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Title: The Archaeology of the Yakima Valley
Author: Smith, Harlan Ingersoll, 1872-1940
Language: English
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  ANTHROPOLOGICAL PAPERS

  OF THE

  American Museum of Natural
  History.

  Vol. VI, Part I.

  THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE YAKIMA VALLEY.

  BY

  HARLAN I. SMITH.

  NEW YORK:
  Published by Order of the Trustees.
  June, 1910.



  ANTHROPOLOGICAL PAPERS

  OF THE

  AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

  VOL. VI, PART I.



  THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE YAKIMA VALLEY.

  BY HARLAN I. SMITH.



CONTENTS.


                                                                  PAGE

  INTRODUCTION                                                       7

  GEOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION                                           9

  ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES                                              11

  RESOURCES                                                         21

  THE SECURING OF FOOD                                              23
    Points Chipped out of Stone                                     23
    Points Rubbed out of Stone                                      26
    Points Rubbed out of Bone                                       27
    Bows                                                            29
    Snares                                                          29
    Notched Sinkers                                                 30
    Grooved Sinkers                                                 30
    Shell Heaps                                                     34
    Digging Sticks                                                  35
    Basketry                                                        35

  PREPARATION OF FOOD                                               36
    Mortars                                                         36
    Pestles                                                         39
    Rollers                                                         47
    Fish Knives                                                     50
    Fire Making                                                     50
    Caches                                                          51
    Boiling                                                         51

  HABITATIONS                                                       51
    Semi-subterranean House Sites                                   51
    Circles of Stones (Summer House Sites)                          55

  TOOLS USED BY MEN                                                 57
    Wedges                                                          57
    Hammerstones                                                    58
    Celts                                                           62
    Hand-Adze                                                       64
    Whetstones                                                      65
    Drills                                                          66
    Scrapers                                                        67
    Arrow-shaft Smoothers                                           69

  TOOLS USED BY WOMEN                                               69
    Scrapers Chipped from Stone                                     69
    Scrapers Rubbed from Bone                                       71
    Awls Rubbed from Bone                                           71
    Needles                                                         72
    Mat-Pressers                                                    73

  PROCESSES OF MANUFACTURE                                          74

  LIFE HISTORIES OF MANUFACTURED OBJECTS                            74

  WAR                                                               75
    Implements used in Warfare                                      75
    Grooved Pebbles, Club-Heads, or Sinkers                         75
    Stone Clubs                                                     76
    'Slave-Killers'                                                 80
    War Costume                                                     82
    Fortifications                                                  82
    Wounds                                                          82

  DRESS AND ADORNMENT                                               83
    Skins                                                           83
    Matting                                                         84
    Ornaments                                                       87
    Combs                                                           87
    Beads                                                           88
    Dentalium Shells                                                90
    Pendants                                                        92
    Bracelets                                                       99
    A Costumed Human Figure                                        100
    Deformation                                                    105

  GAMES, AMUSEMENTS, AND NARCOTICS                                 105
    Games                                                          105
    Narcotics                                                      106

  ART                                                              117
    Paintings                                                      119
    Petroglyphs                                                    121
    Incised Designs                                                124
    Notches                                                        130
    Circle and Dot Designs                                         130
    Pecked Grooves                                                 132
    Animal and Human Forms                                         132
    Coast Art                                                      136

  METHOD OF BURIAL                                                 138
    Burials in Domes of Volcanic Ash                               138
    Rock-slide Graves                                              139
    Cremation Circles                                              142
    Position of the Body                                           142
    Property with the Dead                                         142
    Horse Sacrifices                                               143
    Diseases                                                       143

  CONCLUSION                                                       143

  BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                     149

  APPENDIX                                                         152



ILLUSTRATIONS.


PLATES.

     I. Chipped Points. Fig. 1 (Museum No. 202-8333), length 21 cm.;
        Fig. 2 (202-8338); Fig. 3 (202-8334).

    II. Chipped Points. Fig. 1 (Museum No. 202-8115), length 3.8 cm.;
        Fig. 2 (202-8169 A); Fig. 3 (202-8196 A); Fig. 4 (202-8196 B);
        Fig. 5 (202-8142); Fig. 6 (202-8397); Fig. 7 (202-8366); Fig. 8
        (202-8363); Fig. 9 (202-8368); Fig. 10 (202-8361); Fig. 11
        (202-8359); Fig. 12 (202-8222); Fig. 13 (202-8203): Fig. 14
        (202-8360).

   III. Quarry near Naches River.
        House Site near Naches River.

    IV. House Sites near Naches River.

     V. Camp Sites near Sentinal Bluffs.

    VI. Fort near Rock Creek.
        Rock-Slide Grave on Yakima Ridge.

   VII. Terraced Rock-Slide on Yakima Ridge.

  VIII. Rock-Slide Graves on Yakima Ridge.

    IX. Cremation Circle near Mouth of Naches River.
        Grave in Dome of Volcanic Ash near Tampico.

     X. Opened Grave in Dome of Volcanic Ash near Tampico.

    XI. Petroglyphs near Sentinal Bluffs.

   XII. Petroglyphs in Selah Canon.

  XIII. Petroglyph in Selah Canon.
        Petroglyph near Wallula Junction.

   XIV. Pictographs at Mouth of Cowiche Creek.

    XV. Pictographs at Mouth of Cowiche Creek.

   XVI. Pictographs at Mouth of Cowiche Creek.


TEXT FIGURES.
                                                                   PAGE.

    1. Chipped Point made of Chalcedony                               24
    2. Chipped Point made of Chalcedony                               25
    3. Chipped Point made of White Chalcedony                         25
    4. Serrated Chipped Point made of Petrified Wood                  25
    5. Chipped Point made of Obsidian                                 26
    6. Fragment of a leaf-shaped Point made of Chert                  26
    7. Point made of Bone                                             28
    8. Point made of Bone                                             28
    9. Scorched Point made of Bone                                    28
   10. Point made of Bone                                             28
   11. Point or Barb made of Bone                                     28
   12. Point or Barb made of Bone                                     28
   13. Net Sinkers made of Pebbles                                    31
   14. Sinker, a Grooved Boulder bearing a Design in Intaglio         31
   15. Sinker, a Grooved Boulder bearing a Design in Intaglio         33
   16. Sinker, a Perforated Boulder                                   33
   17. Fragment of Basket of Splint Foundation and Bifurcated Stitch  35
   18. Fragment of a Mortar made of Stone                             35
   19. Mortar made of Stone                                           37
   20. Mortar made of Stone                                           38
   21. Pestle made of Stone                                           40
   22. Pestle pecked from Stone                                       40
   23. Pestle pecked from Stone                                       40
   24. Pestle made of Stone                                           42
   25. Pestle made of Stone                                           42
   26. Pestle made of Stone                                           44
   27. Pestle made of Stone                                           44
   28. Pestle made of Stone                                           44
   29. Pestle made of Stone                                           46
   30. Pestle made of Sandstone                                       46
   31. Pestle made of Stone                                           46
   32. Pestle made of Stone                                           48
   33. Pestle made of Stone                                           48
   34. Pestle made of Stone                                           48
   35. Pestle made of Steatite                                        49
   36. Pestle or Roller made of Stone                                 49
   37. Pestle or Roller made of Stone                                 49
   38. Fragment of Hearth of Fire Drill                               50
   39. Wedge made of Antler                                           57
   40. Hammerstone                                                    59
   41. Hammerstone                                                    60
   42. Hammerstone made of a Hard, Water-worn Pebble                  60
   43. Hammerstone                                                    60
   44. Hammerstone made of a Close-Grained Yellow Volcanic Pebble     62
   45. Celt made of Serpentine                                        62
   46. Hand-Adze made of Stone                                        64
   47. Point for a Drill, chipped from Chalcedony                     66
   48. Point for a Drill, chipped from Chert                          66
   49. Scraper chipped from Petrified Wood                            68
   50. Scraper chipped from Agate                                     68
   51. Scraper chipped from Chalcedony                                68
   52. Scraper chipped from Chalcedony                                68
   53. Scraper chipped from a Flat Circular Pebble                    70
   54. Scraper or Knife chipped from a Pebble                         70
   55. Scraper or Knife chipped from a Pebble                         71
   56. Awl made of Bone                                               72
   57. Awl made of Bone                                               72
   58. Spatulate Object made of Bone                                  72
   59_a_. Object made of Steatite, probably a Mat Presser.
     _b_. Part of Incised Pictograph on Object shown in _a_           73
   60. Grooved Pebble                                                 76
   61. Club-head or Sinker made of Lava                               76
   62. Club made of Serpentine                                        77
   63. Club made of Serpentine                                        77
   64. Club made of Stone                                             79
   65. Club made of Stone                                             79
   66. Club made of Stone                                             79
   67. Club made of Stone                                             81
   68. Club made of Stone                                             81
   69. War Implement or Slave Killer, made of Friable Stone           81
   70. Diagram of Stitch of Fragment of Rush Matting                  84
   71_a_. Fragment of Matting, made of Twined Rush stitched
       together with twisted Cord.
     _b_ Diagram of Stitch of _a_                                     85
   72. Fragment of Open-Twine Matting, made of Rush                   87
   73. Comb made of Antler                                            88
   74. Beads made of Copper, Glass and Sections of Dentalium Shells   89
   75. Bead made of Brass                                             90
   76. Beads made of Shell                                            90
   77. Drilled and Perforated Disk made of Slate                      92
   78. Pendant made of Copper, Thong and Copper Bead                  92
   79. Button made of Shell with Attached Bead made of Metal          92
   80. Perforated Disk made of Bone                                   92
   81. Pendants made of Slate                                         93
   82. Pendant made of Copper                                         95
   83. Pendant made of Copper                                         95
   84. Pendant made of Brass and Bead made of Copper                  95
   85. Pendant made of Iron                                           96
   86. Pendant made of Iron                                           96
   87. Pendant or Bead made of an Olivella Shell                      96
   88. Pendant made of (_Pectunculus_) Shell                          96
   89. Pendant made of Iridescent Shell                               98
   90. Pendant made of (_Haliotis_) Shell                             98
   91. Pendant made of (_Haliotis_) Shell                             98
   92. Pendant or Nose Ornament, made of (_Haliotis_) Shell           98
   93. Pendant made of Shell                                          99
   94. Pendant made of Oyster Shell                                   99
   95. Bracelet made of Copper                                       100
   96. Bracelet made of Iron                                         100
   97. Bone Tube                                                     106
   98. Bone Tube bearing Incised Lines, Charred                      106
   99. Perforated Cylinder made of Steatite                          106
  100. Tubular Pipe made of Steatite                                 106
  101. Tubular Pipe made of Green Stone with Stem                    107
  102. Pipe made of Steatite used by the Thompson River Indians
       at Spences Bridge in 1895                                     109
  103. Form of the Flange-Shaped Mouth of the Bowl of some
       Thompson River Indian Pipes                                   109
  104. Tubular Pipe made of Steatite                                 112
  105. Fragment of a Sculptured Tubular Pipe made of Steatite        112
  106. Pipe made of Limestone                                        112
  107. Pipe made of Sandstone                                        112
  108. Pipe made of Bluestone                                        112
  109. Pipe made of Stone                                            112
  110. Pipe made of Soft Sandstone                                   114
  111. Pipe made of Steatite                                         114
  112. Pipe made of Soft Sandstone                                   114
  113. Pipe made of Steatite                                         116
  114_a_. Incised Design on a Fragment of a Wooden Bow.
     _b_ Section of Fragment of Bow shown in _a_                     125
  115. Incised Design on Bowl of Pipe shown in Fig. 107              126
  116. Incised Design on Stone Dish                                  126
  117. Incised Designs on Dentalium Shells                           126
  118. Incised Designs on Dentalium Shells                           126
  119. Incised Pendant made of Steatite with Red Paint (Mercury)
       in some of the Holes and Lines                                127
  120. Circle and Dot Design on Whetstone made of Slate              133
  121. Costumed Human Figure made of Antler                          133
  122. Quill-flattener made of Antler                                133
  123. Fragments of a Figure                                         133
  124. Fragment of a Sculpture with Hoof-like Part                   134
  125. Sculptured Animal Form made of Lava                           134
  126. Handle of Digging Stick made of Horn of Rocky Mountain Sheep  135
  127. Pipe made of Stone                                            136
  128. Sculptured and Inlaid Pipe made of Steatite with Wooden Stem  137
  129. Sketch Map of the Yakima Valley                               152



INTRODUCTION.


The following pages contain the results of archaeological investigations
carried on by the writer for the American Museum of Natural History from
May to August, 1903,[1] in the Yakima Valley between Clealum of the
forested eastern slope of the Cascade Mountains and Kennewick, between
the mouths of the Yakima and Snake Rivers in the treeless arid region,
and in the Columbia Valley in the vicinity of Priest Rapids. My
preliminary notes on the archaeology of this region were published in
Science.[2] Definite age cannot be assigned to the archaeological finds,
since here, as to the north, the remains are found at no great depth or
in soil the surface of which is frequently shifted. Some of the graves
are known to be of modern Indians, but many of them antedate the advent
of the white race in this region or at least contain no objects of
European manufacture, such as glass beads or iron knives. On the other
hand, there was found no positive evidence of the great antiquity of any
of the skeletons, artifacts or structures found in the area. The greater
part of the area was formerly inhabited by Sahaptian speaking people,
including the Yakima, Atanum, Topinish, Chamnapum, and Wanapum, while
the northern part of it was occupied by the Piskwans or Winatshmpui of
the Salish linguistic stock.[3]

    [1] A brief report of the operations of this expedition appeared in
    the American Museum Journal, Vol. IV, No. 1, pp. 12-14, January,
    1904. It was slightly revised and appeared in Science N. S. Vol.
    XIX, No. 484, pp. 579-580, April 8, 1904, and Records of the Past,
    Vol. IV, Part 4, pp. 119-127, April 1905.

    [2] N. S. Vol. XXIII, No. 588, p. 551-555, April 6, 1906. Reprinted
    in the Seattle Post Intelligencer for March, 1906, the Scientific
    American Supplement, Vol. LXII, No. 1602, September 15, 1906, and in
    the Washington Magazine, Vol. I, No. 4, June 1906. Abstracted in the
    Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, May, 1906.

    [3] Mooney, Plate LXXXVIII

Near North Yakima we examined graves in the rock-slides along the Yakima
and Naches Rivers; a site, where material, possibly boulders, suitable
for chipped implements had been dug and broken with pebble hammers, on
the north side of the Naches about one mile above its mouth; pictographs
on the basaltic columns on the south side of the Naches River to the
west of the mouth of Cowiche Creek; petroglyphs pecked into basaltic
columns in Selah Canon; ancient house sites on the north side of the
Naches River near its mouth, and on the north side of the Yakima River
below the mouth of the Naches; remains of human cremations, each
surrounded by a circle of rocks on the point to the northwest of the
junction of the Naches and Yakima Rivers; recent rock-slide graves on
the eastern side of the Yakima River above Union Gap below Old Yakima
(Old Town); the surface along the eastern side of the Yakima River, as
far as the vicinity of Sunnyside; graves in the domes of volcanic ash in
the Ahtanum Valley near Tampico; and rock-slide graves in the Cowiche
Valley.

We then moved our base about thirty miles up the Yakima River to
Ellensburg, Mr. Albert A. Argyle examining the surface along the western
side, en route. From Ellensburg, rock-slide graves and human remains,
surrounded by circles of rocks, as well as a village site upon the
lowland, were examined near the mouth of Cherry Creek. A day spent at
Clealum failed to develop anything of archaeological interest in that
vicinity, except that a human skeleton had been removed in the sinking
of a shaft for a coal mine.

From Ellensburg we went to Fort Simcoe by way of North Yakima and near
the Indian Agency observed circles of rocks, like those around the
cremated human remains near North Yakima, and a circular hole surrounded
by a ridge, the remains of an underground house. Crossing the divide
from Ellensburg and going down to Priest Rapids in the Columbia Valley,
no archaeological remains were observed except chips of stone suitable
for chipped implements which were found on the eastern slope of the
divide near the top and apparently marked the place where material for
such implements, probably float quartz, had been quarried. On the
western side of the Columbia, on the flat between Sentinal Bluffs and
the river at the head of Priest Rapids, considerable material was found.
This was on the surface of the beach opposite the bluffs and on a
village site near the head of Priest Rapids. Graves in the rock-slides,
back from the river about opposite this site, were also examined. Some
modern graves were noticed in a low ridge near the river, a short
distance above the village site. Crossing the Columbia, some material
was found on the surface of the beach and further up, petroglyphs pecked
in the basaltic rocks at the base of Sentinal Bluffs were photographed.

The writer wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. D. W. Owen of
Kennewick for information, for permission to examine his collection, to
make notes and sketches of specimens in it, and for presenting certain
specimens;[4] to Mr. Frank N. McCandless of Tacoma for permission to
study and photograph the specimens[5] in his collection containing part
of the York collection in the Ferry Museum, City Hall, Tacoma; to Mr.
Louis O. Janeck of 415 North 2nd. St., North Yakima for information and
for permission to study and photograph the specimens[6] in his
collection as well as for supplementary information since received from
him; to Hon. Austin Mires of Ellensburg for information and permission
to study and photograph specimens[7] in his collection; to Mrs. O.
Hinman of Ellensburg for permission to photograph specimens[8] in her
collection; to Mrs. J. B. Davidson of Ellensburg for information and
permission to study her collection and to make drawings of specimens[9]
in it, and for the pipe shown in Fig. 106; to Mr. W. H. Spalding of
Ellensburg for permission to photograph specimens[10] in his collection;
to Mrs. Jay Lynch of Fort Simcoe, for information and permission to
photograph specimens[11] in her collection; to Mr. W. Z. York of Old
Yakima for permission to sketch and study specimens[12] in his
collection, and to others credited specifically in the following pages.
The accompanying drawings are by Mr. R. Weber and the photographs are by
the author, unless otherwise credited.

    [4] See Figs. 10, 39, 42, 56, 57, 107 and 124.

    [5] See Figs. 35, 45, 79, 100 and 113.

    [6] See Figs. 19, 20, 27, 28, 31, 33, 34, 46, 58, 60, 61, 63, 64,
    65, 66, 67, 69, 81, 108, 109, 120 and 125.

    [7] See Figs. 4, 5, 14, 15, 16, 24, 25, 32 and 44.

    [8] See Figs. 30, 36 and 116.

    [9] See Figs. 8, 47 and 106; see also p. 25.

    [10] See Figs. 11 and 59.

    [11] See Figs. 73, 119, 127 and 128.

    [12] See Figs. 26, 29, 104, 110, 111 and 112.



GEOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION.


Clealum is situated on the Yakima River, at a point on the Northern
Pacific Railway, 122 miles east of the humid, heavily forested coast at
Puget Sound. Although situated not over 154 miles from Copalis, on the
ocean at the western edge or furthest limit of the temperate humid coast
country, the summers are hot and dry and the winters severe. It is 1909
feet above the sea level and far enough towards the summit of the
Cascade Mountains, that marks the line between the humid coast and the
arid almost treeless interior, to find considerable moisture and many
trees.

Ellensburg is situated near the eastern side of the Yakima River, 25
miles below Clealum, at an altitude of 1512 feet above the sea level and
in the wide somewhat flat Kittitas Valley which was, in former geologic
times, a lake bottom. The river flows rapidly and its low banks at
places are high enough to form gravel bluffs. The surrounding country is
arid and there is no natural forest growth.

Cherry Creek, one of a number of small streams on this side of the
river, flows through the eastern part of this valley, and empties into
the Yakima River about one mile below Thrall on Section 31, Town 17,
North of Range 19 East. Here, the river enters Yakima Canon which cuts
through Umptanum Ridge and the western foothills of Saddle Mountains.
There are some pines in this canon.

Selah Creek flows through Selah Canon from the east and empties into the
Yakima, about one mile above Selah at the northwest corner of Section
16, Town 14, north of Range 19 East. This is in a broad valley below
Yakima Canon. At the time of our visit, however, the lower portion of
this creek was dry. Wenas Creek empties into the Yakima from the west,
nearly opposite Selah.

North Yakima is on the western side of the Yakima River, about two miles
below the mouth of the Naches, which empties into the Yakima from the
west, immediately below where the latter breaks through Yakima Ridge.
This break is called the Gap or the Upper Gap. North Yakima is at an
altitude of 1067 feet above the sea level. The soil of the valley is
made up of a rich volcanic ash and the region is arid and practically
treeless except on the banks of the rivers and creeks or where
irrigation has been successfully practised. The climate in most respects
resembles that of the southern interior of British Columbia, lying to
the north, but in general, there is less vegetation except on irrigated
land.

Cowiche Creek flows from the southwest and empties into the south side
of the Naches, at a point about three miles above its mouth.

Tampico is situated on Section 17, Town 12, north of Range 16 East, on
the north side of Ahtanum Creek, which flows nearly east along the base
of the north side of Rattlesnake Range and empties into the Yakima at
Union Gap or Lower Gap, below Old Yakima.

Fort Simcoe is located in a cluster of live oak trees, on one of the
branches of Simcoe Creek, which flows in an easterly direction and
empties into the Toppenish River, a western feeder of the Yakima. This
place is at an altitude of 937 feet above the sea level and is
surrounded by 'scab' land. Going west from Fort Simcoe, up the slopes of
the Cascade Mountains, a mile or so, one notices timber in the valleys,
and as one proceeds still further up the mountains, the timber becomes
thicker and of greater size. This is the beginning of the forest, which
at the west side of the Cascades becomes so remarkably dense. To the
east of Fort Simcoe, however, no trees are seen, except in the bottoms
along the streams, while on the lower reaches of the Yakima and on the
banks of the Columbia, east of here, there are absolutely no trees.

Kennewick is located on the western side of the Columbia River about six
miles below the mouth of the Yakima. It is opposite Pasco, which is
about three miles above the mouth of Snake River. The place is only 366
feet above the sea level and except where irrigation has been practised,
there are no trees in sight, the vegetation being that typical of the
desert among which are sagebrush, grease-wood and cactus. Lewis and
Clark, when here on their way to the Pacific Coast, October 17,
1805,[13] saw the Indians drying salmon on scaffolds for food and fuel.
Captain Clark said, "I do not think [it] at all improbable that those
people make use of Dried fish as fuel. The number of dead Salmon on the
Shores & floating in the river is incrediable to say ... how far they
have to raft their timber they make their scaffolds of I could not
learn; but there is no timber of any sort except Small willow bushes in
sight in any direction."

    [13] Lewis and Clark, III, p. 124.

Sentinal Bluffs is the name given to both sides of the gap where the
Columbia River breaks through Saddle Mountains. It is a short distance
above the head of Priest Rapids. Crab Creek empties into the Columbia
from the east on the north side of these mountains. On the western side
of the river, between the Bluffs and the head of Priest Rapids, there is
a flat place of considerable area, portions of which the Columbia floods
during the winter. Going northwest from here to Ellensburg, the trail
leads up a small valley in which are several springs surrounded by some
small trees. One ascends about 2000 feet to the top of the divide and
then descends perhaps 1000 feet into the Kittitas Valley.



ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES.


At Clealum, we found no archaeological remains, except a single human
skeleton unearthed in the sinking of a shaft for a coal mine. Here,
however, our examination of the vicinity was limited to one day, and it
is possible that a more thorough search might bring to light
archaeological sites. Specimens from the vicinity of Clealum are unknown
to the writer, although there are a number of collections from the
vicinity of Ellensburg, Priest Rapids, Kennewick and other places lower
down. The abundance of specimens on the surface near Priest Rapids and
Kennewick in proportion to those found near North Yakima and Ellensburg,
suggests that the high parts of the valley were less densely inhabited
and that the mountains were perhaps only occasionally visited. It would
seem possible that the prehistoric people of the Yakima Valley had their
permanent homes on the Columbia, and possibly in the lower parts of the
Yakima region. This is indicated by the remains of underground houses,
some of which are as far up as Ellensburg. These remains are similar to
those found in the Thompson River region, where such houses were
inhabited in the winter. The people of the Yakima area probably seldom
went up to the higher valleys and the mountains, except on hunting
expeditions or to gather berries, roots and wood for their scaffolds,
canoes and other manufactures. If this be correct, it would account for
the scarcity of specimens upon the surface along the higher streams,
since all the hunting parties, berry, root and wood-gathering
expeditions were not likely to leave behind them so much material as
would be lost or discarded in the vicinity of the permanent villages.
Spinden states[14] that in the Nez Perce region to the east of the
Yakima country, permanent villages were not built in the uplands,
although in a few places where camas and kouse were abundant, temporary
summer camps were constructed.

    [14] Spinden, p. 178.

In the vicinity of Ellensburg, we found no archaeological specimens
except the chipped point mentioned on page 163, but this may be due in
part to the modern cultivation of the soil and to the fact that the
irrigated crops, such as are grown here, hide so much of the surface of
the ground. A search along portions of the level country west of the
town and even in such places as those where the river cuts the bank,
failed to reveal signs of house or village sites. In Ellensburg, I saw a
summer lodge, made up of a conical framework of poles covered with cloth
and inhabited by an old blind Indian and his wife. East of the city,
near the little stream below the City Reservoir was another summer lodge
made similarly, but among the covering cloths was some matting of native
manufacture. The remains of an underground house, possibly 30 feet in
diameter were seen to the east of the Northern Pacific Railway, between
Ellensburg and Thrall.

On the little bottom land along the western side of Cherry Creek, near
its mouth, at the upper end of Yakima Canon, we found objects which show
that the place had been a camping ground. This is immediately south of
where an east and west road crosses the creek on the farm of Mr. Bull.
On this village site were found the specimens catalogued under numbers
202-8213 to 8222, of which two are shown in Plate II, Fig. 12, and Fig.
52. The opposite side of this stream strikes one of the foothills of the
uplands, the western extension of Saddle Mountains. On the top of this
foothill, which overlooks the above mentioned village site, were a
number of burials marked by circles of rocks.[15] In the rock-slide on
the side of this hill, between these circles and the village site below,
were a number of graves which are described in detail under numbers
99-4326-4332 and 202-8223-8258 on pages 164 to 166. Some of the objects
found, many of which are recent and show contact with the white race,
are shown in Figs. 71a, 72, 74, 78, 80, 82-86, 90, 92, 95, and 96.

    [15] See 99-4325, page 163.

On the western side of the Yakima, about opposite the above mentioned
village site, a rock-slide appears at the head of Yakima Canon. In it
are a number of rock-slide graves marked by sticks.

In Selah Canon, on the north side of Selah Creek, about a mile and a
half above where it empties into the Yakima are three groups of
petroglyphs pecked into the vertical surface of the low basaltic cliffs
of the canon wall. Two of these groups (Plate XII) are upon eastern
faces of the rock, while the one shown in Fig. 1, Plate XIII, is upon a
southern exposure. In the rock-slide on the south side of Selah Canon,
about three quarters of a mile above the Yakima or about half way
between these petroglyphs and the Yakima, were found a number of graves,
one of them marked by a much weathered twig. These were the only
archaeological remains seen by us in Selah Canon, although we examined
it for at least two miles from its mouth.

On the north slope of Yakima Ridge, near its base, at a point where the
Moxee Canal and the river road turn and run west along the base of the
ridge or about southeast of the largest ranch there, possibly two miles
northeasterly from the Gap, were a number of scattered graves covered
with rock-slide material. About one quarter of a mile west from here, a
little west of south of the ranch, was a large rock-slide, covering a
short northerly spur of the ridge. This is shown from the southwest in
Plate VII. It is about three quarters of a mile northeast from where the
Yakima River, after flowing through bottom lands, strikes the base of
the Yakima Ridge. In this slide were a large number of shallow parallel
nearly horizontal ditches below each of which is a low ridge or terrace
of the angular slide-rock. Among these terraces, as shown in Fig. 2 of
the plate, were a few pits surrounded by a low ridge, made up of jagged
slide-rock, apparently from out of the pits. It was naturally larger at
the side of the pit towards the bottom of the slide. In none of these
did we find human remains or specimens. Some of them are larger than
similar pits that we found to be rock-slide graves. Their close
resemblance to graves found to have been disturbed, part of their
remains being scattered near by and to other graves, as they appeared
after our excavations, suggests that these pits are the remains of such
rock-slide graves from which the bodies have been removed by the Indians
possibly since the land became the property of the United States
Government. On the other hand, these pits remind us of rifle pits,
though it does not seem probable that they would be built in such a
place for that purpose and there is no local account of the site having
been used for such pits. This rock-slide is particularly interesting
because of the terraces into which most of its surface had been formed.
The character of the rock-slide material is such that one may walk over
these for some little time without noticing them, but once having been
noticed, they always force themselves upon the attention. Standing near
the top of the slide, they remind one of rows of seats in a theatre.
Each terrace begins at the edge of the slide and runs horizontally out
around its convex surface to the opposite side. Some of them are wider
than others. They resemble the more or less horizontal and parallel
terraces formed by horses and cattle while feeding on steep slopes. The
Yakima Ridge has been so terraced by stock in many places and over large
areas. However, there is no vegetation on the rock-slide to entice stock
and the difficulty of walking over the cruelly sharp rocks as well as
the presence of rattlesnakes would seem sufficient to cause both cattle
and horses to pass either below or above it. The outer edge of each
terrace is probably little lower than the inner edge, but viewed from
the slope it seems so, and this suggests that these terraces may have
been entrenchments, though it would seem that they would be useless for
such a purpose since one can easily reach the land above from either
side. Moreover, it would not seem necessary to make parallel
entrenchments down the entire slope. That they were made to facilitate
the carrying of the dead to the rock-slide graves is possible but not
probable. It seems unlikely that they could have been made for the
seating of spectators to overlook games or ceremonies; for the sharpness
of the rocks would make them very uncomfortable.

There is a much higher rock-slide on the east side of a small steep
ravine near where the Yakima River flows close to the base of the ridge,
about a mile northeast of the Naches River or Upper Gap. Near the top of
this slide, possibly three hundred feet above the river, were similar
pits larger than those just described. Two or three of these were
bounded along the edge towards the top of the slide by an unusually wide
terrace. Near the bottom of this slide were graves[16] (Nos. 1 and 2)
which are described in detail on page 153. Grave No. 1 was in the base
of the rock-slide as shown in the figure and was indicated by a cedar
stick projecting from a slight depression in the top of the heap of
rock-slide material covering it. It was on a slight terrace about eighty
feet above the river, and commanded a view over the valley of the Yakima
to the north. The presence of the brass tube shown in Fig. 75 suggests
that this grave is not of great antiquity. Grave No. 2 was in the same
rock-slide about fifty feet down the ravine or to the north, and about
forty feet above the Moxee flume. It was indicated by a hole in a pile
of rock, like an old well. It was found to contain nothing, the remains
having been removed. On the south side of the Yakima Ridge, near the
bridge over the Yakima, at the Upper Gap, rock-slide graves are said to
have been disturbed during the construction of the flume which carries
the waters of the Moxee ditch around the western end of the Yakima
Ridge, and during the gathering of stone on this point for commercial
purposes. Some of these graves are said to have been above the flume.

    [16] Sec Fig. 3, Plate VI from the north of west.

Here and there, near the base of the ridge from this point easterly for
about a mile, were found small pits, such as one shown in Fig. 1, Plate
VIII. Apparently, these were rock-slide graves from which the human
remains had been removed, either by the Indians in early times or more
recently by visitors from the neighboring town of North Yakima. Possibly
some of them are old cache holes. One of these graves near the top of a
small rock-slide above the flume contained a human skeleton and is shown
in Fig. 2, Plate VIII. Below these graves, on the narrow flat between
the base of the ridge and the Yakima River at a point about three
quarters of a mile below the Upper Gap at the mouth of the Naches River,
were discovered a number of small pits each surrounded by a low ridge of
earth which were probably the remains of cache holes made by the Indians
during the last twenty years. On this flat, close to the river were two
pits surrounded by a circular ridge which indicated ancient
semi-subterranean house sites, further described on page 51.

It is said, that above the flume at a point about a mile and a half
below the Upper Gap, rock-slide graves, some of which were marked by
pieces of canoes were excavated by school boys. The writer was also
informed by small boys that near the top of the ridge immediately above
here, they frequently found chipped points for arrows but on examination
discovered only chips of stone suitable for such points, the boys either
having mistaken the chips for points or having collected so many of the
points that they were scarce.

On the west side of the Yakima, at the Upper Gap, there is a raised flat
top or terrace that overlooks the mouth of the Naches River to the
southeast. Here were a number of circles made up of angular rocks.
Within each we found the remains of human cremations. Unburned fragments
of the bones of several individuals with shell ornaments were often
present in a single circle.[17]

    [17] See p. 142 and Fig. 1, Plate IX.

Continuing westward, along the slope of the ridge, cut along its
southern base by the Naches River, at a point about one and a quarter
miles west of the mouth of the river, a small ravine cuts down from the
top of the ridge. This has formed a little flat through the middle of
which it has again cut down towards the river. East of this ravine on
the flat is a circle of angular rocks such as are found scattered over
the ridge. This circle no doubt marks a house site, the interior having
been cleared of stone and the circle of rocks probably having been used
to hold down the lodge covering.[18] To the west of the ravine, where
the flat is somewhat higher than to the east, there are the remains of
two semi-subterranean houses. Each of these is represented by a pit
surrounded by a ridge of earth, and on the top, are large angular
rocks.[19] At a point where the ridge meets this flat, close to the
western side of the ravine was a slight depression in a small rock-slide
which marked what seemed to be a grave, but which, on excavation,
revealed nothing. Still further westward at a point probably two miles
above the mouth of the Naches River and overlooking the stream at an
altitude of perhaps 250 feet, we found scattered over the ground along
the eastern summit of a deep ravine, the first one west of the house
sites above mentioned, numerous small chips of material suitable for
chipped implements. These became more numerous as we proceeded northward
up the eastern side of the ravine for a distance of about a quarter of a
mile. Here we came upon the small quarry in the volcanic soil, shown in
Fig. 1, Plate III. Immediately to the west of the pit was a pile of
earth, apparently excavated from it.

    [18] See p. 15 and Fig. 1, Plate IV.

    [19] See p. 52 and Fig. 2, Plate IV.

On the top of this heap of soil and among the broken rock to the south
and east of it, were found several water-worn pebbles, used as hammers
in breaking up the rock, as indicated by the battered condition of their
ends (p. 58). We saw no other water-worn pebbles on the surface of the
ridge, but they were numerous in the gravel of the bottom-lands subject
to the overflow of the rivers. It would seem that these pebbles were
brought up from the river below for use as hammers. Scattered to the
south of the pit were found large fragments of float quartz material
containing small pieces of stone suitable for chipped implements but
made up mainly of stone which was badly disintegrated. Lying on the
slope of the ravine were many small fragments of this same stone which
were clear of flaws.

It would seem that a mass of float quartz much of which was suitable for
chipped implements had been found here. It had been excavated, leaving
the pile of earth and then broken up with the river pebbles which were
left behind with the waste. Probably there were fairly large pieces of
the material, suitable for chipped implements; that were carried away
while small pieces were left lying about a pile of unsuitable material.
In other words, it would seem that these specimens mark a place for the
roughing out of material for chipped implements.[20] On the same side of
the river, on the side of a rather low ridge or table-land overlooking
it, at a point about twelve miles above its mouth, are some rock-slides.
Here it is said that graves have been found. They were probably typical
rock-slide graves. On a point of land perhaps fifty feet above these and
a few hundred feet to the north, Master James McWhirter pointed out a
grave on his farm. It was then surrounded by a ring made up of
water-worn pebbles, apparently brought up from the river. He stated that
an attempt had been made to excavate it which possibly accounts for the
pebbles being in a circle rather than a heap over the grave. This grave
was found to contain a slab of wood, shell ornaments, probably modern,
and an adult skeleton, No. 12 (7), 99-4320, p. 156.

    [20] See p. 20.

There are a number of painted pictographs on the vertical faces of the
basaltic columns, facing north on the south side of the Naches River,
immediately to the west of the mouth of Cowiche Creek. These are below
the flume and may be reached from the top of the talus slope which has
been added to by the blasting away of the rock above, during the
construction of the flume. In fact, debris from this blasting has
covered part of the pictographs. Some of the pictures are in red, others
in white and there are combinations of the two colors.[21] Local
merchants have defaced these pictographs with advertisements.

    [21] Further described under the subject of art on p. 119 and shown
    in Plates XIV-XVI.

In the Cowiche Valley, there are several rock-slide graves, but these
seem to have been rifled. Northeast of the fair grounds at North Yakima,
the remains of an underground house are said to exist. A short distance
east of Tampico, about 18 miles above the mouth of the Ahtanum, on the
north side of the river and east of the road from the north where it
meets the river road and immediately across it from the house of Mr.
Sherman Eglin, was a grave located in a volcanic dome left by the wind,
which Mr. Eglin pointed out to us. The site is about 600 feet north of
the north branch of the Ahtanum and about fifteen feet above the level
of the river. A pile of rocks about eight feet in diameter covered this
grave, No. 25, p. 160. On the land of Mr. A. D. Eglin, between the
above-mentioned grave and Tampico on the north side of the road were
seen the signs of two graves, destroyed by plowing. Near here, an oblong
mound six or eight inches high and ten feet wide by eight feet long,
supposedly covering a grave, marked by a stone on the level at each side
and each end, 12 and 16 feet apart respectively was reported by Mr.
Eglin's son. A little distance further north and up the slope of the
land, were a number of volcanic ash heaps left by the wind. The
surrounding land is what is locally known as "scab land." In some of
these knolls, graves have been found and one which has been explored is
shown in Fig. 2, Plate IX. It is located near the pasture gate, and was
marked by a circle of stones as shown in the figure. On excavating,
nothing was found. It is possible that the remains were entirely
disintegrated. Graves in rock-slides on hill sides, and a village site
near this place were reported by Mr. Eglin's son. Along the north side
of Ahtanum Creek between Ahtanum and Tampico, below the rim rock of the
uplands parallel to the creek are a number of rock-slide graves.

On the western side of Union Gap, through which the Yakima River flows,
below the mouth of Ahtanum Creek, a short distance below Old Yakima, on
a little flat or terrace projecting from the south side of Rattle Snake
Range is a modern Indian cemetery surrounded by a fence. To the east of
Union Gap, on the northwestern slope of Rattle Snake Range, we examined
some rock-slide graves which had been made since the advent of objects
of white manufacture. A mile or so south of Union Gap not far from the
uplands to the east of the river was a ridge of earth extending north
and south nearly parallel with the river road. This, however, I believe
may be the remains of some early irrigation project. On the west side of
the Yakima River about two miles south of Union Gap was seen a summer
lodge made by covering a conical framework with mats.

At Fort Simcoe, immediately south of the Indian agency, on the north
edge of the "scab land," overlooking a small ravine, is a large pit
surrounded by an embankment of earth, the remains of a semi-subterranean
house. Perhaps an eighth of a mile south of this, on higher "scab land"
was a rather low long mound upon which were several piles of stone that
probably marked graves. This mound was lower and more oblong than the
usual dome in which such graves were made. Mrs. Lynch, who pointed these
out has excavated similar piles at this place and found them to mark
graves. We were informed that chipped implements were frequently found
along the Yakima River at a point near Prosser. Above Kennewick, while
digging a flume, a number of graves were discovered, from which Mr.
Sonderman made his collection. Some of these graves contained modern
material (p. 111).

On the surface of the western beach of the Columbia at Kennewick and on
the flat land back of it we found chips of material suitable for making
chipped implements, and a large pebble, probably a net sinker.[22]
These, together with the fact that Mr. D. W. Owen has also frequently
found specimens here, suggest that this place was an ancient camping
ground. That Lewis and Clark saw Indians here and in the vicinity, as
well as that the Indians still camp here on the beach of the river,
sheltered from the wind by the bank and depending upon the river
driftwood for their fuel, strengthens this suggestion. Specimens have
been found on the large island in the Columbia at the mouth of the
Yakima. (See p. 64.) At a point four miles below Kennewick or perhaps a
mile below a point opposite the mouth of the Snake, a grave which
contained material of white manufacture is said to have been discovered
by a man while hauling water up the bank of the Columbia.

    [22] See p. 30.

Schoolcraft states[23] that there was an earthwork on the left bank of
the Lower Yakima on the edge of a terrace about fifteen feet high a
short distance from the water. This terrace was banked on either side by
a gully. This consisted of two concentric circles of earth about eighty
yards in diameter by three feet high, with a ditch between. Within were
about twenty "cellars", situated without apparent design, except economy
of room. They were some thirty feet across, and three feet deep. A guide
stated that it was unique and made very long ago by an unknown people.
Outside, but near by, were other "cellars" in no way differing from the
remains of villages of the region. What may be an earthwork near by is
described by Schoolcraft[24] as follows: "The Indians also pointed out,
near by, a low hill or spur, which in form might be supposed to resemble
an inverted canoe, and which he had said was a ship." Schoolcraft
suggests a possible relation of this to the mounds of the Sacramento
Valley and continues:--

     "In this connection may also be mentioned a couple of
     modern fortifications, erected by the Yakamas upon the
     Sunkive fork. They are situated between two small
     branches, upon the summits of a narrow ridge some two
     hundred yards long, and thirty feet in height, and are
     about twenty-five yards apart. The first is a square with
     rounded corners, formed by an earthen embankment capped
     with stones; the interstices between which served for
     loop-holes, and without any ditch. It is about thirty
     feet on the sides, and the wall three feet high. The
     other is built of adobes, in the form of a rectangle,
     twenty by thirty-four feet, the walls three feet high,
     and twelve to eighteen inches thick, with loop-holes six
     feet apart. Both are commanded within rifle-shot by
     neighboring hills. They were erected in 1847 by Skloo, as
     a defence against the Cayuse. We did not hear whether
     they were successfully maintained, accounts varying
     greatly in this respect. In the same neighborhood Captain
     M'Clellan's party noticed small piles of stones raised by
     the Indians on the edges of the basaltic walls which
     enclose these valleys, but were informed that they had no
     purpose; they were put up through idleness. Similar piles
     are, however, sometimes erected to mark the fork of a
     trail. At points on these walls there were also many
     graves, generally made in regular form, covered with
     loose stones to protect them from the cayotes, and marked
     by poles decorated with tin cups, powder-horns, and
     articles of dress. During the summer the Indians for the
     most part live in the small valleys lying well into the
     foot of the mountains. These are, however, uninhabitable
     during the winter, and they move further down, or to more
     sheltered situations. The mission which, in summer, is
     maintained in the A-tá-nam valley, is transferred into
     that of the main river."[25]

    [23] Schoolcraft, VI. p. 612.

    [24] Schoolcraft, VI. p. 613.

    [25] Cf. also Bancroft, IV. p. 736; Stevens, pp. 232-3; Gibbs, (a),
    pp. 408-9.

After passing the top of the divide, to the left of the trail from
Ellensburg to Priest Rapids, chips and fragments of variegated float
quartz suitable for chipped implements were found. This apparently
marked a place where a fragment of float rock had been broken up, but
fine fragments were hardly numerous enough to indicate that the place
had been a shop site, or at least a large one. The quantity of material
broken up, judging from the amount of refuse, was small. On the western
side of the Columbia, at the base of the basaltic rocks where they meet
the bottom-land, perhaps a mile from the river were rock-slide graves in
the talus slope. At the head of Priest Rapids, the river turns towards
the west and then southward, flowing close to the southern end of this
escarpment. On the flat, at the very head of Priest Rapids, the river,
during high water had washed out the remains of a village or camp site,
where pestles and animal bones were numerous. A short distance above
this, in a low ridge near the river were some modern graves some of
which were marked with sticks at the head and foot. The bodies, judging
from the mounds of earth, were laid full length and many, if not all of
them, judging from the size of the head and foot sticks, were placed
with the feet towards the east. Perhaps a mile above here near the home
of Mr. Britain Everette Craig, several large and deep pits, the sites of
ancient semi-subterranean houses were seen. Above and near his house,
the river had washed out what was apparently a village site, and perhaps
a few graves. Here was found the small fresh water shell heap, shown in
Fig. 1, Plate V, and the pile of flat oval pebbles which probably marked
a cooking place, shown in Fig. 2. On the west beach of the Columbia at
Sentinal Bluffs perhaps another mile further up the river, notched
sinkers and other indications of a camp or fishing ground were found.

On the eastern side of the river near the head of Priest Rapids some
material was found on the surface of the beach where the floods of the
river had uncovered it. A mile or more above here, pecked on the
basaltic columns of Sentinal Bluffs, which may be seen in both figures
of Plate V were a number of petroglyphs, shown in Plate XI and described
on page 121. Those shown in Fig. 1, photographed from the west, are on
the columns to the east of the road, blasted through the rocks at this
point, and perhaps fifteen feet from the river. Those in Fig. 2,
photographed from the north, are to the west of the road on the columns
which rise abruptly from the river. Some specimens and indications of
habitation were found scattered between this point and the mouth of Crab
Creek, the bed of which was dry in most places when we visited it.



RESOURCES.


The resources of the prehistoric people of the Yakima Valley, as
indicated by the specimens found in the graves and about the village
sites, were chiefly of stone, copper, shell, bone, antler, horn,
feathers, skin, tule stalks, birch bark and wood. They employed
extensively various kinds of stone for making a variety of objects.
Obsidian,[26] glassy basalt or trap, petrified wood, agate, chalcedonic
quartz with opaline intrusions, chert and jasper were used for chipping
into various kinds of points, such as those used for arrows, spears,
knives, drills and scrapers. According to Spinden,[27] obsidian was used
in the Nez Perce region to the east where it was obtained from the John
Day River and in the mountains to the east, possibly in the vicinity of
the Yellowstone National Park. The people of the Yakima Valley may have
secured it from the Nez Perce. As on the coast, objects made of glassy
basalt were rare here, although it will be remembered that they were the
most common among chipped objects in the Thompson River region.[28] Mr.
James Teit believes that glassy basalt is scarce in the Yakima region
and that this is the reason why the prehistoric people there did not use
it extensively. Some agate, chalcedony and similar materials were used
in the Thompson River region, but while there is a great quantity of the
raw material of these substances there, the Indians say that the black
basalt was easier to work and quite as effective when finished. Several
small quarries of float quartz had been excavated and broken up to be
flaked at adjacent work shops, p. 16. River pebbles were made into net
sinkers, pestles, mortars, hammerstones, scrapers, clubs, slave killers,
sculptures, and similar objects, and were also used for covering some of
the graves in the knolls. Serpentine was used for celts and clubs; lava
for sculptures. Slate was used for ornamental or ceremonial tablets
steatite for ornaments and pipes, though rarely for pestles and other
objects; and impure limestone for pipes. Fragments of basaltic rock were
used for covering graves in the rock-slides and in some of the knolls.
Places on the basaltic columns and cliffs served as backgrounds upon
which pictures were made, some being pecked,[29] others painted.[30] No
objects made of mica or nephrite were found. Siliceous sandstone was
made into pestles, pipes and smoothers for arrow-shafts, but the last
were rare. Copper clay, white earth and red ochre were not found, but
red and white paint were seen on the basaltic cliffs and Mrs. Lynch
reports blue paint from a grave near Fort Simcoe (p. 117).

    [26] See Fig. 5 and 202-8141, p. 154.

    [27] Spinden, p. 184.

    [28] Smith, (d) p. 132 and 135 (c) p. 407.

    [29] See Plates XI-XIII.

    [30] See Plates XIV-XVI.

Copper was used for beads, pendants and bracelets. While all of this
copper may have been obtained by barter from the whites, yet some of it
may have been native. Copper, according to Spinden, was probably not
known to the Nez Perce before the articles of civilization had reached
that region, but he states that large quantities of copper have been
taken from graves and that the edges of some of the specimens are
uneven, such as would be more likely to result from beating out a nugget
than from working a piece of cut sheet copper.[31] The glass beads, iron
bracelets,[32] and bangles,[33] the brass rolled beads,[34] brass
pendant[35] and the white metal inlay,[36] which we found, all came from
trade with the white race during recent times and do not belong to the
old culture.

    [31] Spinden, p. 190.

    [32] See Fig. 96.

    [33] See Figs. 85 and 86.

    [34] See Fig. 75.

    [35] See Fig. 84.

    [36] See Fig. 128.

Shells of the fresh water unio, in a bed five or six feet in diameter
and two or three inches thick, at the Priest Rapids village site and
described on p. 34 indicate that this animal had been used for food.
Shells of the little salt water clam (_Pectunculus_ 202-8388, Fig. 88),
haliotis (202-8234b, 8252, 8255, 8386, Figs. 89-92), dentalium
(202-8178, 8156, 8163, 8173, 8177-9, 8184, 8186-89, 8192-3, 8233, 8241,
8253, 8389, Figs. 74, 117, and 118) olivella (202-8393, Fig. 87), and
oyster (202-8170, Fig. 94) which were made into various ornaments must
have been obtained from the coast. No shells of _Pecten caurinus_ were
found.

Deer bones were seen in great numbers in the earth of a village site at
the head of Priest Rapids where they probably are the remains of
cooking. Animal bones were made into points for arrows or harpoon barbs,
awls and tubes that were probably used in gambling. Fish bones
(202-8387) found in the village sites suggest that fish were used for
food. No bones of the whale were found.

Antler was used for wedges, combs and as material upon which to carve.
Horns of the Rocky Mountain sheep were used for digging-stick handles.
Mountain sheep horns were secured by the Nez Perce who lived to the east
of the Yakima region, and were traded with Indians westward as far as
the Lower Columbia.[37] No objects made of teeth were found although a
piece of a beaver tooth (202-8189) was seen in grave No. 21, and Mrs.
Lynch reports elk teeth from a grave near Fort Simcoe (p. 119). Pieces
of thong, skin, fur, and feathers of the woodpecker, all of which were
probably used as articles of wearing apparel, were found in the graves
preserved by the action of copper salts or the dryness of the climate.

    [37] Spinden, p. 223.

Wood was used as the hearth of a fire drill[38] and for a bow, a
fragment of which is shown in Fig. 114. Sticks which had not decayed in
this dry climate, marked some of the graves in the rock-slides (p. 140).
Charcoal was also found in the graves and village sites. A fragment of
birch bark, tightly rolled (202-8392) was found in a grave; roots were
woven into baskets;[39] rushes were stitched and woven into mats.[40]

    [38] See Fig. 38.

    [39] See Fig. 17.

    [40] See Fig. 70-72.



THE SECURING OF FOOD.


_Points Chipped out of Stone._ Many implements used in procuring food
were found. In general, they are similar in character to those found in
the Thompson River Region.[41] The most numerous perhaps, were points of
various sizes and shapes, made by chipping and flaking, for arrows,
knives and spears. Many of these are small and finely wrought and most
of them are of bright colored agates, chalcedonies and similar stones.
As before mentioned, several small quarries of such material with
adjacent workshops were found. A very few specimens were made of glassy
basalt, and it will be remembered (p. 21) that this was the prevailing
material for chipped implements in the Thompson River region to the
north, where there was perhaps not such a great variety of material
used.[42] In the Nez Perce region to the east, according to Spinden, a
great variety of forms of arrow points chipped from stone of many kinds
is found,[43] and the extreme minuteness of some of them is noteworthy.
The war spear sometimes had a point of stone, usually lance-shaped, but
sometimes barbed.[44] He further states that iron supplanted flint and
obsidian at an early date, for the manufacture of arrow-heads.[45]

    [41] Smith, (d) p. 135; and (c) p. 408.

    [42] _Ibid._

    [43] Cf. Spinden, Figs. 10-22, Plate VII.

    [44] Spinden, p. 227.

    [45] Spinden, p. 190.

No caches of chipped implements were found in the Yakima region. Judging
from the collections which I have seen, I am under the impression that
chipped points are not nearly so numerous in this region as they are
near The Dalles and in the Columbia Valley immediately south of this
area, and perhaps not even as numerous as in the Thompson River country
to the north. We found no fantastic forms such as were rather common in
the Thompson River country.[46] It will be remembered[47] that the art
of chipping stone was not extensively practised on the coast of British
Columbia or Washington, no specimens having been found in that area
north of Vancouver Island except at Bella Coola, where only two were
discovered. They were frequent at Saanich and in the Fraser Delta and
became still more common as one approached the mouth of the Columbia on
the west coast of Washington where, on the whole, they seem to resemble,
especially in the general character of the material, the chipped points
of the Columbia River Valley in the general region from Portland to The
Dalles.

    [46] Smith, (d) p. 136; and (c) p. 409.

    [47] Smith, (b) p. 437; (a) p. 190; (e) p. 564; and (f), p. 359.

[Illustration: Fig. 1 (202-8369). Chipped Point made of Chalcedony. From
the surface, near the head of Priest Rapids. 1/2 nat. size.]

The range of forms and sizes is well shown in Figs. 1 to 6 and in Plates
I and II.[48] The specimen shown in Fig. 1 is very small, apparently
made from a thin flake of chalcedony that has not been much chipped. Its
edges are slightly serrated and it was found on the surface near the
head of Priest Rapids. Deeply serrated points are found in the Nez Perce
region to the east, but they are unusual.[49] The one shown in Fig. 2 is
also made of chalcedony and is from the same place. It is larger and the
barbs are not so deep. The specimen shown in Fig. 3, chipped from white
chalcedony was found at the same place and may be considered as a knife
point rather than as an arrow point. The one shown in Fig. 4 is made of
petrified wood and has serrated edges. It was found at Priest Rapids and
is in the collection of Mr. Mires. Fig. 5 illustrates a point with a
straight base chipped from obsidian, one of the few made of this
material that have been found in the whole region. This is also from
Priest Rapids in the collection of Mr. Mires. The straight based
arrow-head is very common in the Nez Perce region.[50] The specimen
shown in Fig. 6 is leaf shaped, the base being broken off. It is made of
chert, was collected at Wallula near the Columbia River in Oregon by
Judge James Kennedy in 1882 and is in the James Terry collection of this
Museum. Plate I shows a rather large and crudely chipped point made of
basalt, from the surface near the head of Priest Rapids on the bank of
the Columbia River. The second is made of red jasper and the third of
white chert. They were found near the head of Priest Rapids, the latter
also on the bank of the river. These three specimens may be considered
as finished or unfinished spear or knife points. The specimens shown in
Plate II are more nearly of the average size. The first is made of buff
jasper and was found on the surface at Kennewick. It is slightly
serrated. The second is made of brownish fissile jasper and was found in
grave No. 10 (5) in a rock-slide near the mouth of the Naches River. The
third, chipped from mottled quartz was found in grave No. 28 (21) near
the skull in a rock-slide about three miles west of the mouth of Cowiche
Creek. The fourth of white quartzite is also from grave No. 28 (21) near
the skull. The breadth of the base of these last two specimens and the
notches would facilitate their being fastened very securely in an
arrow-shaft, while the basal points would probably project far enough
beyond the shaft to make serviceable barbs. The fifth specimen, chipped
from brown chert was found among the refuse of a fire in grave No. 1, in
a rock-slide of the Yakima Ridge. The sixth is made of glassy basalt and
is remarkable for having two sets of notches. It is rather large, which
suggests that it may have served as a knife point. It is from the head
of Priest Rapids and was collected and presented by Mrs. J. B. Davidson.
Double notched arrow points are found in the Nez Perce region.[51] The
seventh is chipped from pale fulvous chalcedony and is from the surface
at the same place. The eighth is chipped from similar material and was
found near by. The ninth is made of opaline whitish chalcedony and is
from the same place. The tenth is chipped from yellow agate, and
somewhat resembles a drill, while the eleventh is of brown horn stone,
both of them being from the surface near the head of Priest Rapids.

    [48] Photographs by Mr. Wm. C. Orchard.

    [49] Cf. Spinden, Fig. 16, Plate VII.

    [50] Cf. Spinden, Fig. 14, Plate VII.

    [51] Cf. Spinden, Fig. 15, Plate VII.

[Illustration: Fig. 2 (202-8364). Chipped Point made of Chalcedony. From
the surface, near the head of Priest Rapids. 1/2 nat. size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 3 (202-8336). Chipped Point made of White
Chalcedony. From the surface, near the head of Priest Rapids. 1/2 nat.
size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 4. Serrated Chipped Point made of Petrified Wood.
From Priest Rapids. 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from a sketch. Original in the
collection of Mr. Mires.)]

The twelfth which is chipped from clove brown jasper was found on the
surface of the Cherry Creek camp site near Ellensburg. The thirteenth is
made of reddish white chert and was found on the surface near the mouth
of Wenas Creek. The fourteenth is of pale yellow chalcedony and comes
from the surface near the head of Priest Rapids. Most of these specimens
seem to be suitable for arrow points, although some of them probably
served for use as knives.

[Illustration: Fig. 5. Chipped Point made of Obsidian. From Priest
Rapids. 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from a sketch. Original in the collection
of Mr. Mires.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 6. (T-21184, II-180.) Fragment of a leaf-shaped
Point made of Chert. From Wallula near the Columbia River, Oregon.
Collected by Judge James Kennedy in 1882. 1/2 nat. size.]


_Points Rubbed out of Stone._ No points rubbed out of stone have been
found in this region, although it will be remembered that two such
points were found in the Thompson River region[52] and were thought to
represent an intrusion from the coast where they were common as in the
Fraser Delta[53] at both Port Hammond and Eburne where they are more
than one half as numerous as the chipped points, and at Comox[54] where
at least seven of this type to three chipped from stone were found.
They were also found at Saanich,[55] where they were in proportion of
nineteen to twenty-four, near Victoria[56] and on the San Juan
Islands.[57]

    [52] Smith, (c), p. 409.

    [53] Smith, (a), pp. 141 and 143.

    [54] Smith, (b), p. 308.

    [55] Smith, (b), p. 332.

    [56] P. 357 and 358, _ibid._

    [57] P. 380, _ibid._


_Points Rubbed out of Bone._ Points rubbed out of bone which were so
common on the coast everywhere, but rare in the Thompson River country
are still more scarce here. Only ten specimens from the whole region can
be identified as clearly intended for the points or barbs of arrows,
harpoon heads or spears. The types are shown in Figs. 7 to 12. The first
was found in the west, northwest part of grave No. 10 (5) in a
rock-slide about a half mile above the mouth of the Naches River. It is
nearly circular in cross section, 31 mm. long with a point only 6 mm. in
length and was apparently intended for a salmon harpoon head, similar to
those used in the Thompson River region[58] both in ancient and modern
times but which are much more common on the coast. The specimen shown in
Fig. 8 is circular in cross section and was seen in the collection of
Mrs. Davidson. It is from Kennewick and is of the shape of one of the
most frequent types of bone points found in the Fraser Delta.[59] The
specimen shown in Fig. 9 was found with three others in grave No. 1 in a
rock-slide of the Yakima Ridge. This and two of the others were
scorched. They are circular in cross section and sharp at both ends but
the upper end is much the more slender. The point shown in Fig. 10
somewhat resembles these, but it is slightly larger and tends to be
rectangular in cross section except at the base. It was found with a
similar specimen in a grave on the Snake River, five miles above its
mouth, and was collected and presented by Mr. Owen who still has the
other specimen. Diagonal striations may still be seen on its much
weathered brown surface. These were probably caused by rubbing it on a
stone in its manufacture. A slightly different type of bone point is
shown in Figs. 11 and 12. These seem to be barbs for fish spears such as
were found in the Thompson River region,[60] among both ancient and
modern specimens. The one shown in Fig. 11 has traces of the marrow
canal on the reverse. It was found in the Yakima Valley below Prosser
and is in the collection of Mr. Spalding. While the specimen shown in
Fig. 12 is from the surface near the head of Priest Rapids.

    [58] Smith, (c), p. 410; Teit, (a), Fig. 231.

    [59] Cf. Smith, (a), Fig. _13h_.

    [60] Smith, (c), p. 410; Teit, (a), Fig. 232.

Bone points and barbs were used in the Nez Perce region to the east,
where three types of spears with bone points were known, two of them at
least being similar to those found in the Thompson River region to the
north.[61] The war spears sometimes had a point of bone, usually
lance-shaped, but sometimes barbed.[62]

    [61] Spinden, p. 189 and Fig. 5^s, ^10, ^11.

    [62] Spinden, p. 227.

[Illustration: Fig. 7 (202-8165). Point made of Bone. From the W., N. W.
part of grave No. 10 (5) in a rock-slide about half a mile above the
mouth of Naches River. 1/2 nat. size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 8. Point made of Bone. From Kennewick. 1/2 nat.
size. (Drawn from a sketch. Original in the collection of Mrs.
Davidson.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 9 (202-8143). Scorched Point made of Bone. From
grave No. 1 in a rock-slide of the Yakima Ridge. 1/2 nat. size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 10 (20.0-1468). Point made of Bone. Found in a grave
on an island in the Snake River, five miles above its mouth, 1/2 nat.
size. (Collected and presented by Mr. Owen.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 11. Point or Barb made of Bone. From the Yakima
Valley below Prosser. 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from a sketch. Original in
the collection of Mr. Spalding.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 12 (202-8381). Point or Barb made of Bone. From the
surface, near the head of Priest Rapids. 1/2 nat. size.]


_Bows._ The only information which we have regarding bows is from the
specimen shown in Fig. 114. The object seems to be a fragment of a bow
which was lenticular in cross section although rather flat. It is
slightly bent and the concave side bears transverse incisions. (p. 125.)
The specimen was found in grave No. 10 (5) in a rock-slide about one
hundred and fifty feet up the slope on the north side of the Naches
River, about half a mile above its mouth. The presence of several
perishable objects in the grave suggest it to be modern, but no objects
of white manufacture were found. This is the only object indicating the
sort of bow used in this region and with the exception of the chipped
points previously described, some of which were undoubtedly for arrows,
is the only archaeological object tending to prove the use of the bow.
It will be remembered[63] that fragments of a bow of lenticular cross
section ornamented with parallel irregularly arranged cuneiform
incisions, were found in a grave near Nicola Lake in the Thompson River
region and that pieces of wood, some of which may have been part of a
bow, were found in a grave at the mouth of Nicola Lake; also that pieces
of wood found at Kamloops resemble a bow of the type shown in Fig. 220
of Mr. Teit's paper on the present Thompson Indians.[64]

In the Nez Perce region to the east, war clubs with heads made of
unworked river boulders, according to Spinden,[65] were sometimes used
in killing game and such may have been the case in this region.

    [63] Smith, (c), p. 411.

    [64] Teit, (a), Fig. 216.

    [65] Spinden, p. 188 and 227, also Fig. 5^5.


_Snares._ Fragments of thongs, skin, fur and woodpecker feathers merely
suggest methods of hunting or trapping which are not proven by any of
our finds. It is barely possible although not probable that the bone
tubes considered to have been used in gambling and illustrated in Figs.
97 and 98 and also the perforated cylinder of serpentine shown in Fig.
99 may be portions of snares. Traps and snares of various kinds were
common among the Indians of the larger plateau area of which this is a
part.[66]

    [66] Lewis, p. 182.

Mr. J. S. Cotton informs me that in the vicinity of Mr. Turner's home,
Section 6, Town north 18, Range 40 east, on Rock Creek, about six miles
below Rock Lake, and in the vicinity of the graves described on p. 140
and the so-called fort mentioned on p. 82, there is a long line of
stones running from Rock Creek in a southeasterly direction across the
coule to a small draw on the other side. This chain of rocks is about
five miles long. The stones have evidently sunk into the ground and
show signs of having been there a long time. They have been in the same
condition since about 1874 when first seen by the whites, even the
oldest Indians claiming to know nothing about them. According to Lewis,
game was surrounded and driven in by a large number of hunters or was
run down by horses, in the great area of which this is part.[67] It
seems altogether probable that a line of stone heaps may have been made
to serve either as a line of scarecrows, possibly to support flags or
similar objects, which would have the effect of a fence to direct the
flight of the game or as a guide to enable the hunters to drive the game
towards a precipice where it would be killed, or a corral where it would
be impounded.

    [67] Lewis, p. 182; Ross, (a), p. 316; De Smet III, p. 1026; Lewis
    and Clark, IV, p. 371.


_Notched Sinkers._ Sinkers for fish nets or lines were made of
disk-shaped river pebbles. A pebble and the different types of sinkers
are shown in Fig. 13. These were numerous on the surface of the beach of
the Columbia River near the head of Priest Rapids. They have two or four
notches chipped from each side in the edges. When there are two, the
notches are usually at each end; when there are four, they are at the
end and side edges. Sometimes, the notches are so crudely made that the
edge of the pebble is simply roughened so that a string tied about it at
this place would hold. One of these sinkers from Priest Rapids was seen
in Mr. Mires' collection.


_Grooved Sinkers._ Some large thick pebbles have grooves pecked around
their shortest circumference. They may have been used as canoe smashers
or anchors, but seem more likely to be net sinkers. Two of these are
shown in Figs. 14 and 15. They are from Priest Rapids and are in the
collection of Mr. Mires. Both are battered along the lower edge, from
the groove on the left to within a very short distance of it on the
right and over a considerable portion of the edge of the top. In the
second specimen, this battering forms a considerable groove on the lower
edge, but a groove only the size of those shown in the illustration on
the upper edge. This battering suggests that they may have been used as
hammers, but the battered ends of hammers are not often grooved. There
are certain grooves pecked on one side of each which seem to be of a
decorative or ceremonial significance and are consequently discussed on
p. 132 under the section devoted to art. The first specimen is made of
granite or yellow quartzite with mica, the second is of granite or
yellowish gray quartz with augite and feldspar. One specimen similar to
these two, but without any decoration or grooving (202-8116) was found
by us on the beach at Kennewick as was also a large pebble grooved
nearly around the shortest circumference (202-8332) at Priest Rapids.
One object of this type made of a boulder but grooved around the longest
circumference was seen in Mr. Owen's collection. It was found on the
bank of the Columbia River two miles below Pasco. The specimen described
on p. 60 which has a notch pecked in each side edge and is battered
slightly on one end may have been used as a net sinker, although it has
been considered a hammer. This specimen (202-8214) in a way resembles
the small flat notched sinkers except that the notch is pecked instead
of chipped and that it is larger and thicker in proportion. Other
specimens which are considered as net sinkers, anchors or "canoe
smashers" instead of being grooved, are perforated by a hole which
tapers from each side and has apparently been made by pecking. Sometimes
this hole is in the center, while in other cases it passes through one
end. Fig. 16 illustrates such a specimen. It was found at Priest Rapids
and is in the collection of Mr. Mires. It is made from a river pebble of
yellowish-gray volcanic rock. The perforation is in the broadest end. A
similar specimen perforated near one end and one pierced near the middle
were seen in Mr. Owen's collection. He believes that these were used for
killing fish, an Indian having told him that such stones were thrown at
the fish and retrieved with a cord which was tied through the hole.
Probably all of these were sinkers for nets or at least anchors for the
ends of nets, set lines or for small boats.

[Illustration: Fig. 13 _a_ (202-8296), _b_ (202-8318), _c_ (202-8313),
_d_ (202-8330). Pebble and Net Sinkers made of Pebbles. From the surface
of the bank of Columbia River, near the head of Priest Rapids. 1/2 nat.
size.

Fig. 14. Sinker, a Grooved Boulder bearing a Design in Intaglio. From
Priest Rapids, 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 44536, 9-2.
Original in the collection of Mr. Mires.)]

Sinkers were not seen by us among archaeological finds in the Thompson
River region but Mr. James Teit has informed the writer of their use
there on both nets and lines, particularly on the former. Nets,
excepting the bag net, were very little used in the Kamloops-Lytton
region along the Thompson River and that may account for a scarcity of
sinkers among archaeological finds. Nets were more extensively used on
the Fraser River, but were very much used near large lakes and
consequently one would expect to find sinkers in the vicinity of such
places as Kamloops, Shushwap, Anderson, Seaton, Lillooet, Nicola,
Kootenay and Arrow Lakes. Now, as the Shushwap generally made little
bags of netting in which they put their sinkers to attach them to nets,
this would greatly militate against the finding of grooved, notched or
perforated sinkers in the Shushwap part of this region. They probably
thought this method was more effective or took up less time than
notching, grooving or perforating stones, and attaching lines to them.
It is unknown which of these methods is the most primitive. Unworked
pebbles, chosen for their special adaptation in shape, and others
grooved or perforated were used in some parts of the interior of British
Columbia for sinkers which were not enclosed in netting. Unworked
pebbles attached to lines have been seen in use among the Thompson River
Indians by Mr. Teit who sent a specimen of one to the Museum.[68] These
were of various shapes, some of them being egg-shaped. A deeply
notched oval pebble was found on the site of an old semi-subterranean
winter house on the west side of Fraser River at the month of Churn
Creek in the country of the Fraser River division of the Shushwap. The
Thompson Indians said it had been intended for a war ax and accordingly
one of them mounted it in a handle. It is now cat. No. 16-9073 in this
Museum. Mr. Teit believes the stone to be too heavy for a war club of
any kind and that possibly it may originally have been a sinker,
although it is chipped more than necessary for the latter. In 1908, he
saw a perforated sinker found near the outlet of Kootenay Lake, on the
borders of the Lake division of the Colville tribe and the Flat-bow or
Kootenay Lake branch of the Kootenay tribe. It was made of a smooth flat
water-worn beach pebble 132 mm. long by 75 mm. wide and 25 mm. thick.
The perforation was drilled from both sides near the slightly narrower
end and a groove extended from it over the nearest end where it formed a
notch somewhat deeper than the groove. Mr. Teit heard that several such
sinkers had been picked up around Kootenay Lake and also along the Arrow
Lakes of the Columbia River on the borders of the Shushwap and Lake
divisions of the Colville tribe.

    [68] Teit, (a), Fig. 234.

[Illustration: Fig. 15. Sinker, a Grooved Boulder bearing a Design in
Intaglio. From Priest Rapids. 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from photograph
44536, 9-2. Original in the collection of Mr. Mires.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 16. Sinker, a Perforated Boulder. From Priest
Rapids. 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 44535, 9-1. Original in
the collection of Mr. Mires.)]

In the Nez Perce region[69] to the east, no sinkers were used with fish
lines, but roughly grooved river boulders were employed as net
sinkers.[70] A grooved sinker has been found at Comox, grooved stones
which may have been used as sinkers occur at Saanich, on the west coast
of Washington and the lower Columbia. On the coast of Washington some of
them have a second groove at right angles to the first which in some
cases extends only half way around; that is, from the first groove over
one end to meet the groove on the opposite side. One of the specimens
found at Saanich was of this general type. Perforated specimens have
been found in the Fraser Delta,[71] at Comox,[72] at Saanich,[72] Point
Gray,[72] Marietta,[72] at Gray's Harbor and in the Lower Columbia
Valley. On the whole, however, sinkers are much more numerous in the
Yakima region than on the Coast. The fish bones which were found, as
mentioned under resources, tend to corroborate the theory that the
notched, grooved and perforated pebbles were net sinkers and that the
bone barbs were for harpoons used in fishing.

    [69] Spinden, p. 210.

    [70] Spinden, pp. 188 and 211.

    [71] Smith, (a), Fig. 22.

    [72] Smith, (b), p. 311, 338, 362, 369.


_Shell Heaps._ Small heaps of fresh water clam shells, as before
mentioned among the resources of the region on p. 22, were seen; but
these being only about five feet in diameter and two or three inches
thick are hardly comparable to the immense shell heaps of the coast.
These fresh water shells were probably secured from the river near by,
where such mollusks now live. Shell fish probably formed only a small
part of the diet of the people although dried sea clams may have been
secured from the coast by bartering. The objects made of sea shell
mentioned among the resources of this region as probably secured from
the coast through channels of trade, suggest that the same method was
employed for obtaining certain food products from a distance. In fact,
Lewis and Clark inform us that the tribes of this general region carried
on considerable trade with those of the lower Columbia. Shell heaps of
this character, however, are found in the Nez Perce region. Spinden[73]
states that no shell heaps except of very small size are found, but
occasionally those of a cubic foot or more in size are seen in the loamy
banks of the rivers, noting a few near the junction of the South and
Middle forks of Clearwater River, and also near the confluence of the
North fork with the Clearwater. These seem to be the remains of single
meals that had been buried or cast into holes.

    [73] Spinden, p. 177.


_Digging Sticks._ The gathering of roots is suggested by the presence of
digging stick handles. One of these (Fig. 126) is made of the horn of a
rocky mountain sheep and was secured from an Indian woman living near
Union Gap below Old Yakima. The perforation, near the middle of one side
for the reception of the end of the digging stick, is nearly square but
has bulging sides and rounded corners. The smaller end of the object is
carved, apparently to represent the head of an animal. Similar handles,
some of them of wood, others of antler and with perforations of the same
shape, were seen in Mr. Janeck's collection. It will be remembered that
such digging stick handles made of antler were found in the Thompson
River region among both archaeological finds and living natives,[74] the
archaeological specimens being of antler, the modern handles of wood or
horn.

    [74] Smith, (d), p. 137; (c), p. 411; Teit, (a), p. 231.

The digging stick was one of the most necessary and characteristic
implements of the Nez Perce region to the east, the handle consisting of
a piece of bone or horn perforated in the middle for the reception of
the end of the digging stick, or, according to Spinden, an oblong stone
with a transverse groove in the middle lashed at right angles to the
stick.[75] No archaeological specimens which are certainly digging stick
handles were found on the coast.

No sap scrapers such as were collected in the Thompson River region[76]
were identified and they have not been recognized among specimens from
the coast.

    [75] Spinden, p. 200. Fig. 33, Plate VII.

    [76] Smith, (c), p. 411.

[Illustration: Fig. 17 (202-8161). Fragment of Coiled Basket of Splint
Foundation and Bifurcated Stitch. From grave No. 10 (5) in a rock-slide
about half a mile above the mouth of Naches River. 1/2 nat. size.]


_Basketry._ The gathering of berries as well as of roots is suggested by
fragments of baskets which have been found. One of these is shown in
Fig. 17. It was found in grave No. 10 (5) in a rock-slide about a half
mile above the mouth of the Naches River. It is coiled with splint
foundation and bifurcated stitch. Judging from other baskets of the same
kind, it was probably once imbricated. This type of basketry is widely
distributed towards the north and with grass foundation is even found in
Siberia.[77] Commonly the coiled basketry in the Nez Perce region to the
east was made with bifurcated stitch,[78] by means of a sharpened awl
which was the only instrument used in weaving it. Some were imbricated,
although this style has not been made for many years, and only a few of
the older natives remember women who could make them.[79] Some similar
basketry of a finer technique was found with this fragment.

    [77] Jochelson, p. 632.

    [78] Spinden, p. 194.

    [79] Spinden, p. 193.



PREPARATION OF FOOD.

[Illustration: Fig. 18 (202-8394). Fragment of a Mortar made of Stone.
From among covering boulders of grave No. 42 (4) of adult in sand at the
western edge of Columbia River about twelve miles above the head of
Priest Rapids. 1/4 nat. size.]


_Mortars._ Mortars made of stone for crushing food, such as dried
salmon, other meat and berries, were not uncommon in this region and
pestles of the same material were numerous. Flat oval pebbles were found
scattered on the surface of a village site on the west bank of the
Columbia at the head of Priest Rapids, and were probably used as lap
stones or as objects upon which to crush food. A somewhat circular one
(202-8295) about 230 mm. in diameter has a notch, formed by chipping
from one side, opposite one naturally water-worn, which suggests that it
may have been used as a sinker; but it seems more likely that it was
simply an anvil or lap stone. Similar pebbles were used in the Thompson
River region,[80] some of them having indications of pecking or a slight
pecked depression in the middle of one or both sides. In the Nez Perce
region to the east, basketry funnels were used in connection with flat
stones for mortars. These funnels were of rather crude coil
technique.[81] Another specimen (202-8292b) found at the same place is
merely a water-worn boulder somewhat thinner at one end than at the
other, the surface of which apparently has been rubbed from use as a
mortar or milling stone. A few large chips have been broken from the
thinner edge. Still another specimen (202-8294) from here is a fragment
of a pebble only 120 mm. in diameter with a saucer-shaped depression
about 10 mm. deep, in the top.

    [80] Smith, (d), p. 139.

    [81] Cf. Spinden, p. 194.

[Illustration: Fig. 19. Mortar made of Stone. From the Yakima
Reservation near Union Gap. 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 44455,
2-4. Original in the collection of Mr. Janeck.)]

A somewhat disk-shaped pebble of gray lava 295 mm. in diameter with a
saucer-shaped depression in the top and a large pecked pit in the bottom
(20.0-3344) was collected at Fort Simcoe by Dr. H. J. Spinden. A
fragment of a mortar about 190 mm. in diameter with a nearly flat or
slightly convex base and a depression 50 mm. deep in the top (202-8293)
was found on the surface near the head of Priest Rapids and another
fragment nearly twice as large, the base of which is concave over most
of its surface and shows marks of pecking, apparently the result of an
attempt to make it either quite flat or concave like many other mortars
that have a concavity in each side, is shown in Fig. 18. It was found
among the covering boulders of the grave of an adult, No. 42(4), in the
sand at the western edge of the Columbia River about twelve miles above
the head of Priest Rapids. The mortar shown in Fig. 19, is hollowed in
the top of a symmetrical, nearly circular pebble and has a convex base.
It was found on the Yakima Reservation near Union Gap and is in the
collection of Mr. Janeck.[82] This reminds us of a similar mortar found
in the Thompson River region,[83] but such simple mortars made from
pebbles are rarely found in the Nez Perce region to the east.[84] The
mortar shown in Fig. 20 also from the same place and in the same
collection has a nearly flat base and three encircling grooves.[85]
These grooves find their counterpart in four encircling incisions on the
little mortar found in the Thompson River region.[86]

    [82] Museum negative no. 44455. 2-4.

    [83] Smith, (c) Fig. 342.

    [84] Spinden, Figs. 20 and 22, Plate VI.

    [85] Museum negative no. 44455. 4-2.

    [86] Smith, (c), Fig. 343.

[Illustration: Fig. 20. Mortar made of Stone. From the Yakima
Reservation near Union Gap. 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 44455,
2-4. Original in the collection of Mr. Janeck.)]

The specimen shown in Fig. 116, which may be considered as a dish rather
than a mortar, was seen in the collection of Mrs. Hinman who obtained it
from Priest Rapids. It is apparently of sandstone, 150 mm. in diameter,
50 mm. high, the upper part being 38 mm. high and of disk shape with
slightly bulging sides which are decorated with incised lines,[87] the
lower part being also roughly disk shaped 64 mm. by 76 mm. in diameter
by about 12 mm. high with slightly convex bottom and edges curved out to
the base of the upper part. There is a disk shaped dish in the top 100
mm. in diameter by 12 mm. in depth.[88]

    [87] See p. 125.

    [88] Museum negative no. 44537. 9-3.

The animal form shown in Fig. 125 bears a mortar or dish in its back.
The object is 203 mm. in length, 88 mm. high and 113 mm. wide. The
length of the bowl is 88 mm., the width 70 mm., and the depth 38 mm. The
object is made of porous lava and was secured from an Indian who claimed
to have found it in a grave near Fort Simcoe on the Yakima Reservation
two miles below Union Gap which is immediately below Old Yakima.[89]

    [89] Here reproduced from photographs 44452, 2-1, 44455, 2-4, and
    44503, 6-4 and the original which is catalogue no. 36 in the
    collection of Mr. Janeck.

It seems strange that so many of the mortars are broken since they would
be hard to break. It will be remembered that one of the broken mortars
came from a grave and it may be that the others were on or in graves but
had been removed in some way. My general impression is that mortars are
much more numerous among archaeological finds both in this region and in
the interior of British Columbia than on the coast.


_Pestles._ In addition to the probable use of pestles with flat stones
or mortars with basket funnels, some of them, especially where nearly
flat or concave on the striking head as in the Thompson River region to
the north and on the coast may also have been used as hammers for
driving wedges, splitting wood and like industries, if indeed they were
not made solely for the latter uses. Some of the pestles differ from
those found either to the north or on the coast, many of them being much
longer, although Mr. James Teit informs me that very long pestles are
occasionally found in the Thompson River region. He has seen four, and
heard of one or two more. One two feet long was found in the Nicola
Valley about 1905. One of the pestles of the Yakima Valley has a top in
the form of an animal hoof, as is shown in Fig. 124. Others like animal
heads are shown in Figs. 31, 33-35. The range of forms of pestles is
shown in Figs. 21 to 35. The specimens shown in Figs. 22 to 28 inclusive
are apparently all of the shorter type, while those shown in the
remaining figures are variations of the longer type. By far the greater
number of pestles, about forty, are of the type shown in Fig. 21, and of
these two thirds come from the vicinity of Priest Rapids. They are
merely natural pebbles, all more or less of suitable size, shape and
material, which have been used as pestles until one end has become
flattened. Some of them are also flattened on the top, the battered ends
often giving the only indication that they were used. Such as were not
of exactly the right form for grasping have had their excrescences or
the more projecting surfaces removed by pecking. A few of these objects
seem to have been made from small basaltic columns, the corners of which
have been pecked into a more suitable shape. Some of them have been
pecked so that they taper gradually from the small upper end to the
base. The specimen considered as a "slave-killer" and shown in Fig. 69,
may have been used as a pestle. Simple short cylindrical or conoid
pebbles, only slightly changed from their natural form, are used for
pestles in the Nez Perce region to the east.[90]

    [90] Cf. Spinden, Figs. 1-4, and 8, Plate VIII.

A pebble 559 mm. long by 152 mm. wide and 114 mm. thick, with rounded
corners and ends, found by Mr. John Lacy near the Yakima River in North
Yakima, has longitudinal grooves pecked in three sides to where they
begin to round over to form the end, and a similar groove, except that
it is only about 101 mm. long, in the middle of the fourth side.[91]
These grooves were probably made as part of a process of grooving and
battering down the intervening ridges in order to bring the specimen
into a desired form. Similarly grooved pebbles found on the northern
part of Vancouver Island were explained to Professor Franz Boas as
having been implements in such process of manufacture. So far as I am
aware, Prof. Boas' announcement of this at a meeting of the American
Association for the Advancement of Science was the first explanation of
the sort of grooving or fluting of specimens found in northwestern
America. One similar large specimen (20.0-3343) found at Lewiston,
Idaho, in the Nez Perce region by Dr. H. J. Spinden, bears two
longitudinally pecked grooves in addition to pecking on much of its
surface. A yellowish gray boulder about 349 mm. long, nearly circular in
sections and with rounded ends, from Priest Rapids, bears a pecked
groove 82 mm. long by 31 mm. wide and 6 mm. deep across the middle of
one side. This may have been made to cut it into the length desired for
a pestle.[92] This specimen is much too large to be considered as the
handle of a digging stick, similar to the object from the Nez Perce
region considered as such by Spinden.[93]

    [91] In the collection of Mr. Janeck and Museum negative nos. 44453,
    2-2 and 44501, 6-2.

    [92] In the collection of Mr. Mires, and Museum negative no. 44534,
    8-12.

    [93] Cf. Spinden, Plate VII, Fig. 33.

[Illustration: Fig. 21 (202-8281). Pestle made of Stone. From the
surface, near the head of Priest Rapids. 1/2 nat. size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 22 (202-8263). Pestle pecked from Stone. Probably
unfinished. From the surface, near the head of Priest Rapids. 1/4 nat.
size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 23 (202-8399). Pestle pecked from Stone. Probably
unfinished. From the surface, eight miles above the head of Priest
Rapids. 1/2 nat. size.]

The object shown in Fig. 22, one of those from the surface near the head
of Priest Rapids, judging from the battered end, has apparently been
used as a pestle, yet it is still apparently in process of manufacture
into a form somewhat like that shown in Fig. 27. The pecking at the top
is possibly the result of an attempt to remove that portion of the rock,
while the transversely pecked surface seems to be a beginning towards
the formation of the shaft of the pestle, whereas the longitudinal
groove between these two surfaces was necessary to reduce an excrescence
on the rim of what was apparently intended to be the knob at the top of
the pestle. If this supposition be true, when finished, this object
would have a large striking head resembling more in shape and size those
of the pestles of the region near The Dalles than any yet found in this
region. The specimen shown in Fig. 23 is much more clearly an unfinished
pestle. The ends are pecked flat and the entire middle section has been
pecked, apparently to reduce it to the desired size of the shaft. It
seems that the striking head of this specimen, when finished, would be
rather short. It was found on the surface eight miles above the head of
Priest Rapids.

The pestle shown in Fig. 24 has a conoid body with no striking head and
in this respect resembles the pestles of the Thompson River country;[94]
but the top is roughly disk-shaped, being neither hat-shaped nor in the
form of an animal head, as are most pestles of the Thompson region nor
is it exactly of the shape of the typical pestles of northern and
western Vancouver Island.[95] The material is a soft gray stone which
shows the marks of the pecking by means of which it was shaped.

    [94] Smith, (c), Fig. 341.

    [95] Smith, (b), Fig. _126a_.

[Illustration: Fig. 24. Pestle made of Stone. From Priest Rapids. 1/2
nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 44535, 9-1. Original in the collection
of Mr. Mires.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 25. Pestle made of Stone. From Priest Rapids. 1/2
nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 44535, 9-1. Original in the collection
of Mr. Mires.)]

Fig. 25 illustrates a pestle, the top of which is broken off. There are
two grooves encircling the somewhat cylindrical striking head. The
material is a light blue hard porphoritic rock. These two specimens are
from Priest Rapids.[96] The pestle shown in Fig. 26 is from the Yakima
River, five miles below Old Yakima. It has a hat-shaped top and a
cylindrical striking head a little larger at the top than at the bottom,
is somewhat like the typical pestles of the Thompson River region,[97]
and is in the collection of Mr. York. Another has a slightly wider brim
to the hat-shaped top, a body concave in outline and the striking head
is larger at the top than at the bottom, while a third has a medium
sized brim, a body bulging in the middle and a long cylindrical striking
head. The last two specimens are in the collection of Mr. Janeck, and
are from the Yakima Valley within eight miles of North Yakima.[98]

    [96] In the collection of Mr. Mires, and Museum negative no. 44335,
    9-1.

    [97] Smith, (d), p. 138.

    [98] Museum negative no. 44454, 2-3.

The specimen shown in Fig. 27 was found in a grave with beads and
resembles the typical pestles of Lytton except that it has no nipple on
the top, which is of the shape of the tops of the typical pestles of
northern and western Vancouver Island. Another of nearly the same shape
but less regular was found on the surface of the Yakima Valley within
eight miles of North Yakima. A third specimen 234 mm. long, also found
within the above mentioned limits, is made of a concavely flaring
pebble. A groove is pecked part way around near the top as if to carve
the knob and begin the reduction of the top of the shaft. There is also
a pecked surface on one side near the base, apparently the beginning of
an attempt to form a striking head by first removing irregularities. The
one shown in Fig. 28 was found within eight miles of North Yakima and is
of rather unusual shape, having a short striking head of the shape of
the typical pestles of northern and western Vancouver Island. The
slightly bulging body and exceedingly small, nearly flat knob at the top
are entirely different from those of the pestles usually found in any of
this area, or the country adjacent to it on the north and west. These
four specimens are in the collection of Mr. Janeck.[99]

    [99] Museum negative no. 44454, 2-3.

There are found in the Nez Perce region[100] short pestles with
dome-shaped tops, cylindrical bodies and rather long striking heads of
the form of triangular or quadrangular prisms with rounded corners
slightly larger at the top than at the bottom[101] and such pestles with
hat-shaped tops, although one has a flat top, slightly expanding shafts
and long striking heads, larger at the top than at the bottom.

    [100] Cf. Spinden, Figs. 11, 19, 21, 23, Plate VI; also Plate VIII,
    Figs. 10, 11.

    [101] Spinden, p. 186, Plate VIII, Fig. 9.

Fig. 29 is the first of those showing the longer type of pestle from the
Yakima region. This specimen was found at Satus on the Yakima
Reservation near Old Yakima and is in the collection of Mr. York. The
top is somewhat spherical and the body elongated. Its conoid shape may
class it with the one shown in Fig. 24. It somewhat reminds us of the
pestles of the Santa Catalina Islands of California, but until we have a
more definite knowledge of the forms in the vast intervening area, this
resemblance must be considered as merely a coincidence, especially since
long simple conoid pestles are found in the Nez Perce region to the
east.[102] A somewhat similar pestle in Mr. York's collection is 408
mm. long, and has a tapering body, circular in sections, a knob at the
top about the size of the base and a convex striking face. It was found
at Fort Simcoe.

    [102] Cf. Spinden, Plate VI, Figs. 8-10, Plate VIII, Fig. 6.

[Illustration: Fig. 26. Pestle made of Stone. From Yakima River five
miles below Old Yakima. 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from a sketch. Original in
the collection of Mr. York.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 27. Pestle made of Stone. From a grave in the Yakima
Valley. About 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 44454, 2-3. Original
in the collection of Mr. Janeck.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 28. Pestle made of Stone. From the surface in the
Yakima Valley within eight miles of North Yakima. About 1/2 nat. size.
(Drawn from photograph 44454, 2-3. Original in the collection of Mr.
Janeck.)]

The pestle shown in Fig. 30 is made of sandstone, was found at Priest
Rapids and is in the collection of Mrs. Hinman. The shaft is a long
cylinder, expanding somewhat towards the base which is only slightly
convex. Like the preceding, it has no striking head. It has a
hemispherical top, is unusually large and is decorated with an
encircling line of circles and dots. There is also a circle and dot in
the top. This decoration is again mentioned in the consideration of art
on p. 130.[103]

    [103] Museum negative no. 44537, 9-3.

The pestle shown in Fig. 31 is 355 mm. long. It has a conoid body
perhaps more pronounced than the one shown in Fig. 29 but much less
typical than the one shown in Fig. 24. The top is apparently intended to
represent an animal head. It is made of very hard breccia and well
polished. At each side of the lower part of the body is a design made by
four parallel zigzag grooves, further discussed on p. 132. It was found
in the Yakima Valley, and is in the collection of Mr. Janeck.[104] A
pestle figured by Spinden, as from the Nez Perce Indians,[105] is
somewhat similar to this in that it has a knob protruding slightly to
one side, but there is a notch or groove made longitudinally in the top
of this knob.

    [104] Museum negative no. 44502, 6-3.

    [105] Spinden, Fig. 7, Plate VIII.

The pestle shown in Fig. 32 might perhaps be considered as a war club.
It was found at Priest Rapids and is in the collection of Mr. Mires. The
top is somewhat flat and smoothed. There is a groove around the specimen
near this end. From here it constricts gradually to the lower end which
is broken off. It was made from a triangular piece of gray basalt,
probably a column, the natural angles and parts of the faces of which
have been reduced by pecking.[106]

    [106] Museum negative no. 44534, 8-12.

The specimen shown in Fig. 33 from the Yakima Valley, is in the
collection of Mr. Janeck and is 630 mm. long. The top apparently
represents an animal head indicated by three nipples the larger of which
is interpreted as representing the nose, the others as indicating the
ears. The body is of circular cross section and expands evenly to a
cylindrical striking head 70 mm. in diameter by 76 mm. long.[107]

    [107] Museum negative no. 44502, 6-3.

A long pestle with a knob at the top which is divided into four
pyramidal or dome-shaped nipples was found at Five Mile Rapids on Snake
River and was seen in Mr. Owen's collection. The next figure represents
a stone pestle of somewhat similar shape but more specialized. It was
found in the Yakima Valley and is in the collection of Mr. Janeck. It is
590 mm. long. The top is roughly the form of the fustrum of a cone,
being circular in cross section and gradually expanding downward, but it
is somewhat celt-shaped, the sides for some distance being ground off
nearly flat. They approach each other more closely towards the front
than they do towards the back. In each of these surfaces there is an
incision which represents one side of an animal's mouth and a pecked dot
indicating an eye. The tip of the nose is broken off. Across the curved
part behind the flat surfaces or on the back of this animal head are
four incisions. Below this portion the object is circular in section
until near its middle, or 178 mm. from the top, where there is a band
roughly sub-pentagonal in section with rounded corners 88 mm. long.
Following this band it is nearly cylindrical, being 57 mm. in diameter
for 178 mm. until it expands suddenly into the striking head which is
unusually bulging, 108 mm. long by 64 mm. in diameter.[108]

    [108] Museum negative no. 44502, 6-3.

[Illustration: Fig. 29. Pestle made of Stone. From Satus on the Yakima
Reservation near Old Yakima. 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from a sketch.
Original in the collection of Mr. York.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 30. Pestle made of Sandstone. From Priest Rapids.
1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 44537, 9-3. Original in the
collection of Mrs. Hinman.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 31. Pestle made of Stone. From the Yakima Valley.
1/4 nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 44502, 6-3. Original in the
collection of Mr. Janeck.)]

The object 498 mm. long shown in Fig. 35 is made of steatite, material
seemingly unsuited by its softness for a pestle, and may possibly be a
war club. Mr. McCandless, in whose collection it is, calls the material
a soft sandstone which he says is found at the head of the Wenatchie
River. He says the specimen is from Lake Chelan and that he obtained it
from a man above Wenatchie on the Columbia River. This man told him that
he secured it from Chief Moses' tribe on Lake Chelan, and that the
Indians there call it a war club and a family heirloom. The upper end is
of the form of a truncated pyramid with two flat sides, two bulging
edge's and rounded corners. It shows peck marks and is engraved as
described under art, on p. 124, and is said by the Indians to represent
the head of a snake. The shaft is circular in cross section and
gradually enlarges towards the base where it suddenly constricts. The
specimen has been polished by the natural sand blast.[109]

    [109] Museum negative no. 44507, 6-8.

The noise of the women at one of the Nez Perce villages, pounding roots,
reminded Lewis of a nail factory.[110] Beyond the Nez Perce country
which bounds this area on the east, according to Spinden,[111] the use
of stone pestles disappears until the region of the Great Lakes is
reached, but I have seen pestles in collections in Wyoming which are
said to have been found in that state.

    [110] Lewis and Clark, V, p. 16.

    [111] Spinden, p. 187.


_Rollers._ Another class of specimens considered as pestles or rollers
is shown in Figs. 36 and 37. These do not seem to have been used as
pestles.

[Illustration: Fig. 32. Pestle made of Stone. From Priest Rapids. 1/4
nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 44534, 8-12. Original in the
collection of Mr. Mires.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 33. Pestle made of Stone. From the Yakima Valley.
1/4 nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 41502, 6-3. Original in the
collection of Mr. Janeck.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 34. Pestle made of Stone. From the Yakima Valley.
1/4 nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 44502, 6-3. Original in the
collection of Mr. Janeck.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 35. Pestle made of Steatite. From Lake Chelan. 1/4
nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 44507, 6-8. Original in the collection
of Mr. McCandless.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 36. Pestle or Roller made of Stone. From Priest
Rapids. 1/4 nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 44537, 9-3. Original in
the collection of Mrs. Hinman.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 37 (202-8197). Pestle or Roller made of Stone. From
the surface, about one mile east of Fort Simcoe. 1/4 nat. size.]

The one shown in Fig. 36 from Priest Rapids is in the collection of Mrs.
Hinman. The convex ends of this cylindrical form present the natural
surface of a pebble and they are not battered. The material is a
yellowish quartzite or closely allied rock. It is 457 mm. long, 75 mm.
in diameter and the entire cylindrical surface has been pecked
apparently to bring it to form. If it had been used as a pestle the
ends would show the signs of battering or grinding. The cylindrical
surface does not seem to show any signs of its having been used as a
roller or grinder. It may possibly be a pestle in process of manufacture
although it seems very strange that so much work should have been
expended on the cylindrical surface in a region where natural pebbles
very nearly of this shape were common.[112] The specimen shown in Fig.
37 is apparently made of basalt and was found on the surface about a
mile east of Fort Simcoe. The ends are considerably chipped and one of
them has apparently been somewhat battered since. If the object were
used as a pestle the chipping of the ends is unusually great. The
cylindrical surface has been formed by pecking except in one place where
the natural surface shows. This bit of natural surface is such that it
suggests the specimen to have been made of a prismatic basaltic column.
While these two specimens may have been intended for pestles, it seems
possible that they were made for rollers. Several such objects made of
stone were seen in Mr. Owen's collection. He says that they were used
like rolling pins for crushing camas and kouse roots in making bread.
Both of these roots were extensively used in the Nez Perce region to the
east.[113]

    [112] Museum negative no. 44537, 9-3.

    [113] Spinden, pp. 201-203.

[Illustration: Fig. 38 (202-8157). Fragment of Hearth of Fire Drill.
From Grave No. 10 (5) in a rock-slide about half a mile above the mouth
of Naches River. 1/2 nat. size.]


_Fish Knives._ No fish knives made of slate were found, as in the
Thompson River region, at Lytton,[114] rarely at Kamloops,[115] and
commonly on the coast at Fraser Delta,[116] Comox,[117] and
Nanaimo.[118]

    [114] Smith, (d), p. 140.

    [115] Smith, (c) p. 414.

    [116] Smith, (a), p. 159.

    [117] Smith, (b), p. 315.

    [118] P. 345, _ibid._


_Fire Making._ The method of making fire formerly employed in this
region is suggested by a fragment of the hearth of a fire drill found in
grave No. 10 (5) in a rock-slide about one half a mile above the mouth
of the Naches River and is shown in Fig. 38. It is made of porous wood,
of light cellular structure, possibly cottonwood. This is similar to the
fire drill hearths of the Thompson River region,[119] where I have seen
the Thompson River Indians make fire with the palm drill, using
cottonwood root for the hearth. In the Nez Perce region to the east,
also, fire was made with the palm drill, the hearth stick being of the
root of the light leaved willow or the stem of "smoke wood." It was of
the shape of the hearth here described. The twirling stick was made of
the dead tips of red fir.[120]

    [119] Teit, (a), p. 203.

    [120] Spinden, p. 200.


_Caches._ A number of small circular holes about four feet in diameter,
encircled by a slight ridge, as mentioned on p. 15, were seen which are
possibly the remains of ancient food caches. The Nez Perce Indians in
the region to the east referred to a field at Kamiah, near the mouth of
Lawyer's Creek which has the appearance of being "hilled" like an old
hop field, as being the site of winter cache pits.[121]

    [121] Spinden, p. 181.


_Boiling._ Natural pebbles were plentiful in the river bottoms near the
village sites. Such were no doubt used in boiling food in baskets or
boxes, as fragments of burned and cracked pebbles were also found while
pottery was entirely absent. These facts suggest that it was the custom
to boil the food in baskets or even in boxes as on the coast to the
west. This idea is strengthened by the fact that in the Nez Perce region
to the east, watertight coiled baskets were regularly used in
cooking.[122] We may naturally suppose that roasting before open fires
was also customary in this region. No fireplaces such as were probably
used in this area and are found in the Nez Perce region,[123] were
recognized by us, although beds of clam shells previously mentioned, may
indicate the sites of ancient hearths.

    [122] Spinden, pp. 190 and 194.

    [123] Spinden, p. 178.



HABITATIONS.


_Semi-subterranean House Sites._ Sites of ancient semi-subterranean
winter houses, modern lodges and what may possibly have been a shell
heap were seen and photographed by us in this region. Two of the
examples of the remains of semi-subterranean house sites found here, as
shown in Fig. 2, Plate IV, had stones on top of the surrounding
embankments. Although on the top of the embankments of the remains of
similar underground winter houses in the Thompson River region,[124] we
saw no stones other than those of the soil. I am informed by Mr. James
Teit that such are occasionally to be found there also, but that these
stones are generally found only in those places where boulders were
removed during the excavation for the houses. He was told that it was
the custom to place these boulders around the base of the house. Two
semi-subterranean winter house sites, as mentioned on pp. 7 and 15, may
be seen on the flat along the north side of the Yakima River about a
mile below the mouth of the Naches. One of these may be seen in Fig. 2,
Plate III.[125] There are water-worn boulders in and on the embankments
surrounding them. These boulders were probably uncovered during the
excavation for the house. The holes are situated within twenty-five feet
of the river and between it and the Yakima Ridge which rises by
perpendicular cliffs, almost immediately behind these winter house
sites. In fact, the photograph reproduced in the figure was taken from
the hill side north of the pit and just up stream from the cliffs. They
are on a little terrace about three feet high which gives them the
appearance of having been connected by a ridge. The hole shown in the
figure measured from the top of the ridge was nine feet deep. The top of
the bank measured at points on the flat between it and the river, up
stream from it, and between it and the hill, was four feet, two feet,
and two feet, four inches, respectively. Averaging these measurements,
the height of the embankment above the level is thirty-three and one
third inches. The hole was so near the level of the river, and was so
deep that when we visited it on June 18, 1903, which was during high
water, the waters of the Yakima had soaked through the terrace and were
about two feet deep in the bottom of the hole where it was about eight
feet in diameter, measuring north and south. Measuring in the same
direction the diameter of the top of the hole from points inside of the
surrounding ridge was twenty-two feet, from points on top thirty-three
feet, from points outside forty-seven feet, and from points outside of
the wash from the ridge fifty-one feet. These measurements give us
twelve and a half feet as an approximate width of the ridge or fourteen
and a half feet if we measure from the bottom of the wash. The two sites
mentioned on pp. 7 and 16 were also examined and photographed by us. One
is plainly shown from the north of west in Fig. 2, Plate IV. They are
located on a high terrace on the north side of the Naches River about
one and a half miles above its mouth. There are angular rocks on each
encircling ridge. Some of the large angular rocks found on the
embankment of this ridge, may also have been dug out during the
excavation for the house if such rocks are found under the surface of
the soil in this terrace. Similar rocks are scattered about on the
surface so thickly that it must have been necessary to remove a number
of them from the site where the house was to stand and possibly others
that were scattered about may have been put up around the base of the
house in order to clear the immediate vicinity especially since many of
them are disagreeably sharp angular fragments.[126]

    [124] Smith, (d), p. 140 and Fig. 2, Plate XIII; (c), p. 414.

    [125] Museum negative no. 44517, 7-7 from the north. Negative no.
    44518, 7-8 shows the same from the northwest.

    [126] These two sites are represented by Museum negatives nos.
    44181, 4-6 reproduced in the figure; 44491, from the west; and
    44492, 5-5 nearer from the west.

Measuring the site best shown in the figure, east and west, the level
floor inside the extreme wash from the ridge is nine feet in diameter,
the rocks fallen from the ridge thirteen feet, the inner edge of the
ridge 20 feet, the points on the top of the embankment, twenty-five and
a half feet; the outside of the rocks, thirty feet; the extremes of the
embankment thirty-five feet. These measurements north and south are
respectively, nine feet, thirteen and a half feet, sixteen and a half
feet, twenty-one feet, twenty-five and a half feet and thirty-three
feet. Judging from these measurements, the original dimensions were
probably thirty feet by twenty-five and a half feet over all,
twenty-five and a half feet by twenty-one feet for the top of the
embankment, twenty by sixteen and a half feet for the inside of the
embankment and sixteen and a half feet by fifteen feet for the bottom of
the floor. These measurements are also east and west and north and south
respectively. The present depth of the hole below the top of the rocks
is twenty-nine inches and from the top of the earth embankment is
twenty-six and twenty-one inches. The measurements were taken east and
west and north and south respectively. The slope of the hill from north
to south and its attendant wash, of course, affect the north and south
measurements, while the east and west measurements are probably near the
original dimensions. Contiguous to this hole on the south, or in the
sage brush to the right in the figure, is the other site. It is on the
slope of the hill and not so clearly shown in the Plate. This hole
measures ten and a half feet by eleven feet across the level floor
inside; thirteen by fourteen feet inside of the rocks; nineteen by
eighteen feet at the top of the embankment twenty-three by twenty-three
feet outside of the rocks; and twenty-seven by twenty-six feet outside
of the embankment; fourteen and eighteen inches in depth from the top of
the rocks and ten and twelve inches from the top of the earth, the
measurements being taken east and west and north and south respectively.

Mr. G. R. Shafer informed me that there were holes, the remains of old
houses on the flat in the Naches Valley, twelve miles above the Nelson
Bridge which crosses the river a short distance above the mouth of
Cowiche Creek. At Fort Simcoe, immediately south of the Indian agency,
on the north edge of "scab land" overlooking a small ravine as mentioned
on p. 8, is a large pit surrounded by an embankment of earth, the
remains of a winter house site. This hole is so deep and the embankment
is so high that both Mrs. Lynch and the Indians call it a fort. About
fifteen miles above Kennewick on the eastern side of the Columbia River,
according to Mr. D. W. Owen, there were the remains of hundreds of
semi-underground winter houses and we saw several large and deep sites
immediately below Mr. Craig's house above Priest Rapids as mentioned on
page 20.

A semi-subterranean winter house, with an entrance through the roof,
seen by Lewis and Clark[127] on the north side of the Columbia near the
mouth of White Salmon River, was uninhabited at that time (1805). As
described, it does not differ from the winter house of the Thompson
Indians. The Chinook, so far as we know, never erected such houses. The
pit of an underground house, according to Clark[128] was found among the
Nez Perce. Gibbs[129] mentions what were probably similar pits on the
Lower Yakima. Kane[130] describes a somewhat similar house used by the
Walla Walla but much ruder. Such houses were used by the Klamath.[131]

    [127] Lewis, p. 185; Lewis and Clark, IV, p. 280.

    [128] Lewis and Clark, V, p. 35.

    [129] Gibbs, (a), p. 409.

    [130] Kane, p. 272.

    [131] Gatschet, pp. 177, 124; Abbott in the Pacific Railroad Report,
    VI, p. 69.

Not far from the ranch of Mr. Frank Turner on Rock Creek about six miles
below Rock Lake on Section 6, Town 18 north, Range 40 east in the
country locally known as "The Rocks," there are two pits that are
supposed to be the remains of houses which with other remains (pp. 29,
82, 140) have been in their present condition since about 1874 when they
were first seen by the whites. Both the pioneers and the old Indians are
said to know nothing about them. Mr. Turner's place is best reached from
Sprague on the Northern Pacific Railroad, although his Post Office is
Winona. My information regarding these two pits is from Mr. J. S.
Cotton, then in charge of cooperative range work in Washington.

It is quite possible as pointed out by Lewis[132] that the introduction
of the buffalo skin covered lodge which probably came after the advent
of the horse into this region, had something to do with the apparent
scarcity of the semi-subterranean winter house in the Yakima region in
historic times, the buffalo skin lodge possibly having taken the place
of the earth-covered dwellings.

    [132] Lewis, p. 186.

The so-called cremation circles near Cherry Creek and near the mouth of
the Naches which were mentioned on pp. 12 and 15 and described on pp.
163 and 157, may be the remains of small houses of the type of
semi-subterranean winter house sites that were made especially as grave
houses. As before mentioned, this type of semi-subterranean circular
lodge is found as far north as the Thompson River country, and I have
seen one site on the prairie near Rochester, Thurston Co., probably of
this type. In the Nez Perce region to the east, remains that appear like
those of semi-subterranean houses consisting of ridges of earth about a
foot above the general level of the ground, surrounding a circular pit,
from three to five feet deep, measuring from the top of the ridge; and
about seventy feet in diameter, are found near the mouth of Tammany
Creek on the east bank of Snake River, a few miles above Lewiston. The
site may be identified with Hasutin.[133] The place is known to have
been used as a camp until about 1878, especially during the season of
lamprey eel fishing. These house rings are in several groups. A little
charcoal, some unio shell, flint chips, a digging stick with a bone
handle, glass beads and other objects are reported to have been found in
them. Somewhat similar house rings about twenty-five feet in diameter
were found on the south bank of the Middle fork of Clearwater River,
near the town of Kooskia. Spinden[134] refers to Lewis and Clark[135]
for evidence of considerable antiquity for the circular house rings in
this Nez Perce region. They mention one as being about thirty feet in
diameter with a rim over three feet high and the floor sunken four feet
below the surface of the ground or seven feet below the top of the rim.
The Mountain Snakes, according to Ross[136] never used underground
houses.

    [133] Spinden p. 179.

    [134] Spinden, p. 197.

    [135] Lewis and Clark, V, p. 33.

    [136] Ross, (b), II, p. 117.

At the site near Kooskia there is another type of house site such as I
have not seen in the Yakima, Thompson or Coast regions. Spinden
describes them as long and narrow, about sixty to eighty-five feet long
by eighteen feet wide. The interior is sunken from one to three feet and
surrounded by well marked elevated rims. As a rule, these pits are not
so deep or clearly marked as those of the circular type. The axis of the
house is parallel with the river. He states that these house sites have
not been used for a long time and that trees, some of which are eighteen
inches in diameter grow directly out of them. Excavation revealed a
number of fireplaces about twelve feet apart along the axis of these
houses suggesting that they were communal lodges.[137] We discovered no
indications of communal dwellings in the Yakima region.

    [137] Spinden, p. 197.


_Circles of Stones (Summer House Sites)._ A circle of stones which
marked a small lodge site was examined and photographed. The stones were
no doubt cleared from the interior and all or part of these possibly
with others, were no doubt used to hold down the lodge covers. Although
I saw no such circle of stones in the Thompson River region I am
informed by Mr. Teit that they are occasionally to be seen there and
that they represent old lodge sites. The circle of stones
above-mentioned as described on p. 15 was found on a terrace somewhat
lower than the one on which were situated the remains of the two
semi-subterranean houses described on p. 52. This terrace is a few yards
down stream from the one on which they stand, and is separated from it
by a small ravine. The site is a little further down the stream and
towards the southeast. It is shown in Fig. 1, Plate IV,[138] from the
point on the hillside a few feet above it to the north, shown on the
lower end of the slope in Fig. 2, Plate IV and in negative nos. 44491,
5-4, and 44492, 5-5. This circle of stones on the level ground was made
up of angular rocks such as are scattered on the immediate surface. It
measures ten by eleven feet in diameter inside; fifteen by seventeen
feet from the top of the circle; and twenty-two by twenty-three feet
over all. The top of the highest stones was from fourteen to twelve
inches above the middle of the space enclosed which as before stated,
seemed to be on a level with the outside, all measuring being east to
west and north to south respectively. Among the rocks was found a
chipped piece of jasper or brown chalcedony.

    [138] Museum negative no. 44482, 4-7 from the north.

No saucer-shaped depressions were seen in the Yakima region, although it
is quite probable that they formerly existed and have been obliterated
by weathering. It will be remembered that such saucer-shaped depressions
are often made by sweeping out the summer lodges in the Thompson River
region[139] and that they marked the sites of such houses.

    [139] Smith, (c), p. 405.

Two summer lodges photographed[140] by us near Ellensburg which were
mentioned on page 12 and the one seen below Union Gap down stream from
Old Yakima, resemble those of the Thompson River region to the north. It
will be remembered that mat covered tipis are found in the Nez Perce
region to the east.[141] Lewis and Clark[142] mention but one buffalo
skin lodge among the Nez Perce in 1806 and that was apparently reserved
for special occasions, but a few years later this type of lodge had
practically supplanted the mat lodge among that tribe and was in common
use among all the interior Salish and Sahaptin tribes. The mat houses of
the Yakima are mentioned by Gibbs in the Pacific Railroad Reports.[143]

    [140] Summer lodge, covered with cloth, Japanese matting and Indian
    matting July, 1903; East of Ellensburg. Museum negatives no. 44523,
    8-1 from the southeast; no. 44524, 8-2, from the west; and no.
    44525, 8-3 a nearer view; and summer lodge covered with cloth, July
    1903, in the northern part of Ellensburg, Museum negative no. 44526,
    8-4 from the east.

    [141] Spinden, Fig. 6, Plate X.

    [142] Lewis and Clark, V, p. 16.

    [143] Gibbs, (a), I, p. 407.

A pile of stones shown in Fig. 2, Plate V[144] and mentioned on p. 20 as
uncovered by the wash of the flood waters of the Columbia, was seen on
the bottom-lands on the western side of the Columbia, south of Sentinal
Bluffs and within a hundred feet north of the house of Mr. Britain
Everette Craig. It is possible that this may have been a house hearth or
ancient cooking place, although the presence of human bones among these
stones, suggests that it was a grave covered with flat oval river
pebbles. Near by, uncovered by the same wash, was a small patch of fresh
water unio shells shown from the west of south in Fig. 1, Plate V.[145]
This was probably kitchen refuse. The little pits, each encircled with a
slight embankment made up of the soil thrown out in making it, p. 15,
are probably the remains of food caches near the houses.

    [144] Museum negative no. 44530, 8-8 from the southwest.

    [145] Museum negative no. 44531, 8-9 from the west of south.



TOOLS USED BY MEN.


A number of objects which seem to be tools intended to be used by men
are found in this region. Among these may be mentioned a wedge,
hammerstones, a celt, a hand-adze, drills, scrapers, and an arrow-shaft
smoother.


_Wedges._ Wedges made of antler were not frequently found by us as in
the Thompson River region,[146] although according to Lewis, elk horn
wedges or chisels were used for splitting wood in the general plateau
region of which this is a part.[147] One specimen, however (202-8378b),
was found on the surface near the head of Priest Rapids, which is
apparently a longitudinal fragment of a wedge broken off at the top and
cut by longitudinal grooving along one edge, the other edge being a
portion of the surface of the wedge formed by cutting convexly across
the antler. The specimen is bleached from exposure on the surface.
Another wedge, shown in Fig. 39, was found on the surface near the
Columbia River below the mouth of the Snake. It is made of antler which
has since been bleached from exposure on the surface of the ground.

    [146] Smith, (d), p. 141; (c), p. 414.

    [147] Lewis, p. 186.

[Illustration: Fig. 39 (20.0-1464). Wedge made of Antler. From the
surface near the Columbia River below the Mouth of the Snake. 1/2 nat.
size. (Collected and presented by Mr. Owen.)]

The top was partly cut off and then broken across, while one side edge
shows where the antler was grooved lengthwise for over half its length,
from the inner surface and then broken out. This shows that the process
of cutting up pieces of antler in this region was similar to that
employed in cutting both antler and nephrite, in the Thompson River
region and on the coast of British Columbia and Washington. It has since
been battered. One side shows the nearly flat outer surface of part of
the antler, the other has been cut off to form the wedge, which is
constricted towards the point so that it assumes a somewhat spatulate
form. This specimen is twisted, until the point is in a plane about 45°
from the poll. It was collected by Mr. Owen who believes it to have been
used as a spatula for grinding paint upon the surface of a rock. Wedges
made of elk antler are common in the Nez Perce region where they are
said to have almost completely supplanted celts.[148]

    [148] Spinden, pp. 182 and 189, Fig. 5^7.

Although no wedges were found by us in the Yakima Valley proper, and we
can mention only these two specimens in the whole Yakima region yet it
seems probable that they were here used and for the same purposes as in
the Thompson River region to the north, the Nez Perce area to the east
and on the coast to the west for splitting timber, for cutting firewood
and for general carpenter work. Perhaps their relative scarcity here, as
compared with the Thompson and the Nez Perce country, may be explained
by supposing that wooden wedges, such as are more common than antler
wedges on the coast, and which may have decayed were here used more than
those made of antler.

While the stone hammers or pestles with convex bases, which are
described on p. 39 et seq. were probably largely used for crushing food
and other material; yet some of them and those with concave bases, were
undoubtedly sometimes used as hammers for driving wedges, setting
stakes, pinning out skins and for similar purposes.


_Hammerstones._ The deeply pitted hammer, such as is found in the
Mississippi Valley, was not seen here, and it will be remembered[149]
that they were not found in the Thompson River region. Tough pebbles,
however, were used for pounding. At the quarry shop mentioned on p. 16,
we found a number of pebbles that were evidently used in breaking up the
material out of which to make chipped implements. One of these
(202-8129) is merely a water-worn pebble, 73 mm. long, an edge of which
has been broken off, and a sharp corner shows signs of its having been
used as a hammer, as it has been battered and shows where one large chip
has come off. It will be remembered that in the vicinity of the shop
where the specimen was found, pebbles were rarely if ever seen, although
the surface of the ground was covered with weathered fragments of
volcanic rock. Another specimen (202-8127) found at the same place,
shown southeast of the quarry pit, in Fig. 1, Plate III, is 155 mm. long
and of a rather irregular cross section. The ends are battered and
fractured from use. Apparently it may have been held between the two
hands and used in breaking off large pieces of material. A longer hammer
pebble, bearing the same catalogue number, and found at the same place,
shows on the top of the quarry dump to the left centre in Fig. 1, Plate
III. It is about 270 mm. long. In cross section it tends to be
triangular with rounded corners. The ends are battered and long slivers
have been broken off. The specimen shown in Fig. 40 is from the same
place, shorter, but similar in that the section is sub-triangular and
that each end is both battered and slivered. Other battered pebbles and
fragments slivered from them were found at the same place. The
hammerstone shown in Fig. 41 was found on the surface near the head of
Priest Rapids. It is an oval pebble, nearly twice as wide as it is
thick, of yellowish brown color, which has been used for a hammer, as is
indicated by the battered and chipped condition of its ends.

    [149] Smith, (d), p. 142; (c), pp. 415 and 440, Fig. 38.

[Illustration: Fig. 40 (202-8128). Hammerstone. From quarry on north
side of Naches River about two miles above its mouth. 1/2 nat. size.]

Another specimen, shown in Fig. 42, is made of a hard, dark green or
bluish, water-worn pebble. It was found in the Snake River Valley,
twenty miles above the mouth of the river, and is in the collection of
Mr. Owen. Both ends are battered and the margins of the battered
surfaces are chipped. Mr. Owen says such objects were used in pecking
pestles, mortars, and similar implements into shape. Fig. 43 illustrates
one of these hammerstones, found on the surface at Kennewick. It is a
part of a pebble of tough dark blue material, apparently glassy basalt.
One side edge and one end have been chipped and show large scars on each
side of the side edge and several on one side of the top. Near the
middle of one side, and opposite it on the other side edge, there are
signs of pecking which suggest an attempt at grooving. The lower corner
of the pebble shows signs of having been used as a hammer for pecking. A
small spatulate pebble slightly curved (202-8215), found at the same
place, is battered entirely around the edge of its larger end and in one
place on the side of the narrow end. The battering has given it a smooth
surface in places which suggests that it was used for pecking, rather
than chipping. A large, rather flat, oval pebble (202-8213) from the
same place has large chips off from both sides of its edge in three
places, three fourths of its edge being so chipped. This seems more
likely to be a hammerstone used for chipping.

[Illustration: Fig. 41 (202-8292a). Hammerstone. From the surface, near
the head of Priest Rapids, 1/2 nat. size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 42. Hammerstone made of a Hard, Water-worn Pebble.
From Snake River Valley twenty miles above its mouth. 1/2 nat. size.
(Drawn from a sketch. Original in the collection of Mr. Owen.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 43 (202-8119). Hammerstone. From the surface,
Kennewick. 1/2 nat. size.]

The long, narrow, oval pebble, shown in Fig. 44, is about 140 mm. long,
of a yellow, volcanic, coarse-grained rock, and is in the collection of
Mr. Austin Mires of Ellensburg. This was found at Priest Rapids. The top
is battered and slightly chipped, the other end has been battered to a
rather flat edge, and this battered surface extends one half way up one
side of the specimen and two thirds of the way up the other.[150] A
large flat oval pebble (202-8214), found on the Cherry Creek camp site,
has a notch pecked in each side edge and is battered slightly on one
end. It may have been notched for hafting as a hammer, or for use as a
net sinker, but the battered end suggests the former use. These pebbles
which have been used as hammerstones, remind us of the unbattered
pebbles found with pieces of glassy basalt in certain caches near
Kamloops.[151] Pebbles used as hammerstones are also found in the Nez
Perce region to the east[152] and according to Lewis stone hammers were
used for splitting wood in the general plateau region of which this is a
part.[153]

    [150] Museum negative, no. 44534, 8-2.

    [151] Described by Smith, (c), p. 415.

    [152] Spinden, p. 188.

    [153] Lewis, p. 186; Lewis and Clark, III, p. 124.

A pebble, oval in outline and in cross section (202-8303), found on the
surface of the bank of the Columbia River, near the head of Priest
Rapids, is battered on one side edge near the middle in a way that
suggests that the place was for the reception of the end of a handle.
The lower edge is battered and the top has a large chip off of each
side. It was probably used as a hammerstone. Another flat oval pebble of
lava (202-8305) found at the same place, is chipped on both sides of the
entire edge; but the edge is not sharp, apparently having been dulled by
scraping, the natural sand blast or weathering. A disk or
sub-oblong-shaped pebble (202-8304) also found at the same place is
chipped from one side only across the entire edge at a slight bevel so
that it has a nearly flat edge. The high places of the edge are smoothed
as if from its use in pecking, yet it does not seem to have been much
used for such a purpose or to need to have been chipped into disk form
for that use.

None of the pebbles which were notched and supposed to be net sinkers,
as mentioned on p. 30 and that were found in this region, show battered
ends or appear as if they had been used as hammers. On the other hand,
some of the grooved pebbles described as net sinkers are battered, p.
30. It will be remembered[154] that no notched hammers or those grooved
entirely around, like those found here, were found in the Thompson River
region, although a pebble which had been notched or grooved on two edges
was found and figured as a hammer.[155] Nor was the grooved stone maul
used by the Nez Perce to the east according to Spinden[156] although
many specimens are found on the Umatilla in northern Oregon to the
south.[157]

    [154] Smith, (c), p. 415.

    [155] _Ibid._, Fig. 347.

    [156] Spinden, p. 188.

    [157] Lewis, p. 186; Lewis and Clark, III, p. 124.

[Illustration: Fig. 44. Hammerstone made of a Close-Grained Yellow
Volcanic Pebble. From Priest Rapids. 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from
photograph 44534, 8-2. Original in the collection of Mr. Mires.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 45. Celt made of Serpentine. From an Indian at
Ellensburg. 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 44507, 6-8. Original
in the collection of Mr. McCandless.)]


_Celts._ Celts made of stone such as were common in the Thompson River
region[158] were not found by us in the Yakima region; but one typical
specimen which apparently resembles the celts found on Puget Sound, more
than it does those found in the Thompson River region is shown in Fig.
45. It may be seen in the collection of Mr. McCandless who secured it
from an Indian at Ellensburg. This celt is made of serpentine and is
190 mm. long.[159] A similar specimen, in the same collection, resembles
this one but shows grooves along the side edges by means of which it was
cut out. There is a celt made of green serpentine, only about 3 mm.
thick in the collection of Mr. Owen, but it was found at Umatilla,
Oregon.

    [158] Smith, (d), p. 142; (c), p. 415.

    [159] Museum negative no. 44507, 6-8.

Celts of jadeite (?) narrow and oblong were found on Snake River above
Lewiston in the Nez Perce region to the east.[160] Spinden states that
these were evidently acquired by trade from natives of the northwest
coast and that they have been cut by grooving and breaking. Also, that
this method and material was not employed by the Nez Perce who
considered the objects to have been used as wedges. I am inclined to
believe, therefore, that these more nearly resemble the celts of the
Thompson River country[161] than they do those of the coast. At least
one celt of this general style has been found near Lake Chelan lying
between the Thompson River region and both the Yakima and Nez Perce
regions. It is a long stone celt and was found in an ancient grave on
the bank of the Chelan River near the house of Hon. Amos Edmunds, of
Chelan, Washington. In the graves of this group, according to Mr. C. G.
Ridout, who cooperated with Mr. Edmunds in excavating at this place, and
from whom all of our information on this specimen was obtained, stone
knives and skinning and scraping tools were found. This celt is of a
mottled green "marble resembling onyx" (probably serpentine or nephrite)
400 mm. long, 47 mm. wide and 15 mm. thick. It is slightly concave on
the two sides, while one side edge is flat and the other is concavely
bevelled. The poll is of the natural unworked stone and judging from the
drawing furnished by Mr. Ridout, was broken off. It is raggedly
diagonal. The cutting edge is sharpened by long convexly ground surfaces
of nearly equal size and curve. The bevel of the side edge suggests that
the material for the celt was cut out by grooving and breaking as was
the case in the Thompson River region, where the celts showed similar
traces of grooving.[162] It is true that similar grooving may be seen on
celts from the Coast, but in that region the celts are short, while in
the Thompson River area they are long like this one and the material is
more often of the mottled green color than on the coast. The specimen is
owned by Mr. Edmunds and is in the collection of Mr. Ridout.

    [160] Spinden, p. 182 and Figs. 1, 2, Plate IX.

    [161] Smith, (c), Fig. 349.

    [162] Cf. Smith, (c), Fig. 349.

No pieces of antler or other material which may possibly have served as
celt hafts were found in this region, although it will be remembered
that one specimen, thought possibly to have been such, was found at
Kamloops in the Thompson River[163] region, another in the Lillooet
Valley[164] and that celt hafts made of antler were common on the coast
at Port Hammond,[165] Comox,[166] Saanich,[167] and Utsalady.[168] A
piece of antler (202-8378a), found on the surface near the head of
Priest Rapids, is much bleached and shows signs of having been daubed
with red paint. It consists of a piece which has been cut around below a
fork with some sharp instrument and then broken off. The prongs seem to
be simply broken off.

    [163] Smith, (c), Fig. 348, p. 115.

    [164] Teit, (b), Fig. 66.

    [165] Smith, (a), Figs. 29 and 59.

    [166] Smith, (b), Fig. 107.

    [167] _Ibid._, Figs. 129-130.

    [168] _Ibid._, Fig. 157.

[Illustration: Fig. 46. Hand-Adze made of Stone. From the surface in an
old burial ground of the Indians near the mouth of the Yakima River on
McNeals Island. 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from photographs 44503, 6-4,
44452, 2-1. Original catalogue No. 25 in the collection of Mr. Janeck.)]


_Hand-Adze._ Only one hand-adze has been found in this area, so far as I
am aware. It is catalogue No. 25 in the collection of Mr. Janeck, made
of stone and found near the surface of an old burial ground of the
Indians near the mouth of the Yakima River on what is known as McNeals
Island. This specimen is shown in Fig. 46, and is 165 mm. long, 228 mm.
in greatest circumference which is around the part corresponding to the
edge of the striking head of a pestle, 37 mm. in diameter at the top and
37 mm. along the edge of the blade. It is made of rock resembling
diorite or diabase. The natural surface of the pebble from which it was
made shows on the ridge of the striking head of the pestle-like part.
The convex side of the celt-like part of the object is very smooth. This
is apparently partly due to the fact that it presents the smooth natural
surface of the pebble from which the object was made, and also to more
or less friction which must have been received here when in use. It
probably served as an adze. This specimen is perhaps the most ideal form
of this type that I have seen, the upper end comparing closely to a
pestle, with a slight indication of a knob at the top, a flaring body,
and a short striking head, the sides of which extend as a ridge nearly
if not entirely around the specimen. The celt-like part is to one side
of the axis, so that one side expands to meet the ridge above
mentioned, forming a concavity; the other contracts to meet it forming
a convex sweep from the cutting edge to the beginning of the body of the
pestle-like part.[169] Such hand-adzes have been found at Portland,
Columbia Slough about ten miles below Portland,[2] and Mr. E. D.
Zimmerman of Philadelphia has informed me that there are five or six
specimens of this type in his collection but the discovery of this
specimen at McNeals Island marks the most eastern occurrence of this
type, so far as I know at present.[170]

    [169] Museum negatives nos. 44452, 2-1 and 44503, 6-4.

    [170] First mentioned on pp. 303-304, Noteworthy Archaeological
    Specimens from Lower Columbia Valley, by Harlan I. Smith, American
    Anthropologist, (N. S.) Vol. VIII, No. 2, April-June, 1906.


_Whetstones._ Whetstones, recognized as such, are rare in the Yakima
region but a fragment (202-8217) of a sandstone pebble, which is
apparently rubbed on the irregular sides was found on the surface of the
little camp site, west of Cherry Creek, near Ellensburg. It probably
served as a rough whetstone or for grinding implements into shape.

The cigar-shaped object made of friable stone, shown in Fig. 69, and
considered on p. 81 as a war implement or "slave-killer," is suitable
for use as a whetstone and may have been such. The object thought to be
a whetstone shown in Fig. 120, is in the collection of Mr. Janeck, and
is said to be from the Yakima Valley. It is made of friable slate; the
top is broken off. It is 142 mm. long, 18 mm. wide and 6 mm. thick with
rounded edges. The circle and dot design incised on the specimen is
described on p. 131. It would seem that use as a whetstone would destroy
the design.[171] From the whole region, I have seen only these three
specimens that can be considered as whetstones. This scarcity seems
somewhat remarkable when we consider their abundance in the Thompson
River region,[172] and also on the coast at Port Hammond and Eburne in
the Fraser Delta,[173] Comox,[174] North Saanich[175] Victoria,[176] New
Dungeness,[177] and Port Williams.[178]

    [171] Museum negative no. 44503, 6-4.

    [172] Smith, (d), p. 144; (c), p. 417.

    [173] Smith (a), p. 167.

    [174] Smith (b), p. 312

    [175] _Ibid._, p. 339.

    [176] _Ibid._, p. 360.

    [177] _Ibid._, p. 389.

    [178] _Ibid._, p. 392.

Beaver teeth sharpened for use as knives, such as were found in the
Thompson River region,[179] were not found by us in this whole area any
more than in the Fraser Delta,[180] although they were present at
Comox,[181] and though not certainly identified at both Saanich[182] and
Burton.[183] However, a beaver tooth was found (202-8189) in cremation
rectangle No. 21 (16) on the flat overlooking the mouth of the Naches
River. Objects that are considered as knife handles, such as were found
at Lytton,[184] though not certainly at Kamloops[185] were absent here
as in the Fraser Delta.[186] Objects made of bone or antler and thought
to have been used for flaking stone implements were also absent.

    [179] Smith (d), p. 144; (c). p. 417.

    [180] Smith (a), p. 168.

    [181] Smith (b), p. 318.

    [182] _Ibid._, p. 346.

    [183] _Ibid._, p. 398.

    [184] Smith (d), Fig. 50.

    [185] Smith (c), p. 418.

    [186] Smith (a), p. 168.

[Illustration: Fig. 47 (202-8398). Point for a Drill, chipped from
Chalcedony. From the head of Priest Rapids. 1/2 nat. size. (Collected by
Mrs. J. B. Davidson.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 48 (202-8370). Point for a Drill, chipped from
Chert. From the surface, near the head of Priest Rapids. 1/2 nat. size.]


_Drills._ Drill points chipped from stone are perhaps less abundant in
the Yakima country than in the Thompson River region[187] to the north.
They are found of various shapes in the Nez Perce region[188] to the
east but it will be remembered that they were not certainly identified
among finds from the coast.[189] The specimen shown in Fig. 47, was
collected at the head of Priest Rapids, and presented by Mrs. J. B.
Davidson of Ellensburg. It is chipped from a grayish chalcedony. The
shaft is rather blunt at the end, possibly having been broken off, and
is somewhat lozenge-shaped in cross section although one side has a less
pronounced ridge than the other which causes the section to tend towards
the sub-triangular. The base expands sidewise and is somewhat thinner at
the end than at the shaft although it is thicker than the point. A point
somewhat similar in shape, but 57 mm. long, chipped from white
chalcedony, and found at Priest Rapids, was seen in the collection of
Mr. Austin Mires. Another drill point chipped from black trap, 48 mm.
long, and also found at Priest Rapids, was seen in the same collection.
The shaft expands sidewise into a base of the form of a truncated
triangle which is rather thin. Fig. 48 shows a drill point chipped from
reddish brown chert that was found on the surface near the head of
Priest Rapids. The upper portion resembles the first-mentioned specimen
and the lower part is somewhat similar to it but more lenticular in
cross section. In other words, the implement is either double-pointed or
it was intended to chip away the lower part. The lower point is so well
chipped to form that it seems more likely to be a double-pointed drill.

    [187] Smith (d), p. 148; (c), p. 419.

    [188] Spinden, p. 185, Figs. 23-25, Plate VII.

    [189] Smith (a), p. 190; (b), p. 438.

Holes which have been drilled and apparently with such drills as these
are seen in the stone objects shown in Figs. 34, 77, 81, 99, 105, 119.
The shell object shown in Fig. 88 probably was broken; but in Figs. 76,
79, 90, 91, 93 and 94, the shell seems drilled and in Fig. 73 the antler
is drilled.


_Scrapers._ For scraping and shaving, the objects shown in Figs. 49-52
would have been useful. One side of these consists of a large facet, as
in the case of Fig. 50, or is but slightly chipped. This surface on the
first two specimens shows the bulb of percussion, while on the fourth
all signs of the bulb have apparently been obliterated by secondary
chipping along a longitudinal third, probably done to flatten the side,
although as this scraper was made from a fragment of a flake rather than
from the whole flake it is possible that the bulb was not on this piece.
In the third specimen the bulb does not show as the object was not made
from a flake but from a thin piece of chalcedony which shows striations
upon both surfaces suggesting that it may have been the filling or cast
of a seam from which it has separated. The upper ends of the first two
specimens are somewhat convex on this surface probably because of the
bulb of percussion. The lower or wider ends, which are chipped to a
scraping edge from the opposite side on all the specimens are somewhat
concave or at least flat as in the third specimen. The other two are not
so regular in outline, but are also chipped like a scraper at the broad
end and the side edges. The specimen shown in Fig. 52 was found on the
surface of the little camp site on Cherry Creek, near Ellensburg, and is
of a waxy, yellowish brown chalcedony. It is shaped something like a gun
flint.

There is a scraper 66 mm. long made of a greenish slate in the
collection of Mrs. Davidson to whom it was presented by Mr. Owen. It is
somewhat tongue-shaped and slightly concave-convex. The base is broken
while the curved edge is slightly chipped on the convex side to form an
edge. The point is rather thin and has been somewhat rubbed. Red paint
has been daubed on the specimen which suggests that it may have been
found in a grave. It will be remembered that scrapers were found,
although not so frequently, in the Thompson River region[190] to the
north and that in the Nez Perce region to the east,[191] they are
usually irregular in form, flat on one side and convex on the other.
While their chief use may have been for skin scraping, they are found by
experiment to be excellent implements for planing wood, and may well
have served for the scraping down of arrow-shafts, spear-shafts, and for
similar work.

    [190] Smith (c), p. 418.

    [191] Spinden, p. 185 and Fig. 5^6.

[Illustration: Fig. 49 (202-8371). Scraper chipped from Petrified Wood.
From the surface, near the head of Priest Rapids. 1/2 nat. size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 50 (202-8372). Scraper chipped from Agate. From the
surface, near the head of Priest Rapids. 1/2 nat. size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 51 (202-8373). Scraper chipped from Chalcedony. From
the surface, near the head of Priest Rapids. 1/2 nat. size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 52 (202-8221). Scraper chipped from Chalcedony. From
the surface of the Cherry Creek Camp Site near Ellensburg. 1/2 nat.
size.]

Some of the chipped points described on p. 23 may have been used for
knife points. Among these there are a number of specimens which were
particularly suited for this use. The specimen shown in Fig. 6 may have
served as a knife, possibly one used for ceremonial purposes although it
may have been used as a spear point. These knives, being somewhat
symmetrical differ from the one found at Kamloops[192] in the Thompson
River region which was similar in shape to the knives used until
recently by the Thompson River Indians.[193] These knives from the
Thompson River region are chipped much more from one side than from the
other and have curved points. The specimen shown in Fig. 3 (202-8336)
has an absolutely flat base which is apparently an unworked portion of
the block from which the object was chipped. It is possibly an
unfinished arrow point, but its outline suggests that it is a knife
point. The specimen shown in Fig. 2 is chipped from waxy red chalcedony.
It has a straight end and one edge of the point is slightly more curved
than the other, which together with the fact that one side is nearly
flat suggests that it may have been one of those points which are
considered to have been used for knives rather than for arrow or spear
points. The specimen (202-8369) shown in Fig. 1 may have served either
as the tip for an arrow or as a knife point, and it may be compared with
the much more deeply serrated points found in the Thompson River
region.[194]

    [192] Smith (c), p. 418, Fig. 352d.

    [193] Teit, (a), Figs. 125-126.

    [194] Smith (d), Figs. 8 to 19; (c), Figs. 332 i-j and 334.


_Arrow-shaft Smoothers._ Arrow-shaft smoothers, made of coarse sandstone
like those from the Thompson River region,[195] were not found by us in
this area nor on the coast;[196] but one of these grooved stones was
seen in the collection of Mr. E. R. McDonald at Ellensburg. It was
collected by Mr. Dick Williams, of the same place, who found it on the
west bank of the Columbia River, twenty miles north of Priest Rapids,
Kittitas County. It is made of a salmon-colored gritstone, and is of the
usual type, semi-cylindrical with a longitudinal groove on the flat
side, in this case a very small groove such as might occur if it had not
been much used. In the Nez Perce region to the east,[197] according to
Spinden, there have been found an arrow-shaft smoother made up of two
somewhat rectangular blocks of light tufa, each with a semi-cylindrical
groove in one side and a soapstone object which he considers to be an
arrow-shaft polisher, but I have considered this as a mat presser.

    [195] Smith (d), p. 145; (c), p. 419.

    [196] Smith (a), p. 190; (b), p. 438.

    [197] Spinden, p. 187, Fig. 32, Plate VII.



TOOLS USED BY WOMEN.


A number of implements were found which may have served for the
preparation of skins and for sewing. Among these may be mentioned skin
scrapers, awls, a needle, and a mat presser.

[Illustration: Fig. 53 (202-8302). Scraper chipped from a Flat Circular
Pebble. From the surface of the bank of Columbia River near the head of
Priest Rapids. 1/2 nat. size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 54 (202-8307). Scraper or Knife chipped from a
Pebble. From the surface of the bank of Columbia River, near the head of
Priest Rapids. 1/2 nat. size.]

_Scrapers Chipped from Stone._ The scrapers chipped from stone, shown in
Figs. 49 to 52, and considered among tools used by men on pp. 67-68, may
possibly have been used on skins although they seem rather small for
such a purpose. The specimen shown in Fig. 53, made from a flat circular
pebble was found on the surface of the bank of the Columbia River, near
the head of Priest Rapids. The edges are chipped in such a way that it
has been brought somewhat to the form of a square. This object would
serve well as a skin scraper if hafted in the split end of a stick and
used like similar implements seen in use by us among the natives of the
Thompson River region.[198] It resembles archaeological specimens from
the same area.[199] In the Nez Perce region to the east[200] a
disk-shaped spall struck from a boulder was used for skin scraping.
Another form, shown in Fig. 54, is chipped from a pebble, probably a
flat circular one. Along one side, the surface of the pebble shows, but
on the other it has been completely chipped away. In outline, the object
is elliptical, but has a slight tendency to be pointed at each end. It
is lenticular in section, with the edges jaggedly sharp. This reminds us
of certain specimens found at Columbus and The Dalles, which have the
same general shape, but are ground and polished, so that no signs of
chipping remain on some of them. It seems probable that this specimen is
a roughed-out form of the same kind, which may have been used in its
present condition, or was intended to be finished by grinding and
polishing. It seems quite likely that this implement may have been
hafted in the end of a split stick and used as a skin scraper, similar
to those previously mentioned. On the other hand, it may have been held
in the hand and used in scraping skins or perhaps as a knife. It was
found with another on the surface of the bank of the Columbia River,
near the head of Priest Rapids. Another of these (202-8117) was found on
the surface at Kennewick. The specimen shown in Fig. 55 is simply an
oval water-worn pebble with one edge chipped on both sides. It is 115
mm. long by 16 mm. thick, may be an unfinished object, if not a scraper
or knife, and was found on the surface of the bank of the Columbia River
near the head of Priest Rapids.

    [198] Teit (a), Fig. 1, Plate XIV, and Fig. 127.

    [199] Smith (d), Fig. 64; (c), Fig. 355.

    [200] Spinden, p. 215.


_Scrapers Rubbed from Bone._ Scrapers made of bone, similar to those
found by us in the Thompson River region and in the vicinity of Puget
Sound[201] were not seen in the Yakima region.

    [201] Smith (d), Figs. 65 and 66; (c), Fig. 356; (a), Fig. 34; Teit
    (a), Figs. 128 and 129.

[Illustration: Fig. 55 (202-8297). Scraper or Knife chipped from a
Pebble. From the surface of the bank of Columbia River, near the head of
Priest Rapids. 1/2 nat. size.]


_Awls Rubbed from Bone._ Awls made of bone have been found in this area.
The specimens made of stone, mentioned on p. 25 among chipped points,
and on p. 66 among drills may have been used by women for the same
purposes. The specimen shown in Fig. 56, was found on the surface of an
island in the Columbia River near the mouth of the Snake, and it is
bleached from exposure. It was collected and presented by Mr. D. W.
Owen. The specimen shown in Fig. 57, was found on an island in the
Columbia River, forty miles above the mouth of the Snake, and it is
bleached from exposure on the surface. The shaft is nearly circular in
cross section and tapers to a point for one half its length. The base
ends in a flat elbow piece. The outline of the end of this projection is
rounded. The specimen was collected and presented by Mr. D. W. Owen.

No awls made from the proximal part of the ulna of the deer were seen by
us in this area, although it will be remembered they were found in the
Thompson River region[202] and are reported from the Nez Perce region to
the east by Spinden who says that they were used in braiding rope.[203]
We found them on the coast of British Columbia and Washington.[204] The
same remarks are true of awls made of the distal end of the metapodial
of the deer.[205]

    [202] Smith (c), Fig. 357.

    [203] Spinden, p. 189, Plate VII, Fig. 29.

    [204] Smith (a), p. 170 (_Eburne and Hammond_); (b), p. 317,
    (_Comox_); p. 347 (_Saanich_); p. 377, (_Stanwood_); p. 389, (_New
    Dungeness_).

    [205] Smith (d), Fig. 74; (c), Fig. 357; (a), Fig. 35, (_Eburne_);
    (b), p. 317, (_Comox_); p. 348, (_Saanich_).

[Illustration: Fig. 56 (20.0-1466). Awl made of Bone. From the surface
of an Island in Columbia River near the mouth of the Snake. 1/2 nat.
size. (Collected and presented by Mr. Owen.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 57 (20.0-1465). Awl made of Bone. From an Island in
Columbia River, forty miles above the mouth of the Snake. 1/2 nat. size.
(Collected and presented by Mr. Owen.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 58. Spatulate Object made of Bone. From the Yakima
Valley. 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 44503, 6-4. Original
catalogue No. 13 in the collection of Mr. Janeck.)]

This seems rather interesting since these two kinds of awls, each made
of a special bone are so commonly found and so widely distributed in
America that it seems hardly possible that they may not yet be found in
this region. Simple sharpened bone implements which are said to have
been used as awls are found in the Nez Perce region[206] where according
to Spinden, a small awl was used in making basketry but we saw none in
the Yakima region not considered to be points for arrows or spears.

    [206] Spinden, p. 189, Plate VII, Figs. 27 and 28.


_Needles._ Only one object which may be considered as a needle was seen
by us in the Yakima region, and it will be remembered that they are rare
on the coast of British Columbia and Washington, except in the Lower
Fraser[207] country, although they were common in the Thompson River
region.[208] This specimen shown in Fig. 58 is a long needle-like
object, No. 13, in the collection of Mr. Janeck. The object is warped or
bent like the needles used in the Puget Sound country to string cat-tail
stalks together in order to make mats. This specimen is 291 mm. long.
The point is sharpened and although the side edges are flat, it somewhat
resembles a paper knife. At a point nearly one third of its length from
the base, it is perforated through the middle by gouging from each side.
The base is notched, in such a way that the object is bilaterally
symmetrical as shown in the illustration. It may possibly but not
probably have served as a sap scraper.[209]

    [207] Smith, (a), Fig. 36.

    [208] Smith (d), Figs. 76-78; (c), Fig. 358.

    [209] Museum negative no. 44503 (6-4).

[Illustration: Fig. 59 _a_. Object made of Steatite, probably a Mat
Presser. From Prosser. 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 44504, 6-5.
Original in the collection of Mr. Spalding). _b_, Part of Incised
Pictograph on Object Shown in _a_.]


_Mat Pressers._ Mat pressers, or objects that are considered to be such,
made of stone are commonly found in the area immediately to the south.
No objects recognized as such were found by us in the Thompson River
region, and from the coast of British Columbia and Washington there is
only one. It is made of stone[210] and was found at Cadboro Bay near
Victoria. Specimens made of wood are very common among the present
natives of the same coast. A ground soapstone object from the Nez Perce
region is considered by Spinden an arrow-shaft polisher,[211] but seems
to me more likely to be a mat presser of the type found in the region
immediately south of the Yakima area.

    [210] Smith (b), Fig. 146.

    [211] Spinden, Plate VII, Fig. 34.

The object shown in Fig. 59 which may be an unfinished pipe, is of the
form of a flattened cylinder, made of steatite and was found at Prosser
in the southern part of the area here considered. The surface is marked
with incised figures, part of which are illustrated in Fig. 59b and
described on p. 124. The groove on one side suggests that it may have
been used as a mat presser such as are used to string cat-tails and tule
stalks. The cylindrical bore in the top is 25 mm. deep by 10 mm. in
diameter and its top is funnel-shaped. The original is in the collection
of Mr. Spalding.[212]

    [212] Museum negative no. 44504, 6-5.



PROCESSES OF MANUFACTURE.


The processes of manufacture employed in this area as indicated by the
archaeological objects found include fracturing by chipping and flaking,
pecking or bruising, grinding, polishing, cutting by grooving and
breaking, incising, whittling and gouging, and drilling. The materials
worked by each of these processes may be seen among the specimens here
figured and described. Spinden states[213] that in the Nez Perce area
chipped implements were made by the men and that the pecked artifacts
were made by the women.

    [213] Spinden, p. 185.



LIFE HISTORIES OF MANUFACTURED OBJECTS.


The story of the manufacture of the objects found from the securing of
the raw material to their finished and to their worn out and broken
condition is not shown completely in the case of more than one class of
objects, viz., chipped implements, but in a number of cases the signs of
manufacture have not been entirely obliterated and some specimens are
figured and described which are undoubtedly in process of manufacture.
Plate III, Fig. 1 shows a quarry from which material for the manufacture
of chipped implements was obtained. A description of this has been given
on p. 16. Here could be seen the hammers, one of which is illustrated in
Fig. 40, that were used in breaking up the raw material, and the
material in various stages of chipping and flaking together with the
waste products. In Plates I and II may be seen the more or less
completed chipped implements. If points of antler were used as flakers,
they were either not found or recognized by us. According to Mr. Cotton,
there are numerous chips within the "fort" mentioned on p. 82. One other
example of a series illustrating the life history of an object may be
mentioned, namely, that of the pestles. Many oblong pebbles suitable
for pestles without being changed from their natural form were seen in
both the Yakima and the Columbia Valleys. Other pebbles required but
slight shaping to bring them to the required form. Fig. 22 illustrates
such a pebble which is in process of shaping by pecking or bruising and
Fig. 43 shows a suitable tool for executing the work. After being fully
shaped by this process such pestles were polished but the materials used
for this purpose, whether sandstones and similar abrasives, the horse
tail rush or the bare hand, are not known.



WAR.


_Implements used in Warfare._ The objects considered under hunting on p.
23 _et seq._, such as chipped points for spears, arrows and knives may
have served in warfare; so also may bows, mentioned on p. 29. Others
that were considered as tools, on p. 57 _et seq._, such as the celt and
hand-adze, may have been used as weapons in war times; but there are
some objects that were probably useful only in warfare. Prominent among
these are the club-heads and clubs, made of stone, shown in Figs. 60-68.
No clubs made of copper, antler or whale's bone have been seen by us
that are certainly from this region although it will be remembered[214]
that such were found in the Thompson River region, lying to the north,
that the latter are common on the coast of British Columbia and
Washington[215] to the west of this area and that one of whale's bone
labeled from the upper Columbia River has been figured in my report on
the archaeology of Puget Sound.[216]

    [214] Smith (d), Figs. 81 and 82; (c), Fig. 359.

    [215] Smith, (b), Figs. 165-171.

    [216] Smith (b), Fig. 166d.

[Illustration: Fig. 60. Grooved Pebble. From the Yakima Reservation near
the Gap. 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 44455, 2-4. Original in
the collection of Mr. Janeck.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 61. Club-head or Sinker made of Lava. From the
Yakima Reservation near the Gap. 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from photograph
44503, 6-4. Original in the collection of Mr. Janeck.)]


_Grooved Pebbles, Club-heads, or Sinkers._ The grooved spheroid pebble,
shown in Fig. 60, was found on the Yakima Reservation near Union Gap and
is in the collection of Mr. Janeck. There are two encircling grooves
which cross each other at nearly right angles. These have been made by
pecking. At one intersection of the grooves, the object shows signs of
battering such as may have resulted from pounding with it, or such as
may have been made to form a pit for the reception of a handle end. It
is probably a club-head, net sinker or gaming stone[217] similar to
those used in the Thompson River region.[218] In the Nez Perce
region[219] to the east unworked river boulders sewed in skin, were used
for the heads of war clubs which were sometimes also used in killing
game. This kind of club is the same used by the eastern Indians,
according to Lewis[220] and was probably introduced. The spheroid
specimen made of hard lava, possibly trap, shown in Fig. 61, was found
on the Yakima Reservation near Union Gap, and is also in the collection
of Mr. Janeck. There are three grooves, marking great circles at right
angles to each other. These have been made by pecking. At each pole or
the intersection of two of these grooves, at the top and bottom in the
illustration, and in each area marked out by the grooves is a pit making
a total of ten. In the equatorial grooves are the remains of two
parallel strings, each twisted to the right or contra-screw-wise, made
up of two strings twisted to the left and remains of a fabric of loose
mesh overlying the strings. It measures 70 mm. by 63 mm. by 57 mm.[221]
A club-head made of stone with a handle covered with rawhide and
horsehair, was seen by us in the collection of Mr. Janeck. The head is
grooved, circular in cross section, and has conoid ends. It consequently
resembles the stone clubs of the eastern Plains. The objects shown in
Figs. 14-16 and considered as sinkers, may have been fastened to handles
and used as heads for war clubs or as 'canoe smashers' in warfare.

    [217] Smith (d), Fig. 39; (c), p. 440; Teit (a), p. 279.

    [218] Museum negative no. 44455, 2-4.

    [219] Spinden, pp. 188 and 227, also Fig. 5^5.

    [220] Lewis, p. 189.

    [221] Museum negative no. 44455, 2-4.


_Stone Clubs._ The club[222] shown in Fig. 62, is made of serpentine.
The handle is oval but approaches a lenticular form in cross section.
There are eighteen notches across one edge of the knob and eight on the
other. The blade is of the characteristic form with lenticular cross
section but thicker than the thin type of stone clubs of this form such
as are found near the coast.[223] The tip is rather blunt. The reverse
is the same as the obverse. It is from Methow River, Okanogan County and
here illustrated from a sketch by Mr. Charles C. Willoughby of the
original in the Peabody Museum, Harvard University.

    [222] First mentioned on p. 414 and Fig. 174a, Smith (b).

    [223] Smith (b), Fig. 172a, b.

[Illustration: Fig. 62. Club made of Serpentine. From Methow River,
Okanogan County. 1/4 nat. size. (Drawn from sketches by Mr. Charles C.
Willoughby. Original catalogue No. 64795 in the Peabody Museum,
Cambridge, Mass.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 63. Club made of Serpentine. From the Yakima Valley,
between Wenas Station and the Gap above North Yakima. 1/4 nat. size.
(Drawn from photographs 44453, 2-2, and 44500, 6-1. Original catalogue
No. 44 in the collection of Mr. Janeck.)]

The club shown in Fig. 63 was found in the Yakima Valley on the west
side of the river between Wenas Station and Upper Gap above North
Yakima. It is made of serpentine of a mottled yellow, brown and green
color. It is 26 mm. long, and of the form of a rather thick, elongated
apple seed, with the upper and lower ends cut off. The top is of the
form of a symmetrical celt with a dull edge and is bevelled about
equally from each side. The handle, which is 22 mm. thick, is the
thickest part of the object, rather oval in section and merges into the
blade, which is paddle-shaped, lenticular in cross section and
terminates in a celt-like end which is dull and bevelled about equally
from each side.[224] It is catalogue No. 44 in the collection of Mr.
Janeck.[225] A club of this general type has been found as far east as
Sand Point, Idaho, the most eastern occurrence, as was mentioned on p.
413 of my "Archaeology of the Gulf of Georgia and Puget Sound," where
all the clubs of this type from Northwestern America are discussed. On
the west, they seem to range from the Klamath Valley to the head of
Puget Sound.

    [224] Smith (b), p. 417.

    [225] Museum negatives nos. 44453, 2-2, and 44500, 6-1.

The club, shown in Fig. 64[226] is made of stone and has a blade rather
lenticular in cross section, but bulging somewhat so that it reminds us
of the clubs of the lozenge-shaped cross section.[227] It is 265 mm.
long, by 25 mm. thick. The handle is somewhat lenticular, but tends to
be hexagonal in section, with rounded corners and meets the blade
abruptly. There is a saddle-shaped knob at the top with an incised
geometric design in the hollow. The upper part of the right edge of this
knob is flat with two incisions across it, while the lower part is
rounded. A stone club with similar handle is known from Puget
Sound.[228] The specimen is catalogue No. 40 in the collection of Mr.
Janeck, and was secured by him from the York collection. It was
originally collected from an Indian woman on the Yakima
Reservation.[229]

    [226] First shown in Smith (b), Fig. 177a.

    [227] Smith (b), p. 415.

    [228] Smith (b), Fig. 177b.

    [229] Museum negatives, nos. 44453, 2-2 and 44500, 6-1.

The club shown in Fig. 65 is made of diabase or allied material and is
338 mm. in length. It is bilaterally symmetrical and the reverse and
obverse are alike. The handle is oval in cross section and terminates in
a knob from which it is separated by a slight groove. In the top of the
knob is a depression as if there had been a hole pecked through the
form, tapering from each side, as in the clubs or slave-killers having
lozenge-shaped cross section from the coast there[230] the top broken
off and the broken edges rounded, as in the club with lozenge-shaped
cross section from Copalis on the coast of Washington.[231] But such is
not the case; the notch resembles that of the club shown in Fig. 64,
slightly the one shown in Fig. 62, both from this region, and one from
Burton on Puget Sound.[232] The blade is paddle-shaped like the large
end of an apple seed, lenticular in cross section, with a mid-rib on
each side which runs out about 10 mm. from the end of the club.[233] It
was found on the surface at Union Gap, below Old Yakima, and is in the
collection of Mr. Janeck.[234]

    [230] Smith (b), Figs. 175 and 176.

    [231] _Ibid._, Fig. 175e.

    [232] _Ibid._, Fig. 177b.

    [233] First mentioned, Smith, (b), p. 416 and Fig. 177c.

    [234] Museum negatives, nos. 44453, 2-2, and 44501, 6-2.

[Illustration: Fig. 64. Club made of Stone. From Yakima Reservation. 1/4
nat. size. (Drawn from photographs 44500, 6-1, and 44453, 2-2. Original
in the collection of Mr. Janeck.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 65. Club made of Stone. From the surface at Union
Gap below Old Yakima. 1/4 nat. size. (Drawn from photographs 44453, 2-2,
and 44501, 6-2. Original in the collection of Mr. Janeck.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 66. Club made of Stone. From the surface at Union
Gap below Old Yakima. 1/4 nat. size. (Drawn from photographs 44453, 2-2,
and 44501, 6-2. Original in the collection of Mr. Janeck.)]

The stone club, shown in Fig. 66, was found on the surface at Union Gap,
below Old Yakima. It is of a purplish gray lava-like material. The
handle is oval in cross section with a knob at the end which is somewhat
flattened on each side and slopes towards the rounded top like a blunt
symmetrical celt. The blade has convex side edges which are nearly flat
and about 18 mm. wide. It is thicker in the middle than at the edges and
bears a mid-rib of the shape of a railroad embankment with rounded
angles, from the handle to the end. On each side of this mid-rib, the
surface is nearly flat. The end of the blade is nearly flat. The
specimen is in the collection of Mr. Janeck.[235]

    [235] Museum negatives nos. 44453, 2-2, and 44501, 6-2. First
    mentioned on p. 416 and figured in Smith, (b), Fig. 177d.

It will be noted that the thin stone clubs found here have no mid-rib.
Clubs made of stone, whale's bone or wood with such mid-ribs are unknown
from the coast but are found with median decoration in place of a
mid-rib,[236] those of whale's bone being common and a thin club made of
copper with a median decoration was found at Spuzzum in the interior of
Southern British Columbia.[237]

    [236] Smith (b), Figs. 173a, b; 169a; 165a, c-g; 166a, b, d-g;
    167a-d; 168a, c, d; 169f and 170a.

    [237] _Ibid._, Fig. 172d.


_'Slave-killers.'_ A 'slave-killer' or club, made of friable stone shown
in Fig. 67, was found on the surface of Union Gap, below Old Yakima. It
is in the collection of Mr. Janeck. The object has a blade which sets
out from the handle and resembles in shape the typical 'slave-killer' in
that it is lozenge-shaped in cross section with bulging sides and
rounded angles. The handle is oval or nearly circular in cross section,
and slightly larger at the top where there is no knob or perforation as
in the typical club of this type.[238] The object is 377 mm. long, 63
mm. wide, and 41 mm. thick.[239] The club or 'slave-killer' made of
stone, shown in Fig. 68, was found at Lake Chelan, and is 280 mm. long.
It is owned by Mr. C. G. Ridout of Chelan, Chelan County. The handle
terminates in a knob, which resembles the form of an animal head. This
knob is somewhat heart-shaped, the two lobes possibly representing ears,
and the lower tip projects beyond the handle of the object. One side,
the larger surface, stands at about 45 degrees to the axis of the club
and is bisected by a deep incision, on each side of which are two
circles, which probably represent eyes. On either edge of this knob are
thirteen incisions. The handle which is nearly circular in cross
section, bears four vertical rows of horizontally arranged incisions and
expands suddenly edgewise to form the blade which, however, on its upper
and lower surfaces is practically continuous with the handle. The blade
is nearly circular in cross section and tapers gradually to a rather
blunt point. The object is probably a ceremonial implement.

    [238] _Ibid._, Figs. 175, 176 and 177e.

    [239] First mentioned _ibid._, p. 418. Museum negatives nos. 44453,
    2-2 and 44500, 6-1.

[Illustration: Fig. 67. Club made of Stone. From the surface at Union
Gap below Old Yakima. 1/4 nat. size. (Drawn from photographs 44453, 2-2,
and 44500, 6-1. Original in the collection of Mr. Janeck.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 68. Club made of Stone. From Lake Chelan. 1/4 nat.
size. (Drawn from a sketch furnished by Mr. C. G. Ridout. Original in
his collection.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 69. War implement or Slave Killer, made of Friable
Stone. From the Yakima Valley. 1/4 nat. size. (Drawn from photograph
44503, 6-4. Original in the collection of Mr. Janeck.)]

The stone objects considered as pestles and shown in Figs. 32 and 35 may
have been used as war clubs. The object made of friable stone, shown in
Fig. 69 was mentioned on p. 39 us possibly having been used as a pestle
and again on p. 65 as being suitable for use as a whetstone. It seems
most likely, however, that it served as an implement of war or as a
'slave-killer.' It is roughly of the shape of a cigar. The upper end is
nearly flat and circular. From here the object gradually expands for
about half its length and then contracts to a point, being nearly
circular in cross section throughout. It is 208 mm. long, 38 mm. in
maximum diameter, and 19 mm. in diameter at the top. It was found in the
Yakima Valley and is in the collection of Mr. Janeck.[240] The object
considered as a hand-adze and shown in Fig. 46, may have been used as a
'slave-killer.'

No objects considered as daggers or knives and made of antler were found
by us in this region. Although it will be remembered[241] that several,
over 200 mm. in length, were found in the Thompson River region.

    [240] Museum negative no. 44503, 6-4.

    [241] Smith (d), Fig. 80; (c), p. 423 and Fig. 360.


_War Costume._ The costume indicated on the figure carved in antler,
described under the section of dress and adornment, p. 100, referred to
in the discussion of art on p. 127, and shown in Fig. 121, may be that
of a warrior as is suggested by the similarity of the headdress to the
war-bonnet of the tribes of the Plains. That the war-bonnet was used in
this region is strongly suggested not only by this headdress but also by
those represented in the pictographs and petroglyphs as well as by the
wearing of it by the modern Indians of this area. This idea is further
strengthened by the fact that the war-bonnet is worn in the Nez Perce
region to the east,[242] where it has no doubt been used for a long
time, although it may originally have been derived from the Plains. The
Nez Perce sometimes wore streamers with these war-bonnets. Spinden
states that the early Nez Perce war-bonnets differed from the type used
by them to-day, and that exact information about them is difficult to
obtain.

    [242] Spinden, p. 228.


_Fortifications._ A so-called "Indian fort" is situated near Rock Creek
about six miles below Rock Lake. It is about a mile south of the ranch
of Mr. Frank Turner (p. 54), and shown in the photographs reproduced in
Figs. 1[243] and 2[244], Plate VI. These were taken and presented by Mr.
J. S. Cotton, then in charge of the cooperative range work at the
Washington State Experiment Station at Pullman, who furnished from his
notebook all our data on this subject. The "fort" is built on a flat
knoll of about fifteen feet in height and with precipitous sides. It is
in the form of a circle, being enclosed about four fifths of the way
around. The wall is built of flat rocks which are tilted in such a
manner that they will glance all projectiles into the air. There were
numerous arrow chip pings within the "fort." There are many Indian
graves supposed to be very old, two pits believed to mark building
sites, and a long line of stones in the vicinity (pp. 140, 54, 29).

    [243] From the interior.

    [244] From the exterior.


_Wounds._ The skull of skeleton No. 99-4318, found in rock-slide grave
No. 10 (5) on the north side of the Naches River half a mile above its
mouth, showed where the right side of the orbit had been pierced in such
a way that the malar bone was partly severed and repair had taken place,
leaving a large anterior lateral projection on the malar bone. One rib
had two articular surfaces at the anterior end.



DRESS AND ADORNMENT.


_Skins._ Tanned skin and skin bearing hair of animals, including the
deer, and feathers of the woodpecker have been found in the graves and
were evidently portions of garments or of pouches; but graves containing
these materials are apparently more modern than some of the others. No
skins of birds were found by us in this whole region. The scrapers
mentioned on page 69 and the hammers as well possibly as the grooved
stones mentioned on pages 30 and 75 may have contributed to the making
of clothing: the former for scraping skins, the latter for beating and
softening them.

Skin (202-8223), resembling buckskin or leather in its decomposed
condition, was found in grave No. 31 (2) (99-4326), in the rock-slide
near the mouth of Cherry Creek, immediately below Ellensburg. That this
grave may not be as ancient as some of the artifacts here described is
suggested by the fact that a small piece of a wooden post, not
completely decayed, was found projecting from the rock-slide above the
grave, and by the presence of four more posts, one at each corner of the
grave, extending down from the level of the rock-slide, the upper parts
apparently being entirely decomposed. The remains of matting which had
been wrapped around the body, glass beads (202-8225) and three bracelets
made of iron (202-8226), one of which is shown in Fig. 96, also suggest
that this grave was modern, although it must be remembered that in this
dry climate, wooden posts, matting and iron resist decomposition for a
long time. The form of the garment or other object made up of this skin
has not been identified, but pieces of the skin are joined in some
places by over-casting with skin thread; in others, with a double skin
thong and still in others with some sort of vegetable fibre. A piece of
deer skin (202-8230) with the hair on was found in grave No. 37 (4)
(99-4328), in the same rock-slide. Here again, the presence of sticks
about three feet long, decayed at the tops and arranged in three rows of
matting made of reeds (202-8229 and 202-8230, Figs. 71-72), and of beads
apparently made of factory-rolled copper, suggest that the entire
contents of this grave are modern.

Fragments of skin of a small mammal, with the hair on, which had been
stitched along one edge with what appears to be twisted vegetable fibre
made into a cord of two strings (202-8231), was found in grave No. 34
(5) (99-4329) in the same rock-slide. Here again were found evidences
suggesting the grave to be modern. These consisted of decayed posts cut
off at the surface of the slide. Among the other objects in the grave
were matting (202-8232), beads (202-8233, Fig. 74), made of what is
apparently factory-rolled copper, coarse string and thong, some of
which is wound at the ends and pieces of coarse twisted plant fibre upon
which some of the beads were strung, two ornaments (202-8234, Fig. 91)
made of haliotis shell, two pendants made of what appears to be
factory-rolled copper (202-8235), four bracelets apparently made of
similar copper (202-8236, Fig. 95), a square pendant (202-8238, Fig.
78), a disk (202-8239, Fig. 83), both of which seem to be made of
factory-rolled copper and a piece of iron (202-8242). Among the rocks
above the grave were found a copper ornament (202-8244), a brass pendant
(202-8245, Fig. 84), with thong and copper bead, and a copper pendant
(202-8246, Fig. 82).

[Illustration: Fig. 70 (202-8391). Diagram of Stitch of Fragment of Rush
Matting. From near the skin on skeleton in grave No. 38 (1) of an adult
in a rock-slide on the east side of the escarpment near the head of
Priest Rapids. 1/2 nat. size.]


_Matting._ Fragments of matting of vegetable fibre sewed or twined with
cords made of plant material were found; but only in recent graves. Such
graves contained objects introduced into the region since the advent of
the whites. These fabrics were probably modern but were in no way
affected by the coming of the white man or the materials secured from
him, being simply found in these modern graves associated with artifacts
made from material secured from the white man. In the old graves they
have probably long since decayed. Spindle-whorls were not found. Fig. 70
illustrates the stitch of a piece of matting (202-8391) of a well known
type consisting of a single strand warp of rushes pierced at intervals
by the weft which is a two-strand string. It is similar to that commonly
found in the Thompson River region.[245] This specimen was found in
grave No. 38 (1) (99-4333) in a rock-slide on the west side of the
Columbia River, near the head of Priest Rapids. The grave was probably
modern as is suggested by stakes nearly six feet long which projected
about three feet above the surface of the rock-slide and a roll of birch
bark[246] (202-8392). The vegetable fibre used in sewing these stalks
was probably the same as that used by the present Indians as was
thought to be the case in the Thompson River region.[247] Spinden does
not mention this simple type of sewed mat as found in the Nez Perce
area.[248] Fig. 71 shows a piece of matting (202-8229) of a new type
consisting of two strands of what seem to be small stalks of tule,
twisted loosely and pierced at each half turn by a cord. The cord is a
two-strand string, the vegetable fibre of the individual strands not
seeming to be twisted. The interstices are wide. It was found under the
pelvis of a skeleton of a youth (99-4228) in a recent grave, No. 33 (4),
in a rock-slide near the mouth of Cherry Creek, below Ellensburg. This
piece of matting, so far as I am aware, is the first specimen of a new
type collected and figured. It was first brought to the attention of
students in 1906 through correspondence when Professor Otis T. Mason
stated that he had never seen an example, a picture or a description of
just that technique. It was shown at the annual exhibition of the New
York Academy of Sciences, in December of the same year, but reference to
the type was first published in November 1908 by Spinden.[249] In the
Thompson River region this type has not been found. Mr. James Teit
informs me that he asked all the old Thompson Indian women of the
vicinity of Spences Bridge about this type of matting, submitting a
model of it to them which I sent him. They all stated that they never
saw that particular type made in the Thompson River region and if ever
made there it must have been before the memory of those now living. The
only pierced matting made there as far as they have ever known is the
tule tent mat,[250] but the strands of this were not twisted, being like
those shown in Fig. 70. They had a weave similar to this and the same in
general effect in the common mat used for beds and on which to sit,
known as the floor mat, but the strands were woven and not
stitched.[251] Certain rush bags of the Quinault and the Makah resemble
this type of matting but the rushes are not pierced.

    [245] Teit (a), Fig. 131c.

    [246] _Cf._ Smith (d), Fig. 117.

    [247] Smith (c), p. 423, Teit (a), p. 188.

    [248] Spinden, p. 195.

    [249] Spinden, p. 195.

    [250] Teit (a), Fig. 131c.

    [251] Teit (a), Fig. 131d.

[Illustration: Fig. 71 _a_ (202-8229). Fragment of Matting, made of
Twined Rush, stitched together with twisted cord. From under the pelvis
of skeleton in grave No. 33 (4) in a rock-slide, near the mouth of
Cherry Creek, below Ellensburg. _b_ Diagram of Stitch of _a_. 1/2 nat.
size.]

Matting (202-8162) made of tule stalks stitched together with cords
twisted to the right, but made of large stalks was found in a recent
grave, No. 10 (5) in the rock-slide on the north side of the Naches
River, half a mile above its mouth. Part of this was of a similar type
and stitched with similar cords and part was of the more common form of
sewed matting such as is shown in Fig. 70. This grave had been rifled,
and the presence of bark, a portion of a fire drill (202-8157), part of
a wooden bow (202-8159), two pieces of a finely woven basket (202-8160)
and copper tubes apparently of rolled copper, suggest that it was
modern.

Fig. 72 illustrates the technique of a piece of matting of open twine
weaving made of rush which was found under the pelvis of the skeleton in
grave No. 33 (4) of a youth in a rock-slide near the mouth of Cherry
Creek, below Ellensburg. Spinden states that mats were made in the Nez
Perce area, of cat-tail stalks held together by two twined cords and
that mats were used for house and floor coverings and as sheets upon
which to dry berries.[252]

    [252] Spinden, p. 195.

The string of all these fragments of matting was too much decayed or
fragmentary for determination. It will be remembered that both sewed and
woven matting were found in the graves of the Thompson River
region,[253] as well as among the living Indians. It seems probable that
these mats were made and used one above the other like great shingles
for covering the summer house, for beds and for wrapping the dead, while
the thinner pieces may have served for garments. Food was probably
spread on them to dry and they no doubt served many other purposes. The
art of weaving was practised to a considerable extent in the Nez Perce
region to the east, although it had very slight development in the
Plains area, still further east.[254]

    [253] Smith (c), p. 423.

    [254] Spinden, p. 190.

Cord made of vegetable fibre (202-8233) found in grave No. 34 (5)
(99-4329) in a rock-slide near the mouth of Cherry Creek, below
Ellensburg, upon which copper and shell beads were strung was made of
two strands, some twisted to the right, others, to the left and in some
cases a single cord was used for stringing the beads, while in other
cases three cords were used.

A roll of birch bark (202-8392) was found in grave No. 38 (1) (99-4333)
in a rock-slide, on the west side of the Columbia River near the head of
Priest Rapids. It is the only specimen of this kind that was found by us
in the whole area although it will be remembered[255] that such rolls of
birch bark were frequently found in graves of the Thompson River region.
As stated on p. 84, we considered this grave to be modern.

    [255] Smith, (d), Fig. 117.

[Illustration: Fig. 72 (202-8230). Fragment of Open-Twine Matting, made
of Rush. From under the pelvis of skeleton in grave No. 33 (4) of a
youth in a rock-slide near the mouth of Cherry Creek, below Ellensburg.
1/2 nat. size.]


_Ornaments._ A great variety of ornaments was found, but most of these
were in graves considered to be modern. Among the finds which appear to
be old, none of them having been found in graves considered to be
modern, none of them appearing to be made of commercial material and all
of which seem to be of native technique are perforated disks of stone
(202-8152), and bone, (202-8227), a perforated and engraved sea shell
(202-8388), and haliotis shell from the Pacific Ocean (202-8393), both
plain and polished dentalium shells, pendants made of what is apparently
haliotis shell, a nose ornament also apparently made of haliotis shell
(202-8252), and beads made of shell.

Red and yellow ochre, blue copper clay, and white earth, which may have
been used for paint such as was found in the Thompson River region[256]
were not seen by us in this area. Although charcoal, which may have been
mixed with grease and used for paint, was frequently found there was no
evidence of such use.

    [256] Smith, (d), p. 150; (c), p. 424.

[Illustration: Fig. 73. Comb made of Antler. From a grave at Fort
Simcoe. 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 44510, 6-12. Original in
the collection of Mrs. Lynch.)]


_Combs._ Only one comb was seen and nowhere throughout the area were
found any objects known to have been used as head scratchers such as
were not uncommon in the Thompson River region.[257] The comb (Fig. 73)
is made of antler and was found where a creek had washed it out of an
old grave at Fort Simcoe. The teeth are convex in outline, the back is
nearly straight but not quite parallel with the line of the teeth and
the ends convex, the rear end being shorter than the other. The
nineteen teeth (one perhaps being rather wide to be considered) are set
out from each other by grooves on each side of the comb. This edge of
the object is somewhat sharpened making the lower end of each tooth
resemble the shape of a celt or wedge. Near the back of the comb are
three perforations, one in the middle and one at each end, the latter
being about equi-distant from both the back and the end of the comb. The
hole near the short end of the comb was drilled tapering from the
reverse, while the two other holes were drilled tapering part way
through from each side, but slightly farther from the reverse than the
obverse. The specimen is in the collection of Mrs. Jay Lynch at Fort
Simcoe.[258] A comb made of antler was found by us at Lytton[259] but
none were seen among archaeological finds from the other parts of the
Thompson River region,[260] although wooden combs are found among the
Indians there, as in the Nez Perce region where modern combs were made
of narrow strips of wood lashed together.[261] A comb of antler was
found by us in the main shell heap at Eburne in the Fraser Delta.[262]

    [257] Smith, (c), p. 424; Teit (a), p. 312.

    [258] Museum negative no. 44510, 6-12.

    [259] Smith, (d), Fig. 83.

    [260] Smith, (c), p. 424.

    [261] Spinden, p. 221.

    [262] Smith, (a), Fig. 12.


_Beads._ Among beads, some made of glass are certainly modern. Judging
from these glass beads, others found associated with them or with things
of white manufacture in the same grave are also modern; while some seem
to be old and from sites believed to be ancient. Besides objects truly
of the shape of beads, there are others, as for instance the tubes of
copper such as are shown in Figs. 74 and 78, some of which were found
strung with simple bead forms. Otherwise, they might possibly not have
been considered as beads. Fig. 121 suggests how such tubular beads of
copper may have been worn on armlets and headdresses. In Fig. 74 are
illustrated two fragmentary strings of several types of beads from a
number which were found on the neck, arms and legs of a skeleton in
grave number 34 (5) in a rock-slide near the mouth of Cherry Creek below
Ellensburg. The short cylinders are sections of dentalium shells, longer
sections appearing occasionally. The longest cylinders are sheet copper
rolled into cylindrical form. The lapping edge, in most of the beads
illustrated is irregular and varies in thickness, which suggests that
they were beaten out of native copper rather than cut out of
factory-rolled copper. Of course this appearance might be given to the
latter by beating it. Such rolled beads made of copper are found in the
Nez Perce region to the east[263] and in the Thompson River area to the
north.[264] These shell and copper beads consequently might be
considered ancient from their individual appearance, but on the shorter
string are some more or less spherical beads made of glass which of
course shows that all these beads were used in comparatively recent
times. The beads on the longer string are strung upon coarse plant fiber
twisted into a two strand string while the shorter string is upon a much
smaller fiber also of two strands which are twisted. Some of the other
beads in this lot were strung upon thongs.

    [263] Spinden, Plate IX, Figs. 16-18.

    [264] Smith, (c), Fig. 371.

[Illustration: Fig. 74 (202-8233). Beads made of Copper, Glass and
Sections of Dentalium Shells. From neck, arms and legs of skeleton in
grave No. 34 (5) in a rock-slide near the mouth of Cherry Creek, below
Ellensburg. 1/2 nat. size.]

The tubular bead shown in Fig. 75 is made of brass, proving conclusively
that it is recent. It was found in grave No. 1 of the Yakima ridge,
which contained a number of other objects that might characterize the
grave as ancient were it not for the presence of brass beads. A smaller
but slightly shorter brass bead was found with this. It contained a
piece of stick, but this may be merely the remains of a rootlet many of
which had penetrated into the grave. The edges of the outer fold as well
as the ends of the bead are irregular and thinned out similar to the
corresponding parts of the copper beads shown in Fig. 74. This suggests
that the brass may have been pounded into sheets by the natives or at
least that factory-rolled brass was pounded by them in manufacturing the
bead. It also shows that this characteristic of the edges of copper
objects, while it may suggest that they were beaten out of native copper
and are consequently ancient, does not prove it. Tubular copper beads
with short sections of dentalium shell were found mixed all the way from
the top to the bottom of grave number 10 (5) in a rock-slide on the
north side of the Naches River about half a mile above its mouth. Some
of these were slightly larger than those shown in Fig. 74.

[Illustration: Fig. 75 (202-8148). Bead made of Brass. From grave No. 1
in a rock-slide of the Yakima Ridge. Nat. size.]

The bone tubes shown in Figs. 97 and 98 and those described on p. 105
under games, may possibly have been intended for beads or ornaments.
Beads were made of bones of birds in the Nez Perce region to the
east.[265] The perforated cylinder made of serpentine or steatite shown
in Fig. 99 may also have been used as a bead or ornament instead of for
gambling. Shell beads of disk shape such as are shown in Fig. 76 were
found in three places. Those figured were among the refuse of a grave in
a rock-slide near the head of Priest Rapids. Two were found in grave No.
7 (4) in a rock-slide on the northern side of the Yakima Ridge. A brass
button and three glass beads were found with them. Twenty-eight of them
were found in the grave of a child in a rock-slide on the west side of
the Columbia River near the head of Priest Rapids. All these beads seem
to be drilled from both sides or at least each end of the bore is
slightly larger than the middle. Somewhat similar disk-shaped beads,
apparently made of shell are found in the Nez Perce region to the
east,[266] the Thompson area to the north[267] and in the Fraser
Delta[268] of the coast country to the west.

    [265] Spinden, p. 189.

    [266] Spinden, Plate IX, Figs. 12 and 13.

    [267] Smith, (d), p. 153; (c), p. 427.

    [268] Smith, (a), p. 179.

[Illustration: Fig. 76 (202-8384). Beads made of Shell. From refuse of a
grave in a rock-slide near the head of Priest Rapids. Nat. size.]


_Dentalium Shells._ Dentalium shells, some broken or cut into short
sections, were found in twelve of the graves of this region. Two of
these graves were in domes of volcanic ash and probably old; five of
them were cremation circles, also ancient, while five were rock-slide
graves of which three were surely modern, and two probably so. It will
be seen that the dentalia beads are found in about equal proportions in
old and recent graves, there being seven examples of the former and five
of the latter. One lot of dentalia found in a cremation circle was
charred. None of the dentalia found in the rock-slide graves were
incised while in one of the graves in a dome of volcanic ash incised
dentalia were found together with the sculptured human form in antler
shown in Fig. 121 on which are represented what appear to be dentalium
shells forming parts of ear or hair pendants. Incised dentalia were also
found in two of the five cremation circles containing dentalium shells.
Some of the incised designs on dentalium shells are shown in Figs. 117
and 118. An idea of how the dentalium shells may have been used as
ornaments on arm bands and headdresses may be had by reference to Fig.
121 and p. 101. Somewhat similarly incised dentalium shells were found
at the large burial place at Kamloops in the southern interior of
British Columbia to the north,[269] and in the Nez Perce region to the
east bits of engraved dentalium shells are found in the graves of
children.[270] Strings of them were hung from the ears or fastened to
the braids of hair and dentalia were attached to the dresses of the
women.[271] Among antiquities they are found as far east as central
Wyoming. There are some dentalium shells decorated with windings along
lines somewhat similar in the collections from the Hupa of California.
Dentalium shells used as nose ornaments, ear pendants or parts of
ornaments and as beads were also found in the Thompson region.[272] A
few were found on the coast in the Fraser Delta,[273] but while they are
to be seen in collections from living Indians and recent graves they
were not found among antiquities elsewhere on the coast of British
Columbia and Washington.[274] It seems noteworthy that while the shells
are plentiful on the coast where they are used by the modern people they
could only have been obtained in the Thompson River region and the
Yakima Valley by barter. In the north, they were imported until recently
through the Chilcotin country from the region north of Vancouver
Island.[275] In the Yakima Valley, however, they were probably brought
in by a more southern route and from places further south on the coast.
My impression is that the Fraser Valley was not used as a route for the
importation.

    [269] Smith, (c), Fig. 379.

    [270] Spinden, p. 181, Plate IX, Fig. 15.

    [271] _Ibid._, p. 220.

    [272] Smith, (c), pp. 425 and 427, (d), pp. 134 and 153.

    [273] Smith, (a), p. 180.

    [274] Smith, (b), pp. 319 and 387.

    [275] Smith, (c), p. 408.


_Pendants._ Somewhat circular objects which might possibly be considered
as beads are shown in Figs. 77 to 80 and are considered as pendants
perforated near the centre. The first is a slightly asymmetrical disk,
made of slate, which was found in grave No. 1 in a rock-slide of the
Yakima Ridge. It is perforated at the centre with a large hole and at
each end with a small hole. These perforations taper from each end and
were apparently drilled. On each side there are four conoid pits about
equi-distant from each other and the end holes arranged to form an oval
about parallel with the edge of the object. On the reverse, there are
only two of these pits, one on each side. The disk is 3 mm. thick.

[Illustration: Fig. 77 (202-8152). Drilled and Perforated Disk made of
Slate. From grave No. 1 in a rock-slide of the Yakima Ridge. Nat. size.]

Fig. 78 illustrates a thin square of copper with rounded corners, a
thong of skin and a copper bead, found in grave No. 34 (5) of an infant
in a rock-slide near the mouth of Cherry Creek below Ellensburg. The
hole in the centre of this little pendant has been punched. The presence
of glass beads and iron in the same grave suggests that possibly this
copper pendant was made of factory-rolled metal.

[Illustration: Fig. 78 (202-8238). Pendant made of Copper, Thong and
Copper Bead. From grave No. 34 (5) of an infant in a rock-slide near the
mouth of Cherry Creek, below Ellensburg. Nat. size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 79. Button made of Shell with Attached Bead made of
Metal. From an Indian at Ellensburg. Nat. size. (Drawn from photograph
44506, 6-7. Original in the collection of Mr. McCandless.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 80 (202-8227). Perforated Disk made of Bone. From
grave No. 31 (2) of a child in a rock-slide near the mouth of Cherry
Creek, below Ellensburg. Nat. size.]

The object shown in Fig. 79 is a sort of button made of shell attached
to which is a metal bead. It was secured from an Indian at Ellensburg
and is in the collection of Mr. McCandless.[276] The edge of the shell
disk is rounded. There are two perforations through the disk, one a
short distance from the centre. The other is in the centre, into which
the metal bead is welded. The hole in the bead is parallel to the
surface of the shell disk but does not go through the bead.

    [276] Museum negative no. 44506, 6-7.

Fig. 80 illustrates a disk of bone about 1 mm. thick found in grave No.
31 (2) of a child in a rock-slide near the mouth of Cherry Creek below
Ellensburg. The edge is rounded, the perforation has straight sides and
is slightly worn at the ends. This, together with certain faint parallel
grooves running diagonally across the grain of the bone suggests that
the object may be a portion of a factory-made button.

[Illustration: Fig. 81. Pendants made of Slate. From McNeals Island near
the mouth of Yakima River. 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 44503,
6-4. Original catalogue No. 45 in the collection of Mr. Janeck).]

Pendants perforated at the end or edge are shown in Figs. 81 to 94,
arranged according to material, as stone, copper, brass, iron and shell.
Fig. 81a illustrates a pendant made of slate which was found with five
others in a grave on McNeals Island near the mouth of the Yakima River
by Mr. Janeck. It is 52 mm. long, 3 mm. thick by 24 mm. wide. The upper
end is narrower than the lower and perforated closer to the end of the
object than to the side edges. The perforation tapers from each side and
shows striations caused by drilling. The lower end of the pendant is
somewhat thicker than the upper end.[277] The pendant shown next in the
figure bears the same catalogue number in Mr. Janeck's collection and
was one of the same lot of six specimens. It is 70 mm. long by 19 mm.
wide and 3 mm. thick, is made of slate and similar to the other five
specimens except that it bears six notches spaced about equi-distant
from each other on one edge, and that the perforation is irregular,
apparently having been broken through rather than drilled. The edges of
this pendant are rather flat and the lower end is bevelled off somewhat
from each side like a celt. This pendant may have been made to represent
the tooth of an animal.[278]

    [277] It is No. 45 in the collection of Mr. Janeck and Museum
    negative no. 44503, 6-4.

    [278] Museum negative no. 44503, 6-4.

A pendant made of steatite and bearing an incised design in which part
of the lines and holes are colored with red paint (mercury) is shown in
Fig. 119. This was found on the manubrium of an adult skeleton supposed
to be that of a man, in a grave covered with rocks on a low ridge about
two and a half miles south of Fort Simcoe. The object is not necessarily
recent because the coloring matter being mineral may have lasted a long
time. In outline, it is of the form of a tall truncated pyramid. It is
only about 6 mm. thick and its edges are rounded or somewhat sharp.
Across the base of the side shown in Fig. 119a extends a ridge which on
the opposite side of the specimen is raised for only a short distance on
the left. The Agency physician is of the opinion that the grave was very
old and that steatite does not occur near by but that the material must
have been brought from Puget Sound. As the character of the art more
closely resembles that of the Thompson River region where steatite is
frequently found, at least in the form of artifacts, it would seem that
the material more likely came from there, if indeed it was not from a
nearer source, perhaps in this very valley. The specimen is in the
collection of Mrs. Lynch.

Fig. 82 illustrates a long pendant made of copper found about one foot
deep among the rocks over grave 34 (5) of an infant in a rock-slide near
the mouth of Cherry Creek below Ellensburg. The perforation at the top
is punched, which together with the fact that glass beads and a piece of
iron were also found in this grave, suggests that the copper is
factory-rolled. The edges are rounded and thinned, possibly by
disintegration, to almost a cutting edge. The thong by which it was
suspended is of skin and attached by being passed through the
perforation and looped through a slit in the tip of the thong. Two
somewhat similar pendants, (202-8235a, b) made of copper, were found
near the legs in this same grave. The first is narrow at the top which
is slightly concave in outline, and the perforation is punched. The
sides are nearly straight. The lower end is about three times as wide as
the top and is deeply concave in the middle and convex in outline from
this concavity to the side edges. In each of the concavities is a notch.
These suggest that they are worn out perforations from which other
pendants may have been suspended. The second pendant is of almost the
same size and shape as that shown in Fig. 82. It has a somewhat fluted
lower end but this characteristic may be partly the result of worn and
decomposed perforations or merely of decomposition. The perforation at
the top was punched and still retains a fragment of a leather thong. A
small triangular pendant only 18 mm. in length, made of copper,
(202-8251) was found inside the skull of a child in grave No. 37 (8) in
a rock-slide near the mouth of Cherry Creek. It is perforated near the
most acute angle and also through the base. The perforations seem to
have been punched and the corners have been rounded, possibly by
decomposition. Fig. 83 shows a thin disk-shaped pendant made of copper
from the same grave as the one shown in Fig. 82. The perforation near
the upper edge is also punched. A fragment of copper (202-8185) was
found in the northwestern part of cremation circle No. 17 (12) on the
terrace northwest of the mouth of the Naches River. This may be a
fragment of a copper ornament. It, and the specimen found in circle No.
15 constitute the only finds of copper which were made in cremation
circles. In its decomposed state it does not look like factory-rolled
copper and may be native. The other fragment (202-8181) found in
cremation circle No. 15 (10) at the same place may be factory-rolled
copper. In the Nez Perce area to the east, small pieces of copper were
attached to the dresses of women.[279]

    [279] Spinden, p. 220.

[Illustration: Fig. 82 (202-8246). Pendant made of Copper. From about
one foot deep among the rocks over grave No. 34 (5) of an infant in a
rock-slide near the mouth of Cherry Creek, below Ellensburg. 1/2 nat.
size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 83 (202-8239). Pendant made of Copper. From grave
No. 34 (5) of an infant in a rock-slide near the mouth of Cherry Creek,
below Ellensburg. Nat. size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 84 (202-8245). Pendant made of Brass and Bead made
of Copper. From about one foot deep among the rocks over grave No. 34
(5) of an infant in a rock-slide near the mouth of Cherry Creek, below
Ellensburg. 1/2 nat. size.]

The pendant shown in Fig. 84, also found near the one shown in Fig. 82
was made of brass. There are two perforations near the upper edge, the
larger one of which is not circular, and a perforation tapering more
from the concave side than from the other as well as a notch at the
lower edge. The peculiarities of these perforations suggest that they
were gouged out. The object is slightly concavo-convex. A skin thong is
attached to the larger perforation at the upper edge by looping as in
the case of the pendant shown in Fig. 82. On this is strung a
cylindrical copper bead.

Fig. 85 illustrates a pendant made of iron found in grave No. 35 (6) of
a youth in a rock-slide near the mouth of Cherry Creek, below
Ellensburg. The next figure represents one of thirteen cone-shaped
bangles or pendants also made of iron, found in the same grave. These
were made by bending a thin sheet of the metal into the conical form.

[Illustration: Fig. 85 (202-8249a). Pendant made of Iron. From grave No.
35 (6) of a youth in a rock-slide near the mouth of Cherry Creek, below
Ellensburg. 1/2 nat. size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 86 (202-8248a). Pendant made of Iron. From grave No.
35 (6) of a youth in a rock-slide near the mouth of Cherry Creek, below
Ellensburg. 1/2 nat. size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 87 (202-8393). Pendant or Bead made of an Olivella
Shell. From grave No. 39 (1) of a child in a rock-slide near the head of
Priest Rapids. Nat. size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 88 (202-8388). Pendant made of (_Pectunculus_)
Shell. From grave of a child in a rock-slide west of Columbia River,
near the head of Priest Rapids. Nat. size.]

The remaining pendants are all made of shell. The one shown in Fig. 87
is a natural olivella shell with the top of the cone missing and found
in grave No. 39 (1) of a child in a rock-slide near the head of Priest
Rapids. A shell somewhat similar to this made into a bead was found in
the Nez Perce region.[280] The pendant shown in Fig. 88 was found in the
grave of a child in a rock-slide west of the Columbia River near the
head of Priest Rapids. It is made of a small marine clam shell
(_Pectunculus_), probably a young _Pectunculus gigantea_. The
perforation passes through the apex and has apparently been gouged from
the outside. The ribs on the convex surface of the shell have been
nearly effaced by grinding or polishing and the hinge also seems to have
been smoothed so that only slight scars mark the depths of the teeth.
This shell certainly came from the Pacific Coast either in its natural
condition or after having been made into this form. It is the only
object made of this kind of shell which I have seen in the whole
northwest. The pendant shown in Fig. 89 is made of iridescent shell
possibly unio but probably haliotis. If the latter, it must have come
from the Pacific Coast. It was found in the same grave. This grave
contained no objects of white man's manufacture or anything suggesting
that it was modern. A list of its contents will be found on p. 169. This
pendant is of the form of an isosceles triangle. It is perforated
through the more acute angle by a small hole which tapers as if drilled
from each side of the object. The edges of the pendant are rather sharp
in places and the lower one is concave in outline. This object may be
compared with the pendant made of bone, found at Lytton,[281] which was
considered to be a sap scraper.[282]

    [280] Spinden, Plate IX, Fig. 14.

    [281] Smith, (d), Fig. 95.

    [282] Smith, (c), p. 441; (b), Fig. 109.

The pendant shown in Fig. 90, from grave No. 37 (8) of a child in a
rock-slide near the mouth of Cherry Creek below Ellensburg, is made of
haliotis shell which must have come from the coast and is rectangular in
outline with slightly worn or rounded corners. The perforation at the
top is larger at each end, while the one in the side is much larger on
the convex side and only slightly larger on the concave side than in the
middle. This perforation has been broken out. A somewhat similar pendant
but smaller and with only an end perforation (202-8256) was found
together with the shell pendant described on p. 98 near the lower jaw in
the same grave. A larger pendant of this general rectangular form, with
worn or rounded corners, perforated near the middle of one end, and with
a second perforation lower down (202-8254) was found with this. One
perforation is larger at one side of the object, the other at the other
side. Three somewhat similar pendants or fragments of such pendants, one
with the perforation broken out, another with a single perforation and
still another with a double perforation like the one just described
(202-8183) except two dentalium shells were the only shell ornaments
found in cremation circle No. 17 (12) on the flat northwest of the mouth
of the Naches River. These were in the northeastern part of the circle.
In the northern and northwestern parts of cremation circle No. 15 (10)
on this same flat were found a number of such pendants and fragments of
pendants which have only one perforation so far as can be identified.

A much decomposed and fragmentary piece of shell, apparently of claw
shape with a perforation at the base, several other pieces of similar
shape and two triangular pieces of shell (202-8180-82) all of which were
apparently burned, were found in cremation circle No. 14 (9) at the same
place. A fragment of a shell ornament (202-8189) was also found in
cremation circle No. 21 (16) at this place.

The pendant shown in Fig. 91 is nearly of disk form and made of haliotis
shell. It is perforated at the more convex edge and was found with one
very much like it in grave No. 34 (5) of an infant in a rock-slide near
the mouth of Cherry Creek. One was near the head and the other near the
pelvis. Another specimen and a fragment of still another (202-8257a, b)
and several other small fragments of decomposed shell (202-8258) were
found near the lower jaw in grave No. 37 (8) in a rock-slide near the
mouth of Cherry Creek.

[Illustration: Fig. 89 (202-8386). Pendant made of Iridescent Shell.
From the grave of a child in a rock-slide west of Columbia River near
the head of Priest Rapids. Nat. size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 90 (202-8255). Pendant made of (_Haliotis_) Shell.
From grave No. 37 (8) of a child in a rock-slide near the mouth of
Cherry Creek, below Ellensburg. Nat. size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 91 (202-8234b). Pendant made of (_Haliotis_) Shell.
From grave No. 34 (5) of an infant in a rock-slide near the mouth of
Cherry Creek, below Ellensburg. Nat. size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 92 (202-8252). Pendant or Nose Ornament, made of
(_Haliotis_) Shell. From grave No. 37 (8) of a child in a rock-slide
near the mouth of Cherry Creek, below Ellensburg. 1/2 nat. size.]

The pendant or nose ornament shown in Fig. 92 is made of shell which in
its much decomposed condition appears to be haliotis. This object was
found on the lower jaw of a very much decomposed skeleton of a child in
the same grave. The fact that a piece of copper, apparently
factory-rolled, (202 8251) was found inside the broken skull suggests
that this grave was modern. The object is nearly circular in outline,
although slightly wider than high. The sides have disintegrated or were
rounded off, to a rather sharp edge. There were apparently three
perforations near the upper edge of the object, and it is broken so that
it is impossible to see whether they were perforations for suspension or
were made merely as a means of cutting out a portion of the shell in
such a way that it could be clasped on to the septum of the nose.
Portions of this specimen and several other shell objects, found in the
same grave were of a peculiar pink color.

[Illustration: Fig. 93 (202-8171). Pendant made of Shell. From near neck
at south side of adult skeleton in grave No. 12 (7) covered with pebbles
in bluff on north side of Naches River about twelve miles above its
mouth. Nat. size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 94 (202-8170). Pendant made of Oyster Shell. From
near neck at south side of adult skeleton in grave No. 12 (7) covered
with pebbles in bluff on north side of Naches River about twelve miles
above its mouth. Nat. size.]

The shell shown in Fig. 93 was found near the neck at the south side of
an adult skeleton in grave No. 12 (7) covered with pebbles in the bluff
on the north side of the Naches River about 12 miles above its mouth. It
has two perforations and what appears to have been a third perforation
now broken out. A somewhat similar circular shell pendant which appears
to have been made from the shell of the oyster was found with this and
is shown in Fig. 94. One of these pendants was at the south shoulder,
the other at the south side of the skull. A piece of wood in this grave
suggests that it may not be an old one and that these disks may have
been obtained from traders. The grave was apparently unique. The lower
part of the inner decoration on each side of the face shown in Fig. 121
probably represents a shell pendant for the ear or hair. Disks of
haliotis shells were used as ear pendants in the Nez Perce region to the
east.[283]

    [283] Spinden, p. 220.


_Bracelets._ Bracelets are shown in Figs. 95 and 96. The one shown in
Fig. 95 represents four of about the same size, all made of copper and
from the arm of the skeleton found in grave No. 34 (5) of an infant in a
rock-slide near the mouth of Cherry Creek. The presence of glass beads
in this grave suggests that the bracelets may be of drawn copper. They
are not made of wire but seem to be rolled out of rather thick sheet
copper. The edges of the fold are somewhat irregular but I do not
consider that this proves the material to be native copper. The bracelet
shown in Fig. 96 is one of three made of iron found in grave No. 31 (2)
of a child in a rock-slide near the mouth of Cherry Creek. The use of
armlets of skin decorated with shells or quills is suggested by the
incisions on the arms of the costumed human figure made of antler shown
in Fig. 121. In the Nez Perce region to the east arm and leg bands were
worn[284] while in the Thompson area dentalium shells were sometimes
fastened parallel to each other on arm bands.

    [284] Spinden, p. 219.

[Illustration: Fig. 95 (202-8236b). Bracelet made of Copper. From arm of
skeleton No. 34 (5) of an infant in a rock-slide near the mouth of
Cherry Creek, below Ellensburg. 1/2 nat. size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 96 (202-8226). Bracelet made of Iron. From grave No.
31 (2) of a child in a rock-slide near the mouth of Cherry Creek, below
Ellensburg. 1/2 nat. size.]


_A Costumed Human Figure._ A costumed human figure made of antler[285]
is shown in Fig. 121. It was found in grave No. 25[286] in a dome of
volcanic ash near Tampico. There was nothing to indicate that the grave
was recent and so this gives an idea of the costume, but possibly merely
of ceremonial costume as formerly worn in this region. It apparently
shows a feather headdress like that of the present Indians of the region
and as far east as the Dakotas; the hair dressed and ornamented with
dentalium shells, the arms, body, legs and feet apparently bare and
ornamented with ceremonial paintings and about the waist a fringed
apron. The general style of the costume indicated is unlike that of the
northwest coast but resembles that of the plateaus to the south and the
Plains to the east. Above the face is a zigzag line which may represent
tattooing, painting or a head-ring. Spinden says that tattooing was not
practised in the Nez Perce region to the east[287] but Teit reports it
as practised in the Thompson River region[288] where he supposed that
when applied to the wrists the custom was derived from the coast
tribes.[289] Head-rings among the Thompson River Indians were decorated
with dentalium shells.[290] In the Nez Perce region[291] the face and
body were painted, red and yellow being much used for this purpose. In
the Thompson River area[292] the face and body were painted with several
shades of red, head-bands being painted across the brows.

    [285] Cf. p. 127.

    [286] See Plate X.

    [287] Spinden, p. 222.

    [288] Teit (a), pp. 228 and 321.

    [289] See Report of the British Association for the Advancement of
    Science, 1890 p. 590.

    [290] Teit, (a), 351.

    [291] Spinden, p. 222.

    [292] _Ibid._, pp. 228 and 268.

The zigzag is a common form of decoration of the head-bands among the
Sioux. Above the zigzag arranged in a semi-circular row, are certain
oblong forms which indicate feathers. The middle form, however, is
marked with a circle. Both above and below this row are three incised
lines forming an ark. Based on the outer one of these incisions are
isosceles triangles slightly in relief. If these triangles represent the
feathers of the headdress, they are certainly in the correct position.
Between them are incised arks forming hachure parallel to the arks
previously mentioned. Two of these extend above the tips of the
triangles. Beyond this, much of the object is missing, but to the right
may be seen a surface similar to the areas interpreted later on as hair
ornaments. Further evidence of the use of such a headdress is offered by
the red and white pictographs and by the petroglyphs of this region,
samples of which are shown in Plates XI, XIV-XVI.

On each side of the face is what is apparently a hair ornament, perhaps
made of buckskin, which was attached to the rolled up braids or curls of
the front hair on each side of the head and hung down as in this
representation. The three horizontal bands of vertical lines apparently
represent dentalium shells although they may be intended for tubular
copper or bone beads, while the oval figure at the bottom of each of
these flaps probably represents a pendant of haliotis shell. Shell
ornaments in the Thompson River region were sometimes of similar
proportions and shape. Such hair ornaments were used until recently in
the Thompson River region to the north where they were of different
types and differed in the richness and style of their ornamentation. One
of the common styles was to cover the flap of buckskin thickly with rows
of the largest dentalia placed vertically side by side. Mr. James Teit
informs me that the outer portion of the figure, bearing five bands of
vertical lines, evidently represents part of the headdress and the
buckskin flaps such as were worn in the Thompson River region attached
to the sides of the head-bands. These were ornamented generally with
dentalia among the women and more commonly with designs embroidered with
quills or made with paint among the men. In the Nez Perce region[293]
ear pendants in the form of disks were made from haliotis shells and
strings of dentalia were hung from the ears or fastened to the braids of
hair and dentalia and small pieces of copper were attached to the
dresses of women. These vertical bands, however, may represent the lines
of attachment of additional hair by means of glue covered with lime in
which manner the hair is dressed by some Plains tribes. Below the nose
are faint suggestions of an ornament possibly similar to the shell
pendant shown in Fig. 92.

    [293] Spinden, p. 220.

The two ridges, extending from near the chin to the shoulders, seem to
indicate collar bones. The body is thin and narrows downward. Paint or
tattooing, representing the ribs, or the ribs themselves, are indicated
by ridges. There are horizontal hachure on the body above the waist. The
arms are separated from the body by incisions made from both the front
and the back, and the outer edges of the object, being rounded off, are
like portions of a carving. A bracelet, band, or figure painted or
tattooed, on the apparently bare arm is indicated in the middle of each
by vertical hachure connecting pairs of parallel lines. The vertical
arrangement of lines of the horizontal band suggests that these were arm
bands, bearing vertically arranged copper or shell beads, if not
dentalium shells similar to those which are supposed to be represented
by the bands of vertical lines on the headdress on each side of the
face. Mr. Teit considers the bands around the elbows as representing
armlets of skin embroidered with dentalia or quills like those formerly
used in the Thompson River region, although the Indians there were in
the habit of painting their bodies in imitation of clothing. Head-bands
were painted across the brows, fringed kilts or aprons around the middle
and upper part of the legs and fringed short leggings along the lower
part of the legs. The fringes were represented as long. Imitations of
wristlets, armlets and anklets were also painted on the body. As before
mentioned, arm and leg bands were worn by the Nez Perce Indians[294] and
as indicated by the previously described specimens, bracelets were worn
in the Yakima area. At the wrist is a slight horizontal incision, where
the hand expands somewhat sidewise. The fingers and thumb are separated
by four vertical incisions. Below these and extending across the body
are four horizontal lines, the space between the two in the middle being
slightly wider than the other two spaces. These lines seem to indicate
the upper edge of an apron which is covered by vertical hachure.

    [294] Spinden, p. 219.

The legs begin at the bottom of the apron from which they are set off by
two horizontal incisions. The apron at the outline of the object
projects slightly beyond them. On each leg are five incised isosceles
triangles,--three at the top and two at the bottom, with their long
points extending towards the knees. At each side of the lower triangles
is one line which seems to represent a continuation of the designs
around the legs. On each triangle are horizontal hachure. On both knees
are faint traces of two concentric incisions, forming figures with
rounded corners and bulging sides. Between these are radiating hachure.
Close inside is a concentric incised line and there may be seen two
parallel lines, nearly horizontal, above the right knee and one below
it, and one above the left knee. The triangles may be considered as
pointing from these concentric designs rather than towards them, and in
that case the lines, suggesting the continuation of the design around
the leg, appear at the top instead of the bottom. It does not seem
probable that these triangles represent part of a circular design
radiating from the knees, the sides of which are folded around the legs,
but rather that the two series of triangles extend horizontally. The
incisions on the legs probably represent painting or tattooing, since
the designs seem to be horizontal and to extend all around the legs,
while on leggings the patterns are usually vertical and on a flap at the
outer side of the leg, the knee being disregarded. Catlin[295] figures
paintings on the arms and legs of the Mandan similar to the patterns on
this carving. The custom is not rare, especially in connection with
elaborate ceremonial costumes such as are no doubt represented by this
figure. The vertical incisions on the feet probably represent the toes,
or designs painted or tattooed on the feet. These lines argue against
any idea that the feet are encased in moccasins, unless bead or quill
work on, or improbable wrinkles in, the moccasins are indicated by them.
Porcupine quills, embroidery, beadwork and painting on moccasins were
used in the general plateau region of which this is a part.[296]

    [295] Catlin, Plates V and VI.

    [296] Lewis, p. 190.

Lewis suggests[297] that the tribes depending largely on the hunt, would
be better supplied with skins for clothing than those subsisting
generally on fish, and that in most of the plateau region, the scanty
vegetation makes clothing from plant materials difficult, if not
practically out of the question. In this connection, it will be
remembered that this carving of antler which gives us our general
archaeological information regarding ancient costume, comes from the
higher or hunting region of the valley. It will also be remembered that
sage brush and other plant materials were used for clothing in the
Thompson River region to the north, where the vegetation is nearly as
scanty as in the Yakima Valley.

    [297] Lewis, p. 189.

Perhaps some suggestion as to the sex of the individual which this
figure was intended to represent may be gleaned from the fact that in
the Nez Perce region the costume of the men differed greatly from that
of the women. The former wore moccasins, leggings, breech clout, shirt,
blanket, and also the war-bonnet, while the latter wore moccasins, a
long loose gown and a fez-shaped cap made of basketry, also occasionally
leggings and less decoration on their costume than on that of the men.
The ornamentation consisted of fringes, bead and quill work, shells, elk
teeth, beads, and copper.[298] The men's clothing was decorated with
fringes, and some with beads, porcupine quills and paint. Considering
this figure from these facts it would seem that it was clearly intended
to represent a man.

    [298] Spinden, p. 216.

Some feathers of the flicker (202-8243) were found in grave No. 34 (3)
in a rock-slide near the mouth of Cherry Creek. One of them had bound to
its tip a little piece of fabric, another a bit of fur. These may have
been part of a costume or ceremonial paraphernalia.

Of the different articles of clothing worn by the Nez Perce, Lewis
says,[299] "These are formed of various skins and are in all respects
like those particularly described of the Shoshones." Along the Columbia,
the similarity was not so complete,[300] but as far down as the Upper
Chinook many articles described as similar to those of the Shoshone were
found.[301] All these, however, they declared were, obtained by trade
from other tribes and from those who sometimes visit the Missouri.[302]
According to Lewis,[303] the clothing and equipment of the Shoshone
living on Lemhi and Salmon Rivers in Idaho were much the same as the
Plains type, and it is quite probable that they had formerly lived
farther east. There are two certain indications that this extensive
introduction of eastern clothing took place about the time of Lewis and
Clark's visit. When they went down the Columbia in 1805, they found the
women wore quite a different dress, consisting merely of a breech clout
of buckskin with occasionally the addition of a small robe of skin.[304]
This is exactly the same dress as was worn by the Chinook women above
the mouth of the Willamette.[305] When these explorers returned up the
Columbia the following year they found the Indians particularly the
women, much better dressed, and in the eastern or Shoshone style.[306] A
few years later, Cox[307] mentioned the older type of dress as found
only among a few miserable tribes along the Columbia, above the mouth of
the Yakima.[308]

    [299] Lewis and Clark, V, p. 30.

    [300] _Ibid._, III, p. 125, IV, p. 317.

    [301] _Ibid._, IV, pp. 239, 284, 289.

    [302] _Ibid._, IV, 303.

    [303] Lewis, p. 188.

    [304] Lewis and Clark, III, pp. 125-137, and 143.

    [305] Lewis, p. 189.

    [306] Lewis and Clark, IV, pp. 322 and 337.

    [307] Cox, p. 229.

    [308] Lewis, pp. 188-189.


_Deformation._ All of the skulls secured in this area by our party
showed antero-posterior deformation, although not so extreme as is found
in the Lower Columbia region. Accompanying this in many cases was a
concave depression in the anterior parietal region. The flattening of
the head was practised to a limited extent by tribes living along the
Columbia River above the Chinook, but limited, according to Lewis,
almost entirely to the women, and gradually died out towards the
east.[309]

    [309] Lewis, p. 150; Lewis and Clark, III, pp. 125 and 137; IV, p.
    324; Hale. p. 213; Whitman, pp. 91 and 95 (1891).



GAMES, AMUSEMENTS AND NARCOTICS.


_Games._ Dice made of beaver teeth or woodchuck teeth, such as were
found in the Thompson River region,[310] but which were not found in the
shell heaps of the Lower Fraser, or in fact, in any of those of the
coast of Washington or British Columbia, were absent among our finds in
this region although a beaver tooth was seen in the cremation rectangle
No. 21 (16) near the mouth of the Naches River.

    [310] Smith, (d), Fig. 100; (c), p. 428.

A number of small tubes, made of bone which may have been used in
gambling, were found here. Four of them, about 42 mm. long and 9 mm. in
diameter, with the ends ground squarely across, but with the edges
somewhat rounded possibly by wear, were found in the east northeastern
part of the bottom of grave No. 10 (5) in a rock-slide on the north side
of the Naches River about half a mile above its mouth. Fig. 97 shows one
of two other bone tubes of similar size and shape, the ends ground
somewhat more perfectly flat, which were found in grave No. 1, in the
rock-slide on the north side of the Yakima Ridge to the southeast of the
Yakima River. Another bone tube from this same grave (Fig. 98) is 43 mm.
long and 12 mm. in diameter, and the ends are ground off flat. This
bears nine about equi-distant incised lines, which run around it in such
a way that the lower end of each line is on the opposite side of the
bone from its upper end. It is charred. Such bone tubes were found at
Lytton,[311] in pouches in the graves, in other parts of the Thompson
River region[312] to the north and in the shell heaps of the Lower
Fraser River[313] to the west. In the Nez Perce region dice and gaming
pieces were commonly made of bone.[314] Cylindrical sections of the long
bone of the deer were used in gambling,[315] and whistles were made of
the long bones of the sand hill crane.[316]

    [311] Smith, (d), p. 154.

    [312] Teit, (a), p. 275.

    [313] Smith, (a), p. 180.

    [314] Spinden, p. 189.

    [315] Spinden, p. 254.

    [316] Spinden, p. 189.

[Illustration: Fig. 97 (202-8150). Bone Tube. From grave No. 1, in a
rock-slide of the Yakima Ridge. 1/2 nat. size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 98 (202-8151). Bone Tube, bearing Incised Lines,
Charred. From grave No. 1 in a rock-slide of the Yakima Ridge. 1/2 nat.
size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 99 (202-8166). Perforated Cylinder made of Steatite.
From near centre of grave No. 10 (5) in a rock-slide near the mouth of
Naches River. 1/2 nat. size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 100. Tubular Pipe made of Steatite. From Yakima
Indians. 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 44506, 6-7. Original
Catalogue No. 215 in the collection of Mr. McCandless.)]

The perforated cylinder shown in Fig. 99, made of serpentine is 44 mm.
long and 8 mm. in diameter, rounded at the edges and was found in about
the centre of grave No. 10 (5). There are five small pits about
equi-distant from each other around this cylinder near the top, and four
near the bottom. There are two transverse incised lines just below the
five pits, and there is an incision about 12 mm. above the bottom of the
specimen, below which the diameter is perhaps half a mm. greater than at
the top. Near the middle of the object it is pierced by a hole which
tapers from each end. While this object also may have been used in
gambling, it seems possible that it may be an amulet.


_Narcotics._ Pipes of seven distinct types were found in this region; a
tube, a simple bowl, a disk with both bowl and stem made in the
periphery, an elbow form, a modern inlaid pipe similar to the typical
form of the catlinite pipe of the Plains, a tomahawk-pipe in stone, and
a pipe carved in the art of the North Pacific coast.

[Illustration: Fig. 101. Tubular Pipe made of Green Stone with Stem.
From Lemhi River, Idaho. (Reproduced from p. 342, Vol. II, Lewis and
Clark. Bowl about 2-1/2 inches long.)]

A tubular pipe made of steatite is shown in Fig. 100. It was collected
by Mr. Frank N. McCandless from the Yakima Indians. Mr. McCandless
says the stone differs from that found at the head of Wenatchee Lake,
which is sometimes used for pipes in this region. This pipe is No. 215
in his collection deposited in the Ferry Museum in the City Hall at
Tacoma. It is 51 mm. long and the bowl has been broken off irregularly,
about half of it apparently having been broken away. The bowl flares
rather more abruptly than is the case in the pipes usually found either
in this region or that of the Thompson River. In this respect it
resembles the tubular pipes made of steatite, found on the coast of
British Columbia.[317] In outline, it is nearly straight, while most
pipes of this type have bowls convexly curved in a form characteristic
of the type found in the interior of British Columbia and of Washington.
The bowl has been gouged out. There is a ridge or ring around the pipe
where the bowl meets the stem. Oblique incisions slanting downward from
left to right, at an angle of about 45°, mark this ridge, making it
suggest a twisted cord. The end of the stem is similarly marked. These
lines are again mentioned under art on p. 125. The stem expands from the
ridge to the end. The outline of the stem is rather straight or slightly
concave, while most pipes of this type have more slender or nearly
cylindrical stems. The interior of the stem was apparently formed by
whittling. The pipe is stained by tobacco which suggests that while it
may be old, it has nevertheless been recently smoked.[318] In the Nez
Perce region to the east the earliest form of pipe, according to
Spinden, was doubtless the straight tubular type.[319] One of the pipes
figured by him has a flange for a mouthpiece similar to those found in
the Thompson River region, and this flange is perforated near one end.
This particular type of pipe is also found in Oregon.[320] A pipe of
this type, but which much more nearly resembles the typical form of
tubular pipe of this region, especially the shorter specimens, is
reproduced in Fig. 101 from Lewis and Clark.[321] This specimen which is
made of green stone and has a stem, was seen among the Shoshone Indians
at the headwaters of the Lemhi River, Idaho, by Lewis, August
thirteenth, 1805. It marks the eastern limits of the occurrence of this
type of pipe, so far as I am aware at present, the short forms having
been found at Fulford Harbor, North Saanich, Sidney[322] and Port
Hammond,[323] on the southern coast of British Columbia, Damon[324] on
the coast of Washington, Lytton[325] in the interior of British
Columbia, Umatilla[326] and Blalock Island,[327] near Umatilla, both in
the interior of Washington. In the Journal for Tuesday, August 13, 1805,
Lewis refers to this pipe, as follows:--"the chief then lit his pipe at
the fire kindled in this little magic circle ... pointed the stem to the
four cardinal points of the heavens first beginning at the East and
ending with the North. He now presented the pipe to me, as if desirous
that I should smoke, but when I reached my hand to receive it, he drew
it back and repeated the same c[e]remony three times, after which he
pointed the stem first to the heavens then to the center of the magic
circle smoked himself with three whifs and held the pipe until I took as
many as I thought proper; he then held it to each of the white persons
and then gave it to be consumed by his warriors. This pipe was made of a
dense semi-transparent green stone very highly polished about 2-1/2
inches long and of an oval figure, the bowl being in the same direction
with the stem. A small piece of birned clay is placed in the bottom of
the bowl to seperate the tobacco from the end of the stem and is of an
irregularly rounded figure not fitting the tube perfectly close in order
that the smoke may pass. This is the form of the pipe. Their tobacco is
of the same kind of that used by the Minnetares Mandans and Ricares of
the Missouri. The Shoshonees do not cultivate this plant, but obtain it
from the Rocky mountain Indians and some of the bands of their own
nation who live further south."[328]

    [317] Smith, (a), Figs. 48 and 55; (b), Fig. 139.

    [318] Museum negative no. 44506, 6-7.

    [319] Spinden, p. 188, Figs. 4 and 5, Plate IX.

    [320] Moorehead, Fig. 457, p. 316, Figs. 9, 17, 22 and 25.

    [321] Lewis and Clark, II, p. 342.

    [322] Smith, (b), Fig. 139.

    [323] Smith, (a), Fig. 48.

    [324] Smith, (b), Fig. 139.

    [325] Smith, (h), p. 34.

    [326] _Ibid._, Fig. 7.

    [327] _Ibid._, p. 36.

    [328] Lewis and Clark. II, p. 341.

Mr. James Teit informs me that a flange like the end of a spool at the
mouth of the stem of a tubular pipe, makes it of a type which seems to
him peculiarly characteristic of the Thompson River region. In some
cases this peculiarity is carried over into the stems of pipes of the
modern or elbow type, which have wooden stems, as is shown in Fig. 102.
Mr. Teit has never seen or heard of tubular pipes from the Thompson
River region with holes through the flanges. It seems possible that the
hole in such specimens as one from Umatilla, Oregon,[329] may have been
made for the attachment of ornaments or symbolic material such as
feathers or for a cleaner. Ornaments were sometimes attached to pipes of
the elbow type in the Thompson River region. This was done by tying in
a hole bored through the hatchet-shaped piece underneath the shank close
to the elbow. Pipes of the simple bowl type often had an extension at
the foot of the bowl, sometimes perforated, to which ornaments could be
attached. On the other hand, the hole may have been to facilitate
attaching the pipe to its wooden stem. The pipes that have been
perforated through the flange,[330] however, seem to have too small a
bore for a wooden stem; yet, a pipe of this type with a wooden stem has
been shown in Fig. 101. One reason given Mr. Teit by the Indians for the
making of the flange or other thickening at the mouth of the pipe stem
was to prevent the string used in attaching the pipe to the wooden stem
slipping off. According to all of them, wooden stems were always used
with tubular pipes as with elbow and simple bowl pipes; for a person
cannot smoke any kind of stone pipe more than a few draws before it
becomes too hot for the lips. To Mr. Teit's mind, no matter how small
the bore of the pipe, a regular stem must have been used for smoking.

    [329] Smith, (h), Fig. 7a.

    [330] Smith, (h), Fig. 4.

[Illustration: Fig. 102. Pipe made of Steatite used by the Thompson
River Indians at Spences Bridge in 1895. About 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn
from a sketch by Mr. James Teit.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 103. Form of the Flange-Shaped Mouth of the Bowl of
some Thompson River Indian Pipes. About 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from a
sketch by Mr. James Teit.)]

Some tubular pipes are said to have had a flange around the mouth of the
bowl, similar to that on elbow pipes as in Fig. 103; but this flange
meets the body of the bowl with an even curve. Mr. Teit does not
distinctly remember having seen such flanged tubular pipe bowls among
the Thompson River Indians who gave him this information, but he saw one
specimen at least, of the elbow type with flanged bowl. He further
states that to his knowledge there is only one part of the country where
the semi-transparent green steatite is obtained; that is, on the west
side of the Fraser River, over twenty miles north of Lytton, which as
is well known is at the mouth of the Thompson River. This stone, when
polished and used, takes on a much darker hue than its original color.
The fire may be seen through the stone of the pipes when smoked in the
dark. The bluish gray steatite is the most commonly employed and it
turns black when polished and used. The Thompson River Indians can
usually tell from what part of the country the stone comes of which any
particular pipe is made.

The tubular form of pipe is remembered by the old Indians to have been
in use in the Thompson River region, although not so common as the
simple pipe bowls and elbow pipes, and one was seen in use in eastern
Washington as late as 1896.[331] On the other hand, no simple pipe bowls
known to be such, or elbow pipes have been seen among archaeological
finds. The bowl and elbow pipes are affiliated with forms found farther
east. This fact suggests that the tubular pipe was supplanted recently
by bowl and elbow forms brought in from the southeast, or at least from
the east. The westward movement of tribes due to the encroachment of our
settlements may have brought them, or some of them, and they may be
patterned after pipes seen in the hands of fur traders and their Indian
employees. The tubular pipe made of steatite, shown in Fig. 104, was
purchased from Mr. W. Z. York of Old Yakima (Old Town), who secured it
from Shaw-wa-way, an Indian known as "Young Chief Aleck," who lives on a
ranch three miles south of Old Yakima. This Indian is known to have
frequently visited the Okanogon region and it is possible that he
secured the pipe, decorated as it is, or got the idea for this
particular sort of decoration from that region. This is suggested by the
fact that this particular kind of decoration is common, especially on
more recent ornaments, in the Thompson River region, the people of which
in turn frequently visited the Okanogon country. The bowl of the pipe is
cut squarely across at the end where the outer edge has been rounded. It
is of the typical shape of this form of pipes, and has been hollowed out
by gouging contra-screw-wise. It meets the stem abruptly and the latter
is slightly larger than the base of the bowl, so that it seems to be
separated from it. The stem is very short and cylindrical and the end is
cut squarely off; but it is bevelled on each side so that about one
third of the end is left and the bevelled surfaces extend over half the
length of the stem. This beveling may have been to form the mouthpiece;
but it seems more likely that the pipe had a long stem similar to those
found in the Thompson River region.[332] This seems to have been broken
off obliquely near the bowl, then cut squarely across, and the other
side bevelled to give bilateral symmetry because one of these bevelled
surfaces appears as if it had been broken and then only slightly
smoothed; both of these surfaces and the square end of the stem seem to
have been more recently cut than the rest of the pipe. These three
surfaces seem less polished and as if they were made with a steel knife.
The bore of the stem measures 5 mm. in diameter. A portion of the bowl
is decorated by incised lines into which red paint has been daubed,
suggesting that it was recently applied; while the design itself, which
is further described on p. 131 under the section of art, is of figures
which suggest that it was made lately. Possibly the pipe is old, but was
recently broken and decorated with the incised design and paint.

    [331] Teit, (a), p. 300.

    [332] Smith, (d), Figs. 103, 104 and 111; (c), Figs. 37 1a, b.

The fragment of a sculptured tubular pipe made of steatite shown in Fig.
105 is apparently about half of the original object. It was found in an
Indian grave about a quarter of a mile from the bank of the Yakima River
at a point about nine miles above its mouth, in August 1902, by Mr. W.
F. Sonderman of Kennewick. Mr. Sonderman's collection from the immediate
vicinity contained glass beads, a metallic handle and buttons, as well
as chipped points. As the contents of the three graves from which he
obtained this collection, during the construction of an irrigation canal
were mixed, it seems that this pipe may belong to the same period as
that of the glass beads and other objects of European manufacture and
consequently may be modern, although it may be an old specimen,
deposited in a modern grave. The general form of the pipe was thought to
be that of a cone. The portion towards the front of the carving,
however, is somewhat longer than that towards the rear, and the back is
nearly flat, although this may be caused simply by the carving. The bore
is somewhat smaller at the mouth of the bowl than lower down. It was
apparently gouged out. Some traces of dirt, perhaps the remains of the
material smoked in the pipe may be seen towards its larger opening. The
carving, which represents a human form, is further described under the
section of art on p. 135. As the tubular form of pipe seems to be common
to this region, as well as to the Thompson River region, further north,
it would seem that this specimen may be a variation from the type or
merely one of these pipes made by an artist. It may be that such
sculptured forms of this type of pipe may not be found in the Thompson
River region, and that the carving of tubular pipes in this way may be
characteristic of the Yakima region, although the style of art suggests
that found in the Thompson River region and more especially in the
Lillooet Valley.

[Illustration: Fig. 104 (202-8122). Tubular Pipe made of Steatite. From
an Indian living three miles south of Old Yakima. 1/2 nat. size.
(Collected by Mr. York.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 105 (202-8120). Fragment of a Sculptured Tubular
Pipe made of Steatite. From near Kennewick. 1/2 nat. size. (Collected by
Mr. W. F. Sonderman.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 106 (202-8396). Pipe made of Limestone. From near
the head of Priest Rapids. 1/2 nat. size. (Collected and presented by
Mrs. J. B. Davidson.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 107 (20.0 1470). Pipe made of Sandstone. From the
Snake River Indians. 1/2 nat. size. (Collected and presented by Mr.
Owen.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 108. Pipe made of Blue Stone. From the Yakima
Valley, 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 41503, 6-4. Original in
the collection of Mr. Janeck.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 109. Pipe made of Stone. From the Yakima Valley. 1/2
nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 44503, 6-4. Original catalogue No. 155
in the collection of Mr. Janeck.)]

Only one specimen of the second or simple bowl type was seen by us in
the whole region. It is shown in Fig. 106, and was found near the head
of Priest Rapids by a boy from whom Mrs. J. B. Davidson obtained it for
her collection. She afterwards presented it to our expedition. It is
made of schistose rock, apparently limestone, of gray color with lighter
veins. The object is oval in section, slightly longer than it is wide,
and a little wider than it is thick being 32 mm. long, 29 mm. wide, and
15 mm. thick. If slightly flatter, this pipe would resemble in shape the
third type. The inside of the bowl which was apparently gouged out, is
13 mm. in diameter; while the opening for the stem seems to have been
drilled. This opening is 7 mm. in diameter. The rim of the bowl is
flattened, and this flat surface resembles that of the part of a
hammerstone used for pecking. This style of pipe somewhat resembles some
of the pipes used by the Thompson River Indians of the present day and
together with elbow pipes, supplemented the tubular pipe in that region.
This suggests them to be more modern than the tubular pipes in this
region where also they are not as numerous. The type is not found among
the archaeological remains in the Thompson region, but Mr. Teit sent
one simple bowl pipe to the Museum from a very old grave at Spuzzum
besides two from the Thompson Indians.[333] The absence of this form of
pipe among archaeological specimens from the areas to the north and west
suggests that the culture of this region is somewhat more closely
related to that further east than are the cultures of the areas further
north and west. The pipe is ornamented with a circle and dot design
again mentioned under the section of art on p. 131.[334]

    [333] Teit, (a), Figs. 275 and 276.

    [334] Museum negative no. 44505, 6-6.

Specimens of the third or disk-shaped type are shown in Figs. 107, 108
and 109. The first, made of sandstone, is from the Snake River Indians,
was a part of Mr. D. W. Owen's collection, and was presented by him to
our expedition. It is nearly of the form of a disk but has slightly
bulging sides, 52 mm. long, 49 mm. wide, and 19 mm. thick. The mouth of
the bowl is 13 mm. in diameter; while the opening for the stem, at right
angles to it, is 9 mm. in diameter. The convex appearance of the sides
or ends of the disk is due to the beveling of these surfaces near their
edges. On each of these sides is an incised design. These are again
mentioned under the section of art on p. 125. The second specimen, shown
in Fig. 108, is oval in outline with slightly convex sides. The object
is made of blue stone and was found in the Yakima Valley. It is about 52
mm. long, 41 mm. wide, and 19 mm. thick. Parallel scratches on the
surface suggest that it was brought into shape by grinding with a piece
of sandstone, although these marks may be interpreted as those made with
a file. The opening in the bowl tapers evenly towards its base, from one
of the longer edges of the discoid; while the somewhat longer drilling
for the stem from one of the shorter edges of the disk, at right angles
to the bore of the bowl, is of nearly the same diameter throughout. The
specimen is in the collection of Mr. Louis O. Janeck of North
Yakima.[335] The third specimen of this type which is shown in Fig. 109
is No. 155 in the collection of Mr. Janeck, and was also found in the
Yakima Valley. It is made of stone resembling quartzite in appearance
and is of a waxy, yellowish brown color. It is nearly circular in
outline, almost flat on the rim, and the sides are somewhat convex. It
is 45 mm. long by 40 mm. wide and 19 mm. thick. The bore of the bowl is
16 mm. in diameter at the mouth, and is somewhat larger than that of the
stem, which is 10 mm. in diameter at its end, and at right angles to the
bowl. Each bore tapers from its outer opening to the point of juncture.
In the Nez Perce region to the east near Asotin city, this disk-shaped
type of pipe is found.[336] Mr. Fay Cooper Cole of the Field Museum of
Natural History believes the Tlingit have a variation of this type of
pipe and that it is also found in California. Its occurrence in Oregon
is mentioned by Moorehead.[337]

    [335] Museum negative no. 41503, 6-4.

    [336] Spinden, p. 189, Fig. 6, Plate IX.

    [337] Moorehead, Fig. 27, p. 316.

The fourth or rectangular bowl type is shown in Figs. 110, 111 and 112.
The first shows the axis of the bowl and that of the stein, at nearly,
if not exactly, a right angle. The specimen is in the collection of Mr.
York, and is made of soft grit or sandstone. The outer opening of the
bowl is somewhat larger than that of the stem. There was a band around
the bowl, made up of a single thickness of thread which is not shown in
the figure.

[Illustration: Fig. 110. Pipe made of Soft Sandstone. Locality Unknown.
1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from a sketch. Original in the collection of Mr.
York.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 111. Pipe made of Steatite. Locality Unknown. 1/2
nat. size. (Drawn from a sketch. Original in the collection of Mr.
York.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 112. Pipe made of Soft Sandstone. Locality Unknown.
1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from a sketch. Original in the collection of Mr.
York.)]

The second of these specimens, shown in Fig. 111, is a simple elbow pipe
with the angle between the axis of the bowl and the stem, slightly
greater than 90 degrees. It is also in the collection of Mr. York and is
made of steatite, which he calls Wenatchee pipe stone. The outer opening
of the bowl is slightly larger than that of the stem. The third
specimen, shown in Fig. 112, is also of the simple elbow type and the
axis of the bowl is nearly at right angles to that of the stem. It is in
the collection of Mr. York, and is made of soft grit or sandstone of a
yellowish gray color. In the Thompson River region to the north,
according to Mr. Teit, there seems to be little doubt but that the
tubular pipe has been supplanted by the simple bowl and elbow
types.[338] This change may have been brought about by the copying of
the early trader's pipes but Mr. Teit believes it more likely to have
come from influence from the southeast, passed from tribe to tribe about
the same time as the advent of the horse or a little later. The Thompson
River Indians tell him that the tubular pipe continued to be the one in
common use as long as native tobacco only was used, but after the
introduction of manufactured tobacco the elbow type came to be
exclusively used because very much better adapted for holding the
latter kind of tobacco. In the Nez Perce region to the east, pipes with
rectangular bowls were found.[339] One of these bowls has an incised
design representing a tomahawk, which with the character of other
incisions on it suggest that it is modern. Only two finds of elbow pipes
have been reported on the coast. These,[340] which were of fragments,
were said by Mr. Edmond Croft to have been found by him in a shell heap
near Markham on Grey's Harbor, Washington. They are made of fine-grained
sandstone of a gray color. Both were apparently intended to be used with
a wooden stem and one of them has a ventral mid-rib from the mouth of
the stem nearly to the base of the bowl which reminds one somewhat of a
similar appendage on the pipe from the Yakima Valley shown in Fig. 113
and one from the Thompson Indians.[341] My supposition has been that
they reached the coast recently from this general region possibly by way
of the Columbia or were taken there by employees of the fur companies in
early historic times.

    [338] Teit, (a), Figs. 271 and 306.

    [339] Spinden, p. 188, Figs. 7 and 8, Plate IX.

    [340] Smith, (b). Fig. 140.

    [341] Teit. (a), Fig. 306.

The fifth type is illustrated by the specimen shown in Fig. 128. It is
the only specimen of this type which I have seen from the region. It is
now in the collection of Mrs. Jay Lynch at Fort Simcoe who obtained it
from Chief Moses. It is made of black steatite which Mrs. Lynch calls
Wenatchee pipe stone, inlaid with white metal and has a wooden stem. It
is comparatively modern as is shown by the presence of inlaid white
metal. The mouth of the bowl is 18 mm. in diameter, but tapers suddenly,
the rest of the bowl cavity being nearly cylindrical. The opening for
the wooden stem is 11 mm. in diameter, and also tapers suddenly to a
nearly even bore. It is of the same form as many of the pipes made of
red pipe stone (catlinite). This form of pipe is found throughout the
Minnesota-Dakota region. This specimen, however, bears four carvings,
which together with the inlaid white metal design are further mentioned
under the section of art on pp. 118 and 135. It would seem that this
type of pipe belongs to the region further east, and as no ancient pipe
of this form has been found in this whole region, as well as from the
fact that this specimen marks the most westerly occurrence of this form,
so far as we know, we may conclude that it was introduced from the east
in comparatively modern times. The type of carving, however, may be of
more local origin. The bringing together of several animal forms may be
associated with the idea of the totem poles found to the west; but no
more so than the wooden pipe stems of the Plains which the general
character of the carving more closely resembles.[342] In this
connection, it may be well to remember that in the Nez Perce region,
catlinite for pipes seems to have been acquired from the Plains
tribes.[343] A pipe made from stone found in the Cascade Mountains of
Washington, is in the collection of Mr. C. G. Ridout, of Chelan,
Washington, who states that it has a representation of a bear and a man
on the shaft back of the bowl.

    [342] Museum negative no. 44508, 6-9, 6-10, 6-11.

    [343] Spinden, p. 188.

A specimen of the sixth type is shown in Fig. 113. It is the only one of
this style which I have seen in the whole region, and was obtained from
a Yakima Indian. It is in the collection of Mr. McCandless. It is made
of steatite, which Mr. McCandless calls "sandstone from the northern
part of Wenatchee Lake." The form of the pipe seems to be a
conventionalized tomahawk pipe. The bowl is circular in section and
somewhat urn-shaped and rests upon the part that is drilled for the stem
and which is rather square in cross section with slightly convex sides.
Projecting from the lower part of this is the form which represents the
tomahawk blade. It is wider at its convex edges than where it joins the
base of the stem part. Its three edges are flat, and it is of about
equal thickness throughout. The pipe is somewhat stained by tobacco. It
seems likely that this was modelled after the metal hatchet, tomahawk or
tomahawk pipe, introduced by the traders,[344] being a rather modern
pipe, since such objects do not seem to have been used in early times in
the great plateau region according to Lewis.[345]

    [344] Museum negative no. 44506, 6-7.

    [345] Lewis, p. 190.

[Illustration: Fig. 113. Pipe made of Steatite. From a Yakima Indian.
1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 44506, 6-7. Original in the
collection of Mr. McCandless.)]

The seventh type is illustrated in Fig. 127. The specimen is the only
one of the style which I have seen from this whole region and so closely
resembles in its carving the work of the Kwakiutl, Haida and Tsimshian
Indians of the coast to the northwest, that I am inclined to believe it
was brought in as a gift or by trade. The material is apparently soft
slate, but is rather light in color, possibly having been burned. Its
appearance suggests that it is the same as that used by the Haida
Indians on the Queen Charlotte Islands, for the carving of such things
as dishes, miniature totem poles, and pipes. The pipe is made up of
carvings representing among other things a bird, a human form and a
human face, which are more fully described under the section of art on
p. 136. This specimen was found two feet deep in earth at one side of a
grave in a little hillside on Toppenish Creek, four miles southeast of
Fort Simcoe. Above the earth were rocks, and the grave was marked by a
circle of stones. In the grave were found elk teeth, and a sea shell,
filled with a blue powder, evidently paint, and covered with what
appears to be gut or a bladder-like skin. What is described as a silver
coin, afterwards lost, was found with this pipe. It is possible that it
may have been a silver disk or medal. The bowl of the pipe, which was
gouged out, is in the middle of the carving, and the tube for the
reception of the stem projects from the end under the human form. The
upper part of the human figure is broken off. A hole was drilled in the
opposite end of the pipe through the lower part of the bird form, but if
it had any connection with the bowl, this is not now discernible.[346]
The specimen shown in Fig. 59 and considered as a mat presser reminds
one of an unfinished pipe.

    [346] Museum negative no. 44509, 6-9, 6-10, 6-11.



ART.


The graphic and plastic art of the early people of this region is
illustrated by pictographic line paintings in red and white on the
basaltic columns of the cliffs;[347] petroglyphs of the same general
style pecked into similar cliffs; incised designs on stone, bone, antler
and dentalium shells, and carvings both incised and pecked in stone.
Some of the objects found are colored by red ochre or have it rubbed
into the lines of their incised designs. Examples of graphic art seem to
be more common than those of plastic art.

    [347] A few of which were figured and described in Smith, (g), pp.
    195-203, and abstracted in The Scientific American Supplement, pp.
    23876-8, Vol. LVIII, No. 1490, July 23, 1904, and in Records of the
    Past, pp. 119-127, Vol. IV, Part IV, April, 1905.

The paintings and pecked designs on cliffs are more or less geometric
although pictographic in character. The incised designs are still more
geometric and include the circle and dot commonly found in the Thompson
River region.[348] This design is also common on modern objects from the
coast of British Columbia and Washington, but was not there present
among archaeological finds. Lewis[349] states that according to the
early writers, in the general area of which this is a part, porcupine
quills were much used for decorating articles of clothing and that
later, beads were used for this purpose. The modern designs are largely
floral. Among the Nez Perce, floral and plant designs in beadwork are
particularly common although some geometric designs occur, as on belts,
the decoration of which is largely geometric, as squares, triangles and
similar figures.[350] Lewis[351] believes that the designs of the
general region were originally geometric and that some of the modern
geometric designs are survivals, while others suggest eastern influence.
He further states that floral designs are found among the Salish tribes
but to a much less extent. We found no floral designs among the
archaeological specimens in the Yakima area. Some of the incised work,
on certain of the carvings is of good technique, and artistic execution.
This is noticeable in the object made of antler, carved on one surface
to represent a human figure in costume, shown in Fig. 121 and on the
dish shown in Fig. 116. Inlaying with white metal was practised in
comparatively modern times. Animal heads are represented by the
specialization of knobs on pestles, an animal form by a mortar and human
forms by some of the pictographs, and petroglyphs, the incised antler
figure and several of the pipes.

    [348] Smith, (c), Figs. 360b and 378; (d), Figs. 109, 110 and 111.

    [349] Lewis, p. 191.

    [350] Spinden, p. 236.

    [351] Lewis, p. 191.

Many of the representations are realistic, others are highly
conventional. Some conventional representations are explained by similar
figures. For instance, the radiating lines of the pictographs shown in
Plate XVI are probably explained satisfactorily by similar figures in
Plate XI, Fig. 2, such radiations on the costumed figure in antler shown
in Fig. 121 or by the feather headdresses worn by the present natives.
Spinden states that in the Nez Perce region, realistic figures are
probably of recent origin.[352] One of the carvings is clearly of the
art of the northwest coast, from which the object or the artist who
executed it must have come. Some of the pictographic-geometric and
conventional figures probably represent guardian spirits and illustrate
dreams done in symbols. A few art forms are evenly spaced on objects but
only a few are distorted to fit the shape of the field. Pictographic
symbols and conventional figures may be placed in groups to form designs
as in the arrangement of the circles and dots on the pipe shown in Fig.
106.

    [352] Spinden, p. 236.

In general, the art of the region tends toward line work of geometric
and a slightly pictographic nature. It shows little resemblance to that
of the coast, but a strong relationship to that of the Plains. The
decorative art of the Nez Perce region includes motives from the Plains
and also from the Pacific Coast.[353] Some of their designs partake
strongly of motives from the Plains, while here in the Yakima Valley
there are perhaps more examples of coast art and still much influence
from the Plains. Spinden says that in early times the Nez Perce were
very poor in decorative ideas and that the richness and variety found in
their modern art may be ascribed to the absorbing of ideas from other
cultures. This is perhaps equally true of the Yakima region where the
influence of coast art in proportion to that from the Plains is perhaps
greater than in the Nez Perce region.

    [353] Spinden, p. 233.


_Paintings._ Pictographic line paintings somewhat geometric in
character, made on the basaltic columns on the west of the mouth of
Cowiche Creek, on the south side of the Naches River, about four miles
northwest from North Yakima, are shown in Plates XIV-XVI. These
pictures, some in red, and some in white, were probably painted with
mineral matter mixed with grease. Their antiquity is unknown. In the Nez
Perce region to the east,[354] pictographs in red, yellow and black
occur, while in the Thompson River area[355] and in the Lillooet
Valley,[356] pictographs in red are found. Some of the Yakima
pictographs have been destroyed during the construction of the
irrigation flume which runs along the top of this cliff. Others are
partly covered by the talus slope. All those remaining, are here
represented by those reproduced in the plates. They extend from the top
of the talus slope upward a distance of perhaps five feet. Many of them
are indistinct, and appear more easily seen, if they are not actually
clearer, in the photographs here reproduced than in the originals. Many
of the paintings represent human heads and headdresses and one of them
the whole figure with such a headdress. These headdresses may be
compared to similar designs in the petroglyphs (Plate XI) at Sentinal
Bluffs, thirty-three miles to the northeast (Fig. 2, Plate XII and Fig.
1, Plate XIII) at Selah Canon, eight miles to the northeast and the
headdress pecked on the grooved net sinker shown in Fig. 14. Also, taken
together with the pictographs representing the full figure with similar
headdress shown in Fig. 1, Plate XIV, may be compared to the petroglyphs
of men each with a headdress among those at Sentinal Bluffs, the human
figure with a headdress carved in antler found near Tampico, only
fourteen miles to the southwest and shown in Fig. 121, petroglyphs which
apparently represent human forms somewhat similar to this, on Buffalo
Rock, in the Nez Perce region to the east[357] and the quill flattener
carved to represent a human form with headdress or hair from the Dakota
shown in Fig. 122.

    [354] Spinden, p. 232.

    [355] Teit, (a), p. 339 and 381.

    [356] Teit, (b), Pl. IX.

    [357] Spinden, Plate X, Fig. 5.

The human figure with feather headdress indicated by ten lines shown in
Fig. 1, Plate XIV is all in red. It is the next to the westernmost
pictograph at this site. It is 457 mm. high, the ends of the legs are
279 mm. apart, the tip of the arms 254 mm., the width of the headdress
229 mm. and the height of the middle feather 101 mm. There are four
horizontal red lines on the overhanging column above the figure.[358]
Fig. 2, Plate XIV shows human heads with feather headdresses in
white.[359] Fig. 1, Plate XV shows similar human heads with feather
headdresses also in white.[360] Fig. 2, Plate xv shows human heads with
feather headdresses in white and a double star figure in white and
red.[361] Plate XVI[362] shows human heads with feather headdresses in
white and red. In addition, Fig. 2 shows the advertisement of a modern
business man over the pictographs. Some of the pictographs at the same
place have every alternate radiating line in red, while others are in
white.

    [358] Museum negative no. 44479, 4-4 taken from the east. First
    reproduced in Smith, (g), Fig. 2, Plate VIII.

    [359] Museum negative no. 44483, 4-8 from the north. First
    reproduced _Ibid._, Fig. 1, Plate VIII.

    [360] Museum negative no. 44485, 4-10 from the north.

    [361] Museum negative no. 44480, 4-5 from the north.

    [362] Museum negatives nos. 44486, 4-11, 44487 4-12 from the north.

Mr. G. R. Shafer informed me that he knows of painted rocks in the Teton
River Valley, 20 miles above the Nelson Bridge, which crosses the Naches
a short distance above the mouth of Cowiche Creek. Mr. W. H. Wilcox of
North Yakima stated to me that there are pictures on rocks on the west
side of the Columbia River ten miles south of Wenatchee. Bancroft[363]
refers to painted and "carved" pictures on the perpendicular rocks
between Yakima and Pisquouse. According to Mallery, "Capt. Charles
Bendire, U. S. Army, states in a letter that Col. Henry C. Merriam, U.
S. Army, discovered pictographs on a perpendicular cliff of granite at
the lower end of Lake Chelan, lat. 48° N., near old Fort O'Kinakane, on
the upper Columbia River. The etchings appear to have been made at
widely different periods, and are evidently quite old. Those which
appeared the earliest were from twenty-five to thirty feet above the
present water level. Those appearing more recent are about ten feet
above water level. The figures are in black and red colors, representing
Indians with bows and arrows, elk, deer, bear, beaver, and fish. There
are four or five rows of these figures, and quite a number in each row.
The present native inhabitants know nothing whatever regarding the
history of these paintings."[364] Apparently only paintings are meant.

    [363] Bancroft, IV., p. 735; Lord, II, pp. 102 and 260; Gibbs, I, p.
    411.

    [364] Mallery, p. 26.

Red ochre is rubbed in the circle and dot designs and the grain of the
stone of the pestle shown in Fig. 30 and also in the incised lines on
the pipe shown in Fig. 104. Red paint (mercury) partly fills some of the
holes and lines on the pendant made of steatite shown in Fig. 119.
Because of the mineral nature of this paint, it may have remained a long
time and its presence does not necessarily prove that the supposedly old
grave in which the object was found is recent. Red paint also fills the
circles and dots in the slate object shown in Fig. 120 while vermilion
paint is found in the grooves of the animal form shown in Fig. 125 and
as this is probably a mineral which would be rather enduring, it does
not indicate that the painting was recently done.

Painting was done on moccasins in the general plateau area of which this
is a part.[365] Spinden states that in the Nez Perce region the natives
depended upon minerals for dyes, except in the cases of a wood, which
produced a brown dye, and rock slime which produced green[366] and that
white, red, blue and yellow earth paints were obtained by them further
east from the vicinity of the Grande Ronde Valley;[367] also, that rock
surfaces were painted over with brown as a field upon which to peck
petroglyphs.[368] In the same region moreover, white clay[369] was used
for cleaning clothing.

    [365] Lewis, p. 190.

    [366] Spinden, p. 191.

    [367] _Ibid._, p. 222.

    [368] _Ibid._, p. 231.

    [369] _Ibid._, p. 216.


_Petroglyphs._ The petroglyphs pecked into the weathered surface of the
basaltic columns found in this region, are similar in style to the
paintings, being largely line designs of geometric or conventional
representation together with a few realistic figures. The pictures are
formed by pecking away the weathered surface and exposing the lighter
color of the basalt below. Some of them may be very old, but the bruised
surfaces making up the lines are not weathered very much in comparison
with the surrounding rock surface and yet there is no history of their
manufacture. In the Nez Perce region[370] such pecked pictographs are
also found, some of them being upon fields painted brown.

    [370] Spinden, p. 232.

In Plate XI are shown petroglyphs on the vertical basaltic columns on
the eastern side of the Columbia River at Sentinal Bluffs, immediately
above Priest Rapids. They are at the base of the cliffs shown in Plate
V. Those shown in Fig. 1 are to the east of the road which runs along a
notch blasted in the top of the columns that rise from the river at this
point, while those shown in Fig. 2 are about fifteen feet to the
southwest on the columns that rise shear from the river.

Some of those shown in Fig. 1[371] represent human figures each with a
feather headdress which may be compared with that of the antler figure
found at Tampico (Fig. 121) and the pictographs of Cowiche Creek. This
place is only about 47 miles northeast from Tampico, and 33 miles in the
same direction from the mouth of Cowiche Creek. One of these is shown in
Fig. 2.[372] The long form in the centre has a headdress which taken
with its shape reminds us especially of the human form in antler from
Tampico. The general shape of the body and the row of dots on each side
edge suggest a resemblance to the quill flattener made of antler from
the Dakota shown in Fig. 122. On each side are human heads, each with a
similar feather headdress that might be interpreted as rising suns with
eyes and mouths. On the left are some similar figures without eyes and
mouths. Below, is a horizontal figure resembling five links of a chain.
There is also a goat which resembles the two pecked in a granite boulder
near Buffalo Rock in the Nez Perce area, eighteen miles above Lewiston
on the east bank of the Snake River.[373] The star at the bottom, the
rays of which end in dots, a small oval with radiating lines at the
left, and two connected ovals with radiating lines at the top, remind us
of the stars at Selah Canon, shown in Fig. 1, Plate XII, the petroglyphs
near Wallula Junction, shown in Fig. 2, Plate XIII, somewhat similar
figures on the large petroglyph at Nanaimo[374] and perhaps even more
than of the Nanaimo figures, those in the petroglyphs beyond Nanaimo at
Yellow Island, near Comox.[375] However, the two connected ovals with
the radiating lines may represent hands of a human figure with a
headdress having radiating feathers. All of these headdresses remind us
of the others at this place shown in Fig. 1, the rising suns at Selah
Canon next described, the pictographs at the mouth of Cowiche Creek, and
the incised human form in antler.

    [371] First reproduced. Smith, (g), Fig. 2, Plate IX; negative no.
    44534, 8-11, taken from the west.

    [372] _Ibid._, Fig. 1; Negative no. 44533, 8-10 as viewed from the
    north.

    [373] Spinden, Fig. 4, Plate X.

    [374] Smith, (b), Plate XI.

    [375] _Ibid._, Fig. 115.

In Plate XII and Fig. 1, Plate XIII are shown petroglyphs which appear
fresher and whiter or yellower than the naturally weathered reddish
basaltic columns into which they are pecked. They are on the north side
of Selah Canon about one and a half miles from the Yakima River at a
point about a mile north of Selah station or one half a mile south of
the intake of the Moxee Canal. It is about twenty-five miles west
southwest of Sentinal Bluffs, eight northeast from the mouth of Cowiche
Creek and twenty-two miles northeast from Tampico. They are more easily
made out from a distance than close by.

The petroglyph shown in Fig. 1, Plate XII, is the most northeasterly of
the group. This seems to be made up of circles with a dot in the middle
and radiating lines, some of which end in dots. They remind us of some
of the same series of figures as the oval with radiating lines at Priest
Rapids.[376]

    [376] Museum negative no. 44463, 2-12 from the east and from a
    greater distance, showing its relation to the next in negative
    catalogue no. 44162, 2-11.

The one shown in Fig. 2, is about eight feet to the southwest and a
little lower down. The upper part of the left figure and the two main
parts on the right, each consisting of a curve with short radiating
lines like a representation of the rising sun, may be compared with the
top of the petroglyph on the rocks a few feet to the southwest shown in
Fig. 1, Plate XIII, next described, and with some of those at Sentinal
Bluffs, shown in Plate XI; also, with the pictographs at the mouth of
Cowiche Creek.[377]

    [377] Represented in Museum, with the one shown in Fig. 1, by
    negative no. 44462, 2-11 and from a nearer point as shown in this
    figure in negative no. 44476, 4-1.

The petroglyph shown in Fig. 1, Plate XIII, is a few feet southwest of
those shown in Plate XII, taken from the south. The segment with
radiating lines like the rising sun at the top reminds us of similar
figures among the other petroglyphs here just described, those at
Sentinal Bluffs and pictographs at the mouth of Cowiche Creek, but the
other lines are not interpreted and are not suggestive to us of other
figures in the neighborhood. A small figure, similar in that it consists
of two nearly vertical lines crossing each other and topped by a curved
line, shows very faintly above, a little to the right.[378] A design
similar to the part of some of these pictures interpreted as
representing a headdress was also found pecked in the surface of the
grooved net sinker shown in Fig. 14.

    [378] Museum negative no. 44477, 4-2, is also represented from a
    greater distance in negative no. 44478, 4-3.

The petroglyph shown in Fig. 2, Plate XIII, is pecked on the top of a
rock which projects about three feet from the surface of the ground near
mile post 209 between it and 210 above the Spokane branch of the O. R. &
N. on the south side of the Columbia River about four miles west of
Wallula Junction and is here illustrated as one twentieth of the natural
size, from a tracing made by Mr. J. P. Newell, of Portland, assistant
chief engineer on that road. We are indebted to Mr. W. E. Elliott of New
York City, formerly engineer with Mr. Newell for permission to copy this
tracing.[379] The top of the rock forms an east and west ridge. The
pecked grooves are all of about equal depth and there are no other
petroglyphs on the rock. The large figure at the left reminds us of the
dog-like figures with "spines" in the petroglyphs at Nanaimo,[380] on
Vancouver Island, especially as it has waved parallel lines, a fin or
"spine" and two concentric curves at the top similar in shape to the
lines indicating the back of the head and the mouth of the Nanaimo
figure. This is less suggestive of certain harpoon points that are
incised apparently to represent fish found in the main shell heap in the
Fraser Delta at Eburne[381] although Eburne is nearer than Nanaimo and
en route, and although these harpoon points have parallel lines, a
fin-like projection and two lines representative of the back of the head
or cheek and the mouth. The small circles some with lines radiating
from them, remind us of similar marks on the same large petroglyph at
Nanaimo and even more so of the petroglyphs beyond Nanaimo at Yellow
Island near Comox.[382] The large figure on the right reminds us of the
human form of the petroglyph at Nanaimo.[383]

    [379] Museum negative no. 45696.

    [380] Smith, (b), Fig. 117a and Plate XI.

    [381] Smith, (a), Fig. 52.

    [382] Smith, (b), Fig. 115.

    [383] _Ibid._, Fig. 117a.

I am informed by Mr. Owen that there is a petroglyph on the north side
of the Columbia River below Kennewick and that it has been destroyed by
recent railroad construction; by Mr. W. H. Willcox of North Yakima that
there are petroglyphs or pictographs on the rocks ten miles south of
Wenatchee on the western side of the Columbia River; and by Prof. Mark
Harrington that it is said that there are "engravings" on the cliffs
overhanging Lake Chelan. Mallery[384] refers to etchings at the lower
end of Lake Chelan but his information seems to refer to painted figures
only (See p. 120). The late Prof. Israel C. Russell informed me that
there are etchings close to the river on both sides in the Snake Canon
at Buffalo Rock in the extreme southeast corner of the state of
Washington.[385]

    [384] Mallery, p. 26.

    [385] Cf. Spinden, Figs. 4 and 5, Plate X.


_Incised Designs._ Among the designs incised on stone, attention may be
called to the top of the pestle made of steatite shown in Fig. 35, which
bears two parallel longitudinal incisions and notches, ten on the left
and eleven on the right of each side edge of the obverse. There are
fifteen fine incisions running obliquely down from the notches on the
left to the first longitudinal incision. They begin at the eighth notch
from the bottom and extend to the lower notch. On the reverse are three
longitudinal incisions apparently more recently made, and eleven notches
on each side edge. This incised knob is said by the Indians to represent
the head of a snake. On the reverse of the steatite object, possibly a
mat-presser, shown in Fig. 59a, is an incised pictographic sketch which
unfortunately, with the exception of the nine short lines above, was
re-scratched by its owner. It is reproduced in Fig. 59b. The first
figure beginning at the left possibly represents a tree. The middle
figure has not been identified but it is clear that the one on the right
represents a human being. On the left of the groove in the object are
incised two hands pointing towards the left. These also were re-cut and
are not reproduced in Fig. 59. The incision in the edge of the top of
the club shown in Fig. 62 and the incisions at right angles to this were
probably intended for decorative purposes. There is an incised design on
the rounded surface of the saddle-shaped hollow of the club shown in
Fig. 64. This design is made of transverse notches above and a zigzag
line below. The upper part of the right edge of this knob is flat with
two incisions across it. Incised lines arranged parallel to each other
in rows may be seen on the handle and knob of the club shown in Fig. 68.
There are thirteen of these lines on either edge of the knob. The other
incisions are arranged in four vertical rows on the handle. The lines on
the top of the shell pendant shown in Fig. 88 may be merely the depths
of the teeth rather than incisions artificially made, but in this case
they may have been considered as decorative and the shell may even have
been chosen because of these lines. There are nine incised lines on the
bone tube shown in Fig. 98. These run around it in a spiral direction in
such a way that the lower end of each line is on the opposite side from
the upper end.

The three transverse incisions on the top of the steatite specimen shown
in Fig. 99 may be for decorative purposes or merely as tallies as also
the five small drilled pits arranged about equi-distant from each other
around the top and the four similarly arranged near the bottom.

[Illustration: Fig. 114 _a_ (202-8159). Incised Design on a Fragment of
a Wooden Bow. From grave No. 10 (5) in a rock-slide near the mouth of
Naches River. 1/2 nat. size. _b_ Section of Fragment of Bow shown in
_a_.]

The oblique incised lines on the edge of the mouthpiece and on the ridge
about the middle of the pipe shown in Fig. 100, which slant outward from
left to right at an angle of about 45° and make the ridge at least
suggest a twisted cord, were no doubt made for decorative purposes.
Pictographic scratches may be seen on the disk-shaped stone pipe, shown
in Fig. 107. Those on the reverse are shown in Fig. 115. A simple
geometric incised line decoration on wood may be seen on a fragment of a
bow shown in Fig. 111. It will be remembered that parallel irregularly
arranged cuneiform incisions decorated a fragment of a bow found in the
Thompson River region.[386] The incised design on the stone dish
previously mentioned on p. 38 and shown in Fig. 116 consists of two
horizontal incisions running around the upper part of the dish a little
below its middle and a zigzag line made up of twenty-five V-shaped marks
which fills the space between the flat rim of this dish and the upper
horizontal line.

    [386] Smith, (c), p. 411.

[Illustration: Fig. 115. Incised Design on Bowl of Pipe shown in Fig.
107. 1/2 nat. size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 116. Incised Design on Stone Dish. From Priest
Rapids. 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from photograph 44537, 9-3. Original in
the collection of Mrs. Hinman.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 117 (202-8193). Incised Designs on Dentalium Shells.
From under the skeleton in grave No. 25 of a child in a stone cyst in
dome of volcanic ash near Tampico. Nat. size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 118 (202-8178). Incised Designs on Dentalium Shells.
From among broken and charred human bones of about twelve individuals in
cremation circle No. 15 (10) on terrace northwest of the junction of the
Naches and Yakima Rivers.]

Incised designs on dentalium shells are shown in Figs. 117 and 118. The
first four were found under the skeleton in grave No. 25. This skeleton
was of a child and was surrounded by a stone cyst buried in a dome of
volcanic ash near Tampico, as shown in Plate X. This lot contained two
shells ornamented with designs of the type shown in _a_, but in the one
not figured the diamond points met and formed a checker pattern. There
were four of the type shown in _b_, one of the type shown in _c_, and
two like the type shown in _d_. The specimens shown in Fig. 118 were
found among broken and charred human bones of about twelve individuals
in cremation circle No. 15 (10) on the terrace northwest of the mouth of
the Naches River. While there was only one specimen of the type shown in
_a_, there were two of the type shown in _b_, and one like the four
represented by Fig. 117b. Another cremation circle containing incised
dentalium shells is known as No. 18 (13) and was located on the same
terrace. The specimens are mere fragments, one of them, from the tip of
the shell, bears a design similar to that shown in Fig. 117b, the other
bears a simple incised spiral, the space between one incision and
another being about equal to the width of the incision itself. The
character of both the technique and the motive of these designs
resembles that of those found on similar shells at Kamloops in the
Thompson River region[387] and in the Nez Perce area to the east.[388]
The design shown in Fig. 117a at least reminds us of paintings on the
parfleches found among the modern Sahaptin and Plains tribes.

    [387] Smith, (c), Fig. 369.

    [388] Spinden, p. 181 and Plate IX, Fig. 15.

[Illustration: Fig. 119. Incised Pendant made of Steatite with Red Paint
(Mercury) in some of the Holes and Lines. From manubrium of adult male
skeleton in grave covered with rocks on a low ridge about two and a half
miles south of Fort Simcoe. Nat. size. (Original in the collection of
Mrs. Lynch.)]

The incised design on the pendant made of steatite (p. 94, Fig. 119)
does not seem to differ greatly in technique or motive from other
incised designs found in this area and in the Thompson River region to
the north. While most of the lines and pits can be considered as forming
symmetrical or geometric designs, the central figure on the side shown
in Fig. 119b may be interpreted as a conventional representation of a
life form, namely, a fish. Red paint is rubbed into some of the lines
and pits.

The human figure described under costume (p. 100, Fig. 121) is a
somewhat conventionalized realistic form indicated by incisions on one
surface of a piece of antler 2 to 5 mm. thick.[389] It was found in the
grave of an infant under the vertebrae, No. 25 in a dome of volcanic
ash. It is of good technique and artistic execution. The eyes are of the
shape of a parallelogram with rounded corners. These, with similarly
shaped figures on the headdress or inner hair-rolls, and on the hands,
knees, and insteps, slightly resemble a motive common in the art of the
coast to the northwest. The crescent-shaped mouth and thick lips are
indicated by incised lines, while the cheeks are full, and the entire
head is somewhat set out in relief from the rest of the object. The
radiating figures above the head do not represent feathers in a
realistic way, but closely resemble the conventional paintings made by
the Dakota on buffalo robes. These paintings have been called sun
symbols, but are interpreted by the Dakota as the feathers of a
war-bonnet or other headdress. The fingers and thumb are set off from
the palm by two lines, which, with the mark at the wrist, make a figure
resembling the eye-form so common in Northwest coast art. The concentric
design on the knees is probably related to the wheel, sun, or spider-web
pattern common as a symbol on the shirts, blankets, and tents of some
Plains tribes. The feet jutting out at the sides are slightly wider than
the legs. The inside of the foot is straight with the inside of the leg,
while the outer part is curved. The two, taken together with the lower
portion of the legs, resemble a divided hoof. The divided hoof is a
common design among Plains tribes.

    [389] First described and figured, Smith, (g). See also abstract in
    Scientific American Supplement pp. 23876-8, Vol. LVIII, No. 1490,
    July 23, 1904 and in Records of the Past, l. c.; The Saturday
    Evening Post, Sept. 10, 1904 and the Washington Magazine.

There are only two specimens, of which I am aware, that resemble this.
One (T-22107, 177 II) consists of seven fragments of a thin piece of
antler found by Mrs. James Terry at Umatilla, Oregon, only about 83
miles in a southerly direction from Tampico. The back of this specimen
is largely disintegrated, except on the two dog heads, and these being
only about 5 mm. thick suggest that the whole figure was thin. The
carving (Fig. 123) is in much greater relief than in the specimen from
Tampico, although some of the lines are merely incisions. The tongue
projects between, but not beyond, the lips. The cheeks are raised and
there is considerable character to the face. The nose is aquiline and
narrow, but the alæ are indicated. The orbits are sunken and horizontal
oblong pits evidently indicate the eyes. The eyebrows are raised. Two
horizontal incisions extend across the brow. Below the chin, at the
left, are four incisions in a raised piece. This seems to represent a
hand held with the fingers to the neck. A similar hand was probably at
the right. A foot, with four toes in relief projecting above the brow as
high as do the eyebrows, rests immediately above the upper horizontal
incision and apparently indicates that some animal, possibly a bird,
stood upon the human head. The fragment, however, is not sufficiently
large to settle these points. Two of the other fragments are apparently
intended to represent the heads of dogs. The eyes are indicated by the
common circle and dot design; while the nostrils in one are represented
by drilled dots. The shape of the heads is brought out by the carving of
the edge of the object. The fragments are broken off at the neck, and
the lower side of each shows the finished surface of the back of the
object. The remaining fragments show little or nothing. The animal heads
and the feet and hands suggest the possibility that in some cases animal
forms were combined in such figures, as on the Northwest Coast, although
the general style of art of the object is like neither Haida nor
Kwakiutl work, but more like the carvings of Puget Sound and the lower
Columbia River. The fact that the carving of this face is more in relief
helps to explain the intent of the author of the Tampico specimen.

The other specimen (50-3110 a, b, c) is a quill-flattener, made of
antler (Fig. 122). It was obtained by Dr. Clark Wissler from the Dakota
at Pine Ridge, South Dakota, who also made reference to other objects of
the same sort among the tribe. Porcupine quills were flattened on it
with the thumb nail until after it had been broken, when the lower or
pointed end had been used as a brush in applying color to form designs
on various articles made of buckskin. This end is stained a deep red and
the point is much worn. The object, in general, resembles in shape and
size the specimen from Tampico. Its sides are somewhat thinner and
sharper. The slight indications of hair or headdress, the deeply cut
eyes and mouth in the concave side, the holes or ears at the sides of
the head, and the method of indicating the arms by slits, setting them
off, from the body, are all details which emphasize this general
resemblance. The technical work is about as good as that of the Tampico
specimen, but the art work is inferior. One edge of the convex or outer
surface of the bone has twenty-five notches, and in each tooth left
between them, as well as above the top one, is a small drilled dot. Some
of the notches on the other side are broken away with the arm, which is
missing. On the same surface are twenty-six horizontal incisions, which
were interpreted as year counts. The general shape of the body and the
rows of dots are similar to those of the figure pecked on the cliff at
Sentinal Bluffs (Plate XI, Fig. 2).

The Tampico specimen may have developed from a quill-flattener, which
implement was probably of common and characteristic use among Indian
mothers, not only of the Plains but also as far west as Tampico. If the
result of such a development, it had probably lost its domestic use and
become entirely symbolic.

Mr. Teit has heard the Thompson Indians speak of figures carved by some
men in their spare time, and valued highly as curiosities and works of
art. They had no practical value, and were generally used as ornaments
inside the house. They were in wood, bark, stone and antler, more
generally in the last three, and usually represented the human figure.
Although the Indians aver that they were sometimes very elaborately and
truthfully carved, it is impossible to say, in the absence of a good
specimen from the Thompson Indians whether there was any resemblance in
style to that of this figure. The Thompson sometimes, placed such
figures on the tops of houses, but the great majority were shown inside
the houses. The Indian who made the one illustrated[390] told Mr. Teit
that he had seen some of larger size which had taken a carver's spare
time for many months.

    [390] Teit, (a), p. 376. Fig. 297.

The headdress seems to be a so-called war-bonnet, and would indicate
that the figure was that of an important personage; perhaps a suggestion
of what had been hoped for the child's position in the tribe or after
death. The arms, body, legs, and feet are apparently bare and ornamented
with ceremonial paintings, while about the waist is an apron. The whole
object seems of a rather high order of art to be a mere child's doll,
and it would seem more plausible to consider it as an emblematical
figure. The general style of art and costume indicated show little or no
resemblance to those of the Northwest Coast, but a strong relationship
to those of the Plains.

There are some incised lines on the pipe shown in Fig. 127. Those on the
pipe shown in Fig. 104 are described on p. 131. In the Nez Perce region,
according to Spinden, incised designs, some of them of a pictographic
character and probably modern are found on pipes, and designs of ladder
shape are found on a flat plummet-shaped bone object.[391]

    [391] Spinden, p. 188 and Plate VII, Fig. 31.


_Notches._ The notch in the base of the spatulate object made of bone
shown in Fig. 58 and the two notches in each side of the base may be for
practical purposes but were probably intended to be artistic, while the
six notches in the edge of the pendant made of slate shown in Fig. 81
probably also have been intended for decoration or even to make the
object represent something although possibly the representation may be
rather conventional.

In the Nez Perce region to the east,[392] a notched stone has been found
near Asotin and notches occur as decorations on objects found in the
Thompson River region to the north, but, of this type, they are rare if
not absent among archaeological finds on the coast to the west from Fort
Rupert on northern Vancouver Island to Tacoma.

    [392] _Ibid._, p. 183, Plate IX, Fig. 3.


_Circle and Dot Designs._ The circle and dot design is commonly found in
this region. It may be seen on the top of the pestle shown in Fig. 30.
There is one of these designs in the tip and eleven about equi-distant
in a row around the edge of the knob. In the Nez Perce region to the
east[393] the design is found on bone gambling pieces. Further east,
this design is also found. This motive may be seen around the top of the
bowl on a pipe (50-4867a, b) from the Gros Ventre Indians of Montana
collected by Dr. Clark Wissler, which, however, is considered to be
recent. To the west, it is not found among ancient things on the coast
but among recent objects it may be seen on certain bone gambling
cylinders and on beaver teeth used for dice. The design is common in the
Thompson River region[394] and the Lillooet Valley between there and the
coast.[395] It is perhaps even more frequently seen on the modern things
among the Thompson River Indians[396] who often visit the Okanogan
country.

    [393] Spinden, p. 252, Plate VII, Fig. 30.

    [394] Smith, (c), Fig. 378; (d), Fig. 109.

    [395] Teit, (b), Fig. 92.

    [396] Teit, (a), Figs. 118 and 210.

The pipe shown in Fig. 104 was secured from an Indian who is known to
have frequently visited the Okanogan area so that if he did not bring
the pipe from there, he may at least have gotten the idea for this style
of decoration there. This suggests an explanation for the occurrence of
the circle and dot design on what are apparently older specimens from
the Yakima country. On the lower end of this specimen is a design made
up of a zigzag line based upon an incision running around where the stem
meets the bowl. The five triangles thus formed are nearly equilateral
and there is a circle and dot design in each. Other circles and dots are
arranged in seven equi-distant longitudinal pairs about the middle of
the bowl. In addition, parallel to these, and between two of the pairs,
there is a double-headed figure each end of which resembles the form of
a crude fleur-de-lis. All of the incisions on this pipe are colored with
red paint. The circle and dot design may be seen on the limestone pipe
shown in Fig. 106. There is one circle and dot on the tip of the base,
encircling this is a row of eight of them and outside of this still
another circle of nine. Around the opening for the stem is a circle made
up of eight, around the mouth of the bowl are ten and between the circle
around the bowl and the one around the stem are three of the circles and
dots. A typical circle and dot decoration is shown in Fig. 120 of what,
as stated on p. 65, may possibly have been used as a whetstone. The
object is made of slate and the top is broken off. It is 142 mm. long,
18 mm. wide and 6 mm. thick. The lower end and side edges are rounded.
On the reverse, the design is similar except that it is continued upward
by three circles and dots arranged in the same order as the uppermost
three on the obverse and that there are several slightly incised marks
on it, one of which, of X form, makes a tangent and a cord with the next
to the lower circle and dot. All the circles and dots are filled with
red paint. There are twelve incisions, possibly tally marks, on one side
edge near the point. The original is in the collection of Mr.
Janeck.[397]

    [397] Museum negative no. 44503, 6-4.

The symmetrical arrangement of the perforations and the pits on both
sides of the object shown in Fig. 77 was no doubt due to artistic
motives.


_Pecked Grooves._ Some designs were made by pecking grooves in stone.
Part of these, those forming petroglyphs, have been mentioned on p. 121
and are shown in Plates XI-XIII. The upper portion of the marking on the
grooved stone shown in Fig. 14 is made in this way. It may represent a
feather headdress, such as is mentioned on p. 119 and such as is so
common in the pictographs as well as in the petroglyphs. The design on
the lower part of the same object was formed in the same way and on the
obverse of the net sinker shown in Fig. 15 are pecked grooves forming
three concentric semi-circles on each side of the groove and nearly
parallel with the edges of the object. Taken together, they give the
suggestion of a spiral. There are three pecked grooves encircling the
stone mortar shown in Fig. 20 and two around the head of the pestle
shown in Fig. 25. On each side of the lower part of the pestle shown in
Fig. 31 is a longitudinal design made up of four parallel zigzag pecked
grooves. The two pecked grooves at right angles to each other on the
specimen shown in Fig. 60 while they are probably made for use may have
been interpreted as decorative or artistic. This may also be said of the
three pecked grooves at right angles to each other on the club-head
shown in Fig. 61, and it seems likely that the eight pecked pits made in
the middle of the spaces between these grooves and possibly even the two
pits at either pole of the object were intended to embellish it. Pecking
was also the process employed in forming the sculpture shown in Fig.
125. The four pyramidal or dome-shaped nipples on the top of the knob of
a pestle found at Five Mile Rapids mentioned on p. 45 were probably made
by pecking, followed by polishing and they may have served a ceremonial
as well as a decorative purpose.

[Illustration: Fig. 120. Circle and Dot Design on Whetstone made of
Slate. From the Yakima Valley. 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from photograph
44503, 6-4. Original in the collection of Mr. Janeck.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 121 (202-8191). Costumed Human Figure made of
Antler. From grave No. 25 of a child in dome of volcanic ash near
Tampico. 1/2 nat. size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 122 (50-3110a, b, c). Quill-flattener made of
Antler. From the Dakota at Pine Ridge, South Dakota. 1/4 nat. size.
(Collected by Dr. Clark Wissler.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 123 (T-22107, 11-177). Fragments of a Figure made of
Antler. From Umatilla, Oregon. 1/2 nat. size. (Collected by Mrs. James
Terry.)]


_Animal and Human Forms._ There are a number of sculptures that
apparently were intended to represent heads of animals, whole animals
and human forms. The top of the pestle shown in Fig. 31 is sculptured to
represent what is apparently an animal head. The top of the one shown in
Fig. 33 has three nipples one of which is longer than the others. This
sculpture also seems to represent an animal head, the ears being
indicated by the short nipples and the nose by the long one. The top of
the pestle shown in Fig. 34 apparently represents an animal head, the
mouth being indicated by the groove, each eye by a pit and there are
four incisions across the top or back of the head. A sculptured animal
head, with wide open mouth, pits for eyes, and projections for ears on
what may be a pestle top, has been found in the Nez Perce region to the
east[398] and pestles with heads are found in the Thompson River area
to the north.[399] The knob shown in Fig. 35 (p. 47) is interpreted as
representing a snake's head. The heart-shaped knob on the top of the
club shown in Fig. 68 resembles the form of an animal head and stands at
an angle of about 45° to the axis of the club. Two of the incised
circles probably represent the eyes. The top of the handle of a digging
stick made of horn of the Rocky Mountain sheep, shown in Fig. 126 is
sculptured to represent an animal head. It was obtained from an Indian
woman living near Union Gap below Old Yakima.

    [398] Spinden, Plate IX, Fig. 19.

    [399] Smith, (c), Fig. 341a; Teit, (a), Fig. 295.

[Illustration: Fig. 124. Fragment of a Sculpture with Hoof-like part.
From Pasco. 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from a sketch. Original in the
collection of Mr. Owen.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 125. Sculptured Animal Form made of Lava. From an
Indian who claimed to have found it in a grave on the Yakima Reservation
two miles below Union Gap below Old Yakima. 1/2 nat. size. (Drawn from
photographs 44452, 2-1, 44455, 2-4, and 44503, 6-4. Original catalogue
No. 36 in the collection of Mr. Janeck.)]

Fig. 124 illustrates a fragment of sculpture from Pasco. It is
hoof-shaped and is here reproduced from a sketch of the original in the
collection of Mr. Owen. The sculptured animal form made of lava shown in
Fig. 125 which was mentioned on p. 38, bears a mortar or dish in its
back. It is a good example of an art form which has been specialized so
that it may be used or at least so that the useful part is less
prominent than the animal figure. It has been sculptured by pecking. The
raised eyes are almond-shaped rather than elliptical, and the ears are
indicated by raised places on the transverse ridge at the top of the
head. The mid-rib or dewlap under the chin is about 6 mm. wide and of
the three transverse grooves in this, only the upper one is deep. The
tail is slightly under cut. The grooves are all more or less colored
with vermilion, apparently a mineral paint and consequently sufficiently
lasting so that we need not consider even the painting as necessarily
modern. The general form and especially the four elephantine legs remind
us of a somewhat similar animal form with a dish in its back found in a
shell heap in the delta of the Fraser River[400] and the animal form
with the dish in its back resembles slightly carvings found in the
Lillooet Valley[401] and the Thompson River region.

    [400] Smith, (a), Fig. 56.

    [401] Teit, (b), Fig. 97.

The pipe made of steatite shown in Fig. 128[402] illustrates the modern
type of carving in soft, easily cut stone, as well as the style of white
metal inlaying employed here during recent years. In this case, the
inlaying is nearly bilaterally symmetrical as may be seen by comparing
Fig. 128a with the outlines in _c_ and _d_. The carving is not
symmetrical, the human form holding a fish-like form appearing on one
side only, while the rear figure evidently represents a turtle which
animal is found in the valley. The other two figures are not easily
identified but the forward one perhaps represents a dog, the white metal
inlay on it possibly representing a harness, but as likely was merely
for decoration. The figure on the base of the pipe might represent a
lizard or any quadruped with a long tail. This form and the way it is
represented as clinging to the cylindrical part of the pipe at least
remind us of similar forms seen on totem poles in the region from Puget
Sound to Victoria.[403] The technique is rather crude and the style of
art does not closely resemble that of the coast, but reminds us of
certain sculptures found on pipes and on the carved wooden stems of
pipes in the Plains where this particular shape of pipe is much more
common than here.

    [402] First figured on p. 283, Archaeology of the Yakima Valley by
    Harlan I. Smith, Washington Magazine, June, 1906.

    [403] Cf. also Smith, (b), Fig. 185a.

[Illustration: Fig. 126 (202-8121). Handle of Digging Stick made of Horn
of Rocky Mountain Sheep. From an Indian woman living near Union Gap
below Old Yakima. 1/4 nat. size.]

In Fig. 105 is illustrated a fragment of a sculptured tubular pipe made
from steatite by cutting or scratching and drilling the soft material
rather than by pecking. It was apparently intended to represent an
anthropoid form. The mouth is indicated by an incision, the other
features of the head are more difficult to determine, but both the arm
and the leg stand out in high relief. As previously suggested on p. 111,
this style of art slightly resembles that found in the region from the
Lillooet Valley to the Lower Willamette and as far east at least as The
Dalles.[404] It is possible that some of the sculptures found in the
Thompson River region[405] adjoining the Lillooet Valley on the east and
the Yakima region on the north, may be somewhat related to the style of
art of this fragmentary pipe. The human form shown in Fig. 121 has been
discussed on p. 127 as it is incised rather than carved in the round.
Clark mentions a "malet of stone curiously carved,"[406] which he says
was used by the Indians near the mouth of the Snake River and Eells[407]
mentions two stone carvings from the general area of which this is a
part which he describes as horses' heads. If this interpretation be
correct, the carvings are evidently modern. The fish form shown in Fig.
119 has been mentioned on p. 127.

    [404] Teit, (b), Figs. 68 and 95-97; Smith, (d), Fig. 183 and
    especially Figs. 195b and 198.

    [405] Smith, (d), Fig. 113; (b), Fig. 185a.

    [406] Lewis and Clark, III, p. 124.

    [407] Eells, p. 293.

[Illustration: Fig. 127. Pipe made of Stone. From a hillside grave on
Toppenish Creek near Fort Simcoe. Collected by Mrs. Lynch. 1/2 nat.
size. (Now in the collection of Mr. George G. Heye, New York.)]

The very form of the pestle shown in Fig. 34 and the symmetrical outline
of the club shown in Fig. 62 are in themselves somewhat artistic, while
the fact that the pipe shown in Fig. 113 somewhat represents a tomahawk
or hatchet suggests that it may have been sculptured as representative
art. It seems likely that it was modelled after the metal tomahawk pipe
introduced by the traders which of course would indicate that it was
recently made.

[Illustration: Fig. 128. Sculptured and Inlaid Pipe made of Steatite
with Wooden Stem. From Chief Moses of the Yakima Region. 1/2 nat. size.
(Drawn from photograph 44508, 6-9, 6-10, 6-11. Original in the
collection of Mrs. Lynch.)]


_Coast Art._ The pipe shown in Fig. 127 which was mentioned on p. 116 is
clearly of the art of the northwest coast. It must have been brought to
this region from as far at least, as the Kwakiutl and Haida region, and
may be the work of an artist from that part of the coast, on Vancouver
Island, north of Comox. Although in a fragmentary condition, this
sculpture exhibits an excellent technique of its style of art. Astride
of the stem is a human figure with the left hand to the chest, and the
right one resting on the right knee. The head is missing, the chest
muscular. The other end of the pipe apparently represents the thunder
bird. The head and most of the figure are bilaterally symmetrical. The
beak is cut off in such a manner as to form a flat surface at the tip.
The feathers of the rear portion of the left wing extend in a different
direction from those on the tip, while those of the right wing are
parallel with those on the rear part of the left wing. The lower side or
tail of this bird figure is broken off, but it probably extended to the
broken place shown at the neck of the human face on the base of the
pipe. In it, may be seen a groove, the half of a longitudinal
perforation which does not connect with the pipe bowl. The carving on
the right side of the pipe bowl, the top of which is broken away, is
practically the same as that on the left, while the base is carved to
represent a human head.



METHOD OF BURIAL.


In ancient times, there were three principal methods of disposing of the
dead: in graves in domes of volcanic ash, in rock-slide graves, and in
cremation circles. In all of these they were covered with stones.[408]
Detailed descriptions of the graves explored by us, are given in the
appendix. There are also burials covered with pebbles, some of which may
be old; and recent graves (p. 20), where the bodies were apparently
buried at length with the feet to the east, and both head and foot
marked by a stake, the one at the head being the larger. Simple graves
in the level ground known to be old were not found. Gibbs saw bodies
wrapped in blankets and tied upright to tree trunks at some distance
above the ground near the mouth of the Okanogan River.[409]

    [408] Cf. also Yarrow, p. 178; Gibbs, (b), p. 201.

    [409] Gibbs, (a), p. 413.


_Burials in Domes of Volcanic Ash._ In this arid region are stretches of
country locally known as 'scab land,' on which are occasionally groups
of low dome-shaped knolls from about fifty to one hundred feet in
diameter, by three to six feet in height.[410] These knolls consist of
fine volcanic ash, and apparently have been left by the wind because
held in place by roots of sage brush and other vegetation. This ashy
material has been swept from the intervening surface leaving the 'scab
land' paved with fragments of basalt imbedded in a hard soil. The
prehistoric Indians of this region, have used many of these knolls, each
as a site for a single grave (Fig. 2, Plate IX).[411] These graves,
which are located in the tops of the knolls, are usually marked by large
river pebbles, or, in some cases, by fragments of basalt that appear as
a circular pavement projecting slightly above the surface of the soil.
None of them are known to be recent. On the other hand, there is no
positive evidence of their great antiquity. In these we sometimes find a
box or cyst. This box (Plate X) was formed of thin slabs of basaltic
rock some placed on edge and large flat slabs covering the cyst so
formed. Above this, as was usually the case, above the skeletons in this
kind of grave, the space was filled with irregular rocks or pebbles. The
rocks and cyst were entirely different from those of the cairns of the
coast of Washington and British Columbia.[412] The skeletons were found
flexed, on the side. In the graves, artifacts such as dentalium shells
were deposited at the time of burial.

    [410] See Museum negative nos. 44442, 1-3, and 44496, 5-9.

    [411] See Museum negative no. 44497, 5-10, taken from the north of
    east. See also pp. 17 and 161. First mentioned in Smith, (g), VI.

    [412] See Smith and Fowke.

The Kalapuya of the Willamette Valley to the southwest, buried their
dead in the earth. One writer described the process as follows:--"When
the grave was dug they placed slabs on the bottom and sides, and when
they had lowered the wrapped body down, placed another over, resting on
the side ones, and filled in the earth."[413] The account does not seem
to indicate whether these slabs were of wood or stone, but in either
case there is a certain similarity to the graves with the stone cyst
found near Tampico.

    [413] Lewis, p. 178; Galschet, p. 86; American Antiquarian, IV,
    1882, p. 331.

A grave which may be of this type, found about two and one half miles
south of Fort Simcoe was reported to me by Mrs. Lynch who furnished the
following information about it. It was on a low ridge with the usual
cairn of rocks about three feet high covering it. This cairn was made up
of two distinct layers of rocks, both lying above the contents of the
grave which included the skeleton of an adult man estimated to be at
least six feet tall and that of a child about six to eight years of age,
according to identifications made by the physician of the United States
Indian service stationed at Fort Simcoe. The man's skull which was well
preserved though brittle, was found four feet below the ground or
approximately seven feet below the top of the cairn and on the eastern
side of the grave. The pelvis of the child was completely decayed, and
few of the bones were intact except the maxilla which was found in the
western part of the grave between the patellæ of the man. Near them were
found four "links" [beads] of a copper necklace. The maxilla was deeply
copper-stained. The steatite ornament shown in Fig. 119 was found on the
man's manubrium.


_Rock-slide Graves._ The rock-slides on the hill and canon sides as in
the region to the north had frequently been used as burial places. The
graves are found from top to bottom. Some of them seem very old. Others
were proven to be recent by the character of the objects found in them.
The skeletons were in or on the ground and the rocks of the slide had
been piled or caused to slide over them (Fig. 1, Plate VIII).[414] The
skeleton was buried from one to five, six or even ten feet deep. In some
cases, the rocks seemed to have sunk as the body decayed, in others they
formed a pile as if placed there to mark the grave. Some graves were
marked with sticks (Fig. 3, Plate VI). In others, probably always the
older graves, sticks were not seen having doubtless decayed. One of the
graves found rifled 75 feet above the little flat at the edge of the
north side of the Naches River about a mile and a half above its mouth,
seemed to lie walled up with rocks like a well and slabs of a broken
canoe, part of which had been thrown out surrounded a few of the
disturbed bones. The skeletons were always in a flexed position (Fig. 2,
Plate VIII) and objects were found to have been placed in some of these
graves.

    [414] See Museum negative no. 44513, 7-3, from the south in base of
    rock-slide on the north side of the Yakima River about a mile below
    the mouth of the Naches River, see p. 15.

Spinden states that cemeteries are readily located by the heaps of
"river-worn or rock-slide boulders" piled over the graves in the Nez
Perce country.[415] They are usually on the first bench above the river
bottom and are found near the traditional village sites, from which they
can be seen. The more common method of disposing of the dead there, was
by burial in the ground, especially on stony hillsides, and covering the
graves with stones to keep off the wild animals. This seems to have been
the prevailing method throughout the whole Columbia region of which this
is a part.[416] Rock-slide graves were sometimes made in basaltic cliffs
in the Nez Perce region. One of these is known to have been used in
recent times from the presence of a Lewis and Clark medal,[417] and
graves marked by pieces of upright cedar and covered by large piles of
stone are reported by Spinden on the east bank of the Snake River,
beside the mouth of the Grande Ronde.[418]

    [415] Spinden, p. 181.

    [416] Lewis, p. 190; Lewis and Clark. IV, pp. 366-7, 371, V, p. 99;
    Ross, (a), pp. 320-321; Cox, p. 105; Douglas, p. 339; Gibbs, (a), p.
    405.

    [417] Spinden, p. 181.

    [418] Spinden, pp. 181 and 252.

Indian graves filled up with stones are numerous in the vicinity of the
several remains (pp. 29, 54 and 82) near Mr. Turner's home, according to
Mr. J. S. Cotton. Mr. Turner told him that all the graves that had been
excavated contained bones in a greatly decayed condition, which
suggested to him that they were very old. These graves, like the other
remains of the vicinity previously mentioned, have been in the same
condition since about 1874.

The terraces mentioned on p. 13 (Fig. 1, Plate VII)[419] may have been
made to facilitate reaching rock-slide graves in the same slide; while
the pits which were found in the slides (Fig. 2, Plate VII)[420] walled
up on the outer sides like balconies, with the rocks that apparently
came both from the pits and the disturbed slide above them, have been
considered as rifled graves or graves from which the burials had been
removed (p. 13).

    [419] See Museum negative no. 44520, 7-10, from the southwest, about
    a mile above the mouth of the Naches River, (p. 13).

    [420] See Museum negative no. 44519, 7-9. The same slide from the
    southwest (p. 13).

The following quotation may refer to rock-slide pits:[421] "In the
eastern part of Marion County, Oregon, there stands an isolated and most
strikingly regular and beautiful butte some three hundred feet in height
and covering nearly a section of land. It was fringed about its base, at
the time of which I write, with fir groves, but its sides and well
rounded and spacious top were devoid of timber, except a few old and
spreading oaks, and perhaps a half dozen gigantic firs, whose weighty
limbs were drooping with age. A meridian section line passes over the
middle of this butte, and four sections corner near its top. While
running this line and establishing these corners in 1851, I observed
many semi-circular walls of stone, each enclosing space enough for a
comfortable seat, and as high as one's shoulders when in a sitting
posture, upon cross-sticks as high as the knee ... the older white
residents said the Indians made them, but for what purpose they could
not say. I became a witness to the use, and was particularly impressed
with the fitness for what I saw. Indians from the North and South
traveling that way generally camped upon the banks of the Abiqua Creek,
a rapid stream of pure, cold water, just issued from the mountains upon
the plain. The butte was near, and this they ascended and, taking seats
within the stone sanctuaries, communed in silence with the Great Spirit.
Bowing the head upon the hands and resting them upon the knees for a few
moments, then sitting erect and gazing to the west over the enchanting
valley interspersed with meadow, grove and stream." The author states
that the place is now called Mount Angel, is surmounted by a Roman
Catholic cathedral and that the Indians called this butte
Tap-a-lam-a-ho, signifying Mount of Communion; and the plain to the west
Chek-ta, meaning beautiful or enchanting.

    [421] Pp. 35 and 36 of an article entitled "Extract from T. W.
    Davenport's, Recollections of an Indian agent (not yet published)."
    The Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, March, 1904, Vol. V,
    No. 1.

Possibly the burials in the domes of volcanic ash and those in the
rock-slides are practically the results of a common motive by the same
people in the same time and the differences may be due simply to the
difference in the character of the near by topography and the relative
convenience of securing the material to cover the graves. This idea is
strengthened by information given me by Mr. W. H. Hindshaw who stated
that from sixteen to thirty miles above the mouth of the Snake River
where it cuts through canons there are rock burial heaps immediately
above flood level and burials in the flood sand below, both of which he
found to contain human bones and implements. He also stated that graves
are found on the bluff overlooking the river. One was curbed with the
remains of a cedar canoe. The grave had a bottom of plank and a cover
over the body--that of a small child--which was wrapped in a fur,
apparently a beaver skin. There were a number of beads and brass buttons
and a large fragment of the shell of the _Schizothoerus nuttallii_ which
must have come from the coast.


_Cremation Circles._ Rings of stones (Fig. 1, Plate IX)[422] were also
seen and on excavation within them cremated human remains were found
usually several in each circle. In some cases the ring was irregular and
in others assumed the form of a rectangle. None of them are known to be
recent. In such places, dentalium shells, flat shell beads, and shell
ornaments were usually seen. Mr. Teit says that rings of stones were
also put on top of graves in the Thompson River region. Along the
Columbia, below the mouth of the Snake River, vaults or burial houses
like those found among the Upper Chinook were used.[423] A somewhat
similar method was observed even among the Nez Perce.[424] This suggests
that the cremation circles here described, may be the caved-in remains
of earth-covered burial lodges built somewhat on the plan of the
semi-subterranean winter houses.

    [422] Museum negative no. 44493, 5-6 of circle no. 14 from the east
    on the terrace northwest of the junction of the Yakima and the
    Naches Rivers (p. 15 and 157). Cf. also Museum negative no. 44522,
    7-2.

    [423] Cf. Lewis, p. 190; Lewis and Clark, II, pp. 139-140.

    [424] Lewis and Clark, IV, p. 369; Lewis, p. 190.


_Position of the Body._ In all the old graves the skeletons were flexed
and usually on the side (Plate VIII, Fig. 2).[425] The graves where the
body was buried at length with the feet to the east were doubtless
recent and probably placed that way due to the teachings of Christians.
In the Nez Perce region to the east, the body was placed in a variety of
positions, either flexed or at length[426] and sometimes upon the side.
Considering the difference between the costume and objects used by the
men and those by the women, in the Nez Perce region to the east,[427] it
would seem that the contents of the graves in this near by region may be
used to check the determination of the sex of the skeletons.

    [425] Museum negative no. 44516, 7-6, see grave no. 22, p. 160.

    [426] Spinden, pp. 182 and 252.

    [427] Cf. Spinden, p. 216.


_Property with the Dead._ Objects are usually found with the remains of
the dead in all classes of old burials but some of the graves contained
nothing; others very little. There was apparently no radical difference
in the character of the material in the graves in volcanic domes and
those in the rock-slides; but the more modern rock-slide graves seemed,
on the whole, to contain a greater number of objects than the older
graves or the graves in domes. On the coast, objects are found with
recent burials, but rarely in ancient graves. The cremation circles
often contained dentalium shells and bits of shell objects but little
else. In the Nez Perce region to the east a considerable amount of
property, ornaments and utensils is found buried with the dead.[428]

    [428] Spinden, pp. 182 and 252.


_Horse Sacrifices._ We discovered no graves containing horse bones or
over which a skeleton of a horse was found, although it will be
remembered that such were found in the Nez Perce region east of
here.[429] There, the killing of horses over the graves of their owners
became the usual practice when horses were plentiful. Sometimes a horse
was buried over the body.[430] In this region, however, we found no
evidences of the horse in connection with the graves other than the
presence of an old Spanish bit in one of the more recent burials.

    [429] Spinden, p. 182.

    [430] Spinden, p. 252.


_Diseases._ Out of about seventeen complete skeletons and six skulls
secured in this region by our party those of two children (99-4323,
99-4326) and two adults, one of which was apparently a female (99-4336),
exhibited anchylosis of some of the vertebrae. The left ankle bones of
the other skeleton (99-4327) showed anchylosis with the tibia and one of
the ribs was abnormal. The skeleton of a young child (99-4329) with
persistent frontal suture, an example of retarded development was also
found.[431]

    [431] Cf. Wounds, p. 82.



CONCLUSION.


The connection, nay partial identity, of this culture with that of the
Thompson River region in the southern interior of British Columbia is
supported by considerable evidence. Small heaps of fresh-water clam
shells are found in both regions. The preponderance of chipped points
over those ground out of stone, bone and antler; the presence of digging
stick handles; pestles with flaring bodies and no striking heads, others
with tops in the form of animal heads; celts; the sites of cache pits,
of circular summer lodges marked by rings of stones; and of
semi-subterranean houses with stones on the encircling ridge; pairs of
arrow-shaft smoothers, and bone tubes, were all found to be common to
both regions. The simple pipe bowl found here, although with one
exception not found among archaeological objects in the Thompson area is
commonly used by the present Indians there. Tubular pipes, modern copper
tubes or beads, incised designs consisting of a circle with a dot in it
and engraved dentalium shells, each of a particular kind, besides
pictographs in red, rock-slide sepulchres, modern graves walled up with
parts of canoes, the marking of recent graves with sticks, and the
custom of burying artifacts with the dead were also found to be common
to both areas. Perforated slate tablets of gorget-form are unknown in
both regions. Circles of stones which mark places where cremated human
remains were found in this region sometimes indicate graves in the
Thompson River region.

Frazer[432] mentions meeting Yakima Indians in the Lillooet Valley which
shows that they travelled even beyond the Thompson River country and
readily accounts for the dissemination of cultural elements.

    [432] Fraser, p. 175.

On the other hand, many differences in culture are observable. Thus
objects made of nephrite and mica which occur, the former being common
in the Thompson River valley, were not found in the Yakima area.
Quarries and terraced rock-slides such as were seen here are not known
to us in the Thompson River region. The bone of the whale occasionally
found in the Thompson River country is lacking in Yakima collections.
That glassy basalt was not the chief material for chipped implements, as
it was in the Thompson River region, is probably due to the scarcity of
this material and its use is perhaps as rare in the Yakima valley as on
the coast. Chipped implements were made of a greater variety of stone
than in the interior of British Columbia, and a greater proportion were
of the more beautifully colored materials. No harpoon points made of a
unio (?) shell, such as the object found in the Thompson River region or
other objects made of such a shell, were seen. Notched sinkers and large
grooved sinkers were more commonly found than in the Thompson Valley,
while sap scrapers which were common there, were not found in the Yakima
district. A great number of pestles made from short cylindrical pebbles,
forming a type rather rare in the Thompson River region; many long
pestles, of which only four or five have been found in interior British
Columbia; and one with a zigzag design not represented among the finds
from that region, were found in the Yakima area. Saucer-shaped
depressions marking summer lodge sites were not noted by the writer.
Clubs made of stone were more numerous and all are of a different type.
Clubs or other objects made of the bone of the whale or drilled pendants
either circular or elongated were not found. Petroglyphs, pictographs
in white, and representations of feather headdresses were not found
among the archaeological objects in the Thompson region. Graves in
knolls, some with a cyst made of thin slabs of stones constitute another
distinct trait of the Yakima area.

There is relatively less evidence of contact with the prehistoric people
of Puget Sound and the Pacific coast of Washington, and of southern
British Columbia. Several kinds of sea shells, including dentalium,
haliotis and pectunculus, which must have come from the coast, were
found in the Yakima Valley. Small points chipped from beautiful material
found in this region were occasionally seen on the coast, more
particularly south of Puget Sound. Glassy basalt was used here perhaps
about as much as on the coast. Net sinkers are also about as common here
as on the coast from Gray's Harbor southward. The pestles found in the
vicinity of Vancouver Island are similar to some of the short pestles
found in the Yakima region. Short tubular pipes are found on the coast
in the vicinity of the Saanich Peninsula and the Lower Frazer. The pipe
previously described as clearly representative of the art of the
Northwest coast must have been brought from there or made by a coast
artist, not by one merely familiar with the art of the coast. A portion
of the material indicative of coast culture that was found in the Yakima
Valley may have come up the Cowlitz and down the Toppenish River.

The similarities mentioned are, however, outweighed by marked
differences. Large shell heaps--the chief feature of Coastal
archaeology--have not been found in the Yakima area, while quarries are
unknown to us on the coast. Objects made of nephrite and whale's bone
are lacking in the Yakima Valley. A very great number of points rubbed
out of slate and bone are found on the coast, but none rubbed out of
slate and only a few rubbed out of bone have been found on Yakima sites.
Net sinkers are much more common than on the coast, where they are
plentiful only from Gray's Harbor southward and in the Lower Columbia
Valley. Long pestles with the tops carved to represent animal heads are
distinctive of the Yakima area, while cylindrical pebbles used as
pestles but slightly changed from the natural form, which are quite
common in the Yakima Valley, are rarely found in the Coast country. One
style of club made of stone commonly found in this vicinity has not been
seen anywhere on the coast, although some clubs made of stone are like
specimens from that region. Perforated slate tablets like Coastal
gorgets are unknown to us from the Yakima area. Cairns common on the
coast are not found in the Yakima country, while the reverse holds true
of rock-slide burials. Graves in knolls are unknown on the Pacific, and
artifacts are often found in the Yakima graves but they seldom, if ever,
occur with ancient burials on the coast.

Much of the material from the Yakima region resembles that which I have
seen from the general area including the Columbia Valley between
Umatilla and The Dalles, and possibly extending further down the valley.
There seems to be a greater similarity of the art products of the Yakima
to those of the Thompson River region than to those of the Columbia
Valley below the mouth of the Snake, so far as we understand the latter
region at this time, and this according to Lewis[433] is certainly not
contrary to the belief in an earlier occupancy of this region by the
Salish. The culture here resembles that of the Nez Perce region to the
east in that a considerable variety of material was used for chipped
implements.[434]

    [433] Lewis, p. 196.

    [434] Spinden, p. 181.

Inter-tribal trade may have been a factor in the production of some
observed similarities. It was seen that pipes of three types, one of
which is found as far east as the Dakota, another as far north as the
Thompson River country, and a third as far west as the Queen Charlotte
Islands are all found in this region. It is clear that the ancient
people from the Yakima region had extensive communications not only with
the region southward as far as The Dalles, but also northward, as far as
the more distant Thompson River tribes. If the products of the sea found
in this region came up the Columbia, as may be inferred from Lewis,[435]
it is a good illustration of how trade as a rule, follows the line of
least physical resistance; although the migrations of the tribes do not
always follow such lines because the lines of trade as a rule are
thickly populated by people who resist the migration of their neighbors.
Lewis[436] states that from the coast inward there was only one trade
route of importance in the Washington-Oregon-Idaho region and this led
up the Columbia River to The Dalles where was found the greatest trade
center in the whole region and whither the tribes were wont to come from
the north and south as well as from the east.[437] Klamath,[438] Cayuse,
Nez Perce, Walla Walla and other Sahaptin and probably Salish tribes
were all in the habit of going there to traffic. He also states that
further east, the Sahaptin in their turn, traded with the Shoshone from
whom they obtained buffalo robes and meat. The center for this trade at
least in later times was the Grande Ronde in eastern Oregon;[439] but
this later center probably came into being after the advent of the
horse. The Okanogan are known to have crossed the mountains to Puget
Sound to trade wild hemp for sea shells especially dentalia as well as
for other small objects.[440] The Yakima also in later times crossed the
mountains and traded with Puget Sound tribes according to Gibbs,[441]
but if this trade were carried on in earlier times its effect in the
Yakima Valley seems to have been slight as indicated by the few
dentalium shells, the shell pendants shown in Figs. 87-94 and the pipe
of coast art, shown in Fig. 127. It is possible that this trade with the
coast became customary only after the horse was introduced. There was a
considerable amount of trade between the Yakima and the Thompson River
and other tribes of British Columbia which was carried on chiefly
through the Okanogan.[442] Lewis[443] states that the Walla Walla who
lived to the south of the Yakima at least in later times visited as far
north as the Thompson River region, and that certain Sahaptin tribes
seem to have moved northward and westward and forced back the Salish
tribes which at the time of Lewis and Clark's visit were on the north
bank of the Columbia and on its tributaries.[444] These tribes were
particularly the Klickitat and the Yakima, an assumption which Lewis
states is supported by the definite assertions of the natives
themselves. A number of old men positively assured Dr. Suckley that they
had pushed their way into the country formerly occupied by the
Salish.[445] The Klickitat, although living in a well wooded region on
the southern slopes of Mt. Adams and Mt. St. Helens are thought to have
been driven by the Cayuse from their earlier home which was further east
and south. Later, they went further west into the Cowlitz Valley.[446]
This may account for the circular pit surrounded by an embankment which
I saw near Rochester in Thurston County and interpreted as the remains
of a semi-subterranean winter house site. Lewis also states that the
Yakima probably lived on the Columbia near the mouth of the river which
now bears their name, and are in fact so located by Cox who places them
on the north and east side of the Columbia. The pressure of neighboring
tribes caused by the coming of the white race no doubt facilitated the
adoption of new cultural details.

    [435] Lewis, p. 193.

    [436] Lewis, p. 193.

    [437] Lewis and Clark, IV, p. 286; Ross, (b), p. 117.

    [438] Gatschet, p. 93.

    [439] Wilkes, IV, p. 394.

    [440] Ross, (a), p. 290; (b), I, p. 44.

    [441] Gibbs, (a), p. 408.

    [442] Cf. Teit, (a), p. 258.

    [443] Lewis, pp. 194-5.

    [444] Lewis and Clark, VI, pp. 115 and 119; Mooney, pp. 734-736.

    [445] Gibbs, (b), p. 224.

    [446] Swan, p. 323.

As late as 1854, the Palus, a tribe living further east on the Paloose
River regarded themselves as a portion of the Yakima and the head chief
of the Yakima as their chief.[447] The general similarity of the Walla
Walla language to that of the Klickitat and Yakima rather than to that
of the Nez Perce is mentioned by Lewis.

    [447] Stevens, XII, p. 200, Pacific R. R. Rept., Pt. I.

Cultural elements, especially those associated with the horse and with
the new mode of life which it made possible, probably came from the
region to the southeast, and show a great similarity to the Plains type
of culture. How much the Plains culture had influenced the Plateau type
before the introduction of the horse, is a question.[448] On the
Columbia River, near the mouth of the Yakima, were numerous Indians who
were visited by Clark in 1805, but he says that while he saw a few
horses, the Indians appeared to make but little use of them. If these
were the Yakima Indians there must have been quite a change in their
manner of living in the next few years.[449] This agrees very well with
the time of the introduction of the horse among the Lower Thompson
Indians towards the close of the eighteenth century, according to
Teit.[450] All this would tend to show that the horse, while common in
the Yakima country, about that time, had not yet affected the earlier
customs of the natives.

    [448] Lewis, p. 179.

    [449] Lewis, p. 184; Ross, (b), I, p. 19.

    [450] Teit, (a), p. 257.

The early culture throughout the great area of which this is a part,
according to Lewis, was of a very simple and undeveloped character,
which probably accounts for the rapidity with which eastern types were
assimilated when once introduced.[451]

    [451] Lewis, p. 180.

Summing up: the prehistoric culture of the Yakima area resembled that of
its recent inhabitants, as it will be remembered was the case in the
Thompson River region, the Lower Fraser Valley and the Puget Sound
country including the coast from Comox on Vancouver Island to Olympia.
As a typical plateau culture, being affiliated with the neighboring
cultures to the north, east and south, it presented a sharp contrast to
both the present and past cultures of the coast to the west. Compared
with other branches of the Plateau culture area it must be considered
inferior in complexity to its northern neighbor of the southern interior
of British Columbia and also to the adjacent branch near The Dalles to
the south. While each of these divisions has been influenced by the
others more especially in the past, differentiations due to environment
or specific historical conditions lead to local variations without
obscuring an essential unity of cultural traits.



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     American Anthropological Association, Vol. 1, Part 2,
     1906.)

  LEWIS AND CLARK. Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark
     Expedition. (Thwaites Edition.) New York, 1904.

  LORD, JOHN KEAST. The Naturalist in Vancouver's Island
     and British Columbia. 2 vols. London, 1866.

  MALLERY, GARRICK. Pictographs of the North American
     Indians. (Fourth Annual Report, Bureau of American
     Ethnology, Washington, 1886, pp. 3-256.)

  MOONEY, JAMES. The Ghost-dance Religion and the Sioux
     Outbreak of 1890. (Fourteenth Annual Report, Bureau of
     American Ethnology, Pt. 2, Washington, 1896.)

  MOOREHEAD, WARREN K. Prehistoric Implements. A
     description of the Ornaments, Utensils and Implements of
     Pre-Columbian Man in America. New York. 1900.

  ROSS, ALEXANDER. (a) Adventures of the First Settlers on
     the Oregon or Columbia River. London, 1849.

     (b) The Fur Hunters of the Far West. 2 vols. London,
     1855.

  SCHOOLCRAFT, HENRY R. Historical and Statistical
     Information respecting the History, Condition and
     Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States.
     Philadelphia, 1851-1857.

  SMITH, HARLAN I. and FOWKE, GERARD. Cairns of British
     Columbia and Washington. (Memoir, American Museum of
     Natural History, 1901, Vol. 4, Part 2, pp. 55-75.)

  SMITH, HARLAN I. (a) Shell-Heaps of the Lower Fraser
     River, British Columbia. (Memoir, American Museum of
     Natural History, 1903, Vol. 4, Part 4, pp. 133-191.)

     (b) Archaeology of the Gulf of Georgia and Puget Sound.
     (Memoir, American Museum of Natural History, 1907, Vol.
     4, Part 6, pp. 301-441.)

     (c) Archaeology of the Thompson River Region. (Memoir,
     American Museum of Natural History, 1900, Vol. 2, Part 6,
     pp. 401-442.)

     (d) The Archaeology of Lytton, British Columbia. (Memoir,
     American Museum of Natural History, 1899, Vol. 2, Part 3,
     pp. 129-161.)

     (e) Archaeological Investigations on the North Pacific
     Coast in 1899. (American Anthropologist, N. S., Vol. 2,
     No. 3, July-September, 1900.)

     (f) New Evidence of the Distribution of Chipped Artifacts
     and Interior Culture in British Columbia. (American
     Anthropologist, N. S., Vol. 11, No. 3, July-September,
     1909).

     (g) A Costumed Human Figure from Tampico, Washington.
     (Bulletin, American Museum of Natural History, 1904, Vol.
     20, Article 16, pp. 195-203.)

     (h) A Remarkable Pipe from Northwestern America.
     (American Anthropologist, N. S., Vol. 8, No. 1,
     January-March, 1906, pp. 33-38.)

  SPINDEN, HERBERT JOSEPH. The Nez Perce Indians. (Memoirs
     of the American Anthropological Association, Vol. 2, Part
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  STEVENS, ISAAC I. Report of the Commissioner of Indian
     Affairs for 1854, pp. 181-254.

  SWAN, JAMES G. The Northwest Coast; or Three Years'
     Residence in Washington Territory, New York, 1857.

  TEIT, JAMES. (a) The Thompson Indians of British
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     (b) The Lillooet Indians. (Memoir, American Museum of
     Natural History, 1906, Vol. 4, Part 5, pp. 193-300.)

  WHITMAN. MRS. MARCUS. Letters written by Mrs. Whitman
     from Oregon to her relations in New York. (Transactions
     of the Oregon Pioneer Association for 1891, pp. 79-179,
     and 1893, pp. 53-219.)

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     Philadelphia, 1845.

  YARROW, H. C. A Further Contribution to the Study of the
     Mortuary Customs of the North American Indians. (First
     Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington,
     1881, pp. 91-203.)



APPENDIX.


The following appendix contains a detailed account of graves with
catalogue numbers of their contents and other finds, upon which the
preceding descriptions are based.


KENNEWICK.

     202-8114. Flint chip from the surface. No chips of this
     quality were found in the Thompson River region.

     202-8115. Chipped point made of buff jasper from the
     surface (Plate II, Fig. 1).

     202-8116. Large grooved pebble from the beach of the
     Columbia River.

     202-8117. Chipped pebble from the surface.

     202-8118. Broken pestle from the surface.

     202-8119. Chipped and battered hammerstone from the
     surface. (Fig. 43).

     202-8120. One half of a sculptured tubular steatite pipe,
     purchased from Mr. W. F. Sonderman who dug it up while
     building a flume near Kennewick (Fig. 105).


NORTH YAKIMA.

     202-8121. Sculptured handle of a digging stick made of
     the horn of a Rocky Mountain sheep purchased of Mr. W. Z.
     York, at Old Yakima, who bought it from an Indian woman
     living near Union Gap below Old Yakima. She, however, may
     have brought it from some other locality. (Fig. 126).

     202-8122. Tubular steatite pipe (Fig. 104).

     202-8123. Pestle made of stone. Presented by Mr. W. M.
     Gray of North Yakima. Found where the Moxie Ditch enters
     the flume, about 3 miles northeast of the mouth of the
     Naches River and southeast of the Yakima River.

     202-8124. Fragment of rock painted red. Part of a
     pictograph showing a human figure with feather headdress
     (Plate XIV, Fig. 1), taken from the basaltic cliffs
     southeast of the Naches River above the mouth of Cowiche
     Creek, about four miles northwest of North Yakima.
     Several other pictographs were photographed here from the
     north: Plate XV, Fig. 2 (44480, 4-5), white human heads
     with feather headdresses and white and red double star
     figure; Plate XIV, Fig. 2 (44483, 4-8), white human heads
     with feather headdresses, also (44484, 4-9), Plate XV,
     Fig. 1 (44485, 4-10); Plate XVI, Fig. 1 (44486, 4-11),
     and Plate XVI, Fig. 2 (44487, 4-12), white and red human
     heads with feather headdresses.

     202-8125. Six parts of pebbles, from the surface of the
     flat on the east side of the Yakima River at "The Upper
     Gap" near the northern end of North Yakima, as samples of
     what could have been used as material for arrow points.

[Illustration:
Miss Ruth B. Howe Delin.
Fig. 129. Sketch Map of the Yakima Valley. ]

     Numbers 202-8126 to 202-8136 are from the quarry shown in
     Plate III, Fig. 1 (44488, 5-1 from the south, 44489, 5-2,
     and 44490, 5-3). This quarry is on the ridge top north of
     the Naches River, about two miles above its mouth (p.
     16).

     202-8126. Stone, possibly a hammer.

     202-8127. Two river pebbles used as stone hammers.

     202-8128. Hammerstone (Fig. 40).

     202-8129. Pebble used as a hammer.

     202-8130. Fragment of a hammerstone, edge smooth.

     202-8131. Two fragments of hammerstones.

     202-8132. Four pieces of raw material for chipped
     implements.

     202-8133. Seven pieces of raw material for chipped
     implements possibly waste from pieces blocked out to be
     transported or possibly too small or of too poor a
     quality to be transported.

     202-8134. Two pieces of raw material, perhaps chipped.

     202-8135. Two pieces of raw material, perhaps too poor to
     be transported.

     202-8136. Thirty pieces of raw material, some very good,
     some very poor, all apparently waste of pieces blocked
     out to be transported. No finished or broken implements
     were found here.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 1. Plate VI, Fig. 3 (1910) from north of west
     of the grave before it was disturbed (p. 14). This grave
     was about 50 feet up the gully from No. 2, and was
     excavated by us May 18. It was marked by a stick which
     was very dry but not yet fully decayed. It was located in
     the rock-slide on the east slope of the gully, a steep
     ravine going down from the south to a little flat
     southeast of the Yakima River. This ravine is on the
     north side of the hill on the east of the Yakima River at
     the mouth of the Naches River. The grave was about a mile
     northeast of the mouth of the Naches River, and about 80
     feet above the Yakima. From the spot one can see out over
     the valley of the Yakima. The grave was on a slight,
     bench, terrace, or place that could be so interpreted.
     There were large pits and terraces in the slide above
     this grave, like those shown in Plate VII. Indications of
     very old charred cedar strips were found across the
     grave. Charcoal was found among the rocks, and the grave
     was bounded by a sort of circular balcony of rocks of the
     rock-slide and had a slight flat or depression in the
     center. On top, the stones were large, averaging the size
     of a man's head, some 30 pounds, some 100 pounds, some
     the size of a man's fist. Below, covering the body, the
     rocks were small and many were fine, being chipped small
     from the same rock by fire. All except this burned rock
     were the common irregular angular rock-slide material. In
     the bottom of the grave were found adult human bones,
     partly charred black, the parts not so charred were
     yellow. Numbers 202-8137 to 202-8152 were found in this
     grave.

     202-8137. Left half of a charred human jaw, parts are
     ivory black and parts yellowish gray.

     202-8138. Part of a human vertebra.

     202-8139. Some charred and calcined bones of a dog with
     the joint end of the tibia showing the articulation
     pulled off as in youth. Ashes and black fine masses
     resembling pulverized charcoal were found in the bottom
     of the grave. The human bones found with these were
     probably of two skeletons, but all were much broken and
     charred. Some yellow brown mass, composed of rootlets,
     maggot sacks, etc., was found at the sides of the grave.

     202-8140. At the east side of the grave, a large piece of
     partly charred cedar about 8 inches wide by 2 inches
     thick was found.

     202-8141. Chipped point of obsidian with base broken off,
     showing that at least some of the contents of the grave
     were of prehistoric culture.

     202-8142. Finely chipped point made of brown chert found
     in fire refuse of this grave (Plate II, Fig. 5).

     202-8143. Scorched point made of bone (Fig. 9).

     202-8144. Part of a point similar to 202-8143 and found
     with it.

     202-8145. Part of a point similar to 202-8143 and found
     with it.

     202-8146. Part of a point similar to 202-8143 and found
     with it.

     202-8147. Tube of rolled brass having the diameter of a
     lead pencil. Proving this grave to have been made since
     the prehistoric people were able to reach the whites in
     trade.

     202-8148. Tube similar to 202-8147 (Fig. 75).

     202-8149. Charred tube made of bone about 1-1/4 inches
     long.

     202-8150. Tube similar to 202-8149 (Fig. 97).

     202-8151. Scorched tube made of bone and ornamented by
     incisions running from one end to the other in a spiral
     course. The tube is charred and about 1-1/4 inches long
     (Fig. 98).

     202-8152. Slate disk perforated in the center and at each
     side. The object is about 1 inch in diameter and 1/8 inch
     thick (Fig. 77).

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 2. Rock-slide grave, about 50 feet down the
     ravine from grave No. 1 and about 40 feet above the
     flume. It had grass growing in the center. The grave
     seemed caved in and as if thoroughly walled like a well.
     It contained nothing, apparently having been rifled.
     Before excavation this seemed to be more like a grave
     than No. 1. (See photograph taken from the southwest.)

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 3. Rock-slide grave.

     99-4314. Bleached skull and jaw of an adult purchased of
     a boy who said it was from a rock-slide grave on the
     north side of the Yakima Ridge lying east of the Yakima
     River above the Upper Gap.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 4. Rock-slide grave about 6 feet southeast of
     grave No. 5 at Selah Canon. As this grave had been opened
     and the skeleton had been disturbed, no accurate
     description as to its position can be given. Some of the
     rock-slide material was quite large, weighing from 200 to
     300 lbs; depth, 4 feet; diameter, 3 feet. Decayed wood
     was found in the grave and long poles on the side of the
     grave. The grave was probably not very old.

     99-4315. Part of skull and skeleton of a youth which was
     partly bleached. Found in Grave No. 4.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 5. Rock-slide grave in Selah Canon and about 6
     feet northwest of grave No. 4. Apparently this grave had
     been rifled. The adult skull lay to the west and was
     broken. The skeleton was flexed, the feet were toward the
     east and the knees south of the vertebrae, that is, the
     skeleton was on the right side. The grave which was about
     75 feet up the hillside, and 1-1/2 miles east of the
     Yakima River on the south side of Selah Canon, was about
     3-1/2 feet deep by 3-1/2 feet in diameter. Long poles lay
     on the side of the grave while decayed wood, leather
     thongs and dried flesh yet adhering to some of the bones,
     in this kind of a grave even in such a dry region as
     this, especially the last two, suggest the grave to be
     recent.

     99-4316. Jaw and skeleton of an adult. Found in grave No.
     5.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 6. Rock-slide grave about 100 feet up the
     hillside at the top of a rock-slide on a point south of
     the Yakima River about 2 miles northeast and above the
     mouth of the Naches River. The bones were found in
     excavating an adjacent barren grave, 5 feet to the
     northeast and had probably been thrown out of this one on
     top of it. Pieces of cedar were scattered around the
     grave, which had been rifled. Its depth was 5 feet,
     diameter 5 feet.

     99-4317. Skull and one hip bone of an adult. Probably
     from grave No. 6.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 7. Rock-slide grave situated northeast of North
     Yakima and about half a mile northeast of grave No. 6.
     There is a road near the edge of the grave. The grave had
     been rifled and pieces of wood were found lying near it;
     the bones were scattered around and broken. None of them
     were in anatomical order. Numbers 202-8153 to 202-8156
     were found in this grave.

     202-8153. One brass bell.

     202-8154. Three glass beads.

     202-8155. Two shell beads.

     202-8156. Three dentalium shells.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 8. Rifled rock-slide grave. The skeleton which
     had been wrapped in cedar bark had been taken away.
     Nothing besides the cedar bark was found. The grave was
     found near No. 7 and about a half mile northeast of No.
     6. Wood was lying near by. There was a road near the edge
     of the grave which had been rifled.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 9. Rock-slide grave found near No. 7 which was
     situated about half a mile northeast of No. 6. The grave
     contained nothing but charcoal. There was wood lying near
     by. There was a road near the edge of the grave which had
     been rifled.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 10. Rock-slide grave excavated June 2, 1903.
     This grave was 150 feet up the hill from the Naches
     River, half a mile above its mouth and on the north side.
     It was 5 feet long by 6 feet wide and 4 feet deep and had
     been disturbed and many of the bones thrown out. Dry
     poles and cedar boards lay around the top. Numbers
     99-4318, 202-8157 to 202-8169 were found in this grave.

     99-4318. An adult skull and skeleton with abnormality on
     right malor and with one rib expanded, part of a young
     adult skeleton and part of a child's skeleton were found.
     Some of the bones were bleached. The adult and the child
     were on the bottom. These two bodies had been wrapped in
     bark and placed in a hole one foot deep in the ground
     below the slide. The adult's head was to the west
     southwest. On top and to the east northeast was the young
     adult. Human hair was also found in grave No. 10.

     202-8157. Four parts of the hearth of a fire drill,
     similar to that used in the Thompson River region. See
     Teit, (a) p. 203, for descriptions of fire drills (See
     also Fig. 38.)

     202-8158. Wolf or dog bones, some of them bleached.

     202-8159. Part of a decorated wooden bow (Fig. 114).

     202-8160a, b. Two pieces of a basket. Doubtless of a
     finer stitch than those from the Thompson River Indians.
     See Teit, (a), Fig. 131a and Figs. 143 to 146.

     202-8161. Piece of coarse coil basket with splint
     foundation and bifurcated stitch (Fig. 17).

     202-8162. Piece of a stitched rush mat (p. 86).

     The bill of a saw-bill duck was found but not preserved.

     202-8163. Copper tubes with six beads, short sections of
     dentalium shells, which were found from the top to the
     bottom of the grave. These beads were strung.

     202-8164. Four bone tubes found near the bottom and
     mostly to the east northeast of the grave.

     202-8165. Point made of bone found to the west northwest
     in grave (Fig. 7).

     202-8166. A perforated cylinder made of steatite found at
     about the center of the grave (Fig. 99).

     202-8167. Fishbone.

     202-8168. Three pieces of yellow jasper (raw material).

     202-8169a, b, c. Three small arrow points, one found on
     center, one in east northeast part and one in south of
     grave. _a_ is of brownish fissile jasper (Plate II. Fig.
     2).

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 11. Rock-slide grave located on the north side
     of the Naches River, a little over half a mile above its
     mouth. The place is about 600 feet west southwest of
     grave No. 10 and 150 feet above the river. It was 6 feet
     by 4 feet in diameter and 4 feet deep. Apparently it had
     been rifled as nothing was found in it except a skull and
     a few bones.

     99-4319. Skull, a lower jaw, and a few broken bones which
     were scattered among the rocks. The skull was found in
     the west southwest part of the grave with the face down.
     The lower jaw was found in the southern part of the grave
     about 1 foot higher up in the rocks.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 12. Bluff pebble grave. We examined a ring of
     river boulders on the twenty-acre farm of Mr. James
     McWhirter, a boy about fifteen years old, twelve miles up
     the Naches River on the crest of the foothill terrace
     north of the road, and overlooking the bottom along the
     north side of the Naches River. This grave was about 150
     feet high above the river by about half a mile from it.
     At first it looked like a little underground house site
     or a shallow cache pit. (Museum negative, no. 44441, 1-2
     for general locality.) James, who called our attention to
     the pile of boulders, said that some one threw off part
     in an abandoned attempt to dig the grave. We thought the
     grave practically undisturbed and it proved to have been
     the least disturbed of any we had found up to this point.
     The outside of the ring was 10 feet east and west by 5
     feet north and south. The inside of the ring or the space
     surrounded was 6 feet east and west by 4 feet north and
     south. Probably this grave was a boulder heap, the aspect
     of a ring being given by the removal of the stones, i.e.,
     this central space may be where stones were thrown off.
     River boulders were found from top to bottom. The
     boulders varied in weight from about 7 to 30 pounds. Most
     of them were disk-shaped but some were oval. Numbers
     99-4320 and 202-8170, 1 were found in this grave.

     99-4320. An adult skeleton was found 4 feet deep with the
     head towards the west, resting on its occiput. The skull
     which was broken, faced south by east, with the mouth
     open. The knees were north; the body was on its left side
     and flexed. Over the north side of the knees was an
     elliptically-shaped piece of cedar burned on the upper
     side. It was about 2 feet wide by 4 feet long. A few
     fragments of the skeleton of a child were found in the
     grave. All the bones in the grave were very soft and as
     the ends were broken off we discarded all but the skull
     and a few of the bones of the child. Two shell disks
     (202-8170,1) were found about 6 inches apart near the
     neck, one at the south shoulder, and one at the south
     side of the skull of the adult.

     202-8170. Pendant of disk shape made of oyster shell with
     one perforation near the edge (Fig. 94).

     202-8171 Pendant of disk shape made of shell with two
     perforations near one edge (Fig. 93).

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 13. Cremation circle, similar to several of the
     others on the terrace northwest of the mouth of the
     Naches River. This consisted of a ring of angular rocks
     among which were no river pebbles, resembling a small
     underground house site, 8 feet in diameter outside, 6
     feet in diameter at the top of the rocks, 4-1/2 feet in
     diameter inside, both east-west and north-south. It is
     widest and built of largest stones on the side towards
     the lower part of the terrace, suggesting that the ring
     had slid down but the nearly level terrace would argue
     against this idea. This grave was like a rock-slide
     grave, filled with soil, but on a gently sloping terrace
     instead of a steep slide. Photograph no. 44495, 5-8, from
     the south shows a telegraph pole to left and a flume
     across the Yakima River to the right. See also graves No.
     14 and 15. Child bones, found two feet deep in volcanic
     ash, were decayed and discarded. The tibiae were about
     2-1/2 inches long.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 14. This cremation circle was situated on the
     terrace about 100 feet above the Naches River and about
     250 yards north of the two bridges near its mouth. Plate
     IX, Fig. 1 (photograph no. 44493, 5-6) shows this from
     the east with telegraph poles beyond. The stone circle
     measured 6 feet north and south inside (16 outside) by 7
     feet east and west inside (14 outside). Our excavation
     here was 6 by 5 by 4 feet deep. Fragments of charred
     human bones, and some that seemed not to be charred, of
     six or seven individuals were found from about 1 foot
     deep down to 4 feet deep. Most of these were pieces of
     skulls, but pieces of many other bones were found. The
     bones which were most burned, were those found nearest
     the surface. Much charcoal was seen. A layer of ashes
     about 6 inches in thickness was found in the center. In
     the northwest part of the hole a skeleton was found lying
     on the left side flexed, the face east, and the head
     north. This may have been buried after the others. The
     bones were very much decomposed and the skull was broken
     into small pieces. Numbers 202-8172 to 202-8174 were
     found in this grave.

     202-8172. A shell ornament found on the east side of the
     skull.

     202-8173. Two dentalium shells found on the west side of
     the skull. Dentalium shells were found in all parts of
     the excavation but were most numerous in the northeastern
     parts.

     202-8174. A shell ornament.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 15. Cremation circle excavated on June 10, 11
     and 12. Shown from the east in photograph No. 44494, 5-7.
     It is 56 feet west of grave No. 14 and further up the
     terrace. The outside circle of stones measured 15 feet
     north and south by 15 feet east and west. The next circle
     of stones measured 9 feet north and south by 9 feet east
     and west. The space inside the stone circle measured 7
     feet north and south by 7 feet east and west. The depth
     varied from 2 feet 6 inches in the east and south parts
     to 4 feet in the north and west parts below all of which
     was a pitching layer of basaltic rocks. The three rings
     of stones surrounded a hollow. The inner row was about 12
     inches lower than the outer ring. Several boulders were
     found in the grave. Ashes and lava composed the grave
     soil. The whole cremation circle seemed to have been the
     burned remains of a communal or family depository for the
     dead, probably a hut like an underground winter house
     walled around the edge of the roof with stones. Two
     skeletons were found on the bottom, apparently not
     burned, but much decayed. They were discarded. Numbers
     202-8175 to 202-8182 were found in this grave.

     202-8175. Charcoal was abundant but most of it was found
     about 14 inches deep.

     202-8176. Broken and charred human bones of about twelve
     individuals were found throughout the grave in a space
     about 8 by 5 feet beginning at the east inner ring of
     stones and extending beyond the second circle on the
     west. They were found from 8 inches deep to parts of the
     bottom.

     202-8177. Dentalium shells were very abundant.

     202-8178. Engraved dentalium shells (Fig. 118).

     202-8179. Several kinds of shell ornaments were found in
     the northern and northwestern parts of the grave.

     202-8180. Several burned pieces of shell.

     202-8181. One piece of metal, probably copper.

     202-8182. Several pieces of shell of different kinds.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 16. Shallow cremation circle, 13 feet north and
     south by 14 east and west (outside); 5 feet north and
     south by 7 feet east and west (inside). Charred human
     bones of a child about 10 years old were found.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 17. Cremation circle situated 58 feet west from
     grave No. 15 and 46 feet west from grave No. 16. Its
     diameter was 13 feet east and west by 14 feet north and
     south outside of all stones. The diameter was 5 feet east
     and west by 6 feet north and south inside. At the middle
     of the stone ring the diameter was 9 feet. The middle of
     the excavation was 3 feet deep in volcanic ash. No
     evidence of burning was found among the bones except the
     presence of charcoal at a depth of four feet. Parts of at
     least four skeletons, one adult, and children were found,
     all much broken and separated. The bones were mostly in
     the southwestern end of the excavation. No skull bones
     were found except a lower jaw, while in grave No. 13 most
     of the pieces found were of skulls. Numbers 202-8183 to
     202-8185 were found here.

     202-8183. Three shell ornaments found in the northeastern
     part of the grave.

     202-8184. Two dentalium shells found in the western part
     of the excavation. These were the only two found in the
     whole grave.

     202-8185. Piece of copper found in the northwestern part
     of the grave.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 18. Cremation circle situated 84 feet south of
     grave No. 14. This grave had possibly been rifled. The
     stone circle was 15 feet in diameter outside and 9 feet
     in diameter inside. The excavation was 2 feet, 6 inches
     to 3 feet 6 inches deep. Excavation 7 feet by 6 feet.
     Some fragments of human bones were found on the surface.
     There were more stones mixed in the earth than in the
     graves previously excavated here; viz: Nos. 13 to 17.
     Ashes were abundant especially at the bottom. Many pieces
     of much broken human bones were found but not as many as
     were seen in grave No. 15 and they were less burned than
     in that grave. Numbers 202-8186 to 202-8187 were found in
     this grave.

     202-8186. Two engraved dentalium shells.

     202-8187. Two dentalium shells of which one was crushed
     and discarded. A broken flat shell ornament which we also
     discarded, was found here.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Graves Nos. 19-20. These cremation circles were of the
     usual construction, showed nothing new and contained no
     specimens.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 21. Cremation rectangle last explored on the
     terrace near the mouth of the Naches River and situated
     300 feet northwest from the two bridges. The rectangular
     enclosure was bounded by a single row of stones, but on
     the south several rows were placed outside to conform
     with the slope of the hill covering a semi-circular area,
     while on the west was a second row of marking stones. It
     was 12 feet long north and south by 8 feet wide east and
     west and 3 feet, 6 inches deep. Part of a child's skull,
     two scapulae, two tibiae, and a piece of a femur of
     another child; bones of a young adult; a small piece of
     skull and part of a femur of an adult were found. All
     the bones were in a poor state of preservation. Numbers
     202-8188 to 202-8189 were found in this grave.

     202-8188. Dentalium shells.

     202-8189. A shell ornament was found in this excavation.
     A piece of beaver tooth and several pieces of decayed
     cedar were also found and discarded.

       *       *       *       *       *

     99-4321. See grave No. 25.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 22. Rock-slide grave located near the top of
     the slide and above the flume on the southern side of the
     Yakima Ridge on the northern side of the Yakima River
     about a mile eastward from the mouth of the Naches River.
     Traces of wrappings of stitched rush matting were seen in
     the grave.

     99-4322. Adult skeleton, partly bleached, flexed on back,
     head north as shown in situ after removing covering rocks
     in photograph (no. 44516, 7-6 from the south by west),
     Plate VIII, Fig. 2 (pp. 15 and 142).

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 23. A grave 600 feet up on the plateau south of
     Oak Spring Canon, in a dome-shaped mound of volcanic ash
     left by the wind. It was not like a rock-slide grave.
     Somewhat angular stones unlike rock-slide material among
     which were no pebbles, formed a rectangular pile, 15 feet
     long by 12 feet wide. The grave contained many stones,
     several modern beads, evidently part of a rosary, two
     dentalium shells and a human lower jaw, but all were
     discarded.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 24. This grave was located in a dome of
     volcanic ash on the hill or plateau north of the Ahtanum
     River and northwest of Mr. A. D. Eglin's house near
     Tampico. It was marked by a rectangular group of rough
     and wind smoothed rocks (not rock-slide or river pebble)
     which extended down as in the crude cairns, 6 feet
     northeast and southwest by 4 feet wide northwest and
     southeast, the vault being 5 feet by 3 feet. Numbers
     99-4323 and 202-8190 were found in this grave.

     99-4323. A skeleton of a child found in a very much
     decomposed condition. Some of the bones showed
     anchylosis. The skull was found in the southwest of the
     grave with part of the pelvis, two humerii and a scapula.
     The rest of the skeleton was scattered, the lower jaw
     being in the northwest corner of the grave with the
     femora, tibiae and fibulae. The skull faced northeast and
     rested on the occiput.

     202-8190. Bone point found at the side of the skull.

       *       *       *       *       *

     99-4324. See grave No. 27.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 25. Eglin stone grave located in a volcanic ash
     knoll left behind by wind and surrounded by 'scab land'
     on the bottom land about 18 miles up and west of North
     Yakima or nearly to Tampico, Yakima County, and on the
     north side of the river road, but east of the north and
     south branch road which is east of Mr. Sherman Eglin's
     place; about 600 feet north of the north branch of the
     Ahtanum river and about 15 feet above the water level.
     Over the grave was a stone heap of angular basalt about
     8 feet in diameter. At a depth of 3 feet, after finding
     stones all the way down, was a cyst (Negative, nos.
     44498, 5-11 and 44499, 5-12, reproduced in Plate X, from
     the same station looking east), made up of slabs
     averaging 2 inches in maximum thickness with thin sharp
     edges about 2 feet by 18 inches and smaller. There were
     two such cover stones, some at the sides and ends.
     Sometimes two or three such slabs were found parallel or
     overlapping. There were no slabs or floor below the
     skeleton. This grave resembled very much the stone graves
     of Ohio and Kentucky except that the slabs were not of
     limestone and there was a pile of rocks over the stone
     cyst. Numbers 99-4321, and 202-8191 to 202-8195 were
     found in this grave.

     99-4321. In the cyst about on a level with the lower
     edges of the enclosing slabs was the skeleton of a child
     about six years old with head west, face north, and the
     knees flexed on the left side. The skull was slightly
     deformed by occipital pressure (Plate X).

     202-8191. Horizontally under the vertebrae was found an
     engraved slab of antler in the form of a costumed human
     figure with the engraved surface up (Fig. 121).

     202-8192. Dentalium shells were found under the body,
     from the neck to the pelvis.

     202-8193. Ten engraved dentalium shells (Fig. 117).

     202-8194. A bit of bone.

     202-8195. Charcoal found in this grave.

     The grave (No. 25) and its contents seem to antedate the
     advent of the white race in this region or at least show
     no European influence.

       *       *       *       *       *

     99-4322 to 99-4323. See graves nos. 22 to 24.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 26. Rock-marked grave in a dome left by the
     wind near the pasture gate on Mr. A. D. Eglin's place and
     about half a mile north of his house near Tampico. A heap
     of somewhat angular wind abraded rock some being smooth,
     (none being river pebbles or rock-slide material) marked
     the grave and extended below the surface about two feet.
     Then about 1 foot of earth intervened between them and
     thin rocks found around the bones of a very young child.
     The skull was in the northwest end of the grave and was
     disarticulated. The depth was 4 feet, the length of the
     excavation 4 feet, and the width 3 feet. The skeleton was
     found with the head northwest and the pelvis southeast. A
     grave with outward appearance resembling this except that
     it had river pebbles among the stones of the pile is
     shown in Fig. 2, Plate IX, (Negative no. 44497, 5-10
     taken from the north of east).

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 27. Rock-marked grave in a dome of volcanic ash
     left by the wind located about half a mile north of Mr.
     A. D. Eglin's house near Tampico. This grave was like a
     rude cairn being rudely walled and found filled with
     earth and stones as well as covered by rocks of which
     eight or nine weighing about 15 or 20 pounds, showed
     above the surface of the ground. Its depth was 4 feet,
     length 5 feet, and its width, 3 feet 6 inches, extending
     west southwest and east northeast. A little charcoal was
     found in this grave also.

     99-4324. Adult skeleton found flexed on left side, facing
     northeast.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 28. Rock-slide grave located in a small
     irregular rock-slide on the north side of Cowiche Creek
     about 3 miles west of its mouth and about 40 feet above
     the road. The rocks were piled up in a crescent-shaped
     ridge on the lower side of the grave. Four sticks about
     four feet long were found planted upright among the
     stones. The grave extended east and west. Parts of a
     human skeleton were found. It was in a flexed position,
     head west, skull and the bones of the upper part of the
     body broken and decomposed. The bones of the lower part
     of the body were well preserved. The skeleton had been
     wrapped in matting or bark, several pieces of matting
     being found in the grave as well as parts of a basket.
     Numbers 202-8196a and 202-8196b were found in this grave.

     202-8196a. Chipped point of mottled quartz found near the
     skull (Plate II, Fig. 3).

     202-8196b. Chipped point of white quartz found near the
     skull (Plate II, Fig. 4).

     202-8197. Pestle or roller made of stone from the surface
     about a mile east of Fort Simcoe. This is of cylindrical
     shape tapering to both ends but to one more than to the
     other. Both ends are fractured (Fig. 37).

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 29. Rock-marked grave located on a plateau
     above Wenas Creek near its mouth and about seven miles
     north of North Yakima. The rocks marking the grave
     covered a space 6 feet by 4 feet and extended down to the
     skeleton which was very much broken but not decomposed.
     No objects other than some charcoal were found in this
     grave.

     All the other graves in the vicinity of the mouth of
     Wenas Creek seem to have been rifled.

     202-8198. Broken ulna of a deer found at the mouth of
     Wenas Creek about 7 miles north of North Yakima.

     Numbers 202-8199 to 202-8204 were found on the surface at
     the mouth of Wenas Creek.

     202-8199. Small chipped point made of red jasper.

     202-8200a-c. Three chipped points made of white chert.

     202-8201. Broken and burned chipped point made of white
     chert.

     202-8202. Broken triangular chipped point made of white
     chert.

     202-8203. Chipped point made of reddish white chert
     (Plate II. Fig. 13).

     202-8204 a, b. Two chipped pieces of white chalcedony.

     Numbers 202-8205a-e to 202-8206f were found in the valley
     of Wenas Creek, on the surface near where the trail from
     North Yakima to Ellensburg crosses the creek, about 7
     miles north of North Yakima.

     202-8205a-e. Five pieces of agate of reddish or amber
     color.

     202-8205f. Agate of whitish color

     202-8206a. A chip of stone.

     202-8206b-e. Four pieces of stone.

     202-8206f. Chip of stone.

     Numbers 202-8207 to 202-8209 were found on the surface at
     the mouth of Wenas Creek.

     202-8207. Pestle made of stone.

     202-8208. Pestle made of stone.

     202-8209. Broken pebble, battered on the side.

     202-8210. Fragment of a pestle made of stone of nearly
     square cross section. Found on the surface three miles
     north of Clemen's ranch, on Wenas Creek where the trail
     from North Yakima to Ellensburg crosses.

     202-8211. Pestle found about 28 miles north of North
     Yakima, on the trail to Ellensburg. It was in a dry creek
     in "Kittitass" Canon. This canon is probably the
     Manastash not the "Kittitass," as we were told.


ELLENSBURG.

     202-8212. Base of a triangular chipped point made of
     jasper found on the surface near the town reservoir on
     the ridge east of Ellensburg.

     Numbers 202-8213 to 202-8222 were found on the surface of
     the bottom land west of Cherry Creek, near Ellensburg.
     The place was a village site and is on the farm of Mr.
     Bull near where an east and west road crosses the creek,
     and opposite where the creek touches on the east, the
     west base of the upland. At this point the creek comes up
     to the upland from the lowland to the north (p. 12).

     202-8213. Chipped boulder.

     202-8214. Notched boulder, or net sinker.

     202-8215. Battered pebble.

     202-8216. Four burned stones.

     202-8217. Gritstone, probably a whetstone.

     202-8218. Pebble.

     202-8219. Unio shells.

     202-8220. Six chips.

     202-8221. Scraper chipped from chalcedony (Fig. 52).

     202-8222. Chipped point of heart shape made of clove
     brown jasper. (Plate II, Fig. 12).

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 30. Stone circle located on the crest of a
     western extension of the Saddle Mountains on Mr. Bull's
     farm, east of Cherry Creek and about seven miles south of
     Ellensburg. The place is east of the village site
     above-mentioned which is on the bottom land along the
     west side of the creek at this point. A circular ring of
     stones, 10 feet in diameter marked the grave. Smaller
     stones and earth in the middle extended 3 feet 6 inches
     down to the skeleton. No objects were found except a
     plentiful supply of charcoal.

     99-4325. The bones of an adult human skeleton which
     appeared as if it had been flexed were found very much
     out of anatomical order. It lay northeast and southwest
     in the southeast part of the grave. There was a large
     hole in the right frontal of the skull which lay facing
     the northwest. The lower jaw was found on top of the
     skull with its angle east. Fragments of the tibiae were
     blackened by fire.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 31. Rock-slide grave located in the rock-slide
     on the west side of the bluff, a western extension of the
     Saddle Mountains, east of Cherry Creek and about half a
     mile southwest of Mr. Bull's house. One small piece of
     decayed wood was found projecting above the rock-slide,
     and it was the only indication of the grave, there being
     no cavity over it. Among the rocks, four more posts were
     found, one at each corner of the grave. These had
     evidently rotted off even with the surface, having
     formerly, no doubt, extended above it. The depth of the
     grave was from 2 to 3 feet, according to the slope of the
     hill. Numbers 99-4326 and 202-8223 to 202-8228 were found
     in this grave.

     99-4326. Skeleton of a child with anchylosed neck
     vertebrae. Some of the bones were bleached. The bones
     were very much displaced, the skull being found in the
     middle of the grave and some of the vertebrae being found
     near the surface, but most of the bones were around the
     skull. The body dressed and wrapped in matting had been
     placed between four large boulders.

     202-8223. Fragments of leather or skin clothing.

     202-8224. Dentalium shells.

     202-8225. Glass beads.

     202-8226. Three bracelets made of iron (Fig. 96).

     202-8227. A bone disk with central perforation (Fig. 80).

     202-8228. A bit of a fresh water shell.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 32. Rock-slide grave located about 30 feet
     south southwest of grave No. 31 and in the same
     rock-slide. It had the same characteristics but had
     evidently been disturbed, the skull being missing. No
     artifacts were found in the grave.

     99-4327. Adult skeleton without skull and some bones of a
     little child. The bones of an adult were found in a heap
     except the vertebrae which lay extended full length;
     cervical vertebrae to the north. The bones of one ankle,
     a tibia, and fibula were diseased. The cervical vertebrae
     are anchylosed; and one of the ribs is abnormal. The
     bones of the knees are partly bleached. The bones of the
     child being found between the ribs and the pelvis suggest
     that it was foetal.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 33. Rock-slide grave located 40 feet south
     southwest from grave No. 31 in the same rock-slide with
     it. There was nothing on the surface to indicate this
     grave, but below the surface of the slide on the upper
     side of the grave, were three rows of sticks, about 3
     feet long, standing vertically and close to each other.
     These seemed to be so placed that they would prevent the
     slide from further movement towards the grave. The grave
     cavity was 5 feet south southeast by 4 feet east
     northeast and 4 feet deep on one side, 3 feet on the
     other, or averaging about 3-1/2 feet deep, and extending
     into the soil below the slide. Numbers 99-4328 and
     202-8229 to 202-8230 were found in this grave.

     99-4328. In the bottom of the grave the skeleton of a
     youth was found. It was in good condition, lying on its
     back, facing west, but having rolled westward. The legs
     were flexed so that the femora lay at right angles or to
     the southeast of the pelvis, and the tibiae and fibulae
     lay parallel to them. The arms lay extended at the sides
     of the body with the hands on the pelvis. Three of the
     arm bones and one pelvis bone are stained by copper. The
     tibia of a child was found with these.

     202-8229. Mat of twined rushes found under the pelvis.
     The rushes were stitched together in pairs with cord and
     each pair was twisted once between each stitch (Fig. 71).

     202-8230. Open twine matting of rushes held together with
     cords woven around them, skin with hair on it, and in
     this were copper beads strung with beads made of
     dentalium shells on a leather thong (Fig. 72).

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 34. Rock-slide grave found 5 feet south
     southwest of grave No. 32. There were no surface
     indications of the grave. Posts of decayed wood were
     found extending from the surface down to about 6 inches
     from the bottom. The tops appeared to have been cut off
     and probably never extended above the surface. Numbers
     99-4329 and 202-8231 to 202-8246 were found in this
     grave.

     99-4329. The skeleton of a young child with a persistent
     frontal suture was found at a depth of from 3 to 4 feet
     with the head east, trunk on back, femora at right angles
     to tibiae, and fibulae parallel to them, flexed to left
     or south.

     202-8231. Skin with the hair on found on body.

     202-8232. Matting.

     202-8233. Several rows of beads, some of copper, others
     of glass and still others of sections of dentalium shells
     were found at the neck, arms and legs. These are strung
     on pieces of thong, some of which are wound at the ends.
     Some of them are on coarse twisted, and others on fine
     twisted plant fibre (Fig. 74).

     202-8234a, b. Two pendants made of haliotis shell were
     found, one near the head and one at the pelvis (Fig. 91).

     202-8235a, b. Two copper pendants were found at the legs,
     _b_ has a thong in the perforation.

     202-8236a-d. Four bracelets made of copper found on the
     arms (Fig. 95).

     202-8237. Teeth of a rodent found in the grave.

     202-8238. A square pendant made of copper with a thong
     and bead made of copper (Fig. 78).

     202-8239. A pendant made of copper (Fig. 83).

     202-8240. A bit of wood bounding a knot hole.

     202-8241. Two dentalium shells.

     202-8242. A piece of iron.

     202-8243. Woodpecker feathers, some bound at the tips
     with fabric, one with feather, and fur or moss.

     202-8244. A copper ornament found among the rocks over
     this grave about 1 foot deep.

     202-8245. A pendant made of brass with thong and bead
     made of copper found among the rocks over this grave
     about 1 foot deep (Fig. 84).

     202-8246. A pendant made of copper with thong found about
     1 foot deep among the rocks over this grave (Fig. 82).

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 35. Rock-slide grave located in the same slide
     with Nos. 31, 32, 33 and 34, 8 feet to the south
     southwest of No. 34. The grave was 3 feet in diameter by
     4 feet deep. Four posts of poplar were found at the
     corners of this grave but these did not show above the
     surface being decayed down to within 6 or 8 inches of the
     ground under the rock-slide. Sticks had also been used to
     mark this grave on the surface. Numbers 99-4330 and
     202-8247 to 202-8249 were found in this grave.

     99-4330. The skeleton of a youth was found resting on its
     back with the head to the east, arms at the sides, legs
     flexed at right angles, i.e., to the north. Two buttons,
     one of bone and one of pearl, or shell, and a bridle bit
     were found in the grave, but were discarded.

     202-8247. A bit of shell.

     202-8248. Thirteen cones made of iron (Fig. 86).

     202-8249. Two pendants made of iron (Fig. 85).

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 36. A rock-enclosure burial located on the hill
     south of Mr. Bull's house near the gap south of
     Ellensburg and about 300 feet north of grave No. 30. This
     burial was the southwestern of a group of eight, all very
     close together and of which the southern circular
     enclosure of five had been rifled although the three
     oblong enclosures were intact. There were traces of human
     bones in all of the eight enclosures. The enclosure to
     the north contained a skeleton that had been burned. No.
     36 differed from No. 30 in that the stones did not extend
     below the surface.

     99-4331. At a depth of 3 feet, in the grave pit 5 feet by
     3 feet was the skeleton of an adult lying with the head
     north, face east, on the left side, arms extended to
     pelvis, legs flexed to left, i.e., to east. No specimens
     were found in this enclosure.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 37. A rock-slide grave was located about 10
     feet west of grave No. 35 and was similar to it in
     general character. Numbers 99-4332 and 202-8250 to
     202-8258 were found in this grave.

     99-4332. The very much decomposed skeleton of a child was
     found here. The broken skull was preserved.

     202-8250a, b. Two fragments of antler, perhaps part of an
     implement found about 1 inch above the pelvis.

     202-8251. A triangular copper object with two
     perforations found inside the skull.

     202-8252. A pendant or nose ornament made of haliotis
     shell and stained pink in places found on the lower jaw
     (Fig. 92).

     202-8253. Dentalium shells.

     202-8254. A long shell pendant with two perforations.

     202-8255. A pendant made of haliotis shell bearing a pink
     stain with a perforation and part of a second perforation
     (Fig. 90).

     202-8256. A long shell pendant with one perforation.

     202-8257a, b. Two triangular objects made of shell.

     202-8258. Pieces of shell found near the lower jaw.


PRIEST RAPIDS.

     202-8259. One pebble showing use at the end as a pestle.
     Found on the surface of the divide 25 miles east of
     Ellensburg, and about 15 miles west of Mr. Craig's house
     near the head of Priest Rapids.

     202-8260a, b. Pieces of a pestle made of part of a column
     of basalt, with the corners rounded by pecking. Found on
     the surface at the head of Priest Rapids on the west side
     of the river.

     202-8261. A pestle made by rounding the edges of a piece
     of a basaltic column. Found on the surface of the west
     bank of the Columbia River 8 miles above Mr. Craig's
     house, which is at the head of Priest Rapids.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Numbers 202-8262 to 202-8266 were found on the surface
     near the head of Priest Rapids.

     202-8262. A pestle or part of a pestle.

     202-8263. A river pebble partly pecked into the form of a
     pestle (Fig. 22).

     202-8264. The end of a pestle having a large striking
     head.

     202-8265. Part of a stone pestle.

     202-8266. Pestle formed by rounding the corners of a
     small basaltic column.

     202-8267. to 202-8290. Numbers 202-8267 to 202-8290 are
     pestles made of stone found on the surface near the head
     of Priest Rapids (Fig. 21, 202-8281).

     Numbers 202-8291 to 202-8295 were found on the surface
     near the head of Priest Rapids.

     202-8291. Part of a pestle made of stone.

     202-8292a. A pebble battered on each end (Fig. 41).

     202-8292b. Pebble, one side of which has been used as a
     mortar.

     202-8293. Part of a mortar made of stone.

     202-8294. Part of a mortar.

     202-8295. Disk-shaped boulder, one side of which is
     notched opposite a natural notch. Possibly this has been
     a net sinker similar to the following.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Numbers 202-8296 to 202-8334 were found on the surface of
     the bank of the Columbia River near the head of Priest
     Rapids.

     202-8296. River pebble. Such pebbles were made into
     sinkers for fish nets. See 202-8310 and adjacent
     catalogue numbers (Fig. 13a).

     202-8297. Scraper or knife made of a river pebble one
     side of which is chipped (Fig. 55).

     202-8298. River pebble of disk shape, partly chipped.

     202-8299. River pebble of disk shape, partly chipped on
     two edges.

     202-8300. River pebble of disk shape, partly chipped on
     one edge.

     202-8301. River pebble of disk shape, partly chipped on
     two edges.

     202-8302. River pebble of disk shape, partly chipped on
     four edges (Fig. 53).

     202-8303. River pebble, partly chipped.

     202-8304. River pebble of disk shape, chipped around the
     edge from one side only.

     202-8305. Disk-shaped river pebble, chipped around the
     edge from both sides.

     202-8306. Disk-shaped river pebble, chipped in two
     places, opposite each other from both sides, and at a
     place equi-distant from these two from only one side.

     202-8307. Scraper or knife chipped from a pebble (Fig.
     54).

     202-8308. Chipped pebble.

       *       *       *       *       *

     202-8309 to 202-8322. Numbers 202-8309 to 202-8322 are
     oblong flat river pebbles with a notch chipped in the
     edge at each end from both sides. They are probably
     sinkers for fish nets. (202-8313, see Fig. 13_c_;
     202-8318, see Fig. 13_b_).

     202-8323 to 202-8325. Numbers 202-8323 to 202-8325 are
     oval flat river pebbles with pieces chipped from the
     edges in several places.

     202-8326. Flat oval river pebble with pieces chipped from
     both sides of the edge at five places, probably a sinker
     for a fish net.

     202-8327. Flat disk-shaped pebble with four notches about
     equi-distant around the edge, and chipped from each side,
     probably a sinker for a fish net.

     202-8328. Oval river pebble with four notches chipped in
     the edge nearly equi-distant from each other, probably a
     sinker for a fish net.

     202-8329. Oval flat river pebble with four notches
     chipped in the edge from both sides, and about
     equi-distant from each other, probably a sinker for a
     fish net.

     202-8330. Oval flat river pebble with four notches
     chipped in the edge from both sides, and about
     equi-distant from each other, probably a sinker for a
     fish net (Fig. 13_d_).

     202-8331. Half of a stone ring, probably a sinker for a
     fish net.

     202-8332. Boulder in which groove is partly pecked,
     probably a net sinker or anchor.

     202-8333. Large chipped implement made of basalt (Plate
     I, Fig. 1).

     202-8334. Large chipped form made of white chert (Plate
     I, Fig. 3).

       *       *       *       *       *

     Numbers 202-8335 to 202-8383 were found on the surface
     near the head of Priest Rapids.

     202-8335. Chipped form.

     202-8336. Chipped form of white chalcedony (Fig. 3).

     202-8337. Chipped form.

     202-8338. Chipped form made of red jasper (Plate _I_,
     Fig. 2).

     202-8339 to 202-8344. Numbers 202-8339 to 202-8344 are
     chipped forms.

     202-8345. Basal half of a chipped point.

     202-8346. Half of a chipped form.

     202-8347. Point of a chipped form.

     202-8348. Part of a chipped form.

     202-8349 to 202-8354. Numbers 202-8349 to 202-8354 are
     points of chipped forms.

     202-8355. Triangular chipped point.

     202-8356. Triangular chipped point.

     202-8357. Chipped form.

     202-8358. Chipped point.

     202-8359. Chipped point made of brown horn stone (Plate
     II, Fig. 11).

     202-8360. Triangular chipped point made of pale yellow
     chalcedony. The chalcedony is flint-like in texture
     (Plate II, Fig. 14).

     202-8361. Chipped point made of yellow agate (Plate II,
     Fig. 10).

     202-8362. Chipped point.

     202-8363. Chipped point made of pale fulvous chalcedony
     (Plate II, Fig. 8).

     202-8364. Chipped arrow, knife or spear point made of
     chalcedony (Fig. 2).

     202-8365. Chipped arrow, spear or knife point.

     202-8366. Chipped arrow point made of pale fulvous
     chalcedony (Plate II, Fig. 7).

     202-8367. Chipped arrow point.

     202-8368. Chipped arrow point made of opaline whitish
     chalcedony (Plate II, Fig. 9).

     202-8369. Chipped arrow point made of chalcedony (Fig.
     1).

     202-8370. Point for a drill chipped from chert (Fig. 48).

     202-8371. Scraper chipped from petrified wood (Fig. 49).

     202-8372. Scraper chipped from agate (Fig. 50).

     202-8373. Scraper chipped from chalcedony (Fig. 51).

     202-8374. Chipped piece of chalcedony.

     202-8375. Chipped piece of petrified wood.

     202-8376. Flake of stone.

     202-8377. Flake of stone.

     202-8378a. Piece of antler showing knife marks.

     202-8378b. Part of a wedge made of antler.

     202-8379. A piece of antler that has been whittled.

     202-8380a, b, c. Three pieces of antler.

     202-8381. Bleached barb for a fish spear made of bone
     (Fig. 12).

     202-8382. Six clam shells from the Columbia River.

     202-8383. Seventeen clam shells from the old shell bed
     shown in Plate V, Fig. 1.

     202-8384. Four shell disks found among the refuse of a
     rock-slide grave near the head of Priest Rapids (Fig.
     76).

     202-8385. One dentalium shell found among the refuse of a
     rock-slide grave near the head of Priest Rapids.

     202-8386. Pendant made of haliotis shell, triangular in
     form, perforated at the most acute corner. This shell
     came from the Pacific Coast. Found in the grave of a
     child in a rock-slide near the head of Priest Rapids west
     of the Columbia River near the home of Mr. Craig (Fig.
     89). Numbers 202-8387 to 202-8390 were also found here.

     202-8387a, b, c, d. Vertebrae of a fish.

     202-8388. Pendant made of a shell probably a young
     _Pectunculus gigantea_. The hinge side has been smoothed
     off (Fig. 88).

     202-8389. Three dentalium shells.

     202-8390. Twenty-eight shell disks or beads.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 38. A rock-slide grave located on the east side
     of the escarpment that runs south to the Columbia River
     about two miles southwest of Mr. Craig's house near the
     head of Priest Rapids. Stones were heaped up over this
     grave and sticks about 6 feet long were standing up and
     extended from the earth above the skeleton to 3 feet
     above the surface. Numbers 99-4333 and 202-8391 to
     202-8392 were found in the grave.

     99-4333. An adult skeleton was found at a depth of 3 feet
     from the top of the rock heap. The head was east. The
     skeleton was flexed and it was lying on the left side.

     202-8391. Stitched rush matting, probably recent, found
     in contact with the skin on this skeleton (Fig. 70). Part
     was of the stitch shown in Fig. 71.

     202-8392. A roll of birch bark.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 39. Grave of a child near grave No. 38. This
     child's grave was of the same kind as grave No. 38.

     202-8393. Pendant or bead made of sea shell (Fig. 87).

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 40. A rock-slide grave found 8 miles above Mr.
     Craig's house in a small slide at the foot of the bluff.
     Upright cedar slabs about 8 feet long were found along
     about 6 feet of the lower part of the grave. The skeleton
     of an adult lay flexed along the slabs with the head to
     the north.

     99-4334. The skull.

     Several similar graves, most of which have been rifled,
     were seen at this place.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 41. Grave found about 5 miles south of Mr.
     Craig's house on the western bank of the Columbia. It was
     in the sand, covered with flat river boulders. No
     artifacts were found in the grave.

     99-4335. Adult skeleton, bleached. Much of the skeleton
     was found exposed and parts were missing. The head was
     north.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Grave No. 42. Boulder-covered grave in sand was located
     at the edge of the river 12 miles up the Columbia from
     Mr. Craig's house. Numbers 99-4336 and 202-8394 to
     202-8395 were found in this grave.

     99-4336. An adult skeleton was found in this grave with
     the head north, face down, and flexed.

     202-8394. Fragment of a large mortar made of stone (Fig.
     18).

     202-8395a, b, c. Three pestles found among the covering
     boulders of this grave.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Numbers 202-8396 to 202-8398 were presented by Mrs. J. B.
     Davidson of Ellensburg. The specimens were collected at
     the head of Priest Rapids.

     202-8396. Pipe made of limestone decorated with the
     circle and dot design similar to that used in the
     Thompson River region (Fig. 106 also negative 44505,
     6-6).

     202-8397. Double notched point chipped from black glassy
     basalt or trap (Plate II, Fig. 6).

     202-8398. Point for a drill or perforator chipped from
     chalcedony (Fig. 47).

     202-8399. River pebble partly pecked into the form of a
     pestle. Found on the surface 8 miles above the head of
     Priest Rapids (Fig. 23).


VARIOUS LOCALITIES.

     Numbers 20.0-1463 to 20.0-1471 were collected and
     presented by Mr. D. W. Owen of Kennewick.

     20.0-1463. Bone object broken and partly missing from
     Blalock Island fifteen miles below Umatilla in the
     Columbia River.

     20.0-1464. Wedge made of antler from the surface near the
     Columbia River near the mouth of the Snake River (Fig.
     39).

     20.0-1465. Bleached awl made of bone from an island in
     the Columbia River, forty miles above the mouth of the
     Snake River (Fig. 57).

     20.0-1466. Bleached awl made of bone from the surface of
     an island in the Columbia River near the mouth of the
     Snake River (Fig. 56).

     20.0-1467. Awl made of brownish bone nearly circular in
     section with five incised lines on two sides, four on
     one, and none on the other which is plain because worn
     smooth probably by age or use. From a grave on Blalock
     Island, a long island in the Columbia River fifteen miles
     below Umatilla.

     20.0-1468. Awl made of brownish bone. The shaft has
     nearly parallel sides and rounded corners but the base is
     nearly circular in section. Striations such as are made
     by a gritstone show on the surface. Found with another in
     a grave on an island in the Snake River five miles above
     its mouth (Fig. 10).

     20.0-1469. Sculptured arm with hand made of black slate
     having four nearly parallel sides and rounded corners.
     From Umatilla, Oregon.

     20.0-1470. Pipe made of sandstone bearing design. From
     the Snake River Indians (Figs. 107 and 115).

     20.0-1471. Sculptured handle broken from a club made of
     serpentine. The broken surface is smooth. There are
     notches 1/4 inch long on the edge. From Blalock Island
     opposite Umatilla in the Columbia Valley (Fig. 167h,
     Smith, (b).).

     20.0-3343. Fluted stone, possibly an unfinished pestle.
     From near Lewiston, Idaho. Presented by Mr. Henry Fair,
     Spokane, Idaho.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Numbers 20.0-3344 to 20.0-3346 are from an old village
     site near Fort Simcoe. Collected by Dr. H. J. Spinden.

     20.0-3344. Mortar.

     20.0-3345. Pestle.

     20.0-3346. Pestle.

     T-21184 (H-180). Fragment of a leaf-shaped point made of
     chert. From Wallula near the Columbia River, Oregon.
     Collected by Judge James Kennedy in 1882 (Fig. 6).

     T-22107 (H-177). Fragments of a figure made of antler.
     From Umatilla, Oregon. Collected by Mrs. James Terry
     (Fig. 123).


[Illustration: CHIPPED POINTS. (Page 24) PLATE I.]


[Illustration: CHIPPED POINTS. (Page 25) PLATE II.]


[Illustration: QUARRY NEAR NACHES RIVER. (Page 16)
HOUSE SITE NEAR NACHES RIVER. (Page 51) PLATE III.]


[Illustration: HOUSE SITES NEAR NACHES RIVER. (Page 52) PLATE IV.]


[Illustration: CAMP SITES NEAR SENTINAL BLUFFS. (Page 56) PLATE V.]


[Illustration: FORT NEAR ROCK CREEK. ROCK-SLIDE GRAVE ON YAKIMA RIDGE.
(Page 14) PLATE VI.]


[Illustration: TERRACED ROCK-SLIDE ON YAKIMA RIDGE. (Page 141)
PLATE VII.]


[Illustration: ROCK-SLIDE GRAVES ON YAKIMA RIDGE. (Page 140)
PLATE VIII.]


[Illustration: CREMATION CIRCLE NEAR MOUTH OF NACHES RIVER. (Page 142)
GRAVE IN DOME OF VOLCANIC ASH NEAR TAMPICO. (Page 139) PLATE IX.]


[Illustration: OPENED GRAVE IN DOME OF VOLCANIC ASH NEAR TAMPICO.
(Page 139) PLATE X.]


[Illustration: PETROGLYPHS NEAR SENTINAL BLUFFS.( Page 121) PLATE XI.]


[Illustration: PETROGLYPHS IN SELAH CANON. (Page 122) PLATE XII.]


[Illustration: PETROGLYPH IN SELAH CANON. (Page 123)
PETROGLYPH NEAR WALLULA JUNCTION. (Page 123) PLATE XIII.]


[Illustration: PICTOGRAPHS AT MOUTH OF COWICHE CREEK. (Page 119)
PLATE XIV.]


[Illustration: PICTOGRAPHS AT MOUTH OF COWICHE CREEK. (Page 120)
PLATE XV.]


[Illustration: PICTOGRAPHS AT MOUTH OF COWICHE CREEK. (Page 120)
PLATE XVI.]

       *       *       *       *       *

TRANSCRIBER NOTES:

    Archaic, alternate and misspellings of words have been retained to
    match the original work with the exception of those listed below

    Missing punctuation has been added and obvious punctuation errors
    have been corrected.

    Page 19: "gulley" changed to "gully" (on either side by a
    gully).

    Page 36: footnote 78, added "p." ( Spinden, p, 194.)

    Page 82: "anterio" changed to "anterior" (leaving a large
    anterior lateral projection).

    Page 92: "assymetrical" changed to "asymmetrical" ( a slightly
    asymmetrical disk)

    Page 93: illustration caption: "n" changed to "in" ( in
    the collection of)

    Page 97: "he" changed to "be" ( contents will be found)

    Page 108: "begining" changed to "beginning" (first
    beginning at the East).

    Page 108: "untill" changed to "until" (held the pipe until
    I took).

    Page 109: "simitransparent" changed to "semi-transparent"
    (where the semi-transparent green steatite).

    Page 113: "p.13" changed to "p. 131" (under the section of art on p.
    131.)

    Page 129: "fo" changed to "of" (and the method of
    indicating)

    Page 145: "familar" changed to "familiar" (not be one merely
    familiar with)

    Page 149: "Bibiography" changed to "Bibliography"

    Page 160: "tibiæ" changed to "tibiae" and "fibulæ" changed
    to "fibulae" for consistency.





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