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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 114, January 3, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 114, January 3, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

[Transcriber's note: Original spelling variations have not been
standardized. Characters with macrons have been marked in brackets with
an =equal= sign, as [=e] for a letter e with a macron on top.
_Underscores_ have been used to mark _italic_ fonts. A list of volumes
and pages in "Notes and Queries" has been added at the end.]



Medium of Inter-Communication



"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.










"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. V.--No. 114. SATURDAY, JANUARY 3. 1852.

Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5_d._



      Our Fifth Volume                                             1


      Stops, when first introduced, by Sir Henry Ellis             1

      Preaching from Texts in Cornwall, by E. Smirke               2

      On the Expression "Richly deserved," by D. Jardine           3

      The Caxton Coffer, by Bolton Corney, &c.                     3

      Admonition to the Parliament, by J. Payne Collier            4

      Folk Lore:--New Year's Rain; Saxon Spell--Fishermen's
      Superstitions                                                5

      The Author of Hudibras at Ludlow Castle, by Peter
      Cunningham                                                   5

      Dr. Franklin's Tract on Liberty and Necessity, by Jas.
      Crossley                                                     6

      Early Flemish Illustrations of Early English Literature,
      by William J. Thoms                                          6

      Minor Notes:--Family Likenesses--Bloomerism in the
      Sixteenth Century--Inscriptions at Much Wenlock and on
      Statue of Queen Anne at Windsor                              7


      The Age of Trees--The Great Elm at Hampstead, by
      John Bruce                                                   8

      Minor Queries:--"Inveni portum;" "For they, 'twas
      they"--Matthew Walker--Aleclenegate--Smothering Hydrophobic
      Patients--Philip Twisden, Bishop of Raphoe--"Sir
      Edward Seaward's Narrative," edited by Miss Jane
      Porter--Clerical Members of Parliament--Allens of
      Rossull--Number of the Children of Israel--Computatio
      Eccles. Anglic.--Martinique, &c.                            10

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Mutabilitie of France--Caldoriana
      Societas--Millers of Meath--Kissing under the
      Mistletoe--Trinity Chapel, Knightsbridge--"Please the
      Pigs"--Meaning of Barnacles--The Game of Curling            12


      Saint Irene and the Island of Santorin, by Sir J. E.
      Tennent                                                     14

      The Old Countess of Desmond--Who was she? No. II.           14

      Collar of SS., by Edward Foss, &c.                          16

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Tregonwell Frampton--Longueville
      MSS.--Cooper's Miniature of Cromwell--Pope and
      Flatman--Voltaire--Tudur Aled--Latin Verse on Franklin      16


      Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                      18

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                18

      Notices to correspondents                                   18

      Advertisements                                              19


  Although We cannot commence our Fifth Volume, and the First of our
  enlarged Series, without some reference to so important an event
  in the history of "NOTES AND QUERIES," our address shall be as
  "brief as the posey of a ring." We heartily and earnestly express
  our thanks to all our friends, whether Contributors or Readers,
  for the favour they have shown us, and the encouragement and
  support which have rendered the enlargement of our paper
  necessary. We entered upon our course with the support of many
  distinguished friends, whose varied acquirements stamped an
  immediate value on "NOTES AND QUERIES," and gave it a character
  which raised it to its present position among the periodicals of
  the country. The present number bears witness for us, that whilst
  we have retained our old friends, which we acknowledge with pride
  and thankfulness, we have added to the number many new ones. We
  have striven, and shall ever continue to strive, to unite them
  together into one goodly band, feeling assured that by that union
  we bring into the pages of "NOTES AND QUERIES" the learning,
  kindliness, aptitude, and diversity of talent and subject, which
  are necessary to ensure its usefulness, and therefore its success.
  To all our Friends and Contributors, both old and new, we offer in
  their several degrees the tribute of our grateful thanks, and our
  heartiest wishes that we may pass together MANY HAPPY NEW YEARS!



In casually looking into a little work entitled _The Tablet of Memory_,
I found an entry which informed me that "stops in literature were
introduced in 1520: the colon, 1580; semicolon, 1599."

Upon what authority the dates here quoted may have been supposed to
rest, I have no notion.

The comma, beyond question I believe, has been derived from the short
oblique line which, both in manuscripts and in early printed books, is
continually seen to divide portions of sentences.

The colon is of very old date, derived from the κωλον of the
Greeks, the part of a period. In printing, we find it in the Mazarine
Bible soon after 1450; and in the block books, believed to be of still
earlier date.

Herbert, in his edition of Ames's _Typographical Antiquities_, p. 512.,
notices the first semicolon he had met with in an edition of Myles
Coverdale's New Testament, printed in 1538 by Richard Grafton. It was in
the Dedication, and, he says, a solitary instance in the book. The only
semicolon he subsequently met with, was in a book printed by Thomas
Marshe in 1568, on Chess. Ibid. p. 358.

Herbert says, both seem to have been used accidentally.

Puttenham, in his _Arte of English Poesie_, 4to., 1589, in his chapter
of "Cesure," says:--

  "The ancient reformers of language invented these names of pauses,
  one of lesse leasure than another, and such several intermissions
  of sound, to serve (besides easement to the breath) for a treble
  distinction of sentences or parts of speech, as they happened to
  be more or lesse perfect in sense. The shortest pause, or
  intermission, they called _comma_, as who would say a piece of a
  speech cut off. The second they called _colon_, not a piece, but
  as it were a member, for his larger length, because it occupied
  twice an much time as the comma. The third they called _periodus_,
  for a complement or full pause, and as a resting place and
  perfection of so much former speech as had been uttered, and from
  whence they needed not to passe any further, unless it were to
  renew more matter to enlarge the tale."

The "three pauses, comma, colon, and periode," with the interrogative
point, appear to have been all which were known to Puttenham.

Puttenham's _Arte of Poesie_ has been already mentioned as printed in
1589. In the Countess of Pembroke's _Arcadia_, printed by W. Ponsonby in
the very next year, 1590, the semicolon may be seen in the first page.

A book printed at Edinburgh in 1594 has not the semicolon; the use of it
had not, apparently, arrived in Scotland.

That an earlier use of the semicolon had been made upon the Continent is
probable. It occurs in the _Sermone di Beato Leone Papa_, 4to., Flor.
1485, the last point in the book.

The interrogative point, or note of interrogation, probably derived from
the Greek, occurs frequently in Wilson's _Arte of Rhetorique_, 4to.,

Some reader of your "NOTES AND QUERIES," better informed than myself,
may possibly throw further light upon the English adoption of stops in



Your correspondents have already pointed out the very early prevalence
of this usage, but the inquiry has brought to my recollection an
instance which incidentally affords some curious information respecting
the several languages formerly current in the western parts of this
island. It was lately published, among numerous other extracts, from the
registers of the see of Exeter, in the valuable _Monasticon Dioecesis
Exoniensis_ of Dr. Oliver, pp. 11, 12.

In 1336, Grandison, then Bishop of Exeter, made a visitation of his
diocese. At the western extremity of it, is situate the deanery or
collegiate church of St. Burian, which has always claimed to be exempt
from episcopal visitation, or at least from ordinary jurisdiction. It is
probable that, on one occasion of this disputed exemption, the
parishioners of this remote district at the Land's End had given offence
to the Bishop or his functionaries.

In company with the Lords Mortimer, D'Awney, and Bloyhon (probably an
ancestor of your correspondent BLOWEN), and a large staff of
archdeacons, chancellors, canons, chaplains, and familiars, the Bishop
visited the church of St. Burian, and obtained from the parishioners a
solemn promise of future obedience to his spiritual authority. The
promise was made by the greater parishioners in English and French, and
by the rest in Cornish, which the rector of St. Just (a parish which has
lately obtained some celebrity by the Gorham controversy) interpreted to
his lordship. Having absolved them, he then preached a long sermon on
the text, "_Eratis sicut oves errantes conversi ad pastorem episcopum
animarum vestrarum_," which the rector of St. Just there interpreted in

It is not stated in the record what language was used by the Bishop in
his sermon; but if he preached, as one of his successors, Bishop Lacy,
is known to have done, in the language of his text, the business of
explanation must have been rather troublesome. As he is said to have
"successively" preached this sermon there,--"_successivè ibidem publicè
prædicavit supra sumpto themate_,"--it is possible that he had to repeat
his sermon in more languages than one. It is at all events certain, that
_three_ languages at least were employed, and that the Bishop did not
understand Cornish, nor the Cornish men the Bishop. The names of the
"major parishioners," that is, of the gentlemen of the district, are
appended to the document, and are all (except perhaps one) genuine
Cornish families, including the Boscawens and Vyvyans of the present
day. They gave in their adhesion to the Bishop in English and French,
and must therefore have understood one or both of those languages. Of
the Bishop's chaplains, only one has a Cornish name; and the interpreter
and rector of the adjacent parish of St. Just, Henry Marseley, was also
probably not a Cornubian.

I may mention that the penitent parishioners very prudently reserved the
king's rights. As the king claimed the deanery of St. Burian as a royal
peculiar exempt from ordinary jurisdiction, and eventually made good his
claim, it is plain that neither the promises of the parishioners nor the
polyglot sermon of the Bishop, could have had any lasting effect. The
patronage was soon after conferred on the Black Prince, and through him
transmitted to the present Duke of Cornwall, by whose spontaneous act
this obnoxious exemption from episcopal control was wholly and for ever
renounced within the last two years. The successor of Grandison may
now, therefore, visit the churches of the deanery, excommunicate the
ministers and parishioners, and interrogate presentees, without let or
hindrance; and, since the language of Cornwall died with old Dolly
Pentreath, his lordship will not require the hermeneutic services either
of the present or the _late incumbent_ of St. Just.

    E. SMIRKE.


I was a few days ago induced to consider whence the common expression
"richly deserved" could be derived. It is used by Addison and his
contemporaries, but I have not been able to find it in writers of an
earlier period. Possibly the reading of some of your contributors may
supply instances of its occurrence which may prove more precisely its
origin and history.

The phrase, in its literal sense, is anomalous and unmeaning. We may
properly say that a reward or punishment has been "fully deserved" or,
by a common mode of exaggeration, we may say that a thing has been
"abundantly deserved:" but "richly deserved" seems a false figure of
speech, and presents to the mind an obvious incongruity of ideas. Dr.
Johnson cites a passage from Addison, in which chastisement is said to
have been "richly deserved," and says that it is used ironically to
signify "truly" or "abundantly."

Of the meaning of the expression--now by usage become trivial--there
can, of course, be no doubt; but how came so inappropriate a thought as
_wealth_ to be applied to desert? The inaptitude of the expression
suggests the presumption that it is a corruption of some more correct
phrase; and I venture to throw out a conjecture, for confirmation or
refutation by the more extensive reading of some of your philological
contributors, that it is corrupted through the medium of oral
pronunciation from "righteously deserved."

In one of the prayers of the Litany, in our Book of Common Prayer, is
the expression, "Turn from us all those evils which we most righteously
have deserved." "Righteously" is itself a barbarous corruption of an
excellent English word, "rightwisely," which is used by Bishop Fisher
and other old writers. Our ancient kings were said to be "rightwise"
kings of England, and to hold their prerogatives and titles
"rightwisely;" and in the Liturgies of Edward VI. the word "rightwisely"
is found, instead of "righteously," in the prayer of the Litany
above-mentioned. Now "rightwisely deserved" is an expression as strictly
logical and correct, as "richly deserved" is the contrary; and as
"righteously" is clearly a corruption of "rightwisely," may not
"richly," when applied to desert, be corrupted immediately from
"righteously," and ultimately from "rightwisely?"



If I were to print the explanation which follows without also producing
evidence that it had escaped the notice of those to whose works all
students in early English bibliography have recourse, it would seem like
advancing a claim to discovery on very slight grounds. I must therefore
quote Ames, Herbert, and Dibdin.

  "_The history of Lombardy_, translated from the Latin [by William
  Caxton], is mentioned by Pitts."--J. AMES, 1749.

  "I take this _History of Lombardy_ to be no other than 'the gestis
  of the Lombardes and of Machomet wyth other cronycles,' added to
  the life of St. Pelagyen in the _Golden legend_, and printed
  separately for the use of the commonality [sic], who could not
  purchase so large a folio."--W. HERBERT, 1785; T. F. DIBDIN, 1810.

Both Bale and Pits ascribe to Caxton the translation of a work entitled
_Historia Lumbardica_. Ames, as we have seen, states the fact with
regard to Pits, but had met with no such work; Herbert, by way of
explanation, assumes the existence of a publication of which no one had
before heard; and Dibdin, who had far superior means of information,
repeats the observations of Herbert without the addition of one word
expressive of assent or dissent. May we not infer their inability to
solve the problem?

The conjecture of Herbert is very plausible. One fact, however, is worth
a score of conjectures; and the fact, in this case, is that in the
earlier editions of the Latin legend the title is _Legenda sanctorum
sive historia Longobardica_. Jacques de Voragine, the author of the work
in question, was a Lombard by birth, and archbishop of Genoa. Now
_Lombardi_ and _Longobardi_ were synonymous terms--as we see in Du
Fresne; and so were their derivatives. With this explanation, it must be
admitted that the _Historia Lumbardica_ of Bale and Pits is no other
than the _Golden legend_!


Since my last communication, I have ascertained that "Caxton," in
Cambridgeshire was also designated "Causton."

In the _Abbrev. Rot. Origin._, 41 E. 3., Rot. 42., we have--

  "Cantabr. Joh[=e]s Freville dat viginti marcas [p=] li[=e]
  feoffandi Joh[=e]m de Carleton et Joh[=e]m de Sel[=v]le de man'io
  de _Causton_," &c.

And in _Cal. Inq._, p. m., 4 R. 2., No. 23., we have--

  "Elena uxor Joh[=e]s Frevill Ch[=r]. _Caxton_ maner 3a

We have, then, in Cambridgeshire "Causton" and "Caxton" used
indifferently for the same manor. There need be no difficulty,
therefore, in identifying the name of "Caxton" with "Causton" manor in

We have advanced, then, one step further in our investigation, and the
case at present stands thus: Caxton says of himself that he was born in
the Weald of Kent. Fuller, as cited by MR. BOLTON CORNEY, says,
"William Caxton was born in that town [sc. Caxton]."

In the Weald of Kent is a manor called Causton (to which we may now add)
alias Caxton, which manor was owned in the middle of the fourteenth
century by a family of the same name (from whom it had passed a century
later), and held of the honour of Clare, the lords of which honour, in
the fifteenth century, were that ducal and royal house, by which William
Caxton was warmly patronised.

From these data we will hope that some of your correspondents may deduce
materials for satisfactorily fixing the place of Caxton's birth. Is
there upon record any note of armorial bearings, or of any badge used by
Caxton? Should there be, and we find such to be at all connected with
the bearings of the lords of Causton, it will be additional evidence in
our favour.


In the body of St. Alphege Church, Canterbury, is the following
monumental inscription:

      "Pray for the sawlys of John Caxton and of Jone
      And Isabel that to this church great good hath done
      In making new in the chancell
      Of Dexkys and Setys aswell
      An Antiphon the which did bye
      With a table of the martyrdome of St. Alphye
      Forthing much which did pay
      And departed out of this life of October the 12 day
      And Isabel his second wiff
      Passed to blisse where is no strife
      The xijt day to tell the trowth
      Of the same moneth as our Lord knoweth
      In the yeare of our Lord God a thousand fower hundred
          fowerscore and five."

What relation (if any) was the above to the typographer? They must have
been co-existent, and the "Note" may perhaps be a step in the right
direction for arriving at the true "stock" of the _Caxton Coffer_.



I never had the good fortune to see a copy of the book called _An
Admonition to the Parliament_, but I find a full description of it in
Herbert's _Ames_, iii. 1631., under the date of 1572, from which I gather
that it had been printed four times anterior to that year. It was
written by two puritanical divines, Field and Wilcox, and contained such
an attack upon the bishops, that they did their utmost to suppress it;
but Whitgift, nevertheless, gave it additional notoriety by publishing
an answer to it, which came out originally in 1571, and was reprinted in
1572 and 1573 (Herbert's _Ames_, ii. 934.). I have not Strype at hand to
see what he says about the _Admonition_, and the reply to it; but some
time ago I met with a letter among the Lansdown MSS. (No. 27.) which
relates to the _Admonition_, and shows that Thomas Woodcock, a well
known stationer, had been confined in Newgate by the Bishop of London
(Aylmer) for selling it. It is dated 9th Dec. 1578, and is subscribed by
five of the most distinguished and respectable printers and publishers
of that day, soliciting Lord Burghley (to whom it is addressed) to
interfere on behalf of the poor prisoner. It runs precisely in the
following form:

"Our humble duties unto your good L. premised. May it please the same to
be advertised, that one Thomas Woodcock, an honest young man, and one of
our Company, hathe bin imprisoned in Newgate by the L. Bishopp of London
theis six dayes, for sellinge of certaine bookes called the _Admonition
to the Parliament_. Dyvers of the poore mans frendes have bin earnest
suitors unto the Bishopp of London for his libertie: his L. aunswere
unto them is, that he neither can nor will do any thinge without your L.
consent, signified by your letters or warrant. It may therfore please
your honor, in consideration of the premisses and our humble request,
either to direct your L. warrant for his enlargement, or els to signifie
your pleasure unto the L. Bishopp of London to take order herein
accordingly, the said poore man first puttinge in sufficient bond to
appeare at all tymes when he shalbe called, and readdy to aunswere to
any matters whatsoever shalbe objected against him. Thus prayinge,
accordinge to our duties, for your good L. long and prosperous health
with encrease of honor, we commyt the same for this tyme to the
protection of the Almightie. At London, 9'o Decemb. 1578.

"Your L. most humble at Command the Mr. and Wardens with others of the
Company of Stationers,

      JOHN DAYE."

From the above we may perhaps conclude, that an edition of the
_Admonition to Parliament_ had been printed not long before the date of
Thomas Woodcock's imprisonment for selling it; but I do not find that
any historian or bibliographer mentions such an edition. Excepting in
the letter of the five stationers, Tottyll, Bysshop, Haryson, Seres, and
Daye, there seems to be no authority for connecting Woodcock with the
publication, and his confinement did not take place until Dec. 6, 1578;
whereas Neal, in his _History of the Puritans_, as cited by Herbert,
informs us that Field and Wilcox, on presenting the _Admonition_ to the
House of Commons in 1572, were immediately committed to Newgate.

Unless there were two puritanical ministers of the name of Field, he,
who was imprisoned with Wilcox, was the John Field, who, I apprehend,
was the father of Nathaniel Field, the actor in Shakspeare's plays, and
the Theophilus Field, who (in spite of his father's hostility to the
church and bishops, and in spite of his brother's devotion to the
stage,) was afterwards Bishop of Llandaff from 1619 to 1627, Bishop of
St. David's from 1627 to 1635, and Bishop of Hereford from 1635 to 1636,
when he died.



_New Year's Rain_--_Saxon Spell._--I have just read a good-natured
notice[1] in _The Athenæum_ of December 6th, in which your contemporary
suggests that communications on the subject of _Folk Lore_ should be
addressed to you. The perusal of it has reminded me of two Queries upon
the subject, which I had originally intended to address to the editor of
that paper, as they refer to articles which appeared in his own pages.
On his hint, however, I will transfer them to your columns; and avail
myself of the opportunity of thanking the editor of _The Athenæum_ for
having for so long a period and so effectually directed the attention of
the readers of that influential journal to a subject of great interest
to many, and of considerable historical value. The first relates to a
song sung by the children in South Wales on New Year's morning, when
carrying a jug full of water newly drawn from the well. It is given in
_The Athenæum_, No. 1058., for the 5th Feb., 1848, and there several
references will be found to cognate superstitions. My object is to ask
if the song is known elsewhere; and if so, whether with any such
varieties of readings as would clear some of the obscurities of the
present version:--

      "Here we bring new water
        From the well so clear,
      For to worship God with
        This happy New Year.
      Sing levez dew, sing levez dew,
        The water and the wine;
      The seven bright gold wires
        And the bugles they do shine.

      "Sing reign of Fair Maid
        With gold upon her toe,--
      Open you the West Door,
        And let the Old Year go.
      Sing reign of Fair Maid,
        With gold upon her chin,
      Open you the East Door,
        And let the New Year in."

The second is from _The Athenæum's_ very able review of Mr. Kemble's
_Saxons in England_,--a work of learning and genius not yet nearly so
well known as it deserves. The reviewer says:

  "In one of the Saxon spells, which Mr. Kemble has inserted in his
  appendix, we at once recognized a rhyme which we have heard an old
  woman in our childhood use--and in which many Saxon words,
  unintelligible to her, were probably retained."

If my communication should meet the eye of the gentleman who wrote this,
I hope he will let the readers of "NOTES AND QUERIES" become acquainted
with the rhyme in question. For it is obvious that among them will be
found many who agree with him that "a very curious and useful
compilation might be made of the various spells in use in different
parts of England, classed according to their localities,--more
especially if the collectors would give them verbatim," and who would
therefore be willing to assist towards its formation.


  [Footnote 1: We should not be doing justice either to our own
  feelings or to the kindness and liberality of our able and most
  influential contemporary, if we did not take this opportunity of
  acknowledging not only his kindness upon the present occasion, but
  also the encouragement which _The Athenæum_ has taken every
  opportunity of affording to "NOTES AND QUERIES."--ED. N. & Q.]

_Fishermen's superstitions._--A friend recently informed me that at
Preston Pans the two following superstitious observances exist among the
fishermen of that place. If, on their way to their boats, they meet a
pig, they at once turn back and defer their embarkation. The event is an
omen that bodes ill for their fishery.

It is a favourite custom to set sail on the Sunday for the fishing
grounds. A clergyman of the town is said to pray against their
sabbath-breaking; and to prevent any injury accruing from his prayers,
the fishermen make a small image of rags, and burn it on the top of
their chimneys.



So little is known of Butler,--his life, as his biographers have given
it to us, is made up of so very few anecdotes and dates,--that I have
thought any Note which contained a fact about him, would be an
acceptable addition to "N. & Q." (I shall value your space, you see, in
future contributions). The following entries are copied from Lord
Carbery's Account of the Expense incurred in making Ludlow Castle
habitable after Clarendon's "Great Rebellion" (query, Civil War); and
the entries are valuable as specifying the period of Butler's services
as steward of Ludlow Castle, and the nature of the services performed by
the great wit:--

  "For sundry supplyes of furniture paid for by Mr. Samuell Butler,
  late Steward, from January, 1661, to January, 1662, ixli. ijs.
  vd., and more by him paid to sundry Brasiers, Pewterers, and
  Coopers, vjli. vijs. iijd. In both

      xvli. ixs. viijd.

  "For sundry other supplyes of furniture paid for by Mr. Edward
  Lloyd the succeeding Steward, from January, 1662, to January,

      clxli. xiiijs. xd.

  "For several Bottles, Corkes, and Glasses, bought by Mr. Butler,
  late Steward, from January, 1661, to January, 1662, vjli. xiijs.
  jd., and for two Saddles and furniture for the Caterer and
  Slaughterman, xxvjs. viijd. In both

      vijli. xixs. ixd."

I was at Ludlow Castle last autumn, and thought (of course) of _Comus_
and _Hudibras_. I bought at the same time the three parts of my friend
Mr. Wright's excellent _History of Ludlow Castle_, and paid in advance
for the concluding part. Pray let me ask Mr. Wright (through "N. & Q.")
by what time (I am a hungry antiquary) we may hope the concluding part
will be published? I will gladly show Mr. Wright Lord Carbery's Account.



In Dr. Franklin's _Autobiography_, he mentions as his first work a
pamphlet printed in London in 1725 on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure
and Pain. It was written by him when he was eighteen years of age, and
partly in answer to Wollaston's _Religion of Nature_. The object was to
prove, from the attributes of God, his infinite wisdom, goodness, and
power, that nothing could possibly be wrong in the world; and that vice
and virtue were empty distinctions, no such things existing. He printed,
he says, only a hundred copies, of which he gave a few to his friends;
and afterwards disliking the piece, as conceiving it might have an ill
tendency, he burnt the rest except one copy. This tract, most curious as
the first publication of this extraordinary man, seems to have eluded
hitherto every search. In Jared Sparks's elaborate edition of Dr.
Franklin's Works in 10 vols., it is of course not to be found. In a note
(vol. viii., p. 405.), the editor observes, "No copy of this tract is
now known to be in existence." Nor do I find that any writer on the
subject of Franklin, or the history of metaphysics, or moral philosophy,
appears to have seen it. Sir Jas. Mackintosh was long in search of it,
but was compelled ultimately to give it up in despair.

I am happy to inform those who may take an interest in Dr. Franklin's
first performance--and what is there in literary history more attractive
than to compare the earliest works of great men with their maturer
efforts?--that I fortunately possess a copy of this tract. It is bound
up in a volume of tracts, and came from the library of the Rev. S.
Harper. The title is, "_A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity,
Pleasure and Pain, in a Letter to a Friend_:

      'Whatever is, is in its causes just,
      Since all things are by fate; but purblind man
      Sees but a part o' th' chain, the nearest link,
      His eyes not carrying to the equal beam,
      That poises all above.'--DRYD."

It is addressed to Mr. J(ames) R(alph), and commences: "Sir, I have
here, according to your request, given you my present thoughts on the
general state of things in the universe;" and concludes, "Truth will be
truth, though it sometimes proves mortifying and distasteful." The
pamphlet contains sixteen very closely printed pages in octavo; and the
author proceeds by laying down his propositions, and then enlarging upon
them, so as to form, in his opinion, a regular chain of consequences. It
displays, as might be anticipated, considerable acuteness, though the
reasonings, as he admits in his _Autobiography_, were such as to his
maturer intellect appeared inconclusive. He subsequently wrote another
pamphlet, in which he took the other side of the question; but it was
never published, and I suppose is not now in existence.



The commencement of a new volume of "NOTES AND QUERIES" affords a
favourable opportunity for "tapping" (to use an expressive phrase of
Horace Walpole's) a subject, on which it is reasonable to suppose much
light may be thrown by some of your learned correspondents. I allude to
the connection which formerly subsisted between the literature of
England, and that of the Low Countries. Fortunate, indeed, would it be
if any communication to "NOTES AND QUERIES" might be the means of
drawing some illustration from one qualified beyond all others to treat
every branch of this most interesting subject. Those of your readers who
had the pleasure of hearing the admirable speech of a distinguished
diplomatist at the Centenary Dinner of the Society of Antiquaries, will
probably understand to whom I refer.

Reserving for a future occasion some observations on the manner in which
our English antiquaries have hitherto overlooked the materials
illustrative of our popular literature, our popular superstitions, our
early drama, our legends, and our traditions, which may be had for the
gathering, from the popular literature, the popular superstitions, the
early drama, the legends and traditions of the Low Countries--those Low
Countries from which Chaucer married his wife--those Low Countries from
which Caxton brought us his printing-press, and its long train of
blessings--those Low Countries, in which, as I believe, and hope one day
to prove, Shakspeare himself added to his vast stores of knowledge--I
shall for the present content myself with one example, and that shall
be a seasonable one, namely, of the similarity between the old Flemish
carols, and those with which, at this happy season, the nights were
whilom blest here in Old England.

Hoffman von Fallersleben, in the second part of his _Horæ Belgicæ_, that
great storehouse of materials for illustrating the early literature of
the Netherlands (and which second part, by the bye, was separately
published under the title of _Holländische Volkslieder_), after showing
that the sacred songs of the Low Countries are, like our own, separable
into Christmas carols, Easter hymns, songs in praise of the Virgin, and
songs of Christian doctrine, proceeds to characterise the former in
terms in which one might well describe many of those which were formerly
most popular in our country. "The carols," he remarks, "are especially
deserving of our attention. In them is most clearly shown the child-like
religious spirit of the olden times, when men were not content merely to
relate in the simple ballad form the story of Our Saviour's birth as
recorded in Holy Scripture, but sought, by the introduction of little
touches drawn from social and country life, to make that story more
attractive and more instructive, and so to bring it home more directly
to the hearts of their pious hearers." How truly applicable these
remarks are to many of our own carols, must be obvious to all who know
Mr. Sandys' valuable _Collection_; and the following instances, which
Hoffman adduces in support of his views, will, I trust, satisfy your
readers that I am right in maintaining the great resemblance between the
carols of Old Flanders and those of Old England.

"Many of the descriptions in these carols," he remarks, "bear a strong
resemblance to some of the Bible pictures of the old masters;" and he
gives, as an instance, the following simple picture of the Infant Jesus
in the bath:

      "'The mother she made the child a bath,
      How lovely then therein it sate;
      The childling so platched with its hand
      That the water out of the beaker sprang.'[2]

  [Footnote 2: The version is, of course, as nearly literal as possible.]

"But sometimes these religious poetical feelings impress themselves so
deeply in their subject, that the descriptions verge closely upon the

      "'Mary did not herself prepare
      With cradle-clothes to her hand there,
      In which her dear child to wind.
      Soon as Joseph this did find,
      His hosen from his legs he drew,
      Which to this day at Aix they show,
      And with them those holy clothes did make
      In which God first man's form did take.'

"It is true that we look upon these descriptions with modern eyes, not
taking into consideration that our manners and customs, that our general
views, in short, are not at all times in unison with those of the
fifteenth century. But even if we are always right in these and similar
cases, still we cannot deny that there often lies in these old poems
what we, notwithstanding we are in the possession of the most exquisite
skill, cannot at all reach,--an infinite _naïveté_, a touching
simplicity. Especially rich in this respect are the songs which describe
the flight of the Holy Family into Egypt:

      "'Joseph he did leap and run,
      Until an ass's foal he won,
      Whereon he set the maiden mild,
      And with her that most blessed child.'

"The whole idyllic life which they led in that country is told to us in
a few unpretending traits:

      "'Joseph he led the ass,
        The bridle held he;
        What found they by the way,
        But a date tree?
      Oh! ass's foal thou must stand still,
      To gather dates it is our will,
        So weary are we.
      The date tree bowed to the earth,
        To Mary's knee;
      Mary would fill her lap
        From the date tree.
      Joseph was an old man,
        And wearied was he;
      Mary, let the date tree bide,
      We have yet forty miles to ride,
        And late it will be.
      Let us pray this blessed child
        Grant us mercie.'

"Nay, these simple songs even inform us how the Holy family laboured for
their subsistence in this 'strange countree:'

      "'Mary, that maiden dear,
        Well could she spin;
      Joseph as a carpenter,
        Could his bread win.
      When Joseph was grown old,
      That no longer work he could,
        The thread he wound,
      And Jesus to rich and poor
        Carried it round.'"


Minor Notes.

_Family Likenesses._--I believe that a likeness always exists in members
of the same family, though it may _not always_ be seen, and, even then,
not by _everybody_. I have seen at times a striking likeness in a pretty
face to that of a plain one in the same family.

In one of the _Edinburgh Journals_ (Chambers') a stranger is said to
have remarked the likeness to the portraits of Sir William Wallace of a
passer-by, and was then informed by his companion that he was a

I am witness of a strong likeness in a young man, born in 1832, to the
portrait of his great-great-uncle, born in 1736,--which carries back the
inherited likeness to the latter's father, who was born in 1707, and
married 1730. It is no mere fancy of my own, but has been noticed by
several on seeing the portrait.

    A. C.

_Bloomerism in the Sixteenth Century._--Happening to pitch upon the
following extract, I forward it to you in the belief that it may, at the
present time, have an interest for some of your readers:--

  "I have met with some of these trulles in London so disguised that
  it hath passed my skills to discerne whether they were men or
  women."--Hollinshed, _Description of England_.

    X. X. X.

_Inscriptions at Much Wenlock and on Statue of Queen Anne at
Windsor._--Carved in a beam over the town hall of Much Wenlock, in
Shropshire, stands (or perhaps stood, for the building was very old
thirty years since) the following curious verses:

      "Hic locus odit, amat, punit, conservat, honorat,
      Nequitiam, pacem, crimina, jura, bonos."

I am not aware if they have appeared previously in your publication; but
they are worthy of preservation, I think, if for nothing else, for the
oddity of linking one line with another.

There is also a couple of lines on the town hall, Windsor, underneath a
miserable statue of Queen Anne:

      "Arte tuâ, sculptor, non est imitabilis Anna,
      Annæ vis similem sculpere? sculpe Deam."

The unintentional satire conveyed in the first line is very appropriate,
as the statue is a thing of wood, and forcibly reminds one of the
_charming_ statue of George IV. formerly at King's Cross.




The question of the age of trees, introduced to your notice by your very
able correspondent L. (Vol. iv., p. 401.), and touched upon by several
others, is a subject of peculiar interest, and yet I scarcely know any
ancient memorials which have been so much neglected by antiquarian
inquirers. How seldom has any systematic attempt been made to collect
the existing historical evidence relating to them, and of the few weak
efforts which have been put forth in that direction, how insignificant
have been the results! Such evidence exists in a great variety of
quarters, and if your correspondents could be persuaded to adopt L.'s
suggestion, and take up the matter in a really serious spirit, the
nature of your publication, and the wide extent of your circulation,
render your pages singularly well adapted for doing really effective
service in a cause which is equally interesting to the naturalist and
the antiquary. What is wanted is, that antiquarian students should bring
forward the facts respecting historical trees which are to be found in
ancient evidences of all kinds, and that local knowledge should be
applied to the identification of such trees wherever it is possible. If
this were done--done, that is, thoroughly and carefully--I cannot doubt
that an antiquity would be satisfactorily established in reference to
many trees and clumps of trees still existing throughout the kingdom,
which it would now be thought supremely wild and fanciful even to
imagine. I would not go the length of anticipating that we might
establish the identity of some grove in which druidical mysteries have
been celebrated, or (to adopt the words of Sir Walter Scott) of some
"broad-headed, short-stemmed, wide-branched" monarchs of the forest,
"which had witnessed the march of the Roman soldiery;" I should almost
despair even of identifying the thorns on Ash Down (a place itself named
from some celebrated tree), around which the battle raged between Alfred
and the Danes: but every one at all acquainted with ancient documents
knows how frequently they contain allusions to celebrated trees; and it
is perfectly possible that trees which sheltered King John in his
continual wild, impulsive, Arab-like flights from place to place, or
under which the Edwards halted in their marches to Scotland or Wales,
may yet be pointed out. I have no doubt that Evelyn saw evidence that
the Tortworth Great Chestnut was a boundary tree in the days of King
Stephen; and if such evidence is not now forthcoming, I by no means
despair of its re-discovery, if any one will set himself seriously to
search for it. We learn in Pepys[3], that in his time, in the forest of
Dean, there were still standing the old "Vorbid" or "forbid" trees of
the time of Edward III.; that is (I presume), the trees which were left
standing as marks or boundaries when there was a great felling of timber
in the reign of Edward III. Perhaps some of your correspondents can tell
us whether there are any such trees known in the forest of Dean now.

  [Footnote 3: Pepys's Diary, ii. 18.]

The recurrence of the mention of celebrated trees in early charters, is
far more frequent than any one who has not examined the subject would
suppose. There was no kind of "mark" or "bound" more common amongst
ancient people, or more frequently mentioned in their written evidences,
than large or celebrated trees. Any one may satisfy himself upon this
point by a simple reference to Mr. Kemble's invaluable _Codex
Diplomaticus_. I have just taken down the third volume of that work,
and, dipping into it at random, at p. 448. I find the following, in the
enumeration of the bounds of some lands at Brokenborough, in Wilts:--

  "From thence to the mark which is called the Apple-Thorn, and from
  the same apple-bearing tree, by the public street, to Woubourne,
  and along the same water by a straight course to Geresbourne, and
  along the same stream in a straight course to Ordwoldes wood,
  which is now called Bradene, and through the same wood for about
  three miles to the boundary mark, which is called holehoke" [Holy

Here are intimations which must have been recognizable in the spot for
centuries afterwards.

At p. 343. of the same volume, we read of "Kentwines Tree" at Shipford,
and "Adulfes Tree" and "Hysemannes Thorn" at Mickleton. At p. 336. is
mention of "the single thorn" by Ellenford, and the "Kolan Tree" and
"Huredes Tree," near the same place. At p. 328. we read of "the Hundred
Tree" at Winchendon. At p. 174. of "Dunemannes Tree" at Bladen.

In vol. v. at p. 297. we have a remarkable description of boundaries at
Blewbury, in Berkshire, in which we read, if I interpret correctly:--

  "From Hawkthorn [now Hackthorn] to the Long Thorn on the Ikenild
  way; thence to the Third Thorn at Wirhangran; thence to the Fourth
  Thorn which stands forward on Wrangan Hill; thence to the Fifth
  Thorn; thence to the Olive Tree; thence west along the bye road to
  the Thorn"--and so forth.

In the same description we read of several "Treowstealls," which mean, I
suppose, clumps of trees, and amongst them of "Athelstanes Treowsteal."

In vol. vi. at p. 8. we read of "Frigedæges Tree," at Ginge, in
Berkshire; at p. 60., of "Wiggerdes Tree," at Plush, in Dorsetshire; and
innumerable other instances may be found throughout the book. These have
occurred to me on just opening the volumes here and there, and are
adduced merely to explain to persons unacquainted with the _Codex
Diplomaticus_, the nature of the information upon this subject which it
contains; and there are many other books from which similar facts may be

The examples I have given exhibit the various parts which conspicuous
trees were made to play in ancient times. The Holy Oak and Frigedæges
Tree had, no doubt, been consecrated to superstition; the Hundred Tree
marked a place for the general assembly of the people of a district; the
trees distinguished by the prefixed names of individuals, indicated that
they stood on the properties of private owners,--on lands, that is,
which the owners had "called after their own names." The memory of many
historical trees is probably preserved to the present day in the names
of the fields in which they stood. How many Mickle Thorn coppices, and
Broad Oak pastures, and Long Tree meadows, and Old Yew pieces are
scattered over the country. How many hundreds, and other larger
divisions of counties, are named after ancient trees. How many of the
old Saxon names of our towns and hamlets indicate that they grew up
around a well-known oak, or ash, or thorn, or yew; in like manner as, in
later periods, when strength rather than law was the ruler, the people
crowded together their hovels under the protective shadow of the castle
of some powerful chieftain, or within the privileged precincts of some
consecrated fane.

Having thus indicated, or rather enforced, a subject which I think well
deserves the attention of your correspondents all over the world, allow
me to conclude with a Query relating to a celebrated tree, of a
comparatively modern date, which once existed in the neighbourhood of
the metropolis.

THE GREAT ELM AT HAMPSTEAD.--Where did it stand? What was its ultimate
fate? When and how was it compelled to yield to the great leveller? It
is delineated in a very scarce engraving by Hollar, which bears the date
of 1653, and which is found on a poetical commemorative broadside,
printed in that year. This tree, although then in full leaf, or so
represented in Hollar's engraving, was entirely hollow. A staircase of
forty-two steps had been contrived within its stem, by means of which
visitors ascended to a turret erected on the top, which was capacious
enough to give seats to six persons, and to contain twenty persons in
the whole. The stem of the tree was twenty-eight feet in compass on the
ground, and the ascent to the turret was thirty-three feet. The tree
must have stood on some of the highest ground at Hampstead, for it is
said that six neighbouring counties could be seen from the top of it.
The Thames is mentioned as visible from it, with its shipping; and the
following lines indicate the wide expanse which it commanded. The lines
were written just at the time when Cromwell was about to assume the

      "Those stately structures where the court
      Had late their mansions, when our kings would sport;
      Of whom deprived they mourn, and, desolate,
      Like widows, look on their forlorn estate:
      'Tis not smooth Richmond's streams, nor Acton's mill,
      Nor Windsor Castle, nor yet Shooter's Hill,
      Nor groves, nor plains, which further off do stand,
      Like landscapes portray'd by some happy hand:
      But a swift view, which most delightful shows,
      And doth them all, and all at once, disclose."[4]

  [Footnote 4: These lines are by Robert Codrington, respecting whom
  a reference may be made to Wood's _Athenæ_, iii. 699. Bliss's ed.]

Such was the entire command of the country which this tree enjoyed, that
it is said that

      "Only Harrow on the Hill plays Rex,
      And will have none more high in Middlesex."

"Essex Broad Oak" [where did that stand?] from which more than twenty
miles could be seen, is poetically declared to have been "but a twig" in
comparison with his relative at Hampstead; to find whose equal it is
stated that

      "You must as far as unto Bordeaux go."

There are other things worth remembering in connexion with this wonder
of Hampstead: but I have occupied already more than enough of your
space, and will only express my hope that some one will tell us where
the Hampstead tree stood, and what was its fate; and what is known about
the Essex Broad Oak; and what also about the Bordeaux compeer of the
tree monarch of Hampstead.


Minor Queries.

"_Inveni portum_"--"_For they, 'twas they._"--You will much oblige me by
permitting me to ask, through the medium of your entertaining
publication, from whence the two following quotations were cited:

        "Inveni portum.--Spes et fortuna valete:
        Sat me lusistis; ludite nunc alios."

      "For _they_, 'twas _they_, unsheath'd the ruthless blade,
      And Heav'n shall ask the havock it has made."

The first will be found in _Gil Blas_, livre 10ième, chapitre 10ième;
and the second is used by the renegade Paul Jones in his mock-heroic
epistle to the Countess of Selkirk, in extenuation of his having
plundered the family seat in Scotland of the plate, on the 23rd April,

I should not trouble you, but I have asked many, of extensive reading
and retentive memories, for solution of these Queries ineffectually.


_Matthew Walker._--Can any of your correspondents, learned in naval
antiquities and biographies, give any account of Matthew Walker, whose
knot (described and figured in Darcy Lever's _Sheet Anchor_) is known by
his name all over the world; and truly said to be "a handsome knot for
the end of a Lanyard?"


_Aleclenegate._--The east gate of the town of Bury St. Edmund's, which
was always under the exclusive control of the abbot, is sometimes
mentioned as "the Aleclenegate." What is the origin of the word?


_Smothering Hydrophobic Patients._--I can recollect, when I was a boy,
to have been much surprised and horrified with the accounts that old
people gave me, that it was the practice in decided cases of _rabies
canina_ to suffocate the unfortunate patient between feather beds. The
disease being so suddenly and so invariably fatal, where it appeared
unequivocally to attack the sufferer, might dispose the world to ascribe
the death to what surely may be termed foul play; but perhaps some of
your readers may be able to state where mention is made of such
treatment, or what could give rise to such an opinion in the public


_Philip Twisden, Bishop of Raphoe._--In Haydn's _Book of Dignities_, p.
475., there is the following note on the name of the prelate:--

  "Sir James Ware, or, more properly, the subsequent editors of his
  works, narrate some very extraordinary circumstances that rendered
  the close of the life of this prelate very remarkable and
  unfortunate; but we feel unwilling to transcribe them, though
  there seems to be no doubt of their truth."

As Sir James Ware died in 1666, and the latest edition of his work on
the Bishops of Ireland (by Walter Harris) was published in 1736, it is
impossible that either he, or his subsequent editors, could have
recorded anything of the last days of a prelate who died Nov. 2, 1752.

Mr. Haydn, however, speaks as if he had actually before him the
mysterious narrative which he has gone so far out of his way to allude
to, and which for some equally mysterious reason he was "unwilling to
transcribe," although he thought it necessary to call attention to it,
and to express his inclination to believe in its truth.

If this should meet his eye, would Mr. Haydn have the kindness to say
where he found the story in question, as it is certainly not in Ware? I
know of two stories, one of which is probably that to which Mr. Haydn
has called the attention of his readers; but I have never seen them
stated with such clearness, or on such authority, as would lead me to
the conclusion that "there seemed no doubt of their truth."


  Trinity College, Dublin.

_"Sir Edward Seaward's Narrative," edited by Miss Jane Porter._--I am in
possession of a copy of the above work, presented to my father by the
late amiable authoress, Miss Porter. It is, as you are no doubt aware, a
journal of adventure in the Carribean Sea and its islands, between 1733
and 1749; but on the publication of the first edition its authenticity
was questioned, and a suggestion made by some of the critics that the
editor was also the author. This, Miss Porter assured me was not the
fact, and that the work is a genuine diary, placed in her hands for
publication by the family, still existing, of the original writer. The
name I think she intimated was not _Seaward_, but she expressed some
hesitation to detail the circumstances of its coming into her
possession. She makes, in a preface to the second edition, an assurance
to the same effect as to the genuineness of the Narrative, and says the
author died _at his seat in Gloucestershire in the year 1774_.

Can any of your readers throw further light on this story, or inform who
the hero of the Narrative really was?


  Warwick Square, Belgravia.

_Clerical Members of Parliament._--In a note in p. 4. of _The Lexington
Papers_, recently published, mention is made of a Mr. Robert Sutton,
who, after having taken deacon's orders, and having accompanied his
relative, Lord Lexington, to Vienna, in the joint capacity of chaplain
and secretary, was, on his recall in 1697, appointed resident minister
at the Imperial Court; was subsequently sent as envoy extraordinary to
the Ottoman Porte; in 1720, succeeded Lord Stair as British minister at
Paris; in 1721, was elected M.P. for Notts; and in 1725, was created
Knight of the Bath. The editor adds this remark:

  "It is well known that holy orders were not at that time
  considered any disqualification for civil employments, but I do
  not recollect any other instance of a clerical Knight of the

Do you, Mr. Editor, or any of your readers, recollect any other instance
since the Reformation, of a _clerical member of parliament_, before the
celebrated one of Horne Tooke? Were any such instances quoted in the
debates on the bill for excluding clergymen from Parliament?


_Allens of Rossull._--Can any of you correspondents furnish me with the
arms borne by the Allens of Rossull and Redivales, Lancashire? Of this
family was the celebrated Cardinal Allen. Also the arms borne by the
Pendleburys, another Lancashire family?


_Number of the Children of Israel._--In Exod. xii. 37. it is stated that
the numbers of the children of Israel constituting the Exodus was
"600,000 men," "besides children." No specific mention is made of
_women_: it will be diminishing the difficulty if the 600,000 are
considered the aggregate of the adults of both sexes. It is said that
the time the Israelites remained in Egypt was 430 years (Ex. xii. 40.).
The number who were located in Egypt was seventy (Gen. xlvi. 27.). I
wish to ascertain from some competent statistician what, under the most
favourable circumstances, would be the increase of seventy people in 430
years? I am aware that Professor Lee, in his invaluable translation of
the Book of Job, is of opinion that 215 years is the time the Israelites
actually remained in Egypt; and the remainder must be considered the
previous time they were in Canaan. If the Professor's calculation be
adopted, the statistician could easily show the difference at 215 and
430 years.


_Computatio Eccles. Anglic._--In Bishop Burnet's "Hist. of the Reform.,"
vol. ii. of first folio edition, London, 1679, _Coll. of Records_, b.
ii. p. 100. No. XL. is "An instrument of the speech of the Archbishop of
Canterbury (Chicheley) made to the House of Commons about it," scilicet,
Statute of Provisors. It begins as follows:--

  "Die Veneris, penultimo mensis Januarii, A.D. _secundum cursum et
  computationem Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ_ millesimo quadringentesimo
  _decimo septimo_, indictione sexta, pontificatus.... Martini Papæ
  quinti anno undecimo."

Now as Martin V. was chosen Pope by the Council of Constance, November
11, 1417, his eleventh year would extend over January, 1428, and the
sixth indiction answers to the same year, which would, however, be
styled 1427 in ecclesiastical documents till March 25. Can the
Computatio Eccles. Anglic. mean anything more than a reference to the
distinction between the ecclesiastical and historical times of
commencing the year? If it does not, decimo septimo must be an error for
vicesimo septimo, made in transferring the numeral letters into words.
Has this error been corrected in subsequent editions of Burnet?


_Martinique._--Will any of your correspondents, acquainted with the
history of the French islands, inform me why was the island of
Martinique so called? English writers style the island _Martinico_, but
none have gone so far as to give the derivation or meaning of the word.


  St. Lucia.

_Objective and Subjective._--Will some of your intelligent readers deign
to enlighten a merely physical ignoramus as to the precise meaning
(always supposing there _be_ a meaning) of the oft-recurring words
"objective" and "subjective" ("omjective" and "sumjective," according to
Mr. Carlyle) in the Highgate "talk", supposed by sundry transcendental
sages of our day to be the expression of an almost inspired wisdom. _Is_
this exoteric jargon _translateable_ into intelligible English? or is it
not (as Chalmers called it, speaking _Scottice_) "all buff?" Most
assuredly he who really understands it (not _affects_ to understand it)
need not, as Southey used to say, be afraid of cracking peach-stones.


_Quarter Waggoner._--The master of a ship of war has the charge of
navigating her from port to port, under the direction of the captain;
and he is moreover charged to make what improvements he can in the
charts. Now the masters were sometimes rather slack in the latter
department, in which case they procured certificates from their captains
to the Navy Board, stating that they had seen nothing but what was
already in the general "Quarter Waggoner."

Can any of your correspondents describe this Quarter Waggoner? And, as
the master keeps the official _log_-book, can you kindly tell me how
that recondite volume came to be so designated?

    W. H. SMYTH.

_Sir Roger Wilcock._--Can any of your antiquarian readers favour me with
the armorial ensigns of Sir Roger Wilcock, knight, whose daughter and
heiress, Agnes, was wife to Sir Richard Turberville, of Coyty Castle, in
Glamorganshire, and by him mother of two sons, Sir Payn, afterwards Lord
of Coyty, and Wilcock Turberville, who by his wife Maud, heiress of
Tythegstone, in the same county, was ancestor of the Turbervilles of
that place, and of Penlline Castle.

The lineage of this ancient and knightly family of Turberville is not
given correctly in Burke's _Dictionary of the Landed Gentry_ for the
year 1847. The marriage of Christopher Turberville of Penlline (sheriff
for Glamorgan in 1549 and 1568) with Agnes Gwyn[5], heiress of Ryderwen
in the county of Caermarthen, and widow of Henry Vaughan, Esq., is
altogether omitted in Burke, and for the correctness of which see Lewis
Dwnn's _Heraldic Visitation into Wales and its Marches_, vol. ii. (near
the commencement) title "Ryderwen;" and in vol. i. of the same work, p.
140., title "Ystradcorwg," Catherine, the issue of that marriage, and
one of the daughters and coheiresses of Christopher Turberville, is
mentioned as the wife of David Lloyd of that place, in the parish of
Llanllawddog, co. Caermarthen, sheriff in 1590 and 1601. In further
corroboration of this, we find that the Lloyds of Glanguelly and
Ystradcorwg, descendants of the said marriage, ever afterwards quartered
the arms of Turberville, viz. "chequy or and gu. a fesse ermine," with
their own paternal shield. It is not improbable that the marriage of
Christopher Turberville with the aforementioned Agnes, _kinswoman of the
Rices_, may have had some influence in allaying the deadly animosity
which had previously existed between the rival houses of Dynevor and

  [Footnote 5: According to Lewis Dwnn, this Agnes Gwyn was daughter
  and coheiress (by Margaret his wife, daughter of Sir Rhys ab
  Thomas, K.G.) of Henry ab John of Ryderwen, son and heir (by
  Mabli, or Eva, his wife, daughter and coheiress of Henry ab
  Guilym, of Curt Henri and Llanlais, in the vale of Llangathen,
  Caermarthenshire) of John ab Henry (otherwise Penry), kinsman to
  the aforesaid Sir Rhys ab Thomas, and a branch of the Penrys of
  Llanelli, derived from a common origin with the ancient and noble
  house of Dynevor.]

Again, in vol. iv. of Burke's _History of the Commoners_ for the year
1838, Jenkyn Turberville of Tythegstone, fourth in descent from Wilcock
Turberville, is stated to have wedded Florence, daughter of Watkyn ab
Rasser Vaughan, and to have had issue by her two sons, Richard[6], who
continued the line at Tythegstone, and Jenkyn, father of the said
Christopher, of Penlline Castle, Glamorgan. By reference to Lewis Dwnn's
work, edited by the late talented and much lamented antiquary, Sir
Samuel Rush Meyrick, article "Vaughan of Bretwardine, co. Hereford, and
Pembrey Court, Caermarthenshire," we find that Jenkyn Turberville
married Denis, daughter of Watkyn ab Sir Roger Vaughan, knight, with the
following remark in Welsh: "Ag ni bu dim plant o Derbil iddi ag wedi
guraig Morgan ab Jenkyn gur Tre Dineg;" that is to say, "She had no
children by Turberville, and she afterwards became the wife of Morgan ab
Jenkyn,"--I presume, of Tredegar, in Monmouthshire. Is it not,
therefore, likely that he married twice; that his first wife was Cecil
Herbert, and the mother of his two sons?

  [Footnote 6: This gentleman had an ode addressed to him by the
  celebrated Welsh bard, Lewis of Glyn Cothi.--Vide Burke's work.]

A correct lineage of the Turbervilles, with the ensigns they were
entitled to quarter, down to Christopher Turberville's co-heiress
Catherine, the wife of David Lloyd, would greatly oblige.

    W. G. T. T.


_Ruffles, when worn._--At what time did the fashion of wearing ruffles
come in? and when did it go out?

Many persons living at the present time remember their being generally
worn in respectable, and occasionally in what may be called minor life.

The clergy did not wear them.

So general was their use in the early part of the reign of George III.,
that the Rev. William Cole, of Milton, in the account of his Journey to
France, in 1765, says he was taken for an English clergyman because he
did not wear them, and in consequence addressed "M. l'Abbé."

_Dr. John Ash._--I should feel exceedingly obliged by information
respecting the birth-place and early history of Dr. John Ash, formerly
an eminent physician practising in Birmingham, and the founder of the
General Hospital in that town. He was a graduate of Trinity College,
Oxford; his doctor's degree was taken in 1764. He died at Brompton,
Knightsbridge, in 1798. Every available source has been searched in vain
for information on this subject. It is required for literary purposes.


Minor Queries Answered.

_Mutabilitie of France._--Upon the books at Stationers' Hall, Lib. C.,
under the year 1597, 20th April, Thomas Creed entered _A Treatise of the
Mutabilitie of Fraunce from the yeare of our Lorde 1460 untill the
yeare of our Lorde 1595_. Can any of your readers say in what library a
copy of this treatise can be found?


  [A copy is in the Bodleian library. The full title is, "The
  Mutable and Wavering Estate of France, from 1460 to 1595; together
  with an Account of the Great Battles of the French Nation both at
  Home and Abroad. 4to. Lond. Tho. Creede, 1597."]

_Caldoriana Societas._--A copy of the Latin Bible of Junius and
Tremellius, now in my possession, has on the title:

      "Sancti Gervasii, 1607.
      "Sumptibus Caldorianæ Societatis."

Will you kindly inform me who constituted this body, and why they were
so called?


  [Cotton, in his _Typographical Gazetteer_, has given the following
  notices of this body:--

  "Caldoriana Societas, qu. at Basle or Geneva? An edition of
  Calepine's _Lexicon_, fol. 1609, bears for imprint _Sumptibus
  Caldorianæ Societatis_." "An edition of the controversies between
  Pope Paul V. and the Venetians, bears for imprint, 'In Villa
  Sanvincentiana apud Paulum Marcellum, sumptibus Caldorianæ
  Societatis, anno 1607,' but is by no means of Spanish workmanship.
  I rather judge that the whole of the tracts connected with this
  business, which profess to have been printed at various places, as
  Augsburg, Saumur, Rome, Venice, &c., have their origin in the Low
  Countries, and proceeded from the presses of Antwerp, Rotterdam,
  or the Hague."]

_Millers of Meath._--The millers of the county of Meath, in Ireland,
keep St. Martin's day as a holiday. Why?


  [Because of the honour paid to St. Martin in the Western Church,
  whose festival had an octave. Formerly it was denominated
  Martinalia, and was held with as much festivity as the Vinalia of
  the Romans. Among old ecclesiastical writers, it usually obtained
  the title of the Second Bacchanal:

      "Altera Martinus dein Bacchanalia præbet;
      Quem colit anseribus populus multoque Lyæo."

      Thomas Naogeorgus, _De Regno Pont_.

  Thus translated by Barnabie Googe:

      "To belly cheare yet once again doth Martin more encline,
      Whom all the people worshippeth with rosted geese and wine."]

_Kissing under the Mistletoe._--What is the origin of kissing under the

    AN M.D.

  [Why Roger claims the privilege to kiss Margery under the
  mistletoe at Christmas, appears to have baffled our antiquaries.
  Brand states, that this druidic plant never entered our sacred
  edifices but by mistake, and consequently assigns it a place in
  the kitchen, where, says he, "it was hung up in great state, with
  its white berries; and whatever female chanced to stand under it,
  the young man present either had a right, or claimed one, of
  saluting her, and of plucking off a berry at each kiss." Nares,
  however, makes it rather ominous for the fair sex not to be
  saluted under the famed _Viscum album_. He says, "The custom
  longest preserved was the handing up of a bush of mistletoe in the
  kitchen, or servants' hall, with the charm attached to it, that
  the maid who was not kissed under it at Christmas, would not be
  married in that year."]

_Trinity Chapel, Knightsbridge._--Was Trinity Chapel, Knightsbridge,
which has been rebuilt several times, ever parochial? Can I be referred
to any memoir of the Rev. ---- Gamble, Chaplain to H. R. H. the Duke of
York, who in the early part of the present century was minister of it?

    H. G. D.

  [The chapel, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, belonged originally to
  an ancient hospital, or lazar-house, under the patronage of the
  abbot and convent of Westminster. It was rebuilt in 1629, at the
  cost of the inhabitants, by a license from Dr. Laud, then Bishop
  of London, as a chapel of ease to St. Martin's-in-the-Fields,
  within the precincts of which parish it was situated; but the site
  was subsequently assigned to the parish of St. George, Hanover
  Square, and at present forms a part of that of Kensington. The
  Rev. J. Gamble was minister of this chapel in 1794-5; in 1796 he
  was appointed chaplain of the forces, and in 1799 rector of
  Alphamstone, and also of Bradwell-juxta-Mare, in Essex. In 1805 he
  was married to Miss Lathom of Madras, by whom he had a son. His
  death took place at Knightsbridge, July 27, 1811.]

"_Please the Pigs._"--Whence have we this very _free_ translation of Deo


  [This colloquial phrase is generally supposed to be a corruption
  of "Please the _Pyx_," a vessel in which the Host is kept. By an
  easy metonymy, the vessel is substituted for the Host itself, in
  the same manner as when we speak, in parliamentary language, of
  "the sense of the _House_,"--we refer not to the bricks and
  stones, but to the opinion of its honourable members.]

_Meaning of Barnacles._--Can any of your readers throw any light on the
term "barnacles," which is constantly used for "spectacles"? I need not
say that the word in the singular number is the name of a shell-fish.


  [Phillips, in his _World of Words_, tells us that "among farriers,
  _barnacles_, _horse-twitchers_, or _brakes_, are tools put on the
  nostrils of horses when they will not stand still to be shoed,"
  &c.; and the figure of the barnacle borne in heraldry (not
  barnacle goose, which is a distinct bearing), as engraved in
  Parker's _Glossary of Heraldry_, sufficiently shows why the term
  has been transferred to spectacles, which it must be remembered
  were formerly only kept on by the manner in which they clipped the

_The Game of Curling._--As an enthusiastic lover of curling, I have been
trying for some time past to discover any traces of the origin of the
game, and the earliest mention made of it: but, I am sorry to say,
without success.

I should therefore feel much obliged to any of your correspondents who
could inform me concerning the origin of this game, and also any works
which may treat of it.



  [Appended to Dr. Brewster's account of curling, quoted in the
  _Encyclopædia Metropolitana_, vol. xvii. p. 469., occurs the
  following historical notice of this winter amusement:--"Curling is
  a comparatively modern amusement in Scotland, and does not appear
  to have been introduced till the beginning of the sixteenth
  century, when it probably was brought over by the emigrant
  Flemings. It was originally known under the name of _kuting_,
  which perhaps is a corruption of the Teutonic _kleuyten_,
  _kalluyten_, rendered by Kilian in his _Dictionary_, _ludere
  massis sive globulis glaciatis, certare discis in æquore
  glaciatâ_. In Canada it has become a favourite amusement, on
  account of the great length of the winters."]



(Vol. iv., p. 475.)

Your correspondent Σ asks for information about St. Irene or
St. Erini, from whom he thinks the Island of Santorin in the Grecian
Archipelago acquired its name; and in reply, you have referred him to
Smith's _Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography_, for particulars of
the canonized Empress Irene.

But Σ is, I suspect, mistaken in supposing Santorin to be
indebted either to saint or empress for its present appellation;
although he errs in company with Tournefort and a succession of later
geographical etymologists, who in this instance have trusted too much
to their _ear_ as an authority. Another correspondent in the same
number, F. W. S. (p. 470.), has directed attention to a peculiarity
in the formation of the modern names of places in Greece, the theory
of which will guide Σ to the real derivation of the word
Santorin. F. W. S. states truly that many of the recent names have been
constructed by prefixing the preposition εἰς to the ancient
one; thus ATHENS, εἰς τὰς Ἀθήνας, became _Satines_, and COS,
εἰς τὴν Κῶν, _Stanco_. Lord Byron has explained this origin
of the alteration in one of the notes to _Childe Harold_, I think; but
I apprehend that the barbarism is to be charged less upon the modern
Greeks themselves, than upon the European races, Sclavonians, Normans,
and Venetians, and later still the Turks, who seized upon their country
on the dismemberment of the Lower Empire. The Greeks themselves no doubt
continued to spell their proper names correctly; but their invaders,
ignorant of their orthography, and even of their letters, were forced
to write the names of places in characters of their own, and guided
solely by the sound. _Negropont_, the modern name of Euboea, is
a notable instance of this. In the desolation which followed the Roman
conquest, Euboea, as described by Pausanias and Dion, had become almost
deserted, and, on its partial revival under the Eastern Empire, the old
name of Euboea was abandoned, and the whole island took the name of
Euripus, from a new town built on the shore of that remarkable strait.
This, pronounced by the Greeks, Evripos, the Venetians, on their arrival
in the thirteenth century, first changed into Egripo and _Negripo_, and
next into Negro-_ponte_, after they had built a bridge across the
Euripus. This last name, the island retains to the present time. Another
familiar example is the modern name of Byzantium, _Stamboul_, by which
both Greeks and Turks now speak of Constantinople. The Romans called
their capital par excellence "the city" (in which, by the way, we
ourselves imitate them when speaking of London). Among the ancient Jews,
in like manner, to "go to the city," ὑπάγετε εἰς τὴν πόλιν,
meant to go to Jerusalem (Matt., xxvi. 18., xxviii. 11.; Mark, xiv. 13.;
Luke, xxii. 10.; John, iv. 18.; Acts, ix. 16.). The Greeks of the Lower
Empire followed the example in speaking of Constantinople; and the
Turks, on their conquest in the fifteenth century, adopting the
provincialism, wrote εἰς τὴν πόλιν, _Istampoli_, and thence
followed Istambol and Stamboul. The same theory will explain the modern
word Santorin, about which your correspondent Σ requests
information. The ancient name was _Thera_, and by this the island is
described both by Herodotus and Strabo, and later still by Pliny.
_Thera_, submitted to the usual process, became, from εἰς τὴν
Θήραν, _Stantheran_, _Santeran_, and finally _Santorin_. In the
latter form it almost invited a saintly pedigree, and accordingly
"Richard," a Jesuit, whose work I have seen, but cannot now consult,
wrote, about two centuries ago, his _Relation de l'Isle de St. Erini_,
in which, for the glory of the Church, he explains that the island
obtained its name, not from the Empress Irene, but from a Saint Erine,
whom he describes as the daughter of a Macedonian prefect, and from
whom he says it was called Νῆσος τῆς Ἁγίας Εἰρήνης. I incline,
however, to etymology rather than hagiology for the real derivation.



(Vol. iv., pp. 305. 426.)

My "NOTES AND QUERIES" coming to me monthly, I am as yet in ignorance
whether any of your numerous correspondents have answered my inquiry
(Vol. iv., p. 306.): "Whether the portraits of 'the old Countess of
Desmond,' at Knowle, Bedgebury, or Penshurst, correspond with my
description of that in the possession of the Knight of Kerry?" I have
since met a painter of eminence, who assures me that Horace Walpole's
criticism is correct, and that the portraits commonly known as those of
the Countess are really the likeness of "Rembrandt's mother." If they be
identified with that I have described, the idea that we possess a
"counterfeit presentment" of this ancient lady, must, I fear, be given
up as a delusion.

But the lady herself remains a "great fact," and a physiological
curiosity; and there is yet a subject for inquiry respecting her. We may
identify her on the herald's tree, if not on the painter's board or
canvas. _Who was she?_ In attempting to discuss this question, I must
not take a merit which does not belong to me in any thing. I may say I
am but following out the original research of an accurate and
accomplished antiquary, Mr. Samthell of Cork, of whose curious _Olla
Podrida_ (privately printed) I possess, by his favour, a copy, which
contains a paper on this subject originally read before "The Cork
Cuvierian Society." This paper, together with some MSS. notes of Sir
William Betham, Ulster king-at-arms, furnish my text-book; and I have
little more to do than correct some mistakes, which appear to me so
obvious, that I think they must arise from slips of the pen, or _slops_
of that most teasing confounder of dates and figures, _the
printer_,--who can so often, by merely dipping into a wrong cell of
type, set us wrong by a century or two in a calculation.

All authorities are agreed in fixing on "Margret O'Bryen, wife of James,
9th Earl of Desmond," as the long-lived individual in question. Sir
Walter Raleigh, by calling her "The old Countess of Desmond, of
_Inchiquin_," determines the fact of her being of the O'Bryen
race,--Inchiquin being the feudal territory of the O'Bryens. There was
more than one intermarriage between the Desmond earls and the O'Bryen
family; but none of them include all the conditions for identifying the
"old Countess," except that I have specified.

We now come to _dates_: and here it is that I have the presumption to
question the conclusions of the two eminent antiquaries on whose
researches I am remarking.

"James Fitzgerald, ninth Earl of Desmond, was murdered by John Montagh
Fitzgerald, of Clenglish, A.D. 1467, ætat 29," says one of my
authorities. "The old Countess bore the title only for a few months, for
she became dowager on the murder of her husband in 1467 (_not_ 1487),"
adds my second authority. These are formidable _dicta_, coming from such
sources; and if I venture to question them, it is only under pressure of
such circumstances and authorities, as at least demand a hearing.

I think both these gentlemen confound the _murder_ of James, the ninth
Earl of Desmond, with the _execution_ of his father, Thomas, the eighth
Earl, who, according to all annals and authorities, was beheaded at
Drogheda in the year 1467. Of this fact there can be no question. Ware
gives it in his _Annals_, stating that "John Tiptoft, Earl of Worcester,
called a parliament at Drogheda, and passed a certain enactment, in
virtue of which "the great Earl of Desmond was beheaded, 15th of
February, 1467." We find the very act itself (in the _Cotton MSS.
Titus_, B. xi. 373.) headed and running as follows:--"VII. Edw. Quarti"
(1467). "Pur diverses causes, horribles treisons et felonies prepensez,
et faitez per _Thomas_ Count de Desmond, et Thomas Count de Kildar," &c.

We now proceed with _Ware_ to the date 1487, and he writes thus:--"On
the 7th of December, James Fitz-Thomas, a Geraldine, and Earl of
Desmond, who, for almost twenty-_eight_ (?) years flourished in wealth
and power, was suddenly and cruelly murdered by his servants in his
house at Rathkeale in the county of Limerick." "This James dying without
issue, at least issue male, his brother Morrish succeeded him; by whom,
_John Mantagh_, the chief contriver of that murder, was soon after taken
and slain." Here is a distinct statement from an annalist which may be
contradicted by facts, but cannot be misunderstood as to meaning.

The more I look at Mr. Samthell's account, the more I am disposed to
consider the date he gives as a slip of the pen, or the result of that
kind of confusion into which the most accurate mind will sometimes fall,
from _too long_ and _intense_ consideration of the same point. I say
this, because his own statements furnish at every step matter to confute
his own conclusions: thus, he says, "Supposing the old Countess to have
been _eighteen_ at her husband's death (and the Irish marry young), she
would have been 140 years old in 1589." This calculation plainly
_assumes_ the death to have taken place in 1467; but in a passage
further on he says, "It will be remembered, that Thomas, _eighth_ Earl
of Desmond, _father to Margret O'Bryen's husband_, was Lord Deputy of
Ireland for the Duke Clarence, brother to Edw. IV., from 1462 to 1467!"
And again, giving some brief notices of the earls from "A Pedigree of
Sir William Betham's," he sets down, "8th earl, Thomas, beheaded A.D.
1467; 9th earl, James (son of Thomas), murdered A.D. 1467;"--overlooking
the fact, which would have been in itself _memorable_, that he makes the
beheading of the father, and the murder of the son, to have taken place
in the same year! Although I cannot ascertain whence Mr. Pelham took the
dates which he has given in his print, I have no hesitation in adopting
them, as agreeing best with all the probable circumstances of the case;
he places Margret O'Bryen's birth in 1464, her death _somewhere_ from
1620 to 1626; this would sufficiently tally with the opinion, that she
was left a young widow at her husband's death in 1487, and agree with
Sir Walter Raleigh's statement, that she "was living in 1589," and
"_many years afterwards_." Lord Bacon's express words are, "_Certainly
they report that within these few years_ the Countess of Desmond lived
to an hundred and forty years of age." These words occur in his _History
of Life and Death_, published in 1623, and add to the probability that
the old lady was either lately dead, or that possibly, in the little
intercourse between London and remote parts of the empire at that
period, she might be _even then_ alive, without his knowledge.

I submit these speculations to correction; and in venturing to dispute
the conclusions of the authorities I have named, I feel myself somewhat
in the position of a dwarf, who, climbing on the shoulder of a giant,
should assume the airs of a tall man; but for the encouragement and
assistance of the gentlemen I have named, I should probably never have
known how even to state a genealogical or antiquarian question. I shall
conclude by committing myself to your printer's mercy, trusting that he
will be too magnanimous to take notice of my remarks on the "slip-slop"
printing of figures, which will sometimes occur in the best offices; if
he should misprint my figures, all my facts will fall to the ground.

    A. B. R.


In the Birch Collections at the British Museum there is a transcript of
a Table-Book of Robert Sydney, second Earl of Leicester, made by Birch
(_Add. MSS. 4161._), the following extract from which, P. C. S. S.
believes will not be unacceptable to the readers of "NOTES AND QUERIES:"

  "The olde Countess of Desmond was a marryed woman in Edward IV.'s
  time, of England, and lived till towards the end of Queen
  Elizabeth, soe as she needes must be 140 yeares old: shee had a
  newe sett of teeth not long before her death, and might have lived
  much longer, had shee not mett with a kind of violent death; for
  she must needes climb a nutt-tree to gather nutts, soe falling
  downe, shee hurt her thigh, which brought a fever, and that fever
  brought death. This my cosen Walter Fitzwilliam told me. This olde
  lady, Mr. Harnet told me, came to petition the Queen, and landing
  at Bristol, shee came on foote to London, being then soe olde that
  her doughter was decrepit, and not able to come with her, but was
  brought in a little cart, their poverty not allowing them better
  provision of meanes. As I remember, Sir Walter Rowleigh, in some
  part of his _History_, speakes of her, and says that he saw her in
  England, anno 1589. Her death was as strange and remarkable as her
  long life was,--having seene the deaths of so many descended from
  her; and both her own and her husband's house ruined in the
  rebellion and wars."

    P. C. S. S.


(Vol. ii., p. 140.; Vol. iv., pp. 147. 236. 456.)

In my communication to you in August, 1850, and inserted as above, I
stated that I was uncertain whether the collar of SS. was worn by the
Chief Baron of the Exchequer previously to the reign of George I., as I
had no portrait of that functionary of an earlier date.

I have since found, and I ought to have sent you the fact before, that
the Chief Baron, as well as the two Chief Justices, was decorated with
this collar in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. In the church of St.
Stephen's, near Canterbury, is the monument of Sir Roger Manwood, who
died Lord Chief Baron on December 14, 1592, on which his bust appears in
full judicial robes (colored proper), over which he wears the collar in
its modern form.


Was the collar of SS. worn by persons under a vow to make a pilgrimage
to the Holy Land, or to join a crusade, the S. being the initial letter
of Sépulcre, or SS. for Saint Sépulcre? The appearance of the
above-mentioned collar on the effigy of a person in the habit of a
pilgrim in the church of Ashby-de-la-Zouch (see "NOTES AND QUERIES,"
Vol. iv., p. 345.), so strongly confirms the idea, that I beg leave to
offer it to the consideration of any readers of the "NOTES AND QUERIES"
who may be interested in the question.

    E. J. M.

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Tregonwell Frampton_ (Vol. iv., p. 474.).--Noble mentions two
engravings of this gentleman in the _Continuation to Granger_, vol. ii.
p. 387., from a portrait by J. Wootton; the oldest, by J. Faber,
describes him as "Royal Studkeeper at Newmarket;" the other, dated 1791,
by J. Jones, styles him "the Father of the Turf;" and his death in 1728,
æt. eighty-six, is recorded on a monument in the parish church of All
Saints, Newmarket, as well as the circumstance of his having been keeper
of the running horses to King William III. and his three royal

Frampton, according to Noble, who quotes from some other author, was a
thorough good groom only, yet would have made a good minister of state
had he been trained to it, and no one in his day was so well acquainted
with the pedigrees of race-horses. I am not aware of there being any
reference to Tregonwell Frampton in the _Rambler_, but he has frequently
been denounced as the author of an unparalleled act of barbarity to a
race-horse, which is detailed in the _Adventurer_, No. 37., as
delicately as such a subject would permit. In justice to the accused I
must say, that I always considered the story as physically impossible;
and had this not been the case, it cannot be credited that the author
of so great an enormity could have been continued in the service of the
Crown. Still the essayist, who wrote nearly a century ago, thus closes
his recital:--

  "When I had heard this horrid narrative, _which indeed I
  remembered to be true_, I turned about in honest confusion, and
  blushed that I was a man."

I hope some of your correspondents may be able to clear Frampton from
the dreadful imputation.


_Longueville MSS._ (Vol. iii., p. 449.).--This collection (of 187
volumes) is better known by the name of the _Yelverton MSS._, from
having belonged to Sir Christopher Yelverton, Bart., who died in 1654,
and whose son Henry (by Susan, Baroness Grey of Ruthin) was created
Viscount Longueville in 1690. From him (who died in 1704) these MSS.
descended to his grandson, Henry, third Earl of Sussex, who deceased in
1799 without male issue. In April, 1781, this collection of MSS. (then
stated to consist of 179 volumes, and eight wanting to complete the
series) was offered for purchase to the trustees of the British Museum
for 3000 guineas, and declined. The loss of these eight volumes is
accounted for by a note of Gough (written in 1788), in Nichols'
_Literary Anecdotes_, vol. iii. p. 622., by which it appears, that in
1784 the collection was submitted to sale by public auction; but "_after
the sale of a few lots_, the sale was stopped." Gough adds, "They were
all given by Lord Sussex to Lord Calthorpe, whose mother was of that
family [Barbara, eldest daughter of Henry, Viscount Longueville], and at
his death had not been opened, nor perhaps since." These MSS. are now, I
believe, in the possession of the present Lord Calthorpe.

    F. MADDEN.

_Cooper's Miniature of Cromwell_ (Vol. iv., p. 368.).--The miniature of
Oliver Cromwell, inquired for by LORD BRAYBROOKE, I think was shown to
me at a party in London, about five or six years since, by Mr.
Macgregor, M.P.,--at least I suppose it to be the same, though I had
forgotten the name of the painter; but Mr. Macgregor prized it very
highly, as being the only original miniature of Cromwell, and I think he
said it was the one that had belonged to Sir Joshua Reynolds. This
slight recollection of having seen it, is almost too vague to be worth
alluding to, but as no one appears to have replied to the inquiry, it
may lead to connecting the true history to the miniature, and thereby
enhance its value.


_Pope and Flatman_ (Vol. iv., p. 505.).--Your readers will probably be
tired of the subject, still MR. BREEN may like to know that the
resembling passages in the two copies in question, are quoted with the
names of the authors in the sixty-third number of _The Adventurer_,
dated _June 12, 1753_, and Pope is directly accused of _having copied
from one of the vilest Pindaric writers, in the time of Charles II._

The same paper, and a subsequent one, No. 95., contain some excellent
remarks upon the allegation of resemblance between authors, and the
charge of plagiarism so frequently raised upon it, but not always to be
allowed with equal readiness.

In conclusion, let me express a wish, that the essays which I have
pointed out could be perused by some of your correspondents, because I
am convinced that we should in future have fewer discussions on parallel
passages, which seldom possess much real interest, and frequently have a
tendency to injure the fair fame of our most gifted writers, by calling
in question their literary honesty without establishing the charge
brought against them.


_Voltaire_ (Vol. iv., p. 457.).--Your correspondent J. R. is quite
correct as to the name "Voltaire" being an anagram of "Arouet L. J." The
fact, however, was first made public by M. Lepan in the _Détails
Préliminaires sur les Biographies de Voltaire_, prefixed to his _Vie
Politique, Littéraire et Morale de Voltaire_, many years before the
communications to the _Gentleman's Magazine_ and the _Dublin Review_,
referred to by your correspondent.

Your correspondent states that "Voltaire _was a little partial_ to his
paternal name,"[7] and oddly enough gives two extracts from his letters
to L'Abbé Moussinot, which prove the very contrary. Those extracts are
_also_ to be found in M. Lepan's work, who has adduced them to show "son
_mépris_ pour son nom de famille." _Vie de Voltaire_, p. 11. edit. 1817.


  [Footnote 7: This was a misprint for "_so little partial_."--ED.]

_Tudur Aled_ (Vol. iv., p. 384.).--Your correspondent A STUDENT will
find _nine_ poems by Tudur Aled, including the famous description of the
Horse, in a 4to. collection of ancient Kymric poetry, published at
Amwythig, in 1773, by Rhys Jones. It is entitled _Gorchestion Beirdd
Cymrit_. Should A STUDENT wish to extend his acquaintance with this old
bard, he will find other poems of his among the Welsh MSS. in the
British Museum, in vols. 14,866. _et seq._

    T. S.

_Latin Verse on Franklin_ (Vol. iv., p. 443.).--The verse "Eripuit
coelo," &c., seems to be a parody of the following lines of Manilius
(_Astronom._ I. 105.):--

      "Eripuitque Jovi fulmen, viresque tonanti."

I am unable, however, to say who adapted these words to Franklin's
career. Was it Condorcet?


The inscription--

      "Eripuit coelo fulmen, sceptrumque tyrannis"

under Franklin's portrait, was written by Mirabeau.




When Mr. Wilkin, in the year 1836, gave to the world an edition of the
works of his illustrious townsman, Sir Thomas Browne, the critics were
unanimous in their praise both of the undertaking and of the manner in
which the editor had executed his task. It was felt that the writings of
so great a man--of one on whose style Johnson is supposed to have formed
his own--and whose _Religio Medici_ he eulogized for "the novelty of the
paradoxes, the dignity of sentiment, the quick succession of images, the
multitude of abstruse allusions, the subtlety of disquisition, and the
strength of language" to be found in it, ought to be made better known;
and Mr. Wilkin's endeavour to make them so was lauded as it deserved.
That attempt, however, was but feeble compared with the one now making
by Mr. Bohn, who has undertaken to reproduce Mr. Wilkin's excellent
edition of _The Works of Sir Thomas Browne_ in his _Antiquarian
Library_. The first volume, containing Four Books of his _Enquiries into
Common and Vulgar Errors_, has been issued; and, we need scarcely add,
forms one which is not surpassed for learning, interest, or
instructions, by any other in the very cheap and useful series to which
it belongs.

One of the most popular branches of botanical study at the present day
is that of our British Ferns, from the very obvious causes--that they
are objects of exquisite elegance--not very numerous, nor difficult to
be procured--and, lastly, which may well account for their popularity
with the dwellers in towns, who yet love to "babble of green fields" and
be reminded of them--they are for the most part easily cultivated, and
of all others are perhaps best adapted to parlour or window culture. Who
then can doubt that, in preparing _A Popular History of the British
Ferns and the allied Plants, comprising the Club-Mosses, Pepperworts,
and Horse Tails_ (with its fifty admirable coloured representations of
the most interesting species), Mr. Moore has done good service to the
numerous fern growers already existing, and much to promote the further
study of this highly interesting division of the vegetable world.
Messrs. Reeve and Benham deserve great credit for the way in which they
have seconded Mr. Moore's efforts, by the admirable manner in which the
book has been got up.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_The Traveller's Library_, Part 13., containing two
more of Mr. Macaulay's brilliant Essays, namely, those _On the Life and
Writings of Addison, and on Horace Walpole_.--_Travels in Tartary,
Thibet, and China during the Years 1844, '45, and '46_, by M. Huc:
_translated from the French_, by W. Hazlitt. Vol. 1.--_Pictures of
Travels in the South of France_, by Alexandre Dumas. These are two new
volumes of the _National Illustrated Library_, and very interesting
ones. The value of M. Huc's Travels in China may be judged of from the
fact, that Sir John Davis having received some notes of them, considered
them so interesting that he thought it right to embody them in a
despatch to Lord Palmerston.--_The Mother's Legacie to her Unborne
Childe._ By Elizabeth Joceline. _Reprinted from the Edition of 1625,
with Biographical and Historical Introduction._ We may content ourselves
with acknowledging the receipt of this handsome reprint, by the Messrs.
Blackwood, as it forms the subject of a communication from the
correspondent who first drew attention to this interesting volume in N.
& Q., which we hope to print next week.--_Archæologia Cambrensis for
January, 1852._ This is an excellent number; and if this record of the
antiquities of Wales and its Marches does not meet with the support not
only of the antiquaries, but also of the gentry of the principality, it
will be a national reproach to them.



A SERMON preached at Fulham in 1810 by the REV. JOHN OWEN of Paglesham,
on the death of Mrs. Prowse, Wicken Park, Northamptonshire (Hatchard).



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[Transcriber's Note: List of volumes and content pages in "Notes and
Queries", Vol. I.-IV.]

      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx |
      | Vol. IV No.  88 | July  5, 1851      |   1- 15 | PG # 37548 |
      | Vol. IV No.  89 | July 12, 1851      |  17- 31 | PG # 37568 |
      | Vol. IV No.  90 | July 19, 1851      |  33- 47 | PG # 37593 |
      | Vol. IV No.  91 | July 26, 1851      |  49- 79 | PG # 37778 |
      | Vol. IV No.  92 | August  2, 1851    |  81- 94 | PG # 38324 |
      | Vol. IV No.  93 | August  9, 1851    |  97-112 | PG # 38337 |
      | Vol. IV No.  94 | August 16, 1851    | 113-127 | PG # 38350 |
      | Vol. IV No.  95 | August 23, 1851    | 129-144 | PG # 38386 |
      | Vol. IV No.  96 | August 30, 1851    | 145-167 | PG # 38405 |
      | Vol. IV No.  97 | Sept.  6, 1851     | 169-183 | PG # 38433 |
      | Vol. IV No.  98 | Sept. 13, 1851     | 185-200 | PG # 38491 |
      | Vol. IV No.  99 | Sept. 20, 1851     | 201-216 | PG # 38574 |
      | Vol. IV No. 100 | Sept. 27, 1851     | 217-246 | PG # 38656 |
      | Vol. IV No. 101 | Oct.  4, 1851      | 249-264 | PG # 38701 |
      | Vol. IV No. 102 | Oct. 11, 1851      | 265-287 | PG # 38773 |
      | Vol. IV No. 103 | Oct. 18, 1851      | 289-303 | PG # 38864 |
      | Vol. IV No. 104 | Oct. 25, 1851      | 305-333 | PG # 38926 |
      | Vol. IV No. 105 | Nov.  1, 1851      | 337-358 | PG # 39076 |
      | Vol. IV No. 106 | Nov.  8, 1851      | 361-374 | PG # 39091 |
      | Vol. IV No. 107 | Nov. 15, 1851      | 377-396 | PG # 39135 |
      | Vol. IV No. 108 | Nov. 22, 1851      | 401-414 | PG # 39197 |
      | Vol. IV No. 109 | Nov. 29, 1851      | 417-430 | PG # 39233 |
      | Vol. IV No. 110 | Dec.  6, 1851      | 433-460 | PG # 39338 |
      | Vol. IV No. 111 | Dec. 13, 1851      | 465-478 | PG # 39393 |
      | Vol. IV No. 112 | Dec. 20, 1851      | 481-494 | PG # 39438 |
      | Vol. IV No. 113 | Dec. 27, 1851      | 497-510 | PG # 39503 |
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]             | PG # 13536 |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850     | PG # 13571 |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851     | PG # 26770 |
      | INDEX TO THE FOURTH VOLUME. JULY-DEC., 1851    | PG # 40166 |

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+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.