotropes; it was as if his
garden had been planted with this flower from end to end, and the hot,
damp night had drawn forth all their perfumes in a breath. Now the
heliotrope had been Marjory's favourite flower, and since her death not
one of them had ever been planted in Will's ground.

"I must be going crazy," he thought. "Poor Marjory and her heliotropes!"

And with that he raised his eyes towards the window that had once been
hers. If he had been bewildered before, he was now almost terrified; for
there was a light in the room; the window was an orange oblong as of
yore; and the corner of the blind was lifted and let fall as on the
night when he stood and shouted to the stars in his perplexity. The
illusion only endured an instant; but it left him somewhat unmanned,
rubbing his eyes and staring at the outline of the house and the black
night behind it. While he thus stood, and it seemed as if he must have
stood there quite a long time, there came a renewal of the noises on the
road; and he turned in time to meet a stranger, who was advancing to
meet him across the court. There was something like the outline of a
great carriage discernible on the road behind the stranger, and, above
that, a few black pine-tops, like so many plumes.

"Master Will?" asked the new-comer, in brief military fashion.

"That same, sir," answered Will. "Can I do anything to serve you?"

"I have heard you much spoken of, Master Will," returned the other;
"much spoken of, and well. And though I have both hands full of
business, I wish to drink a bottle of wine with you in your arbour.
Before I go, I shall introduce myself."

Will led the way to the trellis, and got a lamp lighted and a bottle
uncorked. He was not altogether unused to such complimentary interviews,
and hoped little enough from this one, being schooled by many
disappointments. A sort of cloud had settled on his wits and prevented
him from remembering the strangeness of the hour. He moved like a
person in his sleep; and it seemed as if the lamp caught fire and the
bottle came uncorked with the facility of thought. Still, he had some
curiosity about the appearance of his visitor, and tried in vain to turn
the light into his face; either he handled the lamp clumsily, or there
was a dimness over his eyes, but he could make out little more than a
shadow at table with him. He stared and stared at this shadow, as he
wiped out the glasses, and began to feel cold and strange about the
heart. The silence weighed upon him, for he could hear nothing now, not
even the river, but the drumming of his own arteries in his ears.

"Here's to you," said the stranger roughly.

"Here is my service, sir," replied Will, sipping his wine, which somehow
tasted oddly.

"I understand you are a very positive fellow," pursued the stranger.

Will made answer with a smile of some satisfaction and a little nod.

"So am I," continued the other; "and it is the delight of my heart to
tramp on people's corns. I will have nobody positive but myself; not
one. I have crossed the whims, in my time, of kings and generals and
great artists. And what would you say," he went on, "if I had come up
here on purpose to cross yours?"

Will had it on his tongue to make a sharp rejoinder; but the politeness
of an old innkeeper prevailed; and he held his peace and made answer
with a civil gesture of the hand.

"I have," said the stranger. "And if I did not hold you in a particular
esteem I should make no words about the matter. It appears you pride
yourself on staying where you are. You mean to stick by your inn. Now I
mean you shall come for a turn with me in my barouche; and before this
bottle's empty, so you shall."

"That would be an odd thing, to be sure," replied Will, with a chuckle.
"Why, sir, I have grown here like an old oak-tree; the Devil himself
could hardly root me up: and for all I perceive you are a very
entertaining old gentleman, I would wager you another bottle you lose
your pains with me."

The dimness of Will's eyesight had been increasing all this while; but
he was somehow conscious of a sharp and chilling scrutiny which
irritated and yet overmastered him.

"You need not think," he broke out suddenly, in an explosive, febrile
manner that startled and alarmed himself, "that I am a stay-at-home,
because I fear anything under God. God knows I am tired enough of it
all; and when the times comes for a longer journey than ever you dream
of, I reckon I shall find myself prepared."

The stranger emptied his glass and pushed it away from him. He looked
down for a little, and then, leaning over the table, tapped Will three
times upon the forearm with a single finger. "The time has come!" he
said solemnly.

An ugly thrill spread from the spot he touched. The tones of his voice
were dull and startling, and echoed strangely in Will's heart.

"I beg your pardon," he said, with some discomposure. "What do you

"Look at me, and you will find your eyesight swim. Raise your hand; it
is dead-heavy. This is your last bottle of wine, Master Will, and your
last night upon the earth."

"You are a doctor?" quavered Will.

"The best that ever was," replied the other; "for I cure both mind and
body with the same prescription. I take away all pain and I forgive all
sins; and where my patients have gone wrong in life, I smooth out all
complications and set them free again upon their feet."

"I have no need of you," said Will.

"A time comes for all men, Master Will," replied the doctor, "when the
helm is taken out of their hands. For you, because you were prudent and
quiet, it has been long of coming, and you have had long to discipline
yourself for its reception. You have seen what is to be seen about your
mill; you have sat close all your days like a hare in its form; but now
that is at an end; and," added the doctor, getting on his feet, "you
must arise and come with me."

"You are a strange physician," said Will, looking steadfastly upon his

"I am a natural law," he replied, "and people call me Death."

"Why did you not tell me so at first?" cried Will. "I have been waiting
for you these many years. Give me your hand, and welcome."

"Lean upon my arm," said the stranger, "for already your strength
abates. Lean on me heavily as you need; for though I am old, I am very
strong. It is but three steps to my carriage, and there all your trouble
ends. Why, Will," he added, "I have been yearning for you as if you were
my own son; and of all the men that ever I came for in my long days, I
have come for you most gladly. I am caustic, and sometimes offend people
at first sight; but I am a good friend at heart to such as you."

"Since Marjory was taken," returned Will, "I declare before God you were
the only friend I had to look for."

So the pair went arm-in-arm across the courtyard.

One of the servants awoke about this time and heard the noise of horses
pawing before he dropped asleep again; all down the valley that night
there was a rushing as of a smooth and steady wind descending towards
the plain; and when the world rose next morning, sure enough Will o' the
Mill had gone at last upon his travels.


     "BOSWELL: We grow weary when idle,"

     "JOHNSON: That is, because others being busy, we want company; but
     if we were idle, there would be no growing weary; we should all
     entertain one another."

Just now, when every one is bound, under pain of a decree in absence
convicting them of _lèse_-respectability, to enter on some lucrative
profession, and labour therein with something not far short of
enthusiasm, a cry from the opposite party who are content when they have
enough, and like to look on and enjoy in the meanwhile, savours a little
of bravado and gasconade. And yet this should not be. Idleness, so
called, which does not consist in doing nothing, but in doing a great
deal not recognized in the dogmatic formularies of the ruling class, has
as good a right to state its position as industry itself. It is admitted
that the presence of people who refuse to enter in the great handicap
race for sixpenny pieces, is at once an insult and a disenchantment for
those who do. A fine fellow (as we see so many) takes his determination,
votes for the sixpences, and in the emphatic Americanism, "goes for"
them. And while such an one is ploughing distressfully up the road, it
is not hard to understand his resentment, when he perceives cool persons
in the meadows by the wayside, lying with a handkerchief over their ears
and a glass at their elbow. Alexander is touched in a very delicate
place by the disregard of Diogenes. Where was the glory of having taken
Rome for these tumultuous barbarians, who poured into the Senate house,
and found the Fathers sitting silent and unmoved by their success? It is
a sore thing to have laboured along and scaled the arduous hilltops, and
when all is done, find humanity indifferent to your achievement. Hence
physicists condemn the unphysical; financiers have only a superficial
toleration for those who know little of stocks; literary persons despise
the unlettered; and people of all pursuits combine to disparage those
who have none.

But though this is one difficulty of the subject, it is not the
greatest. You could not be put in prison for speaking against industry,
but you can be sent to Coventry for speaking like a fool. The greatest
difficulty with most subjects is to do them well; therefore, please to
remember this is an apology. It is certain that much may be judiciously
argued in favour of diligence; only there is something to be said
against it, and that is what, on the present occasion, I have to say. To
state one argument is not necessarily to be deaf to all others, and that
a man has written a book of travels in Montenegro, is no reason why he
should never have been to Richmond.

It is surely beyond a doubt that people should be a good deal idle in
youth. For though here and there a Lord Macaulay may escape from school
honours with all his wits about him, most boys pay so dear for their
medals that they never afterwards have a shot in their locker, and begin
the world bankrupt. And the same holds true during all the time a lad is
educating himself, or suffering others to educate him. It must have been
a very foolish old gentleman who addressed Johnson at Oxford in these
words: "Young man, ply your book diligently now, and acquire a stock of
knowledge; for when years come upon you, you will find that poring upon
books will be but an irksome task." The old gentleman seems to have been
unaware that many other things besides reading grow irksome, and not a
few become impossible, by the time a man has to use spectacles and
cannot walk without a stick. Books are good enough in their own way, but
they are a mighty bloodless substitute for life. It seems a pity to sit,
like the Lady of Shalott, peering into a mirror, with your back turned
on all the bustle and glamour of reality. And if a man reads very hard,
as the old anecdote reminds us, he will have little time for thought.

If you look back on your own education, I am sure it will not be the
full, vivid, instructive hours of truantry that you regret; you would
rather cancel some lack-lustre periods between sleep and waking in the
class. For my own part I have attended a good many lectures in my time.
I still remember that the spinning of a top is a case of Kinetic
Stability. I still remember that Emphyteusis is not a disease, nor
Stillicide a crime. But though I would not willingly part with such
scraps of science, I do not set the same store by them as by certain
other odds and ends that I came by in the open street while I was
playing truant. This is not the moment to dilate on that mighty place of
education, which was the favourite school of Dickens and of Balzac, and
turns out yearly many inglorious masters in the Science of the Aspects
of Life. Suffice it to say this: if a lad does not learn in the streets,
it is because he has no faculty of learning. Nor is the truant always in
the streets, for if he prefers, he may go out by the gardened suburbs
into the country. He may pitch on some tuft of lilacs over a burn, and
smoke innumerable pipes to the tune of the water on the stones. A bird
will sing in the thicket. And there he may fall into a vein of kindly
thought, and see things in a new perspective. Why, if this be not
education, what is? We may conceive Mr. Worldly Wiseman accosting such
an one, and the conversation that should thereupon ensue:--

"How now, young fellow, what dost thou here?"

"Truly, sir, I take mine ease."

"Is not this the hour of the class? and should'st thou not be plying thy
Book with diligence, to the end thou mayest obtain knowledge?"

"Nay, but thus also I follow after Learning, by your leave."

"Learning, quotha! After what fashion, I pray thee? Is it mathematics?"

"No, to be sure."

"Is it metaphysics?"

"Nor that."

"Is it some language?"

"Nay, it is no language."

"Is it a trade?"

"Nor a trade neither."

"Why, then, what is't?"

"Indeed, sir, as a time may soon come for me to go upon Pilgrimage, I am
desirous to note what is commonly done by persons in my case, and where
are the ugliest Sloughs and Thickets on the Road; as also, what manner
of Staff is of the best service. Moreover, I lie here, by this water, to
learn by root-of-heart a lesson which my master teaches me to call
Peace, or Contentment."

Hereupon Mr. Worldly Wiseman was much commoved with passion, and
shaking his cane with a very threatful countenance, broke forth upon
this wise: "Learning, quotha!" said he; "I would have all such rogues
scourged by the Hangman!"

And so he would go his way, ruffling out his cravat with a crackle of
starch, like a turkey when it spread its feathers.

Now this, of Mr. Wiseman's, is the common opinion. A fact is not called
a fact, but a piece of gossip, if it does not fall into one of your
scholastic categories. An inquiry must be in some acknowledged
direction, with a name to go by; or else you are not inquiring at all,
only lounging; and the workhouse is too good for you. It is supposed
that all knowledge is at the bottom of a well, or the far end of a
telescope. Sainte-Beuve, as he grew older, came to regard all experience
as a single great book, in which to study for a few years ere we go
hence; and it seemed all one to him whether you should read in Chapter
XX., which is the differential calculus, or in Chapter XXXIX., which is
hearing the band play in the gardens. As a matter of fact, an
intelligent person, looking out of his eyes and hearkening in his ears,
with a smile on his face all the time, will get more true education than
many another in a life of heroic vigils. There is certainly some chill
and arid knowledge to be found upon the summits of formal and laborious
science; but it is all round about you, and for the trouble of looking,
that you will acquire the warm and palpitating facts of life. While
others are filling their memory with a lumber of words, one-half of
which they will forget before the week be out, your truant may learn
some really useful art; to play the fiddle, to know a good cigar, or to
speak with ease and opportunity to all varieties of men. Many who have
"plied their book diligently," and know all about some one branch or
another of accepted lore, come out of the study with an ancient and
owl-like demeanour, and prove dry, stockish, and dyspeptic in all the
better and brighter parts of life. Many make a large fortune, who remain
underbred and pathetically stupid to the last. And meantime there goes
the idler, who began life along with them--by your leave, a different
picture. He has had time to take care of his health and his spirits; he
has been a great deal in the open air, which is the most salutary of all
things for both body and mind; and if he has never read the great Book
in very recondite places, he has dipped into it and skimmed it over to
excellent purpose. Might not the student afford some Hebrew roots, and
the business man some of his half-crowns, for a share of the idler's
knowledge of life at large, and Art of Living? Nay, and the idler has
another and more important quality than these. I mean his wisdom. He who
has much looked on at the childish satisfaction of other people in their
hobbies, will regard his own with only a very ironical indulgence. He
will not be heard among the dogmatists. He will have a great and cool
allowance for all sorts of people and opinions. If he finds no
out-of-the-way truths, he will identify himself with no very burning
falsehood. His way takes him along a by-road, not much frequented, but
very even and pleasant, which is called Commonplace Lane, and leads to
the Belvedere of Commonsense. Thence he shall command an agreeable, if
no very noble prospect; and while others behold the East and West, the
Devil and the Sunrise, he will be contentedly aware of a sort of morning
hour upon all sublunary things, with an army of shadows running speedily
and in many different directions into the great daylight of Eternity.
The shadows and the generations, the shrill doctors and the plangent
wars, go by into ultimate silence and emptiness; but underneath all
this, a man may see, out of the Belvedere windows, much green and
peaceful landscape; many firelit parlours; good people laughing,
drinking, and making love as they did before the Flood or the French
Revolution; and the old shepherd telling his tale under the hawthorn.

Extreme _busyness_, whether at school or college, kirk or market, is a
symptom of deficient vitality; and a faculty for idleness implies a
catholic appetite and a strong sense of personal identity. There is a
sort of dead-alive, hackneyed people about, who are scarcely conscious
of living except in the exercise of some conventional occupation. Bring
these fellows into the country, or set them aboard ship, and you will
see how they pine for their desk or their study. They have no curiosity;
they cannot give themselves over to random provocations; they do not
take pleasure in the exercise of their faculties for its own sake; and
unless Necessity lays about them with a stick, they will even stand
still. It is no good speaking to such folk: they _cannot_ be idle,
their nature is not generous enough; and they pass those hours in a sort
of coma, which are not dedicated to furious moiling in the gold-mill.
When they do not require to go to the office, when they are not hungry
and have no mind to drink, the whole breathing world is a blank to them.
If they have to wait an hour or so for a train, they fall into a stupid
trance with their eyes open. To see them, you would suppose there was
nothing to look at and no one to speak with; you would imagine they were
paralysed or alienated; and yet very possibly they are hard workers in
their own way, and have good eyesight for a flaw in a deed or a turn of
the market. They have been to school and college, but all the time they
had their eye on the medal; they have gone about in the world and mixed
with clever people, but all the time they were thinking of their own
affairs. As if a man's soul were not too small to begin with, they have
dwarfed and narrowed theirs by a life of all work and no play; until
here they are at forty, with a listless attention, a mind vacant of all
material of amusement, and not one thought to rub against another, while
they wait for the train. Before he was breeched, he might have clambered
on the boxes; when he was twenty, he would have stared at the girls; but
now the pipe is smoked out, the snuff-box empty, and my gentleman sits
bolt upright upon a bench, with lamentable eyes. This does not appear to
me as being Success in Life.

But it is not only the person himself who suffers from his busy habits,
but his wife and children, his friends and relations, and down to the
very people he sits with in a railway carriage or an omnibus. Perpetual
devotion to what a man calls his business, is only to be sustained by
perpetual neglect of many other things. And it is not by any means
certain that a man's business is the most important thing he has to do.
To an impartial estimate it will seem clear that many of the wisest,
most virtuous, and most beneficent parts that are to be played upon the
Theatre of Life are filled by gratuitous performers, and pass, among the
world at large, as phases of idleness. For in that Theatre, not only the
walking gentlemen, singing chambermaids, and diligent fiddlers in the
orchestra, but those who look on and clap their hands from the benches,
do really play a part and fulfil important offices towards the general
result. You are no doubt very dependent on the care of your lawyer and
stockbroker, of the guards and signalmen who convey you rapidly from
place to place, and the policemen who walk the streets for your
protection; but is there not a thought of gratitude in your heart for
certain other benefactors who set you smiling when they fall in your
way, or season your dinner with good company? Colonel Newcome helped to
lose his friend's money; Fred Bayham had an ugly trick of borrowing
shirts; and yet they were better people to fall among than Mr. Barnes.
And though Falstaff was neither sober nor very honest, I think I could
name one or two long-faced Barabbases whom the world could better have
done without. Hazlitt mentions that he was more sensible of obligation
to Northcote, who had never done him anything he could call a service,
than to his whole circle of ostentatious friends; for he thought a good
companion emphatically the greatest benefactor. I know there are people
in the world who cannot feel grateful unless the favour has been done
them at the cost of pain and difficulty. But this is a churlish
disposition. A man may send you six sheets of letter-paper covered with
the most entertaining gossip, or you may pass half an hour pleasantly,
perhaps profitably, over an article of his; do you think the service
would be greater, if he had made the manuscript in his heart's blood,
like a compact with the devil? Do you really fancy you should be more
beholden to your correspondent, if he had been damning you all the while
for your importunity? Pleasures are more beneficial than duties; like
the quality of mercy, they are not strained, and they are twice blest.
There must always be two to a kiss, and there may be a score in a jest;
but wherever there is an element of sacrifice, the favour is conferred
with pain, and, among generous people, received with confusion. There is
no duty we so much underrate as the duty of being happy. By being happy,
we sow anonymous benefits upon the world, which remain unknown even to
ourselves, or when they are disclosed, surprise nobody so much as the
benefactor. The other day, a ragged, barefoot boy ran down the street
after a marble, with so jolly an air that he set every one he passed
into a good humour; one of these persons, who had been delivered from
more than usually black thoughts, stopped the little fellow and gave
him some money with this remark: "You see what sometimes comes of
looking pleased." If he had looked pleased before, he had now to look
both pleased and mystified. For my part, I justify this encouragement of
smiling rather than tearful children; I do not wish to pay for tears
anywhere but upon the stage; but I am prepared to deal largely in the
opposite commodity. A happy man or woman is a better thing to find than
a five-pound note. He or she is a radiating focus of good-will; and
their entrance into a room is as though another candle had been lighted.
We need not care whether they could prove the forty-seventh proposition;
they do a better thing than that, they practically demonstrate the great
Theorem of the Liveableness of Life. Consequently, if a person cannot be
happy without remaining idle, idle he should remain. It is a
revolutionary precept; but thanks to hunger and the workhouse, one not
easily to be abused; and within practical limits, it is one of the most
incontestable truths in the whole Body of Mortality. Look at one of your
industrious fellows for a moment, I beseech you. He sows hurry and reaps
indigestion; he puts a vast deal of activity out to interest, and
receives a large measure of nervous derangement in return. Either he
absents himself entirely from all fellowship, and lives a recluse in a
garret, with carpet slippers and a leaden inkpot; or he comes among
people swiftly and bitterly, in a contraction of his whole nervous
system, to discharge some temper before he returns to work. I do not
care how much or how well he works, this fellow is an evil feature in
other people's lives. They would be happier if he were dead. They could
easier do without his services in the Circumlocution Office, than they
can tolerate his fractious spirits. He poisons life at the well-head. It
is better to be beggared out of hand by a scapegrace nephew, than daily
hag-ridden by a peevish uncle.

And what in God's name, is all this pother about? For what cause do they
embitter their own and other people's lives? That a man should publish
three or thirty articles a year, that he should finish or not finish his
great allegorical picture, are questions of little interest to the
world. The ranks of life are full; and although a thousand fall, there
are always some to go into the breach. When they told Joan of Arc she
should be at home minding women's work, she answered there were plenty
to spin and wash. And so, even with your own rare gifts! When nature is
"so careless of the single life," why should we coddle ourselves into
the fancy that our own is of exceptional importance? Suppose Shakespeare
had been knocked on the head some dark night in Sir Thomas Lucy's
preserves, the world would have wagged on better or worse, the pitcher
gone to the well, the scythe to the corn, and the student to his book;
and no one been any the wiser of the loss. There are not many works
extant, if you look the alternative all over, which are worth the price
of a pound of tobacco to a man of limited means. This is a sobering
reflection for the proudest of our earthly vanities. Even a tobacconist
may, upon consideration, find no great cause for personal vainglory in
the phrase; for although tobacco is an admirable sedative, the qualities
necessary for retailing it are neither rare nor precious in themselves.
Alas and alas! you may take it how you will, but the services of no
single individual are indispensable. Atlas was just a gentleman with a
protracted nightmare! And yet you see merchants who go and labour
themselves into a great fortune and hence into the bankruptcy court;
scribblers who keep scribbling at little articles until their temper is
a cross to all who come about them, as though Pharaoh should set the
Israelites to make a pin instead of a pyramid; and fine young men who
work themselves into a decline, and are driven off in a hearse with
white plumes upon it. Would you not suppose these persons had been
whispered, by the Master of the Ceremonies, the promise of some
momentous destiny? and that this lukewarm bullet on which they play
their farces was the bull's-eye and centre-point of all the universe?
And yet it is not so. The ends for which they give away their priceless
youth, for all they know, may be chimerical or hurtful; the glory and
riches they expect may never come, or may find them indifferent; and
they and the world they inhabit are so inconsiderable that the mind
freezes at the thought.


     I saw you toss the kites on high
     And blow the birds about the sky;
     And all around I heard you pass,
     Like ladies' skirts across the grass--
       O wind, a-blowing all day long,
       O wind, that sings so loud a song!

     I saw the different things you did,
     But always you yourself you hid.
     I felt you push, I heard you call,
     I could not see yourself at all--
       O wind, a-blowing all day long,
       O wind, that sings so loud a song!

     O you that are so strong and cold,
     O blower, are you young or old?
     Are you a beast of field and tree,
     Or just a stronger child than me?
       O wind, a-blowing all day long,
       O wind, that sings so loud a song!


     Over the borders, a sin without pardon,
       Breaking the branches and crawling below,
     Out through the breach in the wall of the garden,
       Down by the banks of the river, we go.

     Here is the mill with the humming of thunder,
       Here is the weir with the wonder of foam,
     Here is the sluice with the race running under--
       Marvellous places, though handy to home!

     Sounds of the village grow stiller and stiller,
       Stiller the note of the birds on the hill;
     Dusty and dim are the eyes of the miller,
       Deaf are his ears with the moil of the mill.

     Years may go by, and the wheel in the river
       Wheel as it wheels for us, children, to-day,
     Wheel and keep roaring and foaming for ever
       Long after all of the boys are away.

     Home from the Indies and home from the ocean,
       Heroes and soldiers we all shall come home;
     Still we shall find the old mill wheel in motion,
       Turning and churning that river to foam.

     You with the bean that I gave when we quarrelled,
       I with your marble of Saturday last,
     Honoured and old and all gaily apparelled,
       Here we shall meet and remember the past.


     The moon has a face like the clock in the hall;
     She shines on thieves on the garden wall,
     On streets and fields and harbour quays,
     And birdies asleep in the forks of the trees.

     The squalling cat and the squeaking mouse,
     The howling dog by the door of the house,
     The bat that lies in bed at noon,
     All love to be out by the light of the moon.

     But all of the things that belong to the day
     Cuddle to sleep to be out of her way;
     And flowers and children close their eyes
     Till up in the morning the sun shall arise.


     Smooth it slides upon its travel,
       Here a wimple, there a gleam--
         O the clean gravel!
         O the smooth stream!

     Sailing blossoms, silver fishes,
       Paven pools as clear as air--
         How a child wishes
         To live down there!

     We can see our coloured faces
       Floating on the shaken pool
         Down in cool places,
         Dim and very cool;

     Till a wind or water wrinkle,
       Dipping marten, plumping trout,
         Spreads in a twinkle
         And blots all out.

     See the rings pursue each other;
       All below grows black as night,
         Just as if mother
         Had blown out the light!

     Patience, children, just a minute--
       See spreading circles die;
         The stream and all in it
         Will clear by-and-by.


     Late lies the wintry sun a-bed,
     A frosty, fiery sleepy-head;
     Blinks but an hour or two; and then,
     A blood-red orange, sets again.

     Before the stars have left the skies,
     At morning in the dark I rise;
     And shivering in my nakedness,
     By the cold candle, bathe and dress.

     Close by the jolly fire I sit
     To warm my frozen bones a bit;
     Or with a reindeer-sled, explore
     The colder countries round the door.

     When to go out, my nurse doth wrap
     Me in my comforter and cap;
     The cold wind burns my face, and blows
     Its frosty pepper up my nose.

     Black are my steps on silver sod;
     Thick blows my frosty breath abroad;
     And tree and house, and hill and lake,
     Are frosted like a wedding-cake.


     I have a little shadow that goes in and out with me,
     And what can be the use of him is more than I can see.
     He is very, very like me from the heels up to the head;
     And I see him jump before me, when I jump into my bed.

     The funniest thing about him is the way he likes to grow--
     Not at all like proper children, which is always very slow;
     For he sometimes shoots up taller like an India-rubber ball,
     And he sometimes gets so little that there's none of him at all.

     He hasn't got a notion of how children ought to play,
     And can only make a fool of me in every sort of way.
     He stays so close beside me, he's a coward you can see;
     I'd think shame to stick to nursie as that shadow sticks to me!

     One morning, very early, before the sun was up,
     I rose and found the shining dew on every butter-cup;
     But my lazy little shadow, like an arrant sleepy-head,
     Had stayed at home behind me and was fast asleep in bed.


     In the other gardens
       And all up the vale,
     From the autumn bonfires
       See the smoke trail!

     Pleasant summer over
       And all the summer flowers,
     The red fire blazes,
       The gray smoke towers.

     Sing a song of seasons!
       Something bright in all!
     Flowers in the summer,
       Fires in the fall!


    STORY, ROBERT, the author of the following poem, was born in
    Scotland in 1790, and died there in 1859. The poem is much more
    famous than its author, having been reprinted time and again, and
    sometimes under the wrong author's name. It is one of those pieces
    that are called "fugitive," which means that it has no particular
    abiding place in type, but makes its home in collections, being, as
    it were, an only child. Simple as it is, it has stood the test of
    time and is here given for this reason, no less than for its


     "You have heard," said a youth to his sweetheart, who stood
       While he sat on a corn-sheaf, at daylight's decline,--
     "You have heard of the Danish boy's whistle of wood:
       I wish that the Danish boy's whistle were mine."

     "And what would you do with it? Tell me," she said,
       While an arch smile played over her beautiful face.
     "I would blow it," he answered, "and then my fair maid
       Would fly to my side and would there take her place."

     "Is that all you wish for? Why, that may be yours
       Without any magic," the fair maiden cried:
     "A favor so slight one's good nature secures;"
       And she playfully seated herself by his side.

     "I would blow it again," said the youth; "and the charm
       Would work so that not even modesty's check
     Would be able to keep from my neck your white arm."
       She smiled, and she laid her white arm round his neck.

     "Yet once more I would blow; and the music divine
       Would bring me a third time an exquisite bliss,--
     You would lay your fair cheek to this brown one of mine
       And your lips stealing past it would give me a kiss."

     The maiden laughed out in her innocent glee,--
       "What a fool of yourself with the whistle you'd make!
     For only consider how silly 'twould be
       To sit there and whistle for what you might take."


     STRICKLAND, AGNES, an English historical writer; born in London,
     August, 1796, and died at Southwold, July, 1874. Her best and most
     celebrated work is _Lives of the Queens of England_, from which the
     following biographical account is taken.


Henrietta Maria was the sixth child and youngest daughter of Henry IV.
of France, by his second wife, Marie de Medicis. She was born at the
Louvre, November 25, 1609. Great as Henry was, he suffered his mind to
be swayed by predictions. He had been told that he should die the day
after his queen was crowned. To her great mortification, he would not
permit that ceremony to be performed until after the birth of his
youngest daughter. The queen prevailed on him to give orders for her
coronation at St. Denis, where it took place, when Henriette, who was
only five months old, was present, held in her nurse's arms, on one side
of her mother's throne, surrounded by her brothers and sisters--a group
of very beautiful children--the dauphin, too soon to be Louis XIII.,
Gaston, Elizabeth, and Christine. The next day Henry IV. was
assassinated by Ravillac in the streets of Paris, May 13, 1610.

The royal children were barricaded all that dreary night in the
guard-room at the Louvre, next to the chamber where the king's bleeding
corpse lay. No one slept in the palace excepting the infant Henriette,
whose peaceful slumbers in her nurse's arms were in strange contrast to
the grief and terror of all around, for it was believed that an
insurrection would follow the regicidal act. Again the infant princess
appeared in her nurse's arms, at the funeral of the royal hero of
France, and once more, at the coronation of her young brother at Rheims,
when she was only ten months old. Her governess was Mademoiselle de
Monglat, whom she used to call Mamanga. She received her education from
her brother Gaston's school-master, M. de Bevis: she was the constant
companion of Duke Gaston, who was only eighteen months older than

Henriette was the darling of her mother, perhaps her spoiled darling,
for Maria de Medicis, queen-regent of France, was neither wise nor
judicious. When the queen was deprived of the regency and her liberty,
Henriette was permitted to share her royal mother's captivity.

When the queen-mother recovered her liberty, the young Henriette, not
then fifteen, became the ornament of the court. Anne of Austria, the
young queen-consort of Louis XIII., cherished love and friendship for
her sister-in-law, of which Henriette found the benefit in her worst

When Henriette was only in her fourteenth year, she and her future
consort, Charles, Prince of Wales, unknown to each other, met at a ball
in the palace of the king her brother, early in February, 1623. The
Prince of Wales and his father's favourite minister, George Villiers,
Earl of Buckingham, were travelling incognito to Madrid, under the
homely names of Tom Smith and Jack Smith. The object of the Prince of
Wales was to see the infanta Donna Maria (with whom he was engaged by
the king his father in a treaty of marriage), and to make acquaintance
with her before they should be irrevocably bound in wedlock. The prince
and his companion halted at Paris, and went like others to see the
Louvre, and look at the royal family of France on the night of the ball.
Struck by their personal appearance, the Duke de Montbazan gave the
handsome and distinguished-looking strangers advantageous places in the
hall of the Louvre, where Charles saw the beautiful Henriette dance. The
circumstance was afterward mentioned to Henriette, who sighed, and said,
"Ah! the Prince of Wales needed not have gone so far as Spain to look
for a wife." She had not noticed Jack Smith in the gallery of the
Louvre, yet she had seen portraits of Charles, who was the most graceful
prince in Europe.

The Spanish match was broken off. Donna Maria afterward married the
Emperor of Germany. James I. demanded the hand of the beautiful
Henriette for his heir.

The English people preferred having a daughter of the Protestant hero,
Henry the Great, for their queen, to the grand-daughter of the cruel
Philip II. of Spain. Unfortunately, Henriette had been brought up in the
most ignorant bigotry by her mother. We have read a letter, very much
worn with often unfolding, of advice and instruction from this queen to
her daughter, regarding her conduct in England, in which she mentions
the belief of the English in the same terms as if they were Jews. Such
imputation the creed of the Anglican Church no more deserved than her
own. Unfortunately, her young daughter was utterly ignorant of all
history but that from prejudiced sources, as she afterward deeply
regretted to her friend Madame de Motteville.

The marriage articles were very tedious, and much disputed; a clause was
left by the council of James I., giving his son's consort power in the
education of her children until their thirteenth year; a clause
regretted by Charles, and which his determination to break afterward,
occasioned the only real unhappiness in his married life. When all was
ready for the betrothal, James I. died, March, 1624-5.

Some anxiety was shown lest the young king, Charles I., should not
ratify his father's treaty; but the wooing ambassadors, the Earls of
Carlisle and Holland, had described the young princess in such
favourable terms that Charles was eager to complete the agreement. In
one of Holland's letters to Charles she is thus mentioned: "In truth,
she is the sweetest creature in France, and the loveliest thing in
nature. I heard her the other day discourse with her mother and her
ladies with wondrous discretion. She dances--the which I am witness
of--as well as I ever saw. They say she sings most sweetly; I am sure
she looks as if she did!" In the course of a few days the Earl of
Holland heard this wonderful voice. "I had been told much of it," he
wrote; "but I find it true that neither her singing-master, nor any man
or woman in Europe, singeth as she doth; her voice is beyond all
imagination!" The musical and vocal powers of the queen-mother of
France, Marie de Medicis, were likewise of the finest order; and her
youngest daughter had inherited from her, gifts lavishly bestowed by
nature on the children of Italy.

Pope Urban VIII. was exceedingly adverse to the English marriage: he had
been Henrietta's god-father when he was cardinal legate in France. He
was unwilling to grant a dispensation for his god-child wedding out of
their Church; putting his objection on his duty to guard her happiness,
rather than the usual polemic wranglings. No one can deny that his
historical acumen was right in what he said--"If the Stuart king relaxed
the bloody penal laws against the Roman Catholics, the English would not
suffer him to live long. If they were continued, what happiness could
the French princess have in her wedlock?" These were the words of
wisdom, and ought to have been heeded. But the unwise prejudice against
placing a princess on the English throne of lower rank than the
royalties of France or Spain, unduly influenced James I., or rather his
English council, since he did not act thus in his own case.

Charles I. and Louis XIII. resolved to proceed with the betrothal
without Urban's dispensation, which, of course, caused it to be sent
very quickly. Henriette and Charles I. were betrothed, May 8, 1625, by
proxy. She was dressed in a magnificent robe woven with gold and silver,
and flowered with French lilies in gems and diamonds. The marriage took
place three days afterward. The palace of the Archbishop of Paris (but
lately destroyed) stood just behind Notre Dame; a gallery-bridge
connected it with that cathedral, hung with violet satin, figured with
gold fleur-de-lis; the marriage procession passed over it from the
palace to Notre Dame. The bride was led by her young brother Gaston, and
was given away by the king, Louis XIII.

The Duke de Chevreuse, a near kinsman of Charles I., was his proxy; he
was attired in black velvet; but over this plain attire wore a scarf
flowered with diamond roses; the queen-mother shone like a pillar of
precious stones; her long train was borne by two princesses of the
blood, Condé and Conti. The marriage took place in the porch of Notre
Dame; the English ambassadors, and even the proxy of England, out of
respect to the religious feelings of Charles I., withdrew from Notre
Dame during the concluding mass.

The Duke of Buckingham, ambassador-extraordinary from England, arrived
at the conclusion of the ceremony. He was angry because he was too
late--and certainly behaved in a most extraordinary manner while in
France. Subsequently, he was on ill terms with the young Queen of

The Duke of Buckingham caused many delays by his flighty conduct. At
last the cortège of the bride approached Boulogne. Charles I. came to
Dover Castle to meet and welcome his queen. Her passage was dangerous.
The king had that Sunday retired to Canterbury, thinking the bride could
not embark in the storm. However, she landed at Dover, June 23, 1625, at
seven in the evening. At ten, next day, the king arrived while she was
at breakfast; he wished to wait, for she had been very ill with
sea-sickness. Yet the bride rose hastily from table, hasted down a pair
of stairs to meet the king, then offered to kneel and kiss his hand; but
he wrapped her up in his arms with many kisses. "Sir, I have come to
your majesty's country to be commanded by you," were the set words the
poor bride had prepared for her first speech to Charles, but her voice
failed, and ended with a gush of tears. Charles kindly led her apart,
kissed off her tears, and said he should do so while they fell. His
tenderness soon soothed the weeping girl, and she entered into familiar
discourse with the royal lover. Charles seemed pleased that she was
taller than he had heard; and, finding she reached the height of his
shoulder, he glanced downward at her feet. Her quickness caught his
meaning, and she said to him, in French, "I stand on my own feet; I have
no help from art; thus tall am I, neither higher nor lower."

The young queen then presented all her French attendants to Charles,
beginning with her cousin, the beautiful Madame de St. George, formerly
her governess, now her first lady of the bed-chamber. To her the king
very early took an antipathy.

The same eventful day, the bride, the king, and court set out for
Canterbury, where the marriage was to be celebrated. On a beautiful
extent of greensward, called Barham downs, a banquet was prepared; and
in the pavilions the bride-queen was introduced to the ladies of her
English household, and the noblemen and gentlemen appointed to her
service. That evening, Charles and Henrietta were married in the noble
hall of St. Augustine, Canterbury.

Next morning they embarked at Gravesend, the king choosing to enter his
capital by the grand highway of the Thames, that he might show his bride
the stately shipping of his noble navy, which greeted the royal
procession as it passed on its progress up the stream with thundering
salutes, while the river was covered with thousands of boats and
beautiful barges belonging to the nobility and merchants of London. A
violent thunder-shower came on as the procession neared the
landing-place at Whitehall; the queen, however, waved her hand
repeatedly to the people. She was splendidly dressed; like the king, the
colour she wore was green.

Even in the first days of his marriage, Charles I. saw strong reason to
lament he had admitted the Roman Catholic colony with his young queen.
His position was extremely difficult; he foresaw all its dangers, and
came early to the resolution of neutralizing the worst features of the
case. The queen was childish in years; her reason totally uncultivated;
she was, moreover, alike ignorant of the language and history of the
country. Her confessor and her bishop were probably not less bigoted
than herself; and the king knew that their celebration of rites, of
which they would abate not one jot, was the greatest offence in the eyes
of his people. It was his ruin, as the natural good sense of Henrietta
afterward acknowledged, in her confessions of passionate penitence to
her friend, Madame de Motteville.

Charles I. found great cause to regret the establishment of his queen's
Roman Catholic train of priests and attendants, besides other injurious
stipulations in the marriage treaty his dying father's council had
ratified. The queen was but an unreasoning girl of sixteen, entirely
guided by the unusually large train she had about her. She would not
learn English, and was encouraged by her French attendants to pay little
regard to the customs and prejudices of the nation over which her
consort reigned. Thus, she would not be crowned, February 2, 1626, lest
she should join in the rites of the Church of England; she was the only
Queen of England who ever refused her coronation; this deeply grieved
her husband and incensed his people, who never forgave the offence, as
she found afterward to her cost.

Charles was crowned _solus_. Henrietta viewed the coronation procession
from the palace gate-way by King Street. Her French officials were
accused of capering irreverently during the solemnity--as they were not
in the abbey, that was no great crime; yet the next time Charles I.
caught them capering he made it an excuse for a general clearance. He
thus got rid of six ecclesiastics, many French ladies, especially of
Madame St. George, who claimed the privilege of occupying a seat in the
royal carriage wherever the king and queen went, to the great annoyance
of Charles. Her place, as the queen's first lady, was filled by the
Protestant Madame de la Tremouille. Only Père Gamache and another very
quiet humble priest were allowed for the service of his queen's chapel
by Charles I. Such innovations enraged the young queen greatly; she
threw herself into agonies of rage at the departure of her French
attendants; and in her fury contrived to break the windows of the king's
closet or private apartment at Whitehall, although he restrained her by
keeping the casement shut, and holding both her wrists, because he
forbade her to bid them farewell when they embarked at Whitehall stairs.
The king did not send them empty away; 22,000_l._ was distributed among
them; nevertheless, the French women of the royal bed-chamber carried
off all the queen's clothes, as lawful perquisites, leaving, besides the
dress she wore, only an old gown and three chemises--not good for much.
The king tenderly soothed his afflicted consort, who seemed to be
reconciled; but before the close of the year, 1626, she manifested such
temper that Louis XIII. sent his father's old friend, the Duke de
Bassompierre, as ambassador-extraordinary, to inquire into his sister's
conjugal unhappiness.

Mischief had been made by the king's prime minister, the Duke of
Buckingham, as plainly may be seen by the royal letters extant.[1] Since
the times of Henry VIII. the boundaries of the royal parks of Whitehall
and St. James had been decorated with gallows, and many of them loaded
with human heads and quarters. In the first month of Henrietta's arrival
in London, it was said that her priests had caused her to make a
pilgrimage to the gallows where the last Roman Catholic priests had been
put to death for their faith, that she went barefoot, and knelt there
praying. Bassompierre, who talked until he lost his voice, and after
great exertions, made out this accusation, which the young queen utterly
denied. "She never was near the gallows," she said, "never at that time
knew where it was, until lately when she was walking with the king in
Hyde Park." A fine terminus to the evening walk of a fair young queen
under eighteen! Another tale was embodied in council-minutes, "that the
queen's priest had made her, for penance, eat off wooden trenchers."
When Bassompierre asked her, "How about the wooden platters?" the queen
disdained to reply.

[Footnote 1: These letters of entertaining facts of Bassompierre's
doings are to be found in the "Lives of the Queens of England," by Agnes

Henrietta could not express herself in English, and Bassompierre, her
countryman, who knew not one word of it, certainly argued her defence at
a great disadvantage. However, he privately gave Henrietta the good
advice to humble her high spirit to her husband, and endeavour to
conciliate his friend. The perverse Henrietta then quarrelled with him,
defied Buckingham, and behaved worse than ever to Charles. But the brave
Frenchman, who had fought through the Huguenot wars by her heroic
father's side, and had known her from her babyhood, of course looked
upon her as on any other spoiled girl of seventeen. He soon told her his
mind, and induced better behaviour. Finally he left the royal pair much
better friends than he found them.

War soon after ensued between England and France. King Charles supported
the independence of Holland, which Cardinal Richelieu had vainly tried
to make him crush. He likewise fitted out a navy, and sent it to the
relief of the French Protestants. It was under the command of
Buckingham, no seaman, though brave enough. Of course the naval war was
unsuccessful. Before another expedition sailed, Buckingham was
assassinated at Portsmouth, August, 1628, by Felton the fanatic. And
with him ceased all Henrietta's married infelicity.

The Parliament of Charles refused all supplies for the war in behalf of
the Protestants, unless he consented to put to a death of torture every
Catholic priest exercising the rights of his religion, and gave his veto
for confiscating the property of all Roman Catholics in his realm.
Charles was more tormented by the Roman Catholics than any man in his
dominions, and they would have done all they could against him; yet he
was too good in heart and spirit to authorize such wholesale robbery and
murder. He thought the penal law already cruel enough, and perhaps he
wished them to be put on the same footing as the great Henry, his
queen's father, had left the French Protestants.

From this period may be dated the disunion between king and Parliament.
He ceased to summon it. If we may believe Sir William Temple, the chief
agitators against Charles in the House of Commons were the bribed tools
of his avowed enemy, the powerful and unscrupulous French minister,
Cardinal Richelieu.

The queen had given birth to her first-born, a prince that died as soon
as christened. She next brought into the world, May 29, 1630, another
son, a fine babe, having the brown complexion and strong features of the
Queen of Navarre, Henrietta's grandmother. The child was named Charles
by Dr. Laud, in St. James's Chapel. It is amusing to read the young
mother's opinion of the solemn ugliness of her first-born in the
following letter, written by her to her dear friend, Madame St. George,
then in France, and state governess of Henrietta's niece, Mademoiselle
de Montpensier.

     "MAMIE ST. GEORGE:--The husband of the nurse of my son going to
     France about some business, I write you this letter, believing you
     will be very glad to ask him news of my son, of whom I think you
     have seen the portrait I sent to the queen, my mother. He is so
     ugly that I am ashamed of him; but his size and fatness atone for
     his want of beauty. I wish you could see the _gentleman_, for he
     has no ordinary mien. He is so serious that I cannot help deeming
     him wiser than myself.

     "Send me a dozen pair of sweet chamois gloves, also one pair of
     doe's skin, a game of _poule_, and the rules of any games now in
     vogue. I assure you that if I did not write to you often, it is not
     because I have left off loving you, but because--I must confess
     it--I am very idle.... Adieu! the man must have the letter."

The queen gave birth to her eldest daughter, November 4, 1631, at St.
James's Palace. The babe was baptized Mary by Dr. Laud.

The king could not longer delay his coronation as King of Scotland; as
for the queen, she refused investiture with the crown-matrimonial of
that realm even more pertinaciously than she had done that of England.
Within a few weeks of her consort's return, she presented him with
another son, born at St. James's, October 14, 1633, named James, in
memory of his grandfather, James I. Charles devoted his second son to
the marine service of his country, and caused his education to tend to
every thing naval. He became one of the greatest admirals and marine
legislators in the world, but one of the most unfortunate of our kings.
The birth of the Princess Elizabeth occurred January 28, 1635.

Queen Henrietta was a fond mother, and bestowed all the time she could
on her nursery. Occasionally, her divine voice was heard singing to her
infant, as she lulled it in her arms, filling the galleries of her
palace with its rich cadences. Royal etiquette forbade her gratifying
unqualified listeners with its enchanting melody.

At this period of her life Henrietta was heard to declare herself the
happiest woman in the world; happy as wife, mother, and queen. Henrietta
Maria was not only the queen, but the beauty of the British court; she
had about the year 1633 attained the perfection of her charms, in face
and figure; she was the theme of every poet, the star of all beholders.
The moral life of Charles I., his conjugal attachment to his queen, and
the refined tastes of both, gave the court a degree of elegance till
then unknown.

In Vandyke's painting of Henrietta she is represented as evidently very
young; the features are delicate and pretty, with a pale clear
complexion, beautiful dark eyes and chestnut hair. Her form is slight
and exquisitely graceful. She is dressed in white satin; the bodice of
the dress is nearly high, with a large falling collar trimmed with
points. The bodice is made tight to the form, closed in front with bows
of cherry ribbon, and is finished from the waist with several large
tabs, richly embroidered. The sleeves are very full and descend to the
elbows, where they are confined by ruffles. One arm is encircled with a
narrow black bracelet, the other with one of costly gems. She wears a
string of pear-shaped pearls about her neck; a red ribbon twisted with
pearls is placed carelessly in her hair at the back of her head. She
stands by a table, and her hand rests on two red roses, which are placed
near the crown.

All was peaceful at this juncture; the discontents of the English
people while Charles I. governed without a parliament were hushed in
grim repose, like the tropical winds before the burst of the typhoon.
Prynne, in his abusive libel called Histrio-mastrix, first interrupted
this peace. He attacked Henrietta for performing in masques played only
in her own family. He was condemned to the pillory by the Star Chamber
conclave. Henrietta, to her honour be it recorded, did everything in her
power to save him from the infliction of his cruel sentence; but even
her intercession was fruitless. Yet Prynne himself said, after the civil
wars that ensued, "King Charles when he took my ears should have taken
my head."

Henrietta, though a very fond mother, did not indulge her children in
any thing which was foolish or improper. The following letter from her
to her eldest son Charles, Prince of Wales, written at the request of
his governor, the Marquis of Newcastle--who had been unable to induce
the young prince to swallow the physic which it was considered necessary
for him to take--is still preserved in the British Museum:


     "CHARLES:--I am sorry that I must begin my first letter with
     chiding you, because I hear that you will not take physic. I hope
     it was only for this day, and that tomorrow you will do it; for if
     you will not, I must come to you and make you take it; for it is
     for your health. I have given orders to my Lord of Newcastle to
     send me word tonight whether you will or not; therefore I hope you
     will not give me the pains to go. And so I rest your affectionate
                                        HENRIETTA MARIE."

     "To my dear son, the prince, 1638."

The young prince, who was then only eight years old, felt the propriety
of submitting to the maternal command, and swallowed the dose; but
amused himself with writing this sprightly little billet to his
governor, dryly stating the reason of his declining the potion:


     "MY LORD:--I would not have you take too much physic, for it doth
     always make me worse; and I think it will do the like with you. I
     ride every day, and am ready to follow any other directions from
     you. Make haste back to him that loves you.

                                        "CHARLES P."

This letter is written between double-ruled lines in a round text hand.

Some months after this the Princess Anne, the youngest daughter of
Charles I. and Queen Henrietta, a sweet, well-trained infant of four
years old, was stricken with mortal sickness; and being required to say
her prayers, as the hour of death was at hand, said, "she did not think
she could repeat her long prayer," meaning the Lord's Prayer, "then; but
she would say her short prayer;" and then lisped out, "Lighten mine
eyes, O Lord, that I sleep not the sleep of death," and expired with
these words on her innocent lips.

It is possible that Charles I. might have contended successfully with
the inimical party that was arraying itself against him, if he and his
queen had not incurred the enmity of Cardinal Richelieu by granting an
asylum in England to the queen-dowager of France, Marie de Medicis,
Henrietta's mother, the object of that vindictive ecclesiastic's malice,
whom he had exiled from France, and pursued with unappeasable hatred
from every place in Europe where she sought shelter in her adversity.
Charles not only received her with unbounded courtesy and respect, but
travelled to meet the royal fugitive at Harwich, where she landed, and
conducted her in state to London. When the royal carriage in which
Charles and his guest were seated arrived at the great quadrangle of St.
James's Palace, Queen Henrietta, accompanied by her children, Charles,
Prince of Wales, the little Duke of York, and the Princesses Mary and
Elizabeth, descended the stairs to receive her royal mother. She even
attempted to open the carriage door with her own hands; and the moment
her mother alighted she sunk on her knees to receive her blessing, and
her example was followed by her children, who all knelt round her.

Marie de Medicis was a woman of weak judgment, and proved a troublesome
visitor. Charles and Henrietta, whose affairs were in a very difficult
position, had great cause to regret her visit, which lasted nearly two

The queen-mother, Marie de Medicis, was given forty grand apartments in
St. James's Palace. She brought a great number of priests with her,
which added to the rage of the people; and the king's affairs went from
bad to worse. Charles was compelled to give up his great minister
Strafford to the axe, who was condemned by Parliament for having served
him too faithfully. Henrietta exerted herself to support him; she often
wanted judgment, but her courage never failed.

In the midst of the awful scenes of Strafford's impeachment, trial, and
death, the princess-royal was espoused to the young Prince of Orange; he
was but eleven, and the bride ten years old. Henrietta made no
opposition to this Protestant alliance. She had hoped that the proof of
the king's attachment to the Protestants would silence the cries of
popery against him; but those cries were got up for party purposes by
those intent on plunder, to whom all creeds were indifferent. After her
mother had quitted England, and the king had departed, with the attempt
to pacify Scotland, the royal family assembled round her were of tender
ages. They were soon separated, some of them never to meet again.
Charles, Prince of Wales, was eleven years of age, Mary the young bride
of Orange, ten, James, Duke of York, seven, Elizabeth six, and Henry,
Duke of Gloucester, a babe in arms. When alarms occurred at night, the
queen more than once armed her household, and herself headed their
patrole about Oatlands Park; thus personally guarding her slumbering
little ones.

The king had received such proofs in Scotland of Richelieu's bribery of
the five members of Parliament, that he went to arrest Mr. Pym and his
colleagues in person. Unfortunately, he had confided to the queen his
intent, and told her at such an hour all his regal perplexities would
cease. The queen put misplaced confidence in one of her attendants, Lady
Carlisle, a spy leagued with the agitators; to this treacherous person
she told her royal husband's intentions. Lady Carlisle sent instantly
word to the factious members, who escaped. As Whitehall was close to the
House of Commons, the affair was easy, the king being delayed awhile by
poor persons' petitions on the way. Long after, Henrietta related this
event to her biographer with the most passionate penitence. "Not a
reproach," she said, "did Charles give me when I threw myself into his
arms, and confessed my fault of tattling."

Such was the state of affairs when Henrietta proposed to escort her
young daughter, the bride of Orange, to Holland. Her real object was to
sell some valuable jewels, and obtain arms for defence there. The king
attended his wife and daughter to Dover, where they embarked, February
24, 1642. As the wind was favourable for coasting, the king rode many
miles, following the vessel along the winding of the shores, his tearful
eyes gazing after those dear ones he feared he never should behold
again. The royal standard was raised at Nottingham, and civil war
occurred as soon as the queen departed.

       *       *       *       *       *

Henrietta met her mother again in Holland, and stayed nearly twelve
months, during which time her business was performed with no little
skill and sagacity. The Dutch mynheers, grateful both to the King of
England, and to the exiled queen-mother of France for their political
existence, did not send Henrietta empty away. She embarked for return
February 2, 1643, in a fine ship called the Princess Royal; but fierce
tempests arose, and the northeast gales, after many days, threw the
queen back from whence she came on the wild Scheveling coast. Henrietta
bore the terrors of the storm with high courage, replying to her ladies,
when they were screaming and lamenting round her, "Queens of England are
never drowned."

After a few days' rest and refreshment the undaunted Henrietta again set
sail, followed by Admiral Van Tromp's Dutch fleet, which kept out of
sight of the English shores, when she and her armed transports arrived
in Burlington Bay, Yorkshire. A troop of two hundred cavaliers appeared
on the hills, and under that protection the queen's transports safely
landed their ammunition and stores.

The sleep of the queen was broken at dawn next day by the parliamentary
Admiral Batten bombarding the town of Burlington. The queen had been
voted guilty of high treason; so this hero was trying to take her life.
She fled as soon as dressed; but directly she was in a place of shelter,
remembering that an old dog named Mitte, which had guarded her chamber
for years, was left at the mercy of the parliamentary admiral, despite
of her attendants, she ran back through Burlington to her
sleeping-chamber, caught up Mitte in her arms, and fled back to the dry
ditch where she could crouch while the balls flew over her head. Van
Tromp came up with the tide to the rescue, but his ships were too big to
enter Burlington quay. Nevertheless, he mauled Batten in the rear.
Meantime the queen, with Mitte and her ladies, obtained hospitality at
Boynton Hall, close by, the seat of Sir William Strickland.

The cavaliers of Yorkshire and Lancashire poured in to swell her forces.
Prince Rupert met her at the head of his victorious cavalry; and she was
welcomed by her king on his own victorious field of Keinton, near

For a few months the beautiful city of Oxford was the seat of the
English court, over which Queen Henrietta presided. Hope existed among
the cavaliers that the discontents of the people would be finally
silenced by force of arms. The queen afterward reproached herself that
she was too much flushed with success to plead with earnestness for the
peace which the whole people now desired. Her triumphs had been dearly
bought; chronic rheumatic fever had seized on her delicate frame, owing
to the hardships of her campaign. The king's fortunes changed; the year
1644 opened disastrously, and the poor queen had to seek a safer shelter
than Oxford, as she was near her accouchement. Charles I. escorted his
beloved consort to Abingdon; and there, on April 3, 1644, with streaming
tears and dark forebodings, this loving pair parted. The queen sought
relief from the fever at Bath, but there she could not stay; it was an
abode of horror; the dreadful civil war had filled the bright city full
of decaying corpses.

Henrietta took shelter in loyal Exeter, and there gave birth to her
daughter, afterward Henrietta, Duchess of Orleans. The queen-regent of
France, her sister-in-law, generously sent her 50,000 pistoles.
Henrietta reserved very little for her own needs, but sent the bulk of
the sum to her husband. In less than ten days the Earl of Essex
commenced his march, intending to drag the sick queen from her childbed,
to be tried before his masters of the Parliament for levying war in
England. His approach on this manly errand caused the sick queen to rise
and fly, leaving her babe in Exeter, to the care of Lady Morton. The
queen went through great dangers by the way,[2] but at last embarked
with her faithful ladies (who joined her in various disguises) on board
a little bark bound for Dieppe. It was chased and even cannonaded by a
parliamentary cruiser. Her ladies sent forth piercing shrieks as a shot
struck the vessel. The daughter of Henry the Great compressed her lips,
and uttered not a cry. At the moment all seemed lost, a little fleet of
Dieppe vessels issued out of the port of loyal Jersey, when the enemy
made off. Then a storm sprang up, which drove the queen on the coast of
Bretagne, where she landed at Chastel.

[Footnote 2: See "Lives of the Queens of England."]

Great was the love with which Henrietta was received by the queen-regent
and her young sons and all the French people. Anne of Austria gave her
distressed sister-in-law 12,000 crowns per month, and inducted her into
the royal apartments of the Louvre, the young king leading her to them
by the hand. All the money Henrietta received she sent to the king her
husband, reserving the smallest modicum for her own use. The fever
hanging on her in France, in order that she might be near the baths of
Bourbon for its cure, the queen-regent lent her the castle and park of
Nevers. Her convalescence was stopped by an accident that grieved her.
One of her most efficient aids in her misfortunes was her dwarf,
Geoffrey Hudson. He had lately saved her life in her desperate retreat
from Exeter; and she had found him faithful in all her fortunes, ever
since the little man had stepped out of a cold pie to the side of her
plate at Nonsuch; he was at that time eighteen years old, and eighteen
inches high. He had grown four or five inches since he had been in royal
service, and done heroic deeds. During the retirement at Nevers one of
the queen's gentlemen of the household tormented and mocked Geoffrey,
until the brave little man, who contrived to manage his steed better
than many horsemen four feet taller, challenged Croft to fight him in
the park at Nevers. The joking cavalier armed himself with a huge
squirt, but Geoffrey took a pistol; and, as his hand was as unerring as
his heart was bold, his persecutor fell at the first fire. Croft only
met with his deserts; yet Queen Henrietta had to write very humbly to
the all-powerful prime minister, Mazarine, that "Le Jofroy," as she
called the little man, might not be put to death.

Letters perpetually passed between the sick queen and her husband.
Love-letters they were, in the truest sense of the term. The heart of
Henrietta yearned for the little babe she had left at Exeter. When the
king had raised the siege of that city the infant was presented to him,
and he caused her to be baptized by the name of her absent mother,
Henrietta; but he was compelled to leave her under the care of his loyal
lieges in the west. When all was lost on the king's side, Lady Morton
escaped with this little one to France, in the disguise of a
pedlar-woman, taking the royal infant of two years old on her back,
disguised as a beggar-boy. Often the little princess, who did not
approve of the change, tried to tell the wayfarers on the Dover road
that "she was not Pierre the beggar-child, but the princess." No one
understood her babble but her loving guardian, who succeeded in getting
her charge safe to Paris and the queen. "Oh, the joy of that moment,"
wrote Père Gamache, who saw the meeting between the royal mother and the
babe, lost and again found. "How many times we saw her clasp her, kiss
her, and then kiss her over again. The queen called her the child of
benediction, and charged me to teach her the Roman Catholic faith." And
this, of course, was turned against King Charles, then enduring the
worst malice of his enemies in England.

The flames of civil war spread from England to France; and Paris was,
before the close of 1647, involved in the war of the Fronde. It was
occasioned by quarrels concerning taxation. Anne the queen-regent and
her children retired to St. Germains; but the extreme love the citizens
of Paris bore to Queen Henrietta made her stay at the Louvre, where she
could obtain earlier intelligence of King Charles, who after enduring
imprisonment in various places, was soon to be put on what his enemies
called a trial.

Meantime winter in its most terrific form had set in. Famine reigned, as
it usually does in civil war. Queen Henrietta had sent all her money to
her distressed husband. Her officers had none to buy food, and had
dispersed themselves in Paris to save her the cost of feeding them.
Fierce battles were fought hourly in the streets. In the broils Queen
Henrietta and her little daughter were forgotten. She was then writing
to the French ambassador at London concerning the impending fate of her
husband. She felt neither hunger nor the freezing atmosphere in this
absorbing occupation. Providence guided M. de Retz, who was all-powerful
with the Paris Parliament, to visit the hapless queen. She was sitting
by the bed side of her little child. "You find me," said the queen,
calmly, "keeping company with my Henrietta. I would not let the poor
child rise to-day, for we have no fire." De Retz immediately sent the
queen relief from his own resources, which she thankfully accepted, and
then exerted his eloquence so successfully in the Parliament, by
mentioning the distresses of the daughter of Henry the Great and her
child, that a bountiful supply was accorded.

We must leave Henrietta for a while in Paris, to follow her hapless
husband to the close of his tragic fate. The king had heard, from time
to time, of the preparation of a court to try him. Murder he expected.
He was brought prisoner to London, January 15, 1648-9, and taken to St.
James's Palace, where, for the first time, he was deprived of royal
attendance, and left alone with his faithful Herbert, who fortunately
was sufficiently literary to be the historian of his master's progress
to his untimely tomb.

Violent expulsions had taken place from the intimidated House of
Commons, until only sixty-nine members remained, who thought themselves
fitted for the task of king-killing. Yet some found themselves mistaken
as to the hardness of their hearts, when they saw their king face to
face, and heard him speak.

This small junta met privately in the Painted Chamber, January 20.
Cromwell's purple face was seen to turn very pale; he ran to the window,
where he saw his captive king advancing between two ranks of soldiers
from Cotton House. "Here he is! here he is!" exclaimed he, with great
animation; "the hour of the great affair approaches. Decide speedily
what answer you will give him, for he will immediately ask by what
authority you pretend to judge him." The mere sight of the scanty number
of the commons, with the army choking every avenue to Westminster, up to
the door of the hall, offered forcible answers to the illegality of this
arraignment; but brute force is not obliged to be logical. Bradshawe, a
serjeant-at-law of no practice, was the president, wearing a high
Puritan hat lined inside with iron. The regicidal junta entered the
hall, its great gate was set open, and the populace rushed into all the
vacant spaces. While the king was on his way to Westminster Hall, his
anxious people crowded as near to his person as possible, crying, "God
save your majesty!" The soldiers beat them back with their partisans,
and some of the men in Colonel Axtel's regiment raised the cry of
"Justice--justice! execution!" But as their commander was bestowing on
them vigorous canings, the cry was ambiguous. The king entered,
conducted under the guard of Colonel Hacker and thirty-two officers. His
eyes were bright and powerful; his features calm and composed, yet
bearing the traces of care and sorrow, which had scattered early snows
on his hair. He regarded the tribunal with a searching look, never moved
his hat, but seated himself with calm majesty.

An argument ensued between the royal prisoner and Bradshawe, on the
point of whether the monarchy of England was elective or not; and when
the man of law was worsted in the dispute, he hastily adjourned the
court. The king was taken from the hall amid the irrepressible cries of
"God bless your majesty! God save you from your enemies!" Such was the
only part that the people of England took in the trial of Charles the

The king's conduct caused perplexing discussions among his destroyers;
they sat in council during the intervening day of his trial, devising
petty schemes for breaking his moral courage, and impairing that innate
majesty which is beyond the power of brute force to depose. Some base
spirits among them proposed that his hat should be pulled off, and that
two men should hold his head between them; and that he should be dressed
up in his robes and crown, meaning to divest him ignominiously of them.
As far as mere bodily means went, Charles was utterly helpless, yet the
calm power of his demeanour preserved him from the personal obloquy
their malice had contrived: they butchered him, but could not succeed in
degrading him.

Seven agitated days passed away, during which the king had appeared
thrice before his self-constituted judges, when, on the 27th of January,
alarmed by the defection of their numbers, the regicides resolved to
doom their victim without farther mockery of justice. The king, for the
fourth time, was brought before the remnant of the regicidal junta.
Bradshawe was robed in red, a circumstance from which the king drew an
intimation of the conclusion. When the list of the members was read
over, few of them answered: but they proceeded with the miserable
remnant. As the clerk pronounced the name of Fairfax, a voice cried out,
"Not such a fool as to come here to-day." When the name of Cromwell was
called, the voice exclaimed, "Oliver Cromwell is a rogue and a traitor."
When Bradshawe mentioned "The Commons of England assembled in
Parliament," "It is false," again responded the voice; "not one-half
quarter of them." The voice was a female one, and issued from amid some
masked ladies. The oaths and execrations of the ruffian commander Axtel
were heard above an uproar raised by the populace, commanding his
soldiers, "Fire--fire into the box where she sits!" A lady arose and
quitted the gallery. She was Lady Fairfax. Her husband was still in
power: the ruffian Axtel dared not harm her. This lofty protest against
a public falsehood will remain as an instance of moral and personal
female courage, till history shall be no more. The earnest letter the
queen had written, entreating the Parliament and army to permit her to
share her royal husband's prison, may be remembered. It is known that
she wrote to Fairfax on the same subject. The conduct of the general's
wife was probably the result of Henrietta's tender appeal.

Bradshawe was proceeding to pass sentence on the king, who demanded the
whole of the members of the House of Commons, and the lords who were in
England, to be assembled to hear it, when one of the regicides, Colonel
Downes, rose in tears, exclaiming, "Have we hearts of stone? are we
men?"--"You will ruin us, and yourself too," whispered Mr. Cawley, one
of the members, pulling him down on one side, while his friend Colonel
Walton held him down on the other. "If I die for it," said Colonel
Downes, "no matter,"--"Colonel!" exclaimed Cromwell, who sat just
beneath him, turning suddenly round, "are you mad? Can't you sit
still?"--"No," answered Downes, "I cannot, and will not sit still." Then
rising, he declared that his conscience would not permit him to refuse
the king's request. "I move that we adjourn to deliberate." Bradshawe
complied, probably lest Downes's passionate remorse should become
infectious, and the junta retired. Cromwell angrily exclaimed, in
reference to Downes, "He wants to save his old master; but make an end
of it, and return to your duty." Colonel Harvey supported Downes's
endeavours, but all they obtained was one-half hour added to the king's
agony. The dark conclave returned amid a tumult of piteous prayers of
the people, of "God save the king! God keep you from your enemies!" The
sentence was passed in the midst of confusion; the king, who in vain
endeavoured to remonstrate, was dragged away by the soldiers who
surrounded him. As he was forced down the stairs, the grossest personal
insults were offered him. Some of the troopers blew tobacco-smoke in his
face; some spat on him; all yelled in his ears "Justice--execution!" The
real bitterness of death to a man of Charles the First's exquisite
sensitiveness occurred in that transit; the block, the axe, the
scaffold, and all their ghastly adjuncts, could be met, and were met,
with calmness; the spittings and buffetings of the brutal mob were
harder to be borne.

The king recovered his serenity before he arrived at the place where his
sedan stood. How could it be otherwise? The voices of his affectionate
people, in earnest prayers for his deliverance, rose high. One, and a
soldier, close to him, echoed the cry of the people--"God help and save
your majesty!" His commander struck him to the earth. "Poor fellow!"
said the king; "it is a heavy blow for a small offence." As the royal
victim approached his chair, his bearers pulled off their hats, and
stood in reverential attitudes to receive him. This unbought homage
again roused the wrath of Axtel, who, with blows of his indefatigable
cudgel, vainly endeavoured to prevail on the poor men to cover their

He bade Herbert refuse admittance to his friends if they came. The night
of his condemnation he was deprived of rest by the knocking of the
workmen, who were commencing the scaffold for his execution. In the
restless watches of that perturbed night, Charles finished his best
devotional verses.

The king was removed from Whitehall, Sunday, January 28, to St. James's
Palace, where he heard Bishop Juxon preach in the private chapel. "I
wanted to preach to the poor wretch," said the zealous fanatic, Hugh
Peters, in great indignation, "but the poor wretch would not hear me."
When Bishop Juxon entered the presence of his captive sovereign, he gave
way to the most violent burst of sorrow. "Compose yourself, my lord,"
said the king, "we have no time to waste on grief; let us, rather, think
of the great matter. I must prepare to appear before God, to whom, in a
few hours, I have to render my account. I hope to meet death with
calmness. Do not let us speak of the men in whose hands I have fallen.
They thirst for my blood--they shall have it. God's will be done; I give
him thanks. I forgive them all sincerely; but let us say no more about
them." It was with the greatest difficulty that the two sentinels
appointed by the regicidal junta could be kept on the other side of the
door while his majesty was engaged in his devotions.

The next day the royal children arrived from Sion House to see their
parent for the last time. He had not been indulged with a sight of them
since his captivity to the army, and on the morrow he was to die! The
Princess Elizabeth burst into a passion of tears at the sight of her
father, and her brother, the little Duke of Gloucester, wept as fast for
company. The royal father consoled and soothed them, and, when he had
solemnly blessed them, drew them to his bosom. The young princess, who
was but twelve, has left her reminiscences of this touching interview in
manuscript: "He told me that he was glad I was come, for, though he had
not time to say much, yet somewhat he wished to say to me which he could
not to another, and he feared 'the cruelty' was too great to permit his
writing. 'But, sweetheart,' he added, 'thou wilt forget what I tell
thee.' Then, shedding abundance of tears," continues the princess, "I
told him that I would write down all he said to me. 'He wished me,' he
said, 'not to grieve and torment myself for him, for it was a glorious
death he should die, it being for the laws and religion of the land.' He
told me what books to read against popery. He said 'that he had
forgiven all his enemies, and he hoped God would forgive them also; and
he commanded us, and all the rest of my brothers and sisters, to forgive
them also.' Above all, he bade me tell my mother, 'that his thoughts had
never strayed from her, and that his love for her would be the same to
the last;' withal he commanded me (and my brother) to love her, and be
obedient to her. He desired me 'not to grieve for him, for he should die
a martyr, and that he doubted not but God would restore the throne to
his son; and that then we should be all happier than we could possibly
have been if he had lived.' Then, taking my brother Gloucester on his
knee, he said, 'Sweetheart, now will they cut off thy father's head.'
Upon which the child looked very steadfastly upon him. 'Heed, my child,
what I say: they will cut off my head, and perhaps make thee a king. But
mark what I say: you must not be a king as long as your brothers Charles
and James live; therefore, I charge you, do not be made a king by them.'
At which the child, sighing deeply, replied, 'I will be torn in pieces
first.' And these words, coming so unexpectedly from so young a child,
rejoiced my father exceedingly. And his majesty spoke to him of the
welfare of his soul, and to keep his religion, commanding him to fear
God, and he would provide for him. All which the young child earnestly
promised." The king fervently kissed and blessed his children, and
called to Bishop Juxon to take them away: they sobbed aloud. The king
leaned his head against the window, trying to repress his tears, when,
catching a view of them as they went through the door, he hastily came
from the window, snatched them again to his breast, kissed and blessed
them once more; then, tearing himself from their tears and caresses, he
fell on his knees, and strove to calm, by prayer, the agony of that

It ought not to be forgotten that the king had previously waited several
days before that appointed for his execution, and had had the
satisfaction of receiving a letter from his son Charles, by Mr. Seymour,
a special messenger, enclosing a _carte blanche_ with his signature, to
be filled up at pleasure. In this paper the prince bound himself to any
terms, if his royal father's life might be spared. It must have proved a
cordial to the king's heart to find, in that dire hour, how far family
affection prevailed over ambition. The king carefully burnt the _carte
blanche_, lest an evil use might be made of it, and did not attempt to
bargain for his life by means of concession from his heir.

On the night preceding the awful day, Charles I. was blessed with calm
and refreshing sleep. He awoke before daybreak, undrew his curtain, and
said to Herbert, "I will rise; I have a great work to do this day."
Herbert's hands trembled while combing the king's hair. Charles,
observing that it was not arranged so well as usual, said, "Nay, though
my head be not to stand long on my shoulders, take the same pains with
it that you were wont to do. Herbert, this is my second marriage-day; I
would be as trim to-day as may be." The cold was intense at that season,
and the king desired to have a warm additional shirt. "For," continued
he, "the weather is sharp, and probably may make me shake. I would have
no imputation of fear, for death is not terrible to me. I bless my God I
am prepared. Let the rogues come whenever they please." He observed that
he was glad he had slept at St. James's, for the walk through the park
would circulate his blood, and counteract the numbness of the cold.
Bishop Juxon arrived by the dawn of day. He prayed with the king, and
read to him the twenty-seventh chapter of the Gospel of St. Matthew.

At ten o'clock the summons came to conduct the king to Whitehall, and he
went down into the park, through which he was to pass. Ten companies of
infantry formed a double line on each side of his path. The detachment
of halberdiers preceded him, with banners flying and drums beating. On
the king's right hand was the bishop; on the left, with head uncovered,
walked Colonel Tomlinson. The king walked through the park, as was his
wont, at a quick, lively pace. He wondered at the slowness of his guard,
and called out pleasantly, "Come, my good fellows, step on apace." One
of the officers asked him, "If it was true that he had concurred with
the Duke of Buckingham in causing his father's death?" "My friend,"
replied Charles, with gentle contempt, "if I had no other sin than that,
as God knows, I should have little need to beg his forgiveness at this
hour." The question has been cited as an instance of premeditated
cruelty and audacity on the part of the officer. But this was the
falsehood that had injured him most among the common people.

As the king drew near Whitehall Palace, he pointed to a tree in the
park, and said to either Juxon or Tomlinson, "That tree was planted by
my brother Henry." There was a broad flight of stairs from the park, by
which access was gained to the ancient palace of Whitehall. The king
entered the palace that way; he ascended the stairs with a light step,
passed through the long gallery, and gained his own bedroom, where he
was left with Bishop Juxon, who administered the sacrament to him. Nye
and Godwin, two Independent ministers, knocked at the door, and tendered
their spiritual assistance. "Say to them frankly," said the king, "that
they have so often prayed against me, that they shall not pray with me
in mine agony. But if they will pray _for_ me now, tell them that I
shall be thankful." Dinner had been prepared for the king at Whitehall;
he refused to eat. "Sir," said Juxon, "you have fasted long to-day; the
weather is so cold, that faintness may occur." "You are right," replied
the king. He therefore took a piece of bread and a glass of wine. "Now,"
said the king, cheerfully, "let the rascals come. I have forgiven them,
and am quite ready." But "the rascals" were not ready.

A series of contests had taken place regarding the executioner and the
warrant. Moreover, the military commanders, Huncks and Phayer, appointed
to superintend the bloody work, resisted alike the scoffings, the jests,
and threats of Cromwell, and had their names scratched out of the
warrant; as to Huncks, he refused to write or sign the order to the
executioner. This dispute occurred just before the execution took place.
Huncks was one of the officers who guarded the king on his trial, and
had been chosen for that purpose as the most furious of his foes; he
had, like Tomlinson, become wholly altered from the result of his
personal observations. Colonel Axtel and Colonel Hewson had, the
preceding night, convened a meeting of thirty-eight stout sergeants of
the army, to whom they proposed, that whosoever among them would aid the
hangman in disguise, should have 100_l._ and rapid promotion in the
army. Each one refused, with disgust. Late in the morning of the
execution, Colonel Hewson prevailed on a sergeant in his regiment, one
Hulet, to undertake the detestable office; and while this business was
in progress, Elisha Axtel, brother of the colonel, went by water to
Rosemary Lane, beyond the Tower, and dragged from thence the reluctant
hangman, Gregory Brandon, who was, by threats and the promise of 30_l._
in half-crowns, induced to strike the blow. The disguises of the
executioners were hideous, and must have been imposed for the purpose of
trying the firmness of the royal victim. They were coarse woollen garbs
buttoned close to the body, which was the costume of butchers at that
era. Hulet added a long grey peruke, and a black mask, with a large grey
beard affixed to it. Gregory Brandon wore a black mask, a black peruke,
and a large flapped black hat, looped up in front.

It was past one o'clock before the grisly attendants and apparatus of
the scaffold were ready. Colonel Hacker led the king through his former
banqueting-hall, one of the windows of which had originally been
contrived to support stands for public pageantries; it had been taken
out, and led to the platform raised in the street. The noble bearing of
the king as he stepped on the scaffold, his beaming eyes and high
expression, were noticed by all who saw him. He looked on all sides for
his people, but dense masses of soldiery only presented themselves far
and near. He was out of hearing of any persons but Juxon and Herbert,
save those who were interested in his destruction. The soldiers
preserved a dead silence; this time they did not insult him. The distant
populace wept, and occasionally raised mournful cries in blessings and
prayers for him. The king uttered a short speech, to point out that
every institute of the original constitution of England had been
subverted with the sovereign power. While he was speaking, some one
touched the axe, which laid enveloped in black crape on the block. The
king turned round hastily, and exclaimed, "Have a care of the axe. If
the edge is spoiled, it will be the worse for me." The executioner,
Gregory Brandon, drew near, and kneeling before him, entreated his
forgiveness. "No!" said the king; "I forgive no subject of mine who
comes deliberately to shed my blood." The king spoke as became his duty
as chief magistrate and the source of the laws, which were violated in
his murder.

The king put up his flowing hair under a cap; then, turning to the
executioner, asked, "Is any of my hair in the way?"--"I beg your majesty
to push it more under your cap," replied the man, bowing. The bishop
assisted his royal master to do so, and observed to him, "There is but
one stage more, which, though turbulent and troublesome, is yet a very
short one. Consider, it will carry you a great way--even from earth to
heaven."--"I go," replied the king, "from a corruptible to an
incorruptible crown." He unfastened his cloak, and took off the
medallion of the order of the Garter. The latter he gave to Juxon,
saying, with emphasis, "Remember!" Beneath the medallion of St. George
was a secret spring which removed a plate ornamented with lilies, under
which was a beautiful miniature of his Henrietta. The warning word,
which has caused many historical surmises, evidently referred to the
fact that he only had parted with the portrait of his beloved wife at
the last moment of his existence. He then took off his coat, and put on
his cloak; and pointing to the block, said to the executioner, "Place it
so that it will not shake."--"It is firm, sir," replied the man. "I
shall say a short prayer," said the king; "and when I hold out my hand
thus, strike." The king stood in profound meditation, said a few words
to himself, looked upward on the heavens, then knelt, and laid his head
on the block. In about a minute he stretched out his hands, and his head
was severed at one blow.

A simultaneous groan of agony arose from the assembled multitude at the
moment when the fatal blow fell on the neck of Charles I. It was the
protest of an outraged people, suffering, equally with their monarch,
under military tyranny, and those who heard that cry remembered it with
horror to their deaths. When the king's head fell, Hulet, the gray-beard
mask, came forward to earn his bribe and subsequent promotion. He held
up the bleeding head, and vociferated, "This is the head of a traitor!"
A deep and angry murmur from the people followed the announcement. Two
troops of horse, advancing in different directions, dispersed the
indignant crowd. Hulet, in his anxiety to gain his stipulated reward,
did more than was required, for he dashed down the dissevered head of
the king, yet warm with life, and bruised one cheek grievously--an
outrage noted with sorrow. The king was buried in St. George's Chapel,
Windsor; the burial service was not permitted. The body was, when it was
conveyed for interment to Windsor, followed by Bishop Juxon and the six
attached gentlemen who had attended on the king in all his wanderings.
The king had expressed a wish to be interred by his father in the royal
chapel in Westminster Abbey, but Cromwell forbade it, having, from an
absurd species of ambition, reserved that place for himself.

The trial, death, and burial of Charles I. had taken place before Queen
Henrietta, besieged as Paris was from without, and her place of abode,
the Louvre, beset from within, could receive the least intelligence
concerning him. Meantime, her second son James, the young Duke of York,
who had escaped from the custody of the republican English, was brought
to her through the beleaguering lines of Paris. His arrival raised her
spirits very high, too soon to be crushed. Whispers of the dire events
in England had transpired through her circle at the Louvre; her English
household gazed aghast on the unconscious widow, marveling how the
tidings were to be told her. Such awe-struck looks caused her inquiries,
but the answers she received almost stopped the springs of her life;
when at last the queen comprehended her loss with all its frightful
facts, she stood motionless as a statue, without words and without
tears. "To all we could say our queen was deaf--frozen in her grief,"
writes Père Gamache, "at last, awed by her appalling grief, we became
silent, with tearful looks bent on her. So passed the time till
night-fall. When her aunt, the Duchess de Vendôme, whom she loved much
and we had sent to in fear for the queen's life, came, she gently took
the hand of the royal widow, kissed it, remained silent, and wept. Then
Henrietta felt the relief of tears. She was able to sigh and weep when
her little daughter, then four years old, was brought to her; and though
she felt it hard to part with her, yet she longed to retire to some
quiet place where she might, as she said, 'weep at will.'" The convent
of the Carmelites, St. Jacques, was the place to which she retreated,
with one or two of her ladies.

The queen-regent of France sent Madame de Motteville to her afflicted
sister of England. The sympathy felt for the afflicted daughter of their
great Henry, induced the Frondoneers to let this lady pass their lines.
"I was," she says, "admitted to her bedside. The queen, Henrietta, gave
me her hand while sobs choked her speech. 'I have lost a crown,' she
cried, 'but that I have long ceased to regret; it is the husband for
whom I grieve; good, just, wise, virtuous as he was, most worthy of my
love and that of his subjects; the future time must be for me but one
succession of torture.'" Henrietta then sent important messages of
advice to her sister-queen on her affairs, implored her to seek and hear
the truth before it was too late, which, if her Charles or herself had
ever been told, affairs needed not have taken the fatal turn that she
should ever mourn. Queen Henrietta then asked that her newly-arrived
son, the Duke of York, might be given the same allowance as his brother,
now called by all her exiled court Charles II.

Before the violence of grief was abated, it became needful that Queen
Henrietta should leave Paris for St. Germains, where the court of France
then was. The transit was dangerous, but it is from the superabundant
spite of the English republican news-letters the fact is revealed that
the young King of England, in his deep mourning for his father, rode by
the side of his mother's carriage, guarding her from the infuriated
rabble. The queen-regent of France and her sons were waiting at Chatou
to comfort them by every kindness after this terrible journey.
Henrietta's next trouble was parting from her son Charles II. for his
adventurous attempts in Scotland and England. After the failure of the
royal cause at the hard-fought battle of Worcester, the young king
retired into exile at Cologne. Queen Henrietta had to weep alone over
the sad death of her beautiful daughter Elizabeth, who died
broken-hearted in her cruel imprisonment, at Carisbrook Castle. The
indignation of all Europe obliged the English republicans to send the
young Duke of Gloucester to Paris. The last interview of Charles I. with
these children had made every feeling heart sympathize with them. It
must be owned that the worst action Queen Henrietta ever committed was
the persecution she raised against her son Henry, Duke of Gloucester, to
make him change his religion. Not out of fanatic bigotry, which though
troublesome may possibly be sincere, but from the sordid motive of
providing for him as a Roman Catholic ecclesiastic. The boy, at the
tender age of eight years, had earnestly promised his sire, as he sat on
his knee, never to forsake the faith of the Church of England, or to
supersede his elder brothers, and now he kept his word as sturdily as if
he had been thirty.[3] Charles II. stopped his mother's tampering with
the faith of his younger brother, ordering, as their sovereign, that
Gloucester should be sent to his loving sister Mary, Princess of Orange,
then at Breda.

[Footnote 3: For the details of this event, see "Lives of the Queens of
England," vol. v.]

In another attempt to mend adverse fortune Henrietta was signally
disappointed; she tried in vain to induce her rich and beautiful niece,
Mademoiselle de Montpensier, the second lady in France, to accept the
hand of her eldest son, the expatriated Charles II. To her subsequent
regret, the princess scorned the young king for his poverty.

Time and death at last did their work, and the royal family was
restored, not by foreign force, but by acclamation. England, having for
twenty years experienced anarchy, was glad to welcome her king home
again, all people know, with his two brothers York and Gloucester, at
Dover, on his birthday, May 29, 1660.

The queen-mother, as Henrietta was now called, did not witness the
delirious joy of the Restoration. She was busy with the marriage-treaty
of her beautiful darling, the Princess Henrietta, with her youngest
nephew, Philippe, Duke d'Orleans, brother of Louis XIV. About five
months after she came with the princess to obtain her dowry from the now
loving Parliament of England, likewise her own arrears, which had been
scornfully refused by the republic, with the remark "that she had not
been crowned, therefore they ignored her as queen." Surely she deserved
no great pity on that point, considering her perverse conduct to her
husband concerning it.

Of her three sons who had returned to England, Henrietta was destined to
meet but two. The small-pox, so fatal in that country, deprived her of
young Gloucester, whom she had never met since endeavouring to force him
into the Roman Catholic faith. The marriage that the Duke of York had
avowed with Anne Hyde, Clarendon's daughter, not only enraged but
grieved her more than the early death of poor Gloucester. She wrote to
her daughter, the Princess of Orange, then visiting Charles II. in
England, that she came to break the disgraceful marriage of James; but
before Christmas was turned Henrietta had mourned over the death-bed of
her beloved eldest daughter, who had been the greatest benefactress to
her and her exiled family when in Holland. Moreover Queen Henrietta
found that neither her own dower or her young princess's
marriage-portion would be very quick in coming to hand, without the
assistance of Clarendon; so she did exactly contrary to her avowed
intentions, and acknowledged Anne Hyde as her second son's wife, which
she certainly was, by every law of God and man. On New Year's Day, 1661,
the Duke of York brought his wife in state to Whitehall. As the queen
passed to dine in public, the Duchess of York knelt to her; the queen
raised her, kissed her, and placed her at table. The Earl of Clarendon
and the queen came to an understanding on business that same evening.
There was the utmost difficulty regarding the lands she held as
queen-dowager; but the parliament gave her 30,000_l._ compensation and a
large annuity. But as the English law did not allow queen-dowagers to be
absentees, her establishment was settled at Somerset House, which she
altered with great taste. As London was infected with the small-pox, the
queen was desirous of withdrawing her lovely Henrietta from its dangers
before her beauty was injured.

Charles II. attended his mother to Portsmouth, where she embarked with
her young princess, who was seized with eruptive illness next day,
supposed to be the small-pox. The captain ran the ship aground; and all
had to disembark at Portsmouth, where the princess remained till
convalescent. At last they arrived safely at Havre, February 26, 1661,
and were escorted in great triumph by the French nobility to Paris,
where the marriage of the young princess with Philippe, Duke of Orleans,
took place, at the chapel of the Palais Royal. The marriage was not
happy; the bridegroom was odd-tempered and totally uneducated.

When Somerset House was repaired and beautified, the queen came to take
up her residence in England, where she first was introduced to the bride
of Charles II., Catharine of Braganza. And in England she lived three
years, her health gradually giving way before the climate--always
inimical to her. She saw her second son and his duchess, Anne Hyde, with
promising children about them. The Lady Mary, afterward queen-regnant,
was born while Henrietta was in England.

Charles II. and his queen accompanied the invalid queen-mother to the
Nore, when she returned to France, where she went direct to her
favourite château of Colombe, on the river Seine, between Paris and St.
Germain-en-Laye. Its park and groups of trees are still visible from the
railway. The château was destroyed at the revolution of France.
Henrietta lived a sweet, easy life in her pleasant château, troubled
only by the fluctuations of the asthmatic cough she had never lost since
her Yorkshire campaign. Her charity was very extensive; in England she
had distributed from her chapel at Somerset House thousands of pounds
among the poor suffering from the plague, in the year 1666.

She paid visits to the baths of Bourbon, for increasing illness, during
the three next years. Toward the close of 1669, she had been agitated
with impending war between France and England, which she strove to
avert. M. Valot, the first physician to Louis XIV., held a consultation
at Colombe with her own medical man. The new remedy of opium was then
the fashionable medicine. It was vain her own physician declared it was
most inimical to Queen Henrietta. M. Valot left the prescription,
positively asserting that it would allay her tearing cough. On the
evening of August 30, she was better than usual, sat up later, and
chatted pleasantly with her ladies. That night she was sleeping sweetly,
when the lady in waiting awoke her, to administer the sleeping-draught.
Could any thing be more absurd than to wake a patient to administer a
sleeping-potion? At dawn, the lady came with another draught, but the
first had been fatal; Henrietta was cold and speechless, and never woke
again, though she respired for some time. A messenger hurried to St.
Germains, and her son-in-law, the Duke of Orleans, came directly; but
Henrietta had ceased to breathe, August 31, 1669. Her little
grand-daughter, afterward our queen-regnant, Anne, was staying at
Colombe for her health at that time.

Queen Henrietta was embalmed, and buried at St. Denis, in the royal
vault of the Kings of France, her ancestors. Her daughter, the Duchess
of Orleans, was too ill and utterly cast down with grief to follow her
mother to the grave; but her niece, Mademoiselle Montpensier, attended
as chief mourner. Forty days after, a much grander service was performed
to her memory, by the nuns of the Visitation, at Chaillot, whose convent
she had founded. There her daughter and her husband, the Duke and
Duchess of Orleans, attended, in the deepest grief and mourning; and
there Bossuet preached that beautiful biographical oration, which has
deservedly taken place among the classics of France. Our limits in this
edition will not permit more than one passage, which is illustrative of
the true character of the queen, though not of that set forth in general
English history. "Batten, the captain who cannonaded her at Burlington,
was taken prisoner afterward, and condemned to death, without the
queen's knowledge; but, seeing him led to execution past her window,
full of horror at his impending fate, the queen cried out she had
pardoned him long ago, and insisted on his liberation. Batten was not
ungrateful, for he helped in the revolt of part of the English fleet to
the young king." Pepys, in his diary, often names him as in favour with
the Duke of York, when lord admiral, after the Restoration.

Henrietta Maria had been the mother of four sons and four daughters;
she outlived all her children but Charles II., who left no legitimate
offspring; James, Duke of York, afterward the unfortunate James II., and
Henrietta, Duchess of Orleans, who survived her some months.


     SUCKLING, SIR JOHN. An English poet, born at Whitton, Middlesex, in
     1608; died in Paris about 1642.


     Why so pale and wan, fond lover?
           Prithee, why so pale?
     Will, when looking well can't move her,
           Looking ill prevail?
           Prithee, why so pale?

     Why so dull and mute, young sinner?
           Prithee, why so mute?
     Will, when speaking well can't win her,
           Saying nothing do't?
           Prithee, why so mute?

     Quit, quit, for shame, this will not move,
           This cannot take her;
     If of herself she will not love,
           Nothing can make her.
           The devil take her!


     I prithee, send me back my heart,
       Since I cannot have thine;
     For, if from yours you will not part,
       Why, then, shouldst thou have mine?

     Yet now I think on't, let it lie,
       To find it were in vain;
     For thou'st a thief in either eye
       Would steal it back again.

     Why should two hearts in one breast lie,
       And yet not lodge together?
     O Love, where is thy sympathy,
       If thus our breasts thou sever?


     SWIFT, JONATHAN, commonly known as Dean Swift, was born in Dublin,
     in November, 1667, and died in October, 1745. He was not proud of
     his native land, but emphatically declared that his birth in
     Ireland was "a perfect accident," and lost no opportunity of
     reviling that country. It is doubtful whether great literary talent
     has ever, before or since, been found in company with such a wholly
     unpleasant personality as that of Dean Swift. At Dublin University,
     where he was educated. Swift distinguished himself by his contempt
     for college laws, and neglect of his studies; and wholly by special
     grace did he receive his degree. He entered the family of Sir
     William Temple in the capacity of secretary; in the same household
     "Stella," immortalized in Swift's books, was a waiting-maid. King
     William took a fancy to Swift because the latter made him
     acquainted with asparagus, and offered him the command of a troop
     of horse. The favour was declined. In 1694, Swift was admitted to
     Deacon's orders and a few years later went to Ireland as Chaplain
     to Lord Berkeley. In 1713 he was made dean of St. Patrick's. He
     began his career in literature as a writer of political tracts, and
     was secretly employed by the Government to write on its behalf. In
     1726 appeared _Gulliver's Travels_, his most famous work, and at
     frequent intervals thereafter, his other writings, prose and
     poetry. In 1740, he evinced the first symptoms of the madness which
     clouded his closing years. The story of his life is a sad one and
     goes far to encourage the belief that sometimes, if not always,
     retribution comes in this life upon the wrong-doer. Swift's career
     was supremely selfish; nothing was suffered to stand in the way of
     his interest and gratification, and nobody, save the three women
     whose names he has linked with his own, and whose unfailing
     affection he requited so brutally,--with these exceptions, nobody
     loved him. As a writer, his originality was remarkable; no writer
     of his time, probably, borrowed so little from his predecessors;
     and his versatility--for he succeeded in every department of
     literature that he attempted--is not less wonderful. All things
     considered, his _Gulliver's Travels_ must be regarded as his
     greatest work. A selection from this book is here given,
     illustrating his best manner as a satirist.


My father had a small estate in Nottinghamshire, and I was the third of
four sons. He sent me to Cambridge at fourteen years old, and after
studying there three years I was bound apprentice to Mr. Bates, a famous
surgeon in London. There, as my father now and then sent me small sums
of money, I spent them in learning navigation and other arts useful to
those who travel, as I always believed it would be some time or other my
fortune to do.

Three years after leaving him my good master, Mr. Bates, recommended me
as ship's surgeon to the Swallow, on which I voyaged three years. When I
came back I settled in London, and having taken part of a small house, I
married Miss Mary Burton, daughter of Mr. Edmund Burton, hosier.

But my good master Bates died two years after, and as I had few friends
my business began to fail, and I determined to go again to sea. After
several voyages I accepted an offer from Captain W. Prichard, master of
the Antelope, who was making a voyage to the South Sea. We set sail from
Bristol on May 4, 1699, and our voyage at first was very prosperous.

But in our passage to the East Indies we were driven by a violent storm
to the northwest of Van Diemen's Land. Twelve of our crew died from hard
labor and bad food, and the rest were in a very weak condition. On
November 5, the weather being very hazy, the seamen spied a rock within
one hundred and twenty yards of the ship; but the wind was so strong
that we were driven straight upon it, and immediately split. Six of the
crew, of whom I was one, letting down the boat, got clear of the ship,
and we rowed about three leagues, till we could work no longer. We
therefore trusted ourselves to the mercy of the waves, and in about an
hour the boat was upset by a sudden squall. What became of my companions
in the boat or those who escaped on the rock or were left in the vessel
I cannot tell, but I conclude they were all lost. For my part, I swam as
fortune directed me and was pushed forward by wind and tide; but when I
was able to struggle no longer I found myself within my depth. By this
time the storm was much abated.

I reached the shore at last, about eight o'clock in the evening, and
advanced nearly half a mile inland, but could not discover any sign of
inhabitants. I was extremely tired, and with the heat of the weather I
found myself much inclined to sleep. I lay down on the grass, which was
very short and soft, and slept sounder than ever I did in my life for
about nine hours. When I awoke it was just daylight. I attempted to
rise, but could not; for as I happened to be lying on my back, I found
my arms and legs were fastened on each side to the ground, and my hair,
which was long and thick, tied down in the same manner. I could only
look upward. The sun began to grow hot, and the light hurt my eyes. I
heard a confused noise about me, but could see nothing except the sky.

In a little time I felt something alive moving on my left leg, which,
advancing gently over my breast, came almost up to my chin, when,
bending my eyes downward, I perceived it to be a human creature, not six
inches high, with a bow and arrow in his hands and a quiver at his back.
In the mean time I felt at least forty more following the first. I was
in the utmost astonishment, and roared so loud that they all ran back in
a fright; and some of them were hurt with the falls they got by leaping
from my sides upon the ground. However, they soon returned, and one of
them, who ventured so far as to get a full sight of my face, lifted up
his hands in admiration. I lay all this while in great uneasiness; but
at length, struggling to get loose, I succeeded in breaking the strings
that fastened my left arm to the ground, and at the same time, with a
violent pull that gave me extreme pain, I a little loosened the strings
that tied down my hair, so that I was just able to turn my head about
two inches.

But the creatures ran off a second time before I could seize them,
whereupon there was a great shout, and in an instant I felt above a
hundred arrows discharged on my left hand, which pricked me like so many
needles. Moreover, they shot another flight into the air, of which some
fell on my face, which I immediately covered with my left hand. When the
shower of arrows was over I groaned with grief and pain, and then,
striving again to get loose, they discharged another flight of arrows,
larger than the first, and some of them tried to stab me with their
spears; but by good luck I had on a leather jacket, which they could
not pierce. By this time I thought it most prudent to lie still till
night, when, my left hand being already loose, I could easily free
myself; and as for the inhabitants, I thought I might be a match for the
greatest army they could bring against me if they were all of the same
size with him I saw.

When the people observed that I was quiet they discharged no more
arrows, but by the noise I knew that their number was increased, and
about four yards from me, for more than an hour, there was a knocking,
like people at work. Then, turning my head that way as well as the pegs
and strings would let me I saw a stage set up, about a foot and a half
from the ground, with two or three ladders to mount it. From this, one
of them, who seemed to be a person of quality, made me a long speech, of
which I could not understand a word, though I could tell from his manner
that he sometimes threatened me and sometimes spoke with pity and
kindness. I answered in few words, but in the most submissive manner,
and being almost famished with hunger, I could not help showing my
impatience by putting my finger frequently to my mouth, to signify that
I wanted food.

He understood me very well, and descending from the stage commanded that
several ladders should be set against my sides, on which more than a
hundred of the inhabitants mounted and walked toward my mouth with
baskets full of food, which had been sent by the king's orders when he
first received tidings of me. There were legs and shoulders like
mutton, but smaller than the wings of a lark. I ate them two or three at
a mouthful and took three loaves at a time. They supplied me as fast as
they could, with a thousand marks of wonder at my appetite. I then made
a sign that I wanted something to drink. They guessed that a small
quantity would not suffice me, and being a most ingenious people, they
slung up one of their largest hogsheads, then rolled it toward my hand,
and beat out the top. I drank it off at a draught, which I might well
do, for it did not hold half a pint. They brought me a second hogshead,
which I drank and made signs for more; but they had none to give me.
However, I could not wonder enough at the daring of these tiny mortals
who ventured to mount and walk upon my body while one of my hands was
free without trembling at the very sight of so huge a creature as I must
have seemed to them.

After some time there appeared before me a person of high rank from his
imperial majesty. His excellency having mounted my right leg, advanced
to my face with about a dozen of his retinue, and spoke about ten
minutes, often pointing forward, which, as I afterward found, was toward
the capital city, about half a mile distant, whither it was commanded by
his majesty that I should be conveyed. I made a sign with my hand that
was loose, putting it to the other (but over his excellency's head, for
fear of hurting him or his train), to show that I desired my liberty. He
seemed to understand me well enough, for he shook his head, though he
made other signs to let me know that I should have meat and drink
enough and very good treatment.

Then I once more thought of attempting to escape, but when I felt the
smart of their arrows on my face and hands, which were all in blisters,
and observed likewise that the number of my enemies increased, I gave
tokens to let them know that they might do with me what they pleased.
Then they daubed my face and hands with a sweet-smelling ointment, which
in a few minutes removed all the smart of the arrows. The relief from
pain and hunger made me drowsy, and presently I fell asleep. I slept
about eight hours, as I was told afterward; and it was no wonder, for
the physicians, by the emperor's order, had mingled a sleeping-draught
in the hogshead of wine.

It seems that when I was discovered sleeping on the ground after my
landing the emperor had early notice of it, and determined that I should
be tied in the manner I have related (which was done in the night while
I slept), that plenty of meat and drink should be sent to me, and a
machine prepared to carry me to the capital city. Five hundred
carpenters and engineers were immediately set to work to prepare the
engine. It was a frame of wood, raised three inches from the ground,
about seven feet long and four wide, moving upon twenty-two wheels. But
the difficulty was to place me on it. Eighty poles were erected for this
purpose, and very strong cords fastened to bandages which the workmen
tied round my neck, hands, body, and legs. Nine hundred of the strongest
men were employed to draw up these cords by pulleys fastened on the
poles, and in less than three hours I was raised and slung into the
engine and there tied fast. Fifteen hundred of the emperor's largest
horses, each about four inches and a half high, were then employed to
draw me toward the capital. But while all this was done I still lay in a
deep sleep, and I did not wake till four hours after we began our

The emperor and all his court came out to meet us when we reached the
capital, but his great officials would not suffer his majesty to risk
his person by mounting on my body. Where the carriage stopped there
stood an ancient temple, supposed to be the largest in the whole
kingdom, and here it was determined that I should lodge. Near the great
gate, through which I could easily creep, they fixed ninety-one chains
like those which hang to a lady's watch, which were locked to my left
leg with thirty-six padlocks; and when the workmen found it was
impossible for me to break loose, they cut all the strings that bound
me. Then I rose up, feeling as melancholy as ever I did in my life. But
the noise and astonishment of the people on seeing me rise and walk were
inexpressible. The chains that held my left leg were about two yards
long, and gave me not only freedom to walk backward and forward in a
semicircle, but to creep in and lie at full length inside the temple.

The emperor, advancing toward me from among his courtiers, all most
magnificently clad, surveyed me with great admiration, but kept beyond
the length of my chain. He was taller by about the breadth of my nail
than any of his court, which alone was enough to strike awe into the
beholders, and graceful and majestic. The better to behold him I lay
down on my side, so that my face was level with his, and he stood three
yards off. However, I have had him since many times in my hand, and
therefore cannot be deceived. His dress was very simple, but he wore a
light helmet of gold adorned with jewels and a plume. He held his sword
in his hand, to defend himself if I should break loose; it was almost
three inches long, and the hilt was of gold, enriched with diamonds. His
voice was shrill, but very clear. His imperial majesty spoke often to
me, and I answered; but neither of us could understand a word.

After about two hours the court retired, and I was left with a strong
guard to keep away the crowd, some of whom had the impudence to shoot
their arrows at me as I sat by the door of my house. But the colonel
ordered six of them to be seized and delivered bound into my hands. I
put five of them into my coat pocket; and as to the sixth, I made a face
as if I would eat him alive. The poor man screamed terribly, and the
colonel and his officers were much distressed, especially when they saw
me take out my penknife. But I soon set them at ease, for, cutting the
strings he was bound with, I put him gently on the ground, and away he
ran. I treated the rest in the same manner, taking them one by one out
of my pocket; and I saw that both the soldiers and people were highly
delighted at this mark of my kindness.

Toward night I got with some difficulty into my house, where I lay on
the ground, as I had to do for a fortnight, till a bed was prepared for
me out of six hundred beds of the ordinary measure.

Six hundred servants were appointed me and three hundred tailors made me
a suit of clothes, moreover, six of his majesty's greatest scholars were
employed to teach me their language, so that soon I was able to converse
after a fashion with the emperor, who often honoured me with his visits.
The first words I learned were to desire that he would please to give me
my liberty, which I every day repeated on my knees; but he answered that
this must be a work of time, and that first I must swear a peace with
him and his kingdom. He told me also that by the laws of the nation I
must be searched by two of the officers, and that as this could not be
done without my help, he trusted them in my hands, and whatever they
took from me should be returned when I left the country. I took up the
two officers and put them into my coat pockets. These gentlemen, having
pen, ink, and paper about them, made an exact list of everything they
saw, which I afterward translated into English and which ran as follows:

"In the right coat pocket of the great man-mountain we found only one
great piece of coarse cloth, large enough to cover the carpet of your
majesty's chief room of state. In the left pocket we saw a huge silver
chest, with a silver cover, which we could not lift. We desired that it
should be opened, and one of us stepping into it found himself up to
the mid-leg in a sort of dust, some of which flying into our faces sent
us both into a fit of sneezing. In his right waistcoat pocket we found a
number of white thin substances, folded one over another, about the size
of three men, tied with a strong cable, and marked with black figures,
which we humbly conceive to be writings. In the left there was a sort of
engine, from the back of which extended twenty long poles, with which we
conjecture the man-mountain combs his head. In the smaller pocket on the
right side were several round flat pieces of white and red metal, of
different sizes. Some of the white, which appeared to be silver, were so
large and heavy that my comrades and I could hardly lift them. From
another pocket hung a huge silver chain, with a wonderful kind of engine
fastened to it, a globe half silver and half of some transparent metal;
for on the transparent side we saw certain strange figures, and thought
we could touch them till we found our fingers stopped by the shining
substance. This engine made an incessant noise, like a water-mill, and
we conjecture it is either some unknown animal or the god he worships,
but probably the latter, for he has told us that he seldom did anything
without consulting it. This is a list of what we found about the body of
the man-mountain, who treated us with great civility."

I had one private pocket which escaped their search, containing a pair
of spectacles and a small spy-glass, which, being of no consequence to
the emperor, I did not think myself bound in honour to discover.

My gentleness and good behaviour gained so far on the emperor and his
court, and, indeed, on the people in general, that I began to have hopes
of getting my liberty in a short time. The natives came by degrees to be
less fearful of danger from me. I would sometimes lie down and let five
or six of them dance on my hand, and at last the boys and girls ventured
to come and play at hide-and-seek in my hair.

The horses of the army and of the royal stables were no longer shy,
having been daily led before me; and one of the emperor's huntsmen, on a
large courser, took my foot, shoe and all, which was indeed a prodigious
leap. I amused the emperor one day in a very extraordinary manner. I
took nine sticks and fixed them firmly in the ground in a square. Then I
took four other sticks and tied them parallel at each corner, about two
feet from the ground. I fastened my handkerchief to the nine sticks that
stood erect and extended it on all sides till it was as tight as the top
of a drum; and I desired the emperor to let a troop of his best horse,
twenty-four in number, come and exercise upon this plain. His majesty
approved of the proposal, and I took them up one by one, with the proper
officers to exercise them. As soon as they got into order they divided
into two parties, discharged blunt arrows, drew their swords, fled and
pursued, and, in short, showed the best military discipline I ever
beheld. The parallel sticks secured them and their horses from falling
off the stage, and the emperor was so much delighted that he ordered
this entertainment to be repeated several days and persuaded the empress
herself to let me hold her in her chair within two yards of the stage,
whence she could view the whole performance. Fortunately no accident
happened, only once a fiery horse, pawing with his hoof, struck a hole
in my handkerchief and overthrew his rider and himself. But I
immediately relieved them both, and covering the hole with one hand, I
set down the troop with the other as I had taken them up. The horse that
fell was strained in the shoulder, but the rider was not hurt, and I
repaired my handkerchief as well as I could. However, I would not trust
to the strength of it any more in such dangerous enterprises.

I had sent so many petitions for my liberty that his majesty at length
mentioned the matter in a full council, where it was opposed by none
except Skyresh Bolgolam, admiral of the realm, who was pleased without
any provocation to be my mortal enemy. He agreed at length, though he
succeeded in himself drawing up the conditions on which I should be set
free. After they were read I was requested to swear to perform them in
the method prescribed by their laws, which was to hold my right foot in
my left hand, to place the middle finger of my right hand on the crown
of my head, and my thumb on the top of my right ear. But I have made a
translation of the conditions, which I here offer to the public:

"Golbaste Momarem Evlame Gurdile Shefin Mully Ully Gue, Most Mighty
Emperor of Lilliput, delight and terror of the universe, whose
dimensions extend to the ends of the globe, monarch of all monarchs,
taller than the sons of men, whose feet press down to the centre and
whose head strikes against the sun, at whose nod the princes of the
earth shake their knees, pleasant as the spring, comfortable as the
summer, fruitful as autumn, dreadful as winter: his most sublime majesty
proposeth to the man-mountain, lately arrived at our celestial
dominions, the following articles, which by a solemn oath he shall be
obliged to perform:

"First. The man-mountain shall not depart from our dominions without our
license under the great seal.

"Second. He shall not presume to come into our metropolis without our
express order, at which time the inhabitants shall have two hours'
warning to keep within doors.

"Third. The said man-mountain shall confine his walks to our principal
high-roads, and not offer to walk or lie down in a meadow or field of

"Fourth. As he walks the said road he shall take the utmost care not to
trample upon the bodies of any of our loving subjects, their horses or
carriages, nor take any of our subjects into his hands without their own

"Fifth. If an express requires extraordinary speed the man-mountain
shall be obliged to carry in his pocket the messenger and horse a six
days' journey, and return the said messenger (if so required) safe to
our imperial presence.

"Sixth. He shall be our ally against our enemies in the island of
Blefuscu and do his utmost to destroy their fleet, which is now
preparing to invade us.

"Lastly. Upon his solemn oath to observe all the above articles, the
said man-mountain shall have a daily allowance of meat and drink
sufficient for the support of seventeen hundred and twenty-four of our
subjects, with free access to our royal person and other marks of our

"Given at our palace at Belfaborac, the twelfth day of the ninety-first
moon of our reign."

I swore to these articles with great cheerfulness, whereupon my chains
were immediately unlocked and I was at full liberty.

One morning, about a fortnight after I had obtained my freedom,
Reldresal, the emperor's secretary for private affairs, came to my
house, attended only by one servant. He ordered his coach to wait at a
distance and desired that I would give him an hour's audience. I offered
to lie down that he might the more conveniently reach my ear, but he
chose rather to let me hold him in my hand during our conversation. He
began with compliments on my liberty, but he added that, save for the
present state of things at court, perhaps I might not have obtained it
so soon.

"For," he said, "however flourishing we may seem to foreigners, we are
in danger of an invasion from the island of Blefuscu, which is the other
great empire of the universe, almost as large and as powerful as this of
his majesty. For as to what we have heard you say, that there are other
kingdoms in the world, inhabited by human creatures as large as
yourself, our philosophers are very doubtful, and rather conjecture that
you dropped from the moon or one of the stars, because a hundred mortals
of your size would soon destroy all the fruit and cattle of his
majesty's dominions. Besides, our histories of six thousand moons make
no mention of any other regions than the two mighty empires of Lilliput
and Blefuscu, which, as I was going to tell you, are engaged in a most
obstinate war, which began in the following manner: It is allowed on all
hands that the primitive way of breaking eggs was upon the larger end;
but his present majesty's grandfather, while he was a boy, going to eat
an egg, and breaking it according to the ancient practice, happened to
cut one of his fingers. Whereupon the emperor, his father, made a law
commanding all his subjects to break the smaller end of their eggs. The
people so highly resented this law that there have been six rebellions
raised on that account, wherein one emperor lost his life and another
his crown. It is calculated that eleven hundred persons have at
different times suffered death rather than break their eggs at the
smaller end. But these rebels, the Bigendians, have found so much
encouragement at the Emperor of Blefuscu's court, to which they always
fled for refuge, that a bloody war, as I said, has been carried on
between the two empires for thirty-six moons; and now the Blefuscudians
have equipped a large fleet and are preparing to descend upon us.
Therefore his imperial majesty, placing great confidence in your valour
and strength, has commanded me to set the case before you."

I desired the secretary to present my humble duty to the emperor, and to
let him know that I was ready, at the risk of my life, to defend him
against all invaders.

It was not long before I communicated to his majesty the plan I formed
for seizing the enemy's whole fleet. The empire of Blefuscu is an island
parted from Lilliput only by a channel eight hundred yards wide. I
consulted the most experienced seamen on the depth of the channel, and
they told me that in the middle, at high water, it was seventy
glumgluffs (about six feet of European measure). I walked toward the
coast, where, lying down behind a hillock, I took out my spy-glass and
viewed the enemy's fleet at anchor--about fifty men-of-war and other
vessels. I then came back to my house and gave orders for a great
quantity of the strongest cables and bars of iron. The cable was about
as thick as pack-thread and the bars of the length and size of a
knitting-needle. I trebled the cable to make it stronger, and for the
same reason twisted three of the iron bars together, bending the ends
into a hook.

Having thus fixed fifty hooks to as many cables I went back to the
coast, and taking off my coat, shoes, and stockings, walked into the sea
in my leather jacket about half an hour before high water. I waded with
what haste I could, swimming in the middle about thirty yards, till I
felt ground, and thus arrived at the fleet in less than half an hour.
The enemy were so frightened when they saw me that they leaped out of
their ships and swam ashore, where there could not be fewer than thirty
thousand. Then, fastening a hook to the hole at the prow of each ship, I
tied all the cords together at the end.

Meanwhile the enemy discharged several thousand arrows, many of which
stuck in my hands and face. My greatest fear was for my eyes, which I
should have lost if I had not suddenly thought of the pair of spectacles
which had escaped the emperor's searchers. These I took out and fastened
upon my nose, and thus armed went on with my work in spite of the
arrows, many of which struck against the glasses of my spectacles, but
without any other effect than slightly disturbing them. Then, taking the
knot in my hand, I began to pull, but not a ship would stir, for they
were too fast held by their anchors. Thus the boldest part of my
enterprise remained. Letting go the cord, I resolutely cut with my knife
the cables that fastened the anchors, receiving more than two hundred
shots in my face and hands. Then I took up again the knotted end of the
cables to which my hooks were tied, and with great ease drew fifty of
the enemy's largest men-of-war after me.

When the Blefuscudians saw the fleet moving in order and me pulling at
the end, they set up a scream of grief and despair that it is impossible
to describe. When I had got out of danger I stopped awhile to pick out
the arrows that stuck in my hands and face, and rubbed on some of the
same ointment that was given me at my arrival. I then took off my
spectacles, and after waiting an hour till the tide was a little
fallen, I waded on to the royal port of Lilliput.

The emperor and his whole court stood on the shore awaiting me. They saw
the ships move forward in a large half-moon, but could not discern me,
who, in the middle of the channel, was under water up to my neck. The
emperor concluded that I was drowned and that the enemy's fleet was
approaching in a hostile manner. But he was soon set at ease, for, the
channel growing shallower every step I made, I came in a short time
within hearing, and holding up the end of the cable by which the fleet
was fastened, I cried in a loud voice: "Long live the most puissant
Emperor of Lilliput!" The prince received me at my landing with all
possible joy and made me a nardal on the spot, which is the highest
title of honour among them. His majesty desired that I would take some
opportunity to bring all the rest of his enemy's ships into his ports,
and seemed to think of nothing less than conquering the whole empire of
Blefuscu and becoming the sole monarch of the world. But I plainly
protested that I would never be the means of bringing a free and brave
people into slavery; and though the wisest of the ministers were of my
opinion, my open refusal was so opposed to his majesty's ambition that
he could never forgive me. And from this time a plot began between
himself and those of his ministers who were my enemies that nearly ended
in my utter destruction.

About three weeks after this exploit there arrived an embassy from
Blefuscu, with humble offers of peace, which was soon concluded, on
terms very advantageous to our emperor. There were six ambassadors, with
a train of about five hundred persons, all very magnificent. Having been
privately told that I had befriended them, they made me a visit, and
paying me many compliments on my valour and generosity, invited me to
their kingdom in the emperor their master's name. I asked them to
present my most humble respects to the emperor their master, whose royal
person I resolved to attend before I returned to my own country.
Accordingly, the next time I had the honour to see our emperor I desired
his general permission to visit the Blefuscudian monarch. This he
granted me, but in a very cold manner, of which I afterward learned the

When I was just preparing to pay my respects to the Emperor of Blefuscu,
a distinguished person at court, to whom I had once done a great
service, came to my house very privately at night, and without sending
his name desired admission. I put his lordship into my coat pocket, and
giving orders to a trusty servant to admit no one, I fastened the door,
placed my visitor on the table, and sat down by it. His lordship's face
was full of trouble, and he asked me to hear him with patience in a
matter that highly concerned my honour and my life. "You are aware," he
said, "that Skyresh Bolgolam has been your mortal enemy ever since your
arrival, and his hatred is increased since your great success against
Blefuscu, by which his glory as admiral is obscured. This lord and
others have accused you of treason, and several councils have been
called in the most private manner on your account. Out of gratitude for
your favours I procured information of the whole proceedings, venturing
my head for your service, and this was the charge against you:

"First, that you having brought the imperial fleet of Blefuscu into the
royal port, were commanded by his majesty to seize all the other ships
and to put to death all the Bigendian exiles, and also all the people of
the empire who would not immediately consent to break their eggs at the
smaller end. And that, like a false traitor to his most serene majesty,
you excused yourself from the service on pretence of unwillingness to
force the consciences and destroy the liberties and lives of an innocent

"Again, when ambassadors arrived from the court of Blefuscu, like a
false traitor you aided and entertained them, though you knew them to be
servants of a prince lately in open war against his imperial majesty.

"Moreover, you are now preparing, contrary to the duty of a faithful
subject, to voyage to the court of Blefuscu.

"In the debate on this charge," my friend continued, "his majesty often
urged the services you had done him, while the admiral and treasurer
insisted that you should be put to a shameful death. But Reldresal,
secretary for private affairs, who has always proved himself your
friend, suggested that if his majesty would please to spare your life
and only give orders to put out both your eyes, justice might in some
measure be satisfied. At this Bolgolam rose up in a fury, wondering how
the secretary dared desire to preserve the life of a traitor; and the
treasurer, pointing out the expense of keeping you, also urged your
death. But his majesty was graciously pleased to say that since the
council thought the loss of your eyes too easy a punishment, some other
might afterward be inflicted. And the secretary, humbly desiring to be
heard again, said that as to expense your allowance might be gradually
lessened, so that for want of sufficient food you should grow weak and
faint and die in a few months, when his majesty's subjects might cut
your flesh from your bones and bury it, leaving the skeleton for the
admiration of posterity.

"Thus, through the great friendship of the secretary, the affair was
arranged. It was commanded that the plan of starving you by degrees
should be kept a secret, but the sentence of putting out your eyes was
entered on the books. In three days your friend the secretary will come
to your house and read the accusation before you and point out the great
mercy of his majesty, that only condemns you to the loss of your
eyes--which, he does not doubt, you will submit to humbly and
gratefully. Twenty of his majesty's surgeons will attend, to see the
operation well performed, by discharging very sharp-pointed arrows into
the balls of your eyes as you lie on the ground.

"I leave you," said my friend, "to consider what measures you will take;
and, to escape suspicion, I must immediately return as secretly as I

His lordship did so, and I remained alone in great perplexity. At first
I was bent on resistance, for while I had liberty I could easily with
stones pelt the metropolis to pieces; but I soon rejected that idea with
horror, remembering the oath I had made to the emperor and the favours I
had received from him. At last, having his majesty's leave to pay my
respects to the Emperor of Blefuscu, I resolved to take this
opportunity. Before the three days had passed I wrote a letter to my
friend the secretary telling him of my resolution, and without waiting
for an answer went to the coast, and entering the channel, between
wading and swimming reached the port of Blefuscu, where the people, who
had long expected me, led me to the capital.

His majesty, with the royal family and great officers of the court, came
out to receive me, and they entertained me in a manner suited to the
generosity of so great a prince. I did not, however, mention my disgrace
with the Emperor of Lilliput, since I did not suppose that prince would
disclose the secret while I was out of his power. But in this, it soon
appeared, I was deceived.

Three days after my arrival, walking out of curiosity to the northeast
coast of the island, I observed at some distance in the sea something
that looked like a boat overturned. I pulled off my shoes and stockings,
and wading two or three hundred yards, I plainly saw it to be a real
boat, which I supposed might by some tempest have been driven from a
ship. I returned immediately to the city for help, and after a huge
amount of labour I managed to get my boat to the royal port of Blefuscu,
where a great crowd of people appeared full of wonder at the sight of
so prodigious a vessel. I told the emperor that my "good fortune had
thrown this boat in my way to carry me to some place where I might
return to my native country," and begged his orders for materials to fit
it up and leave to depart--which, after many kindly speeches, he was
pleased to grant.

Meanwhile the Emperor of Lilliput, uneasy at my long absence (but never
imagining that I had the least notice of his designs), sent a person of
rank to inform the Emperor of Blefuscu of my disgrace. This messenger
had orders to represent the great mercy of his master, who was content
to punish me with the loss of my eyes, and who expected that his brother
of Blefuscu would have me sent back to Lilliput, bound hand and foot, to
be punished as a traitor. The Emperor of Blefuscu answered with many
civil excuses. He said that as for sending me bound, his brother knew it
was impossible. Moreover, though I had taken away his fleet, he was
grateful to me for many good offices I had done him in making the peace.
But that both their majesties would soon be made easy, for I had found a
prodigious vessel on the shore, able to carry me on the sea, which he
had given orders to fit up, and he hoped in a few weeks both empires
would be free from me.

With this answer the messenger returned to Lilliput, and I (though the
monarch of Blefuscu secretly offered me his gracious protection if I
would continue in his service) hastened my departure, resolving never
more to put confidence in princes.

In about a month I was ready to take leave. The Emperor of Blefuscu,
with the empress and the royal family, came out of the palace, and I lay
down on my face to kiss their hands, which they graciously gave me. His
majesty presented me with fifty purses of sprugs (their greatest gold
coin) and his picture at full length, which I put immediately into one
of my gloves, to keep it from being hurt. Many other ceremonies took
place at my departure.

I stored the boat with meat and drink and took six cows and two bulls
alive, with as many ewes and rams, intending to carry them into my own
country; and to feed them on board. I had a good bundle of hay and a bag
of corn. I would gladly have taken a dozen of the natives, but this was
a thing the emperor would by no means permit, and besides a diligent
search into my pockets, his majesty pledged my honour not to carry away
any of his subjects, though with their own consent and desire.

Having thus prepared all things as well as I was able, I set sail. When
I had made twenty-four leagues, by my reckoning, from the island of
Blefuscu, I saw a sail steering to northeast. I hailed her, but could
get no answer; yet I found I gained upon her, for the wind slackened,
and in half an hour she spied me and discharged a gun. I came up with
her between five and six in the evening on the 26th of September, 1701,
but my heart leaped within me to see her English colours. I put my cows
and sheep into my pockets and got on board with all my little cargo. The
captain received me with kindness and asked me to tell him what place I
came from last, but at my answer he thought I was raving. However, I
took my black cattle and sheep out of my pocket, which, after great
astonishment, clearly convinced him.

We arrived in England on the 13th of April, 1702. I stayed two months
with my wife and family, but my eager desire to see foreign countries
would suffer me to remain no longer. While in England I made great
profit by showing my cattle to persons of quality and others, and before
I began my second voyage I sold them for six hundred pounds. I left one
thousand five hundred pounds with my wife and fixed her in a good house;
then, taking leave of her and my boy and girl, with tears on both sides,
I sailed on board the Adventure.


     TANNAHILL, ROBERT, a Scottish poet, born at Paisley, in June, 1774;
     drowned himself near there, in May, 1810. He was a weaver, working
     at the loom all his life, and occasionally writing for the
     periodicals. In 1807 he published _The Soldier's Return, with Other
     Poems_, which made him famous. Several of these became popular
     favourites, and have always remained so. A statue to the poet was
     erected at Paisley in 1883.


     Let us go, lassie, go,
       To the braes o' Balquhither,
     Where the blae-berries grow
       'Mang the bonnie Highland heather;
     Where the deer and the roe,
       Lightly bounding together,
     Sport the lang summer day
       On the braes o' Balquhither.

     I will twine thee a bower
       By the clear siller fountain,
     And I'll cover it o'er
       Wi' the flowers of the mountain;
     I will range through the wilds,
       And the deep glens sae drearie,
     And return wi' the spoils
       To the bower o' my dearie.

     When the rude wintry win'
       Idly raves round our dwelling,
     And the roar of the linn
       On the night breeze is swelling,
     So merrily we'll sing,
       As the storm rattles o'er us,
     Till the dear shieling ring
       Wi' the light lilting chorus.

     Now the summer's in prime
       Wi' the flowers richly blooming,
     And the wild mountain thyme
       A' the moorlands perfuming:
     To our dear native scenes
       Let us journey together,
     Where glad innocence reigns
       'Mang the braes o' Balquhither.


     The sun has gane down o'er the lofty Benlomond,
       And left the red clouds to preside o'er the scene,
     While lanely I stray in the calm summer gloamin',
       To muse on sweet Jessie, the flower o' Dumblane.
     How sweet is the brier, wi' its saft fauldin' blossom!
       And sweet is the birk, wi' its mantle o' green;
     Yet sweeter and fairer, and dear to this bosom,
       Is lovely young Jessie, the flower o' Dumblane.

     She's modest as ony, and blithe as she's bonnie;
       For guileless simplicity marks her its ain:
     And far be the villain, divested of feeling,
       Wha'd blight in its bloom the sweet flower o' Dumblane.
     Sing on, thou sweet mavis, thy hymn to the e'ening;
       Thou'rt dear to the echoes of Calderwood glen:
     Sae dear to this bosom, sae artless and winning,
       Is charming young Jessie, the flower o' Dumblane.

     How lost were my days till I met wi' my Jessie!
       The sports o' the city seem'd foolish and vain;
     I ne'er saw a nymph I would ca' my dear lassie,
       Till charm'd wi' sweet Jessie, the flower o' Dumblane.
     Though mine were the station o' loftiest grandeur,
       Amidst its profusion I'd languish in pain,
     And reckon as naething the height o' its splendour,
       If wanting sweet Jessie, the flower o' Dumblane.


     TENNYSON, ALFRED (Lord), the great English poet, and poet laureate,
     was born at Somersby, Lincolnshire, in August, 1809, and died at
     Aldworth, in October, 1892. He was unquestionably the greatest
     English poet of his time and one of the greatest poets of all time.
     He was the youngest of three brothers, all of whom were educated at
     Cambridge, and gave promise of marked intellectual gifts. Alfred
     Tennyson's first volume, _Poems, Chiefly Lyrical_, was published in
     1830, and met with a favourable reception, though its merits hardly
     warranted the expectation of his later masterpieces. Other volumes
     followed rapidly, exhibiting his powers as a poet. In 1850 Tennyson
     gave to the world a poem which instantly quieted all doubts, of
     which there had been some, as to his title to the highest rank
     among contemporary poets, and which was universally received as an
     ample warrant for his appointment to the poet-laureateship which
     was made in the same year. This was his famous poem, _In Memoriam_.
     _Maud_, published in 1855 added to the author's fame, and the same
     may be said of the many shorter poems from his pen which preceded
     the publication of the _Idyls of the King_, in 1859. The great
     charm of Tennyson's poetry lies in his unequalled felicity of
     diction; his choice and arrangement of words and adjustment of
     epithets almost seem to be the result of inspiration, so happy are
     they. The most striking characteristic of his verse is
     refinement,--a delicacy of sentiment and expression that has
     rarely, if ever, been attained by any poet. His influence upon the
     poetical spirit of the age has been very potent, and to the purity
     of his muse is due, in great degree, the comparative health of our
     poetical literature.


     It was the time when lilies blow,
       And clouds are highest up in air,
     Lord Roland had brought a lily-white doe
       To give his cousin, Lady Clare.

     I trow they did not part in scorn:
       Lovers long betrothed were they:
     They two will wed the morrow morn:
       God's blessing on the day!

     "He does not love me for my birth,
       Nor for my lands so broad and fair,
     He loves me for my own true worth,
       And that is well," said Lady Clare.

     In there came old Alice the nurse,
       Said, "Who was this that went from thee?"
     "It was my cousin," said Lady Clare,
       "To-morrow he weds with me."

     "O God be thanked," said Alice, the nurse,
       "That all comes round so just and fair;
     Lord Ronald is heir of all your lands,
       And you are not the Lady Clare."

     "Are ye out of your mind, my nurse, my nurse?"
       Said Lady Clare, "that ye speak so wild?"
     "As God's above," said Alice the nurse,
       "I speak the truth; you are my child.

     "The old Earl's daughter died at my breast;
       I speak the truth as I live by bread!
     I buried her like my own sweet child,
       And put my child in her stead."

     "Falsely, falsely, have ye done,
       O Mother," she said, "if this be true,
     To keep the best man under the sun
       So many years from his due."

     "Nay, now, my child," said Alice the nurse,
       "But keep the secret for your life,
     And all you have will be Lord Ronald's,
       When you are man and wife."

     "If I'm a beggar born," she said,
       "I will speak out, for I dare not lie.
     Pull off, pull off the brooch of gold,
       And fling the diamond necklace by."

     "Nay now, my child," said Alice the nurse,
       "But keep the secret all ye can."
     She said, "Not so, but I will know
       If there be any faith in man."

     "Nay now, what faith?" said Alice the nurse,
       "The man will cleave unto his right."
     "And he shall have it," the lady replied,
       "Though I should die to-night."

     "Yet give one kiss to your mother dear!
       Alas, my child, I sinned for thee."
     "O mother, mother, mother," she said,
       "So strange it seems to me."

     "Yet here's a kiss for my mother dear,
       My mother dear, if this be so,
     And lay your hand upon my head,
       And bless me, mother, ere I go."

     She clad herself in a russet gown,
       She was no longer Lady Clare:
     She went by dale, and she went by down,
       With a single rose in her hair.

     The lily-white doe Lord Ronald had brought
       Leapt up from where she lay,
     Dropped her head in the maiden's hand,
       And followed her all the way.

     Down stept Lord Ronald from his tower:
       "O Lady Clare, you shame your worth!
     Why come you drest like a village maid,
       That are the flower of the earth?"

     "If I come drest like a village maid,
       I am but as my fortunes are;
     I am a beggar born," she said,
       "And not the Lady Clare."

     "Play me no tricks," said Lord Ronald,
       "For I am yours in word and deed.
     Play me no tricks," said Lord Ronald,
       "Your riddle is hard to read."

     "O," and proudly stood she up!
       Her heart within her did not fail:
     She looked into Lord Ronald's eyes,
       And told him all her nurse's tale.

     He laughed a laugh of merry scorn;
       He turned and kissed her where she stood;
     "If you are not the heiress born,
       And I," said he, "the next in blood--

     "If you are not the heiress born,
       And I," said he, "the lawful heir,
     We two will wed to-morrow morn,
       And you shall still be Lady Clare."


     Lady Clara Vere de Vere,
       Of me you shall not win renown:
     You thought to break a country heart
       For pastime, ere you went to town.
     At me you smiled, but unbeguiled
       I saw the snare, and I retired:
     The daughter of a hundred Earls,
       You are not one to be desired.

     Lady Clara Vere de Vere,
       I know you proud to bear your name.
     Your pride is yet no mate for mine,
       Too proud to care from whence I came.
     Nor would I break for your sweet sake
       A heart that dotes on truer charms.
     A simple maiden in her flower
       Is worth a hundred coats-of-arms.

     Lady Clara Vere de Vere,
       Some meeker pupil you must find,
     For were you queen of all that is,
       I could not stoop to such a mind.
     You sought to prove how I could love,
       And my disdain is my reply.
     The lion on your old stone gates
       Is not more cold to you than I.

     Lady Clara Vere de Vere,
       You put strange memories in my head.
     Not thrice your branching limes have blown
       Since I beheld young Laurence dead.
     Oh your sweet eyes, your low replies:
       A great enchantress you may be;
     But there was that across his throat
       Which you had hardly cared to see.

     Lady Clara Vere de Vere,
       When thus he met his mother's view,
     She had the passions of her kind,
       She spake some certain truths of you.
     Indeed I heard one bitter word
       That scarce is fit for you to hear;
     Her manners had not that repose
       Which stamps the caste of Vere de Vere.

     Lady Clara Vere de Vere,
       There stands a spectre in your hall:
     The guilt of blood is at your door:
       You changed a wholesome heart to gall.
     You held your course without remorse,
       To make him trust his modest worth,
     And, last, you fix'd a vacant stare,
       And slew him with your noble birth.

     Trust me, Clara Vere de Vere,
       From yon blue heavens above us bent
     The grand old gardener and his wife
       Smile at the claims of long descent.
     Howe'er it be, it seems to me,
       'Tis only noble to be good.
     Kind hearts are more than coronets,
       And simple faith than Norman blood.

     I know you, Clara Vere de Vere:
       You pine among your halls and towers:
     The languid light of your proud eyes
       Is wearied of the rolling hours.
     In glowing health, with boundless wealth,
       But sickening of a vague disease,
     You know so ill to deal with time,
       You needs must play such pranks as these.

     Clara, Clara Vere de Vere,
       If Time be heavy on your hands,
     Are there no beggars at your gate,
       Nor any poor about your lands?
     Oh! teach the orphan-boy to read,
       Or teach the orphan-girl to sew,
     Pray Heaven for a human heart,
       And let the foolish yeoman go.


     Come into the garden, Maud,
       For the black bat, night, has flown,
     Come into the garden, Maud,
       I am here at the gate alone;
     And the woodbine spices are wafted abroad,
       And the musk of the roses blown.

     For a breeze of morning moves,
       And the planet of Love is on high,
     Beginning to faint in the light that she loves
       On a bed of daffodil sky,
     To faint in the light of the sun she loves,
       To faint in his light, and to die.

     All night have the roses heard
       The flute, violin, bassoon;
     All night has the casement jessamine stirr'd
       To the dancers dancing in tune;
     Till a silence fell with the waking bird,
       And a hush with the setting moon.

     I said to the lily, "There is but one
       With whom she has heart to be gay.
     When will the dancers leave her alone?
       She is weary of dance and play."
     Now half to the setting moon are gone,
       And half to the rising day;
     Low on the sand and loud on the stone
       The last wheel echoes away.

     I said to the rose, "The brief night goes
       In babble and revel and wine.
     O young lord-lover, what sighs are those,
       For one that will never be thine?
     But mine, but mine," so I sware to the rose,
       "For ever and ever, mine."

     And the soul of the rose went into my blood,
       As the music clash'd in the hall;
     And long by the garden lake I stood,
       For I heard your rivulet fall
     From the lake to the meadow and onto the wood,
       Our wood, that is dearer than all;

     From the meadow your walks have left so sweet
       That whenever a March-wind sighs
     He sets the jewel-print of your feet
       In violets blue as your eyes,
     To the woody hollows in which we meet
       And the valleys of Paradise.

     The slender acacia would not shake
       One long milk-bloom on the tree;
     The white lake-blossom fell into the lake,
       As the pimpernel dozed on the lea;
     But the rose was awake all night for your sake,
       Knowing your promise to me;
     The lilies and roses were all awake,
       They sigh'd for the dawn and thee.

     Queen rose of the rosebud garden of girls,
       Come hither, the dances are done,
     In gloss of satin and glimmer of pearls,
       Queen lily and rose in one;
     Shine out, little head, sunning over with curls,
       To the flowers, and be their sun.

     There has fallen a splendid tear
       From the passion-flower at the gate.
     She is coming, my dove, my dear;
       She is coming, my life, my fate;
     The red rose cries, "She is near, she is near";
       And the white rose weeps, "She is late";
     The larkspur listens, "I hear, I hear";
       And the lily whispers, "I wait."

     She is coming, my own, my sweet;
       Were it ever so airy a tread,
     My heart would hear her and beat,
       Were it earth in an earthy bed;
     My dust would hear her and beat,
       Had I lain for a century dead;
     Would start and tremble under her feet,
       And blossom in purple and red.


     Break, break, break,
       On thy cold gray stones, O Sea!
     And I would that my tongue could utter
       The thoughts that arise in me.

     O well for the fisherman's boy,
       That he shouts with his sister at play!
     O well for the sailor lad,
       That he sings in his boat on the bay!

     And the stately ships go on
       To their haven under the hill;
     But O for the touch of a vanish'd hand,
       And the sound of a voice that is still!

     Break, break, break,
       At the foot of thy crags, O Sea!
     But the tender grace of a day that is dead
       Will never come back to me.


     It is the miller's daughter,
       And she is grown so dear, so dear,
     That I would be the jewel
       That trembles at her ear:
     For hid in ringlets day and night,
     I'd touch her neck so warm and white.

     And I would be the girdle
       About her dainty, dainty waist,
     And her heart would beat against me,
       In sorrow and in rest:
     And I should know if it beat right,
     I'd clasp it round so close and tight.

     And I would be the necklace,
       And all day long to fall and rise
     Upon her balmy bosom,
       With her laughter or her sighs,
     And I would lie so light, so light,
     I scarce should be unclasp'd at night.


     Deep on the convent-roof the snows
       Are sparkling to the moon:
     My breath to heaven like vapour goes:
       May my soul follow soon!
     The shadows of the convent-towers
       Slant down the snowy sward,
     Still creeping with the creeping hours
       That lead me to my Lord:
     Make Thou my spirit pure and clear
       As are the frosty skies,
     Or this first snowdrop of the year
       That in my bosom lies.

     As these white robes are soiled and dark,
       To yonder shining ground;
     As this pale taper's earthly spark,
       To yonder argent round;
     So shows my soul before the Lamb,
       My spirit before Thee;
     So in mine earthly house I am,
       To that I hope to be.
     Break up the heavens, O Lord! and far,
       Thro' all yon starlight keen,
     Draw me, thy bride, a glittering star,
       In raiment white and clean.

     He lifts me to the golden doors;
       The flashes come and go;
     All heaven bursts her starry floors,
       And strews her lights below,
     And deepens on and up! the gates
       Roll back, and far within
     For me the Heavenly Bridegroom waits,
       To make me pure of sin.
     The sabbaths of Eternity,
       One sabbath deep and wide--
     A light upon the shining sea--
       The Bridegroom with his bride!


     THACKERAY, WILLIAM MAKEPEACE, one of the greatest writers of
     fiction in the nineteenth century, was born in Calcutta, in 1811,
     but was sent to England while a child and educated in the
     Charterhouse School, which he has immortalized in his great story,
     _The Newcomes_. On the death of his parents, he found himself in
     possession of a handsome fortune, but it soon vanished and he was
     compelled to earn his subsistence. He dallied with law, courted
     art, and finally--a resolution which for the lovers of high fiction
     will never cease to be grateful--resolved to devote himself to
     literature. Then came from his pen the series of books which made
     him famous. It is a remarkable fact, however, that while
     Thackeray's writings were comparatively neglected in England, they
     enjoyed an extensive popularity in the United States, where they
     are still read with eagerness and delight by all who look beneath
     the surface of novels into the soul which animates them. It is
     impossible to do justice to the characteristics of Thackeray as a
     writer within the limits of this brief notice, but one or two of
     them may be briefly mentioned. He was a cynic, though a kindly one;
     he was a keen student of human nature, quick to recognize and
     denounce its weaknesses; yet he apparently found his deepest
     pleasure in depicting its features and recording its noblest
     manifestations. Nor is Thackeray an author from whose greater works
     an appropriate and satisfactory selection may be taken for a work
     of this kind. It has been thought wiser, therefore, to give a
     selection from his _Rose and the Ring_, as being suitable for
     younger readers and at the same time exhibiting his humour. Several
     of his charming ballads are also given.


(From "The Rose and the Ring")

When the Princess Angelica was born, her parents not only did not ask
the Fairy Blackstick to the christening party, but gave orders to their
porter absolutely to refuse her if she called. This porter's name was
Gruffanuff, and he had been selected for the post by their Royal
Highnesses because he was a very tall, fierce man, who could say "Not at
home" to a tradesman or an unwelcome visitor with a rudeness which
frightened most such persons away. He was the husband of that Countess
whose picture we have just seen, and as long as they were together they
quarrelled from morning till night. Now this fellow tried his rudeness
once too often, as you shall hear. For the Fairy Blackstick coming to
call upon the Prince and Princess, who were actually sitting at the open
drawing-room window, Gruffanuff not only denied them, but made the most
_odious, vulgar sign_ as he was going to slam the door in the Fairy's
face! "Git away, bold Blackstick!" said he. "I tell you, Master and
Missis ain't at home to you:" and he was, as we have said, _going_ to
slam the door.

But the Fairy, with her wand, prevented the door being shut; and
Gruffanuff came out again in a fury, swearing in the most abominable
way, and asking the Fairy "whether she thought he was a going to stay at
that there door all day?"

"You _are_ going to stay at that door all day and all night, and for
many a long year," the Fairy said, very majestically; and Gruffanuff,
coming out of the door, straddling before it with his great calves,
burst out laughing, and cried, "Ha, ha, ha! that _is_ a good 'un!
Ha--ah--what's this? Let me down--oh--o--h'm!" and then he was dumb!

For, as the Fairy waved her wand over him, he felt himself rising off
the ground and fluttering up against the door, and then, as if a screw
ran into his stomach, he felt a dreadful pain there, and was pinned to
the door; and then his arms flew up over his head; and his legs, after
writhing about wildly, twisted under his body; and he felt cold, cold
growing over him, as if he was turning into metal; and he said,
"Oh--o--h'm!" and could say no more, because he was dumb.

He _was_ turned into metal! He was from being _brazen_, _brass_! He was
neither more nor less than a knocker! And there he was, nailed to the
door in the blazing summer day, till he burned almost red hot; and there
he was nailed to the door all the bitter winter nights, till his brass
nose was dropping with icicles. And the postman came and rapped at him,
and the vulgarest boy with a letter came and hit him up against the
door. And the King and Queen (Princess and Prince they were then) coming
home from a walk that evening, the King said, "Hullo, my dear! you have
had a new knocker put on the door. Why, it's rather like our Porter in
the face! What has become of that bozzy vagabond?" And the housemaid
came and scrubbed his nose with sand-paper; and once, when the Princess
Angelica's little sister was born, he was tied up in an old kid glove;
and another night, some _larking_ young men tried to wrench him off, and
put him to the most excruciating agony with a turn-screw. And then the
Queen had a fancy to have the colour of the door altered, and the
painters dabbed him over the mouth and eyes, and nearly choked him, as
they painted him pea-green. I warrant he had leisure to repent of having
been rude to the Fairy Blackstick!

And for his wife, she did not miss him; and as he was always guzzling
beer at the public-house, and notoriously quarrelling with his wife, and
in debt to the tradesmen, it was supposed he had run away from all these
evils, and emigrated to Australia or America. And when the Prince and
Princess chose to become King and Queen, they left their old house, and
nobody thought of the Porter any more.

       *       *       *       *       *

One day, when the Princess Angelica was quite a little girl, she was
walking in the garden of the palace, with Mrs. Gruffanuff, the
governess, holding a parasol over her head, to keep her sweet complexion
from the freckles, and Angelica was carrying a bun, to feed the swans
and ducks in the royal pond.

They had not reached the duck-pond, when there came toddling up to them
such a funny little girl. She had a great quantity of hair blowing about
her chubby little cheeks, and looked as if she had not been washed or
combed for ever so long. She wore a ragged bit of a cloak, and had only
one shoe on.

"You little wretch, who let you in here?" asked Gruffanuff.

"Dive me dat bun," said the little girl, "me vely hungry."

"Hungry! what is that?" asked Princess Angelica, and gave the child the

"Oh, Princess!" says Gruffanuff, "how good, how kind, how truly
angelical you are! See, your Majesties," she said to the King and Queen,
who now came up, along with their nephew, Prince Giglio, "how kind the
Princess is! She met this little dirty wretch in the garden--I can't
tell how she came in here, or why the guards did not shoot her dead at
the gate!--and the dear darling of a Princess has given her the whole of
her bun!"

"I didn't want it," said Angelica.

"But you are a darling little angel all the same," says the governess.

"Yes, I know I am," said Angelica. "Dirty little girl, don't you think I
am very pretty?" Indeed, she had on the finest of little dresses and
hats; and, as her hair was carefully curled, she really looked very

"Oh, pooty, pooty!" says the little girl, capering about, laughing and
dancing, and munching her bun; and as she ate it she began to sing: "O
what fun to have a plum bun! how I wis it never was done!" At which, and
her funny accent Angelica, Giglio and the King and Queen began to laugh
very merrily.

"I can dance as well as sing," says the little girl. "I can dance, and I
can sing, and I can do all sorts of ting." And she ran to a flower-bed,
and, pulling a few polyanthuses, rhododendrons, and other flowers, made
herself a little wreath, and danced before the King and Queen so drolly
and prettily, that everybody was delighted.

"Who was your mother--who were your relations, little girl?" said the

The little girl said, "Little lion was my brudder; great big lioness my
mudder; neber heard of any udder." And she capered away on her one shoe,
and everybody was exceedingly diverted.

So Angelica said to the Queen, "Mamma, my parrot flew away yesterday
out of its cage, and I don't care any more for any of my toys; and I
think this funny little dirty child will amuse me. I will take her home,
and give her some of my old frocks--"

"Oh, the generous darling!" says Gruffanuff.

"--Which I have worn ever so many times, and am quite tired of,"
Angelica went on; "and she shall be my little maid. Will you come home
with me, little dirty girl?"

The child clapped her hands and said, "Go home with you--yes! You pooty
Princess! Have a nice dinner, and wear a new dress!"

And they all laughed again, and took home the child to the palace;
where, when she was washed and combed, and had one of the Princess'
frocks given to her, she looked as handsome as Angelica, almost. Not
that Angelica ever thought so; for this little lady never imagined that
anybody in the world could be as pretty, as good, or as clever as
herself. In order that the little girl should not become too proud and
conceited, Mrs. Gruffanuff took her old ragged mantle and one shoe, and
put them into a glass box, with a card laid upon them, upon which was
written, "These were the old clothes in which little BETSINDA was found
when the great goodness and admirable kindness of her Royal Highness the
Princess Angelica, received this little outcast." And the date was
added, and the box locked up.

For a while little Betsinda was a great favourite with the Princess, and
she danced, and sang, and made her little rhymes to amuse her mistress.
But then the princess got a monkey, and afterward a little dog, and
afterward a doll, and did not care for Betsinda any more, who became
very very melancholy and quiet, and sang no more funny songs, because
nobody cared to hear her. And, as she grew older, she was made a little
lady's maid to the Princess; and though she had no wages, she worked and
mended and put Angelica's hair in papers, and was never cross when
scolded, and was always eager to please her mistress, and was always up
early and to bed late, and at hand when wanted, and in fact became a
perfect little maid. So the two girls grew up, and when the Princess
came out, Betsinda was never tired of waiting on her, and made her
dresses better than the best milliner, and was useful in a hundred ways.
Whilst the Princess was having her masters, Betsinda would sit and watch
them; and in this way she picked up a great deal of learning; for she
was always awake, though her mistress was not, and listened to the wise
professors when Angelica was yawning or thinking of the next ball. And
when the dancing-master came, Betsinda learned along with Angelica; and
when the music-master came, she watched him and practiced the Princess'
pieces when Angelica was away at balls and parties; and when the
drawing-master came, she took note of all he said and did; and the same
with French, Italian, and all other languages--she learned them from the
teacher who came to Angelica. When the Princess was going out of an
evening she would say, "My good Betsinda, you may as well finish what I
have begun." "Yes, Miss," Betsinda would say, and sit down very
cheerful, not to _finish_ what Angelica began, but to _do_ it.

And Angelica actually believed that she did these things herself, and
received all the flattery of the Court as if every word of it was true.
Thus she began to think that there was no young woman in all the world
equal to herself, and that no young man was good enough for her. As for
Betsinda as she heard none of these praises, she was not puffed up by
them, and being a most graceful, good-natured girl, she was only too
anxious to do everything which might give her mistress pleasure. Now you
begin to perceive that Angelica had faults of her own, and was by no
means such a wonder of wonders as people represented her Royal Highness
to be.

       *       *       *       *       *

And now let us speak about Prince Giglio, the nephew of the reigning
monarch of Paflagonia. It has already been stated, in Chapter II, that
as long as he had a smart coat to wear, a good horse to ride, and money
in his pocket--or rather to take out of his pocket, for he was very
good-natured--my young Prince did not care for the loss of his crown and
sceptre, being a thoughtless youth, not much inclined to politics or any
kind of learning. So his tutor had a sinecure. Giglio would not learn
classics or mathematics, and the Lord Chancellor of Paflagonia,
SQUARETOSO, pulled a very long face because the Prince could not be got
to study the Paflagonian laws and constitution; but, on the other hand,
the King's gamekeepers and huntsmen found the Prince an apt pupil; the
dancing-master pronounced that he was a most elegant and assiduous
scholar; the First Lord of the Billiard Table gave the most flattering
reports of the Prince's skill: so did the Groom of the Tennis Court; and
as for the Captain of the Guard and Fencing-master, the _valiant_ and
_veteran_ COUNT KUTASOFF HEDZOFF, he avowed that since he ran the
General of Crim Tartary, the dreadful Grumbuskin, through the body, he
never had encountered so expert a swordsman as Prince Giglio.

I hope you do not imagine that there was any impropriety in the Prince
and Princess walking together in the palace garden, and because Giglio
kissed Angelica's hand in a polite manner. In the first place they are
cousins; next, the Queen is walking in the garden too (you cannot see
her, for she happens to be behind that tree), and her Majesty always
wished that Angelica and Giglio would marry: so did Giglio: so did
Angelica sometimes, for she thought her cousin very handsome, brave, and
good-natured; but then you know she was so clever and knew so many
things, and poor Giglio knew nothing, and had no conversation. When they
looked at the stars, what did Giglio know of the heavenly bodies? Once
when on a sweet night in a balcony where they were standing, Angelica
said, "There is the Bear"--"Where?" says Giglio. "Don't be afraid,
Angelica! if a dozen bears come, I will kill them rather than they shall
hurt you." "Oh, you silly creature!" says she; "you are very good, but
you are not very wise." When they looked at the flowers, Giglio was
utterly unacquainted with botany, and had never heard of Linnæus. When
the butterflies passed, Giglio knew nothing about them, being as
ignorant of entomology as I am of algebra. So you see, Angelica, though
she liked Giglio pretty well, despised him on account of his ignorance.
I think she probably valued _her own learning_ rather too much; but to
think too well of one's self is the fault of people of all ages and both
sexes. Finally, when nobody else was there, Angelica liked her cousin
well enough.

King Valoroso was very delicate in health, and withal so fond of good
dinners (which were prepared for him by his French cook, Marmitonio),
that it was supposed he could not live long. Now the idea of anything
happening to the King struck the artful Prime Minister and the designing
old lady-in-waiting with terror. For, thought Glumboso and the Countess,
"when Prince Giglio marries his cousin and comes to the throne, what a
pretty position we will be in, whom he dislikes, and who have always
been unkind to him. We shall lose our places in a trice; Gruffanuff will
have to give up all the jewels, laces, snuff-boxes, rings, and watches
which belong to the Queen, Giglio's mother; and Glumboso will be forced
to refund two hundred and seventeen thousand millions, nine hundred and
eighty-seven thousand, four hundred and thirty-nine pounds thirteen
shillings and sixpence halfpenny, money left to Prince Giglio by his
poor dear father." So the Lady of Honor and the Prime Minister hated
Giglio because they had done him a wrong; and these unprincipled people
invented a hundred cruel stories about poor Giglio, in order to
influence the King, Queen and Princess against him: how he was so
ignorant that he could not spell the commonest words, and actually wrote
Valoroso Valloroso, and spelt Angelica with two _l's_; how he drank a
great deal too much wine at dinner, and was always idling in the stable
with the grooms; how he owed ever so much money at the pastry-cook's and
the haberdasher's; how he used to go to sleep at church; how he was fond
of playing cards with the pages. So did the Queen like playing cards; so
did the King go to sleep at church, and eat and drink too much; and if
Giglio owed a trifle for tarts, who owed him two hundred and seventeen
thousand millions, nine hundred and eighty-seven thousand, four hundred
and thirty-nine pounds thirteen shillings and sixpence halfpenny, I
should like to know? Detractors and tale-bearers (in my humble opinion)
had much better look at _home_. All this backbiting and slandering had
effect upon Princess Angelica, who began to look coldly upon her cousin,
then to laugh at him and scorn him for being so stupid, and then to
sneer at him for having vulgar associates; and at Court balls, dinners,
and so forth, to treat him so unkindly that poor Giglio became quite
ill, took to his bed, and sent for the doctor.

His Majesty, King Valoroso, as we have seen, had his own reasons for
disliking his nephew; and as for those innocent readers who ask why?--I
beg (with the permission of their dear parents) to refer them to
Shakespeare's pages, where they will read why King John disliked Prince
Arthur. With the Queen, his royal but weak-minded aunt, when Giglio was
out of sight he was out of mind. While she had her whist and her
evening-parties, she cared for little else.

I dare say _two villains_, who shall be nameless, wished Doctor
Pildrafto, the Court physician, had killed Giglio right out, but he only
bled and physicked him so severely that the Prince was kept to his room
for several months, and grew as thin as a post.

Whilst he was lying sick in this way, there came to the Court of
Paflagonia a famous painter, whose name was Tomaso Lorenzo, and who was
Painter in Ordinary to the King of Crim Tartary, Paflagonia's neighbour.
Tomazo Lorenzo painted all the Court, who were delighted with his work;
for even Countess Gruffanuff looked young and Glumboso good-humoured in
his pictures. "He flatters very much," some people said. "Nay!" says
Princess Angelica, "I am above flattery, and I think he did not make my
picture handsome enough. I can't bear to hear a man of genius unjustly
cried down, and I hope my dear papa will make Lorenzo a knight of his
Order of the Cucumber."

The Princess Angelica, although the courtiers vowed her Royal Highness
could draw so _beautifully_ that the idea of her taking lessons was
absurd, yet chose to have Lorenzo for a teacher, and it was wonderful,
_as long as she painted in his studio_, what beautiful pictures she
made! Some of the performances were engraved for the "Book of Beauty:"
others were sold for enormous sums at Charity Bazaars. She wrote the
_signatures_ under the drawing no doubt, but I think I know who did the
pictures--this artful painter, who had come with other designs on
Angelica than merely to teach her to draw.

One day Lorenzo showed the Princess a portrait of a young man in armour,
with fair hair and the loveliest blue eyes, and an expression at once
melancholy and interesting.

"Dear Signor Lorenzo, who is this?" asked the Princess. "I never saw any
one so handsome," says Countess Gruffanuff (the old humbug).

"That," said the Painter, "that, madam, is the portrait of my august
young master, his Royal Highness Bulbo, Crown Prince of Crim Tartary,
Duke of Acroceraunia, Marquis of Poluphloisboio, and Knight Grand Cross
of the Order of the Pumpkin. That is the Order of the Pumpkin glittering
on his manly breast and received by his Royal Highness from his august
father, his Majesty King PADELLA I., for his gallantry at the battle of
Rimbombamento, when he slew with his own princely hand the King of
Ograria and two hundred and eleven giants of the two hundred and eighteen
who formed the King's body-guard. The remainder were destroyed by the
brave Crim Tartar army after an obstinate combat, in which the Crim
Tartars suffered severely."

"What a Prince!" thought Angelica: "so brave--so calm-looking--so
young--what a hero!"

"He is as accomplished as he is brave," continued the Painter. "He knows
all languages perfectly: sings deliciously: plays every instrument:
composes operas which have been acted a thousand nights running at the
Imperial Theatre of Crim Tartary, and danced in a ballet there before
the King and Queen; in which he looked so beautiful, that his cousin,
the lovely daughter of the King of Circassia, died for love of him."

"Why did he not marry the poor Princess?" asked Angelica, with a sigh.

"Because they were _first-cousins_, madam, and the clergy forbids these
unions," said the Painter. "And, besides, the young Prince had given his
royal heart _elsewhere_."

"And to whom?" asked her Royal Highness.

"I am not at liberty to mention the Princess' name," answered the

"But you may tell me the first letter of it," gasped out the Princess.

"That your Royal Highness is at liberty to guess," says Lorenzo.

"Does it begin with a Z?" asked Angelica.

The Painter said it wasn't a Z; then she tried a Y; then an X; then a W,
and went so backward through almost the whole alphabet.

When she came to D, and it wasn't D, she grew very much excited: when
she came to C, and it wasn't C, she was still more nervous; when she
came to B, _and it wasn't B_, "Oh, dearest Gruffanuff," she said, "lend
me your smelling-bottle!" and hiding her head in the Countess' shoulder,
she faintly whispered, "Ah, Signor, can it be A?"

"It was A; and though I may not, by my Royal Master's orders, tell your
Royal Highness the Princess' name, whom he fondly, madly, devotedly,
rapturously loves, I may show you her portrait," says the sly-boots;
and, leading the Princess up to a gilt frame, he drew a curtain which
was before it.

Oh goodness! the frame contained a LOOKING-GLASS! and Angelica saw her
own face!

       *       *       *       *       *

The Court Painter of his Majesty the King of Crim Tartary returned to
that monarch's dominions, carrying away a number of sketches which he
had made in the Paflagonian capital (you know, of course, my dears, that
the name of that capital is Blombodinga); but the most charming of all
his pieces was a portrait of the Princess Angelica, which all the Crim
Tartar nobles came to see. With this work the King was so delighted,
that he decorated the Painter with his Order of the Pumpkin (sixth
class), and the artist became Sir Tomaso Lorenzo, K. P., thenceforth.

King Valoroso also sent Sir Tomaso his Order of the Cucumber, besides a
handsome order for money; for he painted the King, Queen, and principal
nobility while at Blombodinga, and became all the fashion, to the
perfect rage of all the artists in Paflagonia, where the King used to
point to the picture of Prince Bulbo, which Sir Tomaso had left behind
him, and say, "Which among you can paint a picture like that?"

It hung in the royal parlour over the royal side-board, and Princess
Angelica could always look at it as she sat making the tea. Each day it
seemed to grow handsomer and handsomer, and the Princess grew so fond
of looking at it, that she would often spill the tea over the cloth, at
which her father and mother would wink and wag their heads; and say to
each other, "Aha! we see how things are going."

In the meanwhile poor Giglio lay upstairs very sick in his chamber,
though he took all the doctor's horrible medicines like a good young
lad: as I hope _you_ do, my dears, when you are ill and mamma sends for
the medical man. And the only person who visited Giglio (beside his
friend the Captain of the Guard, who was almost always busy or on
parade) was little Betsinda the housemaid, who used to do his bedroom
and sitting-room out, bring him his gruel, and warm his bed.

When the little housemaid came to him in the morning and evening, Prince
Giglio used to say, "Betsinda, Betsinda, how is the Princess Angelica?"

And Betsinda used to answer, "The Princess is very well, thank you, my
lord." And Giglio would heave a sigh and think, "If Angelica were sick,
I am sure _I_ should not be very well."

Then Giglio would say, "Betsinda, has the Princess Angelica asked for me
to-day?" And Betsinda would answer, "No, my lord, not to-day"; or, "She
was very busy practicing the piano when I saw her"; or "She was writing
invitations for an evening-party, and did not speak to me"; or make some
excuse or other, not strictly consonant with truth: for Betsinda was
such a good-natured creature, that she strove to do everything to
prevent annoyance to Prince Giglio, and even brought him up
roast-chicken and jellies from the kitchen when the doctor allowed
them, and Giglio was getting better, saying "that the princess had made
the jelly, or the bread-sauce, with her own hands, on purpose for

When Giglio heard this he took heart, and began to mend immediately; and
gobbled up all the jelly, and picked the last bone of the
chicken--drum-sticks, merry thought, sides' bones, back, pope's nose,
and all--thanking his dear Angelica: and he felt so much better the next
day, that he dressed and went down-stairs--where whom should he meet but
Angelica going into the drawing-room? All the covers were off the
chairs, the chandeliers taken out of the bags, the damask curtains
uncovered, the work and things carried away, and the handsomest albums
on the tables. Angelica had her hair in papers. In a word it was evident
there was going to be a party.

"Heavens, Giglio!" cried Angelica; "_you_ here in such a dress! What a
figure you are!"

"Yes, dear Angelica, I am come down-stairs, and feel so well to-day,
thanks to the _fowl_ and the _jelly_."

"What do I know about fowls and jellies, that you allude to them in that
rude way?" says Angelica.

"Why, didn't--didn't you send them, Angelica dear?" says Giglio.

"I send them indeed! Angelica dear! No, Giglio dear," says she, mocking
him. "_I_ was engaged in getting the rooms ready for his Royal Highness
the Prince of Crim Tartary, who is coming to pay my papa's court a

"The--Prince--of--Crim--Tartary!" Giglio said, aghast.

"Yes, the Prince of Crim Tartary," said Angelica, mocking him. "I dare
say you never heard of such a country. What _did_ you ever hear of? You
don't know whether Crim Tartary is on the Red Sea, or on the Black Sea,
I dare say."

"Yes, I do; it's on the Red Sea," says Giglio; at which the Princess
burst out laughing at him, and said, "Oh, you ninny! You are so
ignorant, you are really not fit for society! You know nothing but about
horses and dogs, and are only fit to dine in a mess-room with my Royal
Father's heaviest dragoons. Don't look so surprised at me, sir; go and
put your best clothes on to receive the Prince, and let me get the
drawing-room ready."

Giglio said, "Oh, Angelica, I didn't think this of you. _This_ wasn't
your language to me when you gave me this ring, and I gave you mine in
the garden, and you gave me that--k--"

But what that k--was we never shall know, for Angelica in a rage cried,
"Get out, you saucy, rude creature! How dare you to remind me of your
rudeness! As for your little trumpery two-penny ring, there,
sir--there!" And she flung it out of the window.

"It was my mother's marriage-ring," cried Giglio.

"_I_ don't care whose marriage-ring it was," cries Angelica. "Marry the
person who picks it up if she's a woman; you shan't marry _me_. And give
me back _my_ ring. I have no patience with people who boast about the
things they give away. _I_ know who'll give me much finer things than
you ever gave me. A beggarly ring indeed, not worth five shillings!"

Now Angelica little knew that the ring which Giglio had given her was a
fairy ring; if a man wore it, it made all the women in love with him; if
a woman, all the gentlemen. The Queen, Giglio's mother, quite an
ordinary-looking person, was admired immensely whilst she wore this
ring, and her husband was frantic when she was ill. But when she called
her little Giglio to her, and put the ring on his finger, King Savio did
not seem to care for his wife so much any more, but transferred all his
love to little Giglio. So did everybody love him as long as he had the
ring; but then, as quite a child, he gave it to Angelica, people began
to love and admire _her_; and Giglio, as the saying is, played only
second fiddle.

"Yes," said Angelica, going on in her foolish ungrateful way, "_I_ know
who'll give me much finer things than your beggarly little pearl

"Very good, miss! You may take back your ring, too!" says Giglio, his
eyes flashing fire at her; and then, as if his eyes had been suddenly
opened, he cried out, "Ha! what does this mean? Is _this_ the woman I
have been in love with all my life? Have I been such a ninny as to throw
away my regard upon _you_? Why--actually--yes--you are--a little

"Oh, you wretch!" cries Angelica.

"And, upon my conscience, you--you squint a little."

"Eh!" cries Angelica.

"And your hair is red--and you are marked with the small-pox--and what?
you have three false teeth--and one leg shorter than the other!"

"You brute, you brute you!" Angelica screamed out: and as she seized the
ring with one hand, she dealt Giglio one, two, three smacks on the face,
and would have pulled the hair off his head had he not started laughing,
and crying,--

"Oh, dear me, Angelica! don't pull out _my_ hair, it hurts! You might
remove a great deal of _your own_, as I perceive, without scissors or
pulling at all. Oh, ho, ho! ha, ha, ha! he, he, he!"

And he nearly choked himself with laughing, and she with rage; when with
a low bow, and dressed in his Court habit, Count Gambabella, the first
lord-in-waiting, entered and said, "Royal Highness! Their Majesties
expect you in the Pink Throne-room, where they await the arrival of the
Prince of CRIM TARTARY."

Prince Bulbo's arrival had set all the court in a flutter; everybody was
ordered to put his or her best clothes on: the footmen had their gala
liveries; the Lord Chancellor his new wig; the Guards their last new
tunics; and Countess Gruffanuff, you may be sure, was glad of an
opportunity of decorating _her_ old person with her finest things. She
was walking through the court of the palace on her way to wait upon
their Majesties, when she spied something glittering on the pavement,
and bade the boy in buttons, who was holding up her train, to go and
pick up the article shining yonder. He was an ugly little wretch, in
some of the late groom-porter's old clothes cut down, and much too
tight for him; and yet, when he had taken up the ring (as it turned out
to be), and was carrying it to his mistress she thought he looked like a
little Cupid. He gave the ring to her; it was a trumpery little thing
enough, but too small for any of her old knuckles, so she put it into
her pocket.

"Oh, mum!" says the boy, looking at her, "how--how beyoutiful you do
look, mum, to-day, mum!"

"And you, too, Jacky," she was going to say; but, looking down at
him--no, he was no longer good-looking at all--but only the
carrotty-haired little Jacky of the morning. However, praise is welcome
from the ugliest of men or boys, and Gruffanuff, bidding the boy hold up
her train, walked on in high good-humour. The Guards saluted her with
peculiar respect. Captain Hedzoff, in the anteroom said, "My dear madam,
you look like an angel to-day." And so, bowing and smirking, Gruffanuff
went in and took her place behind her Royal Master and Mistress, who
were in the throne-room, awaiting the Prince of Crim Tartary. Princess
Angelica sat at their feet, and behind the King's chair stood Prince
Giglio, looking very savage.

The Prince of Crim Tartary made his appearance, attended by Baron
Sleibootz, his chamberlain, and followed by a black page, carrying the
most beautiful crown you ever saw! He was dressed in his travelling
costume, and his hair was a little in disorder. "I have ridden three
hundred miles since breakfast," said he, "so eager was I to behold the
Prin--the Court and august family of Paflagonia, and I could not wait
one minute before appearing in your Majesties' presences."

Giglio, from behind the throne, burst out into a roar of contemptuous
laughter; but all the Royal party, in fact, were so flurried, that they
did not hear this little outbreak. "Your R. H. is welcome in any dress,"
says the King. "Glumboso, a chair for his Royal Highness."

"Any dress his Royal Highness wears _is_ a Court-dress," says Princess
Angelica, smiling graciously.

"Ah! but you should see my other clothes," said the Prince. "I should
have had them on, but that stupid carrier has not brought them. Who's
that laughing?"

It was Giglio laughing. "I was laughing," he said, "because you said
just now that you were in such a hurry to see the Princess, that you
could not wait to change your dress; and now you say you come in those
clothes because you have no others."

"And who are you?" says Prince Bulbo, very fiercely.

"My father was King of this country, and I am his only son, Prince!"
replies Giglio, with equal haughtiness.

"Ha," said the King and Glumboso, looking very flurried; but the former,
collecting himself, said, "Dear Prince Bulbo, I forgot to introduce to
your Royal Highness my dear nephew, his Royal Highness Prince Giglio!
Know each other! Embrace each other! Giglio, give His Royal Highness
your hand!" And Giglio, giving his hand, squeezed poor Bulbo's until
the tears ran out of his eyes. Glumboso now brought a chair for the
Royal visitor, and placed it on the platform on which the King, Queen,
and Prince were seated; but the chair was on the edge of the platform,
and as Bulbo sat down, it toppled over, and he with it, rolling over and
over, and bellowing like a bull. Giglio roared still louder at this
disaster, but it was with laughter, so did all the Court when Prince
Bulbo got up; for though when he entered the room he appeared not very
ridiculous, as he stood up from his fall, for a moment, he looked so
exceedingly plain and foolish that nobody could help laughing at him.
When he had entered the room, he was observed to carry a rose in his
hand, which fell out of it as he tumbled.

"My rose! my rose!" cried Bulbo, and his chamberlain dashed forward and
picked it up, and gave it to the Prince, who put it in his waistcoat.
Then people wondered why they had laughed; there was nothing
particularly ridiculous in him. He was rather short, rather stout,
rather redhaired, but, in fine, for a prince not so bad.

So they sat and talked, the royal personages together, the Crim Tartar
officers with those of Paflagonia--Giglio very comfortable with
Gruffanuff behind the throne. He looked at her with such tender eyes,
that her heart was all in a flutter. "Oh, dear Prince," she said, "how
could you speak so haughtily in presence of their Majesties? I protest,
I thought I should have fainted."

"I should have caught you in my arms," said Giglio, looking raptures.

"Why were you so cruel to Prince Bulbo, dear Prince?" says Gruff.

"Because I hate him," says Giglio.

"You are jealous of him, and still love poor Angelica," cries
Gruffanuff, putting her handkerchief to her eyes.

"I did, but I love her no more!" Giglio cries. "I despise her! Were she
heiress to twenty thousand thrones, I would despise her and scorn her.
But why speak of thrones? I have lost mine, I am too weak to recover
it--I am alone, and have no friend."

"Oh, say not so, dear Prince!" says Gruffanuff.

"Beside," says he, "I am so happy here _behind the throne_, that I would
not change my place, no, not for the throne of the world!"

"What are you two people chattering about there?" says the Queen, who
was rather good-natured, though not overburdened with wisdom. "It is
time to dress for dinner. Giglio, show Prince Bulbo to his room. Prince,
if your clothes have not come, we shall be very happy to see you as you
are." But when Prince Bulbo got to his bed-room, his luggage was there
and unpacked; and the hair-dresser coming in, cut and curled him
entirely to his own satisfaction; and when the dinner-bell rang, the
royal company had not to wait above five-and-twenty minutes until Bulbo
appeared, during which time the King, who could not bear to wait, grew
as sulky as possible. As for Giglio, he never left Madam Gruffanuff all
this time, but stood with her in the embrasure of a window, paying her
compliments. At length the groom of the chambers announced his Royal
Highness the Prince of Crim Tartary! and the noble company went into the
royal dining-room. It was quite a small party; only the King and Queen,
the Princess, whom Bulbo took out, the two Princes, Countess Gruffanuff,
Glumboso the Prime Minister and Prince Bulbo's Chamberlain. You may be
sure they had a very good dinner--let every boy or girl think of what he
or she likes best, and fancy it on the table.[4]

[Footnote 4: Here a very pretty game may be played by all the children
saying what they like best for dinner.]

The Princess talked incessantly all dinner-time to the Prince of Crimea
who ate an immense deal too much, and never took his eyes off his plate,
except when Giglio, who was carving a goose, sent a quantity of stuffing
and onion-sauce into one of them. Giglio only burst out a-laughing as
the Crimean Prince wiped his shirt-front and face with his scented
pocket-handkerchief. He did not make Prince Bulbo any apology. When the
Prince looked at him, Giglio would not look that way. When Prince Bulbo
said, "Prince Giglio, may I have the honour of taking a glass of wine
with you?" Giglio _wouldn't_ answer. All his talk and his eyes were for
Countess Gruffanuff, who, you may be sure, was pleased with Giglio's
attentions--the vain old creature! When he was not complimenting her, he
was making fun of Prince Bulbo, so loud that Gruffanuff was always
tapping him with her fan and saying, "Oh, you satirical Prince! Oh, fie
the Prince will hear!" "Well, I don't mind," says Giglio, louder still.
The King and Queen luckily did not hear for her Majesty was a little
deaf, and the King thought so much about his own dinner, and, beside,
made such a dreadful noise, hob-gobbling in eating it, that he heard
nothing else. After dinner, his Majesty and the Queen went to sleep in
their arm-chairs.

This was the time when Giglio began his tricks with Prince Bulbo, plying
that young gentleman with port, sherry, madeira, champagne, marsala,
cherry-brandy, and pale ale, of all of which Master Bulbo drank without
stint. But in plying his guest, Giglio was obliged to drink himself, and
I am sorry to say, took more than was good for him, so that the young
men were very noisy, rude, and foolish when they joined the ladies after
dinner: and dearly did they pay for that imprudence, as now, my
darlings, you shall hear!

Bulbo went and sat by the piano, where Angelica was playing and singing,
and he sang out of tune, and he upset the coffee when the footman
brought it, and he laughed out of place, and talked absurdly, and fell
asleep and snored horridly. Booh, the nasty pig! But as he lay there
stretched on the pink satin sofa, Angelica still persisted in thinking
him the most beautiful of human beings. No doubt the magic rose which
Bulbo wore caused this infatuation on Angelica's part; but is she the
first young woman who has thought a silly fellow charming?

Giglio must go and sit by Gruffanuff, whose old face he, too, every
moment began to find more lovely. He paid the most outrageous
compliments to her:--There never was such a darling. Older than he
was?--Fiddle-de-dee! He would marry her--he would have nothing but her!

To marry the heir to the throne! Here was a chance! The artful hussy
actually got a sheet of paper and wrote upon it, "This is to give notice
that I, Giglio, only son of Savio, King of Paflagonia, hereby promise to
marry the charming and virtuous Barbara Griselda Countess Gruffanuff,
and widow of the late Jenkins Gruffanuff, Esq."

"What is it you are writing, you dear Gruffy?" says Giglio, who was
lolling on the sofa by the writing-table.

"Only an order for you to sign, dear Prince, for giving coals and
blankets to the poor, this cold weather. Look! the King and Queen are
both asleep, and your Royal Highness' order will do."

So Giglio, who was very good-natured as Gruffy well knew, signed the
order immediately: and, when she had it in her pocket, you may fancy
what airs she gave herself. She was ready to flounce out of the room
before the Queen herself, as now she was the wife of the _rightful_ King
of Paflagonia! She would not speak to Glumboso, whom she thought a
brute, for depriving her _dear husband_ of the crown! And when candles
came, and she had helped to undress the Queen and Princess, she went
into her own room, and actually practiced, on a sheet of paper,
"Griselda Paflagonia," "Barbara Regina," "Griselda Barbara, Paf. Reg.,"
and I don't know what signatures beside, against the day when she should
be Queen forsooth!

Little Betsinda came in to put Gruffanuff's hair in papers, and the
Countess was so pleased, that, for a wonder, she complimented Betsinda.
"Betsinda!" she said, "you dressed my hair very nicely to-day; I
promised you a little present. Here are five sh--no, here is a pretty
little ring that I picked--that I have had some time." And she gave
Betsinda the ring she had picked up in the court. It fitted Betsinda

"It's like the ring the Princess used to wear," says the maid.

"No such thing," says Gruffanuff; "I have had it ever so long.
There--tuck me up quite comfortable: and now, as it's a very cold night"
(the snow was beating in at the window), "you may go and warm dear
Prince Giglio's bed, like a good girl, and then you may unrip my green
silk, and then you can just do me up a little cap for the morning, and
then you can mend that hole in my silk stocking, and then you can go to
bed, Betsinda. Mind, I shall want my cup of tea at five o'clock in the

"I suppose I had best warm both the young gentlemen's beds, ma'am?" says

Gruffanuff for reply said, "Hau-au-ho!--Grau-haw-hoo! Hong-hrho!" In
fact, she was snoring sound asleep.

Her room, you know, is next to the King and Queen, and the Princess is
next to them. So pretty Betsinda went away for the coals to the kitchen,
and filled the Royal warming-pan.

Now she was a very kind, merry, civil pretty girl; but there must have
been something very captivating about her this evening, for all the
women in the servants'-hall began to scold and abuse her. The
housekeeper said she was a pert, stuck-up thing: the upper-housemaid
asked, how dare she wear such ringlets and ribbons, it was quite
improper! The cook (for there was a woman-cook as well as a man-cook)
said to the kitchen-maid, that _she_ never could see anything in that
creetur: but as for the men, every one of them, Coachman, John, Buttons,
the page, and Monsieur the Prince of Crim Tartary's valet, started up
and said--

     "My eyes!  }
     "O mussy!  } what a pretty girl
     "O jemmany!} Betsinda is!"
     "O ciel!   }

"Hands off; none of your impertinence, you vulgar, low people!" says
Betsinda, walking off with her pan of coals. She heard the young
gentlemen playing at billiards as she went upstairs: first to Prince
Giglio's bed, which she warmed, and then to Prince Bulbo's room.

He came in just as she had done; and as soon as he saw her, "O! O! O! O!
O! O! what a beyou--oo--ootiful creature you are! You angel--you
Peri--you rosebud, let me be thy Bulbul--thy Bulbo, too! Fly to the
desert, fly with me! I never saw a young gazelle to glad me with its
dark blue eyes that had eyes like thine. Thou nymph of beauty, take,
take this young heart. A truer never did itself sustain within a
soldier's waistcoat. Be mine! Be mine! Be Princess of Crim Tartary! My
Royal Father will approve our union: and as for that carrotty-haired
Angelica, I do not care a fig for her any more."

"Go away, your Royal Highness, and go to bed, please," said Betsinda,
with the warming-pan.

But Bulbo said, "No, never, till thou swearest to be mine, thou lovely,
blushing chambermaid divine! Here, at thy feet the royal Bulbo lies, the
trembling captive of Betsinda's eyes."

And he went on making himself so _absurd and ridiculous_, that Betsinda,
who was full of fun, gave him a touch with the warming-pan, which, I
promise you, made him cry "O-o-o-o!" in a very different manner.

Prince Bulbo made such a noise that Prince Giglio, who heard him from
the next room, came in to see what was the matter. As soon as he saw
what was taking place, Giglio, in a fury, rushed on Bulbo, kicked him in
the rudest manner up to the ceiling, and went on kicking him till his
hair was quite out of curl.

Poor Betsinda did not know whether to laugh or to cry; the kicking must
certainly have hurt the Prince, but then he looked so droll! When Giglio
had done knocking him up and down to the ground, and whilst he went into
a corner rubbing himself, what do you think Giglio does? He goes down on
his own knees to Betsinda, takes her hand, begs her to accept his heart,
and offers to marry her that moment. Fancy Betsinda's condition, who had
been in love with the Prince ever since she first saw him in the palace
garden, when she was quite a little child.

"Oh, divine Betsinda!" says the Prince, "how have I lived fifteen years
in thy company without seeing thy perfections? What woman in all Europe,
Asia, Africa, and America--nay, in Australia, only it is not yet
discovered--can presume to be thy equal? Angelica? Pisch! Gruffanuff?
Phoo! The Queen? Ha, ha! Thou art my queen. Thou art the real Angelica,
because thou art really angelic."

"Oh, Prince! I am but a poor chambermaid," says Betsinda, looking,
however, very much pleased.

"Didst thou not tend me in my sickness, when all forsook me?" continues
Giglio. "Did not thy gentle hand smooth my pillow, and bring me jelly
and roast-chicken?"

"Yes, dear Prince, I did," says Betsinda, "and I sewed your Royal
Highness's shirt-buttons on too, if you please, your Royal Highness,"
cries this artless maiden.

When poor Prince Bulbo, who was now madly in love with Betsinda, heard
this declaration, when he saw the unmistakable glances which she flung
upon Giglio, Bulbo began to cry bitterly, and tore quantities of his
hair out of his head, till it all covered the room like so much tow.

Betsinda had left the warming-pan on the floor while the Princes were
going on with the conversation, and as they began now to quarrel and be
very fierce with one another, she thought proper to run away.

"You great big blubbering booby, tearing your hair in the corner there!
of course you will give me satisfaction for insulting Betsinda. _You_
dare to kneel down at Princess Giglio's knees, and kiss her hand!"

"She's not Princess Giglio," roars out Bulbo. "She shall be Princess
Bulbo, no other shall be Princess Bulbo."

"You are engaged to my cousin!" bellows out Giglio.

"I hate your cousin," says Bulbo.

"You shall give me satisfaction for insulting her!" cries Giglio in a

"I'll have your life."

"I'll run you through."

"I'll cut your throat."

"I'll blow your brains out."

"I'll knock your head off."

"I'll send a friend to you in the morning."

"I'll send a bullet into you in the afternoon."

"We'll meet again," says Giglio, shaking his fist in Bulbo's face; and
seizing up the warming-pan, he kissed it, because, forsooth, Betsinda
had carried it, and rushed down-stairs. What should he see on the
landing but his Majesty talking to Betsinda, whom he called by all sorts
of fond names. His Majesty had heard the row in the building, so he
stated, and smelling something burning, had come out to see what the
matter was.

"It's the young gentlemen smoking perhaps, sir," says Betsinda.

"Charming chambermaid," says the King (like all the rest of them),
"never mind the young men! Turn thy eyes on a middle-aged autocrat, who
has been considered not ill-looking in his time."

"Oh, sir! what will her Majesty say?" cries Betsinda.

"Her Majesty!" laughs the monarch. "Her Majesty be hanged! Am I not
Autocrat of Paflagonia? Have I not blocks, ropes, axes, hangmen--ha?
Runs not a river by my palace wall? Have I not sacks to sew up wives
withal? Say but the word, that thou wilt be mine own,--your mistress
straightway in a sack is sewn, and thou the sharer of my heart and

When Giglio heard these atrocious sentiments he forgot the respect
usually paid to Royalty, lifted up the warming-pan, and knocked down the
King as flat as a pancake; after which, Master Giglio took to his heels
and ran away, and Betsinda went off screaming, and the Queen,
Gruffanuff, and the Princess, all came out of their rooms. Fancy their
feelings on beholding husband, father, sovereign, in this posture.

As soon as the coals began to burn him, the King came to himself and
stood up. "Ho! my Captain of the Guards!" his Majesty exclaimed,
stamping his royal foot with rage. O piteous spectacle! the King's nose
was bent quite crooked by the blow of Prince Giglio! His Majesty ground
his teeth with rage. "Hedzoff," he said, taking a death-warrant out of
his dressing-gown pocket,--"Hedzoff, good Hedzoff, seize upon the
Prince. Thou'lt find him in his chamber two pair up. But now he dared,
with sacrilegious hand, to strike the sacred night-cap of a
king--Hedzoff, and floor me with a warming-pan! Away, no more demur, the
villain dies! See it be done, or else--h'm!--h'm--h'm! mind thine own
eyes!" And followed by the ladies, and lifting up the tails of his
dressing-gown, the King entered his own apartment.

Captain Hedzoff was very much affected, having a sincere love for
Giglio. "Poor, poor Giglio!" he said, the tears rolling over his manly
face, and dripping down his moustaches. "My noble young Prince, is it my
hand must lead thee to death?"

"Lead him to fiddlestick, Hedzoff," said a female voice. It was
Gruffanuff, who had come out in her dressing-gown when she heard the
noise. "The King said you were to hang the Prince. Well, hang the

"I don't understand you," said Hedzoff, who was not a very clever man.

"You Gaby! he didn't say _which_ Prince," said Gruffanuff.

"No; he didn't say which, certainly," says Hedzoff.

"Well, then, take Bulbo, and hang _him_!"

When Captain Hedzoff heard this, he began to dance about for joy.
"Obedience is a soldier's honour," says he. "Prince Bulbo's head will do
capitally;" and he went to arrest the Prince the very first thing, next

He knocked at the door. "Who's there?" says Bulbo. "Captain Hedzoff?
Step in, pray, my good Captain; I'm delighted to see you; I have been
expecting you."

"Have you?" says Hedzoff.

"Sleibootz, my Chamberlain, will act for me," says the Prince.

"I beg your Royal Highness' pardon, but you will have to act for
yourself, and it's a pity to wake Baron Sleibootz."

The Prince Bulbo still seemed to take the matter very coolly. "Of
course, Captain," says he, "you are come about that affair with Prince

"Precisely," says Hedzoff, "that affair of Prince Giglio."

"Is it to be pistols, or swords, Captain?" asks Bulbo. "I'm a pretty
good hand with both, and I'll do for Prince Giglio as sure as my name is
my Royal Highness Prince Bulbo."

"There's some mistake, my lord," says the Captain. "The business is done
with _axes_ among us."

"Axes? That's sharp work," says Bulbo. "Call my Chamberlain, he'll be my
second, and in ten minutes I flatter myself you'll see Master Giglio's
head off his impertinent shoulders. I'm hungry for his blood.
Hoo-oo-aw!" and he looked as savage as an ogre.

"I beg your pardon, sir, but by this warrant I am to take you prisoner,
and hand you over to--to the executioner."

"Pooh, pooh, my good man!--Stop, I say,--ho!--hulloa!" was all that this
luckless Prince was enabled to say: for Hedzoff's guards seizing him
tied a handkerchief over his mouth and face, and carried him to the
place of execution.

The King, who happened to be talking to Glumboso, saw him pass, and took
a pinch of snuff, and said, "So much for Giglio. Now let's go to

The Captain of the Guard handed over his prisoner to the Sheriff, with
the fatal order,

                         "VALOROSO XXIV."

"It's a mistake," says Bulbo, who did not seem to understand the
business in the least.

"Poo--poo--pooh," says the Sheriff. "Fetch Jack Ketch instantly. Jack

And poor Bulbo was led to the scaffold, where an executioner with a
block and a tremendous axe was always ready in case he should be wanted.

But we must now revert to Giglio and Betsinda.

Gruffanuff, who had seen what had happened with the King, and knew that
Giglio must come to grief, got up very early the next morning, and went
to devise some plans for rescuing her darling husband, as the silly old
thing insisted on calling him. She found him walking up and down the
garden, thinking of a rhyme for Betsinda (_tinder_ and _winda_ were all
he could find), and indeed having forgotten all about the past evening,
except that Betsinda was the most lovely of beings.

"Well, dear Giglio?" says Gruff.

"Well, dear Gruffy?" says Giglio, only _he_ was quite satirical.

"I have been thinking, darling, what you must do in this scrape. You
must fly the country for awhile."

"What scrape?--fly the country? Never without her I love, Countess,"
says Giglio.

"No, she will accompany you, dear Prince," she says in her most coaxing
accents. "First, we must get the jewels belonging to our royal parents,
and those of her and his present Majesty. Here is the key, duck; they
are all yours, you know, by right, for you are the rightful King of
Paflagonia, and your wife will be the rightful Queen of Paflagonia."

"Will she?" says Giglio.

"Yes, and having got the jewels, go to Glumboso's apartment, where,
under his bed, you will find sacks containing money to the amount of
£217,000,000,987,439 13_s._ 6-1/2_d._, all belonging to you, for he took
it out of your royal father's room on the day of his death. With this we
will fly."

"_We_ will fly?" says Giglio.

"Yes, you and your bride--your affianced love--your Gruffy!" says the
Countess, with a languishing leer.

"_You_ my bride!" says Giglio. "You, you hideous old woman!"

"Oh, you--you wretch! didn't you give me this paper promising marriage?"
cries Gruff.

"Get away, you old goose! I love Betsinda, and Betsinda only!" And in a
fit of terror he ran from her as quickly as he could.

"He! he! he!" shrieks out Gruff: "a promise is a promise, if there are
laws in Paflagonia! And as for that monster, that wretch, that fiend,
that ugly little vixen--as for that upstart, that ingrate, that beast
Betsinda, Master Giglio will have no little difficulty in discovering
her whereabouts. He may look very long before finding _her_, I warrant.
He little knows that Miss Betsinda is----"

Is--what? Now, you shall hear. Poor Betsinda got up at five in winter
morning to bring her cruel mistress her tea; and instead of finding her
in a good-humour, found Gruffy as cross as two sticks. The Countess
boxed Betsinda's ears half a dozen times whilst she was dressing; but as
poor little Betsinda was used to this kind of treatment, she did not
feel any special alarm. "And now," says she, "when her Majesty rings her
bell twice, I'll trouble you, miss, to attend."

So when the Queen's bell rang twice, Betsinda came to her Majesty and
made a pretty little courtesy. The Queen, the Princess, and Gruffanuff
were all three in the room. As soon as they saw her they began.

"You wretch!" says the Queen.

"You little vulgar thing!" says the Princess.

"You beast!" says Gruffanuff.

"Get out of my sight!" says the Queen.

"Go away with you, do!" says the Princess.

"Quit the premises!" says Gruffanuff.

Alas! and woe is me! very lamentable events had occurred to Betsinda
that morning, and all in consequence of that fatal warming-pan business
of the previous night. The King had offered to marry her; of course her
Majesty the Queen was jealous: Bulbo had fallen in love with her; of
course Angelica was furious; Giglio was in love with her, and oh, what a
fury Gruffy was in!

"Give her the rags she wore when she came into the house, and turn her
out of it!" cries the Queen.

"Mind she does not go with _my_ shoes on, which I lent her so kindly,"
says the Princess; and indeed the Princess' shoes were a great deal too
big for Betsinda.

"Come with me, you filthy hussy!" and taking up the Queen's poker the
cruel Gruffanuff drove Betsinda into her room.

The Countess went to the glass box in which she had kept Betsinda's old
cloak, and shoes this ever so long, and said, "Take those rags, you
little beggar creature, and strip off everything belonging to honest
people, and go about your business." And she actually tore off the poor
little delicate thing's back almost all her things, and told her to be
off out of the house.

Poor Betsinda huddled the cloak round her back, on which were
embroidered the letters PRIN ... ROSAL ... and then came a great rent.

As for the shoe, what was she to do with one poor little tootsey sandal?

The string was still to it, so she hung it round her neck.

"Won't you give me a pair of shoes to go out in the snow, mum, if you
please, mum?" cried the poor child.

"No, you wicked beast!" says Gruffanuff, driving her along with the
poker--driving her down the cold stairs--driving her through the cold
hall--flinging her out into the cold street, so that the knocker itself
shed tears to see her!

But a kind Fairy made the soft snow warm for her little feet, and she
wrapped herself up in the ermine of her mantle, and was gone!

"And now let us think about breakfast," says the greedy Queen.

"What dress shall I put on, mamma? the pink or the pea-green?" says
Angelica. "Which do you think the dear Prince will like best?"

"Mrs. V.!" sings out the King from his dressing-room, "let us have
sausages for breakfast! Remember we have Prince Bulbo staying with us!"

And they all went to get ready.

Nine o'clock came, and they were all in the breakfast room, and no
Prince Bulbo as yet. The urn was hissing and humming: the muffins were
smoking--such a heap of muffins! the eggs were done; there was a pot of
raspberry jam, and coffee, and a beautiful chicken and tongue on the
side-table. Marmatonio the cook brought in the sausages. Oh, how nice
they smelt!

"Where is Bulbo?" said the King.

"John, where is his Royal Highness?"

John said he had a took up his Roilighnessesses shaving-water, and his
clothes and things, and he wasn't in his room, which he sposed his
Royliness was just stepped hout.

"Stepped out before breakfast in the snow! Impossible!" says the King
sticking his fork into a sausage. "My dear, take one. Angelica, won't
you have a saveloy?" The Princess took one, being very fond of them; and
at this moment Glumboso entered with Captain Hedzoff, both looking very
much disturbed. "I am afraid your Majesty----" cries Glumboso. "No
business before breakfast, Glum!" says the King. "Breakfast first,
business next. Mrs. V., some more sugar!"

"Sire, I am afraid if we wait till after breakfast it will be too late,"
says Glumboso. "He--he--he'll be hanged half-past nine."

"Don't talk about hanging and spoil my breakfast, you unkind, vulgar man
you," cries the Princess. "John, some mustard. Pray who is it to be

"Sire, it is the Prince," whispers Glumboso to the King.

"Talk about business after breakfast, I tell you!" says His Majesty
quite sulky.

"We shall have a war, sire, depend on it," says the Minister. "His
father, King Padella...."

"His father, King _who_?" says the King. "King Padella is not Giglio's
father. My brother, King Savio, was Giglio's father."

"It's Prince Bulbo they are hanging, Sire, not Prince Giglio," says the
Prime Minister.

"You told me to hang the Prince, and I took the ugly one," says Hedzoff.
"I didn't, of course, think your Majesty intended to murder your own
flesh and blood!"

The King for reply flung the plate of sausages at Hedzoff's head. The
Princess cried out, "Hee-karee-ka-ree!" and fell down in a

"Turn the cock of the urn upon her Royal Highness," said the King, and
the boiling water gradually revived her. His Majesty looked at his
watch, compared it by the clock in the parlor, and by that of the church
in the square opposite; then he wound it up; then he looked at it again.
"The great question is," says he, "am I fast or am I slow? If I'm slow,
we may as well go on with breakfast. If I'm fast, why, there is just the
possibility of saving Prince Bulbo. It's a doosid awkward mistake, and
upon my word, Hedzoff, I have the greatest mind to have you hanged too."

"Sire, I did but my duty: a soldier has but his orders. I didn't expect,
after forty-seven years of faithful service, that my sovereign would
think of putting me to a felon's death!"

"A hundred thousand plagues upon you! Can't you see that while you are
talking my Bulbo is being hung?" screamed the Princess.

"By Jove! she's always right, that girl, and I'm so absent," says the
King, looking at his watch again. "Ha! Hark, there goes the drums! What
a doosid awkward thing, though!"

"O Papa, you goose! Write the reprieve, and let me run with it," cries
the Princess--and she got a sheet of paper, and pen and ink, and laid
them before the King.

"Confound it! Where are my spectacles?" the Monarch exclaimed.
"Angelica! Go up into my bedroom, look under my pillow, not your
mamma's; there you'll see my keys. Bring them down to me, and--Well,
well! what impetuous things these girls are!" Angelica was gone and had
run up panting to the bedroom and found the keys, and was back again
before the King had finished a muffin. "Now, love," says he, "you must
go all the way back for my desk, in which my spectacles are. If you
_would_ but have heard me out.... Be hanged to her! There she is off
again. Angelica! ANGELICA!" When his Majesty called in his _loud voice_,
she knew she must obey and come back.

"My dear, when you go out of a room, how often have I told you, _shut
the door_! That's a darling. That's all." At last the keys and the desk
and the spectacles were got, and the King mended his pen, and signed his
name to a reprieve, and Angelica ran with it as swift as the wind.
"You'd better stay, my love, and finish the muffins. There's no use
going. Be sure it's too late. Hand me over that raspberry jam, please,"
said the Monarch. "Bong! Bawong! There goes the half-hour. I knew it

Angelica ran, and ran, and ran, and ran. She ran up Fore street, and
down High street and through the Marketplace and down to the left, and
over the bridge and up the blind alley, and back again, and around by
the Castle, and so along by the haberdasher's on the right, opposite the
lamp-post, and around the square, and she came--she came to the
_Execution place_, where she saw Bulbo laying his head on the block!!!!
The executioneer raised his axe, but at that moment the Princess came
panting up and cried Reprieve. "Reprieve!" screamed the Princess.
"Reprieve!" shouted all the people. Up the scaffold stairs she sprang,
with the agility of a lighter of lamps; and flinging herself in Bulbo's
arms regardless of all ceremony, she cried out, "O my Prince! my lord!
my love! my Bulbo! Thine Angelica has been in time to save thy precious
existence, sweet rosebud; to prevent thy being nipped in thy young
bloom! Had aught befallen thee, Angelica too had died, and welcomed
death that joined her to her Bulbo."

"H'm! there's no accounting for taste," said Bulbo, looking so very much
puzzled and uncomfortable, that the Princess, in tones of tenderest
strain, asked the cause of his disquiet.

"I tell you what it is, Angelica," said he: "since I came here
yesterday, there has been such a row, and disturbance, and quarrelling,
and fighting, and chopping of heads off, and the deuce to pay, that I am
inclined to go back to Crim Tartary."

"But with me as thy bride, my Bulbo! Though wherever thou art is Crim
Tartary to me, my bold, my beautiful, my Bulbo!"

"Well, well, I suppose we must be married," says Bulbo. "Doctor, you
came to read the funeral service--read the marriage service, will you?
What must be, must. That will satisfy Angelica, and then in the name of
peace and quietness, do let us go back to breakfast."

Bulbo had carried a rose in his mouth all the time of the dismal
ceremony. It was a fairy rose, and he was told by his mother that he
ought never to part with it. So he had kept it between his teeth, even
when he laid his poor head upon the block, hoping vaguely that some
chance would turn up in his favour. As he began to speak to Angelica, he
forgot about the rose, and of course it dropped out of his mouth. The
romantic Princess instantly stooped and seized it. "Sweet Rose!" she
exclaimed, "that bloomed upon my Bulbo's lip, never, never will I part
from thee!" and she placed it in her bosom. And you know Bulbo
_couldn't_ ask her to give the rose back again. And they went to
breakfast; and as they walked it seemed to Bulbo that Angelica became
more exquisitely lovely every moment.

He was frantic until they were married; and now, strange to say, it was
Angelica who didn't care about him! He knelt down, he kissed her hand,
he prayed and begged; he cried with admiration; while she for her part
said she really thought they might wait; it seemed to her that he was
not handsome any more--no, not at all, quite the reverse; and not
clever, no very stupid; and not well-bred, like Giglio; no, on the
contrary, dreadfully vul----

What, I cannot say, for King Valoroso roared out "_Pooh_, stuff!" in a
terrible voice. "We will have no more of this shilly-shallying! Call the
Archbishop and let the Prince and Princess be married off-hand!"

So, married they were, and I am sure for my part I trust they will be


     In tattered old slippers that toast at the bars,
     And a ragged old jacket perfumed with cigars,
     Away from the world and its toils and its cares,
     I've a snug little kingdom up four pair of stairs.

     To mount to this realm is a toil, to be sure,
     But the fire there is bright and the air rather pure;
     And the view I behold on a sunshiny day
     Is grand through the chimney pots over the way.

     This snug little chamber is cramm'd in all nooks
     With worthless old knickknacks and silly old books,
     And foolish old odds and foolish old ends,
     Crack'd bargains from brokers, cheap keep-sakes from friends.

     Old armour, prints, pictures, pipes, china, (all crack'd,)
     Old rickety tables, and chairs broken-backed;
     A twopenny treasury, wondrous to see;
     What matters? 'tis pleasant to you, friend, and me.

     No better divan need the Sultan require,
     Than the creaking old sofa that basks by the fire;
     And 'tis wonderful, surely, what music you get
     From the rickety, ramshackle, wheezy spinet.

     That praying-rug came from a Turcoman's camp;
     By Tiber once twinkled that brazen old lamp;
     A mameluke fierce yonder dagger has drawn;
     'Tis a murderous knife to toast muffins upon.

     Long, long through the hours, and the night and the chimes,
     Here we talk of old books, and old friends and old times
     As we sit in a fog made out of rich Letakie
     This chamber is pleasant to you, friend, and me.

     But of all the cheap treasures that garnish my nest,
     There's one that I love and I cherish the best:
     For the finest of coaches that's padded with hair
     I never would change thee, my cane-bottom'd chair.

     'Tis a bandy-legg'd, high-shoulder'd worm-eaten seat,
     With a creaking old back and twisted old feet;
     But since the fair morning when Fanny sat there,
     I bless thee and love thee, old cane-bottom'd chair.

     If chairs have but feeling, in holding such charms,
     A thrill must have pass'd through your wither'd old arms!
     I look'd and I long'd and I wish'd in despair;
     I wish'd myself turn'd to a cane-bottom'd chair.

     It was but a moment she sat in this place,
     She'd a scarf on her neck, and a smile on her face!
     A smile on her face, and a rose in her hair,
     And she sat there and bloom'd in my cane-bottom'd chair.

     And so I have valued my chair ever since,
     Like the shrine of a saint, or the throne of a prince;
     Saint Fanny, my patroness sweet I declare,
     The queen of my heart and my cane-bottom'd chair.

     When the candles burn low, and the company's gone,
     In the silence of night as I sit here alone--
     I sit here alone, but we yet are a pair--
     My Fanny I see in my cane-bottom'd chair.

     She comes from the past and revisits my room;
     She looked as she did, all beauty and bloom;
     So smiling and tender, so fresh and so fair,
     And yonder she sits in my cane-bottom'd chair.


     There lived a sage in days of yore
     And he a handsome pigtail wore;
     But wondered much and sorrowed more
         Because it hung behind him.

     He mused upon this curious case,
     And swore he'd change the pigtail's place,
     And have it hanging at his face,
         Not dangling there behind him.

     Says he, "The mystery I've found,--
     I'll turn me round,"--he turned him round,
         But still it hung behind him.

     Then round and round, and out and in,
     All day the puzzled sage did spin
     In vain--it mattered not a pin--,
         The pigtail hung behind him.

     And right, and left, and round about,
     And up, and down, and in and out,
     He turned; but still the pigtail stout
         Hung steadily behind him.

     And though his efforts never slack,
     And though he twist, and twirl, and tack,
     Alas! still faithful to his back
         The pigtail hangs behind him.


     I seem, in the midst of the crowd,
       The lightest of all;
     My laughter rings cheery and loud,
       In banquet and ball.
     My lip hath its smiles and its sneers,
       For all men to see;
     But my soul, and my truth, and my tears,
       Are for thee, are for thee!

     Around me they flatter and fawn--
       The young and the old.
     The fairest are ready to pawn
       Their hearts for my gold.
     They sue me--I laugh as I spurn
       The slaves at my knee;
     But in faith and in fondness I turn
       Unto thee, unto thee!


AIR--"_Il y avait un petit navire._"

     There were three sailors of Bristol city
       Who took a boat and went to sea.
     But first with beef and captain's biscuits,
       And pickled pork they loaded she.

     There was gorging Jack and guzzling Jimmy,
       And the youngest he was little Billee.
     Now when they got as far as the Equator
       They'd nothing left but one split pea.

     Says gorging Jack to guzzling Jimmy,
       "I am extremely hungaree."
     To gorging Jack says guzzling Jimmy,
       "We've nothing left, us must eat we."

     Says gorging Jack to guzzling Jimmy,
       "With one another we shouldn't agree!
     There's little Bill, he's young and tender,
       We're old and tough, so let's eat he.

     "Oh! Billy, we're going to kill and eat you,
       So undo the button of your chemie."
     When Bill received this information
       He used his pocket handkerchie.

     "First let me say my catechism,
       Which my poor mammy taught to me."
     "Make haste, make haste," says guzzling Jimmy,
       While Jack pulled out his snickersnee.

     So Billy went up to the main-top gallant mast,
       And down he fell on his bended knee.
     He scarce had come to the twelfth commandment
       When up he jumps. "There's land I see:

     "Jerusalem and Madagascar,
       And North and South Amerikee:
     There's the British flag a riding at anchor,
       With Admiral Napier, K.C.B."

     So when they got aboard of the Admiral's
       He hanged fat Jack and flogged Jimmee;
     But as for little Bill he made him
       The Captain of a Seventy-three.


     Beside the old hall-fire, upon my nurse's knee,
     Of happy fairy days what tales were told to me!
     I thought the world was once all peopled with princesses,
     And my heart would beat to hear their loves and
     their distresses;
     And many a quiet night, in slumber sweet and deep,
     The pretty fairy people would visit me in sleep.

     I saw them in my dreams come flying east and west,
     With wondrous fairy gifts the new-born babe they bless'd;
     One has brought a jewel and one a crown of gold,
     And one has brought a curse--but she is wrinkled and old.
     The gentle queen turns pale to hear those words of sin,
     But the king he only laughs and bids the dance begin.

     The babe has grown to be the fairest of the land,
     And rides the forest green, a hawk upon her hand;
     An ambling palfrey white, a golden robe and crown,
     I've seen her in my dreams, riding up and down,
     And heard the ogre laugh, as she fell into his snare,
     At the little tender creature who wept and tore her hair.

     But ever when it seemed her need was at the sorest,
     A prince in shining mail comes prancing through the forest,
     A waving ostrich-plume, a buckler burnished bright;
     I've seen him in my dreams--good sooth! a gallant knight.
     His lips are coral-red beneath a dark moustache;
     See how he waves his hand and how his blue eyes flash!

     "Come forth, thou Paynim knight!" he shouts in accents clear.
     The giant and the maid both tremble his voice to hear.
     Saint Mary guard him well!--he draws his falchion keen,
     The giant and the knight are fighting on the green.
     I see them in my dreams, his blade gives stroke on stroke.
     The giant pants and reels, and tumbles like an oak!

     With what a blushing grace he falls upon his knee
     And takes the lady's hand and whispers, "You are free!"
     Ah! happy childish tales of knight and faërie!
     I waken from my dreams, but there's ne'er a knight for me;
     I waken from my dreams and wish that I could be
     A child by the old hall-fire upon my nurse's knee!



     "Coming from a gloomy court,
     Place of Israelite resort,
     This old lamp I've brought with me.
     Madam, on its panes you'll see
     The initials K. and E."

     "An old lantern brought to me?
     Ugly, dingy, battered, black!"
     (Here a lady I suppose
     Turning up a pretty nose)--
     "Pray, sir, take the old thing back,
     I've no taste for bric-à-brac."

     "Please to mark the letters twain"--
     (I'm supposed to speak again)--
     "Graven on the lantern pane.
     Can you tell me who was she,
     Mistress of the flowery wreath,
     And the anagram beneath--
     The mysterious K. E.?

     "Full a hundred years are gone
     Since the little beacon shone
     From a Venice balcony:
     There, on summer nights, it hung,
     And her lovers came and sung
     To their beautiful K. E.

     "Hush! in the canal below
     Don't you hear the splash of oars
     Underneath the lantern's glow,
     And a thrilling voice begins
     To the sound of mandolins?--
     Begins singing of amore,
     And delire and dolore--
     O the ravishing tenore!

     "Lady, do you know the tune?
     Ah, we all of us have hummed it!
     I've an old guitar has thrummed it,
     Under many a changing moon.
     Shall I try it? Do re Mi * * * * *
     What is this? _Ma foi_, the fact is,
     That my hand is out of practice,
     And my poor old fiddle cracked is,
     And a man--I let the truth out--
     Who's had almost every tooth out,
     Cannot sing as once he sung,
     When he was young as you are young,
     When he was young and lutes were strung,
     And love-lamps in the casement hung."


     Seventeen rose-buds in a ring,
         Thick with sister flowers beset,
         In a fragrant coronet,
     Lucy's servants this day bring.
       Be it the birthday wreath she wears
     Fresh and fair, and symbolling
       The young number of her years,
     The sweet blushes of her spring.

     Types of youth and love and hope!
         Friendly hearts your mistress greet,
         Be you ever fair and sweet,
     And grow lovelier as you ope!
       Gentle nursling, fenced about
     With fond care, and guarded so,
       Scarce you've heard of storms without,
     Frosts that bite, or winds that blow!

     Kindly has your life begun,
         And we pray that heaven may send
         To our floweret a warm sun,
     A calm summer, a sweet end.
       And where'er shall be her home,
     May she decorate the place;
       Still expending into bloom,
     And developing in grace.



     As on this pictured page I look,
     This pretty tale of line and hook
     As though it were a novel-book
         Amuses and engages:
     I know them both, the boy and girl;
     She is the daughter of the Earl,
     The lad (that has his hair in curl)
         My lord the County's page is.

     A pleasant place for such a pair!
     The fields lie basking in the glare;
     No breath of wind the heavy air
         Of lazy summer quickens.
     Hard by you see the castle tall;
     The village nestles round the wall,
     As round about the hen its small
         Young progeny of chickens.

     It is too hot the pace to keep;
     To climb the turret is too steep;
     My lord the earl is dozing deep,
         His noonday dinner over.
     The postern-warder is asleep
     (Perhaps they've bribed him not to peep);
     And so from out the gate they creep,
         And cross the fields of clover.

     Their lines into the brook they launch;
     He lays his cloak upon a branch,
     To guarantee his Lady Blanche
         's delicate complexion:
     He takes his rapier from his haunch,
     That beardless doughty champion staunch;
     He'd drill it through the rival's paunch
         That question'd his affection!

     O heedless pair of sportsmen slack!
     You never mark, though trout or jack,
     Or little foolish stickleback,
         Your baited snares may capture.
     What care has _she_ for line or hook?
     She turns her back upon the brook,
     Upon her lover's eyes to look
         In sentimental rapture.

     O loving pair! as thus I gaze
     Upon the girl who smiles always,
     The little hand that ever plays
         Upon the lover's shoulder;
     In looking at your pretty shapes,
     A sort of envious wish escapes
     (Such as the Fox had for the Grapes)
         The Poet your beholder.

     To be brave, handsome, twenty-two;
     With nothing else on earth to do.
     But all day long to bill and coo:
         It were a pleasant calling.
     And had I such a partner sweet;
     A tender heart for mine to beat,
     A gentle hand my clasp to meet;
     I'd let the world flow at my feet,
         And never heed its brawling.


     Wearied arm and broken sword
       Wage in vain the desperate fight:
     Round him press a countless horde,
       He is but a single knight.
     Hark! a cry of triumph shrill
       Through the wilderness resounds,
       As, with twenty bleeding wounds,
     Sinks the warrior, fighting still.

     Now they heap the fatal pyre,
       And the torch of death they light
     Oh! 'tis hard to die of fire!
       Who will shield the captive knight?
     Round the stake with fiendish cry
       Wheel and dance the savage crowd,
       Cold the victim's mien, and proud,
     And his breast is bared to die.

     Who will shield the fearless heart?
       Who avert the murderous blade?
     From the throng, with sudden start,
       See there springs an Indian maid!
     Quick she stands before the knight,
       "Loose the chain, unbind the ring,
       I am daughter of the king,
     And I claim the Indian right!"

     Dauntless aside she flings
       Lifted axe and thirsty knife;
     Fondly to his heart she clings,
       And her bosom guards his life!
     In the woods of Powhattan,
       Still 'tis told by Indian fires,
       How a daughter of their sires
     Saved the captive Englishman.

Transcribers Notes: The italic formatting is indicated by _word_. Bold
font is indicated by =word=. There were a few printer's errors which
have been corrected. An advertisement originally located at the
beginning of the book, has been moved to the end.


    Size 10 × 18. Printed on Artist Proof Paper. First impressions.
    =Colored by hand.=

    Suitable for a parlor, study, hall-way; in fact, beautiful on any


    for =ONE= copy of this picture to each purchaser of "EVERY GIRL'S
    LIBRARY." Just send 12 cents in stamps for packing and mailing
    expenses with the attached coupon.

    As "Every Girl's Library" is sold at all bookstores and by mail,
    it is impossible for us to know everyone who has purchased a set
    of these beautiful books, but we, as publishers, want =EVERY
    OWNER= of this set of books to have the beautiful picture
    "Engaged" which goes with this set--and of course we must trust
    you not to order more than one copy, although we bind this coupon
    page in with each volume, so that you will be sure to see it at
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    Please do not send for more than one copy. It is absolutely
    necessary to fill out the coupon below.

    THE PEARSON PUBLISHING CO., 425-435 E. 24th St., New York City.

    Enclosed find 12 cents in stamps. Please send me free of charge
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    I purchased "Every Girl's Library" from (Name the store or



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