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Title: Journal of a Horticultural Tour through Germany, Belgium, and part of France, in the Autumn of 1835 - To which is added, a Catalogue of the different Species - of Cacteæ in the Gardens at Woburn Abbey.
Author: Forbes, James
Language: English
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   OF A








   M. OTTO,






The continental gardens and botanical collections having been rarely
visited by the British gardener, his Grace the Duke of Bedford, with his
usual anxiety for the promotion of useful knowledge, very liberally and
kindly proposed in the autumn of 1835 that I should undertake a
Horticultural Tour, through several parts of Germany, Belgium, and
France, with a view of inspecting the different collections and
productions cultivated in some of the most celebrated horticultural
establishments in these countries.

The notes which are now submitted to the public contain a cursory detail
of the various gardens and objects that came under my observation
during a tour occupying a space of eight weeks,--a period of time which
the reader will readily understand required the utmost diligence on my
part to fulfil the objects I had in view. Yet I was enabled to
investigate such modes of culture as were adopted in the principal
gardens, where the produce appeared in any way superior to our own; to
become thoroughly acquainted with the different systems practised at
various seasons of the year would have required an actual residence of
many months.

In the mode of forcing fruits and management of the kitchen garden
department, the English gardener will find but little abroad superior to
what he is daily accustomed to see at home. It must however be observed
that the zeal and anxiety displayed throughout Germany in the
cultivation and increase of their collections of plants are in no way
inferior to our own. In fact, in succulent plants they far surpass us;
more particularly in their collections of Cacteæ, which appeared to be a
favourite tribe in the principal establishments on the continent. They
are certainly deserving of a more extensive cultivation in this country
than they have hitherto obtained. Their various shapes, numerous spines,
angles, and the splendid flowers of many of the species, form an
interesting and pleasing addition to our botanical establishments; and
of all plants requiring the protection of the greenhouse and artificial
heat, the Cacteæ may be cultivated at the least expense, and exact less
attendance than is generally requisite for hothouse plants. The Palmæ
are also extensively cultivated throughout the continent, and
notwithstanding many of them are planted in gloomy habitations they were
in general very healthy, and evidently more suitable inhabitants for
such structures than the deciduous or hard-wooded species. The hothouses
erected for the cultivation of plants throughout the Prussian dominions
consist of opaque roofs, furnished only with upright lights, which are
ill adapted for the flowering or bringing to perfection many of the
tender species.

In most parts of Germany the pleasure grounds are very deficient in
evergreens, frost being so intense in that country that the
_Rhododendron ponticum_, _Arbutus_, _Laurustinus_, _Daphne_, _Portugal_,
and even common _Laurel_, require the protection of the greenhouse
during the winter season. If these grounds, however, are deficient in
evergreens, they are richly decorated, in most instances, with
ornamental vases, statues, and numerous groups of fine sculpture, which
contribute greatly to the embellishment of a pleasure-ground. As far as
architecture and sculpture are concerned, the continental royal gardens
far surpass those in England; but there did not appear to me in the
quarters I visited to be a spirit for garden-improvement equal to that
which is so generally prevalent in this country.

It now only remains for me to take this opportunity of returning my
thanks to those whose kindness afforded me considerable facilities in
viewing the different gardens described in this tour; they are, however,
more especially due to those horticulturists of Germany by whose
liberality I have been enabled to add above six hundred new and curious
plants to the splendid collection at Woburn Abbey, entrusted to my care;
and I must add, that I found a cheerful inclination, in most instances,
to enter into a correspondence for the mutual exchange of plants and
seeds. The few remarks on different objects, not immediately connected
with Horticulture, which I have ventured to introduce, will it is hoped
be received with that indulgence which my imperfect acquaintance with
such matters may require.

J. F.

   OF A
   IN 1835.

August 19th. Left the Custom House at six o'clock, a. m., by the William
Joliffe steam-packet, for Hamburgh; but having a strong easterly wind
a-head, we did not pass the sunk light until a little past four o'clock
in the afternoon.

20th. Sailing at the rate of six miles per hour; still a strong easterly
wind a-head, but a beautiful day, and the sky clear from clouds; about
twelve o'clock we were about twenty-five miles off the Texel, with a
fresh breeze still right a-head.

21st. A beautiful day, but the wind still continuing against us, we
sailed only at the rate of seven miles per hour. About nine o'clock in
the morning the small isle of Heligoland made its appearance, much to
the gratification of the passengers, this island being only a hundred
miles from Hamburgh. It is said to contain from three to four thousand
inhabitants, who are chiefly occupied in fishing; haddocks and lobsters
are very abundant in its immediate neighbourhood, which are taken in
great numbers to the Hamburgh as well as the London markets. The island
is said to be nearly a mile in length, and about half a mile in breadth,
and now belongs to the British government. At twenty minutes past twelve
o'clock we entered the Elbe, where two light ships are stationed, in
consequence of the sandbanks, which are rather dangerous in that part of
the passage.

The island of Newark-Farm is distant only from three to four miles from
the mouth of the Elbe; the houses and cattle were now pleasing objects
in view. About three o'clock in the afternoon we arrived at Cuxhaven,
which is a small sea-port town, and is in the territory belonging to the
town of Hamburgh. It is a very fashionable bathing spot: and a large
concourse of ladies and gentlemen assembled at the haven when the steam
packet neared the shore. About four o'clock we experienced some heavy
drops of rain, with very loud claps of thunder, and towards evening
numerous broad flashes of lightning, very vivid, which appeared to skirt
along near the ground. On passing along the Elbe, we found it much
crowded with numerous sailing vessels, making the best of their way to
and from Hamburgh. These, with a variety of handsome church-spires
peeping out amongst various clumps of trees on both sides of the river,
gave the scenery a pleasing and picturesque appearance. We have also
here at the same time in view a part of the king of Denmark's dominions,
as well as a portion of the Hanoverian territories.

August 22nd. Arrived in the harbour at Hamburgh at half-past twelve
o'clock in the morning; but by the time we got out our luggage, and
boats to take us ashore, it was getting close on to eight o'clock.
Shortly after my arrival I proceeded to Flottbeck, to see the nursery
gardens of Mr. Booth, which are situated close by the banks of the Elbe,
about four English miles from Hamburgh. In this nursery I was much
gratified by the extensive collection of plants; there are about one
hundred acres of ground under nursery stock, consisting principally of
ornamental trees and shrubs, including a great variety of new species,
that I had not previously seen in any of our British nurseries. Mr.
Booth is a most enthusiastic practical botanist, and spares no expence
for the introduction of new and rare plants to his collection. He has
arranged along the edges of a walk which is nearly a mile in length a
collection of hardy trees and shrubs, which are so planted that the
different species of each genus are brought at once under view for
comparison. The whole are arranged according to the _Natural System_ of
_Jussieu_. The herbaceous ground contains above four thousand species
of hardy perennial plants: there are also above twelve hundred
different varieties of roses. The hothouses allotted for the growth of
exotics and Cape plants are about five hundred feet in length, with a
range of pits nearly four hundred feet long for the low and half-hardy
species. The collection of _Cacteæ_ here amounts to nearly four hundred
different species; amongst them are many curious and interesting sorts.
There are also some fine specimens of palms, and numerous fine exotics;
the collection of Cape and New Holland plants is likewise very
extensive. The passion for _Orchideæ_ has also extended to this part of
Germany; Mr. Booth has a great variety of this tribe of plants, and is
building a house solely for their cultivation: he is likewise
constructing pits, for the growth of the pine-apple. He has a very fine
collection of the _Genus Pinus_, and shewed me several new species that
he had raised from seeds, which were considered to be new and
undescribed sorts. I saw a species much resembling our _Pinus
palustris_, with fine long foliage. Mr. Booth calls it the palustris
_excelsa_, and informs me that it grows to a great height, and is
perfectly hardy, having stood this winter ten degrees of frost, Reaumur,
which is equal to twenty three Fahrenheit, without sustaining the least
injury, although quite exposed.

I could not but admire the neatness in which the plants and grounds in
this extensive establishment were kept, and notwithstanding the extreme
dryness of the weather, (not having had any rain for nine weeks in that
part of the country,) the plants were looking all in a healthy and
flourishing state; but the watering of such a collection for so many
weeks must have been attended with an enormous expence.

August 23rd. Being accompanied by Mr. Booth, we proceeded along the
banks of the Elbe to the villa of M. de la Camp, which is situated close
by the road, commanding a most beautiful view of the Elbe and its
shipping, as well as Finkenwarder, an island on the opposite side of the
Elbe, the one half of which belongs to Hanover, and the other half to
Hamburgh. This island produces a very hardy species of oak, which was
found there some years ago, and is called the _Quercus Falkenbergense_.
M. de la Camp has formed a very complete vineyard on the banks of the
Elbe, which was in a very prolific state, as were also the vines that
formed an arbour to the front of this gentleman's house.

From this we next proceeded some miles further along the Elbe banks, to
the seat of Mr. Baur at Blankanese. This gentleman is a wealthy
merchant, and has expended an immense sum of money in the formation of
his grounds, according to the English system of gardening. He has formed
numerous walks and artificial banks, that command extensive views of the
Elbe. These walks and banks, were staked out by Mr. Baur personally,
who, I have no hesitation in saying, has displayed a very superior
taste; they are remarkably well executed: in short, the banks and
valleys appeared as if they had been formed by nature, but they are
principally the work of art. I however regretted not to find a
corresponding taste for good plants, to keep pace with the other
extensive ground improvements that this gentleman has completed and is
proceeding with.

Close by the Elbe are situated several small forcing houses for fruits,
a greenhouse, orangery, and some low pits for the cultivation of the
pine-apple, which has been grown here for several years; but they do not
seem yet to have made much progress in the cultivation of this fruit. In
front of these houses there is a terrace-wall, that separates the
garden-ground from the Elbe, which washes up against it. The stones with
which this wall was built were brought a distance of from four to five
hundred miles (from Saxony) for this purpose; and it is executed in a
very superior manner. On the highest part of the grounds there has been
lately erected a handsome Chinese pagoda, which commands a beautiful
prospect of the Elbe and its shipping, as well as the opposite island
and Hanoverian dominions. A round tower also been lately built, which
forms a pretty object in these grounds; several other objects of
interest are also to be seen dispersed in various parts, which are
considered superior to any other gardens in the neighbourhood of
Hamburgh, and are consequently much frequented every Sunday by
visitors, as on that day it is open to the public. We were obliged to
take our departure from them much sooner than I could have wished, owing
to a very heavy shower of rain which continued for a considerable time;
and it being the only rain of any consequence that had fallen in the
course of nine weeks, it was very agreeable to that part of the country.
Mr. Baur has recently built in these grounds a very handsome house,
according to the English style of building, but it is not yet inhabited.
It was impossible not to admire the very superior and substantial manner
in which the works are all executed in this gentleman's establishment.

On my return from this place to Flottbeck, I then proceeded back to
Hamburgh: when on my way I was much surprised to observe bricklayers in
some places busy at work, although Sunday. Towards the evening, the rain
had quite abated; I then made the best of my way for the Botanic
Gardens, which are situated in the suburbs of the town, on a part of the
ground which, during the reign of Buonaparte, formed a strong
fortification, but these have recently been demolished: they are now
laid out as a public promenade for the inhabitants of the town, and
likewise a Botanical establishment for the cultivation of plants, and
from its beautiful situation, it is certainly one of the best chosen
sites for this purpose that has come under my observation. It appeared
to be of considerable extent, and irregular form, sloping in part of
it, down to the old rampart ditch, which now forms a handsome piece of
water, bounding the garden, and separating it from the promenade on the
opposite side, which being laid out as a pleasure ground, with clumps of
trees and shrubs on the grass, when viewed from the Botanic Garden,
gives a stranger the idea that it is a part of the Botanical
establishment, giving the latter a much more extensive appearance than
it actually possesses. The extent of hothouses for the growth of exotic
and Cape plants, is rather limited, and did not seem to be more than
about two hundred and fifty feet in length. I here observed some very
fine specimens of _Cacteæ_, and likewise several rare species of
_Palms_, such as the _Zamia_, _Frideriis_, _Guilielmi_, _Ætensteinii_,
_Lehmanii_, _Caffra_, and _Horrida_. I also was much delighted by seeing
in flower, a very pretty plant, called the _Olendorfia procumbens_,
which I believe has not yet made its appearance in England. A great
portion of the ground in this establishment is occupied by trees and
shrubs, which are cultivated for sale, for the support of the garden,
consequently much ground is taken up by these, which ought to be
assigned to single specimens. In the herbaceous ground, there is also an
extensive collection of hardy perennial plants.

August 24th. Went at five o'clock in the morning, to see the fruit and
vegetable market, which seemed to be well supplied with fruit and
culinary vegetables. I observed large quantities of the new Orleans
plum, summer Bergamot pear, and the black cherries, which appeared to
be larger than the same sort (Hertford blacks,) grown in this country.
The _Haricot bean_, is also in great repute in Germany, and certainly
deserves to be more extensively cultivated in this country, than it
hitherto has been, as it forms an excellent substitute for the _French
bean_ or the _scarlet runner_, which is cultivated here in preference.

After seeing the fruit and vegetable market, I next proceeded to view
the promenade which surrounds the greater part of the town, and adds
greatly to the comfort of the inhabitants, as well as to the beauty and
scenery of the immediate vicinity of Hamburgh. This promenade is laid
out very tastefully with numerous clumps of trees and shrubs, various
capacious walks leading to different points of view, and objects around
the town, sloping towards the old rampart ditch, which is now formed
into a handsome irregular piece of water, which enlivens the scenery,
and gives the promenade an appearance equal to any pleasure ground in
this country. The side facing the town of Altona, is really beautiful;
the space of ground leading from the Hamburgh gate, at the Altona side
of the town, is very picturesque, especially as we approach towards the
Harbour or Docks, whither we are guided by a broad walk, leading to a
high projection, or point of view, where we have a delightful prospect
of the shipping on the Elbe, with its surrounding scenery for several
miles in extent. The formation of this promenade was commenced about
sixteen years ago, is now annually progressing, and advancing towards
completion, under the superintendance of Mr. Altuman, who has displayed
great taste, in his arrangement of the walks, clumps of trees, and
shrubs, as well as the formation of the water. The _Alster Lake_, is
situated at the north side of the town, extending about twelve miles in
that direction, and adds considerably to the beauty of the scenery in
that neighbourhood. It also contributes greatly to the convenience of
the town, as numerous boats, with various commodities, are brought to
Hamburgh on its surface. The promenades leading to the town of Altona,
are also deserving of notice; long avenues intersecting each other are
here formed, by double rows of the Lime, Elm, and Poplar trees, with
large spaces of grass lawn, intervening betwixt them. After making a
tour round the promenade, I next proceeded to view the principal parts
of the town, and its churches, which are very splendidly fitted up. The
streets of Hamburgh are narrow and paved with round stones, which are
not very agreeable to those unaccustomed to walk upon them; the most
fashionable part of the town is the side next the Alster Lake, which is
much frequented in the evenings.

After getting my passport examined and signed, and securing a place in
the diligence for Berlin, I next accompanied Mr. Booth the seedsman,
(brother to the nursery man,) in a drive round the outskirts of the
town, where there are some pretty villas, and also various tea gardens,
which, although a week day, appeared to be well attended. I was rather
surprised to find at 5 o'clock in the afternoon, a large concourse of
ladies and gentlemen assembled in front of a small theatrical
performance, which it appeared was the daily practice in that part of
the country, the ladies being occupied sewing and knitting, and others
drinking coffee. The town of Hamburgh is said to contain above a hundred
thousand inhabitants, and they certainly appeared to me to be in a very
flourishing state. In short the general appearance and respectability of
the inhabitants, that prevailed throughout the town and its vicinity was
very striking. At eight o'clock in the evening, I took my departure from
Hamburgh, by the _Schnell-post_, (diligence) for Berlin, which was
accomplished in one day and two nights travelling; here I had a good
specimen of diligence _expedition_, especially for the first eight
hours, being placed in one of the bye chaises, which is only calculated
to hold four passengers, and is of much less dimensions than the main
diligence, and much lighter; I fully expected every moment to be upset,
as a great part of this road between Hamburgh and Boisenburgh, is full
of large deep ruts that kept us completely on the rock for many miles,
but after we passed the latter town, we then had an excellent road, yet
the speed of our crawling conveyance was but very little increased. The
roads throughout all the Prussian territories that I have travelled on,
appeared to be in excellent repair.

August 25th. Arrived at a small town called _Ludwigslust_, about one
o'clock, where we dined, and stopped nearly an hour, which enabled me to
make a hasty visit to the grounds, attached to the beautiful palace of
the grand Duke of Mecklenburgh, who generally resides here. In front of
the palace are pretty jets of water, but the most imposing sight, is a
fine avenue of limes, that leads from a large piece of lawn adjoining
the palace; the avenue appeared to be nearly a mile in length, and had
several walks branching from the right and left, through a shrubbery, or
rather plantation, where there were also several small pieces of water.
Close to the palace is an old orangery, with some good trees standing in
front of it. At a short distance, and nearly opposite to the palace, is
a handsome building, called the "Augusta Villa," with an extensive piece
of pleasure ground, laid out after the English mode of gardening, with
numerous clumps of trees, and shrubs dispersed on the lawn; the walks
and grounds appeared to be in very good order, but I was unable to
examine the extent of the collection of plants that it contained. In the
vicinity of Ludwigslust, there were several orchards, and large pieces
of ground under vegetable culture. The country from this town as far as
Warnow, was rather more varied than that we previously passed, but the
soil appeared light and sandy, and Scotch firs, the only trees observed
in the plantations in view. At Warnow our luggage was examined by the
police, and our passports demanded, and detained until we arrived in the
town of Perlebergh, when they were again examined, and then returned to

August 26th. Arrived at half past three, A. M. at Nauen, a small town
about twenty five English miles from Berlin; this place appeared
conspicuous, from the number of small flour mills, situated in the river
Havel, which passes close to the town. About 6 o'clock in the morning,
we had reached to a small town, called Spandau, which is said to contain
about 5000 inhabitants, and appeared to be strongly fortified: it is
only ten miles distant from Berlin, where we happily arrived at about 8
o'clock in the morning. As we approached the city, the country looked
more cheerful, and in a better state of cultivation, the soil also was
of a more fertile quality, and trees and plantations more numerous. I
was very much pleased by observing growing by the road side, several
species of Alpine plants which are not easily to be met with in this
country, in an indigenous state. The _Gentiana Pneumonanthe_, appeared
in great abundance, and with its brilliant blue flowers was to me
pleasingly conspicuous; but the diligence, although slow, was yet too
fast to allow me time to procure a few specimens. On passing the
magnificent palace of Charlottenburg, I was much struck with its
extensive appearance, and fine park, leading from it all the way to
Berlin, through the Brandenburg gate, and along the Linden or lime tree
walk, to the splendid university, armoury, museum, and other large
buildings, and handsome bridges, with the statues placed on them, its
magnificent palaces, which all appear in view from the diligence, by
this the Hamburgh line of road, and to the eye of a stranger has a grand
effect, giving him the idea of a great and noble city, by seeing so many
magnificent buildings immediately as he enters the town. Within a few
stages of Berlin I met with Mr. Parker, Bookseller, from Oxford,
travelling in the main Diligence, where I joined him; on our arrival in
the city, we took up our abode, in the St. Petersburgh hotel, after
breakfast we separated, he in search of books, while I went to visit the
Royal Botanic Gardens at Schoenburgh, which are situated about three
English miles from Berlin, where I was much gratified by the many fine
specimens of plants that I saw. Having letters of introduction to M.
Otto, from Sir W. Hooker and Dr. Lindley, as well as from his old friend
Mr. Hunneman, I experienced the greatest attention from him, he took
great pains in pointing out to me the various new and curious plants in
this extensive collection. There were some very fine species of _Palms_,
in great beauty, nearly reaching to the top of the hothouse, which is
about thirty feet in height. The _Latania borbonica_, was particularly
fine, and had attained nearly twenty five feet in height, its foliage or
fronds extending from ten to twelve feet on each side from its stem.
The _Gomutus saccharifer_, had also reached to the height of twenty five
feet, and numerous other choice specimens of the Palmæ, were in an
equally healthy and luxuriant state, and of little less dimensions than
those specified. The _Aristolochia brasiliensis_ was particularly fine,
covered with long beautiful speckled flowers, that extended over a large
part of the rafters. Many new and fine specimens of the _Gesneras_ were
also in flower; they appeared different from any that I had previously
seen in this country. Some of the _Melaleucas_; in the conservatory had
grown to the height of nearly forty feet; the _Magnolia grandiflora_,
which requires the protection of the conservatory during the winter
months was now covered with fine large flowers. Numerous other species
of New Holland plants, had grown to an amazing height in the

The hothouses in this garden are placed in several separate ranges, and
are very substantially built in comparison to our erections in England.
The quantity of timber employed in the rafters is immense, but giving
them a very heavy appearance; yet I have rarely met with a more healthy
collection of plants anywhere; they may be considered the most extensive
on the continent of Europe. In short, I never before saw so many plants
cultivated in pots. The numerous species of New Holland and Cape
_genera_ were quite astonishing, as well as the hardy and Alpine
species. As to the Cacteæ, there can be no hesitation in saying that
the collection in these gardens of this curious tribe of plants really
comprises the most beautifully grown specimens that I have ever seen;
the different species that have grown to a considerable size have a very
interesting appearance, particularly the _Mammillaria_ and
_Echinocactus_ tribes; with their numerous spines and angles, they form
a pleasing object either in or out of flower. M. Otto has long been
celebrated for his ardent love to this curious tribe of plants, and he
certainly has succeeded in forming a valuable collection. The species of
_Ferns_ in these gardens are likewise very numerous, and there are many
very fine specimens amongst them, which have grown to a great size. I
could not but admire the very tasteful manner in which the Cape and New
Holland plants were arranged out of doors in the summer months, and
which were neatly plunged to the rims of the pots, to prevent them from
being blown about by the wind. The _Bignonia radicans_ formed a very
prominent object against the end wall of one of the hothouses; the
luxuriance and brilliancy of its flowers far surpassed any that I had
previously seen. A fine specimen of the _Laurus indica_, which must have
been fully twenty feet in height, was standing out of doors, and obliged
to be cut down, as it was getting too high for the house in which it
stood in the winter season. The _Robinia Pseudacacia_, _inermis_ and
_tortuosa_ were both splendid trees, which ornamented the grass lawn.
The _Magnolia acuminata_, also a beautiful specimen, as well as the
_Quercus palustris_, and _rubra_; both had attained a great size, and
were handsome trees, as well as several other species of this genus. Mr.
Otto having kindly requested Mr. W. Brackenridge, who had been for some
time from Scotland, residing in the neighbourhood of Berlin, and was
then employed in the Botanic gardens, to accompany me the following day
to such places as he considered most deserving of notice, I arranged
with him to be ready betwixt six and seven o'clock in the morning, to
proceed to the different gardens.

August 27th. We started at seven o'clock in the morning, to the royal
gardens at Charlottenburg palace, which are situated about four English
miles from Berlin. The grounds attached to this royal palace, are said
to contain four hundred English acres, laid out with various walks,
clumps of trees and shrubs, as well as several pieces of water,
embracing some very fine views from different points notwithstanding its
being a flat surface, but it is much diversified by trees, bridges, and
sheets of water that intersect the lawn. There are several bridges
leading across the stream to the most ornamental and picturesque parts.
The palace is also seen to great advantage from several points in the
grounds. A very fine specimen of the _Quercus palustris_ was in great
beauty on the grass. I also saw some very large trees of the _Populus
alba_, which were considerably larger than any tree of this species
that I had previously seen. M. Fintelman, the superintendant of the
royal gardens, pointed out to us a very complete _Fructiferum_, that he
had lately formed in these grounds, comprising a collection of all the
hardy fruits. Nearly adjoining to the palace, is a very handsome little
flower garden, lately executed for the growth of the dwarf flowering
perennials and annuals. I was much pleased by an arbour formed with the
different species of Cape and New Holland plants, that are rather
flexible in their growth; the pots in which the plants grew, were all
plunged round the back, the branches tied closely to it and thickly
covered, producing a great variety of foliage, and pleasing effect, and
having the appearance of growing there permanently throughout the
season. Opposite to this Botany Bay, or Cape Arbour, is a pretty summer
house, which is chiefly composed of reeds. In the centre of the flower
garden, there are various posts with iron rods extended from them for
the training of creepers. Again, at the extremity, is an artificial
grass bank, considerably elevated above the flower beds, planted with
the dwarf china rose, which has a very good and natural effect. The
orange-house is an oblong building, of great length, with opaque roof
and backwall, upright lights only in the front, completely covered with
grape vines, having a very fine crop of fruit all over them. The orange
trees were all in excellent health, some of them bearing separately
nearly two hundred fruit; there are about three hundred of these trees
cultivated here. I also saw a fine variety of Dahlias, and various
other beautiful flowering plants in great perfection; these Dahlias are
fully as good as any I had seen in England; great attention is paid to
these flowers by M. Fintelman, who took great delight in pointing out
the various objects most worthy of notice in these grounds. Having
devoted several hours to the inspection of this extensive establishment,
we then took our leave of M. F. and proceeded back to Berlin, when I had
another opportunity of observing more fully the various improvements,
that are now going forward in the Thier-garten, or park, which extends
from the royal palace of Charlottenburg, to the Brandenburg gate. This
park is considered one of the finest in Europe, and is now undergoing
extensive alterations, the grounds forming in several places so as to
harmonize with the English style of landscape gardening; numerous walk
and rides leading in various directions, with groups of sculpture, make
this an interesting promenade for the public, by whom it is much
thronged, particularly in the evenings. It is approached from Berlin by
the Brandenburg gate, which cannot fail to attract the stranger's
notice. It has a most magnificent appearance; on the top of this gate
stand the celebrated bronze horses, removed by Buonaparte to Paris, but
were again replaced by the Prussians in their original site. In front of
the Royal Museum, is a very handsome marble vase, which measures about
sixty four feet in circumference, and four feet in depth; a handsome
fountain is also playing, throwing the water to a great height. The
ground floor of the museum is occupied as a sculpture gallery, which
contains numerous statues, and busts; but it appeared to me to be
deficient of the finer groups. I was however much pleased with the
beautiful imitation marble columns of various colours, which have a
polish equal to the original. The picture gallery is above that devoted
to the sculpture, and I could not but admire the beautiful state of
preservation of the paintings, and their very admirable arrangement.
From hence we proceeded to the nursery grounds of M. Bouschie, which are
not of much extent, nor yet is there much for the Horticulturist to
admire, except some very fine specimens of the _Cacteæ_ (_Opuntia_)
tribe; some of the species are from eight to ten feet in height. After
visiting this nursery, we then proceeded to the forcing gardens of M.
Bouschie, who grows a large quantity of pine apples and peaches for the
Berlin market; the pine apples were very small, and much inferior to our
English grown fruit; the crop of peaches was very abundant, but not of a
large size, the trees old, and the hothouses of a very inferior
description. We next proceeded to the nursery garden of M. Touissaint,
which appeared to contain a much better collection of the Cape and New
Holland plants, than any of the other nurseries I had previously seen in
Berlin. Here was a good collection of the more hardy species of
_Rhododendrons_; the forcing of flowers is likewise extensively
practised in this establishment, and the grounds in very good order. I
next visited the nursery ground of M. Mathieu, where there were some
good specimens, but none that I had not previously met with.

August 28th. Went at six o'clock in the morning to see the fruit and
vegetable market, but was rather disappointed in observing so very
inferior a supply in comparison with what is to be seen in Covent Garden
Market. In fact for some time I thought that I had gone to the wrong
place, as the market is held every alternate day in two different parts
of the town; but on enquiry I found it was seldom better supplied. Large
quantities of grapes grown out of doors, or on trellis, were in the
market; also a pretty good supply of peaches, but these were of a small
size. I only observed one solitary pine apple, about one pound weight.
The mode of preserving the fish, which were also brought to the market
where the fruit and vegetables were exposed for sale, was new to me.
They are kept alive in water in oval shaped wooden tubs or vessels, and
each sort is kept separate. Large quantities of game, poultry, butcher's
meat, as well as cart-loads of hay and straw, are found abundantly in
the market.

After making a tour through the principal parts of the town, and getting
my passport signed by the police and English ambassador, I made a second
visit to Mr. Otto, and also then called on Dr. Kloytch, to whom I had a
letter of introduction from Sir W. Hooker. Dr. Kloytch has the charge of
the Royal Herbarium, which is situated opposite and nearly adjoining the
Botanic Gardens, containing several apartments for dried specimens of
all the plants that flower in the Royal Botanic Gardens, which are
gathered and preserved as they appear in flower. Attached to the Royal
Herbarium house is a piece of pleasure ground, one side of which is
enclosed by a good brick wall that has projecting piers, betwixt which
grape vines are trained, and confined to the spaces of about twelve feet
between the projecting piers; each sort is thus prevented from
intermixing with another; a wooden pailing enclosing another part of
this garden is likewise adapted to the same purpose. Dr. Kloytch was
once a pupil of Sir W. Hooker's at Glasgow, and is considered an eminent
botanist, he has certainly formed a very natural arrangement of the
different species in the genus _Ericæ_, arranged according to the form
and structure of the flower. He shewed me several native specimens of
this genus that I have not yet seen in England, but seeds of which I
hope to receive from him before long. I was much gratified by the
excellent method he described to me, in preserving the specimens of
_Fungi_, which appears to be the most effectual mode of drying these
plants that I have yet seen. After looking over various specimens in the
Herbarium, Dr. Kloytch accompanied me to the Botanic Gardens, where I
again saw Mr. Otto, and was enabled to see more minutely the extent of
this noble collection of plants. It is proper to observe that the space
of ground allotted for this garden, is not sufficiently large for such
an extensive collection of plants. Many of the oaks and several other
fine trees are too much crowded, and not seen to advantage. After
examining all that I wished to see here, Mr. Otto, Dr. Kloytch, and Mr.
Brackenridge, accompanied me into Berlin, where we passed through
another fine part of the "_Thiergarten_," and being joined by Mr.
Cuming, the celebrated Zoologist, we spent a very pleasing evening in
the discussion of botanical pursuits, and the cultivation and beauty of
the _Cacteæ_ in the Berlin Gardens.

August 29th. Left Berlin at seven o'clock in the morning for Potsdam,
where I arrived at eleven o'clock in the forenoon, a distance of
eighteen English miles. Every stranger must be forcibly struck with the
scenery as he approaches Potsdam, particularly in passing Prince
Charles's villa and grounds, with the view of the handsome bridge lately
erected across the river Havel, at this side of the town expanding
itself to a very capacious sheet of water. On my arrival at Potsdam I
proceeded to the Royal Gardens at _Sans-souci_, which are situated about
one English mile distant. Having a letter of introduction from M. Otto
to M. Linne, the principal director, I was disappointed in not finding
him at home. Free access was afforded to the various departments, and I
then made the best use of my time in examining the different gardens
attached to this residence, which required considerable diligence to
get through a portion of the departments. I first inspected the kitchen
garden, which is very extensive, and contains several ranges of low
houses, and pits, for the forcing of cherries, plums, and apricots, with
a good collection of standard fruit trees, as well as the walls being
well stocked. The length and breadth of the principal range of houses in
this garden, is 255 feet long, and about 9 feet in width; the upright
sashes are eight feet high, placed in a slanting position; the
roof-lights were about six feet long, but these lights were at this time
all removed from the house, the trees being planted as standards in the
interior border; the sashes are removed as soon as the fruit is
gathered, in order to expose the trees to the full effect of the
atmosphere. In another garden at a short distance from this vegetable
one, there are numerous other ranges of hothouses for the forcing of
fruits, which are in great request for the royal table. The structures
here used for this purpose are about six feet high in front, and about
ten feet in width; the length of the roof sashes were from nine to ten
feet. In these houses the flues are placed at the back, running parallel
to the backwall. Some of the houses are heated by hot-water pipes,
rather of a novel construction, and I much fear not calculated to give
any great command of heat; they consist of two round copper pipes, about
two inches only in diameter, which run parallel along the front of the
house about two feet apart from each other. The peach trees are planted
inside the house, within one foot of the front wall, and are trained
perpendicular to the trellis, to the height of six feet, being as high
as the upright glass. A rider is then carried in general, close under
the roof lights, trained to a lath trellis which is nailed to the
underside of the rafter.

As soon as the frosty nights are over, the houses are generally stripped
of the sashes, and the trees and fruit left fully exposed to the sun and
weather, while the fruit is maturing; but such fruits as are wanted at
an early period, are of course not thus exposed. I here observed various
trees of plum, cherry, and apricot, thus treated, a more congenial mode
of treatment, than by having recourse to pots or tubs, as is in general
practised in this country, especially where there can be houses spared
for this purpose, as the trees will get established in the ground, and
be enabled to produce a more abundant crop and larger fruit than if
their roots were confined to a small space for nourishment. I also saw
here a great quantity of very fine melons, all trained over moss, and at
this season these also were exposed to the weather. The appearance of
the fine terraces in front of Sans-souci Palace, gave me more
gratification than anything of the kind that I had previously seen. This
palace, originally erected by _Frederic the Great_, is now a favourite
summer residence of the Crown Prince. It is situated so as to command a
most beautiful view of the surrounding country, with six tier of
terraces in front of it, each terrace falling about twelve feet under
another towards the south from the palace. Along the top are flower
borders and broad gravel walks, with a row of very fine orange trees
placed along the edge of the gravel walk on each of the terraces, which
give them a magnificent appearance. Against these walls are trained
principally grape vines, provided with a frame in front for covering
them with glass; peaches and apricots are likewise here grown.

In the centre of each terrace is a noble flight of steps thirty-six feet
wide at the bottom, but at the top the width is only fifteen feet;
containing in each from twenty-five to twenty-seven steps. The view of
these from the avenue or road by M. Lennie's house, is really grand: the
different flights of steps from this point of view appear to form one
connected tier leading to the palace, which, with its magnificent orange
trees and groups of sculpture, strike the eye of every stranger with
admiration. I here congratulated myself on being alone, and left to
examine and take the dimensions of the various objects, without being
hurried. At a short distance from the lower terrace is an oval basin of
water, surrounded by a grass lawn and a gravel walk, or rather carriage
drive; and on the exterior side of the circular sweep of the gravel, are
placed twelve large statues. This basin was originally intended for a
fountain; the reservoir for supplying it was formed by Frederic the
Great on an eminence on the north side of Sans-Souci palace, where it
must be several hundred feet above the level of the basin of water where
the fountain was intended to be placed. The effect from the palace
windows and from several other points of view, if it had been completed,
would have been very magnificent when the water was playing. At a short
distance from the palace is another large building, which was occupied
by a part of the establishment; in front is a large piece of pleasure
ground, in which are placed also a number of very fine orange trees; one
of them, pointed out to me, is named after _Frederic the Great_, his
majesty being a great admirer of these trees, insomuch, that during the
war he took possession of all the best that came in his way, and sent
them to his royal gardens at Potsdam. The head of this tree, named
Frederic the Great, was equal to one of our ordinary sized Portugal
laurels, its branches extend over seventeen yards of ground in diameter.
I should imagine there must be fully 400 trees grown in this
establishment, all of large dimensions. The soil in which they are grown
consists of a black sandy loam, well incorporated with cow-dung and
rotten leaf mould, with a mixture of bone dust, in some cases horn
shavings. The houses for the protection of the orange trees in the
winter season, are simply a long range or ranges of red tiled roofed
buildings, with merely upright lights in the front or south side, which
are provided with wooden shutters that are closed during frosty weather.
The flues run along in the floor of the house, and are not calculated
to give out much heat, but the roof and back wall being opaque, and the
front furnished with shutters, little heat is required for preserving
the trees from the frost. They are generally turned out of doors in the
month of May, and not taken in again until October. Arranged along with
the orange trees I observed a very fine specimen of the _Nerium
Oleander_, covered with blossom, also several fine plants of the
pomegranate, covered with flowers. The figs were also in prolific state
against a wall and growing in light sandy loam. At the opposite end of
the palace is situated the picture gallery, which opens into another
garden department, with hornbeam hedges, and numerous box edging
scrolls; but this piece of ground is evidently not much attended to: the
walks, flowers, borders, are not in good order. The collection of
paintings, however, in the gallery will infinitely repay the visitor for
the disappointment he may experience in the badly kept garden. This
gallery is two hundred and fifty-two feet long, and thirty-six feet
wide; the dome and cove ceiling are richly gilt, the floor and walls
inlaid with marble. The paintings are very numerous, and in beautiful
preservation. Those taken from this gallery by Buonaparte and again
replaced in the spot they originally occupied, are particularly pointed
out to the visitor. I observed on each side of the door, as we entered
this gallery, two very fine marble statues, one of _Diana_, the other of
_Louis_ XVI. A straight avenue or drive leading from the Potsdam road,
in a direct line by the front of the terraces at Sans-souci, to the new
palace, is of considerable length. At the extremity of this avenue is
the magnificent palace built by _Frederic_, after the completion of the
wars in which he was engaged. It is said to have been erected with the
English subsidy; however this may be, it is undoubtedly a very
magnificent building.

The grounds leading from this and Sans-souci palace are all laid out as
pleasure-ground, with numerous walks and roads, leading in various
directions, which are very well kept; but the grass lawn here is rather
rough, and not much attended to. The quantity of sculpture placed
throughout these grounds is truly astonishing; at almost every
intersection of the walks, various statues or busts are placed, and
likewise in different recesses that are formed out of the road and walk

Along the front of the new palace, facing towards Potsdam, is arranged a
row of very fine orange trees, with several pieces of sculpture.

The garden ground extends considerably to the north of the palace, where
it is much varied, and commands an extensive view of the adjoining
scenery and country. The Belvidere and terraces here are also prominent
objects. I was much pleased with a piece of trellissing that surrounded
the oval spot of ground at the south side of the palace. This trellis
projects about twenty-one feet on one side, and forms an oblong square
about forty-two feet long. The side next the oval consists of eight
round columns, formed by thin flat iron bars, opposite to which are
openings to correspond, that look into a running stream of water, that
separates the park or pleasure ground from a piece of kitchen-garden
ground on the opposite side. The peculiarity of this trellissing is in
its handsome projecting cornice, with columns at nine feet apart, formed
by the flat iron bars. Arched recesses are likewise made between these
columns, about five feet wide, and nine feet in height. The entire
height of this trellis with the cornice is twelve feet, and was
evidently originally gilt, but it is now in a corroded and decaying
state; not a vestige of paint is even to be seen upon it.

At a very short distance from this splendid palace is a piece of
vegetable ground enclosed with formal clipt hornbeam hedges, which ought
to be removed, as it disfigures that part of the grounds, and is much
too close to the palace. The walks and lawn adjoining were in pretty
good order, especially the former.

Leading from the palace to a royal chateau that has been lately erected,
is a very fine carriage drive, winding through a flat piece of ground,
which is laid out principally after the English fashion. This residence
is also inhabited by one of the royal princes. I was much pleased with
the quantity of grapes growing on a double terrace, or rather covered
walk, which was completely crowded with vines and its fruits; the lower
walk ran alongside of a wall, and the trellis and arches projected
about twelve feet from it, and were twelve feet in height. Over the top
of this wall is another trellissed walk, which is also completely
covered with grapes; it leads up to the palace windows, and is about two
hundred feet in length. Adjoining it, and in front of the windows, is a
small flower-garden, elevated above the ground level I should imagine
about twelve feet: we ascend to it by a flight of steps at the furthest
end; the side next the palace is nearly on the same level as the window
sills. There are several fountains in it, and a few clumps of the
_Petunia violacea_, but nothing else of interest.

Connected with this terrace garden, but on the ground level, is a piece
of ground laid out in various beds, principally furnished with dahlias.
Here is a handsome marble fountain or column, and a well formed sheet of

About three hundred yards from this spot is _Charlottenhoff_, a handsome
erection, which is used occasionally as a tea or coffee room. This
building is surrounded by numerous walks, and columns with vines trained
against them. Ascending a flight of steps, that leads to a point of view
looking down upon a fountain, playing with great force. This spot is
tastefully laid out, and in very neat order. Several other ornamental
erections are placed in these grounds, but to attempt to describe them
all would require an actual residence for some weeks. The royal palace
of Potsdam is a magnificent building, in the form of a quadrangle. The
interior apartments contain numerous objects of interest, which as being
highly estimated by _Frederic the Great_, are particularly pointed out
to the stranger. The arm chair which he was in the habit of using, is
still in a good state of preservation; I was much pleased with the
magnificence of the rooms; the paintings and furniture are very
splendid, and in good preservation. The ground attached to this palace
consists of a flat surface, extending towards the south, as far as the
river Havel, and is laid out in clumps of trees, various walks; the
space next the palace is a larger piece of gravel, which is daily used
for the exercise of the military. Adjoining it are numerous avenues of
horse chesnuts, and busts of ornamental sculpture placed along the first
row of trees, as well as some in various other positions. Opposite the
south, or principal front of the palace, is an oblong piece of water, in
the middle of which is placed a noble group of Neptune and his sea
horses, which has a very grand effect, but the water is kept rather low
and filthy, which might be easily remedied, as the river Havel passes
within a few yards of it. By the edge of the river, in a marshy spot of
ground, I observed a large quantity of the _Hydrocharis morsus-ranæ_
(Frogbite,) and _Stratiotes aloides_, (water soldier,) growing in great

I should however have observed that the fine marble group of Neptune was
much injured by the French army, during the time they occupied Potsdam.
In short it is really grievous to see the depredations that were
committed by that army on the sculpture about Potsdam and Sans-souci,
whilst they resided there. The soldiers for amusement were in the habit
of firing musket balls at the different groups and statues.

August 30th. Left Potsdam at eight o'clock in the morning, for the
_Pfauen Insel_, or Peacock Island, where I had appointed to meet Mr.
Cuming at nine o'clock. We had to cross a branch of the river Havel to
get to the island, which contains a collection of plants and animals
somewhat resembling the Zoological Gardens in Regent's Park. I was here
more fortunate in finding M. Fintelman at home, than I was at
Sans-souci, and having a letter of introduction to him from his uncle,
who superintends the royal gardens at Charlottenburg, I found him
remarkably attentive, and an intelligent young man. I was here surprised
to find the _Robinia pseudacacia_ had attained seven feet in
circumference, at four feet from the ground, the branches of which
extend over thirty two yards of ground in diameter. I also observed some
fine specimens of the oak, which were little inferior to our largest
English oaks. The conservatory is an oblong building, about one hundred
and twenty feet by forty, and forty two feet high, and consists of
several tiers of front sashes, with a span roof, the north side being a
dead wall with a gallery for resting in behind it, which commands a
full view of the plants underneath.

I was much gratified, by the very flourishing state of the plants, and
their remarkable neatness. A very fine collection of the _Palmæ_, is
cultivated in this stove or conservatory, some of which have made a
rapid progress in their growth. The _Latania borbonica_ measured twenty
seven feet in height, spreading over a space of equal dimensions in
diameter. I understood that his majesty the king of Prussia frequently
breakfasts in the summer season in this conservatory, under the shade of
the palm fronds (or leaves). I remarked also the _Pandanus utilis_
twenty three feet high; the _Dracæna Draco_, (Dragon Tree) had likewise
grown thirty six feet high; _Pandanus sylvestris_ thirteen feet in
height, and eleven feet in diameter across its branches; the _Bambusa
arundinacea_, forty feet high; a shoot of this cane, grew seven feet six
inches in the course of three weeks; the _Corypha umbraculifera_, a very
magnificent specimen. The _Latania borbonica_ is placed in the centre of
the conservatory; the tub in which it grows is completely concealed by
planting around it various _ferns_, and other low growing plants, which
are tastefully arranged, and form a nice little stage round the tub,
having a very neat appearance, with the walk round it, which shews the
palm to the best advantage. Opposite to this spot is a recess in which
is placed a small fountain tastefully decorated by _ferns_ that succeed
well in a shady situation. There is likewise in this recess, a very
handsome marble screen, richly carved and ornamented. The grounds are
very judiciously laid out in various clumps of flowering shrubs and
summer flowers, and were at this time in full perfection. One of the
finest Hydrangeas that I have seen, was in full bloom, and its large
purple-blue flowers were very conspicuous. The grass lawn was in a much
better state than any other that I had previously seen in Germany, or
even met with during my tour on the continent, and the whole garden
ground very neatly kept. The island is said to contain about four
hundred English acres. The erections for the different animals and birds
are judiciously placed, and consist of handsome structures, arranged
from two to three hundred yards or more apart; these apartments were
kept remarkably clean and in good order. An extensive collection of
beasts and birds are preserved in this establishment. The grounds are
considerably varied, and some fine views are to be seen from several
parts of it, as well as from the top of some prospect towers. The effect
of the river Havel, and surrounding plantations at the opposite sides,
adds expressive features to this landscape.

After seeing the various objects most deserving of notice, both in the
botanical and zoological departments, we proceeded across the river, to
the grounds of Prince Charles, still accompanied by M. Fintelman; they
were laid out, principally, in the English style, his royal highness
being particularly partial to it.

This spot consists of a great variety of surface, with several beautiful
vistas, and is really very tastefully planted, and the grounds formed,
and kept in very excellent order. The public road from Berlin to Potsdam
passes close by the front of the grounds, and there is a low wall, with
an invisible wire fence on the top of it, betwixt the road, where the
views of the grounds are seen to most advantage. One side of them
extends close to the Havel, where a handsome summer house is erected,
which commands a fine prospect of Potsdam, the new bridge, and shipping,
and likewise the scenery on the opposite side of the river, which is
much varied. Under this building are two colonnades covered with
creepers, which have a very pretty effect.

On the one side of a hill nearly opposite to this villa, is a new
residence erecting for prince William; the views from it must be very
extensive, as it is situated on a commanding spot.

We next proceeded to the magnificent edifice called _Marmorpallast_, or
marble palace, which is situated at a very short distance from Potsdam,
and close to the margin of the Havel. It is a splendid building, the
greater part of which is constructed with marble. The cornice appeared
to be about five or six feet deep; it is of white marble, as also is the
base above the ground for several feet; the door and window jambs are
likewise of the same material. The intervening spaces of the walls are
built with red brick. The colonnade at the principal entrance consists
of handsome marble columns. The pleasure-ground and gardens attached to
it are said to contain two hundred and fifteen German acres of ground,
throughout which are dispersed various clumps of trees and shrubs, with
extensive walks and rides branching through it in different directions.
These grounds are very flat, and have but little variety or picturesque
appearance in them. The number of good exotics and New Holland plants is
considerable, as well as a very fine collection of healthy orange trees,
with some fine specimens of hardy trees growing singly on the grass. I
here observed the _Juglans fraxinifolia_ bearing a number of good sized
fruit. In the flower garden some good German stocks, then in full bloom.
The borders and grass lawn were in a rough state.

We next proceeded to Sans-souci, Mr. Cuming not having previously seen
it. I was delighted in having another opportunity of looking round this
truly magnificent spot; and being accompanied by Mr. Fintelman, who
kindly devoted the entire day in conducting us to the various objects
best worth our notice, we proceeded through the grounds attached to
Sans-souci palace, and then to Charlottenhoff, the new palace, &c., and
were much gratified by the numerous objects of interest we had pointed
out to us in the various places that we inspected.

On our return to Potsdam, we went to the top of Breuchensberg, or hill
of brewers, where a prospect tower is erected. The view from this spot
is really grand in the extreme; we look down upon Potsdam and the
numerous palaces that are in its environs. Sans-souci and the new palace
are both prominent objects in view from this prospect; but the most
pleasing features are the numerous small green islands that are formed
by the river Havel, near the bridge at Potsdam; the intricacy and
variety of outline of water, and the number of boats and small sailing
vessels making their way to Berlin through this place, form a pleasing
sight. The evening was now drawing to a close, and little more remained
to be seen by daylight. M. Fintelman took his departure for the Island
of Peacocks, and Mr. Cuming started in an hour after for Berlin. I was
thus again left alone to muse over the different objects that had
occupied my attention during the day.

August 31st. Not having previously seen the pine-apple forcing
department, I walked out early this morning to Sans-souci, where this
fruit is cultivated. I was rather surprised to find a great extent of
low houses and pits devoted to the growth of the pine, without observing
a single fruit amongst the whole stock that was scarcely worth cutting.
There cannot be less than one thousand feet in length of houses and pits
adapted to the pine-apple, and these varying from eight to twelve feet
in width. The principal range was heated by smoke flues, and the plants
plunged in saw-dust, with tan under; which practice is frequently
adopted in this country, especially when tan is scarce. The young plants
in the pits appeared pretty healthy, but such fruit as was fit for
cutting, or advancing to maturity, would bear no comparison to our
English produce.

After satisfying myself with what was to be seen in this department, I
returned to Potsdam, from whence the diligence to Dresden, my next place
of destination, did not start till twelve o'clock. The time I had to
spare before my conveyance came up, was employed in inspecting the town,
which consists, it is said, of 2000 houses, and 16,000 inhabitants. The
streets are in general very clean; one leading from the palace to
Sans-souci is inlaid with planks for the wheels of the different
vehicles to run on, similar to the Russian manner. I also saw in the
vicinity a Russian colony, which was inhabited by natives, sent as a
present some years ago by the Emperor to the king of Prussia; they are
now becoming pretty numerous, and their colony is extending.

Potsdam is intersected by various small canals, that lead from the
Havel, and are very convenient for the conveyance of turf and other
materials by water carriage. The greater number of the houses are
handsomely built; there was then erecting opposite to the palace a
magnificent church. At the other end of this palace is an iron bridge,
crossing the Havel; the piers consist of stonework, there are eight
arches, one of which is used as a drawbridge for the passing and
repassing of boats going this way to Berlin. This town is the principal
depot for military, who are exercised daily in great numbers in front of
the palace.

At twelve o'clock the diligence arrived, when I took my departure in it
for Dresden.

The road leading from Potsdam to the latter town was lined on each side
with fine poplar trees, of a considerable size, for several miles of the
journey. The soil in this part of the country appeared to be a light
sandy loam: the plantations were chiefly composed of the Scotch fir; but
close by the road side, in several places between Potsdam and Herzberg,
were large quantities of plum trees, loaded with fruit.

We arrived at Herzberg at half-past ten o'clock; but owing to the
darkness of the night I was unable to see, or form any opinion of the
size of the town or quality of the houses.

September 1st. At three o'clock in the morning we reached another small
town, called Elsterwerda, which was said to contain about 900
inhabitants. The next stage we came to was Grossenhayn, where we arrived
at half-past five o'clock, a.m. This town is situated in the kingdom of
Saxony, and contains nearly 5000 inhabitants. At this stage we were
transferred to another diligence.

The country from Grossenhayn to Dresden is much more varied than any I
had previously seen in Germany.

The scenery as we approach to Dresden is very picturesque, both as
regards distant views and variety of surface: when within a few miles of
the town, we meet with a very fine avenue of lime trees, extending for a
considerable distance, and then is continued by horse-chesnuts. On
descending a hill, a fine prospect of Dresden presents itself to the
eye. The soil now appears more of a black colour, and less free from
sand, than what I had previously observed. I also saw several beech
trees intermixed with the Scotch-fir.

Arrived at Dresden, at nine o'clock a.m. After getting breakfast, I
immediately proceeded to the house of Professor Hughes, who was then
engaged, but Mrs. Hughes asked Mr. West to accompany me to the principal
gardens; this gentleman, a school colleague of Lord Cosmo Russell, and
an admirer of plants, very cheerfully accompanied me to several of the
gardens in the vicinity of the town. We first proceeded to the Botanic
Garden, belonging to the University, which is very limited in extent. I
was however much pleased with the fine collection of Cacteæ that are
grown in this establishment, as well as a large collection of Cape, and
other green house plants. The number of species of hardy perennial
plants in this small space of ground is truly astonishing; there is also
a great variety of Cape bulbs and _Gramineæ_. The extent of glass is
confined to a very long conservatory, stove, and several pits for

Having been introduced by Mr. West to M. Lehman, the superintendant of
the garden, he accompanied us to the gardens of Lieut. Weber, situated
at a short distance from the town, and considered the most extensive for
glass and space, of any about _Dresden_. I should imagine by its
appearance there could not be above seven or eight English acres of
ground under nursery culture. The collection of plants for sale
comprises chiefly _Camellias_, young orange trees, Cape and new Holland
plants, many of the scarcer sorts of which I observed had been lately
introduced to that establishment, from Mr. Low's nursery at Clapton. A
fine specimen of the Uhria speciosa was in great vigour of health. A
great variety of dahlias, and dwarf China roses in full flower were in
these grounds.

I was much pleased by the simple mode of grafting the _Camellia_ and
orange trees, which appeared to be very successful, and is generally
practised by M. Liebig the gardener, which method is what we term in
this country crown grafting; by this mode the shoot or graft, after
insertion in the stock, is only tied neatly to the stock, with a bit of
worsted thread, and then sealed over as well as the top of the stock, by
a little bees-wax, (without clay as practised here); when this operation
is completed, the plants are put into a frame or pit, with a little
moist heat, until the graft and stock begin to coalesce, when they are
shortly afterwards gradually exposed to the air of the greenhouse. In
this establishment there are several very good hothouses for plants. In
one of the ranges is placed a circular shaped conservatory, heated by
hot water, on rather a novel construction; these hot water pipes being
formed into perpendicular columns, rising from the floor to the height
of from ten to twelve feet. These pipes, thus constructed, gave out a
great command of heat, and answered the original intention very
satisfactorily. The plants in this nursery garden were very well grown,
and all in a healthy state.

I next visited the nursery of M. Hofrath Kreyssig, which is only a short
distance from the Botanic garden. I saw likewise some good kinds of
greenhouse plants, as well as many rare species of the Rhododendron
tribe; the _Rhododendron campanulatum_, a fine specimen; a collection of
orchideous plants is also forming in this nursery garden. There are
several small hothouses for the growth of Cape and tropical plants,
which are also cultivated for sale; but the space of ground is much too
limited, as well as confined by houses to do justice to a collection of
hardy species. After visiting these gardens and grounds, I took my leave
of Mr. West, to whom I was much indebted for the kind interest he took
in the object I had in view, and who appears devotedly attached to
plants and gardening. Professor Hughes having recommended me to see the
chateau erected on the banks of the Elbe by the late Lord Findlater, an
English nobleman, I expected to have found some fine gardens, or
collection of plants, but, to my surprise, on my arrival, I found it
now occupied as a tea garden; it is much frequented by the inhabitants
of Dresden, in consequence of its romantic situation on the banks of the
Elbe, commanding a prospect of the country, studded with small villages
situated in the valleys between the hills, or rather eminences; but
these are not to be compared with our Scotch mountains. Along the Elbe
is a great extent of vineyard, which did not appear to be in a very
prolific state, the soil being of a poor sandy texture. Many pretty
villas were also situated along these banks, which had very pleasant
prospects from them.

September 2nd. Having agreed to meet Mr. Lehman early this morning, we
proceeded to the Catholic church, which belongs to the court, and is
certainly a magnificent building, the interior richly ornamented, and
well worth the stranger's notice; we next visited the Protestant church,
which is likewise a splendid erection. The museum and post office are
also very magnificent buildings. I was however surprised at the
appearance of the royal palace, which consists of a dark gloomy looking
old fashioned residence, and with little in its exterior appearance,
calculated to give a stranger the idea of its being the seat of royalty.
Through the assistance of Mr. Lehman, who procured tickets of admittance
to the gallery of paintings, I was favoured with a sight of this
celebrated collection, which is considered to be amongst the finest in
Europe, and is said to contain one thousand five hundred pictures; among
so many there are undoubtedly some very splendid ones. On our return
from the gallery, we passed through his majesty's coach-house, which
must at least have contained no less than sixty different carriages; a
very splendid one lately presented to the king by Prince Metternich, was
pointed out to us. From hence we proceeded to the museum or repository
of minerals, birds and animals. The collection of the feathered tribe in
this establishment is particularly extensive; some very large blocks of
petrified wood, that were much prized, were pointed out as remarkable
curiosities. In one of the departments was a table four feet in
diameter, of a solitary piece of wood of the _Tamarindus indicus_,
(tamarind tree.) In front of the building various orange trees are
arranged along the edge of the walks. What is called _Bruehl's_ garden
is also deserving of notice; it forms a public promenade for the
inhabitants, and is pleasantly situated, containing a picture gallery,
which is denominated the gallery of duplicates.

Dresden is said to contain about 80,000 inhabitants, and is much admired
for its fine houses and streets. It is considered by many as one of the
finest towns in Europe; but I must confess that in my opinion it is
inferior to either Berlin, Munich, or Brussels. It is situated on a flat
spot of ground with the river Elbe running through it; the bridge over
which is said to be 1450 feet long. The Arsenal is a large building, but
I had no time to see it, as the diligence left this day at twelve
o'clock for Munich, and as these conveyances only go twice or three
times a week at most from the principal towns throughout Germany, the
losing of an hour to see an object might detain one for two or three
days. Having taken my leave of Mr. Lehman, I seated myself in the
diligence for Munich, a journey which occupied us three days and three
nights. The road winds along the river side from Dresden to the first
stage on our way to Munich, and is very beautiful, the scenery much
diversified, and resembling that of some of our Scotch mountains; the
plantations of forest trees comprise a mixture of silver fir, beech and
Scotch-fir. The hill and dale that continued for a considerable way
along this line of road rendered the scenery very interesting and
picturesque, and which appeared so to continue until it became quite
dark, when all view of the country was lost.

We passed through Freyberg, a small town situated on the river Mulde,
and is said to be 1179 feet above the level of the sea. The next town or
village that we came to was Chimnitz, where we stopped for supper.

September 3rd. Arrived at one o'clock in the morning at Zwickau, at
which town the road from Leipsic joins the one from Dresden, where the
diligences from both towns meet, and the passengers are transferred from
the Leipsic diligence to the one from Dresden. Whilst waiting for the
vehicle getting ready to start, I was agreeably surprised to find Mr.
Parker, seated at the same inn; he had arrived from Leipsic by that
diligence: when we parted at Berlin we had no expectation of again
meeting each other so soon.

One of my fellow travellers from Dresden was a Frenchman, but he was
evidently as awkwardly situated whilst travelling for want of a
knowledge of the German language as I was myself; consequently we both
kept Mr. Parker pretty busy in acting as an intermediate interpreter
whilst we were together.

The scenery about Zwickau is beautifully varied with hill and dale, and
woods, with a small river called the Mulde running along by the bottom
of the rocks. The houses are neatly built, and of considerable number,
containing a population of from seven to eight thousand. The roads in
the vicinity of this town are rather mountainous, but not so much so as
in the preceding stages. The next small village that we passed through
was Plauen, where we arrived about seven o'clock in the morning: it is
said to contain about 700 inhabitants.

We next proceeded to Hof, where we arrived at ten o'clock, changed
diligences, and had to stop for several hours before we could again get
on our journey. On entering this town we passed by a large tea garden,
situated on the side of a hill, at the bottom of which is a small river,
that tends greatly to enliven the scenery. The town of Hof is in the
kingdom of Bavaria, and the population is said to amount to 6,000,
living in handsomely built houses. The main street that leads through it
I should imagine is nearly a mile in length, and very wide; there
appeared to be a fair in the town on this day, which occupied a great
part of this street.

The cathedral is an ancient building; the entrance consists of a
handsome Gothic door, the walls of which must be about eighteen feet in
thickness. The town-hall is likewise a fine erection, and the houses and
streets appeared all in clean and neat order.

From Dresden to Hof the country productions principally consist of
agricultural produce; the potatoe and oats are extensively cultivated. A
sharp frost this morning blackened all the potatoe tops.

At one o'clock we got into a Bavarian diligence, and proceeded to
Berneck, a small town surrounded with beautiful scenery, that much
reminded me of the Derbyshire rocks, to which in picturesque appearance
it was fully equal.

Arrived next at Bayreuth, at eight o'clock in the evening; it is a town
of considerable size, said to contain 10,000 inhabitants. On the
diligence driving up to the inn door we found the space in front of it
completely covered with a military band, and a large concourse of people
listening to their music; this band belonged to a cavalry regiment that
was on its march through the town. We next started for Nuremberg, where
we arrived at half-past eight o'clock the following morning.

September 4th. On our arrival at Nuremberg, we found that we had to
remain here for several hours before the diligence started again: we
made the best use of our time, proceeding to St. Laurence's Church, a
Gothic building, the doors and windows richly ornamented with groups of
sculpture and other carved work in bronze; the painted glass is very
handsomely executed. This church was begun in 1254 and is a most
magnificent building. The tabernacle consists of a beautifully carved
and richly ornamented spire, executed in 1496 of carved stonework.
Although it has been converted into a Protestant church, yet the
Catholic ornaments are still remaining. We next proceeded to view the
Catholic church, which is likewise a very splendid Gothic building,
erected in 1355, and the exterior walls richly ornamented. In the Market
place, we were much gratified with a very pretty spiral fountain, richly
carved, erected in 1356. The town-house is also a very fine old
structure, containing many good paintings in the large and small hall.
The fresco paintings in the latter apartment are beautifully executed on
the ceilings and walls, which are also highly ornamented by gilt
mouldings. The paintings in the great hall consist of various pieces of
fresco, by the celebrated Albert Durer. The triumphal car of the emperor
Maximilian, drawn by twelve horses, in beautiful fresco painting, and a
very fair picture of the present king of Bavaria, by Byng of Munich, is
also to be seen here.

From hence we went to the cathedral, in which is St. Sebald's Tomb,
highly deserving of the stranger's notice. This church contains the
oldest metal font in Germany; it was formerly used in baptising the
emperor's children. The saint's tomb, by Fisher, is a masterpiece of
workmanship, executed in 1508; there is also a curious figure of the
artist himself. The tomb is a pretty Gothic structure, cast in bronze,
and the body of the saint enclosed in a silver coffin, under an elegant
Gothic canopy. We next proceeded to the picture gallery, which contains
a good collection of paintings by German artists, in good preservation.
From hence we went to the imperial castle, where there is growing a Lime
tree, _Tilia europæa_, said to be seven hundred years old. I measured
the girth of this tree, at four feet from the ground, and found it to be
fifteen feet in circumference; it still appeared in a pretty healthy

The dining room in this ancient castle, formerly used by the king, is of
large dimensions, and contains a large number of old paintings, which
are in good preservation; the rooms although uninhabited for the last
four hundred years are still in good condition. From the windows in this
castle we have a beautiful prospect of the town as well as of a
considerable extent of country. On our return from hence we visited the
house in which Albert Durer resided, which is now converted into a
gallery for modern paintings, exhibited for sale, many of which appeared
to be most beautiful pieces of art, and objects of great interest to
numerous visitors who were then present admiring them. By this time it
was drawing near the hour we had to start by the diligence. We made the
best of our way back to the hotel, and got all ready by one o'clock, the
appointed hour of our departure from Nuremberg, which is a town of
considerable size, containing a population of upwards of thirty thousand

In the environs are large tracts of ground under vegetable culture, but
I was unable to learn of the existence of any botanic garden or good
nursery establishment in the immediate neighbourhood. Large fields of
tobacco were cultivated in the suburbs, as well as extensive plantations
of the _Hop_, which appeared very prolific. The soil we passed from
Nuremberg to Munich was more sandy than it previously had been; the
scenery is also more flat and less varied than in our preceding stages.

Sept. 5. Arrived at Pfaffenhofen, at six o'clock in the morning. Near to
this town large quantities of the _Genista germanica_, were growing
close by the road-side, also the _Dipsacus laciniatus_, in great
abundance. Approaching nearer to Munich, I observed growing in a
plantation the _Vaccinium Vitis Idæa_, in great plenty, reminding me,
from its occurrence, of the mountains of Scotland. The scenery in the
vicinity of Munich, is of a great sameness, but the Tyrolese mountains
appearing in the distance considerably add to its picturesque effect. We
reached Munich at eleven o'clock, where we found some difficulty in
getting apartments, the hotels being then so full of strangers.

In the afternoon I was accompanied by Mr. Parker to the Botanic garden,
which is situated close to the town, having a very handsome entrance
with Ionic columns, and neat iron railing, which encloses a large part
of this garden. The _Arboretum_ of trees and shrubs is confined to the
two ends of the garden, it being an oblong square, but the south side is
much the longest. The space of ground is very confined for the growth of
large trees; the entire space devoted for this purpose is not an acre of
ground, consequently the different sorts are much crowded together.

The interior of the garden, in front of the range of hot-houses, is laid
out in numerous oblong squares, with gravel walks intervening; in the
centre walk are three round basins of water. These squares are again
divided into beds for the herbaceous plants, wherein a good collection
are cultivated. In one of the divisions there is an _aquarium_ for
aquatic plants, which consists of oblong square troughs, lined with
brickwork for retaining the water; these are about two feet wide by two
deep, and an intervening space of ground, of from six to eight feet, in
which are grown such species as do not require the water: but a damp
situation, notwithstanding, is requisite: In the apartments where the
hardy perennial plants are cultivated, are numerous apple trees, all in
full bearing; these ought to be eradicated and their places supplied
with ornamental trees or shrubs. Apple-trees, however useful, are not in
character with a botanical collection; more especially as the apple is
so common by the road sides through Germany; a collection of this fruit
should find a place elsewhere than in the botanic garden, where the
space of ground is already much too limited for the collection of
plants. A lofty range of hothouses about five hundred feet in length,
has a very good effect; they are only furnished with upright sashes in
the front, the back and roof opaque, the latter finished in the
semi-cove form, and neatly plastered. I was surprised to find the Palms
looking remarkably healthy, notwithstanding these dark houses, many of
the species had really grown from twenty to twenty five feet in height.

The collection of the Brazilian species is very numerous, but many of
them appeared drawn and too much crowded for want of light and room in
the pits. The Cape and New Holland kinds were then out of doors, very
healthy and well grown. I was much pleased also with some very fine
specimens of _Cacteæ_, the variety of which is reckoned but little
inferior to that of Berlin. In short, there is an extensive assortment
of the various species of _Succulentæ_ in this establishment. The
director, M. Seitz, having been long a collector, has succeeded in
forming a great variety of this curious tribe; he was extremely liberal
in parting with any of his duplicates.

Sept. 6th. M. Seitz having the kindness to accompany us to the Royal
gardens at Nymphenburg, which are situated about four English miles from
Munich; we proceeded thither immediately after breakfast, and found that
these grounds required no little time to make even a hasty inspection.

The French garden in front of the palace consists of straight and broad
gravel walks, with long stripes of grass lawn, and borders about twelve
feet wide of shrubs running parallel to the avenues of horse-chesnut
trees. Along the edges of the walks various vases and other ornamental
sculpture are arranged; leading from these walks, a straight piece of
water, more in the form of a canal, than an ornamental lake, runs
parallel in two different directions; the one parallel to the palace, is
crossed by two wooden bridges, which are prominent features from several
points of view. The centre, or main canal, leads in a straight direction
for a considerable distance, and is broken by several very pretty
cascades, and handsome marble basins, as well as different groups or
figures of sculpture. The water comes rushing over the marble ledges
with great force, and was certainly the brightest and purest that I had
ever previously seen. There are also some very fine jets in which the
water is propelled to a great height by machinery. A well formed lake
nearly adjoins the bathing house, said to occupy about fifty Bavarian
acres of ground, the outline of which is much varied with different
projections of land, islands, and the banks of turf tastefully planted
with trees and shrubs, forms a very pleasing contrast. A curious bark
is placed on this sheet of water, consisting of two small boats, with a
platform, on which is placed a chair, so that a person may sit and read,
or fish, and at the same time guide this boat by his feet, that are
resting generally on the paddles.

Close by the margin of this lake, is a very pretty circular temple, with
a figure of Apollo, that forms a prominent object from several points of
view. A small cascade passing under a ledge of rockwork, on the top of
which is placed a marble figure of Pan, and a goat at his feet, forms
another object of interest in this part.

The grounds from the south west of the bathing house, (or Pavilion,
which is ornamented by paintings and statues) have been lately much
improved, and are now considerably varied with different clumps of trees
and shrubs, undulations and rockwork. The surface is naturally a flat,
but art has, during the last three years, created great inequalities and
alterations in this part of the grounds; the banks and undulations are
very judiciously formed, the trees and shrubs tastefully grouped
together; the walks and rides are of great extent, and very neatly kept
and gravelled.

The range of plant houses at Nymphenburg is the most extensive and
substantially built of any that I had previously seen in Germany, about
one thousand feet in length, and varying from twenty to twenty four feet
in width, the height not exceeding twenty-eight feet. I was here
surprised to find that the hothouse in which a fine collection of
_Palmæ_, and other Brazilian plants were grown, was heated by very small
hot water pipes, which I imagined were far too small to sustain the
temperature of such a house, although the back and roof are opaque, and
of course require considerably less artificial heat than if constructed
with glass on all sides. The boiler that heats this house is about seven
feet long, three deep, and three feet six inches wide, and consequently
contains a large body of water, when once heated it gives out a great
portion of caloric from its sides and surface, being placed at the back
of the house, but in the interior, and concealed by the plants. The
pipes branch right and left from the boiler and appeared to be only two
inches in diameter, yet, I was informed, they were found quite
sufficient for the heating of this conservatory. Undoubtedly the boiler
being so very large rendered pipes of greater dimensions unnecessary.
The frost is, however, much more intense in Germany than in England; the
_Lauristinus_, _Arbutus_, _Rhododendrons_, _Portugal_ and _Common
Laurel_, were cultivated at Nymphenburg as green-house plants; they are
too tender to endure the winters there.

In front of this botanical range, or more directly opposite to the palm
house, is an arboretum of hardy trees and shrubs, but the site, for that
purpose, is badly chosen, and by far too contracted, and should have
been selected in the pleasure ground, at some distance from these
houses, where there is ample space, and would have formed an interesting
feature. As at present the more common kinds of trees and underwood are
the only hardy species of decoration in many parts of the ground.
Opposite to the east end of the range of plant houses is an oblong piece
of ground, laid out in narrow beds by the edge of the walks, which are
occupied with a collection of dahlias, and other herbaceous flowering

On our return from this botanical range we visited a small private
garden, close by the palace, which has also a very pretty cascade at its
extremity, and ornamented by sculpture.

The palace of Nymphenburg forms almost a semicircle of a large radius on
the Munich side, or principal front, but that facing the gardens is more
of an oblong square, and in consequence of the numerous roofs appearing
from the semicircular front, that are disconnected and of various
elevation from the main building, it has more the appearance of a number
of small villas, than of a royal residence, particularly as we approach
it from Munich, by the side of the straight canal that leads to the
principal entrance. Nearly opposite the centre of the palace on this
side is a circuitous basin of water with a fountain in the centre and
rockwork around it. This water is conveyed into the gardens, and must be
of great extent from the appearance of the course it was running, which
leads a considerable way towards Munich. After our return from
Nymphenburg gardens, we proceeded to the English garden, which is said
to contain about five hundred English acres of ground, and is a favorite
promenade for the inhabitants of Munich. This park, or pleasure ground,
is rather of a flat surface, but much diversified by clumps of various
trees and shrubs, and fine sheets of water, the margins of which are
much varied, but unfortunately full of weeds. The drives and walks that
lead through these grounds in different directions are very extensive,
some of them being nearly five miles in length. The grounds adjacent to
the queen's palace are very well kept, and deserving of notice; but a
piece of water in view from it is very filthy, which is the more
extraordinary, as it might be easily kept clean by turning into it a
branch of the river that runs through these grounds.

We observed some very fine specimens of the _Juglans fraxinifolia_ with
fruit on them, and very large trees of the _Salix alba_, which were here
in greater size than any I had ever seen. Numerous clumps of various
kinds of trees and shrubs are grouped together; but these are in most
instances rather crowded, and not enough of lawn is seen to intervene
between them. A handsome observatory was erecting, situated on an
artificial mound, which, when finished, will command a fine prospect
over these grounds. We also visited several of the churches. St. Mary's
church is very splendidly fitted up, and has handsome marble columns.
In it is placed a very superior statue of Eugene Beauharnois. St.
Michael's church is likewise deserving of notice from the beautiful
marble columns. The choirs of the different churches were this day all
decorated with Orange trees, _Hydrangeas_, and other flowering plants.

Sept. 7th. I appointed to be in the Botanic gardens with M. Seitz, by
eight o'clock in the morning. Immediately on my arrival I met with Mr.
Forster, nephew to the vice president of the Linnean Society, who is
also much attached to botany. The greater part of the day was spent with
M. Seitz, looking over the numerous species of _Cacteæ_, and
_Succulentæ_, and after having finished my visit here, he had the
kindness to conduct me to the Glyptothek, which is a very magnificent
quadrangular building, containing a fine collection of antique
sculpture; the floors and walls are inlaid with various marbles, the
ceilings richly ornamented with gilt mouldings, and fresco paintings. It
has twelve apartments, one of which is devoted to modern sculpture, and
possesses some fine specimens in this art.

I next proceeded to the Pinakothek, which is situated at a short
distance from the Glyptothek, and is likewise a very splendid building,
but it is not yet finished. It is intended as a repository for
paintings, and consists of a number of very capacious apartments with
gilt ceilings of extraordinary splendour. The suite of rooms is said to
be 500 feet in length, and on the south side is a long passage or
gallery, the ceiling of which is ornamented with fine fresco paintings.
The exterior of this Pinakothek is equally magnificent, and when
finished will undoubtedly be one of the most attractive objects in

Sept. 8th. This being a holiday and inclined to rain, we visited the
royal palace, which is at present undergoing great alterations and
additions. The first object that attracted my notice, was the granite
steps of the king's staircase, which measured twenty one feet in width;
at the top is the body guard room, and then an inner ante-room, the
walls of which are beautifully ornamented with fresco paintings, as is
likewise the adjoining room, in which are represented as though
suspended from the ceiling and cornice, fresco painting of numerous

The family dining room, with cove ceiling and fresco paintings, and most
beautiful inlaid floor, must attract general admiration. The throne room
is however still more capacious, and the walls are ornamented by various
alto-relievos in plaster. I observed in several of the windows that the
squares of glass used were five feet long by three feet in width. His
majesty's cabinet is also splendidly fitted up. The apartments intended
for the queen are still more superbly finished, and represent subjects
in fresco painting taken from the German poets.

The surbase of her majesty's room is of fine marble; the room is about
forty feet square, the dressing room of rather larger dimensions. The
queen's throne room is really most splendidly finished, the walls and
mouldings gilt, and the surbase of fine blue marble. There are several
other apartments intended for her majesty, representing in fresco
paintings various subjects from the poems of Burgher; with the
pilgrimage to the holy sepulchre in fresco. The grand staircase is most
magnificent; the walls and steps are of fine marble, with four Ionic
marble columns at the top, the whole furnished in the most superb style.
The lower suite of apartments is equally splendid; the walls are
decorated with paintings in fresco of several of the emperors of
Germany. The magnificence of the decorations on the walls and ceilings
of the new apartments in this palace are such that no one can form any
idea of their grandeur without a visit.

Adjoining to this, is the statue gallery of antiquities, which measures
about three hundred and thirty six feet in length, by forty five in
width, with a cove ceiling painted in fresco. I here saw a beautiful
Florentine Mosaic table, for which Napoleon offered sixteen thousand
florins. There is also a Bavarian almanack of the fifteenth and
sixteenth century, in form of a circular table, about seven feet in
diameter, inlaid with brass; but the letters and figures almost
obliterated. The entrance to this antique gallery consists of a handsome
grotto in shell work, with various figures, birds, and devices, in

There is placed opposite the new addition to the palace a colossal
figure in bronze of the late emperor, with a huge lion at his feet. Near
this palace is a magnificent Post-office, now building. There is also
the Theatre, which is likewise a very splendid structure. We next
visited the Gallery of Paintings, which is well deserving of notice, and
contains a very valuable collection of pictures. The space of ground
called the Hof Garden, which is a fashionable promenade, and consists of
numerous rows of trees and gravel walks, is bounded on one side by a
very long gallery, highly ornamented with various frescos. Although
denominated a garden, I could see neither flowers nor shrubs; only rows
of trees, that formed a shady promenade in the summer months, when it is
much frequented by tea-parties.

In the afternoon we made another visit to the English garden, and round
the environs of the town; but this being a holiday, all the principal
establishments were shut. I was however unable to hear of there being
any other garden establishment worth seeing, that I had not previously
seen: we therefore procured our passports, and secured our places in the
diligence for Stuttgard.

Sept. 9th. Left Munich at six o'clock a.m. The scenery for the first
stage was rather flat, but as we approached Augsburg it became
considerably more varied. By the side of the road on this route I
observed the _Gentiana Pneumonanthe_, in great abundance; I here had an
opportunity of collecting several specimens, whilst the diligence was
ascending a long hill, which was well planted, and where some fine trees
of the spruce fir were in view.

The houses in Augsburg have old-fashioned red tiled roofs, with numerous
windows projecting like skylights, even five rows deep on the sides, in
very bad taste. Augsburg contains 27,000 inhabitants; and several
ancient buildings, particularly the Episcopal palace, Cathedral, and
Town-hall. The Cathedral, a Gothic building, contains some curious old
tapestry and paintings, representing the apostles sleeping whilst our
Saviour was praying. There are also some curious old tombs, with models;
and several handsome fonts with large bronze figures. The Town-house,
which contains a picture gallery over the ground floor, is a very fine
building; the gallery where the paintings are kept is 120 feet long, 62
feet wide, and 56 feet high, with a carved wood ceiling, richly gilt.
The pictures were many of them of immense dimensions, and in fine
preservation, but of the old German school. We here also visited the
German Literary Gazette printing-office, and also the steam engine which
is used for throwing up the water to supply the different fountains in
the town.

Whilst Mr. Parker was making purchases of books here, I proceeded to the
garden of M. Schatzle, which is situated in the suburbs. This garden is
very well kept, and contains some good exotic and Cape plants, and a
good shew of summer flowers, with several straight avenues of trees
planted so as to form an arbour or shady walk. In this garden is placed
a colossal group in bronze that weighs 10,500 pounds, executed by
Chirardi in honour of Fugger. The first of the Fugger family was an
Augsburg merchant, and is said to have left his heirs above six millions
of golden crowns, besides other property. From thence I proceeded to the
nursery of M. Schultz, which contains vegetables as well as nursery
stock: there are two or three small hothouses, or rather pits, for the
growth of the tender species, but I saw but little in this establishment
worth notice, although considered the best nursery garden about

It was now drawing near the hour that we were to take our departure from
Augsburg in the diligence; whence we started at 7 o'clock p.m. for Ulm,
the next town of any note.

I omitted to mention that we were accompanied through the different
departments in Augsburg by the French gentleman who travelled with us
from Dresden to Munich, and also by Mr. Withy, who was returning from a
tour, and going then to Heidelberg; he travelled with us as far as
Stuttgard, where we all parted.

Sept. 10th. Arrived at Ulm at half-past four o'clock in the morning.
This is a pretty town, situated on the left bank of the Danube, in the
kingdom of Wurtemberg, and is said to contain 23,000 inhabitants. We
stopped here about an hour.

The first stage beyond Ulm consists of a fine agricultural district. The
second stage presented rocky and fine scenery, planted with hard wood,
the birch and beech trees intermixed, but the latter sort pre-hills on
both sides, which is particularly picturesque, and surpasses the much
admired Matlock scenery, for many miles. When we arrived at Geislingen
we had time to admire the huge rocks peeping out amongst the trees
opposite this village, where there is also a very fine prospect tower,
which overlooks the town, and great extent of country. I observed,
growing on the banks of Geislingen glen, the _Asclepius vincetoxicum_,
_Helleborus officinalis_, and several other scarce plants.

Along this country numerous orchards of fruit trees prevailed, such as
plums, pears, and the apple, which were very abundant, all growing close
by the road side and full of fruit.

The road through Geislingen to Goppingen is very beautiful, being a
great vineyard country for many miles, commencing about Plockingen, and
extending along the face of the hills to Stuttgard. We passed through an
old fashioned town called Esslingen, which is situated on the Necker, a
river that heightens in a great degree the beauty of the whole valley
along which it winds.

Cobbett's corn appears to be extensively cultivated in this district,
particularly near to Stuttgard, where we arrived at six o'clock in the
evening. Here I lost all my travelling companions, Mr. Parker starting
for Frankfort immediately, and Mr. Withy the following morning for
Heidelberg; both which towns I afterwards visited.

Sept. 11th. M. Hertz, who has a small nursery garden in Stuttgard, and
whom I had previously seen in Kew gardens, very kindly volunteered to
accompany me to the Royal Botanic Gardens here, which are situated at a
short distance from the palace, and contain a number of old hothouses,
and a good collection of plants in a very healthy state. In short, I was
surprised to see the plants looking so healthy in such old worn out
opaque roofed houses.

There are also cultivated here many very fine specimens of the _Cacteæ_.
I saw one of the _Cacteæ senilis_ above eighteen inches long, a very
fine healthy plant. The _Echinocactus cornigerus_ measured about six
inches in circumference, and some other kinds were also nearly as fine.

The pleasure ground belonging to this palace contains about two hundred
and sixty German acres; it is tastefully planted, and laid out in
numerous drives and rides, forming a pleasant promenade for the public.

A very fine orangery, with dark roof, is situated at a considerable
distance from the Botanic gardens, and near it a very complete flower
house was erecting, the rafters of which were of metal, and the sashes
all wood, heated with smoke flues, that pass under the pit, where an
arched cellar is formed, so that mushrooms or other vegetables may be
accelerated. I regretted that this house was not heated by hot-water,
which would have rendered it very complete. It is intended to remove
near to it the kitchen garden, which is situated at a very different
part of the town, and in a very dilapidated state. Numerous pits for
melons, and pines, are in these gardens, but in this state of intended
transition they are not kept in good repair. After going through these
different departments, M. Bosch, the superintendent of all the Royal
gardens, then returned to the Botanic garden, while M. Hertz conducted
me to a small villa garden, containing a very choice collection of
_Cacteæ_, some fine large specimens of the _Opuntia_ tribe and
_Cereuses_ were here.

Having called on the Baron de Meyendorff, the Russian ambassador at
Stuttgard, his excellency accompanied me to a small nursery garden,
which contained some good specimens of plants of the more hardy sorts of
the New Holland and Cape species, but little of novelty amongst them.
From hence we proceeded to the chateau of General Spizenberg, which has
been lately erected on the side of a hill, commanding a most delightful
and extensive prospect of Stuttgard and its varied scenery. I was much
gratified to find that the old warrior, after undergoing the fatigues of
many campaigns, was now devoting his leisure hours to the pursuit of
botany and horticulture. Baron Meyendorff informed me that the general
acts entirely as his own gardener, and he has certainly succeeded in
forming a very choice collection of plants, consisting of hardy shrub,
perennials, and exotics. There are grown in this small spot, sixty sorts
of _Camellias_, a good variety of _Ericas_, and numerous other Cape
plants, with some very curious _Cacteæ_. In a little stove, divided in
two divisions, I observed also a few pine apples, but of a very inferior
size, and not worth the trouble even of eating, let alone rearing. The
other description of plants looked healthy, the peach-trees against the
low wall were very well managed and neatly trained. The vines were also
judiciously trained to a wooden trellising against the wall. On the
whole it is an interesting collection, and well worth the stranger's
notice. On my return I proceeded in the afternoon to Rosenstein palace,
which is about two English miles from Stuttgard; but his excellency
having the kindness to send his carriage, and being again accompanied by
M. Hertz, we soon arrived there, and again met with M. Bosch.

This palace is a magnificent building, placed on a fine situation,
commanding beautiful views of the Swabian Alps, also of Carstadt, where
there are found buildings of the Romans, and large pieces of fossils,
particularly of the mammoth. The Necker also forms a fine feature from
this palace.

The grounds are very extensive, and the drives and walks well kept; the
ground is now formed into beautiful sloping turf, which I understood was
formerly in a very unlevel and rough state. It is beautifully
diversified with various fine drives, which I could not but admire,
being destitute of the fantastic twists, that are so often thrown in
without the the least meaning.

At present the grounds around this palace have rather a naked
appearance, for want of trees and shrubs, but this defect M. Bosch is
rapidly removing, so that a few years will produce a very different
effect; much difficulty is however experienced in getting the trees
established, owing to the high elevation of the ground, and the general
droughts in summer. At Rosenstein, I saw one of the most complete
vineyards that I ever met with, formed on the slope of a hill, with
wooden trellisses, so constructed as to have the greatest degree of the
sun's rays, at that season when the fruit requires it most. These
trellisses are arranged about six feet apart each other, and are formed
thus, /_\, so that the vines are laid on an inclined plane, and the
fruit appearing on all sides, have really a delightful effect. The
trellis is five feet high, and six feet wide at bottom, and the whole
constructed something like a parabola, and continued along the slope of
ground in a curved line. I did not observe the vine in such a prolific
state any where else, and the whole looked remarkably neat. At a
considerable distance from the palace, some very extensive fruit
terraces were forming on the slope of a hill, near the town of Carstadt;
nearly two hundred men were busily employed blasting rock, and forming
the terraces, which are intended for the vine, fig, peach, apricot, &c.,
and from the fine sheltered situation in which they are placed, I
imagine the success will be fully equal to their expectations. On
approaching these terraces I was at first surprised to observe the
workmen surrounded by a number of soldiers, who were stationed at
different parts, throughout them. I however soon observed that this
precaution was necessary, as many of the workmen so employed, were
convicts, and heavily loaded with chains round their legs. I walked over
a great part of these extensive grounds, and was much pleased with the
different objects I saw, and improvements proceeding with.

Sept. 12th. Started this morning, for Hohenheim palace, which is
situated about six English miles from Stuttgard; it is now occupied as
an agricultural establishment, and has attached to it a thousand acres
of ground, devoted to agricultural experiments. I was much gratified by
seeing the granary of seeds, consisting of a great variety of the
different kinds used in husbandry, which was said to amount to five
hundred sorts. The stock of cattle and sheep, is very fine and
extensive. The repository of agricultural implements contains the
various instruments used in farming, from every known country, and are
all kept in excellent order.

The different domestic apartments in the palace, are occupied by
numerous pupils, who congregate here from all parts of Germany. I was
happy to learn that the produce of the establishment was sufficient to
meet all the expences, attending its cultivation. In the pleasure
ground, or rather nursery, a great quantity of the more common sorts of
shrubs is cultivated. I observed a fine tree covered with fruit of the
_Prunus cirrhifera_, an excellent plum, quite round, and of a purple
colour. I also saw a fine specimen of the _Tilia alba_, that was planted
by Duke Charles the _Fraxinus juglandifolia_, was a particularly noble
plant, as well as the _Quercus macrocarpa_, and various other species of
this genus. There are about sixty _arpents_ of ground here, under young
fruit tree cultivation, which are grown for sale.

During the time that Duke Charles resided at Hohenheim, the gardens were
much celebrated, and attracted numerous visitors from all parts of
Germany. There is a fine piece of ground called the English garden, that
was much admired, but now we have only the forlorn remains of it left.
At the front of the palace, are still several of the old flower beds,
and the balustrade wall, which forms a fine sweep, at the principal or
entrance front. It was in Duke Charles's time well stocked with orange
trees, but none are now in existence. The ground falls considerably,
towards the south, from the palace, and when under garden cultivation,
it must have had a very pretty effect. The view from the windows, over a
small town called Boblingen, and the surrounding scenery, is very fine,
the Swabian Alps appearing in the distance. I should imagine Hohenheim
palace, about sixty years ago, must have been one of the most
magnificent in Wurtemberg, but the apartments are rapidly going to
decay. The new road lately formed near to Stuttgard, winding through the
vineyard plantations, with their numerous small huts or watch boxes,
has also a very pretty effect, although rather fatiguing from its steep

On my return from Hohenheim, I again called on Mr. Koster, the British
secretary of legation, who accompanied me to the house of M. de Kerner,
where I saw eighty-three volumes of the splendid Botanical work,
executed by the late M. de Kerner, which consists of above one thousand
drawings of the various fruits, and other exotic flowering plants, which
are undoubtedly exquisite specimens of that gentleman's abilities as a
draughtsman. These volumes were only purchased by the royal libraries of
Vienna, St. Petersburg, Munich, Stuttgard, and Copenhagen, at a price of
seventeen hundred pounds; only six or seven copies were executed, one of
which is still on hand, in the possession of M. de Kerner. After again
procuring my passport, I started about eight o'clock in the evening, for
Carlsruhe, where I arrived at five the next morning.

Sept. 13th. On my arrival I found that the diligence would start in the
course of twenty minutes for Baden. I started by it, and arrived there
at ten o'clock. His Excellency Lord George William Russell, kindly gave
me a note of introduction to Sir John Frost, the late secretary of the
Medico-Botanical Society of London, who was then residing at Baden, and
practising as a physician. This gentleman furnished me with several
notes of introduction, to some of his Botanical friends, and also kindly
shewed me the different objects of interest about the town; amongst
which was the fountain of mineral-water, so much celebrated, for various
diseases. It is of a very high temperature; so much so, that I was
unable to drink a glass of it, without first letting it cool; from the
appearance of the fountain, one would imagine that a strong fire was
burning under it. From the baths we proceeded to the castle garden, and
from hence, a considerable way up the hill, where is a most delightful
prospect of the town, and its very romantic scenery. The old castle
forms a prominent object of attraction, which, with the tremendous
precipices of rock, and plantations, render this spot the most
picturesque that I had previously met with on my tour through Germany.

An excellent promenade, called the English garden, with neatly kept
walks and pieces of lawn, is much frequented by the inhabitants and
visitors. Situated in the promenade is a magnificent building called the
"Conversation House," with numerous orange trees arranged in front of

In the interior, I was much surprised to see in a very capacious room,
splendidly furnished, a large concourse of ladies and gentlemen, during
Sunday, very busy at the gambling tables; in fact the ladies appeared to
be fully as expert gamblers as the gentlemen. I also made a visit to the
convent, where two skeletons of saints decorated with numerous pearls,
rings, and other costly ornaments are exhibited; the skull and teeth
appeared to be in pretty good preservation, but these superstitious
decorations, so perfectly incongruous, might be well dispensed with. The
number of strangers calculated to have visited Baden, during the season
of 1835, are said to have amounted to thirteen thousand. The scenery for
a great part of the way from Carlsruhe to Baden, is considerably varied,
and the old castle of Eberstein appearing on an eminence, with well
planted hills, forms a lively contrast. We also passed through a
handsome town called Rastadt, situated on the river Murg, where a
palace, belonging to the grand duke of Baden, appears conspicuous from
the road.

Sept. 14th. I called this morning on Mr. Kennedy (brother to the
Marquess of Ailsa,) and delivered to him a note of introduction that I
received from Lord G. W. Russell. Mr. Kennedy very kindly accompanied me
to the Botanic Garden, and introduced me to M. Held, the gardener, a
very intelligent man; here the enormous height that the _Melaleuca
stipulacea_ had attained, which was nearly forty feet, is truly
astonishing. Various other _Melaleucas_ and _Banksias_ were nearly as
high; the _Dracæna Draco_ (Dragon-tree,) was about twenty feet in
height; and the _Pomaderis apetala_ almost thirty feet. In this garden
are various ranges of houses for the cultivation of tropical and other
green-house plants, which are extensively cultivated. The houses have
all dark roofs, with glass only in front; yet the greater part of their
inmates looked very healthy, particularly the greenhouse plants; but
these had the advantage of being exposed to the weather during the
summer months. Various pits were also in this establishment for the
growth and protection of the half-hardy species. The _Succulentæ_ are
extensively cultivated; there are nearly one hundred and forty species
of _Mesembryanthemums_, and about one hundred different kinds of
_Aloes_, besides a pretty good collection of the _Cacteæ_. The
_Rhododendron_ and _Azalea_, are cultivated out of doors, which is
rarely the case in any other garden in Germany.

The herbaceous ground is formed into oblong squares, and these again
divided into narrow beds, which are well stocked with a great variety of
hardy flowering perennials. The whole of this botanical department was
remarkably neat and clean, having, it is understood, been much improved
since M. Held was appointed. It appeared to me, however, to be much too
crowded with these heavy looking houses, which are too numerous for a
space of ground, undoubtedly too contracted and confined for such a
collection of plants.

The park, or pleasure-ground, adjoins the garden, and although of a dull
flat surface, yet it contains many very fine specimens of ornamental
trees and shrubs. I observed, for instance, the _Salisburia
adiantifolia_, sixty feet high, and several very large tulip trees, and
the _Sophora Japonica_; a fine specimen of the _Acer dasycarpum_,
measured no less than a space of ground of twenty yards regular
diameter. I was much pleased with a small flower garden, close to the
palace windows, which was well stocked with flowers in full bloom. The
grounds are laid out with numerous avenues radiating from the palace,
which extend in a straight line for a considerable distance; I reckoned
twenty-seven of these avenues, which had certainly rather an imposing
effect, and various walks and rides that branch off through the grounds
in different directions. There is also an extensive piece of ground
enclosed with a high wall, occupied as a nursery, and well stocked with
various hardy species of trees and shrubs. The front of the palace, next
Carlsruhe, was ornamented with large orange trees. The orangery was a
large building, the front of which was well covered with grape-vines in
a prolific state.

Sept. 15th. Left Carlsruhe at six o'clock, a.m. for Heidelberg, passing
through a fine fertile country, chiefly occupied with green crops. The
mangel wurtzel, Indian corn, and fine crops of tobacco, are cultivated
here, as well as in many other parts of Germany. Arrived at Heidelberg
at eleven o'clock, and proceeded to the Botanic Garden, which has been
only recently established, and contains a neat range of hot-houses,
about one hundred and sixty feet long, besides a large sized pit in
front of the range, one hundred feet long. This garden, although small,
is pleasantly situated, and well arranged. In the centre is an oblong
piece of water, the banks around which are considerably elevated, and
planted with standard fruit trees, such as peaches, apricots, plums, and
pears. The garden forms an oblong square, with a range of hot-houses and
gardener's house at the north end, close to the Heidelberg Gate. These
hothouses were the best and neatest-built that I had met with in
Germany, and contain a pretty fair collection of plants, with some very
fine species of _Cacteæ_. Along by the east side of the garden is an
avenue of very fine specimens of the _Robinia inermis_, which is also
continued along the south side of the town for a considerable distance.

I next proceeded to Schwetzingen, another magnificent establishment,
belonging to the Grand Duke of Baden. The palace and gardens are
situated about five English miles from Heidelberg, and are
unquestionably well worth the stranger's visit. In the approach to them
by an arch-way at the palace, we have a view of a large circular piece
of ground, divided into various divisions, in which are cultivated a
good collection of flowering plants; there are also in this spot a
number of fine orange trees, arranged along the edges of broad gravel
walks; several of them forming a straight avenue, extending in various
directions. The centre walk or avenue, leading from the palace, is
terminated by an extensive sheet of water, where is placed a fine group
of sculpture, as well as another at the commencement of the avenue, at
the end of the grass, next to the circular piece of ground, where the
orange trees are arranged. On each side of this principal avenue is
situated an oblong piece of ground, laid out in the French style of
gardening, with numerous straight walks, and circular spaces at their
junctions. The exterior of the ground, and that by the lake, is laid out
in the English style, and consists of various clumps of trees; and the
very fine irregular sheet of water has really a very good effect.

I was much pleased with a very fine ruin, which is ascended by steps to
a very considerable height, from whence is a delightful prospect of the
gardens and adjoining scenery. The Temple of Apollo, with the stupendous
blocks of rock, and the water dashing against them, is another object
deserving of notice. The Temple of Minerva is also a very pretty
erection. A Roman aqueduct forms a very prominent object of attraction,
but at this season of the year it appeared to be but indifferently
supplied with water, which might be occasioned by the long and universal
drought. A Temple Botanique, and a very handsome Kiosk, formed objects
of interest and ornaments to the garden. An extensive arched trellising
covered with creepers also attracted my notice: in it were numerous
arborial openings on both sides.

The collection of Cape and New Holland plants is pretty extensive, and
numerous species of the _Genus Erica_ are also cultivated. In the
kitchen garden various pyramidal-formed pear trees are grown; and the
hothouses are of a better description than are usually to be met with in
Germany; the south-side glass, and the back opaque, with span roofs. The
pine-apples here were the best that I had previously met with during my
tour in Germany. To give an accurate description of the various objects
of interest that are to be seen in these grounds would require one well
acquainted with the premises, and several days' actual residence on the
spot. The orange houses are substantial built houses, with dark roofs,
and the collection of trees, from their appearance, from four to five
hundred, which were in a healthy state.

Having a letter of introduction from Sir John Frost and M. Kilter from
the neighbourhood of Vienna (who visited Woburn Abbey last summer) to
the principal director, I experienced the greatest attention from him;
the greatest pains were taken in pointing out to me every thing worthy
of notice.

Returned to Heidelberg, and visited the ruins of an old castle, situated
on the face of a hill overlooking the town, and the river Necker, and
surrounded by high hills well planted, which form an eminence
considerably above the castle, where there is a platform or resting
place: the view of the extent of country and its romantic scenery is
really grand. On the top of two of these hills are high towers, the
prospect from which must be still more extensive. On approaching the old
castle, I was agreeably surprised to observe some fine walks, with a
collection of trees or arboretum, with printed labels attached to them,
and the ground in good order. From this we still continued to descend to
the old castle, which, even in its present state, must strike the
stranger with regret that such a magnificent building should have been
permitted to go to decay, particularly as the stone work appears in a
good state of preservation. The prospect from the terrace, on the
north-side of the castle, is really grand, commanding the circuitous
course of the Necker, the lofty and undulating hills on each side, which
I imagine must be elevated at least two thousand feet above the level of
the site of the castle.

In the interior of the building is the celebrated _Heidelberg tun_,
which was formerly used in making the Rhenish wine, with the great
machine that was in use for that purpose, and from its size the quantity
made daily must have been very great; near to it stands a figure of one
of the wine makers, who was in the habit of drinking fifteen bottles
every day. The approach of night prevented me from inspecting the
interior of this old castle so minutely as I could have wished.
Descending from a hill considerably elevated above this building, I
passed through a grove of fine trees (sweet chesnuts) all in full

The country and romantic scenery in the vicinity of Heidelberg pleased
me more than anything of the kind I had previously met with.

Sept. 19th. Left Heidelberg at six o'clock a. m. for Frankfort, the road
winding along the river Necker, for a considerable distance, through a
flat country to the left; but the high hills on the right as we passed
from this to Darmstadt formed a pleasing contrast. The scenery for the
first ten or twelve miles is very picturesque, from the high undulating
hills, having numerous old romantic castellated ruins on their summits,
or commanding points, which form prominent features of attraction. These
hills are likewise well planted with forest trees; and large tracts are
under vineyard culture.

Arrived at Darmstadt at half-past one o'clock. I was much pleased with
the cleanliness and elevated situation of this town, which is said to
contain above twenty thousand inhabitants; the houses are handsomely
built, the streets wide, and in good proportion to the height and size
of the houses; they have also flag pavements, which is a rarity in
Germany. The opera-house is a splendid building, as well as the
cathedral. The palace is also a fine old building, and has attached to
it an extensive pleasure ground and kitchen garden.

Having but a very short time to stop here I made but a hasty visit
through the gardens. The kitchen garden walls were well stocked with
trees in full bearing, and large crops of vegetables appeared to be
extensively cultivated: from thence I went to the extremity of the
grounds, near which is a small herbaceous ground, with a good collection
of plants in it, but I observed but little in the ornamental way in the
arboretum department.

About the centre is prettily formed, although dirty, a sheet of water,
with a fanciful boat, for passing to and from a small island in the
centre. The grounds are very flat and not varied, but possess numerous
walks and rides which are frequented by the inhabitants.

I here observed a large number of horses, belonging to the Grand Duke,
passing through the town to the Ducal stables. There are military
barracks, and a large establishment of soldiers stationed here. This is
evidently not a town of trade, but is principally occupied by the

Left Darmstadt at three o'clock for Frankfort; the country betwixt these
towns is not much varied, but the soil appears very fertile, and
produces good crops. I was, however, quite astonished at the number of
carriages and other vehicles passing and re-passing betwixt Frankfort
and Heidelberg; the road appeared to be nearly as much crowded as any of
the English roads leading to London, and amongst these travellers were
many English families.

Arrived at Frankfort at six o'clock in the evening; the hotels were all
so crowded with strangers that it was with difficulty I procured a bed,
but at last the landlord of the Hotel d'Angleterre obtained me a room in
a private house.

Sept. 17th. In the morning I visited the Catholic cathedral, which is
said to be one thousand years old, and contains a curious clock and
almanac, made and placed in it about four hundred years ago; and then
proceeded to the banking-house of Messrs. Koch and Co., and delivered to
them a letter of introduction from His Excellency Lord G. W. Russell.
They kindly furnished me with notes of introduction to several of the
best gardens in Frankfort. I then visited the nursery gardens of M.
Rintz, which are situated in the suburbs of the town, and contain about
eighteen English acres, chiefly occupied with fruit trees. There are
also several hothouses and pits for Cape and other plants, which are
pretty extensively cultivated, with a good variety of _Ericas_ and other
greenhouse plants, as well as several fine specimens of _Cacteæ_, and a
very extensive variety of the _Camelliæ_; but unfortunately none of
these being at this season in flower, I had not the pleasure of seeing
M. Rintz's celebrated variety, which is said to be very fine. This
gentleman then accompanied me to the garden of M. Andreæ Willemer, which
is close to the town, but is very limited in extent; it contains a very
good greenhouse, and low pits and frames, which were then well stocked
with a very fine collection of _Cacteæ_, amongst which were many very
scarce species. This gentleman devotes much attention to the cultivation
of this tribe of plants, and appeared to put a higher value on many of
them than they are actually worth; for instance, the _Cactus Senilis_ he
would not part with for fifty pounds, although possessing duplicates.
There was also a good assortment of Cape plants and a number of
_Ericas_, which are now beginning to be more extensively cultivated in
Germany than they previously were.

I then paid a visit to the Frankfort Botanic Garden, which is of very
limited extent, and its collection of plants also very contracted. These
is, however, attached to it, the Senkenberg Society, which contains a
splendid collection of objects in natural history, such as birds,
fishes, shells, minerals, and animals, which are well worth the
stranger's notice.

From this I proceeded to the gardens of M. Gogel, situated about four
English miles from Frankfort, containing twenty-four German acres, with
several hothouses and pits for the growth of the pine-apple and other
tropical plants, which are extensively cultivated here. This gentleman
has a very fine collection of the hardy grapes on the garden walls, with
a large space of vegetable ground, well cropped. The lawn in front of
the house appears, from the River Main, to much advantage, as well as a
fine avenue of lime trees, that have grown to a large size. At the lower
end of this avenue is a fine vista of the river and packets, or boats,
that pass to and from Frankfort and Mayence.

On my return, I called at the villa garden of M. Stern, which is a
pretty little spot, with a great variety of pelargoniums and dahlias,
and other green-house plants, and contains some small green-houses and
pits for their protection; there is also a good collection of camellias,
all in a healthy state.

Adjoining this is another villa, belonging to M. Cronelius, that has
also several good hothouses and pits, with a large variety of _Ericas_,
_Camellias_, _Dryandrias_, and _Geraniums_, as well as other New Holland
plants. There are likewise several espalier divisions, in which the pear
tree is extensively cultivated, and appeared to be in a very prolific
state. There is a considerable extent of ground under kitchen cropping,
and also a pleasure ground, which was very well kept.

The garden of Baron Rothschild, close to the town of Frankfort, is
undoubtedly the best in this neighbourhood that came under my
observation; it contains thirty-five German acres, with several
green-houses, besides an extensive range then building, about two
hundred feet long, which was also intended for plants, and is divided
into seven apartments, in order that those kinds that require different
temperatures may be kept separately; this range when completed will have
a very fine effect. In front of the mansion were placed two large
stands well stocked with geraniums, and some very good orange trees, in
tubs, which are removed from this site to the green-house early in
autumn. I here observed a very fine specimen of the _Araucaria excelsa_,
which was beautifully feathered to the ground; this is unquestionably
one of the finest specimens of this plant that I have seen on the
continent or in England, with the exception of that at Dropmore, which
is much finer in every respect. Baron Rothschild's _Araucaria_ is little
inferior to the one at Prince de Linge's at Belial.

Opposite to the house is a prospect tower, that commands a fine view of
Frankfort and surrounding country; there is also an arched walk
completely covered with grape vines. The grass lawn was well kept, and
various clumps of trees and shrubs dispersed through it. A small piece
of water is enclosed at the lower end of the ground for water fowl. In
this garden I observed a good collection of green-house plants and

The fortifications that formerly surrounded the town are now demolished,
and formed into a public promenade for the inhabitants, and are well
laid out, with various clumps of trees and shrubs, broad walks, and

Frankfort is a town of great traffic, and is said to contain about
40,000 inhabitants.

Sept. 18th. Left Frankfort at ten o'clock for Mayence, and passed
through a fertile sandy country, which is well stocked with grape
vines, but the country not much varied; the scenery as we approach
Mayence is more picturesque, particularly when we get in view of the
town. We pass through a handsome barrack, situated on the verge of the
river, proceeding across a long wooden bridge that leads to the town.
Opposite to this wooden bridge, are placed seventeen watermills for
grinding flour, which were then busily at work.

The town is surrounded by very deep rampart ditches, faced with strong
stone walls, a very good promenade, and a number of small gardens with
clipt hedges, near the edge of the Rhine, where there is an avenue that
extends along its banks formed by large trees of Poplar and Robinias. At
a short distance from Mayence, but on the opposite side and close to the
banks of the river is a very fine old castellated building, and a small
village adjoining, which form a prominent feature in the scenery from
the Mayence bridge.

Sept. 19th. Left Mayence per steam packet for Bonn. For the first two
hours, we made scarcely any progress, owing to the dense fog, which we
were all anxious to see disperse, in order that the beautiful scenery
might be seen to full advantage: it was however not before nine o'clock,
that the banks of the Rhine were quite clear, when the packet began to
make a rapid progress, and passing rapidly along between numerous
stupendous rocks, old castles, and small towns situated close by the
river side.

The banks of the Rhine are extensively cultivated as vineyards. When we
arrived at Katz, which is considered about the middle of the best
scenery, we met the other steam packet, coming up at Werlau. The scenery
here is truly grand; the high mountainous rocks and old castellated
ruins, with the various undulations and other objects, render this
region highly picturesque. There is a pretty town close by the water
edge, with white houses, and corresponding village on the opposite side,
and another appearing just at the extremity of a deep valley in
prospect. The old castle called Marksburg, is a prominent object, but to
attempt to describe or enumerate all the various features of interest
that come under observation in passing along the Rhine, would be an
endless task. The scenery at Coblentz is very beautiful, with its bridge
of boats across the Rhine, similar to that at Mayence. A large rock
called the Stromberg, is very picturesque, with the castellated ruins at
the top, and several other rocks of smaller dimensions in its vicinity,
nearly opposite to which the Rhine surrounds a small island. This may be
considered about the last of the romantic scenery that comes in view, as
we pass down the Rhine.

Arrived at Bonn, about five o'clock, where I experienced some difficulty
in getting a lodging, in consequence of the great meeting of scientific
professors having been here congregated. After at last finding
admittance in a hotel, I proceeded to the Botanic garden, which is
situated about a mile from the town, surrounding the south and east
sides of the university, and containing a very handsome range of
hothouses, from three to four hundred feet in length, which also form
nearly a line, or a range, with the principle front of the university.
The hothouses are in five divisions, and contain an extensive collection
of _Ferns_ and _Graminea_; many of the stove plants were in a very
luxuriant state, and looked very healthy. Behind this range is the
annual ground, where the different species are cultivated, which
appeared to occupy about an acre: there are several low pits placed in
this department, for the growth of _Cacteæ_, and _Orchideæ_, and other
dwarf-growing species; but the collection of _Cacteæ_ and _Orchideæ_ is
very limited. Immediately in front of the range of hothouses, is an
arboretum of hardy trees and shrubs, much too crowded, and planted too
close to the hothouses, and is continued in a manner round the two ends
and south side of the garden. Opposite the principal front of the
university, is arranged the collection of _Herbaceous_ plants, according
to the natural system, but the beds are all of an oblong form, with
broad alleys or foot-paths, betwixt them: an extensive collection of the
hardy flowering perennial plants was grown in the _Herbaceous_ ground,
but the variety of hardy trees and shrubs appeared to be very limited.
There were placed along the front of the university several clumps of
green-house plants, and orange trees.

The university was formerly a royal palace, but the lower apartments are
now devoted to collections of natural history; the length of the front
measures eighty eight yards, and appeared to be about square, with an
inner court. On my return, I met with professor Treveranes, and gave him
a letter of introduction that I had from Sir W. Hooker. I learned from
the professor, that the prince of Salm-Dyck was then in Bonn, attending
the scientific meeting, and if I did not see him that evening, I should
not be able to see him at all; having a letter of introduction to his
highness from Sir W. Hooker, and from Mr. Sabine, and being anxious to
see the prince, if possible, I made the best of my way back to Bonn, to
the hotel where the prince was stated to be residing; but on enquiring
there, finding he had gone out, I immediately proceeded in search of the
prince to another hotel to which I had been directed. After waiting some
time, I found his highness had not arrived, but was expected very soon.
I therefore amused myself in looking through several splendid apartments
which were then occupied by a large number of ladies and gentlemen, who
meet at this hotel or club-house every night, to supper and various
amusements. At last I was informed that the prince had just arrived,
when I delivered my letters of introduction, and apologised for
intruding at that unseasonable time. The Prince appointed me to be with
him at nine o'clock the following morning, when his Highness was pleased
to give me a letter to his gardener at Salm-Dyck, directing him to shew
me the grounds and collections under his care.

Sept. 20th. After my return from the prince, I made another excursion to
the Botanic garden, where I again saw the professor Treveranes, who had
not accompanied his learned brethren to Cologne, who to the number of
about four hundred had departed that morning for that town.

I took a walk on my return from the Botanic gardens round the environs,
and was much pleased by the objects of interest that displayed in
different directions. The scenery around Bonn is particularly fine, and
some good prospects from a hill, at a short distance from the town; but
as I intended starting by the early steam packet, I had not time to
reach its summit, although very inviting.

The Cathedral is a very fine building, and its interior handsomely
fitted up.

The packet arrived at half-past two o'clock: I took my departure for
Dusseldorf, and passed by Cologne, where, I imagine, there must have
been several thousand people assembled on the harbour and bridge.

We now changed packets for one of less dimensions and splendour, and
arrived at Dusseldorf about half-past ten o'clock. The scenery from
Cologne to Dusseldorf was flat, and but little varied; in short Bonn is
the termination of picturesque scenery.

At Dusseldorf, I had but little difficulty in finding a hotel, as they
were not so much crowded as at Bonn.

Sept. 21st. Started at six o'clock, a. m. for prince Salm-Dyck's
Château, which is situated about ten miles from Dusseldorf, on the
opposite side of the Rhine, which is crossed in a flat barge, and passes
through the ancient town of Neuss, at which place Buonaparte's design of
connecting the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse, is nearly completed.

The suburbs of Neuss abound in numerous vegetable gardens, enclosed with
well clipt hedges. The ground in this part of the country, is a strong
rich looking yellowish loam, and produces strong crops of corn, clover,
and potatoes. The road however leading through a part of this country to
the prince's palace, is very much out of repair, and appeared to have
been neglected for a considerable time.

On arriving at the palace, I immediately found out M. Funck, the
prince's gardener, and delivered to him my letters of introduction from
the prince, and from M. Otto, of Berlin. The garden ground attached to
this residence, contains one hundred and eighty German acres; the
surface is considerably varied, and consists of numerous fine trees and
shrubs grouped together on the lawn, the rising ground being judiciously
planted with the loftiest growing sorts, and kept towards the extremity
of the arboretum; amongst these I observed some very fine specimens of
beeches and oaks; the beeches were particularly fine.

I saw here the _Gleditschia tricantha_, 50 feet high, and the _Populus
Canadensis_ eleven feet in circumference, by about sixty in height; also
a fine specimen of _Acer dasycarpum_. The trees in this arboretum are
arranged according to the system of _Jussieu_; there is likewise a
natural arrangement of herbaceous plants nearer to the palace and green
houses. I here observed a good collection of _Pæonias_, but the prince
excels most in the _Succulent_ tribe of plants, such as the _Cacteæ_,
_Mesembryanthemum_, and _Aloes_.

Although the _Cacteæ_ are very numerous they were not such fine
specimens as in the Berlin garden. A sheet of water encloses, in a
manner, the greater part of the palace and its offices, and from the
windows it has a very fine effect, with its bold sweeping banks
extending along the arboretum, where a pretty wooden bridge appears in
view. The hothouses are rather in a decayed state; but M. Funck informed
me that the prince intended re-building them. In the greenhouse are some
very rare specimens of _Yuccas_ and _Aloes_. I understood from M. Funck
that Mr. Hitchen, of Norwich, had the greater part of his celebrated
collection from this garden, whence I also anticipate receiving, ere
long, not a few rarities.

In going through the interior of the palace I saw a number of very old
paintings, many of which represented former princes of Salm-dyck, but
they are not in a good state of preservation; the rooms and furniture
are of antique appearance, as well as the exterior of the palace. After
spending several hours in inspecting the plants and grounds, I returned
to Dusseldorf, to see the botanic garden belonging to that town, which
is certainly neither difficult to get over, nor to see its contents, the
space of ground being very contracted, and the plants also few in

They principally consisted of annuals; with a few rare species of
_Cacteæ_, not easily to be met with. I was, however, more pleased with
the public garden or promenade, which surrounds the town, and is very
extensive; it is particularly well laid out with fine broad walks,
clumps of trees and shrubs, and lawn intervening, and great variation of
surface, with different points of view commanding fine prospects of the
Rhine, with its boats and steam packets.

There is in this promenade a fine avenue of _Populus dilatata_, as well
as the _Tilia Europæa_, (Lime tree,) also several pieces of water, the
outline of some formed with much taste and intricacy, while others are
left rather formal; but, on the whole, little room is left for
criticism. Dusseldorf is a handsome town, and contains about 18,000
inhabitants; with good streets and well built houses.

Sept. 22nd. Left Dusseldorf by diligence at eight o'clock, a.m.; and
passed by the palace of prince Frederic, which is situated close by the
road side, in front of which the orange trees and sheets of water
appear very conspicuous. The gardens are said to contain a good
collection of plants.

Arrived at Cologne at one o'clock. This town is of considerable extent
and traffic, and has a population of upwards of 50,000 inhabitants. The
great object of attraction for the stranger is the magnificent church,
or cathedral, one of the finest in Europe, the dome one hundred and
eighty feet high, and the interior illuminated with beautiful stained
glass windows; the portraits as large as life, and magnificently
executed. I was, however, more pleased by the exquisite architecture of
the exterior; when finished, the effect will be grand in the extreme. On
the south side of the town are strong fortifications, opposite to which
is a promenade, that runs along a narrow slip of plantation on the
exterior side of them. There are also numerous fields for the growth of
vegetables. I here observed a small nursery garden well stocked with
fruit trees and shrubs. At a short distance from this I saw a large
building which I concluded to be a military barrack or magazine, which
was guarded by soldiers. By the time that I had completed my survey of
the town, I found that it was approaching to the hour that the diligence
was to leave for Aix-la-Chapelle. I started about seven o'clock in the
evening for this town, where we arrived at four o'clock the following

Sept. 23rd. Having a few hours to stop before the diligence set out, I
proceeded to the cathedral, where the celebration of the mass was
performing. It is a very splendid building, the interior highly
ornamented on the ceiling with fine fresco paintings.

The town hall, or now police office, is also a very magnificent
building; I observed some fine paintings in the interior.

The several celebrated mineral springs in this town are nearly as hot as
those at Baden; leading from the Baths, is a handsome street and a
number of good houses, that appeared to have been recently erected. At a
short distance from the town is a prettily planted hill, which must
command a fine prospect from its top of the surrounding country and
scenery; but my time would not permit a visit to it. In the vicinity of
Aix-la-Chapelle are numerous market gardens, but I observed no nursery
stock. The road leading from hence to Liege is considerably varied, and
the ground apparently of a rich fertile nature. The town of Liege is
situated in a beautiful valley, at the junction of the river Meuse with
the Ourthe, and surrounded by hills and fertile pasture, the latter
being watered by three rivers, the Ourthe, the Vestre, and the Meuse.

This city contains a great many very fine built houses, and is much
celebrated for its various manufactories, which principally consist of
marble, coal, iron, and various other hardware articles. The old palace
is a fine antique building of the Ionic order; the different apartments
in it were then undergoing a thorough repair. The viranda that surrounds
the inner square is now formed into an arcade of shops. From this palace
I proceeded to the old citadel on mount St. Walburgh, which commands a
fine view of the town, the river Meuse, and the surrounding scenery, for
several miles in extent.

Sept. 24th. Went this morning to the cathedral, the architectural
arrangements of which are very imposing; the interior decorations are
well deserving of the stranger's notice, as well as its richly
ornamented ceiling, and beautifully painted windows, and several fine
pictures and groups of sculpture. I next proceeded to M. Makoy's
nursery, which is situated about two or three English miles from the
town. It contains an extensive collection of plants, which are extremely
well grown, and all in fine saleable condition. The spirited proprietor
was then erecting another extensive range of hothouses, and heating it
with hot water, which, together with the numerous houses he has already,
will extend his plant houses to about six hundred feet in length. In
this nursery I observed one of the best collections of green-house
plants, that I met with on the continent; they were undoubtedly not
surpassed in their growth by any collection that I have seen; the
_Camellias_, _Cacteæ_, and orchideous plants, also form a prominent
feature in this establishment, as well as the collection of _Azaleas_,
and _Rhododendrons_, which were all in fine condition, the nursery
ground in good keeping, and well stocked with fruit trees.

On my return I visited the botanic garden, which surrounds the
university, and contains nearly two English acres of ground, in which is
cultivated a good collection of hardy perennials, and _Gramineæ_ plants.
There are also three hothouses for the growth of tropical and Cape
plants. In the stove I observed a very fine specimen of the _Dracæna
Draco_, (Dragon tree,) which was twenty two feet high; the _Caladium
lacerum_ had also attained the height of fifteen feet; there was
likewise a very fine plant of the _Crinum amabile_, then in flower. The
university is a magnificent building, and is at present having large
additions made to it.

I started at twelve o'clock for Namur. The road, leading along the river
Meuse, is extremely picturesque, the large rocks and varied surface give
it a fine appearance. Along the banks by the road side I observed the
common box growing in great abundance. We skirted an extensive tract of
vineyards, which are cultivated along the banks or rising ground on the
right side of the river Meuse, as we pass from Liege to Huy. At this
town we cross the river by a stone bridge. Huy contains a number of well
built houses, and is pleasantly situated, being surrounded by lofty
rocks, with a strong fortification. The road skirting the river Meuse
from Huy to Namur, appeared to me to be of the most romantic and
beautiful scenery that I had previously met with, particularly a part
of it, when approaching within a few miles of Namur, where the rocks and
varied surface give it a most interesting appearance. In a picturesque
spot on this line of road we have in full view the summer chateau of the
prince d'Aremberg, as well as various other handsome residences.

Arrived at seven o'clock in the evening at Namur, when there commenced a
tremendous storm of thunder and lightning and rain, which continued for
several hours. Namur is a strongly fortified town, situated in a valley,
at the junction of the rivers Meuse and Sambre. The cathedral is an
object of interest; but as I left the same evening by diligence for
Mons, I was unable to see this noble structure.

The view from the bridge opposite the fortifications has a grand
appearance to the eye of the stranger. Left Namur at half past nine
o'clock, and arrived at Mons at ten o'clock the following morning.

Sept. 25th. Mons is a strongly fortified town, and abounds with market
gardens in the environs. It appeared to be the centre of a great
agricultural district. Coal-works are likewise very abundant in its

I proceeded from this town to Bel[oe]il in a cabriolet; passing through
a fertile country, and a fine plantation belonging to the Prince de
Ligne, which contained some fine beech trees, with numerous avenues, but
a horrid road; the wheels of the cabriolet sinking up near to the
axeltree for the greater part of the journey. On my arrival at
Bel[oe]il I was unfortunate in not finding the Prince at home, as I had
a letter of introduction to his highness from Sir Robert Adair. I found
some difficulty in obtaining admittance into the gardens; but on the
arrival of a gentleman belonging to the establishment, he gave orders to
one of the guards to conduct me through the grounds to the kitchen
garden. The palace is surrounded by water, and at the principal front is
a large oblong sheet of water, with a large mass of sculpture at its
extremity. The prospect from the palace windows, along this piece of
water and the avenue, which is formed by high clipped hornbeam hedges,
as well as by the lime-tree, appeared very fine, and extended for
several miles in a straight direction. The grounds are very extensive,
and intersected by numerous avenues of hornbeam hedges, which are of
great height, with various arborial windows cut in them from eight to
ten feet from the ground. In short, the number of avenues and well-clipt
hedges that lead in every direction through these grounds, render it a
place well worthy of a visit, and constitute a different feature in
gardening from what is generally to be met with elsewhere.

The Prince has an extensive range of houses for the growth of exotics,
all connected with a large opaque-roofed orangery, which forms a centre
to the range; the wings are of different heights, and have a very good
effect. I here observed a more magnificent _Araucaria excelsa_ than I
had previously seen, with the exception of that at Dropmore, which is
much larger, and more beautiful. This orangery is a capacious building,
principally erected with red brick, with upright lights only in front,
the roof being slated. It contains a large assortment of orange trees,
in good health. There is also a house devoted to _Camellias_, containing
about two hundred and forty sorts. The botanic stoves are well stocked
with healthy plants, but there are very few of the new or lately
introduced species amongst them. I observed here a very fine specimen of
the _Coccoloba pubescens_, the leaves of which appeared to me to be more
luxuriant than on any other plant of this species that I had previously
seen. The _Urania speciosa_ was also particularly fine, and several
other kinds in a flourishing state.

In the same compartment with the plant-houses is placed an extensive
range of pine-apple and melon-pits, as well as several structures of
peach and vine framing. In the kitchen-garden a large assortment of the
hardy fruits are cultivated, especially pears and apples; the former are
trained as standards along the borders, in a pyramidal form, and
appeared to produce excellent crops. The kitchen-gardens and
pleasure-grounds, although very extensive, were in a very rough state;
the only part kept in good order seemed to be the plant-houses and

From Bel[oe]il I proceeded to Ath, a very strongly fortified town. The
country from Prince de Ligne's to Ath is very fine, and consists of a
rich agricultural soil in a high state of cultivation, producing
excellent crops. The town is said to contain about 80,000 inhabitants;
the ancient tower of Brabant forms a prominent object, and the church of
Julien is well worth notice.

Sept. 26th. Left Ath at eight o'clock in the morning, in a cabriolet,
for Enghien, which is only a small town; but the fine park, and gardens
belonging to the duke d'Aremberg, which are situated close to the town,
are objects of general attraction. Unfortunately the castle or mansion
was burned down during the late revolution, and his highness now chiefly
resides in an ancient mansion near Louvain. The duke has lately built a
very fine range of hothouses for the growth of tropical plants; they are
four hundred and sixty feet long, and are divided into several
divisions; the centre, which is occupied as a stove for the more lofty
of the tropical plants, is sixty-six feet long, thirty four high, and
twenty five wide. In this house the _Urania speciosa_ had attained the
height of thirty three feet; the _Displotanium argenteum_ also thirty
three feet; this is a beautiful _Palm_. The _Caryota urens_ had likewise
grown to the height of thirty two feet; the circumference of its stem at
six inches from the ground is three feet three inches, gradually
tapering towards the top. _Cycas circinalis_, fourteen feet in height
and very healthy; the _Corypha umbraculifera_ twenty four feet in
height, a very beautiful palm; and a very fine specimen of the _Latania
rubra_, the _Carolina princeps_, had reached the top of the house, and
had been cut back. Numerous other species were here in a very healthy
state, and a very extensive collection of Cape and New Holland plants.
This extensive range is handsomely finished with cut stone parapet
walls, and projecting cornice over the top lights. There is another
range about one hundred and thirty feet long, with span roof, separate
from the principal range, in which are cultivated pines, bulbs, and
various other plants. In front of these ranges of hothouses is a large
lawn, with several clumps of the different species of hardy plants,
which are also extensively cultivated in this establishment. A handsome
temple is situated at a short distance from the gardens, which is
surrounded by water, from this temple diverge seven fine beech and
horse-chesnut avenues, looking in as many directions; between each are
smaller avenues parallel to them, which are terminated by handsome stone
vases. At a short distance from the avenues is the orangery, which is of
large dimensions, with an opaque roof; The orange trees were very
healthy, and formed an avenue in front of the house. M. Bedinghans, the
gardener, informed me that they only shifted them once in five years, in
a mixture of loam and leaf-mould, with a little cow-dung intermixed. At
the back of the orangery are several arched walks, formed by hornbeam
hedges, with arborial windows cut in them; they form a pleasant and
shady promenade during the summer months. The park is also very
extensive and considerably varied in its surface.

M. Bedinghans is a native of Germany, and a very intelligent young man,
seemingly much attached to his business. He accompanied me to the
nursery garden of M. Parmentier, which is situated in the town of
Enghien. In this establishment, there is a celebrated collection of
plants, amongst which I observed a fine specimen of the _Melocactus
mitriformis_ which measured three feet in circumference, and eighteen
inches in height; and _Melocactus hystrix_ also a very fine plant. The
_Echinocactus boutillieri_, is a beautiful specimen; _Cereus
bonplandia_, _Mammillaria acanthoplegma_, _melocactus macrocanthus_; for
a plant of this latter species M. Parmentier asked three hundred francs.
The _Zamia furfuracea_ is also very fine; as well as beautiful specimens
of the following, _Wallichia caryotoides_, _Borassus flabelliformis_,
_Latania glaucophylla_, _Pandanus turbinatus_, _amaryllifolius_,
_f[oe]tidus_, _bromelifolius_, _glaucus_, _candalabrium_. The _pinus
Damara_ M. Parmentier valued at fifty guineas, and the _Magnolia
plumieri_, from the Island of St. Domingo, at eighty guineas: the _Butea
superba_ a fine plant, and fine specimens of the following species:
_Sterculia villosa_, _Stanhopea occulenta_, _Careya sphærica_,
_Theoprastus Americanus_, _Gesnera barbata_, _Boronia grandiceps_,
_Pinus pinnata_, and _Mexicana_; with numerous other rare species. Above
four hundred sorts of _Camellias_, and upwards of five hundred kinds of
_Cacteæ_, are cultivated in this fine collection.

The hothouses are very extensive, but getting rather into a decayed
state, and are not kept in good repair. After visiting this
establishment, I started by the diligence for Brussells, where I arrived
in time to see a splendid display of fireworks, which was exhibited
about ten o'clock; the town was likewise brilliantly illuminated in
celebration of the late revolution. It contains a number of fine
capacious streets, and well built houses. In the course of the present
year, 1835, it was stated that not less than thirty thousand strangers
had visited Brussells.

Sept. 27th. Having a letter of introduction from His Excellency Lord G.
W. Russell to Sir George Hamilton, I waited on him this morning; and
afterwards proceeded to visit several of the churches; amongst which was
the celebrated Notre-Dame-de-la-Chapelle, which is a beautiful Gothic
structure. The marble altar, which is executed from the designs of
Rubens, is extremely beautiful, as is likewise the pulpit. St. Michael's
church is also a fine Gothic building. I visited this in the evening,
whilst they were engaged singing, and various clergymen were then
present. This ancient structure is richly ornamented with beautiful
pictures and painted glass windows. The oak pulpit attracts much
attention on account of the richness of its carving, which represents
the expulsion of Adam and Eve.

I also visited the Duke d'Aremberg's town-house, which is much
celebrated for its library and Antiquities, and contains several fine
paintings in the various apartments, together with a collection of
Etruscan vases, and a head of Laocoon. Attached to this mansion his
grace has a very fine riding-house, where several paintings were
deposited. I next proceeded to see a representation of St. Petersburgh,
which was then exhibiting in Brussells, consisting of a model of the
various streets, squares, houses and gardens of that splendid city,
which appeared to attract many visitors.

I proceeded in the afternoon to the Botanic Garden; but as it was wet I
was unable to find any one to accompany me through the grounds, owing to
the absence of the gardener; I therefore deferred going through them
until a better opportunity, when I paid them another visit.

Sept. 28th. Started at six o'clock in the morning by diligence for
Waterloo, where we arrived at half-past eight; and having procured a
guide, I was conducted over this celebrated field of action, which is
now all under a fine system of agriculture. I proceeded to the noted
chateau at Hougoumont, which is enclosed by a brick wall, and still
exhibits the marks of bullets. About the centre of the field of battle
is a large mount, raised in commemoration of that eventful day; it
measures 1680 feet in circumference at the base, and is about 200 feet
high. On the top is placed the Belgic Lion, said to weigh 48,000 lbs.

On my return through the little village of Waterloo, I visited the
church, which contains a large number of tombs, in memory of the British
officers who fell in the field of battle.

I got back to Brussells about one o'clock, when I proceeded to the
palace of Lacken, and having a letter of introduction to the gardener,
from Mr. M'Intosh at Claremont, ready access was obtained to the gardens
and grounds attached to this royal residence.

The palace stands on an eminence, commanding a fine view of Brussells
and the adjoining country, particularly towards the south. The Antwerp
road leading to Brussells is very conspicuous from several points of
view from the grounds. From the palace towards the south the pleasure
ground falls very considerably, and is much varied in surface, with
several very pretty vistas, intersected by numerous walks, leading to
different objects of interest. A large sheet of water, which appears in
view from the palace windows, as well as from several other points in
the grounds, forms a very pretty feature: over a part of this lake a
fine wooden bridge crosses to a small island, and at the other extremity
is a large grotto, formed by very large rough stones. Various
improvements are in constant progress in the pleasure-ground, the whole
of which is kept in very good order, a circumstance of rare occurrence
in Belgium. Two fine hothouses for plants have been erected during the
last two years, from plans furnished by Mr. M'Intosh, the gardener at
Claremont, who has also superintended the erection of several pine-pits,
and contemplates the addition of an extensive range of forcing-houses at
the King's palace of Lacken. From Mr. M'Intosh's well known abilities as
a scientific and practical gardener, the superintendance could not be
entrusted to a more suitable person.

The houses lately erected there are very neatly finished, and well
adapted to their purpose, as well as the pine pits; the pine-apples
grown here by M. Forkhall, the gardener at Lacken, were superior to any
that I had previously met with on the continent. The young plants were
also clean and healthy, and the exotic plants were in a very flourishing
state, many of them in fine flower. There is likewise an extensive
orangery, with a fine collection of healthy trees, which are much
cultivated in Belgium, as well as in Germany. Near the orange-house were
several clumps of flowering plants, amongst them some fine varieties of
the dahlia. His Majesty's taste for plants and horticultural pursuits
has not abated since he came to the throne; consequently numerous good
plants are daily added to his collection. I observed a fine specimen of
the _K[oe]lreuteria paniculata_, in fine flower, the _Catalpa
syringifolia_ in great beauty, and several other fine growing hardy

Sept. 29th. Left Brussells, for baron de Hoogarts's, which is about nine
English miles from the town, and whose garden contains several
hothouses, in which are forced pines, grapes, and peaches. There are
likewise several low pits for the cultivation of the pine, vine and
peach. The pit used here for accelerating the peach, is nine feet wide,
and the back wall five feet above the ground level; the front wall is
only twenty one inches high, above the level of the ground, and consists
of brick piers, with wood boards betwixt them, which are taken out, when
the trees are removed or introduced into these pits, which operation is
generally performed annually. Towards the back, is a flue for giving
heat, which is applied as well as that from dung, for the forwarding of
the fruit. There is also here a good kitchen garden, with a high
circular wall, well stocked with good peach, apricot and pear-trees;
amongst the latter I observed the _Beurre dore_ very fine, _Glout
Morceau_, _Cuisse Madame_, also fine showy fruits and prolific bearers,
the _poire de melon_, _cale basse_ were likewise fine fruit, and
producing great crops. A fine collection of the standard pears, was also
growing in this garden. Adjoining to it is situated the orangery, which
stands on an eminence, and commands a pretty view of the grounds, and
sheet of water. There is likewise a good collection of Cape and other
plants from Botany Bay, and several clumps of rhododendrons throughout
the grounds in a flourishing state. The park is but of limited extent,
considerably varied.

Adjoining to baron de Hoogart's, is the seat of count de Beaufforts, to
which Miss Hoogart had the goodness to send their gardener to accompany
me. At this place is an old castle, situated by the side of a lake which
was undergoing great alterations and additions.

The grounds attached to this ancient castle, although of limited extent,
are much varied, and prettily planted, with different clumps of trees
and shrubs dispersed through them. In the kitchen garden is a very
handsome range of hothouses, about 120 feet in length, chiefly occupied
with plants; one of the divisions is allotted for the pine apple, and in
front of the range are also several pits, for pines, vines, and peaches.
The pits used for the forcing of the vine and peach have each a flue
that runs parallel to the back wall, and about eighteen inches from it.
The front of those for the vine and peach has no front wall, only piers
and boards fixed betwixt them, for the facility of removing and taking
in the trees, which are planted betwixt the piers, when the boards are
again placed in their former position over the stem of the trees, the
roots running in a border on the outside of the pit.

On my return in the afternoon to Brussels, I visited the Museum, the
collection in which is well deserving of notice; there is a numerous
variety of insects, a large collection of birds and animals, as well as

The picture gallery is a fine apartment, situated in the same building,
and contains a large number of splendid paintings; a very magnificent
painting of the Belgic revolution, which nearly covered the entire end
of the gallery, was exhibiting, and seemed to attract a vast number of
visitors. In another wing of the building is a repository of the various
articles of Belgic manufacture, which was much crowded by spectators. I
should imagine from the appearance of the numerous articles of commerce
exhibited in these apartments that there can scarcely be a single
article of manufacture that is not to be met with in this repository of

Having a letter of introduction from Mr. M'Intosh to Mr. Bigwood, a
partner of Mr. Salter, the banker, in Brussells, I called on him in the
evening, when he very kindly accompanied me to several of the diligence
offices, and pointed out to me the best routes to take in order to save
time; I then engaged a place for Paris for the following Saturday--a
precaution found necessary, owing to the number of strangers then in
Brussells; some of whom it was understood had been detained for several
days in consequence of the diligences being so crowded. I also took a
place for Ghent, the next town I intended visiting, which is situated
about twenty-four miles from Brussells.

Sept. 30th. Immediately on my arrival at Ghent I proceeded to the
nursery garden of M. Vangeert, which contains several hothouses, and a
good collection of plants; there are also in this nursery several pits
for the dwarf growing species; a good collection of _Camellias_ appeared
to be grown here, and also some _Cacteæ_ and orchideous plants, with
some _Magnolias_ new to our English collections. The Ghent _Azaleas_
have now become celebrated for the profusion of their flowers and
various colours; they were in great abundance in the nurseries here,
beset with flower buds. The _Magnolia conspicua_ and _Magnolia
norbertiana_ are fine specimens. The soil in the vicinity of Ghent
appears peculiarly adapted for the _Magnolia_, _Azalea_, and other
American plants.

I next visited the nursery of M. Verleeuwen, which contains about two
English acres of ground, and from eight to ten different small
hothouses, with a fine collection of plants, that were all very well
grown. A choice collection of _Camellias_ is also cultivated here, as
well as _Azaleas_, _Rhododendrons_, and other hardy plants well worthy
of notice.

I then proceeded to the Ghent Botanic Garden, but was unfortunate in not
finding M. Donkelar (the gardener) at home; this garden appeared to
contain only from two to three English acres of ground: it is too much
crowded with large trees and shrubs for so confined a space. There are
two hothouses devoted to the growth of tropical plants which were in a
very flourishing state, but deficient of the more showy and new species
of late introduction. The orangery is a large building, with Ionic
columns and dark roofs; the trees appeared very healthy. There are also
some low houses, or rather pits, in front of the principal range, which
were well stocked with pines and low growing plants.

I next visited the nursery grounds of M. A. Verschaffelt, which are more
extensive than any of the other nurseries I had yet seen, and contain
about the best collection of plants in Ghent; he has some fine
_Magnolias_, amongst which I observed the _Magnolia triumphans_,
_Glauca_, _Arborea_, and _Gigantea_. His collection of _Camellias_ is
also very choice and deserving of notice, amongst which were the
_Camellia compacta-rubra_, _Alexandria_, and _Magnificum_; a plant of
this species he values at one hundred francs. There are also many other
choice sorts; and his collection of Cape and New-Holland plants is
likewise extensive: he is forming a collection of _Orchideæ_, and has
erected a small house for their growth; he has likewise a good
collection of _Cacteæ_, a choice assortment of the Ghent _Azaleas_, and
other hardy plants, that appear to flourish well in Belgium.

The nursery I next visited was that of M. Verschaffelt, sen., which
appeared to be about an acre of ground, but it contained a good
assortment of _Rhododendrons_, also a large green-house with span-roof,
as well as several other small houses; a great stock of myrtles was
likewise cultivated in this establishment. I next proceeded to the
nursery of F. J. Spæ-fils, which contains about two acres and a half,
with a range of hothouses one hundred and fifty feet long. I here
observed a large stock of seedling _Azaleas_ and _Kalmias_, also a
well-stocked wall of trained peach trees. The standard fruit trees are
also extensively cultivated, the situation being evidently well
calculated for the growth of the different plants in demand in that
country. After leaving this nursery I went to that of M. P. Byls, whose
ground contains several small hothouses, but little of novelty in them;
a few good hardy shrubs were, however, in the grounds. Attached to this
nursery is a piece of ground under vegetable cultivation, which is
extensively pursued in the neighbourhood of Ghent. I visited one or two
other nurseries of small extent, but met with nothing of much importance
in them, as they were more limited than either of those mentioned.

The cathedral of Ghent is considered one of the most handsome Gothic
buildings in Belgium. The pulpit is a most beautiful specimen of
workmanship, and is composed of white marble and richly-carved oak; near
the great altar are magnificent antique candelabras, said formerly to
have belonged to Charles the First of England, and were suspended in the
old church of St. Paul's in London. Amongst the splendid paintings that
ornament this cathedral are Lazarus rising from the dead, by Otto
Vennius, St. John the Baptist, the Virgin Mary, and the Paschal Lamb.
Our Saviour is also represented on a throne holding a crystal sceptre.
There are likewise two marble statues that represent the Apostles St.
Paul and St. Peter, and numerous other beautiful paintings.

I took my departure at ten o'clock for Antwerp, where we arrived at six
the following morning.

Oct. 1. Immediately on my arrival I proceeded to the top of the Antwerp
steeple, or tower, which consists of six hundred and twenty two steps,
and is four hundred and sixty-six feet in height, from the top of which
a beautiful view of the town is seen, and a vast extent of fertile
country. The Island of Walcheren and some of the Dutch steeples were
pointed out to me in the distance. The citadel, which now appears to be
all covered with grass, is very plainly seen from the top of this
steeple, and the number of vessels in the Scheldt add life to the scene.
The cathedral is reckoned one of the finest Gothic buildings in Europe;
the interior is superb, and richly ornamented by the magnificent
paintings of Rubens. I observed numerous very splendid marble columns.
The altar is executed with marble, and ornamented with a representation
of the Assumption. There is also a splendid painting of the Disciples at
Emmaus, by Herreyns, portraits of Luther and Calvin, and numerous other
celebrated objects, which to attempt to particularize would require one
more intimately acquainted with the subject than I can pretend to be.
The painted windows are equally elegant.

I next visited St. James's Church, which is a very splendid building,
and richly decorated with fine paintings and superb marble columns; the
altar is inlaid with black and white marble, and supported by handsome
twisted columns, and various groups of sculpture. The pulpit is most
elegantly sculptured, and the beautiful specimens of carved oak are
deserving of notice, as likewise is the splendour of the painted
windows. There is also a fine picture of the Last Supper, by Otto
Vennius, one of the Last Judgment, by Willemsen, the Tomb of Rubens, and
a painting by him, of our Saviour on his mother's knees, surrounded by a
number of figures, all of which are said to be portraits of the
painter's wives and family. After seeing these two magnificent churches,
I proceeded to the nursery garden of M. Vangeert, which is situated
about two English miles from the city; it contains a very good
collection of hardy perennial plants, as well as _Azaleas_ and other
American shrubs. The hothouses here are about one hundred and fifty feet
long, in several divisions, and a good-sized pit for the half-hardy
sorts. I here observed the best crop and finest bunches of hothouse
grapes that I had previously met with on the continent. I was much
indebted to M. Vangeert, jun., for his attention in accompanying me to
the various gardens that he considered to be most deserving of notice
in the neighbourhood of Antwerp.

We proceeded to the Antwerp Botanic Garden, which is but of limited
extent, I think not above an acre of ground in it. There is a
green-house placed about the centre of the garden, but its occupants
appeared to be of rather distant introduction, and little amongst them
of novelty except a very fine specimen of the _Araucaria Braziliensis_,
which was growing in a tub, and then standing out of doors.

There were likewise two or three other small houses for tropical plants,
which were in a very flourishing state, particularly those cultivated in
the stove.

They have in this garden a tolerably good collection of the _Genus
Pinus_, amongst which is a dwarf sort, named there the _Pinus
monstrosa_, but it appears to be only a variety of the _Pinus cembra_.
It formed a very close bush, not exceeding two feet in height.

The next garden we visited was that of the late M. Jean Veanhal, which,
during his time, was much celebrated for rare and good plants. Although
there was but a small piece of ground in this garden, yet it contained a
good collection, and several very good hothouses, in which were
cultivated pine-apples and other tropical plants, which were in a very
flourishing state, and the whole neatly kept.

We next proceeded to M. Moen's nursery ground, which is also but of
limited extent, but contains a number of good _Magnolias_, _Azaleas_,
and other hardy plants, as well as many good greenhouse species. In this
nursery there is a fine collection of _Camellias_. M. Moen informed me
he had about two hundred seedling varieties and species. I saw here a
fine specimen of the _Camellia reticulata_, about five feet high; M.
Moen valued this plant at sixty guineas. There are some pretty good
greenhouses in this nursery, also a good collection of pears that were
in full bearing, and producing fine crops.

We proceeded next to the seat of M. Caters De-wolfe, which is several
miles from Antwerp; the grounds attached to this residence are prettily
laid out, particularly a sheet of water, which is amongst the best I
have seen; it is formed so as to produce a picturesque effect from
several points of view. At a contracted part of it a wooden bridge is
constructed across, springing on both sides on elevated well-formed
artificial pieces of rockwork. In the pleasure ground are three very
pretty curvilinear iron-bar hothouses, erected by Baily, of London, and
devoted to the growth of exotic plants and pine-apples, which evidently
fully answered in that climate their intended purpose. Here is also a
good kitchen garden, with numerous low houses and pits for the growth of
the pine, vine and peach, as well as one devoted to orchideous plants, a
collection of which was just then forming. The pines and exotic plants
in this establishment were all in a very flourishing state, and the
gardens in pretty fair keeping.

We next proceeded to the seat of Le Chevalier Parthon Divan, whom I
found devotedly attached to horticultural pursuits. The grounds attached
to his château are very prettily formed, and are situated about four
English miles from Antwerp. This gentleman pointed out to me the
_Rhododendron ferrugineum_, with white flowers, which I believe is
hardly to be met with in any other collection. He has many good and rare
species of greenhouse plants. I saw from five to seven species of
_Scotia_, also a fine specimen of the _Scotia angustata_; a collection
of _Orchideæ_ is also cultivated here; and he has lately introduced many
new and curious species of this tribe of plants, as well as some new
_Cacteæ_. The variety of dahlias cultivated here was particularly fine;
a very complete arrangement of herbaceous plants growing along the face
of a bank in their natural arrangement forms also an interesting feature
in these grounds, the exterior of which is bounded by a plantation, in
which are formed various beech avenues. This gentleman disposes of his
duplicate plants to any one who will purchase them, but did not seem
inclined to make any exchanges.

We next visited the gardens of Madame Smetz, which are situated about
four miles from the last place. These grounds are celebrated for their
extent of hot houses and other garden ornaments, which may justly
entitle them to be considered as presenting a greater variety of
picturesque objects than any garden in Belgium. There is a very good
greenhouse, with a pretty fair collection of plants in very neat order,
and a corresponding house for the growth of stove plants. I here
observed the _Pandanus odoratissimus_, fifteen feet high, with four
large branches diverging from it. A large orangery, that runs parallel
to the north ends of the stove and greenhouse, forms a centre betwixt
the two latter buildings, that appear like two projecting wings to the
orange-house; there are also several low houses and pits for pines,
vines, and peaches. The pines in these gardens were amongst the best
grown that I had previously met with on the continent. I observed a
plant with seven fruits on it all branching from the top of a single
stem. There were also some very fine dwarf cockscombs growing in a pit.

The superb Chinese tower is more deserving of notice than anything of
the kind that I have yet seen, being of a considerable height, from
sixty to eighty feet I should imagine from its appearance, with a
handsome staircase leading to the top, from whence there is a fine
prospect of these extensive grounds, which are curiously laid out; in
this Chinese building a couple of handsomely fitted up rooms are
occasionally used for taking tea or coffee.

There are numerous walks leading through various parts of the grounds to
secluded spots, where we come unexpectedly on groups of figures in
stone, such, for instance, as a group of boys at play, figures of old
men, and groups of sheep grazing in the grounds, which are very
naturally executed, and at a short distance formed a very good
deception; there are also numerous marble busts and pieces of sculpture.
A sheet of water, with rock-work and a wooden bridge, appear prominent
objects from the Chinese temple. Opposite to the south and north sides
of the mansion are curiously clipped box hedges, with pyramidal formed
bushes on their top; the intervening spaces being clipped into irregular
figures, presenting a curious appearance. A rock bridge, over the narrow
part of a sheet of water, is deserving of notice; but the wooden bridges
here and elsewhere in Belgium are made more for the intention of
permitting ships to pass under them, than for the ease of the visitors
in walking over them. I also observed several painted arbours and
recesses in different parts of the grounds, and one of the finest
specimens of the purple beech that I have ever seen, which is a truly
magnificent tree. The kitchen cropping, such as cabbages, asparagus,
&c., being carried close up to the house, is in very bad taste; these
vegetables all appearing in view from the principal windows do not
harmonize with the ornamented ground, which, in such an extensive piece,
might easily be cultivated in a much more appropriate spot.

Oct. 2nd. Left Antwerp at six o'clock a.m., passing through a beautiful
fertile country, which abounds in vegetable and other green crops; we
arrived at Malines about eight o'clock; it contains about twenty
thousand inhabitants, and has some pretty churches, and an ancient
cathedral. The rail-road from Brussels to Malines had been completed for
some time, and was expected to be finished as far as Antwerp by the end
of another month, and to proceed from hence to Paris. At Malines I
quitted my tedious mode of conveyance for the rail road--a much more
pleasant and expeditious mode of travelling. We were about forty minutes
going by it the distance of twelve English miles; a heavy train of
carriages and a strong wind right ahead, prevented our accomplishing the
distance in the usual time, which was said in general to occupy the
space of from twenty to thirty minutes.

On my arrival at Brussells I proceeded to the establishment of M. J. F.
Vandermaelen, which consists of an extensive collection of geographical
books, minerals, birds, insects, and plants, from various climates,
which this gentleman offers for mutual exchanges, with the view of
furthering the interests of science and natural history.

The grounds attached to it are rather confined, but prettily varied,
with water, and rising and undulating ground. There are also
several very good hothouses, and a choice collection of plants. M.
Vandermaelen's catalogue enumerates nearly two hundred and forty
sorts of _Camellias_ and above four hundred and fifty sorts of
_Pelargoniums_. I here observed a specimen of the _Cactus senilis_,
about two feet in height; several other very fine and curious species
were likewise to be seen here. M. Vandermaelen has also sent out a
collector in search of _Cacteæ_ and other orchideous plants.

I next proceeded to the Brussells Botanic Garden, which contains the
most ornamental range of hothouses that I have seen, and some noble
specimens of palms. The _Caryota urens_ about forty-five feet high, its
girth at eighteen inches from the ground, four feet. The _Arenga
saccharifera_ and the _Carica Papaya_ both forty feet in height. The
_Elate sylvestris_ had also reached to the glass. The _Latania
borbonia_, about eighteen feet high, the fronds spreading in the like
proportion. The _Pandanus odoratissimus_, a fine specimen, and various
other species equally luxuriant. This magnificent range of plant houses
are all heated with steam, and the sash bars formed of wrought
iron;--the effect of it from the Boulevards is really grand. The
principal range being situated on a terrace, with several fountains and
broad flights of steps in front of it, has a very imposing appearance;
on a lower level in front of these houses and terrace, are two ranges
constructed with curvilinear iron bars, which are occupied by pine-apple
plants and other dwarf tropical species. Opposite to the hothouses are
the herbaceous grounds, which are laid out in a circular form, divided
in small divisions, for the Linnean arrangement of the hardy perennial
plants, each class forming a separate piece of ground radiating from the
centre. This garden consists of a fine irregular piece of ground, and is
much varied in its surface, having five different levels, and is placed
in a fine situation; but I regretted to see the ground occupied by a
quantity of common forest trees and shrubs, and but little of novelty or
good plants in it: the common sorts were grown principally for sale, and
for the support of the garden, which practice I understood was
extensively adopted in this establishment. The hothouse and greenhouse
species were ticketed with the price required for the different plants.

I next called on Mr. Bigwood, who kindly procured me a sight of the
Prince of Orange's splendid residence, which is justly considered one of
the finest finished palaces in Europe, with most beautiful polished oak
floors, and the walls of several of the apartments inlaid with marble:
in one of the rooms that belonged to the princess is a table of Siberian
lapis lazuli, valued at fifty thousand pounds. The chairs, tables,
paintings, and other superb furniture in the interior of this palace,
with its magnificent staircase, are beyond my powers of description.

The park at Brussells is situated in front of the king's palace, and is
said to contain about fourteen acres of ground, which are laid out as a
public promenade for the inhabitants, with several avenues, and various
groups of sculpture, which are considered of superior execution,
especially the statues of Alexander the Great, and Cleopatra, and the
groups of Diana, Apollo, Narcissus, and Venus. In the avenue fronting
the king's palace are statues of the twelve Roman emperors, and a
fountain, which throws the water from twelve to fifteen feet high.

I proceeded next to Louvain. The entrance to Brussells from the Louvain
gate is very fine, and commands extensive views of the adjacent country,
as well as a part of the town. The small villas leading from this
entrance towards Louvain are handsomely ornamented with tastefully
planted gardens; the road, winding along through a fine agricultural
country, is more varied than in the Antwerp district; the soil
consisting of a deep red loam, produces abundantly red clover, rape, and
other green crops.

October 3rd. The town of Louvain is situated on the river Dyle, which
runs through it. The grand appearance of the Stadt-huis, or now
police-office, is very imposing; the numerous carved figures and spires
that adorn the front are beautiful specimens of workmanship: in the
interior a large apartment is occupied as a picture gallery, in which
are deposited some very fine old paintings: the wainscot ceilings of
some of the rooms are also well worthy of notice.

There are likewise several churches in this town, which are richly
ornamented with paintings and other costly decorations, such as marble

The botanic garden adjoins the town, and contains from two to three
acres of ground; the space in front of the range of hot houses is
occupied with a collection of hardy perennial plants, and the exterior
of the garden planted by trees and shrubs. The range of plant houses
consists of a long dark-roofed green house, with a circular stove
projecting in front of it at each end, which has a very good effect;
these stoves are constructed with iron bars, and appeared to stand
remarkably well; in one of them was a very fine specimen of the _Latania
rubra_, which was in great luxuriance; the _Maxillaria Harrissonia_, was
quite covered with large flowers. The _Cactus Macrocanthus_, was here
four feet in circumference; several other species were also very fine;
in short, the whole collection were in a healthy and flourishing state.
I found M. Donkelar, the gardener, to be a very intelligent young man,
devotedly attached to his business.

I next proceeded to see the collection of fruits and trees at professor
Van Mons, where I was shewn a large assortment of pears, which the
professor had raised from seed, also many sorts of apples, and several
good seedling grapes and peaches. The professor has long been
distinguished for his attachment to horticultural pursuits; but I
unfortunately did not find him at home; he has, however, forwarded to
me, since my return home, his "Arbres Fruitiers," which describes many
of the fruits cultivated in Belgium. I was much gratified by the fine
collection of pears in the fruit room, and the fine healthy trees in the
professor's gardens, which are well stocked with seedlings, as well as
others in a bearing state.

I next proceeded to the duke d'Aremberg's, which is situated at a short
distance from Louvain, having a letter of introduction from Sir R.
Adair, to his highness, whom I found particularly attached to botany and
horticultural pursuits. The kitchen garden here is very extensive, and
large quantities of vegetables are cultivated; several pits for the
growth of the pine and peach were also in this establishment; but the
collection of choice pears pleased me more than any I had previously
seen, and certainly produced very fine fruit; the following sorts were
pointed out to me as the best deserving of cultivation, which were then
in the fruit room.

   Beurre Wirtemberg
   Grande Bretagne
   Beurre rance
   Beey vaet
   Beurre bosque
   Bergamotte de la Penticote
   Beurre d'Hiver
   Double d'Automne
   Passe Colmar
   Bezyda Chaumontelle
   Fondante De Charnusee
   Colmar Jaminette
   Beurre d'Angleterre
   Bergamotte de paques
   St. Germain
   Roi de Louvain
   Beurre d'Aremberg
   Beurre de yelle
   St. Bernard

and many other sorts, and fine collections of apples which were also
extensively grown here. I also observed a very fine collection of
seedling dahlias, many of which were very choice flowers, and formed a
gay appearance in the kitchen garden borders in this season. His
highness pointed out to me a noble specimen of the _Platanus
accidentalis_, which measured, at four feet from the ground, thirteen
feet in circumference, and its branches spreading over a space of ground
twenty two yards in diameter; this was a beautiful grown tree, and
appeared in great luxuriance.

The grounds attached to this ancient mansion are very extensive, and
have several fine straight avenue walks, leading in various directions,
one of which is formed by the purple beech planted on each side of the
walk for a considerable distance; but this being a very wet forenoon, I
was unable to see the grounds to advantage. They are a little varied as
we approach the house, and a small stream of water enlivened the
scenery: they appeared to me, however, of much less extent than his
highness's grounds and park at Enghien, where his splendid range of
plant-houses and extensive collection of plants are fixed and deposited.

I left Louvain about four o'clock, and arrived in Brussells just in time
to get my luggage taken to the diligence office, from whence the
diligence started at half-past nine o'clock for Paris.

Oct. 4th. Arrived at Valenciennes, a good sized town: here another
passport was furnished, and my former one taken from me, and retained by
the police until the evening I left Paris. The country between
Brussells and Valenciennes, as far as I could observe, appeared to be of
considerable sameness, but the ground was well cultivated, with good
crops of rape clover; the turnip was evidently a failure here, and in
other parts of the continent, as well as in England.

We arrived at Cambray at two o'clock, a strong fortified town. The
country from Brussells hitherto appeared to be but very thinly planted,
and of little picturesque scenery: as we approached Paris there appeared
very few plantations or trees worthy of notice, and much less variety of
scenery than I passed through in the latter part of my tour through

Oct. 5th. Arrived at Paris at half-past ten o'clock, a.m. after a ride
of twenty-four hours. On my arrival I proceeded to the Gardens of the
Tuilleries, where there is a large collection of orange trees, and
several capacious gravel walks, or avenues, with numerous ornamental
groups of sculpture. A space of ground, running parallel to the palace,
about sixty yards wide, has been lately laid out with flower borders,
and is separated from the public promenade by a grass _ha-ha_, with a
slight wire fence on the top of it; in this inclosure are some very fine
orange trees, bronze figures, and ornamental sculpture, arranged along
the edges of the walks.

A very fine walk leads from the palace towards a piece of water at the
entrance from the Place Louis XV., where there are various groups of
sculpture and terrace walks, which have a very imposing effect. The
walks and flower borders in the promenade were in very neat order, and
the triangular pieces of grass not so roughly kept as some I had
previously seen about the seats of royalty. The walk or road leading
from the Place Louis XV. to the magnificent arch now nearly completed on
the rising ground near to the Barrier Neuilly, has a fine effect, and
the prospect from this arch, which is much elevated above the town, is
very grand.

Oct. 6th. This morning I proceeded to the seed establishment of Messrs.
Andrieux and Vilmorin, to whom I had a letter of introduction from Mr.
Lawson, of Edinburgh; these gentlemen very kindly furnished me with a
note of the various gardens and objects most worthy of notice.

I then proceeded to the _Jardin des Plantes_, where I was much gratified
with numerous fine specimens from all quarters of the globe. Mr. W.
Douglas, a young man lately sent to this garden from Chatsworth by the
Duke of Devonshire, conducted me through the various departments. I was
much pleased with the elegant appearance of two very fine houses that
were then nearly completed, one of which was just receiving the plants.

These houses are seventy-two feet long each by forty-two feet wide, and
about fifty feet high; the space where the tubes stand is sunk about six
feet under the floor or foot-path level, so that the whole of the tubs,
boxes, and pots may be concealed, and the plants have the appearance of
being planted out in the border. There is a very handsome marble cistern
about the centre of the house for supplying the plants with water. These
houses consist of a double span roof, are constructed with iron bars,
and heated by steam; the under-ground work is very judiciously arranged:
it appeared from the excavations that were here proceeding, that the
range of glass was to extend to the _Galerie d'Histoire Naturelle_.
There are numerous other hothouses on different elevations well stocked
with healthy plants, one of which is devoted to _Succulentæ_, where I
observed several fine specimens of _Cacteæ_. The curvilinear iron bar
appeared to be the favourite material used for the erection of
plant-houses in this establishment, which must evidently be the most
economical and substantial for large houses. I observed this bar used in
various parts of Belgium and Germany, where they apprehended no fear of
the breakage of glass by expansion or contraction, although the frost is
much more intense in those countries than in this.

I here saw a very fine plant of the _Araucaria Cunninghamia_, which
appeared to be from nine to ten feet high, beautifully feathered from
the pot to the top. The _Araucariæ excelsæ_ were tall plants, but
evidently drawn up, and had been too much confined, as they were not
feathered equal to the specimens at Baron Rothschild's and at Prince de
Ligne's. The ground in this far-famed _Jardin des Plantes_ appeared to
be too contracted for the various purposes that it is devoted to. An
enclosed apartment is under a nursery of trees and shrubs, another for
hardy herbaceous plants, and one planted with a collection of the
various fruits, particularly of pears, in beds about four or five feet
wide, with four feet in width of paths between them; these beds were
covered with short dung, to prevent the roots of the trees from becoming
too dry. The fruit was, unfortunately, all gathered, so that I had not
the pleasure of seeing the various sorts that are here cultivated:
nearly adjoining to the fruit tree department is the zoological
establishment, with a very numerous collection of animals. The museum of
natural history is situated at the extremity of the new range of
hothouses; the collection of birds, minerals, quadrupeds, shells, &c. is
really astonishing: there are also numerous specimens of _Fungi_
preserved in one of the departments.

I next visited the nursery garden of M. Noisette, which is well stocked
with _Camellias_ and stove plants; the former had numerous seed vessels
perfecting on them. The small low hothouses are in a very dilapidated
condition, and the plants in a crowded state for want of more room;
although there is a great extent of glass, such as it is. The grounds
are likewise crowded with fir trees, which were evidently planted for
shelter and shade from the effects of the sun, but they give the ground
a cheerless and contracted appearance.

I next proceeded to the vegetable garden of M. de Coufle, which is
considered amongst the best in the neighbourhood of Paris for culinary
forcing, but I saw but very little in it at this season of the year at
all worthy of a visit.

At a short distance from the latter is the garden of Prince D'Esling;
the neatness of this little spot, which was very gay with dahlias and
other autumnal flowers, was very pleasing. There is also cultivated here
a very extensive collection of pine-apples evidently for sale, as at
this season of the year, there must have been nearly two hundred fruit,
and some thousands of young plants, which for health and well-swelled
fruit were but little inferior to any in England. The largest fruit was
grown in a low span-roofed house, and planted out into the beds into a
mixture of sandy peat; the house was six feet six inches high, with a
foot path in the centre, and the beds for plants along each side. The
succession pines are grown in wooden frames with dung linings around
them, and were in great vigour of health. The _Providence_ and
_Montsserats_ were extensively cultivated. A very complete stove for
exotic plants is also here. The _Aristolochia Braziliensis_ was
beautifully in flower, and the other plants in a very healthy state.

I next visited the Pantheon, a noble edifice, with magnificent
architectural columns, and cornice: it is reckoned one of the finest
erections in Paris.

Oct. 7th. Went at six o'clock this morning to see the fruit and
vegetable market: the display of pears, grapes, and wallnuts was very
fine, there were also a number of peaches, but these were rather of an
inferior size to those grown on the open walls in England. The fruit
market was really so crowded with baskets of pears and women that it was
with much difficulty that I could pass through it: there was an abundant
display of vegetables. Cardoons were now brought to market, and a few
bunches of small asparagus; celery appeared in great abundance and of
good quality; various baskets of the Alpine strawberry and a few pretty
good looking melons were also to be had.

I started at eight o'clock for Versailles, passing through a beautiful
part of the country, well planted with numerous handsomely erected
villas, and the road winding along for a considerable distance by the
river Seine.

On my arrival I proceeded to the gardens, where I was quite astonished
at the extent of these magnificent grounds; there were numerous groups
of sculpture and bronze, and fountains ornamented with various figures,
such as sea monsters, dolphins, &c. which spout the water into the
basons, the effect of which, when the water-works are playing, must be
grand in the extreme.

The various terraces, parterres, and avenues, the latter leading in
every direction, with their beautiful groups of sculpture, are very

Under the south terrace is situated the orangery, and from the terrace
walk we look down upon at least several hundred magnificent trees, which
for number and vigour of health, were undoubtedly surpassed by none that
I had previously met with on the continent; I am, however, inclined to
think that there were some at Sans-souci fully as large.

The orange-houses are all formed under the south terrace, and appear
like arched cellars, with only glass windows in front; I could perceive
no means of applying artificial heat, but the windows were furnished
with shutters, which appeared to be the only protection they had against
frost; they were busy at this time removing trees to their winter

From the orangery I proceeded through various other parts of the
grounds, and also to the _Grand Trianon_, which is situated about two
English miles from the palace of Versailles; the grounds attached to it
are laid out according to the English style of gardening, with fine
pieces of water, rock-work, temples, and rustic erections. They contain
a fine assortment of hardy trees and shrubs, planted on the grass, which
gave it the appearance of an arboretum, but there seemed to be no
regular arrangement of the plants. There is a green-house attached to
these grounds, and a good show of autumnal flowers in front of it, such
as dahlias and other annuals. The gardener was not at home. On my return
from the garden I took another route through the grounds attached to
Versailles; but to attempt to describe them would have required much
longer time than my cursory visit would permit, or to enumerate the
different objects of interest and magnificence that are dispersed
throughout them. I then visited the kitchen garden department, which
consists of an extensive piece of ground, subdivided into numerous
divisions by walls, on which are trained vines and peaches; the
Fontainbleau grape appeared to ripen and swell its fruit remarkably
well, and was very abundant in its production; it seemed to be more
generally cultivated than any other sort; in front of the vine-wall it
is also grown to a trellising, and produced very fine fruit considering
its being grown out of doors. In one of the compartments devoted to the
peach trees I observed the Royale peach extending over a space of wall
forty-two feet long, and from eighteen to twenty feet high; it was in
excellent health, and regularly furnished with fine bearing shoots. In
another compartment is a collection of standard pear trees.

The forcing ground contains numerous low houses and pits for the growth
of the pine, vine, and peach. The pine-apple in this establishment was
remarkably well grown and fine fruit, and little if any inferior to
those that I have seen. The fruiting plants were also planted out into
beds in light sandy peat soil, which evidently suited them well. The
succession pines at this time were undergoing a shifting and
disrooting,--a practice not generally adopted at this season in England.

Vegetables are extensively cultivated in the gardens, and a good
collection of the hardy fruits, which were all gathered by this time,
consequently I had not the pleasure of seeing the quality or produce
from the different trees.

On my return to Paris I visited the Luxemburg Gardens, which contain
some fine old orange trees and _Nerium oleanders_, arranged on the side
of the walks; the grass-plats are surrounded by flowerbeds and various
avenues of horse chesnuts, ornamented by sculpture, which lead in
different directions, forming a pleasant promenade.

Oct. 8th. This morning I proceeded to M. Boursalt's, who was then
residing out of town; his collection of plants was formerly very
celebrated, but he has lately disposed of the greater part of them, and
an extensive range of plant houses: there being now only two small
flower houses left, which contained some fine specimens of _Camellias_,
and some beautiful marble statues. The Noisette and Chinese roses were
in great beauty, as well as some fine _Magnolias_. This spot of ground,
although apparently not above two acres in extent, is prettily varied
with rock-work, water, and artificial banks.

From hence I visited the Burying-ground at Montmartre, which is thickly
planted with trees and shrubs. I then proceeded to the Louvre, where I
was much gratified by the magnificence of the gallery of paintings, as
well as the incomparable marbles.

I next visited the cemetry of Père la Chaise, which is an extensive
piece of ground, with numerous walks leading through it, and the
different tombs enclosed by the upright cyprus, thujas, and other
shrubs. On my arrival a funeral service was performing in a small
chapel, situated about the centre of the ground, and which was then lit
up by candles. After taking a cursory view of this cemetry I made the
best of my way to Montreuil, to see the celebrated peach-tree gardens;
on my approach to it, I was surprised at the extent of white walls in
this part of the country, which were all chiefly covered with peach
trees and grape vines. After ascertaining that the most celebrated
garden at Montreuil belonged to the Préfet, and was situated at the top
of the hill, I made the best of my way to this spot; I found the owner a
good practical gardener. He took great pains in pointing out to me his
method of pruning and training his peach trees: the English gardener,
however, has nothing to learn in France in the management of the peach
tree; in fact, we can hardly enter into a garden in England that we
cannot find trees more tastefully trained, and fully as well furnished
from the bottom of the wall to the extremity of the tree, as any that I
met with in the neighbourhood of Paris. The peaches on the walls in
this country are much larger than any in France or Belgium, although the
soil and climate in these countries are more congenial to the growth of
this tree, and maturity of its fruit, than our more northern atmosphere.

The roots of the peach tree and vines were all covered this season with
half rotten dung, for the space of from three to four feet from the
wall, which kept the roots in a moist state; the walls generally
averaged from eight to nine feet in height, and were well sheltered by
the number of cross walls that were in the different gardens. I visited
one or two other gardens in the vicinity of the Préfet's, but they
appeared very similar to the one already described.

On my return from Montreuil I made a cursory visit to two small
nurseries, which attracted my attention by the quantity of large orange
trees exhibited for sale, and were to be sold at a very trifling sum in
comparison to what they cost in England.

I also made a hasty visit through Messrs. Vilmorin and Andreux' seed
ground, where there was a large stock of annuals growing for seed, and a
good collection of hardy perennial plants.

Oct. 9th. Started for the Vitry nurseries, which are about six miles
from Paris; the extent of nursery ground under fruit-tree cultivation in
this part of the country extends nearly five miles in length, and the
number of nurseries amount to about two hundred. The Paris markets are
principally supplied from this part of the country. M. Chatenay is
considered the most extensive grower in that line, and has certainly a
fine collection of peach trees and other hardy fruits, which were in a
very healthy moveable condition, as also numerous fine standard rose
trees, these being out of flower I was unable to judge of their merits.
The prices of the fruit trees were very little less than in the London
nurseries for similar sized trees. I observed but little new in
ornamental trees or shrubs, these nurseries being chiefly devoted to the
culture of fruit trees, the soil being peculiarly adapted thereto, being
a rich reddish loam, yet it was in some cases undergoing a strong manure
and fallow. A portion of what was previously occupied by nursery stock
was under the plough. M. Chatenay informed me that they found great
difficulty in procuring a suitable soil for their different fruit trees.
I did not observe any hothouses about Vitry for tender plants. The
nursery grounds extend as far as Choisey, over a large tract of
beautiful ground. I saw large crops of grapes which were used in making
the wine, which is produced in considerable quantities at Vitry.

On my return from these nurseries I proceeded to the nursery
establishment of M. Cels, which contains a fine collection of stove and
greenhouse plants, as well as many rare and hardy species; in short the
collection here is more choice than extensive, and the plants were very
well grown. There are several hothouses and low pits well stocked with
good plants, and a range of new houses then building. This nursery is
considered to contain the best collection of plants about Paris; the
extent of ground is but limited, and not very well kept.

I next desired my guide to conduct me to the flower market, when, after
a considerable walk, I found myself in the flour market, which was well
stocked with sacks of flour and grain. I was, however, much pleased with
the fine circular building, with lofty dome, and the quantity of grain
it contained. I then proceeded to the real flower market, which was held
this afternoon at the Magdalen, a most magnificent building. The
quantity of flowers fell far short of my expectation: the Neapolitan
violet and the more common sorts of autumnal flowers were the principal
stock exposed for sale this day.

Left Paris at seven o'clock in the evening for Rouen, where I arrived on
the morning of the 10th, about ten o'clock. I immediately proceeded to
the nursery garden of Mr. Calvert, where I found an extensive range of
hothouses rapidly falling into a state of dilapidation for want of paint
and other repairs. The nursery ground was also principally in a waste
state, except a part in which dahlias were cultivated, and which were
certainly very fine, containing both the French and English collections.
Mr. Calvert's son informed me that his father was then clearing the
ground of the stock with the intention of removing it to England, where
he intended commencing the nursery business.

I was also informed that the Rouen Botanic Garden was contemplated to be
formed on the site of this nursery, which is unquestionably a fine
situation for it.

I then visited the nursery of M. Vallet, which contains a large quantity
of very fine orange trees, that he was very anxious to dispose of at £10
per tree. There is likewise a good collection of greenhouse plants and
hardy shrubs, as well as standard roses; the latter M. Vallet frequently
brings to England to be disposed of in the London markets.

I next proceeded to the Botanic Garden, which appeared to contain about
an English acre of ground, with two or three old hothouses for plants,
with but a limited stock in them. There appeared to be a pretty good
collection of hardy perennials and annuals, but few shrubs, or
ornamental trees.

I then made the best of my way to M. Prevost's nursery, which is
undoubtedly the most extensive and contains the best collection of
plants about Rouen. The quantity of standard roses cultivated in this
nursery is immense; a priced catalogue of them has been lately printed,
the prices specified in it are very moderate. The blood peach was here
with plenty of fruit on it, but it evidently will not get soft or fit
for use in the open air. I also observed several other ornamental trees
in this establishment; it was likewise well stocked with a large
assortment of fruit trees.

The scenery about Rouen is very beautiful and picturesque, and is varied
by some large white chalk hills: the river, with numerous small vessels,
tends greatly to enliven the scene.

Oct. 11th. Went to see the ancient cathedral, said to have been
commenced by William the Conqueror. I was much pleased with its fine
Gothic appearance, as well as with the paintings, stained glass, and
other ornaments. There is another church in this town, called St. Ouen,
deserving of the stranger's notice, which appeared to me but little
inferior to the cathedral. The _Palais de Justice_ is also a curious old

Left Rouen at eleven o'clock for Dieppe, where we arrived at five in the
evening, passing through a fine varied country, richly clothed with
fruit trees and agricultural produce, which appeared to be in a very
flourishing state.

Oct. 12th. Being confined all this day at Dieppe by contrary winds I
made an excursion round the vicinity of the town, which is very
picturesque and considerably varied, I also visited the nursery garden
of M. Racine, which contained a very fine collection of dahlias,
standard roses, a fine assortment of pears, and other hardy plants; and
a small greenhouse, in which a few good _Cacteæ_, and other showy
plants, were cultivated and in good order.

The cathedral in Dieppe is an ancient building, and worth the notice of
the stranger.

Oct. 13th. Left Dieppe at two o'clock in the morning for Brighton, when
we experienced a pretty tossing for the space of twenty-five hours, in
consequence of contrary winds. The passage is generally performed in ten
or eleven hours when the weather is favourable.

Oct. 14th. We arrived about three o'clock this morning at Shoreham, a
small port, about three miles from Brighton: as soon as day dawned I
made an excursion through the town, and got my luggage ready by ten
o'clock, when I started for London, where I arrived at five in the

Upon the whole, in regard to the general state of Horticulture in the
countries which I visited, the following conclusion must be drawn: The
plants in the hothouses are in most of the establishments kept in
excellent order and in a healthy state; the _Succulentæ_ also appeared
to be much more extensively cultivated than they have hitherto been in
England; But the general order and neatness of the grounds (with only a
very few exceptions) were but little attended to. Nor did they appear to
me to well understand the forcing of fruits, except in one or two places
in France; neither did I perceive that nicety in the training of fruit
trees that is thought indispensable in this country. Vegetables are,
however, in large establishments, more extensively grown; but there
certainly did not appear to be such a general spirit for horticultural
improvement as is now prevailing in this country. At no period was
gardening and the collecting of plants ever pursued with greater spirit
in England than at this moment; insomuch, that we can scarcely visit a
nobleman or gentleman's gardens without observing very extensive
improvements and alterations proceeding in every direction. And this we
cannot but regard as an indication of application and attachment to
rural improvements highly honourable to our nobility and gentry, as
superseding many of those pursuits that used to prevail to a great
extent with gentlemen residing in the country, which had but little
tendency to the improvement of their grounds or estates.


The Cacteæ have not hitherto obtained in this country that attention
which is paid to them on the continent, where certainly a greater number
of fine specimens are to be found of this interesting genus than is to
be seen in our collections.

Mr. Hitchen of Norwich devoted much attention to their cultivation, and
certainly had formed the best collection at that time in England. Being
under the necessity of breaking up his establishment, he disposed of his
Cacteæ and other succulent plants to Mr. Mackie, Nurseryman, of Norwich,
from whom the Duke of Bedford purchased a considerable number in the
spring of 1834. Since that period His Grace's collection has been
increased by the liberality of several continental collectors during my
tour; and I feel it but justice more particularly to mention M. Otto, of
Berlin, who contributed many valuable species, and M. Lehmann, of
Dresden, from whom I have also received about two hundred. M. Seitz of
Munich, M. Bosch of Stuttgard, Mr. Booth, of Flottbeck Nursery,
Hamburgh, and Professor Lehmann, as well as the Curators of the
Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Dublin College Botanic Gardens, have added
greatly to the collection; and with some recent acquisitions from Mr.
Tweedie, of Buenos Ayres, obtained through the intervention of Lord
Edward Russell, have now rendered this collection superior to any one
existing in this country, and little inferior to any on the continent.

The cultivation of the Cacteæ possesses considerable advantage over most
of the hothouse plants, requiring little room, a matter in general of
considerable importance where space is necessarily limited. They will
also flourish and flower in a lower temperature than most other hothouse
plants: most of the species will not require to be kept in a higher
degree of heat than from 45° to 50°; some of the South American species,
however, succeed best in a higher temperature. They should be kept
rather in a dry state, and water used but sparingly, as these plants are
very impatient of wet. The houses most suitable for the cultivation of
this singular tribe should be so glazed as to effectually exclude the
intrusion of water. In the extensive range of plant-houses now erecting
at Woburn Abbey, one is intended to be exclusively devoted to the
cultivation of Cacteæ. The soil most suitable for their growth is a
mixture of sandy-peat, leaf-mould and lime rubbish, well incorporated

The annexed List enumerates the different species now in cultivation at
Woburn Abbey.



_MAMMILLA'RIA. MAMMILLA'RIA._ Cal. superior, coloured, 5-8-lobed. Cor.
of 5-8 petals, united in a short tube. Stam-filiform. Style
thread-shaped. Stigma 4-7 cleft. Berry smooth, seeds small and numerous.
The flowers are produced from the _axillæ_, or base, of the _mammillæ_,
or teats, and the seed vessels appearing the following year.


   _Systematic        English           Form of
   Name.              Name.             Stems, &c._
   lanífera, DC.      wool-bearing      stem-glob.
   *divarícata        divaricated       stm. cyl. forked
   Andréæ Ott.        Andrea's          stm. cyl.-obov.
   cuneiflóra Hitch.  wedge-fld.        stm. subcyl.
   grándis Hitch.     handsome          stm. sub-glob
   flavéscens Hitch.  yellow            stm. obov-cyl.
   stramínea Haw.     straw col.        stm-subcyl.
     _flavescens_ DC.
   chrysacántha Ott.  gold-spined       stm. sub-glob
   cylíndrica Hitch.  cylindrical       stm. obov-cyl.
   subcrócea DC.      yellowish         stm. sub-cyl.
   neglécta           neglected         stm. glob.
   rhodántha Ott.     rose-fld.         stm. sub-cyl
     _atrata_ Hort.
   nívea Wend.        white             stm. sub-glob.
   nivòsa             snowy             stm. sub-glob.
   *pulchérrima       handsome          stm. sub-cyl.
   dichótoma          forked            stm. cyl.
   *lutéscens         yellowish         stm. sub-glob.
   eriacántha Ott.    wool.-spin.       stm. cyl.
   púlchra B. R.      showy             stm. obl.-cyl.

   _Systematic        No. and Colour of   Col. of Native   Year of
   Name.              Spines.             Flower. Country. Introduc._
   lanífera, DC.      spines 10-12. ye.   _re._   Mexico  1823 D.S.S.
   *divarícata        sp. ext. wh.        _pk._   ......  .... D.S.S.
                      centr. ye.
   Andréæ Ott.        sp. ext. wh. centr.   ..    ......  1835 D.S.S.
                      6 ye.
   cuneiflóra Hitch.  sp. ext. wh. centr.   ..    ......  .... D.S.S.
                      6 ye.
   grándis Hitch.     sp. ext. wh. cent.    ..    ......  .... D.S.S.
                      6 ye.
   flavéscens         sp. ext. wh. cent.    ..    ......  .... D.S.S.
                      6 ye. apex re.
   stramínea Haw.     sp. ext. wh. cent.   _ye._  S. Am.  1811 D.S.S.
                      6-7 wh.
     _flavescens_ DC.
   chrysacántha Ott.  sp. ext. wh. cent     ..    ------  1827 D.S.S.
                      6-7 ye. ap. re.
   cylíndrica Hitch.  sp. ext. wh. cent.    ..    ......  .... D.S.S.
                      6 ye.
   subcrócea DC.      sp. ext. wh. cent.    ..    ......  1836 D.S.S.
                      9 li-ye.
   neglécta           sp. ext. wh. cent.    ..    ......  1835 D.S.S.
                      6-7 ye.
   rhodántha Ott.     sp. ext. wh. cent.    ..    ......  1836 D.S.S.
                      6-7 ap. re.
     _atrata_ Hort.
   nívea Wend.        sp. ext. wh. cent.    ..    ......  1834 D.S.S.
                      4-6 ye.
   nivòsa             sp. ext. wh. cent.    ..    ......  1835 D.S.S.
                      6 li-ye.
   *pulchérrima       sp. ext. wh. cent.   _re._  ......  .... D.S.S.
                      6 ye. ap.
   dichótoma          sp. ext. wh. cent    _pk._  ......  .... D.S.S.
                      4 ye.
   *lutéscens         sp. ext. wh. cent.    ..    ......  .... D.S.S.
                      6 ye.
   eriacántha Ott.    sp. ext wh. cent.     ..    ......  .... D.S.S.
   púlchra B. R.      sp. ext. wh. centr.  _ro._  ......  .... D.S.S.
                      4 ye.


   _Systematic        English           Form of
   Name.              Name.             Stems, &c._
   fuscáta Ott.       brown             stm. sub-glob.
   corioídes Bosch.   leather-like      stm. glob.
   coronáta DC.       crowned           stm. cyl.
   pyramidális Ott.   pyramidal         stm. oblg.

   _Systematic       No. and Colour of  Col. of Native   Year of
   Name.             Spines.            Flower. Country. Introduc._
   fuscáta Ott.      sp. ext. ye.        ..    S. Am.   1835 D.S.S.
                     cent. 4 br.
   corioídes Bosch.  sp. ext. wh.        ..    ......   ---- D.S.S.
                     cent. 6 br. ye.
   coronáta DC.      sp. ext. wh. cent. _sc._  Mexico   1828 D.S.S.
                     4 li. br.
   pyramidális Ott.  sp. ext. wh. cent.  ..     ----    1835 D.S.S.
                     4-5. ye. br.


   _Systematic        English           Form of
   Name.              Name.             Stems, &c._
   parvimámma Haw.    small teated      stm. sub-glob
   símplex Haw.       simple            stm. sub-glob.
   tentaculáta        stinging          stm. glob.

   _Systematic      No. and Colour of   Col. of Native   Year of
   Name.            Spines.             Flower. Country. Introduc._
   parvimámma Haw.  mam. obt. sp.        ..     S. Am.   1817 D.S.S.
                    10-12. dk.
   símplex Haw.     sp. ext. wh. re.     ..     Missouri 1688 D.S.S.
                    cent. 4 re-bk.
   tentaculáta      sp. ext. wh.        _sc._   ......   1836 D.S.S.
                    cent. br. re.


   _Systematic          English           Form of
   Name.                Name.             Stems, &c._
   acanthophlégma Lehm. lance-sp.         stm. glob.
   bícolor Lehm.        two-col.          stm. sub-glob.
   díscolor Haw.        discoloured       stm. glob.
   vétula Mart.         oldish            stm. obov.
   supertéxta Mart.     cobweb            stm. glob.
   intertéxta           interwoven        stm. glob.
   geminispína Haw.     two-spined        stm. cyl.
   pusílla DC.          dwarf             stm. subrot.
     _stelláris_ Haw.

   _Systematic          No. and Colour of  Col. of  Native   Year of
   Name.                Spines.            Flower.  Country. Introduc._
   acanthophlégma Lehm. sp. ext. wh. cent.   ..      ......  1835 D.S.S.
                        4 apex. re.
   bícolor Lehm.        sp. ext. wh. cent.   ..      ......  ---- D.S.S.
                        2 li. br.
   díscolor Haw.        sp. ext. wh. cent.   ..      S. Am.  1820 D.S.S.
                        6-8 bk. br.
   vétula Mart.         sp. ext. wh. cent. _li. sc._ ......  1835 D.S.S.
                        2-4 y. br.
   supertéxta Mart.     sp. ext. wh. cent.   ..      ......  1836 D.S.S.
                        2-3 y. br.
   intertéxta           sp. ext. wh. cent.   ..      ......  ---- D.S.S.
                        1-2 wh.
   geminispína Haw.     sp. ext. wh. cent.   _re_    Mexico  ---- D.S.S.
                        2. elon.
   pusílla DC.          sp. ext. wh. cent.   ..      S. Am.  1820 D.S.S.
                        wh. ye.
     _stelláris_ Haw.


   _Systematic             English           Form of
   Name.                   Name.             Stems, &c._
   anguláris Otto.         angular.           stm. glob.-ob.
   polyédra Mart.          many-based         stm. glob.
   magnimámma Haw.         la. teated         stm. cyl. glau.
   Zuccariniana Mart.      Zuccarini's        stm. glob.
   Karwinskii Zucc.        Karwinsk's         stm. glob. glau.
   subpolyédra Salm.       sub many-ba.       stm. sub. cyl.
   cirrhífera Mart.        tend.-bear.        stm. glob.
     ...._spinis fuscís_  _br.-spined_        stm. glob.
   quadrispína Mart.       four-spined        stm. sub. cyl.
   Seitziana Mart.         Seitz's            stm. obov.
   columnáris Mart.        col.-shaped        stm. sub-cyl.
   pycnacántha Mart.       close-spined       stm. cyl.
   loricáta Mart.          harnessed          stm. cyl.
   polythéle Mart.         many-teat.         stm. glob.
   cárnea Zucc.            flesh-col.         stm. cyl.
   longimámma DC.          long-teated        stm. cyl. glau.
   macrothéle Mart.        large-teat.        stm. cyl. t. elo.
   Lehmanni Ott.           Lehm. teats.       ovat elong.
   sphaceláta Mart.        finger-sh.         stm. cyl.

   _Systematic           No. and Colour of  Col. of   Native   Year of
   Name.                 Spines.            Flower.   Country. Introduc._
   anguláris Otto.       sp. 4-5. cent.       ..       ......  1835 D.S.S.
                         1 el. re-ap. bk.
   polyédra Mart.        sp. 6-8 wh.          ..       ......  1836 D.S.S.
                         apex re.
   magnimámma Haw.       sp. 3-5 wh.          ..       ......  1823 D.S.S.
                         apex bk.
   Zuccariniana Mart.    sp. 2-elong br.      ..       ......  1835 D.S.S.
                         ye. jun. wh. pu.
   Karwinskii Zucc.      sp. 6. wh.           ..       ......  1836 D.S.S.
                         ap. bk.
   subpolyédra Salm.     sp. 4. br. bk.  _li. sc. gr._ ......  ---- D.S.S.
   cirrhífera Mart.      sp. 3-5 wh.          ..       ......  1835 D.S.S.
                         apex re. bk.
     ...._spinis fuscís_ sp. 3-5.             ..       ......  ---- D.S.S.
                         ye. br.
   quadrispína Mart.     sp. 4. dk. br.      _sc._     ......  ---- D.S.S.
                         apex bk.
   Seitziana Mart.       sp. 6. wh. pk.       ..       ......  ---- D.S.S.
                         apex re.
   columnáris Mart.      sp. 6. li. br.       ..       ......  ---- D.S.S.
   pycnacántha Mart.     sp. 6. ye.           ..       ......  ---- D.S.S.
                         apex bk.
   loricáta Mart.        sp. 4-6 ye. br.      ..       ......  ---- D.S.S.
   polythéle Mart.       sp. 6-7 ye. br.      ..       ......  ---- D.S.S.
   cárnea Zucc.          sp. 7-8 ye.        _car._     ......  ---- D.S.S.
                         apex pk.
   longimámma DC.        sp. ext. 6-7.        ..       ......  ---- D.S.S.
                         cent. 1. elong
   macrothéle Mart.      sp. 6. wh. y.        ..       ......  1836 D.S.S.
                         apex br.
   Lehmanni Ott.         sp. wh. apex bk.     ..       ......  ---- D.S.S.
   sphaceláta Mart.      sp. 10-12 wh.        ..       ......  ---- D.S.S.
                         apex red


   _Systematic        English           Form of
   Name.              Name.             Stems, &c._
   cæspitósa Salm.    tufted            stm. cyl.
     _densa_ Ott.
   stella-auráta M.   gold-star         stm. cyl.
   ténuis             slender           stm. cyl.
   elongáta DC.       elongated         stm. cyl.

   _Systematic      No. and Colour of   Col. of Native   Year of
   Name.            Spines.             Flower. Country. Introduc._
   cæspitósa Salm.  sp. den. ye.        _ye._   S. Am.   1827 D.S.S.
                    cent. 2 elong
     _densa_ Ott.
   stella-auráta M. sp. stel. ye.       _ye._   ......   1835 D.S.S.
                    ap. br. cent. o.
   ténuis           sp. li. re. cent.   _ye._   ......   ---- D.S.S.
                    1. elong. br.
   elongáta DC.     sp. stellate          ..    ......   .... D.S.S.
                    ye. apex li. br.


   _Systematic        English           Form of
   Name.              Name.             Stems, &c._
   criníta DC.        hairy teats       ovat. elong
     _ancistroides_ Lehm. _glochidata_ Mart.
     _rubra_          _red-fld._        ......
   Wildiána Ott.      Wild's            teats cyl.

   _Systematic       No. and Colour of  Col. of   Native   Year of
   Name.             Spines.            Flower.   Country. Introduc._
   criníta DC.       sp. centr. 3 ye.   _wh. ye._  ......  .... D.S.S.
                     br. hooked
     _rubra_         .. .. .. ..         _re._     ......  .... D.S.S.
   Wildiána Ott.     sp. 3 ye. br.        ..       ......  .... D.S.S.
                     apex br.

MELOCA'CTUS. MELOCA'CTUS. Cal. superior, 6-cleft, coloured. Cor. of 6
petals, inserted in calyx. Stamens numerous. Style 1; stigma 5-cleft.
Berry of 1 cell. Seed small angular. Flowers expanding amongst the
tomentum on the apex of the plant.

   _Systematic        English           Form of
   Name.              Name.             Stems, &c._
   amóenus Hffsg.     pleasant          ribs 10-12.
   commùnis Ott.      common            ribs-erect 12.
     _viridis_ Ott.   _green_           ......
   Grengélii          Grengel's         ribs 10-12.
   meonacánthus Lk.   sm.-spined        ribs 15-acute
   macracánthus Salm  large-sp.         ribs 12-14.
   pyramidális Ott.   pyramidal         ribs 14-17.
     _spinis rubris_  _red-spined_      ....
   Salmiánus Lk. Ott. Salm's            ribs 15.
   *octogónus         eight-ang.        ribs 8. remote
   *excavátus         hol.-crown.       13-ang.

   _Systematic        No. and Colour of  Col. of   Native   Year of
   Name.              Spines.            Flower.   Country. Introduc._
   amóenus Hffsg.     sp.8 recurv.      _li. sc._  ......    1835 D.S.S.
                      dk. br.
   commùnis Ott.      sp. 12-ye.         _re._    W. Indies. 1688 D.S.S.
     _viridis_ Ott.   .. .. .. ..         ..      ......     1836 D.S.S.
   Grengélii          sp. 8-10 ye.        ..      S. Th. Is. ---- D.S.S.
   meonacánthus Lk.   sp. 9-ye. br.       ..      Jamaica    1835 D.S.S.
   macracánthus Salm  sp. 9-ye. apex      ..      S. Domingo 1820 D.S.S.
   pyramidális Ott.   sp. 11. elong       ..       Curaçao   1824 D.S.S.
                      br. re.
     _spinis rubris_  .. .. .. ..         ..       ......    .... D.S.S.
   Salmiánus Lk. Ott. sp. ext. 10. c.     ..       ......    1835 D.S.S.
                      3. elon. y. re
   *octogónus         sp. 8-10 br. ye.    ..       Mexico    1834 D.S.S.
   *excavátus         sp. ext.7-8         ..       ------    ---- D.S.S.
                      cent. 1. re. ye.

_ECHINOCA'CTUS. ECHINOCA'CTUS_. Invol. tubular imbricated. Cal. superior,
inserted in the involuc. Cor. of many petals. Stam. numerous. Style 1;
stigma many parted. Flowers bursting from the apexes of the ribs, behind
the fascicules of spines.



   _Systematic        English           Form of
   Name.              Name.             Stems, &c._
   Ottónis Lk.        Otto's            ribs 10-12.
   tenuispínus Ott.   slender.-sp.      ribs 11.
   Línkii Lehm.       Link's            ribs 13.
   corynódes Ott.     claved            ribs 16.
   *Montevidensis.    Mt. Video.        ribs 13-obt.
   rhodánthus         rose-fld.         ribs 13-14.
   acutanguláris HB.  acute-ang.        ribs 18.
   acuátus Ott.       sharp-rib.        ribs 13 acute

   _Systematic       No. and Colour of  Col. of  Native   Year of
   Name.             Spines.            Flower.  Country. Introduc._
   Ottónis Lk.       sp. ext. wh.       _ye._    Mexico    1829 D.S.S.
                     centr. br.
   tenuispínus Ott.  sp. ext. wh.       _ye._    Brazil    1835 D.S.S.
                     cent. ye. br.
   Línkii Lehm.      sp. ext. wh.       _ye._    Mexico    ---- D.S.S.
                     cent. bk.
   corynódes Ott.    sp. ext. wh.       _ye._    ......    ---- D.S.S.
                     cent. br.
   *Montevidensis.   sp. ye. apex br.    ..      Mt. Video ---- D.S.S.
   rhodánthus        sp. ext. wh.       _ro._    ......    ---- D.S.S.
                     cent. br.
   acutanguláris HB. sp. ext. wh.       _ye._    ......    ---- D.S.S.
                     cent. br.
   acuátus Ott.      sp. ye. 10-13      _ye._    Mt. Video 1836 D.S.S.


   _Systematic        English           Form of
   Name.              Name.             Stems, &c._
   pachycéntrus Lehm. thick-sp.         ribs 12-12. obt.
   centetérius Lehm.  awl-sp.           ribs 10 tuber.

   _Systematic        No. and Colour of  Col. of  Native   Year of
   Name.              Spines.            Flower.  Country. Introduc._
   pachycéntrus Lehm. sp. ye. apex br.   ..       ......  1836 D.S.S.
   centetérius Lehm.  sp. ext. 8-10.    _li. re._ ......  ---- D.S.S.
                      cent. 4.


   _Systematic         English           Form of
   Name.               Name.             Stems, &c._
   sessiliflórus       sessile-fld.      stm. depr. r. 8-12
   coccíneus H. Berol. scarlet           st. dep. ribs 8-9
   spirális Karw.      spiral            st. erect. ribs 8
   recúrvus Haw.       recurved          st. glo. r. 13-15 gl.
   cornígerus DC.      horn-bearg.       stm. depr.
   hamátus             hooked            stm. dep. ribs 21
   Sellówii DC.        Sellow's          st. glo. depr. 10
   gibbósus DC.        gibbous           stm. ov. r. 9 obt.
   robústus Salm.      robust            stm. cyl. ribs 8
   crispátus DC.       curled            st. cyl. r. 10-12

   _Systematic         No. and Colour of  Col. of Native   Year of
   Name.               Spines.            Flower. Country. Introduc._
   sessiliflórus       sp. 5-6. wh.         ..    ......   1834 D.S.S.
   coccíneus H. Berol. sp. 8-10. br. re.    ..    ......   1835 D.S.S.
   spirális Karw.      sp. 8 varieg.        ..    ......   ---- D.S.S.
   recúrvus Haw.       sp. 9 ye. re.        ..    Mexico   1796 D.S.S.
   cornígerus DC.      sp. ye. rec. cent.  _pk._  Mexico   1820 D.S.S.
                       flat. ro.
   hamátus             sp. 7. grey          ..    B. Ayres 1833 D.S.S.
   Sellówii DC.        sp. 7. centr.        ..    Mt.Video 1826 D.S.S.
                       elon. br.
   gibbósus DC.        sp. 8-9. bk. br.    _wh._  Jamaica  1808 D.S.S.
   robústus Salm.      sp. 8-9 ye. slend.   ..    ......   1835 D.S.S.
   crispátus DC.       sp. 9-10 cent.       ..    Mexico   1826 D.S.S.
                       1. br.


   _Systematic        English           Form of
   Name.              Name.             Stems, &c._
   tuberculátus       tubercled         stm. glo. r. 8 obt.
   platyacánthus      flat-spined       st. glo. r. 21-24.
   polyacánthus       many-sp.          st. ov. glo. r. 21 ob.
   *xanthacánthus     yellow-sp.        st. depr. 11 ang.

   _Systematic     No. and Colour of     Col. of Native   Year of
   Name.           Spines.               Flower. Country. Introduc._
   tuberculátus    sp. 8. ext. sp. elon.  ..      Mexico  1826 D.S.S.
   platyacánthus   sp. 7-8. cent. 4.      ..      Mexico  1837 D.S.S.
   polyacánthus    sp. 8. spread.         ..      Brazil  ---- D.S.S.
   *xanthacánthus  sp. y. elong.          ..      ......  1835 D.S.S.



   _Systematic        English           Form of
   Name.              Name.             Stems, &c._
   Gilliésii          Gillies's         stm. s. glo. obo. rib. 13
   formósus H. ang.   handsome          ov. cyl. ri. 14-16
   *theléphorus       nipple-bear.      st. glo. ribs 14
   gladiátus DC.      sword-sp.         st. glo. ri. 14-22

   _Systematic      No. and Colour of      Col. of Native   Year of
   Name.            Spines.                Flower. Country. Introduc._
   Gilliésii        sp. 20 transp.          ..     Mexico   1830 D.S.S.
   formósus H. ang. sp. 15-18. re. br.      ..     ------   .... D.S.S.
   *theléphorus     sp. 12-15 ye. br.       ..     ......   1834 D.S.S.
   gladiátus DC.    sp. 10. centr .3 elon.  ..     ......   1836 D.S.S.



   _Systematic        English           Form of
   Name.              Name.             Stems, &c._
   exsculptus Ott.    exsculpted        ribs 16.
   *Anconiánus        Anconian          ribs 16.
   *spinosíssimus     many-sp.          ribs 14-15.
   *echinátus         hedge-hog. lik.   ribs 19.
   *oxyacánthus       sharp-sp.         ribs 16.
   *cylíndricus       cylindrical       ribs 12. 18.

   _Systematic     No. and Colour of      Col. of  Native   Year of
   Name.           Spines.                Flower.  Country. Introduc._
   exsculptus      sp. dense ye. apex      ..      ......   1836 D.S.S.
   Ott.            br.
   *Anconiánus     sp. ext. wh. cent. 4.   ..      Ancona   1834 D.S.S.
                   dk. br.
   *spinosíssimus  sp. ext. wh. c. 7-8.    ..      ......   ---- D.S.S.
                   re. br. elon.
   *echinátus      sp. li. br. elong.      ..      Mexico   1830 D.S.S.
   *oxyacánthus    sp. ext. ye. cent.      ..      ......   ---- D.S.S.
                   9-10. re. br.
   *cylíndricus    sp. ext. wh. cent.      ..      Mexico   1836 D.S.S.
                   li. br.


   _Systematic        English           Form of
   Name.              Name.             Stems, &c._
   scòpa Ott.         broom.            stm. cyl.
     _spinis-albis_   _white-spined_

   _Systematic       No. and Colour of    Col. of Native   Year of
   Name.             Spines.              Flower. Country. Introduc._
   scòpa Ott.       sp. den. ex. wh. ct.   _ye._  Brazil   1826 D.S.S.
                    1-3. dk. pu.
  _spinis-albis_     .. .. .. ..           _ye._  ------   1836 D.S.S.

_CE'REUS. CE'REUS_. Cal. of many leaves, imbricated on an elongated tube,
exterior sepals short, the middle and inner ones coloured and
petal-like. Stam. numerous. Style filiform, the apex many parted. Berry
tuberculated, and scaly.


   _Systematic                 English           Form of
   Name.                       Name.             Stems, &c._
   oxygonus Ott.               furrowed          ribs 13-15.
   _Echin. sulcatus._ Hort
   Eyriesii Turp.              Eyries's.         ribs 16.
   _Echin. Eyriesi._
   turbinátus Pfr.             turbinated        ribs 16.
   _Echin. turbinatus_ Hort.
   multiplex Ott.              many-fold.        ribs 13.
   _Echin. multiplex_
   leucánthus Gill.            white             ribs 8-9.
   _Echin. ambiguus hort. Melocact. ambiguus._ Ht.
   tubiflórus Pfr.             tube-fld.         ribs 12.
   _Echin. tubiflorus_ Hort.

   _Systematic        No. and Colour of  Col. of   Native   Year of
   Name.              Spines.            Flower.   Country. Introduc._
   oxygonus Ott.      sp. ext. wh.        _pk._    Brazil   1829 D.S.S.
                      cent. br.
   _Echin. sulcatus._ Hort.
   Eyriesii Turp.     sp. bk. toment.    _wh. gr._ ......   ---- D.S.S.
   _Echin. Eyriesi._
   turbinátus Pfr.    sp. ext. wh.         ..      ......   1835 D.S.S.
                      cent. br.
   _Echin. turbinatus_ Hort.
   multiplex Ott.     sp. ye. apex       _ca. sc._ ......   1830 D.S.S.
   _Echin. multiplex_
   leucánthus Gill.   sp. br.            _wh. pu._ ......   ---- D.S.S.
   _Echin. ambiguus hort. Melocact. ambiguus._ Ht.
   tubiflórus Pfr.    sp. 7-9. ye.         _wh._   ......   ---- D.S.S.
                      ba & ap. bk.
   _Echin. tubiflorus_ Hort.

_Caule erecto subobovato._

   _Systematic        English           Form of
   Name.              Name.             Stems, &c._
   candicans          white             9-an. ribs obt.
   macracánthus       large-sp.         9-an. ribs obt.
   ochroleúcus        ochre-col.        12-an. r. obt.
   Chiloénsis Colla   Chil[oe]          10-an. r. obt.
     _fl.-luteo._    _yellow-flo._
   Chiloensóides      chilo.-like       10-an. r. obt.

   _Systematic      No. and Colour of   Col. of  Native   Year of
   Name.            Spines.             Flower.  Country. Introduc._
   candicans        sp. 12-15 br.         ..     ......   ---- D.S.S.
   macracánthus     sp. 12-14 br.         ..     ......   ---- D.S.S.
   ochroleúcus      sp. br. apex         _och._  ......   1835 D.S.S.
   Chiloénsis Colla sp. 12-16. ye.        ..     Chili    1825 D.S.S.
     _fl.-luteo._   _yellow-flo._        _ye._   ------   1835 D.S.S.
   Chiloensóides    sp. 10 br.            ..     ------   .... D.S.S.


   _Systematic        English           Form of
   Name.              Name.             Stems, &c._
   sénilis Haw.       grey-headed       ribs 20-25

   _Systematic     No. and Colour of   Col. of  Native   Year of
   Name.           Spines.             Flower.  Country. Introduc._
   sénilis Haw.    sp. elong. wh.      _re._    Mexico   1823 D.S.S.
                   hairs elon.

_Caule_ 9-11-_angulari erecto_.

   _Systematic          English           Form of
   Name.                Name.             Stems, &c._
   lanuginósus L.       woolly            9-ang. gl.
   Royéni Haw.          Royen's.          9-ang. glauc.
     _gloriosis_ Salm.

   _Systematic      No. and Colour of  Col. of  Native    Year of
   Name.            Spines.            Flower.  Country.  Introduc._
   lanuginósus L.   sp. ye.            _wh._    W. Indies 1699 D.S.S.
   Royéni Haw.      sp. slen.          _wh._    S. Amer.  1728 D.S.S.
                    ye. br.

_Caule_ 5-10-_angulari erecto_.

   _Systematic        English           Form of
   Name.              Name.             Stems, &c._
   albispínus Salm.   white sp.         9-10-an. r. obt
   crenulátus Salm.   crenulated        9-ang. cren.
   _gracilior_ Salm.  slender           9-10-ang.
   nígricans          dark              8-an. rib. den.
   níger Salm.        black             7-an. r. compr.
   Hawórthii D.C.     Haworth's         5-ang. r. obt.
   flavispínus Haw.   yellow-sp.        7-10-an. ri. ob.
   fulvispinósus Ha.  tawney-sp.        9-an. sulca.
   *Russelliánus      Duke of Bed.      6-7-ang. cren.

   _Systematic       No. and Colour of  Col. of  Native    Year of
   Name.             Spines.            Flower.  Country.  Introduc._
   albispínus Salm.  sp. wh. apex ye.     ..     S. Amer.  .... D.S.S.
   crenulátus Salm.  sp. wh. apex ye.     ..     W. Indies 1822 D.S.S.
   gracilior Salm.   sp. wh. apex bk.     ..     ......    1835 D.S.S.
   nígricans         sp. 10-12 br.        ..     ......    1835 D.S.S.
   níger Salm.       sp. 9-12 ye.         ..     S. Amer   .... D.S.S.
   Hawórthii D.C.    sp. 9-10 br.         ..     Caribees  1811 D.S.S.
   flavispínus Haw.  sp. 11-13 ye.        ..     W. Indies 1822 D.S.S.
   fulvispinósus Ha. sp. br. thick        ..     S. Amer.  1795 D.S.S.
   *Russelliánus     sp. bk. short.       ..     Demarara  1836 D.S.S.
                     cen. 1 ang.

_Caule_ 4-10-_angulari erecto_.

   _Systematic        English           Form of
   Name.              Name.             Stems, &c._
   Hystrix Salm.      porcupine         8-9-ang.
   stríctus W.        erect             8-9-an. rib. com.
   pellúcidus Ott.    pellucid          5-ang. r. com.
   Olférsii Ott.      Olfers's          9-ang. r. com.
   spinibárbis Ott.   bearded           9-10 ang. obt.
   undulátus Haw.     waved             4-ang. r. com.
   *nigrospínus       dark-sp.          7-ang. r. obt.
   *heteracánthus     va. col. sp.      4-5-ang.
   tortuósus          twisted           7-8 ang.
   affínis H. Berol.  allied            4-5-ang. r. ob.
   gemmátus Zucc.     gemmate           5-ang. r. rem.
   incrustátus                          5-ang.

   _Systematic       No. and Colour of   Col. of Native   Year of
   Name.             Spines.             Flower. Country. Introduc._
   Hystrix Salm.     sp. grey-apex bk.     ..    ......   1808 D.S.S.
   stríctus W.       sp. br. apex ye.      ..    S. Amer. 1822 D.S.S.
   pellúcidus Ott.   sp. br. apex ye.      ..    ......   1836 D.S.S.
   Olférsii Ott.     sp. br. ye.           ..    Brazils  1836 D.S.S.
   spinibárbis Ott.  sp. ex. 10-12 c.      ..    ......   ---- D.S.S.
                     1-3 el. a. b. w.
   undulátus Haw.    sp. 3-5. bk.         _wh._  China    1829 D.S.S.
   *nigrospínus      sp. 12-13 bk.         ..    B. Ayres 1836 D.S.S.
   *heteracánthus    sp. ex. 7. va. cen.   ..    -----    ---- D.S.S.
                     1 wh. ap. br.
   tortuósus         sp. 7-9 slen.         ..    -----    ---- D.S.S.
   affínis H. Berol. sp. 10-12 br.        _wh._  ......   .... D.S.S.
   gemmátus Zucc.    sp. short wh.         ..    ......   1835 D.S.S.
   incrustátus       sp. br. wh. slen.     ..    ......   ---- D.S.S.

_Caule_ 3-6-_angulari erecto_.

   _Systematic        English           Form of
   Name.              Name.             Stems, &c._
   glaúcus Salm.      glaucous.         4-an. r. com.
   Jamacáru Salm.     Jamacárus         4-5-a. r. com.
   *caésius           grey              6-an. r. acute
   grándis Haw.       great             4-ang.
   formósus           beautiful         6-ang. r. com.
   Peruviánus D.C.    Peruvian          6-8-ang.
     _hexagonus W. heptagonus_ Haw.
   monstròsus         monstrous         irreg-fur.
   ebúrneus Salm.     ivory             7-8-ang. r. obt.
   tetragónus Flaw.   four-ang.         4-an. r. remo.
   *amblygónus        obtus-rib.        7-an. gl. r. obt.

   _Systematic        No. and Colour of Col. of   Native   Year of
   Name.              Spines.           Flower.   Country. Introduc._
   glaúcus Salm.      sp. ext.           ..        Brazil   1835 D.S.S.
                      6-8 cent. 3
   Jamacáru Salm.     sp. ext. 7-9.     _wh._      -----    ---- D.S.S.
                      cent. 4. br. y.
   *caésius           sp. 13-14. apex    ..        ......   1836 D.S.S.
                      ye. bas. br.
   grándis Haw.       sp. 7-8 erect.   _wh. y._    Brazil   ---- D.S.S.
                      ye. & br.
   formósus           sp. 14-18. ye.    _wh._      S. Am.   1834 D.S.S.
   Peruviánus D.C.    sp. 7-8. br.     _wh. pk._   Peru     1728 D.S.S.
                      apex ye.
     _hexagonus W.
      heptagonus_ Haw.
   monstròsus         sp. br.          _re. wh._   S. Am.   1816 D.S.S.
   ebúrneus Salm.     sp. slen.                    ......   1818 D.S.S.
   tetragónus Flaw.   sp. 10-12 br.      ..        -----    1710 D.S.S.
   *amblygónus        sp. ext. 7-cent.   ..        B. Ayres 1836 D.S.S.
                      1 dk. br.

_Caule_ 3-6-_angulari erecto_.

   _Systematic        English           Form of
   Name.              Name.             Stems, &c._
   laetevirens Salm.  br. green         3-5 an. ribs com.
   obtùsus Haw.       obtuse            3-5 an. ribs ott.
   Pitahaya Jacq.     Pitahaya          3-ang.
   variábilis Ott.    variable          3-an. ribs com.
   pentagónus         five-ang.         5-ang.

   _Systematic       No. and Colour of Col. of   Native   Year of
   Name.             Spines.           Flower.   Country. Introduc._
   laetevirens Salm. sp. 6-9 br.         ..       ......   ---- D.S.S.
   obtùsus Haw.      sp. 6-8-br. ye.   _wh. gr._  ......   ---- D.S.S.

   Pitahaya Jacq.    sp. 7-9 erect       ..       Cartha.  ---- D.S.S.
                     ye. br.
   variábilis Ott.   sp. 6-8 br. ye.     ..       ......   1836 D.S.S.
   pentagónus        sp. wh. y.          ..       S. Am.   1769 D.S.S.


   _Systematic        English           Form of
   Name.              Name.             Stems, &c._
   Déppei Ott.        Deppi's           6-ang. ribs obt.
   propínquus Salm.   allied            5-ang. ribs obt.
   leptacánthus DC.   thin-spined       5-ang.

   _Systematic      No. and Colour of  Col. of  Native   Year of
   Name.            Spines.            Flower.  Country. Introduc._
   Déppei Ott.      sp. 8-9 wh.         ..      Mexico   1826 D.S.S.
   propínquus Salm. sp. 6-7 wh. ye.     ..      ......   ---- D.S.S.
   leptacánthus DC. sp. elon. wh. ye.   ..      ......   ---- D.S.S.
                    apex br.

_Caule_ 5-11-_angulari erecto_.

   _Systematic          English           Form of
   Name.                Name.             Stems, &c._
   repándus DC.          repand            8-9 an. rib. und.
     _aúreus_            _yellow-spined_
   subrepándus Haw.      subrepand         7-8 ang.
   c[oe]ruléscens Nob.   blue              8-9 ang. glau.
   *glaucéscens          glauces.          5-8 an. ribs obt.
   fimbriátus DC.        fimbriated        8-ang. ribs obt.
   erióphorus H. Berol.  woolly            8-ang. ribs obt.
   divaricátus DC.       divaricated       8-10 an. r. obt.
   serpentínus Haw.      serpentine        11-ang.

   _Systematic         No. and Colour of   Col. of  Native   Year of
   Name.               Spines.             Flower.  Country. Introduc._
   repándus DC.         sp. 8-9 wh.        _wh._    W. In.  1728 D.S.S.
                        & bk.
     _aúreus_                                       ......  1836 D.S.S.
   subrepándus Haw.     sp. 8-9 elon. br.   ..      Carib.  1811 D.S.S.
                        apex bk.
   c[oe]ruléscens Nob.  sp. elon. bk.       ..      Brazil  .... D.S.S.
                        jun. wh.
   *glaucéscens         sp. bk.             ..      B. Ayr. 1836 D.S.S.
   fimbriátus DC.       sp. 12-14 wh.       _w._    S. Dom. 1826 D.S.S.
                        apex bk.
   erióphorus H. Berol. sp. 8-10 wh.        _re._   ......  1835 D.S.S.
                        apex bk.
   divaricátus DC.      sp. 8-9 wh.         ..      ......  1826 D.S.S.
                        apex bk.
   serpentínus Haw.     sp. 10 slen. wh.  _pu. wh._ Peru    1817 D.S.S.
                        ap. br.


   _Systematic        English           Form of
   Name.              Name.             Stems, &c._
   multángularis Ha.  many-an.          stm. cycl.
     _spinis albis_   _whitespined_
   myriophyllus       myriad-led.       stm. cyl. spotted
   strigósus Gill.    strigose          stm. cyl. 14-a. n. s.
   myriacánthus       myriad-sp.        stm. cy. 14-15-a.
   spinósus Hitch.    spiny             st. erect. c. 14-16 a.
   *Bonariensis       Bu. Ayres         st. erect. 11-14-a.
   *tenuátus          slender-sp.       stm. erect 18-ang.

   _Systematic        No. and Colour of  Col. of  Native   Year of
   Name.              Spines.            Flower.  Country. Introduc._
   multángularis Ha.  sp. dense            ..     S. Am.   1815 D.S.S.
                      ye. br.
     _spinis albis_                               ......   ---- D.S.S.
   myriophyllus       sp. ye. br.          ..     ......   ---- D.S.S.
   strigósus Gill.    sp. wh. br.          ..     ......   ---- D.S.S.
   myriacánthus       sp.1-1/2-inch        ..     Chili    ---- D.S.S.
                      long br.
   spinósus Hitch.    sp. ye. br.          ..     ......   ---- D.S.S.
   *Bonariensis       sp. ye. red at       ..     B. Ayr.  1836 D.S.S.
   *tenuátus          sp. ext. 7. re. ye.  ..     ......   ---- D.S.S.
                      br. c. 1


   _Systematic         English        Form of
   Name.               Name.          Stems, &c._
   flagellifórmis Haw. rod-shaped     10-an. tuberc-c.
     _minor_           _smaller_
   *costatus           ribbed         8-9 ang.
   flagrifórmis Zucc.  whip-sh.       8-ang. tuburc. not so
                                      crowded as in last
   Martiánus           Martins's      10-ang. tuberc.
   leptóphis DC.       thin serpent   6-7-an. t. remote
   Smithïi             Smith's        tuberc. none
   tenuissimus         very slender   4-5 ang.

   _Systematic         No. and Colour of   Col. of  Native   Year of
   Name.               Spines.             Flower.  Country. Introduc._
   flagellifórmis Haw. sp. br. ye.         _pk._    ......   1835 D.S.S.
     _minor_                                        ......   ---- D.S.S.
   *costatus           sp. slender white    ..      Peru     1690 D.S.S.
   flagrifórmis                                     ......   1834 D.S.S.
   Martiánus           sp. wh.             _pu._    ......   1835 D.S.S.
   leptóphis DC.       sp. wh. & ye.        ..      ......   ---- D.S.S.
   Smithïi             sp. br. ye.          ..      ......   ---- D.S.S.
   tenuissimus         sp. wh. slen.        ..      ......   ---- D.S.S.

_Caule_ 3-7-_angulari articulato_.

   _Systematic          English           Form of
   Name.                Name.             Stems, &c._
   rádicans DC.         rooting           4-5 ang.
   húmilis              dwarf             4-5 ang.
   grandiflòrus Haw.    long-fld.         6-7 ang.
   myriacaulon Mart.    myriad-st.        4-ang.
   nycticalius Lk.      night-beau.       4-5 ang.
   Schrankii Zun.       Schranks          4-5 ang.
   *arcuátus            arched            3-4 ang. sinu.
   Napoleónis Salm.     Napoleon's        3-4 ang.
   triangulàris L.      three-ang.        3-ang.
     _pictas_           _variegated_
   Lanceanus            Lance's           3-ang.
   speciosissimus       shewy             3-4 ang.
   prismáticus Salm.    prismatic         3-4 ang.
   trípterus Salm.      three-wing.       3-ang.
   tríqueter Haw.       three-sided       3-ang.
   exténsus Salm.       extended          3-ang.
   coccineus Salm.      scarlet           3-4 ang.
   setáceus Salm.       bristly           3-ang.
   setósus              setose            3-ang.
   ramósus Karw.        branching         3-ang.
   myosúrus Salm.       mouse-tail        3-dented-ang.
   quadrangularis Ha.   quadran.          3-4 ang.

   _Systematic       No. and Colour of   Col. of  Native   Year of
   Name.             Spines.             Flower.  Country. Introduc._
   rádicans DC.       sp. short dk. br.    ..     B. Ay.   1836 D.S.S.
   húmilis            sp. wh. slender      ..     S. Am.   1827 D.S.S.
   grandiflòrus Haw.  sp. wh. ye.       _ye. wh._ Jamai.   1700 D.S.S.
   myriacaulon Mart.                              ......   1835 D.S.S.
   nycticalius Lk.    sp. erect            ..     ......   1834 D.S.S.
                      slender wh.
   Schrankii Zun.     sp. 6-8 sh.          ..     ......   1835 D.S.S.
                      dk. br.
   *arcuátus          sp. 4 dk. br.       _wh._   ......   ---- D.S.S.
   Napoleónis Salm.   sp. 3 remote     _gr. wh._  ......   1834 D.S.S.
                      sh. br.
   triangulàris L.                                Mexico   1690 D.S.S.
     _pictas_                                     ......   ---- D.S.S.
   Lanceanus          sp. ye. wh.         _sc._   ......   1834 D.S.S.
                      & br.
   speciosissimus     sp. cent. 2-3        ..     Mexico   1816 D.S.S.
                      ye. erect
   prismáticus Salm.  sp. dark br.         ..     ......   1826 D.S.S.
   trípterus Salm.    sp. dk. br.          ..     ......   1827 D.S.S.
   tríqueter Haw.     sp. dk. br.          ..     S. Am.   1794 D.S.S.
   exténsus Salm.     sp. ext. w. sl.      ..     ......   1826 D.S.S.
                      c. 3-4 w. ye.
   coccineus Salm.    sp. ext. wh. sl.    _sc._   Brazil   1828 D.S.S.
                      cent. 4 ye.
   setáceus Salm.     sp. ext. w. slen.    ..     ......   ---- D.S.S.
                      cent. 1-3
   setósus            sp. br. setac.       ..     ......   1835 D.S.S.
   ramósus Karw.      sp. br. ye.          ..     ......   1836 D.S.S.
   myosúrus Salm.     wool-white           ..     ......   1828 D.S.S.
   quadrangularis Ha. sp. 5-7              ..     Amer.    1809 D.S.S.

_Epiphyllum Haw._

   _Systematic        English           Form of
   Name.              Name.             Stems, &c._
   Ackermánni Haw.    Ackerman's        br. elon. compr. serr. cyl.
                                        at base
   alátus             winged            br. obl. compr. crenate
   coccíneus          scarlet           br. compr. glau. crenate
   crispátus Haw.     curled            br. obl. compr. cren. invol.
   Hookéri            Sir W. Hooker's   br. comp. lin. lanc. sinuate
   phyllanthoídes DC. Phyllanthus-like  br. comp. sinuat. cyl. at base

   _Systematic        No. and Colour of  Col. of Native    Year of
   Name.              Spines.            Flower. Country.  Introduc._
   Ackermánni Haw.                       _sc._    Mexico  1830 D.S.S.
   alátus                              _wh. gr._  Jama.   1818 D.S.S.
   coccíneus                             _sc._    Brazil  1828 D.S.S.
   crispátus Haw.                        _pu._    Mexico  1826 D.S.S.
   Hookéri                               _wh._    S. Am.  ---- D.S.S.
   phyllanthoídes DC.                    _pk._    Mexico  1816 D.S.S.


   _Systematic     English           Form of
   Name.           Name.             Stems, &c._
   _aurantíacus_   _orange-coloured_    ..
   _ignéscens_     _fiery_              ..
   _Colvilli_      _Colvill's_
   _Jenkinsóni_    _Jenkinson's_        ..
   _Kiardi_        _Kiard's_            ..
   _Lóthi_         _Loth's_             ..
   _Mackoyi_       _Mackoy's_           ..
   _oxypétalus_    _sharp-petaled_      ..
   _Guillardieri_  _Guillardier's_      ..
   _Smíthii_       _Smith's_            ..
   _Vandésii_      _Vandes's_           ..
   rhómbeus Salm.  rhomboid           br. elong. comp. sinuated
   ramulósus Salm. branching          stm. cyl. bran. com. o. lan.
   truncátus       truncated          br. com. thin d. n. at apex
     _coccineus_   _scarlet_

   _Systematic      No. and Colour of   Col. of Native   Year of
   Name.            Spines.             Flower. Country. Introduc._
   _aurantíacus_    ..                  _or._    ......   ---- D.S.S.
   _ignéscens_      ..                  _sc._    ......   ---- D.S.S.
   _Colvilli_       ..
   _Jenkinsóni_     ..                  _sc._    ......   ---- D.S.S.
   _Kiardi_         ..                  _sc._    ......   ---- D.S.S.
   _Lóthi_          ..                  _sc._    ......   ---- D.S.S.
   _Mackoyi_        ..                  _sc._    ......   ---- D.S.S.
   _oxypétalus_     ..                  _sc._    ......   ---- D.S.S.
   _Guillardieri_   ..                  _sc._    ......   ---- D.S.S.
   _Smíthii_        ..                  _sc._    ......   ---- D.S.S.
   _Vandésii_       ..                  _sc._    ......   ---- D.S.S.
   rhómbeus Salm.                        ..      ......   1835 D.S.S.
   ramulósus Salm.                       ..      ......   ---- D.S.S.
   truncátus                            _sc._    Brazil   1818 D.S.S.
     _coccineus_                        _sc._    ......   ---- D.S.S.

_OPU'NTIA. OPU'NTIA_. Cal. of many leaves, united to the ovary, the
inner sepals petal-like obovate. Stamens shorter than petals. Style
cylind. constricted at the base. Stigma many erect thick. Berry ovate,
often spiny.


   _Systematic          English           Form of
   Name.                Name.             Stems, &c._
   cylindrica DC.       cylindrical       st. erect cyl. tuber.
   clavarióides         batoon-like       stm. erect cyl.
   decípiens DC.        deceptive         stm. erect gl. r.
   imbricáta DC.        imbricated        tuber. imbricated
   Kleini DC.           Klein's           st. erect tuber. r.
   leptocáulis DC.      thin-stem.        st. erect ramose
   ramulífera Nob.      branching         stm. erect
   tunicàta             tunicated         stm. ramose
   pubescens Wend.      pubescens         stm. erect slend.
   virgata              twiggy            st. erect ramose

   _Systematic     No. and Colour of     Col. of Native   Year of
   Name.           Spines.               Flower. Country. Introduc._
   cylindrica DC.  sp. wh. hairy          ..     Peru     1799 D.S.S.
   clavarióides    sp. wh. setac.         ..     ......   1836 D.S.S.
   decípiens DC.   sp. wh. ye. elong.     ..     ......   1835 D.S.S.
   imbricáta DC.   sp. 5-7 wh.            ..     ......   1826 D.S.S.
   Kleini DC.      sp. li. br. elong.     ..     ......   1836 D.S.S.
   leptocáulis DC. sp. small br.          ..     ......   ---- D.S.S.
   ramulífera Nob. sp. br. ye. arcol.     ..     Mexico   ---- D.S.S.
   tunicàta        sp. 5-6 wh. & pk.      ..     ......   ---- D.S.S.
   pubescens Wend. sp. wh. apex br.       ..     ......   1836 D.S.S.
   virgata         sp. li. br. elong.     ..     ......   ---- D.S.S.

_Caule articulato, et articulis subcylindraceis._

   _Systematic          English           Form of
   Name.                Name.             Stems, &c._
   articuláta Ott.      jointed           st. erect ramose
   alpína Gill.         Alpine            stm. ramose br.
   stapélia DC.         stapelia          stm. ramose
   corrugáta Gill.      corrugated        br. erect cy. com.
   dichotoma            forked            joints cyl. elong.
   curassávica How.     Curassa           joints. cyl. com.
     _elongáta_         _elongated_
   andícola                               joints cyl.
   foliósa Haw.         leafy             jnts. comp. ramos.
   fragilis Nut.        brittle           joints cyl. obl.
   glomeráta Haw.       glomerated        joints cyl.
   exténsa              extended          joints cyl.
   horizontális Ott.    horizontal        jnts. cyl. ramose
   platyacántha         flat-spined       joints cycl. ov.
   pusílla Haw.         dwarf             jnts. divar. cyl.
   sulphúrea Gill.      sulphur-fld.      joints erect
   aurantiáca           orange-col.       jnts. com. elon.
   missouriénsis DC.    Missouri          joints com. ob. o.
   media Haw.           intermediat.      jnts. cyl. elong.
   attulica                               jnts. elon. cyl.
   Sabíni               Sabine's          jnts. com. obov.
   ciliósa              ciliated          jnts. com. glau.

   _Systematic       No. and Colour of    Col. of   Native   Year of
   Name.             Spines.              Flower.   Country. Introduc._
   articuláta Ott.   sp. 1-wh. pelluc.      ..      ......   ---- D.S.S.
   alpína Gill.      sp. wh. recurv.        ..      ......   ---- D.S.S.
   stapélia DC.      sp. 4-6 wh.            ..      ......   ---- D.S.S.
   corrugáta Gill.   sp. wh. apex br.       ..      Chili    1824 D.S.S.
   dichotoma         sp. br. apex wh.       ..      B. Ayr.  1836 D.S.S.
   curassávica How.  sp. 1-4 ye. wh.        ..      Curas.   1690 D.S.S.
     _elongáta_                                     ......   ---- D.S.S.
   andícola          sp. wh. elong.         ..      ......   ---- D.S.S.
   foliósa Haw.      sp. 1-2 elong. wh.   _ye._     S. Am.   1805 D.S.S.
   fragilis Nut.     sp. wh. slend.         ..      N. Am.   1814 D.S.S.
   glomeráta Haw.    sp. flat               ..      ......   ---- D.S.S.
   exténsa           sp. wh. apex br.     _li. ye._ ......   ---- D.S.S.
   horizontális Ott. sp. wh. elong.         ..      ......   ---- D.S.S.
   platyacántha      sp. wh. elong.       _ye._     ......   ---- D.S.S.
                     apex bk.
   pusílla Haw.      sp. 1-2 twisted      _ye._     S. Am.   1826 D.S.S.
   sulphúrea Gill.   sp. twist. ap.         ..      Chili    1827 D.S.S.
   aurantiáca        sp. 3-5 br. ap.      _ye._     ......   ---- D.S.S.
                      wh. y.
   missouriénsis DC. sp. br. & wh.        _ye._     Missou.  ---- D.S.S.
   media Haw.        sp. wh. recurv.        ..      N. Am.   ---- D.S.S.
   attulica          sp. wh. ye.            ..      ......   ---- D.S.S.
                     tomen. br.
   Sabíni            sp. wh. deflex.        ..      ......   ---- D.S.S.
   ciliósa           sp. ye. br.            ..      ......   ---- D.S.S.

_articulis oblongis._

   _Systematic         English           Form of
   Name.               Name.             Stems, &c._
   spinosíssima Haw.   very-spiny        joints obl.
   dolabríformis       hatchet-fd.       jnts. obl. dk. gr.
   leucacántha Ott.    white-spin.       jnts. erect obl.
   calacántha Ott.     pretty-spin.      joints obl.
     _rúbra_           _red-sp._
   leucotríche DC.     white-hairy       jnts. erect obl.
   senílis Parm.       grey              jnts. obov. obl.
   longíssima          longest           jnts. obl. obov.
   polyántha DC.       many-fld.         joints obov.
   polyacántha Haw.    many-sp.          joints obov.
   megacántha Nob.     large-sp.         joints obov. glau.
   albicáns Nob.       white-sp.         jnts. obov. gl. obl.
   triacántha Haw.     three-sp.         joints obov. obl.
   nígricans Haw.      dark              joints obl. sp.
   húmilis Flaw.       dwarf             jnts. obov. obl.
   lasiacántha         woolly-sp.        jnts. obov. glau.
   Dillenii Haw.       Dillenius's       jnts. obov. gl. und.

   _Systematic        No. and Colour of   Col. of Native   Year of
   Name.              Spines.             Flower. Country. Introduc._
   spinosíssima Haw.  sp. elong. ye.       ..     Jama.    1732 D.S.S.
   dolabríformis      sp. wh. ye.          ..     ......   1835 D.S.S.
   leucacántha Ott.   sp. wh. setac.      _wh._   S. Ame.  ---- D.S.S.
   calacántha Ott.    sp. 5-7 wh. ye.      ..     ......   1836 D.S.S.
     _rúbra_                                      ......   ---- D.S.S.
   leucotríche DC.    sp. flex. wh.        ..     Mexico   ---- D.S.S.
   senílis Parm.      sp. elon. wh.        ..     ......   1837 D.S.S.
                      hairs wh.
   longíssima         sp. ye. elon.        ..     ......   1835 D.S.S.
   polyántha DC.      sp. ye. setac. ye.   ..     S. Am.   1811 D.S.S.
   polyacántha Haw.   sp. 3-4 wk. ye.      ..     N. Am.   1814 D.S.S.
   megacántha Nob.    sp. 3-5 long ones    ..     Mexico   1835 D.S.S.
   albicáns Nob.      sp. wh. ye.          ..     ......   ---- D.S.S.
   triacántha Haw.    sp. wh.              ..     S. Am.   1795 D.S.S.
   nígricans Haw.     sp. 3-5 ro. br.      ..     ......   ---- D.S.S.
                      bk. ap. ye.
   húmilis Flaw.      sp. ye.              ..     ......   ---- D.S.S.
   lasiacántha        sp. 1-4 wh. apex     ..     ......   ---- D.S.S.
   Dillenii Haw.      sp. ye.              ..     S. Am.   1810 D.S.S.


   _Systematic         English            Form of
   Name.               Name.              Stems, &c._
   microdasys  Lehm.   small-hairy        joints obov.
     _minor_           _O. pulvinata_ DC.
   parvúla Nob.        small              joints ellip. ob. glau.
   strícta Haw.        upright            joints obl. obov.
   tuberculáta Haw.    tubercled          joints obov.
   vulgáris Haw.       common             joints ov.
     _major_           _larger_
   italica             Italian            joints obov. obl.
   glaúca              glaucous           joints erect obov.
   decúmbens Salm.     decumbent          joints obov. compr.
     _irrorata_        _H. Ber._
   cochenillífera Haw. cochineal Fi.      joints obov. obl.
   lanceoláta Haw.     lanceolat          jnts. obov. lanc.
   rubéscens Salm.     rubescent          joints elon. red-gr.
   tomentósa Lk.       hairy              joints lanc. comp.
   Mexicána            Mexican            joints obl. lanc. elon.
   eláta Ott.          tall               jnts. er. ob. la. a. re.
   Salmii              SalmDyck's         jnts. obov. ob. gl.
   decumána Haw.       great-ob.          jnts. ov. obl. gl.
   candelabrifórmis    candlestick-fd.    jnts. obov. ott.
   grandis             great              jnts. ellip. ob. gl.
   Americana           American           jnts. ellip. glau.
   Amcylcea DC.        Neapolitan         jnts. ob. ellip. c.
   Tuna Haw.           Tuna               jnts. ov. obl.
   Ficus Indica        Indian Fig.        joints obl.
   crassa Haw.         thick-lobed        joints obov. obl.
   Bonplandi           Bonpland's         jnts. obov. orb.
   horrida Salm.       horrid             jnts. ob. repand.
   Pseudo Tuna Salm.   False Tuna         joints obov.
   longispina Haw.     long-spin.         jnts. ellip. ob. li. gy.
   Hitchenii           Hitchin's          jnts. ob. ellip. gl.
   Parote?                                jnts. obov. glau.
   spinulifera Salm.   small-spin.        joints obov.
   dejecta Nob.        dejected           joints obl. elon.
   monacantha Haw.     single-sp.         jnts. obl. obov.
   flexibilis          flexibile          jnts. ob. orb. gl.
   sericea G. Dom.     silky              jnts. obov. glau.

   _Systematic         No. and Colour of    Col. of Native   Year of
   Name.               Spines.              Flower. Country. Introduc._
   microdasys Lehm.    ye. setac. dense     ..      ......  ---- D.S.S.
   parvúla Nob.        setac. br.            ..     Chili   1835 D.S.S.
   strícta Haw.        setac. ye.           _ye._   S. Am.  1796 D.S.S.
   tuberculáta Haw.    setac. why. ye.      ..      ......  ---- D.S.S.
   vulgáris Haw.       stm. creep. setac.   _ye._   S. Eur. 1596 D.S.S.
                       re. br.
   italica             setac. short ye.     _ye._   ......  1835 D.S.S.
   glaúca              sp. ye. ap. br.        ..    ......  ---- D.S.S.
   decúmbens           arcol. dk. gr.         ..    Mexico  1835 D.S.S.
   cochenillífera Haw. nearly unarmed       _pk._   S. Am.  1688 D.S.S.
   lanceoláta Haw.     sp. ye. short.       _ye._   ......  1796 D.S.S.
                       setac. ye.
   rubéscens Salm.     red-gr. setac. wh.    ..     Brazils 1828 D.S.S.
   tomentósa Lk.       sp. wh setac. ye.    _yo._   S. Am.  1820 D.S.S.
   Mexicána            setac. wh.            ..     Mexico  1835 D.S.S.
   eláta Ott.          sp. 1-wh.             ..     S. Am.  1731 D.S.S.
   Salmii              sp. 2-4 wh. setac.    ..     ......  1835 D.S.S.
   decumána Haw.       sp. wh.  setac.       ..     ......  1768 D.S.S.
   candelabrifórmis    sp. 1-3 wh. setac.    ..     ......  1835 D.S.S.
   grandis             sp. 1-wh. setac.      ..     ......  ---- D.S.S.
   Americana           sp. 1-wh. setac.      ..     Amer.   ---- D.S.S.
   Amcylcea DC.        sp. wh.               ..     Naples  1825 D.S.S.
   Tuna Haw.           sp. elon. ye.        _ye._   S. Am.  1731 D.S.S.
   Ficus Indica        sp. setac.           _ye._   ......  ---- D.S.S.
   crassa Haw.         glau. setac. ye.     _ye._   Mexico  1811 D.S.S.
   Bonplandi           sp. 2-5 ye.           ..     ......  ---- D.S.S.
   horrida Salm.       sp. ye.              _ye._   S. Am.  ---- D.S.S.
   Pseudo Tuna Salm.   sp. br. ye.          _ye._   ......  ---- D.S.S.
   longispina Haw.     sp. 1-2 elon. gr.     ..     Brazil  1825 D.S.S.
   Hitchenii           sp. 1-3 elon. ye.     ..     ......  ---- D.S.S.
   Parote?             sp. 2-3 wh. ye.       ..     ......  ---- D.S.S.
   spinulifera Salm.   sp. deflex. wh. ye.   ..     Mexico  1836 D.S.S.
   dejecta Nob.        sp. 1-3 br. ye.      _ye._   Havan.  ---- D.S.S.
   monacantha Haw.     sp. 1-2 br. ye.       ..     S. Am.  ---- D.S.S.
   flexibilis          sp. 1-ye.             ..     ......  1836 D.S.S.
   sericea G. Dom.     sp. ye. setac. re.   _ye._   Chili   1827 D.S.S.


   _Systematic          English            Form of
   Name.                Name.              Stems, &c._
   Braziliénsis         Brazil             jnts. com. fl. ov.
     _tenuifolia_        _slender-leaved_

   _Systematic      No. and Colour of    Col. of Native   Year of
   Name.            Spines.              Flower. Country. Introduc._
   Braziliénsis       sp. 1-3 strong.    _ye._   Brazils  1816 D.S.S.

_PERE'SKIA. PERE'SKIA._ Cal. many-leaved united to the ovary. Cor.
rotate. Style filiform. Stigma aggreg. Berry globose.

   _Systematic          English           Form of
   Name.                Name.             Stems, &c._
   aculeáta Haw.        prickly           los. ellip. acum. ent. smth.
   Bleo                 Bleo              obl. acum. ent. base attenu.
   grandifólia Haw.     large-leaved      obl. la. dott. ben.
   grandispína          large-spin.       ellip. ent.
   portulacaefólia      Purslan-ld.       obov. cuneat.

   _Systematic      No. and Colour of  Col. of  Native   Year of
   Name.            Spines.            Flower.  Country. Introduc._
   aculeáta Haw.                       _wh._    W. Ind.   1696 D.S.S.
   Bleo                                _wh._    ......    ---- D.S.S.
   grandifólia Haw. sp. elon. bk.      _wh._    Brazil    1818 D.S.S.
   grandispína      sp. in clust.      _wh._    ......    ---- D.S.S.
                    elon. bk.
   portulacaefólia  sp. bk. 1/2-inch   _wh._    W. Ind.   1820 D.S.S.

_RHIPSA'LIS. RHIPSA'LIS._ Cal. 3-6 parted, very short, the teeth
acuminated. Petals 6 oblong. Stam. 12-18. Style filiform: stig. 3-6.

   _Systematic          English          Form of
   Name.                Name.            Stems, &c._
   spathuláta Ott.      spathulated      stm. cyl.
   fasciculáris Haw.    fascicled        br. cyl. jnts. nearly an inch
     _parasitica Salm._
   mesembryanthoídes    Mesembry-like    br. erect cyl. jnts. crowd.
   pendula Salm.        pendulous        br. vertic. pend. cyl. elong.
   pentaptéra Ott.      five-winged      stm. erect 5-ang. smth. dent.
   salicornóides Haw.   Salt-wort-like   joints erect short obov. cyl.
   grandiflóra Haw.     large-fld.       br. cyl. smth. jnts. obl.
   calamifórmis         reed-shaped      br. erect vertic. cyl. smth.

   _Systematic          No. and Colour of  Col. of Native   Year of
   Name.                Spines.            Flower. Country. Introduc._
   spathuláta Ott.      sp. wh. br.         ..     ......   1836 D.S.S.
   fasciculáris Haw.                        ..     ......   1800 D.S.S.
     _parasitica Salm._
   mesembryanthoídes                       _wh._   ......   1818 D.S.S.
   pendula Salm.                           _wh._   ......   ---- D.S.S.
   pentaptéra Ott.                         _wh._   ......   1836 D.S.S.
   salicornóides Haw.                      _ye._   ......   1818 D.S.S.
   grandiflóra Haw.                        _wh._   S. Am.   1816 D.S.S.
   calamifórmis                             ..     ......   1836 D.S.S.

The following species of Cacteæ are daily expected from Germany, but
whether they will prove distinct from those in the preceding pages, I am
unable to determine until the plants arrive at Woburn Abbey.

   eriacántha _flore albo_
   sp. colúmbia
   Caput Medúsæ

   ---- _spinis albis_
   ---- _spinis fuscis_
   ---- _spinis longis_

   multiplex flore rubro
   spina Christi

   ---- _gemmatus_
   truncàtus _Altensteinii_




Those kinds marked thus (*) were sent here, as new and undescribed
species, I have therefore designated them by these names, until I can
ascertain correctly whether they have been previously named or not.


   Aremberg, Duke de                    102, 127
   Aix-la-Chapelle                            95
   Antwerp                                   115
   ---- Botanic Garden                       117
   Augsburg                                   73
   Baden                                      72
   Beaufforts, Count de                      110
   Bel[oe]il                                 100
   Berlin                                     15
   ---- Botanic Gardens                       15
   Blankanese                                  5
   Bonn                                       88
   ---- Botanic Gardens                       89
   Boursoult's, M. Garden                    137
   Brussells                                 105
   ---- Botanic Garden                       123
   Carlshrue                                  74
   Cels', M. Nursery                         140
   Charlottenberg Palace Gardens              17
   Cologne                                    95
   Darmsdadt                                  81
   Dieppe                                    143
   Dresden                                    41
   ---- Botanic Garden                        41
   Dusseldorf                                 92
   Enghien                              102, 127
   Esling, Prince de                         133
   Flottbeck Nursery                           3
   Frankfort                                  82
   ---- Botanic Gardens                       84
   Ghent                                     112
   ---- Botanic Garden                        41
   ---- Nurseries                       112, 113
   Hamburgh                                    3
   ---- Botanic Gardens                        7
   Heidelberg                                 76
   Hohenheim                                  70
   Hoogart's, Baron de                       109
   Jardin des Plantes                        130
   Lacken Palace                             107
   Liege                                      96
   ---- Botanic Garden                        98
   Ligne's, Prince de, Gardens               100
   Louvain                                   125
   ---- Botanic Gardens                      126
   Luxemburg Gardens                         137
   Mackoy's Nursery                           97
   Maen's, M., Nursery                       117
   Malines                                   122
   Montemartre                               137
   Mayence                                    87
   Montreuil Peach Gardens                   138
   Munich                                     51
   ---- Botanic Gardens                       52
   Namur                                      98
   Noisette's Nursery                        132
   Nuremberg                                  48
   Nymphenburg                                54
   Paris                                     129
   Parmentier's Nursery                      104
   Pêre la Chaise                            138
   Pfauen Insel or Peacock Island             33
   Potsdam                                    23
   Prevost's, M., Nursery                    142
   Rhine                                      88
   Rosenstein Palace                          68
   Rouen                                     141
   ---- Botanic Garden                       142
   Salm-Dyck's, Prince, Gardens               92
   Sans-souci                                 23
   Schwetzingen                               77
   Smetz', Madame, Garden                    119
   Stuttgard                                  66
   ---- Botanic Gardens                       66
   Vallet's, M., Nursery                     142
   Vitry Nurseries                           139
   Valenciennes                              128
   Vandermaelin, M. J. F.                    122
   Van Mons, Professor                       126
   Versailles                                134



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       *       *       *       *       *


In Octavo, 2_s._

THOUGHTS upon the PRINCIPLES of BANKS, and the Wisdom of Legislative

     "The late multiplication of banking companies in both parts of the
     United Kingdom, an event by which many people have been much
     alarmed, instead of diminishing, increases the security of the
     public."--_Adam Smith_.

       *       *       *       *       *

Third Edition. With the late PRESSURE on the MONEY MARKET, 2_s._ 6_d._

an Account of the late Pressure in the Money Market, and Embarrassment
of the Northern and Central Bank of England. By T. JOPLIN. Third

     This pamphlet was recommended to the attention of the House by the
     Chancellor of the Exchequer, in his speech of the 6th instant, as
     follows:--"Before I sit down, I am anxious to call the attention of
     the House to a very interesting document which I hold in my hand.
     It is published to the world in the shape of a Commentary on the
     Report of the Committee which had sat upon this subject last
     session," &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

Second Edition. Price 2_s._ 6_d._

SPEECH of WILLIAM CLAY, Esq., M.P., on moving for the appointment of a
Committee to inquire into the Operation of the Act permitting the
Establishment of JOINT-STOCK BANKS; to which are added, Reflections on
Limited Liability, Paid-up Capital, and Publicity of Accounts, as
applied to such Associations: with some Remarks on an Article on
Joint-Stock Companies, in the last Number of the _Edinburgh Review_.

     "We are thus particular in enumerating the contents of this
     well-timed publication, because we are desirous that it should be
     referred to by such of our readers as feel particular interest in
     monetary affairs, at the earliest moment."--_Constitutional, Oct_.

       *       *       *       *       *

August 20, 1836. Price 6_d._

       *       *       *       *       *


COMMONS, in 1832, on the Renewal of the BANK of ENGLAND CHARTER;
arranged, together with the Tables, under proper heads, with Strictures,
&c. By THOMAS JOPLIN. 1 vol. 8vo. 14_s._

     "Thus the Report is not only much abridged, without the omission of
     any essential fact, but it is reduced to a methodical form, and
     rendered of easy reference."--_Times, March_ 25.

       *       *       *       *       *

REFLECTIONS on the APPROACHING CRISIS, Silver Standard, and Local
Acceptances. By a MAN OF STRAW. 6_d._

        *       *       *       *       *


Growth of Joint-Stock Banking in England, &c. By THOMAS JOPLIN. 8_s._

     "It contains such a masterly exposition of the Currency Question,
     in all its shapes and bearings, and is conveyed to the reader in so
     comprehensive a form, that the task of perusing it is anything but
     that which is generally apprehended by those who are desirous of
     perfectly understanding this important subject."--_Mark Lane

       *       *       *       *       *

The CURRENCY QUESTION in a Nut Shell. 4_d._

       *       *       *       *       *

AN ARGUMENT against the GOLD STANDARD; with an Examination of the
Principles of the Modern Economists--Theory of Rent--Corn Laws, &c. &c.
Addressed to the Landlords of England. By D. G. LUBÈ, M.A. Trinity
College, Dublin, and of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister at Law. 5_s._ boards.

     "Money is an universal commodity, and as necessary to Trade as food
     is to life."--_Locke_.

       *       *       *       *       *

PAPER MONEY, BANKING, and OVER TRADING; with the Scotch System of
Banking explained. By the Right Hon. Sir HENRY PARNELL, Bart. M.P. New
Edition. 5_s._ 6_d._ boards.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE POWER of the BANK of ENGLAND, and the Use it has made of it; with a
Refutation of the Objections made to the Scotch System of Banking; and a
Reply to the "Historical Sketch of the Bank of England." Second Edition.
2_s._ 6_d._

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

Barrister-at-Law. 8vo. 15_s._ cloth.

     "A truly able and useful work."--_Morning Herald_.

     "A work of much skill and merit, coupled with great labour and
     research."--_Gentleman's Magazine_.

       *       *       *       *       *

CORN and CURRENCY; in an Address to the Landowners. By the Right Hon.
Sir JAMES GRAHAM, Bart. M.P. New Edition. 4_s._ 6_d._

       *       *       *       *       *

LAWS. New Editions. 1_s._ 6_d._

        *       *       *       *       *


A COMPENDIUM of the LAWS passed from time to time for regulating and
restricting the Importation, Exportation, and Consumption of Foreign
Corn, from 1660; and a series of Accounts, from the date of the earliest
Official Records, showing the operation of the several Statutes, the
Average Prices of Corn, &c. &c. Presenting a complete View of the Corn
Trade of Great Britain, compiled from Public Documents, and brought down
to the present time. Fifth Edition. 5_s._

       *       *       *       *       *

FREE TRADE in CORN, the Real Interest of the Landlord, and the True
Policy of the State. By a CUMBERLAND LAND-OWNER. Second Edition. 2_s._

       *       *       *       *       *

IMPORTATION of FOREIGN CORN; with Observations on the Present Social and
Political Prospects of Great Britain. By JOHN BARTON. 3_s._ 6_d._

       *       *       *       *       *

     Key to Agricultural Prosperity. In 229 closely printed 8vo. pages.
     Price 3_s._ 6_d._

STATE and PROSPECTS of BRITISH AGRICULTURE; being a Compendium of the
Evidence given before a Committee of the House of Commons, appointed in
1836, to inquire into Agricultural Distress. With a few Introductory
Observations. By a MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT.

     "We can confidently recommend this publication to our readers as a
     most useful compendium of the Evidence, much of it highly curious,
     taken before the Agricultural Committee; and we trust it will be
     extensively circulated throughout the country."--_Chronicle, March

       *       *       *       *       *

REMARKS on the PRESENT STATE of AGRICULTURE; in a Letter to his
Constituents. By CHARLES SHAW LEFEVRE, Esq., M.P., Chairman of the
Select Committee appointed to inquire into the State of Agriculture,
Session 1836. Eleventh Edition, 1_s._ 6_d._

     [***] An Edition is printed for purposes of general distribution,
     at 3_s._ per dozen, or 24_s._ per hundred.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Second Edition. 4_s._ cloth.

PRACTICAL FARMING AND GRAZING, with Observations on the Breeding and
Feeding of Sheep and Cattle; on Rents and Tithes; on the Maintenance and
Employment of Agricultural Labourers; on the Poor Law Amendment Act; and
on other subjects connected with Agriculture. By C. HILLYARD, Esq.
President of the Northamptonshire Farming and Grazing Society.

        *       *       *       *       *


With a Fine Portrait of an Italian Bull, by Thomas Landseer, 3_s._

Series) for April.


Mr. S. Taylor, on the manufacture of Beet-root Sugar in France. On the
use of Chalk as Manure--Mr. Donaldson's Observations on the causes which
retard the Advancement of Agriculture--On Gypsum as a Manure--Mr.
Towers, on the Improvement of Agriculture--Mr. Taylor, in Reply to Mr.
Donbavand--Extracts from the Diary of a late eminent Agriculturist--On
Manures, their Use and Composition--On Beet-Root Sugar--On Land
Draining--Mr. Gray, on the Statistic History of 1836--Liverpool
Agricultural Society's Third Annual Ploughing Match--Remarks on
the Management of an Essex Farm--Mr. Stent, on the Failure of
the Potato Crop--Two Months at Kilkee--Mr. Percivall, on the
Epidemics of 1836--Norfolk Quarterly Report--General Report for

     "The practical and inquiring farmer can have no better manual of
     reference than this useful publication, which treats on subjects
     connected with all the various branches of Agriculture."

     [***] A few complete sets of the first Series in 10 vols. have been
     perfected, and may now be had neatly half-bound, 17_s._ 6_d._ each

No. II. will be published on July 1, 1837.

       *       *       *       *       *


New Edition, in Two small Volumes, 12_s._

L. NEWNHAM COLLINGWOOD, Esq. F.R.S. Fifth Edition. In the Press.

     "The portrait of one English worthy more is now secured to
     posterity."--_Quarterly Review._

     "We do not know when we have met with so delightful a book as this,
     or one with which we are so well pleased with ourselves for being
     delighted. Its attraction consists almost entirely in its moral
     beauty."--_Edinburgh Review._

     "Having thus referred to Lord Collingwood's Life, I may be allowed
     to say that the publication of that volume is indeed a national
     good; it ought to be in every officer's cabin, and in every
     statesman's cabinet."--_Southey's Life of Lord Nelson_, New
     Edition, p. 348.

       *       *       *       *       *


revised by himself, with Memoirs of his Life; illustrated by a fine
Portrait, Fac-similes of his Hand Writing, a Plate exhibitive of his
mode of correcting and revising his Speeches, &c. in two important
passages in the celebrated one on Portugal. Six vols. 8vo. Third
Edition. £.3 12_s._

     The late Right Hon. W. Huskisson, in a Letter to the Editor,
     alluding to the Work, says, "It is a Work which is destined to
     convey to posterity the remains of his splendid talents as an
     orator--to exhibit his principles as a statesman--and to show with
     what energy and success he carried those principles into execution
     as a Minister of the Crown."

       *       *       *       *       *


In One Volume, 8vo. 7_s._ 6_d._ boards.

BROUGHAM, with a Brief Sketch of his LIFE.

     "The Memoir, which precedes these Selections, seems to be more
     complete than any we have hitherto met with, and contains many
     interesting particulars."--_Literary Guardian._

     "We have no doubt that the present will be a very acceptable Volume
     to a large class of readers."--_Examiner._

       *       *       *       *       *


the Bar, on subjects connected with the Liberty of the Press, and
against Constructive Treason. 5 vols. 8vo. 2_l._ 10_s._

     "We take the opinion of the country, and of every part of the world
     where the language is understood, to be that of the most unbounded
     admiration of these exquisite specimens of judicial oratory, and of
     great obligations to the Editor of the collection."--_Edin. Rev._
     Vol. XIX.

       *       *       *       *       *

PARLIAMENTARY MANUAL FOR THE YEAR 1837; containing the Present and Last
Parliaments, Authentic Results of the various Polls in England, Wales,
Scotland, and Ireland; and a Summary of the Act 2 William IV. cap 45, to
Amend the Representation of the People in England and Wales; Forms of
Lists and Notices, &c. Also a List of the Changes in Administration,
from the commencement of the present century; a summary Account of the
Duties of the great Officers of State; a Table of the duration of the
several Parliaments, from Henry VIII. to the present time; a List of
those places which formerly sent Members to Parliament; a List of the
Deaths of the principal Personages since 1799; and a complete Abstract
of the Election Laws. 3_s._ boards.

       *       *       *       *       *

The PEERAGE of the UNITED KINGDOM, with the ARMS of the PEERS. Published
annually, and Corrected to the latest period. 7_s._ 6_d._ bds.

       *       *       *       *       *

Published annually, and Corrected to the latest period. 7_s._ 6_d._

     [***] Possessors of old editions of Debrett's, and other Peerages
     or Baronetages, require only those Works to render them correct.

       *       *       *       *       *

     In a small Volume, 5_s._ 6_d._ cloth, or 6_s._ bound, gilt leaves.

THE COURT AND COUNTRY COMPANION, containing the most authentic TABLES of
PRECEDENCE among all British Ranks and Departments, both Male and
Female. Also, Directions for Epistolary Correspondence, with Forms of
Addresses, Memorials, and Petitions: together with Instructions for
Presentations at Court, and for attending Royal Levees and Drawing

     "Messrs. Ridgway and Sons have conferred an obligation upon the
     public by publishing their Court and Country Companion."--_Court

     "This little publication will be found to be of very great utility
     in the every day business of civilized life; as every one, of
     whatever rank in society she or he may be, may derive correctness
     and advantage in using it as a _vade mecum_."

       *       *       *       *       *


In One Volume, post 8vo. 427 pages, with two Plates, 7_s._

BERTRAND, M.D. &c. &c. &c.

     The above work, it is hoped, will prove to the general reader in
     this department of science what Dr. Lindley's "Ladies' Botany" is
     doing for that delightful pursuit.

     "'The Revolutions of the Globe,' by Dr. Bertrand, is one of the
     most agreeable we have met with. The object of the Author is to
     convey to the idlest and least learned reader an idea of the
     wonders of Geology. To accomplish his intention in a manner which
     requires the easiest, and admits with propriety of the most
     trifling mode of treatment, he addresses his nineteen letters to a
     lady. This matter consists of the striking facts of Geology, rather
     than of a view of the principles, or a statement of the evidence,
     on which they rest. His manner of discussion will be best shown by
     some specimens. The surface of the globe is not a new subject; yet
     see how interesting our author makes it."--_Spectator, January 31._

       *       *       *       *       *

Demonstrations both of the Fact and Period of the Mosaic Deluge, and of
its having been the only event of the kind that has ever occurred upon
the Earth; illustrated by numerous Wood-cuts, &c., executed in the best
manner, will be published early in May, in 1 vol. 8vo.

       *       *       *       *       *


     Second Edition, in 8vo. 8_s._ 6_d._ cloth boards.

CARTONENSIA; or an Historical and Critical Account of the Tapestries in
the Vatican; copied from the designs of Raphael of Urbino, and of such
of the Cartoons whence they were woven, as are now in preservation. With
Notes and Illustrations. To which are subjoined, Remarks on the Causes
which retard the progress of the higher departments of Paintings in this
country. By the Rev. W. GUNN, B.D. Second Edition, with Additions.

     "Mr. Gunn's commentary upon this beautiful production (the
     Nativity) is well written, and contains canons of criticism which
     we conceive to be in the most correct taste.... Indeed we would
     strongly recommend 'Cartonensia' to general attention. It bears
     about it all the marks of a liberal and accomplished mind,
     cordially devoted to the prosperity of the fine arts; and we trust
     that its criticisms, founded, as they generally are, in good sense,
     and always elegantly expressed, will exercise a salutary influence
     upon the public taste."--_Monthly Review._

     "In dismissing this work, we would recommend it most cordially to
     our friends. The artist will find much information, coupled with
     much admirable advice, in its pages, while the general reader will
     be amused with its details, and instructed by the remarks, both
     historical and theological, which he will meet with in perusing it.
     Mr. Gunn is a man of much critical acumen, softened down and
     polished by his gentlemanly feelings, and amiable spirit; and we
     think that few will arise from his book without sensations of
     gratitude for his labours in its compilation, and of satisfaction
     for the information he so pleasingly communicates."--_Arnold's
     Magazine of the Fine Arts_.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Mr. Forbes's new Work on Horticulture._

AND GROUNDS OF WOBURN ABBEY." In royal and demy 8vo.

        *       *       *       *       *


In 8vo. 6_s._ 6_d._, cloth boards.

the '_Life and Correspondence of Admiral Lord Collingwood._'

     "At any other time than the present, when the tide of literary
     taste is running against poetry of the severely heroic character,
     the appearance of such a work as 'Alfred the Great' would have
     excited a general interest, and ensured the author a high place
     among the writers of his country. * * * We may add that the
     interest of the poem never flags, and has the additional merit of
     keeping pace with the progress of the story from its commencement
     to its conclusion."--_New Monthly Mag., August 1._

       *       *       *       *       *

Illustrated by numerous Plates, coloured and plain, with a Treatise on
HYBRID VEGETABLES subjoined, may be certainly expected in the course of
the present month. 1 vol. royal 8vo. 1_l._ 5_s._; or coloured 1_l._

       *       *       *       *       *


Directions for ensuring Personal Safety during storms of Thunder and
Lightning; and for the right application of Conductors to Houses and
other Buildings. By JOHN LEIGH, Esq. Third Edition. With the
Instructions of the Humane Society.

     "The whole of the little tract being of that plain, sensible, and
     accurate character, as particularly to enlighten not only the
     ignorant peasant, but the public in general, as to the best
     ascertained means of escaping destruction, or damage, from thunder
     storms."--_Monthly Review, May 1._

       *       *       *       *       *

     Third Edition, with a Plate and two Diagrams. 1_s._ or 1_s._ 6_d._
     bound and gilt.

WHAT IS A COMET, PAPA? or, a familiar Description of Comets; more
particularly HALLEY'S COMET. To which is prefixed, a CONCISE

     "A timely question, answered after the German fashion, by telling
     plainly, 'all, how, and about it.' The first, a conversation among
     a family of clever children, the boy relating the leading truths of
     Astronomy to his sisters, while they are waiting the return of
     their parents: the second part is papa's own account of the passing
     Comet, in answer to the question which forms the title. Both are
     very well done, and the authoress deserves great credit for the
     thought and its realization."--_Atlas, August 28._

Also, by the same Author,

THE SOLAR ECLIPSE; or, The Two Almanacs; containing more Inquiries in
Astronomy. Plate and Diagrams, 1_s._; or 1_s._ 6_d._ bound and coloured.

     "Just the sort of book we love to put into the hands of young
     persons. It invites them to inquiry, and makes them laudably
     curious. There is in this little work much valuable information,
     both on the solar system and on Comets, which, just now, will be
     peculiarly attractive."--_London Journal._

     "There are editions on common paper which may be had for a trifle,
     and one of which should be in every family within the nation, where
     ignorance or children may be found. We cannot conceive of any means
     by which the majesty and power of the Almighty is to be so easily
     and forcibly impressed upon the uninformed mind, as by putting this
     little tract into the hands of such. That must be a heartless and
     wicked parent, who will not enjoy the earnestness and ingenuity of
     the thousand interrogatories that will thereafter be innocently
     proposed by the same inquirer."--_Monthly Review._

       *       *       *       *       *


In progressive Lessons; designed to give a secure and graceful seat on
Horseback; at the same time so effectually to form the Hand, that, in a
short time, perfect command of the Horse may be obtained. By EDWARD
STANLEY; with illustrative plates, 10_s._ bds.

     "But we have said enough of this Manual, and have only to add that
     it is a very sensible and judicious publication."--_Literary

       *       *       *       *       *


HORSE; with important Details applicable to bettering the Condition of
Horses in general. By R. DARVILL, V.S. to the Seventh Hussars.
Illustrated by plates. Vols. I. and II. 8vo. £1. 1_s._ each.

[***] The Third and concluding Volume is in the Press, and will shortly
be published, together with a Second Edition of _Vol. I_.

     "Never before was such a book written in any language, so replete
     with those minute but indispensable particulars of practice; and by
     a writer who has personally performed his part throughout the whole
     of the practice. This is the true book of reference for every stud
     and training groom, and every jockey."--Vide _Lawrence on the
     Horse_, p. 297; also, _The Sporting Magazine and British Farmer's

       *       *       *       *       *


Post Octavo, 8_s._ 6_d._

THE OAKLEIGH SHOOTING CODE; containing 222 chapters relative to shooting
Grouse, Partridges, Pheasants, &c. By THOMAS OAKLEIGH, Esq., with
numerous Notes. Edited by the Author of _Nights at Oakleigh Old Manor

     "We would advise all our sporting friends to buy this admirable
     digest, the first time they see it in any bookseller's shop;
     or--why--as well order it at once. It is the best thing of the kind
     extant."--_Chambers's Edinburgh Journal._

     "We have scarcely ever met with a volume containing so much light
     reading, and at the same time such a fund of instruction and
     practical advice to sportsmen, as the one now before us." * *
     _Wigan Gazette, Oct. 14._

     "Two hundred and twenty chapters of very useful hints."--_Atlas._

     "Since the publication of Daniel's _Rural Sports_ we have seen
     nothing worthy to be compared with the canons or the _Oakleigh
     Code_."--_Essex Mercury._

     "Containing such a mass of information relative to shooting, that
     it ought to be in every sportsman's hands. Who would not wish to
     spend a week at the ancient and hospitable hall of the worthy 'Tom
     Oakleigh?'"--_Chambers's Edinburgh Journal, Sept. 10._

     * * * "Timely, therefore, is the appearance of _Oakleigh Shooting
     Code_; a manual for the tyro, and a book of reference to the
     veteran sportsman, who, though he may sneer at 'book-shooting,' as
     old farmers do at 'book-farming,' may yet condescend to pick up
     some useful hints in its pages." * * "It bears internal evidence of
     being the production of a real sportsman--one who has gleaned his
     knowledge from experience, who tests the value of theory by
     practice, and who, to a scientific acquaintance with his subject
     adds a hearty enthusiasm for the sport."--_Spectator._

       *       *       *       *       *


CHARGE of the RECORDER to the GRAND JURY of the City of Worcester,
delivered at the last Epiphany Sessions. Published at the Request of the
Magistracy and Council of the City. 2_s._

       *       *       *       *       *

In 8vo. with an Illustrated Title, Price 15_s._ cloth boards.

LAOCOON; an Essay on the relative limits of Poetry and Painting;
translated from the Original German of GOTTHOLD EPHRAIM LESSING, by
WILLIAM ROSS, late Professor of Painting and Sculpture in the
Andersonian University, Glasgow.

     "We believe that this work is justly considered to have been
     Lessing's _coup d'essai_; and certainly, as translated by Mr. Ross,
     it is one of the most graceful and elegant pieces we ever perused.
     Its canons of criticism too, we cannot but feel, are the result of
     the profoundest reflection and most refined taste, being admirably
     calculated to enlighten the Critic, and to facilitate the studies
     of the Artist."--_Monthly Review._

     "A very elegant version of a beautiful critical essay, which has
     originated some of the finest views of Art."--_Literary Gazette._

     "Lessing, if still living, might feel cause to rejoice at the
     exhibition of his treatise in a dress so likely to preserve its
     value. The original notes show a refined taste and correct
     judgment."--_New Monthly Magazine, Sept. 1836._

       *       *       *       *       *

SKETCHES in GREECE and TURKEY, with the Present Condition & Future
Prospects of the Turkish Empire. 8vo. 9_s._ 6_d._

     "This is a charming Volume, for it embraces both the useful and the
     beautiful." * *--_Spectator._

       *       *       *       *       *

RECORD COMMISSION. Price 2_s._ 6_d._

inquire into the MANAGEMENT and AFFAIRS of the RECORD COMMISSION, with
Illustrative Notes; and Remarks on the Secretary's (C. P. Cooper)
attempted alteration of his Evidence.

       *       *       *       *       *

GREG, Esq. 3_s._

     This pamphlet contains a concise history of Factory Legislation
     down to the present time, with copious extracts from the Evidence
     and Reports of the Factory Commissioners of 1833, and from the
     various reports, to the Secretary of State, of the Factory
     Inspectors since that period. It enters fully into the argument of
     the comparative healthiness of factory employment, and into the
     policy of further curtailing the hours of labour. It contains also
     the most recent and authentic information respecting the progress
     of foreign manufactures--the quantity produced by the machinery in
     the continental and American cotton mills, compared with those of
     England; and it shows the precarious tenure on which the cotton
     manufacture of this country is at present held.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the Press. In Octavo, 3_s._ 6_d._

By B. D. WALSH, M.A., Fellow of Trinity College.

     Contents:--Introduction--The "_Must Not_" Argument against a
     Commission--The "_Need Not_" Argument--The University prior to the
     Colleges--The Hostels--Religious Tests not anciently exacted--The
     Office of Chancellor--The Senate--The College of Tribunes, called
     the "Capul," and their "Veto"--The Innovations and Usurpations of
     the Heads of Colleges upon the University, in the various offices
     of 1. High Steward; 2. Vice Chancellor; 3. The Proctors; 4. The
     Taxors; 5. Scrutators; 6. The Bedells; 7. The Guardians and
     Auditors of the Public Chest; 8. The Public Orator; 9. The
     Registry; 10. The Barnaby Lectures; 11. The M. P.'s University
     Lectures; System of Compulsory Lectures; Ancient Disputations;
     Modern Examinations; Degrees; Introduction of Modern Sciences into
     the Examinations; The Colleges; Their Tutors; Their Lecturers;
     Fellows; Compulsory Holy Order; Ridiculous Absurdities in Statutes,
     sworn to by all, &c. &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

FREE and SAFE GOVERNMENT, traced from the Origin and Principles of the
British Constitution. By a CUMBERLAND LAND-OWNER, Author of
_Free Trade in Corn, &c._ 1 vol. 8_s._ bds.

       *       *       *       *       *

PARENT. Fifth Edition. 1_s._

       *       *       *       *       *


SHRUBBERY. Publishing the first of every month, price 4_s._

Each Number contains eight finely-coloured Portraits, from life, of the
handsomest Flowering Plants and Shrubs grown in this country,
accompanied by their History, Treatment in Cultivation, Propagation, &c.

No. V. of Vol. X., New Series, was published May 1, 1837.

The previous Volumes may be had separately, £.2 9_s._ each.

[***] All the Numbers which were out of print are now re-printed.

     "This Series, placed under the superintendence of Professor
     Lindley, comes forth with increased splendour of illustration, and
     increased accuracy of description. The present number contains many
     plants and shrubs, of extreme beauty, delineated and coloured, so
     as almost to rival the tints of nature, and bestow perpetuity on
     her loveliest, yet most transitory, productions. The letter-press,
     in addition to the ordinary information, as to the habits, mode of
     culture, and organization of the plant, occasionally introduces
     points of vegetable physiology, or observations respecting its
     economical uses, which possess much interest."--_Athenæum._

     "The Botanical Register, from containing most or all of the new
     plants introduced by the Horticultural Society, from the great care
     with which its plates are executed, and the judicious remarks on
     culture and general habit, by Dr. Lindley, is, in consequence, the
     superior publication."--_Loudon's Magazine of Botany, &c._

     "Too much praise cannot be bestowed upon this
     work."--_Horticultural Cabinet._

       *       *       *       *       *

LADIES BOTANY. In Two Volumes. By Dr. LINDLEY, Editor of the _Botanical
Register, Fossil Flora of Great Britain, &c. &c._ Third Edition. 8vo.
Vol. I, with numerous illustrative plates, 16_s._, and finely coloured,

     "We consider it quite needless to recommend this work: it must find
     its way into the library of every lady, and it ought to be in the
     coat pocket of every young gardener."--_Gardener's Magazine._

     "Let it be known--let it be introduced into every library,
     reading-room, and seminary throughout Britain; let it become the
     class-book of botanical study."--_Horticultural Register._

The Second Volume, which will complete the work, will be published in

       *       *       *       *       *

Second Edition. One Volume, royal 8vo. with Eighteen coloured Plates.
21_s._ cloth boards.

added, an Appendix for the Use of Cultivators, in which the most
remarkable Garden Varieties are systematically arranged; with Nineteen
Plates, Eighteen beautifully coloured. By JOHN LINDLEY, Ph.D. F.L.S.
R.S. &c. &c.

        *       *       *       *       *

Dedicated to the Patrons and Patronesses of Village Schools.

A CATECHISM of GARDENING, intended for the use of Village Schools and
Cottagers, containing plain and brief Directions for cultivating every
kind of Vegetable in common use. By an old Practitioner. Second Edition,
enlarged, 1_s._ 6_d._

     "This is a cheap little work, and far better adapted for its avowed
     purpose than any of the tracts which have preceded it. The small
     type and closely-printed page of the Catechism show that the author
     is perfectly serious in his wish to extend a knowledge of
     Horticulture to the humblest classes of society."--_Loudon's
     Gardener's Magazine._

     "This is not only a useful, but a cheap publication, and
     excellently adapted for its purpose."--_Analyst._

       *       *       *       *       *

GARDENS and GROUNDS of WOBURN ABBEY. Illustrated by numerous Views,
Plans, &c. One Vol. Medium 8vo. 21_s._

Specific Character, Colour of the Flower, Native Country, Year of
Introduction, Soil, and Mode of Propagation, of upwards of SIX THOUSAND
of the finest Ornamental PLANTS and SHRUBS, both Exotic and Indigenous,
for the Decoration of the British Flower Garden, Greenhouse, Plant
Stove, &c.; with an Account of the Routine of Culture pursued in the
Forcing Department throughout the Year, a List of the Fruits cultivated;
including short Treatises on the Management of the superior Fruits,
Vegetables, &c. together with Designs for the Erection of Forcing
Houses, Melon, and Culinary Pits, and a mode of heating by Hot Water
Pipes, by which a genial steady Heat is produced, with a great Saving of
Fuel, and the Houses left with perfect safety, for full fifteen hours,
at even 28 degrees of Frost, Fahrenheit. By JAMES FORBES,
A.L.S. C.M. H.S. &c., Principal Gardener at Woburn Abbey.

     _A few Copies are printed on Royal Paper, for such of the Nobility
     as may desire them. Proofs_, 2_l._ 2_s_. _Ditto, coloured_, 2_l._
     12_s._ 6_d._

     "The plan of this Work is good. The objects of cultivation, the
     routine of cropping, the periods of forcing fruits and flowers, and
     the hothouses employed for such purposes, are nearly the same in
     all large gardens; and a well-digested and accurate account of what
     is found most useful or beautiful in one, will serve as a rule of
     practice in nearly all the others. The Duke of Bedford's Garden is
     one of the best in England, and Mr. Forbes is one of the most
     experienced Gardeners; so that a better model, or a better man,
     could hardly be found, to illustrate the most efficient plans which
     are followed in the management of horticultural affairs in England
     * * * We can recommend Mr. Forbes's Work to our gardening

       *       *       *       *       *


Second Edition, in One Volume, price 6_s._

THE FRUIT CULTIVATOR. By JOHN ROGERS, Nurseryman, formerly of the Royal

     "Directions are given for planting, pruning, training, the
     formation of Fruit-Tree Borders, and Orchards, the gathering and
     storing of Fruit; in a word, every thing which can be desired is
     handled in a plain instructive manner, in such a way as a practical
     man alone is capable of doing it."--_Irish Farmer's and Gardener's

     "It remains only to say, that we think Mr. Rogers has here produced
     a most valuable practical work, which deserves to be in universal
     use; and which adds to its other recommendation that of
     cheapness."--_Gardener's Magazine._

       *       *       *       *       *

_Printed by T. Brettell, Printer, Rupert Street, Haymarket._

   Transcriber's Notes

   Several punctuation errors have been repaired and are not listed here.
   Apostrophes within capitalised Latin names should be regarded as
   highlighting accented syllables: e.g. "CE'REUS"

Corrected typos:

   Page 6: "whieh" changed to "which" (which has been grown here for
   several years)
   Page 7: "Flotbeck" changed to "Flottbeck" (On my return from this
   place to Flottbeck)
   Page 15: "cultivaed" changed to "cultivated" (I never before saw so
   many plants cultivated)
   Page 28: "cieling" changed to "ceiling" (dome and cove ceiling)
   Page 30: "forms" changed to "formed" (eight round columns, formed)
   Page 30: "receses" changed to "recesses" (Arched recesses)
   Page 47: "Plauean" changed to "Plauen" (Plauen, where we arrived)
   Page 59 and 63: "cielings" changed to "ceilings" (with gilt ceilings)
   Page 74: "inintelligent" changed to "intelligent" (a very intelligent
   Page 77: "uuquestionably" changed to "unquestionably" (unquestionably
   well worth the stranger's visit)
   Page 85: "pelarganiums" changed to "pelargoniums" (pelargoniums and
   Page 88: "castelated" changed to "castellated" (old castellated ruins)
   Page 95: "popula-" changed to "population" (has a population of)
   Page 96: "cieling" changed to "ceiling" (highly ornamented on the
   Page 103: "parellel" changed to "parallel" (smaller avenues parallel
   to them)
   Page 110: "acccompany" changed to "accompany" (to send their gardener
   to accompany me)
   Page 114: "workmanhsip" changed to "workmanship" (a most beautiful
   specimen of workmanship)
   Page 115: "Vennus" changed to "Vennius" (Lazarus rising from the
   dead, by Otto Vennius)
   Page 122: "airrved" changed to "arrived" (we arrived at Malines)
   Page 127: "Grande Bretage" changed to "Grande Bretagne"
   Page 131: "Succulent[oe]" changed to "Succulentæ"
   Page 131: "curvilenear" changed to "curvilinear" (The curvilinear
   iron bar)
   Page 136: Repeated word "at" removed (The gardener was not at home)
   Page 162: "Hamburg" changed to "Hamburgh"
   Page 163: "Darmsdadt" changed to "Darmstadt"
   Page 162: "Luxemberg" changed to "Luxemburg" (Luxemburg Gardens)
   Page 163: "Nursersies" changed to "Nurseries" (Vitry Nurseries)
   Page 164: "Vandermaelin" changed to "Vandermaelen"

The following spelling instances have not been corrected, but are
retained as per the original:

   Stuttgard, chesnuts, pseudacacia, potatoe, Belvidere, Leipsic,
   wallnuts, cemetry, Frankfort.

This book contains many other instances of differing spelling of unusual
or non-English words, differing accents, incorrect accents, differing
hyphenation etc., e.g.:

   Page 30: "chateau", Page 119: "château"
   Page 137: "Boursalt", Index: "Boursoult"
   Page 130: "Andrieux", Page 139: "Andreux"
   Page 109: "Beurre dore" (should be "doré")
   Page 116: "good-sized", Page 37: "good sized"

These have been retained and have not been comprehensively listed within
these Notes.

The letters "D.S.S." in the last column of the tables refer to Dry Stove
Shrubs. These plants require very little water.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Journal of a Horticultural Tour through Germany, Belgium, and part of France, in the Autumn of 1835 - To which is added, a Catalogue of the different Species - of Cacteæ in the Gardens at Woburn Abbey." ***

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