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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 15, Slice 7 - "Kelly, Edward" to "Kite"
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 15, Slice 7 - "Kelly, Edward" to "Kite"" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE KENSINGTON: "... N.W. by Hammersmith, and extending N. to
      the boundary of the county of London." 'Hammersmith' amended from

    ARTICLE KIEL: "... all situated about 5 m. from the head of the
      harbour at the place (Friedrichsort) where its shores approach one
      another, make it a place of great strategic strength." 'strength'
      amended from 'stength'.

    ARTICLE KILBARCHAN: "Two miles south-west is a great rock of
      greenstone called Clochoderick, 12 ft. in height, 22 ft. in length,
      and 17 ft. in breadth." 'Clochoderick' amended from

    ARTICLE KILKENNY, STATUTE OF: "Moreover English and not Breton law
      was to be employed, and no Irishman could legally be received into
      a religious house, nor presented to a benefice." 'received' amended
      from 'receivd'.

    ARTICLE KING-BIRD: "... Euscarthmus may suggest a titmouse, Elaenia
      perhaps a willow-wren ..." 'Elaenia' amended from 'Elainea'.

      supplements the epilogue in xvii. 7-23, forms a solemn conclusion
      to the history of the northern kingdom, and is apparently aimed at
      the Samaritans." 'epilogue' amended from 'eqilogue'.



              ELEVENTH EDITION

            VOLUME XV, SLICE VII

            Kelly, Edward to Kite


  KELLY, EDWARD                    KIAOCHOW BAY
  KELLY, HUGH                      KIDD, JOHN
  KELLY, MICHAEL                   KIDD, THOMAS
  KELP                             KIDD, WILLIAM
  KELSO                            KIDDERMINSTER
  KEMBLE (English actors)          KIDNEY DISEASES
  KEMÉNY, ZSIGMOND                 KIEF
  KEMP, WILLIAM                    KIEL
  KEMPE, JOHN                      KIELCE (government in Poland)
  KEMPEN                           KIELCE (town of Poland)
  KEMPTEN                          KIEV (government of Russia)
  KEN, THOMAS                      KIEV (city of Russia)
  KEN (river of India)             KILBARCHAN
  KENA                             KILBIRNIE
  KENDAL, WILLIAM HUNTER           KILDARE (county of Ireland)
  KENDAL (town of England)         KILDARE (town of Ireland)
  KENG TUNG                        KILIAN, ST
  KENILWORTH                       KILIMANJARO
  KENITES                          KILIN
  KENMORE                          KILKEE
  KENMURE, WILLIAM GORDON          KILKENNY (county of Ireland)
  KENNEDY (Scottish family)        KILKENNY (city of Ireland)
  KENNEDY, WALTER                  KILLALOE
  KENNEL                           KILLARNEY
  KENNETH                          KILLDEER
  KENNINGTON                       KILLIS
  KENORA                           KILLYBEGS
  KENOSHA                          KILLYLEAGH
  KENSINGTON                       KILMALLOCK
  KENT, JAMES                      KILMAURS
  KENT, WILLIAM                    KILN
  KENT (kingdom of Britain)        KILPATRICK, NEW, or EAST
  KENT (county of England)         KILPATRICK, OLD
  KENTIGERN, ST                    KILRUSH
  KENTON                           KILSYTH
  KENT'S CAVERN                    KILT
  KENTUCKY                         KILWA
  KENYA                            KILWARDBY, ROBERT
  KEOKUK                           KIMBERLEY, JOHN WODEHOUSE
  KEONJHAR                         KIMBERLEY (town of South Africa)
  KEONTHAL                         KIMERIDGIAN
  KEPLER, JOHANN                   KIMHI
  KER, JOHN                        KINCHINJUNGA
  KERAK                            KIND
  KERALA                           KINDERGARTEN
  KERASUND                         KINDI
  KERBELA                          KINETICS
  KERCH                            KING, CHARLES WILLIAM
  KERKUK                           KING, HENRY
  KERMADEC                         KING, RUFUS
  KERMAN (province of Persia)      KING, THOMAS
  KERMAN (city of Persia)          KING, WILLIAM (Anglican divine)
  KERMANSHAH                       KING, WILLIAM (English poet)
  KERMES                           KING [OF OCKHAM], PETER KING
  KERMESSE                         KING (title)
  KERN, JAN HENDRIK                KING-BIRD
  KERNEL                           KING-CRAB
  KERRY                            KINGHORN
  KÉSMÁRK                          KING'S BENCH, COURT OF
  KESTREL                          KINGSBRIDGE
  KESWICK                          KING'S COUNTY
  KET, ROBERT                      KING'S EVIL
  KETCH, JOHN                      KINGSFORD, WILLIAM
  KETCHUP                          KINGSLEY, CHARLES
  KETENES                          KINGSLEY, HENRY
  KETI                             KINGSLEY, HENRY
  KETONES                          KING'S LYNN
  KETTERING                        KINGSTON, ELIZABETH
  KETTLEDRUM                       KINGSTON (Ontario, Canada)
  KEUPER                           KINGSTON (New York, U.S.A.)
  KEW                              KINGSTON (Pennsylvania, U.S.A.)
  KEWANEE                          KINGSTON-ON-THAMES
  KEY (for lock)                   KING-TÊ CHÊN
  KEYBOARD                         KINGUSSIE
  KEYSTONE                         KING WILLIAM'S TOWN
  KEY WEST                         KINKAJOU
  KHAIRAGARH                       KINNING PARK
  KHAIREDDIN                       KINNOR
  KHAIRPUR                         KINO
  KHAJRAHO                         KINORHYNCHA
  KHAKI                            KINROSS-SHIRE
  KHALIFA, THE                     KINSALE
  KHALIL IBN AHMAD                 KINTORE
  KHAMGAON                         KIOTO
  KHAMSEH                          KIOWAS
  KHAMSIN                          KIPLING, RUDYARD
  KHAMTIS                          KIPPER
  KHAN                             KIPPIS, ANDREW
  KHANDWA                          KIRCHER, ATHANASIUS
  KHANSA                           KIRCHHEIM-UNTER-TECK
  KHAR                             KIRCHHOFF, GUSTAV ROBERT
  KHARGA                           KIRGHIZ
  KHARKOV (government of Russia)   KIRIN
  KHARKOV (town of Russia)         KIRK, SIR JOHN
  KHARPUT                          KIRKBY, JOHN
  KHARSAWAN                        KIRKCALDY
  KHASKOY                          KIRKCUDBRIGHTSHIRE
  KHATTAK                          KIRKE, PERCY
  KHAZARS                          KIRKEE
  KHEDIVE                          KIRKINTILLOCH
  KHERI                            KIRK-KILISSEH
  KHERSON (government of Russia)   KIRKSVILLE
  KHERSON (town of Russia)         KIRKWALL
  KHEVSURS                         KIRSCH
  KHILCHIPUR                       KIR-SHEHER
  KHINGAN                          KIRWAN, RICHARD
  KHIVA (kingdom of Asia)          KISFALUDY, KÁROLY
  KHIVA (town in Western Asia)     KISH
  KHOI                             KISHINEV
  KHOJENT                          KISHM
  KHOKAND                          KISKUNFÉLEGYHÁZA
  KHOLM                            KISLOVODSK
  KHONDS                           KISMET
  KHORASAN                         KISS
  KHORREMABAD                      KISSAR
  KHORSABAD                        KISSINGEN
  KHOTAN                           KISTNA (river of India)
  KHOTIN                           KISTNA (district of India)
  KHULNA                           KIT
  KHUNSAR                          KITAZATO, SHIBASABURO
  KHURJA                           KIT-CAT CLUB
  KHYBER PASS                      KITCHEN
  KIANG-SI                         KITE

KELLY, EDWARD (1854-1880), Australian bushranger, was born at Wallan
Wallan, Victoria. His father was a transported Belfast convict, and his
mother's family included several thieves. As boys he and his brothers
were constantly in trouble for horse-stealing, and "Ned" served three
years' imprisonment for this offence. In April 1878, an attempt was made
to arrest his brother Daniel on a similar charge. The whole Kelly family
resisted this and Ned wounded one of the constables. Mrs Kelly and some
of the others were captured, but Ned and Daniel escaped to the hills,
where they were joined by two other desperadoes, Byrne and Hart. For two
years, despite a reward of £8000 offered jointly by the governments of
Victoria and New South Wales for their arrest, the gang under the
leadership of Kelly terrorized the country on the borderland of Victoria
and New South Wales, "holding up" towns and plundering banks. Their
intimate knowledge of the district, full of convenient hiding-places,
and their elaborate system of well-paid spies, ensured the direct
pecuniary interest of many persons and contributed to their long
immunity from capture. They never ill-treated a woman, nor preyed upon
the poor, thus surrounding themselves with an attractive atmosphere of
romance. In June 1880, however, they were at last tracked to a wooden
shanty at Glenrowan, near Benalla, which the police surrounded, riddled
with bullets, and finally set on fire. Kelly himself, who was outside,
could, he claimed, easily have escaped had he not refused to desert his
companions, all of whom were killed. He was severely wounded, captured
and taken to Beechworth, where he was tried, convicted and hanged in
October 1880. The total cost of the capture of the Kelly gang was
reckoned at £115,000.

  See F. A. Hare, _The Last of the Bushrangers_ (London, 1892).

KELLY, SIR FITZROY (1796-1880), English judge, was born in London in
October 1796, the son of a captain in the Royal Navy. In 1824 he was
called to the bar, where he gained a reputation as a skilled pleader. In
1834 he was made a king's counsel. A strong Tory, he was returned as
member of parliament for Ipswich in 1835, but was unseated on petition.
In 1837 however he again became member for that town. In 1843 he sat for
Cambridge, and in 1852 was elected member for Harwich, but, a vacancy
suddenly occurring in East Suffolk, he preferred to contest that seat
and was elected. He was solicitor-general in 1845 (when he was
knighted), and again in 1852. In 1858-1859 he was attorney-general in
Lord Derby's second administration. In 1866 he was raised to the bench
as chief baron of the exchequer and made a member of the Privy Council.
He died at Brighton on the 18th of September 1880.

  See E. Foss, _Lives of the Judges_ (1870).

KELLY, HUGH (1739-1777), Irish dramatist and poet, son of a Dublin
publican, was born in 1739 at Killarney. He was apprenticed to a
staymaker, and in 1760 went to London. Here he worked at his trade for
some time, and then became an attorney's clerk. He contributed to
various newspapers, and wrote pamphlets for the booksellers. In 1767 he
published _Memoirs of a Magdalen, or the History of Louisa Mildmay_ (2
vols.), a novel which obtained considerable success. In 1766 he
published anonymously _Thespis; or, A Critical Examination into the
Merits of All the Principal Performers belonging to Drury Lane Theatre_,
a poem in the heroic couplet containing violent attacks on the principal
contemporary actors and actresses. The poem opens with a panegyric on
David Garrick, however, and bestows foolish praise on friends of the
writer. This satire was partly inspired by Churchill's _Rosciad_, but
its criticism is obviously dictated chiefly by personal prejudice. In
1767 he produced a second part, less scurrilous in tone, dealing with
the Covent Garden actors. His first comedy, _False Delicacy_, written in
prose, was produced by Garrick at Drury Lane on the 23rd of January
1768, with the intention of rivalling Oliver Goldsmith's _Good-Natured
Man_. It is a moral and sentimental comedy, described by Garrick in the
prologue as a sermon preached in acts. Although Samuel Johnson described
it as "totally void of character," it was very popular and had a great
sale. In French and Portuguese versions it drew crowded houses in Paris
and Lisbon. Kelly was a journalist in the pay of Lord North, and
therefore hated by the party of John Wilkes, especially as being the
editor of the _Public Ledger_. His _Thespis_ had also made him many
enemies; and Mrs Clive refused to act in his pieces. The production of
his second comedy, _A Word to the Wise_ (Drury Lane, 3rd of March 1770),
occasioned a riot in the theatre, repeated at the second performance,
and the piece had to be abandoned. His other plays are: _Clementina_
(Covent Garden, 23rd of February 1771), a blank verse tragedy, given out
to be the work of a "young American Clergyman" in order to escape the
opposition of the Wilkites; _The School for Wives_ (Drury Lane, 11th of
December 1773), a prose comedy given out as the work of Major
(afterwards Sir William) Addington; a two-act piece, _The Romance of an
Hour_ (Covent Garden, 2nd of December 1774), borrowed from Marmontel's
tale _L'Amitié à l'épreuve_; and an unsuccessful comedy, _The Man of
Reason_ (Covent Garden, 9th of February 1776). He was called to the bar
at the Middle Temple in 1774, and determined to give up literature. He
failed in his new profession and died in poverty on the 3rd of February

  See _The Works of Hugh Kelly, to which is prefixed the Life of the
  Author_ (1778); Genest, _History of the Stage_ (v. 163, 263-269, 308,
  399, 457, 517). Pamphlets in reply to _Thespis_ are: "Anti-Thespis
  ..." (1767); "The Kellyad ..." (1767), by Louis Stamma; and "The
  Rescue or Thespian Scourge ..." (1767), by John Brown-Smith.

KELLY, MICHAEL (1762-1826), British actor, singer and composer, was the
son of a Dublin wine-merchant and dancing-master. He had a musical
education at home and in Italy, and for four years from 1783 was engaged
to sing at the Court Theatre at Vienna, where he became a friend of
Mozart. In 1786 he sang in the first performance of the _Nozze di
Figaro_. Appearing in London, at Drury Lane in 1787, he had a great
success, and thenceforth was the principal English tenor at that
theatre. In 1793 he became acting-manager of the King's Theatre, and he
was in great request at concerts. He wrote a number of songs (including
"The Woodpecker"), and the music for many dramatic pieces, now fallen
into oblivion. In 1826 he published his entertaining _Reminiscences_, in
writing which he was helped by Theodore Hook. He combined his
professional work with conducting a music-shop and a wine-shop, but with
disastrous financial results. He died at Margate on the 9th of October

KELP (in M.E. _culp_ or _culpe_, of unknown origin; the Fr. equivalent
is _varech_), the ash produced by the incineration of various kinds of
sea-weed (_Algae_) obtainable in great abundance on the west coasts of
Ireland and Scotland, and the coast of Brittany. It is prepared from the
deep-sea tangle (_Laminaria digitata_), sugar wrack (_L. saccharina_),
knobbed wrack (_Fucus nodosus_), black wrack (_F. serratus_), and
bladder wrack (_F. vesiculosus_). The Laminarias yield what is termed
"drift-weed kelp," obtainable only when cast up on the coasts by storms
or other causes. The species of _Fucus_ growing within the tidal range
are cut from the rocks at low water, and are therefore known as
"cut-weeds." The weeds are first dried in the sun and are then collected
into shallow pits and burned till they form a fused mass, which while
still hot is sprinkled with water to break it up into convenient pieces.
A ton of kelp is obtained from 20 to 22 tons of wet sea-weed. The
average composition may vary as follows: potassium sulphate, 10 to 12%;
potassium chloride, 20 to 25%; sodium carbonate, 5%; other sodium and
magnesium salts, 15 to 20%; and insoluble ash from 40 to 50%. The
relative richness in iodine of different samples varies largely, good
drift kelp yielding as much as 10 to 15 lb. per ton of 22½ cwts., whilst
cut-weed kelp will not give more than 3 to 4 lb. The use of kelp in
soap and glass manufacture has been rendered obsolete by the modern
process of obtaining carbonate of soda cheaply from common salt (see

KELSO, a police burgh and market town of Roxburghshire, Scotland, on the
left bank of the Tweed, 52 m. (43 m. by road) S.E. of Edinburgh and 10¼
m. N.E. of Jedburgh by the North British railway. Pop. (1901), 4008. The
name has been derived from the Old Welsh _calch_, or Anglo-Saxon
_cealc_, "chalk", and the Scots _how_, "hollow," a derivation more
evident in the earlier forms Calkon and Calchon, and illustrated in
Chalkheugh, the name of a locality in the town. The ruined abbey,
dedicated to the Virgin and St John the Evangelist, was founded in 1128
by David I. for monks from Tiron in Picardy, whom he transferred hither
from Selkirk, where they had been installed fifteen years before. The
abbey, the building of which was completed towards the middle of the
13th century, became one of the richest and most powerful establishments
in Scotland, claiming precedence over the other monasteries and
disputing for a time the supremacy with St Andrews. It suffered damage
in numerous English forays, was pillaged by the 4th earl of Shrewsbury
in 1522, and was reduced to ruins in 1545 by the earl of Hertford
(afterwards the Protector Somerset). In 1602 the abbey lands passed into
the hands of Sir Robert Ker of Cessford, 1st earl of Roxburghe. The
ruins were disfigured by an attempt to render part of them available for
public worship, and one vault was long utilized as the town gaol. All
excrescences, however, were cleared away at the beginning of the 19th
century, by the efforts of the Duke of Roxburghe. The late Norman and
Early Pointed cruciform church has an unusual ground-plan, the west end
of the cross forming the nave and being shorter than the chancel. The
nave and transepts extend only 23 ft. from the central tower. The
remains include most of the tower, nearly the whole of the walls of the
south transept, less than half of the west front with a fragment of the
richly moulded and deeply-set doorway, the north and west sides of the
north transept, and a remnant of the chancel. The chancel alone had
aisles, while its main circular arches were surmounted by two tiers of
triforium galleries. The predominant feature is the great central tower,
which, as seen from a distance, suggests the keep of a Norman castle. It
rested on four Early Pointed arches, each 45 ft. high (of which the
south and west yet exist) supported by piers of clustered columns. Over
the Norman porch in the north transept is a small chamber with an
interlaced arcade surmounted by a network gable.

The Tweed is crossed at Kelso by a bridge of five arches constructed in
1803 by John Rennie. The public buildings include a court house, the
town hall, corn exchange, high school and grammar school (occupying the
site of the school which Sir Walter Scott attended in 1783). The public
park lies in the east of the town, and the race-course to the north of
it. The leading industries are the making of fishing tackle,
agricultural machinery and implements, and chemical manures, besides
coach-building, cabinet-making and upholstery, corn and saw mills, iron
founding, &c. James and John Ballantyne, friends of Scott, set up a
press about the end of the 18th century, from which there issued, in
1802, the first two volumes of the _Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border_;
but when the brothers transferred their business to Edinburgh printing
languished. The _Kelso Mail_, founded by James Ballantyne in 1797, is
now the oldest of the Border newspapers. The town is an important
agricultural centre, there being weekly corn and fortnightly cattle
markets, and, every September, a great sale of Border rams.

  Kelso became a burgh of barony in 1634 and five years later received
  the Covenanters, under Sir Alexander Leslie, on their way to the
  encampment on Duns Law. On the 24th of October 1715 the Old Pretender
  was proclaimed James VIII. in the market square, but in 1745 Prince
  Charles Edward found no active adherents in the town.

  About 1 m. W. of Kelso is Floors or Fleurs Castle, the principal seat
  of the duke of Roxburghe. The mansion as originally designed by Sir
  John Vanbrugh in 1718 was severely plain, but in 1849 William Henry
  Playfair converted it into a magnificent structure in the Tudor style.

  On the peninsula formed by the junction of the Teviot and the Tweed
  stood the formidable castle and flourishing town of Roxburgh, from
  which the shire took its name. No trace exists of the town, and of the
  castle all that is left are a few ruins shaded by ancient ash trees.
  The castle was built by the Northumbrians, who called it Marchidum, or
  Marchmound, its present name apparently meaning Rawic's burgh, after
  some forgotten chief. After the consolidation of the kingdom of
  Scotland it became a favoured royal residence, and a town gradually
  sprang up beneath its protection, which reached its palmiest days
  under David I., and formed a member of the Court of Four Burghs with
  Edinburgh, Stirling and Berwick. It possessed a church, court of
  justice, mint, mills, and, what was remarkable for the 12th century,
  grammar school. Alexander II. was married and Alexander III. was born
  in the castle. During the long period of Border warfare, the town was
  repeatedly burned and the castle captured. After the defeat of Wallace
  at Falkirk the castle fell into the hands of the English, from whom it
  was delivered in 1314 by Sir James Douglas. Ceded to Edward III. in
  1333, it was regained in 1342 by Sir Alexander Ramsay of Dalhousie,
  only to be lost again four years later. The castle was finally retaken
  and razed to the ground in 1460. It was at the siege that the king,
  James II., was killed by the explosion of a huge gun called "the
  Lion." On the fall of the castle the town languished and was finally
  abandoned in favour of the rising burgh of Kelso. The town, whose
  patron-saint was St James, is still commemorated by St James's Fair,
  which is held on the 5th of every August on the vacant site, and is
  the most popular of Border festivals.

  Sandyknowe or Smailholm Tower, 6 m. W. of Kelso, dating from the 15th
  century, is considered the best example of a Border Peel and the most
  perfect relic of a feudal structure in the South of Scotland. Two m.
  N. by E. of Kelso is the pretty village of Ednam (Edenham, "The
  Village on the Eden"), the birthplace of the poet James Thomson, to
  whose memory an obelisk, 52 ft. high, was erected on Ferney Hill in

KELVIN, WILLIAM THOMSON, BARON (1824-1907), British physicist, the
second son of James Thomson, LL.D., professor of mathematics in the
university of Glasgow, was born at Belfast, Ireland, on the 26th of June
1824, his father being then teacher of mathematics in the Royal
Academical Institution. In 1832 James Thomson accepted the chair of
mathematics at Glasgow, and migrated thither with his two sons, James
and William, who in 1834 matriculated in that university, William being
then little more than ten years of age, and having acquired all his
early education through his father's instruction. In 1841 William
Thomson entered Peterhouse, Cambridge, and in 1845 took his degree as
second wrangler, to which honour he added that of the first Smith's
Prize. The senior wrangler in his year was Stephen Parkinson, a man of a
very different type of mind, yet one who was a prominent figure in
Cambridge for many years. In the same year Thomson was elected fellow of
Peterhouse. At that time there were few facilities for the study of
experimental science in Great Britain. At the Royal Institution Faraday
held a unique position, and was feeling his way almost alone. In
Cambridge science had progressed little since the days of Newton.
Thomson therefore had recourse to Paris, and for a year worked in the
laboratory of Regnault, who was then engaged in his classical researches
on the thermal properties of steam. In 1846, when only twenty-two years
of age, he accepted the chair of natural philosophy in the university of
Glasgow, which he filled for fifty-three years, attaining universal
recognition as one of the greatest physicists of his time. The Glasgow
chair was a source of inspiration to scientific men for more than half a
century, and many of the most advanced researches of other physicists
grew out of the suggestions which Thomson scattered as sparks from his
anvil. One of his earliest papers dealt with the age of the earth, and
brought him into collision with the geologists of the Uniformitarian
school, who were claiming thousands of millions of years for the
formation of the stratified portions of the earth's crust. Thomson's
calculations on the conduction of heat showed that at some time between
twenty millions and four hundred millions, probably about one hundred
millions, of years ago, the physical conditions of the earth must have
been entirely different from those which now obtain. This led to a long
controversy, in which the physical principles held their ground. In 1847
Thomson first met James Prescott Joule at the Oxford meeting of the
British Association. A fortnight later they again met in Switzerland,
and together measured the rise of the temperature of the water in a
mountain torrent due to its fall. Joule's views of the nature of heat
strongly influenced Thomson's mind, with the result that in 1848
Thomson proposed his absolute scale of temperature, which is
independent of the properties of any particular thermometric substance,
and in 1851 he presented to the Royal Society of Edinburgh a paper on
the dynamical theory of heat, which reconciled the work of N. L. Sadi
Carnot with the conclusions of Count Rumford, Sir H. Davy, J. R. Mayer
and Joule, and placed the dynamical theory of heat and the fundamental
principle of the conservation of energy in a position to command
universal acceptance. It was in this paper that the principle of the
dissipation of energy, briefly summarized in the second law of
thermodynamics, was first stated.

Although his contributions to thermodynamics may properly be regarded as
his most important scientific work, it is in the field of electricity,
especially in its application to submarine telegraphy, that Lord Kelvin
is best known to the world at large. From 1854 he is most prominent
among telegraphists. The stranded form of conductor was due to his
suggestion; but it was in the letters which he addressed in November and
December of that year to Sir G. G. Stokes, and which were published in
the _Proceedings of the Royal Society_ for 1855, that he discussed the
mathematical theory of signalling through submarine cables, and
enunciated the conclusion that in long cables the retardation due to
capacity must render the speed of signalling inversely proportional to
the square of the cable's length. Some held that if this were true ocean
telegraphy would be impossible, and sought in consequence to disprove
Thomson's conclusion. Thomson, on the other hand, set to work to
overcome the difficulty by improvement in the manufacture of cables, and
first of all in the production of copper of high conductivity and the
construction of apparatus which would readily respond to the slightest
variation of the current in the cable. The mirror galvanometer and the
siphon recorder, which was patented in 1867, were the outcome of these
researches; but the scientific value of the mirror galvanometer is
independent of its use in telegraphy, and the siphon recorder is the
direct precursor of one form of galvanometer (d'Arsonval's) now commonly
used in electrical laboratories. A mind like that of Thomson could not
be content to deal with any physical quantity, however successfully from
a practical point of view, without subjecting it to measurement.
Thomson's work in connexion with telegraphy led to the production in
rapid succession of instruments adapted to the requirements of the time
for the measurement of every electrical quantity, and when electric
lighting came to the front a new set of instruments was produced to meet
the needs of the electrical engineer. Some account of Thomson's
electrometer is given in the article on that subject, while every modern
work of importance on electric lighting describes the instruments which
he has specially designed for central station work; and it may be said
that there is no quantity which the electrical engineer is ordinarily
called upon to measure for which Lord Kelvin did not construct the
suitable instrument. Currents from the ten-thousandth of an ampere to
ten thousand amperes, electrical pressures from a minute fraction of a
volt to 100,000 volts, come within the range of his instruments, while
the private consumer of electric energy is provided with a meter
recording Board of Trade units.

When W. Weber in 1851 proposed the extension of C. F. Gauss's system of
absolute units to electromagnetism, Thomson took up the question, and,
applying the principles of energy, calculated the absolute electromotive
force of a Daniell cell, and determined the absolute measure of the
resistance of a wire from the heat produced in it by a known current. In
1861 it was Thomson who induced the British Association to appoint its
first famous committee for the determination of electrical standards,
and it was he who suggested much of the work carried out by J. Clerk
Maxwell, Balfour Stewart and Fleeming Jenkin as members of that
committee. The oscillatory character of the discharge of the Leyden jar,
the foundation of the work of H. R. Hertz and of wireless telegraphy
were investigated by him in 1853.

It was in 1873 that he undertook to write a series of articles for _Good
Words_ on the mariner's compass. He wrote the first, but so many
questions arose in his mind that it was five years before the second
appeared. In the meanwhile the compass went through a process of
complete reconstruction in his hands a process which enabled both the
permanent and the temporary magnetism of the ship to be readily
compensated, while the weight of the 10-in. card was reduced to
one-seventeenth of that of the standard card previously in use, although
the time of swing was increased. Second only to the compass in its value
to the sailor is Thomson's sounding apparatus, whereby soundings can be
taken in 100 fathoms by a ship steaming at 16 knots; and by the
employment of piano-wire of a breaking strength of 140 tons per square
inch and an iron sinker weighing only 34 lb., with a self-registering
pressure gauge, soundings can be rapidly taken in deep ocean. Thomson's
tide gauge, tidal harmonic analyser and tide predicter are famous, and
among his work in the interest of navigation must be mentioned his
tables for the simplification of Sumner's method for determining the
position of a ship at sea.

It is impossible within brief limits to convey more than a general idea
of the work of a philosopher who published more than three hundred
original papers bearing upon nearly every branch of physical science;
who one day was working out the mathematics of a vortex theory of matter
on hydrodynamical principles or discovering the limitations of the
capabilities of the vortex atom, on another was applying the theory of
elasticity to tides in the solid earth, or was calculating the size of
water molecules, and later was designing an electricity meter, a dynamo
or a domestic water-tap. It is only by reference to his published papers
that any approximate conception can be formed of his life's work; but
the student who had read all these knew comparatively little of Lord
Kelvin if he had not talked with him face to face. Extreme modesty,
almost amounting to diffidence, was combined with the utmost kindliness
in Lord Kelvin's bearing to the most elementary student, and nothing
seemed to give him so much pleasure as an opportunity to acknowledge the
efforts of the humblest scientific worker. The progress of physical
discovery during the last half of the 19th century was perhaps as much
due to the kindly encouragement which he gave to his students and to
others who came in contact with him as to his own researches and
inventions; and it would be difficult to speak of his influence as a
teacher in stronger terms than this.

One of his former pupils, Professor J. D. Cormack, wrote of him: "It is
perhaps at the lecture table that Lord Kelvin displays most of his
characteristics.... His master mind, soaring high, sees one vast
connected whole, and, alive with enthusiasm, with smiling face and
sparkling eye, he shows the panorama to his pupils, pointing out the
similarities and differences of its parts, the boundaries of our
knowledge, and the regions of doubt and speculation. To follow him in
his flights is real mental exhilaration."

In 1852 Thomson married Margaret, daughter of Walter Crum of
Thornliebank, who died in 1870; and in 1874 he married Frances Anna,
daughter of Charles R. Blandy of Madeira. In 1866, perhaps chiefly in
acknowledgment of his services to trans-Atlantic telegraphy, Thomson
received the honour of knighthood, and in 1892 he was raised to the
peerage with the title of Baron Kelvin of Largs. The Grand Cross of the
Royal Victorian Order was conferred on him in 1896, the year of the
jubilee of his professoriate. In 1890 he became president of the Royal
Society, and he received the Order of Merit on its institution in 1902.
A list of the degrees and other honours which he received during the
fifty-three years he held his Glasgow chair would occupy as much space
as this article; but any biographical sketch would be conspicuously
incomplete if it failed to notice the celebration in 1896 of the jubilee
of his professorship. Never before had such a gathering of rank and
science assembled as that which filled the halls in the university of
Glasgow on the 15th, 16th and 17th of June in that year. The city
authorities joined with the university in honouring their most
distinguished citizen. About 2500 guests were received in the university
buildings, the library of which was devoted to an exhibition of the
instruments invented by Lord Kelvin, together with his certificates,
diplomas and medals. The Eastern, the Anglo-American and the Commercial
Cable companies united to celebrate the event, and from the university
library a message was sent through Newfoundland, New York, Chicago, San
Francisco, Los Angeles, New Orleans, Florida and Washington, and was
received by Lord Kelvin seven and a half minutes after it had been
despatched, having travelled about 20,000 miles and twice crossed the
Atlantic during the interval. It was at the banquet in connexion with
the jubilee celebration that the Lord Provost of Glasgow thus summarized
Lord Kelvin's character: "His industry is unwearied; and he seems to
take rest by turning from one difficulty to another--difficulties that
would appal most men and be taken as enjoyment by no one else.... This
life of unwearied industry, of universal honour, has left Lord Kelvin
with a lovable nature that charms all with whom he comes in contact."

Three years after this celebration Lord Kelvin resigned his chair at
Glasgow, though by formally matriculating as a student he maintained his
connexion with the university, of which in 1904 he was elected
chancellor. But his retirement did not mean cessation of active work or
any slackening of interest in the scientific thought of the day. Much of
his time was given to writing and revising the lectures on the wave
theory of light which he had delivered at Johns Hopkins University,
Baltimore, in 1884, but which were not finally published till 1904. He
continued to take part in the proceedings of various learned societies;
and only a few months before his death, at the Leicester meeting of the
British Association, he attested the keenness with which he followed the
current developments of scientific speculation by delivering a long and
searching address on the electronic theory of matter. He died on the
17th of December 1907 at his residence, Netherhall, near Largs,
Scotland; there was no heir to his title, which became extinct.

  In addition to the Baltimore lectures, he published with Professor P.
  G. Tait a standard but unfinished _Treatise on Natural Philosophy_
  (1867). A number of his scientific papers were collected in his
  _Reprint of Papers on Electricity and Magnetism_ (1872), and in his
  _Mathematical and Physical Papers_ (1882, 1883 and 1890), and three
  volumes of his _Popular Lectures and Addresses_ appeared in 1889-1894.
  He was also the author of the articles on "Heat" and "Elasticity" in
  the 9th edition of the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_.

  See Andrew Gray, _Lord Kelvin_ (1908); S. P. Thompson, _Life of Lord
  Kelvin_ (1910), which contains a full bibliography of his writings.
       (W. G.; H. M. R.)

KEMBLE, the name of a family of English actors, of whom the most famous
were Mrs Siddons (q.v.) and her brother John Philip Kemble, the eldest
of the twelve children of ROGER KEMBLE (1721-1802), a strolling player
and manager, who in 1753 married an actress, Sarah Wood.

JOHN PHILIP KEMBLE (1757-1823), the second child, was born at Prescot,
Lancashire, on the 1st of February 1757. His mother was a Roman
Catholic, and he was educated at Sedgeley Park Catholic seminary, near
Wolverhampton, and the English college at Douai, with the view of
becoming a priest. But at the conclusion of the four years' course he
discovered that he had no vocation for the priesthood, and returning to
England he joined the theatrical company of Crump & Chamberlain, his
first appearance being as Theodosius in Lee's tragedy of that name at
Wolverhampton on the 8th of January 1776. In 1778 he joined the York
company of Tate Wilkinson, appearing at Wakefield as Captain Plume in
Farquhar's _The Recruiting Officer_; in Hull for the first time as
Macbeth on the 30th of October, and in York as Orestes in Ambrose
Philips's _Distressed Mother_. In 1781 he obtained a "star" engagement
at Dublin, making his first appearance there on the 2nd of November as
Hamlet. He also achieved great success as Raymond in _The Count of
Narbonne_, a play taken from Horace Walpole's _Castle of Otranto_.
Gradually he won for himself a high reputation as a careful and finished
actor, and this, combined with the greater fame of his sister, led to an
engagement at Drury Lane, where he made his first appearance on the 30th
of September 1783 as Hamlet. In this rôle he awakened interest and
discussion among the critics rather than the enthusiastic approval of
the public. But as Macbeth on the 31st of March 1785 he shared in the
enthusiasm aroused by Mrs Siddons, and established a reputation among
living actors second only to hers. Brother and sister had first appeared
together at Drury Lane on the 22nd of November 1783, as Beverley and Mrs
Beverley in Moore's _The Gamester_, and as King John and Constance in
Shakespeare's tragedy. In the following year they played Montgomerie and
Matilda in Cumberland's _The Carmelite_, and in 1785 Adorni and Camiola
in Kemble's adaptation of Massinger's _A Maid of Honour_, and Othello
and Desdemona. Between 1785 and 1787 Kemble appeared in a variety of
rôles, his Mentevole in Jephson's _Julia_ producing an overwhelming
impression. On the 8th of December 1787 he married Priscilla Hopkins
Brereton (1756-1845), the widow of an actor and herself an actress.
Kemble's appointment as manager of Drury Lane in 1788 gave him full
opportunity to dress the characters less according to tradition than in
harmony with his own conception of what was suitable. He was also able
to experiment with whatever parts might strike his fancy, and of this
privilege he took advantage with greater courage than discretion. His
activity was prodigious, the list of his parts including a large number
of Shakespearian characters and also a great many in plays now
forgotten. In his own version of _Coriolanus_, which was revived during
his first season, the character of the "noble Roman" was so exactly
suited to his powers that he not only played it with a perfection that
has never been approached, but, it is said, unconsciously allowed its
influence to colour his private manner and modes of speech. His tall and
imposing person, noble countenance, and solemn and grave demeanour were
uniquely adapted for the Roman characters in Shakespeare's plays; and,
when in addition he had to depict the gradual growth and development of
one absorbing passion, his representation gathered a momentum and
majestic force that were irresistible. His defect was in flexibility,
variety, rapidity; the characteristic of his style was method,
regularity, precision, elaboration even of the minutest details, founded
on a thorough psychological study of the special personality he had to
represent. His elocutionary art, his fine sense of rhythm and emphasis,
enabled him to excel in declamation, but physically he was incapable of
giving expression to impetuous vehemence and searching pathos. In
Coriolanus and Cato he was beyond praise, and possibly he may have been
superior to both Garrick and Kean in Macbeth, although it must be
remembered that in it part of his inspiration must have been caught from
Mrs Siddons. In all the other great Shakespearian characters he was,
according to the best critics, inferior to them, least so in Lear,
Hamlet and Wolsey, and most so in Shylock and Richard III. On account of
the eccentricities of Sheridan, the proprietor of Drury Lane, Kemble
withdrew from the management, and, although he resumed his duties at the
beginning of the season 1800-1801, he at the close of 1802 finally
resigned connexion with it. In 1803 he became manager of Covent Garden,
in which he had acquired a sixth share for £23,000. The theatre was
burned down on the 20th of September 1808, and the raising of the prices
after the opening of the new theatre, in 1809, led to riots, which
practically suspended the performances for three months. Kemble had been
nearly ruined by the fire, and was only saved by a generous loan,
afterwards converted into a gift, of £10,000 from the duke of
Northumberland. Kemble took his final leave of the stage in the part of
Coriolanus on the 23rd of June 1817. His retirement was probably
hastened by the rising popularity of Edmund Kean. The remaining years of
his life were spent chiefly abroad, and he died at Lausanne on the 26th
of February 1823.

  See Boaden, _Life of John Philip Kemble_ (1825); Fitzgerald, _The
  Kembles_ (1871).

STEPHEN KEMBLE (1758-1822), the second son of Roger, was rather an
indifferent actor, ever eclipsed by his wife and fellow player,
Elizabeth Satchell Kemble (c. 1763-1841), and a man of such portly
proportions that he played Falstaff without padding. He managed theatres
in Edinburgh and elsewhere.

CHARLES KEMBLE (1775-1854), a younger brother of John Philip and
Stephen, was born at Brecon, South Wales, on the 25th of November 1775.
He, too, was educated at Douai. After returning to England in 1792, he
obtained a situation in the post-office, but this he soon resigned for
the stage, making his first recorded appearance at Sheffield as Orlando
in _As You Like It_ in that year. During the early period of his career
as an actor he made his way slowly to public favour. For a considerable
time he played with his brother and sister, chiefly in secondary parts,
and this with a grace and finish which received scant justice from the
critics. His first London appearance was on the 21st of April 1794, as
Malcolm to his brother's Macbeth. Ultimately he won independent fame,
especially in such characters as Archer in George Farquhar's _Beaux'
Stratagem_, Dorincourt in Mrs Cowley's _Belle's Stratagem_, Charles
Surface and Ranger in Dr Benjamin Hoadley's _Suspicious Husband_. His
Laertes and Macduff were hardly less interesting than his brother's
Hamlet and Macbeth. In comedy he was ably supported by his wife, Marie
Therèse De Camp (1774-1838), whom he married on the 2nd of July 1806.
His visit, with his daughter Fanny, to America during 1832 and 1834,
aroused much enthusiasm. The later period of his career was clouded by
money embarrassments in connexion with his joint proprietorship in
Covent Garden theatre. He formally retired from the stage in December
1836, but his final appearance was on the 10th of April 1840. For some
time he held the office of examiner of plays. In 1844-1845 he gave
readings from Shakespeare at Willis's Rooms. He died on the 12th of
November 1854. Macready regarded his Cassio as incomparable, and summed
him up as "a first-rate actor of second-rate parts."

  See _Gentleman's Magazine_, January 1855; _Records of a Girlhood_, by
  Frances Anne Kemble.

ELIZABETH WHITLOCK (1761-1836), who was a daughter of Roger Kemble, made
her first appearance on the stage in 1783 at Drury Lane as Portia. In
1785 she married Charles E. Whitlock, went with him to America and
played with much success there. She had the honour of appearing before
President Washington. She seems to have retired about 1807, and she died
on the 27th of February 1836. Her reputation as a tragic actress might
have been greater had she not been Mrs Siddons's sister.

FRANCES ANNE KEMBLE (Fanny Kemble) (1800-1893), the actress and author,
was Charles Kemble's elder daughter; she was born in London on the 27th
of November 1809, and educated chiefly in France. She first appeared on
the stage on the 25th of October 1829 as Juliet at Covent Garden. Her
attractive personality at once made her a great favourite, her
popularity enabling her father to recoup his losses as a manager. She
played all the principal women's parts, notably Portia, Beatrice and
Lady Teazle, but Julia in Sheridan Knowles's _The Hunchback_, especially
written for her, was perhaps her greatest success. In 1832 she went with
her father to America, and in 1834 she married there a Southern planter,
Pierce Butler. They were divorced in 1849. In 1847 she returned to the
stage, from which she had retired on her marriage, and later, following
her father's example, appeared with much success as a Shakespearian
reader. In 1877 she returned to England, where she lived--using her
maiden name--till her death in London on the 15th of January 1893.
During this period Fanny Kemble was a prominent and popular figure in
the social life of London. Besides her plays, _Francis the First_,
unsuccessfully produced in 1832, _The Star of Seville_ (1837), a volume
of _Poems_ (1844), and a book of Italian travel, _A Year of Consolation_
(1847), she published a volume of her _Journal_ in 1835, and in 1863
another (dealing with life on the Georgia plantation), and also a volume
of _Plays_, including translations from Dumas and Schiller. These were
followed by _Records of a Girlhood_ (1878), _Records of Later Life_
(1882), _Notes on some of Shakespeare's Plays_ (1882), _Far Away and
Long Ago_ (1889), and _Further Records_ (1891). Her various volumes of
reminiscences contain much valuable material for the social and dramatic
history of the period.

ADELAIDE KEMBLE (1814-1879), Charles Kemble's second daughter, was an
opera singer of great promise, whose first London appearance was made in
_Norma_ on the 2nd of November 1841. In 1843 she married Edward John
Sartoris, a rich Italian, and retired after a brief but brilliant
career. She wrote _A Week in a French Country House_ (1867), a bright
and humorous story, and of a literary quality not shared by other tales
that followed. Her son, Algernon Charles Sartoris, married General U. S.
Grant's daughter.

Among more recent members of the Kemble family, mention may also be made
of Charles Kemble's grandson, HENRY KEMBLE (1848-1907), a sterling and
popular London actor.

KEMBLE, JOHN MITCHELL (1807-1857), English scholar and historian, eldest
son of Charles Kemble the actor, was born in 1807. He received his
education partly from Dr Richardson, author of the _Dictionary of the
English Language_, and partly at the grammar school of Bury St Edmunds,
where he obtained in 1826 an exhibition to Trinity College, Cambridge.
At the university his historical essays gained him high reputation. The
bent of his studies was turned more especially towards the Anglo-Saxon
period through the influence of the brothers Grimm, under whom he
studied at Göttingen (1831). His thorough knowledge of the Teutonic
languages and his critical faculty were shown in his _Beowulf_
(1833-1837), _Über die Stammtafel der Westsachsen_ (1836), _Codex
Diplomaticus Aevi Saxonici_ (1839-1848), and in many contributions to
reviews; while his _History of the Saxons in England_ (1849; new ed.
1876), though it must now be read with caution, was the first attempt at
a thorough examination of the original sources of the early period of
English history. He was editor of the _British and Foreign Review_ from
1835 to 1844; and from 1840 to his death was examiner of plays. In 1857
he published _State Papers and Correspondence illustrative of the Social
and Political State of Europe from the Revolution to the Accession of
the House of Hanover_. He died at Dublin on the 26th of March 1857. His
_Horae Ferales, or Studies in the Archaeology of Northern Nations_, was
completed by Dr R. G. Latham, and published in 1864. He married the
daughter of Professor Amadeus Wendt of Göttingen in 1836; and had two
daughters and a son; the elder daughter was the wife of Sir Charles
Santley, the singer.

KEMÉNY, ZSIGMOND, BARON (1816-1875), Hungarian author, came of a noble
but reduced family. In 1837 he studied jurisprudence at Marosvásárhely,
but soon devoted himself entirely to journalism and literature. His
first unfinished work, _On the Causes of the Disaster of Mohacs_ (1840),
attracted much attention. In the same year he studied natural history
and anatomy at Vienna University. In 1841, along with Lajos Kovács, he
edited the Transylvanian newspaper _Erdélyi Hiradó_. He also took an
active part in provincial politics and warmly supported the principles
of Count Stephen Széchenyi. In 1846 he moved to Pest, where his
pamphlet, _Korteskedés és ellenszerei_ (Partisanship and its Antidote),
had already made him famous. Here he consorted with the most eminent of
the moderate reformers, and for a time was on the staff of the _Pesti
Hirlap_. The same year he brought out his first great novel, _Pál
Gyulay_. He was elected a member of the revolutionary diet of 1848 and
accompanied it through all its vicissitudes. After a brief exile he
accepted the amnesty and returned to Hungary. Careless of his
unpopularity, he took up his pen to defend the cause of justice and
moderation, and in his two pamphlets, _Forradalom után_ (After the
Revolution) and _Még egysz ó a forradalom után_ (One word more after the
Revolution), he defended the point of view which was realized by Deák in
1867. He subsequently edited the _Pesti Napló_, which became virtually
Deák's political organ. Kemény also published several political essays
(e.g. _The Two Wesselényis_, and _Stephen Szechenyi_) which are among
the best of their kind in any literature. His novels published during
these years, such as _Férj és nö_ (Husband and Wife), _Szivörvényei_
(The Heart's Secrets), &c., also won for him a foremost rank among
contemporary novelists. During the 'sixties Kemény took an active part
in the political labours of Deák, whose right hand he continued to be,
and popularized the Composition of 1867 which he had done so much to
bring about. He was elected to the diet of 1867 for one of the divisions
of Pest, but took no part in the debates. The last years of his life
were passed in complete seclusion in Transylvania. To the works of
Kemény already mentioned should be added the fine historical novel
_Rajongok_ (The Fanatics) (Pest, 1858-1859), and _Collected Speeches_
(Hung.) (Pest, 1889).

  See L. Nogrady, _Baron Sigismund Kemény's Life and Writings_ (Hung.)
  (Budapest, 1902); G. Beksics, _Sigismund Kemény, the Revolution and
  the Composition_ (Hung.) (Budapest, 1888).     (R. N. B.)

KEMP, WILLIAM (fl. 1600), English actor and dancer. He probably began
his career as a member of the earl of Leicester's company, but his name
first appears after the death of Leicester in a list of players
authorized by an order of the privy council in 1593 to play 7 m. out of
London. Ferdinand Stanley, Lord Strange, was the patron of the company
of which Kemp was the leading member until 1598, and in 1594 was
summoned with Burbage and Shakespeare to act before the queen at
Greenwich. He was the successor, both in parts and reputation, of
Richard Tarlton. But it was as a dancer of jigs that he won his greatest
popularity, one or two actors dancing and singing with him, and the
words doubtless often being improvised. Examples of the music may be
seen in the MS. collection of John Dowland now in the Cambridge
University library. At the same time Kemp was given parts like Dogberry,
and Peter in _Romeo and Juliet_; indeed his name appears by accident in
place of those of the characters in early copies. Kemp seems to have
exhibited his dancing on the Continent, but in 1602 he was a member of
the earl of Worcester's players, and Philip Henslowe's diary shows
several payments made to him in that year.

KEMPE, JOHN (c. 1380-1454), English cardinal, archbishop of Canterbury,
and chancellor, was son of Thomas Kempe, a gentleman of Ollantigh, in
the parish of Wye near Ashford, Kent. He was born about 1380 and
educated at Merton College, Oxford. He practised as an ecclesiastical
lawyer, was an assessor at the trial of Oldcastle, and in 1415 was made
dean of the Court of Arches. Then he passed into the royal service, and
being employed in the administration of Normandy was eventually made
chancellor of the duchy. Early in 1419 he was elected bishop of
Rochester, and was consecrated at Rouen on the 3rd of December. In
February 1421 he was translated to Chichester, and in November following
to London. During the minority of Henry VI. Kempe had a prominent
position in the English council as a supporter of Henry Beaufort, whom
he succeeded as chancellor in March 1426. In this same year he was
promoted to the archbishopric of York. Kempe held office as chancellor
for six years; his main task in government was to keep Humphrey of
Gloucester in check. His resignation on the 28th of February 1432 was a
concession to Gloucester. He still enjoyed Beaufort's favour, and
retaining his place in the council was employed on important missions,
especially at the congress of Arras in 1435, and the conference at
Calais in 1438. In December 1439 he was created cardinal, and during the
next few years took less share in politics. He supported Suffolk over
the king's marriage with Margaret of Anjou; but afterwards there arose
some difference between them, due in part to a dispute about the
nomination of the cardinal's nephew, Thomas Kempe, to the bishopric of
London. At the time of Suffolk's fall in January 1450 Kempe once more
became chancellor. His appointment may have been due to the fact that he
was not committed entirely to either party. In spite of his age and
infirmity he showed some vigour in dealing with Cade's rebellion, and by
his official experience and skill did what he could for four years to
sustain the king's authority. He was rewarded by his translation to
Canterbury in July 1452, when Pope Nicholas added as a special honour
the title of cardinal-bishop of Santa Rufina. As Richard of York gained
influence, Kempe became unpopular; men called him "the cursed cardinal,"
and his fall seemed imminent when he died suddenly on the 22nd of March
1454. He was buried at Canterbury, in the choir. Kempe was a politician
first, and hardly at all a bishop; and he was accused with some justice
of neglecting his dioceses, especially at York. Still he was a capable
official, and a faithful servant to Henry VI., who called him "one of
the wisest lords of the land" (_Paston Letters_, i. 315). He founded a
college at his native place at Wye, which was suppressed at the

  For contemporary authorities see under HENRY VI. See also J. Raine's
  _Historians of the Church of York_, vol. ii.; W. Dugdale's
  _Monasticon_, iii. 254, vi. 1430-1432; and W. F. Hook's _Lives of
  Archbishops of Canterbury_, v. 188-267.     (C. L. K.)

KEMPEN, a town in the Prussian Rhine Province, 40 m. N. of Cologne by
the railway to Zevenaar. Pop. (1900), 6319. It has a monument to Thomas
à Kempis, who was born there. The industries are considerable, and
include silk-weaving, glass-making and the manufacture of electrical
plant. Kempen belonged in the middle ages to the archbishopric of
Cologne and received civic rights in 1294. It is memorable as the scene
of a victory gained, on the 17th of January 1642, by the French and
Hessians over the Imperialists.

  See Terwelp, _Die Stadt Kempen_ (Kempen, 1894), and Niessen,
  _Heimatkunde des Kreises Kempen_ (Crefeld, 1895).

KEMPENFELT, RICHARD (1718-1782), British rear-admiral, was born at
Westminster in 1718. His father, a Swede, is said to have been in the
service of James II., and subsequently to have entered the British army.
Richard Kempenfelt went into the navy, and saw his first service in the
West Indies, taking part in the capture of Portobello. In 1746 he
returned to England, and from that date to 1780, when he was made
rear-admiral, saw active service in the East Indies with Sir George
Pocock and in various quarters of the world. In 1781 he gained, with a
vastly inferior force, a brilliant victory, fifty leagues south-west of
Ushant, over the French fleet under De Guichen, capturing twenty prizes.
In 1782 he hoisted his flag on the "Royal George," which formed part of
the fleet under Lord Howe. In August this fleet was ordered to refit at
top speed at Portsmouth, and proceed to the relief of Gibraltar. A leak
having been located below the waterline of the "Royal George," the
vessel was careened to allow of the defect being repaired. According to
the version of the disaster favoured by the Admiralty, she was
overturned by a breeze. But the general opinion of the navy was that the
shifting of her weights was more than the old and rotten timbers of the
"Royal George" could stand. A large piece of her bottom fell out, and
she went down at once. It is estimated that not fewer than 800 persons
went down with her, for besides the crew there were a large number of
tradesmen, women and children on board. Kempenfelt, who was in his
cabin, perished with the rest. Cowper's poem, the "Loss of the Royal
George," commemorates this disaster. Kempenfelt effected radical
alterations and improvements in the signalling system then existing in
the British navy. A painting of the loss of the "Royal George" is in the
Royal United Service Institution, London.

  See Charnock's _Biog. Nav._, vi. 246, and Ralfe's _Naval Biographies_,
  i. 215.

KEMPT, SIR JAMES (1764-1854), British soldier, was gazetted to the 101st
Foot in India in 1783, but on its disbandment two years later was placed
on half-pay. It is said that he took a clerkship in Greenwood's, the
army agents (afterwards Cox & Co.). He attracted the notice of the Duke
of York, through whom he obtained a captaincy (very soon followed by a
majority) in the newly raised 113th Foot. But it was not long before his
regiment experienced the fate of the old 101st; this time however Kempt
was retained on full pay in the recruiting service. In 1799 he
accompanied Sir Ralph Abercromby to Holland, and later to Egypt as an
aide-de-camp. After Abercromby's death Kempt remained on his successor's
staff until the end of the campaign in Egypt. In April 1803 he joined
the staff of Sir David Dundas, but next month returned to regimental
duty, and a little later received a lieutenant-colonelcy in the 81st
Foot. With his new regiment he went, under Craig, to the Mediterranean
theatre of operations, and at Maida the light brigade led by him bore
the heaviest share of the battle. Employed from 1807 to 1811 on the
staff in North America, Brevet-Colonel Kempt at the end of 1811 joined
Wellington's army in Spain with the local rank of major-general, which
was, on the 1st of January 1812, made substantive. As one of Picton's
brigadiers, Kempt took part in the great assault on Badajoz and was
severely wounded. On rejoining for duty, he was posted to the command of
a brigade of the Light Division (43rd, 52nd and 95th Rifles), which he
led at Vera, the Nivelle (where he was again wounded), Bayonne, Orthez
and Toulouse. Early in 1815 he was made K.C.B., and in July for his
services at Waterloo, G.C.B. At that battle he commanded the 28th, 32nd
and 79th as a brigadier under his old chief, Picton, and on Picton's
death succeeded to the command of his division. From 1828 to 1830 he was
Governor-General of Canada, and at a critical time displayed firmness
and moderation. He was afterwards Master-General of the Ordnance. At the
time of his death in 1854 he had been for some years a full General.

KEMPTEN, a town in the kingdom of Bavaria on the Iller, 81 m. S.W. of
Munich by rail. Pop. (1905), 20,663. The town is well built, has many
spacious squares and attractive public grounds, and contains a castle, a
handsome town-hall, a gymnasium, &c. The old palace of the abbots of
Kempten, dating from the end of the 17th century, is now partly used as
barracks, and near to it is the fine abbey church. The industries
include wool-spinning and weaving and the manufacture of paper, beer,
machines, hosiery and matches. As the commercial centre of the Algäu,
Kempten carries on active trade in timber and dairy produce. Numerous
remains have been discovered on the Lindenberg, a hill in the vicinity.

Kempten, identified with the Roman Cambodunum, consisted in early times
of two towns, the old and the new. The continual hostility that existed
between these was intensified by the welcome given by the old town, a
free imperial city since 1289, to the Reformed doctrines, the new town
keeping to the older faith. The Benedictine abbey of Kempten, said to
have been founded in 773 by Hildegarde, the wife of Charlemagne, was an
important house. In 1360 its abbot was promoted to the dignity of a
prince of the Empire by the emperor Charles IV.; the town and abbey
passed to Bavaria in 1803. Here the Austrians defeated the French on the
17th of September 1796.

  See Förderreuther, _Die Stadt Kempten und ihre Umgebung_ (Kempten,
  1901); Haggenmüller, _Geschichte der Stadt und der gefürsteten
  Grafschaft Kempten_, vol. i. (Kempten, 1840); and Meirhofer,
  _Geschichtliche Darstellung der denkwürdigsten Schicksale der Stadt
  Kempten_ (Kempten, 1856).

KEN, THOMAS (1637-1711), the most eminent of the English non-juring
bishops, and one of the fathers of modern English hymnology, was born at
Little Berkhampstead, Herts, in 1637. He was the son of Thomas Ken of
Furnival's Inn, who belonged to an ancient stock,--that of the Kens of
Ken Place, in Somersetshire; his mother was a daughter of the now
forgotten poet, John Chalkhill, who is called by Walton an "acquaintant
and friend of Edmund Spenser." Ken's step-sister, Anne, was married to
Izaak Walton in 1646, a connexion which brought Ken from his boyhood
under the refining influence of this gentle and devout man. In 1652 Ken
entered Winchester College, and in 1656 became a student of Hart Hall,
Oxford. He gained a fellowship at New College in 1657, and proceeded
B.A. in 1661 and M.A. in 1664. He was for some time tutor of his
college; but the most characteristic reminiscence of his university life
is the mention made by Anthony Wood that in the musical gatherings of
the time "Thomas Ken of New College, a junior, would be sometimes among
them, and sing his part." Ordained in 1662, he successively held the
livings of Little Easton in Essex, Brighstone (sometimes called Brixton)
in the Isle of Wight, and East Woodhay in Hampshire; in 1672 he resigned
the last of these, and returned to Winchester, being by this time a
prebendary of the cathedral, and chaplain to the bishop, as well as a
fellow of Winchester College. He remained there for several years,
acting as curate in one of the lowest districts, preparing his _Manual
of Prayers for the use of the Scholars of Winchester College_ (first
published in 1674), and composing hymns. It was at this time that he
wrote, primarily for the same body as his prayers, his morning, evening
and midnight hymns, the first two of which, beginning "Awake, my soul,
and with the sun" and "Glory to Thee, my God, this night," are now
household words wherever the English tongue is spoken. The latter is
often made to begin with the line "All praise to Thee, my God, this
night," but in the earlier editions over which Ken had control, the line
is as first given.[1] In 1674 Ken paid a visit to Rome in company with
young Izaak Walton, and this journey seems mainly to have resulted in
confirming his regard for the Anglican communion. In 1679 he was
appointed by Charles II. chaplain to the Princess Mary, wife of William
of Orange. While with the court at the Hague, he incurred the
displeasure of William by insisting that a promise of marriage, made to
an English lady of high birth by a relative of the prince, should be
kept; and he therefore gladly returned to England in 1680, when he was
immediately appointed one of the king's chaplains. He was once more
residing at Winchester in 1683 when Charles came to the city with his
doubtfully composed court, and his residence was chosen as the home of
Nell Gwynne; but Ken stoutly objected to this arrangement, and succeeded
in making the favourite find quarters elsewhere. In August of this same
year he accompanied Lord Dartmouth to Tangier as chaplain to the fleet,
and Pepys, who was one of the company, has left on record some quaint
and kindly reminiscences of him and of his services on board. The fleet
returned in April 1684, and a few months after, upon a vacancy occurring
in the see of Bath and Wells, Ken, now Dr Ken, was appointed bishop. It
is said that, upon the occurrence of the vacancy, Charles, mindful of
the spirit he had shown at Winchester, exclaimed, "Where is the good
little man that refused his lodging to poor Nell?" and determined that
no other should be bishop. The consecration took place at Lambeth on the
25th of January 1685; and one of Ken's first duties was to attend the
deathbed of Charles, where his wise and faithful ministrations won the
admiration of everybody except Bishop Burnet. In this year he published
his _Exposition on the Church Catechism_, perhaps better known by its
sub-title, _The Practice of Divine Love_. In 1688, when James reissued
his "Declaration of Indulgence," Ken was one of the "seven bishops" who
refused to publish it. He was probably influenced by two considerations:
first, by his profound aversion from Roman Catholicism, to which he felt
he would be giving some episcopal recognition by compliance; but, second
and more especially, by the feeling that James was compromising the
spiritual freedom of the church. Along with his six brethren, Ken was
committed to the Tower on the 8th of June 1688, on a charge of high
misdemeanour; the trial, which took place on the 29th and 30th of the
month, and which resulted in a verdict of acquittal, is matter of
history. With the revolution which speedily followed this impolitic
trial, new troubles encountered Ken; for, having sworn allegiance to
James, he thought himself thereby precluded from taking the oath to
William of Orange. Accordingly, he took his place among the non-jurors,
and, as he stood firm to his refusal, he was, in August 1691, superseded
in his bishopric by Dr Kidder, dean of Peterborough. From this time he
lived mostly in retirement, finding a congenial home with Lord Weymouth,
his friend from college days, at Longleat in Wiltshire; and though
pressed to resume his diocese in 1703, upon the death of Bishop Kidder,
he declined, partly on the ground of growing weakness, but partly no
doubt from his love for the quiet life of devotion which he was able to
lead at Longleat. His death took place there on the 19th of March 1711.

  Although Ken wrote much poetry, besides his hymns, he cannot be called
  a great poet; but he had that fine combination of spiritual insight
  and feeling with poetic taste which marks all great hymn-writers. As a
  hymn-writer he has had few equals in England; it can scarcely be said
  that even Keble, though possessed of much rarer poetic gifts,
  surpassed him in his own sphere (see HYMNS). In his own day he took
  high rank as a pulpit orator, and even royalty had to beg for a seat
  amongst his audiences; but his sermons are now forgotten. He lives in
  history, apart from his three hymns, mainly as a man of unstained
  purity and invincible fidelity to conscience, weak only in a certain
  narrowness of view which is a frequent attribute of the intense
  character which he possessed. As an ecclesiastic he was a High
  Churchman of the old school.

  Ken's poetical works were published in collected form in four volumes
  by W. Hawkins, his relative and executor, in 1721; his prose works
  were issued in 1838 in one volume, under the editorship of J. T.
  Round. A brief memoir was prefixed by Hawkins to a selection from
  Ken's works which he published in 1713; and a life, in two volumes, by
  the Rev. W. L. Bowles, appeared in 1830. But the standard biographies
  of Ken are those of J. Lavicount Anderdon (_The Life of Thomas Ken,
  Bishop of Bath and Wells, by a Layman_, 1851; 2nd ed., 1854) and of
  Dean Plumptre (2 vols., 1888; revised, 1890). See also the Rev. W.
  Hunt's article in the _Dict. Nat. Biog._


  [1] The fact, however, that in 1712--only a year after Ken's
    death--his publisher, Brome, published the hymn with the opening
    words "All praise," has been deemed by such a high authority as the
    1st earl of Selborne sufficient evidence that the alteration had
    Ken's authority.

KEN, a river of Northern India, tributary to the Jumna on its right
bank, flowing through Bundelkhand. An important reservoir in its upper
basin, which impounds about 180 million cubic feet of water, irrigates
about 374,000 acres in a region specially liable to drought.

KENA, or KENEH (sometimes written _Qina_), a town of Upper Egypt on a
canal about a mile E. of the Nile and 380 m. S.S.E. of Cairo by rail.
Pop. (1907), 20,069. Kena, the capital of a province of the same name,
was called by the Greeks Caene or Caenepolis (probably the [Greek: Neê
polis] of Herodotus; see AKHMIM) in distinction from Coptos (q.v.), 15
m. S., to whose trade it eventually succeeded. It is a remarkable fact
that its modern name should be derived from a purely Greek word, like
Iskenderia from Alexandria, and Nekrash from Naucratis; in the absence
of any known Egyptian name it seems to point to Kena having originated
in a foreign settlement in connexion with the Red Sea trade. It is a
flourishing town, specially noted for the manufacture of the porous
water jars and bottles used throughout Egypt. The clay for making them
is obtained from a valley north of Kena. The pottery is sent down the
Nile in specially constructed boats. Kena is also known for the
excellence of the dates sold in its bazaars and for the large colony of
dancing girls who live there. It carries on a trade in grain and dates
with Arabia, via Kosseir on the Red Sea, 100 m. E. in a direct line.
This inconsiderable traffic is all that is left of the extensive
commerce formerly maintained--chiefly via Berenice and Coptos--between
Upper Egypt and India and Arabia. The road to Kosseir is one of great
antiquity. It leads through the valley of Hammamat, celebrated for its
ancient breccia quarries and deserted gold mines. During the British
operations in Egypt in 1801 Sir David Baird and his force marched along
this road to Kena, taking sixteen days on the journey from Kosseir.

KENDAL, DUKEDOM OF. The English title of duke of Kendal was first
bestowed in May 1667 upon Charles (d. 1667), the infant son of the duke
of York, afterwards James II. Several persons have been created earl of
Kendal, among them being John, duke of Bedford, son of Henry IV.; John
Beaufort, duke of Somerset (d. 1444); and Queen Anne's husband, George,
prince of Denmark.

In 1719 Ehrengarde Melusina (1667-1743), mistress of the English king
George I., was created duchess of Kendal. This lady was the daughter of
Gustavus Adolphus, count of Schulenburg (d. 1691), and was born at Emden
on the 25th of December 1667. Her father held important positions under
the elector of Brandenburg; her brother Matthias John (1661-1747) won
great fame as a soldier in Germany and was afterwards commander-in-chief
of the army of the republic of Venice. Having entered the household of
Sophia, electress of Hanover, Melusina attracted the notice of her son,
the future king, whose mistress she became about 1690. When George
crossed over to England in 1714, the "Schulenburgin," as Sophia called
her, followed him and soon supplanted her principal rival, Charlotte
Sophia, Baroness von Kilmannsegge (c. 1673-1725), afterwards countess of
Darlington, as his first favourite. In 1716 she was created duchess of
Munster; then duchess of Kendal; and in 1723 the emperor Charles VI.
made her a princess of the Empire. The duchess was very avaricious and
obtained large sums of money by selling public offices and titles; she
also sold patent rights, one of these being the privilege of supplying
Ireland with a new copper coinage. This she sold to a Wolverhampton iron
merchant named William Wood (1671-1730), who flooded the country with
coins known as "Wood's halfpence," thus giving occasion for the
publication of Swift's famous _Drapier's Letters_. In political matters
she had much influence with the king, and she received £10,000 for
procuring the recall of Bolingbroke from exile. After George's death in
1727 she lived at Kendal House, Isleworth, Middlesex, until her death on
the 10th of May 1743. The duchess was by no means a beautiful woman, and
her thin figure caused the populace to refer to her as the "maypole." By
the king she had two daughters: Petronilla Melusina (c. 1693-1778), who
was created countess of Walsingham in 1722, and who married the great
earl of Chesterfield; and Margaret Gertrude, countess of Lippe

KENDAL, WILLIAM HUNTER (1843-   ), English actor, whose family name was
Grimston, was born in London on the 16th of December 1843, the son of a
painter. He made his first stage appearance at Glasgow in 1862 as Louis
XIV., in _A Life's Revenge_, billed as "Mr Kendall." After some
experience at Birmingham and elsewhere, he joined the Haymarket company
in London in 1866, acting everything from burlesque to Romeo. In 1869 he
married Margaret (Madge) Shafto Robertson (b. 1849), sister of the
dramatist, T. W. Robertson. As "Mr and Mrs Kendal" their professional
careers then became inseparable. Mrs Kendal's first stage appearance was
as Marie, "a child," in _The Orphan of the Frozen Sea_ in 1854 in
London. She soon showed such talent both as actress and singer that she
secured numerous engagements, and by 1865 was playing Ophelia and
Desdemona. She was Mary Meredith in _Our American Cousin_ with Sothern,
and Pauline to his Claud Melnotte. But her real triumphs were at the
Haymarket in Shakespearian revivals and the old English comedies. While
Mr Kendal played Orlando, Charles Surface, Jack Absolute and Young
Marlowe, his wife made the combination perfect with her Rosalind, Lady
Teazle, Lydia Languish and Kate Hardcastle; and she created Galatea in
Gilbert's _Pygmalion and Galatea_ (1871). Short seasons followed at the
Court theatre and at the Prince of Wales's, at the latter of which they
joined the Bancrofts in _Diplomacy_ and other plays. Then in 1879 began
a long association with Mr (afterwards Sir John) Hare as joint-managers
of the St James's theatre, some of their notable successes being in _The
Squire_, _Impulse_, _The Ironmaster_ and _A Scrap of Paper_. In 1888,
however, the Hare and Kendal régime came to an end. From that time Mr
and Mrs Kendal chiefly toured in the provinces and in America, with an
occasional season at rare intervals in London.

KENDAL, a market town and municipal borough in the Kendal parliamentary
division of Westmorland, England, 251 m. N.N.W. from London on the
Windermere branch of the London & North-Western railway. Pop. (1901),
14,183. The town, the full name of which is Kirkby-Kendal or
Kirkby-in-Kendal, is the largest in the county. It is picturesquely
placed on the river Kent, and is irregularly built. The white-walled
houses with their blue-slated roofs, and the numerous trees, give it an
attractive appearance. To the S.W. rises an abrupt limestone eminence,
Scout Scar, which commands an extensive view towards Windermere and the
southern mountains of the Lake District. The church of the Holy Trinity,
the oldest part of which dates from about 1200, is a Gothic building
with five aisles and a square tower. In it is the helmet of Major Robert
Philipson, who rode into the church during service in search of one of
Cromwell's officers, Colonel Briggs, to do vengeance on him. This major
was notorious as "Robin the Devil," and his story is told in Scott's
_Rokeby_. Among the public buildings are the town hall, classic in
style; the market house, and literary and scientific institution, with a
museum containing a fossil collection from the limestone of the
locality. Educational establishments include a free grammar school, in
modern buildings, founded in 1525 and well endowed; a blue-coat school,
science and art school, and green-coat Sunday school (1813). On an
eminence east of the town are the ruins of Kendal castle, attributed to
the first barons of Kendal. It was the birthplace of Catherine Parr,
Henry VIII.'s last queen. On the Castlebrow Hill, an artificial mound
probably of pre-Norman origin, an obelisk was raised in 1788 in memory
of the revolution of 1688. The woollen manufactures of Kendal have been
noted since 1331, when Edward III. is said to have granted letters of
protection to John Kemp, a Flemish weaver who settled in the town; and,
although the coarse cloth known to Shakespeare as "Kendal green" is no
longer made, its place is more than supplied by active manufactures of
tweeds, railway rugs, horse clothing, knitted woollen caps and jackets,
worsted and woollen yarns, and similar goods. Other manufactures of
Kendal are machine-made boots and shoes, cards for wool and cotton,
agricultural and other machinery, paper, and, in the neighbourhood,
gunpowder. There is a large weekly market for grain, and annual horse
and cattle fairs. The town is governed by a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18
councillors. Area, 2622 acres.

The outline of a Roman fort is traceable at Watercrook near Kendal. The
barony and castle of Kendal or Kirkby-in-Kendal, held by Turold before
the Conquest, were granted by William I. to Ivo de Taillebois, but the
barony was divided into three parts in the reign of Richard II., one
part with the castle passing to Sir William Parr, knight, ancestor of
Catherine Parr. After the death of her brother William Parr, marquess of
Northampton, his share of the barony called Marquis Fee reverted to
Queen Elizabeth. The castle, being evidently deserted, was in ruins in
1586. Kendal was plundered by the Scots in 1210, and was visited by the
rebels in 1715 and again in 1745 when the Pretender was proclaimed king
there. Burgesses in Kendal are mentioned in 1345, and the borough with
"court housez" and the fee-farm of free tenants is included in a
confirmation charter to Sir William Parr in 1472. Richard III. in 1484
granted the inhabitants of the barony freedom from toll, passage and
pontage, and the town was incorporated in 1576 by Queen Elizabeth under
the title of an alderman and 12 burgesses, but Charles I. in 1635
appointed a mayor, 12 aldermen and 20 capital burgesses. Under the
Municipal Reform Act of 1835 the corporation was again altered. From
1832 to 1885 Kendal sent one member to parliament, but since the last
date its representation has been merged in that of the southern division
of the county. A weekly market on Saturday granted by Richard I. to
Roger Fitz Reinfred was purchased by the corporation from the earl of
Lonsdale and Captain Bagot, lords of the manor, in 1885 and 1886. Of the
five fairs which are now held three are ancient, that now held on the
29th of April being granted to Marmaduke de Tweng and William de Ros in
1307, and those on the 8th and 9th of November to Christiana, widow of
Ingelram de Gynes, in 1333.

  See _Victoria County History, Westmorland_; Cornelius Nicholson, _The
  Annals of Kendal_ (1861).

KENDALL, HENRY CLARENCE (1841-1882), Australian poet, son of a
missionary, was born in New South Wales on the 18th of April 1841. He
received only a slight education, and in 1860 he entered a lawyer's
office in Sydney. He had always had literary tastes, and sent some of
his verses in 1862 to London to be published in the _Athenaeum_. Next
year he obtained a clerkship in the Lands Department at Sydney, being
afterwards transferred to the Colonial Secretary's office; and he
combined this work with the writing of poetry and with journalism. His
principal volumes of verse were _Leaves from an Australian Forest_
(1869) and _Songs from the Mountains_ (1880), his feeling for nature, as
embodied in Australian landscape and bush-life, being very true and full
of charm. In 1869 he resigned his post in the public service, and for
some little while was in business with his brothers. Sir Henry Parkes
took an interest in him, and eventually appointed him to an
inspectorship of forests. He died on the 1st of August 1882. In 1886 a
memorial edition of his poems was published at Melbourne.

KENEALY, EDWARD VAUGHAN HYDE (1819-1880), Irish barrister and author,
was born at Cork on the 2nd of July 1819, the son of a local merchant.
He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin; was called to the Irish bar
in 1840 and to the English bar in 1847; and obtained a fair practice in
criminal cases. In 1868 he became a Q.C. and a bencher of Gray's Inn. It
was not, however, till 1873, when he became leading counsel for the
Tichborne claimant, that he came into any great prominence. His violent
conduct of the case became a public scandal, and after the verdict
against his client he started a paper to plead his cause and to attack
the judges. His behaviour was so extreme that in 1874 he was disbenched
and disbarred by his Inn. He then started an agitation throughout the
country to ventilate his grievances, and in 1875 was elected to
parliament for Stoke; but no member would introduce him when he took his
seat. Dr Kenealy, as he was always called, gradually ceased to attract
attention, and on the 16th of April 1880 he died in London. He published
a great quantity of verse, and also of somewhat mystical theology. His
second daughter, Dr Arabella Kenealy, besides practising as a physician,
wrote some clever novels.

KENG TUNG, the most extensive of the Shan States in the province of
Burma. It is in the southern Shan States' charge and lies almost
entirely east of the Salween river. The area of the state is rather over
12,000 sq. m. It is bounded N. by the states of Mang Lön, Möng Lem and
Keng Hung (Hsip Hsawng Panna), the two latter under Chinese control; E.
by the Mekong river, on the farther side of which is French Lao
territory; S. by the Siamese Shan States, and W. in a general way by the
Salween river, though it overlaps it in some places. The state is known
to the Chinese as Mêng Kêng, and was frequently called by the Burmese
"the 32 cities of the Gôn" (Hkön). Keng Tung has expanded very
considerably since the establishment of British control, by the
inclusion of the districts of Hsen Yawt, Hsen Mawng, Möng Hsat, Möng Pu,
and the cis-Mekong portions of Keng Cheng, which in Burmese times were
separate charges. The "classical" name of the state is Khemarata or
Khemarata Tungkapuri. About 63% of the area lies in the basin of the
Mekong river and 37% in the Salween drainage area. The watershed is a
high and generally continuous range. Some of its peaks rise to over 7000
ft., and the elevation is nowhere much below 5000 ft. Parallel to this
successive hill ranges run north and south. Mountainous country so
greatly predominates that the scattered valleys are but as islands in a
sea of rugged hills. The chief rivers, tributaries of the Salween, are
the Nam Hka, the Hwe Lông, Nam Pu, and the Nam Hsim. The first and last
are very considerable rivers. The Nam Hka rises in the Wa or Vü states,
the Nam Hsim on the watershed range in the centre of the state. Rocks
and rapids make both unnavigable, but much timber goes down the Nam
Hsim. The lower part of both rivers forms the boundary of Keng Tung
state. The chief tributaries of the Mekong are the Nam Nga, the Nam Lwe,
the Nam Yawng, Nam Lin, Nam Hôk and Nam Kôk. Of these the chief is the
Nam Lwe, which is navigable in the interior of the state, but enters the
Mekong by a gorge broken up by rocks. The Nam Lin and the Nam Kôk are
also considerable streams. The lower course of the latter passes by
Chieng Rai in Siamese territory. The lower Nam Hôk or Me Huak forms the
boundary with Siam.

  The existence of minerals was reported by the sawbwa, or chief, to
  Francis Garnier in 1867, but none is worked or located. Gold is washed
  in most of the streams. Teak forests exist in Möng Pu and Möng Hsat,
  and the sawbwa works them as government contracts. One-third of the
  price realized from the sale of the logs at Moulmein is retained as
  the government royalty. There are teak forests also in the Mekong
  drainage area in the south of the state, but there is only a local
  market for the timber. Rice, as elsewhere in the Shan States, is the
  chief crop. Next to it is sugar-cane, grown both as a field crop and
  in gardens. Earth-nuts and tobacco are the only other field crops in
  the valleys. On the hills, besides rice, cotton, poppy and tea are the
  chief crops. The tea is carelessly grown, badly prepared, and only
  consumed locally. A great deal of garden produce is raised in the
  valleys, especially near the capital. The state is rich in cattle, and
  exports them to the country west of the Salween. Cotton and opium are
  exported in large quantities, the former entirely to China, a good
  deal of the latter to northern Siam, which also takes shoes and
  sandals. Tea is carried through westwards from Keng Hung, and silk
  from the Siamese Shan States. Cotton and silk weaving are dying out as
  industries. Large quantities of shoes and sandals are made of buffalo
  and bullock hide, with Chinese felt uppers and soft iron hobnails.
  There is a good deal of pottery work. The chief work in iron is the
  manufacture of guns, which has been carried on for many years in
  certain villages of the Sam Tao district. The gun barrels and springs
  are rude but effective, though not very durable. The revenue of the
  state is collected as the Burmese _thathameda_, a rude system of
  income-tax. From 1890, when the state made its submission, the annual
  tributary offerings made in Burmese times were continued to the
  British government, but in 1894 these offerings were converted into
  tribute. For the quinquennial period 1903-1908 the state paid Rs.
  30,000 (£2000) annually.

  The population of the state was enumerated for the first time in 1901,
  giving a total of 190,698. According to an estimate made by Mr G. C.
  Stirling, the political officer in charge of the state, in 1897-1898,
  of the various tribes of Shans, the Hkün and Lü contribute about
  36,000 each, the western Shans 32,000, the Lem and Lao Shans about
  7000, and the Chinese Shans about 5000. Of the hill tribes, the Kaw or
  Aka are the most homogeneous with 22,000, but probably the Wa (or Vü),
  disguised under various tribal names, are at least equally numerous.
  Nominal Buddhists make up a total of 133,400, and the remainder are
  classed as animists. Spirit-worship is, however, very conspicuously
  prevalent amongst all classes even of the Shans. The present sawbwa or
  chief received his patent from the British government on the 9th of
  February 1897. The early history of Keng Tung is very obscure, but
  Burmese influence seems to have been maintained since the latter half,
  at any rate, of the 16th century. The Chinese made several attempts to
  subdue the state, and appear to have taken the capital in 1765-66, but
  were driven out by the united Shan and Burmese troops. The same fate
  seems to have attended the first Siamese invasion of 1804. The second
  and third Siamese invasions, in 1852 and 1854, resulted in great
  disaster to the invaders, though the capital was invested for a time.

  Keng Tung, the capital, is situated towards the southern end of a
  valley about 12 m. long and with an average breadth of 7 m. The town
  is surrounded by a brick wall and moat about 5 m. round. Only the
  central and northern portions are much built over. Pop. (1901), 5695.
  It is the most considerable town in the British Shan States. In the
  dry season crowds attend the market held according to Shan custom
  every five days, and numerous caravans come from China. The military
  post formerly was 7 m. west of the town, at the foot of the watershed
  range. At first the headquarters of a regiment was stationed there;
  this was reduced to a wing, and recently to military police. The site
  was badly chosen and proved very unhealthy, and the headquarters both
  military and civil have been transferred to Loi Ngwe Lông, a ridge
  6500 ft. above sea-level 12 m. south of the capital. The rainfall
  probably averages between 50 and 60 in. for the year. The temperature
  seems to rise to nearly 100° F. during the hot weather, falling 30° or
  more during the night. In the cold weather a temperature of 40° or a
  few degrees more or less appears to be the lowest experienced. The
  plain in which the capital stands has an altitude of 3000 ft.
       (J. G. Sc.)

KENILWORTH, a market town in the Rugby parliamentary division of
Warwickshire, England; pleasantly situated on a tributary of the Avon,
on a branch of the London & North-Western railway, 99 m. N.W. from
London. Pop. of urban district (1901), 4544. The town is only of
importance from its antiquarian interest and the magnificent ruins of
its old castle. The walls originally enclosed an area of 7 acres. The
principal portions of the building remaining are the gatehouse, now used
as a dwelling-house; Caesar's tower, the only portion built by Geoffrey
de Clinton now extant, with massive walls 16 ft. thick; the Merwyn's
tower of Scott's _Kenilworth_; the great hall built by John of Gaunt
with windows of very beautiful design; and the Leicester buildings,
which are in a very ruinous condition. Not far from the castle are the
remains of an Augustinian monastery founded in 1122, and afterwards made
an abbey. Adjoining the abbey is the parish church of St Nicholas,
restored in 1865, a structure of mixed architecture, containing a fine
Norman doorway, which is supposed to have been the entrance of the
former abbey church.

Kenilworth (_Chinewrde_, _Kenillewurda_, _Kinelingworthe_, _Kenilord_,
_Killingworth_) is said to have been a member of Stoneleigh before the
Norman Conquest and a possession of the Saxon kings, whose royal
residence there was destroyed in the wars between Edward and Canute. The
town was granted by Henry I. to Geoffrey de Clinton, a Norman who built
the castle round which the whole history of Kenilworth centres. He also
founded a monastery here about 1122. Geoffrey's grandson released his
right to King John, and the castle remained with the crown until Henry
III. granted it to Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester. The famous
"Dictum de Kenilworth" was proclaimed here in 1266. After the battle of
Evesham the rebel forces rallied at the castle, which, after a siege of
six months, was surrendered by Henry de Hastings, the governor, on
account of the scarceness of food and of the "pestilent disease" which
raged there. The king then granted it to his son Edmund. Through John of
Gaunt it came to Henry IV. and was granted by Elizabeth in 1562 to
Robert Dudley, afterwards earl of Leicester, but on his death in 1588
again merged in the possessions of the Crown. The earl spent large sums
on restoring the castle and grounds, and here in July 1575 he
entertained Queen Elizabeth at "excessive cost," as described in Scott's
_Kenilworth_. On the queen's first entry "a small floating island
illuminated by a great variety of torches ... made its appearance upon
the lake," upon which, clad in silks, were the Lady of the Lake and two
nymphs waiting on her, and for the several days of her stay "rare shews
and sports were there exercised." During the civil wars the castle was
dismantled by the soldiers of Cromwell and was from that time abandoned
to decay. The only mention of Kenilworth as a borough occurs in a
charter of Henry I. to Geoffrey de Clinton and in the charters of Henry
I. and Henry II. to the church of St Mary of Kenilworth confirming the
grant of lands made by Geoffrey to this church, and mentioning that he
kept the land in which his castle was situated and also land for making
his borough, park and fishpond. The town possesses large tanneries.

KENITES, in the Bible a tribe or clan of the south of Palestine, closely
associated with the Amalekites, whose hostility towards Israel, however,
it did not share. On this account Saul spared them when bidden by Yahweh
to destroy Amalek; David, too, whilst living in Judah, appears to have
been on friendly terms with them (1 Sam. xv. 6; xxx. 29). Moses himself
married into a Kenite family (Judges i. 16), and the variant tradition
would seem to show that the Kenites were only a branch of the Midianites
(see JETHRO, MIDIAN). Jael, the slayer of Sisera (see DEBORAH), was the
wife of Heber the Kenite, who lived near Kadesh in Naphtali; and the
appearance of the clan in this locality may be explained from the
nomadic habits of the tribe, or else as a result of the northward
movement in which at least one other clan or tribe took part (see Dan).
There is an obscure allusion to their destruction in an appendage to the
oracles of Balaam (Num. xxiv. 21 seq., see G. B. Gray, _Intern. Crit.
Comm._ p. 376); and with this, the only unfavourable reference to them,
may perhaps be associated the curse of Cain. Although some connexion
with the name of Cain is probable, it is difficult, however, to explain
the curse (for one view, see LEVITES). More important is the prominent
part played by the Kenite (or Midianite) father-in-law of Moses, whose
help and counsel are related in Exod. xviii.; and if, as seems probable,
the Rechabites (q.v.) were likewise of Kenite origin (1 Chron. ii. 55),
this obscure tribe had evidently an important part in shaping the
religion of Israel.

  See on this question, HEBREW RELIGION, and Budde, _Religion of Israel
  to the Exile_, vol. i.; G. A. Barton, _Semitic Origins_, pp. 272 sqq.;
  L. B. Paton, _Biblical World_ (1906, July and August). On the
  migration of the Kenites into Palestine (cf. Num. x. 29 with Judges i.
  16), see CALEB, GENESIS, JERAHMEEL, JUDAH.     (S. A. C.)

KENMORE, a village and parish of Perthshire, Scotland, 6 m. W. of
Aberfeldy. Pop. of parish (1901), 1271. It is situated at the foot of
Loch Tay, near the point where the river Tay leaves the lake. Taymouth
Castle, the seat of the Marquess of Breadalbane, stands near the base of
Drummond Hill in a princely park through which flows the Tay. It is a
stately four-storeyed edifice with corner towers and a central pavilion,
and was built in 1801 (the west wing being added in 1842) on the site of
the mansion erected in 1580 for Sir Colin Campbell of Glenorchy. The old
house was called Balloch (Gaelic, _bealach_, "the outlet of a lake").
Two miles S.W. of Kenmore are the Falls of the Acharn, 80 ft. high. When
Wordsworth and his sister visited them in 1803 the grotto at the cascade
was fitted up to represent a "hermit's mossy cell." At the village of
Fortingall, on the north side of Loch Tay, are the shell of a yew
conjectured to be 3000 years old and the remains of a Roman camp.
Glenlyon House was the home of Campbell of Glenlyon, chief agent in the
massacre of Glencoe. At Garth, 2½ m. N.E., are the ruins of an ancient
castle, said to have been a stronghold of Alexander Stewart, the Wolf of
Badenoch (1343-1405), in close proximity to the modern mansion built for
Sir Donald Currie.

KENMURE, WILLIAM GORDON, 6th viscount (d. 1716), Jacobite leader, son of
Alexander, 5th viscount (d. 1698), was descended from the same family as
Sir John Gordon of Lochinvar (d. 1604), whose grandson, Sir John Gordon
(d. 1634), was created Viscount Kenmure in 1633. The family had
generally adhered to the Presbyterian cause, but Robert, the 4th
viscount, had been excepted from the amnesty granted to the Scottish
royalists in 1654, and the 5th viscount, who had succeeded his kinsman
Robert in 1663, after some vacillation, had joined the court of the
exiled Stuarts. The 6th viscount's adherence to the Pretender in 1715 is
said to have been due to his wife Mary Dalzell (d. 1776), sister of
Robert, 6th earl of Carnwath. He raised the royal standard of Scotland
at Lochmaben on the 12th of October 1715, and was joined by about two
hundred gentlemen, with Carnwath, William Maxwell, 5th earl of
Nithsdale, and George Seton, 5th earl of Wintoun. This small force
received some additions before Kenmure reached Hawick, where he learnt
the news of the English rising. He effected a junction with Thomas
Forster and James Radclyffe, 3rd earl of Derwentwater, at Rothbury.
Their united forces of some fourteen hundred men, after a series of
rather aimless marches, halted at Kelso, where they were reinforced by a
brigade under William Mackintosh. Threatened by an English army under
General George Carpenter, they eventually crossed the English border to
join the Lancashire Jacobites, and the command was taken over by
Forster. Kenmure was taken prisoner at Preston on the 13th of November,
and was sent to the Tower. In the following January he was tried with
other Jacobite noblemen before the House of Lords, when he pleaded
guilty, and appealed to the king's mercy. Immediately before his
execution on Tower Hill on the 24th of February he reiterated his belief
in the claims of the Pretender. His estates and titles were forfeited,
but in 1824 an act of parliament repealed the forfeiture, and his direct
descendant, John Gordon (1750-1840), became Viscount Kenmure. On the
death of the succeeding peer, Adam, 8th viscount, without issue in 1847,
the title became dormant.

KENNEDY, the name of a famous and powerful Scottish family long settled
in Ayrshire, derived probably from the name Kenneth. Its chief seat is
at Culzean, or Colzean, near Maybole in Ayrshire.

A certain Duncan who became earl of Carrick early in the 13th century is
possibly an ancestor of the Kennedys, but a more certain ancestor is
John Kennedy of Dunure, who obtained Cassillis and other lands in
Ayrshire about 1350. John's descendant, Sir James Kennedy, married Mary,
a daughter of King Robert III. and their son, Sir Gilbert Kennedy, was
created Lord Kennedy before 1458. Another son was James Kennedy (c.
1406-1465), bishop of St Andrews from 1441 until his death in July 1465.
The bishop founded and endowed St Salvator's college at St Andrews and
built a large and famous ship called the "St Salvator." Andrew Lang
(_History of Scotland_, vol. i.) says of him, "The chapel which he built
for his college is still thronged by the scarlet gowns of his students;
his arms endure on the oaken doors; the beautiful silver mace of his
gift, wrought in Paris, and representing all orders of spirits in the
universe, is one of the few remaining relics of ancient Scottish plate."
Before the bishop had begun to assist in ruling Scotland, a kinsman, Sir
Hugh Kennedy, had helped Joan of Arc to drive the English from France.

One of Gilbert Kennedy's sons was the poet, Walter Kennedy (q.v.), and
his grandson David, third Lord Kennedy (killed at Flodden, 1513), was
created earl of Cassillis before 1510; David's sister Janet Kennedy was
one of the mistresses of James IV. The earl was succeeded by his son
Gilbert, a prominent figure in the history of Scotland from 1513 until
he was killed at Prestwick on the 22nd of December 1527. His son
Gilbert, the 3rd earl (c. 1517-1558), was educated by George Buchanan,
and was a prisoner in England after the rout of Solway Moss in 1542. He
was soon released and was lord high treasurer of Scotland from 1554 to
1558, although he had been intriguing with the English and had offered
to kill Cardinal Beaton in the interests of Henry VIII. He died somewhat
mysteriously at Dieppe late in 1558 when returning from Paris, where he
had attended the marriage of Mary Queen of Scots, and the dauphin of
France. He was the father of the "king of Carrick" and the brother of
Quintin Kennedy (1520-1564), abbot of Crossraguel. The abbot wrote
several works defending the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church, and
in 1562 had a public discussion on these questions with John Knox, which
took place at Maybole and lasted for three days. He died on the 22nd of
August 1564.

Gilbert Kennedy, 4th earl of Cassillis (c. 1541-1576), called the "king
of Carrick," became a protestant, but fought for Queen Mary at Langside
in 1568. He is better known through his cruel treatment of Allan
Stewart, the commendator abbot of Crossraguel, Stewart being badly
burned by the earl's orders at Dunure in 1570 in order to compel him to
renounce his title to the abbey lands which had been seized by
Cassillis. This "ane werry greedy man" died at Edinburgh in December
1576. His son John (c. 1567-1615), who became the 5th earl, was lord
high treasurer of Scotland in 1599 and his lifetime witnessed the
culmination of a great feud between the senior and a younger branch of
the Kennedy family. He was succeeded as 6th earl by his nephew John (c.
1595-1668), called "the grave and solemn earl." A strong presbyterian,
John was one of the leaders of the Scots in their resistance to Charles
I. In 1643 he went to the Westminster Assembly of Divines and several
times he was sent on missions to Charles I. and to Charles II.; for a
time he was lord justice general and he was a member of Cromwell's House
of Lords. His son, John, became the 7th earl, and one of his daughters,
Margaret, married Gilbert Burnet, afterwards bishop of Salisbury. His
first wife, Jean (1607-1642), daughter of Thomas Hamilton, 1st earl of
Haddington, has been regarded as the heroine of the ballad "The Gypsie
Laddie," but this identity is now completely disproved. John, the 7th
earl, "the heir," says Burnet, "to his father's stiffness, but not to
his other virtues," supported the revolution of 1688 and died on the
23rd of July 1701; his grandson John, the 8th earl, died without sons in
August 1759.

The titles and estates of the Kennedys were now claimed by William
Douglas, afterwards duke of Queensberry, a great-grandson in the female
line of the 7th earl and also by Sir Thomas Kennedy, Bart., of Culzean,
a descendant of the 3rd earl, i.e. by the heir general and the heir
male. In January 1762 the House of Lords decided in favour of the heir
male, and Sir Thomas became the 9th earl of Cassillis. He died unmarried
on the 30th of November 1775, and his brother David, the 10th earl, also
died unmarried on the 18th of December 1792, when the baronetcy became
extinct. The earldom of Cassillis now passed to a cousin, Archibald
Kennedy, a captain in the royal navy, whose father, Archibald Kennedy
(d. 1763), had migrated to America in 1722 and had become collector of
customs in New York. His son, the 11th earl, had estates in New Jersey
and married an American heiress; in 1765 he was said to own more houses
in New York than any one else. He died in London on the 30th of December
1794, and was succeeded by his son Archibald (1770-1846), who was
created Baron Ailsa in 1806 and marquess of Ailsa in 1831. His
great-grandson Archibald (b. 1847) became 3rd marquess.

  See the article in vol. ii. of Sir R. Douglas's _Peerage of Scotland_,
  edited by Sir J. B. Paul (1905). This is written by Lord Ailsa's son
  and heir, Archibald Kennedy, earl of Cassillis (b. 1872).

KENNEDY, BENJAMIN HALL (1804-1889), English scholar, was born at Summer
Hill, near Birmingham, on the 6th of November 1804, the eldest son of
Rann Kennedy (1772-1851), who came of a branch of the Ayrshire family
which had settled in Staffordshire. Rann Kennedy was a scholar and man
of letters, several of whose sons rose to distinction. B. H. Kennedy was
educated at Birmingham and Shrewsbury schools, and St John's College,
Cambridge. After a brilliant university career he was elected fellow and
classical lecturer of St John's College in 1828. Two years later he
became an assistant master at Harrow, whence he went to Shrewsbury as
headmaster in 1836. He retained this post until 1866, the thirty years
of his rule being marked by a long series of successes won by his
pupils, chiefly in classics. When he retired from Shrewsbury a large sum
was collected as a testimonial to him, and was devoted partly to the new
school buildings and partly to the founding of a Latin professorship at
Cambridge. The first two occupants of the chair were both Kennedy's old
pupils, H. A. J. Munro and J. E. B. Mayor. In 1867 he was elected
regius professor of Greek at Cambridge and canon of Ely. From 1870 to
1880 he was a member of the committee for the revision of the New
Testament. He was an enthusiastic advocate for the admission of women to
a university education, and took a prominent part in the establishment
of Newnham and Girton colleges. He was also a keen politician of liberal
sympathies. He died near Torquay on the 6th of April 1889. Among a
number of classical school-books published by him are two, a _Public
School Latin Primer_ and _Public School Latin Grammar_, which were for
long in use in nearly all English schools.

His other chief works are: Sophocles, _Oedipus Tyrannus_ (2nd ed.,
1885), Aristophanes, _Birds_ (1874); Aeschylus, _Agamemnon_ (2nd ed.,
1882), with introduction, metrical translation and notes; a commentary
on Virgil (3rd ed., 1881); and a translation of Plato, _Theaetetus_
(1881). He contributed largely to the collection known as _Sabrinae
Corolla_, and published a collection of verse in Greek, Latin and
English under the title of _Between Whiles_ (2nd ed., 1882), with many
autobiographical details.

His brother, CHARLES RANN KENNEDY (1808-1867), was educated at
Shrewsbury school and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated as
senior classic (1831). He then became a barrister. From 1849-1856 he was
professor of law at Queen's College, Birmingham. As adviser to Mrs
Swinfen, the plaintiff in the celebrated will case Swinfen v. Swinfen
(1856), he brought an action for remuneration for professional services,
but the verdict given in his favour at Warwick assizes was set aside by
the court of Common Pleas, on the ground that a barrister could not sue
for the recovery of his fees. The excellence of Kennedy's scholarship is
abundantly proved by his translation of the orations of Demosthenes
(1852-1863, in Bohn's _Classical Library_), and his blank verse
translation of the works of Virgil (1861). He was also the author of
_New Rules for Pleading_ (2nd ed., 1841) and _A Treatise on Annuities_
(1846). He died in Birmingham on the 17th of December 1867.

Another brother, REV. WILLIAM JAMES KENNEDY (1814-1891), was a prominent
educationalist, and the father of Lord Justice Sir William Rann Kennedy
(b. 1846), himself a distinguished Cambridge scholar.

KENNEDY, THOMAS FRANCIS (1788-1879), Scottish politician, was born near
Ayr in 1788. He studied for the bar and became advocate in 1811. Having
been elected M.P. for the Ayr burghs in 1818, he devoted the greater
part of his life to the promotion of Liberal reforms. In 1820 he married
the only daughter of Sir Samuel Romilly. He was greatly assisted by Lord
Cockburn, then Mr Henry Cockburn, and a volume of correspondence
published by Kennedy in 1874 forms a curious and interesting record of
the consultations of the two friends on measures which they regarded as
requisite for the political regeneration of their native country. One of
the first measures to which he directed his attention was the withdrawal
of the power of nominating juries from the judges, and the imparting of
a right of peremptory challenge to prisoners. Among other subjects were
the improvement of the parish schools, of pauper administration, and of
several of the corrupt forms of legal procedure which then prevailed. In
the construction of the Scottish Reform Act Kennedy took a prominent
part; indeed he and Lord Cockburn may almost be regarded as its authors.
After the accession of the Whigs to office in 1832 he held various
important offices in the ministry, and most of the measures of reform
for Scotland, such as burgh reform, the improvements in the law of
entail, and the reform of the sheriff courts, owed much to his sagacity
and energy. In 1837 he went to Ireland as paymaster of civil services,
and set himself to the promotion of various measures of reform. Kennedy
retired from office in 1854, but continued to take keen interest in
political affairs, and up to his death in 1879 took a great part in both
county and parish business. He had a stern love of justice, and a
determined hatred of everything savouring of jobbery or dishonesty.

KENNEDY, WALTER (c. 1460-c. 1508), Scottish poet, was the third son of
Gilbert, 1st Lord Kennedy. He matriculated at Glasgow University in
1475 and took his M.A. degree in 1478. In 1481 he was one of four
examiners in his university, and in 1492 he acted as depute for his
nephew, the hereditary bailie of Carrick. He is best known for his share
in the _Flyting_ with Dunbar (q.v.). In this coarse combat of wits
Dunbar taunts his rival with his Highland speech (the poem is an
expression of Gaelic and "Inglis," i.e. English, antagonism); and
implies that he had been involved in treason, and had disguised himself
as a beggar in Galloway. With the exception of this share in the
_Flyting_ Kennedy's poems are chiefly religious in character. They
include _The Praise of Aige_, _Ane Agit Manis Invective against Mouth
Thankless_, _Ane Ballat in Praise of Our Lady_, _The Passion of Christ_
and _Pious Counsale_. They are printed in the rare supplement to David
Laing's edition of _William Dunbar_ (1834), and they have been re-edited
by Dr J. Schipper in the proceedings of the Kais. Akad. der
Wissenschaften (Vienna).

  See also the prolegomena in the Scottish Text Society's edition of
  Dunbar; and (for the life) Pitcairn's edition of the _Historie of the
  Kennedies_ (1830).

KENNEL, a small hut or shelter for a dog, also extended to a group of
buildings for a pack of hounds (see DOG). The word is apparently from a
Norman-French _kenil_ (this form does not occur, but is seen in the
Norman _kinet_, a little dog), modern French _chenil_, from popular
Latin _canile_, place for a dog, _canis_, cf. _ovile_, sheep-cote. The
word "kennel," a gutter, a drain in a street or road, is a corruption of
the Middle English _canel, cannel_, in modern English "channel," from
Latin _canalis_, canal.

KENNETH, the name of two kings of the Scots.

KENNETH I., MacAlpin (d. c. 860), often described as the first king of
Scotland (kingdom of Scone), was the son of the Alpin, called king of
the Scots, who had been slain by the Picts in 832 or 834, whilst
endeavouring to assert his claim to the Pictish throne. On the death of
his father, Kenneth is said to have succeeded him in the kingdom of the
Scots. The region of his rule is matter of conjecture, though Galloway
seems the most probable suggestion, in which case he probably led a
piratic host against the Picts. On the father's side he was descended
from the Conall Gabhrain of the old Dalriadic Scottish kingdom, and the
claims of father and son to the Pictish throne were probably through
female descent. Their chief support seems to have been found in Fife. In
the seventh year of his reign (839 or 841) he took advantage of the
effects of a Danish invasion of the Pictish kingdom to attack the
remaining Picts, whom he finally subdued in 844 or 846. In 846 or 848 he
transported the relics of St Columba to a church which he had
constructed at Scone. He is said also to have carried out six invasions
of Northumbria, in the course of which he burnt Dunbar and took Melrose.
According to the _Scalacronica_ of Sir Thomas Gray he drove the Angles
and Britons over the Tweed, reduced the land as far as that river, and
first called his kingdom Scotland. In his reign there appears to have
been a serious invasion by Danish pirates, in which Cluny and Dunkeld
were burnt. He died in 860 or 862, after a reign of twenty-eight years,
at Forteviot and was buried at Iona. The double dates are due to a
contest of authorities. Twenty-eight years is the accepted length of his
reign, and according to the chronicle of Henry of Huntingdon it began in
832. The Pictish Chronicle, however, gives Tuesday, the 13th of February
as the day, and this suits 862 only, in which case his reign would begin
in 834.

KENNETH II. (d. 995), son of Malcolm I., king of Alban, succeeded
Cuilean, son of Indulph, who had been slain by the Britons of
Strathclyde in 971 in Lothian. Kenneth began his reign by ravaging the
British kingdom, but he lost a large part of his force on the river
Cornag. Soon afterwards he attacked Eadulf, earl of the northern half of
Northumbria, and ravaged the whole of his territory. He fortified the
fords of the Forth as a defence against the Britons and again invaded
Northumbria, carrying off the earl's son. About this time he gave the
city of Brechin to the church. In 977 he is said to have slain Amlaiph
or Olaf, son of Indulph, king of Alban, perhaps a rival claimant to the
throne. According to the English chroniclers, Kenneth paid homage to
King Edgar for the cession of Lothian, but these statements are probably
due to the controversy as to the position of Scotland. The _mormaers_,
or chiefs, of Kenneth were engaged throughout his reign in a contest
with Sigurd the Norwegian, earl of Orkney, for the possession of
Caithness and the northern district of Scotland as far south as the
Spey. In this struggle the Scots attained no permanent success. In 995
Kenneth, whose strength like that of the other kings of his branch of
the house of Kenneth MacAlpin lay chiefly north of the Tay, was slain
treacherously by his own subjects, according to the later chroniclers at
Fettercairn in the Mearns through an intrigue of Einvela, daughter of
the earl of Angus. He was buried at Iona.

  See _Chronicles of the Picts and Scots_, ed. W. F. Skene (Edinburgh,
  1867), and W. F. Skene, _Celtic Scotland_ (Edinburgh, 1876).

KENNETT, WHITE (1660-1728), English bishop and antiquary, was born at
Dover in August 1660. He was educated at Westminster school and at St
Edmund's Hall, Oxford, where, while an undergraduate, he published
several translations of Latin works, including Erasmus _In Praise of
Folly_. In 1685 he became vicar of Ambrosden, Oxfordshire. A few years
afterwards he returned to Oxford as tutor and vice-principal of St
Edmund's Hall, where he gave considerable impetus to the study of
antiquities. George Hickes gave him lessons in Old English. In 1695 he
published _Parochial Antiquities_. In 1700 he became rector of St
Botolph's, Aldgate, London, and in 1701 archdeacon of Huntingdon. For a
eulogistic sermon on the first duke of Devonshire he was in 1707
recommended to the deanery of Peterborough. He afterwards joined the Low
Church party, strenuously opposed the Sacheverel movement, and in the
Bangorian controversy supported with great zeal and considerable
bitterness the side of Bishop Hoadly. His intimacy with Charles
Trimnell, bishop of Norwich, who was high in favour with the king,
secured for him in 1718 the bishopric of Peterborough. He died at
Westminster in December 1728.

  Kennett published in 1698 an edition of Sir Henry Spelman's _History
  of Sacrilege_, and he was the author of fifty-seven printed works,
  chiefly tracts and sermons. He wrote the third volume (Charles
  I.-Anne) of the composite _Compleat History of England_ (1706), and a
  more detailed and valuable _Register and Chronicle_ of the
  Restoration. He was much interested in the Society for the Propagation
  of the Gospel.

  The _Life of Bishop White Kennett_, by the Rev. William Newton
  (anonymous), appeared in 1730. See also Nichols's _Literary
  Anecdotes_, and I. Disraeli's _Calamities of Authors_.

KENNEY, JAMES (1780-1849), English dramatist, was the son of James
Kenney, one of the founders of Boodles' Club in London. His first play,
a farce called _Raising the Wind_ (1803), was a success owing to the
popularity of the character of "Jeremy Diddler." Kenney produced more
than forty dramas and operas between 1803 and 1845, and many of his
pieces, in which Mrs Siddons, Madame Vestris, Foote, Lewis, Liston and
other leading players appeared from time to time, enjoyed a considerable
vogue. His most popular play was _Sweethearts and Wives_, produced at
the Haymarket theatre in 1823, and several times afterwards revived; and
among the most successful of his other works were: _False Alarms_
(1807), a comic opera with music by Braham; _Love, Law and Physic_
(1812); _Spring and Autumn_ (1827); _The Illustrious Stranger, or
Married and Buried_ (1827); _Masaniello_ (1829); _The Sicilian Vespers_,
a tragedy (1840). Kenney, who numbered Charles Lamb and Samuel Rogers
among his friends, died in London on the 25th of July 1849. He married
the widow of the dramatist Thomas Holcroft, by whom he had two sons and
two daughters.

His second son, CHARLES LAMB KENNEY (1823-1881), made a name as a
journalist, dramatist and miscellaneous writer. Commencing life as a
clerk in the General Post Office in London, he joined the staff of _The
Times_, to which paper he contributed dramatic criticism. In 1856,
having been called to the bar, he became secretary to Ferdinand de
Lesseps, and in 1857 he published _The Gates of the East_ in support of
the projected construction of the Suez Canal. Kenney wrote the words for
a number of light operas, and was the author of several popular songs,
the best known of which were "Soft and Low" (1865) and "The Vagabond"
(1871). He also published a _Memoir of M. W. Balfe_ (1875), and
translated the _Correspondence_ of Balzac. He included Thackeray and
Dickens among his friends in a literary coterie in which he enjoyed the
reputation of a wit and an accomplished writer of _vers de société_. He
died in London on the 25th of August 1881.

  See John Genest, _Some Account of the English Stage, 1660-1830_, vols.
  vii. and viii. (10 vols., London, 1832); P. W. Clayden, _Rogers and
  his Contemporaries_ (2 vols., London, 1889); _Dict. National Biog_.

KENNGOTT, GUSTAV ADOLPH (1818-1897), German mineralogist, was born at
Breslau on the 6th of January 1818. After being employed in the
Hofmineralien Cabinet at Vienna, he became professor of mineralogy in
the university of Zürich. He was distinguished for his researches on
mineralogy, crystallography and petrology. He died at Lugano, on the 7th
of March 1897.

  PUBLICATIONS.--_Lehrbuch der reinen Krystallographie_ (1846);
  _Lehrbuch der Mineralogie_ (1852 and 1857; 5th ed., 1880); _Übersicht
  der Resultate mineralogischer Forschungen in den Jahren 1844-1865_ (7
  vols., 1852-1868); _Die Minerale der Schweiz_ (1866); _Elemente der
  Petrographie_ (1868).

KENNICOTT, BENJAMIN (1718-1783), English divine and Hebrew scholar, was
born at Totnes, Devonshire, on the 4th of April 1718. He succeeded his
father as master of a charity school, but by the liberality of friends
he was enabled to go to Wadham College, Oxford, in 1744, where he
distinguished himself in Hebrew and divinity. While an undergraduate he
published two dissertations, _On the Tree of Life in Paradise, with some
Observations on the Fall of Man_, and _On the Oblations of Cain and
Abel_ (2nd ed., 1747), which procured him the honour of a bachelor's
degree before the statutory time. In 1747 he was elected fellow of
Exeter College, and in 1750 he took his degree of M.A. In 1764 he was
made a fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1767 keeper of the Radcliffe
Library. He was also canon of Christ Church (1770) and rector of Culham
(1753), in Oxfordshire, and was subsequently presented to the living of
Menheniot, Cornwall, which he was unable to visit and resigned two years
before his death. He died at Oxford, on the 18th of September 1783.

  His chief work is the _Vetus Testamentum hebraicum cum variis
  lectionibus_ (2 vols. fol., Oxford, 1776-1780). Before this appeared
  he had written two dissertations entitled _The State of the Printed
  Hebrew Text of the Old Testament considered_, published respectively
  in 1753 and 1759, which were designed to combat the then current ideas
  as to the "absolute integrity" of the received Hebrew text. The first
  contains "a comparison of 1 Chron. xi. with 2 Sam. v. and xxiii. and
  observations on seventy MSS., with an extract of mistakes and various
  readings"; the second defends the claims of the Samaritan Pentateuch,
  assails the correctness of the printed copies of the Chaldee
  paraphrase, gives an account of Hebrew MSS. of the Bible known to be
  extant, and catalogues one hundred MSS. preserved in the British
  Museum and in the libraries of Oxford and Cambridge. In 1760 he issued
  his proposals for collating all Hebrew MSS. of date prior to the
  invention of printing. Subscriptions to the amount of nearly £10,000
  were obtained, and many learned men addressed themselves to the work
  of collation, Bruns of Helmstadt making himself specially useful as
  regarded MSS. in Germany, Switzerland and Italy. Between 1760 and 1769
  ten "annual accounts" of the progress of the work were given; in its
  course 615 Hebrew MSS. and 52 printed editions of the Bible were
  either wholly or partially collated, and use was also made (but often
  very perfunctorily) of the quotations in the Talmud. The materials
  thus collected, when properly arranged and made ready for the press,
  extended to 30 vols. fol. The text finally followed in printing was
  that of Van der Hooght--unpointed however, the points having been
  disregarded in collation--and the various readings were printed at the
  foot of the page. The Samaritan Pentateuch stands alongside the Hebrew
  in parallel columns. The _Dissertatio generalis_, appended to the
  second volume, contains an account of the MSS. and other authorities
  collated, and also a review of the Hebrew text, divided into periods,
  and beginning with the formation of the Hebrew canon after the return
  of the Jews from the exile. Kennicott's great work was in one sense a
  failure. It yielded no materials of value for the emendation of the
  received text, and by disregarding the vowel points overlooked the one
  thing in which some result (grammatical if not critical) might have
  been derived from collation of Massoretic MSS. But the negative result
  of the publication and of the _Variæ lectiones_ of De Rossi,
  published some years later, was important. It showed that the Hebrew
  text can be emended only by the use of the versions aided by

  Kennicott's work was perpetuated by his widow, who founded two
  university scholarships at Oxford for the study of Hebrew. The fund
  yields an income of £200 per annum.

KENNINGTON, a district in the south of London, England, within the
municipal borough of Lambeth. There was a royal palace here until the
reign of Henry VII. Kennington Common, now represented by Kennington
Park, was the site of a gallows until the end of the 18th century, and
was the meeting-place appointed for the great Chartist demonstration of
the 10th of April 1848. Kennington Oval is the ground of the Surrey
County Cricket Club. (See LAMBETH.)

KENORA (formerly RAT PORTAGE), a town and port of entry in Ontario,
Canada, and the chief town of Rainy River district, situated at an
altitude of 1087 ft. above the sea. Pop. (1891), 1806; (1901) 5222. It
is 133 m. by rail east of Winnipeg, on the Canadian Pacific railway, and
at the outlet of the Lake of the Woods. The Winnipeg river has at this
point a fall of 16 ft., which, with the lake as a reservoir, furnishes
an abundant and unfailing water-power. The industrial establishments
comprise reduction works, saw-mills and flour-mills, one of the latter
being the largest in Canada. It is the distributing point for the gold
mines of the district, and during the summer months steamboat
communication is maintained on the lake. There is important sturgeon

KENOSHA, a city and the county-seat of Kenosha county, Wisconsin,
U.S.A., on the S.W. shore of Lake Michigan, 35 m. S. of Milwaukee and 50
m. N. of Chicago. Pop. (1900), 11,606, of whom 3333 were foreign-born;
(1910), 21,371. It is served by the Chicago & North-Western railway, by
interurban electric lines connecting with Chicago and Milwaukee, and by
freight and passenger steamship lines on Lake Michigan. It has a good
harbour and a considerable lake commerce. The city is finely situated on
high bluffs above the lake, and is widely known for its healthiness. At
Kenosha is the Gilbert M. Simmons library, with 19,300 volumes in 1908.
Just south of the city is Kemper Hall, a Protestant Episcopal school for
girls, under the charge of the Sisters of St Mary, opened in 1870 as a
memorial to Jackson Kemper (1789-1870), the first missionary bishop
(1835-1859), and the first bishop of Wisconsin (1854-1870) of the
Protestant Episcopal Church. Among Kenosha's manufactures are brass and
iron beds (the Simmons Manufacturing Co.), mattresses, typewriters,
leather and brass goods, wagons, and automobiles--the "Rambler"
automobile being made at Kenosha by Thomas B. Jeffery and Co. There is
an extensive sole-leather tannery. The total value of the factory
product in 1905 was $12,362,600, the city ranking third in product value
among the cities of the state. Kenosha, originally known as Southport,
was settled about 1832, organized as the village of Southport in 1842,
and chartered in 1850 as a city under its present name.

KENSETT, JOHN FREDERICK (1818-1872), American artist, was born in
Cheshire, Connecticut, on the 22nd of March 1818. After studying
engraving he went abroad, took up painting, and exhibited at the Royal
Academy, London, in 1845. In 1849 he was elected to the National Academy
of Design, New York, and in 1859 he was appointed a member of the
committee to superintend the decoration of the United States Capitol at
Washington, D.C. After his death the contents of his studio realized at
public auction over $150,000. He painted landscapes more or less in the
manner of the Hudson River School.

KENSINGTON, a western metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded
N.E. by Paddington, and the city of Westminster, S.E. by Chelsea, S.W.
by Fulham, N.W. by Hammersmith, and extending N. to the boundary of the
county of London. Pop. (1901), 176,628. It includes the districts of
Kensal Green (partly) in the north, Notting Hill in the north-central
portion, Earl's Court in the south-west, and Brompton in the south-east.
A considerable but indefinite area adjoining Brompton is commonly called
South Kensington; but the area known as West Kensington is within the
borough of Fulham.

The name appears in early forms as _Chenesitun_ and _Kenesitune_. Its
origin is obscure, and has been variously connected with a Saxon royal
residence (King's town), a family of the name of Chenesi, and the word
_caen_, meaning wood, from the forest which originally covered the
district and was still traceable in Tudor times. The most probable
derivation, however, finds in the name a connection with the Saxon tribe
or family of Kensings. The history of the manor is traceable from the
time of Edward the Confessor, and after the Conquest it was held of the
Bishop of Coutances by Aubrey de Vere. Soon after this it became the
absolute property of the de Veres, who were subsequently created Earls
of Oxford. The place of the manorial courts is preserved in the name of
the modern district of Earl's Court. With a few short intervals the
manor continued in the direct line until Tudor times. There were also
three sub-manors, one given by the first Aubrey de Vere early in the
12th century to the Abbot of Abingdon, whence the present parish church
is called St Mary Abbots; while in another, Knotting Barnes, the origin
of the name Notting Hill is found.

The brilliant period of history for which Kensington is famous may be
dated from the settlement of the Court here by William III. The village,
as it was then, had a reputation for healthiness through its gravel soil
and pure atmosphere. A mansion standing on the western flank of the
present Kensington Gardens had been the seat of Heneage Finch, Lord
Chancellor and afterwards Earl of Nottingham. It was known as Nottingham
House, but when bought from the second earl by William, who was desirous
of avoiding residence in London as he suffered from asthma, it became
known as Kensington Palace. The extensive additions and alterations made
by Wren according to the taste of the King resulted in a severely plain
edifice of brick; the orangery, added in Queen Anne's time, is a better
example of the same architect's work. In the palace died Mary, William's
consort, William himself, Anne and George II., whose wife Caroline did
much to beautify Kensington Gardens, and formed the beautiful lake
called the Serpentine (1733). But a higher interest attaches to the
palace as the birthplace of Queen Victoria in 1819; and here her
accession was announced to her. By her order, towards the close of her
life, the palace became open to the public.

Modern influences, one of the most marked of which is the widespread
erection of vast blocks of residential flats, have swept away much that
was reminiscent of the historical connexions of the "old court suburb."
Kensington Square, however, lying south of High Street in the vicinity
of St Mary Abbots church, still preserves some of its picturesque
houses, nearly all of which were formerly inhabited by those attached to
the court; it numbered among its residents Addison, Talleyrand, John
Stuart Mill, and Green the historian. In Young Street, opening from the
Square, Thackeray lived for many years. His house here, still standing,
is most commonly associated with his work, though he subsequently moved
to Onslow Square and to Palace Green. Another link with the past is
found in Holland House, hidden in its beautiful park north of Kensington
Road. It was built by Sir Walter Cope, lord of the manor, in 1607, and
obtained its present name on coming into the possession of Henry Rich,
earl of Holland, through his marriage with Cope's daughter. He extended
and beautified the mansion. General Fairfax and General Lambert are
mentioned as occupants after his death, and later the property was let,
William Penn of Pennsylvania being among those who leased it. Addison,
marrying the widow of the 6th earl, lived here until his death in 1719.
During the tenancy of Henry Fox, third Lord Holland (1773-1840), the
house gained a European reputation as a meeting-place of statesmen and
men of letters. The formal gardens of Holland House are finely laid out,
and the rooms of the house are both beautiful in themselves and enriched
with collections of pictures, china and tapestries. Famous houses no
longer standing were Campden House, in the district north-west of the
parish church, formerly known as the Gravel Pits; and Gore House, on the
site of the present Albert Hall, the residence of William Wilberforce,
and later of the countess of Blessington.

The parish church of St Mary Abbots, High Street, occupies an ancient
site, but was built from the designs of Sir Gilbert Scott in 1869. It is
in Decorated style, and has one of the loftiest spires in England. In
the north the borough includes the cemetery of Kensal Green (with the
exception of the Roman Catholic portion, which is in the borough of
Hammersmith); it was opened in 1838, and great numbers of eminent
persons are buried here. The Roman Catholic church of Our Lady of
Victories lies close to Kensington Road, and in Brompton Road is the
Oratory of St Philip Neri, a fine building with richly decorated
interior, noted for the beauty of its musical services, as is the
Carmelite Church in Church Street. St Charles's Roman Catholic College
(for boys), near the north end of Ladbroke Grove, was founded by
Cardinal Manning in 1863; the buildings are now used as a training
centre for Catholic school mistresses. Of secular institutions the
principal are the museums in South Kensington. The Victoria and Albert,
commonly called the South Kensington, Museum contains various exhibits
divided into sections, and includes the buildings of the Royal College
of Science. Close by is the Natural History Museum, in a great building
by Alfred Waterhouse, opened as a branch of the British Museum in 1880.
Near this stood Cromwell House, erroneously considered to have been the
residence of Oliver Cromwell, the name of which survives in the adjacent
Cromwell Road. In Kensington Gardens, near the upper end of Exhibition
Road, which separates the two museums, was held the Great Exhibition of
1851, the hall of which is preserved as the Crystal Palace at Sydenham.
The greater part of the gardens, however, with the Albert Memorial,
erected by Queen Victoria in memory of Albert, prince consort, the
Albert Hall, opposite to it, one of the principal concert-halls in
London, and the Imperial Institute to the south, are actually within the
city of Westminster, though commonly connected with Kensington. The
gardens (275 acres) were laid out in the time of Queen Anne, and have
always been a popular and fashionable place of recreation. Extensive
grounds at Earl's Court are open from time to time for various
exhibitions. Further notable buildings in Kensington are the town-hall
and free library in High Street, which is also much frequented for its
excellent shops, and the Brompton Consumption Hospital, Fulham Road. In
Holland Park Road is the house of Lord Leighton (d. 1896), given to the
nation, and open, with its art collection, to the public.

Kensington is a suffragan bishopric in the diocese of London. The
parliamentary borough of Kensington has north and south divisions, each
returning one member. The borough council consists of a mayor, 10
aldermen and 60 councillors. Area, 2291.1 acres.

KENT, EARLS AND DUKES OF. The first holder of the English earldom of
Kent was probably Odo, bishop of Bayeux, and the second a certain
William de Ypres (d. 1162), both of whom were deprived of the dignity.
The regent Hubert de Burgh obtained this honour in 1227, and in 1321 it
was granted to Edmund Plantagenet, the youngest brother of Edward II.
Edmund (1301-1330), who was born at Woodstock on the 5th of August 1301,
received many marks of favour from his brother the king, whom he
steadily supported until the last act in Edward's life opened in 1326.
He fought in Scotland and then in France, and was a member of the
council when Edward III. became king in 1327. Soon at variance with
Queen Isabella and her lover, Roger Mortimer, Edmund was involved in a
conspiracy to restore Edward II., who he was led to believe was still
alive; he was arrested, and beheaded on the 19th of March 1330. Although
he had been condemned as a traitor his elder son Edmund (c. 1327-1333)
was recognized as earl of Kent, the title passing on his death to his
brother John (c. 1330-1352).

After John's childless death the earldom appears to have been held by
his sister Joan, "the fair maid of Kent," and in 1360 Joan's husband,
Sir Thomas de Holand, or Holland, was summoned to parliament as earl of
Kent. Holand, who was a soldier of some repute, died in Normandy on the
28th of December 1360, and his widow married Edward the Black Prince,
by whom she was the mother of Richard II. The next earl was Holand's
eldest son Thomas (1350-1397), who was marshal of England from 1380 to
1385, and was in high favour with his half-brother, Richard II. The 3rd
earl of Kent of the Holand family was his son Thomas (1374-1400). In
September 1397, a few months after becoming earl of Kent, Thomas was
made duke of Surrey as a reward for assisting Richard II. against the
lords appellant; but he was degraded from his dukedom in 1399, and was
beheaded in January of the following year for conspiring against Henry
IV. However, his brother Edmund (1384-1408) was allowed to succeed to
the earldom, which became extinct on his death in Brittany in September

In the same century the title was revived in favour of William, a
younger son of Ralph Neville, 1st earl of Westmorland, and through his
mother Joan Beaufort a grandson of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster.
William (c. 1405-1463), who held the barony of Fauconberg in right of
his wife, Joan, gained fame during the wars in France and fought for the
Yorkists during the Wars of the Roses. His prowess is said to have been
chiefly responsible for the victory of Edward IV. at Towton in March
1461, and soon after this event he was created earl of Kent and admiral
of England. He died in January 1463, and, as his only legitimate issue
were three daughters, the title of earl of Kent again became extinct.
Neville's natural son Thomas, "the bastard of Fauconberg" (d. 1471), was
a follower of Warwick, the "Kingmaker."

The long connexion of the family of Grey with this title began in 1465,
when Edmund, Lord Grey of Ruthin, was created earl of Kent. Edmund (c.
1420-1489) was the eldest son of Sir John Grey, while his mother,
Constance, was a daughter of John Holand, duke of Exeter. During the
earlier part of the Wars of the Roses Grey fought for Henry VI.; but by
deserting the Lancastrians during the battle of Northampton in 1460 he
gave the victory to the Yorkists. He was treasurer of England and held
other high offices under Edward IV. and Richard III. His son and
successor, George, 2nd earl of Kent (c. 1455-1503), also a soldier,
married Anne Woodville, a sister of Edward IV.'s queen, Elizabeth, and
was succeeded by his son Richard (1481-1524). After Richard's death
without issue, his half-brother and heir, Henry (c. 1495-1562), did not
assume the title of earl of Kent on account of his poverty; but in 1572
Henry's grandson Reginald (d. 1573), who had been member of parliament
for Weymouth, was recognized as earl; he was followed by his brother
Henry (1541-1615), and then by another brother, Charles (c. 1545-1623).
Charles's son, Henry, the 8th earl (c. 1583-1639), married Elizabeth
(1581-1651), daughter of Gilbert Talbot, 7th earl of Shrewsbury. This
lady, who was an authoress, took for her second husband the jurist John
Selden. Henry died without children in November 1639, when the earldom
of Kent, separated from the barony of Ruthin, passed to his cousin
Anthony (1557-1643), a clergyman, who was succeeded by his son Henry
(1594-1651), Lord Grey of Ruthin. Henry had been a member of parliament
from 1640 to 1643, and as a supporter of the popular party was speaker
of the House of Lords until its abolition. The 11th earl was his son
Anthony (1645-1702), whose son Henry became 12th earl in August 1702,
lord chamberlain of the royal household from 1704 to 1710, and in 1706
was created earl of Harold and marquess of Kent, becoming duke of Kent
four years later. All his sons predeceased their father, and when the
duke died in June 1740, his titles of earl, marquess and duke of Kent
became extinct.

In 1799 Edward Augustus, fourth son of George III., was created duke of
Kent and Strathearn by his father. Born on the 2nd of November 1767,
Edward served in the British army in North America and elsewhere,
becoming a field marshal in 1805. To quote Sir Spencer Walpole, Kent, a
stern disciplinarian, "was unpopular among his troops; and the storm
which was created by his well-intentioned effort at Gibraltar to check
the licentiousness and drunkenness of the garrison compelled him finally
to retire from the governorship of this colony." Owing to pecuniary
difficulties his later years were mainly passed on the continent of
Europe. He died at Sidmouth on the 23rd of January 1820. In 1818 the
duke married Maria Louisa Victoria (1786-1861), widow of Emich Charles,
prince of Leiningen (d. 1814), and sister of Leopold I., king of the
Belgians; and his only child was Queen Victoria (q.v.).

KENT, JAMES (1763-1847), American jurist, was born at Philippi in New
York State on the 31st of July 1763. He graduated at Yale College in
1781, and began to practise law at Poughkeepsie, in 1785 as an attorney,
and in 1787 at the bar. In 1791 and 1702-93 Kent was a representative of
Dutchess county in the state Assembly. In 1793 he removed to New York,
where Governor Jay, to whom the young lawyer's Federalist sympathies
were a strong recommendation, appointed him a master in chancery for the
city. He was professor of law in Columbia College in 1793-98 and again
served in the Assembly in 1796-97. In 1797 he became recorder of New
York, in 1798 judge of the supreme court of the state, in 1804 chief
justice, and in 1814 chancellor of New York. In 1822 he became a member
of the convention to revise the state constitution. Next year,
Chancellor Kent resigned his office and was re-elected to his former
chair. Out of the lectures he now delivered grew the _Commentaries on
American Law_ (4 vols., 1826-1830), which by their learning, range and
lucidity of style won for him a high and permanent place in the
estimation of both English and American jurists. Kent rendered most
essential service to American jurisprudence while serving as chancellor.
Chancery law had been very unpopular during the colonial period, and had
received little development, and no decisions had been published. His
judgments of this class (see Johnson's _Chancery Reports_, 7 vols.,
1816-1824) cover a wide range of topics, and are so thoroughly
considered and developed as unquestionably to form the basis of American
equity jurisprudence. Kent was a man of great purity of character and of
singular simplicity and guilelessness. He died in New York on the 12th
of December 1847.

  To Kent we owe several other works (including a _Commentary on
  International Law_) of less importance than the _Commentaries_. See J.
  Duer's _Discourse on the Life, Character and Public Services of James
  Kent_ (1848); _The National Portrait Gallery of Distinguished
  Americans_, vol. ii. (1852); W. Kent, _Memoirs and Letters of
  Chancellor Kent_ (Boston, 1898).

KENT, WILLIAM (1685-1748), English "painter, architect, and the father
of modern gardening," as Horace Walpole in his _Anecdotes of Painting_
describes him, was born in Yorkshire in 1685. Apprenticed to a
coach-painter, his ambition soon led him to London, where he began life
as a portrait and historical painter. He found patrons, who sent him in
1710 to study in Italy; and at Rome he made other friends, among them
Lord Burlington, with whom he returned to England in 1719. Under that
nobleman's roof Kent chiefly resided till his death on the 12th of April
1748--obtaining abundant commissions in all departments of his art, as
well as various court appointments which brought him an income of £600 a
year. Walpole says that Kent was below mediocrity in painting. He had
some little taste and skill in architecture, of which Holkham palace is
perhaps the most favourable example. The mediocre statue of Shakespeare
in Westminster Abbey sufficiently stamps his powers as a sculptor. His
merit in landscape gardening is greater. In Walpole's language, Kent
"was painter enough to taste the charms of landscape, bold and
opinionative enough to dare and to dictate, and born with a genius to
strike out a great system from the twilight of imperfect essays." In
short, he was the first in English gardening to vindicate the natural
against the artificial. Banishing all the clipped monstrosities of the
topiary art in yew, box or holly, releasing the streams from the
conventional canal and marble basin, and rejecting the mathematical
symmetry of ground plan then in vogue for gardens, Kent endeavoured to
imitate the variety of nature, with due regard to the principles of
light and shade and perspective. Sometimes he carried his imitation too
far, as when he planted dead trees in Kensington gardens to give a
greater air of truth to the scene, though he himself was one of the
first to detect the folly of such an extreme. Kent's plans were designed
rather with a view to immediate effect over a comparatively small area
than with regard to any broader or subsequent results.

KENT, one of the kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon Britain, the dimensions of
which seem to have corresponded with those of the present county (see
below). According to tradition it was the first part of the country
occupied by the invaders, its founders, Hengest and Horsa, having been
employed by the British king Vortigern against the Picts and Scots.
Their landing, according to English tradition, took place between
450-455, though in the Welsh accounts the Saxons are said to have
arrived in 428 (cf. _Hist. Britt._ 66). According to _The Anglo-Saxon
Chronicle_, which probably used some lost list of Kentish kings, Hengest
reigned 455-488, and was succeeded by his son Aesc (Oisc), who reigned
till 512; but little value can be attached to these dates. Documentary
history begins with Aethelberht, the great-grandson of Aesc, who reigned
probably 560-616. He married Berhta, daughter of the Frankish king
Haribert, or Charibert, an event which no doubt was partly responsible
for the success of the mission of Augustine, who landed in 597.
Aethelberht was at this time supreme over all the English kings south of
the Humber. On his death in 616 he was succeeded by his son Eadbald, who
renounced Christianity and married his stepmother, but was shortly
afterwards converted by Laurentius, the successor of Augustine. Eadbald
was succeeded in 640 by his son Erconberht, who enforced the acceptance
of Christianity throughout his kingdom, and was succeeded in 664 by his
son Ecgbert, the latter again by his brother Hlothhere in 673. The early
part of Hlothhere's reign was disturbed by an invasion of Aethelred of
Mercia. He issued a code of laws, which is still extant, together with
his nephew Eadric, the son of Ecgbert, but in 685 a quarrel broke out
between them in which Eadric called in the South Saxons. Hlothhere died
of his wounds, and was succeeded by Eadric, who, however, reigned under
two years.

The death of Eadric was followed by a disturbed period, in which Kent
was under kings whom Bede calls "_dubii vel externi_." An unsuccessful
attempt at conquest seems to have been made by the West Saxons, one of
whose princes, Mul, brother of Ceadwalla, is said to have been killed in
687. There is some evidence for a successful invasion by the East Saxon
king Sigehere during the same year. A king named Oswine, who apparently
belonged to the native dynasty, seems to have obtained part of the
kingdom in 688. The other part came in 689 into the hands of Swefheard,
probably a son of the East Saxon king Sebbe. Wihtred, a son of Ecgbert,
succeeded Oswine about 690, and obtained possession of the whole kingdom
before 694. From him also we have a code of laws. At Wihtred's death in
725 the kingdom was divided between his sons Aethelberht, Eadberht and
Alric, the last of whom appears to have died soon afterwards.
Aethelberht reigned till 762; Eadberht, according to the _Chronicle_,
died in 748, but some doubtful charters speak of him as alive in
761-762. Eadberht was succeeded by his son Eardwulf, and he again by
Eanmund, while Aethelberht was succeeded by a king named Sigered. From
764-779 we find a king named Ecgbert, who in the early part of his reign
had a colleague named Heaberht. At this period Kentish history is very
obscure. Another king named Aethelberht appears in 781, and a king
Ealhmund in 784, but there is some reason for suspecting that Offa
annexed Kent about this time. On his death (796) Eadberht Praen made
himself king, but in 798 he was defeated and captured by Coenwulf, who
made his own brother Cuthred king in his place. On Cuthred's death in
807 Coenwulf seems to have kept Kent in his own possession. His
successors Ceolwulf and Beornwulf likewise appear to have held Kent, but
in 825 we hear of a king Baldred who was expelled by Ecgbert king of
Wessex. Under the West Saxon dynasty Kent, together with Essex, Sussex
and Surrey, was sometimes given as a dependent kingdom to one of the
royal family. During Ecgbert's reign it was entrusted to his son
Aethelwulf, on whose accession to the throne of Wessex, in 839, it was
given to Aethelstan, probably his son, who lived at least till 851. From
855 to 860 it was governed by Aethelberht son of Aethelwulf. During the
last years of Alfred's reign it seems to have been entrusted by him to
his son Edward. Throughout the 9th century we hear also of two earls,
whose spheres of authority may have corresponded to those of the two
kings whom we find in the 8th century. The last earls of whom we have
any record were the two brothers Sigehelm and Sigewulf, who fell at the
Holm in 905 when the Kentish army was cut off by the Danes, on Edward
the Elder's return from his expedition into East Anglia. At a later
period Kent appears to have been held, together with Sussex, by a single

  The internal organization of the kingdom of Kent seems to have been
  somewhat peculiar. Besides the division into West Kent and East Kent,
  which probably corresponds with the kingdoms of the 8th century, we
  find a number of lathes, apparently administrative districts under
  reeves, attached to royal villages. In East Kent there were four of
  these, namely, Canterbury, Eastry, Wye and Lymne, which can be traced
  back to the 9th century or earlier. In the 11th century we hear of two
  lathes in West Kent, those of Sutton and Aylesford.

  The social organization of the Kentish nation was wholly different
  from that of Mercia and Wessex. Instead of two "noble" classes we find
  only one, called at first eorlcund, later as in Wessex, gesithcund.
  Again below the ordinary freeman we find three varieties of persons
  called _laetas_, probably freedmen, to whom we have nothing analogous
  in the other kingdoms. Moreover the wergeld of the ceorl, or ordinary
  freeman, was two or three times as great as that of the same class in
  Wessex and Mercia, and the same difference of treatment is found in
  all the compensations and fines relating to them. It is not unlikely
  that the peculiarities of Kentish custom observable in later times,
  especially with reference to the tenure of land, are connected with
  these characteristics. An explanation is probably to be obtained from
  a statement of Bede--that the settlers in Kent belonged to a different
  nationality from those who founded the other kingdoms, namely the
  Jutes (q.v.).

  See Bede, _Historiae ecclesiasticae_, edited by C. Plummer (Oxford,
  1896); _Two of the Saxon Chronicles_, edited by J. Earle and C.
  Plummer (Oxford, 1892-1899); W. de G. Birch, _Cartularium Saxonicum_
  (London, 1885-1889); B. Seebohm, _Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law_
  (London, 1902); H. M. Chadwick, _Studies on Anglo-Saxon Institutions_
  (Cambridge, 1905); and T. W. Shore, _Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race_
  (London, 1906).     (F. G. M. B.)

KENT, a south-eastern county of England, bounded N. by the Thames
estuary, E. and S.E. by the English Channel, S.W. by Sussex, and W. by
Surrey. In the north-west the administrative county of London encroaches
upon the ancient county of Kent, the area of which is 1554.7 sq. m. The
county is roughly triangular in form, London lying at the apex of the
western angle, the North Foreland at that of the eastern and Dungeness
at that of the southern. The county is divided centrally, from west to
east, by the well-marked range of hills known as the North Downs,
entering Kent from Surrey. In the west above Westerham these hills
exceed 800 ft.; to the east the height is much less, but even in Kent
(for in Surrey they are higher) the North Downs form a more striking
physical feature than their height would indicate. They are intersected,
especially on the north, by many deep valleys, well wooded. At three
points such valleys cut completely through the main line of the hills.
In the west the Darent, flowing north to the Thames below Dartford,
pierces the hills north of Sevenoaks, but its waters are collected
chiefly from a subsidiary ridge of the Downs running parallel to the
main line and south of it, and known as the Ragstone Ridge, from 600 to
800 ft. in height. The Medway, however, cuts through the entire hill
system, rising in the Forest Ridges of Sussex, flowing N.E. and E. past
Tonbridge, collecting feeders from south and east (the Teise, Beult and
others) near Yalding, and then flowing N.E. and N. through the hills,
past Maidstone, joining the Thames at its mouth through a broad estuary.
The rich lowlands, between the Downs and the Forest Ridges to the south
(which themselves extend into Kent), watered by the upper Medway and its
feeders, are called the Vale of Kent, and fall within the district well
known under the name of the Weald. The easternmost penetration of the
Downs is that effected by the Stour (Great Stour) which rises on their
southern face, flows S.E. to Ashford, where it receives the East Stour,
then turns N.E. past Wye and Canterbury, to meander through the lowlands
representing the former channel which isolated the Isle of Thanet from
the mainland. The channel was called the Wantsume, and its extent may be
gathered from the position of the village of Fordwich near Canterbury,
which had formerly a tidal harbour, and is a member of the Cinque Port
of Sandwich. The Little Stour joins the Great Stour in these lowlands
from a deep vale among the Downs.

About two-thirds of the boundary line of Kent is formed by tidal water.
The estuary of the Thames may be said to stretch from London Bridge to
Sheerness in the Isle of Sheppey, which is divided from the mainland by
the narrow channel (bridged at Queensbridge) of the Swale. Sheerness
lies at the mouth of the Medway, a narrow branch of which cuts off a
tongue of land termed the Isle of Grain lying opposite Sheerness. Along
the banks of the Thames the coast is generally low and marshy,
embankments being in several places necessary to prevent inundation. At
a few points, however, as at Gravesend, spurs of the North Downs descend
directly upon the shore. In the estuary of the Medway there are a number
of low marshy islands, but Sheppey presents to the sea a range of slight
cliffs from 80 to 90 ft. in height. The marshes extend along the Swale
to Whitstable, whence stretches a low line of clay and sandstone cliffs
towards the Isle of Thanet, when they become lofty and grand, extending
round the Foreland southward to Pegwell Bay. The coast from Sheppey
round to the South Foreland is skirted by numerous flats and sands, the
most extensive of which are the Goodwin Sands off Deal. From Pegwell Bay
south to a point near Deal the coast is flat, and the drained marshes or
levels of the lower Stour extend to the west; but thence the coast rises
again into chalk cliffs, the eastward termination of the North Downs,
the famous white cliffs which form the nearest point of England to
continental Europe, overlooking the Strait of Dover. These cliffs
continue round the South Foreland to Folkestone, where they fall away,
and are succeeded west of Sandgate by a flat shingly shore. To the south
of Hythe this shore borders the wide expanse of Romney Marsh, which,
immediately west of Hythe, is overlooked by a line of abrupt hills, but
for the rest is divided on the north from the drainage system of the
Stour only by a slight uplift. The marsh, drained by many channels,
seldom rises over a dozen feet above sea-level. At its south-eastern
extremity, and at the extreme south of the county, is the shingly
promontory of Dungeness. Within historic times much of this marsh was
covered by the sea, and the valley of the river Rother, which forms part
of the boundary of Kent with Sussex, entering the sea at Rye harbour,
was represented by a tidal estuary for a considerable distance inland.

  _Geology._--The northern part of the county lies on the southern rim
  of the London basin; here the beds are dipping northwards. The
  southern part of the county is occupied by a portion of the Wealden
  anticline. The London Clay occupies the tongue of land between the
  estuaries of the Thames and Medway, as well as Sheppey and a district
  about 8 m. wide stretching southwards from Whitstable to Canterbury,
  and extending eastwards to the Isle of Thanet. It reappears at Pegwell
  Bay, and in the neighbourhood of London it rises above the plastic
  clay into the elevation of Shooter's Hill, with a height of about 450
  ft. and a number of smaller eminences. The thickness of the formation
  near London is about 400 ft., and at Sheppey it reaches 480 ft. At
  Sheppey it is rich in various kinds of fossil fish and shells. The
  plastic clay, which rests chiefly on chalk, occupies the remainder of
  the estuary of the Thames, but at several places it is broken through
  by outcrops of chalk, which in some instances run northwards to the
  banks of the river. The Lower Tertiaries are represented by three
  different formations known as the Thanet beds, the Woolwich and
  Reading beds, and the Oldhaven and Blackheath beds. The Thanet beds
  resting on chalk form a narrow outcrop rising into cliffs at Pegwell
  Bay and Reculver, and consist (1) of a constant base bed of clayey
  greenish sand, seldom more than 5 ft. in thickness; (2) of a thin and
  local bed composed of alternations of brown clay and loam; (3) of a
  bed of fine light buff sand, which in west Kent attains a thickness of
  more than 60 ft.; (4) of bluish grey sandy marl containing fossils,
  and almost entirely confined to east Kent, the thickness of the
  formation being more than 60 ft.; and (5) of fine light grey sand of
  an equal thickness, also fossiliferous. The middle series of the Lower
  Tertiaries, known as the Woolwich and Reading beds, rests either on
  the Thanet beds or on chalk, and consists chiefly of irregular
  alternations of clay and sand of very various colours, the former
  often containing estuarine and oyster shells and the latter flint
  pebbles. The thickness of the formation varies from 15 to 80 ft., but
  most commonly it is from 25 to 40 ft. The highest and most local
  series of the Lower Tertiaries is the Oldhaven and Blackheath beds
  lying between the London Clay and the Woolwich beds. They consist
  chiefly of flint pebbles or of light-coloured quartzose sand, the
  thickness being from 20 to 30 ft, and, are best seen at Oldhaven and
  Blackheath. To the south the London basin is succeeded by the North
  Downs, an elevated ridge of country consisting of an outcrop of chalk
  which extends from Westerham to Folkestone with an irregular breadth
  generally of 3 to 6 miles, but expanding to nearly 12 miles at
  Dartford and Gravesend and also to the north of Folkestone. After
  dipping below the London Clay at Canterbury, it sends out an outcrop
  which forms the greater part of Thanet. Below the chalk is a thin crop
  of Upper Greensand between Otford and Westerham. To the south of the
  Downs there is a narrow valley formed by the Gault, a fossiliferous
  blue clay. This is succeeded by an outcrop of the Lower
  Greensand--including the Folkestone, Sandgate and Hythe beds with the
  thin Atherfield Clay at the base--which extends across the country
  from west to east with a breadth of from 2 to 7 m., and rises into the
  picturesque elevations of the Ragstone hills. The remains of
  _Iguanodon_ occur in the Hythe beds. The valley, which extends from
  the borders of Sussex to Hythe, is occupied chiefly by the Weald
  clays, which contain a considerable number of marine and freshwater
  fossils. Along the borders of Sussex there is a narrow strip of
  country consisting of picturesque sandy hills, formed by the Hastings
  beds, whose highest elevation is nearly 400 ft. and the south-west
  corner of the county is occupied by Romney Marsh, which within a
  comparatively recent period has been recovered from the sea. Valley
  gravels border the Thames, and Pleistocene mammalia have been found in
  fissures in the Hythe beds at Ightham, where ancient stone implements
  are common. Remains of crag deposits lie in pipes in the chalk near
  Lenham. Coal-measures, as will be seen, have been found near Dover.

  The London Clay is much used for bricks, coarse pottery and Roman
  cement. Lime is obtained from the Chalk and Greensand formations.
  Ironstone is found in the Wadhurst Clay, a subdivision of the Hastings
  beds, clays and calcareous ironstone in the Ashdown sand, but the
  industry has long been discontinued. The last Wealden furnace was put
  out in 1828.

  _Climate and Agriculture._--The unhealthiness of certain portions of
  the county caused by the marshes is practically removed by draining.
  In the north-eastern districts the climate is somewhat uncertain, and
  damage is often done to early fruit-blossoms and vegetation by cold
  easterly winds and late frosts. In the large portion of the county
  sheltered by the Downs the climate is milder and more equable, and
  vegetation is somewhat earlier. The average temperature for January is
  37.9° F. at Canterbury, and 39.8° at Dover; for July 63.3° and 61.6°
  respectively, and the mean annual 50° and 50.2° respectively. Rainfall
  is light, the mean annual being 27.72 in. at Dover, and 23.31 at
  Margate, compared with 23.16 at Greenwich. The soil is varied in
  character, but on the whole rich and under high cultivation. The
  methods of culture and the kinds of crop produced are perhaps more
  widely diversified than those of any other county in England. Upon the
  London Clay the land is generally heavy and stiff, but very fruitful
  when properly manured and cultivated. The marsh lands along the banks
  of the Thames, Medway, Stour and Swale consist chiefly of rich chalk
  alluvium. In the Isle of Thanet a light mould predominates, which has
  been much enriched by fish manure. The valley of the Medway,
  especially the district round Maidstone, is the most fertile part of
  the county, the soil being a deep loam with a subsoil of brick-earth.
  On the ragstone the soil is occasionally thin and much mixed with
  small portions of sand and stone; but in some situations the ragstone
  has a thick covering of clay loam, which is most suitable for the
  production of hops and fruits. In the district of the Weald marl
  prevails, with a substratum of clay. The soil of Romney Marsh is a
  clay alluvium.

  No part of England surpasses the more fertile portions of this county
  in the peculiar richness of its rural scenery. About three-quarters of
  the total area is under cultivation. Oats and wheat are grown in
  almost equal quantities, barley being of rather less importance. A
  considerable acreage is under beans, and in Thanet mustard, spinach,
  canary seed and a variety of other seeds are raised. But the county is
  specially noted for the cultivation of fruit and hops. Market gardens
  are very numerous in the neighbourhood of London. The principal
  orchard districts are the valleys of the Darent and Medway, and the
  tertiary soils overlying the chalk, between Rochester and Canterbury.
  The county is specially famed for cherries and filberts, but apples,
  pears, plums, gooseberries, strawberries, raspberries and currants are
  also largely cultivated. In some cases apples, cherries, filberts and
  hops are grown in alternate rows. The principal hop districts are the
  country between Canterbury and Faversham, the valley of the Medway in
  mid Kent, and the district of the Weald. Much of the Weald, which
  originally was occupied by a forest, is still densely wooded, and
  woods are specially extensive in the valley of the Medway. Fine oaks
  and beeches are numerous, and yew trees of great size and age are seen
  in some Kentish churchyards, as at Stansted, while the fine oak at
  Headcorn is also famous. A large extent of woodland consists of ash
  and chestnut plantations, maintained for the growth of hop poles.
  Cattle are grazed in considerable numbers on the marsh lands, and
  dairy farms are numerous in the neighbourhood of London. For the
  rearing of sheep Kent is one of the chief counties in England. A breed
  peculiar to the district, known as Kents, is grazed on Romney Marsh,
  but Southdowns are the principal breed raised on the uplands.
  Bee-keeping is extensively practised. Dairy schools are maintained by
  the technical education committee of the county council. The
  South-eastern Agricultural College at Wye is under the control of the
  county councils of Kent and Surrey.

  _Other Industries._--There were formerly extensive iron-works in the
  Weald. Another industry now practically extinct was the manufacture of
  woollen cloth. The neighbourhood of Lamberhurst and Cranbrook was the
  special seat of these trades. Among the principal modern industries
  are paper-making, carried on on the banks of the Darent, Medway, Cray
  and neighbouring streams; engineering, chemical and other works along
  the Thames; manufactures of bricks, tiles, pottery and cement,
  especially by the lower Medway and the Swale. A variety of industries
  is connected with the Government establishments at Chatham and
  Sheerness. Ship-building is prosecuted here and at Gravesend, Dover
  and other ports. Gunpowder is manufactured near Erith and Faversham
  and elsewhere.

  Deep-sea fishing is largely prosecuted all round the coast. Shrimps,
  soles and flounders are taken in great numbers in the estuaries of the
  Thames and Medway, along the north coast and off Ramsgate. The history
  of the Kentish oyster fisheries goes back to the time of the Roman
  occupation, when the fame of the oyster beds off _Rutupiae_
  (Richborough) extended even to Rome. The principal beds are near
  Whitstable, Faversham, Milton, Queenborough and Rochester, some being
  worked by ancient companies or gilds of fishermen.

  After the cessation in 1882 of works in connexion with the Channel
  tunnel, to connect England and France, coal-boring was attempted in
  the disused shaft, west of the Shakespeare Cliff railway tunnel near
  Dover. In 1890 coal was struck at a depth of 1190 ft., and further
  seams were discovered later. The company which took up the mining was
  unsuccessful, and boring ceased in 1901, but the work was resumed by
  the Consolidated Kent Collieries Corporation, and an extension of
  borings revealed in 1905 the probability of a successful development
  of the mining industry in Kent.

  _Communications._--Railway communications are practically monopolized
  by the South Eastern & Chatham Company, a monopoly which has not
  infrequently been the cause of complaint on the part of farmers,
  traders and others. This system includes some of the principal
  channels of communication with the continent, through the ports of
  Dover, Folkestone and Queenborough. The county contains four of the
  Cinque Ports, namely, Dover, Hythe, New Romney and Sandwich. Seaside
  resorts are numerous and populous--on the north coast are Minster
  (Sheppey), Whitstable and Herne Bay; there is a ring of
  watering-places round the Isle of Thanet--Birchington, Westgate,
  Margate, Broadstairs, Ramsgate; while to the south are Sandwich, Deal,
  Walmer, St Margaret's-at-Cliffe, Dover, Folkestone, Sandgate and
  Hythe. Tunbridge Wells is a favourite inland watering-place. The
  influence of London in converting villages into outer residential
  suburbs is to be observed at many points, whether seaside, along the
  Thames or inland. The county is practically without inland water
  communications, excluding the Thames. The Royal military canal which
  runs along the inland border of Romney Marsh, and connects the Rother
  with Hythe, was constructed in 1807 as part of a scheme of defence in
  connexion with the martello towers or small forts along the coast.

_Population and Administration._--The area of the ancient county is
995,014 acres, with a population in 1901 of 1,348,841. In 1801 the
population was 308,667. Excluding the portion which falls within the
administrative county of London the area is 974,950 acres, with a
population in 1891 of 807,269 and in 1901 of 935,855. The area of the
administrative county is 976,881 acres. The county contains 5 lathes, a
partition peculiar to the county. The municipal boroughs are Bromley
(pop. 27,354), Canterbury, a city and county borough (24,889), Chatham
(37,057), Deal (10,581), Dover (41,794), Faversham (11,290), Folkestone
(30,650), Gillingham (42,530), Gravesend (27,196), Hythe (5557), Lydd
(2675), Maidstone (33,516), Margate (23,118), New Romney (1328),
Queenborough (1544), Ramsgate (27,733), Rochester, a city (30,590),
Sandwich (3170), Tenterden (3243), Tunbridge Wells (33,373). The urban
districts are Ashford (12,808), Beckenham (26,331), Bexley (12,918),
Broadstairs and St Peter's (6466), Cheriton (7091), Chislehurst (7429),
Dartford (18,644), Erith (25,296), Foots Cray (5817), Herne Bay (6726),
Milton (7086), Northfleet (12,906), Penge (22,465), Sandgate (2294),
Sevenoaks (8106), Sheerness (18,179), Sittingbourne (8943), Southborough
(6977), Tonbridge (12,736), Walmer (5614), Whitstable (7086), Wrotham
(3571). Other small towns are Rainham (3693) near Chatham, Aylesford
(2678), East Mailing (2391) and West Mailing (2312) in the Maidstone
district; Edenbridge (2546) and Westerham (2905) on the western border
of the county; Cranbrook (3949), Goudhurst (2725) and Hawkhurst (3136)
in the south-west. Among villages which have grown into residential
towns through their proximity to London, beyond those included among
the boroughs and urban districts, there should be mentioned Orpington
(4259). The county is in the south-eastern circuit, and assizes are held
at Maidstone. It has two courts of quarter sessions, and is divided into
17 petty sessional divisions. The boroughs having separate commissions
of the peace and courts of quarter sessions are Canterbury, Deal, Dover,
Faversham, Folkestone, Gravesend, Hythe, Maidstone, Margate, Rochester,
Sandwich and Tenterden; while those of Lydd, New Romney, Ramsgate and
Tunbridge Wells have separate commissions of the peace. The liberty of
Romney Marsh has petty and general sessions. The justices of the Cinque
Ports exercise certain jurisdiction, the non-corporate members of the
Cinque Ports of Dover and Sandwich having separate commissions of the
peace and courts of quarter sessions. The central criminal court has
jurisdiction over certain parishes adjacent to London. All those civil
parishes within the county of Kent of which any part is within twelve
miles of, or of which no part is more than fifteen miles from, Charing
Cross are within the metropolitan police district. The total number of
civil parishes is 427. Kent is mainly in the diocese of Canterbury, but
has parts in those of Rochester, Southwark and Chichester. It contains
476 ecclesiastical parishes or districts, wholly or in part. The county
(extra-metropolitan) is divided into 8 parliamentary divisions, namely,
North-western or Dartford, Western or Sevenoaks, South-western or
Tunbridge, Mid or Medway, North-eastern or Faversham, Southern or
Ashford, Eastern or St Augustine's and the Isle of Thanet, each
returning one member; while the boroughs of Canterbury, Chatham, Dover,
Gravesend, Hythe, Maidstone and Rochester each return one member.

_History._--For the ancient kingdom of Kent see the preceding article.
The shire organization of Kent dates from the time of Aethelstan, the
name as well as the boundary being that of the ancient kingdom, though
at first probably with the addition of the suffix "shire," the form
"Kentshire" occurring in a record of the folkmoot at this date. The
inland shire-boundary has varied with the altered course of the Rother.
In 1888 the county was diminished by the formation of the county of

At the time of the Domesday Survey Kent comprised sixty hundreds, and
there was a further division into six lests, probably representing the
shires of the ancient kingdom, of which two, Sutton and Aylesford,
correspond with the present-day lathes. The remaining four, Borowast
Lest, Estre Lest, Limowast Lest and Wiwart Lest, existed at least as
early as the 9th century, and were apparently named from their
administrative centres, Burgwara (the burg being Canterbury), Eastre,
Lymne and Wye, all of which were meeting places of the Kentish Council.
The five modern lathes (Aylesford, St Augustine, Scray, Sheppey and
Sutton-at-Hone) all existed in the time of Edward I., with the
additional lathe of Hedeling, which was absorbed before the next reign
in that of St Augustine. The _Nomina Villarum_ of the reign of Edward
II. mentions all the sixty-six modern hundreds, more than two-thirds of
which were at that date in the hands of the church.

Sheriffs of Kent are mentioned in the time of Æthelred II., and in Saxon
times the shiremoot met three times a year on Penenden Heath near
Maidstone. After the Conquest the great ecclesiastical landholders
claimed exemption from the jurisdiction of the shire, and in 1279 the
abbot of Battle claimed to have his own coroner in the hundred of Wye.
In the 13th century twelve liberties in Kent claimed to have separate
bailiffs. The assizes for the county were held in the reign of Henry
III. at Canterbury and Rochester, and also at the Lowey of Tonbridge
under a mandate from the Crown as a distinct liberty; afterwards at
different intervals at East Greenwich, Dartford, Maidstone,
Milton-next-Gravesend and Sevenoaks; from the Restoration to the present
day they have been held at Maidstone. The liberty of Romney Marsh has
petty and quarter sessions under its charters.

Kent is remarkable as the only English county which comprises two entire
bishoprics, Canterbury, the see for East Kent, having been founded in
597, and Rochester, the see for West Kent, in 600. In 1291 the
archdeaconry of Canterbury was co-extensive with that diocese and
included the deaneries of Westbere, Bridge, Sandwich, Dover, Elham,
Lympne, Charing, Sutton, Sittingbourne, Ospringe and Canterbury; the
archdeaconry of Rochester, also co-extensive with its diocese, included
the deaneries of Rochester, Dartford, Malling and Shoreham. In 1845 the
deaneries of Charing, Sittingbourne and Sutton were comprised in the new
archdeaconry of Maidstone, which in 1846 received in addition the
deaneries of Dartford, Malling and Shoreham from the archdeaconry of
Rochester. In 1853 the deaneries of Malling and Charing were subdivided
into North and South Malling and East and West Charing. Lympne was
subdivided into North and South Lympne in 1857 and Dartford into East
and West Dartford in 1864. Gravesend and Cobham deaneries were created
in 1862 and Greenwich and Woolwich in 1868, all in the archdeaconry of
Rochester. In 1873 East and West Bridge deaneries were created in the
archdeaconry of Canterbury, and Croydon in the archdeaconry of
Maidstone. In 1889 Tunbridge deanery was created in the archdeaconry of
Maidstone. In 1906 the deaneries of East and West Dartford, North and
South Malling, Greenwich and Woolwich were abolished, and Shoreham and
Tunbridge were transferred from Maidstone to Rochester archdeaconry.

Between the Conquest and the 14th century the earldom of Kent was held
successively by Odo, bishop of Bayeux, William of Ypres and Hubert de
Burgh (sheriff of the county in the reign of Henry III.), none of whom,
however, transmitted the honour, which was bestowed by Edward I. on his
youngest son Edmund of Woodstock, and subsequently passed to the
families of Holland and Neville (see KENT, EARLS AND DUKES OF). In the
Domesday Survey only five lay tenants-in-chief are mentioned, all the
chief estates being held by the church, and the fact that the Kentish
gentry are less ancient than in some remoter shires is further explained
by the constant implantation of new stocks from London. Greenwich is
illustrious as the birthplace of Henry VIII., Mary and Elizabeth. Sir
Philip Sidney was born at Penshurst, being descended from William de
Sidney, chamberlain to Henry II. Bocton Malherbe was the seat of the
Wottons, from whom descended Nicholas Wotton, privy councillor to Henry
VIII., Edward VI., Mary and Elizabeth. The family of Leiborne of
Leiborne Castle, of whom Sir Roger Leiborne took an active part in the
barons' wars, became extinct in the 14th century. Sir Francis Walsingham
was born at Chislehurst, where his family had long flourished; Hever
Castle was the seat of the Boleyns and the scene of the courtship of
Anne Boleyn by Henry VIII. Allington Castle was the birthplace of Sir
Thomas Wyat.

Kent, from its proximity to London, has been intimately concerned in
every great historical movement which has agitated the country, while
its busy industrial population has steadily resisted any infringement of
its rights and liberties. The chief events connected with the county
under the Norman kings were the capture of Rochester by William Rufus
during the rebellion of Odo of Bayeux; the capture of Dover and Leeds
castles by Stephen; the murder of Thomas à Becket at Canterbury in 1170;
the submission of John to the pope's legate at Dover in 1213, and the
capture of Rochester Castle by the king in the same year. Rochester
Castle was in 1216 captured by the dauphin of France, to whom nearly all
Kent submitted, and during the wars of Henry III. with his barons was
captured by Gilbert de Clare. In the peasants' rising of 1381 the rebels
plundered the archbishop's palace at Canterbury, and 100,000 Kentishmen
gathered round Wat Tyler of Essex. In 1450 Kent took a leading part in
Jack Cade's rebellion; and in 1554 the insurrection of Sir Thomas Wyat
began at Maidstone. On the outbreak of the Great Rebellion feeling was
much divided, but after capturing Dover Castle the parliament soon
subdued the whole county. In 1648, however, a widespread insurrection
was organized on behalf of Charles, and was suppressed by Fairfax. The
county was among the first to welcome back Charles II. In 1667 the Dutch
fleet under De Ruyter advanced up the Medway, levelling the fort at
Sheerness and burning the ships at Chatham. In the Kentish petition of
1701 drawn up at Maidstone the county protested against the peace policy
of the Tory party.

Among the earliest industries of Kent were the iron-mining in the Weald,
traceable at least to Roman times, and the salt industry, which
nourished along the coast in the 10th century. The Domesday Survey,
besides testifying to the agricultural activity of the country, mentions
over one hundred salt-works and numerous valuable fisheries, vines at
Chart Sutton and Leeds, and cheese at Milton. The Hundred Rolls of the
reign of Edward I. frequently refer to wool, and Flemish weavers settled
in the Weald in the time of Edward III. Tiles were manufactured at Wye
in the 14th century. Valuable timber was afforded by the vast forest of
the Weald, but the restrictions imposed on the felling of wood for fuel
did serious detriment to the iron-trade, and after the statute of 1558
forbidding the felling of timber for iron-smelting within fourteen miles
of the coast the industry steadily declined. The discovery of coal in
the northern counties dealt the final blow to its prosperity. Cherries
are said to have been imported from Flanders and first planted in Kent
by Henry VIII., and from this period the culture of fruits (especially
apples and cherries) and of hops spread rapidly over the county.
Thread-making at Maidstone and silk-weaving at Canterbury existed in the
16th century, and before 1590 one of the first paper-mills in England
was set up at Dartford. The statute of 1630 forbidding the exportation
of wool, followed by the Plague of 1665, led to a serious trade
depression, while the former enactment resulted in the vast smuggling
trade which spread along the coast, 40,000 packs of wool being smuggled
to Calais from Kent and Sussex in two years.

In 1290 Kent returned two members to parliament for the county, and in
1295 Canterbury, Rochester and Tunbridge were also represented;
Tunbridge however made no returns after this date. In 1552 Maidstone
acquired representation, and in 1572 Queenborough. Under the act of 1832
the county returned four members in two divisions, Chatham was
represented by one member and Greenwich by two, while Queenborough was
disfranchised. Under the act of 1868 the county returned six members in
three divisions and Gravesend returned one member. By the act of 1885
the county returned eight members in eight divisions, and the
representation of Canterbury, Maidstone and Rochester was reduced to one
member each. By the London Government Act of 1892 the borough of
Greenwich was taken out of Kent and made one of the twenty-eight
metropolitan boroughs of the county of London.

  _Antiquities._--As was to be expected from its connexion with the
  early history of England, and from its beauty and fertility, Kent
  possessed a larger than average number of monastic foundations. The
  earliest were the priory of Christ's Church and the abbey of St Peter
  and St Paul, now called St Augustine's, both at Canterbury, founded by
  Augustine and the monks who accompanied him to England. Other Saxon
  foundations were the nunneries at Folkestone (630), Lyminge (633;
  nunnery and monastery), Reculver (669), Minster-in-Thanet (670),
  Minster-in-Sheppey (675), and the priory of St Martin at Dover (696),
  all belonging to the Benedictine order. Some of these were refounded,
  and the principal monastic remains now existing are those of the
  Benedictine priories at Rochester (1089), Folkestone (1095), Dover
  (1140); the Benedictine nunneries at Malling (time of William Rufus),
  Minster-in-Sheppey (1130), Higham (founded by King Stephen), and
  Davington (1153); the Cistercian Abbey at Boxley (1146); the Cluniac
  abbey at Faversham (1147) and priory at Monks Horton (time of Henry
  II.), the preceptory of Knights Templars at Swingfield (time of Henry
  II.); the Premonstratensian abbey of St Radigund's, near Dover (1191);
  the first house of Dominicans in England at Canterbury (1221); the
  first Carmelite house in England, at Aylesford (1240); and the priory
  of Augustinian nuns at Dartford (1355). Other houses of which there
  are slight remains are Lesnes abbey, near Erith, and Bilsington priory
  near Ashford, established in 1178 and 1253 respectively, and both
  belonging to the Augustinian canons; and the house of Franciscans at
  Canterbury (1225). But no remains exist of the priories of Augustinian
  canons at Canterbury (St Gregory's; 1084), Leeds, near Maidstone
  (1119), Tunbridge (middle of 12th century), Combwell, near Cranbrook
  (time of Henry II.); the nunnery of St Sepulchre at Canterbury (about
  1100) and Langdon abbey, near Walmer (1192), both belonging to the
  Benedictines; the Trinitarian priory of Mottenden near Headcorn, the
  first house of Crutched Friars in England (1224), where miracle plays
  were presented in the church by the friars on Trinity Sunday; the
  Carmelite priories at Sandwich (1272) and Losenham near Tenterden
  (1241); and the preceptory of Knights of St John of Jerusalem at West
  Peckham, near Tunbridge (1408).

  Even apart from the cathedral churches of Canterbury and Rochester,
  the county is unsurpassed in the number of churches it possesses of
  the highest interest. For remains of a date before the Conquest the
  church of Lyminge is of first importance. Here, apart from the
  monastic remains, there may be seen portions of the church founded by
  Æthelburga, wife of Edwin, king of Northumberland, and rebuilt, with
  considerable use of Roman material, in 965 by St Dunstan. There is
  similar early work in the church of Paddlesworth, not far distant.
  Among numerous Norman examples the first in interest is the small
  church at Barfreston, one of the most perfect specimens of its kind in
  England, with a profusion of ornament, especially round the south
  doorway and east window. The churches of St Margaret-at-Cliff,
  Patrixbourne and Darenth are hardly less noteworthy, while the tower
  of New Romney church should also be mentioned. Among several
  remarkable Early English examples none is finer than Hythe church, but
  the churches of SS. Mary and Eanswith, Folkestone, Minster-in-Thanet,
  Chalk, with its curious porch, Faversham and Westwell, with fine
  contemporary glass, are also worthy of notice. Stone church, near
  Dartford, a late example of this style, transitional to Decorated, is
  very fine; and among Decorated buildings Chartham church exhibits in
  some of its windows the peculiar tracery known as Kentish Decorated.
  Perpendicular churches, though numerous, are less remarkable, but the
  fine glass of this period in Nettlestead church may be noticed. The
  church of Cobham contains one of the richest collections of ancient
  brasses in England.

  Kent is also rich in examples of ancient architecture other than
  ecclesiastical. The castles of Rochester and Dover are famous; those
  of Canterbury and Chilham are notable among others. Ancient mansions
  are very numerous; among these are the castellated Leeds Castle in the
  Maidstone district, Penshurst Place, Hever Castle near Edenbridge,
  Saltwood and Westenhanger near Hythe, the Mote House at Ightham near
  Wrotham, Knole House near Sevenoaks, and Cobham Hall. Minor examples
  of early domestic architecture abound throughout the county.

  AUTHORITIES.--A full bibliography of the many earlier works on the
  county and its towns is given in J. R. Smith's _Bibliotheca Cantiana_
  (London, 1837). There may be mentioned here W. Lambarde,
  _Perambulation of Kent_ (London, 1576, 1826); R. Kilburne,
  _Topographie or Survey of the County of Kent_ (London, 1659); J. and
  T. Philipot, _Villare Cantianum_ (London, 1659, 1776); J. Harris,
  _History of Kent_ (London, 1719); E. Hasted, _History and
  Topographical Survey of Kent_ (4 vols. folio, Canterbury, 1778-1799;
  2nd ed., 12 vols. 8vo, Canterbury, 1797-1801); W. H. Ireland, _History
  of the County of Kent_ (London, 1828-1830); C. Sandys, _Consuetudines
  Kantiae_ (London, 1851); A. Hussey, _Notes on the Churches of Kent_
  (London, 1852); L. B. Larking, _The Domesday Book of Kent_ (1869); R.
  Furley, _History of the Weald of Kent_ (Ashford, 1871-1874); W. A.
  Scott Robertson, _Kentish Archaeology_ (London, 1876-1884); Sir S. R.
  Glynne, _Notes on Churches of Kent_, ed. W. H. Gladstone (London,
  1877); J. Hutchinson, _Men of Kent and Kentish Men_ (London, 1892);
  _Victoria County History_, "Kent." See also _Archaeologia Cantiana_
  (translations of the Kent Archaeological Society, London, from 1858).

KENTIGERN, ST, or MUNGO ("dear friend," a name given to him, according
to Jocelyn, by St Servanus), a Briton of Strathclyde, called by the
Goidels _In Glaschu_, "the Grey Hound," was, according to the legends
preserved in the lives which remain, of royal descent. His mother when
with child was thrown down from a hill called Dunpelder (Traprain Law,
Haddingtonshire), but survived the fall and escaped by sea to Culross on
the farther side of the Firth of Forth, where Kentigern was born. It is
possible that she may have been a nun, as a convent had been founded in
earlier times on Traprain Law. The life then describes the training of
the boy by Servanus, but the date of the latter renders this impossible.
Returning to Strathclyde Kentigern lived for some time at Glasgow, near
a cemetery ascribed to St Ninian, and was eventually made bishop of that
region by the king and clergy. This story is partially attested by Welsh
documents, in which Kentigern appears as the bishop of Garthmwl,
apparently the ruler of the region about Glasgow. Subsequently he was
opposed by a pagan king called Morken, whose relatives after his death
succeeded in forcing the saint to retire from Strathclyde. He thereupon
took refuge with St David at Menevia (St David's), and eventually
founded a monastery at Llanelwy (St Asaph's), for which purpose he
received grants from Maelgwn, prince of Gwynedd. After the battle of
Ardderyd in 573 in which King Rhydderch, leader of the Christian party
in Strathclyde, was victorious, Kentigern was recalled. He fixed his see
first at Hoddam in Dumfriesshire, but afterwards returned to Glasgow.
He is credited with missionary work in Galloway and north of the Firth
of Forth, but most of the dedications to him which survive are north of
the Mounth in the upper valley of the Dee. The meeting of Kentigern and
Columba probably took place soon after 584, when the latter began to
preach in the neighbourhood of the Tay.

  AUTHORITIES.--_Lives_ of St Kentigern; Fragment used by John of
  Fordun, and complete "Life" by Jocelyn of Furness in Forbes's
  _Historians of Scotland_ (Edinburgh, 1874), vol. v.; _Four Ancient
  Books of Wales_ (Edinburgh, ed. W. F. Skene, 1868), ii. 457; _Myvyrian
  Archaeology_ (London, 1801), ii. 34; D. R. Thomas, _History of Diocese
  of St Asaph_ (London, 1874), p. 5; Index of Llyfr Coch Asaph,
  _Archaeologia Cambrensis_, 3rd series, 1868, vol. xiv. p. 151; W. F.
  Skene, _Celtic Scotland_ (Edinburgh, 1877), ii. 179 ff.; John Rhys,
  _Celtic Britain_ (London, 1904), pp. 145, 146, 174, 199, 250.

KENTON, a city and the county seat of Hardin county, Ohio, U.S.A., on
the Scioto river, 60 m. N.W. of Columbus. Pop. (1900), 6852, including
493 foreign-born and 271 negroes; (1910), 7185. It is served by the
Erie, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, and the Ohio
Central railways. It is built on the water-parting between Lake Erie and
the Gulf of Mexico, here about 1,000 ft. above sea-level. There are
shops of the Ohio Central railway here, and manufactories of hardware.
The municipality owns and operates its waterworks. Kenton was named in
honour of Simon Kenton (1755-1836), a famous scout and Indian fighter,
who took part in the border warfare, particularly in Kentucky and Ohio,
during the War of American Independence and afterwards. It was platted
and became the county seat in 1833, and was chartered as a city in 1885.

KENT'S CAVERN, or KENT'S HOLE, the largest of English bone caves, famous
as affording evidence of the existence of Man in Devon (England)
contemporaneously with animals now extinct or no longer indigenous. It
is about a mile east of Torquay harbour and is of a sinuous nature,
running deeply into a hill of Devonian limestone. Although long known
locally, it was not until 1825 that it was scientifically examined by
Rev. J. McEnery, who found worked flints in intimate association with
the bones of extinct mammals. He recognized the fact that they proved
the existence of man in Devonshire while those animals were alive, but
the idea was too novel to be accepted by his contemporaries. His
discoveries were afterwards verified by Godwin Austen, and ultimately by
the Committee of the British Association, whose explorations were
carried on under the guidance of Wm. Pengelly from 1865 to 1880. There
are four distinct strata in the cave. (1) The surface is composed of
dark earth and contains medieval remains, Roman pottery and articles
which prove that it was in use during the Iron, Bronze and Neolithic
Ages. (2) Below this is a stalagmite floor, varying in thickness from 1
to 3 ft., and covering (3) the red earth which contained bones of the
hyaena, lion, mammoth, rhinoceros and other animals, in association with
flint implements and an engraved antler, which proved man to have been
an inhabitant of the cavern during its deposition. Above this and below
the stalagmite there is in one part of the cave a black band from 2 to 6
in. thick, formed of soil like No. 2, containing charcoal, numerous
flint implements, and the bones and teeth of animals, the latter
occasionally perforated as if used for ornament. (4) Filling the bottom
of the cave was a hard breccia, with the remains of bears and flint
implements, the latter in the main ruder than those found above; in some
places it was no less than 12 ft. thick. The most remarkable animal
remains found in Kent's Cavern are those of the Sabre-toothed tiger,
_Machairodus latidens_ of Sir Richard Owen. While the value of McEnery's
discoveries was in dispute the exploration of the cave of Brixham near
Torquay in 1858 proved that man was coeval with the extinct mammalia,
and in the following year additional proof was offered by the implements
that were found in Wookey Hole, Somerset. Similar remains have been met
with in the caves of Wales, and in England as far north as Derbyshire
(Cresswell), proving that over the whole of southern and middle England
men, in precisely the same stage of rude civilization, hunted the
rhinoceros, the mammoth and other extinct animals.

  See Sir John Evans, _Ancient Stone Implements of Great Britain_
  (London, 1897); Lord Avebury's _Prehistoric Times_ (1900); W.
  Pengelly, _Address to the British Association_ (1883) and Life of him
  by his daughter (1897); Godwin Austen, _Proc. Geo. Soc. London_, 111.
  286; Pengelly, "Literature of Kent's Cavern" in _Trans. Devonshire
  Association_ (1868); William Boyd Dawkins, _Cave-hunting and Early Man
  in Britain_.

KENTUCKY, a South Central State of the United States of America,
situated between 36° 30´ and 39° 6´ N., and 82° and 89° 38´ W. It is
bounded N., N.W., and N.E. by Illinois, Indiana and Ohio; E. by the Big
Sandy river and its E. fork, the Tug, which separates it from West
Virginia, and by Virginia; S.E. and S. by Virginia and Tennessee; and W.
by the Mississippi river, which separates it from Missouri. It has an
area of 40,598 sq. m.; of this, 417 sq. m., including the entire breadth
of the Ohio river, over which it has jurisdiction, are water surface.

  _Physiography._--From mountain heights along its eastern border the
  surface of Kentucky is a north-western slope across two much dissected
  plateaus to a gracefully undulating lowland in the north central part
  and a longer western slope across the same plateaus to a lower and
  more level lowland at the western extremity. The narrow mountain belt
  is part of the western edge of the Appalachian Mountain Province in
  which parallel ridges of folded mountains, the Cumberland and the
  Pine, have crests 2000-3000 ft. high, and the Big Black Mountain rises
  to 4000 ft. The highest point in the state is The Double on the
  Virginia state line, in the eastern part of Harlan county with an
  altitude of over 4100 ft. The entire eastern quarter of the state,
  coterminous with the Eastern Kentucky coal-field, is commonly known as
  the region of the "mountains," but with the exception of the narrow
  area just described it properly belongs to the Alleghany Plateau
  Province. This plateau belt is exceedingly rugged with sharp ridges
  alternating with narrow valleys which have steep sides but are seldom
  more than 1500 ft. above the sea. The remainder of the state which
  lies east of the Tennessee river is divided into the Highland Rim
  Plateau and a lowland basin, eroded in the Highland Rim Plateau and
  known as the Blue Grass Region; this region is separated from the
  Highland Rim Plateau by a semicircular escarpment extending from
  Portsmouth, Ohio, at the mouth of the Scioto river, to the mouth of
  the Salt river below Louisville; it is bounded north by the Ohio
  river. The Highland Rim Plateau, lying to the south, east and west of
  the escarpment, embraces fully one-half of the state, slopes from
  elevations of 1000-1200 ft. or more in the east to about 500 ft. in
  the north-west, and is generally much less rugged than the Alleghany
  Plateau; a peculiar feature of the southern portion of it is the
  numerous circular depressions (sink holes) in the surface and the
  cavernous region beneath. Kentucky is noted for its caves, the
  best-known of which are Mammoth Cave and Colossal Cavern (qq.v.). The
  caves are cut in the beds of limestone (lying immediately below the
  coal-bearing series) by streams that pass beneath the surface in the
  "sink holes," and according to Professor N. S. Shaler there are
  altogether "doubtless a hundred thousand miles of ways large enough to
  permit the easy passage of man." Down the steep slopes of the
  escarpment the Highland Rim Plateau drops 200 ft. or more to the
  famous Blue Grass Region, in which erosion has developed on limestone
  a gracefully undulating surface. This Blue Grass Region is like a
  beautiful park, without ragged cliffs, precipitous slopes, or flat
  marshy bottoms, but marked by rounded hills and dales. Especially
  within a radius of 20 m. around Lexington, the country is clothed with
  an unusually luxuriant vegetation. During spring, autumn, and winter
  in particular, the blue-grass (_Poa compressa_ and _Poa pratensis_)
  spreads a mat, green, thick, fine and soft, over much of the country,
  and it is a good winter pasture; about the middle of June it blooms,
  and, owing to the hue of its seed vessels, gives the landscape a
  bluish hue. Another lowland area embraces that small part of the state
  in the extreme south-east which lies west of the Tennessee river; this
  belongs to that part of the Coastal Plain Region which extends north
  along the Mississippi river; it has in Kentucky an average elevation
  of less than 500 ft. Most of the larger rivers of the state have their
  sources among the mountains or on the Alleghany Plateau and flow more
  or less circuitously in a general north-western direction into the
  Ohio. Although deep river channels are common, falls or impassable
  rapids are rare west of the Alleghany Plateau, and the state has an
  extensive mileage of navigable waters. The Licking, Kentucky, Green
  and Tradewater are the principal rivers wholly within the state. The
  Cumberland, after flowing for a considerable distance in the
  south-east and south central part of the state, passes into Tennessee
  at a point nearly south of Louisville, and in the extreme south-west
  the Cumberland and the Tennessee, with only a short distance between
  them, cross Kentucky and enter the Mississippi at Smithland and
  Paducah respectively. The drainage of the region under which the
  caverns lie is mostly underground.

  [Illustration: Map of Kentucky.]

  _Fauna and Flora._--The first white settlers found great numbers of
  buffaloes, deer, elks, geese, ducks, turkeys and partridges, also many
  bears, panthers, lynx, wolves, foxes, beavers, otters, minks,
  musk-rats, rabbits, squirrels, raccoons, woodchucks, opossums and
  skunks, and the streams were inhabited by trout, perch,
  buffalo-fish, sun-fish, mullet, eels, and suckers. Of the larger game
  there remain only a few deer, bears and lynx in the mountain
  districts, and the numbers of small game and fish have been greatly
  reduced. In its primeval state Kentucky was generally well timbered,
  but most of the middle section has been cleared and here the blue
  grass is now the dominant feature of the flora. Extensive forest areas
  still remain both in the east and the west. In the east oak, maple,
  beech, chestnut, elm, tulip-tree (locally "yellow poplar"), walnut,
  pine and cedar trees are the most numerous; in the west the forests
  are composed largely of cypress, ash, oak, hickory, chestnut, walnut,
  beech, tulip-tree, gum and sycamore trees. Locust, pawpaw, cucumber,
  buck-eye, black mulberry and wild cherry trees also abound, and the
  grape, raspberry and strawberry are native fruits.

  _Climate._--The climate is somewhat more mild and even than that of
  the neighbouring states. The mean annual temperature, about 50° F. on
  the mountains in the S.E., and 60° W. of the Tennessee, is about 55°
  F. for the entire state; the thermometer seldom registers as high as
  100° or as low as -10°. The mean annual precipitation ranges from
  about 38 in. in the north-east to 50 in. in the south, and is about 46
  in. for the entire state; it is usually distributed evenly throughout
  the year and very little is in the form of snow. The prevailing winds
  blow from the west or south-west; rain-bearing winds blow mostly from
  the south; and the cold waves come from the north or north-west.

  _Soil._--The best soils are the alluvium in the bottom-lands along
  some of the larger rivers and that of the Blue Grass Region, which is
  derived from a limestone rich in organic matter (containing
  phosphorus) and rapidly decomposing. The soil within a radius of some
  20 m. around Lexington is especially rich; outside of this area the
  Blue Grass soil is less rich in phosphorus and contains a larger
  mixture of sand. The soils of the Highland Rim Plateau as well as of
  the lowland west of the Tennessee river vary greatly, but the most
  common are a clay, containing more or less carbonate of lime, and a
  sandy loam. On the escarpment around the Blue Grass Region the soils
  are for the most part either cherty or stiff with clay and of inferior
  quality. On the mountains and on the Alleghany Plateau, also, much of
  the soil is very light and thin.

  _Agriculture._--Kentucky is chiefly an agricultural state. Of the
  752,531 of its inhabitants who, in 1900, were engaged in some gainful
  occupation, 408,185 or 54.2%, were agriculturists, and of its total
  land surface 21,979,422 acres, or 85.9%, were included in farms. The
  percentage of improved farm land increased from 35.2 in 1850 to 49.9
  in 1880 and to 62.5 in 1900. The number of farms increased from 74,777
  in 1850 to 166,453 in 1880 and to 234,667 in 1900; and their average
  size decreased from 226.7 acres in 1850 to 129.1 acres in 1880 and to
  93.7 acres in 1900, these changes being largely due to the breaking up
  of slave estates, the introduction of a considerable number of negro
  farmers, and the increased cultivation of tobacco and market-garden
  produce. In the best stock-raising country, e.g. in Fayette county,
  the opposite tendency prevailed during the latter part of this period
  and old farms of a few hundred acres were combined to form some vast
  estates of from 2000 to 4000 acres. Of the 234,667 farms in 1900,
  155,189 contained less than 100 acres, 76,450 contained between 100
  and 500 acres, and 558 contained more than 1000 acres; 152,216 or
  64.86%, were operated by owners or part owners, of whom 5320 were
  negroes; 16,776 by cash tenants, of whom 789 were negroes; and 60,289
  by share tenants, of whom 4984 were negroes. In 1900 the value of farm
  land and improvements was $291,117,430; of buildings on farms,
  $90,887,460; of livestock, $73,739,106. In the year 1899 the value of
  all farm products was $123,266,785 (of which $21,128,530 was the value
  of products fed to livestock), including the following items: crops,
  $74,783,365; animal products, $44,303,940; and forest products,
  $4,179,840. The total acreage of all crops in 1899 was 6,582,696.
  Indian corn is the largest and most valuable crop. As late as 1849,
  when it produced 58,672,591 bu., Kentucky was the second largest
  Indian-corn producing state in the Union. In 1899 the crop had
  increased to 73,974,220 bu. and the acreage was 3,319,257 (more than
  half the acreage of all crops in the state), but the rank had fallen
  to ninth in product and eleventh in acreage; in 1909 (according to the
  _Yearbook_ of the United States Department of Agriculture) the crop
  was 103,472,000 bu. (ninth among the states of the United States), and
  the acreage was 3,568,000 (twelfth among the states). Among the
  cereals wheat is the next largest crop; it increased from 2,142,822
  bu. in 1849 to 11,356,113 bu. in 1879, and to 14,264,500 bu. in 1899;
  in 1909 it was only 7,906,000 bu. The crop of each of the other
  cereals is small and in each case was less in 1899 than in 1849. The
  culture of tobacco, which is the second most valuable crop in the
  state, was begun in the north part about 1780 and in the west and
  south early in the 19th century, but it was late in that century
  before it was introduced to any considerable extent in the Blue Grass
  Region, where it was then in a measure substituted for the culture of
  hemp. By 1849 Kentucky ranked second only to Virginia in the
  production of tobacco, and in 1899 it was far ahead of any other state
  in both acreage and yield, there being in that year 384,805 acres,
  which was 34.9% of the total acreage in the continental United States,
  yielding 314,288,050 lb. As compared with the state's Indian corn crop
  of that year, the acreage was only a little more than one-ninth, but
  the value ($18,541,982) was about 63%. In 1909 the tobacco acreage in
  Kentucky was 420,000, the crop was 350,700,000 lb., valued at
  $37,174,200; the average price per pound had increased from 5.9 cents
  in 1899 to 10.6 cents in 1909. The two most important tobacco-growing
  districts are: the Black Patch, in the extreme south-west corner of
  the state, which with the adjacent counties in Tennessee grows a black
  heavy leaf bought almost entirely by the agents of foreign governments
  (especially Austria, Spain and Italy) and called "regie" tobacco; and
  the Blue Grass Region, as far east as Maysville, and the hill country
  south and east, whose product, the red and white Burley, is a
  fine-fibred light leaf, peculiarly absorbent of licorice and other
  adulterants used in the manufacture of sweet chewing tobacco, and
  hence a peculiarly valuable crop, which formerly averaged 22 cents a
  pound for all grades.[1] The high price received by the hill growers
  of the Burley induced farmers in the Blue Grass to plant Burley
  tobacco there, where the crop proved a great success, more than twice
  as much (sometimes 2000 lb.) being grown to the acre in the Blue Grass
  as in the hills and twice as large patches being easily managed. In
  the hill country the share tenant could usually plant and cultivate
  only four acres of tobacco, had to spend 120 days working the crop,
  and could use the same land for tobacco only once in six years. So,
  although a price of 6.5 cents a pound covered expenses of the planter
  of Burley in the Blue Grass, who could use the same land for tobacco
  once in four years, this price did not repay the hill planter. The
  additional production of the Blue Grass Region sent the price of
  Burley tobacco down to this figure and below it. The planters in the
  Black Patch had met a combination of the buyers by forming a pool, the
  Planters' Protective Association, into which 40,000 growers were
  forced by "night-riding" and other forms of coercion and persuasion,
  and had thus secured an advance to 11 cents a pound from the "regie"
  buyers and had shown the efficacy of pooling methods in securing
  better prices for the tobacco crop. Following their example, the
  planters of the Burley formed the Burley Tobacco Society, a Burley
  pool, with headquarters at Winchester and associated with the American
  Society of Equity, which promoted in general the pooling of different
  crops throughout the country. The tobacco planters secured legislation
  favourable to the formation of crop pools. The Burley Tobacco Society
  attempted to pool the entire crop and thus force the buyers of the
  American Tobacco Company of New Jersey (which usually bought more than
  three-fourths of the crop of Burley) to pay a much higher price for
  it. In 1906 and in 1907 the crop was very large; the pool sold its
  lower grades of the 1906 crop at 16 cents a pound to the American
  Tobacco Company and forced the independent buyers out of business; and
  the Burley Society decided in 1907 to grow no more tobacco until the
  1906 and 1907 crops were sold, making the price high enough to pay for
  this period of idleness. Members of the pool had used force to bring
  planters into the pool; and now some tobacco growers, especially in
  the hills, planted new crops in the hope of immediate return, and a
  new "night-riding" war was begun on them. Bands of masked men rode
  about the country both in the Black Patch and in the Burley, burning
  tobacco houses of the independent planters, scraping their
  newly-planted tobacco patches, demanding that planters join their
  organization or leave the country, and whipping or shooting the
  recalcitrants. Governor Willson, immediately after his inauguration,
  took measures to suppress disorder. In general the Planters'
  Protective Association in the Black Patch was more successful in its
  pool than the Burley Tobacco Society in its, and there was more
  violence in the "regie" than in the "Burley" district. In November
  1908 the lawlessness subsided in the Burley after the agreement of the
  American Tobacco Company to purchase the remainder of the 1906 crop at
  a "round" price of 20½ cents and a part of the 1907 crop at an average
  price of 17 cents, thus making it profitable to raise a full crop in

  Kentucky is the principal hemp-growing state of the Union; the crop of
  1899, which was grown on 14,107 acres and amounted to 10,303,560 lb.,
  valued at $468,454, was 87.7% of the hemp crop of the whole country.
  But the competition of cheaper labour in other countries reduced the
  profits on this plant and the product of 1899 was a decrease from
  78,818,000 lb. in 1859. Hay and forage, the fourth in value of the
  state's crops in 1899, were grown on 683,139 acres and amounted to
  776,534 tons, valued at $6,100,647; in 1909 the acreage of hay was
  480,000 and the crop of 653,000 tons was valued at $7,771,000. In 1899
  the total value of fruit grown in Kentucky was $2,491,457 (making the
  state rank thirteenth among the states of the Union in the value of
  this product), of which $1,943,645 was the value of orchard fruits and
  $435,462 that of small fruits. Among fruits, apples are produced in
  greatest abundance, 6,053,717 bu. in 1899, an amount exceeded in only
  nine states; in 1889 the crop had been 10,679,389 bu. and was exceeded
  only by the crop of Ohio and by that of Michigan. Kentucky also grows
  considerable quantities of cherries, pears, plums and peaches, and,
  for its size, ranks high in its crops of strawberries, blackberries
  and raspberries. Indian corn is grown in all parts of the state but
  most largely in the western portion. Wheat is grown both in the Blue
  Grass Region and farther west; and the best country for fruit is along
  the Ohio river between Cincinnati and Louisville and in the hilly land
  surrounding the Blue Grass Region. In the eastern part of the state
  where crops are generally light, Indian corn, oats and potatoes are
  the principal products, but tobacco, flax and cotton are grown. The
  thoroughbred Kentucky horse has long had a world-wide reputation for
  speed; and the Blue Grass Region, especially Fayette, Bourbon and
  Woodford counties, is probably the finest horse-breeding region in
  America and has large breeding farms. In Fayette county, in 1900, the
  average value of colts between the ages of one and two years was
  $377.78. In the Blue Grass Region many thoroughbred shorthorn cattle
  and fine mules are raised. The numbers of horses, mules, cattle and
  sheep increased quite steadily from 1850 to 1900, but the number of
  swine in 1880 and in 1900 was nearly one-third less than in 1850. In
  1900 the state had 497,245 horses, 198,110 mules, 364,025 dairy cows,
  755,714 other neat cattle, 1,300,832 sheep and 2,008,989 swine; in
  1910 there were in Kentucky 407,000 horses, 207,000 mules, 394,000
  milch cows, 665,000 other neat cattle, 1,060,000 sheep and 989,000
  swine. The principal sheep-raising counties in 1905 were Bourbon,
  Scott and Harrison, and the principal hog-raising counties were
  Graves, Hardin, Ohio, Union and Hickman.

  _Forests and Timber._--More than one-half of the state (about 22,200
  sq. m.) was in 1900 still wooded. In 1900 of the total cut of 777,218
  M. ft., B.M., 392,804 were white oak and 279,740 M. ft. were
  tulip-tree. Logging is the principal industry of several localities,
  especially in the east, and the lumber product of the state increased
  in value from $1,502,434 in 1850 to $4,064,361 in 1880, and to
  $13,774,911 in 1900. The factory product in 1900 was valued at
  $13,338,533 and in 1905 at $14,539,000. In 1905 of a total of 586,371
  M. ft., B.M., of sawed lumber, 295,776 M. ft. were oak and 153,057 M.
  ft. were "poplar."

  The planing mill industry is increasing rapidly, as it is found
  cheaper to erect mills near the forests; between 1900 and 1905 the
  capital of planing mills in the state increased 117.2% and the value
  of products increased 142.8%.

  _Manufactures._--Kentucky's manufactures are principally those for
  which the products of her farms and forests furnish the raw material.
  The most distinctive of these is probably distilled liquors, the
  state's whisky being famous. A colony of Roman Catholic immigrants
  from Maryland settled in 1787 along the Salt river about 50 m. S.S.E.
  of Louisville and with the surplus of their Indian corn crop made
  whisky, a part of which they sold at settlements on the Ohio and the
  Mississippi. The industry was rapidly developed by distillers, who
  immediately after the suppression of the Whisky Insurrection, in 1794,
  removed from Pennsylvania and settled in what is now Mason county and
  was then a part of Bourbon county--the product is still known as
  "Bourbon" whisky. During the first half of the 19th century the
  industry became of considerable local importance in all parts of the
  state, but since the Civil War the heavy tax imposed has caused its
  concentration in large establishments. In 1900 nearly 40% and in 1905
  more than one-third of the state's product was distilled in
  Louisville. Good whisky is made in Maryland and in parts of
  Pennsylvania from rye, but all efforts in other states to produce from
  Indian corn a whisky equal to the Bourbon have failed, and it is
  probable that the quality of the Bourbon is largely due to the
  character of the Kentucky lime water and the Kentucky yeast germs. The
  average annual product of the state from 1880 to 1900 was about
  20,000,000 gallons; in 1900 the product was valued at $9,786,527; in
  1905 at $11,204,649. In 1900 and in 1905 Kentucky ranked fourth among
  the states in the value of distilled liquors.

  The total value of all manufactured products of the state increased
  from $126,719,857 in 1890 to $154,166,365 in 1900, or 21.7%, and from
  1900 to 1905 the value of factory-made products alone increased from
  $126,508,660 to $159,753,968, or 26.3%.[2] Measured by the value of
  the product, flour and grist mill products rose from third in rank in
  1900 to first in rank in 1905, from $13,017,043 to $18,007,786, or
  38.3%; and chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff fell during the same
  period from first to third in rank, from $14,948,192 to $13,117,000,
  or 12.3%; in 1900 Kentucky was second, in 1905 third, among the states
  in the value of this product. Lumber and timber products held second
  rank both in 1900 ($13,338,533) and in 1905 ($14,539,000). Distilled
  liquors were fourth in rank in 1900 and in 1905. Men's clothing rose
  from tenth in rank in 1900 to fifth in rank in 1905, from $3,420,365
  to $6,279,078, or 83.6%. Other important manufactures, with their
  product values in 1900 and in 1905, are iron and steel ($5,004,572 in
  1900; $6,167,542 in 1905); railway cars ($4,248,029 in 1900;
  $5,739,071 in 1905); packed meats ($5,177,167 in 1900; $5,693,731 in
  1905); foundry and machine shop products ($4,434,610 in 1900;
  $4,699,559 in 1905); planing mill products, including sash, doors and
  blinds ($1,891,517 in 1900; $4,593,251 in 1905--an increase already
  remarked); carriages and wagons ($2,849,713 in 1900; $4,059,438 in
  1905); tanned and curried leather ($3,757,016 in 1900; $3,952,277 in
  1905); and malt liquors ($3,186,627 in 1900; $3,673,678 in 1905).
  Other important manufactures (each with a product value in 1905 of
  more than one million dollars) were cotton-seed oil and cake (in 1900
  Kentucky was fifth and in 1905 sixth among the states in the value of
  cotton-seed oil and cake), cooperage, agricultural implements, boots
  and shoes, cigars and cigarettes, saddlery and harness, patent
  medicines and compounds, cotton goods, furniture, confectionery,
  carriage and wagon materials, wooden packing boxes, woollen goods,
  pottery and terra cotta ware, structural iron-work, and turned and
  carved wood. Louisville is the great manufacturing centre, the value
  of its products amounting in 1905 to $83,204,125, 52.1% of the product
  of the entire state, and showing an increase of 25.9% over the value
  of the city's factory products in 1900. Ashland is the principal
  centre of the iron industry.

  _Minerals._--The mineral resources of Kentucky are important and
  valuable, though very little developed. The value of all manufactures
  in 1900 was $154,166,365, and the value of manufactures based upon
  products of mines or quarries in the same year was $25,204,788; the
  total value of mineral products was $19,294,341 in 1907. Bituminous
  coal is the principal mineral, and in 1907 Kentucky ranked eighth
  among the coal-producing states of the Union; the output in 1907
  amounted to 10,753,124 short tons, and in 1902 to 6,766,984 short tons
  as compared with 2,399,755 tons produced in 1889. In 1902 the amount
  was about equally divided between the eastern coalfield, which is for
  the most part in Greenup, Boyd, Carter, Lawrence, Johnson, Lee,
  Breathitt, Rockcastle, Pulaski, Laurel, Knox, Bell and Whitley
  counties, and has an area of about 11,180 sq. m., and the western
  coalfield, which is in Henderson, Union, Webster, Daviess, Hancock,
  McLean, Ohio, Hopkins, Butler, Muhlenberg and Christian counties, and
  has an area of 5800 sq. m. In 1907 the output of the western district
  was 6,295,397 tons; that of the eastern, 4,457,727. The largest
  coal-producing counties in 1907 were Hopkins (2,064,154 short tons)
  and Muhlenberg (1,882,913 short tons) in the western coalfield, and
  Bell (1,437,886 short tons) and Whitley (762,923 short tons) in the
  south-western part of the eastern coalfield. All Kentucky coal is
  either bituminous or semi-bituminous, but of several varieties. Of
  cannel coal Kentucky is the largest producer in the Union, its output
  for 1902 being 65,317 short tons, and, according to state reports, for
  1903, 72,856 tons (of which 46,314 tons were from Morgan county), and
  for 1904, 68,400 tons (of which 52,492 tons were from Morgan county);
  according to the _Mineral Resources of the United States_ for 1907
  (published by the United States Geological Survey) the production of
  Kentucky in 1907 of cannel coal (including 4650 tons of semi-cannel
  coal) was 77,733 tons, and exclusive of semi-cannel coal the output of
  Kentucky was much larger than that of any other state. Some of the
  coal mined in eastern Kentucky is an excellent steam producer,
  especially the Jellico coal of Whitley county, Kentucky, and of
  Campbell county, Tennessee. But with the exception of that mined in
  Hopkins and Bell counties, very little is fit for making coke; in 1880
  the product was 4250 tons of coke (value $12,250), in 1890, 12,343
  tons ($22,191); in 1900, 95,532 tons ($235,505); in 1902, 126,879 tons
  ($317,875), the maximum product up to 1906; and in 1907, 67,068 tons
  ($157,288). Coal was first mined in Kentucky in Laurel or Pulaski
  county in 1827; between 1829 and 1835 the annual output was from 2000
  to 6000 tons; in 1840 it was 23,527 tons and in 1860 it was 285,760

  Petroleum was discovered on Little Rennick's Creek, near Burkesville,
  in Cumberland county, in 1829, when a flowing oil well (the "American
  well," whose product was sold as "American oil" to heal rheumatism,
  burns, &c.) was struck by men boring for a "salt well," and after a
  second discovery in the 'sixties at the mouth of Crocus Creek a small
  but steady amount of oil was got each year. Great pipe lines from
  Parkersburg, West Virginia, to Somerset, Pulaski county, and with
  branches to the Ragland, Barbourville and Prestonburg fields, had in
  1902 a mileage of 275 m. The principal fields are in the "southern
  tier," from Wayne to Allen county, including Barren county; farther
  east, Knox county, and Floyd and Knott counties; to the north-east the
  Ragland field in Bath and Rowan counties on the Licking river. In 1902
  the petroleum produced in the state amounted to 248,950 barrels,
  valued at $172,837, a gain in quantity of 81.4% over 1901. Kentucky is
  the S.W. extreme of the natural gas region of the west flank of the
  Appalachian system; the greatest amount is found in Martin county in
  the east, and Breckinridge county in the north-west. The value of the
  state's natural gas output increased from $38,993 in 1891 to $99,000
  in 1896, $286,243 in 1900, $365,611 in 1902, and $380,176 in 1907.

  Iron ore has been found in several counties, and an iron furnace was
  built in Bath county, in the N. E. part of the state, as early as
  1791, but since 1860 this mineral has received little attention. In
  1902 it was mined only in Bath, Lyon and Trigg counties, of which the
  total product was 71,006 long tons, valued at only $86,169; in 1904
  only 35,000 tons were mined, valued at the mines at $35,000.

  In 1898 there began an increased activity in the mining of fluorspar,
  and Crittenden, Fayette and Livingston counties produced in 1902,
  29,030 tons (valued at $143,410) of this mineral, in 1903 30,835 tons
  (valued at $153,960) and in 1904 19,096 tons (valued at $111,499),
  amounts (and values) exceeding those produced in any other state for
  these years; but in 1907 the quantity (21,058 tons) was less than the
  output of Illinois. Lead and zinc are mined in small quantities near
  Marion in Crittenden county and elsewhere in connexion with mining for
  fluorspar; in 1907 the output was 75 tons of lead valued at $7950 and
  358 tons of zinc valued at $42,244. Jefferson, Jessamine, Warren,
  Grayson and Caldwell counties have valuable quarries of an excellent
  light-coloured öolitic limestone, resembling the Bedford limestone of
  Indiana, and best known under the name of the finest variety, the
  "Bowling Green stone" of Warren county; and sandstones good for
  structural purposes are found in both coal regions, and especially in
  Rowan county. In 1907 the total value of limestone quarried in the
  state was $891,500, and of all stone, $1,002,450. Fire and pottery
  clay and cement rock also abound within the state. The value of clay
  products was $2,406,350 in 1905 (when Kentucky was tenth among the
  states) and was $2,611,364 in 1907 (when Kentucky was eleventh among
  the states). The manufacture of cement was begun in 1829 at
  Shippingport, a suburb of Louisville, whence the natural cement of
  Kentucky and Indiana, produced within a radius of 15 m. from
  Louisville, is called "Louisville cement." In 1905 the value of
  natural cement manufactured in the state (according to the United
  States Geological Survey) was only $83,000. The manufacture of
  Portland cement is of greater importance.

  There are mineral springs, especially salt springs, in various parts
  of the state, particularly in the Blue Grass Region; these are now of
  comparatively little economic importance; no salt was reported among
  the state's manufactures for 1905, and in 1907 only 736,920 gallons of
  mineral waters were bottled for sale. Historically and geologically,
  however, these springs are of considerable interest. According to
  Professor N. S. Shaler, state geologist in 1873-1880, "When the rocks
  whence they flow were formed on the Silurian sea-floors, a good deal
  of the sea-water was imprisoned in the strata, between the grains of
  sand or mud and in the cavities of the shells that make up a large
  part of these rocks. This confined sea-water is gradually being
  displaced by the downward sinking of the rain-water through the rifts
  of the strata, and thus finds its way to the surface: so that these
  springs offer to us a share of the ancient seas, in which perhaps a
  hundred million of years ago the rocks of Kentucky were laid down." To
  these springs in prehistoric and historic times came annually great
  numbers of animals for salt, and in the marshes and swamps around some
  of them, especially Big Bone Lick (in Boone county, about 20 m. S.W.
  of Cincinnati) have been found many bones of extinct mammals, such as
  the mastodon and the long-legged bison.[3] The early settlers and the
  Indians came to the springs to shoot large game for food, and by
  boiling the waters the settlers obtained valuable supplies of salt.
  Several of the Kentucky springs have been somewhat frequented as
  summer resorts; among these are the Blue Lick in Nicholas county
  (about 48 m. N.E. of Lexington), Harrodsburg, Crab Orchard in Lincoln
  county (about 115 m. S.E. of Louisville), Rock Castle springs in
  Pulaski county (about 23 m. E. of Somerset) and Paroquet Springs (near
  Shepherdsville, Bullitt county), which was a well-known resort before
  the Civil War, and near which, at Bullitt Lick, the first salt works
  in Kentucky are said to have been erected.

  Pearls are found in the state, especially in the Cumberland River, and
  it is supposed that there are diamonds in the kimberlite deposits in
  Elliott county.

  _Transportation._--Kentucky in 1909 had 3,503.98 m. of railway.
  Railway building was begun in the state in 1830, and in 1835 the first
  train drawn by a steam locomotive ran from Lexington to Franklin, a
  distance of 27 m. Not until 1851 was the line completed to Louisville.
  Kentucky's trade during the greater part of the 19th century was very
  largely with the South, and with the facilities which river navigation
  afforded for this the development of a railway system was retarded. Up
  to 1880 the railway mileage had increased to only 1,530; but during
  the next ten years it increased to 2,942, and railways were in
  considerable measure substituted for water craft. The principal lines
  are the Louisville & Nashville, the Chesapeake & Ohio, the Illinois
  Central, and the Cincinnati Southern (Queen & Crescent route). Most of
  the lines run south or south-west from Cincinnati and Louisville, and
  the east border of the state still has a small railway mileage and
  practically no wagon roads, most of the travel being on horseback. The
  wagon roads of the Blue Grass Region are excellent, because of the
  plentiful and cheap supply of stone for road building. The assessment
  of railway property, and in some measure the regulation of railway
  rates, are entrusted to a state railway commission.

_Population._--The population of Kentucky in 1880[4] was 1,648,690; in
1890, 1,858,635, an increase within the decade of 12.7 %; in 1900 it was
2,147,174; and in 1910 it had reached 2,289,905. Of the total population
of 1900, 284,865 were coloured and 50,249 were foreign-born; of the
coloured, 284,706 were negroes, 102 were Indians, and 57 were Chinese;
of the foreign-born, 27,555 were natives of Germany, 9874 were natives
of Ireland, and 3256 were natives of England. Of the foreign-born,
21,427, or 42.6 %, were inhabitants of the city of Louisville, leaving a
population outside of this city of which 98.4 % were native born. The
rugged east section of the state, a part of Appalachian America, is
inhabited by a people of marked characteristics, portrayed in the
fiction of Miss Murfree ("Charles Egbert Craddock") and John Fox, Jr.
They are nearly all of British--English and Scotch-Irish--descent, with
a trace of Huguenot. They have good native ability, but through lack of
communication with the outside world their progress has been retarded.
Before the Civil War they were owners of land, but for the most part not
owners of slaves, so that a social and political barrier, as well as the
barriers of nature, separated them from the other inhabitants of the
state. In their speech several hundred words persist which elsewhere
have been obsolete for three centuries or occur only in dialects in
England. Their life is still in many respects very primitive; their
houses are generally built of logs, their clothes are often of homespun,
Indian corn and ham form a large part of their diet, and their means of
transportation are the saddle-horse and sleds and wheeled carts drawn by
oxen or mules. In instincts and in character, also, the typical
"mountaineers" are to a marked degree primitive; they are, for the most
part, very ignorant; they are primitively hospitable and are
warm-hearted to friends and strangers, but are implacable in their
enmities and are prone to vendettas and family feuds, which often result
in the killing in open fight or from ambush of members of one faction by
members of another; and their relative seclusion and isolation has
brought them, especially in some districts, to a disregard for law, or
to a belief that they must execute justice with their own hands. This
appears particularly in their attitude toward revenue officers sent to
discover and close illicit stills for the distilling from Indian corn of
so-called "moon-shine" whisky (consisting largely of pure alcohol). The
taking of life and "moon-shining," however, have become less and less
frequent among them, and Berea College, at Berea, the Lincoln Memorial
University, and other schools in Kentucky and adjoining states have done
much to educate them and bring them more in harmony with the outside

  The population of Kentucky is largely rural. However, in the decade
  between 1890 and 1900 the percentage of urban population (i.e.
  population of places of 4000 inhabitants or more) to the total
  population increased from 17.5 to 19.7 and the percentage of
  semi-urban (i.e. population of incorporated places with a population
  of less than 4000) to the total increased from 8.86 to 9.86 %; but
  48.3 % of the urban population of 1900 was in the city of Louisville.
  In 1910 the following cities each had a population of more than 5000.
  Louisville (223,928), Covington (53,270), Lexington (35,099), Newport
  (30,309), Paducah (22,760), Owensboro (16,011), Henderson (11,452),
  Frankfort, the capital (10,465), Hopkinsville (9419), Bowling Green
  (9173), Ashland (8688), Middlesboro (7305), Winchester (7156), Dayton
  (6979), Bellevue (6683), Maysville (6141), Mayfield (5916), Paris
  (5859), Danville (5420), Richmond (5340). Of historical interest are
  Harrodsburg (q.v.), the first permanent settlement in the state, and
  Bardstown (pop. in 1900, 1711), the county-seat of Nelson county.
  Bardstown was settled about 1775, largely by Roman Catholics from
  Maryland. It was the see of a Roman Catholic bishop from 1810 to 1841,
  and the seat of St Joseph's College (Roman Catholic) from 1824 to
  1890; and was for some time the home of John Fitch (1743-1798), the
  inventor, who built his first boat here. The Nazareth Literary and
  Benevolent Institution, at Nazareth (2 m. N. of Bardstown), was
  founded in 1829 and is a well-known Roman Catholic school for girls.
  Boonesborough, founded by Daniel Boone in 1775, in what is now Madison
  county, long ago ceased to exist, though a railway station named
  Boone, on the Louisville & Nashville railroad, is near the site of the
  old settlement.

  In 1906 there were 858,324 communicants of different religious
  denominations in the state, including 311,583 Baptists, 165,908 Roman
  Catholics, 156,007 Methodists, 136,110 Disciples of Christ, 47,822
  Presbyterians and 8091 Protestant Episcopalians.

_Administration._--Kentucky is governed under a constitution adopted in
1891.[5] A convention to revise the constitution or to draft a new one
meets on the call of two successive legislatures, ratified by a majority
of the popular vote, provided that majority be at least one-fourth of
the total number of votes cast at the preceding general election.
Ordinary amendments are proposed by a three-fifths majority in each
house, and are also subject to popular approval. With the usual
exceptions of criminals, idiots and insane persons, all male citizens
of the United States, who are at least 21 years of age, and have lived
in the state one year, in the county six months, and in the voting
precinct sixty days next preceding the election, are entitled to vote.
The legislature provides by law for registration in cities of the first,
second, third and fourth classes--the minimum population for a city of
the fourth class being 3000. Corporations are forbidden to contribute
money for campaign purposes on penalty of forfeiting their charters, or,
if not chartered in the state, their right to carry on business in the
state. The executive is composed of a governor, a lieutenant-governor, a
treasurer, an auditor of public accounts, a register of the land office,
a commissioner of agriculture, labour, and statistics, a secretary of
state, an attorney-general and a superintendent of public instruction.
All are chosen by popular vote for four years and are ineligible for
immediate re-election, and each must be at least 30 years of age and
must have been a resident citizen of the state for two years next
preceding his election. If a vacancy occurs in the office of governor
during the first two years a new election is held; if it occurs during
the last two years the lieutenant-governor serves out the term.
Lieutenant-governor Beckham, elected in 1900 to fill out the unexpired
term of Governor Goebel (assassinated in 1900), was re-elected in 1903,
the leading lawyers of the state holding that the constitutional
inhibition on successive terms did not apply in such a case.

  The governor is commander-in-chief of the militia when it is not
  called into the service of the United States; he may remit fines and
  forfeitures, commute sentences, and grant reprieves and pardons,
  except in cases of impeachment; and he calls extraordinary sessions of
  the legislature. His control of patronage, however, is not extensive
  and his veto power is very weak. He may veto any measure, including
  items in appropriation bills, but the legislature can repass such a
  measure by a simple majority of the total membership in each house.
  Among the various state administrative boards are the board of
  equalization of five members, the board of health of nine members, a
  board of control of state institutions with four members (bipartisan),
  and the railroad commission, the prison commission, the state election
  commission and the sinking fund commission of three members each.
  Legislative power is vested in a General Assembly, which consists of a
  Senate and a House of Representatives. Senators are elected for four
  years, one-half retiring every two years; representatives are elected
  for two years. The minimum age for a representative is 24 years, for a
  senator 30 years. There are thirty-eight senators and one hundred
  representatives. The Senate sits as a court for the trial of
  impeachment cases. A majority of either house constitutes a quorum,
  but as regards ordinary bills, on the third reading, not only must
  they receive a majority of the quorum, but that majority must be at
  least two-fifths of the total membership of the house. For the
  enactment of appropriation bills and bills creating a debt a majority
  of the total membership in each house is required. All revenue
  measures must originate in the House of Representatives, but the
  Senate may introduce amendments. There are many detailed restrictions
  on local and special legislation. The constitution provides for local
  option elections on the liquor question in counties, cities, towns and
  precincts; in 1907, out of 119 counties 87 had voted for prohibition.

  The judiciary consists of a court of appeals, circuit courts,
  quarterly courts, county courts, justice of the peace courts, police
  courts and fiscal courts. The court of appeals is composed of from
  five to seven judges (seven in 1909), elected, one from each appellate
  district, for a term of eight years. The senior judge presides as
  chief justice and in case two or more have served the same length of
  time one of them is chosen by lot. The governor may for any reasonable
  cause remove judges on the address of two-thirds of each house of the
  legislature. The counties are grouped into judicial circuits, those
  containing a population of more than 150,000 constituting separate
  districts; each district has a judge and a commonwealth's attorney.
  The county officials are the judge, clerk, attorney, sheriff, jailor,
  coroner, surveyor and assessor, elected for four years. Each county
  contains from three to eight justice of the peace districts. The
  financial board of the county is composed of the county judge and the
  justices of the peace, or of the county judge and three commissioners
  elected on a general ticket.

  The municipalities are divided into six classes according to
  population, a classification which permits considerable special local
  legislation in spite of the constitutional inhibition. Marriages
  between whites and persons of negro descent are prohibited by law, and
  a marriage of insane persons is legally void. Among causes for
  absolute divorce are adultery, desertion for one year, habitual
  drunkenness for one year, cruelty, ungovernable temper, physical
  incapacity at time of marriage, and the joining by either party of any
  religious sect which regards marriage as unlawful. A homestead law
  declares exempt from execution an unmortgaged dwelling-house (with
  appurtenances) not to exceed $1000 in value, and certain property,
  such as tools of one's trade, libraries (to the value of $500) of
  ministers and lawyers, and provisions for one year for each member of
  a family. Child labour is regulated by an act passed by the General
  Assembly in 1908; this act prohibits the employment of children less
  than 14 years of age in any gainful occupation during the session of
  school or in stores, factories, mines, offices, hotels or messenger
  service during vacations, and prohibits the employment of children
  between 14 and 16 unless they have employment certificates issued by a
  superintendent of schools or some other properly authorized person,
  showing the child's ability to read and write English, giving
  information as to the child's age (based upon a birth certificate if
  possible), and identifying the child by giving height and weight and
  colour of eyes and hair. These certificates must be kept on file and
  lists of children employed must be posted by employers; labour
  inspectors receive monthly lists from local school boards of children
  receiving certificates; and children under 16 are not to work more
  than 10 hours a day or 60 hours a week, or between 7 p.m. and 7 a.m.

  _Charitable and Penal Institutions._--The charitable and penal
  institutions are managed by separate boards of trustees appointed by
  the governor. There are a deaf and dumb institution at Danville
  (1823), an institution for the blind at Louisville (1842), and an
  institution for the education of feeble-minded children at Frankfort
  (1860). The Eastern Lunatic Asylum at Lexington, established in 1815
  as a private institution, came under the control of the state in 1824.
  The Central Lunatic Asylum at Anchorage, founded in 1869 as a house of
  refuge for young criminals, became an asylum in 1873. The Western
  Lunatic Asylum at Hopkinsville was founded in 1848. The main
  penitentiary at Frankfort was completed in 1799 and a branch was
  established at Eddyville in 1891. Under an act of 1898 two houses of
  reform for juvenile offenders, one for boys, the other for girls, were
  established near Lexington.

  _Education._--The early history of the schools of Kentucky shows that
  the rural school conditions have been very unsatisfactory. A system of
  five trustees, with a sixty-day term of school, was replaced by a
  three trustee system, first with a one-hundred-day term of school, and
  subsequently with a one-hundred-and-twenty-day term of school
  annually. The state fund has not been supplemented locally for the
  payment of teachers, who have consequently been underpaid. The rural
  teachers, however, have been paid from the state fund, so that the
  poorer districts receive aid from the richer districts of the
  commonwealth. The rural schools are supervised by a superintendent in
  each county. Throughout the state white and negro children are taught
  in separate schools. The state makes provision for revenue for school
  purposes as follows: (1) the interest on the Bond of the Commonwealth
  for $1,327,000.00; (2) dividends on 798 shares of the capital stock of
  the Bank of Kentucky--representing a par value of $79,800.00; (3) the
  interest at 6 % on the Bond of the Commonwealth for $381,986.08, which
  is a perpetual obligation in favour of the several counties; (4) the
  interest at 6 % on $606,641.03, which was received from the United
  States; (5) the annual tax of 26½ cents on each $100 of value of all
  real and personal estate and corporate franchises directed to be
  assessed for taxation; (6) a certain portion of fines, forfeitures and
  licences realized by the state; and (7) a portion of the dog taxes of
  each county. The present school system of Kentucky may be summarized
  under three heads: the rural schools, the graded schools, and the high
  schools (which are further classified as city and county high
  schools). The 1908 session of the General Assembly passed an act
  providing: that each county of the state be the unit for taxation;
  that the county tax be mandatory; that there be a local subdistrict
  tax; and that each county be divided into four, six or eight
  educational divisions, that one trustee be elected for each
  subdistrict, that the trustees of the subdistricts form division
  Boards of Education, and that the chairmen of these various division
  boards form a County Board of Education together with the county
  superintendent, who is _ex officio_ chairman. This system of taxation
  and supervision is a great advance in the administration of public
  schools. Any subdistrict, town or city of the fifth or sixth class may
  provide for a graded school by voting for an _ad valorem_ and poll tax
  which is limited as to amount. There were in 1909 135 districts which
  had complied with this act, and were known as Graded Common School
  districts. By special charters the General Assembly has also
  established 25 special graded schools. Statutes provide that all
  children between the ages of 7 and 14 years living in such districts
  must attend school annually for at least eight consecutive weeks. In
  each city of the first, second and third class there must be, and of
  the fourth class there may be, maintained under control of a city
  Board of Education a system of public schools, in which all children
  between the ages of 6 and 20 residing in the city may be taught at
  public expense. There were in 1909 62 city public high schools whose
  graduates are admitted to the State University without examination. A
  truancy act (1908) provides that every child between the ages of 7 and
  14 years living in a city of the first, second, third or fourth class
  must attend school regularly for the full term of said school. It was
  provided by statute that before June 1910, there should have been
  established in each county of the state at least one County High
  School to which all common school graduates of the county should be
  admitted without charge. Separate institutes for white and coloured
  teachers are conducted annually in each county. These institutes are
  held for a five or ten day session and attendance is required of every
  teacher. The state provides for the issuance of three kinds of
  certificates. A state diploma issued by the State Board of Examiners
  is good for life. A state certificate issued by the State Board of
  Examiners is good for eight years with one renewal. County
  certificates issued by the County Board of Examiners are of three
  classes, valid for one, two and four years respectively.

  According to a school census there was in 1908-1909 a school
  population of 739,352, of which 587,051 were reported from the rural
  districts. In the school year 1907-1908 the school population was
  734,617, the actual enrolment in public schools was 441,377, the
  average attendance was 260,843; there were approximately 3392 male and
  5257 female white teachers and 1274 negro teachers; and the total
  revenue for school purposes was $3,805,997, of which sum $2,437,942.56
  came from the state treasury.

  What was formerly the State Agricultural and Mechanical College at
  Lexington became the State University by legislative enactment (1908);
  there is no tuition fee except in the School of Law. The State
  University has a Department of Education. The state maintains for the
  whites two State Normal Schools, which were established in 1906--one,
  for the eastern district, at Richmond, and the other, for the western
  district, at Bowling Green. Under the law establishing State Normal
  Schools, each county is entitled to one or more appointments of
  scholarships, one annually for every 500 white school children listed
  in the last school census. A Kentucky Normal and Industrial School
  (1886) for negroes is maintained at Frankfort. Among the private and
  denominational colleges in Kentucky are Central University
  (Presbyterian), at Danville; Transylvania University, at Lexington;
  Georgetown College (Baptist) at Georgetown; Kentucky Wesleyan College
  (M.E. South), at Winchester; and Berea College (non-sectarian) at

  _Finance._--Kentucky, in common with other states in this part of the
  country, suffered from over-speculation in land and railways during
  1830-1850. The funded debt of the state amounted to four and one-half
  millions of dollars in 1850, when the hew constitution limited the
  power of the legislature to contract further obligations or to
  decrease or misapply the sinking funds. From 1850 to 1880 there was a
  gradual reduction except during the years of the war. The system of
  classifying the revenue into separate funds has frequently produced
  annual deficits, which are, as a rule only nominal, since the total
  receipts exceed the total expenditures. In 1902 the net bonded debt,
  exclusive of about two millions of dollars held for educational
  purposes, was $1,171,394, but this debt was paid in full in the years
  immediately following. The sinking fund commission is composed of the
  governor, attorney-general, secretary of state, auditor and treasurer.
  The first banking currency in Kentucky was issued in 1802 by a
  co-operative insurance company established by Mississippi Valley
  traders. The Bank of Kentucky, established at Frankfort in 1806, had a
  monopoly for several years. In 1818-1819 the legislature chartered 46
  banks, nearly all of which went into liquidation during the panic of
  1819. The Bank of the Commonwealth was chartered in 1820 as a state
  institution and the charter of the Bank of Kentucky was revoked in
  1822. A court decision denying the legal tender quality of the notes
  issued by the Bank of the Commonwealth gave rise to a bitter
  controversy which had considerable influence upon the political
  history of the state. This bank failed in 1829. In 1834 the
  legislature chartered the Bank of Kentucky, the Bank of Louisville and
  the Northern Bank of Kentucky. These institutions survived the panic
  of 1837 and soon came to be recognized as among the most prosperous
  and the most conservative banks west of the Alleghanies. The state
  banking laws are stringent and most of the business is still
  controlled by banks operating under state charters.

_History._--The settlement and the development of that part of the
United States west of the Alleghany Mountains has probably been the most
notable feature of American history since the close of the Seven Years'
War (1763). Kentucky was the first settlement in this movement, the
first state west of the Alleghany Mountains admitted into the Union. In
1763 the Kentucky country was claimed by the Cherokees as a part of
their hunting grounds, by the Six Nations (Iroquois) as a part of their
western conquests, and by Virginia as a part of the territory granted to
her by her charter of 1609, although it was actually inhabited only by a
few Chickasaws near the Mississippi river and by a small tribe of
Shawnees in the north, opposite what is now Portsmouth, Ohio. The early
settlers were often attacked by Indian raiders from what is now
Tennessee or from the country north of the Ohio, but the work of
colonization would have been far more difficult if those Indians had
lived in the Kentucky region itself. Dr Thomas Walker (1715-1794), as an
agent and surveyor of the Loyal Land Company, made an exploration in
1750 into the present state from the Cumberland Gap, in search of a
suitable place for settlement but did not get beyond the mountain
region. In the next year Christopher Gist, while on a similar mission
for the Ohio Company, explored the country westward from the mouth of
the Scioto river. In 1752 John Finley, an Indian trader, descended the
Ohio river in a canoe to the site of Louisville. It was Finley's
descriptions that attracted Daniel Boone, and soon after Boone's first
visit, in 1767, travellers through the Kentucky region became numerous.
The first permanent English settlement was established at Harrodsburg in
1774 by James Harrod, and in October of the same year the Ohio Indians,
having been defeated by Virginia troops in the battle of Point Pleasant
(in what is now West Virginia), signed a treaty by which they
surrendered their claims south of the Ohio river. In March 1775 Richard
Henderson and some North Carolina land speculators met about 1200
Cherokee Indians in council on the Watauga river and concluded a treaty
with them for the purchase of all the territory south of the Ohio river
and between the Kentucky and Cumberland rivers. The purchase was named
Transylvania, and within less than a month after the treaty was signed,
Boone, under its auspices, founded a settlement at Boonesborough which
became the headquarters of the colony. The title was declared void by
the Virginia government in 1778, but Henderson and his associates
received 200,000 acres in compensation, and all sales made to actual
settlers were confirmed. During the War of Independence the colonists
were almost entirely neglected by Virginia and were compelled to defend
themselves against the Indians who were often under British leadership.
Boonesborough was attacked in April and in July 1777 and in August 1778.
Bryant's (or Bryan's) Station, near Lexington, was besieged in August
1782 by about 600 Indians under the notorious Simon Girty, who after
raising the siege drew the defenders, numbering fewer than 200, into an
ambush and in the battle of Blue Licks which ensued the Kentuckians lost
about 67 killed and 7 prisoners. Kentucky county, practically
coterminous with the present state of Kentucky and embracing all the
territory claimed by Virginia south of the Ohio river and west of Big
Sandy Creek and the ridge of the Cumberland Mountains, was one of three
counties which was formed out of Fincastle county in 1776. Four years
later, this in turn was divided into three counties, Jefferson, Lincoln
and Fayette, but the name Kentucky was revived in 1782 and was given to
the judicial district which was then organized for these three counties.
The War of Independence was followed by an extensive immigration from
Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina[6] of a population of which fully
95%, excluding negro slaves, were of pure English, Scotch or
Scotch-Irish descent. The manners, customs and institutions of Virginia
were transplanted beyond the mountains. There was the same political
rivalry between the slave-holding farmers of the Blue Grass Region and
the "poor whites" of the mountain districts that there was in Virginia
between the tide-water planters and the mountaineers. Between these
extremes were the small farmers of the "Barrens"[7] in Kentucky and of
the Piedmont Region in Virginia. The aristocratic influences in both
states have always been on the Southern and Democratic side, but while
they were strong enough in Virginia to lead the state into secession
they were unable to do so in Kentucky.

At the close of the War of Independence the Kentuckians complained
because the mother state did not protect them against their enemies and
did not give them an adequate system of local government. Nine
conventions were held at Danville from 1784 to 1790 to demand separation
from Virginia. The Virginia authorities expressed a willingness to grant
the demand provided Congress would admit the new district into the Union
as a state. The delay, together with the proposal of John Jay, the
Secretary for Foreign Affairs and commissioner to negotiate a commercial
treaty with the Spanish envoy, to surrender navigation rights on the
lower Mississippi for twenty-five years in order to remove the one
obstacle to the negotiations, aroused so much feeling that General James
Wilkinson and a few other leaders began to intrigue not only for a
separation from Virginia, but also from the United States, and for the
formation of a close alliance with the Spanish at New Orleans. Although
most of the settlers were too loyal to be led into any such plot they
generally agreed that it might have a good effect by bringing pressure
to bear upon the Federal government. Congress passed a preliminary act
in February 1791, and the state was formally admitted into the Union on
the 1st of June 1792. In the Act of 1776 for dividing Fincastle county,
Virginia, the ridge of the Cumberland Mountains was named as a part of
the east boundary of Kentucky; and now that this ridge had become a part
of the boundary between the states of Virginia and Kentucky they, in
1799, appointed a joint commission to run the boundary line on this
ridge. A dispute with Tennessee over the southern boundary was settled
in a similar manner in 1820.[8] The constitution of 1792 provided for
manhood suffrage and for the election of the governor and of senators by
an electoral college. General Isaac Shelby was the first governor. The
people still continued to have troubles with the Indians and with the
Spanish at New Orleans. The Federal government was slow to act, but its
action when taken was effective. The power of the Indians was overthrown
by General Anthony Wayne's victory in the battle of Fallen Timbers,
fought the 20th of August 1794 near the rapids of the Maumee river a few
miles above the site of Toledo, Ohio; and the Mississippi question was
settled temporarily by the treaty of 1795 and permanently by the
purchase of Louisiana in 1803. In 1798-1799 the legislature passed the
famous Kentucky Resolutions in protest against the alien and sedition

For several years the Anti-Federalists or Republicans had contended that
the administration at Washington had been exercising powers not
warranted by the constitution, and when Congress had passed the alien
and sedition laws the leaders of that party seized upon the event as a
proper occasion for a spirited public protest which took shape
principally in resolutions passed by the legislatures of Kentucky and
Virginia. The original draft of the Kentucky Resolutions of 1798 was
prepared by Vice-President Thomas Jefferson, although the fact that he
was the author of them was kept from the public until he acknowledged it
in 1821. They were introduced in the House of Representatives by John
Breckinridge on the 8th of November, were passed by that body with some
amendments but with only one dissenting vote on the 10th, were
unanimously concurred in by the Senate on the 13th, and were approved by
Governor James Garrard on the 16th. The first resolution was a statement
of the ultra states'-rights view of the relation of the states to the
Federal government[9] and subsequent resolutions declare the alien and
sedition laws unconstitutional and therefore "void and of no force,"
principally on the ground that they provided for an exercise of powers
which were reserved to the state. The resolutions further declare that
"this Commonwealth is determined, as it doubts not its co-states are,
tamely to submit to undelegated and therefore unlimited powers in no man
or body of men on earth," and that "these and successive acts of the
same character, unless arrested on the threshold, may tend to drive
these states into revolution and blood." Copies of the resolutions were
sent to the governors of the various states, to be laid before the
different state legislatures, and replies were received from
Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode
Island, Vermont and Virginia, but all except that from Virginia were
unfavourable. Nevertheless the Kentucky legislature on the 22nd of
November 1799 reaffirmed in a new resolution the principles it had laid
down in the first series, asserting in this new resolution that the
state "does now unequivocally declare its attachment to the Union, and
to that compact [the Constitution], agreeably to its obvious and real
intention, and will be among the last to seek its dissolution," but that
"the principle and construction contended for by sundry of the state
legislatures, that the General Government is the exclusive judge of the
extent of the powers delegated to it, stop nothing [short] of
_despotism_--since the discretion of those who administer the
government, and not the _Constitution_, would be the measure of their
powers," "that the several states who formed that instrument, being
sovereign and independent, have the unquestionable right to judge of the
infraction," and "that a _nullification by those sovereignties of all
unauthorized acts done under color of that instrument is the rightful
remedy_." These measures show that the state was Democratic-Republican
in its politics and pro-French in its sympathies, and that it was
inclined to follow the leadership of that state from which most of its
people had come.

The constitution of 1799 adopted the system of choosing the governor and
senators by popular vote and deprived the supreme court of its original
jurisdiction in land cases. The Burr conspiracy (1804-1806) aroused some
excitement in the state. Many would have followed Burr in a
filibustering attack upon the Spanish in the South-West, but scarcely
any would have approved of a separation of Kentucky from the Federal
Union. No battles were fought in Kentucky during the War of 1812, but
her troops constituted the greater part of the forces under General
William Henry Harrison. They took part in the operations at Fort Wayne,
Fort Meigs, the river Raisin and the Thames.

The Democratic-Republicans controlled the politics of the state without
any serious opposition until the conflict in 1820-1826, arising from the
demands for a more adequate system of currency and other measures for
the relief of delinquent debtors divided the state into what were known
as the relief and anti-relief parties. After nearly all the forty-six
banks chartered by the legislature in 1818 had been wrecked in the
financial panic of 1819, the legislature in 1820 passed a series of laws
designed for the benefit of the debtor class, among them one making
state bank notes a legal tender for all debts. A decision of the Clark
county district court declaring this measure unconstitutional was
affirmed by the court of appeals. The legislature in 1824 repealed all
of the laws creating the existing court of appeals and then established
a new one. This precipitated a bitter campaign between the anti-relief
or "old court" party and the relief or "new court" party, in which the
former was successful. The old court party followed the lead of Henry
Clay and John Quincy Adams in national politics, and became National
Republicans and later Whigs. The new court party followed Andrew Jackson
and Martin Van Buren and became Democrats. The electoral vote of the
state was cast for Jackson in 1828 and for Clay in 1832. During the next
thirty years Clay's conservative influence dominated the politics of the
state.[10] Kentucky voted the Whig ticket in every presidential election
from 1832 until the party made its last campaign in 1852. When the Whigs
were destroyed by the slavery issue some of them immediately became
Democrats, but the majority became Americans, or Know-Nothings. They
elected the governor in 1855 and almost succeeded in carrying the state
for their presidential ticket in 1856. In 1860 the people of Kentucky
were drawn toward the South by their interest in slavery and by their
social relations, and toward the North by business ties and by a
national sentiment which was fostered by the Clay traditions. They
naturally assumed the leadership in the Constitutional Union movement of
1860, casting the vote of the state for Bell and Everett. After the
election of President Lincoln they also led in the movement to secure
the adoption of the Crittenden Compromise or some other peaceful
solution of the difficulties between the North and the South.

A large majority of the state legislature, however, were Democrats, and
in his message to this body, in January 1861, Governor Magoffin, also a
Democrat, proposed that a convention be called to determine "the future
of Federal and inter-state relations of Kentucky;" later too, in reply
to the president's call for volunteers, he declared, "Kentucky will
furnish no troops for the wicked purpose of subduing her sister Southern
States." Under these conditions the Unionists asked only for the
maintenance of neutrality, and a resolution to this effect was carried
by a bare majority--48 to 47. Some of the secessionists took this as a
defeat and left the state immediately to join the Confederate ranks. In
the next month there was an election of congressmen, and an
anti-secession candidate was chosen in nine out of ten districts. An
election in August of one-half the Senate and all of the House of
Representatives resulted in a Unionist majority in the new legislature
of 103 to 35, and in September, after Confederate troops had begun to
invade the state, Kentucky formally declared its allegiance to the
Union. From September 1861 to the fall of Fort Donelson in February 1862
that part of Kentucky which is south and west of the Green River was
occupied by the Confederate army under General A. S. Johnston, and at
Russellville in that district a so-called "sovereignty convention"
assembled on the 18th of November. This body, composed mostly of
Kentucky men who had joined the Confederate army, passed an ordinance of
secession, elected state officers, and sent commissioners to the
Confederate Congress, which body voted on the 9th of December to admit
Kentucky into the Confederacy. Throughout the war Kentucky was
represented in the Confederate Congress--representatives and senators
being elected by Confederate soldiers from the state. The officers of
this "provisional government," headed by G. W. Johnson, who had been
elected "governor," left the state when General A. S. Johnston withdrew;
Johnson himself was killed at Shiloh, but an attempt was subsequently
made by General Bragg to install this government at Frankfort. General
Felix K. Zollicoffer (1812-1862) had entered the south-east part of the
state through Cumberland Gap in September, and later with a Confederate
force of about 7000 men attempted the invasion of central Kentucky, but
in October 1861 he met with a slight repulse at Wild Cat Mountain, near
London, Laurel county, and on the 19th of January 1862, in an engagement
near Mill Springs, Wayne county, with about an equal force under General
George H. Thomas, he was killed and his force was utterly routed. In
1862 General Braxton Bragg in command of the Confederates in eastern
Tennessee, eluded General Don Carlos Buell, in command of the Federal
Army of the Ohio stationed there, and entering Kentucky in August 1862
proceeded slowly toward Louisville, hoping to win the state to the
Confederate cause and gain recruits for the Confederacy in the state.
His main army was preceded by a division of about 15,000 men under
General Edmund Kirby Smith, who on the 30th of August defeated a Federal
force under General Wm. Nelson near Richmond and threatened Cincinnati.
Bragg met with little opposition on his march, but Buell, also marching
from eastern Tennessee, reached Louisville first (Sept. 24), turned on
Bragg, and forced him to withdraw. On his retreat, Bragg attempted to
set up a Confederate government at Frankfort, and Richard J. Hawes, who
had been chosen as G. W. Johnson's successor, was actually
"inaugurated," but naturally this state "government" immediately
collapsed. On the 8th of October Buell and Bragg fought an engagement at
Perryville which, though tactically indecisive, was a strategic victory
for Buell; and thereafter Bragg withdrew entirely from the state into
Tennessee. This was the last serious attempt on a large scale by the
Confederates to win Kentucky; but in February 1863 one of General John
H. Morgan's brigades made a raid on Mount Sterling and captured it; in
March General Pegram made a raid into Pulaski county; in March 1864
General N. B. Forrest assaulted Fort Anderson at Paducah but failed to
capture it; and in June General Morgan made an unsuccessful attempt to
take Lexington.

Although the majority of the people sympathized with the Union, the
emancipation of the slaves without compensation even to loyal owners,
the arming of negro troops, the arbitrary imprisonment of citizens and
the interference of Federal military officials in purely civil affairs
aroused so much feeling that the state became strongly Democratic, and
has remained so almost uniformly since the war. Owing to the panic of
1893, distrust of the free silver movement and the expenditure of large
campaign funds, the Republicans were successful in the gubernational
election of 1895 and the presidential election of 1896. The election of
1899 was disputed. William S. Taylor, Republican, was inaugurated
governor on the 12th of December, but the legislative committee on
contests decided in favour of the Democrats. Governor-elect Goebel was
shot by an assassin on the 30th of January 1900, was sworn into office
on his deathbed, and died on the 3rd of February. Taylor fled the state
to escape trial on the charge of murder. Lieutenant-Governor Beckham
filled out the unexpired term and was re-elected in 1903. In 1907 the
Republicans again elected their candidate for governor.


  Isaac Shelby              Democratic-Republican    1792-1796
  James Garrard                  "         "         1796-1804
  Christopher Greenup            "         "         1804-1808
  Charles Scott                  "         "         1808-1812
  Isaac Shelby                   "         "         1812-1816
  George Madison*                "         "         1816
  Gabriel Slaughter (acting)     "         "         1816-1820
  John Adair                     "         "         1820-1824
  Joseph Desha                   "         "         1824-1828
  Thomas Metcalfe             National     "         1828-1832
  John Breathitt*                      Democrat      1832-1834
  James T. Morehead (acting)               "         1834-1836
  James Clark*                           Whig        1836
  Charles A. Wickliffe (acting)            "         1836-1840
  Robert P. Letcher                        "         1840-1844
  William Owsley                           "         1844-1848
  John J. Crittenden[+]                    "         1848-1850
  John L. Helm[+]                      Democrat      1850-1851
  Lazarus W. Powell                        "         1851-1855
  Charles S. Morehead                  American      1855-1859
  Beriah Magoffin                      Democrat      1859-1862
  James F. Robinson                        "         1862-1863
  Thomas E. Bramlette                      "         1863-1867
  John L. Helm*                            "         1867
  John W. Stevenson[++]                    "         1867-1871
  Preston H. Leslie[++]                    "         1871-1875
  James B. McCreary                        "         1875-1879
  Luke P. Blackburn                        "         1879-1883
  J. Proctor Knott                         "         1883-1887
  Simon B. Buckner                         "         1887-1891
  John Y. Brown                            "         1891-1895
  William O. Bradley                   Republican    1895-1899
  William S. Taylor§                       "         1899-1900
  William Goebel*                      Democrat      1900
  J. C. W. Beckham                         "         1900-1907
  Augustus E. Willson                  Republican    1907-

    * Died in office.

    [+] Governor Crittenden resigned on the 31st of July to become
    Attorney-General of the United States and John L. Helm served out
    the unexpired term.

    [++] Governor Stevenson resigned on the 13th of February 1871 to
    become U.S. Senator from Kentucky. P. H. Leslie filled out the
    remainder of the term and was elected in 1871 for a full term.

    § Taylor's election was contested by Goebel, who received the
    certificate of election.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--For descriptions of physical features and accounts of
  natural resources see _Reports of the Kentucky Geological Survey_, the
  _Biennial Reports of the Bureau of Agriculture, Labor and Statistics_,
  the _Reports_ of the United States Census and various publications of
  the U.S. Geological Survey, and other publications listed in Bulletin
  301 (_Bibliography and Index of North American Geology_ for 1901-1905)
  and other bibliographies of the Survey. For an early description, see
  Gilbert Imlay, _A Topographical Description of the Western Territory
  of North America_ (London, 3rd ed., 1797), in which John Filson's
  "Discovery, Settlement and Present State of Kentucke" (1784) is
  reprinted. For a brief description of the Blue Grass Region, see James
  Lane Allen's _The Blue Grass Region of Kentucky and other Kentucky
  Articles_ (New York, 1900). An account of the social and industrial
  life of the people in the "mountain" districts is given in William H.
  Haney's _The Mountain People of Kentucky_ (Cincinnati, 1906). For
  administration, see the _Official Manual for the Use of the Courts,
  State and County Officials and General Assembly of the State of
  Kentucky_ (Lexington), which contains the Constitution of 1891; _The
  Report of the Debates and Proceedings of the Convention ... of 1849_
  (Frankfort, 1849); _The Official Report of the Proceedings and Debates
  of the Constitutional Convention of 1890_ (4 vols., Frankfort, 1890);
  B. H. Young, _History and Texts of Three Constitutions of Kentucky_
  (Louisville, 1890); J. F. Bullitt and John Feland, _The General
  Statutes of Kentucky_ (Frankfort and Louisville, 1877, revised
  editions, 1881, 1887); and the _Annual Reports_ of state officers and
  boards. For history see R. M. McElroy's _Kentucky in the Nation's
  History_ (New York, 1909, with bibliography); or (more briefly) N. S.
  Shaler's _Kentucky_ (Boston, 1885), in the American Commonwealths
  Series. John M. Brown's _The Political Beginnings of Kentucky_
  (Louisville, 1889) is a good monograph dealing with the period before
  1792; it should be compared with Thomas M. Green's _The Spanish
  Conspiracy: A Review of Early Spanish Movements in the Southwest_
  (Cincinnati, 1891), written in reply to it. Among older histories are
  Humphrey Marshall, _The History of Kentucky ... and the Present State
  of the Country_ (2 vols., Frankfort, 1812, 1824), extremely
  Federalistic in tone; Mann Butler, _History of Kentucky from its
  Exploration and Settlement by the Whites to the close of the
  Southwestern Campaign of 1813_ (Louisville, 1834; 2nd ed., Cincinnati,
  1836), and Lewis Collins, _The History of Kentucky_ (2 vols., revised
  edition, Covington, Ky., 1874), a valuable store-house of facts, the
  basis of Shaler's work. E. D. Warfield's _The Kentucky Resolutions_ of
  1798 (New York, 2nd ed., 1887) is an excellent monograph. For the
  Civil War history see "Campaigns in Kentucky and Tennessee," in the
  7th volume of _Papers of the Military Historical Society of
  Massachusetts_ (Boston, 1908); Thomas Speed, _The Union Cause in
  Kentucky_ (New York, 1907); Basil W. Duke, _History of Morgan's
  Cavalry_ (Cincinnati, 1867), and general works on the history of the
  war. See also Alvin F. Lewis, _History of Higher Education in
  Kentucky_, in Circulars of Information of the U.S. Bureau of Education
  (Washington, 1899), and R. G. Thwaites, _Daniel Boone_ (New York,
  1902). There is much valuable material in the _Register_ (Frankfort,
  1903 seq.) of the Kentucky State Historical Society, and especially in
  the publications of the Filson Club of Louisville. Among the latter
  are R. T. Durrett's _John Filson, the first Historian of Kentucky_
  (1884); Thomas Speed, _The Wilderness Road_ (1886); W. H. Perrin, _The
  Pioneer Press of Kentucky_ (1888); G. W. Ranck, _Boonesborough: Its
  Founding, Pioneer Struggles, Indian Experiences, Transylvania Days and
  Revolutionary Annals_ (1901), and _The Centenary of Kentucky_ (1892),
  containing an address, "The State of Kentucky: its Discovery,
  Settlement, Autonomy and Progress in a Hundred Years," by Reuben T.


  [1] North of the Black Patch is a district in which is grown a
    heavy-leaf tobacco, a large part of which is shipped to Great
    Britain; and farther north and east a dark tobacco is grown for the
    American market.

  [2] In the census of 1905 statistics for other than factory-made
    products, such as those of the hand trades, were not included.

  [3] For a full account of the "licks," see vol. i. pt. ii. of the
    _Memoirs of the Kentucky Geological Survey_ (1876).

  [4] The population of the state at the previous censuses was: 73,677
    in 1790; 220,955 in 1800; 406,511 in 1810; 564,317 in 1820; 687,917
    in 1830; 779,828 in 1840; 982,405 in 1850; 1,155,684 in 1860 and
    1,321,011 in 1870.

  [5] There were three previous constitutions--those of 1792, 1799 and

  [6] Most of the early settlers of Kentucky made their way thither
    either by the Ohio river (from Fort Pitt) or--the far larger
    number--by way of the Cumberland Gap and the "Wilderness Road." This
    latter route began at Inglis's Ferry, on the New river, in what is
    now West Virginia, and proceeded west by south to the Cumberland Gap.
    The "Wilderness Road," as marked by Daniel Boone in 1775, was a mere
    trail, running from the Watauga settlement in east Tennessee to the
    Cumberland Gap, and thence by way of what are now Crab Orchard,
    Danville and Bardstown, to the Falls of the Ohio, and was passable
    only for men and horses until 1795, when the state made it a wagon
    road. Consult Thomas Speed, _The Wilderness Road_ (Louisville, Ky.,
    1886), and Archer B. Hulbert, _Boone's Wilderness Road_ (Cleveland,
    O., 1903).

  [7] The "Barrens" were in the north part of the state west of the
    Blue Grass Region, and were so called merely because the Indians had
    burned most of the forests here in order to provide better pasturage
    for buffaloes and other game.

  [8] The southern boundary to the Tennessee river was surveyed in
    1779-1780 by commissioners representing Virginia and North Carolina,
    and was supposed to be run along the parallel of latitude 36° 30´,
    but by mistake was actually run north of that parallel. By a treaty
    of 1819 the Indian title to the territory west of the Tennessee was
    extinguished, and commissioners then ran a line along the parallel of
    36° 30´ from the Mississippi to the Tennessee. In 1820 commissioners
    representing Kentucky and Tennessee formally adopted the line of
    1779-1780 and the line of 1819 as the boundary between the two

  [9] This resolution read as follows: Resolved, that the several
    states composing the United States of America are not united on the
    principle of unlimited submission to their general government; but
    that by compact under the style of a Constitution for the United
    States and of amendments thereto, they constituted a general
    government for special purposes, delegated to that government certain
    definite powers, reserving each state to itself the residuary mass of
    right to their own self-government; and that whensoever the general
    government assumes undelegated powers its acts are unauthoritative,
    void, and of no force: That to this compact each state acceded as a
    state, and is an integral party, its co-states forming, as to itself,
    the other party: That the government created by this compact was not
    made the exclusive or final judge of the extent of the powers
    delegated to itself, since that would have made its discretion, and
    not the Constitution, the measure of its powers; but that, as in all
    other cases of compact among parties having no common judge, each
    party has an equal right to judge for itself as well of infractions
    as of the mode and measure of redress.

  [10] He died in 1852, but the traditions which he represented

KENYA, a great volcanic mountain in British East Africa, situated just
south of the equator in 37° 20´ E. It is one of the highest mountains of
Africa, its highest peak reaching an altitude of 17,007 ft. (with a
possible error of 30 ft. either way). The central core, which consists
of several steep pyramids, is that of a very denuded old volcano, which
when its crater was complete may have reached 2000 ft. above the present
summit. Lavas dip in all directions from the central crystalline core,
pointing to the conclusion that the main portion of the mountain
represents a single volcanic mass. From the central peaks, of which the
axis runs from W.N.W. to S.S.E., ridges radiate outwards, separated by
broad valleys, ending upwards in vast cirques. The most important ridges
centre in the peak Lenana (16,300 ft.) at the eastern end of the central
group, and through it runs the chief water-parting of the mountain, in a
generally north to south direction. Three main valleys, known
respectively as Hinde, Gorges and Hobley valleys, run down from this to
the east, and four--Mackinder, Hausberg, Teleki and Höhnel--to the west.
From the central peaks fifteen glaciers, all lying west of the main
divide, descend to the north and south, the two largest being the Lewis
and Gregory glaciers, each about 1 m. long, which, with the smaller Kolb
glacier, lie immediately west of the main divide. Most of the glaciers
terminate at an altitude of 14,800-14,900 ft., but the small César
glacier, drained to the Hausberg valley, reaches to 14,450. Glaciation
was formerly much more extensive, old moraines being observed down to
12,000 ft. In the upper parts of the valleys a number of lakes occur,
occupying hollows and rock basins in the agglomerates and ashes, fed by
springs, and feeding many of the streams that drain the mountain slopes.
The largest of these are Lake Höhnel, lying at an altitude of 14,000
ft., at the head of the valley of the same name, and measuring 600 by
400 yds.; and Lake Michaelson (12,700 ft.?) in the Gorges Valley. At a
distance from the central core the radiating ridges become less abrupt
and descend with a gentle gradient, finally passing somewhat abruptly,
at a height of some 7000 ft., into the level plateau. These outer slopes
are clothed with dense forest and jungle, composed chiefly of junipers
and _Podocarpus_, and between 8000 and 9800 ft. of huge bamboos. The
forest zone extends to about 10,500 ft., above which is the steeper
alpine zone, in which pasturages alternate with rocks and crags. This
extends to a general height of about 15,000 ft., but in damp, sheltered
valleys the pasturages extend some distance higher. The only trees or
shrubs in this zone are the giant _Senecio_ (groundsel) and _Lobelia_,
and tree-heaths, the _Senecio_ forming groves in the upper valleys. Of
the fauna of the lower slopes, tracks of elephant, leopard and buffalo
have been seen, between 11,500 and 14,500 ft. That of the alpine zone
includes two species of dassy (_Procavia_), a coney (_Hyrax_), and a rat
(_Otomys_). The bird fauna is of considerable interest, the finest
species of the upper zone being an eagle-owl, met with at 14,000 ft. At
11,000 ft. was found a brown chat, with a good deal of white in the
tail. Both the fauna and flora of the higher levels present close
affinities with those of Mount Elgon, of other mountains of East Africa
and of Cameroon Mountain. The true native names of the mountain are said
to be Kilinyaga, Doenyo Ebor (white mountain) and Doenyo Egeri (spotted
mountain). It was first seen, from a distance, by the missionary Ludwig
Krapf in 1849; approached from the west by Joseph Thomson in 1883;
partially ascended by Count S. Teleki (1889), J. W. Gregory (1893) and
Georg Kolb (1896); and its summit reached by H. J. Mackinder in 1899.

  See J. W. Gregory, _The Great Rift-Valley_ (London, 1896); H. J.
  Mackinder, "Journey to the Summit of Mount Kenya," _Geog. Jnl._, May
  1900.     (E. He.)

KENYON, LLOYD KENYON, 1ST BARON (1732-1802), lord chief-justice of
England, was descended by his father's side from an old Lancashire
family; his mother was the daughter of a small proprietor in Wales. He
was born at Gredington, Flintshire, on the 5th of October 1732. Educated
at Ruthin grammar school, he was in his fifteenth year articled to an
attorney at Nantwich, Cheshire. In 1750 he entered at Lincoln's Inn,
London, and in 1756 was called to the bar. As for several years he was
almost unemployed, he utilized his leisure in taking notes of the cases
argued in the court of King's Bench, which he afterwards published.
Through answering the cases of his friend John Dunning, afterwards Lord
Ashburton, he gradually became known to the attorneys, after which his
success was so rapid that in 1780 he was made king's counsel. He showed
conspicuous ability in the cross-examination of the witnesses at the
trial of Lord George Gordon, but his speech was so tactless that the
verdict of acquittal was really due to the brilliant effort of Erskine,
the junior counsel. This want of tact, indeed, often betrayed Kenyon
into striking blunders; as an advocate he was, moreover, deficient in
ability of statement; and his position was achieved chiefly by hard
work, a good knowledge of law and several lucky friendships. Through the
influence of Lord Thurlow, Kenyon in 1780 entered the House of Commons
as member for Hindon, and in 1782 he was, through the same friendship,
appointed attorney-general in Lord Buckingham's administration, an
office which he continued to hold under Pitt. In 1784 he received the
mastership of the rolls, and was created a baronet. In 1788 he was
appointed lord chief justice as successor to Lord Mansfield, and the
same year was raised to the peerage as Baron Kenyon of Gredington. As he
had made many enemies, his elevation was by no means popular with the
bar; but on the bench, in spite of his capricious and choleric temper,
he proved himself not only an able lawyer, but a judge of rare and
inflexible impartiality. He died at Bath, on the 4th of April 1802.
Kenyon was succeeded as 2nd baron by his son George (1776-1855), whose
great-grandson, Lloyd (b. 1864), became the 4th baron in 1869.

  See _Life_ by Hon. G. T. Kenyon, 1873.

KEOKUK, a city of Lee county, Iowa, U.S.A., on the Mississippi river, at
the mouth of the Des Moines, in the S.E. corner of the state, about 200
m. above St Louis. Pop. (1900), 14,641; (1905), 14,604, including 1534
foreign-born; (1910), 14,008. It is served by the Chicago, Burlington &
Quincy, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Wabash, and the Toledo,
Peoria & Western railways. There is a bridge (about 2200 ft. long)
across the Mississippi, and another (about 1200 ft. long) across the Des
Moines. The city has a public library and St Joseph and Graham
hospitals, and is the seat of the Keokuk Medical College (1849). There
is a national cemetery here. Much of the city is built on bluffs along
the Mississippi. Keokuk is at the foot of the Des Moines Rapids, round
which the Federal Government has constructed a navigable canal (opened
1877) about 9 m. long, with a draft at extreme low water of 5 ft.; at
the foot a great dam, 1½ m. long and 38 ft. high, has been constructed.
Keokuk has various manufactures; its factory product in 1905 was valued
at $4,225,915, 38.6% more than in 1900. The city was named after Keokuk,
a chief of the Sauk and Foxes (1780-1848), whose name meant "the
watchful" or "he who moves alertly." In spite of Black Hawk's war policy
in 1832 Keokuk was passive and neutral, and with a portion of his nation
remained peaceful while Black Hawk and his warriors fought. His grave,
surmounted by a monument, is in Rand Park. The first house on the site
of the city was built about 1820, but further settlement did not begin
until 1836. Keokuk was laid out as a town in 1837, was chartered as a
city in 1848, and in 1907 was one of five cities of the state governed
by a special charter.

KEONJHAR, a tributary state of India, within the Orissa division of
Bengal; area, 3096 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 285,758; estimated revenue,
£20,000. The state is an offshoot from Mayurbhanj. Part of it consists
of rugged hills, rising to more than 3000 ft. above sea-level. The
residence of the raja is at Keonjhar (pop. 4532).

KEONTHAL, a petty hill state in the Punjab, India, with an area of 116
sq. m.; pop. (1901), 22,499; estimated revenue, £4400. The chief, a
Rajput, received the title of raja in 1857. After the Gurkha War in
1815, a portion of Keonthal, which had been occupied by the Gurkhas, was
sold to the maharaja of Patiala, the remainder being restored to its
hereditary chief. In 1823 the district of Punar was added to the
Keonthal state. The raja exercises rights of lordship over the petty
states of Kothi, Theog, Madhan and Ratesh.

KEPLER, JOHANN (1571-1630), German astronomer, was born on the 27th of
December 1571, at Weil, in the duchy of Württemberg, of which town his
grandfather was burgomaster. He was the eldest child of an ill-assorted
union. His father, Henry Kepler, was a reckless soldier of fortune; his
mother, Catherine Guldenmann, the daughter of the burgomaster of
Eltingen, was undisciplined and ill-educated. Her husband found
campaigning in Flanders under Alva a welcome relief from domestic life;
and, after having lost all he possessed by a forfeited security and
tried without success the trade of tavern-keeping in the village of
Elmendingen, he finally, in 1589, deserted his family. The misfortune
and misconduct of his parents were not the only troubles of Kepler's
childhood. He recovered from small-pox in his fourth year with crippled
hands and eyesight permanently impaired; and a constitution enfeebled by
premature birth had to withstand successive shocks of severe illness.
His schooling began at Leonberg in 1577--the year, as he himself tells
us, of a great comet; but domestic bankruptcy occasioned his
transference to field-work, in which he was exclusively employed for
several years. Bodily infirmity, combined with mental aptitude, were
eventually considered to indicate à theological vocation; he was, in
1584, placed at the seminary of Adelberg, and thence removed, two years
later, to that of Maulbronn. A brilliant examination for the degree of
bachelor procured him, in 1588, admittance on the foundation to the
university of Tübingen, where he laid up a copious store of classical
erudition, and imbibed Copernican principles from the private
instructions of his teacher and life-long friend, Michael Maestlin. As
yet, however, he had little knowledge of, and less inclination for,
astronomy; and it was with extreme reluctance that he turned aside from
the more promising career of the ministry to accept, early in 1594, the
vacant chair of that science at Gratz, placed at the disposal of the
Tübingen professors by the Lutheran states of Styria.

The best recognized function of German astronomers in that day was the
construction of prophesying almanacs, greedily bought by a credulous
public. Kepler thus found that the first duties required of him were of
an astrological nature, and set himself with characteristic alacrity to
master the rules of the art as laid down by Ptolemy and Cardan. He,
moreover, sought in the events of his own life a verification of the
theory of planetary influences; and it is to this practice that we owe
the summary record of each year's occurrences which, continued almost to
his death, affords for his biography a slight but sure foundation. But
his thoughts were already working in a higher sphere. He early attained
to the settled conviction that for the actual disposition of the solar
system some abstract intelligible reason must exist, and this, after
much meditation, he believed himself to have found in an imaginary
relation between the "five regular solids" and the number and distances
of the planets. He notes with exultation the 9th of July 1595, as the
date of the pseudo-discovery, the publication of which in _Prodromus
Dissertationum Cosmographicarum seu Mysterium Cosmographicum_ (Tübingen,
1596) procured him much fame, and a friendly correspondence with the two
most eminent astronomers of the time, Tycho Brahe and Galileo.

Soon after his arrival at Gratz, Kepler contracted an engagement with
Barbara von Mühleck, a wealthy Styrian heiress, who, at the age of
twenty-three, had already survived one husband and been divorced from
another. Before her relatives could be brought to countenance his
pretensions, Kepler was obliged to undertake a journey to Württemberg to
obtain documentary evidence of the somewhat obscure nobility of his
family, and it was thus not until the 27th of April 1597 that the
marriage was celebrated. In the following year the archduke Ferdinand,
on assuming the government of his hereditary dominions, issued an edict
of banishment against Protestant preachers and professors. Kepler
immediately fled to the Hungarian frontier, but, by the favour of the
Jesuits, was recalled and reinstated in his post. The gymnasium,
however, was deserted; the nobles of Styria began to murmur at
subsidizing a teacher without pupils; and he found it prudent to look
elsewhere for employment. His refusal to subscribe unconditionally to
the rigid formula of belief adopted by the theologians of Tübingen
permanently closed against him the gates of his _alma mater_. His
embarrassment was relieved however by an offer from Tycho Brahe of the
position of assistant in his observatory near Prague, which, after a
preliminary visit of four months, he accepted. The arrangement was made
just in time; for in August 1600 he received definitive notice to leave
Gratz, and, having leased his wife's property, he departed with his
family for Prague.

By Tycho's unexpected death (Oct. 24, 1601) a brilliant career seemed to
be thrown open to Kepler. The emperor Rudolph II. immediately appointed
him to succeed his patron as imperial mathematician, although at a
reduced salary of 500 florins; the invaluable treasure of Tycho's
observations was placed at his disposal; and the laborious but congenial
task was entrusted to him of completing the tables to which the grateful
Dane had already affixed the title of _Rudolphine_. The first works
executed by him at Prague were, nevertheless, a homage to the
astrological proclivities of the emperor. In _De fundamentis astrologiae
certioribus_ (Prague, 1602) he declared his purpose of preserving and
purifying the grain of truth which he believed the science to contain.
Indeed, the doctrine of "aspects" and "influences" fitted excellently
with his mystical conception of the universe, and enabled him to
discharge with a semblance of sincerity the most lucrative part of his
professional duties. Although he strictly limited his prophetic
pretensions to the estimate of tendencies and probabilities, his
forecasts were none the less in demand. Shrewd sense and considerable
knowledge of the world came to the aid of stellar lore in the
preparation of "prognostics" which, not unfrequently hitting off the
event, earned him as much credit with the vulgar as his cosmical
speculations with the learned. He drew the horoscopes of the emperor and
Wallenstein, as well as of a host of lesser magnates; but, though keenly
alive to the unworthy character of such a trade, he made necessity his
excuse for a compromise with superstition. "Nature," he wrote, "which
has conferred upon every animal the means of subsistence, has given
astrology as an adjunct and ally to astronomy." He dedicated to the
emperor in 1603 a treatise on the "great conjunction" of that year
(_Judicium de trigono igneo_); and he published his observations on a
brilliant star which appeared suddenly (Sept. 30, 1604), and remained
visible for seventeen months, in _De stella nova in pede Serpentarii_
(Prague, 1606). While sharing the opinion of Tycho as to the origin of
such bodies by condensation of nebulous matter from the Milky Way, he
attached a mystical signification to the coincidence in time and place
of the sidereal apparition with a triple conjunction of Mars, Jupiter
and Saturn.

The main task of his life was not meanwhile neglected. This was nothing
less than the foundation of a new astronomy, in which physical cause
should replace arbitrary hypothesis. A preliminary study of optics led
to the publication, in 1604, of his _Astronomiae pars optica_,
containing important discoveries in the theory of vision, and a notable
approximation towards the true law of refraction. But it was not until
1609 that, the "great Martian labour" being at length completed, he was
able, in his own figurative language, to lead the captive planet to the
foot of the imperial throne. From the time of his first introduction to
Tycho he had devoted himself to the investigation of the orbit of Mars,
which, on account of its relatively large eccentricity, had always been
especially recalcitrant to theory, and the results appeared in
_Astronomia nova_ [Greek: haitiologêtos], _seu Physica coelestis tradita
commentariis de motibus stellae Martis_ (Prague, 1609). In this, the
most memorable of Kepler's multifarious writings, two of the cardinal
principles of modern astronomy--the laws of elliptical orbits and of
equal areas--were established (see ASTRONOMY: _History_); important
truths relating to gravity were enunciated, and the tides ascribed to
the influence of lunar attraction; while an attempt to explain the
planetary revolutions in the then backward condition of mechanical
knowledge produced a theory of vortices closely resembling that
afterwards adopted by Descartes. Having been provided, in August 1610,
by Ernest, archbishop of Cologne, with one of the new Galilean
instruments, Kepler began, with unspeakable delight, to observe the
wonders revealed by it. He had welcomed with a little essay called
_Dissertatio cum Nuncio Sidereo_ Galileo's first announcement of
celestial novelties; he now, in his _Dioptrice_ (Augsburg, 1611),
expounded the theory of refraction by lenses, and suggested the
principle of the "astronomical" or inverting telescope. Indeed the work
may be said to have founded the branch of science to which it gave its

The year 1611 was marked by Kepler as the most disastrous of his life.
The death by small-pox of his favourite child was followed by that of
his wife, who, long a prey to melancholy, was on the 3rd of July
carried off by typhus. Public calamity was added to private bereavement.
On the 23rd of May 1611 Matthias, brother of the emperor, assumed the
Bohemian crown in Prague, compelling Rudolph to take refuge in the
citadel, where he died on the 20th of January following. Kepler's
fidelity in remaining with him to the last did not deprive him of the
favour of his successor. Payments of arrears, now amounting to upwards
of 4000 florins, was not, however, in the desperate condition of the
imperial finances, to be hoped for; and he was glad, while retaining his
position as court astronomer, to accept (in 1612) the office of
mathematician to the states of Upper Austria. His residence at Linz was
troubled by the harsh conduct of the pastor Hitzler, in excluding him
from the rites of his church on the ground of supposed Calvinistic
leanings--a decision confirmed, with the addition of an insulting
reprimand, on his appeal to Württemberg. In 1613 he appeared with the
emperor Matthias before the diet of Ratisbon as the advocate of the
introduction into Germany of the Gregorian calendar; but the attempt was
for the time frustrated by anti-papal prejudice. The attention devoted
by him to chronological subjects is evidenced by the publication about
this period of several essays in which he sought to prove that the birth
of Christ took place five years earlier than the commonly accepted date.

Kepler's second courtship forms the subject of a highly characteristic
letter addressed by him to Baron Stralendorf, in which he reviews the
qualifications of eleven candidates for his hand, and explains the
reasons which decided his choice in favour of a portionless orphan girl
named Susanna Reutlinger. The marriage was celebrated at Linz, on the
30th of October 1613, and seems to have proved a happy and suitable one.
The abundant vintage of that year drew his attention to the defective
methods in use for estimating the cubical contents of vessels, and his
essay on the subject (_Nova Stereometria Doliorum_, Linz, 1615) entitles
him to rank among those who prepared the discovery of the infinitesimal
calculus. His observations on the three comets of 1618 were published in
_De Cometis_, contemporaneously with _De Harmonice Mundi_ (Augsburg,
1619), of which the first lineaments had been traced twenty years
previously at Gratz. This extraordinary production is memorable as
having announced the discovery of the "third law"--that of the
sesquiplicate ratio between the planetary periods and distances. But the
main purport of the treatise was the exposition of an elaborate system
of celestial harmonies depending on the various and varying velocities
of the several planets, of which the sentient soul animating the sun was
the solitary auditor. The work exhibiting this fantastic emulation of
extravagance with genius was dedicated to James I. of England, and the
compliment was acknowledged with an invitation to that island, conveyed
through Sir Henry Wotton. Notwithstanding the distracted state of his
own country, he refused to abandon it, as he had previously, in 1617,
declined the post of successor to G. A. Magini in the mathematical chair
of Bologna.

The insurmountable difficulties presented by the lunar theory forced
Kepler, after an enormous amount of fruitless labour, to abandon his
design of comprehending the whole scheme of the heavens in one great
work to be called _Hipparchus_, and he then threw a portion of his
materials into the form of a dialogue intended for the instruction of
general readers. The _Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae_ (Linz and
Frankfort, 1618-1621), a lucid and attractive textbook of Copernican
science, was remarkable for the prominence given to "physical
astronomy," as well as for the extension to the Jovian system of the
laws recently discovered to regulate the motions of the planets. The
first of a series of ephemerides, calculated on these principles, was
published by him at Linz in 1617; and in that for 1620, dedicated to
Baron Napier, he for the first time employed logarithms. This important
invention was eagerly welcomed by him, and its theory formed the subject
of a treatise entitled _Chilias Logarithmorum_, printed in 1624, but
circulated in manuscript three years earlier, which largely contributed
to bring the new method into general use in Germany.

His studies were interrupted by family trouble. The restless
disposition and unbridled tongue of Catherine Kepler, his mother,
created for her numerous enemies in the little town of Leonberg; while
her unguarded conduct exposed her to a species of calumny at that time
readily circulated and believed. As early as 1615 suspicions of sorcery
began to be spread against her, which she, with more spirit than
prudence, met with an action for libel. The suit was purposely
protracted, and at length, in 1620, the unhappy woman, then in her
seventy-fourth year, was arrested on a formal charge of witchcraft.
Kepler immediately hastened to Württemberg, and owing to his
indefatigable exertions she was acquitted after having suffered thirteen
month's imprisonment, and endured with undaunted courage the formidable
ordeal of "territion," or examination under the imminent threat of
torture. She survived her release only a few months, dying on the 13th
of April 1622.

Kepler's whole attention was now devoted to the production of the new
tables. "Germany," he wrote, "does not long for peace more anxiously
than I do for their publication." But financial difficulties, combined
with civil and religious convulsions, long delayed the accomplishment of
his desires. From the 24th of June to the 29th of August 1626, Linz was
besieged, and its inhabitants reduced to the utmost straits by bands of
insurgent peasants. The pursuit of science needed a more tranquil
shelter; and on the raising of the blockade, Kepler obtained permission
to transfer his types to Ulm, where, in September 1627, the _Rudolphine
Tables_ were at length given to the world. Although by no means free
from errors, their value appears from the fact that they ranked for a
century as the best aid to astronomy. Appended were tables of logarithms
and of refraction, together with Tycho's catalogue of 777 stars,
enlarged by Kepler to 1005.

Kepler's claims upon the insolvent imperial exchequer amounted by this
time to 12,000 florins. The emperor Ferdinand II., too happy to transfer
the burden, countenanced an arrangement by which Kepler entered the
service of the duke of Friedland (Wallenstein), who assumed the full
responsibility of the debt. In July 1628 Kepler accordingly arrived with
his family at Sagan in Silesia, where he applied himself to the printing
of his ephemerides up to the year 1636, and whence he issued, in 1629, a
_Notice to the Curious in Things Celestial_, warning astronomers of
approaching transits. That of Mercury was actually seen by Gassendi in
Paris on the 7th of November 1631 (being the first passage of a planet
across the sun ever observed); that of Venus, predicted for the 6th of
December following, was invisible in western Europe. Wallenstein's
promises to Kepler were but imperfectly fulfilled. In lieu of the sums
due, he offered him a professorship at Rostock, which Kepler declined.
An expedition to Ratisbon, undertaken for the purpose of representing
his case to the diet, terminated his life. Shaken by the journey, which
he had performed entirely on horseback, he was attacked with fever, and
died at Ratisbon, on the 15th of November (N.S.), 1630, in the
fifty-ninth year of his age. An inventory of his effects showed him to
have been possessed of no inconsiderable property at the time of his
death. By his first wife he had five, and by his second seven children,
of whom only two, a son and a daughter, reached maturity.

  The character of Kepler's genius is especially difficult to estimate.
  His tendency towards mystical speculation formed a not less
  fundamental quality of his mind than its strong grasp of positive
  scientific truth. Without assigning to each element its due value, no
  sound comprehension of his modes of thought can be attained. His idea
  of the universe was essentially Pythagorean and Platonic. He started
  with the conviction that the arrangement of its parts must correspond
  with certain abstract conceptions of the beautiful and harmonious. His
  imagination, thus kindled, animated him to those severe labours of
  which his great discoveries were the fruit. His demonstration that the
  planes of all the planetary orbits pass through the centre of the sun,
  coupled with his clear recognition of the sun as the moving power of
  the system, entitles him to rank as the founder of physical astronomy.
  But the fantastic relations imagined by him of planetary movements and
  distances to musical intervals and geometrical constructions seemed to
  himself discoveries no less admirable than the achievements which have
  secured his lasting fame. Outside the boundaries of the solar system,
  the metaphysical side of his genius, no longer held in check by
  experience, fully asserted itself. The Keplerian like the Pythagorean
  cosmos was threefold, consisting of the centre, or sun, the surface,
  represented by the sphere of the fixed stars, and the intermediate
  space, filled with ethereal matter. It is a mistake to suppose that he
  regarded the stars as so many suns. He quotes indeed the opinion of
  Giordano Bruno to that effect, but with dissent. Among his happy
  conjectures may be mentioned that of the sun's axial rotation,
  postulated by him as the physical cause of the revolutions of the
  planets, and soon after confirmed by the discovery of sun-spots; the
  suggestion of a periodical variation in the obliquity of the ecliptic;
  and the explanation as a solar atmospheric effect of the radiance
  observed to surround the totally eclipsed sun.

  It is impossible to consider without surprise the colossal amount of
  work accomplished by Kepler under numerous disadvantages. But his iron
  industry counted no obstacles, and secured for him the highest triumph
  of genius, that of having given to mankind the best that was in him.
  In private character he was amiable and affectionate; his generosity
  in recognizing the merits of others secured him against the worst
  shafts of envy; and a life marked by numerous disquietudes was cheered
  and ennobled by sentiments of sincere piety.

  Kepler's extensive literary remains, purchased by the empress
  Catherine II. in 1724 from some Frankfort merchants, and long
  inaccessibly deposited in the observatory of Pulkowa, were fully
  brought to light, under the able editorship of Dr Ch. Frisch, in the
  first complete edition of his works. This important publication
  (_Joannis Kepleri opera omnia_, Frankfort, 1858-1871, 8 vols. 8vo)
  contains, besides the works already enumerated and several minor
  treatises, a posthumous scientific satire entitled _Joh. Keppleri
  Somnium_ (first printed in 1634) and a vast mass of his
  correspondence. A careful biography is appended, founded mainly on his
  private notes and other authentic documents. His correspondence with
  Herwart von Hohenburg, unearthed by C. Anschütz at Munich, was printed
  at Prague in 1886.

  AUTHORITIES--C. G. Reuschle, _Kepler und die Astronomie_ (Frankfort,
  1871); Karl Goebel, _Über Keplers astronomische Anschauungen_ (Halle,
  1871); E. F. Apelt, _Johann Keplers astronomische Weltansicht_
  (Leipzig, 1849); J. L. C. Breitschwert, _Johann Keplers Leben und
  Wirken_ (Stuttgart, 1831); W. Förster, _Johann Kepler und die Harmonie
  der Sphären_ (Berlin, 1862); R. Wolf, _Geschichte der Astronomie_
  (Munich, 1877); J. von Hasner, _Tycho Brahe und J. Kepler in Prag_
  (1872); H. Brocard, _Essai sur la Météorologie de Kepler_ (Grenoble,
  1879, 1881); Siegmund Günther, _Johannes Kepler und der
  tellurisch-kosmische Magnetismus_ (Wien, 1888); N. Herz, _Keplers
  Astrologie_ (1895); Ludwig Günther, Keplers _Traum vom Mond_ (1898; an
  annotated translation of the _Somnium_); A. Müller, _Johann Keppler,
  der Gesetzgeber der neueren Astronomie_ (1903); _Allgemeine Deutsche
  Biographie_, Bd. XV. (1882).     (A. M. C.)

KEPPEL, AUGUSTUS KEPPEL, VISCOUNT (1725-1786), British admiral, second
son of the second earl of Albemarle, was born on the 25th of April 1725.
He went to sea at the age of ten, and had already five years of service
to his credit when he was appointed to the "Centurion," and was sent
with Anson round the world in 1740. He had a narrow escape of being
killed in the capture of Paita (Nov. 13, 1741), and was named acting
lieutenant in 1742. In 1744 he was promoted to be commander and post
captain. Until the peace of 1748 he was actively employed. In 1747 he
ran his ship the "Maidstone" (50) ashore near Belleisle while chasing a
French vessel, but was honourably acquitted by a court martial, and
reappointed to another command. After peace had been signed he was sent
into the Mediterranean to persuade the dey of Algiers to restrain the
piratical operations of his subjects. The dey is said to have complained
that the king of England should have sent a beardless boy to treat with
him, and to have been told that if the beard was the necessary
qualification for an ambassador it would have been easy to send a "Billy
goat." After trying the effect of bullying without success, the dey made
a treaty, and Keppel returned in 1751. During the Seven Years' War he
saw constant service. He was in North America in 1755, on the coast of
France in 1756, was detached on a cruise to reduce the French
settlements on the west coast of Africa in 1758, and his ship the
"Torbay" (74) was the first to get into action in the battle of Quiberon
in 1759. In 1757 he had formed part of the court martial which had
condemned Admiral Byng, and had been active among those who had
endeavoured to secure a pardon for him; but neither he nor those who had
acted with him could produce any serious reason why the sentence should
not be carried out. When Spain joined France in 1762 he was sent as
second in command with Sir George Pocock in the expedition which took
Havannah. His health suffered from the fever which carried off an
immense proportion of the soldiers and sailors, but the £25,000 of
prize money which he received freed him from the unpleasant position of
younger son of a family ruined by the extravagance of his father. He
became rear-admiral in October 1762, was one of the Admiralty Board from
July 1765 to November 1766, and was promoted vice-admiral on the 24th of
October 1770. When the Falkland Island dispute occurred in 1770 he was
to have commanded the fleet to be sent against Spain, but a settlement
was reached, and he had no occasion to hoist his flag. The most
important and the most debated period of his life belongs to the opening
years of the war of American Independence. Keppel was by family
connexion and personal preference a strong supporter of the Whig
connexion, led by the Marquess of Rockingham and the Duke of Richmond.
He shared in all the passions of his party, then excluded from power by
the resolute will of George III. As a member of Parliament, in which he
had a seat for Windsor from 1761 till 1780, and then for Surrey, he was
a steady partisan, and was in constant hostility with the "King's
Friends." In common with them he was prepared to believe that the king's
ministers, and in particular Lord Sandwich, then First Lord of the
Admiralty, were capable of any villany. When therefore he was appointed
to command the Western Squadron, the main fleet prepared against France
in 1778, he went to sea predisposed to think that the First Lord would
be glad to cause him to be defeated. It was a further misfortune that
when Keppel hoisted his flag one of his subordinate admirals should have
been Sir Hugh Palliser (1723-1796), who was a member of the Admiralty
Board, a member of parliament, and in Keppel's opinion, which was
generally shared, jointly responsible with his colleagues for the bad
state of the navy. When, therefore, the battle which Keppel fought with
the French on the 27th of July 1778 ended in a highly unsatisfactory
manner, owing mainly to his own unintelligent management, but partly
through the failure of Sir Hugh Palliser to obey orders, he became
convinced that he had been deliberately betrayed. Though he praised Sir
Hugh in his public despatch he attacked him in private, and the Whig
press, with the unquestionable aid of Keppel's friends, began a campaign
of calumny to which the ministerial papers answered in the same style,
each side accusing the other of deliberate treason. The result was a
scandalous series of scenes in parliament and of courts martial. Keppel
was first tried and acquitted in 1779, and then Palliser was also tried
and acquitted. Keppel was ordered to strike his flag in March 1779.
Until the fall of Lord North's ministry he acted as an opposition member
of parliament. When it fell in 1782 be became First Lord, and was
created Viscount Keppel and Baron Elden. His career in office was not
distinguished, and he broke with his old political associates by
resigning as a protest against the Peace of Paris. He finally
discredited himself by joining the Coalition ministry formed by North
and Fox, and with its fall disappeared from public life. He died
unmarried on the 2nd of October 1786. Burke, who regarded him with great
affection, said that he had "something high" in his nature, and that it
was "a wild stock of pride on which the tenderest of all hearts had
grafted the milder virtues." His popularity disappeared entirely in his
later years. His portrait was six times painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds.
The copy which belonged originally to Burke is now in the National

  There is a full _Life of Keppel_ (1842), by his grand-nephew, the Rev.
  Thomas Keppel.     (D. H.)

KEPPEL, SIR HENRY (1809-1904), British admiral, son of the 4th earl of
Albemarle and of his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Lord de Clifford, was
born on the 14th of June 1809, and entered the navy from the old naval
academy of Portsmouth in 1822. His family connexions secured him rapid
promotion, at a time when the rise of less fortunate officers was very
slow. He became lieutenant in 1829 and commander in 1833. His first
command in the "Childers" brig (16) was largely passed on the coast of
Spain, which was then in the midst of the convulsions of the Carlist
war. Captain Keppel had already made himself known as a good seaman. He
was engaged with the squadron stationed on the west coast of Africa to
suppress the slave trade. In 1837 he was promoted post captain, and
appointed in 1841 to the "Dido" for service in China and against the
Malay pirates, a service which he repeated in 1847, when in command of
H.M.S. "Maeander." The story of his two commands was told by himself in
two publications, _The Expedition to Borneo of H.M.S. "Dido" for the
Suppression of Piracy_ (1846), and in _A Visit to the Indian Archipelago
in H. M. S. "Maeander"_ (1853). The substance of these books was
afterwards incorporated into his autobiography, which was published in
1809 under the title _A Sailor's Life under four Sovereigns_. In 1853 he
was appointed to the command of the "St Jean d'Acre" of 101 guns for
service in the Crimean War. But he had no opportunity to distinguish
himself at sea in that struggle. As commander of the naval brigade
landed to co-operate in the siege of Sevastopol, he was more fortunate,
and he had an honourable share in the latter days of the siege and
reduction of the fortress. After the Crimean War he was again sent out
to China, this time in command of the "Raleigh," as commodore to serve
under Sir M. Seymour. The "Raleigh" was lost on an uncharted rock near
Hong-Kong, but three small vessels were named to act as her tenders, and
Commodore Keppel commanded in them, and with the crew of the "Raleigh,"
in the action with the Chinese at Fatshan Creek (June 1, 1857). He was
honourably acquitted for the loss of the "Raleigh," and was named to the
command of the "Alligator," which he held till his promotion to
rear-admiral. For his share in the action at Fatshan Creek he was made
K.C.B. The prevalence of peace gave Sir Henry Keppel no further chance
of active service, but he held successive commands till his retirement
from the active list in 1879, two years after he attained the rank of
Admiral of the Fleet. He died at the age of 95 on the 17th of January

KER, JOHN (1673-1726), Scottish spy, was born in Ayrshire on the 8th of
August 1673. His true name was Crawfurd, his father being Alexander
Crawfurd of Crawfurdland; but having married Anna, younger daughter of
Robert Ker, of Kersland, Ayrshire, whose only son Daniel Ker was killed
at the battle of Steinkirk in 1692, he assumed the name and arms of Ker
in 1697, after buying the family estates from his wife's elder sister.
Having become a leader among the extreme Covenanters, he made use of his
influence to relieve his pecuniary embarrassments, selling his support
at one time to the Jacobites, at another to the government, and whenever
possible to both parties at the same time. He held a licence from the
government in 1707 permitting him to associate with those whose
disloyalty was known or suspected, proving that he was at that date the
government's paid spy; and in his _Memoirs_ Ker asserts that he had a
number of other spies and agents working under his orders in different
parts of the country. He entered into correspondence with Catholic
priests and Jacobite conspirators, whose schemes, so far as he could
make himself cognisant of them, he betrayed to the government. But he
was known to be a man of the worst character, and it is improbable that
he succeeded in gaining the confidence of people of any importance. The
duchess of Gordon was for a time, it is true, one of his correspondents,
but in 1707 she had discovered him to be "a knave." He went to London in
1709, where he seems to have extracted considerable sums of money from
politicians of both parties by promising or threatening, as the case
might be, to expose Godolphin's relations with the Jacobites. In 1713,
if his own story is to be believed, business of a semi-diplomatic nature
took Ker to Vienna, where, although he failed in the principal object of
his errand, the emperor made him a present of his portrait set in
jewels. Ker also occupied his time in Vienna, he says, by gathering
information which he forwarded to the electress Sophia; and in the
following year on his way home he stopped at Hanover to give some advice
to the future king of England as to the best way to govern the English.
Although in his own opinion Ker materially assisted in placing George I.
on the English throne, his services were unrewarded, owing, he would
have us believe, to the incorruptibility of his character. Similar
ingratitude was the recompense for his revelations of the Jacobite
intentions in 1715; and as he was no more successful in making money
out of the East India Company, nor in certain commercial schemes which
engaged his ingenuity during the next few years, he died in a debtors'
prison, on the 8th of July 1726. While in the King's Bench he sold to
Edmund Curll the bookseller, a fellow-prisoner, who was serving a
sentence of five months for publishing obscene books, the manuscript of
(or possibly only the materials on which were based) the _Memoirs of
John Ker of Kersland_, which Curll published in 1726 in three parts, the
last of which appeared after Ker's death. For issuing the first part of
the _Memoirs_, which purported to make disclosures damaging to the
government, but which Curll in self-justification described as
"vindicating the memory of Queen Anne," the publisher was sentenced to
the pillory at Charing Cross; and he added to the third part of the
_Memoirs_ the indictment on which he had been convicted.

  See the above-mentioned _Memoirs_ (London, 1726-1727), and in
  particular the "preface" to part i.; George Lockhart, _The Lockhart
  Papers_ (2 vols., London, 1817); Nathaniel Hooke, _Correspondence_,
  edited by W. D. Macray (Roxburghe Club, 2 vols., London, 1870), in
  which Ker is referred to under several pseudonyms, such as "Wicks,"
  "Trustie," "The Cameronian Mealmonger," &c.

KERAK, a town in eastern Palestine, 10 m. E. of the southern angle of
the Lisan promontory of the Dead Sea, on the top of a rocky hill about
3000 ft. above sea-level. It stands on a platform forming an irregular
triangle with sides about 3000 ft. in length, and separated by deep
ravines from the ranges around on all sides but one. The population is
estimated at 6000 Moslems and 1800 Orthodox Greek Christians. Kerak is
identified with the Moabite town of Kir-Hareseth (destroyed by the
Hebrew-Edomite coalition, 2 Kings iii. 25), and denounced by Isaiah
under the name Kir of Moab (xv. 1), Kir-Hareseth (xvi. 7) or Kir-Heres
(xvi. 11): Jeremiah also refers to it by the last name (xxxix. 31, 36).
The modern name, in the form [Greek: Charax], appears in 2 Macc. xii.
17. Later, Kerak was the seat of the archbishop of Petra. The Latin
kings of Jerusalem, recognizing its importance as the key of the E.
Jordan region, fortified it in 1142; from 1183 it was attacked
desperately by Saladin, to whom at last it yielded in 1188. The Arabian
Ayyubite princes fortified the town, as did the Egyptian Mameluke
sultans. The fortifications were repaired by Bibars in the 13th century.
For a long time after the Turkish occupation of Palestine and Egypt it
enjoyed a semi-independence, but in 1893 a Turkish governor with a
strong garrison was established there, which has greatly contributed to
secure the safety of travellers and the general quiet of the district.
The town is an irregular congeries of flat mud-roofed houses. In the
Christian quarter is the church of St George; the mosque also is a
building of Christian origin. The town is surrounded by a wall with five
towers; entrance now is obtained through breaches in the wall, but
formerly it was accessible only by means of tunnels cut in the rocky
substratum. The castle, now used as the headquarters of the garrison and
closed to visitors, is a remarkably fine example of a crusaders'
fortress.     (R. A. S. M.)

KERALA, or CHERA, the name of one of the three ancient Dravidian
kingdoms of the Tamil country of southern India, the other two being the
Chola and the Pandya. Its original territory comprised the country now
contained in the Malabar district, with Travancore and Cochin, and later
the country included in the Coimbatore district and a part of Salem. The
boundaries, however, naturally varied much from time to time. The
earliest references to this kingdom appear in the edicts of Asoka, where
it is called _Keralaputra_ (i.e. son of Kerala), a name which in a
slightly corrupt form is known to Pliny and the author of the
_Periplus_. There is evidence of a lively trade carried on by sea with
the Roman empire in the early centuries of the Christian era, but of the
political history of the Kerala kingdom nothing is known beyond a list
of rajas compiled from inscriptions, until in the 10th century the
struggle began with the Cholas, by whom it was conquered and held till
their overthrow by the Mahommedans in 1310. These in their turn were
driven out by a Hindu confederation headed by the chiefs of Vijayanagar,
and Kerala was absorbed in the Vijayanagar empire until its destruction
by the Mahommedans in 1565. For about 80 years it seems to have
preserved a precarious independence under the naiks of Madura, but in
1640 was conquered by the Adil Shah dynasty of Bijapur and in 1652
seized by the king of Mysore.

  See V. A. Smith, _Early Hist. of India_, chap. xvi. (2nd ed., Oxford,

KERASUND (anc. _Choerades_, _Pharnacia_, _Cerasus_), a town on the N.
coast of Asia Minor, in the Trebizond vilayet, and the port--an exposed
roadstead--of Kara-Hissar Sharki, with which it is connected by a
carriage road. Pop. just under 10,000, Moslems being in a slight
minority. The town is situated on a rocky promontory, crowned by a
Byzantine fortress, and has a growing trade. It exports filberts (for
which product it is the centre), walnuts, hides and timber. Cerasus was
the place from which the wild cherry was introduced into Italy by
Lucullus and so to Europe (hence Fr. _cerise_, "cherry").

KÉRATRY, AUGUSTE HILARION, COMTE DE (1769-1859), French writer and
politician, was born at Rennes on the 28th of December 1769. Coming to
Paris in 1790, he associated himself with Bernardin de St Pierre. After
being twice imprisoned during the Terror he retired to Brittany, where
he devoted himself to literature till 1814. In 1818 he returned to Paris
as deputy for Finistère, and sat in the Chamber till 1824, becoming one
of the recognized liberal leaders. He was re-elected in 1827, took an
active part in the establishment of the July monarchy, was appointed a
councillor of state (1830), and in 1837 was made a peer of France. After
the _coup d'état_ of 1851 he retired from public life. Among his
publications were _Contes et Idylles_ (1791); _Lysus et Cydippe_, a poem
(1801); _Inductions morales et physiologiques_ (1817); _Documents pour
servir à l'histoire de France_ (1820); _Du Beau dans les arts
d'imitation_ (1822); _Le Dernier des Beaumanoir_ (1824). His last work,
_Clarisse_ (1854), a novel, was written when he was eighty-five. He died
at Port-Marly on the 7th of November 1859.

His son, comte Emile de Kératry (1832-   ), became deputy for Finistère
in 1869, and strongly supported the war with Germany in 1870. He was in
Paris during part of the siege, but escaped in a balloon, and joined
Gambetta. In 1871 Thiers appointed him to the prefecture, first of the
Haute-Garonne, and subsequently of the Bouches-du-Rhône, but he resigned
in the following year. He is the author of _La Contre-guérilla française
au Mexique_ (1868); _L'Élévation et la chute de l'empereur Maximilien_
(1867); _Le Quatre-septembre et le gouvernement de la défense nationale_
(1872); _Mourad V._ (1878), and some volumes of memories.

KERBELA, or MESHED-HOSAIN, a town of Asiatic Turkey, the capital of a
sanjak of the Bagdad vilayet, situated on the extreme western edge of
the alluvial river plain, about 60 m. S.S.W. of Bagdad and 20 m. W. of
the Euphrates, from which a canal extends almost to the town. The
surrounding territory is fertile and well cultivated, especially in
fruit gardens and palm-groves. The newer parts of the city are built
with broad streets and sidewalks, presenting an almost European
appearance. The inner town, surrounded by a dilapidated brick wall, at
the gates of which octroi duties are still levied, is a dirty Oriental
city, with the usual narrow streets. Kerbela owes its existence to the
fact that Hosain, a son of 'Ali, the fourth caliph, was slain here by
the soldiers of Yazid, the rival aspirant to the caliphate, on the 10th
of October A.D. 680 (see CALIPHATE, sec. B, § 2). The most important
feature of the town is the great shrine of Hosain, containing the tomb
of the martyr, with its golden dome and triple minarets, two of which
are glided. Kerbela is a place of pilgrimage of the Shi'ite Moslems, and
is only less sacred to them than Meshed 'Ali and Mecca. Some 200,000
pilgrims from the Shi'ite portions of Islam are said to journey annually
to Kerbela, many of them carrying the bones of their relatives to be
buried in its sacred soil, or bringing their sick and aged to die there
in the odour of sanctity. The mullahs, who fix the burial fees, derive
an enormous revenue from the faithful. Formerly Kerbela was a
self-governing hierarchy and constituted an inviolable sanctuary for
criminals; but in 1843 the Turkish government undertook to deprive the
city of some of these liberties and to enforce conscription. The
Kerbelese resisted, and Kerbela was bombarded (hence the ruined
condition of the old walls) and reduced with great slaughter. Since then
it has formed an integral part of the Turkish administration of Irak.
The enormous influx of pilgrims naturally creates a brisk trade in
Kerbela and the towns along the route from Persia to that place and
beyond to Nejef. The population of Kerbela, necessarily fluctuating, is
estimated at something over 60,000, of whom the principal part are
Shi'ites, chiefly Persians, with a goodly mixture of British Indians. No
Jews or Christians are allowed to reside there.

  See Chodzko, _Théâtre persan_ (Paris, 1878); J. P. Peters, _Nippur_
  (1897).     (J. P. Pe.)

KERCH, or KERTCH, a seaport of S. Russia, in the government of Taurida,
on the Strait of Kerch or Yenikale, 60 m. E.N.E. of Theodosia, in 45°
21´ N. and 36° 30´ E. Pop. (1897), 31,702. It stands on the site of the
ancient _Panticapaeum_, and, like most towns built by the ancient Greek
colonists in this part of the world, occupies a beautiful situation,
clustering round the foot and climbing up the sides of the hill (called
after Mithradates) on which stood the ancient citadel or acropolis. The
church of St John the Baptist, founded in 717, is a good example of the
early Byzantine style. That of Alexander Nevsky was formerly the Kerch
museum of antiquities, founded in 1825. The more valuable objects were
subsequently removed to the Hermitage at St Petersburg, while those that
remained at Kerch were scattered during the English occupation in the
Crimean War. The existing museum is a small collection in a private
house. Among the products of local industry are leather, tobacco,
cement, beer, aerated waters, lime, candles and soap. Fishing is carried
on, and there are steam saw-mills and flour-mills. A rich deposit of
iron ore was discovered close to Kerch in 1895, and since then mining
and blasting have been actively prosecuted. The mineral mud-baths, one
of which is in the town itself and the other beside Lake Chokrak (9 m.
distant), are much frequented. Notwithstanding the deepening of the
strait, so that ships are now able to enter the Sea of Azov, Kerch
retains its importance for the export trade in wheat, brought thither by
coasting vessels. Grain, fish, linseed, rapeseed, wool and hides are
also exported. About 6 m. N.E. are the town and old Turkish fortress of
Yenikale, administratively united with Kerch. Two and a half miles to
the south are strong fortified works defending the entrance to the Sea
of Azov.

The Greek colony of Panticapaeum was founded about the middle of the 6th
century B.C., by the town of Miletus. From about 438 B.C. till the
conquest of this region by Mithradates the Great, king of Pontus, about
100 B.C., the town and territory formed the kingdom of the Bosporus,
ruled over by an independent dynasty. Phanaces, the son of Mithradates,
became the founder of a new line under the protection of the Romans,
which continued to exist till the middle of the 4th century A.D., and
extended its power over the maritime parts of Tauris. After that the
town--which had already begun to be known as Bospora--passed
successively into the hands of the Eastern empire, of the Khazars, and
of various barbarian tribes. In 1318, the Tatars, who had come into
possession in the previous century, ceded the town to the Genoese, who
soon raised it into new importance as a commercial centre. They usually
called the place Cerchio, a corruption of the Russian name K'rtchev
(whence Kerch), which appears in the 11th century inscription of
Tmutarakan (a Russian principality at the north foot of the Caucasus).
Under the Turks, whose rule dates from the end of the 15th century,
Kerch was a military port; and as such it plays a part in the
Russo-Turkish wars. Captured by the Russians under Dolgorukov in 1771,
it was ceded to them along with Yenikale by the peace of
Kuchuk-Kainarji, and it became a centre of Russian naval activity. Its
importance was greatly impaired by the rise of Odessa and Taganrog; and
in 1820 the fortress was dismantled. Kerch suffered severely during the
Crimean War.

  Archaeologically Kerch is of particular interest, the kurgans or
  sepulchral mounds of the town and vicinity having yielded a rich
  variety of the most beautiful works of art. Since 1825 a large number
  of tombs have been opened. In the Altun or Zolotai-oba (Golden Mound)
  was found a great stone vault similar in style to an Egyptian pyramid;
  and within, among many objects of minor note, were golden dishes
  adorned with griffins and beautiful arabesques. In the Kul-oba, or
  Mound of Cinders (opened in 1830-1831), was a similar tomb, in which
  were found what would appear to be the remains of one of the kings of
  Bosporus, of his queen, his horse and his groom. The ornaments and
  furniture were of the most costly kind; the king's bow and buckler
  were of gold; his very whip intertwined with gold; the queen had
  golden diadems, necklace and breast-jewels, and at her feet lay a
  golden vase. In the Pavlovskoi kurgan (opened in 1858) was the tomb of
  a Greek lady, containing among other articles of dress and decoration
  a pair of fine leather boots (a unique discovery) and a beautiful vase
  on which is painted the return of Persephone from Hades and the
  setting out of Triptolemus for Attica. In a neighbouring tomb was what
  is believed to be "the oldest Greek mural painting which has come down
  to us," dating probably from the 4th century B.C. Among the minor
  objects discovered in the kurgans perhaps the most noteworthy are the
  fragments of engraved boxwood, the only examples known of the art
  taught by the Sicyonian painter Pamphilus.

  Very important finds of old Greek art continue to be made in the
  neighbourhood, as well as at Tamañ, on the east side of the Strait of
  Kerch. The catacombs on the northern slope of Mithradates Hill, of
  which nearly 200 have been explored since 1859, possess considerable
  interest, not only for the relics of old Greek art which some of them
  contain (although most were plundered in earlier times), but
  especially as material for the history and ethnography of the
  Cimmerian Bosporus. In 1890 the first Christian catacomb bearing a
  distinct date (491) was discovered. Its walls were covered with Greek
  inscriptions and crosses.

  See H. D. Seymour's _Russia on the Black Sea and Sea of Azoff_
  (London, 1855); J. B. Telfer, _The Crimea_ (London, 1876); P. Bruhn,
  _Tchernomore, 1852-1877_ (Odessa, 1878); Gilles, _Antiquités du
  Bosphore Cimmérien_ (1854); D. Macpherson, _Antiquities of Kertch_
  (London, 1857); _Compte rendu de la Commission Imp. Archéologique_ (St
  Petersburg); L. Stephani, _Die Alterthümer vom Kertsch_ (St
  Petersburg, 1880); C. T. Newton, _Essays on Art and Archaeology_
  (London, 1880); _Reports_ of the [Russian] Imp. Archaeological
  Commission; _Izvestia_ (Bulletin) of the Archives Commission for
  Taurida; _Antiquités du Bosphore Cimmérien, conservées au Musée
  Impérial de l'Ermitage_ (St Petersburg, 1854); _Inscriptiones antiquae
  orae septentrionalis Ponti Euxini graecae et latinae_, with a preface
  by V. V. Latyshev (St Petersburg, 1890); _Materials for the
  Archaeology of Russia_, published by the Imp. Arch. Commission (No. 6,
  St Petersburg, 1891).     (P. A. K.; J. T. Be.)

KERCKHOVEN, JAN POLYANDER VAN DEN (1568-1646), Dutch Protestant divine,
was born at Metz, in 1568. He became French preacher at Dort in 1591,
and afterwards succeeded Franz Gomarus as professor of theology at
Leiden. He was invited by the States General of Holland to revise the
Dutch translation of the Bible, and it was he who edited the canons of
the synod of Dort (1618-1619).

  His many published works include _Responsio ad sophismata A.
  Cocheletii doctoris surbonnistae_ (1610), _Dispute contre l'adoration
  des reliques des Saincts trespassés_ (1611), _Explicatio somae
  prophetae_ (1625).

the Southern Ocean, to the S.E. of the Cape of Good Hope, and S.W. of
Australia, and nearly half-way between them. Kerguelen lies between 48°
39´ and 49° 44´ S. and 68° 42´ and 70° 35´ E. Its extreme length is
about 85 m., but the area is only about 1400 sq. m. The island is
throughout mountainous, presenting from the sea in some directions the
appearance of a series of jagged peaks. The various ridges and mountain
masses are separated by steep-sided valleys, which run down to the sea,
forming deep fjords, so that no part of the interior is more than 12 m.
from the sea. The chief summits are Mounts Ross (6120 ft.), Richards
(4000), Crozier (3251), Wyville Thomson (3160), Hooker (2600), Moseley
(2400). The coast-line is extremely irregular, and the fjords, at least
on the north, east and south, form a series of well-sheltered harbours.
As the prevailing winds are westerly, the safest anchorage is on the
north-east. Christmas Harbour on the north and Royal Sound on the south
are noble harbours, the latter with a labyrinth of islets interspersed
over upwards of 20 m. of land-locked waters. The scenery is generally
magnificent. A district of considerable extent in the centre of the
island is occupied by snowfields, whence glaciers descend east and west
to the sea. The whole island, exclusive of the snowfields, abounds in
freshwater lakes and pools in the hills and lower ground. Hidden deep
mudholes are frequent.

  Kerguelen Island is of undoubted volcanic origin, the prevailing rock
  being basaltic lavas, intersected occasionally by dikes, and an active
  volcano and hot springs are said to exist in the south-west of the
  island. Judging from the abundant fossil remains of trees, the island
  must have been thickly clothed with woods and other vegetation of
  which it has no doubt been denuded by volcanic action and submergence,
  and possibly by changes of climate. It presents evidences of having
  been subjected to powerful glaciation, and to subsequent immersion and
  immense denudation. The soundings made by the "Challenger" and
  "Gazelle" and the affinities which in certain respects exist between
  the islands, seem to point to the existence at one time of an
  extensive land area in this quarter, of which Kerguelen, Prince
  Edward's Islands, the Crozets, St Paul and Amsterdam are the remains.
  The Kerguelen plateau rises in many parts to within 1500 fathoms of
  the surface of the sea. Beds of coal and of red earth are found in
  some places. The summits of the flat-topped hills about Betsy Cove, in
  the south-east of the island, are formed of caps of basalt.

  According to Sir J. D. Hooker the vegetation of Kerguelen Island is of
  great antiquity; and may have originally reached it from the American
  continent; it has no affinities with Africa. The present climate is
  not favourable to permanent vegetation; the island lies within the
  belt of rain at all seasons of the year, and is reached by no drying
  winds; its temperature is kept down by the surrounding vast expanse of
  sea, and it lies within the line of the cold Antarctic drift. The
  temperature, however, is equable. The mean annual temperature is about
  39° F., while the summer temperature has been observed to approach
  70°. Tempests and squalls are frequent, and the weather is rarely
  calm. On the lower slopes of the mountains a rank vegetation exists,
  which, from the conditions mentioned, is constantly saturated with
  moisture. A rank grass, _Festuca Cookii_, grows thickly in places up
  to 300 ft., with _Azorella_, _Cotula plumosa_, &c. Sir J. D. Hooker
  enumerated twenty-one species of flowering plants, and seven of ferns,
  lycopods, and _Characeae_; at least seventy-four species of mosses,
  twenty-five of _Hepaticae_, and sixty-one of lichens are known, and
  there are probably many more. Several of the marine and many species
  of freshwater algae are peculiar to the island. The characteristic
  feature of the vegetation, the Kerguelen's Land cabbage, was formerly
  abundant, but has been greatly reduced by rabbits introduced on to the
  island. Fur-seals are still found in Kerguelen, though their numbers
  have been reduced by reckless slaughter. The sea-elephant and
  sea-leopard are characteristic. Penguins of various kinds are
  abundant; a teal (_Querquedula Eatoni_) peculiar to Kerguelen and the
  Crozets is also found in considerable numbers, and petrels, especially
  the giant petrel (_Ossifraga gigantea_), skuas, gulls, sheath-bills
  (_Chionis minor_), albatross, terns, cormorants and Cape pigeons
  frequent the island. There is a considerable variety of insects, many
  of them with remarkable peculiarities of structure, and with a
  predominance of forms incapable of flying.

The island was discovered by the French navigator, Yves Joseph de
Kerguelen-Trémarec, a Breton noble (1745-1797), on the 13th of February
1772, and partly surveyed by him in the following year. He was one of
those explorers who had been attracted by the belief in a rich southern
land, and this island, the South France of his first discovery, was
afterwards called by him Desolation Land in his disappointment. Captain
Cook visited the island in 1776, and, among other expeditions, the
"Challenger" spent some time here, and its staff visited and surveyed
various parts of it in January 1874. It was occupied from October 1874
to February 1875 by the expeditions sent from England, Germany and the
United States to observe the transit of Venus. The German South Polar
expedition in 1901-1902 established a meteorological and magnetic
station at Royal Sound, under Dr Enzensperger, who died there. In
January 1893 Kerguelen was annexed by France, and its commercial
exploitation was assigned to a private company.

  See Y. J. de Kerguelen-Trémarec, _Relation de deux voyages dans les
  mers australes_ (Paris, 1782); Narratives of the Voyages of Captain
  Cook and the "Challenger" Expedition; _Phil. Trans._, vol. 168,
  containing account of the collections made in Kerguelen by the British
  transit of Venus expedition in 1874-1875; Lieutard, "Mission aux îles
  Kerguelen," &c., _Annales hydrographiques_ (Paris, 1893).

KERGUELEN'S LAND CABBAGE, in botany, _Pringlea antiscorbutica_ (natural
order Cruciferae), a plant resembling in habit, and belonging to the
same family as, the common cabbage (_Brassica oleracea_). The
cabbage-like heads of leaves abound in a pale yellow highly pungent
essential oil, which gives the plant a peculiar flavour but renders it
extremely wholesome. It was discovered by Captain Cook during his first
voyage, but the first account of it was published by (Sir) Joseph Hooker
in _The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage_ of the "Erebus" and "Terror" in
1839-1843. During the stay of the latter expedition on the island, daily
use was made of this vegetable either cooked by itself or boiled with
the ship's beef, pork or pea-soup. Hooker observes of it, "This is
perhaps the most interesting plant procured during the whole of the
voyage performed in the Antarctic Sea, growing as it does upon an island
the remotest of any from a continent, and yielding, besides this
esculent, only seventeen other flowering plants."

KERKUK, or QERQUQ, the chief town of a sanjak in the Mosul vilayet of
Asiatic Turkey, situated among the foot hills of the Kurdistan Mountains
at an elevation of about 1100 ft. on both banks of the Khassa Chai, a
tributary of the Tigris, known in its lower course as Adhem. Pop.
estimated at 12,000 to 15,000, chiefly Mahommedan Kurds. Owing to its
position at the junction of several routes, Kerkuk has a brisk transit
trade in hides, Persian silks and cottons, colouring materials, fruit
and timber; but it owes its principal importance to its petroleum and
naphtha springs. There are also natural warm springs at Kerkuk, used to
supply baths and reputed to have valuable medical properties. In the
neighbourhood of the city is a burning mountain, locally famous for many
centuries. Kerkuk is evidently an ancient site, the citadel standing
upon an artificial mound 130 ft. high. It was a metropolitan see of the
Chaldean Christians. There is a Jewish quarter beneath the citadel, and
the reputed sarcophagi of Daniel and the Hebrew children are shown in
one of the mosques.     (J. P. Pe.)

KERMADEC, a small group of hilly islands in the Pacific, about 30° S.,
178° W., named from D'Entrecasteaux's captain, Huon Kermadec, in 1791.
They are British possessions. The largest of the group is Raoul or
Sunday Island, 20 m. in circumference, 1600 ft. high, and thickly
wooded. The flora and fauna belong for the most part to those of New
Zealand, on which colony the islands are also politically dependent,
having been annexed in 1887.

KERMAN (the ancient _Karmania_), a province of Persia, bounded E. by
Seistan and Baluchistan, S. by Baluchistan and Fars, W. by Fars, and N.
by Yezd and Khorasan. It is of very irregular shape, expanding in the
north to Khorasan and gradually contracting in the south to a narrow
wedge between Fars and Baluchistan; the extreme length between Seistan
and Fars (E. and W.) is about 400 m., the greatest breadth (N. and S.)
from south of Yezd to the neighbourhood of Bander Abbasi about 300 m.,
and the area is estimated at about 60,000 sq. m. Kerman is generally
described as consisting of two parts, an uninhabitable desert region in
the north and a habitable mountainous region in the south, but recent
explorations require this view to be considerably modified. There are
mountains and desert tracts in all parts, while much of what appears on
maps as forming the western portion of the great Kerman desert consists
of the fertile uplands of Kuhbanan, Raver and others stretching along
the eastern base of the lofty range which runs from Yezd south-east to
Khabis. West of and parallel to this range are two others, one
culminating north-west of Bam in the Kuh Hazar (14,700 ft.), the other
continued at about the same elevation under the name of the Jamal Bariz
(also Jebel Bariz) south-eastward to Makran. These chains traverse
fertile districts dividing them into several longitudinal valleys of
considerable length, but not averaging more than 12 m. in width. Snow
lies on them for a considerable part of the year, feeding the springs
and canals by means of which large tracts in this almost rainless region
in summer are kept under cultivation. Still farther west the Kuh Dina
range is continued from Fars, also in a south-easterly direction to
Bashakird beyond Bander Abbasi. Between the south-western highlands and
the Jamal Bariz there is some arid and unproductive land, but the true
desert of Kerman lies mainly in the north and north-east, where it
merges northwards in the great desert "Lut," which stretches into
Khorasan.[1] These southern deserts differ from the kavir of central
Persia mainly in three respects: they are far less saline, are more
sandy and drier, and present in some places tracts of 80 to 100 miles
almost absolutely destitute of vegetation. Yet they are crossed by
well-known tracks running from Kerman eastwards and north-eastwards to
Seistan and Khorasan and frequently traversed by caravans. It appears
that these sandy wastes are continually encroaching on the fertile
districts, and this is the case even in Narmashir, which is being
invaded by the sands of the desolate plains extending thence
north-westwards to Bam. There are also some _kefeh_ or salt swamps
answering to the kavir in the north, but occurring only in isolated
depressions and nowhere of any great extent. The desert of Kerman lies
about 1000 ft., or less, above the sea, apparently on nearly the same
level as the Lut, from which it cannot be geographically separated. The
climate, which varies much with the relief of the land, has the
reputation of being unhealthy, because the cool air from the hills is
usually attended by chills and agues. Still many of the upland valleys
enjoy a genial and healthy climate. The chief products are cotton, gums,
dates of unrivalled flavour from the southern parts, and wool, noted for
its extreme softness, and the soft underhair of goats (_kurk_), which
latter are used in the manufacture of the Kerman shawls, which in
delicacy of texture yield only to those of Kashmir, while often
surpassing them in design, colour and finish. Besides woollen goods
(shawls, carpets, &c.) Kerman exports mainly cotton, grain and dates,
receiving in return from India cotton goods, tea, indigo, china, glass,
sugar, &c. Wheat and barley are scarce. Bander Abbasi is the natural
outport; but, since shipping has shown a preference for Bushire farther
west, the trade of Kerman has greatly fallen off.

For administrative purposes the province is divided into nineteen
districts, one being the capital of the same name with its immediate
neighbourhood (_humeh_); the others are Akta and Urzu; Anar; Bam and
Narmashir; Bardsir; Jiruft; Khabis; Khinaman; Kubenan (Kuhbanan);
Kuhpayeh; Pariz; Rafsinjan; Rahbur; Raver; Rayin; Rudbar and Bashakird;
Sardu; Sirjan; Zerend. The inhabitants number about 700,000, nearly
one-third being nomads.     (A. H.-S.)


  [1] The word _lut_ means bare, void of vegetation, arid, waterless,
    and has nothing in common with the Lot of Holy Writ, as many have

KERMAN, capital of the above province, situated in 30° 17´ N., 56° 59´
E., at an elevation of 6100 ft. Its population is estimated at 60,000,
including about 2000 Zoroastrians, 100 Jews, and a few Shikarpuri
Indians. Kerman has post and telegraph offices (Indo-European Telegraph
Department), British and Russian consulates, and an agency of the
Imperial bank of Persia. The neighbouring districts produce little grain
and have to get their supplies for four or five months of the year from
districts far away. A traveller has stated that it was easier to get a
mann (6½ lb.) of saffron at Kerman than a mann of barley for his horse,
and in 1879 Sir A. Houtum-Schindler was ordered by the authorities to
curtail his excursions in the province "because his horses and mules ate
up all the stock." Kerman manufactures great quantities of carpets and
felts, and its carpets are almost unsurpassed for richness of texture
and durability. The old name of the city was Guvashir. Adjoining the
city on hills rising 400 to 500 ft. above the plain in the east are the
ruins of two ancient forts with walls built of sun-dried bricks on stone
foundations. Some of the walls are in perfect condition. Among the
mosques in the city two deserve special notice, one the Masjid i Jama, a
foundation of the Muzaffarid ruler Mubariz ed din Mahommed dating from
A.H. 1349, the other the Masjid i Malik built by Malik Kaverd Seljuk

KERMANSHAH, or KERMANSHAHAN, an important province of Persia, situated
W. of Hamadan, N. of Luristan, and S. of Kurdistan, and extending in the
west to the Turkish frontier. Its population is about 400,000, and it
pays a yearly revenue of over £20,000. Many of its inhabitants are
nomadic Kurds and Lurs who pay little taxes. The plains are well watered
and very fertile, while the hills are covered with rich pastures which
support large flocks of sheep and goats. The sheep provide a great part
of the meat supply of Teheran. The province also produces much wheat and
barley, and could supply great quantities for export if the means of
transport were better.

KERMANSHAH (_Kermisin_ of Arab geographers), the capital of the
province, is situated at an elevation of 5100 ft., in 34° 19´ N., and
46° 59´ E., about 220 m. from Bagdad, and 250 m. from Teheran. Although
surrounded by fortifications with five gates and three miles in circuit,
it is now practically an open town, for the walls are in ruins and the
moat is choked with rubbish. It has a population of about 40,000. The
town is situated on the high road between Teheran and Bagdad, and
carries on a transit trade estimated in value at £750,000 per annum.

KERMES (Arab. _qirmiz_; see CRIMSON), a crimson dye-stuff, now
superseded by cochineal, obtained from _Kermes ilicis_ (= _Coccus
ilicis_, Lat. = _C. vermilio_, G. Planchon). The genus _Kermes_ belongs
to the _Coccidae_ or Scale-insects, and its species are common on oaks
wherever they grow. The species from which kermes is obtained is common
in Spain, Italy and the South of France and the Mediterranean basin
generally, where it feeds on _Quercus coccifera_, a small shrub. As in
the case of other scale-insects, the males are relatively small and are
capable of flight, while the females are wingless. The females of the
genus _Kermes_ are remarkable for their gall-like form, and it was not
until 1714 that their animal nature was discovered.

  In the month of May, when full grown, the females are globose, 6 to 7
  millim. in diameter, of a reddish-brown colour, and covered with an
  ash-coloured powder. They are found attached to the twigs or buds by a
  circular lower surface 2 millim. in diameter, and surrounded by a
  narrow zone of white cottony down. At this time there are concealed
  under a cavity, formed by the approach of the abdominal wall of the
  insect to the dorsal one, thousands of eggs of a red colour, and
  smaller than poppy seed, which are protruded and ranged regularly
  beneath the insect. At the end of May or the beginning of June the
  young escape by a small orifice, near the point of attachment of the
  parent. They are then of a fine red colour, elliptic and convex in
  shape, but rounded at the two extremities, and bear two threads half
  as long as their body at their posterior extremity. At this period
  they are extremely active, and swarm with extraordinary rapidity all
  over the food plant, and in two or three days attach themselves to
  fissures in the bark or buds, but rarely to the leaves. In warm and
  dry summers the insects breed again in the months of August and
  September, according to Eméric, and then they are more frequently
  found attached to the leaves. Usually they remain immovable and
  apparently unaltered until the end of the succeeding March, when their
  bodies become gradually distended and lose all trace of abdominal
  rings. They then appear full of a reddish juice resembling discoloured
  blood. In this state, or when the eggs are ready to be extruded, the
  insects are collected. In some cases the insects from which the young
  are ready to escape are dried in the sun on linen cloths--care being
  taken to prevent the escape of the young from the cloths until they
  are dead. The young insects are then sifted from the shells, made into
  a paste with vinegar, and dried on skins exposed to the sun, and the
  paste packed in skins is then ready for exportation to the East under
  the name of "pâte d'écarlate."

  In the pharmacopoeia of the ancients kermes triturated with vinegar
  was used as an outward application, especially in wounds of the
  nerves. From the 9th to the 16th century this insect formed an
  ingredient in the "confectio alkermes," a well known medicine, at one
  time official in the London pharmacopoeia as an astringent in doses of
  20 to 60 grains or more. Syrup of kermes was also prepared. Both these
  preparations have fallen into disuse.

Mineral kermes is trisulphide of antimony, containing a variable portion
of trioxide of antimony both free and combined with alkali. It was known
as _poudre des Chartreux_ because in 1714 it is said to have saved the
life of a Carthusian monk who had been given up by the Paris faculty;
but the monk Simon who administered it on that occasion called it
_Alkermes mineral_. Its reputation became so great that in 1720 the
French government bought the recipe for its preparation. It still
appears in the pharmacopoeias of many European countries and in that of
the United States. The product varies somewhat according to the mode of
preparation adopted. According to the French directions the official
substance is obtained by adding 60 grammes of powdered antimony
trisulphide to a boiling solution of 1280 grammes of crystallized sodium
carbonate in 12,800 grammes of distilled water and boiling for one hour.
The liquid is then filtered hot, and on being allowed to cool slowly
deposits the kermes, which is washed and dried at 100° C.; prepared in
this way it is a brown-red velvety powder, insoluble in water.

  See G. Planchon, _Le Kermes du chêne_ (Montpellier, 1864); Lewis,
  _Materia Medica_ (1784), pp. 71, 365; _Memorias sobre la grana Kermes
  de España_ (Madrid, 1788); Adams, _Paulus Aegineta_, iii. 180;
  Beckmann, _History of Inventions_.

KERMESSE (also KERMIS and KIRMESS), originally the mass said on the
anniversary of the foundation of a church and in honour of the patron,
the word being equivalent to "Kirkmass." Such celebrations were
regularly held in the Low Countries and also in northern France, and
were accompanied by feasting, dancing and sports of all kinds. They
still survive, but are now practically nothing more than country fairs
and the old allegorical representations are uncommon. The Brussels
Kermesse is, however, still marked by a procession in which the effigies
of the Mannikin and medieval heroes are carried. At Mons the Kermesse
occurs annually on Trinity Sunday and is called the procession of
Lumeçon (Walloon for _limaçon_, a snail): the hero is Gilles de Chin,
who slays a terrible monster, captor of a princess, in the Grand Place.
This is the story of George and the Dragon. At Hasselt the Kermesse (now
only septennial) not only commemorates the Christian story of the
foundation of the town, but even preserves traces of a pagan festival.
The word Kermesse (generally in the form "Kirmess" ) is applied in the
United States to any entertainment, especially one organized in the
interest of charity.

  See Demetrius C. Boulger, _Belgian Life in Town and Country_ (1904).

KERN, JAN HENDRIK (1833-   ), Dutch Orientalist, was born in Java of
Dutch parents on the 6th of April 1833. He studied at Utrecht, Leiden and
Berlin, where he was a pupil of the Sanskrit scholar, Albrecht Weber.
After some years spent as professor of Greek at Maestricht, he became
professor of Sanskrit at Benares in 1863, and in 1865 at Leiden. His
studies included the Malay languages as well as Sanskrit. His chief work
is _Geschiedenis van het Buddhisme in Indië_ (Haarlem, 2 vols.,
1881-1883); in English he wrote a translation (Oxford, 1884) of the
_Saddharma Pundarîka_ and a _Manual of Indian Buddhism_ (Strassburg,
1896) for Bühler Kielhorn's _Grundriss der indoarischen Philologie_.

KERNEL (O.E. _cyrnel_, a diminutive of "corn," seed, grain), the soft
and frequently edible part contained within the hard outer husk of a nut
or the stone of a fruit; also used in botany of the nucleus of a seed,
the body within its several integuments or coats, and generally of the
nucleus or core of any structure; hence, figuratively, the pith or gist
of any matter.

KERNER, JUSTINUS ANDREAS CHRISTIAN (1786-1862), German poet and medical
writer, was born on the 18th of September 1786 at Ludwigsburg in
Württemberg. After attending the classical schools of Ludwigsburg and
Maulbronn, he was apprenticed in a cloth factory, but, in 1804, owing to
the good services of Professor Karl Philipp Conz (1762-1827) of
Tübingen, was enabled to enter the university there; he studied medicine
but had also time for literary pursuits in the company of Uhland, Gustav
Schwab and others. He took his doctor's degree in 1808, spent some time
in travel, and then settled as a practising physician in Wildbad. Here
he completed his _Reiseschatten von dem Schattenspieler Luchs_ (1811),
in which his own experiences are described with caustic humour. He next
co-operated with Uhland and Schwab in producing the _Poetischer Almanack
für 1812_, which was followed by the _Deutscher Dichterwald_ (1813), and
in these some of Kerner's best poems were published. In 1815 he obtained
the official appointment of district medical officer (_Oberamtsarzt_) in
Gaildorf, and in 1818 was transferred in a like capacity to Weinsberg,
where he spent the rest of his life. His house, the site of which at the
foot of the historical Schloss Weibertreu was presented by the
municipality to their revered physician, became the Mecca of literary
pilgrims. Hospitable welcome was extended to all, from the journeyman
artisan to crowned heads. Gustavus IV. of Sweden came thither with a
knapsack on his back. The poets Count Christian Friedrich Alexander von
Württemberg (1801-1844) and Lenau (q.v.) were constant guests, and
thither came also in 1826 Friederike Hauffe (1801-1829), the daughter of
a forester in Prevorst, a somnambulist and clairvoyante, who forms the
subject of Kerner's famous work _Die Seherin von Prevorst, Eröffnungen
über das innere Leben des Menschen und über das Hineinragen einer
Geisterwelt in die unsere_ (1829; 6th ed., 1892). In 1826 he published a
collection of _Gedichte_ which were later supplemented by _Der letzte
Blütenstrauss_ (1852) and _Winterblüten_ (1859). Among others of his
well-known poems are the charming ballad _Der reichste Fürst_; a
drinking song, _Wohlauf, noch getrunken_, and the pensive _Wanderer in
der Sägemühle_.

In addition to his literary productions, Kerner wrote some popular
medical books of great merit, dealing with animal magnetism, a treatise
on the influence of sebacic acid on animal organisms, _Das Fettgift oder
die Fettsäure und ihre Wirkungen auf den tierischen Organismus_ (1822);
a description of Wildbad and its healing waters, _Das Wildbad im
Königreich Württemberg_ (1813); while he gave a pretty and vivid account
of his youthful years in _Bilderbuch aus meiner Knabenzeit_ (1859); and
in _Die Bestürmung der württembergischen Stadt Weinsberg im Jahre 1525_
(1820), showed considerable skill in historical narrative. In 1851 he
was compelled, owing to increasing blindness, to retire from his medical
practice, but he lived, carefully tended by his daughters, at Weinsberg
until his death on the 21st of February 1862. He was buried beside his
wife, who had predeceased him in 1854, in the churchyard of Weinsberg,
and the grave is marked by a stone slab with an inscription he himself
had chosen: _Friederike Kerner und ihr Justinus_. Kerner was one of the
most inspired poets of the Swabian school. His poems, which largely deal
with natural phenomena, are characterized by a deep melancholy and a
leaning towards the supernatural, which, however, is balanced by a
quaint humour, reminiscent of the Volkslied.

  Kerner's _Ausgewählte poetische Werke_ appeared in 2 vols. (1878);
  _Sämtliche poetische Werke_, ed. by J. Gaismaier, 4 vols. (1905); a
  selection of his poems will also be found in Reclam's
  _Universalbibliothek_ (1898). His correspondence was edited by his son
  in 1897. See also D. F. Strauss, _Kleine Schriften_ (1866); A.
  Reinhard, _J. Kerner und das Kernerhaus zu Weinsberg_ (1862; 2nd ed.,
  1886); G. Rümelin, _Reden und Aufsätze_, vol. iii. (1894); M.
  Niethammer (Kerner's daughter), _J. Kerners Jugendliebe und mein
  Vaterhaus_ (1877); A. Watts, _Life and Works of Kerner_ (London,
  1884); T. Kerner, _Das Kernerhaus und seine Gäste_ (1894).

KERRY, a county of Ireland in the province of Munster, bounded W. by the
Atlantic Ocean, N. by the estuary of the Shannon, which separates it
from Clare, E. by Limerick and Cork, and S.E. by Cork. The area is
1,159,356 acres, or 1811 sq. m., the county being the fifth of the Irish
counties in extent. Kerry, with its combination of mountain, sea and
plain, possesses some of the finest scenery of the British Islands. The
portion of the county south of Dingle Bay consists of mountain masses
intersected by narrow valleys. Formerly the mountains were covered by a
great forest of fir, birch and yew, which was nearly all cut down to be
used in smelting iron, and the constant pasturage of cattle prevents the
growth of young trees. In the north-east towards Killarney the hills
rise abruptly into the ragged range of Macgillicuddy's Reeks, the
highest summit of which, Carntual (Carrantuohill), has a height of 3414
ft. The next highest summit is Caper (3200 ft.), and several others are
over 2500 ft. Lying between the precipitous sides of the Tomies, the
Purple Mountains and the Reeks is the famous Gap of Dunloe. In the
Dingle promontory Brandon Mountain attains a height of 3127 ft. The
sea-coast, for the most part wild and mountainous, is much indented by
inlets, the largest of which, Tralee Bay, Dingle Bay and Kenmare River,
lie in synclinal troughs, the anticlinal folds of the rocks forming
extensive promontories. Between Kenmare River and Dingle Bay the land is
separated by mountain ridges into three valleys. The extremity of the
peninsula between Dingle Bay and Tralee Bay is very precipitous, and
Mount Brandon, rising abruptly from the ocean, is skirted at its base
(in part) by a road from which magnificent views are obtained. From near
the village of Ballybunion to Kilconey Point near the Shannon there is a
remarkable succession of caves, excavated by the sea. One of these
caves inspired Tennyson with some lines in "Merlin and Vivien," which he
wrote on the spot. The principal islands are the picturesque Skelligs,
Valencia Island and the Blasquet Islands.

The principal rivers are the Blackwater, which, rising in the Dunkerran
Mountains, forms for a few miles the boundary line between Kerry and
Cork, and then passes into the latter county; the Ruaughty, which with a
course resembling the arc of a circle falls into the head of the Kenmare
River; the Inny and Ferta, which flow westward, the one into
Ballinskellig Bay and the other into Valencia harbour; the Flesk, which
flows northward through the lower Lake of Killarney, after which it
takes the name of Laune, and flows north-westward to Dingle Bay; the
Caragh, which rises in the mountains of Dunkerran, after forming several
lakes falls into Castlemaine harbour; the Maine, which flows from Castle
Island and south-westward to the sea at Castlemaine harbour, receiving
the northern Flesk, which rises in the mountains that divide Cork from
Kerry; and the Feale, Gale and Brick, the junction of which forms the
Cashin, a short tidal river which flows into the estuary of the Shannon.
The lakes of Kerry are not numerous, and none is of great size, but
those of Killarney (q.v.) form one of the most important features in the
striking and picturesque mountain scenery amidst which they are
situated. The other principal lakes are Lough Currane (Waterville Lake)
near Ballinskellig, and Lough Caragh near Castlemaine harbour. Salmon
and trout fishing with the rod is extensively prosecuted in all these
waters. Near the summit of Mangerton Mountain an accumulation of water
in a deep hollow forms what is known as the Devil's Punchbowl, the
surplus water, after making a succession of cataracts, flowing into
Muckross Lake at the foot of the mountain. There are chalybeate mineral
springs near Killarney, near Valencia Island, and near the mouth of the
Inny; sulphurous chalybeate springs near Dingle, Castlemaine and Tralee;
and a saline spring at Magherybeg in Corkaguiney, which bursts out of
clear white sand a little below high-water mark. Killarney is an inland
centre widely celebrated and much visited on account of its scenic
attractions; there are also several well-known coast resorts, among them
Derrynane, at the mouth of Kenmare Bay, the residence of Daniel
O'Connell the "liberator"; Glenbeigh on Dingle Bay, Parknasilla on
Kenmare Bay, Waterville (an Atlantic telegraph station) between
Ballinskellig Bay and Lough Currane, and Tarbert, a small coast town on
the Shannon estuary. Others of the smaller villages have grown into
watering-places, such as Ballybunion, Castlegregory and Portmagee.

  _Geology._--Kerry includes on the north and east a considerable area
  of Carboniferous shales and sandstones, reaching the coal-measures,
  with unproductive coals, east of Listowel and on the Glanruddery
  Mountains. The Carboniferous Limestone forms a fringe to these beds,
  and is cut off by the sea at Knockaneen Bay, Tralee and Castlemaine.
  In all the great promontories, Old Red Sandstone, including Jukes's
  "Glengariff Grits," forms the mountains, while synclinal hollows of
  Carboniferous Limestone have become submerged to form marine inlets
  between them. The Upper Lake of Killarney lies in a hollow of the Old
  Red Sandstone, which here rises to its greatest height in
  Macgillicuddy's Reeks; Lough Leane however, with its low shores, rests
  on Carboniferous Limestone. In the Dingle promontory the Old Red
  Sandstone is strikingly unconformable on the Dingle beds and the Upper
  Silurian series; the latter include volcanic rocks of Wenlock age. The
  evidences of local glaciation in this county, especially on the wild
  slopes of the mountains, are as striking as in North Wales. A
  copper-mine was formerly worked at Muckross, near Killarney, in which
  cobalt ores also occurred. Slate is quarried in Valencia Island.

  _Fauna._--Foxes are numerous, and otters and badgers are not uncommon.
  The alpine hare is very abundant. The red deer inhabits the mountains
  round Killarney. The golden eagle, once frequently seen in the higher
  mountain regions, is now rarely met. The sea eagle haunts the lofty
  marine cliffs, the mountains and the rocky islets. The osprey is
  occasionally seen, and also the peregrine falcon. The merlin is
  common. The common owl is indigenous, the long-eared owl resident, and
  the short-eared owl a regular winter visitor. Rock pigeons breed on
  the sea-cliffs, and the turtle-dove is an occasional visitant. The
  great grey seal is found in Brandon and Dingle bays.

  _Climate and Agriculture._--Owing to the vicinity of the sea and the
  height of the mountains, the climate is very moist and unsuitable for
  the growth of cereals, but it is so mild even in winter that arbutus
  and other trees indigenous to warm climates grow in the open air, and
  several flowering plants are found which are unknown in England. In
  the northern parts the land is generally coarse and poor, except in
  the valleys, where a rich soil has been formed by rocky deposits. In
  the Old Red Sandstone valleys there are many very fertile regions, and
  several extensive districts now covered by bog admit of easy
  reclamation so as to form very fruitful soil, but other tracts of
  boggy land scarcely promise a profitable return for labour expended on
  their reclamation. Over one-third of the total area is quite barren.
  The numbers of live stock of every kind are generally increased or
  sustained. Dairy-farming is very largely followed. The Kerry breed of
  cattle--small finely-shaped animals, black or red in colour, with
  small upturned horns--are famed for the quality both of their flesh
  and milk, and are in considerable demand for the parks surrounding
  mansion-houses. The "Dexter," a cross between the Kerry and an unknown
  breed, is larger but without its fine qualities. Little regard is paid
  to the breed of sheep, but those in most common use have been crossed
  with a merino breed from Spain. Goats share with sheep the sweet
  pasturage of the higher mountain ridges, while cattle occupy the lower

  _Other Industries._--In former times there was a considerable linen
  trade in Kerry, but this is now nearly extinct, the chief manufacture
  being that of coarse woollens and linens for home use. At Killarney a
  variety of articles are made from the wood of the arbutus. A
  considerable trade in agricultural produce is carried on at Tralee,
  Dingle and Kenmare, and in slate and stone at Valencia. The deep-sea
  and coast fisheries are prosperous, and there are many small fishing
  settlements along the coast, but the centres of the two fishery
  districts are Valencia and Dingle. Salmon fishing is also an industry,
  for which the district centres are Kenmare and Killarney.

  _Communications._--The Great Southern & Western railway almost
  monopolizes the lines in the county. The principal line traverses the
  centre of the county, touching Killarney, Tralee and Listowel, and
  passing ultimately to Limerick. Branches are from Headford to Kenmare;
  Farranfore to Killorglin, Cahersiveen and Valencia harbour, Tralee to
  Fenit and to Castlegregory; and the Listowel and Ballybunion railway.
  All these are lines to the coast. The Tralee and Dingle railway
  connects these two towns. The only inland branch is from Tralee to

  _Population and Administration._--The population (179,136 in 1891;
  165,726 in 1901) decreases to an extent about equal to the average of
  the Irish counties, but the emigration returns are among the heaviest.
  The chief towns are Tralee (the county town, pop. 9867); Killarney
  (5656), Listowel (3605) and Cahersiveen or Cahirciveen (2013), while
  Dingle, Kenmare, Killorglin and Castleisland are smaller towns. The
  county comprises 9 baronies, and contains 85 civil parishes. Assizes
  are held at Tralee, and quarter sessions at Cahersiveen, Dingle,
  Kenmare, Killarney, Listowel and Tralee. The headquarters of the
  constabulary force is at Tralee. Previous to the Union the county
  returned eight members to the Irish parliament, two for the county,
  and two for each of the boroughs of Tralee, Dingle and Ardfert. At the
  Union the number was reduced to three, two for the county and one for
  the borough of Tralee; but the divisions now number four: north,
  south, east and west, each returning one member. The county is in the
  Protestant diocese of Limerick and the Roman Catholic dioceses of
  Kerry and Limerick.

_History._--The county is said to have derived its name from Ciar, who
with his tribe, the _Ciarraidhe_, is stated to have inhabited about the
beginning of the Christian era the territory lying between Tralee and
the Shannon. That portion lying south of the Maine was at a later period
included in the kingdom of Desmond (q.v.). Kerry suffered frequently
from invasions of the Danes in the 9th and 10th centuries, until they
were finally overthrown at the battle of Clontarf in 1014. In 1172
Dermot MacCarthy, king of Cork and Desmond, made submission to Henry II.
on certain conditions, but was nevertheless gradually compelled to
retire within the limits of Kerry, which is one of the areas generally
considered to have been made shire ground by King John. An English
adventurer, Raymond le Gros, received from this MacCarthy a large
portion of the county round Lixnaw. In 1579-1580 attempts were made by
the Spaniards to invade Ireland, landing at Limerick harbour, near
Dingle, and a fortress was erected here, but was destroyed by the
English in 1580. The Irish took advantage of the disturbed state of
England at the time of the Puritan revolution to attempt the overthrow
of the English rule in Kerry, and ultimately obtained possession of
Tralee, but in 1652 the rebellion was completely subdued, and a large
number of estates were afterwards confiscated.

There are remains of a round tower at Aghadoe, near Killarney, and
another, one of the finest and most perfect specimens in Ireland, 92 ft.
high, at Rattoe, not far from Ballybunion. On the summit of a hill to
the north of Kenmare River is the remarkable stone fortress known as
Staigue Fort. There are several stone cells in the principal Skellig
island, where penance, involving the scaling of dangerous rocks, was
done by pilgrims, and where there were formerly monastic remains which
have been swept away by the sea. The principal groups of sepulchral
stones are those on the summits of the Tomie Mountains, a remarkable
stone fort at Cahersiveen, a circle of stones with cromlech in the
parish of Tuosist, and others with inscriptions near Dingle. The remote
peninsula west of a line from Dingle to Smerwick harbour is full of
remains of various dates. The most notable monastic ruins are those of
Innisfallen, founded by St Finian, a disciple of St Columba, and the
fine remains of Muckross Abbey, founded by the Franciscans, but there
are also monastic remains at Ardfert, Castlemaine, Derrynane, Kilcoleman
and O'Dorney. Among ruined churches of interest are those of Aghadoe,
Kilcrohane, Lough Currane, Derrynane and Muckross. The cathedral of
Ardfert, founded probably in 1253, was partly destroyed during the
Cromwellian wars, but was restored in 1831. Some interesting portions
remain (see TRALEE). There is a large number of feudal castles.

sailor and politician, was born at Paris on the 29th of July 1742. He
came of an old family, his father, Guy François de Coetnempren, comte de
Kersaint, being a distinguished naval officer. He entered the navy in
1755, and in 1757, while serving on his father's ship, was promoted to
the rank of ensign for his bravery in action. By 1782 he was a captain,
and in this year took part in an expedition to Guiana. At that time the
officers of the French navy were divided into two parties--the reds or
nobles, and the blues or _roturiers_. At the outbreak of the Revolution,
Kersaint, in spite of his high birth, took the side of the latter. He
adopted the new ideas, and in a pamphlet entitled _Le Bon Sens_ attacked
feudal privileges; he also submitted to the Constituent Assembly a
scheme for the reorganization of the navy, but it was not accepted. On
the 4th of January 1791 Kersaint was appointed administrator of the
department of the Seine by the electoral assembly of Paris. He was also
elected as a _député suppléant_ to the Legislative Assembly, and was
called upon to sit in it in place of a deputy who had resigned. From
this time onward his chief aim was the realization of the navy scheme
which he had vainly submitted to the Constituent Assembly. He soon saw
that this would be impossible unless there were a general reform of all
institutions, and therefore gave his support to the policy of the
advanced party in the Assembly, denouncing the conduct of Louis XVI.,
and on the 10th of August 1792 voting in favour of his deposition.
Shortly after, he was sent on a mission to the _armée du Centre_,
visiting in this way Soissons, Reims, Sedan and the Ardennes. While thus
occupied he was arrested by the municipality of Sedan; he was set free
after a few days' detention. He took an active part in one of the last
debates of the Legislative Assembly, in which it was decided to publish
a _Bulletin officiel_, a report continued by the next Assembly, and
known by the name of the _Bulletin de la Convention Nationale_. Kersaint
was sent as a deputy to the Convention by the department of
Seine-et-Oise in September 1792, and on the 1st of January 1793 was
appointed vice-admiral. He continued to devote himself to questions
concerning the navy and national defence, prepared a report on the
English political system and the navy, and caused a decree to be passed
for the formation of a committee of general defence, which after many
modifications was to become the famous Committee of Public Safety. He
had also had a decree passed concerning the navy on the 11th of January
1793. He had, however, entered the ranks of the Girondins, and had voted
in the trial of the king against the death penalty and in favour of the
appeal to the people. He resigned his seat in the Convention on the 20th
of January. After the death of the king his opposition became more
marked; he denounced the September massacres, but when called upon to
justify his attitude confined himself to attacking Marat, who was at the
time all-powerful. His friends tried in vain to obtain his appointment
as minister of the marine; and he failed to obtain even a post as
officer. He was arrested on the 23rd of September at Ville d'Avray, near
Paris, and taken before the Revolutionary Tribunal, where he was accused
of having conspired for the restoration of the monarchy, and of having
insulted national representation by resigning his position in the
legislature. He was executed on the 4th of December 1793.

His brother, GUY PIERRE (1747-1822), also served in the navy, and took
part in the American war of independence. He did not accept the
principles of the Revolution, but emigrated. He was restored to his rank
in the navy in 1803, and died in 1822, after having been _préfet
maritime_ of Antwerp, and prefect of the department of Meurthe.

  See Kersaint's own works, _Le Bon Sens_ (1789); the _Rubicon_ (1789);
  _Considérations sur la force publique et l'institution des gardes
  nationales_ (1789); _Lettre à Mirabeau_ (1791); _Moyens présentés à
  l'Assemblée nationale pour rétablir la paix et l'ordre dans les
  colonies_; also E. Chevalier, _Histoire de la Marine française sous la
  première République_; E. Charavay, _L'Assemblée électorale de Paris en
  1790 et 1791_ (Paris, 1890); and Agénor Bardoux, _La Duchesse de
  Duras_ (Paris, 1898), the beginning of which deals with Kersaint,
  whose daughter married Amédée de Duras.     (R. A.*)

historian, was born at Saint-Michel-les-Bruges in 1817. He was a member
of the Catholic Constitutional party and sat in the Chamber as member
for Eecloo. In 1870 he was appointed a member of the cabinet of Anethan
as minister of the interior. But his official career was short. The
cabinet appointed as governor of Lille one Decker, who had been
entangled in the financial speculations of Langand-Dumonceau by which
the whole clerical party had been discredited, and which provoked riots.
The cabinet was forced to resign, and Kervyn de Lettenhove devoted
himself entirely to literature and history. He had already become known
as the author of a book on Froissart (Brussels, 1855), which was crowned
by the French Academy. He edited a series of chronicles--_Chroniques
relatives à l'histoire de la Belgique sous la domination des ducs de
Bourgogne_ (Brussels, 1870-1873), and _Rélations politiques des Pays Bas
et de l'Angleterre sous le regne de Philippe II._ (Brussels, 1882-1892).
He wrote a history of _Les Hugenots et les Gueux_ (Bruges, 1883-1885) in
the spirit of a violent Roman Catholic partisan, but with much industry
and learning. He died at Saint-Michel-les-Bruges in 1891.

  See _Notices biographiques et bibliographiques de l'académie de
  Belgique_ for 1887.

KESHUB CHUNDER SEN (KESHAVA CHANDRA SENA) (1838-1884), Indian religious
reformer, was born of a high-caste family at Calcutta in 1838. He was
educated at one of the Calcutta colleges, where he became proficient in
English literature and history. For a short time he was a clerk in the
Bank of Bengal, but resigned his post to devote himself exclusively to
literature and philosophy. At that time Sir William Hamilton, Hugh
Blair, Victor Cousin, J. H. Newman and R. W. Emerson were among his
favourite authors. Their works made the deepest impression on him, for,
as he expressed it, "Philosophy first taught me insight and reflection,
and turned my eyes inward from the things of the external world, so that
I began to reflect on my position, character and destiny." Like many
other educated Hindus, Keshub Chunder Sen had gradually dissociated
himself from the popular forms of the native religion, without
abandoning what he believed to be its spirit. As early as 1857 he joined
the Brahma Samaj, a religious association aiming at the reformation of
Hinduism. Keshub Chunder Sen threw himself with enthusiasm into the work
of this society and in 1862 himself undertook the ministry of one of its
branches. In the same year he helped to found the Albert College and
started the _Indian Mirror_, a weekly journal in which social and moral
subjects were discussed. In 1863 he wrote _The Brahma Samaj Vindicated_.
He also travelled about the country lecturing and preaching. The steady
development of his reforming zeal led to a split in the society, which
broke into two sections, Chunder Sen putting himself at the head of the
reform movement, which took the name "Brahma Samaj of India," and tried
to propagate its doctrines by missionary enterprise. Its tenets at this
time were the following: (1) The wide universe is the temple of God. (2)
Wisdom is the pure land of pilgrimage. (3) Truth is the everlasting
scripture. (4) Faith is the root of all religions. (5) Love is the true
spiritual culture. (6) The destruction of selfishness is the true
asceticism. In 1866 he delivered an address on "Jesus Christ, Europe and
Asia," which led to the false impression that he was about to embrace
Christianity. This helped to call attention to him in Europe, and in
1870 he paid a visit to England. The Hindu preacher was warmly welcomed
by almost all denominations, particularly by the Unitarians, with whose
creed the new Brahma Samaj had most in common, and it was the committee
of the British and Foreign Unitarian Association that organized the
welcome soirée at Hanover Square Rooms on the 12th of April. Ministers
of ten different denominations were on the platform, and among those who
officially bade him welcome were Lord Lawrence and Dean Stanley. He
remained for six months in England, visiting most of the chief towns.
His eloquence, delivery and command of the language won universal
admiration. His own impression of England was somewhat disappointing.
Christianity in England appeared to him too sectarian and narrow, too
"muscular and hard," and Christian life in England more materialistic
and outward than spiritual and inward. "I came here an Indian, I go back
a confirmed Indian; I came here a Theist, I go back a confirmed Theist.
I have learnt to love my own country more and more." These words spoken
at the farewell soirée may furnish the key to the change in him which so
greatly puzzled many of his English friends. He developed a tendency
towards mysticism and a greater leaning to the spiritual teaching of the
Indian philosophies, as well as a somewhat despotic attitude towards the
Samaj. He gave his child daughter in marriage to the raja of Kuch Behar;
he revived the performance of mystical plays, and himself took part in
one. These changes alienated many followers, who deserted his standard
and founded the Sadharana (General) Brahma Samaj (1878). Chunder Sen did
what he could to reinvigorate his own section by a new infusion of
Christian ideas and phrases, e.g. "the New Dispensation," "the Holy
Spirit." He also instituted a sacramental meal of rice and water. Two
lectures delivered between 1881 and 1883 throw a good deal of light on
his latest doctrines. They were "The Marvellous Mystery, the Trinity,"
and "Asia's Message to Europe." This latter is an eloquent plea against
the Europeanizing of Asia, as well as a protest against Western
sectarianism. During the intervals of his last illness he wrote _The New
Samhita, or the Sacred Laws of the Aryans of the New Dispensation_. He
died in January 1884, leaving many bitter enemies and many warm friends.

  See the article BRAHMA SAMAJ; also P. Mozoomdar, _Life and Teachings
  of Keshub Chunder Sen_ (1888).

KÉSMÁRK (Ger. Käsmark), a town of Hungary, in the county of Szepes, 240
m. N.E. of Budapest by rail. Pop. (1900), 5560. It is situated on the
Poprad, at an altitude of 1950 ft., and is surrounded on all sides by
mountains. Among its buildings are the Roman Catholic parish church, a
Gothic edifice of the 15th century with fine carved altars; a wooden
Protestant church of the 17th century; and an old town-hall. About 12 m.
W. of Késmárk lies the famous watering-place Tatrafüred (Ger. Schmecks),
at the foot of the Schlagendorfer peak in the Tatra Mountains. Késmárk
is one of the oldest and most important Saxon settlements in the north
of Hungary, and became a royal free town at the end of the 13th century,
In 1440 it became the seat of the counts of Szepes (Ger., _Zips_), and
in 1464 it was granted new privileges by King Matthias Corvinus. During
the 16th century, together with the other Saxon towns in the Szepes
county, it began to lose both its political and commercial importance.
It remained a royal free town until 1876.

KESTREL (Fr. _Cresserelle_ or _Créçerelle_, O. Fr. _Quercerelle_ and
_Quercelle_, in Burgundy _Cristel_), the English name[1] for one of the
smaller falcons. This bird, though in the form of its bill and length
of its wings one of the true falcons, and by many ornithologists placed
among them under its Linnaean name of _Falco tinnunculus_, is by others
referred to a distinct genus _Tinnunculus_ as _T. alaudarius_--the last
being an epithet wholly inappropriate. We have here a case in which the
propriety of the custom which requires the establishment of a genus on
structural characters may seem open to question. The differences of
structure which separate _Tinnunculus_ from _Falco_ are of the
slightest, and, if insisted upon, must lead to including in the former
birds which obviously differ from kestrels in all but a few characters
arbitrarily chosen; and yet, if structural characters be set aside, the
kestrels form an assemblage readily distinguishable by several
peculiarities from all other _Falconidae_, and an assemblage separable
from the true Falcons of the genus _Falco_, with its subsidiary groups
_Aesalon_, _Hypotriorchis_, and the rest (see FALCON). Scarcely any one
outside the walls of an ornithological museum or library would doubt for
a moment whether any bird shown to him was a kestrel or not; and Gurney
has stated his belief (_Ibis_, 1881, p. 277) that the aggregation of
species placed by Bowdler Sharpe (_Cat. Birds Brit. Mus._ i. 423-448)
under the generic designation of _Cerchneis_ (which should properly be
_Tinnunculus_) includes "three natural groups sufficiently distinct to
be treated as at least separate subgenera, bearing the name of
_Dissodectes_, _Tinnunculus_ and _Erythropus_." Of these the first and
last are not kestrels, but are perhaps rather related to the hobbies

The ordinary kestrel of Europe, _Falco tinnunculus_ or _Tinnunculus
alaudarius_, is by far the commonest bird of prey in the British
Islands. It is almost entirely a summer migrant, coming from the south
in early spring and departing in autumn, though examples (which are
nearly always found to be birds of the year) occasionally occur in
winter, some arriving on the eastern coast in autumn. It is most often
observed while hanging in the air for a minute or two in the same spot,
by means of short and rapid beats of its wings, as, with head pointing
to windward and expanded tail, it is looking out for prey--which
consists chiefly of mice, but it will at times take a small bird, and
the remains of frogs, insects and even earthworms have been found in its
crop. It generally breeds in the deserted nest of a crow or pie, but
frequently in rocks, ruins, or even in hollow trees--laying four or five
eggs, mottled all over with dark brownish-red, sometimes tinged with
orange and at other times with purple. Though it may occasionally snatch
up a young partridge or pheasant, the kestrel is the most harmless bird
of prey, if it be not, from its destruction of mice and cockchafers, a
beneficial species. Its range extends over nearly the whole of Europe
from 68° N. lat., and the greater part of Asia--though the form which
inhabits Japan and is abundant in north-eastern China has been by some
writers deemed distinct and called _T. japonicus_--it is also found over
a great part of Africa, being, however, unknown beyond Guinea on the
west and Mombasa on the east coast (_Ibis_, 1881, p. 457). The southern
countries of Europe have also another and smaller species of kestrel,
_T. tinnunculoides_ (the _T. cenchris_ and _T. naumanni_ of some
writers), which is widely spread in Africa and Asia, though specimens
from India and China are distinguished as _T. pekinensis_.

Three other species are found in Africa--_T. rupicola_, _T.
rupicoloides_ and _T. alopex_--the first a common bird in the Cape,
while the others occur in the interior. Some of the islands of the
Ethiopian region have peculiar species of kestrel, as the _T. newtoni_
of Madagascar, _T. punctatus_ of Mauritius and _T. gracilis_ of the
Seychelles; while, on the opposite side, the kestrel of the Cape Verde
Islands has been separated as _T. neglectus_.

The _T. sparverius_, commonly known in Canada and the United States as
the "sparrow-hawk," is a beautiful little bird. Various attempts have
been made to recognize several species, more or less in accordance with
locality, but the majority of ornithologists seem unable to accept the
distinctions which have been elaborated chiefly by Bowdler Sharpe in his
_Catalogue_ and R. Ridgway (_North American Birds_, iii. 150-175), the
former of whom recognizes six species, while the latter admits but
three--_T. sparverius_, _T. leucophrys_ and _T. sparverioides_--with
five geographical races of the first, viz. the typical _T. sparverius_
from the continent of North America except the coast of the Gulf of
Mexico; _T. australis_ from the continent of South America except the
North Atlantic and Caribbean coasts; _T. isabellinus_, inhabiting
continental America from Florida to Fr. Guiana; _T. dominicensis_ from
the Lesser Antilles as far northwards as St Thomas; and lastly _T.
cinnamominus_ from Chile and western Brazil. _T. leucophrys_ is said to
be from Haiti and Cuba; and _T. sparverioides_ peculiar to Cuba only.
This last has been generally allowed to be a good species, though Dr
Gundlach, the best authority on the birds of that island, in his
_Contribucion á la Ornitologia Cubana_ (1876), will not allow its
validity. More recently it was found (Ibis, 1881, pp. 547-564) that _T.
australis_ and _T. cinnamominus_ cannot be separated, that Ridgway's _T.
leucophrys_ should properly be called _T. dominicensis_, and his _T.
dominicensis T. antillarum_; while Ridgway has recorded the supposed
occurrence of _T. sparverioides_ in Florida. Of other kestrels _T.
moluccensis_ is widely spread throughout the islands of the Malay
Archipelago, while _T. cenchroides_ seems to inhabit the whole of
Australia, and has occurred in Tasmania (_Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania_,
1875, pp. 7, 8). No kestrel is found in New Zealand, but an approach to
the form is made by the very peculiar _Hieracidea_ (or _Harpe_)
_novae-zelandiae_ (of which a second race or species has been described,
_H. brunnea_ or _H. ferox_), the "sparrow-hawk," "quail-hawk" and
"bush-hawk" of the colonists--a bird of much higher courage than any
kestrel, and perhaps exhibiting the more generalized and ancestral type
from which both kestrels and falcons may have descended.     (A. N.)


  [1] Other English names are windhover and standgale (the last often
    corrupted into stonegale and stannell).

KESWICK, a market town in the Penrith parliamentary division of
Cumberland, England, served by the joint line of the Cockermouth Keswick
& Penrith, and London & North-Western railways. Pop. of urban district
(1901), 4451. It lies in the northern part of the Lake District, in an
open valley on the banks of the river Greta, with the mountain of
Skiddaw to the north and the lovely lake of Derwentwater to the south.
It is much frequented by visitors as a centre for this famous
district--for boating on Derwentwater and for the easy ascent of
Skiddaw. Many residences are seen in the neighbourhood, and the town as
a whole is modern. Fitz Park, opened in 1887, is a pleasant recreation
ground. The town-hall contains a museum of local geology, natural
history, &c. In the parish church of Crosthwaite, ¾ m. distant, there is
a monument to the poet Southey. His residence, Greta Hall, stands at the
end of the main street, close by the river. Keswick is noted for its
manufacture of lead pencils; and the plumbago (locally wad) used to be
supplied from mines in Borrowdale. Char, caught in the neighbouring
lakes, are potted at Keswick in large quantities and exported.

KESWICK CONVENTION, an annual summer reunion held at the above town for
the main purpose of "promoting practical holiness" by meetings for
prayer, discussion and personal intercourse. It has no denominational
limits, and is largely supported by the "Evangelical" section of the
Church of England. The convention, started in a private manner by Canon
Harford-Battersby, then vicar of Keswick, and Mr Robert Wilson in 1874,
met first in 1875, and rapidly grew after the first few years, both in
numbers and influence, in spite of attacks on the alleged
"perfectionism" of some of its leaders and on the novelty of its
methods. Its members take a deep interest in foreign missions.

  In the _History of the C.M.S._, vol. iii. (by Eugene Stock), the
  missionary influence of the "Keswick men" in Cambridge and elsewhere
  may be readily traced. See also _The Keswick Convention_: its
  _Message, its Method and its Men_, edited by C. F. Harford (1906).

KET (or KETT), ROBERT (d. 1549), English rebel, is usually called a
tanner, but he certainly held the manor of Wymondham in Norfolk. With
his brother William he led the men of Wymondham in their quarrel with a
certain Flowerden, and having thus come into prominence, he headed the
men of Norfolk when they rose in rebellion in 1549 owing to the
hardships inflicted by the extensive enclosures of common lands and by
the general policy of the protector Somerset. A feast held at Wymondham
in July 1549 developed into a riot and gave the signal for the outbreak.
Leading his followers to Norwich, Ket formed a camp on Mousehold Heath,
where he is said to have commanded 16,000 men, introduced a regular
system of discipline, administered justice and blockaded the city. He
refused the royal offer of an amnesty on the ground that innocent and
just men had no need of pardon, and on the 1st of August 1549 attacked
and took possession of Norwich. John Dudley, earl of Warwick, marched
against the rebels, and after his offer of pardon had been rejected he
forced his way into the city, driving its defenders before him. Then,
strengthened by the arrival of some foreign mercenaries, he attacked the
main body of the rebels at Dussindale on the 27th of August. Ket's men
were easily routed by the trained soldiery, and Robert and William Ket
were seized and taken to London, where they were condemned to death for
treason. On the 7th of December 1549 Robert was executed at Norwich, and
his body was hanged on the top of the castle, while that of William was
hanged on the church tower at Wymondham.

  See F. W. Russell, _Kett's Rebellion_ (1859), and J. A. Froude,
  _History of England_, vol. iv. (London, 1898).

KETCH, JOHN (d. 1686), English executioner, who as "Jack Ketch" gave the
nickname for nearly two centuries to his successors, is believed to have
been appointed public hangman in the year 1663. The first recorded
mention of him is in _The Plotters Ballad, being Jack Ketch's
incomparable Receipt for the Cure of Traytorous Recusants and Wholesome
Physick for a Popish Contagion_, a broadside published in December 1672.
The execution of William, Lord Russell, on the 21st of July 1683 was
carried out by him in a clumsy way, and a pamphlet is extant which
contains his "Apologie," in which he alleges that the prisoner did not
"dispose himself as was most suitable" and that he was interrupted while
taking aim. On the scaffold, on the 15th of July 1685, the duke of
Monmouth, addressing Ketch, referred to his treatment of Lord Russell,
the result being that Ketch was quite unmanned and had to deal at least
five strokes with his axe, and finally use a knife, to sever Monmouth's
head from his shoulders. In 1686 Ketch was deposed and imprisoned at
Bridewell, but when his successor, Pascha Rose, a butcher, was, after
four months in the office, hanged at Tyburn, Ketch was reappointed. He
died towards the close of 1686.

KETCHUP, also written _catsup_ and _katchup_ (said to be from the
Chinese _kôe-chiap_ or _kê-tsiap_, brine of pickled fish), a sauce or
relish prepared principally from the juice of mushrooms and of many
other species of edible fungi, salted for preservation and variously
spiced. The juices of various fruits, such as cucumbers, tomatoes, and
especially green walnuts, are used as a basis of ketchup, and shell-fish
ketchup, from oysters, mussels and cockles, is also made; but in general
the term is restricted to sauces having the juice of edible fungi as
their basis.

KETENES, in chemistry, a group of organic compounds which may be
considered as internal anhydrides of acetic acid and its substitution
derivatives. Two classes may be distinguished: the aldo-ketenes,
including ketene itself, together with its mono-alkyl derivatives and
carbon suboxide, and the keto-ketenes which comprise the dialkyl
ketenes. The aldo-ketenes are colourless compounds which are not capable
of autoxidation, are polymerized by pyridine or quinoline, and are inert
towards compounds containing the groupings C:N and C:O. The keto-ketenes
are coloured compounds, which undergo autoxidation readily, form ketene
bases on the addition of pyridine and quinoline, and yield addition
compounds with substances containing the C:N and C:O groupings. The
ketenes are usually obtained by the action of zinc on ethereal or ethyl
acetate solutions of halogen substituted acid chlorides or bromides.
They are characterized by their additive reactions: combining with water
to form acids, with alcohols to form esters, and with primary amines to
form amides.

  _Ketene_, CH2:CO, was discovered by N. T. M. Wilsmore (_Jour. Chem.
  Soc._, 1907, vol. 91, p. 1938) among the gaseous products formed when
  a platinum wire is electrically heated under the surface of acetic
  anhydride. It is also obtained by the action of zinc on bromacetyl
  bromide (H. Staudinger, _Ber._ 1908, 41, p. 594). At ordinary
  temperatures it is a gas, but it may be condensed to a liquid and
  finally solidified, the solid melting at -151° C. It is characterized
  by its penetrating smell. On standing for some time a brown-coloured
  liquid is obtained, from which a colourless liquid boiling at 126-127°
  C., has been isolated (Wilsmore, ibid., 1908, 93, p. 946). Although
  originally described as acetylketen, it has proved to be a cyclic
  compound (Ber., 1909, 42, p. 4908). It is soluble in water, the
  solution showing an acid reaction, owing to the formation of
  aceto-acetic acid, and with alkalis it yields acetates. It differs
  from the simple ketenes in that it is apparently unacted upon by
  phenols and alcohols. _Dimethyl ketene_, (CH3)2C:CO1 obtained by the
  action of zinc on [alpha]-brom-isobutyryl bromide, is a yellowish
  coloured liquid. At ordinary temperatures it rapidly polymerizes
  (probably to a tetramethylcylobutanedione). It boils at 34° C (750
  mm.) (Staudinger, Ber. 1905, 38, p. 1735; 1908, 41, p. 2208). Oxygen
  rapidly converts it into a white explosive solid. _Diethyl ketene_,
  (C2H5)2C:CO, is formed on heating diethylmalonic anhydride
  (Staudinger, ibid.). _Diphenyl ketene_, (C6H5)2C:CO, obtained by the
  action of zinc on diphenyl-chloracetyl chloride, is an orange-red
  liquid which boils at 146° C. (12 mm.). It does not polymerize.
  Magnesium phenyl bromide gives triphenyl vinyl alcohol.

KETI, a seaport of British India, in Karachi district, Sind, situated on
the Hajamro branch of the Indus. Pop. (1901), 2127. It is an important
seat of trade, where seaborne goods are transferred to and from river

KETONES, in chemistry, organic compounds of the type R·CO·R´, where R,
R´ = alkyl or aryl groups. If the groups R and R´ are identical, the
ketone is called a _simple_ ketone, if unlike, a _mixed_ ketone. They
may be prepared by the oxidation of secondary alcohols; by the addition
of the elements of water to hydrocarbons of the acetylene type RC CH; by
oxidation of primary alcohols of the type RR´CH·CH2OH:RR´·CH·CH2OH -->
R·CO·R´ + H2O + H2CO2; by distillation of the calcium salts of the fatty
acids, C_(n)H_(2n)O2; by heating the sodium salts of these acids
C_(n)H_(2n)O2 with the corresponding acid anhydride to 190° C. (W. H.
Perkin, _Jour. Chem. Soc._, 1886, 49, p. 322); by the action of
anhydrous ferric chloride on acid chlorides (J. Hamonet, _Bull. de la
soc. chim._, 1888, 50, p. 357),

  2C2H5COCl --> C2H5·CO·CH(CH3)·COCl
            --> C2H5·CO·CH(CH3)·CO2H --> C2H5·CO·CH2·CH3;

and by the action of zinc alkyls on acid chlorides (M. Freund, Ann.,
1861, 118, p. 1), 2CH3COCl + ZnC(H3)2 = ZnCl2 + 2CH3·CO·CH3. In the last
reaction complex addition products are formed, and must be quickly
decomposed by water, otherwise tertiary alcohols are produced (A. M.
Butlerow, _Jahresb._, 1864, p. 496; _Ann._ 1867, 144, p. 1). They may
also be prepared by the decomposition of ketone chlorides with water; by
the oxidation of the tertiary hydroxyacids; by the hydrolysis of the
ketonic acids or their esters with dilute alkalis or baryta water (see
ACETO-ACETIC ESTER); by the hydrolysis of alkyl derivatives of acetone
dicarboxylic acid, HO2C·CH2·CO·CHR·CO2H; and by the action of the
Grignard reagent on nitriles (E. Blaise, _Comptes rendus_, 1901, 132, p.

  R·CN + R´M_(g)I --> RR´C:N·M_(g)I --> R·CO·R´ + NH3 + M_(g)I·OH.

The ketones are of neutral reaction, the lower members of the series
being colourless, volatile, pleasant-smelling liquids. They do not
reduce silver solutions, and are not so readily oxidized as the
aldehydes. On oxidation, the molecule is split at the carbonyl group and
a mixture of acids is obtained. Sodium amalgam reduces them to secondary
alcohols; phosphorus pentachloride replaces the carbonyl oxygen by
chlorine, forming the ketone chlorides. Only those ketones which contain
a methyl group are capable of forming crystalline addition compounds
with the alkaline bisulphites (F. Grimm, _Ann._, 1871, 157, p. 262).
They combine with hydrocyanic acid to form nitriles, which on hydrolysis
furnish hydroxyacids,

  (CH2)2CO --> (CH3)2C·OH·CN --> (CH3)2·C·OH·CO2H;

with phenylhydrazine they yield hydrazones; with hydrazine they yield in
addition ketazines RR´·C:N·N:C·RR´ (T. Curtius), and with hydroxylamine
ketoximes. The latter readily undergo the "Beckmann" transformation on
treatment with acid chlorides, yielding substituted acid amides.

  RR´·C:NOH --> RC(NR´)·OH --> R·CO·NHR´

(see OXIMES, also A. Hantzsch, Ber., 1891, 24, p. 13). The ketones react
with mercaptan to form mercaptols (E. Baumann, _Ber._, 1885, 18, p.
883), and with concentrated nitric acid they yield dinitroparaffins (G.
Chancel, _Bull. de la soc. chim._, 1879, 31, p. 503). With nitrous acid
(obtained from amyl nitrite and gaseous hydrochloric acid, the ketone
being dissolved in acetic acid) they form isonitrosoketones, R·CO·CH:NOH
(L. Claisen, _Ber._, 1887, 20, pp. 656, 2194). With ammonia they yield
complex condensation products; acetone forming di- and tri-acetonamines
(W. Heintz, _Ann._ 1875, 178, p. 305; 1877, 189, p. 214). They also
condense with aldehydes, under the influence of alkalis or sodium
ethylate (L. Claisen, _Ann._, 1883, 218, pp. 121, 129, 145; 1884, 223,
p. 137; S. Kostanecki and G. Rossbach, _Ber._, 1896, 29, pp. 1488, 1495,
1893, &c.). On treatment with the Grignard reagent, in absolute ether
solution, they yield addition products which are decomposed by water
with production of tertiary alcohols (V. Grignard, _Comptes rendus_,
1900, 130, P. 1322 et seq.),

  RR´CO --> RR´·C(OM_(g)I)·R´´ --> RR´R´´·C(OH) + M_(g)I·OH.

Ketones do not polymerize in the same way as aldehydes, but under the
influence of acids and bases yield condensation products; thus acetone
gives mesityl oxide, phorone and mesitylene (see below).

  For _dimethyl ketone_ or acetone, see ACETONE. _Diethyl ketone_,
  (C2H5)2·CO, is a pleasant-smelling liquid boiling at 102.7° C. With
  concentrated nitric acid it forms dinitroethane, and it is oxidized by
  chromic acid to acetic and propionic acids. _Methylnonylketone_,
  CH3·CO·C9H19, is the chief constituent of oil of rue, which also
  contains _methylheptylketone_, CH3·CO·C7H15, a liquid of boiling-point
  85-90° C. (7 mm.), which yields normal caprylic acid on oxidation with

  _Mesityl oxide_, (CH3)2C:CH·CO·CH3, is an aromatic smelling liquid of
  boiling point 129.5-130° C. It is insoluble in water, but readily
  dissolves in alcohol. On heating with dilute sulphuric acid it yields
  acetone, but with the concentrated acid it gives mesitylene, C9H12.
  Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to acetic acid and
  hydroxyisobutyric acid (A. Pinner, _Ber._, 1882, 15, p. 591). It forms
  hydroxyhydrocollidine when heated with acetamide and anhydrous zinc
  chloride (F. Canzoneri and G. Spica, _Gazz. chim. Ital._, 1884, 14, p.
  349). _Phorone_, (CH3)2C:CH·CO·CH:C(CH3)2, forms yellow crystals which
  melt at 28° C. and boil at 197.2° C. When heated with phosphorus
  pentoxide it yields acetone, water and some pseudo-cumene. Dilute
  nitric acid oxidizes it to acetic and oxalic acids, while potassium
  permanganate oxidizes it to acetone, carbon dioxide and oxalic acid.

DIKETONES.--The diketones contain two carbonyl groups, and are
distinguished as [alpha] or 1.2 diketones, [beta] or 1.3 diketones,
[gamma] or 1.4 diketones, &c., according as they contain the groupings
-CO·CO-, -CO·CH2·CO-, -CO·CH2·CH2·CO-, &c.

  The [alpha]-diketones may be prepared by boiling the product of the
  action of alkaline bisulphites on isonitrosoketones with 15% sulphuric
  acid (H. v. Pechmann, _Ber._, 1887, 20, p. 3112; 1889, 22, p. 2115),
  CH3·CO·C:(N·OH)·CH3 --> CH3·CO·C:(NHSO3)·CH3 --> CH3·CO·CO·CH3; or by
  the action of isoamyl nitrite on the isonitrosoketones (O. Manasse,
  _Ber._, 1888, 21, p. 2177), C2H5·CO·C = (NOH)·CH3 + 11C5HONO =
  C2H5·CO·CO·CH3 + C5H11OH + N2O. They condense with orthodiamines to
  form quinoxalines (O. Hinsberg, _Ann._, 1887, 237, p. 327), and with
  ammonia and aldehydes to form imidazoles. _Diacetyl_, CH3·CO·CO·CH3,
  is a yellowish green liquid, which boils at 87-88°C., and possesses a
  pungent smell. It combines with sodium bisulphite and with hydrocyanic
  acid. Dilute alkalis convert it into paraxyloquinone.

  The [beta]-diketones form characteristic copper salts, and in
  alcoholic solution they combine with semicarbazide to form products
  which on boiling with ammoniacal silver nitrate solution give
  pyrazoles (T. Posner, _Ber._, 1901, 34, p. 3975); with hydroxylamine
  they form isoxazoles, and with phenylhydrazine pyrazoles. _Acetyl
  acetone_, CH3·CO·CH2·CO·CH3, may be prepared by the action of
  aluminium chloride on acetyl chloride, or by condensing ethyl acetate
  with acetone in the presence of sodium (L. Claisen). It is a liquid of
  boiling point 136° C. It condenses readily with aniline to give
  [alpha][gamma]-dimethyl quinoline.

  The [gamma]-diketones are characterized by the readiness with which
  they yield furfurane, pyrrol and thiophene derivatives, the furfurane
  derivatives being formed by heating the ketones with a dehydrating
  agent, the thiophenes by heating with phosphorus pentasulphide, and
  the pyrrols by the action of alcoholic ammonia or amines. _Acetonyl
  acetone_, CH3·CO·CH2·CH2·CO·CH3, a liquid boiling at 194° C., may be
  obtained by condensing sodium aceto-acetate with mono-chloracetone (C.
  Paal, Ber., 1885, 18, p. 59),

        --> CH3CO·CH2·CH·COCH3(COOR)
               --> CH3CO·CH2·CH2·COCH3;

  or by the hydrolysis of diaceto-succinic ester, prepared by the action
  of iodine on sodium aceto-acetate (L. Knorr, _Ber._, 1889, 22, pp.
  169, 2100).

  1.5 diketones have been prepared by L. Claisen by condensing
  ethoxymethylene aceto-acetic esters and similar compounds with
  [beta]-ketonic esters and with 1.3 diketones. The ethoxymethylene
  aceto-acetic esters are prepared by condensing aceto-acetic ester with
  ortho-formic ester in the presence of acetic anhydride (German patents
  77354, 79087, 79863). The 1.5 diketones of this type, when heated with
  aqueous ammonia, form pyridine derivatives. Those in which the keto
  groups are in combination with phenyl residues give pyridine
  derivatives on treatment with hydroxylamine, thus benzamarone,
  C6H5CH[CH(C6H5)·CO·C6H5], gives pentaphenylpyridine, NC5(C6H5)5. On
  the general reactions of the 1.5 diketones, see E. Knoevenagel
  (_Ann._, 1894, 281, p. 25 et seq.) and H. Stobbe (_Ber._, 1902, 35, p.

  Many cyclic ketones are known, and in most respects they resemble the
  ordinary aliphatic ketones (see POLYMETHYLENES; TERPENES).

KETTELER, WILHELM EMMANUEL, BARON VON (1811-1877), German theologian and
politician, was born at Harkotten, in Bavaria, on the 25th of December
1811. He studied theology at Göttingen, Berlin, Heidelberg and Munich,
and was ordained priest in 1844. He resolved to consecrate his life to
maintaining the cause of the freedom of the Church from the control of
the State. This brought him into collision with the civil power, an
attitude which he maintained throughout a stormy and eventful life.
Ketteler was rather a man of action than a scholar, and he first
distinguished himself as one of the deputies of the Frankfort National
Assembly, a position to which he was elected in 1848, and in which he
soon became noted for his decision, foresight, energy and eloquence. In
1850 he was made bishop of Mainz, by order of the Vatican, in preference
to the celebrated Professor Leopold Schmidt, of Giessen, whose Liberal
sentiments were not agreeable to the Papal party. When elected, Ketteler
refused to allow the students of theology in his diocese to attend
lectures at Giessen, and ultimately founded an opposition seminary in
the diocese of Mainz itself. He also founded orders of School Brothers
and School Sisters, to work in the various educational agencies he had
called into existence, and he laboured to institute orphanages and
rescue homes. In 1858 he threw down the gauntlet against the State in
his pamphlet on the rights of the Catholic Church in Germany. In 1863 he
adopted Lassalle's Socialistic views, and published his _Die Arbeitfrage
und das Christenthum_. When the question of papal infallibility arose,
he opposed the promulgation of the dogma on the ground that such
promulgation was inopportune. But he was not resolute in his opposition.
The opponents of the dogma complained at the very outset that he was
wavering, half converted by his hosts, the members of the German College
at Rome, and further influenced by his own misgivings. He soon deserted
his anti-Infallibilist colleagues, and submitted to the decrees in
August 1870. He was the warmest opponent of the State in the
_Kulturkampf_ provoked by Prince Bismarck after the publication of the
Vatican decrees, and was largely instrumental in compelling that
statesman to retract the pledge he had rashly given, never to "go to
Canossa." To such an extent did Bishop von Ketteler carry his
opposition, that in 1874 he forbade his clergy to take part in
celebrating the anniversary of the battle of Sedan, and declared the
Rhine to be a "Catholic river." He died at Burghausen, Upper Bavaria, on
the 13th of July 1877.     (J. J. L.*)

KETTERING, a market town in the eastern parliamentary division of
Northamptonshire, England, 72 m. N.N.W. from London by the Midland
railway. Pop. of urban district (1891), 19,454; (1901), 28,653. The
church of SS Peter and Paul, mainly Perpendicular, has a lofty and
ornate tower and spire. The chief manufactures are boots, shoes,
brushes, stays, clothing and agricultural implements. There are
iron-works in the immediate neighbourhood. The privilege of market was
granted in 1227 by a charter of Henry III.

KETTLE, SIR RUPERT ALFRED (1817-1894), English county court judge, was
born at Birmingham on the 9th of January 1817. His family had for some
time been connected with the glass-staining business. In 1845 he was
called to the bar, and in 1859 he was made judge of the Worcestershire
county courts, becoming also a bencher of the Middle Temple (1882). He
acted as arbitrator in several important strikes, and besides being the
first president of the Midland iron trade wages board, he was largely
responsible for the formation of similar boards in other staple trades.
His name thus became identified with the organization of a system of
arbitration between employers and employed, and in 1880 he was knighted
for his services in this capacity. In 1851 he married; one of his sons
subsequently became a London police magistrate. Kettle died on the 6th
of October 1894 at Wolverhampton.

KETTLEDRUM[1] (Fr. _timbales_; Ger. _Pauken_; Ital. _timpani_; Sp.
_timbal_), the only kind of drum (q.v.) having a definite musical pitch.
The kettledrum consists of a hemispherical pan of copper, brass or
silver, over which a piece of vellum is stretched tightly by means of
screws working on an iron ring, which fits closely round the head of the
drum. In the bottom of the pan is a small vent-hole, which prevents the
head being rent by the concussion of air. The vellum head may thus be
slackened or tightened at will to produce any one of the notes within
its compass of half an octave. Each kettledrum gives but one note at a
time, and as it takes some little time to alter all the screws, two or
three kettledrums, sometimes more, each tuned to a different note, are
used in an orchestra or band. For centuries kettledrums have been made
and used in Europe in pairs, one large and one small; the relative
proportions of the two instruments being well defined and invariable.
Even when eight pairs of drums, all tuned to different notes, are used,
as by Berlioz in his "Grand Requiem," there are still but the two sizes
of drums to produce all the notes. Various mechanisms have been tried
with the object of facilitating the change of pitch, but the simple
old-fashioned model is still the most frequently used in England. Two
sticks, of which there are several kinds, are employed to play the
kettledrum; the best of these are made of whalebone for elasticity, and
have a small wooden knob at one end, covered with a thin piece of fine
sponge. Others have the button covered with felt or india-rubber. The
kettledrum is struck at about a quarter of the diameter from the ring.

  The compass of kettledrums collectively is not much more than an
  octave, between [music notes]; the larger instruments, which it is
  inadvisable to tune below F, take any one of the following notes:--

  [Music notes].

  and the smaller are tuned to one of the notes completing the chromatic
  and enharmonic scale from [music notes]. These limits comprise all the
  notes of artistic value that can be obtained from kettledrums. When
  there are but two drums--the term "drum" used by musicians always
  denotes the kettledrum--they are generally tuned to the tonic and
  dominant or to the tonic and subdominant, these notes entering into
  the composition of most of the harmonies of the key. Formerly the
  kettledrums used to be treated as transposing instruments, the
  notation, as for the horn, being in C, the key to which the
  kettledrums were to be tuned being indicated in the score. Now
  composers write the real notes.

  The tone of a good kettledrum is sonorous, rich, and of great power.
  When noise rather than music is required uncovered sticks are used.
  The drums may be muffled or _covered_ by placing a piece of cloth or
  silk over the vellum to damp the sound, a device which produces a
  lugubrious, mysterious effect and is indicated in the score by the
  words _timpani coperti_, _timpani con sordini_, _timbales_
  _couvertes_, _gedämpfte Pauken_. Besides the beautiful effects
  obtained by means of delicate gradations of tone, numerous rhythmical
  figures may be executed on one, two or more notes. German drummers who
  were renowned during the 17th and 18th centuries, borrowing the terms
  from the trumpets with which the kettledrums were long associated,
  recognized the following beats:--

  [Illustration: Music notes.

  Single tonguing (_Einfache Zungen_)

  Double tonguing (_Doppel oder gerissene Zungen_)

  Legato tonguing (_Tragende Zungen_)

  Whole double-tonguing (_Ganze Doppel-Zungen_)

  Double cross-beat[2] (_Doppel Kreuzschläge_)

  The roll (_Wirbel_)

  The double roll (_Doppel Wirbel_)]

  It is generally stated that Beethoven was the first to treat the
  kettledrum as a solo instrument, but in _Dido_, an opera by C.
  Graupner performed at the Hamburg Opera House in 1707, there is a
  short solo for the kettledrum.[3]

  The tuning of the kettledrum is an operation requiring time, even when
  the screw-heads, as is now usual, are T-shaped; to expedite the
  change, therefore, efforts have been made in all countries to invent
  some mechanism which would enable the performer to tune the drum to a
  fixed note by a single movement. The first mechanical kettledrums date
  from the beginning of the 19th century. In Holland a system was
  invented by J. C. N. Stumpff[4]; in France by Labbaye in 1827; in
  Germany Einbigler patented a system in Frankfort-on-Main in 1836[5];
  in England Cornelius Ward in 1837; in Italy C. A. Boracchi of Monza in

  The drawback in most of these systems is the complicated nature of the
  mechanism, which soon gets out of order, and, being very cumbersome
  and heavy, it renders the instrument more or less of a fixture.
  Potter's kettledrum with instantaneous system of tuning, the best
  known at the present day in England, and used in some military bands
  with entire success, is a complete contrast to the above. There is
  practically no mechanism; the system is simple, ingenious, and neither
  adds to the weight nor to the bulk of the instrument. There are no
  screws round the head of Potter's kettledrum; an invisible system of
  cords in the interior, regulated by screws and rods in the form of a
  Maltese cross, is worked from the outside by a small handle connected
  to a dial, on the face of which are twenty-eight numbered notches. By
  means of these the performer is able to tune the drum instantly to any
  note within the compass by remembering the numbers which correspond to
  each note and pointing the indicator to it on the face of the dial.
  Should the cords become slightly stretched, flattening the pitch,
  causing the representative numbers to change, the performer need only
  give his indicator an extra turn to bring his instrument back to
  pitch, each note having several notches at its service. The internal
  mechanism, being of an elastic nature, has no detrimental effect on
  the tone but tends to increase its volume and improve its quality.

The origin of the kettledrum is remote and must be sought in the East.
Its distinctive characteristic is a hemispherical or convex vessel,
closed by means of a single parchment or skin drawn tightly over the
aperture, whereas other drums consist of a cylinder, having one end or
both covered by the parchment, as in the side-drum and tambourine
respectively. The Romans were acquainted with the kettledrum, including
it among the _tympana_; the _tympanum leve_, like a sieve, was the
tambourine used in the rites of Bacchus and Cybele.[7] The comparatively
heavy tympanum of bronze mentioned by Catullus was probably the small
kettledrum which appears in pairs on monuments of the middle ages.[8]
Pliny[9] states that half pearls having one side round and the other
flat were called _tympania_. If the name _tympania_ (Gr. [Greek:
tympanon], from [Greek: typtein], to strike) was given to pearls of a
certain shape because they resembled the kettledrum, this argues that
the instrument was well known among the Romans. It is doubtful, however,
if it was adopted by them as a military instrument, since it is not
mentioned by Vegetius,[10] who defines very clearly the duties of the
service instruments _buccina_, _tuba_, _cornu_ and _lituus_.

The Greeks also knew the kettledrum, but as a warlike instrument of
barbarians. Plutarch[11] mentions that the Parthians, in order to
frighten their enemies, in offering battle used not the horn or _tuba_,
but hollow vessels covered with a skin, on which they beat, making a
terrifying noise with these tympana. Whether the kettledrum penetrated
into western Europe before the fall of the Roman Empire and continued to
be included during the middle ages among the tympana has not been
definitely ascertained. Isidore of Seville gives a somewhat vague
description of tympanum, conveying the impression that his information
has been obtained second-hand: "Tympanum est pellis vel corium ligno ex
una parte extentum. Est enim pars media symphoniae in similitudinem
cribri. Tympanum autem dictum quod medium est. Unde, et margaritum
medium tympanum dicitur, et ipsum ut symphonia ad virgulam
percutitur."[12] It is clear that in this passage Isidore is referring
to Pliny.

The names given during the middle ages to the kettledrum are derived
from the East. We have _attambal_ or _attabal_ in Spain, from the
Persian _tambal_, whence is derived the modern French _timbales_;
_nacaire_, _naquaire_ or _nakeres_ (English spelling), from the Arabic
_nakkarah_ or _noqqarich_ (Bengali, _nagara_), and the German _Pauke_,
M.H.G. _Bûke_ or _Pûke_, which is probably derived from _byk_, the
Assyrian name of the instrument.

[Illustration: (Geo. Potter & Co. of Aldershot.)

FIG. 1.--Mechanical Kettledrum, showing the system of cords inside the

This regiment is now the 21st (Empress of India) Lancers.]

A line in the chronicles of Joinville definitely establishes the
identity of the _nakeres_ as a kind of drum: "Lor il fist sonner les
tabours que l'on appelle _nacaires_." The nacaire is among the
instruments mentioned by Froissart as having been used on the occasion
of Edward III.'s triumphal entry into Calais in 1347: "trompes,
tambours, nacaires, chalemies, muses."[13] Chaucer mentions them in the
description of the tournament in the _Knight's Tale_ (line 2514):--

  "Pipes, trompes, _nakeres_ and clarionnes,
   That in the bataille blowen blody sonnes."

The earliest European illustration showing kettledrums is the scene
depicting Pharaoh's banquet in the fine illuminated MS. book of Genesis
of the 5th or 6th century, preserved in Vienna. There are two pairs of
shallow metal bowls on a table, on which a woman is performing with two
sticks, as an accompaniment to the double pipes.[14] As a companion
illumination may be cited the picture of an Eastern banquet given in a
14th century MS. at the British Museum (Add. MS. 27,695), illuminated by
a skilled Genoese. The potentate is enjoying the music of various
instruments, among which are two kettledrums strapped to the back of a
Nubian slave. This was the earlier manner of using the instrument
before it became inseparably associated with the trumpet, sharing its
position as the service instrument of the cavalry. Jost Amman[15] gives
a picture of a pair of kettledrums with banners being played by an armed
knight on horseback.

[Illustration: (From Härtel u. Wickhoff's "Die Wiener Genesis,"
_Jahrbuch der kunslhistorischen Sammlungen des allerhöchsten

FIG. 2.--Kettledrums in an early Christian MS.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Medieval Kettledrums, 14th century. (Brit.

As in the case of the trumpet, the use of the kettledrum was placed
under great restrictions in Germany and France and to some extent in
England, but it was used in churches with the trumpet.[16] No French or
German regiment was allowed kettledrums unless they had been captured
from the enemy, and the _timbalier_ or the _Heerpauker_ on parade, in
reviews and marches generally, rode at the head of the squadron; in
battle his position was in the wings. In England, before the
Restoration, only the Guards were allowed kettledrums, but after the
accession of James II. every regiment of horse was provided with
them.[17] Before the Royal Regiment of Artillery was established, the
master-general of ordnance was responsible for the raising of trains of
artillery. Among his retinue in time of war were a trumpeter and
kettledrummer. The kettledrums were mounted on a chariot drawn by six
white horses. They appeared in the field for the first time in a train
of artillery during the Irish rebellion of 1689, and the charges for
ordnance include the item, "large kettledrums mounted on a carriage
with cloaths marked I.R. and cost £158, 9s."[18] A model of the
kettledrums with their carriage which accompanied the duke of
Marlborough to Holland in 1702 is preserved in the Rotunda Museum at
Woolwich. The kettledrums accompanied the Royal Artillery train in the
Vigo expedition and during the campaign in Flanders in 1748. Macbean[19]
states that they were mounted on a triumphal car ornamented and gilt,
bearing the ordnance flag and drawn by six white horses. The position of
the car on march was in front of the flag gun, and in camp in front of
the quarters of the duke of Cumberland with the artillery guns packed
round them. The kettledrummer had by order "to mount the kettledrum
carriage every night half an hour before the sun sett and beat till gun
fireing." In 1759 the kettledrums ceased to form part of the
establishment of the Royal Artillery, and they were deposited, together
with their carriage, in the Tower, at the same time as a pair captured
at Malplaquet in 1709. These Tower drums were frequently borrowed by
Handel for performances of his oratorios.

The kettledrums still form part of the bands of the Life Guards and
other cavalry regiments.     (K. S.)


  [1] From "drum" and "kettle," a covered metal vessel for boiling
    water or other liquid; the O.E. word is _cetel_, cf. Du. _ketel_,
    Ger. _Kessel_, borrowed from Lat. _catillus_, dim. of _catinus_,

  [2] This rhythmical use of kettledrums was characteristic of the
    military instrument of percussion, rather than the musical member of
    the orchestra. During the middle ages and until the end of the 18th
    century, the two different notes obtainable from the pair of
    kettledrums were probably used more as a means of marking and varying
    the rhythm than as musical notes entering into the composition of the
    harmonies. The kettledrums, in fact, approximated to the side drums
    in technique. The contrast between the purely rhythmical use of
    kettledrums, given above, and the more modern musical use is well
    exemplified by the well-known solo for four kettledrums in
    Meyerbeer's _Robert le Diable_, beginning thus--

     [Music notes].

  [3] See Wilhelm Kleefeld, _Das Orchester der Hamburger Oper_
    (1678-1738); _Internationale Musikgesellschaft_, Sammelband i. 2, p.
    278 (Leipzig, 1899).

  [4] See J. Georges Kastner, _Méthode complète et raisonnée de
    timbales_ (Paris), p. 19, where several of the early mechanical
    kettledrums are described and illustrated.

  [5] See Gustav Schilling's _Encyklopädie der gesammten musikal.
    Wissenschaften_ (Stuttgart, 1840), vol. v., art. "Pauke."

  [6] See _Manuale pel Timpanista_ (Milan, 1842), where Boracchi
    describes and illustrates his invention.

  [7] Catullus, lxiii. 8-10; Claud. _De cons. Stilich._ iii. 365;
    Lucret. ii. 618; Virg. _Aen._ ix. 619, &c.

  [8] John Carter, _Specimens of Ancient Sculpture_, bas-relief from
    seats of choir of Worcester cathedral and of collegiate church of St
    Katherine near the Tower of London (plates, vol. i. following p. 53
    and vol. ii. following p. 22).

  [9] _Nat. Hist._ ix. 35, 23.

  [10] _De re militari_, ii. 22; iii. 5, &c.

  [11] _Crassus_, xxiii. 10. See also Justin xli. 2, and Polydorus,
    lib. 1, cap. xv.

  [12] See Isidore of Seville, _Etymologiarum_, lib. iii. cap. 21, 141;
    Migne, _Patr. curs. completus_, lxxxii. 167.

  [13] _Panthéon littéraire_ (Paris, 1837), J. A. Buchon, vol. i. cap.
    322, p. 273.

  [14] Reproduced by Franz Wickhoff, "Die Wiener Genesis," supplement
    to the 15th and 16th volumes of the _Jahrb. d. kunsthistorischen
    Sammlungen d. allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses_ (Vienna, 1895); see
    frontispiece in colours and plate illustration XXXIV.

  [15] _Artliche u. kunstreiche Figuren zu der Reutterey_
    (Frankfort-on-Main, 1584).

  [16] See Michael Praetorius, _Syntagma Musicum_ and _Monatshefte f.
    Musikgeschichte_, Jahrgang x. 51.

  [17] See Georges Kastner, _op. cit._, pp. 10 and 11; Johann Ernst
    Altenburg, _Versuch einer Anleitung z. heroisch-musikalischen
    Trompeter u. Paukerkunst_ (Halle, 1795), p. 128; and H. G. Farmer,
    _Memoirs of the Royal Artillery Band_ p. 23, note 1 (London, 1904).

  [18] Miller's _Artillery Regimental History_; see also H. G. Farmer,
    _op. cit._, p. 22; illustration 1702, p. 26.

  [19] _Memoirs of the Royal Artillery._

KEUPER, in geology the third or uppermost subdivision of the Triassic
system. The name is a local miners' term of German origin; it
corresponds to the French _marnes irisées_. The formation is well
exposed in Swabia, Franconia, Alsace and Lorraine and Luxemburg; it
extends from Basel on the east side of the Rhine into Hanover, and
northwards it spreads into Sweden and through England into Scotland and
north-east Ireland; it appears flanking the central plateau of France
and in the Pyrenees and Sardinia. In the German region it is usual to
divide the Keuper into three groups, the _Rhaetic_ or upper Keuper, the
middle, _Hauptkeuper_ or _gypskeuper_, and the lower, _Kohlenkeuper_ or
_Lettenkohle_. In Germany the lower division consists mainly of grey
clays and _schieferletten_ with white, grey and brightly coloured
sandstone and dolomitic limestone. The upper part of this division is
often a grey dolomite known as the Grenz dolomite; the impure coal
beds--_Lettenkohle_--are aggregated towards the base. The middle
division is thicker than either of the others (at Göttingen, 450
metres); it consists of a marly series below, grey, red and green marls
with gypsum and dolomite--this is the _gypskeuper_ in its restricted
sense. The higher part of the series is sandy, hence called the
_Steinmergel_; it is comparatively free from gypsum. To this division
belong the Myophoria beds (_M. Raibliana_) with galena in places; the
Estheria beds (_E. laxitesta_); the Schelfsandstein, used as a
building-stone; the Lehrberg and Berg-gyps beds; Semionotus beds (_S.
Bergeri_) with building-stone of Coburg; and the Burgand
Stubensandstein. The salt, which is associated with gypsum, is exploited
in south Germany at Dreuze, Pettoncourt, Vie in Lorraine and Wimpfen on
the Neckar. A ½-metre coal is found on this horizon in the Erzgebirge,
and another, 2 metres thick, has been mined in Upper Silesia. The upper
Keuper, Rhaetic or _Avicula contorta_ zone in Germany is mainly sandy
with dark grey shales and marls; it is seldom more than 25 metres thick.
The sandstones are used for building purposes at Bayreuth, Culmbach and
Bamberg. In Swabia and the Wesergebirge are several "bone-beds," thicker
than those in the middle Keuper, which contain a rich assemblage of
fossil remains of fish, reptiles and the mammalian teeth of _Microlestes
antiquus_ and _Triglyptus Fraasi_. The name Rhaetic is derived from the
Rhaetic Alps where the beds are well developed; they occur also in
central France, the Pyrenees and England. In S. Tirol and the Judicarian
Mountains the Rhaetic is represented by the Kössener beds. In the Alpine
region the presence of coral beds gives rise to the so-called
"Lithodendron Kalk."

In Great Britain the Keuper contains the following sub-divisions:
_Rhaetic or Penarth beds_, grey, red and green marls, black shales and
so-called "white lias" (10-150 ft.). _Upper Keuper marl_, red and grey
marls and shales with gypsum and rock salt (800-3000 ft.). _Lower
Keuper sandstone_, marls and thin sandstones at the top, red and white
sandstones (including the so-called "waterstones") below, with breccias
and conglomerates at the base (150-250 ft.). The basal or "dolomitic
conglomerate" is a shore or scree breccia derived from local materials;
it is well developed in the Mendip district. The rock-salt beds vary
from 1 in. to 100 ft. in thickness; they are extensively worked (mined
and pumped) in Cheshire, Middlesbrough and Antrim. The Keuper covers a
large area in the midlands and around the flanks of the Pennine range;
it reaches southward to the Devonshire coast, eastward into Yorkshire
and north-westward into north Ireland and south Scotland. As in Germany,
there are one or more "bone beds" in the English Rhaetic with a similar
assemblage of fossils. In the "white lias" the upper hard limestone is
known as the "sun bed" or "Jew stone"; at the base is the Cotham or
landscape marble.

Representatives of the Rhaetic are found in south Sweden, where the
lower portion contains workable coals, in the Himalayas, Japan, Tibet,
Burma, eastern Siberia and in Spitzbergen. The upper portion of the
Karroo beds of South Africa and part of the Otapiri series of New
Zealand are probably of Rhaetic age.

  The Keuper is not rich in fossils; the principal plants are
  cypress-like conifers (_Walchia_, _Voltzia_) and a few calamites with
  such forms as _Equisetum arenaceum_ and _Pterophyllum Jaegeri_,
  _Avicula contorta_, _Protocardium rhaeticum_, _Terebratula gregaria_,
  _Myophoria costata_, _M. Goldfassi_ and _Lingula tenuessima_,
  _Anoplophoria lettica_ may be mentioned among the invertebrates.
  Fishes include _Ceratodus_, _Hybodus_ and _Lepidotus_. Labyrinthodonts
  represented by the footprints of Cheirotherium and the bones of
  _Labyrinthodon_, _Mastodonsaurus_ and _Capitosaurus_. Among the
  reptiles are _Hyperodapedon_, _Palaeosaurus_, _Zanclodon_,
  _Nothosaurus_ and _Belodon_. _Microlestes_, the earliest known
  mammalian genus, has already been mentioned.

  See also the article TRIASSIC SYSTEM.     (J. A. H.)

KEW, a township in the Kingston parliamentary division of Surrey,
England, situated on the south bank of the Thames, 6 m. W.S.W. of Hyde
Park Corner, London. Pop. (1901), 2699. A stone bridge of seven arches,
erected in 1789, connecting Kew with Brentford on the other side of the
river, was replaced by a bridge of three arches opened by Edward VII. in
1903 and named after him. Kew has increased greatly as a residential
suburb of London; the old village consisted chiefly of a row of houses
with gardens attached, situated on the north side of a green, to the
south of which is the church and churchyard and at the west the
principal entrance to Kew Gardens. From remains found in the bed of the
river near Kew bridge it has been conjectured that the village marks the
site of an old British settlement. The name first occurs in a document
of the reign of Henry VII., where it is spelt Kayhough. The church of St
Anne (1714) has a mausoleum containing the tomb of the duke of Cambridge
(d. 1850) son of George III., and is also the burial-place of Thomas
Gainsborough the artist, Jeremiah Meyer the painter of miniatures (d.
1789), John Zoffany the artist (d. 1810), Joshua Kirby the architect (d.
1774), and William Aiton the botanist and director of Kew Gardens (d.

The free school originally endowed by Lady Capel in 1721 received
special benefactions from George IV., and the title of "the king's free

The estate of Kew House about the end of the 17th century came into the
possession of Lord Capel of Tewkesbury, and in 1721 of Samuel Molyneux,
secretary to the prince of Wales, afterwards George II. After his death
it was leased by Frederick prince of Wales, son of George II., and was
purchased about 1789 by George III., who devoted his leisure to its
improvement. The old house was pulled down in 1802, and a new mansion
was begun from the designs of James Wyatt, but the king's death
prevented its completion, and in 1827 the portion built was removed.
Dutch House, close to Kew House, was sold by Robert Dudley, earl of
Leicester, to Sir Hugh Portman, a Dutch merchant, late in the 16th
century, and in 1781 was purchased by George III. as a nursery for the
royal children. It is a plain brick structure, now known as Kew Palace.

The Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew originated in the exotic garden formed
by Lord Capel and greatly extended by the princess dowager, widow of
Frederick, prince of Wales, and by George III., aided by the skill of
William Aiton and of Sir Joseph Banks. In 1840 the gardens were adopted
as a national establishment, and transferred to the department of woods
and forests. The gardens proper, which originally contained only about
11 acres, were subsequently increased to 75 acres, and the pleasure
grounds or arboretum adjoining extend to 270 acres. There are extensive
conservatories, botanical museums, including the magnificent herbarium
and a library. A lofty Chinese pagoda was erected in 1761. A flagstaff
159 ft. high is made out of the fine single trunk of a Douglas pine. In
the neighbouring Richmond Old Park is the important Kew Observatory.

KEWANEE, a city of Henry county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the N. W. part of
the state, about 55 m. N. by W. of Peoria. Pop. (1900), 8382, of whom
2006 were foreign-born; (1910 census), 9307. It is served by the Chicago
Burlington & Quincy railroad and by the Galesburg & Kewanee Electric
railway. Among its manufactures are foundry and machine-shop products,
boilers, carriages and wagons, agricultural implements, pipe and
fittings, working-men's gloves, &c. In 1905 the total factory product
was valued at $6,729,381, or 61.5% more than in 1900. Kewanee was
settled in 1836 by people from Wethersfield, Connecticut, and was first
chartered as a city in 1897.

KEY, SIR ASTLEY COOPER (1821-1888), English admiral, was born in London
in 1821, and entered the navy in 1833. His father was Charles Aston Key
(1793-1849), a well-known surgeon, the pupil of Sir Astley Cooper, and
his mother was the latter's niece. After distinguishing himself in
active service abroad, on the South American station (1844-1846), in the
Baltic during the Crimean War (C.B. 1855) and China (1857), Key was
appointed in 1858 a member of the royal commission on national defence,
in 1860 captain of the steam reserve at Devonport, and in 1863 captain
of H.M.S. "Excellent" and superintendent of the Royal Naval College. He
had a considerable share in advising as to the reorganization of
administration, and in 1866, having become rear-admiral, was made
director of naval ordnance. Between 1869 and 1872 he held the offices of
superintendent of Portsmouth dockyard, superintendent of Malta dockyard,
and second in command in the Mediterranean. In 1872 he was made
president of the projected Royal Naval College at Greenwich, which was
organized by him, and after its opening in 1873 he was made a K.C.B, and
a vice-admiral. In 1876 he was appointed commander-in-chief on the North
American and West Indian station. Having become full admiral in 1878, he
was appointed in 1879 principal A.D.C., and soon afterwards first naval
lord of the admiralty, retaining this post till 1885. In 1882 he was
made G.C.B. He died at Maidenhead on the 3rd of March, 1888.

  See _Memoirs of Sir Astley Cooper Key_, by Vice-Admiral Colomb (1898).

KEY, THOMAS HEWITT (1799-1875), English classical scholar, was born in
London on the 20th of March, 1799. He was educated at St John's and
Trinity Colleges, Cambridge, and graduated 19th wrangler in 1821. From
1825 to 1827 he was professor of mathematics in the university of
Virginia, and after his return to England was appointed (1828) professor
of Latin in the newly founded university of London. In 1832 he became
joint headmaster of the school founded in connexion with that
institution; in 1842 he resigned the professorship of Latin, and took up
that of comparative grammar together with the undivided headmastership
of the school. These two posts he held till his death on the 29th of
November 1875. Key is best known for his introduction of the crude-form
(the uninflected form or stem of words) system, in general use among
Sanskrit grammarians, into the teaching of the classical languages. This
system was embodied in his _Latin Grammar_ (1846). In _Language, its
Origin and Development_ (1874), he upholds the onomatopoeic theory. Key
was prejudiced against the German "Sanskritists," and the etymological
portion of his _Latin Dictionary_, published in 1888, was severely
criticized on this account. He was a member of the Royal Society and
president of the Philological Society, to the _Transactions_ of which he
contributed largely.

  See _Proceedings of the Royal Society_, vol. xxiv. (1876); R. Ellis in
  the _Academy_ (Dec. 4, 1875); J. P. Hicks, _T. Hewitt Key_ (1893),
  where a full list of his works and contributions is given.

KEY (in O. Eng. _caég_; the ultimate origin of the word is unknown; it
appears only in Old Frisian _kei_ of other Teutonic languages; until the
end of the 17th century the pronunciation was _kay_, as in other words
in O. Eng. ending in _aég_; cf. _daég_, day; _claég_, clay; the _New
English Dictionary_ takes the change to kee to be due to northern
influence), an instrument of metal used for the opening and closing of a
lock (see LOCK). Until the 14th century bronze and not iron was most
commonly used. The terminals of the stem of the keys were frequently
decorated, the "bow" or loop taking the form sometimes of a trefoil,
with figures inscribed within it; this decoration increased in the 16th
century, the terminals being made in the shape of animals and other
figures. Still more elaborate ceremonial keys were used by court
officials; a series of chamberlains' keys used during the 18th and 19th
centuries in several courts in Europe is in the British Museum. The
terminals are decorated with crowns, royal monograms and ciphers. The
word "key" is by analogy applied to things regarded as means for the
opening or closing of anything, for the making clear that which is
hidden. Thus it is used of an interpretation as to the arrangement of
the letters or words of a cipher, of a solution of mathematical or other
problems, or of a translation of exercises or books, &c., from a foreign
language. The term is also used figuratively of a place of commanding
strategic position. Thus Gibraltar, the "Key of the Mediterranean," was
granted in 1462 by Henry IV. of Castile, the arms, _gules_, a castle
proper, with key pendant to the gate, _or_; these arms form the badge of
the 50th regiment of foot (now 2nd Batt. Essex Regiment) in the British
army, in memory of the part which it took in the siege of 1782. The word
is also frequently applied to many mechanical contrivances for
unfastening or loosening a valve, nut, bolt, &c., such as a spanner or
wrench, and to the instruments used in tuning a pianoforte or harp or in
winding clocks or watches. A farther extension of the word is to
appliances or devices which serve to lock or fasten together distinct
parts of a structure, as the "key-stone" of an arch, the wedge or piece
of wood, metal, &c., which fixes a joint, or a small metal instrument,
shaped like a U, used to secure the bands in the process of sewing in

In musical instruments the term "key" is applied in certain wind
instruments, particularly of the wood-wind type, to the levers which
open and close valves in order to produce various notes, and in keyboard
instruments, such as the organ or the pianoforte, to the exterior white
or black parts of the levers which either open or shut the valves to
admit the wind from the bellows to the pipes or to release the hammers
against the strings (see KEYBOARD). It is from this application of the
word to these levers in musical instruments that the term is also used
of the parts pressed by the finger in typewriters and in telegraphic

A key is the insignia of the office of chamberlain in a royal household
(see CHAMBERLAIN and LORD CHAMBERLAIN). The "power of the keys"
(_clavium potestas_) in ecclesiastical usage represents the authority
given by Christ to Peter by the words, "I will give unto thee the keys
of the kingdom of heaven" (Matt. xvi. 19). This is claimed by the Roman
Church to have been transmitted to the popes as the successors of St

"Key" was formerly the common spelling of "quay," a wharf, and is still
found in America for "cay," an island reef or sandbank off the coast of
Florida (see QUAY).

  The origin of the name Keys or House of Keys, the lower branch of the
  legislature, the court of Tynwald, of the Isle of Man, has been much
  discussed, but it is generally accepted that it is a particular
  application of the word "key" by English- and not Manx-speaking
  people. According to A. W. Moore, _History of the Isle of Man_, i.
  160 sqq. (1900), in the Manx statutes and records the name of the
  house was in 1417 _Claves Manniae et Claves legis_, Keys of Man and
  Keys of the Law; but the popular and also the documentary name till
  1585 seems to have been "the 24," in Manx _Kiare as feed_. From 1585
  to 1734 the name was in the statutes, &c., "the 24 Keys," or simply
  "the Keys." Moore suggests that the name was possibly originally due
  to an English "clerk of the rolls," the members of the house being
  called in to "unlock or solve the difficulties of the law." There is
  no evidence for the suggestion that Keys is an English corruption of
  _Kiare-as_, the first part of _Kiare as feed_. Another suggestion is
  that it is from a Scandinavian word _keise_, chosen.

KEYBOARD, or MANUAL (Fr. _clavier_; Ger. _Klaviatur_; Ital.
_tastatura_), a succession of keys for unlocking sound in stringed, wind
or percussion musical instruments, together with the case or board on
which they are arranged. The two principal types of keyboard instruments
are the organ and the piano; their keyboards, although similarly
constructed, differ widely in scope and capabilities. The keyboard of
the organ, a purely mechanical contrivance, is the external means of
communicating with the valves or pallets that open and close the
entrances to the pipes. As its action is incapable of variation at the
will of the performer, the keyboard of the organ remains without
influence on the quality and intensity of the sound. The keyboard of the
piano, on the contrary, besides its purely mechanical function, also
forms a sympathetic vehicle of transmission for the performer's
rhythmical and emotional feeling, in consequence of the faithfulness
with which it passes on the impulses communicated by the fingers. The
keyboard proper does not, in instruments of the organ and piano types,
contain the complete mechanical apparatus for directly unlocking the
sound, but only that external part of it which is accessible to the

  The first instrument provided with a keyboard was the organ; we must
  therefore seek for the prototype of the modern keyboard in connexion
  with the primitive instrument which marks the transition between the
  mere syrinx provided with bellows, in which all the pipes sounded at
  once unless stopped by the fingers, and the first organ in which sound
  was elicited from a pipe only when unlocked by means of some
  mechanical contrivance. The earliest contrivance was the simple
  slider, unprovided with a key or touch-piece and working in a groove
  like the lid of a box, which was merely pushed in or drawn out to open
  or close the hole that formed the communication between the wind chest
  and the hole in the foot of the pipe. These sliders fulfilled in a
  simple manner the function of the modern keys, and preceded the groove
  and pallet system of the modern organ. We have no clear or trustworthy
  information concerning the primitive organ with sliders. Athanasius
  Kircher[1] gives a drawing of a small mouth-blown instrument under the
  name of _Magraketha_ (_Mashroqitha'_, Dan. iii. 5), and Ugolini[2]
  describes a similar one, but with a pair of bellows, as the magrephah
  of the treatise _'Arakhin_.[3] By analogy with the evolution of the
  organ in central and western Europe from the 8th to the 15th century,
  of which we are able to study the various stages, we may conclude that
  in principle both drawings were probably fairly representative, even
  if nothing better than efforts of the imagination to illustrate a

  The invention of the keyboard with balanced keys has been placed by
  some writers as late as the 13th or 14th century, in spite of its
  having been described by both Hero of Alexandria and Vitruvius and
  mentioned by poets and writers. The misconception probably arose from
  the easy assumption that the organ was the product of Western skill
  and that the primitive instruments with sliders found in 11th century
  documents[4] represent the sum of the progress made in the evolution;
  in reality they were the result of a laborious effort to reconquer a
  lost art. The earliest trace of a balanced keyboard we possess is
  contained in Hero's description of the hydraulic organ said to have
  been invented by Ctesibius of Alexandria in the 2nd century B.C. After
  describing the other parts (see ORGAN), Hero passes on to the sliders
  with perforations corresponding with the open feet of the speaking
  pipes which, when drawn forward, traverse and block the pipes. He
  describes the following contrivances: attached to the slider is a
  three-limbed, pivoted elbow-key, which, when depressed, pushes the
  slider inwards; in order to provide for its automatic return when the
  finger is lifted from the key, a slip of horn is attached by a gut
  string to each elbow-key. When the key is depressed and the slider
  pushed home, the gut string pulls the slip of horn and straightens it.
  As soon as the key is released, the piece of horn, regaining its
  natural bent by its own elasticity, pulls the slider out so that the
  perforation of the slider overlaps and the pipe is silenced.[5] The
  description of the keyboard by Vitruvius Pollio, a variant of that of
  Hero, is less accurate and less complete.[6] From evidence discussed
  in the article ORGAN, it is clear that the principle of a balanced
  keyboard was well understood both in the 2nd and in the 5th century
  A.D. After this all trace of this important development disappears,
  sliders of all kinds with and without handles doing duty for keys
  until the 12th or 13th century, when we find the small portative
  organs furnished with narrow keys which appear to be balanced; the
  single bellows were manipulated by one hand while the other fingered
  the keys. As this little instrument was mainly used to accompany the
  voice in simple chaunts, it needed few keys, at most nine or twelve.
  The pipes were flue-pipes. A similar little instrument, having tiny
  invisible pipes furnished with beating reeds and a pair of bellows
  (therefore requiring two performers) was known as the regal. There are
  representations of these medieval balanced keyboards with keys of
  various shapes, the most common being the rectangular with or without
  rounded corners and the T-shaped. Until the 14th century all the keys
  were in one row and of the same level, and although the B flat was
  used for modulation, it was merely placed between A and B natural in
  the sequence of notes. During the 14th century small square additional
  keys made their appearance, one or two to the octave, inserted between
  the others in the position of our black keys but not raised. An
  example of this keyboard is reproduced by J. F. Riaño[7] from a fresco
  in the Cistercian monastery of Nuestra Señora de Piedra in Aragon,
  dated 1390.

  So far the history of the keyboard is that of the organ. The only
  stringed instruments with keys before this date were the _organistrum_
  and the _hurdy-gurdy_, in which little tongues of wood manipulated by
  handles or keys performed the function of the fingers in stopping the
  strings on the neck of the instruments, but they did not influence the
  development of the keyboard. The advent of the immediate precursors of
  the pianoforte was at hand. In the _Wunderbuch_[8] (1440), preserved
  in the Grand Ducal Library at Weimar, are represented a number of
  musical instruments, all named. Among them are a _clavichordium_ and a
  _clavicymbalum_ with narrow additional keys let in between the wider
  ones, one to every group of two large keys. The same arrangement
  prevailed in a _clavicymbalum_ figured in an anonymous MS. attributed
  to the 14th century, preserved in the public library at Ghent[9]; from
  the lettering over the jacks and strings, of which there are but
  eight, it would seem as though the draughtsman had left the
  accidentals out of the scheme of notation. These are the earliest
  known representations of instruments with keyboards. The exact date at
  which our chromatic keyboard came into use has not been discovered,
  but it existed in the 15th century and may be studied in the picture
  of St Cecilia playing the organ on the Ghent altarpiece painted by the
  brothers Hubert and Jan van Eyck. Praetorius distinctly states that
  the large Halberstadt organ had the keyboard which he figures (plates
  xxiv. and xxv.) from the outset, and reproduces the inscription
  asserting that the organ was built in 1361 by the priest Nicolas Fabri
  and was renovated in 1495 by Gregorius Kleng. The keyboard of this
  organ has the arrangement of the present day with raised black notes;
  it is not improbable that Praetorius's statement was correct, for
  Germany and the Netherlands led the van in organ-building during the
  middle ages.

  At the beginning of the 16th century, to facilitate the playing of
  contrapuntal music having a drone bass or _point d'orgue_, the
  arrangement of the pipes of organs and of the strings of spinets and
  harpsichords was altered, with the result that the lowest octave of
  the keyboard was made in what is known as short measure, or mi, ré,
  ut, i.e. a diatonic with B flat included, but grouped in the space of
  a sixth instead of appearing as a full octave. In order to carry out
  this device, the note below F was C, instead of E, the missing D and E
  and the B flat being substituted for the three sharps of F, G and A,
  and appearing as black notes, thus:--

         D  E  B[flat]
    C  F  G  A  B  C,

  or if the lowest note appeared to be B, it sounded as G and the
  arrangement was as follows:--

        A     B
    G  C  D  E  F  G.

  This was the most common scheme for the short octave during the 16th
  and 17th centuries, although others are occasionally found. Praetorius
  also gives examples in which the black notes of the short octave were
  divided into two halves, or separate keys, the forward half for the
  drone note, the back half for the chromatic semitone, thus:--

   F[sharp] G[sharp]
      |       |
      D       E       B[flat]
    C   F   G   A   B   C

  This arrangement, which accomplishes its object without sacrifice, was
  to be found early in the 17th century in the organs of the monasteries
  of Riddageshausen and of Bayreuth in Vogtland.

  See A. J. Hipkins, _History of the Pianoforte_ (London, 1896), and the
  older works of Girolamo Diruta (1597), Praetorius (1618), and Mersenne
  (1636).     (K. S.)


  [1] See _Musurgia_, bk. II., iv. § 3.

  [2] _Thes. Antiq. Sacra._ (Venice, 1744-1769), xxxii. 477.

  [3] II. 3 and fol. 10, 2. _'Arakhin_ ("Valuations") is a treatise in
    the Babylonian Talmud. The word _Magrephah_ occurs in the _Mishna_,
    the description of the instrument in the _gemara_.

  [4] See the Cividale Prayer Book of St Elizabeth in Arthur Haseloff's
    _Eine Sächs.-thüring. Malerschule_, pl. 26, No. 57, also Bible of St
    Etienne Harding at Dijon (see ORGAN: _History_).

  [5] See the original Greek with translation by Charles Maclean in
    "The Principle of the Hydraulic Organ," _Intern. Musikges._ vi. 2,
    219-220 (Leipzig 1905).

  [6] See Clément Loret's account in _Revue archéologique_, pp. 76-102
    (Paris, 1890).

  [7] _Early Hist. of Spanish Music_ (London, 1807).

  [8] Reproduced by Dr Alwin Schulz in _Deutsches Leben im XIV. u. XV.
    Jhdt._, figs. 522 seq. (Vienna, 1892).

  [9] "De diversis monocordis, pentacordis, etc., ex quibus diversa
    formantur instrumenta musica," reproduced by Edm. van der Straeten in
    _Hist. de la musique aux Pays-Bas_, i. 278.

KEYSTONE, the central voussoir of an arch (q.v.). The Etruscans and the
Romans emphasized its importance by decorating it with figures and
busts, and, in their triumphal arches, projected it forward and utilized
it as an additional support to the architrave above. Throughout the
Italian period it forms an important element in the design, and serves
to connect the arch with the horizontal mouldings running above it. In
Gothic architecture there is no keystone, but the junction of pointed
ribs at their summit is sometimes decorated with a boss to mask the

KEY WEST (from the Spanish _Cayo Hueso_, "Bone Reef"), a city, port of
entry, and the county-seat of Monroe county, Florida, U.S.A., situated
on a small coral island (4½ m. long and about 1 m. wide) of the same
name, 60 m. S. W. of Cape Sable, the most southerly point of the
mainland. It is connected by lines of steamers with Miami and Port
Tampa, with Galveston, Texas, with Mobile, Alabama, with Philadelphia
and New York City, and with West Indian ports, and by regular schooner
lines with New York City, the Bahamas, British Honduras, &c. There is
now an extension of the Florida East Coast railway from Miami to Key
West (155 m.). Pop. (1880), 9890; (1890), 18,080; (1900), 17,114, of
whom 7266 were foreign-born and 5562 were negroes; (1910 census),
19,945. The island is notable for its tropical vegetation and climate.
The jasmine, almond, banana, cork and coco-nut palm are among the trees.
The oleander grows here to be a tree, and there is a banyan tree, said
to be the only one growing out of doors in the United States. There are
many species of plants in Key West not found elsewhere in North America.
The mean annual temperature is 76° F., and the mean of the hottest
months is 82.2° F.; that of the coldest months is 69° F.; thus the mean
range of temperature is only 13°. The precipitation is 35 in.; most of
the rain falls in the "rainy season" from May to November, and is
preserved in cisterns by the inhabitants as the only supply of drinking
water. The number of cloudy days per annum averages 60. The city
occupies the highest portion of the island. The harbour accommodates
vessels drawing 27 ft.; vessels of 27-30 ft. draft can enter by either
the "Main Ship" channel or the south-west channel; the south-east
channel admits vessels of 25 ft. draft or less; and four other channels
may be used by vessels of 15-19 ft. draft. The harbour is defended by
Fort Taylor, built on the island of Key West in 1846, and greatly
improved and modernized after the Spanish-American War of 1898. Among
the buildings are the United States custom house, the city hall, a
convent, and a public library.

In 1869 the insignificant population of Key West was greatly increased
by Cubans who left their native island after an attempt at revolution;
they engaged in the manufacture of tobacco, and Key West cigars were
soon widely known. Towards the close of the 19th century this industry
suffered from labour troubles, from the competition of Tampa, Florida,
and from the commercial improvement of Havana, Cuba; but soon after 1900
the tobacco business of Key West began to recover. Immigrants from the
Bahama Islands form another important element in the population. They
are known as "Conchs," and engage in sponge fishing. In 1905 the value
of factory products was $4,254,024 (an increase of 37.7% over the value
in 1900); the exports in 1907 were valued at $852,457; the imports were
valued at $994,472, the excess over the exports being due to the fact
that the food supply of the city is derived from other Florida ports and
from the West Indies.

According to tradition the native Indian tribes of Key West, after
being almost annihilated by the Caloosas, fled to Cuba. There are relics
of early European occupation of the island which suggest that it was
once the resort of pirates. The city was settled about 1822. The
Seminole War and the war of the United States with Mexico gave it some
military importance. In 1861 Confederate forces attempted to seize Fort
Taylor, but they were successfully resisted by General William H.

KHABAROVSK (known as KHABAROVKA until 1895), a town of Asiatic Russia,
capital of the Amur region and of the Maritime Province. Pop. (1897),
14,932. It was founded in 1858 and is situated on a high cliff on the
right bank of the Amur, at its confluence with the Usuri, in 48° 28´ N.
and 135° 6´ E. It is connected by rail with Vladivostok (480 m.), and is
an important entrepôt for goods coming down the Usuri and its tributary
the Sungacha, as well as a centre of trade, especially in sables. The
town is built of wood, and has a large cathedral, a monument (1891) to
Count Muraviev-Amurskiy, a cadet corps (new building 1904), a branch of
the Russian Geographical Society, with museum, and a technical railway

KHAIRAGARH, a feudatory state in the Central Provinces, India. Area, 931
sq. m.; pop. (1901), 137,554, showing a decrease of 24% in the decade
due to the effects of famine; estimated revenue, £20,000; tribute £4600.
The chief, who is descended from the old Gond royal family, received the
title of raja as an hereditary distinction in 1898. The state includes a
fertile plain, yielding rice and cotton. Its prosperity has been
promoted by the Bengal-Nagpur railway, which has a station at
Dongargarh, the largest town (pop. 5856), connected by road with
Khairagarh town, the residence of the raja.

KHAIREDDIN (_Khair-ed-Din_ = "Joy of Religion") (d. 1890), Turkish
statesman, was of Circassian race, but nothing is known about his birth
and parentage. In early boyhood he was in the hands of a Tunisian
slave-dealer, by whom he was sold to Hamuda Pasha, then bey of Tunis,
who gave him his freedom and a French education. When Khaireddin left
school the bey made him steward of his estates, and from this position
he rose to be minister of finance. When the prime minister, Mahmud ben
Ayad, absconded to France with the treasure-chest of the beylic, Hamuda
despatched Khaireddin to obtain the extradition of the fugitive. The
mission failed; but the six years it occupied enabled Khaireddin to make
himself widely known in France, to become acquainted with French
political ideas and administrative methods, and, on his return to
Tunisia, to render himself more than ever useful to his government.
Hamuda died while Khaireddin was in France, but he was highly
appreciated by the three beys--Ahmet (1837), Mohammed (1855), and Sadok
(1859)--who in turn followed Hamuda, and to his influence was due the
sequence of liberal measures which distinguished their successive
reigns. Khaireddin also secured for the reigning family the confirmation
from the sultan of Turkey of their right of succession to the beylic.
But although Khaireddin's protracted residence in France had imbued him
with liberal ideas, it had not made him a French partisan, and he
strenuously opposed the French scheme of establishing a protectorate
over Tunisia upon which France embarked in the early 'seventies. This
rendered him obnoxious to Sadok's prime minister--an apostate Jew named
Mustapha ben Ismael--who succeeded in completely undermining the bey's
confidence in him. His position thus became untenable in Tunisia, and
shortly after the accession of Abdul Hamid he acquainted the sultan with
his desire to enter the Turkish service. In 1877 the sultan bade him
come to Constantinople, and on his arrival gave him a seat on the Reform
Commission then sitting at Tophane. Early in 1879 the sultan appointed
him grand vizier, and shortly afterwards he prepared a scheme of
constitutional government, but Abdul Hamid refused to have anything to
do with it. Thereupon Khaireddin resigned office, on the 28th of July
1879. More than once the sultan offered him anew the grand vizierate,
but Khaireddin persistently refused it, and thus incurred disfavour. He
died on the 30th of January 1890, practically a prisoner in his own

KHAIRPUR, or KHYRPOOR, a native state of India, in the Sind province of
Bombay. Area, 6050 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 199,313, showing an apparent
increase of 55% in the decade; estimated revenue, £90,000. Like other
parts of Sind, Khairpur consists of a great alluvial plain, very rich
and fertile in the neighbourhood of the Indus and the irrigation canals,
the remaining area being a continuous series of sand-hill ridges covered
with a stunted brushwood, where cultivation is altogether impossible. A
small ridge of limestone hills passes through the northern part of the
state, being a continuation of a ridge known as the Ghar, running
southwards from Rohri. The state is watered by five canals drawn off
from the Indus, besides the Eastern Nara, a canal which follows an old
bed of the Indus. In the desert tracts are pits of _natron_.

KHAIRPUR town is situated on a canal 15 m. E. of the Indus, with a
railway station, 20 m. S. of Sukkur, on the Kotri-Rohri branch of the
North-Western railway, which here crosses a corner of the state. Pop.
(1901), 14,014. There are manufactures of cloth, carpets, goldsmiths'
work and arms, and an export trade in indigo, grain and oilseeds.

  The chief, or mir, of Khairpur belongs to a Baluch family, known as
  the Talpur, which rose on the fall of the Kalhora dynasty of Sind.
  About 1813, during the troubles in Kabul incidental to the
  establishment of the Barakzai dynasty, the mirs were able to withhold
  the tribute which up to that date had been somewhat irregularly paid
  to the rulers of Afghanistan. In 1832 the individuality of the
  Khairpur state was recognized by the British government in a treaty
  under which the use of the river Indus and the roads of Sind were
  secured. When the first Kabul expedition was decided on, the mir of
  Khairpur, Ali Murad, cordially supported the British policy; and the
  result was that, after the battles of Meeanee and Daba had put the
  whole of Sind at the disposal of the British, Khairpur was the only
  state allowed to retain its political existence under the protection
  of the paramount power. The chief mir, Faiz Mahommed Khan, G.C.I.E.,
  who was an enlightened ruler, died in 1909, shortly after returning
  from a pilgrimage to the Shiite shrine of Kerbela.

KHAJRAHO, a village of Central India, in the state of Chhatarpur, famous
for its old temples; pop. (1901), 1242. It is believed to have been the
capital of the ancient kingdom of Jijhoti, corresponding with modern
Bundelkhand. The temples consist of three groups: Saiva, Vaishnav and
Jain, almost all built in the 10th and 11th centuries. They are covered
outside and inside with elaborate sculptures, and also bear valuable

KHAKI (from Urdu _khak_, dust), originally a dust-coloured fabric, of
the character of canvas, drill or holland, used by the British and
native armies in India. It seems to have been first worn by the Guides,
a mixed regiment of frontier troops, in 1848, and to have spread to
other regiments during the following years. Some at any rate of the
British troops had uniforms of khaki during the Indian Mutiny (1857-58),
and thereafter drill or holland (generally called "khaki" whatever its
colour) became the almost universal dress of British and native troops
in Asia and Africa. During the South African War of 1899-1902, drill of
a sandy shade of brown was worn by all troops sent out from Great
Britain and the Colonies. Khaki drill, however, proved unsuitable
material for the cold weather in the uplands of South Africa, and after
a time the troops were supplied with dust-coloured serge uniforms. Since
1900 all drab and green-grey uniforms have been, unofficially at any
rate, designated khaki.

KHALIFA, THE. ABDULLAH ET TAAISHA (Seyyid Abdullah ibn Seyyid Mahommed)
(1846-1899), successor of the mahdi Mahommed Ahmed, born in 1846 in the
south-western portion of Darfur, was a member of the Taaisha section of
the Baggara or cattle-owning Arabs. His father, Mahommed et Taki, had
determined to emigrate to Mecca with his family; but the unsettled state
of the country long prevented him, and he died in Africa after advising
his eldest son, Abdullah, to take refuge with some religious sheikh on
the Nile, and to proceed to Mecca on a favourable opportunity. Abdullah,
who had already had much connexion with slave-hunters, and had fought
against the Egyptian conquest of Darfur, departed for the Nile valley
with this purpose; hearing on the way of the disputes of Mahommed Ahmed,
who had not yet claimed a sacred character, with the Egyptian officials,
he went to him in spite of great difficulties, and, according to his
own statement, at once recognized in him the mahdi ("guide") divinely
appointed to regenerate Islam in the latter days. His advice to Mahommed
to stir up revolt in Darfur and Kordofan being justified by the result,
he became his most trusted counsellor, and was soon declared principal
khalifa or vicegerent of the mahdi, all of whose acts were to be
regarded as the mahdi's own. The mahdi on his deathbed (1885) solemnly
named him his successor; and for thirteen years Abdullah ruled over what
had been the Egyptian Sudan. Khartum was deserted by his orders, and
Omdurman, at first intended as a temporary camp, was made his capital.
At length the progress of Sir Herbert (afterwards Lord) Kitchener's
expedition compelled him to give battle to the Anglo-Egyptian forces
near Omdurman, where on the 2nd of September 1898 his army, fighting
with desperate courage, was almost annihilated. The khalifa, who had not
left Omdurman since the death of the mahdi, fled to Kordofan with the
remnant of his host. On the 25th of November 1899 he gave battle to a
force under Colonel (afterwards General Sir) F. R. Wingate, and was
slain at Om Debreikat. He met death with great fortitude, refusing to
fly, and his principal amirs voluntarily perished with him.

The khalifa was a man of iron will and great energy, and possessed some
military skill. By nature tyrannical, he was impatient of all opposition
and appeared to delight in cruelty. It must be remembered, however, that
he had to meet the secret or open hostility of all the tribes of the
Nile valley and that his authority was dependent on his ability to
overawe his opponents. He maintained in public the divine character of
the power he inherited from the mahdi and inspired his followers to
perform prodigies of valour. Although he treated many of his European
captives with terrible severity he never had any of them executed. It is
said that their presence in Omdurman ministered to his vanity--one of
the most marked features of his character. In private life he showed
much affection for his family.

  Personal sketches of the khalifa are given in Slatin Pasha's _Fire and
  Sword in the Sudan_ (London, 1896), and in Father Ohrwalder's _Ten
  Years in the Mahdi's Camp_ (London, 1892). See also Sir F. R.
  Wingate's _Mahdiism and the Egyptian Sudan_ (London, 1891).

TAMIM] (718-791), Arabian philologist, was a native of Oman. He was
distinguished for having written the first Arabic dictionary and for
having first classified the Arabic metres and laid down their rules. He
was also a poet, and lived the ascetic life of a poor student. His
grammatical work was carried on by his pupil Sibawaihi. The dictionary
known as the _Kitab-ul-'Ain_ is ascribed, at least in its inception, to
Khalil. It was probably finished by one of his pupils and was not known
in Bagdad until 862. The words were not arranged in alphabetical order
but according to physiological principles, beginning with _'Ain_ and
ending with _Ya_. The work seems to have been in existence as late as
the 14th century, but is now only known from extracts in manuscript.

  Various grammatical works are ascribed to Khalil, but their
  authenticity seems doubtful; cf. C. Brockelmann, _Gesch. der
  arabischen Literatur_, i. 100 (Weimar, 1898).     (G. W. T.)

KHAMGAON, a town of India, in the Buldana district of Berar, 340 m. N.E.
of Bombay. Pop. (1901), 18,341. It is an important centre of the cotton
trade. The cotton market, the second in the province, was established
about 1820. Khamgaon was connected in 1870 with the Great Indian
Peninsula railway by a short branch line.

KHAMSEH, a small but important province of Persia, between Kazvin and
Tabriz. It consisted formerly of five districts, whence its name
Khamseh, "the five," but is now subdivided into seventeen districts. The
language of the inhabitants is Turkish. The province pays a revenue of
about £20,000 per annum, and its capital is Zenjan.

KHAMSIN (Arabic for "fifty"), a hot oppressive wind arising in the
Sahara. It blows in Egypt at intervals for about fifty days during
March, April and May, and fills the air with sand. In Guinea the wind
from the Sahara is known as harmattan (q.v.).

KHAMTIS, a tribe of the north-east frontier of India, dwelling in the
hills bordering the Lakhimpur district of Assam. They are of Shan
origin, and appear to have settled in their present abode in the middle
of the 18th century. In 1839 they raided the British outpost of Sadiya,
but they have since given no trouble. Their headquarters are in a valley
200 m. from Sadiya, which can be reached only over high passes and
through dense jungle. In 1901 the number of speakers of Khamti was
returned as only 1490, mostly in Burma.

KHAN (from the Turki, hence Persian and Arabic _Khan_), a title of
respect in Mahommedan countries. It is a contracted form of _khaqan_
(khakan), a word equivalent to sovereign or emperor, used among the
Mongol and Turki-nomad hordes. The title khan was assumed by Jenghis
when he became supreme ruler of the Mongols; his successors became known
in Europe as the Great Khans (sometimes as the Chams, &c.) of Tatary or
Cathay. Khan is still applied to semi-independent rulers, such as the
khans of Russian Turkestan, or the khan of Kalat in Baluchistan, and is
also used immediately after the name of rulers such as the sultan of
Turkey; the meaning of the term has also extended downwards, until in
Persia and Afghanistan it has become an affix to the name of any
Mahommedan gentleman, like Esquire, and in India it has become a part of
many Mahommedan names, especially when Pathan descent is claimed. The
title of Khan Bahadur is conferred by the British government on
Mahommedans and also on Parsis.

KHANDESH, EAST and WEST, two districts of British India, in the central
division of Bombay. They were formed in 1906 by the division of the old
single district of Khandesh. Their areas are respectively 4544 sq. m.
and 5497 sq. m., and the population on these areas in 1901 was 957,728
and 469,654. The headquarters of East Khandesh are at Jalgaon, and those
of West Khandesh at Dhulia.

The principal natural feature is the Tapti river, which flows through
both districts from east to west and divides each into two unequal
parts. Of these the larger lie towards the south, and are drained by the
rivers Girna, Bori and Panjhra. Northwards beyond the alluvial plain,
which contains some of the richest tracts in Khandesh, the land rises
towards the Satpura hills. In the centre and east the country is level,
save for some low ranges of barren hills, and has in general an arid,
unfertile appearance. Towards the north and west, the plain rises into a
difficult and rugged country, thickly wooded, and inhabited by wild
tribes of Bhils, who chiefly support themselves on the fruits of the
forests and by wood-cutting. The drainage of the district centres in the
Tapti, which receives thirteen principal tributaries in its course
through Khandesh. None of the rivers is navigable, and the Tapti flows
in too deep a bed to be useful for irrigation. The district on the
whole, however, is fairly well supplied with surface water. Khandesh is
not rich in minerals. A large area is under forest; but the jungles have
been denuded of most of their valuable timber. Wild beasts are numerous.
In 1901 the population of the old single district was 1,427,382, showing
an increase of less than 1% in the decade. Of the aboriginal tribes the
Bhils are the most important. They number 167,000, and formerly were a
wild and lawless robber tribe. Since the introduction of British rule,
the efforts made by kindly treatment, and by the offer of suitable
employment, to win the Bhils from their disorderly life have been most
successful. Many of them are now employed in police duties and as
village watchmen. The principal crops are millets, cotton, pulse, wheat
and oilseeds. There are many factories for ginning and pressing cotton,
and a cotton-mill at Jalgaon. The eastern district is traversed by the
Great Indian Peninsula railway, which branches at Bhusawal (an important
centre of trade) towards Jubbulpore and Nagpur. Both districts are
crossed by the Tapti Valley line from Surat. Khandesh suffered somewhat
from famine in 1896-1897, and more severely in 1899-1900.

KHANDWA, a town of British India, in the Nimar district of the Central
Provinces, of which it is the headquarters, 353 m. N.E. of Bombay by
rail. Pop. (1901), 19,401. Khandwa is an ancient town, with Jain and
other temples. As a centre of trade, it has superseded the old capital
of Burhanpur. It is an important railway junction, where the Malwa line
from Indore meets the main line of the Great Indian Peninsula. There are
factories for ginning and pressing cotton, and raw cotton is exported.

KHANSA (Tumadir bint 'Amr, known as al-Khansa) (d. c. 645), Arabian
poetess of the tribe Sulaim, a branch of Qais, was born in the later
years of the 6th century and brought up in such wealth and luxury as the
desert could give. Refusing the offer of Duraid ibn us-Simma, a poet and
prince, she married Mirdas and had by him three sons. Afterwards she
married again. Before the time of Islam she lost her brothers Sakhr and
Moawiya in battle. Her elegies written on these brothers and on her
father made her the most famous poetess of her time. At the fair of
'Ukaz Nabigha Dhubyani is said to have placed A'sha first among the
poets then present and Khansa second above Hassan ibn Thabit. Khansa
with her tribe accepted Islam somewhat late, but persisted in wearing
the heathen sign of mourning, against the precepts of Islam. Her four
sons fought in the armies of Islam and were slain in the battle of
Kadisiya. Omar wrote her a letter congratulating her on their heroic end
and assigned her a pension. She died in her tent c. 645. Her daughter
'Amra also wrote poetry. Opinion was divided among later critics as to
whether Khansa or Laila (see ARABIC LITERATURE: § _Poetry_) was the

  Her diwan has been edited by L. Cheikho (Beirut, 1895) and translated
  into French by De Coppier (Beirut, 1889). Cf. T. Nöldeke's _Beiträge
  zur Kenntniss der Poesie der alten Araber_ (Hanover, 1864). Stories of
  her life are contained in the _Kitab ul-Aghani_, xiii. 136-147.
       (G. W. T.)

KHAR, a small but very fertile province of Persia, known by the ancients
as Choara and Choarene; pop. about 10,000. The governor of the province
resides at Kishlak Khar, a large village situated 62 m. S.E. of Teheran,
or at Aradan, a village 10 m. farther E. The province has an abundant
water-supply from the Hableh-rud, and produces great quantities of
wheat, barley and rice. Of the £6000 which it pays to the state, more
than £4000 is paid in kind--wheat, barley, straw and rice.

KHARAGHODA, a village of British India, in the Ahmedabad district of
Bombay, situated on the Little Runn of Cutch, and the terminus of a
branch railway; pop. (1901), 2108. Here is the government factory of
salt, known as Baragra salt, producing nearly 2,000,000 cwt. a year,
most of which is exported to other provinces in Central and Northern

KHARGA (WAH EL-KHARGA, the outer oasis), the largest of the Egyptian
oases, and hence frequently called the Great Oasis. It lies in the
Libyan desert between 24° and 26° N. and 30° and 31° E., the chief town,
also called Kharga, being 435 m. by rail S. by W. of Cairo. It is
reached by a narrow-gauge line (opened in 1908) from Kharga junction, a
station on the Nile valley line near Farshut. The oasis consists of a
depression in the desert some 1200 sq. m. in extent, and is about 100 m.
long N. to S. and from 12 to 50 broad E. to W. Formerly, and into
historic times, a lake occupied a considerable part of the depression,
and the thick deposits of clay and sand then laid down now form the bulk
of the cultivated lands of the oasis. It includes, however, a good deal
of desert land. The inhabitants numbered (1907 census) 8348. They are of
Berber stock. Administratively the oasis forms part of the mudiria of
Assiut. It is practically rainless, and there is not now a single
natural flowing spring. There are, however, numerous wells, water being
obtained freely from the porous sandstone which underlies a great part
of the Libyan desert. Some very ancient wells are 400 ft. deep. In
water-bearing sandstones near the surface there are underground
aqueducts dating from Roman times. The oasis contains many groves of
date palms, there being over 60,000 adult trees in 1907. The dom palm,
tamarisk, acacia and wild senna are also found. Rice, barley and wheat
are the chief cereals cultivated, and lucerne for fodder. Besides
agriculture the only industry is basket and mat making--from palm leaves
and fibre. Since 1906 extensive boring and land reclamation works have
been undertaken in the oasis.

The name of the oasis appears in hieroglyphics as _Kenem_, and that of
its capital as _Hebi_ (the plough). In Pharaonic times it supported a
large population, but the numerous ruins are mostly of later date. The
principal ruin, a temple of Ammon, built under Darius, is of sandstone,
142 ft. long by 63 ft. broad and 30 ft. in height. South-east is another
temple, a square stone building with the name of Antoninus Pius over one
off the entrances. On the eastern escarpment of the oasis on the way to
Girga are the remains of a large Roman fort with twelve bastions. On the
road to Assiut is a fine Roman columbarium or dove-cote. Next to the
great temple the most interesting ruin in the oasis is, however, the
necropolis, a burial-place of the early Christians, placed on a hill 3
m. N. of the town of Kharga. There are some two hundred rectangular tomb
buildings in unburnt brick with ornamented fronts. In most of the tombs
is a chamber in which the mummy was placed, the Egyptian Christians at
first continuing this method of preserving the bodies of their dead. In
several of the tombs and in the chapel of the cemetery is painted the
Egyptian sign of life, which was confounded with the Christian cross.
The chapel is basilican; in it and in another building in the necropolis
are crude frescoes of biblical subjects.

Kharga town (pop. 1907 census, 5362) is picturesquely situated amid palm
groves. The houses are of sun-dried bricks, the streets narrow and
winding and for the most part roofed over, the roofs carrying upper
storeys. Some of the streets are cut through the solid rock. South of
the town are the villages of Genna, Guehda (with a temple dedicated to
Ammon, Mut and Khonsu), Bulak (pop. 1012), Dakakin, Beris (pop. 1564),
Dush (with remains of a fine temple bearing the names of Domitian and
Hadrian), &c.

Kharga is usually identified with the city of Oasis mentioned by
Herodotus as being seven days' journey from Thebes and called in Greek
the Island of the Blessed. The oasis was traversed by the army of
Cambyses when on its way to the oasis of Ammon (Siwa), the army
perishing in the desert before reaching its destination. During the
Roman period, as it had also been in Pharaonic times, Kharga was used as
a place of banishment, the most notable exile being Nestorius, sent
thither after his condemnation by the council of Ephesus. Later it
became a halting-place for the caravans of slaves brought from Darfur to

About 100 m. W. of Kharga is the oasis of Dakhla, the inner or receding
oasis, so named in contrast to Kharga as being farther from the Nile.
Dakhla has a population (1907) of 18,368. Its chief town, El Kasr, has
3602 inhabitants. The principal ruin, of Roman origin and now called
Deir el Hagar (the stone convent), is of considerable size. The Theban
triad were the chief deities worshipped here. Some 120 m. N.W. of Dakhla
is the oasis of Farafra, population about 1000, said to be the first of
the oases conquered by the Moslems from the Christians. It is noted for
the fine quality of its olives. The Baharia, or Little Oasis (pop. about
6000), lies 80 m. N.N.E. of Farafra. Many of its inhabitants, who are of
Berber race, are Senussites. Baharia is about 250 m. E.S.E. of the oasis
of Siwa (see EGYPT: _The Oases_; and SIWA).

  See H. Brugsch, _Reise nach dem grossen Oase el-Khargeh in der
  Libyschen Wüste_ (Leipzig, 1878); H. J. L. Beadnell, _An Egyptian
  Oasis_ (London, 1909); Murray's _Handbook for Egypt_, 11th ed.
  (London, 1907); _Geological and Topographical Report on Kharga Oasis_
  (1899), on _Farafra Oasis_ (1899), on _Dakhla Oasis_ (1900), on
  _Baharia Oasis_ (1903), all issued by the Public Works Department,
  Cairo.     (F. R. C.)

KHARKOV, a government of Little Russia, surrounded by those of Kursk,
Poltava, Ekaterinoslav, territory of the Don Cossacks, and Voronezh, and
belonging partly to the basin of the Don and partly to that of the
Dnieper. The area is 21,035 sq. m. In general the government is a
table-land, with an elevation of 300 to 450 ft., traversed by deep-cut
river valleys. The soil is for the most part of high fertility, about
57% of the surface being arable land and 24% natural pasture; and though
the winter is rather severe, the summer heat is sufficient for the
ripening of grapes and melons in the open air. The bulk of the
population is engaged in agricultural pursuits and the breeding of
sheep, cattle and horses, though various manufacturing industries have
developed rapidly, more especially since the middle of the 19th century.
Horses are bred for the army, and the yield of wool is of special
importance. The ordinary cereals, maize, buckwheat, millet, hemp, flax,
tobacco, poppies, potatoes and beetroot are all grown, and bee-keeping
and silkworm-rearing are of considerable importance. Sixty-three per
cent. of the land is owned by the peasants, 25% by the nobility, 6% by
owners of other classes, and 6% by the crown and public institutions.
Beetroot sugar factories, cotton-mills, distilleries, flour-mills,
tobacco factories, brickworks, breweries, woollen factories, iron-works,
pottery-kilns and tanneries are the leading industrial establishments.
Gardening is actively prosecuted. Salt is extracted at Slavyansk. The
mass of the people are Little Russians, but there are also Great
Russians, Kalmucks, Germans, Jews and Gypsies. In 1867 the total
population was 1,681,486, and in 1897 2,507,277, of whom 1,242,892 were
women and 367,602 lived in towns. The estimated population in 1906 was
2,983,900. The government is divided into eleven districts. The chief
town is Kharkov (q.v.). The other district towns, with their populations
in 1897, are Akhtyrka (25,965 in 1900), Bogodukhov (11,928), Izyum
(12,959), Kupyansk (7256), Lebedin (16,684), Starobyelsk (13,128), Sumy
(28,519 in 1900), Valki (8842), Volchansk (11,322), and Zmiyev (4652).

KHARKOV, a town of southern Russia, capital of the above government, in
56° 37´ N. and 25° 5´ E., in the valley of the Donets, 152 m. by rail
S.S.E. of Kursk. Oak forests bound it on two sides. Pop. (1867), 59,968;
(1900), 197,405. Kharkov is an archiepiscopal see of the Orthodox Greek
Church, and the headquarters of the X. army corps. The four annual fairs
are among the busiest in Russia, more especially the Kreshchenskaya or
Epiphany fair, which is opened on the 6th (19th) of January, and the
Pokrovsky fair in the autumn. The turnover at the former is estimated at
£3,000,000 to £4,000,000. Thousands of horses are bought and sold. At
the Trinity (Troitsa) fair in June an extensive business (£800,000) is
done in wool. A great variety of manufactured goods are produced in the
town--linen, felt, beetroot sugar, tobacco, brandy, soap, candles,
cast-iron. Kharkov is an educational centre for the higher and middle
classes. Besides a flourishing university, instituted in 1805, and
attended by from 1600 to 1700 students, it possesses a technological
institute (400 students), a railway engineering school, an observatory,
a veterinary college, a botanical garden, a theological seminary, and a
commercial school. The university building was formerly a royal palace.
The library contains 170,000 volumes; and the zoological collections are
especially rich in the birds and fishes of southern Russia. Public
gardens occupy the site of the ancient military works; and the
government has a model farm in the neighbourhood. Of the Orthodox
churches one has the rank of cathedral (1781). Among the public
institutions are a people's palace (1903) and an industrial museum.

  The foundation of Kharkov is assigned to 1650, but there is
  archaeological evidence of a much earlier occupation of the district,
  if not of the site. The Cossacks of Kharkov remained faithful to the
  tsar during the rebellions of the latter part of the 17th century; in
  return they received numerous privileges, and continued to be a strong
  advance-guard of the Russian power, till the final subjugation of all
  the southern region. With other military settlements Kharkov was
  placed on a new footing in 1765; and at the same time it became the
  administrative centre of the Ukraine.

KHARPUT, the most important town in the Kharput (or Mamuret el-Aziz)
vilayet of Asia Minor, situated at an altitude of 4350 ft., a few miles
south of the Murad Su or Eastern Euphrates, and almost as near the
source of the Tigris, on the Samsun-Sivas-Diarbekr road. Pop. about
20,000. The town is built on a hill terrace about 1000 ft. above a
well-watered plain of exceptional fertility which lies to the south and
supports a large population. Kharput probably stands on or near the site
of _Carcathiocerta_ in Sophene, reached by Corbulo in A.D. 65. The early
Moslem geographers knew it as Hisn Ziyad, but the Armenian name was
Khartabirt or Kharbirt, whence Kharput. Cedrenus (11th century) writes
[Greek: Charpote]. There is a story that in 1122 Joscelin (Jocelyn) of
Courtenay, and Baldwin II., king of Jerusalem, both prisoners of the
Amir Balak in its castle, were murdered by being cast from its cliffs
after an attempted rescue. The story is told by William of Tyre, who
calls the place Quart Piert or Pierre, but it is a mere romance. Kharput
is an important station of the American missionaries, who have built a
college, a theological seminary, and boys' and girls' schools. In
November 1895 Kurds looted and burned the Armenian villages on the
plain; and in the same month Kharput was attacked and the American
schools were burned down. A large number of the Gregorian and Protestant
Armenian clergy and people were massacred, and churches, monasteries and
houses were looted. The vilayet Kharput was founded in 1888, being the
result of a provincial rearrangement, designed to ensure better control
over the disturbed districts of Kurdistan. It has much mineral wealth, a
healthy climate and a fertile soil. The seat of government is Mezere, on
the plain 3 m. S. of Kharput.     (D. G. H.)

KHARSAWAN, a feudatory state of India, within the Chota Nagpur division
of Bengal; area 153 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 36,540; estimated revenue
£2600. Since the opening of the main line of the Bengal-Nagpur railway
through the state trade has been stimulated, and it is believed that
both iron and copper can be worked profitably.

KHARTUM, the capital of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, on the left bank of
the Blue Nile immediately above its junction with the White Nile in 15°
36´ N., 32° 32´ E., and 1252 ft. above the sea. It is 432 m. by rail
S.W. of Port Sudan, on the Red Sea, and 1345 m. S. of Cairo by rail and
steamer. Pop. (1907) with suburbs, but excluding Omdurman, 69,349.

The city, laid out on a plan drawn up by Lord Kitchener in 1898, has a
picturesque aspect with its numerous handsome stone and brick buildings
surrounded by gardens and its groves of palms and other trees. The river
esplanade, 2 m. long, contains the chief buildings. Parallel with it is
Khedive Avenue, of equal length. The rest of the city is in squares, the
streets forming the design of the union jack. In the centre of the
esplanade is the governor-general's palace, occupying the site of the
palace destroyed by the Mahdists in 1885. It is a three-storeyed
building with arcaded verandas and a fine staircase leading to a loggia
on the first floor. Here a tablet indicates the spot in the old palace
where General Gordon fell. In the gardens, which cover six acres, is a
colossal stone "lamb" brought from the ruins of Soba, an ancient
Christian city on the Blue Nile. The "lamb" is in reality a ram of
Ammon, and has an inscription in Ethiopian hieroglyphs. In front of the
southern façade, which looks on to Khedive Avenue, is a bronze statue of
General Gordon seated on a camel, a copy of the statue by Onslow Ford at
Chatham, England. Government offices and private villas are on either
side of the palace, and beyond, on the east, are the Sudan Club, the
military hospital, and the Gordon Memorial College. The college, the
chief educational centre in the Sudan, is a large, many-windowed
building with accommodation for several hundred scholars and research
laboratories and an economic museum. At the western end of the esplanade
are the zoological gardens, the chief hotel, the Coptic church and the
Mudiria House (residence of the governor of Khartum). Running south from
Khedive Avenue at the spot where the Gordon statue stands, is Victoria
Avenue, leading to Abbas Square, in the centre of which is the great
mosque with two minarets. On the north-east side of the square are the
public markets. The Anglican church, dedicated to All Saints, the
principal banks and business houses, are in Khedive Avenue. There are
Maronite and Greek churches, an Austrian Roman Catholic mission, a large
and well-equipped civil hospital and a museum for Sudan archaeology.
Outside the city are a number of model villages (each of the principal
tribes of the Sudan having its own settlement) in which the dwellings
are built after the tribal fashion. Adjacent are the parade ground and
racecourse and the golf-links. A line of fortifications extends south of
the city from the Blue to the White Nile. The buildings are used as
barracks. Barracks for British troops occupy the end of the line facing
the Blue Nile.

On the right (northern) bank of the Blue Nile is the suburb of Khartum
North, formerly called Halfaya,[1] where is the principal railway
station. It is joined to the city by a bridge (completed 1910)
containing a roadway and the railway, Khartum itself being served by
steam trams and rickshaws. The steamers for the White and the Blue Nile
start from the quay along the esplanade. West of the zoological gardens
is the point of junction of the Blue and White Niles and here is a ferry
across to Omdurman (q.v.) on the west bank of the White Nile a mile or
two below Khartum. In the river immediately below Khartum is Tuti
Island, on which is an old fort and an Arab village.

From its geographical position Khartum is admirably adapted as a
commercial and political centre. It is the great entrepôt for the trade
of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. By the Nile waterways there is easy
transport from the southern and western equatorial provinces and from
Sennar and other eastern districts. Through Omdurman come the exports of
Kordofan and Darfur, while by the Red Sea railway there is ready access
to the markets of the world. The only important manufacture is the
making of bricks.

The population is heterogeneous. The official class is composed chiefly
of British and Egyptians; the traders are mostly Greeks, Syrians and
Copts, while nearly all the tribes of the Sudan are represented in the
negro and Arab inhabitants.

  At the time of the occupation of the Sudan by the Egyptians a small
  fishing village existed on the site of the present city. In 1822 the
  Egyptians established a permanent camp here and out of this grew the
  city, which in 1830 was chosen as the capital of the Sudanese
  possessions of Egypt. It got its name from the resemblance of the
  promontory at the confluence of the two Niles to an elephant's trunk,
  the meaning of _khartum_ in the dialect of Arabic spoken in the
  locality. The city rapidly acquired importance as the Sudan was opened
  up by travellers and traders, becoming, besides the seat of much
  legitimate commerce, a great slave mart. It was chosen as the
  headquarters of Protestant and Roman Catholic missions, and had a
  population of 50,000 or more. Despite its size it contained few
  buildings of any architectural merit; the most important were the
  palace of the governor-general and the church of the Austrian mission.
  The history of the city is intimately bound up with that of the Sudan
  generally, but it may be recalled here that in 1884, at the time of
  the Mahdist rising, General Gordon was sent to Khartum to arrange for
  the evacuation by the Egyptians of the Sudan. At Khartum he was
  besieged by the Mahdists, whose headquarters were at Omdurman. Khartum
  was captured and Gordon killed on the 26th of January 1885, two days
  before the arrival off the town of a small British relief force, which
  withdrew on seeing the city in the hands of the enemy. Nearly every
  building in Khartum was destroyed by the Mahdists and the city
  abandoned in favour of Omdurman, which place remained the headquarters
  of the mahdi's successor, the khalifa Abdullah, till September 1898,
  when it was taken by the Anglo-Egyptian forces under General
  (afterwards Lord) Kitchener, and the seat of government again
  transferred to Khartum. It speedily arose from its ruins, being
  rebuilt on a much finer scale than the original city. In 1899 the
  railway from Wadi Haifa was completed to Khartum, and in 1906 through
  communication by rail was established with the Red Sea.


  [1] The village of Halfaya, a place of some importance before the
    foundation of Khartum, is 4 m. to the N., on the eastern bank of the
    Nile. From the 15th century up to 1821 it was the capital of a small
    state, tributary to Sennar, regarded as a continuation of the
    Christian kingdom of Aloa (see DONGOLA).

KHASI AND JAINTIA HILLS, a district of British India, in the Hills
division of Eastern Bengal and Assam. It occupies the central plateau
between the valleys of the Brahmaputra and the Surma. Area, 6027 sq. m.;
pop. (1901), 202,250, showing an increase of 2% in the decade.

The district consists of a succession of steep ridges running east and
west, with elevated table-lands between. On the southern side, towards
Sylhet, the mountains rise precipitously from the valley of the Barak or
Surma. The first plateau is about 4000 ft. above sea-level. Farther
north is another plateau, on which is situated the station of Shillong,
4900 ft. above the sea; behind lies the Shillong range, of which the
highest peak rises to 6450 ft. On the north side, towards Kamrup, are
two similar plateaus of lower elevation. The general appearance of all
these table-lands is that of undulating downs, covered with grass, but
destitute of large timber. At 3000 ft. elevation the indigenous pine
predominates over all other vegetation, and forms almost pure pine
forests. The highest ridges are clothed with magnificent clumps of
timber trees, which superstition has preserved from the axe of the
wood-cutter. The characteristic trees in these sacred groves chiefly
consist of oaks, chestnuts, magnolias, &c. Beneath the shade grow rare
orchids, rhododendrons and wild cinnamon. The streams are merely
mountain torrents; many of them pass through narrow gorges of wild
beauty. From time immemorial, Lower Bengal has drawn its supply of lime
from the Khasi Hills, and the quarries along their southern slope are
inexhaustible. Coal of fair quality crops out at several places, and
there are a few small coal-mines.

The Khasi Hills were conquered by the British in 1833. They are
inhabited by a tribe of the same name, who still live in primitive
communities under elective chiefs in political subordination to the
British government. There are 25 of these chiefs called _Siems_, who
exercise independent jurisdiction and pay no tribute. According to the
census of 1901 the Khasis numbered 107,500. They are a peculiar race,
speaking a language that belongs to the Mon-Anam family, following the
rule of matriarchal succession, and erecting monolithic monuments over
their dead. The Jaintia Hills used to form a petty Hindu principality
which was annexed in 1835. The inhabitants, called Syntengs, a cognate
tribe to the Khasis, were subjected to a moderate income tax, an
innovation against which they rebelled in 1860 and 1862. The revolt was
stamped out by the Khasi and Jaintia Expedition of 1862-63. The
headquarters of the district were transferred in 1864 from Cherrapunji
to Shillong, which was afterwards made the capital of the province of
Assam. A good cart-road runs north from Cherrapunji through Shillong to
Gauhati on the Brahmaputra; total length, 97 m. The district was the
focus of the great earthquake of the 12th of June 1897, which not only
destroyed every permanent building, but broke up the roads and caused
many landslips. The loss of life was put at only 916, but hundreds died
subsequently of a malignant fever. In 1901 the district had 17,321
Christians, chiefly converts of the Welsh Calvinistic Mission.

  See _District Gazetteer_ (1906); Major P. R. T. Gurdon, _The Khasis_

KHASKOY (also _Chaskoi_, _Haskoi_, _Khaskioi_, _Chaskovo_, _Haskovo_, and
in Bulgarian _Khaskovo_), the capital of the department of Khaskoy in the
eastern Rumelia, Bulgaria; 45 m. E.S.E. of Philippopolis. Pop. (1900),
14,928. The town has a station 7 m. N. on the Philippopolis-Adrianople
section of the Belgrade-Constantinople railway. Carpets and woollen goods
are manufactured, and in the surrounding country tobacco and silk are

KHATTAK, an important Pathan tribe in the North-West Frontier Province
of India, inhabiting the south-eastern portion of the Peshawar district
and the south-eastern and eastern portions of Kohat. They number 24,000,
and have always been quiet and loyal subjects of the British government.
They furnish many recruits to the Indian army, and make most excellent

KHAZARS (known also as Chozars, as [Greek: Akatziroi] or [Greek:
Chazaroi] in Byzantine writers, as Khazirs in Armenian and Khwalisses in
Russian chronicles, and Ugri Bielii in Nestor), an ancient people who
occupied a prominent place amongst the secondary powers of the Byzantine
state-system. In the epic of Firdousi Khazar is the representative name
for all the northern foes of Persia, and legendary invasions long before
the Christian era are vaguely attributed to them. But the Khazars are an
historic figure upon the borderland of Europe and Asia for at least 900
years (A.D. 190-1100). The epoch of their greatness is from A.D. 600 to
950. Their home was in the spurs of the Caucasus and along the shores of
the Caspian--called by medieval Moslem geographers Bahr-al-Khazar ("sea
of the Khazars"); their cities, all populous and civilized commercial
centres, were Itil, the capital, upon the delta of the Volga, the "river
of the Khazars," Semender (Tarkhu), the older capital, Khamlidje or
Khalendsch, Belendscher, the outpost towards Armenia, and Sarkel on the
Don. They were the Venetians of the Caspian and the Euxine, the
organizers of the transit between the two basins, the universal carriers
between East and West; and Itil was the meeting-place of the commerce of
Persia, Byzantium, Armenia, Russia and the Bulgarians of the middle
Volga. The tide of their dominion ebbed and flowed repeatedly, but the
normal Khazari may be taken as the territory between the Caucasus, the
Volga and the Don, with the outlying province of the Crimea, or Little
Khazaria. The southern boundary never greatly altered; it did at times
reach the Kur and the Aras, but on that side the Khazars were confronted
by Byzantium and Persia, and were for the most part restrained within
the passes of the Caucasus by the fortifications of Dariel. Amongst the
nomadic Ugrians and agricultural Slavs of the north their frontier
fluctuated widely, and in its zenith Khazaria extended from the Dnieper
to Bolgari upon the middle Volga, and along the eastern shore of the
Caspian to Astarabad.

  _Ethnology._--The origin of the Khazars has been much disputed, and
  they have been variously regarded as akin to the Georgians,
  Finno-Ugrians and Turks. This last view is perhaps the most probable.
  Their king Joseph, in answer to the inquiry of Hasdai Ibn Shaprut of
  Cordova (c. 958), stated that his people sprang from Thogarmah,
  grandson of Japhet, and the supposed ancestor of the other peoples of
  the Caucasus. The Arab geographers who knew the Khazars best connect
  them either with the Georgians (Ibn Athir) or with the Armenians
  (Dimishqi, ed. Mehren, p. 263); whilst Ahmad ibn Fadlan, who passed
  through Khazaria on a mission from the caliph Moqtadir (A.D. 921),
  positively asserts that the Khazar tongue differed not only from the
  Turkish, but from that of the bordering nations, which were Ugrian.

  Nevertheless there are many points connected with the Khazars which
  indicate a close connexion with Ugrian or Turkish peoples. The
  official titles recorded by Ibn Fadlan are those in use amongst the
  Tatar nations of that age, whether Huns, Bulgarians, Turks or Mongols.
  The names of their cities can be explained only by reference to
  Turkish or Ugrian dialects (Klaproth, _Mém. sur les Khazars_; Howorth,
  _Khazars_). Some too amongst the medieval authorities (Ibn Hauqal and
  Istakhri) note a resemblance between the speech in use amongst the
  Khazars and the Bulgarians; and the modern Magyar--a Ugrian
  language--can be traced back to a tribe which in the 9th century
  formed part of the Khazar kingdom. These characteristics, however, are
  accounted for by the fact that the Khazars were at one time subject to
  the Huns (A.D. 448 et seq.), at another to the Turks (c. 580), which
  would sufficiently explain the signs of Tatar influence in their
  polity, and also by the testimony of all observers, Greeks, Arabs and
  Russians, that there was a double strain within the Khazar nation.
  There were _Khazars_ and _Kara_ (black) _Khazars_. The Khazars were
  fair-skinned, black-haired and of a remarkable beauty and stature;
  their women indeed were sought as wives equally at Byzantium and
  Bagdad; while the Kara Khazars were ugly, short, and were reported by
  the Arabs almost as dark as Indians. The latter were indubitably the
  Ugrian nomads of the steppe, akin to the Tatar invaders of Europe, who
  filled the armies and convoyed the caravans of the ruling caste. But
  the Khazars proper were a civic commercial people, the founders of
  cities, remarkable for somewhat elaborate political institutions, for
  persistence and for good faith--all qualities foreign to the Hunnic

  They have been identified with the [Greek: Akatziroi] (perhaps
  Ak-Khazari, or White Khazars) who appear upon the lower Volga in the
  Byzantine annals, and thence they have been deduced, though with less
  convincing proof, either from the [Greek: Agathyrsoi] (Agathyrsi) or
  the [Greek: Katiaroi] of Herodotus, iv. 104. There was throughout
  historic times a close connexion which eventually amounted to
  political identity between the Khazars and the Barsileens (the Passils
  of Moses of Chorene) who occupied the delta of the Volga; and the
  Barsileens can be traced through the pages of Ptolemy (_Geog._ v. 9),
  of Pliny (iv. 26), of Strabo (vii. 306), and of Pomponius Mela (ii. c.
  1, p. 119) to the so-called Royal Scyths, [Greek: Skythai basilêes],
  who were known to the Greek colonies upon the Euxine, and whose
  political superiority and commercial enterprise led to this rendering
  of their name. Such points, however, need not here be further pursued
  than to establish the presence of this white race around the Caspian
  and the Euxine throughout historic times. They appear in European
  history as White Huns (Ephthalites), White Ugrians (Sar-ogours), White
  Bulgarians. Owing to climatic causes the tract they occupied was
  slowly drying up. They were the outposts of civilization towards the
  encroaching desert, and the Tatar nomadism that advanced with it. They
  held in precarious subjection the hordes whom the conditions of the
  climate and the soil made it impossible to supplant. They bore the
  brunt of each of the great waves of Tatar conquests, and were
  eventually overwhelmed.

  _History._--Amidst this white race of the steppe the Khazars can be
  first historically distinguished at the end of the 2nd century A.D.
  They burst into Armenia with the Barsileens, A.D. 198. They were
  repulsed and attacked in turn. The pressure of the nomads of the
  steppe, the quest of plunder or revenge, these seem the only motives
  of these early expeditions; but in the long struggle between the Roman
  and Persian empires, of which Armenia was often the battlefield, and
  eventually the prize, the attitude of the Khazars assumed political
  importance. Armenia inclined to the civilization and ere long to the
  Christianity of Rome, whilst her Arsacid princes maintained an
  inveterate feud with the Sassanids of Persia. It became therefore the
  policy of the Persian kings to call in the Khazars in every collision
  with the empire (200-350). During the 4th century however, the growing
  power of Persia culminated in the annexation of eastern Armenia. The
  Khazars, endangered by so powerful a neighbour, passed from under
  Persian influence into that remote alliance with Byzantium which
  thenceforth characterized their policy, and they aided Julian in his
  invasion of Persia (363). Simultaneously with the approach of Persia
  to the Caucasus the terrible empire of the Huns sprang up among the
  Ugrians of the northern steppes. The Khazars, straitened on every
  side, remained passive till the danger culminated in the accession of
  Attila (434). The emperor Theodosius sent envoys to bribe the Khazars
  ([Greek: Akatziroi]) to divert the Huns from the empire by an attack
  upon their flank. But there was a Hunnic party amongst the Khazar
  chiefs. The design was betrayed to Attila; and he extinguished the
  independence of the nation in a moment. Khazaria became the apanage of
  his eldest son, and the centre of government amongst the eastern
  subjects of the Hun (448). Even the iron rule of Attila was preferable
  to the time of anarchy that succeeded it. Upon his death (454) the
  wild immigration which he had arrested revived. The Khazars and the
  Sarogours (i.e. White Ogors, possibly the Barsileens of the Volga
  delta) were swept along in a flood of mixed Tatar peoples which the
  conquests of the Avars had set in motion. The Khazars and their
  companions broke through the Persian defences of the Caucasus. They
  appropriated the territory up to the Kur and the Aras, and roamed at
  large through Iberia, Georgia and Armenia. The Persian king implored
  the emperor Leo I. to help him defend Asia Minor at the Caucasus
  (457), but Rome was herself too hard pressed, nor was it for fifty
  years that the Khazars were driven back and the pass of Derbent
  fortified against them (c. 507).

  Throughout the 6th century Khazaria was the mere highway for the wild
  hordes to whom the Huns had opened the passage into Europe, and the
  Khazars took refuge (like the Venetians from Attila) amongst the
  seventy mouths of the Volga. The pressure of the Turks in Asia
  precipitated the Avars upon the West. The conquering Turks followed in
  their footsteps (560-580). They beat down all opposition, wrested even
  Bosporus in the Crimea from the empire, and by the annihilation of the
  Ephthalites completed the ruin of the White Race of the plains from
  the Oxus to the Don. The empires of Turks and Avars, however, ran
  swiftly their barbaric course, and the Khazars arose out of the chaos
  to more than their ancient renown. They issued from the land of
  Barsilia, and extended their rule over the Bulgarian hordes left
  masterless by the Turks, compelling the more stubborn to migrate to
  the Danube (641). The agricultural Slavs of the Dnieper and the Oka
  were reduced to tribute, and before the end of the 7th century the
  Khazars had annexed the Crimea, had won complete command of the Sea of
  Azov, and, seizing upon the narrow neck which separates the Volga from
  the Don, had organized the portage which has continued since an
  important link in the traffic between Asia and Europe. The alliance
  with Byzantium was revived. Simultaneously, and no doubt in concert,
  with the Byzantine campaign against Persia (589), the Khazars had
  reappeared in Armenia, though it was not till 625 that they appear as
  Khazars in the Byzantine annals. They are then described as "Turks
  from the East," a powerful nation which held the coasts of the Caspian
  and the Euxine, and took tribute of the Viatitsh, the Severians and
  the Polyane. The khakan, enticed by the promise of an imperial
  princess, furnished Heraclius with 40,000 men for his Persian war, who
  shared in the victory over Chosroes at Nineveh.

  Meanwhile the Moslem empire had arisen. The Persian empire was struck
  down (637), and the Moslems poured into Armenia. The khakan, who had
  defied the summons sent him by the invaders, now aided the Byzantine
  patrician in the defence of Armenia. The allies were defeated, and the
  Moslems undertook the subjugation of Khazaria (651). Eighty years of
  warfare followed, but in the end the Moslems prevailed. The khakan and
  his chieftains were captured and compelled to embrace Islam (737), and
  till the decay of the Mahommedan empire Khazaria with all the other
  countries of the Caucasus paid an annual tribute of children and of
  corn (737-861). Nevertheless, though overpowered in the end, the
  Khazars had protected the plains of Europe from the Mahommedans, and
  made the Caucasus the limit of their conquests.

  In the interval between the decline of the Mahommedan empire and the
  rise of Russia the Khazars reached the zenith of their power. The
  merchants of Byzantium, Armenia and Bagdad met in the markets of Itil
  (whither since the raids of the Mahommedans the capital had been
  transferred from Semender), and traded for the wax, furs, leather and
  honey that came down the Volga. So important was this traffic held at
  Constantinople that, when the portage to the Don was endangered by the
  irruption of a fresh horde of Turks (the Petchenegs), the emperor
  Theophilus himself despatched the materials and the workmen to build
  for the Khazars a fortress impregnable to their forays (834). Famous
  as the one stone structure is in that stoneless region, the post
  became known far and wide amongst the hordes of the steppe as Sarkel
  or the White Abode. Merchants from every nation found protection and
  good faith in the Khazar cities. The Jews, expelled from
  Constantinople, sought a home amongst them, developed the Khazar
  trade, and contended with Mahommedans and Christians for the
  theological allegiance of the Pagan people. The dynasty accepted
  Judaism (c. 740), but there was equal tolerance for all, and each man
  was held amenable to the authorized code and to the official judges of
  his own faith. At the Byzantine court the khakan was held in high
  honour. The emperor Justinian Rhinotmetus took refuge with him during
  his exile and married his daughter (702). Justinian's rival Vardanes
  in turn sought an asylum in Khazaria, and in Leo IV. (775) the
  grandson of a Khazar sovereign ascended the Byzantine throne. Khazar
  troops were amongst the bodyguard of the imperial court; they fought
  for Leo VI. against Simeon of Bulgaria; and the khakan was honoured in
  diplomatic intercourse with the seal of three solidi, which marked him
  as a potentate of the first rank, above even the pope and the
  Carolingian monarchs. Indeed his dominion became an object of
  uneasiness to the jealous statecraft of Byzantium, and Constantine
  Porphyrogenitus, writing for his son's instruction in the government,
  carefully enumerates the Alans, the Petchenegs, the Uzes and the
  Bulgarians as the forces he must rely on to restrain it.

  It was, however, from a power that Constantine did not consider that
  the overthrow of the Khazars came. The arrival of the Varangians
  amidst the scattered Slavs (862) had united them into a nation. The
  advance of the Petchenegs from the East gave the Russians their
  opportunity. Before the onset of those fierce invaders the precarious
  suzerainty of the khakan broke up. By calling in the Uzes, the Khazars
  did indeed dislodge the Petchenegs from the position they had seized
  in the heart of the kingdom between the Volga and the Don, but only to
  drive them inwards to the Dnieper. The Hungarians, severed from their
  kindred and their rulers, migrated to the Carpathians, whilst Oleg,
  the Russ prince of Kiev, passed through the Slav tribes of the Dnieper
  basin with the cry "Pay nothing to the Khazars" (884). The kingdom
  dwindled rapidly to its ancient limits between the Caucasus, the Volga
  and the Don, whilst the Russian traders of Novgorod and Kiev
  supplanted the Khazars as the carriers between Constantinople and the
  North. When Ibn Fadlan visited Khazaria forty years later, Itil was
  even yet a great city, with baths and market-places and thirty
  mosques. But there was no domestic product nor manufacture; the
  kingdom depended solely upon the now precarious transit dues, and
  administration was in the hands of a major domus also called khakan.
  At the assault of Swiatoslav of Kiev the rotten fabric crumbled into
  dust. His troops were equally at home on land and water. Sarkel, Itil
  and Semender surrendered to him (965-969). He pushed his conquests to
  the Caucasus, and established Russian colonies upon the Sea of Azov.
  The principality of Tmutarakan, founded by his grandson Mstislav
  (988), replaced the kingdom of Khazaria, the last trace of which was
  extinguished by a joint expedition of Russians and Byzantines (1016).
  The last of the khakans, George, Tzula, was taken prisoner. A remnant
  of the nation took refuge in an island of the Caspian (Siahcouyé);
  others retired to the Caucasus; part emigrated to the district of
  Kasakhi in Georgia, and appear for the last time joining with Georgia
  in her successful effort to throw off the yoke of the Seljuk Turks
  (1089). But the name is thought to survive in Kadzaria, the Georgian
  title for Mingrelia, and in Kadzaro, the Turkish word for the Lazis.
  Till the 13th century the Crimea was known to European travellers as
  Gazaria; the "ramparts of the Khazars" are still distinguished in the
  Ukraine; and the record of their dominion survives in the names of
  Kazarek, Kazaritshi, Kazarinovod, Kozar-owka, Kozari, and perhaps in

  AUTHORITIES.--_Khazar_: The letter of King Joseph to R. Hasdai Ibn
  Shaprut, first published by J. Akrish, _Kol Mebasser_ (Constantinople,
  1577), and often reprinted in editions of Jehuda hal-Levy's _Kuzari_.
  German translations by Zedner (Berlin, 1840) and Cassel, _Magyar.
  Alterth._ (Berlin, 1848); French by Carmoly, _Rev. Or._ (1841). Cf.
  Harkavy, _Russische Revue_, iv. 69; Graetz, _Geschichte_, v. 364, and
  Carmoly, _Itinéraires de la Terre Sainte_ (Brussels, 1847).
  _Armenian_: Moses of Chorene; cf. Saint-Martin, _Mémoires historiques
  et géographiques sur l'Armènie_ (Paris, 1818). _Arabic_: The account
  of Ibn Fadlan (921) is preserved by Yakut, ii. 436 seq. See also
  Istakhry (ed. de Geoje, pp. 220 seq.), _Mas'udy_, ch. xvii. pp. 406
  seq. of Sprenger's translation; _Ibn Haukal_ (ed. de Goeje, pp. 279
  seq.) and the histories of Ibn el Athir and Tabary. Much of the Arabic
  material has been collected and translated by Fraehn, "Veteres
  Memoriae Chasarorum" in _Mém. de St Pét._ (1822); Dorn (from the
  Persian Tabary), _Mém. de St Pét._ (1844); Dufrémery, _Journ. As._
  (1849). See also D'Ohsson's imaginary _Voyage d'Abul Cassim_, based on
  these sources. _Byzantine Historians_: The relative passages are
  collected in Stritter's _Memoriae populorum_ (St Petersburg, 1778).
  _Russian_: The _Chronicle_ ascribed to Nestor.

  _Modern_: Klaproth, "Mém. sur les Khazars," in _Journ. As._ 1st
  series, vol. iii.; id., _Tableaux hist. de l'Asie_ (Paris, 1823); id.,
  _Tabl. hist. de Caucases_ (1827); memoirs on the Khazars by Harkavy
  and by Howorth (_Congrès intern. des Orientalistes_, vol. ii.);
  Latham, _Russian and Turk_, pp. 209-217; Vivien St Martin, _Études de
  géog. ancienne_ (Paris, 1850); id., _Recherches sur les populations du
  Caucase_ (1847); id., "Sur les Khazars," in _Nouvelles ann. des
  voyages_ (1857); D'Ohsson, _Peuples du Caucase_ (Paris, 1828); S.
  Krauss, "Zur Geschichte der Chazaren," in _Revue orientale pour les
  études Ourals-altaïques_ (1900).     (P. L. G.; C. El.)

KHEDIVE, a Persian word meaning prince or sovereign, granted as a title
by the sultan of Turkey in 1867 to his viceroy in Egypt, Ismail, in
place of that of "vali."

KHERI, a district of British India, in the Lucknow division of the
United Provinces, which takes its name from a small town with a railway
station 81 m. N.W. of Lucknow. The area of the district is 2963 sq. m.,
and its population in 1901 was 905,138. It consists of a series of
fairly elevated plateaus, separated by rivers flowing from the
north-west, each bordered by alluvial land. North of the river Ul, the
country is considered very unhealthy. Through this tract, probably the
bed of a lake, flow two rivers, the Kauriala and Chauka, changing their
courses constantly, so that the surface is seamed with deserted river
beds much below the level of the surrounding country. The vegetation is
very dense, and the stagnant waters are the cause of endemic fevers. The
people reside in the neighbourhood of the low ground, as the soil is
more fertile and less expensive to cultivate than the forest-covered
uplands. South of the Ul, the scene changes. Between every two rivers or
tributaries stretches a plain, considerably less elevated than the tract
to the north. There is very little slope in any of these plains for many
miles, and marshes are formed, from which emerge the headwaters of many
secondary streams, which in the rains become dangerous torrents, and
frequently cause devastating floods. The general drainage of the country
is from north-west to south-east. Several large lakes exist, some formed
by the ancient channels of the northern rivers, being fine sheets of
water, from 10 to 20 ft. deep and from 3 to 4 m. long; in places they
are fringed with magnificent groves. The whole north of the district is
covered with vast forests, of which a considerable portion are
government reserves. _Sal_ occupies about two-thirds of the forest area.
The district is traversed by a branch of the Oudh & Rohilkhand railway
from Lucknow to Bareilly.

KHERSON, a government of south Russia, on the N. coast of the Black Sea,
bounded W. by the governments of Bessarabia and Podolia, N. by Kiev and
Poltava, S. by Ekaterinoslav and Taurida. The area is 27,497 sq. m. The
aspect of the country, especially in the south, is that of an open
steppe, and almost the whole government is destitute of forest. The
Dniester marks the western and the Dnieper the south-eastern boundary;
the Bug, the Ingul and several minor streams drain the intermediate
territory. Along the shore stretch extensive lagoons. Iron, kaolin and
salt are the principal minerals. Nearly 45% of the land is owned by the
peasants, 31% by the nobility, 12% by other classes, and 12% by the
crown, municipalities and public institutions. The peasants rent
1,730,000 acres more from the landlords. Agriculture is well developed
and 9,000,000 acres (51.1%) are under crops. Agricultural machinery is
extensively used. The vine is widely grown, and yields 1,220,000 gallons
of wine annually. Some tobacco is grown and manufactured. Besides the
ordinary cereals, maize, hemp, flax, tobacco and mustard are commonly
grown; the fruit trees in general cultivation include the cherry, plum,
peach, apricot and mulberry; and gardening receives considerable
attention. Agriculture has been greatly improved by some seventy German
colonies. Cattle-breeding, horse-breeding and sheep-farming are pursued
on a large scale. Some sheep farmers own 30,000 or 40,000 merinos each.
Fishing is an important occupation. There are manufactures of wool, hemp
and leather; also iron-works, machinery and especially agricultural
machinery works, sugar factories, steam flour-mills and chemical works.
The ports of Kherson, Ochakov, Nikolayev, and especially Odessa, are
among the principal outlets of Russian commerce; Berislav, Alexandriya
Elisavetgrad, Voznesenask, Olviopol and Tiraspol play an important part
in the inland traffic. In 1871 the total population was 1,661,892, and
in 1897 2,744,040, of whom 1,332,175 were women and 785,094 lived in
towns. The estimated pop. in 1906 was 3,257,600. Besides Great and
Little Russians, it comprises Rumanians, Greeks, Germans (123,453),
Bulgarians, Bohemians, Swedes, and Jews (30% of the total), and some
Gypsies. About 84% belong to the Orthodox Greek Church; there are also
numerous Stundists. The government is divided into six districts, the
chief towns of which are: Kherson (q.v.), Alexandriya (14,002 in 1897),
Ananiev (16,713), Elisavetgrad (66,182 in 1900), Odessa (449,673 in
1900), and Tiraspol (29,323 in 1900). This region was long subject to
the sway of the Tatar khans of the Crimea, and owes its rapid growth to
the colonizing activity of Catherine II., who between 1778 and 1792
founded the cities of Kherson, Odessa and Nikolayev. Down to 1803 this
government was called Nikolayev.

KHERSON, a town of south Russia, capital of the above government, on a
hill above the right bank of the Dnieper, about 19 m. from its mouth.
Founded by the courtier Potemkin in 1778 as a naval station and seaport,
it had become by 1786 a place of 10,000 inhabitants, and, although its
progress was checked by the rise of Odessa and the removal (in 1794) of
the naval establishments to Nikolayev, it had in 1900 a population of
73,185. The Dnieper at this point breaks into several arms, forming
islands overgrown with reeds and bushes; and vessels of burden must
anchor at Stanislavskoe-selo, a good way down the stream. Of the traffic
on the river the largest share is due to the timber, wool, cereals,
cattle and hides trade; wool-dressing, soap-boiling, tallow-melting,
brewing, flour-milling and the manufacture of tobacco are the chief
industries. Kherson is a substantially built and regular town. The
cathedral is the burial-place of Potemkin, and near Kherson lie the
remains of John Howard, the English philanthropist, who died here in
1790. The fortifications have fallen into decay. The name Kherson was
given to the town from the supposition that the site was formerly that
of Chersonesus Heracleotica, the Greek city founded by the Dorians of

KHEVENHÜLLER, LUDWIG ANDREAS (1683-1744), Austrian field-marshal, Count
of Aschelberg-Frankenburg, came of a noble family, which, originally
Franconian, settled in Carinthia in the 11th century. He first saw
active service under Prince Eugène in the War of the Spanish Succession,
and by 1716 had risen to the command of Prince Eugène's own regiment of
dragoons. He distinguished himself greatly at the battles of
Peterwardein and Belgrade, and became in 1723 major-general of cavalry
(_General-Wachtmeister_), in 1726 proprietary colonel of a regiment and
in 1733 lieutenant field marshal. In 1734 the War of the Polish
Succession brought him into the field again. He was present at the
battle of Parma (June 29), where Count Mercy, the Austrian commander,
was killed, and after Mercy's death he held the chief command of the
army in Italy till Field Marshal Königsegg's arrival. Under Königsegg he
again distinguished himself at the battle of Guastalla (September 19).
He was once more in command during the operations which followed the
battle, and his skilful generalship won for him the grade of general of
cavalry. He continued in military and diplomatic employment in Italy to
the close of the war. In 1737 he was made field marshal, Prince Eugène
recommending him to his sovereign as the best general in the service.
His chief exploit in the Turkish War, which soon followed his promotion,
was at Radojevatz (September 28, 1737), where he cut his way through a
greatly superior Turkish army. It was in the Austrian Succession War
that his most brilliant work was done. As commander-in-chief of the army
on the Danube he not only drove out the French and Bavarian invaders of
Austria in a few days of rapid marching and sharp engagements (January,
1742), but overran southern Bavaria, captured Munich, and forced a large
French corps in Linz to surrender. Later in the summer of 1742, owing to
the inadequate forces at his disposal, he had to evacuate his conquests,
but in the following campaign, though now subordinated to Prince Charles
of Lorraine, Khevenhüller reconquered southern Bavaria, and forced the
emperor in June to conclude the unfavourable convention of
Nieder-Schönfeld. He disapproved the advance beyond the Rhine which
followed these successes, and the event justified his fears, for the
Austrians had to fall back from the Rhine through Franconia and the
Breisgau, Khevenhüller himself conducting the retreat with admirable
skill. On his return to Vienna, Maria Theresa decorated the field
marshal with the order of the Golden Fleece. He died suddenly at Vienna
on the 26th of January 1744.

  He was the author of various instructional works for officers and
  soldiers (_Des G. F. M. Grafen v. Khevenhüller Observationspunkte für
  sein Dragoner-regiment_ (1734 and 1748) and a _règlement_ for the
  infantry (1737), and of an important work on war in general, _Kurzer
  Begriff aller militärischen Operationen_ (Vienna, 1756; French
  version, _Maximes de guerre_, Paris, 1771).

KHEVSURS, a people of the Caucasus, kinsfolk of the Georgians. They live
in scattered groups in East Georgia to the north and north-west of Mount
Borbalo. Their name is Georgian and means "People of the Valleys." For
the most part nomadic, they are still in a semi-barbarous state. They
have not the beauty of the Georgian race. They are gaunt and thin to
almost a ghastly extent, their generally repulsive aspect being
accentuated by their large hands and feet and their ferocious
expression. In complexion and colour of hair and eyes they vary greatly.
They are very muscular and capable of bearing extraordinary fatigue.
They are fond of fighting, and still wear armour of the true medieval
type. This panoply is worn when the law of vendetta, which is sacred
among them as among most Caucasian peoples, compels them to seek or
avoid their enemy. They carry a spiked gauntlet, the terrible marks of
which are borne by a large proportion of the Khevsur faces.

  Many curious customs still prevail among the Khevsurs, as for instance
  the imprisonment of the woman during childbirth in a lonely hut, round
  which the husband parades, firing off his musket at intervals. After
  delivery, food is surreptitiously brought the mother, who is kept in
  her prison a month, after which the hut is burnt. The boys are usually
  named after some wild animal, e.g. bear or wolf, while the girls'
  names are romantic, such as Daughter of the Sun, Sun of my Heart.
  Marriages are arranged by parents when the bride and bridegroom are
  still in long clothes. The chief ceremony is a forcible abduction of
  the girl. Divorce is very common, and some Khevsurs are polygamous.
  Formerly no Khevsur might die in a house, but was always carried out
  under the sun or stars. The Khevsurs like to call themselves
  Christians, but their religion is a mixture of Christianity,
  Mahommedanism and heathen rites. They keep the Sabbath of the
  Christian church, the Friday of the Moslems and the Saturday of the
  Jews. They worship sacred trees and offer sacrifices to the spirits of
  the earth and air. Their priests are a combination of medicine-men and

  See G. F. R. Radde, _Die Chevs'uren und ihr Land_ (Cassel, 1878);
  Ernest Chantre, _Recherches anthropologiques dans le Caucase_ (Lyons,

KHILCHIPUR, a mediatized chiefship in Central India, under the Bhopal
agency; area, 273 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 31,143; estimated revenue, £7000;
tribute payable to Sindhia, £700. The residence of the chief, who is a
Khichi Rajput of the Chauhan clan, is at Khilchipur (pop. 5121).

KHINGAN, two ranges of mountains in eastern Asia.

(1) GREAT KHINGAN is the eastern border ridge of the immense plateau
which may be traced from the Himalaya to Bering Strait and from the
Tian-shan Mountains to the Khingan Mountains. It is well known from 50°
N. to Kalgan (41° N., 115° E.), where it is crossed by the highway from
Urga to Peking. As a border ridge of the Mongolian plateau, it possesses
very great orographical importance, in that it is an important climatic
boundary, and constitutes the western limits of the Manchurian flora.
The base of its western slope, which is very gentle, lies at altitudes
of 3000 to 3500 ft. Its crest rises to 4800 to 6500 ft., but its eastern
slope sinks very precipitately to the plains of Manchuria, which have
only 1500 to 2000 ft. of altitude. On this stretch one or two
subordinate ridges, parallel to the main range and separated from it by
longitudinal valleys, fringe its eastern slope, thus marking two
different terraces and giving to the whole system a width of from 80 to
100 m. Basalts, trachytes and other volcanic formations are found in the
main range and on its south-eastern slopes. The range was in volcanic
activity in 1720-1721.

  South-west of Peking the Great Khingan is continued by the In-shan
  mountains, which exhibit similar features to those of the Great
  Khingan, and represent the same terraced escarpment of the Mongolian
  plateau. Moreover, it appears from the map of the Russian General
  Staff (surveys of Skassi, V. A. Obruchev, G. N. Potanin, &c.) that
  similar terrace-shaped escarpments--but considerably wider apart than
  in Manchuria--occur in the Shan-si province of China, along the
  southern border of the South Mongolian plateau. These escarpments are
  pierced by the Yellow River or Hwang-ho south of the Great Wall,
  between 38° and 39° N., and in all probability a border range
  homologous to the Great Khingan separates the upper tributaries of the
  Hwang-ho (namely the Tan-ho) from those of the Yang-tsze-kiang. But
  according to Obruchev the escarpments of the Wei-tsi-shan and
  Lu-huang-lin, by which southern Ordos drops towards the Wei-ho
  (tributary of the Hwang-ho), can hardly be taken as corresponding to
  the Kalgan escarpment. They fall with gentle slopes only towards the
  high plains on the south of them, while a steep descent towards the
  low plain seems to exist further south only, between 32° and 34°. Thus
  the southern continuations of the Great Khingan, south of 38° N.,
  possibly consist of two separate escarpments. At its northern end the
  place where the Great Khingan is pierced by the Amur has not been
  ascertained by direct observation. Prince P. Kropotkin considers that
  the upper Amur emerges from the high plateau and its border-ridge, the
  Khingan, below Albazin and above Kumara.[1] If this view
  prevail--Petermann has adopted it for his map of Asia, and it has been
  upheld in all the Gotha publications--it would appear that the Great
  Khingan joins the Stanovoi ridge or Jukjur, in that portion of it
  which faces the west coast of the Sea of Okhotsk. At any rate the
  Khingan, separating the Mongolian plateau from the much lower plains
  of the Sungari and the Nonni, is one of the most important
  orographical dividing-lines in Asia.

  See Semenov's _Geographical Dictionary_ (in Russian); D. V. Putiata,
  _Expedition to the Khingan in 1891_ (St Petersburg, 1893); Potanin,
  "Journey to the Khingan," in _Izvestia Russ. Geog. Soc._ (1901).

(2) The name LITTLE KHINGAN is applied indiscriminately to two distinct
mountain ranges. The proper application of the term would be to reserve
it for the typical range which the Amur pierces 40 m. below
Ekaterino-Nikolsk (on the Amur), and which is also known as the Bureya
mountains, and as Dusse-alin. This range, which may be traced from the
Amur to the Sea of Okhotsk, seems to be cleft twice by the Sungari and
to be continued under different local names in the same south-westerly
direction to the peninsula of Liao-tung in Manchuria. The other range to
which the name of Little Khingan is applied is that of the Ilkhuri-alin
mountains (51° N., 122°-126° E.), which run in a north-westerly
direction between the upper Nonni and the Amur, west of
Blagovyeshchensk.     (P. A. K.; J. T. Be.)


  [1] See his sketch of the orography of East Siberia (French trans.,
    with addenda, published by the _Institut Géographique_ of Brussels in

KHIVA, formerly an important kingdom of Asia, but now a much reduced
khanate, dependent upon Russia, and confined to the delta of the
Amu-darya (Oxus). Its frontier runs down the left bank of the Amu, from
40° 15´ N., and down its left branch to Lake Aral; then, for about 40 m.
along the south coast of Lake Aral, and finally southwards, following
the escarpment of the Ust-Urt plateau. From the Transcaspian territory
of Russia Khiva is separated by a line running almost W.N.W.-E.S.E.
under 40° 30´ N., from the Uzboi depression to the Amu-darya. The length
of the khanate from north to south is 200 m., and its greatest width 300
m. The area of the Khiva oasis is 5210 sq. m. while the area of the
steppes is estimated at 17,000 sq. m. The population of the former is
estimated at 400,000, and that of the latter also at 400,000 (nomadic).
The water of the Amu is brought by a number of irrigation canals to the
oasis, the general declivity of the surface westwards facilitating the
irrigation. Several old beds of the Amu intersect the territory. The
water of the Amu and the very thin layer of ooze which it deposits
render the oasis very fertile. Millet, rice, wheat, barley, oats, peas,
flax, hemp, madder, and all sorts of vegetables and fruit (especially
melons) are grown, as also the vine and cotton. The white-washed houses
scattered amidst the elms and poplars, and surrounded by flourishing
fields, produce the most agreeable contrast with the arid steppes.
Livestock, especially sheep, camels, horses and cattle, is extensively
bred by the nomads.

The population is composed of four divisions: Uzbegs (150,000 to
200,000), the dominating race among the settled inhabitants of the
oasis, from whom the officials are recruited; Sarts and Tajiks,
agriculturists and tradespeople of mixed race; Turkomans (c. 170,000),
who live in the steppes, south and west of the oasis, and formerly
plundered the settled inhabitants by their raids; and the Kara-kalpaks,
or Black Bonnets, a Turki tribe some 50,000 in number. They live south
of Lake Aral, and in the towns of Kungrad, Khodsheili and Kipchak form
the prevailing element. They cultivate the soil, breed cattle, and their
women make carpets. There are also about 10,000 Kirghiz, and when the
Russians took Khiva in 1873 there were 29,300 Persian slaves, stolen by
Turkoman raiders, and over 6500 liberated slaves, mostly Kizil-bashes.
The former were set free and the slave trade abolished. Of domestic
industries, the embroidering of cloth, silks and leather is worthy of
notice. The trade of Khiva is considerable: cotton, wool, rough woollen
cloth and silk cocoons are exported to Russia, and various animal
products to Bokhara. Cottons, velveteen, hardware and pepper are
imported from Russia, and silks, cotton, china and tea from Bokhara.
Khivan merchants habitually attend the Orenburg and Nizhniy-Novgorod

_History._--The present khanate is only a meagre relic of the great
kingdom which under the name of Chorasmia, Kharezm (Khwarizm) and Urgenj
(Jurjaniya, Gurganj) held the keys of the mightiest river in Central
Asia. Its possession has consequently been much disputed from early
times, but the country has undergone great changes, geographical as well
as political, which have lessened its importance. The Oxus (Amu-darya)
has changed its outlet, and no longer forms a water-way to the Caspian
and thence to Europe, while Khiva is entirely surrounded by territory
either directly administered or protected by Russia.

Chorasmia is mentioned by Herodotus, it being then one of the Persian
provinces, over which Darius placed satraps, but nothing material of it
is known till it was seized by the Arabs in A.D. 680. When the power of
the caliphs declined the governor of the province probably became
independent; but the first king known to history is Mamun-ibn-Mahommed
in 995. Khwarizm fell under the power of Mahmud of Ghazni in 1017, and
subsequently under that of the Seljuk Turks. In 1097 the governor
Kutb-ud-din assumed the title of king, and one of his descendants,
'Ala-ud-din-Mahommed, conquered Persia, and was the greatest prince in
Central Asia when Jenghiz Khan appeared in 1219. Khiva was conquered
again by Timur in 1379; and finally fell under the rule of the Uzbegs in
1512, who are still the dominant race under the protection of the

Russia established relations with Khiva in the 17th century. The
Cossacks of the Yaik during their raids across the Caspian learnt of the
existence of this rich territory and made more than one plundering
expedition to the chief town Urgenj. In 1717 Peter the Great, having
heard of the presence of auriferous sand in the bed of the Oxus,
desiring also to "open mercantile relations with India through Turan"
and to release from slavery some Russian subjects, sent a military force
to Khiva. When within 100 miles of the capital they encountered the
troops of the khan. The battle lasted three days, and ended in victory
for the Russian arms. The Khivans, however, induced the victors to break
up their army into small detachments and treacherously annihilated them
in detail. It was not until the third decade of the 19th century that
the attention of the Muscovite government was again directed to the
khanate. In 1839 a force under General Perovsky moved from Orenburg
across the Ust-Urt plateau to the Khivan frontiers, to occupy the
khanate, liberate the captives and open the way for trade. This
expedition likewise terminated in disaster. In 1847 the Russians founded
a fort at the mouth of the Jaxartes or Syr-darya. This advance deprived
the Khivans not only of territory, but of a large number of tax-paying
Kirghiz, and also gave the Russians a base for further operations. For
the next few years, however, the attention of the Russians was taken up
with Khokand, their operations on that side culminating in the capture
of Tashkent in 1865. Free in this quarter, they directed their thoughts
once more to Khiva. In 1869 Krasnovodsk on the east shore of the
Caspian was founded, and in 1871-1872 the country leading to Khiva from
different parts of Russian Turkestan was thoroughly explored and
surveyed. In 1873 an expedition to Khiva was carefully organized on a
large scale. The army of 10,000 men placed at the disposal of General
Kaufmann started from three different bases of operation--Krasnovodsk,
Orenburg and Tashkent. Khiva was occupied almost without opposition. All
the territory (35,700 sq. m. and 110,000 souls) on the right bank of the
Oxus was annexed to Russia, while a heavy war indemnity was imposed upon
the khanate. The Russians thereby so crippled the finances of the state
that the khan is in complete subjection to his more powerful neighbour.
     (J. T. Be.; C. El.)

KHIVA, capital of the khanate of Khiva, in Western Asia, 25 m. W. of the
Amu-darya and 240 m. W.N.W. of Bokhara. Pop. about 10,000. It is
surrounded by a low earthen wall, and has a citadel, the residence of
the khan and the higher officials. There are a score of mosques, of
which the one containing the tomb of Polvan, the patron saint of Khiva,
is the best, and four large _madrasas_ (Mahommedan colleges). Large
gardens exist in the western part of the town. A small Russian quarter
has grown up. The inhabitants make carpets, silks and cottons.

KHNOPFF, FERNAND EDMOND JEAN MARIE (1858-   ), Belgian painter and
etcher, was born at the château de Grembergen (Termonde), on the 12th of
September 1858, and studied under X. Mellery. He developed a very
original talent, his work being characterized by great delicacy of
colour, tone and harmony, as subtle in spiritual and intellectual as in
its material qualities. "A Crisis" (1881) was followed by "Listening to
Schumann," "St Anthony" and "The Queen of Sheba" (1883), and then came
one of his best known works, "The Small Sphinx" (1884). His "Memories"
(1889) and "White, Black and Gold" (1901) are in the Brussels Museum;
"Portrait of Mlle R." (1889) in the Venice Museum; "A Stream at Fosset"
(1897) at Budapest Museum; "The Empress" (1899) in the collection of the
emperor of Austria, and "A Musician" in that of the king of the
Belgians. "I lock my Door upon Myself" (1891), which was exhibited at
the New Gallery, London, in 1902 and there attracted much attention, was
acquired by the Pinakothek at Munich. Other works are "Silence" (1890),
"The Idea of Justice" (1905) and "Isolde" (1906), together with a
polychrome bust "Sibyl" (1894) and an ivory mask (1897). In quiet
intensity of feeling Khnopff was influenced by Rossetti, and in
simplicity of line by Burne-Jones, but the poetry and the delicately
mystic and enigmatic note of his work are entirely individual. He did
good work also as an etcher and dry-pointist.

  See L. Dumont-Wilden, _Fernand Khnopff_ (Brussels, 1907).

KHOI, a district and town in the province of Azerbaijan, Persia, towards
the extreme north-west frontier, between the Urmia Lake and the river
Aras. The district contains many flourishing villages, and consists of
an elevated plateau 60 m. by 10 to 15, highly cultivated by a skilful
system of drainage and irrigation, producing fertile meadows, gardens
and fields yielding rich crops of wheat and barley, cotton, rice and
many kinds of fruit. In the northern part and bounding on Maku lies the
plain of Chaldaran (Kalderan), where in August 1514 the Turks under
Sultan Selim I. fought the Persians under Shah Ismail and gained a great

The town of KHOI lies in 38° 37´ N., 45° 15´ E., 77 m. (90 by road) N.W.
of Tabriz, at an elevation of 3300 ft., on the great trade route between
Trebizond and Tabriz, and about 2 m. from the left bank of the Kotur
Chai (river from Kotur) which is crossed there by a seven-arched bridge
and is known lower down as the Kizil Chai, which flows into the Aras.
The walled part of the town is a quadrilateral with faces of about 1200
yds. in length and fortifications consisting of two lines of bastions,
ditches, &c., much out of repair. The population numbers about 35,000, a
third living inside the walls. The Armenian quarter, with about 500
families and an old church, is outside the walls. The city within the
walls forms one of the best laid out towns in Persia, cool streams and
lines of willows running along the broad and regular streets. There are
some good buildings, including the governor's residence, several
mosques, a large brick bazaar and a fine caravanserai. There is a large
transit trade, and considerable local traffic across the Turkish border.
The city surrendered to the Russians in 1827 without fighting and after
the treaty of peace (Turkman Chai, Feb. 1828) was held for some time by
a garrison of 3000 Russian troops as a guarantee for the payment of the
war indemnity. In September 1881 Khoi suffered much from a violent
earthquake. It has post and telegraph offices.

KHOJENT, or KHOJEND, a town of the province of Syr-darya, in Russian
Turkestan, on the left bank of the Syr-darya or Jaxartes, 144 m. by rail
S.S.E. from Tashkent, in 40° 17´ N. and 69° 30´ E., and on the direct
road from Bokhara to Khokand. Pop. (1900), 31,881. The Russian quarter
lies between the river and the native town. Near the river is the old
citadel, on the top of an artificial square mound, about 100 ft. high.
The banks of the river are so high as to make its water useless to the
town in the absence of pumping gear. Formerly the entire commerce
between the khanates of Bokhara and Khokand passed through this town,
but since the Russian occupation (1866) much of it has been diverted.
Silkworms are reared, and silk and cotton goods are manufactured. A
coarse ware is made in imitation of Chinese porcelain. The district
immediately around the town is taken up with cotton plantations, fruit
gardens and vineyards. The majority of the inhabitants are Tajiks.

Khojent has always been a bone of contention between Khokand and
Bokhara. When the amir of Bokhara assisted Khudayar Khan to regain his
throne in 1864, he kept possession of Khojent. In 1866 the town was
stormed by the Russians; and during their war with Khokand in 1875 it
played an important part.

KHOKAND, or KOKAN, a town of Asiatic Russia, in the province of
Ferghana, on the railway from Samarkand to Andijan, 85 m. by rail S.W.
of the latter, and 20 m. S. of the Syr-darya. Pop. (1900), 86,704.
Situated at an altitude of 1375 ft., it has a severe climate, the
average temperatures being--year, 56°; January, 22°; July, 65°. Yearly
rainfall, 3.6 in. It is the centre of a fertile irrigated oasis, and
consists of a citadel, enclosed by a wall nearly 12 m. in circuit, and
of suburbs containing luxuriant gardens. The town is modernized, has
broad streets and large squares, and a particularly handsome bazaar. The
former palace of the khans, which recalls by its architecture the
mosques of Samarkand, is the best building in the town. Khokand is one
of the most important centres of trade in Turkestan. Raw cotton and silk
are the principal exports, while manufactured goods are imported from
Russia. Coins bearing the inscription "Khokand the Charming," and known
as _khokands_, have or had a wide currency.

The khanate of Khokand was a powerful state which grew up in the 18th
century. Its early history is not well known, but the town was founded
in 1732 by Abd-ur-Rahim under the name of Iski-kurgan, or
Kali-i-Rahimbai. This must relate, however, to the fort only, because
Arab travellers of the 10th century mention Hovakend or Hokand, the
position of which has been identified with that of Khokand. Many other
populous and wealthy towns existed in this region at the time of the
Arab conquest of Ferghana. In 1758-1759 the Chinese conquered Dzungaria
and East Turkestan, and the begs or rulers of Ferghana recognized
Chinese suzerainty. In 1807 or 1808 Alim, son of Narbuta, brought all
the begs of Ferghana under his authority, and conquered Tashkent and
Chimkent. His attacks on the Bokharan fortress of Ura-tyube were however
unsuccessful, and the country rose against him. He was killed in 1817 by
the adherents of his brother Omar. Omar was a poet and patron of
learning, but continued to enlarge his kingdom, taking the sacred town
of Azret (Turkestan), and to protect Ferghana from the raids of the
nomad Kirghiz built fortresses on the Syr-darya, which became a basis
for raids of the Khokand people into Kirghiz land. This was the origin
of a conflict with Russia. Several petty wars were undertaken by the
Russians after 1847 to destroy the Khokand forts, and to secure
possession, first, of the Ili (and so of Dzungaria), and next of the
Syr-darya region, the result being that in 1866, after the occupation of
Ura-tyube and Jizakh, the khanate of Khokand was separated from Bokhara.
During the forty-five years after the death of Omar (he died in 1822)
the khanate of Khokand was the seat of continuous wars between the
settled Sarts and the nomad Kipchaks, the two parties securing the upper
hand in turns, Khokand falling under the dominion or the suzerainty of
Bokhara, which supported Khudayar-khan, the representative of the
Kipchak party, in 1858-1866; while Alim-kul, the representative of the
Sarts, put himself at the head of the _gazawat_ (Holy War) proclaimed in
1860, and fought bravely against the Russians until killed at Tashkent
in 1865. In 1868 Khudayar-khan, having secured independence from
Bokhara, concluded a commercial treaty with the Russians, but was
compelled to flee in 1875, when a new Holy War against Russia was
proclaimed. It ended in the capture of the strong fort of Makhram, the
occupation of Khokand and Marghelan (1875), and the recognition of
Russian superiority by the amir of Bokhara, who conceded to Russia all
the territory north of the Naryn river. War, however, was renewed in the
following year. It ended, in February 1876, by the capture of Andijan
and Khokand and the annexation of the Khokand khanate to Russia. Out of
it was made the Russian province of Ferghana.

  AUTHORITIES.--The following publications are all in Russian: Kuhn,
  _Sketch of the Khanate of Khokand_ (1876); V. Nalivkin, _Short History
  of Khokand_ (French trans., Paris, 1889); Niazi Mohammed, _Tarihi
  Shahrohi_, or _History of the Rulers of Ferghana_, edited by Pantusov
  (Kazañ, 1885); Makshéev, _Historical Sketch of Turkestan and the
  Advance of the Russians_ (St Petersburg, 1890); N. Petrovskiy, _Old
  Arabian Journals of Travel_ (Tashkent, 1894); _Russian Encyclopaedic
  Dictionary_, vol. xv. (1895).     (P. A. K.; J. T. Be.)

KHOLM (Polish _Chelm_), a town of Russian Poland, in the government of
Lublin, 45 m. by rail E.S.E. of the town of Lublin. Pop. (1897), 19,236.
It is a very old city and the see of a bishop, and has an archaeological
museum for church antiquities.

KHONDS, or KANDHS, an aboriginal tribe of India, inhabiting the
tributary states of Orissa and the Ganjam district of Madras. At the
census of 1901 they numbered 701,198. Their main divisions are into
Kutia or hill Khonds and plain-dwelling Khonds; the landowners are known
as Raj Khonds. Their religion is animistic, and their pantheon includes
eighty-four gods. They have given their name to the Khondmals, a
subdivision of Angul district in Orissa: area, 800 sq. m.; pop. (1901),
64,214. The Khond language, Kui, spoken in 1901 by more than half a
million persons, is much more closely related to Telugu than is Gondi.
The Khonds are a finer type than the Gonds. They are as tall as the
average Hindu and not much darker, while in features they are very
Aryan. They are undoubtedly a mixed Dravidian race, with much Aryan

The Khonds became notorious, on the British occupation of their district
about 1835, from the prevalence and cruelty of the human sacrifices they
practised. These "Meriah" sacrifices, as they were called, were intended
to further the fertilization of the earth. It was incumbent on the
Khonds to purchase their victims. Unless bought with a price they were
not deemed acceptable. They seldom sacrificed Khonds, though in hard
times Khonds were obliged to sell their children and they could then be
purchased as Meriahs. Persons of any race, age or sex, were acceptable
if purchased. Numbers were bought and kept and well treated; and Meriah
women were encouraged to become mothers. Ten or twelve days before the
sacrifice the victim's hair was cut off, and the villagers having
bathed, went with the priest to the sacred grove to forewarn the
goddess. The festival lasted three days, and the wildest orgies were
indulged in.

  See Major Macpherson, _Religious Doctrines of the Khonds_; his account
  of their religion in _Jour. R. Asiatic Soc._ xiii. 220-221 and his
  _Report upon the Khonds of Ganjam and Cuttack_ (Calcutta, 1842); also
  _District Gazetteer of Angul_ (Calcutta, 1908).

KHORASAN, or KHORASSAN (i.e. "land of the sun"), a geographical term
originally applied to the eastern of the four quarters (named from the
cardinal points) into which the ancient monarchy of the Sassanians was
divided. After the Arab conquest the name was retained both as the
designation of a definite province and in a looser sense. Under the new
Persian empire the expression has gradually become restricted to the
north-eastern portion of Persia which forms one of the five great
provinces of that country. The province is conterminous E. with
Afghanistan, N. with Russian Transcaspian territory, W. with Astarabad
and Shahrud-Bostam, and S. with Kerman and Yezd. It lies mainly within
29° 45´-38° 15´ N. and 56°-61° E., extending about 320 m. east and west
and 570 m. north and south, with a total area of about 150,000 sq. m.
The surface is mountainous. The ranges generally run in parallel ridges,
inclosing extensive valleys, with a normal direction from N.W. to S.E.
The whole of the north is occupied by an extensive highland system
composed of a part of the Elburz and its continuation extending to the
Paropamisus. This system, sometimes spoken of collectively as the Kuren
Dagh, or Kopet Dagh from its chief sections, forms in the east three
ranges, the Hazar Masjed, Binalud Kuh and Jagatai, enclosing the
Meshed-Kuchan valley and the Jovain plain. The former is watered by the
Kashaf-rud (Tortoise River), or river of Meshed, flowing east to the
Hari-rud, their junction forming the Tejen, which sweeps round the
Daman-i-Kuh, or northern skirt of the outer range, towards the Caspian
but loses itself in the desert long before reaching it. The Jovain plain
is watered by the Kali-i-mura, an unimportant river which flows south to
the Great Kavir or central depression. In the west the northern
highlands develop two branches: (1) the Kuren Dagh, stretching through
the Great and Little Balkans to the Caspian at Krasnovodsk Bay, (2) the
Ala Dagh, forming a continuation of the Binalud Kuh and joining the
mountains between Bujnurd and Astarabad, which form part of the Elburz
system. The Kuren Dagh and Ala Dagh enclose the valley of the Atrek
River, which flows west and south-west into the Caspian at Hassan Kuli
Bay. The western offshoots of the Ala Dagh in the north and the
mountains of Astarabad in the south enclose the valley of the Gurgan
River, which also flows westwards and parallel to the Atrek to the
south-eastern corner of the Caspian. The outer range has probably a mean
altitude of 8000 ft., the highest known summits being the Hazar Masjed
(10,500) and the Kara Dagh (9800). The central range seems to be higher,
culminating with the Shah-Jehan Kuh (11,000) and the Ala Dagh (11,500).
The southern ridges, although generally much lower, have the highest
point of the whole system in the Shah Kuh (13,000) between Shahrud and
Astarabad. South of this northern highland several parallel ridges run
diagonally across the province in a N.W.-S.E. direction as far as

Beyond the Atrek and other rivers watering the northern valleys a few
brackish and intermittent rivers lose themselves in the Great Kavir,
which occupies the central and western parts of the province. The true
character of the kavir, which forms the distinctive feature of east
Persia, has scarcely been determined, some regarding it as the bed of a
dried-up sea, others as developed by the saline streams draining to it
from the surrounding highlands. Collecting in the central depressions,
which have a mean elevation of scarcely more than 500 ft. above the
Caspian, the water of these streams is supposed to form saline deposits
with a thin hard crust, beneath which the moisture is retained for a
considerable time, thus producing those dangerous and slimy quagmires
which in winter are covered with brine, in summer with a treacherous
incrustation of salt. Dr Sven Hedin explored the central depressions in

The surface of Khorasan thus consists mainly of highlands, saline,
swampy deserts and upland valleys, some fertile and well-watered. Of the
last, occurring mainly in the north, the chief are the longitudinal
valley stretching from near the Herat frontier through Meshed, Kuchan
and Shirvan to Bujnurd, the Derrehgez district, which lies on the
northern skirt of the outer range projecting into the Akhal Tekkeh
domain, now Russian territory, and the districts of Nishapur and
Sabzevar which lie south of the Binalud and Jagatai ranges. These
fertile tracts produce rice and other cereals, cotton, tobacco, opium
and fruits in profusion. Other products are manna, suffron, asafoetida
and other gums. The chief manufactures are swords, stoneware, carpets
and rugs, woollens, cottons, silks and sheepskin pelisses (_pustin_,
Afghan _poshtin_).

  The administrative divisions of the province are: 1, Nishapur; 2,
  Sabzevar; 3, Jovain; 4, Asfarain; 5, Bujnurd; 6, Kuchan; 7, Derrehgez;
  8, Kelat; 9, Chinaran; 10, Meshed; 11, Jam; 12, Bakharz; 13, Radkan;
  14, Serrakhs; 15, Sar-i-jam; 16, Bam and Safiabad; 17, Turbet i
  Haidari; 18, Turshiz; 19, Khaf; 20, Tun and Tabbas; 21, Kain; 22,

  The population consists of Iranians (Tajiks, Kurds, Baluchis),
  Mongols, Tatars and Arabs, and is estimated at about a million. The
  Persians proper have always represented the settled, industrial and
  trading elements, and to them the Kurds and the Arabs have become
  largely assimilated. Even many of the original Tatar, Mongol and other
  nomad tribes (_ilat_), instead of leading their former roving and
  unsettled life of the _sahara-nishin_ (dwellers in the desert), are
  settled and peaceful _shahr-nishin_ (dwellers in towns). In religion
  all except some Tatars and Mongols and the Baluchis have conformed to
  the national Shiah faith. The revenues (cash and kind) of the province
  amount to about £180,000 a year, but very little of this amount
  reaches the Teheran treasury. The value of the exports and imports
  from and into the whole province is a little under a million sterling
  a year. The province produces about 10,000 tons of wool and a third of
  this quantity, or rather more, valued at £70,000 to £80,000, is
  exported via Russia to the markets of western Europe, notably to
  Marseilles, Russia keeping only a small part. Other important articles
  of export, all to Russia, are cotton, carpets, shawls and turquoises,
  the last from the mines near Nishapur.     (A. H.-S.)

KHORREMABAD, a town of Persia, capital of the province of Luristan, in
33° 32´ N., 48° 15´ E., and at an elevation of 4250 ft. Pop. about 6000.
It is situated 138 m. W.N.W. of Isfahan and 117 m. S.E. of Kermanshah,
on the right bank of the broad but shallow Khorremabad river, also
called Ab-i-istaneh, and, lower down, Kashgan Rud. On an isolated rock
between the town and the river stands a ruined castle, the Diz-i-siyah
(black castle), the residence of the governor of the district (then
called Samha) in the middle ages, and, with some modern additions, one
of them consisting of rooms on the summit, called Felek ul aflak (heaven
of heavens), the residence of the governors of Luristan in the beginning
of the 19th century. At the foot of the castle stands the modern
residence of the governor, built c. 1830, with several spacious courts
and gardens. On the left bank of the river opposite the town are the
ruins of the old city of Samha. There are a minaret 60 ft. high, parts
of a mosque, an aqueduct, a number of walls of other buildings and a
four-sided monolith, measuring 9½ ft. in height, by 3 ft. long and
2(1/3) broad, with an inscription partly illegible, commemorating
Mahmud, a grandson of the Seljuk king Malik Shah, and dated A.H. 517, or
519 (A.D. 1148-1150). There also remain ten arches of a bridge which led
over the river from Samha on to the road to Shapurkhast, a city situated
some distance west.

KHORSABAD, a Turkish village in the vilayet of Mosul, 12½ m. N.E. of
that town, and almost 20 m. N. of ancient Nineveh, on the left bank of
the little river Kosar. Here, in 1843, P. E. Botta, then French consul
at Mosul, discovered the remains of an Assyrian palace and town, at
which excavations were conducted by him and Flandin in 1843-1844, and
again by Victor Place in 1851-1855. The ruins proved to be those of the
town of Dur-Sharrukin, "Sargon's Castle," built by Sargon, king of
Assyria, as a royal residence. The town, in the shape of a rectangular
parallelogram, with the corners pointing approximately toward the
cardinal points of the compass, covered 741 acres of ground. On the
north-west side, half within and half without the circuit of the walls,
protruding into the plain like a great bastion, stood the royal palace,
on a terrace, 45 ft. in height, covering about 25 acres. The palace
proper was divided into three sections, built around three sides of a
large court on the south-east or city side, into which opened the great
outer gates, guarded by winged stone bulls, each section containing
suites of rooms built around several smaller inner courts. In the centre
was the _serai_, occupied by the king and his retinue, with an extension
towards the north, opening on a large inner court, containing the public
reception rooms, elaborately decorated with sculptures and historical
inscriptions, representing scenes of hunting, worship, feasts, battles,
and the like. The harem, with separate provisions for four wives,
occupied the south corner, the domestic quarters, including stables,
kitchen, bakery, wine cellar, &c., being at the east corner, to the
north-east of the great entrance court. In the west corner stood a
temple, with a stage-tower (_ziggurat_) adjoining. The walls of the
rooms, which stood only to the height of one storey, were from 9 to 25
ft. in thickness, of clay, faced with brick, in the reception rooms
wainscoted with stone slabs or tiles, elsewhere plastered, or, in the
harem, adorned with fresco paintings and arabesques. Here and there the
floors were formed of tiles or alabaster blocks, but in general they
were of stamped clay, on which were spread at the time of occupancy mats
and rugs. The exterior of the palace wall exhibited a system of groups
of half columns and stepped recesses, an ornament familiar in Babylonian
architecture. The palace and city were completed in 707 B.C., and in 706
Sargon took up his residence there. He died the following year, and
palace and city seem to have been abandoned shortly thereafter. Up to
1909 this was the only Assyrian palace which had ever been explored
systematically, in its entirety, and fortunately it was found on the
whole in an admirable state of preservation. An immense number of
statues and bas-reliefs, excavated by Botta, were transported to Paris,
and formed the first Assyrian museum opened to the world. The objects
excavated by Place, together with the objects found by Fresnel's
expedition in Babylonia and a part of the results of Rawlinson's
excavations at Nineveh, were unfortunately lost in the Tigris, on
transport from Bagdad to Basra. Flandin had, however, made careful
drawings and copies of all objects of importance from Khorsabad. The
whole material was published by the French government in two monumental

  See P. E. Botta and E. Flandin, _Monument de Ninive_ (Paris,
  1849-1850; 5 vols. 400 plates); Victor Place, _Ninïve et l'Assyrie,
  avec des essais de restauration par F. Thomas_ (Paris, 1866-1869; 3
  vols.).     (J. P. Pe.)

KHOTAN (locally ILCHI), a town and oasis of East Turkestan, on the
Khotan-darya, between the N. foot of the Kuen-lun and the edge of the
Takla-makan desert, nearly 200 m. by caravan road S.E. from Yarkand.
Pop., about 5000. The town consists of a labyrinth of narrow, winding,
dirty streets, with poor, square, flat-roofed houses, half a dozen
_madrasas_ (Mahommedan colleges), a score of mosques, and some _masars_
(tombs of Mahommedan saints). Dotted about the town are open squares,
with tanks or ponds overhung by trees. For centuries Khotan was famous
for jade or nephrite, a semi-precious stone greatly esteemed by the
Chinese for making small fancy boxes, bottles and cups, mouthpieces for
pipes, bracelets, &c. The stone is still exported to China. Other local
products are carpets (silk and felt), silk goods, hides, grapes, rice
and other cereals, fruits, tobacco, opium and cotton. There is an active
trade in these goods and in wool with India, West Turkestan and China.
The oasis contains two small towns, Kara-kash and Yurun-kash, and over
300 villages, its total population being about 150,000.

Khotan, known in Sanskrit as Kustana and in Chinese as Yu-than, Yu-tien,
Kiu-sa-tan-na, and Khio-tan, is mentioned in Chinese chronicles in the
2nd century B.C. In A.D. 73 it was conquered by the Chinese, and ever
since has been generally dependent upon the Chinese empire. During the
early centuries of the Christian era, and long before that, it was an
important and flourishing place, the capital of a kingdom to which the
Chinese sent embassies, and famous for its glass-wares, copper tankards
and textiles. About the year A.D. 400 it was a city of some
magnificence, and the seat of a flourishing cult of Buddha, with temples
rich in paintings and ornaments of the precious metals; but from the 5th
century it seems to have declined. In the 8th century it was conquered,
after a struggle of 25 years, by the Arab chieftain Kotaiba ibn Moslim,
from West Turkestan, who imposed Islam upon the people. In 1220 Khotan
was destroyed by the Mongols under Jenghiz Khan. Marco Polo, who passed
through the town in 1274, says that "Everything is to be had there [at
Cotan, i.e. Khotan] in plenty, including abundance of cotton, with
flax, hemp, wheat, wine, and the like. The people have vineyards and
gardens and estates. They live by commerce and manufactures, and are no
soldiers."[1] The place suffered severely during the Dungan revolt
against China in 1864-1875, and again a few years later when Yakub Beg
of Kashgar made himself master of East Turkestan.

The KHOTAN-DARYA rises in the Kuen-lun Mountains in two headstreams, the
Kara-kash and the Yurun-kash, which unite towards the middle of the
desert, some 90 m. N. of the town of Khotan. The conjoint stream then
flows 180 m. northwards across the desert of Takla-makan, though it
carries water only in the early summer, and empties itself into the
Tarim a few miles below the confluence of the Ak-su with the
Yarkand-darya (Tarim). In crossing the desert it falls 1250 ft. in a
distance of 270 m. Its total length is about 300 m. and the area it
drains probably nearly 40,000 sq. m.

  See J. P. A. Rémusat, _Histoire de la ville de Khotan_ (Paris, 1820);
  and Sven Hedin, _Through Asia_ (Eng. trans., London, 1898), chs. lx.
  and lxii., and _Scientific Results of a Journey in Central Asia_,
  1899-1902, vol. ii. (Stockholm, 1906).     (J. T. Be.)


  [1] Sir H. Yule, _The Book of Ser Marco Polo_, bk. i. ch. xxxvi. (3rd
    ed., London, 1903).

KHOTIN, or KHOTEEN (variously written Khochim, Choczim, and Chocim), a
fortified town of South Russia, in the government of Bessarabia, in 48°
30´ N. and 26° 30´ E., on the right bank of the Dniester, near the
Austrian (Galician) frontier, and opposite Podolian Kamenets. Pop.
(1897), 18,126. It possesses a few manufactures (leather, candles, beer,
shoes, bricks), and carries on a considerable trade, but has always been
of importance mainly as a military post, defending one of the most
frequented passages of the Dniester. In the middle ages it was the seat
of a Genoese colony; and it has been in Polish, Turkish and Austrian
possession. The chief events in its annals are the defeat of the Turks
in 1621 by Ladislaus IV., of Poland, in 1673 by John Sobieski, of
Poland, and in 1739 by the Russians under Münnich; the defeat of the
Russians by the Turks in 1768; the capture by the Russians in 1769, and
by the Austrians in 1788; and the occupation by the Russians in 1806. It
finally passed to Russia with Bessarabia in 1812 by the peace of

KHULNA, a town and district of British India, in the Presidency division
of Bengal. The town stands on the river Bhairab, and is the terminus of
the Bengal Central railway, 109 m. E. of Calcutta. Pop. (1901), 10,426.
It is the most important centre of river-borne trade in the delta.

The DISTRICT OF KHULNA lies in the middle of the delta of the Ganges,
including a portion of the Sundarbans or seaward fringe of swamps. It
was formed out of Jessore in 1882. Area (excluding the Sundarbans), 2077
sq. m. Besides the Sundarbans, the north-east part of the district is
swampy; the north-west is more elevated and drier, while the central
part, though low-lying, is cultivated. The whole is alluvial. In 1901
the population was 1,253,043, showing an increase of 6% in the decade.
Rice is the principal crop; mustard, jute and tobacco are also grown,
and the fisheries are important. Sugar is manufactured from the date
palm. The district is entered by the Bengal Central railway, but by far
the greater part of the traffic is carried by water.

  See _District Gazetteer_ (Calcutta, 1908).

KHUNSAR, a town of Persia, sometimes belonging to the province of
Isfahan, at others to Irak, 96 m. N.W. of Isfahan, in 33° 9´ N., 50° 23´
E., at an elevation of 7600 ft. Pop., about 10,000. It is picturesquely
situated on both sides of a narrow valley through which the Khunsar
River, a stream about 12 ft. wide, flows in a north-east direction to
Kuom. The town and its fine gardens and orchards straggle some 6 m.
along the valley with a mean breadth of scarcely half a mile. There is a
great profusion of fruit, the apples yielding a kind of cider which,
however, does not keep longer than a month. The climate is cool in
summer and cold in winter. There are five caravanserais, three mosques
and a post office.

KHURJA, a town of British India, in the Bulandshahr district of the
United Provinces, 27 m. N.W. of Aligarh, near the main line of the East
Indian railway. Pop. (1901), 29,277. It is an important centre of trade
in grain, indigo, sugar and _ghi_, and has cotton gins and presses and a
manufacture of pottery. Jain traders form a large and wealthy class; and
the principal building in the town is a modern Jain temple, a fine domed
structure richly carved and ornamented in gold and colours.

KHYBER PASS, the most important of the passes which lead from
Afghanistan into India. It is a narrow defile winding between cliffs of
shale and limestone 600 to 1000 ft. high, stretching up to more lofty
mountains behind. No other pass in the world has possessed such
strategic importance or retains so many historic associations as this
gateway to the plains of India. It has probably seen Persian and Greek,
Seljuk, Tatar, Mongol and Durani conquerors, with the hosts of Alexander
the Great, Mahmud of Ghazni, Jenghiz Khan, Timur, Baber, Nadir Shah,
Ahmed Shah, and numerous other warrior chiefs pass and repass through
its rocky defiles during a period of 2000 years. The mountain barrier
which separates the Peshawar plains from the Afghan highlands differs in
many respects from the mountain barrier which intervenes between the
Indus plains and the plateau farther south. To the south this barrier
consists of a series of flexures folded parallel to the river, through
which the plateau drainage breaks down in transverse lines forming
gorges and clefts as it cuts through successive ridges. West of Peshawar
the strike of the mountain systems is roughly from west to east, and
this formation is maintained with more or less regularity as far south
as the Tochi River and Waziristan. Almost immediately west of Peshawar,
and stretching along the same parallel of latitude from the meridian of
Kabul to within ten miles of the Peshawar cantonment, is the great
central range of the Safed Koh, which forms throughout its long,
straight line of rugged peaks the southern wall, or water-divide, of the
Kabul River basin. About the meridian of 71 E. it forks, sending off to
the north-east what is locally known as a spur to the Kabul River, but
which is geographically only part of that stupendous water-divide which
hedges in the Kunar and Chitral valleys, and, under the name of the
Shandur Range, unites with the Hindu Kush near the head of the
Taghdumbash Pamir. The Kabul River breaks through this northern spur of
the Safed Koh; and in breaking through it is forced to the northward in
a curved channel or trough, deeply sunk in the mountains between
terrific cliffs and precipices, where its narrow waterway affords no
foothold to man or beast for many miles. To reach the Kabul River within
Afghan territory it is necessary to pass over this water-divide; and the
Khyber stream, flowing down from the pass at Landi Kotal to a point in
the plains opposite Jamrud, 9 m. W. of Peshawar, affords the

Pursuing the main road from Peshawar to Kabul, the fort of Jamrud, which
commands the British end of the Khyber Pass, lies some 11 m. W. of
Peshawar. The road leads through a barren stony plain, cut up by
water-courses and infested by all the worst cut-throats in the Peshawar
district. Some three miles beyond Jamrud the road enters the mountains
at an opening called Shadi Bagiar, and here the Khyber proper begins.
The highway runs for a short distance through the bed of a ravine, and
then joins the road made by Colonel Mackeson in 1839-1842, until it
ascends on the left-hand side to a plateau called Shagai. From here can
be seen the fort of Ali Masjid, which commands the centre of the pass,
and which has been the scene of more than one famous siege. Still going
westward the road turns to the right, and by an easy zigzag descends to
the river of Ali Masjid, and runs along its bank. The new road along
this cliff was made by the British during the Second Afghan War
(1879-80), and here is the narrowest part of the Khyber, not more than
15 ft. broad, with the Rhotas hill on the right fully 2000 ft. overhead.
Some three miles farther on the valley widens, and on either side lie
the hamlets and some sixty towers of the Zakka Khel Afridis. Then comes
the Loargi Shinwari plateau, some seven miles in length and three in its
widest part, ending at Landi Kotal, where is another British fort, which
closes this end of the Khyber and overlooks the plains of Afghanistan.
After leaving Landi Kotal the great Kabul highway passes between low
hills, until it debouches on the Kabul River and leads to Dakka. The
whole of the Khyber Pass from end to end lies within the country of the
Afridis, and is now recognized as under British control. From Shadi
Bagiar on the east to Landi Kotal on the west is about 20 m. in a
straight line.

The Khyber has been adopted by the British as the main road to Kabul,
but its difficulties (before they were overcome by British engineers)
were such that it was never so regarded by former rulers of India. The
old road to India left the Kabul River near its junction with the Kunar,
and crossed the great divide between the Kunar valley and Bajour; then
it turned southwards to the plains. During the first Afghan War the
Khyber was the scene of many skirmishes with the Afridis and some
disasters to the British troops. In July 1839 Colonel Wade captured the
fortress of Ali Masjid. In 1842, when Jalalabad was blockaded, Colonel
Moseley was sent to occupy the same fort, but was compelled to evacuate
it after a few days owing to scarcity of provisions. In April of the
same year it was reoccupied by General Pollock in his advance to Kabul.
It was at Ali Masjid that Sir Neville Chamberlain's friendly mission to
the amir Shere Ali was stopped in 1878, thus causing the second Afghan
War; and on the outbreak of that war Ali Masjid was captured by Sir
Samuel Browne. The treaty which closed the war in May 1879 left the
Khyber tribes under British control. From that time the pass was
protected by jezailchis drawn from the Afridi tribe, who were paid a
subsidy by the British government. For 18 years, from 1879 onward,
Colonel R. Warburton controlled the Khyber, and for the greater part of
that time secured its safety; but his term of office came to an end
synchronously with the wave of fanaticism which swept along the
north-west border of India during 1897. The Afridis were persuaded by
their mullahs to attack the pass, which they themselves had guaranteed.
The British government were warned of the intended movement, but only
withdrew the British officers belonging to the Khyber Rifles, and left
the pass to its fate. The Khyber Rifles, deserted by their officers,
made a half-hearted resistance to their fellow-tribesmen, and the pass
fell into the hands of the Afridis, and remained in their possession for
some months. This was the chief cause of the Tirah Expedition of 1897.
The Khyber Rifles were afterwards strengthened, and divided into two
battalions commanded by four British officers.

  See _Eighteen Years in the Khyber_, by Sir Robert Warburton (1900);
  _Indian Borderland_, by Sir T. Holdich (1901).     (T. H. H.*)

KIAKHTA, a town of Siberia, one of the chief centres of trade between
Russia and China, on the Kiakhta, an affluent of the Selenga, and on an
elevated plain surrounded by mountains, in the Russian government of
Transbaikalia, 320 m. S.W. of Chita, the capital, and close to the
Chinese frontier, in 50° 20´ N., 106° 40´ E. Besides the lower town or
Kiakhta proper, the municipal jurisdiction comprises the fortified upper
town of Troitskosavsk, about 2 m. N., and the settlement of Ust-Kiakhta,
10 m. farther distant. The lower town stands directly opposite to the
Chinese emporium of Maimachin, is surrounded by walls, and consists
principally of one broad street and a large exchange courtyard. From
1689 to 1727 the trade of Kiakhta was a government monopoly, but in the
latter year it was thrown open to private merchants, and continued to
improve until 1860, when the right of commercial intercourse was
extended along the whole Russian-Chinese frontier. The annual December
fairs for which Kiakhta was formerly famous, and also the regular
traffic passing through the town, have considerably fallen off since
that date. The Russians exchange here leather, sheepskins, furs, horns,
woollen cloths, coarse linens and cattle for teas (in value 95% of the
entire imports), porcelain, rhubarb, manufactured silks, nankeens and
other Chinese produce. The population, including Ust-Kiakhta (5000) and
Troitskosavsk (9213 in 1897), is nearly 20,000.

KIANG-SI, an eastern province of China, bounded N. by Hu-peh and
Ngan-hui, S. by Kwang-tung, E. by Fu-kien, and W. by Hu-nan. It has an
area of 72,176 sq. m., and a population returned at 22,000,000. It is
divided into fourteen prefectures. The provincial capital is Nan-ch'ang
Fu, on the Kan Kiang, about 35 m. from the Po-yang Lake. The whole
province is traversed in a south-westerly and north-easterly direction
by the Nan-shan ranges. The largest river is the Kan Kiang, which rises
in the mountains in the south of the province and flows north-east to
the Po-yang Lake. It was over the Meiling Pass and down this river that,
in old days, embassies landing at Canton proceeded to Peking. During the
summer time it has water of sufficient depth for steamers of light draft
as far as Nan-ch'ang, and it is navigable by native craft for a
considerable distance beyond that city. Another river of note is the
Chang Kiang, which has its source in the province of Ngan-hui and flows
into the Po-yang Lake, connecting in its course the Wu-yuen district,
whence come the celebrated "Moyune" green teas, and the city of
King-te-chên, celebrated for its pottery, with Jao-chow Fu on the lake.
The black "Kaisow" teas are brought from the Ho-kow district, where they
are grown, down the river Kin to Juy-hung on the lake, and the Siu-ho
connects by a navigable stream I-ning Chow, in the neighbourhood of
which city the best black teas of this part of China are produced, with
Wu-ching, the principal mart of trade on the lake. The principal
products of the province are tea, China ware, grass-cloth, hemp, paper,
tobacco and tallow. Kiu-kiang, the treaty port of the province, opened
to foreign trade in 1861, is on the Yangtsze-kiang, a short distance
above the junction of the Po-yang Lake with that river.

KIANG-SU, a maritime province of China, bounded N. by Shantung, S. by
Cheh-kiang, W. by Ngan-hui, and E. by the sea. It has an area of 45,000
sq. m., and a population estimated at 21,000,000. Kiang-su forms part of
the great plain of northern China. There are no mountains within its
limits, and few hills. It is watered as no other province in China is
watered. The Grand Canal runs through it from south to north; the
Yangtsze-kiang crosses its southern portion from west to east; it
possesses several lakes, of which the T'ai-hu is the most noteworthy,
and numberless streams connect the canal with the sea. Its coast is
studded with low islands and sandbanks, the results of the deposits
brought down by the Hwang-ho. Kiang-su is rich in places of interest.
Nanking, "the Southern Capital," was the seat of the Chinese court until
the beginning of the 15th century, and it was the headquarters of the
T'ai-p'ing rebels from 1853, when they took the city by assault, to
1864, when its garrison yielded to Colonel Gordon's army. Hang-chow Fu
and Su-chow Fu, situated on the T'ai-hu, are reckoned the most beautiful
cities in China. "Above there is Paradise, below are Su and Hang," says
a Chinese proverb. Shang-hai is the chief port in the province. In 1909
it was connected by railway (270 m. long) via Su-Chow and Chin-kiang
with Nanking. Tea and silk are the principal articles of commerce
produced in Kiang-su, and next in importance are cotton, sugar and
medicines. The silk manufactured in the looms of Su-chow is famous all
over the empire. In the mountains near Nanking, coal, plumbago, iron ore
and marble are found. Shang-hai, Chin-kiang, Nanking and Su-chow are the
treaty ports of the province.

KIAOCHOW BAY, a large inlet on the south side of the promontory of
Shantung, in China. It was seized in November 1897 by the German fleet,
nominally to secure reparation for the murder of two German missionaries
in the province of Shantung. In the negotiations which followed, it was
arranged that the bay and the land on both sides of the entrance within
certain defined lines should be leased to Germany for 99 years. During
the continuance of the lease Germany exercises all the rights of
territorial sovereignty, including the right to erect fortifications.
The area leased is about 117 sq. m., and over a further area, comprising
a zone of some 32 m., measured from any point on the shore of the bay,
the Chinese government may not issue any ordinances without the consent
of Germany. The native population in the ceded area is about 60,000. The
German government in 1899 declared Kiaochow a free port. By arrangement
with the Chinese government a branch of the Imperial maritime customs
has been established there for the collection of duties upon goods
coming from or going to the interior, in accordance with the general
treaty tariff. Trade centres at Ts'ingtao, a town within the bay. The
country in the neighbourhood is mountainous and bare, but the lowlands
are well cultivated. Ts'ingtao is connected by railway with Chinan Fu,
the capital of the province; a continuation of the same line provides
for a junction with the main Lu-Han (Peking-Hankow) railway. The value
of the trade of the port during 1904 was £2,712,145 (£1,808,113 imports
and £904,032 exports).

KICKAPOO ("he moves about"), the name of a tribe of North American
Indians of Algonquian stock. When first met by the French they were in
central Wisconsin. They subsequently removed to the Ohio valley. They
fought on the English side in the War of Independence and that of 1812.
In 1852 a large band went to Texas and Mexico and gave much trouble to
the settlers; but in 1873 the bulk of the tribe was settled on its
present reservation in Oklahoma. They number some 800, of whom about a
third are still in Mexico.

KIDD, JOHN (1775-1851), English physician, chemist and geologist, born
at Westminster on the 10th of September 1775, was the son of a naval
officer, Captain John Kidd. He was educated at Bury St Edmunds and
Westminster, and afterwards at Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated
B.A. in 1797 (M.D. in 1804). He also studied at Guy's Hospital, London
(1797-1801), where he was a pupil of Sir Astley Cooper. He became reader
in chemistry at Oxford in 1801, and in 1803 was elected the first
Aldrichian professor of chemistry. He then voluntarily gave courses of
lectures on mineralogy and geology: these were delivered in the dark
chambers under the Ashmolean Museum, and there J. J. and W. D.
Conybeare, W. Buckland, C. G. B. Daubeny and others gained their first
lessons in geology. Kidd was a popular and instructive lecturer, and
through his efforts the geological chair, first held by Buckland, was
established. In 1818 he became a F.R.C.P.; in 1822 regius professor of
medicine in succession to Sir Christopher Pegge; and in 1834 he was
appointed keeper of the Radcliffe Library. He delivered the Harveian
oration before the Royal College of Physicians in 1834. He died at
Oxford on the 7th of September 1851.

  PUBLICATIONS.--_Outlines of Mineralogy_ (2 vols., 1809); _A Geological
  Essay on the Imperfect Evidence in Support of a Theory of the Earth_
  (1815); _On the Adaptation of External Nature to the Physical
  Condition of Man_, 1833 (Bridgewater Treatise).

KIDD, THOMAS (1770-1850), English classical scholar and schoolmaster,
was born in Yorkshire. He was educated at Giggleswick School and Trinity
College, Cambridge. He held numerous scholastic and clerical
appointments, the last being the rectory of Croxton, near Cambridge,
where he died on the 27th of August 1850. Kidd was an intimate friend of
Porson and Charles Burney the younger. He contributed largely to
periodicals, chiefly on classical subjects, but his reputation mainly
rests upon his editions of the works of other scholars: _Opuscula
Ruhnkeniana_ (1807), the minor works of the great Dutch scholar David
Ruhnken; _Miscellanea Critica_ of Richard Dawes (2nd ed., 1827); _Tracts
and Miscellaneous Criticisms_ of Richard Porson (1815). He also
published an edition of the works of Horace (1817) based upon Bentley's

KIDD, WILLIAM [CAPTAIN KIDD] (c. 1645-1701), privateer and pirate, was
born, perhaps, in Greenock, Scotland, but his origin is quite obscure.
He told Paul Lorraine, the ordinary of Newgate, that he was "about 56"
at the time of his condemnation for piracy in 1701. In 1691 an award
from the council of New York of £150 was given him for his services
during the disturbances in the colony after the revolution of 1688. He
was commissioned later to chase a hostile privateer off the coast, is
described as an owner of ships, and is known to have served with credit
against the French in the West Indies. In 1695 he came to London with a
sloop of his own to trade. Colonel R. Livingston (1654-1724), a
well-known New York landowner, recommended him to the newly appointed
colonial governor Lord Bellomont, as a fit man to command a vessel to
cruise against the pirates in the Eastern seas (see PIRATE).
Accordingly the "Adventure Galley," a vessel of 30 guns and 275 tons,
was privately fitted out, and the command given to Captain Kidd, who
received the king's commission to arrest and bring to trial all pirates,
and a commission of reprisals against the French. Kidd sailed from
Plymouth in May 1696 for New York, where he filled up his crew, and in
1697 reached Madagascar, the pirates' principal rendezvous. He made no
effort whatever to hunt them down. On the contrary he associated himself
with a notorious pirate named Culliford. The fact would seem to be that
Kidd meant only to capture French ships. When he found none he captured
native trading vessels, under pretence that they were provided with
French passes and were fair prize, and he plundered on the coast of
Malabar. During 1698-1699 complaints reached the British government as
to the character of his proceedings. Lord Bellomont was instructed to
apprehend him if he should return to America. Kidd deserted the
"Adventure" in Madagascar, and sailed for America in one of his prizes,
the "Quedah Merchant," which he also left in the West Indies. He reached
New England in a small sloop with several of his crew and wrote to
Bellomont, professing his ability to justify himself and sending the
governor booty. He was arrested in July 1699, was sent to England and
tried, first for the murder of one of his crew, and then with others for
piracy. He was found guilty on both charges, and hanged at Execution
Dock, London, on the 23rd of May 1701. The evidence against him was that
of two members of his crew, the surgeon and a sailor who turned king's
evidence, but no other witnesses could be got in such circumstances, as
the judge told him when he protested. "Captain Kidd's Treasure" has been
sought by various expeditions and about £14,000 was recovered from
Kidd's ship and from Gardiner's Island (off the E. end of Long Island);
but its magnitude was palpably exaggerated. He left a wife and child at
New York. The so-called ballad about him is a poor imitation of the
authentic chant of Admiral Benbow.

  Much has been written about Kidd, less because of the intrinsic
  interest of his career than because the agreement made with him by
  Bellomont was the subject of violent political controversy. The best
  popular account is in _An Historical Sketch of Robin Hood and Captain
  Kidd_ by W. W. Campbell (New York, 1853), in which the essential
  documents are quoted. But see PIRATE.

KIDDERMINSTER, a market town and municipal and parliamentary borough of
Worcestershire, England, 135½ m. N.W. by W. from London and 15 m. N. of
Worcester by the Great Western railway, on the river Stour and the
Staffordshire and Worcestershire canal. Pop. (1901), 24,692. The parish
church of All Saints, well placed above the river, is a fine Early
English and Decorated building, with Perpendicular additions. Of other
buildings the principal are the town hall (1876), the corporation
buildings, and the school of science and art and free library. There is
a free grammar school founded in 1637. A public recreation ground,
Brinton Park, was opened in 1887. Richard Baxter, who was elected by the
townsfolk as their minister in 1641, was instrumental in saving the town
from a reputation of ignorance and depravity caused by the laxity of
their clergy. He is commemorated by a statue, as is Sir Rowland Hill,
the introducer of penny postage, who was born here in 1795.
Kidderminster is chiefly celebrated for its carpets. The permanency of
colour by which they are distinguished is attributed to the properties
of the water of the Stour, which is impregnated with iron and fuller's
earth. Worsted spinning and dyeing are also carried on, and there are
iron foundries, tinplate works, breweries, malthouses, &c. The
parliamentary borough returns one member. The town is governed by a
mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors. Area, 1214 acres.

In 736 lands upon the river Stour, called Stour in Usmere, which have
been identified with the site of Kidderminster (_Chideminstre_), were
given to Earl Cyneberght by King Æthelbald to found a monastery. If this
monastery was ever built, it was afterwards annexed to the church of
Worcester, and the lands on the Stour formed part of the gift of
Coenwulf, king of the Mercians, to Deneberht, bishop of Worcester, but
were exchanged with the same king in 816 for other property. At the
Domesday Survey, Kidderminster was still in the hands of the king and
remained a royal manor until Henry II. granted it to Manser Biset. The
poet Edmund Waller was one of the 17th century lords of the manor. The
town was possibly a borough in 1187 when the men paid £4 to an aid. As a
royal possession it appears to have enjoyed various privileges in the
12th century, among them the right of choosing a bailiff to collect the
toll and render it to the king, and to elect six burgesses and send them
to the view of frankpledge twice a year. The first charter of
incorporation, granted in 1636, appointed a bailiff and 12 capital
burgesses forming a common council. The town was governed under this
charter until the Municipal Reform Act of 1835. Kidderminster sent two
members to the parliament of 1295, but was not again represented until
the privilege of sending one member was conferred by the Reform Act of
1832. The first mention of the cloth trade for which Kidderminster was
formerly noted occurs in 1334, when it was enacted that no one should
make woollen cloth in the borough without the bailiff's seal. At the end
of the 18th century the trade was still important, but it began to
decline after the invention of machinery, probably owing to the poverty
of the manufacturers. The manufacture of woollen goods was however
replaced by that of carpets, introduced in 1735. At first only the
"Kidderminster" carpets were made, but in 1749 a Brussels loom was set
up in the town and Brussels carpets were soon produced in large

  See _Victoria County History: Worcestershire_; J. R. Burton, _A
  History of Kidderminster, with Short Accounts of some Neighbouring
  Parishes_ (1890).

KIDNAPPING (from _kid_, a slang term for a child, and _nap_ or _nab_, to
steal), originally the stealing and carrying away of children and others
to serve as servants or labourers in the American plantations; it was
defined by Blackstone as the forcible abduction or stealing away of a
man, woman or child from their own country and sending them into
another. The difference between kidnapping, abduction (q.v.) and false
imprisonment is not very great; indeed, kidnapping may be said to be a
form of assault and false imprisonment, aggravated by the carrying of
the person to some other place. The term is, however, more commonly
applied in England to the offence of taking away children from the
possession of their parents. By the Offences against the Person Act
1861, "whosoever shall unlawfully, by force or fraud, lead or take away
or decoy or entice away or detain any child under the age of fourteen
years with intent to deprive any parent, guardian or other person having
the lawful care or charge of such child of the possession of such child,
or with intent to steal any article upon or about the person of such
child, to whomsoever such article may belong, and whosoever shall with
any such intent receive or harbour any such child, &c.," shall be guilty
of felony, and is liable to penal servitude for not more than seven
years, or to imprisonment for any term not more than two years with or
without hard labour. The abduction or unlawfully taking away an
unmarried girl under sixteen out of the possession and against the will
of her father or mother, or any other person having the lawful care or
charge of her, is a misdemeanour under the same act. The term is used in
much the same sense in the United States.

  The kidnapping or forcible taking away of persons to serve at sea is
  treated under IMPRESSMENT.

KIDNEY DISEASES.[1] (For the anatomy of the kidneys, see URINARY
SYSTEM.) The results of morbid processes in the kidney may be grouped
under three heads: the actual lesions produced, the effects of these on
the composition of the urine, and the effects of the kidney-lesion on
the body at large. Affections of the kidney are congenital or acquired.
When acquired they may be the result of a pathological process limited
to the kidney, in which case they are spoken of as primary, or an
accompaniment of disease in other parts of the body, when they may be
spoken of as secondary.

  _Congenital Affections._--The principal congenital affections are
  anomalies in the number or position of the kidneys or of their ducts;
  atrophy; cystic disease and growths. The most common abnormality is
  the existence of a _single kidney_; rarely a supernumerary kidney may
  be present. The presence of a single kidney may be due to failure of
  development, or to atrophy in foetal life; it may also be dependent on
  the fusion of originally separate kidneys in such a way as to lead to
  the formation of a _horse-shoe kidney_, the two organs being connected
  at their lower ends. In some cases of horse-shoe kidney the organs are
  united merely by fibrous tissue. Occasionally the two kidneys are
  fused end to end, with two ureters. A third variety is that where the
  fusion is more complete, producing a disk-like mass with two ureters.
  The kidneys may be situated in _abnormal positions_; thus they may be
  in front of the sacro-iliac articulation, in the pelvis, or in the
  iliac fossa. The importance of such displacements lies in the fact
  that the organs may be mistaken for tumours. In some cases _atrophy_
  is associated with mal-development, so that only the medullary portion
  of the kidney is developed; in others it is associated with arterial
  obstruction, and sometimes it may be dependent upon obstruction of the
  ureter. In _congenital cystic disease_ the organ is transformed into a
  mass of cysts, and the enlargement of the kidneys may be so great as
  to produce difficulties in birth. The cystic degeneration is caused by
  obstruction of the uriniferous tubules or by anomalies in development,
  with persistence of portions of the Wolffian body. In some cases
  cystic degeneration is accompanied by anomalies in the ureters and in
  the arterial supply. _Growths of the kidney_ are sometimes found in
  infants; they are usually malignant, and may consist of a peculiar
  form of sarcoma, which has been spoken of as rhabdo-sarcoma, owing to
  the presence in the mass of involuntary muscular fibres. The existence
  of these tumours is dependent on anomalies of development; the tissue
  which forms the primitive kidney belongs to the same layer as that
  which gives rise to the muscular system (mesoblast). _Anomalies of the
  excretory ducts_: in some cases the ureter is double, in others it is
  greatly dilated; in others the pelvis of the kidney may be greatly
  dilated, with or without dilatation of the ureter.

  _Acquired Affections. Movable Kidney._--One or both of the kidneys in
  the adult may be preternaturally mobile. This condition is more common
  in women, and is usually the result of a severe shaking or other form
  of injury, or of the abdominal walls becoming lax as a sequel to
  abdominal distension, to emaciation or pregnancy, or to the effects of
  tight-lacing. The more extreme forms of movable kidney are dependent,
  generally, on anomalies in the arrangement of the peritoneum, so that
  the organ has a partial mesentery; and to this condition, where the
  kidney can be moved freely from one part of the abdomen to another,
  the term _floating kidney_ is applied. But more usually the organ is
  loose under the peritoneum, and not efficiently supported in its fatty
  bed. Movable kidney produces a variety of symptoms, such as pain in
  the loin and back, faintness, nausea and vomiting--and the function of
  the organ may be seriously interfered with, owing to the ureter
  becoming kinked. In this way hydronephrosis, or distension of the
  kidney with urine, may be produced. The return of blood through the
  renal vein may also be hindered, and temporary vascular engorgement of
  the kidney, with haematuria, may be produced.

  In some cases the movable kidney may be satisfactorily kept in its
  place by a pad and belt, but in other cases an operation has to be
  undertaken. This consists in exposing the kidney (generally the right)
  through an incision below the last rib, and fixing it in its proper
  position by several permanent sutures of silk or silkworm gut. The
  operation is neither difficult nor dangerous, and its results are

  _Embolism._--The arrangement of the blood-vessels of the kidney is
  peculiarly favourable to the production of wedge-shaped areas of
  necrosis, the result of a blocking by clots. Sometimes the clot is
  detached from the interior of the heart, the effect being an arrest of
  the circulation in the part of the kidney supplied by the blocked
  artery. In other cases, the plug is infective owing to the presence of
  septic micro-organisms, and this is likely to lead to the formation of
  small pyaemic abscesses. It is exceptional for the large branches of
  the renal artery to be blocked, so that the symptoms produced in the
  ordinary cases are only the temporary appearance of blood or albumen
  in the urine. Blocking of the main renal vessels as a result of
  disease of the walls of the vessels may lead to disorganization of the
  kidneys. Blocking of the veins, leading to extreme congestion of the
  kidney, also occurs. It is seen in cases of extreme weakness and
  wasting, sometimes in septic conditions, as in puerperal pyaemia,
  where a clot, formed first in one of the pelvic veins, may spread up
  the vena cava and secondarily block the renal veins. Thrombosis of the
  renal vein also occurs in malignant disease of the kidney and in
  certain forms of chronic Bright's disease.

  _Passive congestion_ of the kidneys occurs in heart-diseases and
  lung-diseases, where the return of venous blood is interfered with. It
  may also be produced by tumours pressing on the vena cava. The
  engorged kidneys become brownish red, enlarged and fibroid, and they
  secrete a scanty, high-coloured urine.

  _Active congestion_ is produced by the excretion in the urine of such
  materials as turpentine and cantharides and the toxins of various
  diseases. These irritants produce engorgement and inflammation of the
  kidney, much as they would that of any other structures with which
  they come in contact. Renal disturbance is often the result of the
  excretion of microbic poisons. Extreme congestion of the kidneys may
  be produced by exposure to cold, owing to some intimate relationship
  existing between the cutaneous and the renal vessels, the constriction
  of the one being accompanied by the dilatation of the other. Infective
  diseases, such as typhoid fever, pneumonia, scarlet fever, in fact,
  most acute specific diseases, produce during their height a temporary
  nephritis, not usually followed by permanent alteration in the kidney;
  but some acute diseases cause a nephritis which may lay the foundation
  of permanent renal disease. This is most common as a result of scarlet

  _Bright's disease_ is the term applied to certain varieties of acute
  and chronic inflammation of the kidney. Three forms are usually
  recognized--acute, chronic and the granular or cirrhotic kidney. In
  the more common form of granular kidney the renal lesion is only part
  of a widespread affection involving the whole arterial system, and is
  not actually related to Bright's disease. _Chronic Bright's disease_
  is sometimes the sequel to acute Bright's disease, but in a great
  number of cases the malady is chronic from the beginning. The lesions
  of the kidney are probably produced by irritation of the
  kidney-structures owing to the excretion of toxic substances either
  ingested or formed in the body; it is thought by some that the malady
  may arise as a result of exposure to cold. The principal causes of
  Bright's disease are alcoholism, gout, pregnancy and the action of
  such poisons as lead; it may also occur as a sequel to acute diseases,
  such as scarlet fever. Persons following certain occupations are
  peculiarly liable to Bright's disease, e.g. engineers who work in hot
  shops and pass out into the cold air scantily clothed; and painters,
  in whom the malady is dependent on the action of lead on the kidney.
  In the case of alcohol and lead the poison is ingested; in the case of
  scarlet fever, pneumonia, and perhaps pregnancy, the toxic agent
  causing the renal affection is formed in the body. In Bright's disease
  all the elements of the kidney, the glomeruli, the tubular epithelium,
  and the interstitial tissue, are affected. When the disease follows
  scarlet fever, the glomerular structures are mostly affected, the
  capsules being thickened by fibrous tissue, and the glomerular tuft
  compressed and atrophied. The epithelium of the convoluted tubules
  undergoes degeneration; considerable quantities of it are shed, and
  form the well-known casts in the urine. The tubules become blocked by
  the epithelium, and distended with the pent-up urine; this is one
  cause of the increase in size that the kidneys undergo in certain
  forms of Bright's disease. The lesions in the tubules and in the
  glomeruli are not generally uniform. The interstitial tissue is always
  affected, and exudation, proliferation and formation of fibrous tissue
  occur. In the granular and contracted kidney the lesion in the
  interstitial tissue reaches a high degree of development, little renal
  secreting tissue being left. Such tubules as remain are dilated, and
  the epithelium lining them is altered, the cells becoming hyaline and
  losing their structure. The vessels are narrowed owing to thickening
  of the subendothelial layer, and the muscular coat undergoes
  hypertrophic and fibroid changes, so that the vessels are abnormally
  rigid. When the overgrowth of fibrous tissue is considerable, the
  surface of the organ becomes uneven, and it is for this reason that
  the term _granular kidney_ has been applied to the condition. In acute
  Bright's disease the kidney is increased in size and engorged with
  blood, the changes described above being in active progress. In the
  chronic form the kidney may be large or small, and is usually white or
  mottled. If large, the cortex is thickened, pale and waxy, and the
  pyramids are congested; if small, the fibrous change has advanced and
  the cortex is diminished. Bright's disease, both acute and chronic, is
  essentially a disease of the cortical secreting portion of the kidney.
  The true granular kidney, classified by some as a third variety, is
  usually part of a general arterial degeneration, the overgrowth of
  fibrous tissue in the kidney and the lesions in the arteries being
  well marked.

  The principal degenerations affecting the kidney are the fatty and the
  albuminoid. _Fatty degeneration_ often reaches a high degree in
  alcoholics, where fatty degeneration of the heart and liver are also
  present. _Albuminoid disease_ is frequently associated with some
  varieties of Bright's disease, and is also seen as a result of chronic
  bone disease, or of long-continued suppuration involving other parts
  of the body, or of syphilis. It is due to irritation of the kidneys by
  toxic products.

  _Growths of the Kidney._--The principal growths are tubercle, adenoma,
  sarcoma and carcinoma. In addition, fatty and fibrous growths, the
  nodules of glanders and the gummata of syphilis, may be mentioned.
  Tuberculous disease is sometimes primary; more frequently it is
  secondary to tubercle in other portions of the genito-urinary
  apparatus. The genito-urinary tract may be infected by tubercle in
  two ways; _ascending_, in which the primary lesion is in the testicle,
  epididymis, or urinary bladder, the lesion travelling up by the ureter
  or the lymphatics to the kidney; _descending_, where the tubercle
  bacillus reaches the kidney through the blood-vessels. In the latter
  case, miliary tubercles, as scattered granules, are seen, especially
  in the cortex of the kidney; the lesion is likely to be bilateral. In
  primary tuberculosis, and in ascending tuberculosis, the lesion is at
  first unilateral. _Malignant disease_ of the kidney takes the form of
  sarcoma or carcinoma. Sometimes it is dependent on the malignant
  growths starting in what are spoken of as "adrenal rests" in the
  cortex of the kidney. Sarcoma is most often seen in the young;
  carcinoma in the middle-aged and elderly. Carcinoma may be primary or
  secondary, but the kidney is not so prone to malignant disease as
  other organs, such as the stomach, bowel or liver.

  _Cystic Kidneys._--Cysts may be single--sometimes of large size.
  Scattered small cysts are met with in chronic Bright's disease and in
  granular contracted kidney, where the dilatation of tubules reaches a
  high degree. Certain growths, such as adenomata, are liable to cystic
  degeneration, and cysts are also found in malignant disease. Finally,
  there is a rare condition of general cystic disease somewhat similar
  to the congenital affection. In this form the kidneys, greatly
  enlarged, consist of a congeries of cysts separated by the remains of
  renal tissue.

  _Parasitic Affections._--The more common parasites affecting the
  kidney, or some other portion of the urinary tract, and causing
  disease, are filaria, bilharzia and the cysticercus form of the
  _taenia echinococcus_ (hydatids). The presence of _filaria_ in the
  thoracic duct and other lymph-channels may determine the presence of
  chyle in the urine, together with the ova and young forms of the
  filaria, owing to the distension and rupture of a lymphatic vessel
  into some portion of the urinary tract. This is the common cause of
  chyluria in hot climates, but chyluria is occasionally seen in the
  United Kingdom without filaria. _Bilharzia_, especially in Egypt and
  South Africa, causes haematuria. The cysticercus form of the _taenia
  echinococcus_ leads to the production of hydatid cysts in the kidney;
  this organ, however, is not so often affected as the liver.

  _Stone in the Kidney._--Calculi are frequently found in the kidney,
  consisting usually of uric acid, sometimes of oxalates, more rarely of
  phosphates. Calculous disease of the bladder (q.v.) is generally the
  sequel to the formation of a stone in the kidney, which, passing down,
  becomes coated by the salts in the urine. Calculi are usually formed
  in the pelvis of the kidney, and their formation is dependent either
  on the excessive amounts of uric acid, oxalic acid, &c., in the urine,
  or on an alteration in the composition of the urine, such as increased
  acidity, or on uric acid or oxalate of lime being present in an
  abnormal amount. The formation of abnormal crystals is often due to
  the presence of some colloid, such as blood, mucus or albumen, in the
  secretion, modifying the crystalline form. Once a minute calculus has
  been formed, its subsequent growth is highly probable, owing to the
  deposition on it of the urinary constituent forming it. Calculi formed
  in the pelvis of the kidney may be single and may reach a very large
  size, forming, indeed, an actual cast of the interior of the expanded
  kidney. At other times they are multiple and of varying size. They may
  give rise to no symptoms, or on the other hand may cause distressing
  renal colic, especially when they are small and loose and are passed
  or are trying to be passed. Serious complications may result from the
  presence of a stone in the kidney, such as hydronephrosis, from the
  urinary secretion being pent up behind the obstruction, or complete
  suppression, which is apparently produced reflexly through the nervous
  system. In such cases the surgical removal of the stone is often
  followed by the restoration of the renal secretion.

  The symptoms of _renal calculus_ may be very slight, or they may be
  entirely absent if the stone is moulding itself into the interior of
  the kidney; but if the stone is movable, heavy and rough, it may cause
  great distress, especially during exercise. There will probably be
  blood in the urine; and there will be pain in the loin and thigh and
  down into the testicle. The testicle also may be drawn up by its
  suspensory muscle, and there may be irritability of the bladder. With
  stone in one kidney the pains may be actually referred to the kidney
  of the other side. Generally, but not always, there is tenderness in
  the loin. If the stone is composed of lime it may throw a shadow on
  the Röntgen plate, but other stones may give no shadow.

  _Renal colic_ is the acute pain felt when a small stone is travelling
  down the ureter to the bladder. The pain is at times so acute that
  fomentations, morphia and hot baths fail to ease it, and nothing short
  of chloroform gives relief.

  For the _operative treatment of renal calculus_ an incision is made a
  little below the last rib, and, the muscles having been traversed, the
  kidney is reached on the surface which is not covered by peritoneum.
  Most likely the stone is then felt, so it is cut down upon and
  removed. If it is not discoverable on gently pinching the kidney
  between the finger and thumb, the kidney had better be opened in its
  convex border and explored by the finger. Often it has happened that
  when a man has presented most of the symptoms of renal calculus and
  has been operated on with a negative result as regards finding a
  stone, all the symptoms have nevertheless disappeared as the direct
  result of the blank operation.

  _Pyelitis._--Inflammation of the pelvis of the kidney is generally
  produced by the extension of gonorrhoeal or other septic inflammation
  upwards from the bladder and lower urinary tract, or by the presence
  of stone or of tubercle in the pelvis of the kidney. Pyonephrosis, or
  distension of the kidney with pus, may result as a sequel to pyelitis
  or as a complication of hydronephrosis; in many cases the inflammation
  spreads to the capsule of the kidney, and leads to the formation of an
  abscess outside the kidney--a _perinephritic abscess_. In some cases a
  perinephritic abscess results from a septic plug in a blood-vessel of
  the kidney, or it may occur as the result of an injury to the loose
  cellular tissue surrounding the kidney, without lesion of the kidney.

  _Hydronephrosis_, or distension of the kidney with pent-up urine,
  results from obstruction of the ureter, although all obstructions of
  the ureter are not followed by it, calculous obstruction, as already
  noted, often causing complete suppression of urine. Obstruction of the
  ureter, causing hydronephrosis, is likely to be due to the impaction
  of a stone, or to pressure on the ureter from a tumour in the
  pelvis--as, for instance, a cancer of the uterus--or to some
  abnormality of the ureter. Sometimes a kink of the ureter of a movable
  kidney causes hydronephrosis. The hydronephrosis produced by
  obstruction of the ureter may be intermittent; and when a certain
  degree of distension is produced, either as a result of the shifting
  of the calculus or of some other cause, the obstruction is temporarily
  relieved in a great outflow of urine, and the urinary discharge is
  re-established. When the hydronephrosis has long existed the kidney is
  converted into a sac, the remains of the renal tissues being spread
  out as a thin layer.

  _Effects on the Urine._--Diseases of the kidney produce alterations in
  the composition of the urine; either the proportion of the normal
  constituents being altered, or substances not normally present being
  excreted. In most diseases the quantity of urinary water is
  diminished, especially in those in which the activity of the
  circulation is impaired. There are diseases, however, more especially
  the granular kidney and certain forms of chronic Bright's disease, in
  which the quantity of urinary water is considerably increased,
  notwithstanding the profound anatomical changes that have occurred in
  the kidney. There are two forms of suppression of the urine: one is
  _obstructive suppression_, seen where the ureter is blocked by stone
  or other morbid process; the other is _non-obstructive suppression_,
  which is apt to occur in advanced diseases of the kidney. In other
  cases complete suppression may occur as the result of injuries to
  distant parts of the body, as after severe surgical operations. In
  some diseases in which the quantity of urinary water excreted is
  normal, or even greater than normal, the efficiency of the renal
  activity is really diminished, inasmuch as the urine contains few
  solids. In estimating the efficiency of the kidneys, it is necessary
  to take into consideration the so-called "solid urine," that is to
  say, the quantity of solid matter daily excreted, as shown by the
  specific gravity of the urine. The nitrogenous constituents--urea,
  uric acid, creatinin, &c.--vary greatly in amount in different
  diseases. In most renal diseases the quantities of these substances
  are diminished because of the physiological impairment of the kidney.
  The chief abnormal constituents of the urine are serum-albumen,
  serum-globulin, albumoses (albuminuria), blood (haematuria), blood
  pigment (haemoglobinuria), pus (pyuria), chyle (chyluria) and pigments
  such as melanuria and urobilinuria.

  _Effects on the Body at large._--These may be divided into the
  persistent and the intermittent or transitory. The most important
  persistent effects produced by disease of the kidney are, first,
  nutritional changes leading to general ill health, wasting and
  cachexia; and, secondly, certain cardio-vascular phenomena, such as
  enlargement (hypertrophy) of the heart, and thickening of the inner,
  and degeneration of the middle, coat of the smaller arteries. Amongst
  the intermittent or transitory effects are dropsy, secondary
  inflammations of certain organs and serous cavities, and uraemia. Some
  of these effects are seen in every form of severe kidney disease, and
  uraemia may occur in any advanced kidney disease. Renal dropsy is
  chiefly seen in certain forms of Bright's disease, and the cardiac and
  arterial changes are commonest in cases of granular or contracted
  kidney, but may be absent in other diseases which destroy the kidney
  tissue, such as hydronephrosis. _Uraemia_ is a toxic condition, and
  three varieties of it are recognized--the acute, the chronic and the
  latent. Many of these effects are dependent upon the action of poisons
  retained in the body owing to the deficient action of the kidneys. It
  is also probable that abnormal substances having a toxic action are
  produced as a result of a perverted metabolism. Uraemia is of toxic
  origin, and it is probable that the dropsy of renal disease is due to
  effects produced in the capillaries by the presence of abnormal
  substances in the blood. High arterial tension, cardiac hypertrophy
  and arterial degeneration may also be of toxic origin, or they may be
  produced by an attempt of the body to maintain an active circulation
  through the greatly diminished amount of kidney tissue available.

  _Rupture of the kidney_ may result from a kick or other direct injury.
  Vomiting and collapse are likely to ensue, and most likely blood will
  appear in the urine, or a tumour composed of blood and urine may form
  in the renal region. An incision made into the swelling from the loin
  may enable the surgeon to see the torn kidney. An attempt should be
  made to save the kidney by suturing and draining; unless the damage
  is obviously past repair, the kidney should not be removed without
  giving nature a chance.     (J. R. B.; E. O.*)


  [1] The word "kidney" first appears in the early part of the 14th
    century in the form _kidenei_, with plural _kideneiren_, _kideneris_,
    _kidneers_, &c. It has been assumed that the second part of the word
    is "neer" or "near" (cf. Ger. _Niere_), the common dialect word for
    "kidney" in northern, north midland and eastern counties of England
    (see J. Wright, _English Dialect Dictionary_, 1903, _s.v._ Near), and
    that the first part represents the O.E. _cwið_, belly, womb; this the
    _New English Dictionary_ considers improbable; there is only one
    doubtful instance of singular _kidnere_ and the ordinary form ended
    in -_ei_ or _ey_. Possibly this represents M.E. _ey_, plur. _eyren_,
    egg, the name being given from the resemblance in shape. The first
    part is uncertain.

KIDWELLY (_Cydweli_), a decayed market-town and municipal borough of
Carmarthenshire, Wales, situated (as its name implies) near the junction
of two streams, the Gwendraeth Fawr and the Gwendraeth Fach, a short
distance from the shores of Carmarthen Bay. Pop. (1901), 2285. It has a
station on the Great Western railway. The chief attraction of Kidwelly
is its magnificent and well-preserved castle, one of the finest in South
Wales, dating chiefly from the 13th century and admirably situated on a
knoll above the Gwendraeth Fach. The parish church of St Mary, of the
14th century, possesses a lofty tower with a spire. The quiet little
town has had a stirring history. It was a place of some importance when
William de Londres, a companion of Fitz Hamon and his conquering
knights, first erected a castle here. In 1135 Kidwelly was furiously
attacked by Gwenllian, wife of Griffith ap Rhys, prince of South Wales,
and a battle, fought close to the town at a place still known as Maes
Gwenllian, ended in the total defeat and subsequent execution of the
Welsh princess. Later, the extensive lordship of Kidwelly became the
property through marriage of Henry, earl of Lancaster, and to this
circumstance is due the exclusive jurisdiction of the town. Kidwelly
received its first charter of incorporation from Henry VI.; its present
charter dating from 1618. The decline of Kidwelly is due to the
accumulation of sand at the mouth of the river, and to the consequent
prosperity of the neighbouring Llanelly.

KIEF, KEF or KEIF (a colloquial form of the Arabic _kaif_, pleasure or
enjoyment), the state of drowsy contentment produced by the use of
narcotics. To "do kef," or to "make kef," is to pass the time in such a
state. The word is used in northern Africa, especially in Morocco, for
the drug used for the purpose.

KIEL, the chief naval port of Germany on the Baltic, a town of the
Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein. Pop. (1900), 107,938; (1905),
163,710, including the incorporated suburbs. It is beautifully situated
at the southern end on the Kieler Busen (bay or harbour of Kiel), 70 m.
by rail N. from Hamburg. It consists of a somewhat cramped old town,
lying between the harbour and a sheet of water called Kleiner Kiel, and
a better built and more spacious new town, which has been increased by
the incorporation of the garden suburbs of Brunswick and Düsternbrook.
In the old town stands the palace, built in the 13th century, enlarged
in the 18th and restored after a fire in 1838. It was once the seat of
the dukes of Holstein-Gottorp, who resided here from 1721 to 1773, and
became the residence of Prince Henry of Prussia. Other buildings are the
church of St Nicholas (restored in 1877-1884), dating from 1240, with a
lofty steeple; the old town-hall on the market square; the church of the
Holy Ghost; three fine modern churches, those of St James, and St Jürgen
and of St Ansgar; and the theatre. Further to the north and facing the
bay is the university, founded in 1665 by Christian Albert, duke of
Schleswig, and named after him "Christian Albertina." The new buildings
were erected in 1876, and connected with them are a library of 240,000
volumes, a zoological museum, a hospital, a botanical garden and a
school of forestry. The university, which is celebrated as a medical
school, is attended by nearly 1000 students, and has a teaching staff of
over 100 professors and docents. Among other scientific and educational
institutions are the Schleswig-Holstein museum of national antiquities
in the old university buildings, the Thaulow museum (rich in
Schleswig-Holstein wood-carving of the 16th and 17th centuries), the
naval academy, the naval school and the school for engineers.

The pride of Kiel is its magnificent harbour, which has a comparatively
uniform depth of water, averaging 40 ft., and close to the shores 20 ft.
Its length is 11 m. and its breadth varies from ¼ m. at the southern end
to 4½ m. at the mouth. Its defences, which include two forts on the west
and four on the east side, all situated about 5 m. from the head of the
harbour at the place (Friedrichsort) where its shores approach one
another, make it a place of great strategic strength. The imperial docks
(five in all) and ship-building yards are on the east side facing the
town, between Gaarden and Ellerbeck, and comprise basins capable of
containing the largest war-ships afloat. The imperial yard employs 7000
hands, and another 7000 are employed in two large private ship-building
works, the Germania (Krupp's) and Howalds'. The Kaiser Wilhelm Canal,
commonly called the Kiel Canal, connecting the Baltic with the North Sea
at Brunsbüttel, has its eastern entrance at Wik, 1½ m. N. of Kiel (see
GERMANY: _Waterways_). The town and adjacent villages, e.g. Wik,
Heikendorf and Laboe, are resorted to for sea-bathing, and in June of
each year a regatta, attended by yachts from all countries, is held. The
_Kieler Woche_ is one of the principal social events in Germany, and
corresponds to the "Cowes week" in England. Kiel is connected by day and
night services with Korsör in Denmark by express passenger boats. The
harbour yields sprats which are in great repute. The principal
industries are those connected with the imperial navy and ship-building,
but embrace also flour-mills, oil-works, iron-foundries, printing-works,
saw-mills, breweries, brick-works, soap-making and fish-curing. There is
an important trade in coal, timber, cereals, fish, butter and cheese.

The name of Kiel appears as early as the 10th century in the form Kyl
(probably from the Anglo-Saxon _Kille_ = a safe place for ships). Kiel
is mentioned as a city in the next century; in 1242 it received the
Lübeck rights; in the 14th century it acquired various trading
privileges, having in 1284 entered the Hanseatic League. In recent times
Kiel has been associated with the peace concluded in January 1814
between Great Britain, Denmark and Sweden, by which Norway was ceded to
Sweden. In 1773 Kiel became part of Denmark, and in 1866 it passed with
the rest of Schleswig-Holstein to Prussia. Since being made a great
naval arsenal, Kiel has rapidly developed in prosperity and population.

  See Prahl, _Chronika der Stadt Kiel_ (Kiel, 1856); Erichsen,
  _Topographie des Landkreises Kiel_ (Kiel, 1898); H. Eckardt, _Alt-Kiel
  in Wort und Bild_ (Kiel, 1899); P. Hasse, _Das Kieler Stadtbuch,
  1264-1289_ (Kiel, 1875); _Das älteste Kieler Rentebuch 1300, 1487_,
  edited by C. Reuter (Kiel, 1893); _Das zweite Kieler Rentebuch 1487,
  1586_, edited by W. Stern (Kiel, 1904); and the _Mitteilungen der
  Gesellschaft für Kieler Stadtgeschichte_ (Kiel, 1877, 1904).

KIELCE, a government in the south-west of Russian Poland, surrounded by
the governments of Piotrkow and Radom and by Austrian Galicia. Area,
3896 sq. m. Its surface is an elevated plateau 800 to 1000 ft. in
altitude, intersected in the north-east by a range of hills reaching
1350 ft. and deeply trenched in the south. It is drained by the Vistula
on its south-east border, and by its tributaries, the Nida and the
Pilica, which have a very rapid fall and give rise to inundations.
Silurian and Devonian quartzites, dolomite, limestones and sandstones
prevail in the north, and contain rich iron ores, lead and copper ores.
Carboniferous deposits containing rich coal seams occur chiefly in the
south, and extend into the government of Piotrkow. Permian limestones
and sandstones exist in the south. The Triassic deposits contain very
rich zinc ores of considerable thickness and lead. The Jurassic deposits
consist of iron-clays and limestones, containing large caves. The
Cretaceous deposits yield gypsum, chalk and sulphur. White and black
marble are also extracted. The soil is of great variety and fertile in
parts, but owing to the proximity of the Carpathians, the climate is
more severe than might be expected. Rye, wheat, oats, barley and
buckwheat are grown; modern intensive culture is spreading, and land
fetches high prices, the more so as the peasants' allotments were small
at the outset and are steadily decreasing. Out of a total of 2,193,300
acres suitable for cultivation 53.4% are actually cultivated. Grain is
exported. Gardening is a thriving industry in the south; beet is grown
for sugar in the south-east. Industries are considerably developed: zinc
ores are extracted, as well as some iron and a little sulphur. Tiles,
metallic goods, leather, timber goods and flour are the chief products
of the manufactures. Pop. (1897), 765,212, for the most part Poles, with
11% Jews; (1906, estimated), 910,900. By religion 88% of the people are
Roman Catholics. Kielce is divided into seven districts, the chief towns
of which, with populations in 1897, are Kielce (q.v.), Jedrzejow (Russ.
Andreyev, 5010), Miechow (4156), Olkusz (3491), Pinczów (8095), Stopnica
(4659) and Wloszczowa (23,065).

KIELCE, a town of Russian Poland, capital of the above government, 152
m. by rail S. of Warsaw, situated in a picturesque hilly country. Pop.
(1890), 12,775; (1897), 23,189. It has a castle, built in 1638 and for
some time inhabited by Charles XII.; it was renowned for its portrait
gallery and the library of Zaluski, which was taken to St Petersburg.
The squares and boulevards are lined with handsome modern buildings. The
principal factories are hemp-spinning, cotton-printing and cement works.
The town was founded in 1173 by a bishop of Cracow. In the 16th century
it was famous for its copper mines, but they are no longer worked.

KIEPERT, HEINRICH (1818-1899), German geographer, was born at Berlin on
the 31st of July 1818. He was educated at the university there, studying
especially history, philology and geography. In 1840-1846, in
collaboration with Karl Ritter, he issued his first work, _Atlas von
Hellas und den hellenischen Kolonien_, which brought him at once into
eminence in the sphere of ancient historical cartography. In 1848 his
_Historisch-geographischer Atlas der alten Welt_ appeared, and in 1854
the first edition of the _Atlas antiquus_, which has obtained very wide
recognition, being issued in English, French, Russian, Dutch and
Italian. In 1894 Kiepert produced the first part of a larger atlas of
the ancient world under the title _Formae orbis antiqui_; his valuable
maps in _Corpus inscriptionum latinarum_ must also be mentioned. In
1877-1878 his _Lehrbuch der alten Geographie_ was published, and in 1879
_Leitfaden der alten Geographie_, which was translated into English (_A
Manual of Ancient Geography_, 1881) and into French. Among Kiepert's
general works one of the most important was the excellent _Neuer
Handatlas über alle Teile der Erde_ (1855 et seq.), and he also compiled
a large number of special and educational maps. Asia Minor was an area
in which he took particular interest. He visited it four times in
1841-1888; and his first map (1843-1846), together with his _Karte des
osmanischen Reiches in Asien_ (1844 and 1869), formed the highest
authority for the geography of the region. Kiepert was professor of
geography in the university of Berlin from 1854. He died at Berlin on
the 21st of April 1899. He left unpublished considerable material in
various departments of his work, and with the assistance of this his son
Richard (b. 1846), who followed his father's career, was enabled to
issue a map of Asia Minor in 24 sheets, on a scale of 1 : 400,000 (1902
et seq.), and to carry on the issue of _Formae orbis antiqui_.

KIERKEGAARD, SÖREN AABY (1813-1855), Danish philosopher, the seventh
child of a Jutland hosier, was born in Copenhagen on the 5th of May
1813. As a boy he was delicate, precocious and morbid in temperament. He
studied theology at the university of Copenhagen, where he graduated in
1840 with a treatise _On Irony_. For two years he travelled in Germany,
and in 1842 settled finally in Copenhagen, where he died on the 11th of
November 1855. He had lived in studious retirement, subject to physical
suffering and mental depression. His first volume, _Papers of a Still
Living Man_ (1838), a characterization of Hans Andersen, was a failure,
and he was for some time unnoticed. In 1843 he published _Euten--Eller_
(_Either--or_) (4th ed., 1878), the work on which his reputation mainly
rests; it is a discussion of the ethical and aesthetic ideas of life. In
his last years he carried on a feverish agitation against the theology
and practice of the state church, on the ground that religion is for the
individual soul, and is to be separated absolutely from the state and
the world. In general his philosophy was a reaction against the
speculative thinkers--Steffens (q.v.), Niels Treschow (1751-1833) and
Frederik Christian Sibbern (1785-1872); it was based on the absolute
dualism of Faith and Knowledge. His chief follower was Rasmus Nielsen
(1809-1884) and he was opposed by Georg Brandes, who wrote a brilliant
account of his life and works. As a dialectician he has been described
as little inferior to Plato, and his influence on the literature of
Denmark is considerable both in style and in matter. To him Ibsen owed
his character Brand in the drama of that name.

  See his posthumous autobiographical sketch, _Syns punktetfor min
  Forfattervirksomhed_ ("Standpoint of my Literary Work"); Georg
  Brandes, _Sören Kierkegaard_ (Copenhagen, 1877); A. Bärthold, _Noten
  zu K.'s Lebensgeschichte_ (Halle, 1876), _Die Bedeutung der
  ästhetischen Schriften S. Kierkegaarde_ (Halle, 1879) and _S. K.'s
  Persönlichkeit in ihrer Verwirklichung der Ideale_ (Gütersloh, 1886);
  F. Petersen, _S. K.'s Christendomsforkyndelae_ (Christiania, 1877).
  For Kierkegaard's relation to recent Danish thought, see Höffding's
  _Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie_ (1888), vol. ii.

KIEV, KIEFF, or KIYEFF, a government of south-western Russia,
conterminous with those of Minsk, Poltava, Chernigov, Podolia, Kherson
and Volhynia; area 19,686 sq. m. It represents a deeply trenched
plateau, 600 to 800 ft. in altitude, reaching 950 to 1050 ft. in the
west, assuming a steep character in the middle, and sloping gently
northwards to the marshy regions of the Pripet, while on the east it
falls abruptly to the valley of the Dnieper, which lies only 250 to 300
ft. above the sea. General A. Tillo has shown that neither geologically
nor tectonically can "spurs of the Carpathians" penetrate into Kiev.
Many useful minerals are extracted, such as granites, gabbro,
labradorites of a rare beauty, syenites and gneiss, marble, grinding
stones, pottery clay, phosphorites, iron ore and mineral colours.
Towards the southern and central parts the surface is covered by deep
rich "black earth." Nearly the whole of the government belongs to the
basin of the Dnieper, that river forming part of its eastern boundary.
In the south-west are a few small tributaries of the Bug. Besides the
Dnieper the only navigable stream is its confluent the Pripet. The
climate is more moderate than in middle Russia, the average temperatures
at the city of Kiev being--year, 44.5°; January, 21°; July, 68°; yearly
rainfall, 22 inches. The lowlands of the north are covered with woods;
they have the flora of the Polyesie, or marshy woodlands of Minsk, and
are peopled with animals belonging to higher latitudes.[1] The
population, which was 2,017,262 in 1863, reached 3,575,457 in 1897, of
whom 1,791,503 were women, and 147,878 lived in towns; and in 1904 it
reached 4,042,526, of whom 2,030,744 were women. The estimated
population in 1906 was 4,206,100. In 1897 there were 2,738,977 Orthodox
Greeks, 14,888 Nonconformists, 91,821 Roman Catholics, 423,875 Jews, and
6820 Protestants.

No less than 41 % of the land is in large holdings, and 45 % belongs to
the peasants. Out of an area of 12,600,000 acres, 11,100,000 acres are
available for cultivation, 4,758,000 acres are under crops, 650,000
acres under meadows, and 1,880,000 acres under woods. About 290,000
acres are under beetroot, for sugar. The crops principally grown are
wheat, rye, oats, millet, barley and buckwheat, with, in smaller
quantities, hemp, flax, vegetables, fruit and tobacco. Camels have been
used for agricultural work. Bee-keeping and gardening are general. The
chief factories are sugar works and distilleries. The former produce
850,000 to 1,150,000 tons of sugar and over 50,000 tons of molasses
annually. The factories include machinery works and iron foundries,
tanneries, steam flour-mills, petroleum refineries and tobacco
factories. Two main railways, starting from Kiev and Cherkasy
respectively, cross the government from N.E. to S.W., and two lines
traverse its southern part from N.W. to S.E., parallel to the Dnieper.
Steamers ply on the Dnieper and some of its tributaries. Wheat, rye,
oats, barley and flour are exported. There are two great fairs, at Kiev
and Berdichev respectively, and many of minor importance. Trade is very
brisk, the river traffic alone being valued at over one million sterling
annually. The government is divided into twelve districts. The chief
town is Kiev (q.v.)and the district towns, with their populations in
1897, Berdichev (53,728), Cherkasy (29,619), Chigirin (9870), Kanev
(8892), Lipovets (6068), Radomysl (11,154), Skvira (16,265), Tarashcha
(11,452), Umañ (28,628), Vasilkov (17,824) and Zvenigorodka (16,972).

The plains on the Dnieper have been inhabited since probably the
Palaeolithic period, and the burial-grounds used since the Stone Age.
The burial mounds (_kurgans_) of both the Scythians and the Slavs,
traces of old forts (_gorodishche_), stone statues, and more recent
caves offer abundant material for anthropological and ethnographical


  [1] Schmahlhausen's _Flora of South-West Russia_ (Kiev, 1886)
    contains a good description of the flora of the province.

KIEV, a city of Russia, capital of the above government, on the right or
west bank of the Dnieper, in 50° 27´ 12´´ N. and 30° 30´ 18´´ E., 628 m.
by rail S.W. of Moscow and 406 m. by rail N.N.E. of Odessa. The site of
the greater part of the town consists of hills or bluffs separated by
ravines and hollows, the elevation of the central portions being about
300 ft. above the ordinary level of the Dnieper. On the opposite side of
the river the country spreads out low and level like a sea. Having
received all its important tributaries, the Dnieper is here a broad (400
to 580 yds.) and navigable stream; but as it approaches the town it
divides into two arms and forms a low grassy island of considerable
extent called Tukhanov. During the spring floods there is a rise of 16
or even 20 ft., and not only the island but the country along the left
bank and the lower grounds on the right bank are laid under water. The
bed of the river is sandy and shifting, and it is only by costly
engineering works that the main stream has been kept from returning to
the more eastern channel, along which it formerly flowed. Opposite the
southern part of the town, where the currents have again united, the
river is crossed by a suspension bridge, which at the time of its
erection (1848-1853) was the largest enterprise of the kind in Europe.
It is about half a mile in length and 52½ ft. in breadth, and the four
principal spans are each 440 ft. The bridge was designed by Vignoles,
and cost about £400,000. Steamers ply in summer to Kremenchug,
Ekaterinoslav, Mogilev, Pinsk and Chernigov. Altogether Kiev is one of
the most beautiful cities in Russia, and the vicinity too is

Until 1837 the town proper consisted of the Old Town, Pechersk and
Podoli; but in that year three districts were added, and in 1879 the
limits were extended to include Kurenevka, Lukyanovka, Shulyavka and
Solomenka. The administrative area of the town is 13,500 acres.

The Old Town, or Old Kiev quarter (Starokievskaya Chast), occupies the
highest of the range of hills. Here the houses are most closely built,
and stone structures most abundant. In some of the principal streets are
buildings of three to five storeys, a comparatively rare thing in
Russia, indeed in the main street (Kreshchatik) fine structures have
been erected since 1896. In the 11th century the area was enclosed by
earthen ramparts, with bastions and gateways; but of these the only
surviving remnant is the Golden Gate. In the centre of the Old Town
stands the cathedral of St Sophia, the oldest cathedral in the Russian
empire. Its external walls are of a pale green and white colour, and it
has ten cupolas, four spangled with stars and six surmounted each with a
cross. The golden cupola of the four-storeyed campanile is visible for
many miles across the steppes. The statement frequently made that the
church was a copy of St Sophia's in Constantinople has been shown to be
a mistake. The building measures in length 177 ft., while its breadth is
118 ft. But though the plan shows no imitation of the great Byzantine
church, the decorations of the interior (mosaics, frescoes, &c.) do
indicate direct Byzantine influence. During the occupation of the church
by the Uniats or United Greek Church in the 17th century these were
covered with whitewash, and were only discovered in 1842, after which
the cathedral was internally restored; but the chapel of the Three
Pontiffs has been left untouched to show how carefully the old style has
been preserved or copied. Among the mosaics is a colossal representation
of the Virgin, 15 ft. in height, which, like the so-called
"indestructible wall" in which it is inlaid, dates from the time
(1019-1054) of Prince Yaroslav. This prince founded the church in 1037
in gratitude for his victory over the Petchenegs, a Turkish race then
settled in the Dnieper valley. His sarcophagus, curiously sculptured
with palms, fishes, &c., is preserved. The church of St Andrew the
Apostle occupies the spot where, according to Russian tradition, that
apostle stood when as yet Kiev was not, and declared that the hill would
become the site of a great city. The present building, in florid rococo
style, dates from 1744-1767. The church of the Tithes, rebuilt in
1828-1842, was founded in the close of the 10th century by Prince
Vladimir in honour of two martyrs whom he had put to death; and the
monastery of St Michael (or of the Golden Heads--so called from the
fifteen gilded cupolas of the original church) claims to have been built
in 1108 by Svyatopolk II., and was restored in 1655 by the Cossack
chieftain Bogdan Chmielnicki. On a plateau above the river, the
favourite promenade of the citizens, stands the Vladimir monument (1853)
in bronze. In this quarter, some distance back from the river, is the
new and richly decorated Vladimir cathedral (1862-1896), in the
Byzantine style, distinguished for the beauty and richness of its

Until 1820 the south-eastern district of Pechersk was the industrial and
commercial quarter; but it has been greatly altered in carrying out
fortifications commenced in that year by Tsar Nicholas I. Most of the
houses are small and old-fashioned. The monastery--the
Kievo-Pecherskaya--is the chief establishment of its kind in Russia; it
is visited every year by about 250,000 pilgrims. Of its ten or twelve
conventual churches the chief is that of the Assumption. There are four
distinct quarters in the monastery, each under a superior, subject to
the archimandrite: the Laura proper or New Monastery, that of the
Infirmary, and those of the Nearer and the Further Caves. These caves or
catacombs are the most striking characteristic of the place; the name
Pechersk, indeed, is connected with the Russian _peshchera_, "a cave."
The first series of caves, dedicated to St Anthony, contains eighty
saints' tombs; the second, dedicated to St Theodosius, a saint greatly
venerated in Russia, about forty-five. The bodies were formerly exposed
to view; but the pilgrims who now pass through the galleries see nothing
but the draperies and the inscriptions. Among the more notable names are
those of Nestor the chronicler, and Iliya of Murom, the Old Cossack of
the Russian epics. The foundation of the monastery is ascribed to two
saints of the 11th century--Anthony and Hilarion, the latter
metropolitan of Kiev. By the middle of the 12th century it had become
wealthy and beautiful. Completely ruined by the Mongol prince Batu in
1240, it remained deserted for more than two centuries. Prince Simeon
Oblkovich was the first to begin the restoration. A conflagration laid
the buildings waste in 1716, and their present aspect is largely due to
Peter the Great. The cathedral of the Assumption, with seven gilded
cupolas, was dedicated in 1089, destroyed by the Mongols in 1240, and
restored in 1729; the wall-paintings of the interior are by V.
Vereshchagin. The monastery contains a school of picture-makers of
ancient origin, whose productions are widely diffused throughout the
empire, and a printing press, from which have issued liturgical and
religious works, the oldest known examples bearing the date 1616. It
possesses a wonder-working ikon or image of the "Death of the Virgin,"
said to have been brought from Constantinople in 1073, and the second
highest bell-tower in Russia.

The Podol quarter lies on the low ground at the foot of the bluffs. It
is the industrial and trading quarter of the city, and the seat of the
great fair of the "Contracts," the transference of which from Dubno in
1797 largely stimulated the commercial prosperity of Kiev. The present
regular arrangement of its streets arose after the great fire of 1811.
Lipki district (from the _lipki_ or lime trees, destroyed in 1833) is of
recent origin, and is mainly inhabited by the well-to-do classes. It is
sometimes called the palace quarter, from the royal palace erected
between 1868 and 1870, on the site of the older structure dating from
the time of Tsaritsa Elizabeth. Gardens and parks abound; the palace
garden is exceptionally fine, and in the same neighbourhood are the
public gardens with the place of amusement known as the Château des

In the New Buildings, or the Lybed quarter, are the university and the
botanical gardens. The Ploskaya Chast (Flat quarter) or Obolon contains
the lunatic asylum; the Lukyanovka Chast, the penitentiary and the camp
and barracks; and the Bulvarnaya Chast, the military gymnasium of St
Vladimir and the railway station. The educational and scientific
institutions of Kiev rank next to those of the two capitals. Its
university, removed from Vilna to Kiev in 1834, has about 2500 students,
and is well provided with observatories, laboratories, libraries and
museums; five scientific societies and two societies for aid to poor
students are attached to it. There are, besides, a theological academy,
founded in 1615; a society of church archaeology, which possesses a
museum built in 1900, very rich in old ikons, crosses, &c., both Russian
and Oriental; an imperial academy of music; university courses for
ladies; a polytechnic, with 1300 students--the building was completed in
1900 and stands on the other side of Old Kiev, away from the river. Of
the learned societies the more important are the medical (1840), the
naturalists' (1869), the juridical (1876), the historical of Nestor the
Chronicler (1872), the horticultural (1875), and the dramatic (1879),
the archaeological commission (1843), and the society of church

Kiev is the principal centre for the sugar industry of Russia, as well
as for the general trade of the region. Its Stryetenskaya fair is
important. More than twenty caves were discovered on the slope of a hill
(Kirilov Street), and one of them, excavated in 1876, proved to have
belonged to neolithic troglodytes. Numerous graves, both from the pagan
and the Christian periods, the latter containing more than 2000
skeletons, with a great number of small articles, were discovered in the
same year in the same neighbourhood. Many colonial Roman coins of the
3rd and 4th centuries, and silver _dirhems_, stamped at Samarkand,
Balkh, Merv, &c., were also found in 1869.

In 1862 the population of Kiev was returned as 70,341; in 1874 the total
was given as 127,251; and in 1902 as 319,000. This includes 20,000 Poles
and 12,000 Jews. Kiev is the headquarters of the IX. Army Corps, and of
a metropolitan of the Orthodox Greek Church.

  The history of Kiev cannot be satisfactorily separated from that of
  Russia. According to Nestor's legend it was founded in 864 by three
  brothers, Kiy, Shchek and Khoriv, and after their deaths the
  principality was seized by two Varangians (Scandinavians), Askold and
  Dir, followers of Rurik, also in 864. Rurik's successor Oleg conquered
  Kiev in 882 and made it the chief town of his principality. It was in
  the waters of the Dnieper opposite the town that Prince Vladimir, the
  first saint of the Russian church, caused his people to be baptized
  (988), and Kiev became the seat of the first Christian church, of the
  first Christian school, and of the first library in Russia. For three
  hundred and seventy-six years it was an independent Russian city; for
  eighty years (1240-1320) it was subject to the Mongols; for two
  hundred and forty-nine years (1320-1569) it belonged to the Lithuanian
  principality; and for eighty-five years to Poland (1569-1654). It was
  finally united to the Russian empire in 1686. The city was devastated
  by the khan of the Crimea in 1483. The Magdeburg rights, which the
  city enjoyed from 1516, were abolished in 1835, and the ordinary form
  of town government introduced; and in 1840 it was made subject to the
  common civil law of the empire.

  The Russian literature concerning Kiev is voluminous. Its bibliography
  will be found in the _Russian Geographical Dictionary_ of P. Semenov,
  and in the _Russian Encyclopaedic Dictionary_, published by Brockhaus
  and Efron (vol. xv., 1895). Among recent publications are: Rambaud's
  _La Russie épique_ (Pans, 1876); Avenarius, _Kniga o Kievskikh
  Bogatuiryakh_ (St Petersburg, 1876), dealing with the early Kiev
  heroes; Zakrevski, _Opisanie Kieva_ (1868); the materials issued by
  the commission for the investigation of the ancient records of the
  city; Taranovskiy, _Gorod Kiev_ (Kiev, 1881); De Baye, _Kiev, la mère
  des villes russes_ (Paris, 1896); Goetz, _Das Kiewer Höhlenkloster als
  Kulturzentrum des Vormongolischen Russlands_ (Passau, 1904). See also
  Count Bobrinsky, _Kurgans of Smiela_ (1897); and N. Byelyashevsky,
  _The Mints of Kiev_.     (P. A. K.; J. T. Be.)

KILBARCHAN, a burgh of barony of Renfrewshire, Scotland, 1 m. from
Milliken Park station on the Glasgow & South-Western railway, 13 m. W.
by S. of Glasgow. Pop. (1901), 2886. The public buildings include a
hall, library and masonic lodge (dating from 1784). There is also a
park. In a niche in the town steeple (erected in 1755) is the statue of
the famous piper, who died about the beginning of the 17th century and
is commemorated in the elegy on "The Life and Death of Habbie Simson,
Piper of Kilbarchan" by Robert Sempill of Beltrees (1595-1665). The
chief industries are manufactures of linen (introduced in 1739 and
dating the rise of the prosperity of the town), cotton, silks and
"Paisley" shawls, and calico-printing, besides quarries, coal and iron
mines in the neighbourhood. Two miles south-west is a great rock of
greenstone called Clochoderick, 12 ft. in height, 22 ft. in length, and
17 ft. in breadth. About 2 m. north-west on Gryfe Water, lies Bridge of
Weir (pop. 2242), the industries of which comprise tanning, currying,
calico-printing, thread-making and wood-turning. It has a station on the
Glasgow & South-Western railway. Immediately to the south-west of Bridge
of Weir are the ruins of Ranfurly Castle, the ancient seat of the
Knoxes. Sir John de Knocks (fl. 1422) is supposed to have been the
great-grandfather of John Knox; and Andrew Knox (1550-1633), one of the
most distinguished members of the family, was successively bishop of the
Isles, abbot of Icolmkill (Iona), and bishop of Raphoe. About 4 m. N.W.
of Bridge of Weir lies the holiday resort of Kilmalcolm (pronounced
Kilmacome; pop. 2220), with a station on the Glasgow & South-Western
railway. It has a golf-course, public park and hydropathic
establishment. Several charitable institutions have been built in and
near the town, amongst them the well-known Quarrier's Orphan Homes of

KILBIRNIE, a town in north Ayrshire, Scotland, on the Garnock, 20½ m.
S.W. of Glasgow, with stations on the Glasgow & South-Western and the
Caledonian railways. Pop. (1901), 4571. The industries include
flax-spinning, rope works, engineering works, and manufactures of linen
thread, wincey, flannels and fishing-nets, and there are iron and steel
works and coal mines in the vicinity. The parish church is of historical
interest, most of the building dating from the Reformation. In the
churchyard are the recumbent effigies of Captain Thomas Crawford of
Jordanhill (d. 1603), who in 1575 effected the surprise of Dumbarton
Castle, and his lady. Near Kilbirnie Place, a modern mansion, are the
ruins of Kilbirnie Castle, an ancient seat of the earls of Crawford,
destroyed by fire in 1757. About 1 m. E. is Kilbirnie Loch, 1(1/3) m.

KILBRIDE, WEST, a town on the coast of Ayrshire, Scotland, near the
mouth of Kilbride Burn, 4 m. N.N.W. of Ardrossan and 35¾ m. S.W. of
Glasgow by the Glasgow & South-Western railway. Pop. (1901), 2315. It
has been growing in repute as a health resort; the only considerable
industry is weaving. In the neighbourhood are the ruins of Law Castle,
Crosbie Castle and Portincross Castle, the last, dating from the 13th
century, said to be a seat of the Stuart kings. Farland Head, with
cliffs 300 ft. high, lies 2 m. W. by N.; and the inland country is
hilly, one point, Kaim Hill, being 1270 ft. above sea-level.

KILDARE, a county of Ireland in the province of Leinster, bounded W. by
Queen's County and King's County, N. by Meath, E. by Dublin and Wicklow,
and S. by Carlow. The area is 418,496 acres or about 654 sq. m. The
greater part of Kildare belongs to the great central plain of Ireland.
In the east of the county this plain is bounded by the foot-hills of the
mountains of Dublin and Wicklow; in the centre it is interrupted by an
elevated plateau terminated on the south by the hills of Dunmurry, and
on the north by the Hill of Allen (300 ft.) which rises abruptly from
the Bog of Allen. The principal rivers are the Boyne, which with its
tributary the Blackwater rises in the north part of the county, but soon
passes into Meath; the Barrow, which forms the boundary of Kildare with
Queen's County, and receives the Greese and the Lane shortly after
entering Kildare; the Lesser Barrow, which flows southward from the Bog
of Allen to near Rathangan; and the Liffey, which enters the county near
Ballymore Eustace, and flowing north-west and then north-east quits it
at Leixlip, having received the Morrel between Celbridge and Clane, and
the Ryewater at Leixlip. Trout are taken in the upper waters, and there
are salmon reaches near Leixlip.

  _Geology._--The greater part of the county is formed of typical grey
  Carboniferous limestone, well seen in the flat land about Clane. The
  natural steps at the Salmon Falls at Leixlip are formed from similar
  strata. Along the south-east the broken ground of Silurian shales
  forms the higher country, rising towards the Leinster chain. The
  granite core of the latter, with its margin of mica-schist produced by
  the metamorphism of the Silurian beds, appears in the south round
  Castledermot. A parallel ridge of Silurian rocks, including an
  interesting series of basic lavas, rises from the plain north of
  Kildare town (Hill of Allen and Chair of Kildare), with some Old Red
  Sandstone on its flanks. The limestone in this ridge is rich in
  fossils of Bala age, and has been compared with that at Portrane in
  county Dublin. The low ground is diversified by eskers and masses of
  glacial gravel, notably at the dry sandy plateau of the Curragh; but
  in part it retains sufficient moisture to give rise to extensive bogs.
  The Liffey, which comes down as a mountain-stream in the Silurian
  area, forming a picturesque fall in the gorge of Pollaphuca, wanders
  through the limestone region between low banks as a true river of the

  _Climate and Industries._--Owing to a considerable degree to the large
  extent of bog, the climate of the northern districts is very moist,
  and fogs are frequent, but the eastern portion is drier, and the
  climate of the Liffey valley is very mild and healthy. The soil,
  whether resting on the limestone or on the clay slate, is principally
  a rich deep loam inclining occasionally to clay, easily cultivated and
  very fertile if properly drained. About 40,000 acres in the northern
  part of the county are included in the Bog of Allen, which is,
  however, intersected in many places by elevated tracts of firm ground.
  To the east of the town of Kildare is the Curragh, an undulating down
  upwards of 4800 acres in extent. The most fertile and highly
  cultivated districts of Kildare are the valleys of the Liffey and a
  tract in the south watered by the Greese. The demesne lands along the
  valley of the Liffey are finely wooded. More attention is paid to
  drainage and the use of manures on the larger farms than is done in
  many other parts of Ireland. The pastures which are not subjected to
  the plough are generally very rich and fattening. The proportion of
  tillage to pasture is roughly as 1 to 2½. Wheat is a scanty crop, but
  oats, barley, turnips and potatoes are all considerably cultivated.
  Cattle and sheep are grazed extensively, and the numbers are well
  sustained. Of the former, crosses with the shorthorn or the Durham are
  the commonest breed. Leicesters are the principal breed of sheep.
  Poultry farming is a growing industry.

  Though possessing a good supply of water-power the county is almost
  destitute of manufactures; there are a few small cotton, woollen and
  paper mills, as well as breweries and distilleries, and several corn
  mills. Large quantities of turf are exported to Dublin by canal. The
  main line of the Midland Great Western follows the northern boundary
  of the county, with a branch to Carbury and Edenderry; and that of the
  Great Southern & Western crosses the county by way of Newbridge and
  Kildare, with southward branches to Naas (and Tullow, county Carlow)
  and to Athy and the south. The northern border is traversed by the
  Royal Canal, which connects Dublin with the Shannon at Cloondara.
  Farther south the Grand Canal, which connects Dublin with the Shannon
  at Shannon Harbour, occupies the valley of the Liffey until at Sallins
  it enters the Bog of Allen, passing into King's County near the source
  of the Boyne. Several branch canals afford communication with the
  southern districts.

_Population and Administration._--The decreasing population (70,206 in
1891; 63,566 in 1901) shows an unusual excess of males over females, in
spite of an excess of male emigrants. About 86% of the population are
Roman Catholics. The county comprises 14 baronies and contains 110 civil
parishes. Assizes are held at Naas, and quarter sessions at Athy,
Kildare, Maynooth and Naas. The military stations at Newbridge and the
Curragh constitute the Curragh military district, and the barracks at
Athy and Naas are included in the Dublin military district. The
principal towns are Athy (pop. 3599), Naas (3836) and Newbridge (2903);
with Maynooth (which is the seat of a Roman Catholic college),
Celbridge, Kildare (the county town), Monasterevan, Kilcullen and
Leixlip. Ballitore, one of the larger villages, is a Quaker settlement,
and at a school here Edmund Burke was educated. Kildare returned ten
members to the Irish parliament, of whom eight represented boroughs; it
sends only two (for the north and south divisions of the county) to the
parliament of the United Kingdom. The county is in the Protestant
diocese of Dublin and the Roman Catholic dioceses of Dublin and of
Kildare and Leighlin.

_History and Antiquities._--According to a tale in the Book of Leinster
the original name of Kildare was _Druim Criaidh_ (Drumcree), which it
retained until the time of St Brigit, after which it was changed to
_Cilldara_, the church of the oak, from an old oak under whose shadow
the saint had constructed her cell. For some centuries it was under the
government of the Macmurroughs, kings of Leinster, but with the
remainder of Leinster it was granted by Henry II. to Strongbow. On the
division of the palatinate of Leinster among the five grand-daughters of
Strongbow, Kildare fell to Sibilla, the fourth daughter, who married
William de Ferrars, earl of Derby. Through the marriage of the only
daughter of William de Ferrars it passed to William de Vescy--who, when
challenged to single combat by John Fitz Thomas, baron of Offaly, for
accusing him of treason, fled to France. His lands were thereupon in
1297 bestowed on Fitz Thomas, who in 1316 was created earl of Kildare,
and in 1317 was appointed sheriff of Kildare, the office remaining in
the family until the attainder of Gerald, the ninth earl, in the reign
of Henry VIII. Kildare was a liberty of Dublin until 1296, when an act
was passed constituting it a separate county.

In the county are several old gigantic pillar-stones, the principal
being those at Punchestown, Harristown, Jigginstown and Mullamast. Among
remarkable earthworks are the raths at Mullamast, Knockcaellagh near
Kilcullen, Ardscull near Naas, and the numerous sepulchral mounds in the
Curragh. Of the round towers the finest is that of Kildare; there are
remains of others at Taghadoe, Old Kilcullen, Oughterard and
Castledermot. Formerly there were an immense number of religious houses
in the county. There are remains of a Franciscan abbey at Castledermot.
At Graney are ruins of an Augustinian nunnery and portions of a building
said to have belonged to the Knights Templars. The town of Kildare has
ruins of four monastic buildings, including the nunnery founded by St
Brigit. The site of a monastery at Old Kilcullen, said to date from the
time of St Patrick, is marked by two stone crosses, one of which is
curiously sculptured. The fine abbey of Monasterevan is now the seat of
the marquess of Drogheda. On the Liffey are the remains of Great Connel
Abbey near Celbridge, of St Wolstan's near Celbridge, and of New Abbey.
At Moone, where there was a Franciscan monastery, are the remains of an
ancient cross with curious sculpturings. Among castles may be mentioned
those of Athy and Castledermot, built about the time of the Anglo-Norman
invasion; Maynooth Castle, built by the Fitzgeralds; Kilkea, originally
built by the seventh earl of Kildare, and restored within the 19th
century; and Timolin, erected in the reign of King John.

KILDARE, a market town and the county town of county Kildare, Ireland,
in the south parliamentary division, a junction on the main line of the
Great Southern & Western railway, 30. m. S.W. from Dublin, the branch
line to Athy, Carlow and Kilkenny diverging southward. Pop. (1901),
1576. The town is of high antiquarian interest. There is a Protestant
cathedral church, the diocese of which was united with Dublin in 1846.
St Brigit or Bridget founded the religious community in the 5th century,
and a fire sacred to the memory of the saint is said to have been kept
incessantly burning for several centuries (until the Reformation) in a
small ancient chapel called the Fire House, part of which remains. The
cathedral suffered with the town from frequent burnings and destructions
at the hands of the Danes and the Irish, and during the Elizabethan
wars. The existing church was partially in ruins when an extensive
restoration was begun in 1875 under the direction of G.E. Street; while
the choir, which dated from the latter part of the 17th century, was
rebuilt in 1896. Close to the church are an ancient cross and a very
fine round tower (its summit unhappily restored with a modern
battlement) 105½ ft. high, with a doorway with unusual ornament of
Romanesque character. There are remains of a castle of the 13th century,
and of a Carmelite monastery. From the elevated situation of the town, a
striking view of the great central plain of Ireland is afforded. Kildare
was incorporated by James II., and returned two members to the Irish

KILHAM, ALEXANDER (1762-1798), English Methodist, was born at Epworth,
Lincolnshire, on the 10th of July 1762. He was admitted by John Wesley
in 1785 into the regular itinerant ministry. He became the leader and
spokesman of the democratic party in the Connexion which claimed for the
laity the free election of class-leaders and stewards, and equal
representation with ministers at Conference. They also contended that
the ministry should possess no official authority or pastoral
prerogative, but should merely carry into effect the decisions of
majorities in the different meetings. Kilham further advocated the
complete separation of the Methodists from the Anglican Church. In the
violent controversy that ensued he wrote many pamphlets, often
anonymous, and frequently not in the best of taste. For this he was
arraigned before the Conference of 1796 and expelled, and he then
founded the Methodist New Connexion (1798, merged since 1906 in the
United Methodist Church). He died in 1798, and the success of the church
he founded is a tribute to his personality and to the principles for
which he strove. Kilham's wife (Hannah Spurr, 1774-1832), whom he
married only a few months before his death, became a Quaker, and worked
as a missionary in the Gambia and at Sierra Leone; she reduced to
writing several West African vernaculars.

KILIA, a town of S. Russia, in the government of Bessarabia, 100 m. S.W.
of Odessa, on the Kilia branch of the Danube, 20 m. from its mouth. Pop.
(1897), 11,703. It has steam flour-mills and a rapidly increasing trade.
The town, anciently known as Chilia, Chele, and Lycostomium, was a place
of banishment for political dignitaries of Byzantium in the 12th-13th
centuries. After belonging to the Genoese from 1381-1403 it was occupied
successively by Walachia and Moldavia, until in 1484 it fell into the
hands of the Ottoman Turks. It was taken from them by the Russians in
1790. After being bombarded by the Anglo-French fleet in July 1854, it
was given to Rumania on the conclusion of the war; but in 1878 was
transferred to Russia with Bessarabia.

KILIAN (CHILIAN, KILLIAN), ST, British missionary bishop and the apostle
of eastern Franconia, where he began his labours towards the end of the
7th century. There are several biographies of him, the first of which
dates back to the 9th century (_Bibliotheca hagiographica latina_, Nos.
4660-4663). The oldest texts which refer to him are an 8th century
necrology at Würzburg and the notice by Hrabanus Maurus in his
martyrology. According to Maurus, Kilian was a native of Ireland, whence
with his companions he went to eastern Franconia. After having preached
the gospel in Würzburg, the whole party were put to death by the orders
of an unjust judge named Gozbert. It is difficult to fix the period with
precision, as the judge (or duke) Gozbert is not known through other
sources. Kilian's comrades, Coloman and Totman, were, according to the
Würzburg necrology, respectively priest and deacon. The elevation of the
relics of the three martyrs was performed by Burchard, the first bishop
of Würzburg, and they are venerated in the cathedral of that town. His
festival is celebrated on the 8th of July.

  See _Acta Sanctorum_, Julii, ii. 599-619; F. Emmerich, _Der heilige
  Kilian_ (Würzburg, 1896); J. O'Hanlon, _Lives of the Irish Saints_,
  vii. 122-143 (Dublin, 1875-1904); A. Hauck, _Kirchengeschichte
  Deutschlands_, 3rd ed., i. 382 seq.     (H. De.)

KILIMANJARO, a great mountain in East Africa, its centre lying in 3° 5´
S. and 37° 23´ E. It is the highest known summit of the continent,
rising as a volcanic cone from a plateau of about 3000 ft. to 19,321 ft.
Though completely isolated it is but one of several summits which crown
the eastern edge of the great plateau of equatorial Africa. About 200 m.
almost due north, across the wide expanse of the Kapte and Kikuyu
uplands, lies Mount Kenya, somewhat inferior in height and mass to
Kilimanjaro; and some 25 m. due west rises the noble mass of Mount Meru.

The major axis of Kilimanjaro runs almost east and west, and on it rise
the two principal summits, Kibo in the west, Mawenzi (Ki-mawenzi) in the
east. Kibo, the higher, is a truncated cone with a nearly perfect
extinct crater, and marks a comparatively recent period of volcanic
activity; while Mawenzi (16,892 ft.) is the very ancient core of a
former summit, of which the crater walls have been removed by
denudation. The two peaks, about 7 m. apart, are connected by a saddle
or plateau, about 14,000 ft. in altitude, below which the vast mass
slopes with great regularity in a typical volcanic curve, especially in
the south, to the plains below. The sides are furrowed on the south and
east by a large number of narrow ravines, down which flow streams which
feed the Pangani and Lake Jipe in the south and the Tsavo tributary of
the Sabaki in the east. South-west of Kibo, the Shira ridge seems to be
of independent origin, while in the north-west a rugged group of cones,
of comparatively recent origin, has poured forth vast lava-flows. In
the south-east the regularity of the outline is likewise broken by a
ridge running down from Mawenzi.

The lava slopes of the Kibo peak are covered to a depth of some 200 ft.
with an ice-cap, which, where ravines occur, takes the form of genuine
glaciers. The crater walls are highest on the south, three small peaks,
uncovered by ice, rising from the rim on this side. To the central and
highest of these, the culminating point of the mountain, the name Kaiser
Wilhelm Spitze has been given. The rim here sinks precipitously some 600
ft. to the interior of the crater, which measures rather over 2000 yds.
in diameter, and is in part covered by ice, in part by a bare cone of
ashes. On the west the rim is breached, allowing the passage of an
important glacier formed from the snow which falls within the crater.
Lower down this cleft, which owed its origin to dislocation, is occupied
by two glaciers, one of which reaches a lower level (13,800 ft.) than
any other on Kilimanjaro. On the north-west three large glaciers reach
down to 16,000 ft.

Mawenzi peak has no permanent ice-cap, though at times snow lies in
patches. The rock of which it is composed has become very jagged by
denudation, forming stupendous walls and precipices. On the east the
peak falls with great abruptness some 6500 ft. to a vast ravine, due
apparently to dislocation and sinking of the ground. Below this the
slope is more gradual and more symmetrical. Like the other high
mountains of eastern Africa, Kilimanjaro presents well-defined zones of
vegetation. The lowest slopes are arid and scantily covered with scrub,
but between 4000 and 6000 ft. on the south side the slopes are well
watered and cultivated. The forest zone begins, on the south, at about
6500 ft., and extends to 9500, but in the north it is narrower, and in
the north-west, the driest quarter of the mountain, almost disappears.
In the alpine zone, marked especially by tree lobelias and _Senecio_,
flowering plants extend up to 15,700 ft. on the sheltered south-west
flank of Mawenzi, but elsewhere vegetation grows only in dwarfed patches
beyond 13,000 ft. The special fauna and flora of the upper zone are akin
to those of other high African mountains, including Cameroon. The
southern slopes, between 4000 and 6000 ft., form the well-peopled
country of Chaga, divided into small districts.

  As the natives believe that the summit of Kilimanjaro is composed of
  silver, it is conjectured that Aristotle's reference to "the so-called
  Silver Mountain" from which the Nile flows was based on reports about
  this mountain. It is possible, however, that the "Silver Mountain" was
  Ruwenzori (q.v.), from whose snow-clad heights several headstreams of
  the Nile do descend. It is also possible, though improbable, that
  Ruwenzori and not Kilimanjaro nor Kenya may be the range known to
  Ptolemy and to the Arab geographers of the middle ages as the
  Mountains of the Moon. Reports of the existence of mountains covered
  with snow were brought to Zanzibar about 1845 by Arab traders.
  Attracted by these reports Johannes Rebmann of the Church Missionary
  Society journeyed inland from Mombasa in 1848 and discovered
  Kilimanjaro, which is some 200 m. inland. Rebmann's account, though
  fully borne out by his colleague Dr Ludwig Krapf, was at first
  received with great incredulity by professional geographers. The
  matter was finally set at rest by the visits paid to the mountain by
  Baron Karl von der Decken (1861 and 1862) and Charles New (1867), the
  latter of whom reached the lower edge of the snow. Kilimanjaro has
  since been explored by Joseph Thomson (1883), Sir H. H. Johnston
  (1884), and others. It has been the special study of Dr Hans Meyer,
  who made four expeditions to it, accomplishing the first ascent to the
  summit in 1889. In the partition of Africa between the powers of
  western Europe, Kilimanjaro was secured by Germany (1886) though the
  first treaties concluded with native chiefs in that region had been
  made in 1884 by Sir H. H. Johnston on behalf of a British company. On
  the southern side of the mountain at Moshi is a German government

  See R. Thornton (the geologist of von der Decken's party) in _Proc. of
  Roy. Geog. Soc._ (1861-1862); Ludwig Krapf, _Travels in East Africa_
  (1860); Charles New, _Life ... in East Africa_ (1873); Sir J. D.
  Hooker in _Journal of Linnean Society_ (1875); Sir H. H. Johnston,
  _The Kilimanjaro Expedition_ (1886); Hans Meyer, _Across East African
  Glaciers_ (1891); _Der Kilimanjaro_ (Berlin, 1900). Except the
  last-named all these works were published in London.     (E. He.)

KILIN, or CH'-I-LIN, one of the four symbolical creatures which in
Chinese mythology are believed to keep watch and ward over the Celestial
Empire. It is a unicorn, portrayed in Chinese art as having the body and
legs of a deer and an ox's tail. Its advent on earth heralds an age of
enlightened government and civic prosperity. It is regarded as the
noblest of the animal creation and as the incarnation of fire, water,
wood, metal and earth. It lives for a thousand years, and is believed to
step so softly as to leave no footprints and to crush no living thing.

KILKEE, a seaside resort of county Clare, Ireland, the terminus of a
branch of the West Clare railway. Pop. (1901), 1661. It lies on a small
and picturesque inlet of the Atlantic named Moore Bay, with a beautiful
sweep of sandy beach. The coast, fully exposed to the open ocean,
abounds in fine cliff scenery, including numerous caves and natural
arches, but is notoriously dangerous to shipping. Moore Bay is safe and
attractive for bathers. Bishop's Island, a bold isolated rock in the
vicinity, has remains of an oratory and house ascribed to the recluse St

KILKENNY, a county of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, bounded N.
by Queen's County, E. by Carlow and Wexford, S. by Waterford, and W. by
Waterford and Tipperary. The area is 511,775 acres, or about 800 sq. m.
The greater part of Kilkenny forms the south-eastern extremity of the
great central plain of Ireland, but in the south-east occurs an
extension of the mountains of Wicklow and Carlow, and the plain is
interrupted in the north by a hilly region forming part of the
Castlecomer coal-field, which extends also into Queen's County and
Tipperary. The principal rivers, the Suir, the Barrow and the Nore, have
their origin in the Slieve Bloom Mountains (county Tipperary and Queen's
County), and after widely divergent courses southward discharge their
waters into Waterford Harbour. The Suir forms the boundary of the county
with Waterford, and is navigable for small vessels to Carrick. The Nore,
which is navigable to Innistioge, enters the county at its north-western
boundary, and flows by Kilkenny to the Barrow, 9 m. above Ross, having
received the King's River at Jerpoint and the Argula near Innistioge.
The Barrow, which is navigable beyond the limits of Kilkenny into
Kildare, forms the eastern boundary of the county from near New Bridge.
There are no lakes of any extent, but turloughs or temporary lakes are
occasionally formed by the bursting up of underground streams.

The coal of the Castlecomer basin is anthracite, and the most productive
portions of the bed are in the centre of the basin at Castlecomer.
Hematitic iron of a rich quality is found in the Cambro-Silurian rocks
at several places; and tradition asserts that silver shields were made
about 850 B.C. at Argetros or Silverwood on the Nore. Manganese is
obtained in some of the limestone quarries, and also near the Barrow.
Marl is abundant in various districts. Pipeclay and potter's clay are
found, and also yellow ochre. Copper occurs near Knocktopher.

  The high synclinal coal-field forms the most important feature of the
  north of the county. A prolongation of the field runs out south-west
  by Tullaroan. The lower ground is occupied by Carboniferous limestone.
  The Old Red Sandstone, with a Silurian core, forms the high ridge of
  Slievenaman in the south; and its upper laminated beds contain
  _Archanodon_, the earliest known freshwater mollusc, and
  plant-remains, at Kiltorcan near Ballyhale. The Leinster granite
  appears mainly as inliers in the Silurian of the south-east. The
  Carboniferous sandstones furnish the hard pavement-slabs sold as
  "Carlow flags." The black limestone with white shells in it at
  Kilkenny is quarried as an ornamental marble. Good slates are quarried
  at Kilmoganny, in the Silurian inlier on the Slievenaman range.

On account of the slope of the country, and the nature of the soil, the
surface occupied by bog or wet land is very small, and the air is dry
and healthy. So temperate is it in winter that the myrtle and arbutus
grow in the open air. There is less rain than at Dublin, and vegetation
is earlier than in the adjacent counties. Along the banks of the Suir,
Nore and Barrow a very rich soil has been formed by alluvial deposits.
Above the Coal-measures in the northern part of the county there is a
moorland tract devoted chiefly to pasturage. The soil above the
limestone is for the most part a deep and rich loam admirably adapted
for the growth of wheat. The heath-covered hills afford honey with a
flavour of peculiar excellence. Proportionately to its area, Kilkenny
has an exceptionally large cultivable area. The proportion of tillage
to pasturage is roughly as 1 to 2¼. Oats, barley, turnips and potatoes
are all grown; the cultivation of wheat has very largely lapsed. Cattle,
sheep, pigs and poultry are extensively reared, the Kerry cattle being
in considerable request.

The linen manufacture introduced into the county in the 17th century by
the duke of Ormonde to supersede the woollen manufacture gradually
became extinct, and the woollen manufacture now carried on is also very
small. There are, however, breweries, distilleries, tanneries and
flour-mills, as well as marble polishing works. The county is traversed
from N. to S. by the Maryborough, Kilkenny and Waterford branch of the
Great Southern & Western railway, with a connexion from Kilkenny to
Bagenalstown on the Kildare and Carlow line; and the Waterford and
Limerick line of the same company runs for a short distance through the
southern part of the county.

The population (87,496 in 1891; 79,159 in 1901) includes about 94% of
Roman Catholics. The decrease of population is a little above the
average, though emigration is distinctly below it. The chief towns and
villages are Kilkenny (q.v.), Callan (1840), Castlecomer, Thomastown and
Graigue. The county comprises 10 baronies and contains 134 civil
parishes. The county includes the parliamentary borough of Kilkenny, and
is divided into north and south parliamentary divisions, each returning
one member. Kilkenny returned 16 members to the Irish parliament, two
representing the county. Assizes are held at Kilkenny, and quarter
sessions at Kilkenny, Pilltown, Urlingford, Castlecomer, Callan, Grace's
Old Castle and Thomastown. The county is in the Protestant diocese of
Ossory and the Roman Catholic dioceses of Ossory and Kildare and

Kilkenny is one of the counties generally considered to have been
created by King John. It had previously formed part of the kingdom of
Ossory, and was one of the liberties granted to the heiresses of
Strongbow with palatinate rights. Circular groups of stones of very
ancient origin are on the summits of Slieve Grian and the hill of
Cloghmanta. There are a large number of cromlechs as well as raths (or
encampments) in various parts of the county. Besides numerous forts and
mounds there are five round towers, one adjoining the Protestant
cathedral of Kilkenny, and others at Tulloherin, Kilree, Fertagh and
Aghaviller. All, except that at Aghaviller, are nearly perfect. There
are remains of a Cistercian monastery at Jerpoint, said to have been
founded by Dunnough, King of Ossory, and of another belonging to the
same order at Graigue, founded by the earl of Pembroke in 1212. The
Dominicans had an abbey at Rosbercon founded in 1267, and another at
Thomastown, of which there are some remains. The Carmelites had a
monastery at Knocktopher. There were an Augustinian monastery at
Inistioge, and priories at Callan and Kells, of all of which there are
remains. There are also ruins of several old castles, such as those of
Callan, Legan, Grenan and Clonamery, besides the ancient portions of
Kilkenny Castle.

KILKENNY, a city and municipal and parliamentary borough (returning one
member), the capital of county Kilkenny, Ireland, finely situated on the
Nore, and on the Great Southern and Western railway, 81 m. S.W. of
Dublin. Pop. (1901), 10,609. It consists of Englishtown (or Kilkenny
proper) and Irishtown, which are separated by a small rivulet, but
although Irishtown retains its name, it is now included in the borough
of Kilkenny. The city is irregularly built, possesses several spacious
streets with many good houses, while its beautiful environs and imposing
ancient buildings give it an unusual interest and picturesque
appearance. The Nore is crossed by two handsome bridges. The cathedral
of St Canice, from whom the town takes its name, dates in its present
form from about 1255. The see of Ossory, which originated in the
monastery of Aghaboe founded by St Canice in the 6th century, and took
its name from the early kingdom of Ossory, was moved to Kilkenny
(according to conjecture) about the year 1200. In 1835 the diocese of
Ferns and Leighlin was united to it. With the exception of St Patrick's,
Dublin, the cathedral is the largest ecclesiastical building in
Ireland, having a length from east to west of 226 ft., and a breadth
along the transepts from north to south of 123 ft. It occupies an
eminence at the western extremity of Irishtown. It is a cruciform
structure mainly in Early English style, with a low massive tower
supported on clustered columns of the black marble peculiar to the
district. The building was extensively restored in 1865. It contains
many old sepulchral monuments and other ancient memorials. The north
transept incorporates the parish church. The adjacent library of St
Canice contains numerous ancient books of great value. A short distance
from the south transept is a round tower 100 ft. high; the original cap
is wanting. The episcopal palace near the east end of the cathedral was
erected in the time of Edward III. and enlarged in 1735. Besides the
cathedral the principal churches are the Protestant church of St Mary, a
plain cruciform structure of earlier foundation than the present
cathedral; that of St John, including a portion of the hospital of St
John founded about 1220; and the Roman Catholic cathedral, of the
diocese of Ossory, dedicated to St Mary (1843-1857), a cruciform
structure in the Early Pointed style, with a massive central tower.
There are important remains of two monasteries--the Dominican abbey
founded in 1225, and now used as a Roman Catholic church; and the
Franciscan abbey on the banks of the Nore, founded about 1230. But next
in importance to the cathedral is the castle, the seat of the marquess
of Ormonde, on the summit of a precipice above the Nore. It was
originally built by Strongbow, but rebuilt by William Marshall after the
destruction of the first castle in 1175; and many additions and
restorations by members of the Ormonde family have maintained it as a
princely residence. The Protestant college of St John, originally
founded by Pierce Butler, 8th earl of Ormonde, in the 16th century, and
re-endowed in 1684 by James, 1st duke of Ormonde, stands on the banks of
the river opposite the castle. In it Swift, Farquhar, Congreve and
Bishop Berkeley received part of their education. On the outskirts of
the city is the Roman Catholic college of St Kyran (Kieran), a Gothic
building completed about 1840. The other principal buildings are the
modern court-house, the tholsel or city court (1764), the city and
county prison, the barracks and the county infirmary. In the
neighbourhood are collieries as well as long-established quarries for
marble, the manufactures connected with which are an important industry
of the town. The city also possesses corn-mills, breweries and
tanneries. Not far from the city are the remarkable limestone caverns of
Dunmore, which have yielded numerous human remains. The corporation of
Kilkenny consists of a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors.

Kilkenny proper owes its origin to an English settlement in the time of
Strongbow, and it received a charter from William Marshall, who married
Strongbow's daughter. This charter was confirmed by Edward III., and
from Edward IV. Irishtown received the privilege of choosing a portreeve
independent of Kilkenny. By Elizabeth the boroughs, while retaining
their distinct rights, were constituted one corporation, which in 1609
was made a free borough by James I., and in the following year a free
city. From James II. the citizens received a new charter, constituting
the city and liberties a distinct county, to be styled the county of the
city of Kilkenny, the burgesses of Irishtown continuing, however, to
elect a portreeve until the passing of the Muncipal Reform Act. Frequent
parliaments were held at Kilkenny from the 14th to the 16th century, and
so late as the reign of Henry VIII. it was the occasional residence of
the lord-lieutenant. In 1642 it was the meeting-place of the assembly of
confederate Catholics. In 1648 Cromwell, in the hope of obtaining
possession of the town by means of a plot, advanced towards it, but
before his arrival the plot was discovered. In 1650 it was, however,
compelled to surrender after a long and resolute defence. At a very
early period Kilkenny and Irishtown returned each two members to the
Irish parliament, but since the Union one member only has been returned
to Westminster for the city of Kilkenny.

  The origin of the expression "to fight like Kilkenny cats," which,
  according to the legend, fought till only their tails were left, has
  been the subject of many conjectures. It is said to be an allegory on
  the disastrous municipal quarrels of Kilkenny and Irishtown which
  lasted from the end of the 14th to the end of the 17th centuries
  (_Notes and Queries_, 1st series, vol. ii. p. 71). It is referred also
  to the brutal sport of some Hessian soldiers, quartered in Kilkenny
  during the rebellions of 1798 or 1803, who tied two cats together by
  their tails, hung them over a line and left them to fight. A soldier
  is said to have freed them by cutting off their tails to escape
  censure from the officers (ibid. 3rd series, vol. v. p. 433). Lastly,
  it is attributed to the invention of J. P. Curran. As a sarcastic
  protest against cock-fighting in England, he declared that he had
  witnessed in Sligo (?) fights between trained cats, and that once they
  had fought so fiercely that only their tails were left (ibid. 7th
  series, vol. ii. p. 394).

KILKENNY, STATUTE OF, the name given to a body of laws promulgated in
1366 with the object of strengthening the English authority in Ireland.
In 1361, when Edward III. was on the English throne, he sent one of his
younger sons, Lionel, duke of Clarence, who was already married to an
Irish heiress, to represent him in Ireland. From the English point of
view the country was in a most unsatisfactory condition. Lawless and
predatory, the English settlers were hardly distinguishable from the
native Irish, and the authority of the English king over both had been
reduced to vanishing point. In their efforts to cope with the prevailing
disorder Lionel and his advisers summoned a parliament to meet at
Kilkenny early in 1366 and here the statute of Kilkenny was passed into
law. This statute was written in Norman-French, and nineteen of its
clauses are merely repetitions of some ordinances which had been drawn
up at Kilkenny fifteen years earlier. It began by relating how the
existing state of lawlessness was due to the malign influence exercised
by the Irish over the English, and, like Magna Carta, its first positive
provision declared that the church should be free. As a prime remedy for
the prevailing evils all marriages between the two races were forbidden.
Englishmen must not speak the Irish tongue, nor receive Irish minstrels
into their dwellings, nor even ride in the Irish fashion; while to give
or sell horses or armour to the Irish was made a treasonable offence.
Moreover English and not Breton law was to be employed, and no Irishman
could legally be received into a religious house, nor presented to a
benefice. The statute also contained clauses for compelling the English
settlers to keep the laws. For each county four wardens of the peace
were to be appointed, while the sheriffs were to hold their tourns twice
a year and were not to oppress the people by their exactions. An attempt
was made to prevent the emigration of labourers, and finally the
spiritual arm was invoked to secure obedience to these laws by threats
of excommunication. The statute, although marking an interesting stage
in the history of Ireland, had very little practical effect.

  The full text is published in the _Statutes and Ordinances of Ireland.
  John to Henry V._, by H. F. Berry (1907).

KILLALA (pron. _Killálla_), a small town on the north coast of county
Mayo, Ireland, in the northern parliamentary division, on the western
shore of a fine bay to which it gives name. Pop. (1901), 510. It is a
terminus of a branch of the Midland Great Western railway. Its trade is
almost wholly diverted to Ballina on the river Moy, which enters the
bay, but Killala is of high antiquarian and historical interest. It was
for many centuries a bishop's see, the foundation being attributed to St
Patrick in the 5th century, but the diocese was joined with Achonry
early in the 17th century and with Tuam in 1833. The cathedral church of
St Patrick is a plain structure of the 17th century. There is a fine
souterrain, evidently connected with a rath, or encampment, in the
graveyard. A round tower, 84 ft. in height, stands boldly on an isolated
eminence. Close to Killala the French under Humbert landed in 1798,
being diverted by contrary winds from the Donegal coast. Near the Moy
river, south of Killala, are the abbeys of Moyne and Roserk or
Rosserick, both Decorated in style, and both possessing fine cloisters.
At Rathfran, 2 m. N., is a Dominican abbey (1274), and in the
neighbourhood are camps, cromlechs, and an inscribed ogham stone, 12 ft.
in height. Killala gives name to a Roman Catholic diocese, the seat of
which, however, is at Ballina.

KILLALOE, a town of county Clare, Ireland, in the east parliamentary
division, at the lower extremity of Lough Derg on the river Shannon, at
the foot of the Slieve Bernagh mountains. Pop. (1901), 885. It is
connected, so as to form one town, with Ballina (county Tipperary) by a
bridge of 13 arches. Ballina is the terminus of a branch of the Great
Southern and Western railway, 15 m. N.E. of Limerick. Slate is quarried
in the vicinity, and there were formerly woollen manufactures. The
cathedral of St Flannan occupies the site of a church founded by St
Dalua in the 6th century. The present building is mainly of the 12th
century, a good cruciform example of the period, preserving, however, a
magnificent Romanesque doorway. It was probably completed by Donall
O'Brien, king of Munster, but part of the fabric dates from a century
before his time. In the churchyard is an ancient oratory said to date
from the period of St Dalua. Near Killaloe stood Brian Boru's palace of
Kincora, celebrated in verse by Moore; for this was the capital of the
kings of Munster. Killaloe is frequented by anglers for the Shannon
salmon-fishing and for trout-fishing in Lough Derg. Killaloe gives name
to Protestant and Roman Catholic dioceses.

KILLARNEY, a market town of county Kerry, Ireland, in the east
parliamentary division, on a branch line of the Great Southern & Western
railway, 185¼ m. S.W. from Dublin. Pop. of urban district (1901), 5656.
On account of the beautiful scenery in the neighbourhood the town is
much frequented by tourists. The principal buildings are the Roman
Catholic cathedral and bishop's palace of the diocese of Kerry, designed
by A. W. Pugin, a large Protestant church and several hotels. Adjoining
the town is the mansion of the earl of Kenmare. There is a school of
arts and crafts, where carving and inlaying are prosecuted. The only
manufacture of importance now carried on at Killarney is that of fancy
articles from arbutus wood; but it owed its origin to iron-smelting
works, for which abundant fuel was obtained from the neighbouring

The lakes of Killarney, about 1½ m. from the town, lie in a basin
between several lofty mountain groups, some of which rise abruptly from
the water's edge, and all clothed with trees and shrubbery almost to
their summits. The lower lake, or Lough Leane (area 5001 acres), is
studded with finely wooded islands, on the largest of which, Ross
Island, are the ruins of Ross Castle, an old fortress of the
O'Donoghues; and on another island, the "sweet Innisfallen" of Moore,
are the picturesque ruins of an abbey founded by St Finian the leper at
the close of the 6th century. Between the lower lake and the middle or
Torc lake (680 acres in extent) stands Muckross Abbey, built by
Franciscans about 1440. With the upper lake (430 acres), thickly studded
with islands, and close shut in by mountains, the lower and middle lakes
are connected by the Long Range, a winding and finely wooded channel, 2½
m. in length, and commanding magnificent views of the mountains. Midway
in its course is a famous echo caused by the Eagle's Nest, a lofty
pyramidal rock.

Besides the lakes of Killarney themselves, the immediate neighbourhood
includes many features of natural beauty and of historic interest. Among
the first are Macgillicuddy's Reeks and the Torc and Purple Mountains,
the famous pass known as the Gap of Dunloe, Mount Mangerton, with a
curious depression (the Devil's Punchbowl) near its summit, the
waterfalls of Torc and Derrycunihy, and Lough Guitane, above Lough
Leane. Notable ruins and remains, besides Muckross and Innisfallen,
include Aghadoe, with its ruined church of the 12th century (formerly a
cathedral) and remains of a round tower; and the Ogham Cave of Dunloe, a
souterrain containing inscribed stones. The waters of the neighbourhood
provide trout and salmon, and the flora is of high interest to the
botanist. Innumerable legends centre round the traditional hero

KILLDEER, a common American plover, so called in imitation of its
whistling cry, the _Charadrius vociferus_ of Linnaeus, and the
_Aegialitis vocifera_ of modern ornithologists. About the size of a
snipe, it is mostly sooty-brown above, but showing a bright buff on the
tail coverts, and in flight a white bar on the wings; beneath it is
pure white except two pectoral bands of deep black. It is one of the
finest as well as the largest of the group commonly known as ringed
plovers or ring dotterels,[1] forming the genus _Aegialitis_ of Boie.
Mostly wintering in the south or only on the sea-shore of the more
northern states, in spring it spreads widely over the interior, breeding
on the newly ploughed lands or on open grass-fields. The nest is made in
a slight hollow, and is often surrounded with small pebbles and
fragments of shells. Here the hen lays her pear-shaped, stone-coloured
eggs, four in number, and always arranged with their pointed ends
touching each other, as is the custom of most Limicoline birds. The
parents exhibit the greatest anxiety for their offspring on the approach
of an intruder. It is the best-known bird of its family in the United
States, where it is less abundant in the north-east than farther south
or west. In Canada it does not range farther northward than 56° N.; it
is not known in Greenland, and hardly in Labrador, though it is a
passenger in Newfoundland every spring and autumn.[2] In winter it finds
its way to Bermuda and to some of the Antilles, but it is not recorded
from any of the islands to the windward of Porto Rico. In the other
direction, however, it travels down the Isthmus of Panama and the west
coast of South America to Peru. The killdeer has several other congeners
in America, among which may be noticed _Ae. semipalmata_, curiously
resembling the ordinary ringed plover of the Old World, _Ae. hiaticula_,
except that it has its toes connected by a web at the base; and Ae.
nivosa, a bird inhabiting the western parts of both the American
continents, which in the opinion of some authors is only a local form of
the widely spread _Ae. alexandrina_ or _cantiana_, best known as Kentish
plover, from its discovery near Sandwich towards the end of the 18th
century, though it is far more abundant in many other parts of the Old
World. The common ringed plover, _Ae. hiaticula_, has many of the habits
of the killdeer, but is much less often found away from the sea-shore,
though a few colonies may be found in dry warrens in certain parts of
England many miles from the coast, and in Lapland at a still greater
distance. In such localities it paves its nest with small stones (whence
it is locally known as "Stone hatch"), a habit almost unaccountable
unless regarded as an inherited instinct from shingle-haunting
ancestors.     (A. N.)


  [1] The word dotterel seems properly applicable to a single species
    only, the _Charadrius morinellus_ of Linnaeus, which, from some of
    its osteological characters, may be fitly regarded as the type of a
    distinct genus, _Eudromias_. Whether any other species agree with it
    in the peculiarity alluded to is at present uncertain.

  [2] A single example is said to have been shot near Christchurch, in
    Hampshire, England, in April 1857 (_Ibis_, 1862, p. 276).

KILLIECRANKIE, a pass of Perthshire, Scotland, 3¾ m. N.N.W. of Pitlochry
by the Highland railway. Beginning close to Killiecrankie station it
extends southwards to the bridge of Garry for nearly 1½ m. through the
narrow, extremely beautiful, densely wooded glen in the channel of which
flows the Garry. A road constructed by General Wade in 1732 runs up the
pass, and between this and the river is the railway, built in 1863. The
battle of the 27th of July 1689, between some 3000 Jacobites under
Viscount Dundee and the royal force, about 4000 strong, led by General
Hugh Mackay, though named from the ravine, was not actually fought in
the pass. When Mackay emerged from the gorge he found the Highlanders
already in battle array on the high ground on the right bank of the
Girnaig, a tributary of the Garry, within half a mile of where the
railway station now is. Before he had time to form on the more open
table-land, the clansmen charged impetuously with their claymores and
swept his troops back into the pass and the Garry. Mackay lost nearly
half his force, the Jacobites about 900, including their leader. Urrard
House adjoins the spot where Viscount Dundee received his death-wound.

KILLIGREW, SIR HENRY (d. 1603), English diplomatist, belonged to an old
Cornish family and became member of parliament for Launceston in 1553.
Having lived abroad during the whole or part of Mary's reign, he
returned to England when Elizabeth came to the throne and at once began
to serve the new queen as a diplomatist. He was employed on a mission to
Germany, and in conducting negotiations in Scotland, where he had
several interviews with Mary Queen of Scots. He was knighted in 1591,
and after other diplomatic missions in various parts of Europe he died
early in 1603. Many of Sir Henry's letters on public matters are in the
Record Office, London, and in the British Museum. His first wife,
Catherine (c. 1530-1583), daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke (1504-1576),
tutor to Edward VI., was a lady of talent.

Another celebrated member of this family was Sir ROBERT KILLIGREW (c.
1579-1633), who was knighted by James I. in the same year (1603) as his
father, Sir William Killigrew. Sir William was an officer in Queen
Elizabeth's household and a member of parliament; he died in November
1622. Sir Robert was a member of all the parliaments between 1603 and
his death, but he came more into prominence owing to his alleged
connexion with the death of Sir Thomas Overbury. A man of some
scientific knowledge, he had been in the habit of supplying powders to
Robert Carr, earl of Somerset, but it is not certain that the fatal
powder came from the hands of Killigrew. He died early in 1633, leaving
five sons, three of whom attained some reputation (see below).

KILLIGREW, THOMAS (1612-1683), English dramatist and wit, son of Sir
Robert Killigrew, was born in Lothbury, London, on the 7th of February
1612. Pepys says that as a boy he satisfied his love of the stage by
volunteering at the Red Bull to take the part of a devil, thus seeing
the play for nothing. In 1633 he became page to Charles I., and was
faithfully attached to the royal house throughout his life. In 1635 he
was in France, and has left an account (printed in the _European
Magazine_, 1803) of the exorcizing of an evil spirit from some nuns at
Loudun. In 1641 he published two tragi-comedies, _The Prisoners_ and
_Claracilla_, both of which had probably been produced before 1636. In
1647 he followed Prince Charles into exile. His wit, easy morals and
accommodating temper recommended him to Charles, who sent him to Venice
in 1651 as his representative. Early in the following year he was
recalled at the request of the Venetian ambassador in Paris. At the
Restoration he became groom of the bedchamber to Charles II., and later
chamberlain to the queen. He received in 1660, with Sir William
Davenant, a patent to erect a new playhouse, the performances in which
were to be independent of the censorship of the master of the revels.
This infringement of his prerogative caused a dispute with Sir Henry
Herbert, then holder of the office, but Killigrew settled the matter by
generous concessions. He acted independently of Davenant, his company
being known as the King's Servants. They played at the Red Bull, until
in 1663 he built for them the original Theatre Royal in Drury Lane.
Pepys writes in 1664 that Killigrew intended to have four opera seasons
of six weeks each during the year, and with this end in view paid
several visits to Rome to secure singers and scene decorators. In 1664
his plays were published as _Comedies and Tragedies_. _Written by Thomas
Killigrew._ They are _Claracilla_; _The Princess, or Love at First
Sight_; _The Parson's Wedding_; _The Pilgrim_; _Cicilia and Clorinda, or
Love in Arms_; _Thomaso, or the Wanderer_; and _Bellamira, her Dream, or
Love of Shadows_. _The Parson's Wedding_ (acted c. 1640, reprinted in
the various editions of Dodsley's _Old Plays_ and in the _Ancient
British Drama_) is an unsavoury play, which displays nevertheless
considerable wit, and some of its jokes were appropriated by Congreve.
It was revived after the Restoration in 1664 and 1672 or 1673, all the
parts being in both cases taken by women. Killigrew succeeded Sir Henry
Herbert as master of the revels in 1673. He died at Whitehall on the
19th of March 1683. He was twice married, first to Cecilia Crofts, maid
of honour to Queen Henrietta Maria, and secondly to Charlotte de Hesse,
by whom he had a son Thomas (1657-1719), who was the author of a
successful little piece, _Chit-Chat_, played at Drury Lane on the 14th
of February 1719, with Mrs Oldfield in the part of Florinda.

  Killigrew enjoyed a greater reputation as a wit than as a dramatist.
  Sir John Denham said of him:--

    Had Cowley ne'er spoke, Killigrew ne'er writ,
    Combined in one, they'd made a matchless wit.

  Many stories are related of his bold speeches to Charles I. Pepys
  (Feb. 12, 1668) records that he was said to hold the title of King's
  Fool or Jester, with a cap and bells at the expense of the king's
  wardrobe, and that he might therefore revile or jeer anybody, even the
  greatest, without offence.

His elder brother, Sir WILLIAM KILLIGREW (1606-1695), was a court
official under Charles I. and Charles II. He attempted to drain the
Lincolnshire fens, and was the author of four plays (printed 1665 and
1666) of some merit.

A younger brother, Dr HENRY KILLIGREW (1613-1700), was chaplain and
almoner to the duke of York, and master of the Savoy after the
Restoration. A juvenile play of his, _The Conspiracy_, was printed
surreptitiously in 1638, and in an authenticated version in 1653 as
_Pallantus and Eudora_. He had two sons, HENRY KILLIGREW (d. 1712), an
admiral, and JAMES KILLIGREW, also a naval officer, who was killed in an
encounter with the French in January 1695; and a daughter, ANNE
(1660-1685), poet and painter, who was maid of honour to the duchess of
York, and was the subject of an ode by Dryden, which Samuel Johnson
thought the noblest in the language.

A sister, ELIZABETH KILLIGREW, married Francis Boyle, 1st Viscount
Shannon, and became a mistress of Charles II.

KILLIN, a village and parish of Perthshire, Scotland, at the
south-western extremity of Loch Tay, 4 m. N.E. of Killin Junction on a
branch line of the Callander & Oban railway. Pop. of parish (1901),
1423. It is situated near the confluence of the rivers and glens of the
Dochart and Lochay, and is a popular tourist centre, having
communication by steamer with Kenmore at the other end of the lake, and
thence by coach to Aberfeldy, the terminus of a branch of the Highland
railway. It has manufactures of tweeds. In a field near the village a
stone marks the site of what is known as Fingal's Grove. An island in
the Dochart (which is crossed at Killin by a bridge of five arches) is
the ancient burial-place of the clan Macnab. Finlarig Castle, a
picturesque mass of ivy-clad ruins, was a stronghold of the Campbells of
Glenorchy, and several earls of Breadalbane were buried in ground
adjoining it, where the modern mausoleum of the family stands. Three
miles up the Lochay, which rises in the hills beyond the forest of
Mamlorn and has a course of 15 m., the river forms a graceful cascade.
The Dochart, issuing from Loch Dochart, flows for 13 m. in a
north-easterly direction and falls into Loch Tay. The ruined castle on
an islet in the loch once belonged to the Campbells of Lochawe.

KILLIS, a town of N. Syria, in the vilayet of Aleppo, 60 m. N. of Aleppo
city. It is situated in an extremely fertile plain, and is completely
surrounded with olive groves, the produce of which is reckoned the
finest oil of all Syria; and its position on the carriage-road from
Aleppo to Aintab and Birejik gives it importance. The population
(20,000) consists largely of Circassians, Turkomans and Arabs, the town
lying just on the northern rim of the Arab territory. As Killis lies
also very near the proposed junction of the Bagdad and the Beirut-Aleppo
railways (at Tell Habesh), it is likely to increase in importance.

KILLYBEGS, a seaport and market town of county Donegal, Ireland, in the
south parliamentary division, on the north coast on Donegal Bay, the
terminus of the Donegal railway. Pop. (1901), 607. It derives some
importance from its fine land-locked harbour, which, affording
accommodation to large vessels, is used as a naval station, and is the
centre of an important fishery. There is a large pier for the fishing
vessels. The manufacture of carpets occupies a part of the population,
employing both male and female labour--the productions being known as
Donegal carpets. There are slight remains of a castle and ancient
church; and a mineral spring is still used. The town received a charter
from James I., and was a parliamentary borough, returning two members,
until the Union.

KILLYLEAGH, a small seaport and market town of county Down, Ireland, in
the east parliamentary division, on the western shore of Strangford
Lough. Pop. (1901), 1410. Linen manufacture is the principal industry,
and agricultural produce is exported. Killyleagh was an important
stronghold in early times, and the modern castle preserves the towers of
the old building. Sir John de Courcy erected this among many other
fortresses in the neighbourhood; it was besieged by Shane O'Neill
(1567), destroyed by Monk (1648), and subsequently rebuilt. The town was
incorporated by James I., and returned two members to the Irish

KILMAINE, CHARLES EDWARD (1751-1799), French general, was born at Dublin
on the 19th of October 1751. At the age of eleven he went with his
father, whose surname was Jennings, to France, where he changed his name
to Kilmaine, after a village in Mayo. He entered the French army as an
officer in a dragoon regiment in 1774, and afterwards served as a
volunteer in the Navy (1778), during which period he was engaged in the
fighting in Senegal. From 1780 to 1783 he took part in the War of
American Independence under Rochambeau, rejoining the army on his return
to France. In 1791, as a retired captain, he took the civic oath and was
recalled to active service, becoming lieutenant-colonel in 1792, and
colonel, brigadier-general, and lieutenant-general in 1793. In this last
capacity he distinguished himself in the wars on the northern and
eastern frontiers. But he became an object of suspicion on account of
his foreign birth and his relations with England. He was suspended on
the 4th of August 1793, and was not recalled to active service till
1795. He then took part in the Italian campaigns of 1796 and 1797, and
was made commandant of Lombardy. He afterwards received the command of
the cavalry in Bonaparte's "army of England," of which, during the
absence of Desaix, he was temporarily commander-in-chief (1798). He died
on the 15th of December 1799.

  See J. G. Alger, _Englishmen in the French Revolution_ (1889); Eugène
  Fieffé, _Histoire des troupes étrangères au service de France_ (1854);
  Etienne Charavay, _Correspondance de Carnot_, tome iii.

KILMALLOCK, a market town of county Limerick, Ireland, in the east
parliamentary division, 124¼ m. S.W. of Dublin by the Great Southern &
Western main line. Pop. (1901), 1206. It commands a natural route (now
followed by the railway) through the hills to the south and south-west,
and is a site of great historical interest. It received a charter in the
reign of Edward III., at which time it was walled and fortified, and
entered by four gates, two of which remain. It was a military post of
importance in Elizabeth's reign, but its fortifications were for the
most part demolished by order of Cromwell. Two castellated mansions are
still to be seen. The church of St Peter and St Paul belonged to a
former abbey, and has a tower at the north-west corner which is a
converted round tower. The Dominican Abbey, of the 13th century, has
Early English remains of great beauty and a tomb to Edmund, the last of
the White Knights, a branch of the family of Desmond intimately
connected with Kilmallock, who received their title from Edward III. at
the battle of Halidon Hill. The foundation of Kilmallock, however, is
attributed to the Geraldines, who had several towns in this vicinity.
Eight miles from the town is Lough Gur, near which are numerous stone
circles and other remains. Kilmallock returned two members to the Irish

KILMARNOCK, a municipal and police burgh of Ayrshire, Scotland, on
Kilmarnock Water, a tributary of the Irvine, 24 m. S.W. of Glasgow by
the Glasgow & South-Western railway. Pop. (1901), 35,091. Among the
chief buildings are the town hall, court-house, corn-exchange (with the
Albert Tower, 110 ft. high), observatory, academy, corporation art
gallery, institute (containing a free library and a museum), Kay
schools, School of Science and Art, Athenaeum, theatre, infirmary,
Agricultural Hall, and Philosophical Institution. The grounds of
Kilmarnock House, presented to the town in 1893, were laid out as a
public park. In Kay Park (48¾ acres), purchased from the duke of
Portland for £9000, stands the Burns Memorial, consisting of two storeys
and a tower, and containing a museum in which have been placed many
important MSS. of the poet and the McKie library of Burns's books. The
marble statue of the poet, by W. G. Stevenson, stands on a terrace on
the southern face. A Reformers' monument was unveiled in Kay Park in
1885. Kilmarnock rose into importance in the 17th century by its
production of striped woollen "Kilmarnock cowls" and broad blue bonnets,
and afterwards acquired a great name for its Brussels, Turkey and
Scottish carpets. Tweeds, blankets, shawls, tartans, lace curtains,
cottons and winceys are also produced. The boot and shoe trade is
prosperous, and there are extensive engineering and hydraulic machinery
works. But the iron industry is prominent, the town being situated in
the midst of a rich mineral region. Here, too, are the workshops of the
Glasgow & South-Western railway company. Kilmarnock is famous for its
dairy produce, and every October holds the largest cheese-show in
Scotland. The neighbourhood abounds in freestone and coal. The burgh,
which is governed by a provost and council, unites with Dumbarton, Port
Glasgow, Renfrew and Rutherglen in returning one member to parliament.
Alexander Smith, the poet (1830-1867), whose father was a lace-pattern
designer, and Sir James Shaw (1764-1843), lord mayor of London in 1806,
to whom a statue was erected in the town in 1848, were natives of
Kilmarnock. It dates from the 15th century, and in 1591 was made a burgh
of barony under the Boyds, the ruling house of the district. The last
Boyd who bore the title of Lord Kilmarnock was beheaded on Tower Hill,
London, in 1746, for his share in the Jacobite rising. The first edition
of Robert Burns's poems was published here in 1786.

KILMAURS, a town in the Cunningham division of Ayrshire, Scotland, on
the Carmel, 21½ m. S. by W. of Glasgow by the Glasgow & South-Western
railway. Pop. (1901), 1803. Once noted for its cutlery, the chief
industries now are shoe and bonnet factories, and there are iron and
coal mines in the neighbourhood. The parish church dates from 1170, and
was dedicated either to the Virgin or to a Scottish saint of the 9th
century called Maure. It was enlarged in 1403 and in great part rebuilt
in 1888. Adjoining it is the burial-place of the earls of Glencairn, the
leading personages in the district during several centuries, some of
whom bore the style of Lord Kilmaurs. Their family name was Cunningham,
adopted probably from the manor which they acquired in the 12th century.
The town was made a burgh of barony in 1527 by the earl of that date.
Burns's patron, the thirteenth earl, on whose death the poet wrote his
touching "Lament," sold the Kllmaurs estate in 1786 to the marchioness
of Titchfield.

KILN (O.E. _cylene_, from the Lat. _culina_, a kitchen, cooking-stove),
a place for burning, baking or drying. Kilns may be divided into two
classes--those in which the materials come into actual contact with the
flames, and those in which the furnace is beneath or surrounding the
oven. Lime-kilns are of the first class, and brick-kilns, pottery-kilns,
&c., of the second, which also includes places for merely drying
materials, such as hop-kilns, usually called "oasts" or "oast-houses."

KILPATRICK, NEW, or EAST, also called BEARSDEN, a town of
Dumbartonshire, Scotland, 5½ m. N.W. of Glasgow by road, with a station
on the North British railway company's branch line from Glasgow to
Milngavie. Pop. (1901), 2705. The town is largely inhabited by business
men from Glasgow. The public buildings include the Shaw convalescent
home, Buchanan, Retreat, house of refuge for girls, library, and St
Peter's College, a fine structure, presented to the Roman Catholic
Church in 1892 by the archbishop of Glasgow. There is some coal-mining,
and lime is manufactured. Remains of the Wall of Antoninus are close to
the town. At Garscube and Garscadden, both within 1½ m. of New
Kilpatrick, are extensive iron-works, and at the former place coal is
mined and stone quarried.

KILPATRICK, OLD, a town of Dumbartonshire, Scotland, on the right bank
of the Clyde, 10½ m. N.W. of Glasgow by rail, with stations on the North
British and Caledonian railways. Pop. (1901), 1533. It is traditionally
the birthplace of St Patrick, whose father is said to have acted there
as a Roman magistrate. Roman remains occur in the district, and the Wall
of Antoninus ran through the parish. To the north, occupying an area of
about 6 m. from east to west and 5 m. from north to south run the
Kilpatrick Hills, of which the highest points are Duncomb and Fynloch
Hill (each 1313 ft.).

KILRUSH, a seaport and watering-place of county Clare, Ireland, in the
west parliamentary division, on the north shore of the Shannon estuary
45 m. below Limerick. Pop. of urban district (1901), 4179. It is the
terminus of a branch of the West Clare railway. The only seaport of
importance in the county, it has a considerable export trade in peat
fuel, extensive fisheries, and flagstone quarries; while general fairs,
horse fairs and annual agricultural shows are held. The inner harbour
admits only small vessels, but there is a good pier a mile south of the
town. Off the harbour lies Scattery Island (_Inis Cathaigh_), where St
Senan (d. 544) founded a monastery. There are the remains of his oratory
and house and of seven rude churches or chapels, together with a round
tower and a holy well still in repute. The island also received the
epithet of Holy, and was a favourite burial-ground until modern times.

KILSYTH, a police burgh of Stirlingshire, Scotland, on the Kelvin, 13 m.
N.N.E. of Glasgow by the North British railway, and close to the Forth
and Clyde canal. Pop. (1901), 7292. The principal buildings are the town
and public halls, and the academy. The chief industries are coal-mining
and iron-works; there are also manufactures of paper and cotton, besides
quarrying of whinstone and sandstone. There are considerable remains of
the Wall of Antoninus south of the town, and to the north the ruins of
the old castle. Kilsyth dates from the middle of the 17th century and
became a burgh of barony in 1826. It was the scene of Montrose's defeat
of the Covenanters on the 15th of August 1645. The town was the centre
of remarkable religious revivals in 1742-3 and 1839, the latter
conducted by William Chalmers Burns (1815-1868), the missionary to

KILT, properly the short loose skirt or petticoat, reaching to the knees
and usually made of tartan, forming part of the dress of a Scottish
Highlander (see COSTUME). The word means that which is "girded or tucked
up," and is apparently of Scandinavian origin, cf. Danish _kilte_, to
tuck up. The early kilt was not a separate garment but was merely the
lower part of the plaid, in which the Highlander wrapped himself,
hanging down in folds below the belt.

KILWA (Quiloa), a seaport of German East Africa, about 200 m. S. of
Zanzibar. There are two Kilwas, one on the mainland--Kilwa Kivinje; the
other, the ancient city, on an island--Kilwa Kisiwani. Kilwa Kivinje, on
the northern side of Kilwa Bay, is regularly laid out, the houses in the
European quarter being large and substantial. The government house and
barracks are fortified and are surrounded by fine public gardens. The
adjacent country is fertile and thickly populated, and the trade of the
port is considerable. Much of it is in the hands of Banyans. Kilwa is a
starting-point for caravans to Lake Nyasa. Pop. about 5000. Most of the
inhabitants are Swahili.

Kilwa Kisiwani, 18 m. to the south of the modern town, possesses a deep
harbour sheltered from all winds by projecting coral reefs. The island
on which it is built is separated from the mainland by a shallow and
narrow channel. The ruins of the city include massive walls and
bastions, remains of a palace and of two large mosques, of which the
domed roofs are in fair preservation, besides several Arab forts. The
new quarter contains a customs house and a few Arab buildings. Pop.
about 600. On the island of Songa Manara, at the southern end of Kilwa
Bay, hidden in dense vegetation, are the ruins of another city, unknown
to history. Fragments of palaces and mosques in carved limestone exist,
and on the beach are the remains of a lighthouse. Chinese coins and
pieces of porcelain have been found on the sea-shore, washed up from the

  The sultanate of Kilwa is reputed to have been founded about A.D. 975
  by Ali ibn Hasan, a Persian prince from Shiraz, upon the site of the
  ancient Greek colony of Rhapta. The new state, at first confined to
  the town of Kilwa, extended its influence along the coast from
  Zanzibar to Sofala, and the city came to be regarded as the capital of
  the Zenj "empire" (see ZANZIBAR: "Sultanate"). An Arab chronicle gives
  a list of over forty sovereigns who reigned at Kilwa in a period of
  five hundred years (cf. A. M. H. J. Stokvis, _Manuel d'histoire_,
  Leiden, 1888, i. 558). Pedro Alvares Cabral, the Portuguese navigator,
  was the first European to visit it. His fleet, on its way to India,
  anchored in Kilwa Bay in 1500. Kilwa was then a large and wealthy
  city, possessing, it is stated, three hundred mosques. In 1502 Kilwa
  submitted to Vasco da Gama, but the sultan neglecting to pay the
  tribute imposed upon him, the city in 1505 was occupied by the
  Portuguese. They built a fort there; the first erected by them on the
  east coast of Africa. Fighting ensued between the Arabs and the
  Portuguese, the city was destroyed; and in 1512 the Portuguese, whose
  ranks had been decimated by fever, temporarily abandoned the place.
  Subsequently Kilwa became one of the chief centres of the slave trade.
  Towards the end of the 17th century it fell under the dominion of the
  imams of Muscat, and on the separation in 1856 of their Arabian and
  African possessions became subject to the sultan of Zanzibar. With the
  rest of the southern part of the sultan's continental dominions Kilwa
  was acquired by Germany in 1890 (see AFRICA, § 5; and GERMAN EAST

KILWARDBY, ROBERT (d. 1279), archbishop of Canterbury and cardinal,
studied at the university of Paris, where he soon became famous as a
teacher of grammar and logic. Afterwards joining the order of St Dominic
and turning his attention to theology, he was chosen provincial prior of
his order in England in 1261, and in October 1272 Pope Gregory X.
terminated a dispute over the vacant archbishopric of Canterbury by
appointing Kilwardby. Although the new archbishop crowned Edward I. and
his queen Eleanor in August 1274, he took little part in business of
state, but was energetic in discharging the spiritual duties of his
office. He was charitable to the poor, and showed liberality to the
Dominicans. In 1278 Pope Nicholas III. made him cardinal-bishop of Porto
and Santa Rufina; he resigned his archbishopric and left England,
carrying with him the registers and other valuable property belonging to
the see of Canterbury. He died in Italy on the 11th of September 1279.
Kilwardby was the first member of a mendicant order to attain a high
position in the English Church. Among his numerous writings, which
became very popular among students, are _De ortu scientiarum_, _De
tempore_, _De Universali_, and some commentaries on Aristotle.

  See N. Trevet, _Annales sex regum Angliae_, edited by T. Hog (London,
  1845); W. F. Hook, _Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury_, vol. iii.
  (London, 1860-1876); J. Quétif and J. Échard, _Scriptores ordinis
  Predicatorum_ (Paris, 1719-1721).

KILWINNING, a municipal and police burgh of Ayrshire, Scotland, on the
right bank of the Garnock, 24 m. S.W. of Glasgow by the Caledonian
railway, and 26¾ m. by the Glasgow & South-Western railway. Pop. (1901),
4440. The chief buildings include the public library, the Masonic hall
and the district hospital. The centre of interest, however, is the
ruined abbey, originally one of the richest in Scotland. Founded about
1140 by Hugh de Morville, lord of Cunninghame, for Tyronensian monks of
the Benedictine order, it was dedicated to St Winnin, who lived on the
spot in the 8th century and has given his name to the town. This
beautiful specimen of Early English architecture was partly destroyed in
1561, and its lands were granted to the earl of Eglinton and others.
Kilwinning is the traditional birthplace of Scottish freemasonry, the
lodge, believed to have been founded by the foreign architects and
masons who came to build the abbey, being regarded as the mother lodge
in Scotland. The royal company of archers of Kilwinning--dating, it is
said, as far back as 1488--meet every July to shoot at the popinjay. The
industry in weaving shawls and lighter fabrics has died out; and the
large iron, coal and fire-clay works at Eglinton, and worsted spinning,
employ most of the inhabitants. About a mile from Kilwinning is Eglinton
Castle, the seat of the earls of Eglinton, built in 1798 in the English
castellated style.

KIMBERLEY, JOHN WODEHOUSE, 1ST EARL OF (1826-1902), English statesman,
was born on the 7th of January 1826, being the eldest son of the Hon.
Henry Wodehouse and grandson of the 2nd Baron Wodehouse (the barony
dating from 1797), whom he succeeded in 1846. He was educated at Eton
and Christ Church, Oxford, where he took a first-class degree in
classics in 1847; in the same year married Lady Florence Fitzgibbon (d.
1895), daughter of the last earl of Clare. He was by inheritance a
Liberal in politics, and in 1852-1856 and 1859-1861 he was under
secretary of state for foreign affairs in Lord Aberdeen's and Lord
Palmerston's ministries. In the interval (1856-1858) he had been
envoy-extraordinary to Russia; and in 1863 he was sent on a special
mission to Copenhagen on the forlorn hope of finding a peaceful solution
of the Schleswig-Holstein question. The mission was a failure, but
probably nothing else was possible. In 1864 he became under secretary
for India, but towards the end of the year was made Lord-Lieutenant of
Ireland. In that capacity he had to grapple with the first
manifestations of Fenianism, and in recognition of his vigour and
success he was created (1866) earl of Kimberley. In July 1866 he vacated
his office with the fall of Lord Russell's ministry, but in 1868 he
became Lord Privy Seal in Mr Gladstone's cabinet, and in July 1870 was
transferred from that post to be secretary of state for the colonies. It
was the moment of the great diamond discoveries in South Africa, and the
new town of Kimberley was named after the colonial secretary of the day.
After an interval of opposition from 1874 to 1880, Lord Kimberley
returned to the Colonial Office in Mr Gladstone's next ministry; but at
the end of 1882 he exchanged this office first for that of chancellor of
the duchy of Lancaster and then for the secretaryship of state for
India, a post he retained during the remainder of Mr Gladstone's tenure
of power (1882-1886, 1892-1894), though in 1892-1894 he combined with it
that of the lord presidency of the council. In Lord Rosebery's cabinet
(1894-1895) he was foreign secretary. Lord Kimberley was an admirable
departmental chief, but it is difficult to associate his own personality
with any ministerial act during his occupation of all these posts. He
was at the colonial office when responsible government was granted to
Cape Colony, when British Columbia was added to the Dominion of Canada,
and during the Boer War of 1880-81, with its conclusion at Majuba; and
he was foreign secretary when the misunderstanding arose with Germany
over the proposed lease of territory from the Congo Free State for the
Cape to Cairo route. He was essentially a loyal Gladstonian party man.
His moderation, common sense, and patriotism had their influence,
nevertheless, on his colleagues. As leader of the Liberal party in the
House of Lords he acted with undeviating dignity; and in opposition he
was a courteous antagonist and a critic of weight and experience. He
took considerable interest in education, and after being for many years
a member of the senate of London University, he became its chancellor in
1899. He died in London on the 8th of April 1902, being succeeded in the
earldom by his eldest and only surviving son, Lord Wodehouse (b. 1848).

KIMBERLEY, a town of the Cape province, South Africa, the centre of the
Griqualand West diamond industry, 647 m. N.E. of Cape Town and 310 m.
S.W. of Johannesburg by rail. Pop. (1904), 34,331, of whom 13,556 were
whites. The town is built on the bare veld midway between the Modder and
Vaal Rivers and is 4012 ft. above the sea. Having grown out of camps
formed round the diamond mines, its plan is very irregular and in
striking contrast with the rectangular outline common to South African
towns. Grouped round market square are the law courts, with a fine clock
tower, the post and telegraph offices and the town-hall. The public
library and the hospital are in Du Toits Pan Road. In the district of
Newton, laid out during the siege of 1899-1900, a monument to those who
fell during the operations has been erected where four roads meet. Siege
Avenue, in the suburb of Kenilworth, 250 ft. wide, a mile and a quarter
long, and planted with 16 rows of trees, was also laid out during the
siege. In the public gardens are statues of Queen Victoria and Cecil
Rhodes. The diamond mines form, however, the chief attraction of the
town (see DIAMOND). Of these the Kimberley is within a few minutes' walk
of market square. The De Beers mine is one mile east of the Kimberley
mine. The other principal mines, Bultfontein, Du Toits Pan and
Wesselton, are still farther distant from the town. Barbed wire fencing
surrounds the mines, which cover about 180 acres.

The Kaffirs who work in the mines are housed in large compounds. Wire
netting is spread over these enclosures, and every precaution taken to
prevent the illicit disposal of diamonds. Ample provision is made for
the comfort of the inmates, who in addition to food and lodging earn
from 17s. to 24s. a week. Most of the white workmen employed live at
Kenilworth, laid out by the De Beers company as a "model village."
Beaconsfield, near Du Toits Pan Mine, is also dependent on the diamond

Kimberley was founded in 1870 by diggers who discovered diamonds on the
farms of Du Toits Pan and Bultfontein. In 1871 richer diamonds were
found on the neighbouring farm of Vooruitzight at places named De Beers
and Colesberg Kopje. There were at first three distinct mining camps,
one at Du Toits Pan, another at De Beers (called De Beers Rush or Old De
Beers) and the third at the Colesberg Kopje (called De Beers New Rush,
or New Rush simply). The Colesberg Kopje mine was in July 1873 renamed
Kimberley in honour of the then secretary of state for the colonies, the
1st earl of Kimberley, by whose direction the mines were--in 1871--taken
under the protection of Great Britain. Kimberley was also chosen as the
name of the town into which the mining camps developed. Doubt having
arisen as to the rights of the crown to the minerals on Vooruitzight
farm, litigation ensued, ending in the purchase of the farm by the state
for £100,000 in 1875. In 1880 the town was incorporated in Cape Colony
(see GRIQUALAND). In 1874 a great part of the population left for the
newly discovered gold diggings in the Lydenburg district of the
Transvaal, but others took their place. Among those early attracted to
Kimberley were Cecil Rhodes and "Barney" Barnato, who in time came to
represent two groups of financiers controlling the mines. The
amalgamation of their interests in 1889--when the De Beers group
purchased the Kimberley mine for £5,338,650--put the whole diamond
production of the Kimberley fields in the hands of one company, the De
Beers Consolidated Mines, Ltd., so named after the former owners of the
farms on which are situated the chief mines. Kimberley in consequence
became largely dependent on the good-will of the De Beers corporation,
the town having practically no industries other than diamond mining.
Horse-breeding is carried on to a limited extent. The value of the
annual output of diamonds averages about £4,500,000. The importance of
the industry led to the building of a railway from Cape Town, opened in
1885. On the outbreak of war between the British and the Boers in 1899
Kimberley was invested by a Boer force. The siege began on the 12th of
October and lasted until the 15th of February 1900, when the town was
relieved by General Sir John French. Among the besieged was Cecil
Rhodes, who placed the resources of the De Beers company at the disposal
of the defenders. In 1906 the town was put in direct railway
communication with Johannesburg, and in 1908 the completion of the line
from Bloemfontein gave Natal direct access to Kimberley, which thus
became an important railway centre.

KIMERIDGIAN, in geology, the basal division of the Upper Oolites in the
Jurassic system. The name is derived from the hamlet of Kimeridge or
Kimmeridge near the coast of Dorsetshire, England. It appears to have
been first suggested by T. Webster in 1812; in 1818, in the form
Kimeridge Clay, it was used by Buckland. From the Dorsetshire coast,
where it is splendidly exposed in the fine cliffs from St Alban's Head
to Gad Cliff, it follows the line of Jurassic outcrop through Wiltshire,
where there is a broad expanse between Westbury and Devizes, as far as
Yorkshire, there it appears in the vale of Pickering and on the coast in
Filey Bay. It generally occupied broad valleys, of which the vale of
Aylesbury may be taken as typical. Good exposures occur at Seend, Calne,
Swindon, Wootton Bassett, Faringdon, Abingdon, Culham, Shotover Hill,
Brill, Ely and Market Rasen. Traces of the formation are found as far
north as the east coast of Cromarty and Sutherland at Eathie and

  In England the Kimeridgian is usually divisible into an Upper Series,
  600-650 ft. in the south, dark bituminous shales, paper shales and
  clays with layers and nodules of cement-stones and septaria. These
  beds merge gradually into the overlying Portlandian formation. The
  Lower Series, with a maximum thickness of 400 ft., consists of clays
  and dark shales with septaria, cement-stones and calcareous "doggers."
  These lithological characters are very persistent. The Upper
  Kimeridgian is distinguished as the zone of _Perisphincles biplex_,
  with the sub-zone of _Discina latissima_ in the higher portions.
  _Cardioceras alternans_ is the zonal ammonite characteristic of the
  lower division, with the sub-zone of _Ostrea deltoidea_ in the lower
  portion. _Exogyra virgula_ is common in the upper part of the lower
  division, and the lower part of the Upper Kimeridgian. A large number
  of ammonites are peculiar to this formation, including _Reineckia
  eudoxus_, _R. Thurmanni_, _Aspidoceras longispinus_, &c. Large
  dinosaurian reptiles are abundant, _Cetiosaurus_, _Gigantosaurus_,
  _Megalosaurus_, also plesiosaurs and ichthyosaurs; crocodilian and
  chelonian remains are also found. _Protocardia striatula_, _Thracia
  depressa_, _Belemnites abreviatus_, _B. Blainvillei_, _Lingula
  ovalis_, _Rhynchonella inconstans_ and _Exogyra nana_ are
  characteristic fossils. Alum has been obtained from the Kimeridge
  Clay, and the cement-stones have been employed in Purbeck; coprolites
  are found in small quantities. Bricks, tiles, flower-pots, &c., are
  made from the clay at Swindon, Gillingham, Brill, Ely, Horncastle, and
  other places. The so-called "Kimeridge coal" is a highly bituminous
  shale capable of being used as fuel, which has been worked on the
  cliff at Little Kimeridge.

  The "Kimeridgien" of continental geologists is usually made to contain
  the three sub-divisions of A. Oppel and W. Waagen, viz.:--

                 / Upper  (Virgulian)  with _Exogyra virgula_
    Kimeridgien <  Middle (Pteroceran) with _Pteroceras oceani_
                 \ Lower  (Astartian)  with _Astarte supracorallina_;

  but the upper portion of this continental Kimeridgian is equivalent to
  some of the British Portlandian; while most of the Astartian
  corresponds to the Corallian. A. de Lapparent now recognizes only the
  Virgulian and Pteroceran in the Kimeridgien. Clays and marls with
  occasional limestones and sandstones represent the Kimeridgien of most
  of northern Europe, including Russia. In Swabia and some other parts
  of Germany the curious ruiniform marble _Felsenkalk_ occurs on this
  horizon, and most of the Kimeridgien of southern Europe, including the
  Alps, is calcareous. Representatives of the formation occur in
  Caucasia, Algeria, Abyssinia, Madagascar; in South America with
  volcanic rocks, and possibly in California (Maripan beds), Alaska and
  King Charles's Land.

  See "Jurassic Rocks of Britain," vols. v. and i., _Memoirs of the
  Geological Survey_ (vol. v. contains references to literature up to
  1895).     (J. A. H.)

KIMHI, or QIMHI, the family name of three Jewish grammarians and
biblical scholars who worked at Narbonne in the 12th century and the
beginning of the 13th, and exercised great influence on the study of the
Hebrew language. The name, as is shown by manuscript testimony, was also
pronounced _Kamhi_ and further mention is made of the French surname

JOSEPH KIMHI was a native of southern Spain, and settled in Provence,
where he was one of the first to set forth in the Hebrew language the
results of Hebraic philology as expounded by the Spanish Jews in their
Arabic treatises. He was acquainted moreover with Latin grammar, under
the influence of which he resorted to the innovation of dividing the
Hebrew vowels into five long vowels and five short, previous grammarians
having simply spoken of seven vowels without distinction of quantity.
His grammatical textbook, _Sefer Ha-Zikkaron_, "Book of Remembrance"
(ed. W. Bacher, Berlin, 1888), was marked by methodical
comprehensiveness, and introduced into the theory of the verbs a new
classification of the stems which has been retained by later scholars.
In the far more ample _Sefer Ha-Galuy_, "Book of Demonstration" (ed.
Matthews, Berlin, 1887), Joseph Kimhi attacks the philological work of
the greatest French Talmud scholar of that day, R. Jacob Tam, who
espoused the antiquated system of Menahem b. Saruq, and this he
supplements by an independent critique of Menahem. This work is a mine
of varied exegetical and philological details. He also wrote
commentaries--the majority of which are lost--on a great number of the
scriptural books. Those on Proverbs and Job have been published. He
composed an apologetic work under the title _Sefer Ha-Berith_ ("Book of
the Bond"), a fragment of which is extant, and translated into Hebrew
the ethico-philosophical work of Bahya ibn Paquda ("Duties of the
Heart"). In his commentaries he also made contributions to the
comparative philology of Hebrew and Arabic.

MOSES KIMHI was the author of a Hebrew grammar, known--after the first
three words--as _Mahalak Shebile Ha-daat_, or briefly as _Mahalak_. It
is an elementary introduction to the study of Hebrew, the first of its
kind, in which only the most indispensable definitions and rules have a
place, the remainder being almost wholly occupied by paradigms. Moses
Kimhi was the first who made the verb _paqadh_ a model for conjugation,
and the first also who introduced the now usual sequence in the
enumeration of stem-forms. His handbook was of great historical
importance as in the first half of the 16th century it became the
favourite manual for the study of Hebrew among non-Judaic scholars (1st
ed., Pesaro, 1508). Elias Levita (q.v.) wrote Hebrew explanations, and
Sebastian Münster translated it into Latin. Moses Kimhi also composed
commentaries to the biblical books; those on Proverbs, Ezra and Nehemiah
are in the great rabbinical bibles falsely ascribed to Abraham ibn Ezra.

DAVID KIMHI (c. 1160-1235), also known as _Redaq_ (= R. David Kimhi),
eclipsed the fame both of his father and his brother. From the writings
of the former he quotes a great number of explanations, some of which
are known only from this source. His _magnum opus_ is the _Sefer
Miklol_, "Book of Completeness." This falls into two divisions: the
grammar, to which the title of the whole, _Miklol_, is usually applied
(first printed in Constantinople, 1532-1534, then, with the notes of
Elias Levita, at Venice, 1545), and the lexicon, _Sefer Hashorashim_,
"Book of Roots," which was first printed in Italy before 1480, then at
Naples in 1490, and at Venice in 1546 with the annotations of Elias. The
model and the principal source for this work of David Kimhi's was the
book of R. Jonah (Abulwalid), which was cast in a similar bipartite
form; and it was chiefly due to Kimhi's grammar and lexicon that, while
the contents of Abulwalid's works were common knowledge, they themselves
remained in oblivion for centuries. In spite of this dependence on his
predecessors his work shows originality, especially in the arrangement
of his material. In the grammar he combined the paradigmatic method of
his brother Moses with the procedure of the older scholars who devoted a
close attention to details. In his dictionary, again, he recast the
lexicological materials independently, and enriched lexicography itself,
especially by his numerous etymological explanations. Under the title
_Et Sofer_, "Pen of the Writer" (Lyk, 1864), David Kimhi composed a sort
of grammatical compendium as a guide to the correct punctuation of the
biblical manuscripts; it consists, for the most part, of extracts from
the _Miklol_. After the completion of his great work he began to write
commentaries on portions of the Scriptures. The first was on Chronicles,
then followed one on the Psalms, and finally his exegetical
masterpiece--the commentary on the prophets. His annotations on the
Psalms are especially interesting for the polemical excursuses directed
against the Christian interpretation. He was also responsible for a
commentary on Genesis (ed. A. Günsburg, Pressburg, 1842), in which he
followed Moses Maimonides in explaining biblical narratives as visions.
He was an enthusiastic adherent of Maimonides, and, though far advanced
in years, took an active part in the battle which raged in southern
France and Spain round his philosophico-religious writings. The
popularity of his biblical exegesis is demonstrated by the fact that the
first printed texts of the Hebrew Bible were accompanied by his
commentary: the Psalms 1477, perhaps at Bologna; the early Prophets,
1485, Soncino; the later Prophets, ibid. 1486.

  His commentaries have been frequently reprinted, many of them in Latin
  translations. A new edition of that on the Psalms was begun by
  Schiller-Szinessy (_First Book of Psalms_, Cambridge, 1883). Abr.
  Geiger wrote of the three excursuses Kimhis in the Hebrew periodical
  _Ozar Nehmad_ (vol. ii., 1857 = A. Geiger, _Gesammelte Schriften_, v.
  1-47). See further the _Jewish Encyclopedia_.     (W. Ba.)

KIN (O.E. _cyn_, a word represented in nearly all Teutonic languages,
cf. Du. _kunne_, Dan. and Swed. _kön_, Goth _kuni_, tribe; the Teutonic
base is _kunya_; the equivalent Aryan root _gan_-to beget, produce, is
seen in Gr. [Greek: genos], Lat. _genus_, cf. "kind"), a collective word
for persons related by blood, as descended from a common ancestor. In
law, the term "next of kin" is applied to the person or persons who, as
being in the nearest degree of blood relationship to a person dying
intestate, share according to degree in his personal estate (see
INTESTACY, and INHERITANCE). "Kin" is frequently associated with "kith"
in the phrase "kith and kin," now used as an emphasized form of "kin"
for family relatives. It properly means one's "country and kin," or
one's "friends and kin." Kith (O.E. _cyððe_ and _cyð_, native land,
acquaintances) comes from the stem of _cunnan_, to know, and thus means
the land or people one knows familiarly.

  The suffix -_kin_, chiefly surviving in English surnames, seems to
  have been early used as a diminutive ending to certain Christian names
  in Flanders and Holland. The termination is represented by the
  diminutive -_chen_ in German, as in _Kindchen_, _Häuschen_, &c. Many
  English words, such as "pumpkin," "firkin," seem to have no diminutive
  significance, and may have been assimilated from earlier forms, e.g.
  "pumpkin" from "pumpion."

KINCARDINESHIRE, or THE MEARNS, an eastern county of Scotland, bounded
E. by the North Sea, S. and S.W. by Forfarshire, and N.W. and N. by
Aberdeenshire. Area, 243,974 acres, or 381 sq. m. In the west and
north-west the Grampians are the predominant feature. The highest of
their peaks is Mount Battock (2555 ft.), where the counties of Aberdeen,
Forfar and Kincardine meet, but there are a score of hills exceeding
1500 ft. in height. In the extreme north, on the confines of
Aberdeenshire, the Hill of Fare, famous for its sheep walks, attains an
altitude of 1545 ft. In the north the county slopes from the Grampians
to the picturesque and finely-wooded valley of the Dee, and in the south
it falls to the Howe (Hollow) of the Mearns, which is a continuation
north-eastwards of Strathmore. The principal rivers are Bervie Water (20
m. long), flowing south-eastwards to the North Sea; the Water of Feugh
(20 m.) taking a north-easterly direction and falling into the Dee at
Banchory, and forming near its mouth a beautiful cascade; the Dye (15
m.) rising in Mount Battock and ending its course in the Feugh; Luther
Water (14 m.) springing not far from the castle of Drumtochty and
meandering pleasantly to its junction with the North Esk; the Cowie (13
m.) and the Carron (8½ m.) entering the sea at Stonehaven. The Dee and
North Esk serve as boundary streams during part of their course, the one
of Aberdeenshire, the other of Forfarshire. Loch Loirston, in the parish
of Nigg, and Loch Lumgair, in Dunnottar parish, both small, are the only
lakes in the shire. Of the glens Glen Dye in the north centre of the
county is remarkable for its beauty, and the small Den Fenella, to the
south-east of Laurencekirk, contains a picturesque waterfall. Its name
perpetuates the memory of Fenella, daughter of a thane of Angus, who was
slain here after betraying Kenneth II. to his enemies, who (according to
local tradition) made away with him in Kincardine Castle. Excepting in
the vicinity of St Cyrus, the coast from below Johnshaven to Girdle Ness
presents a bold front of rugged cliffs, with an average height of from
100 to 250 ft., interrupted only by occasional creeks and bays, as at
Johnshaven, Gourdon, Bervie, Stonehaven, Portlethen, Findon, Cove and

  _Geology._--The great fault which traverses Scotland from shore to
  shore passes through this county from Craigeven Bay, about a mile
  north of Stonehaven, by Fenella Hill to Edzell. On the northern side
  of this line are the old crystalline schists of the Dalradian group;
  on the southern side Old Red Sandstone occupies all the remaining
  space. Good exposures of the schists are seen, repeatedly folded, in
  the cliffs between Aberdeen and Stonehaven. They consist of a lower
  series of greenish slates and a higher, more micaceous and schistose
  series with grits; bands of limestone occur in these rocks near
  Bunchory. Besides the numerous minor flexures the schists are bent
  into a broad synclinal fold which crosses the county, its axis lying
  in a south-westerly-north-easterly direction. Rising through the
  schists are several granite masses, the largest being that forming the
  high ground around Mt Battock; south of the Dee are several smaller
  masses, some of which have been extensively quarried. The lower part
  of the Old Red Sandstone consists of flags, red sandstones and purple
  clays in great thickness; these are followed by coarse conglomerates,
  well seen in the cliff at Dunnottar Castle, with ashy grits and some
  thin sheets of diabase. The diabase forms the Bruxie and Leys Hills
  and some minor elevations. Above the volcanic series more red
  sandstones, conglomerates and marls appear. The Old Red Sandstone is
  folded synclinally in a direction continuing the vale of Strathmore;
  south of this is an anticline, as may be seen on the coast between St
  Cyrus and Kinneff. Glacial striae on the higher ground and débris on
  the lower ground show that the direction taken by the ice flow was
  south-eastward on the hills but as the shore was approached it
  gradually took on an easterly and finally a northerly direction.

  _Climate and Agriculture._--The climate is healthy, but often cold,
  owing to the exposure to east winds. The average temperature for the
  year is 45° F., for July 58°, and for January 37°. The average annual
  rainfall is 34 in. Much of the Grampian territory is occupied by
  grouse moors, but the land by the Dee, in the Howe and along the
  coast, is scientifically farmed and yields well. The soil of the Howe
  is richer and stronger than that in the Dee valley, but the most
  fertile region is along the coast, where the soil is generally deep
  loam resting on clay, although in some places it is poor and thin, or
  stiff and cold. Oats are the principal crop, wheat is not largely
  grown, but the demands of the distillers maintain a very considerable
  acreage under barley. Rather more than one-tenth of the total area is
  under wood. Turnips form the main green crop, but potatoes are
  extensively raised. A little more than half the holdings consist of 50
  acres and under. Great attention is paid to livestock. Shorthorns are
  the most common breed, but the principal home-bred stock is a cross
  between shorthorned and polled, though there are many valuable herds
  of pure polled. Cattle-feeding is carried on according to the most
  advanced methods. Blackfaced sheep are chiefly kept on the hill runs,
  Cheviots or a cross with Leicesters being usually found on the lowland
  farms. Most of the horses are employed in connexion with the
  cultivation of the soil, but several good strains, including
  Clydesdales, are retained for stock purposes. Pigs are also reared in
  considerable numbers.

  _Other Industries._--Apart from agriculture, the principal industry is
  the fishing, of which Stonehaven is the centre. The coast being
  dangerous and the harbours difficult in rough weather, the fishermen
  often run great risks. The village of Findon (pron. _Finnan_) has
  given its name to the well-known smoked haddocks, which were first
  cured in this way at that hamlet. The salmon fisheries of the sea and
  the rivers yield a substantial annual return. Manufactures are of
  little more than local importance. Woollens are made at Stonehaven,
  and at Bervie, Laurencekirk and a few other places flax-spinning and
  weaving are carried on. There are also some distilleries, breweries
  and tanneries. Stonehaven, Gourdon and Johnshaven are the chief ports
  for seaborne trade.

  The Deeside railway runs through the portion of the county on the
  northern bank of the Dee. The Caledonian and North British railways
  run to Aberdeen via Laurencekirk to Stonehaven, using the same metals,
  and there is a branch line of the N.B.R. from Montrose to Bervie.
  There are also coaches between Blairs and Aberdeen, Bervie and
  Stonehaven, Fettercairn and Edzell, Banchory and Birse, and other

_Population and Government._--The population was 35,492 in 1891, and
40,923 in 1901, when 103 persons spoke Gaelic and English. The chief town
is Stonehaven (pop. in 1901, 4577) with Laurencekirk (1512) and Banchory
(1475), but part of the city of Aberdeen, with a population of 9386, is
within the county. The county returns one member to parliament, and
Bervie, the only royal burgh, belongs to the Montrose group of
parliamentary burghs. Kincardine is united in one sheriffdom with the
shires of Aberdeen and Banff, and one of the Aberdeen sheriffs-substitute
sits at Stonehaven. The county is under school-board jurisdiction. The
academy at Stonehaven and a few of the public schools earn grants for
higher education. The county council hands over the "residue" grant to
the county secondary education committee, which expends it in technical
education grants. At Blairs, in the north-east of the shire near the Dee,
is a Roman Catholic college for the training of young men for the

_History._--The annals of Kincardineshire as a whole are almost blank.
The county belonged of old to the district of Pictavia and apparently
was overrun for a brief period by the Romans. In the parish of
Fetteresso are the remains of the camp of Raedykes, in which, according
to tradition, the Caledonians under Galgacus were lodged before their
battle with Agricola. It is also alleged that in the same district
Malcolm I. was killed (954) whilst endeavouring to reduce the unruly
tribes of this region. Mearns, the alternative name for the county, is
believed to have been derived from Mernia, a Scottish king, to whom the
land was granted, and whose brother, Angus, had obtained the adjoining
shire of Forfar. The antiquities consist mostly of stone circles,
cairns, tumuli, standing stones and a structure in the parish of
Dunnottar vaguely known as a "Picts' kiln." By an extraordinary
reversion of fortune the town which gave the shire its name has
practically vanished. It stood about 2 m. N.E. of Fettercairn, and by
the end of the 16th century had declined to a mere hamlet, being
represented now only by the ruins of the royal castle and an ancient
burial-ground. The Bruces, earls of Elgin, also bear the title of earl
of Kincardine.

  See A. Jervise, _History and Traditions of the Lands of the Lindsays_
  (1853), _History and Antiquities of the Mearns_ (1858), _Memorials of
  Angus and the Mearns_ (1861); J. Anderson, _The Black Book of
  Kincardineshire_ (Stonehaven, 1879); C. A. Mollyson, _The Parish of
  Fordoun_ (Aberdeen, 1893); A. C. Cameron, _The History of Fettercairn_
  (Paisley, 1899).

KINCHINJUNGA, or KANCHANJANGA, the third (or second; see K2) highest
mountain in the world. It is a peak of the eastern Himalayas, situated
on the boundary between Sikkim and Nepal, with an elevation of 28,146
ft. Kinchinjunga is best seen from the Indian hill-station of
Darjeeling, where the view of this stupendous mountain, dominating all
intervening ranges and rising from regions of tropical undergrowth to
the altitude of eternal snows, is one of the grandest in the world.

KIND (O.E. _ge-cynde_, from the same root as is seen in "kin," _supra_),
a word in origin meaning birth, nature, or as an adjective, natural.
From the application of the term to the natural disposition or
characteristic which marks the class to which an object belongs, the
general and most common meaning of "class," genus or species easily
develops; that of race, natural order or group, is particularly seen in
such expressions as "mankind." The phrase "payment in kind," i.e. in
goods or produce as distinguished from money, is used as equivalent to
the Latin _in specie_; in ecclesiastical usage "communion in both kinds"
or "in one kind" refers to the elements of bread and wine (Lat.
_species_) in the Eucharist. The present main sense of the adjective
"kind," i.e. gentle, friendly, benevolent, has developed from the
meaning "born," "natural," through "of good birth, disposition or
nature," "naturally well-disposed."

KINDERGARTEN, a German word meaning "garden of children," the name given
by Friedrich Froebel to a kind of "play-school" invented by him for
furthering the physical, moral and intellectual growth of children
between the ages of three and seven. For the theories on which this type
of school was based see FROEBEL. Towards the end of the 18th century
Pestalozzi planned, and Oberlin formed, day-asylums for young children.
Schools of this kind took in the Netherlands the name of "play school,"
and in England, where they have especially thriven, of "infant schools"
(q.v.). But Froebel's idea of the "Kindergarten" differed essentially
from that of the infant schools. The child required to be prepared for
society by being early associated with its equals; and young children
thus brought together might have their employments, especially their
chief employment, play, so organized as to draw out their capacities of
feeling and thinking, and even of inventing and creating.

Froebel therefore invented a course of occupations, most of which are
social games. Many of the games are connected with the "gifts," as he
called the simple playthings provided for the children. These "gifts"
are, in order, six coloured balls, a wooden ball, a cylinder and a cube,
a cube cut to form eight smaller cubes, another cube cut to form eight
parallelograms, square and triangular tablets of coloured wood, and
strips of lath, rings and circles for pattern-making. In modern
kindergartens much stress has been laid on such occupations as
sand-drawing, modelling in clay and paper, pattern-making, plaiting, &c.
The artistic faculty was much thought of by Froebel, and, as in the
education of the ancients, the sense of rhythm in sound and motion was
cultivated by music and poetry introduced in the games. Much care was to
be given to the training of the senses, especially those of sight, sound
and touch. Intuition or first-hand experience (_Anschauung_) was to be
recognized as the true basis of knowledge, and though stories were to be
told, instruction of the imparting and "learning-up" kind was to be
excluded. Froebel sought to teach the children not what to think but how
to think, in this following in the steps of Pestalozzi, who had done for
the child what Bacon nearly two hundred years before had done for the
philosopher. Where possible the children were to be much in the open
air, and were each to cultivate a little garden.

  The first kindergarten was opened at Blankenburg, near Rudolstadt, in
  1837, but after a needy existence of eight years was closed for want
  of funds. In 1851 the Prussian government declared that "schools
  founded on Froebel's principles or principles like them could not be
  allowed." As early as 1854 it was introduced into England, and Henry
  Barnard reported on it that it was "by far the most original,
  attractive and philosophical form of infant development the world has
  yet seen" (_Report to Governor of Connecticut_, 1854). The great
  propagandist of Froebelism, the Baroness Berta von Marenholtz-Bülow
  (1811-1893), drew the attention of the French to the kindergarten from
  the year 1855, and Michelet declared that Froebel had "solved the
  problem of human education." In Italy the kindergarten was introduced
  by Madame Salis-Schwabe. In Austria it is recognized and regulated by
  the government, though the Volks-Kindergärten are not numerous. But by
  far the greatest developments of the kindergarten system are in the
  United States and in Belgium. The movement was begun in the United
  States by Miss Elizabeth Peabody in 1867, aided by Mrs Horace Mann and
  Dr Henry Barnard. The first permanent kindergarten was established in
  St Louis in 1873 by Miss Susan Blow and Dr W. T. Harris. In Belgium
  the mistresses of the "Écoles gardiennes" are instructed in the "idea
  of the kindergarten" and "Froebel's method," and in 1880 the minister
  of public instruction issued a programme for the "Écoles Gardiennes
  Communales," which is both in fact and in profession a kindergarten

  For the position of the kindergarten system in the principal countries
  of the world see _Report of a Consultative Committee upon the School
  Attendance of Children below the Age of Five_, English Board of
  Education Reports (Cd. 4259, 1908); and "The Kindergarten," by Laura
  Fisher, _Report of the United States Commissioner for Education for
  1903_, vol. i. ch. xvi. (Washington, 1905).

pre-eminently "The Philosopher of the Arabs"] flourished in the 9th
century, the exact dates of his birth and death being unknown. He was
born in Kufa, where his father was governor under the Caliphs Mahdi and
Harun al-Rashid. His studies were made in Basra and Bagdad, and in the
latter place he remained, occupying according to some a government
position. In the orthodox reaction under Motawakkil, when all philosophy
was suspect, his library was confiscated, but he himself seems to have
escaped. His writings--like those of other Arabian philosophers--are
encyclopaedic and are concerned with most of the sciences; they are said
to have numbered over two hundred, but fewer than twenty are extant.
Some of these were known in the middle ages, for Kindi is placed by
Roger Bacon in the first rank after Ptolemy as a writer on optics. His
work _De Somniorum Visione_ was translated by Gerard of Cremona (q.v.)
and another was published as _De medicinarum compositarum gradibus
investigandis Libellus_ (Strassburg, 1531). He was one of the earliest
translators and commentators of Aristotle, but like Farabi (q.v.)
appears to have been superseded by Avicenna.

  See G. Flügel, _Al Kindi genannt der Philosoph der Araber_ (Leipzig,
  1857), and T. J. de Boer, _Geschichte der Philosophie im Islam_
  (Stuttgart, 1901), pp. 90 sqq.; also ARABIAN PHILOSOPHY.     (G. W. T.)

KINEMATICS (from Gr. [Greek: kinêma], a motion), the branch of mechanics
which discusses the phenomena of motion without reference to force or
mass (see MECHANICS).

KINETICS (from Gr. [Greek: kinein], to move), the branch of mechanics
which discusses the phenomena of motion as affected by force; it is the
modern equivalent of dynamics in the restricted sense (see MECHANICS).

KING, CHARLES WILLIAM (1818-1888), English writer on ancient gems, was
born at Newport (Mon.) on the 5th of September 1818. He entered Trinity
College, Cambridge, in 1836; graduated in 1840, and obtained a
fellowship in 1842; he was senior fellow at the time of his death in
London on the 25th of March 1888. He took holy orders, but never held
any cure. He spent much time in Italy, where he laid the foundation of
his collection of gems, which, increased by subsequent purchases in
London, was sold by him in consequence of his failing eyesight and was
presented in 1881 to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. King was
recognized universally as one of the greatest authorities in this
department of art. His chief works on the subject are: _Antique Gems,
their Origin, Uses and Value_ (1860), a complete and exhaustive
treatise; _The Gnostics and their Remains_ (2nd ed. by J. Jacobs, 1887,
which led to an animated correspondence in the _Athenaeum_); _The
Natural History of Precious Stones and Gems and of the Precious Metals_
(1865); _The Handbook of Engraved Gems_ (2nd ed., 1885); _Early
Christian Numismatics_ (1873). King was thoroughly familiar with the
works of Greek and Latin authors, especially Pausanias and the elder
Pliny, which bore upon the subject in which he was most interested; but
he had little taste for the minutiae of verbal criticism. In 1869 he
brought out an edition of Horace, illustrated from antique gems; he also
translated Plutarch's _Moralia_ (1882) and the theosophical works of the
Emperor Julian (1888) for Bonn's Classical Library.

KING, CLARENCE (1842-1901), American geologist, was born at Newport,
Rhode Island, U.S.A., on the 6th of January 1842. He graduated at Yale
in 1862. His most important work was the geological exploration of the
fortieth parallel, of which the main reports (1876 and 1877) comprised
the geological and topographical atlas of the Rocky Mountains, the Green
River and Utah basins, and the Nevada plateau and basin. When the United
States Geological Survey was consolidated in 1879 King was chosen
director, and he vigorously conducted investigations in Colorado, and in
the Eureka district and on the Comstock lode in Nevada. He held office
for a year only; in later years his only noteworthy contribution to
geology was an essay on the age of the earth, which appeared in the
annual report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1893. He died at
Phoenix, Arizona, on the 24th of December 1901.

KING, EDWARD (1612-1637), the subject of Milton's _Lycidas_, was born in
Ireland in 1612, the son of Sir John King, a member of a Yorkshire
family which had migrated to Ireland. Edward King was admitted a
pensioner of Christ's College, Cambridge, on the 9th of June 1626, and
four years later was elected a fellow. Milton, though two years his
senior and himself anxious to secure a fellowship, remained throughout
on terms of the closest friendship with his rival, whose amiable
character seems to have endeared him to the whole college. King served
from 1633 to 1634 as praelector and tutor of his college, and was to
have entered the church. His career, however, was cut short by the
tragedy which inspired Milton's verse. In 1637 he set out for Ireland to
visit his family, but on the 10th of August the ship in which he was
sailing struck on a rock near the Welsh coast, and King was drowned. Of
his own writings many Latin poems contributed to different collections
of Cambridge verse survive, but they are not of sufficient merit to
explain the esteem in which he was held.

  A collection of Latin, Greek and English verse written in his memory
  by his Cambridge friends was printed at Cambridge in 1638, with the
  title _Justa Edouardo King naufrago ab amicis moerentibus amoris et_
  [Greek: mneias charin]. The second part of this collection has a
  separate title-page, _Obsequies to the Memorie of Mr Edward King, Anno
  Dom. 1638_, and contains thirteen English poems, of which _Lycidas_[1]
  (signed J. M.) is the last.


  [1] J. W. Hales, in the _Athenaeum_ for the 1st of August 1891,
    suggests that in writing King's elegy Milton had in his mind, besides
    the idylls of Theocritus, a Latin eclogue of Giovanni Baptista
    Amalteo entitled _Lycidas_, in which Lycidas bids farewell to the
    land he loves and prays for gentle breezes on his voyage. He was
    familiar with the Italian Latin poets of the Renaissance, and he may
    also have been influenced in his choice of the name by the shepherd
    Lycidas in Sannazaro's eclogue _Phillis_.

KING, EDWARD (1829-1910), English bishop, was the second son of the Rev.
Walter King, archdeacon of Rochester and rector of Stone, Kent.
Graduating from Oriel College, Oxford, he was ordained in 1854, and four
years later became chaplain and lecturer at Cuddesdon Theological
College. He was principal at Cuddesdon from 1863 to 1873, when he became
regius professor of pastoral theology at Oxford and canon of Christ
Church. To the world outside he was only known at this time as one of Dr
Pusey's most intimate friends and as a leading member of the English
Church Union. But in Oxford, and especially among the younger men, he
exercised an exceptional influence, due, not to special profundity of
intellect, but to his remarkable charm in personal intercourse, and his
abounding sincerity and goodness. In 1885 Dr King was made bishop of
Lincoln. The most eventful episode of his episcopate was his prosecution
(1888-1890) for ritualistic practices before the archbishop of
Canterbury, Dr Benson, and, on appeal, before the judicial committee of
the Privy Council (see LINCOLN JUDGMENT). Dr King, who loyally conformed
his practices to the archbishop's judgment, devoted himself unsparingly
to the work of his diocese; and, irrespective of his High Church views,
he won the affection and reverence of all classes by his real
saintliness of character. The bishop, who never married, died at Lincoln
on the 8th of March 1910.

  See the obituary notice in _The Times_, March 9, 1910.

KING, HENRY (1591-1669), English bishop and poet, eldest son of John
King, afterwards bishop of London, was baptized on the 16th of January
1591. With his younger brother John he proceeded from Westminster School
to Christ Church, Oxford, where both matriculated on the 20th of January
1609. Henry King entered the church, and after receiving various
ecclesiastical preferments he was made bishop of Chichester in 1642,
receiving at the same time the rich living of Petworth, Sussex. On the
29th of December of that year Chichester surrendered to the
Parliamentary army, and King was among the prisoners. After his release
he found an asylum with his brother-in-law, Sir Richard Hobart of
Langley, Buckinghamshire, and afterwards at Richkings near by, with Lady
Salter, said to have been a sister of Dr Brian Duppa (1588-1662). King
was a close friend of Duppa and personally acquainted with Charles I. In
one of his poems dated 1649 he speaks of the _Eikon Basilike_ as the
king's own work. Restored to his benefice at the Restoration, King died
at Chichester on the 30th of September 1669. His works include _Poems,
Elegies, Paradoxes and Sonets_ (1657), _The Psalmes of David from the
New Translation of the Bible, turned into Meter_ (1651), and several
sermons. He was one of the executors of John Donne, and prefixed an
elegy to the 1663 edition of his friend's poems.

  King's Poems and Psalms were edited, with a biographical sketch, by
  the Rev. J. Hannah (1843).

KING, RUFUS (1755-1827), American political leader, was born on the 24th
of March 1755 at Scarborough, Maine, then a part of Massachusetts. He
graduated at Harvard in 1777, read law at Newburyport, Mass., with
Theophilus Parsons, and was admitted to the bar in 1780. He served in
the Massachusetts General Court in 1783-1784 and in the Confederation
Congress in 1784-1787. During these critical years he adopted the
"states' rights" attitude. It was largely through his efforts that the
General Court in 1784 rejected the amendment to the Articles of
Confederation authorizing Congress to levy a 5% impost. He was one of
the three Massachusetts delegates in Congress in 1785 who refused to
present the resolution of the General Court proposing a convention to
amend the articles. He was also out of sympathy with the meeting at
Annapolis in 1786. He did good service, however, in opposing the
extension of slavery. Early in 1787 King was moved by the Shays
Rebellion and by the influence of Alexander Hamilton to take a broader
view of the general situation, and it was he who introduced the
resolution in Congress, on the 21st of February 1787, sanctioning the
call for the Philadelphia constitutional convention. In the convention
he supported the large-state party, favoured a strong executive,
advocated the suppression of the slave trade, and opposed the counting
of slaves in determining the apportionment of representatives. In 1788
he was one of the most influential members of the Massachusetts
convention which ratified the Federal Constitution. He married Mary
Alsop (1769-1819) of New York in 1786 and removed to that city in 1788.
He was elected a member of the New York Assembly in the spring of 1789,
and at a special session of the legislature held in July of that year
was chosen one of the first representatives of New York in the United
States Senate. In this body he served in 1789-1796, supported Hamilton's
financial measures, Washington's neutrality proclamation and the Jay
Treaty, and became one of the recognized leaders of the Federalist
party. He was minister to Great Britain in 1796-1803 and again in
1825-1826, and was the Federalist candidate for vice-president in 1804
and 1808, and for president in 1816, when he received 34 electoral
votes to 183 cast for Monroe. He was again returned to the Senate in
1813, and was re-elected in 1819 as the result of a struggle between the
Van Buren and Clinton factions of the Democratic-Republican party. In
the Missouri Compromise debates he supported the anti-slavery programme
in the main, but for constitutional reasons voted against the second
clause of the Tallmadge Amendment providing that all slaves born in the
state after its admission into the Union should be free at the age of
twenty-five years. He died at Jamaica, Long Island, on the 29th of April

  _The Life and Correspondence of Rufus King_, begun about 1850 by his
  son, Charles King, was completed by his grandson, Charles R. King, and
  published in six volumes (New York, 1894-1900).

Rufus King's son, JOHN ALSOP KING (1788-1867), was educated at Harrow
and in Paris, served in the war of 1812 as a lieutenant of a cavalry
company, and was a member of the New York Assembly in 1819-1821 and of
the New York Senate in 1823. When his father was sent as minister to
Great Britain in 1825 he accompanied him as secretary of the American
legation, and when his father returned home on account of ill health he
remained as chargé d'affaires until August 1826. He was a member of the
New York Assembly again in 1832 and in 1840, was a Whig representative
in Congress in 1849-1851, and in 1857-1859 was governor of New York
State. He was a prominent member of the Republican party, and in 1861
was a delegate to the Peace Conference in Washington.

Another son, CHARLES KING (1789-1867), was also educated abroad, was
captain of a volunteer regiment in the early part of the war of 1812,
and served in 1814 in the New York Assembly, and after working for some
years as a journalist was president of Columbia College in 1849-1864.

A third son, JAMES GORE KING (1791-1853), was an assistant
adjutant-general in the war of 1812, was a banker in Liverpool and
afterwards in New York, and was president of the New York & Erie
railroad until 1837, when by his visit to London he secured the loan to
American bankers of £1,000,000 from the governors of the Bank of
England. In 1849-1851 he was a representative in Congress from New

Charles King's son, RUFUS KING (1814-1876), graduated at the U.S.
Military Academy in 1833, served for three years in the engineer corps,
and, after resigning from the army, became assistant engineer of the New
York & Erie railroad. He was adjutant-general of New York state in
1839-1843, and became a brigadier-general of volunteers in the Union
army in 1861, commanded a division in Virginia in 1862-1863, and, being
compelled by ill health to resign from the army, was U.S. minister to
the Papal States in 1863-1867.

His son, CHARLES KING (b. 1844), served in the artillery until 1870 and
in the cavalry until 1879; he was appointed brigadier-general U.S.
Volunteers in the Spanish War in 1898, and served in the Philippines. He
wrote _Famous and Decisive Battles_ (1884), _Campaigning with Crook_
(1890), and many popular romances of military life.

KING, THOMAS (1730-1805), English actor and dramatist, was born in
London on the 20th of August 1730. Garrick saw him when appearing as a
strolling player in a booth at Windsor, and engaged him for Drury Lane.
He made his first appearance there in 1748 as the Herald in _King Lear_.
He played the part of Allworth in the first presentation of Massinger's
_New Way to Pay Old Debts_ (1748), and during the summer he played Romeo
and other leading parts in Bristol. For eight years he was the leading
comedy actor at the Smock Alley theatre in Dublin, but in 1759 he
returned to Drury Lane and took leading parts until 1802. One of his
earliest successes was as Lord Ogleby in _The Clandestine Marriage_
(1766), which was compared to Garrick's Hamlet and Kemble's Coriolanus,
but he reached the climax of his reputation when he created the part of
Sir Peter Teazle at the first representation of _The School for Scandal_
(1777). He was the author of a number of farces, and part-owner and
manager of several theatres, but his fondness for gambling brought him
to poverty. He died on the 11th of December 1805.

KING, WILLIAM (1650-1729), Anglican divine, the son of James King, an
Aberdeen man who migrated to Antrim, was born in May 1650. He was
educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and after being presented to the
parish of St Werburgh, Dublin, in 1679, became dean of St Patrick's in
1689, bishop of Derry in 1691, and archbishop of Dublin in 1702. In 1718
he founded the divinity lectureship in Trinity College, Dublin, which
bears his name. He died in May 1729. King was the author of _The State
of the Protestants in Ireland under King James's Government_ (1691), but
is best known by his _De Origine Mali_ (1702; Eng. trans., 1731), an
essay deemed worthy of a reply by Bayle and Leibnitz. King was a strong
supporter of the Revolution, and his voluminous correspondence is a
valuable help to our knowledge of the Ireland of his day.

  See _A Great Archbishop of Dublin, William King, D.D._, edited by Sir
  C. S. King, Bart. (1908).

KING, WILLIAM (1663-1712), English poet and miscellaneous writer, son of
Ezekiel King, was born in 1663. From his father he inherited a small
estate and he was connected with the Hyde family. He was educated at
Westminster School under Dr Busby, and at Christ Church, Oxford (B.A.
1685; D.C.L. 1692). His first literary enterprise was a defence of
Wycliffe, written in conjunction with Sir Edward Hannes (d. 1710) and
entitled _Reflections upon Mons. Varillas's History of Heresy ..._
(1688). He became known as a humorous writer on the Tory and High Church
side. He took part in the controversy aroused by the conversion of the
once stubborn non-juror William Sherlock, one of his contributions being
an entertaining ballad, "The Battle Royal," in which the disputants are
Sherlock and South. In 1694 he gained the favour of Princess Anne by a
defence of her husband's country entitled _Animadversions on the
Pretended Account of Denmark_, in answer to a depreciatory pamphlet by
Robert (afterwards Viscount) Molesworth. For this service he was made
secretary to the princess. He supported Charles Boyle in his controversy
with Richard Bentley over the genuineness of the _Epistles of Phalaris_,
by a letter (printed in _Dr Bentley's Dissertations ..._ (1698), more
commonly known as _Boyle against Bentley_), in which he gave an account
of the circumstances of Bentley's interview with the bookseller Bennet.
Bentley attacked Dr King in his _Dissertation_ in answer (1699) to this
book, and King replied with a second letter to his friend Boyle. He
further satirized Bentley in ten _Dialogues of the Dead relating to ...
the Epistles of Phalaris_ (1699). In 1700 he published _The
Transactioneer, with some of his Philosophical Fancies, in two
Dialogues_, ridiculing the credulity of Hans Sloane, who was then the
secretary of the Royal Society. This was followed up later with some
burlesque _Useful Transactions in Philosophy_ (1709). By an able defence
of his friend, James Annesley, 5th earl of Anglesey, in a suit brought
against him by his wife before the House of Lords in 1701, he gained a
legal reputation which he did nothing further to advance. He was sent to
Ireland in 1701 to be judge of the high court of admiralty, and later
became sole commissioner of the prizes, keeper of the records in the
Bermingham Tower of Dublin Castle, and vicar-general to the primate.
About 1708 he returned to London. He served the Tory cause by writing
for _The Examiner_ before it was taken up by Swift. He wrote four
pamphlets in support of Sacheverell, in the most considerable of which,
"A Vindication of the Rev. Dr Henry Sacheverell ... in a Dialogue
between a Tory and a Whig" (1711), he had the assistance of Charles
Lambe of Christ Church and of Sacheverell himself. In December 1711
Swift obtained for King the office of gazetteer, worth from £200 to
£250. King was now very poor, but he had no taste for work, and he
resigned his office on the 1st of July 1712. He died on the 25th of
December in the same year.

  The other works of William King include: _A Journey to London, in the
  year 1698_. _After the Ingenious Method of that made by Dr Martin
  Lister to Paris, in the same Year ..._ (1699), which was considered by
  the author to be his best work; _Adversaria, or Occasional Remarks on
  Men and Manners_, a selection from his critical note-book, which shows
  wide and varied reading; _Rufinus, or An Historical Essay on the
  Favourite Ministry_ (1712), a satire on the duke of Marlborough. His
  chief poems are: _The Art of Cookery: in imitation of Horace's Art
  of Poetry_. _With some Letters to Dr Lister and Others_ (1708), one of
  his most amusing works; _The Art of Love; in imitation of Ovid ..._
  (1709); "Mully of Mountoun," and a burlesque "Orpheus and Eurydice." A
  volume of _Miscellanies in Prose and Verse_ appeared in 1705; his
  _Remains ..._ were edited by J. Brown in 1732; and in 1776 John
  Nichols produced an excellent edition of his _Original Works ... with
  Historical Notes and Memoirs of the Author_. Dr Johnson included him
  in his _Lives of the Poets_, and his works appear in subsequent

  King is not to be confused with another WILLIAM KING (1685-1763),
  author of a mock-heroic poem called _The Toast_ (1736) satirizing the
  countess of Newburgh, and principal of St Mary Hall, Oxford.

KING [OF OCKHAM], PETER KING, 1ST BARON (1669-1734), lord chancellor of
England, was born at Exeter in 1669. In his youth he was interested in
early church history, and published anonymously in 1691 _An Enquiry into
the Constitution, Discipline, Unity and Worship of the Primitive Church
that flourished within the first Three Hundred Years after Christ_. This
treatise engaged the interest of his cousin, John Locke, the
philosopher, by whose advice his father sent him to the university of
Leiden, where he stayed for nearly three years. He entered the Middle
Temple in 1694 and was called to the bar in 1698. In 1700 he was
returned to parliament for Beer Alston in Devonshire; he was appointed
recorder of Glastonbury in 1705 and recorder of London in 1708. He was
chief justice of the common pleas from 1714 to 1725, when he was
appointed speaker of the House of Lords and was raised to the peerage.
In June of the same year he was made lord chancellor, holding office
until compelled by a paralytic stroke to resign in 1733. He died at
Ockham, Surrey, on the 22nd of July 1734. Lord King as chancellor failed
to sustain the reputation which he had acquired at the common law bar.
Nevertheless he left his mark on English law by establishing the
principles that a will of immovable property is governed by the _lex
loci rei sitae_, and that where a husband had a legal right to the
personal estate of his wife, which must be asserted by a suit in equity,
the court would not help him unless he made a provision out of the
property for the wife, if she required it. He was also the author of the
Act (4 Geo. II. c. 26) by virtue of which English superseded Latin as
the language of the courts. Lord King published in 1702 a _History of
the Apostles' Creed_ (Leipzig, 1706; Basel, 1750) which went through
several editions and was also translated into Latin.

His great-great-grandson, WILLIAM (1805-1893), married in 1835 the only
daughter of Lord Byron the poet, and was created earl of Lovelace in
1838. Another descendant, PETER JOHN LOCKE KING (1811-1885), who was
member of parliament for East Surrey from 1847 to 1874, won some fame as
an advocate of reform, being responsible for the passing of the Real
Estate Charges Act of 1854, and for the repeal of a large number of
obsolete laws.

KING (O. Eng. _cyning_, abbreviated into _cyng_, _cing_; cf. O. H. G.
_chun- kuning_, _chun- kunig_, M.H.G. _künic_, _künec_, _künc_, Mod.
Ger. _König_, O. Norse _konungr_, _kongr_, Swed. _konung_, _kung_), a
title, in its actual use generally implying sovereignty of the most
exalted rank. Any inclusive definition of the word "king" is, however,
impossible. It always implies sovereignty, but in no special degree or
sense; e.g. the sovereigns of the British Empire and of Servia are both
kings, and so too, at least in popular parlance, are the chiefs of many
barbarous peoples, e.g. the Zulus. The use of the title is, in fact,
involved in considerable confusion, largely the result of historic
causes. Freeman, indeed, in his _Comparative Politics_ (p. 138) says:
"There is a common idea of kingship which is at once recognized however
hard it may be to define it. This is shown among other things by the
fact that no difficulty is ever felt as to translating the word king and
the words which answer to it in other languages." This, however, is
subject to considerable modification. "King," for instance, is used to
translate the Homeric [Greek: anax] equally with the Athenian [Greek:
Basileus] or the Roman _rex_. Yet the Homeric "kings" were but tribal
chiefs; while the Athenian and Roman kings were kings in something more
than the modern sense, as supreme priests as well as supreme rulers and
lawgivers (see ARCHON; and ROME: _History_). In the English Bible, too,
the title of king is given indiscriminately to the great king of Persia
and to potentates who were little more than Oriental sheiks. A more
practical difficulty, moreover, presented itself in international
intercourse, before diplomatic conventions became, in the 19th century,
more or less stereotyped. Originally the title of king was superior to
that of emperor, and it was to avoid the assumption of the superior
title of rex that the chief magistrates of Rome adopted the names of
_Caesar_, _imperator_ and _princeps_ to signalize their authority. But
with the development of the Roman imperial idea the title emperor came
to mean more than had been involved in that of _rex_; very early in the
history of the Empire there were subject kings; while with the
Hellenizing of the East Roman Empire its rulers assumed the style of
[Greek: basileus], no longer to be translated "king" but "emperor." From
this Roman conception of the supremacy of the emperor the medieval
Empire of the West inherited its traditions. With the barbarian
invasions the Teutonic idea of kingship had come into touch with the
Roman idea of empire and with the theocratic conceptions which this had
absorbed from the old Roman and Oriental views of kingship. With these
the Teutonic kingship had in its origin but little in common.

Etymologically the Romance and Teutonic words for king have quite
distinct origins. The Latin _rex_ corresponds to the Sanskrit _rajah_,
and meant originally steersman. The Teutonic king on the contrary
corresponds to the Sanskrit _ganaka_, and "simply meant father, the
father of a family, the king of his own kin, the father of a clan, the
father of a people."[1] The Teutonic kingship, in short, was national;
the king was the supreme representative of the people, "hedged with
divinity" in so far as he was the reputed descendant of the national
gods, but with none of that absolute theocratic authority associated
with the titles of _rex_ or [Greek: basileus]. This, however, was
modified by contact with Rome and Christianity. The early Teutonic
conquerors had never lost their reverence for the Roman emperor, and
were from time to time proud to acknowledge their inferiority by
accepting titles, such as "patrician," by which this was implied. But by
the coronation of Charles, king of the Franks, as emperor of the West,
the German kingship was absorbed into the Roman imperial idea, a process
which exercised a profound effect on the evolution of the Teutonic
kingship generally. In the symmetrical political theory of medieval
Europe pope and emperor were sun and moon, kings but lesser satellites;
though the theory only partially and occasionally corresponded with the
facts. But the elevation of Charlemagne had had a profound effect in
modifying the _status_ of kingship in nations that never came under his
sceptre nor under that of his successors. The shadowy claim of the
emperors to universal dominion was in theory everywhere acknowledged;
but independent kings hastened to assert their own dignity by
surrounding themselves with the ceremonial forms of the Empire and
occasionally, as in the case of the Saxon _bretwaldas_ in England, by
assuming the imperial style. The mere fact of this usurpation showed
that the title of king was regarded as inferior to that of emperor; and
so it continued, as a matter of sentiment at least, down to the end of
the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 and the cheapening of the imperial title
by its multiplication in the 19th century. To the last, moreover, the
emperor retained the prerogative of creating kings, as in the case of
the king of Prussia in 1701, a right borrowed and freely used by the
emperor Napoleon. Since 1814 the title of king has been assumed or
bestowed by a consensus of the Powers; e.g. the elector of Hanover was
made king by the congress of Vienna (1814), and _per contra_ the title
of king was refused to the elector of Hesse by the congress of
Aix-la-Chapelle (1818). In general the title of king is now taken to
imply a sovereign and independent international position. This was
implied in the recognition of the title of king in the rulers of Greece,
Rumania, Servia and Bulgaria when these countries were declared
absolutely independent of Turkey. The fiction of this independent
sovereignty is preserved even in the case of the kings of Bavaria,
Saxony and Württemberg, who are technically members of a free
confederation of sovereign states, but are not independent, since their
relations with foreign Powers are practically controlled by the king of
Prussia as German emperor.

  Divine Right of Kings.

The theory of the "divine right" of kings, as at present understood, is
of comparatively modern growth. The principle that the kingship is
"descendible in one sacred family," as George Canning put it, is not
only still that of the British constitution, as that of all monarchical
states, but is practically that of kingship from the beginning. This is,
however, quite a different thing from asserting with the modern
upholders of the doctrine of "divine right" not only that "legitimate"
monarchs derive their authority from, and are responsible to, God alone,
but that this authority is by divine ordinance hereditary in a certain
order of succession. The power of popular election remained, even though
popular choice was by custom or by religious sentiment confined within
the limits of a single family. The custom of primogeniture grew up owing
to the obvious convenience of a simple rule that should avoid ruinous
contests; the so-called "Salic Law" went further, and by excluding
females, removed another possible source of weakness. Neither did the
Teutonic kingship imply absolute power. The idea of kingship as a
theocratic function which played so great a part in the political
controversies of the 17th century, is due ultimately to Oriental
influences brought to bear through Christianity. The crowning and
anointing of the emperors, borrowed from Byzantium and traceable to the
influence of the Old Testament, was imitated by lesser potentates; and
this "sacring" by ecclesiastical authority gave to the king a character
of special sanctity. The Christian king thus became, in a sense, like
the Roman _rex_, both king and priest. Shakespeare makes Richard II.
say, "Not all the water in the rough rude sea can wash the balm off from
an anointed king" (act iii. sc. 2); and this conception of the kingship
tended to gather strength with the weakening of the prestige of the
papacy and of the clergy generally. Before the Reformation the anointed
king was, within his realm, the accredited vicar of God for secular
purposes; after the Reformation he became this in Protestant states for
religious purposes also. In England it is not without significance that
the sacerdotal vestments, generally discarded by the clergy--dalmatic,
alb and stole--continued to be among the insignia of the sovereign (see
CORONATION). Moreover, this sacrosanct character he acquired not by
virtue of his "sacring," but by hereditary right; the coronation,
anointing and vesting were but the outward and visible symbol of a
divine grace adherent in the sovereign by virtue of his title. Even
Roman Catholic monarchs, like Louis XIV., would never have admitted that
their coronation by the archbishop constituted any part of their title
to reign; it was no more than the consecration of their title. In
England the doctrine of the divine right of kings was developed to its
extremest logical conclusions during the political controversies of the
17th century. Of its exponents the most distinguished was Hobbes, the
most exaggerated Sir Robert Filmer. It was the main issue to be decided
by the Civil War, the royalists holding that "all Christian kings,
princes and governors" derive their authority direct from God, the
parliamentarians that this authority is the outcome of a contract,
actual or implied, between sovereign and people. In one case the king's
power would be unlimited, according to Louis XIV.'s famous saying:
"_L'état, c'est moi!_" or limitable only by his own free act; in the
other his actions would be governed by the advice and consent of the
people, to whom he would be ultimately responsible. The victory of this
latter principle was proclaimed to all the world by the execution of
Charles I. The doctrine of divine right, indeed, for a while drew
nourishment from the blood of the royal "martyr"; it was the guiding
principle of the Anglican Church of the Restoration; but it suffered a
rude blow when James II. made it impossible for the clergy to obey both
their conscience and their king; and the revolution of 1688 made an end
of it as a great political force. These events had effects far beyond
England. They served as precedents for the crusade of republican France
against kings, and later for the substitution of the democratic kingship
of Louis Philippe, "king of the French by the grace of God and the will
of the people," for the "legitimate" kingship of Charles X., "king of
France by the grace of God."

The theory of the crown in Britain, as held by descent modified and
modifiable by parliamentary action, and yet also "by the grace of God,"
is in strict accordance with the earliest traditions of the English
kingship; but the rival theory of inalienable divine right is not dead.
It is strong in Germany and especially in Prussia; it survives as a
militant force among the Carlists in Spain and the Royalists in France
(see LEGITIMISTS); and even in England a remnant of enthusiasts still
maintain the claims of a remote descendant of Charles I. to the throne

  See J. Neville Figgis, _Theory of the Divine Right of Kings_
  (Cambridge, 1896).     (W. A. P.)


  [1] Max Müller, _Lect. Sci. Lang._, 2nd series, p. 255, "All people,
    save those who fancy that the name _king_ has something to do with a
    Tartar _khan_ or with a 'canning' ... man, are agreed that the
    English _cyning_ and the Sanskrit _ganaka_ both come from the same
    root, from that widely spread root whence comes our own cyn or kin
    and the Greek [Greek: genos]. The only question is whether there is
    any connexion between _cyning_ and _ganaka_ closer than that which is
    implied in their both coming from the same original root. That is to
    say, are we to suppose that cyning and ganaka are strictly the same
    word common to Sanskrit and Teutonic, or is it enough to think that
    _cyning_ is an independent formation made after the Teutons had
    separated themselves from the common stock? ... The difference
    between the two derivations is not very remote, as the _cyn_ is the
    ruling idea in any case; but if we make the word immediately cognate
    with _ganaka_ we bring in a notion about 'the father of his people'
    which has no place if we simply derive _cyning_ from _cyn_." See also
    O. Schrader, _Reallexikon der Indogermanischen Altertumskunde_
    (Strassburg, 1901) _s.v._ "König": the _chuning_ (King) is but the
    _chunni_ (Kin) personified; cf. A.S. _léod_ masc. = "prince"; _léod_
    fem. = "race," i.e. Lat. _gens_.

KING-BIRD, the _Lanius tyrannus_ of Linnaeus, and the _Tyrannus
carolinensis_ or _T. pipiri_ of most later writers, a common and
characteristic inhabitant of North America, ranging as high as 57° N.
lat. or farther, and westward to the Rocky Mountains, beyond which it is
found in Oregon, in Washington (State), and in British Columbia, though
apparently not occurring in California. In Canada and the northern
states of the Union it is a summer visitor, wintering in the south, but
also reaching Cuba; and, passing through Central America, it has been
found in Bolivia and eastern Peru. Both the scientific and common names
of this species are taken from the way in which the cock will at times
assume despotic authority over other birds, attacking them furiously as
they fly, and forcing them to divert or altogether desist from their
course. Yet it is love of his mate or his young that prompts this
bellicose behaviour, for it is only in the breeding season that he
indulges in it; but then almost every large bird that approaches his
nest, from an eagle downwards, is assaulted, and those alone that
possess greater command of flight can escape from his repeated charges,
which are accompanied by loud and shrill cries. On these occasions it
may be that the king-bird displays the emblem of his dignity, which is
commonly concealed; for, being otherwise rather plainly
coloured--dark-ashy grey above and white beneath--the erectile feathers
of the crown of the head, on being parted, form as it were a deep
furrow, and reveal their base, which is of a bright golden-orange in
front, deepening into scarlet, and then passing into silvery white. This
species seems to live entirely on insects, which it captures on the
wing; it is in bad repute with bee-keepers,[1] though, according to Dr
E. Coues, it "destroys a thousand noxious insects for every bee it
eats." It builds, often in an exposed situation, a rather large nest,
coarsely constructed outside, but neatly lined with fine roots or
grasses, and lays five or six eggs of a pale salmon colour, beautifully
marked with blotches and spots of purple, brown and orange, generally
disposed in a zone near the larger end.

Nearly akin to the king-bird is the petchary or chicheree, so called
from its loud and petulant cry, _T. dominicensis_, or _T. griseus_, one
of the most characteristic and conspicuous birds of the West Indies, and
the earliest to give notice of the break of day. In habits, except that
it eats a good many berries, it is the very counterpart of its congener,
and is possibly even more jealous of any intruder. At all events its
pugnacity extends to animals from which it could not possibly receive
any harm, and is hardly limited to any season of the year.

[Illustration: King-Bird.]

In several respects both of these birds, with several of their allies,
resemble some of the shrikes; but it must be clearly understood that the
likeness is but of analogy, and that there is no near affinity between
the two families _Laniidae_ and _Tyrannidae_, which belong to wholly
distinct sections of the great Passerine order; and, while the former is
a comparatively homogeneous group, much diversity of form and habits is
found among the latter. Similarly many of the smaller _Tyrannidae_ bear
some analogy to certain _Muscicapidae_, with which they were at one time
confounded (see FLYCATCHER), but the difference between them is deep
seated.[2] Nor is this all, for out of the seventy genera, or
thereabouts, into which the _Tyrannidae_ have been divided,
comprehending perhaps three hundred and fifty species, all of which are
peculiar to the New World, a series of forms can be selected which find
a kind of parallel to a series of forms to be found in the other group
of _Passeres_; and the genus _Tyrannus_, though that from which the
family is named, is by no means a fair representative of it; but it
would be hard to say which genus should be so accounted. The birds of
the genus _Muscisaxicola_ have the habits and almost the appearance of
wheat-ears; the genus _Alectorurus_ calls to mind a water-wagtail;
_Euscarthmus_ may suggest a titmouse, _Elaenia_ perhaps a willow-wren;
but the greatest number of forms have no analogous bird of the Old World
with which they can be compared; and, while the combination of delicate
beauty and peculiar external form possibly attains its utmost in the
long-tailed _Milvulus_, the glory of the family may be said to culminate
in the king of king-birds, _Muscivora regia_.     (A. N.)


  [1] It is called in some parts the bee-martin.

  [2] Two easy modes of discriminating them externally may be
    mentioned. All the _Laniidae_ and _Muscicapidae_ have but _nine_
    primary quills in their wings, and their tarsi are covered with
    scales in front only; while in the _Tyrannidae_ there are ten
    primaries, and the tarsal scales extend the whole way round. The more
    recondite distinction in the structure of the trachea seems to have
    been first detected by Macgillivray, who wrote the anatomical
    descriptions published in 1839 by Audubon (_Orn. Biography_, v. 421,
    422); but its value was not appreciated till the publication of
    Johannes Müller's classical treatise on the vocal organs of Passerine
    birds (_Abhandl. k. Akad. Wissensch. Berlin_, 1845, pp. 321, 405).

KING-CRAB, the name given to an Arachnid, belonging to the order
Xiphosurae, of the grade Delobranchia or Hydropneustea. King-crabs, of
which four, possibly five, existing species are known, were formerly
referred to the genus _Limulus_, a name still applied to them in all
zoological textbooks. It has recently been shown, however, that the
structural differences between some of the species are sufficiently
numerous and important to warrant the recognition of three
genera--_Xiphosura_, of which _Limulus_ is a synonym, _Tachypleus_ and
_Carcinoscorpius_. In _Xiphosura_ the genital operculum structurally
resembles the gill-bearing appendages in that the inner branches consist
of three distinct segments, the distal of which is lobate and projects
freely beyond the margin of the adjacent distal segment of the outer
branch; the entosternite (see ARACHNIDA) has two pairs of antero-lateral
processes, and in the male only the ambulatory appendages of the second
pair are modified as claspers. In _Tachypleus_ and _Carcinoscorpius_, on
the other hand, the genital operculum differs from the gill-bearing
appendages in that the inner branches consist of two segments, the
distal of which are apically pointed, partially or completely fused in
the middle line, and do not project beyond the distal segments of the
outer branches; the entosternite has only one pair of antero-lateral
processes, and in the male the second and third pairs of ambulatory
limbs are modified as claspers. _Tachypleus_ differs from
_Carcinoscorpius_ in possessing a long movable spur upon the fourth
segment of the sixth ambulatory limb, in having the postanal spine
triangular in section instead of round, and the claspers in the male
hemichelate, owing to the suppression of the immovable finger, which is
well developed in _Carcinoscorpius_. At the present time king-crabs have
a wide but discontinuous distribution. _Xiphosura_, of which there is
but one species, _X. polyphemus_, ranges along the eastern side of North
America from the coast of Maine to Yucatan. _Carcinoscorpius_, which is
also represented by a single species, _C. rotundicauda_, extends from
the Bay of Bengal to the coast of the Moluccas and the Philippines,
while of the two better-known species of _Tachypleus_, _T. gigas_ (=
_moluccanus_) ranges from Singapore to Torres Straits, and _T.
tridentatus_ from Borneo to southern Japan. A third species, _T.
hoeveni_, has been recorded from the Moluccas. But although _Xiphosura_
is now so widely sundered geographically from _Tachypleus_ and
_Carcinoscorpius_, the occurrence of the remains of extinct species of
king-crabs in Europe, both in Tertiary deposits and in Triassic,
Jurassic and Cretaceous strata, suggests that there was formerly a
continuous coast-line, with tropical or temperate conditions, extending
from Europe westward to America, and eastward to southern Asia. There
are, however, no grounds for the assumption that the supposed coast-line
between America and Europe synchronized with that between Europe and
south Asia. King-crabs do not appear to differ from each other in
habits. Except in the breeding season they live in water ranging in
depth from about two to six fathoms, and creep about the bottom or bury
themselves in the sand. Their food consists for the most part of soft
marine worms, which are picked up in the nippers, thrust into the mouth,
and masticated by the basal segments of the appendages between which the
mouth lies. At the approach of the breeding season, which in the case of
_Xiphosura polyphemus_ is in May, June and July, king-crabs advance in
pairs into very shallow water at the time of the high tides, the male
holding securely to the back of the female by means of his clasping
nippers. No actual union between the sexes takes place, the spawn of the
female being fertilized by the male at the time of being laid in the
sand or soon afterwards. This act accomplished, the two retreat again
into deeper water. Deposited in the mud or sand near high-water mark,
the eggs are eventually hatched by the heat of the sun, to which they
are exposed every day for a considerable time. The newly hatched young
is minute and subcircular in shape, but bears a close resemblance to its
parents except in the absence of the caudal spine and in the presence of
a fringe of stiff bristles round the margin of the body. During growth
it undergoes a succession of moults, making its exit from the old
integument through a wide split running round the edge of the carapace.
Moulting is effected in exactly the same way in scorpions, Pedipalpi,
and normally in spiders. The caudal spine appears at the second moult
and gradually increases in length with successive changes of the skin.
This organ is of considerable importance, since it enables the king-crab
to right itself when overturned by rough water or other causes. Without
it the animal would remain helpless like an upturned turtle, because it
is unable to reach the ground with its legs when lying on its back.
Before the tail is sufficiently developed to be used for that purpose,
the young king-crab succeeds in regaining the normal position by
flapping its flattened abdominal appendages and rising in the water by
that means. The king-crab fishery is an industry of some importance in
the United States, and in the East Indies the natives eat the animal and
tip their lances and arrows with the caudal spine. They also use the
hollow empty shell as a water-ladle or pan--hence the name "pan-fish" or
"saucepan-crab" by which the animal is sometimes known. Fossil
king-crabs have been recorded from strata of the Tertiary and Secondary
epochs, and related but less specialized types of the same order are
found in rocks of Palaeozoic age. Of these the most important are
_Belinurus_ of the Carboniferous, _Protolimulus_ of the Devonian, and
_Hemiaspis_ of the Silurian periods. These ancient forms differ
principally from true king-crabs in having the segments of the
opisthosoma or hinder half of the body distinctly defined instead of
welded into a hexagonal shield.     (R. I. P.)

[Illustration: FIG. 1.

  1, _Limulus polyphemus_, adult (dorsal aspect).
  2, _Limulus polyphemus_, young (dorsal aspect).
  3, _Prestwichia rotundata_, Coal M., Shropshire.
  4, _Prestwichia Birtwelli_, Coal M., Lancashire.
  5, _Neolimulus falcatus_, U. Silurian, Lanark.
  6, _Hemiaspis limuloides_, L. Ludlow, Leintwardine, Shropshire.
  7, _Pseudoniscus aculeatus_, U. Silurian, Russia.]

KINGFISHER (Ger.[1] _Königsfischer_; Walloon _Roi-péheux_ = _pêcheur_),
the _Alcedo ispida_ of ornithologists, one of the most beautiful and
well-known of European birds, being found, though nowhere very
abundantly, in every European country, as well as in North Africa and
South-Western Asia as far as Sindh. Its blue-green back and rich
chestnut breast render it conspicuous as it frequents the streams and
ponds whence it procures its food, by plunging almost perpendicularly
into the water, and emerging a moment after with the prey--whether a
small fish, crustacean, or an aquatic insect--it has captured. In hard
frosts it resorts to the sea-shore, but a severe winter is sure to
occasion a great mortality in the species, for many of its individuals
seem unable to reach the tidal waters where only in such a season they
could obtain sustenance; and to this cause rather than any other is
perhaps to be ascribed its general scarcity. Very early in the year it
prepares its nest, which is at the end of a tunnel bored by itself in a
bank, and therein the six or eight white, glossy, translucent eggs are
laid, sometimes on the bare soil, but often on the fishbones which,
being indigestible, are thrown up in pellets by the birds; and, in any
case, before incubation is completed these _rejectamenta_ accumulate so
as to form a pretty cup-shaped structure that increases in bulk after
the young are hatched, but, mixed with their fluid excretions and with
decaying fishes brought for their support, soon becomes a dripping fetid

The kingfisher is the subject of a variety of legends and superstitions,
both classical and medieval. Of the latter one of the most curious is
that having been originally a plain grey bird it acquired its present
bright colours by flying towards the sun on its liberation from Noah's
ark, when its upper surface assumed the hue of the sky above it and its
lower plumage was scorched by the heat of the setting orb to the tint it
now bears.[2] More than this, the kingfisher was supposed to possess
many virtues. Its dried body would avert thunderbolts, and if kept in a
wardrobe would preserve from moths the woollen stuffs therein laid, or
hung by a thread to the ceiling of a chamber would point with its bill
to the quarter whence the wind blew. All readers of Ovid (_Metam._, bk.
xi.) know how the faithful but unfortunate Ceyx and Alcyone were changed
into kingfishers--birds which bred at the winter solstice, when through
the influence of Aeolus, the wind-god and father of the fond wife, all
gales were hushed and the sea calmed so that their floating nest might
ride uninjured over the waves during the seven proverbial "Halcyon
days"; while a variant or further development of the fable assigned to
the halcyon itself the power of quelling storms.[3]

The common kingfisher of Europe is the representative of a well-marked
family of birds, the _Alcedinidae_ or _Halcyonidae_ of ornithologists,
which is considered by most authorities[4] to be closely related to the
_Bucerotidae_ (see HORNBILL); but the affinity can scarcely be said as
yet to be proved. Be that as it may, the present family forms the
subject of an important work by Bowdler Sharpe.[5] Herein are described
one hundred and twenty-five species, nearly all of them being
beautifully figured by Keulemans, and that number may be taken even now
as approximately correct; for, while the validity of a few has been
denied by some eminent men, nearly as many have since been made known,
and it seems likely that two or three more described by older writers
may yet be rediscovered. These one hundred and twenty-five species
Sharpe groups in nineteen genera, and divides into two sub-families,
_Alcedininae_ and _Daceloninae_,[6] the one containing five and the
other fourteen genera. With existing anatomical materials perhaps no
better arrangement could have been made, but the method afterwards
published by Sundevall (_Tentamen_, pp. 95, 96) differs from it not
inconsiderably. Here, however, it will be convenient to follow Sharpe.
Externally, which is almost all we can at present say, kingfishers
present a great uniformity of structure. One of their most remarkable
features is the feebleness of their feet, and the union (syndactylism)
of the third and fourth digits for the greater part of their length;
while, as if still further to show the comparatively functionless
character of these members, in two of the genera, _Alcyone_ and _Ceyx_,
the second digit is aborted, and the birds have but three toes. In most
forms the bill does not differ much from that of the common _Alcedo
ispida_, but in _Syma_ its edges are serrated, while in _Carcineutes_,
_Dacelo_ and _Melidora_ the maxilla is prolonged, becoming in the last a
very pronounced hook. Generally the wings are short and rounded, and the
tail is in many forms inconspicuous; but in _Tanysiptera_, one of the
most beautiful groups, the middle pair of feathers is greatly elongated
and spatulate, while this genus possesses only ten rectrices, all the
rest having twelve. Sundevall relies on a character not noticed by
Sharpe, and makes his principal divisions depend on the size of the
scapulars, which in one form a mantle, and in the other are so small as
not to cover the back. The _Alcedinidae_ are a cosmopolitan family, but
only one genus, _Ceryle_, is found in America, and that extends as well
over a great part of the Old World, though not into the Australian
region, which affords by far the greater number both of genera and
species, having no fewer than ten of the former and fifty-nine of the
latter peculiar to it.[7]

In habits kingfishers display considerable diversity, though all, it
would seem, have it in common to sit at times motionless on the watch
for their prey, and on its appearance to dart upon it, seize it as they
fly or dive, and return to a perch where it may be conveniently
swallowed. But some species, and especially that which is the type of
the family, are not always content to await at rest their victim's
showing itself. They will hover like a hawk over the waters that conceal
it, and, in the manner already described, precipitate themselves upon
it. This is particularly the way with those that are fishers in fact as
well as in name; but no inconsiderable number live almost entirely in
forests, feeding on insects, while reptiles furnish the chief sustenance
of others. The last is characteristic of at least one Australian form,
which manages to thrive in the driest districts of that country, where
not a drop of water is to be found for miles, and the air is at times
heated to a degree that is insupportable by most animals. The belted
kingfisher of North America, _Ceryle alcyon_, is a characteristic bird
of that country, though its habits greatly resemble those of the
European species; and the so-called "laughing jackass" of New South
Wales and South Australia, _Dacelo gigas_--with its kindred forms, _D.
leachi_, _D. cervina_ and _D. occidentalis_, from other parts of the
country--deserve special mention. Attention must also be called to the
speculations of Dr Bowdler Sharpe (op. cit., pp. xliv.-xlvii.) on the
genetic affinity of the various forms of _Alcedinidae_, and it is to be
regretted that hitherto no light has been shed by palaeontologists on
this interesting subject, for the only fossil referred to the
neighbourhood of the family is the _Halcyornis toliapicus_ of Sir R.
Owen (_Br. Foss. Mamm. and Birds_, p. 554) from the Eocene of
Sheppey--the very specimen said to have been previously placed by König
(_Icon. foss. secliles_, fig. 153) in the genus _Larus_.     (A. N.)


  [1] But more commonly called _Eisvogel_, which finds its counterpart
    in the Anglo-Saxon _Isern_ or _Isen_.

  [2] Rolland, _Faune populaire de la France_, ii. 74.

  [3] In many of the islands of the Pacific Ocean the prevalent
    kingfisher is the object of much veneration.

  [4] Cf. Eyton, _Contrib. Ornithology_ (1850), p. 80; Wallace, _Ann.
    Nat. History_, series 2, vol. xviii. pp. 201, 205; and Huxley, _Proc.
    Zool. Society_ (1867), p. 467.

  [5] _A Monograph of the Alcedinidae or Family of the Kingfishers_, by
    R. B. Sharpe, 4to (London, 1868-1871). Some important anatomical
    points were briefly noticed by Professor Cunningham (_Proc. Zool.
    Soc._, 1870, p. 280).

  [6] The name of this latter sub-family as constituted by Sharpe would
    seem to be more correctly _Ceycinae_--the genus _Ceyx_, founded in
    1801 by Lacépède, being the oldest included in it. The word _Dacelo_,
    invented by Leach in 1815, is simply an anagram of _Alcedo_, and,
    though of course without any etymological meaning, has been very
    generally adopted.

  [7] Cf. Wallace. _Geog. Distr. Animals_, ii. 315.

KINGHORN, a royal and police burgh of Fifeshire, Scotland. Pop. (1901),
1550. It is situated on the Firth of Forth, 2¼ m. E. by N. of
Burntisland, on the North British railway. The public buildings include
a library and town-hall. It enjoys some repute as a summer resort. The
leading industries are ship-building, bleaching and the making of flax
and glue. At the time of his visit Daniel Defoe found thread-making in
vogue, which employed the women while the men were at sea. Alexander
III. created Kinghorn a burgh, but his connexion with the town proved
fatal to him. As he was riding from Inverkeithing on the 12th of March
1286 he was thrown by his horse and fell over the cliffs, since called
King's Wud End, a little to the west of the burgh, and killed. A
monument was erected in 1887 to mark the supposed scene of the accident.
The Witch Hill used to be the place of execution of those poor wretches.
Kinghorn belongs to the Kirkcaldy district group of parliamentary
burghs. At PETTYCUR, 1 m. to the south, is a good harbour for its size,
and at Kinghorn Ness a battery has been established in connexion with
the fortifications on Inchkeith. The hill above the battery was
purchased by government in 1903 and is used as a point of observation.
About 1 m. to the north of Kinghorn is the estate of Grange, which
belonged to Sir William Kirkcaldy. INCHKEITH, an island in the fairway
of the Firth of Forth, 2½ m. S. by E. of Kinghorn and 3½ m. N. by E. of
Leith, belongs to the parish of Kinghorn. It has a north-westerly and
south-easterly trend, and is nearly 1 m. long and ¼ m. wide. It is a
barren rock, on the summit of which stands a lighthouse visible at night
for 21 m. In 1881 forts connected by a military road were erected on the
northern, western and southern headlands.

KINGLAKE, ALEXANDER WILLIAM (1800-1891), English historian and
traveller, was born at Taunton on the 5th of August 1809. His father, a
successful solicitor, intended his son for a legal career. Kinglake went
to Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he matriculated in 1828,
being a contemporary and friend of Tennyson and Thackeray. After leaving
Cambridge he joined Lincoln's Inn, and was called to the bar in 1837.
While still a student he travelled, in 1835, throughout the East, and
the impression made upon him by his experiences was so powerful that he
was seized with a desire to record them in literature. _Eothen_, a
sensitive and witty record of impressions keenly felt and remembered,
was published in 1844, and enjoyed considerable reputation. In 1854 he
went to the Crimea, and was present at the battle of the Alma. During
the campaign he made the acquaintance of Lord Raglan, who was so much
attracted by his talents that he suggested to Kinglake the plan for an
elaborate _History of the Crimean War_, and placed his private papers at
the writer's disposal. For the rest of his life Kinglake was engaged
upon the task of completing this monumental history. Thirty-two years
elapsed between its commencement and the publication of the last volume,
and eight volumes in all appeared at intervals between 1863 and 1887.
Kinglake lived principally in London, and sat in parliament for
Bridgwater from 1857 until the disfranchisement of the borough in 1868.
He died on the 2nd of January 1891. Kinglake's life-work, _The History
of the Crimean War_, is in scheme and execution too minute and
conscientious to be altogether in proportion, but it is a wonderful
example of painstaking and talented industry. It is not without errors
of partisanship, but it shows remarkable skill in the moulding of vast
masses of despatches and technical details into an absorbingly
interesting narrative; it is illumined by natural descriptions and
character-sketches of great fidelity and acumen; and, despite its
length, it remains one of the most picturesque, most vivid and most
actual pieces of historical narrative in the English language.

KINGLET, a name applied in many books to the bird called by Linnaeus
_Motacilla regulus_, and by most modern ornithologists _Regulus
cristatus_, the golden-crested or golden-crowned wren of ordinary
persons. This species is the type of a small group which has been
generally placed among the _Sylviidae_ or true warblers, but by certain
systematists it is referred to the titmouse family, _Paridae_. That the
kinglets possess many of the habits and actions of the latter is
undeniable, but on the other hand they are not known to differ in any
important points of organization or appearance from the former--the
chief distinction being that the nostril is covered by a single bristly
feather directed forwards. The golden-crested wren is the smallest of
British birds, its whole length being about 3½ in., and its wing
measuring only 2 in. from the carpal joint. Generally of an olive-green
colour, the top of its head is bright yellow, deepening into orange, and
bounded on either side by a black line, while the wing coverts are dull
black, and some of them tipped with white, forming a somewhat
conspicuous bar. The cock has a pleasant but weak song. The nest is a
beautiful object, thickly felted of the softest moss, wool, and spiders'
webs, lined with feathers, and usually built under and near the end of
the branch of a yew, fir or cedar, supported by the interweaving of two
or three laterally diverging and pendent twigs, and sheltered by the
rest. The eggs are from six to ten in number, of a dull white sometimes
finely freckled with reddish-brown. The species is particularly social,
living for the most part of the year in family parties, and often
joining bands of any species of titmouse in a common search for food.
Though to be met with in Britain at all seasons, the bird in autumn
visits the east coast in enormous flocks, apparently emigrants from
Scandinavia, while hundreds perish in crossing the North Sea, where they
are well known to the fishermen as "woodcock's pilots." A second and
more local European species is the fire-crested wren, _R. ignicapillus_,
easily recognizable by the black streak on each side of the head, before
and behind the eye, as well as by the deeper colour of its crown. A
third species, _R. maderensis_, inhabits the Madeiras, to which it is
peculiar; and examples from the Himalayas and Japan have been
differentiated as _R. himalayensis_ and _R. japonicus_. North America
has two well-known species, _R. satrapa_, very like the European _R.
ignicapillus_, and the ruby-crowned wren, _R. calendula_, which is
remarkable for a loud song that has been compared to that of a
canary-bird or a skylark, and for having the characteristic nasal
feather in a rudimentary or aborted condition.     (A. N.)

KINGS, FIRST AND SECOND BOOKS OF, two books of the Bible, the last of
the series of Old Testament histories known as the Earlier or Former
Prophets. They were originally reckoned as a single book (Josephus;
Origen _ap._ Eus., _H.E._ vi. 25; Peshitta; Talmud), though modern
Bibles follow the bipartition which is derived from the Septuagint. In
that version they are called the third and fourth books of "kingdoms"
([Greek: Basileiôn]), the first and second being our books of Samuel.
The division into two books is not felicitous, and even the old Hebrew
separation between Kings and Samuel must not be taken to mean that the
history from the birth of Samuel to the exile was treated by two
distinct authors in independent volumes. We cannot speak of the author
of Kings or Samuel, but only of an editor or of successive editors whose
main work was to arrange in a continuous form extracts or abstracts from
earlier sources. The introduction of a chronological scheme and of a
series of editorial comments and additions, chiefly designed to enforce
the religious meaning of the history, gives a kind of unity to the book
of Kings as we now read it; but beneath this we can still distinguish a
variety of documents, which, though sometimes mutilated in the process
of piecing together, retain sufficient individuality of style and colour
to prove their original independence.

Of these documents one of the best defined is the vivid picture of
David's court at Jerusalem (2 Sam. ix.-xx.) from which the first two
chapters of 1 Kings manifestly cannot be separated. As it would be
unreasonable to suppose that the editor of the history of David closed
his work abruptly before the death of the king, breaking off in the
middle of a valuable memoir which lay before him, this observation leads
us to conclude that the books of Samuel and Kings are not independent
histories. They have at least one source in common, and a single
editorial hand was at work on both. From an historical point of view,
however, the division which makes the beginning of Solomon's reign the
beginning of a new book is very convenient. The conquest of Palestine by
the Israelite tribes, recounted in the book of Joshua, leads up to the
era of the "judges" (Judg. ii. 6-23; iii. sqq.), and the books of Samuel
follow with the institution of the monarchy and the first kings. The
books of Kings bring to a close the life of David (c. 975 B.C.), which
forms the introduction to the reign of Solomon (1 Kings ii. 12-xi.), the
troubles in whose time prepared the way for the separation into the two
distinct kingdoms, viz. Judah and the northern tribes of Israel (xii.
sqq.). After the fall of Samaria, the history of these Israelites is
rounded off with a review (2 Kings xvii.-xviii. 12). The history of the
surviving kingdom of Judah is then carried down to the destruction of
Jerusalem and the exile (5 and 6), and, after an account of the Chaldean
governorship, concludes with the release of the captive king Jehoiachin
(561 B.C.) and with an allusion to his kind treatment during the rest of
his lifetime.

The most noticeable feature in the book is the recurring interest in the
centralization of worship in the Temple at Jerusalem as prescribed in
Deuteronomy and enforced by Josiah. Amidst the great variety in style
and manner which marks the several parts of the history, features which
are imbued with the teaching of Deuteronomy recur regularly in similar
stereotyped forms. They point in fact to a specific redaction, and thus
it would seem that the editor who treated the foundation of the Temple,
the central event of Solomon's life, as a religious epoch of the first
importance, regarded this as the beginning of a new era--the history of
Israel under the one sanctuary.

  Successive Redactions.

When we assume that the book of Kings was thrown into its present form
by a Deuteronomistic redactor we do not affirm that he was the first who
digested the sources of the history into a continuous work, nor must we
ascribe absolute finality to his work. He gave the book a definite shape
and character, but the recognized methods of Hebrew literature left it
open to additions and modifications by later hands. Even the redaction
in the spirit of Deuteronomy seems itself to have had more than one
stage, as Ewald long ago recognized.

  The evidence to be detailed presently shows that there was a certain
  want of definiteness about the redaction. The mass of disjointed
  materials, not always free from inconsistencies, which lay before the
  editor in separate documents or in excerpts already partially arranged
  by an earlier hand, could not have been reduced to real unity without
  critical sifting, and an entire recasting of the narrative in a way
  foreign to the ideas and literary habits of the Hebrews. The unity
  which the editor aimed at was limited to (a) chronological continuity
  in the events recorded and (b) a certain uniformity in the treatment
  of the religious meaning of the narrative. Even this could not be
  perfectly attained in the circumstances, and the links of the history
  were not firmly enough riveted to prevent disarrangement or
  rearrangement of details by later scribes.

  (a) The continued efforts of successive redactors can be traced in the
  chronology of the book. The chronological method of the narrative
  appears most clearly in the history after Solomon, where the events of
  each king's reign are thrown into a kind of stereotyped framework on
  this type: "In the twentieth year of Jeroboam, king of Israel, Asa
  began to reign over Judah, and reigned in Jerusalem forty-one years."
  ... "In the third year of Asa, king of Judah, Baasha began to reign
  over Israel in Tirzah twenty-four years." The history moves between
  Judah and Israel according to the date of each accession; as soon as a
  new king has been introduced, everything that happened in his reign is
  discussed, and wound up by another stereotyped formula as to the death
  and burial of the sovereign; and to this mechanical arrangement the
  natural connexion of events is often sacrificed. In this scheme the
  elaborate synchronisms between contemporary monarchs of the north and
  south give an aspect of great precision to the chronology. But in
  reality the data for Judah and Israel do not agree, and remarkable
  deviations are sometimes found. The key to the chronology is 1 Kings
  vi. 1, which, as Wellhausen has shown, was not found in the original
  Septuagint, and contains internal evidence of post-Chaldean date. In
  fact the system as a whole is necessarily later than 535 B.C., the
  fixed point from which it counts back, and although the numbers for
  the duration of the reigns may be based upon early sources, the
  synchronisms appear to have been inserted at a much later stage in the
  history of the text.

  (b) Another aspect in the redaction may be called theological. Its
  characteristic is the retrospective application to the history of a
  standard belonging to the later developments of Old Testament
  religion. Thus the redactor regards the sins of Jeroboam as the real
  cause of the downfall of Israel (2 Kings xvii. 21 seq.), and passes an
  unfavourable judgment upon all its rulers, not merely to the effect
  that they did evil in the sight of Yahweh but that they followed in
  the way of Jeroboam. But his opinion was manifestly not shared by
  Elijah or Elisha, nor by the original narrator of the lives of these
  prophets. Moreover, the redactor in 1 Kings iii. 2 seq. regards
  worship at the high places as sinful after the building of the Temple,
  although even the best kings before Hezekiah made no attempt to
  suppress these shrines. This feature in the redaction displays itself
  not only in occasional comments or homiletical excursuses, but in that
  part of the narrative in which all ancient historians allowed
  themselves free scope for the development of their reflections--the
  speeches placed in the mouths of actors in the history. Here also
  there is often textual evidence that the theological element is
  somewhat loosely attached to the earlier narrative and underwent
  successive additions.

  General Structure.

Consequently it is necessary to distinguish between the older sources
and the peculiar setting in which the history has been placed; between
earlier records and that specific colouring which, from its affinity to
Deuteronomy and to other portions of the Old Testament which appear to
have been similarly treated under the influence of its teaching, may be
conveniently termed "Deuteronomistic." For his sources the compiler
refers chiefly to two distinct works, the "words" or "chronicles" of the
kings of Israel and those of the kings of Judah. Precisely how much is
copied from these works and how much has been expressed in the
compiler's own language is of course uncertain. It is found on
inspection that the present history consists usually of an epitome of
each reign. It states the king's age at succession (so Judah only),
length of reign, death and burial, with allusions to his buildings,
wars, and other political events.[1] In the case of Judah, also, the
name of the royal or queen-mother is specifically mentioned. The
references to the respective "chronicles," made as though they were
still accessible, are wanting in the case of Jehoram and Hoshea of
Israel, and of Solomon, Ahaziah, Athaliah, Jehoahaz, Jehoiachin and
Zedekiah of Judah. But for Solomon the authority cited, "book of the
acts of Solomon" (1 Kings xi. 41), presumably presupposes Judaean
chronicles, and the remaining cases preserve details of an annalistic
character. Moreover, distinctive annalistic material is found for the
Israelite kings Saul and Ishbosheth in 1 Sam. xiii. 1; xiv. 47-51; 2
Sam. ii. 8-10a (including even their age at accession), and for David in
2 Sam. ii. 11 and parts of v. and viii.

The use which the compiler makes of his sources shows that his aim was
not the _history_ of the past but its _religious significance_. It is
rare that even qualified praise is bestowed upon the kings of Israel
(Jehoram, 2 Kings iii. 2; Jehu x. 30; Hoshea xvii. 2). Kings of great
historical importance are treated with extreme brevity (Omri, Jeroboam
(2), Uzziah), and similar meagreness of historical information is
apparent when the editorial details and the religious judgments are
eliminated from the accounts of Nadab, Baasha, and the successors of
Jeroboam (2) in Israel or of Abijam and Manasseh in Judah.


To gain a more exact idea of the character of the book we may divide the
history into three sections: (1) the life of Solomon, (2) the kingdoms
of Ephraim (or Samaria)[2] and Judah, and (3) the separate history of
Judah after the fall of Samaria. I. _Solomon_.--The events which lead up
to the death of David and the accession of Solomon (1 Kings i., ii.) are
closely connected with 2 Sam. ix.-xx. The unity is broken by the
appendix 2 Sam. xxi. xxi.-xxiv. which is closely connected, as regards
general subject-matter, with _ibid._ v.-viii.; the literary questions
depend largely upon the structure of the books of Samuel (q.v.). It is
evident, at least, that either the compiler drew upon other sources for
the occasion and has been remarkably brief elsewhere, or that his
epitomes have been supplemented by the later insertion of material not
necessarily itself of late origin. At present 1 Kings i., ii. are both
the close of David's life (no source is cited) and the necessary
introduction to Solomon. But Lucian's recension of the Septuagint (ed.
Lagarde), as also Josephus, begin the book at ii. 12, thus separating
the annalistic accounts of the two. Since the contents of 1 Kings
iii.-xi. do not form a continuous narrative, the compiler's authority
("Acts of S." xi. 41) can hardly have been an ordinary chronicle. The
chapters comprise (a) sundry notices of the king's prosperous and
peaceful career, severed by (b) a description of the Temple and other
buildings; and they conclude with (c) some account of the external
troubles which prove to have unsettled the whole of his reign. After an
introduction (iii.), a contains generalizing statements of Solomon's
might, wealth and wisdom (iv. 20 seq., 25, 29-34; x. 23-25, 27) and
stories of a distinctly late and popular character (iii. 16-28, x. i-10,
13). The present lack of unity can in some cases be remedied by the
Septuagint, which offers many deviations from the Hebrew text; this
feature together with the present form of the parallel texts in
Chronicles will exemplify the persistence of fluctuation to a late
period (4th-2nd cent. B.C.).

  Thus iii. 2 seq. cannot be by the same hand as v. 4, and v. 2 is
  probably a later Deut. gloss upon v. 3 (earlier Deut.), which
  represents the compiler's view and (on the analogy of the framework)
  comes closely after ii. 12.[3] Ch. iii. 1 can scarcely be severed from
  ix. 16, and in the Septuagint they appear in iv. in the order: iv.
  1-19 (the officers), 27 seq. (their duties), 22-24 (the daily
  provision), 29-34 (Solomon's reputation), iii. 1; ix. 16-17a (alliance
  with Egypt); iv. 20 seq. 25 are of a generalizing character and recur
  in the Septuagint with much supplementary matter in ii. Ch. iv. 26 is
  naturally related to x. 26 (cf. 2 Chron. i. 14) and takes its place in
  Lucian's recension (cf. 2 Chron. ix. 25). There is considerable
  variation again in ix. 10-x. 29, and the order ix. 10-14, 26-28, x.
  1-22 (so partly Septuagint) has the advantage of recording
  continuously Solomon's dealings with Hiram. The intervening verses
  belong to a class of floating notices (in a very unnatural order)
  which seem to have got stranded almost by chance at different points
  in the two recensions; contrast also 2 Chron. viii. Solomon's
  preliminary arrangements with Hiram in ch. v. have been elaborated to
  emphasize the importance of the Temple (vv. 3-5, cf. 2 Sam. vii.);
  further difficulty is caused by the relation between 13 seq. and 15
  seq. (see 2 Chron. ii. 17 seq.) and between both of these and ix. 20
  seq. xi. 28. The account of the royal buildings now sandwiched in
  between the related fragments of a is descriptive rather than
  narrative, and the accurate details might have been obtained by actual
  observation of the Temple at a date long subsequent to Solomon. It is
  not all due to a single hand. Ch. vi. 11-14 (with several late
  phrases) break the connexion and are omitted by the Septuagint; vv.
  15-22, now untranslatable, appear in a simple and intelligible form in
  the Septuagint. The account of the dedication contains many signs of a
  late date; viii. 14-53, 54-61 are due to a Deuteronomic writer, and
  that they are an expansion of the older narrative (vv. 1-13) is
  suggested by the fact that the ancient fragment, vv. 12, 13 (imperfect
  in the Hebrew) appears in the Septuagint after v. 53 in completer form
  and with a reference to the book of Jashar as source ([Greek: biblion
  tês ôdês] [Hebrew: sefer (hashir) hayashar]). The redactional
  insertion displaced it in one recension and led to its mutilation in
  the other. With viii. 27-30, cf. generally Isa. xl.-lvi.; vv. 44-51
  presuppose the exile, vv. 54-61 are wanting in Chron., and even the
  older parts of this chapter have also been retouched in conformity
  with later (even post-exilic) ritual and law. The Levites who appear
  at v. 4 in contrast to the priests, in a way unknown to the pre-exilic
  history, are not named in the Septuagint, which also omits the
  post-exilic term "congregation" (_'edah_) in v. 5. There is a general
  similarity of subject with Deut. xxviii.

The account of the end of Solomon's reign deals with (a) his religious
laxity (xi. 1-13, now in a Deuteronomic form), as the punishment for
which the separation of the two kingdoms is announced; and (b) the rise
of the adversaries who, according to xi. 25, had troubled the whole of
his reign, and therefore cannot have been related originally as the
penalty for the sins of his old age. Both, however, form an introduction
to subsequent events, and the life of Solomon concludes with a brief
annalistic notice of his death, length of reign, successor, and place of
burial. (See further SOLOMON.)

  The Divided Kingdom.

II. _Ephraim and Judah._--In the history of the two kingdoms the
redactor follows a fixed scheme determined, as has been seen, by the
order of succession. The fluctuation of tradition concerning the
circumstances of the schism is evident from a comparison with the
Septuagint, and all that is related of Ahijah falls under suspicion of
being foreign to the oldest history.[4] The story of the man of God from
Judah (xiii.) is shown to be late by its general tone (conceptions of
prophetism and revelation),[5] and by the term "cities of Samaria" (v.
32, for Samaria as a _province_, cf. 2 Kings xvii. 24, 26; for the
building of the city by Omri see 1 Kings xvi. 24). It is a late Judaean
narrative inserted after the Deuteronomic redaction, and breaks the
connexion between xii. 31 and xiii. 33 seq. The latter describe the
idolatrous worship instituted by the first king of the schismatic north,
and the religious attitude occurs regularly throughout the compiler's
epitome, however brief the reigns of the kings. In the account of Nadab,
xv. 25 seq., 29b, 30 seq. are certainly the compiler's, and the
synchronism in v. 28 must also be editorial; xv. 32 (Septuagint omit)
and 16 are duplicates leading up to the Israelite and Judaean accounts
of Baasha respectively. But xv. 33-xvi. 7 contains little annalistic
information, and the prophecy in xvi. 1-4 is very similar to xiv. 7-11,
which in turn breaks the connexion between vv. 6 and 12. Ch. xvi. 7 is a
duplicate to vv. 1-4 and out of place; the Septuagint inserts it in the
_middle_ of v. 8. The brief reign of Elah preserves an important entract
in xvi. 9, but the date in v. 10a (LXX. omits) presupposes the late
finished chronological scheme. Zimri's seven days receive the inevitable
condemnation, but the older material embedded in the framework (xvi.
15b-18) is closely connected with v. 9 and is continued in the
non-editorial portions of Omri's reign (xvi. 21 seq., length of reign in
v. 23, and v. 24). The achievements of Omri to which the editor refers
can fortunately be gathered from external sources (see OMRI). Under
Omri's son Ahab the separate kingdoms converge.

Next, as to Judah: the vivid account of the accession of Rehoboam in
xii. 1-16 is reminiscent of the full narratives in 2 Sam. ix.-xx.; 1
Kings i., ii. (cf. especially v. 16 with 2 Sam. xx. 1); xii. 15b refers
to the prophecy of Ahijah (see above), and "unto this day," v. 19,
cannot be by a contemporary author; v. 17 (LXX. omits) finds a parallel
in 2 Chron. xi. 16 seq., and could represent an Ephraimite standpoint.
The Judaean standpoint is prominent in vv. 21-24, where (a) the
inclusion of Benjamin and (b) the cessation of war (at the command of
Shemaiah) conflict with (a) xi. 32, 36, xii. 20 and (b) xiv. 30
respectively. Rehoboam's history, resumed by the redactor in xiv. 21-24,
continues with a brief account of the spoiling of the Temple and palace
by Sheshonk (Shishak). (The incident appears in 2 Chron. xii. in a
rather different context, _before_ the details which now precede v. 21
seq.) The reign of Abijam is entirely due to the editor, whose brief
statement of the war in xv. 7b is supplemented by a lengthy story in 2
Chron. xiii. (where the name is Abijah). Ch. xv. 5b (last clause) and v.
6 are omitted by the Septuagint, the former is a unique gloss (see 2
Sam. xi. seq.), the latter is a mere repetition of xiv. 30; with xv. 2
cf. v. 10. The account of Asa's long reign contains a valuable summary
of his war with Baasha, xv. 16-22; the isolated v. 15 is quite obscure
and is possibly related to v. 18 (but cf. vii. 51). His successor
Jehoshaphat is now dealt with completely in xxii. 41-50 after the death
of Ahab; but the Septuagint, which follows a different chronological
scheme (placing his accession in the reign of Omri), gives the summary
(with some variations) after xvi. 28. Another light is thrown upon the
incomplete annalistic fragments (xxii. 44, 47-49) by 2 Chron. xx. 35-37:
the friendship between Judah and Israel appears to have been displeasing
to the redactor of Kings.

  Ephraim from Ahab to Jehu.

The history of the few years between the close of Ahab's life and the
accession of Jehu covers about one-third of the entire book of Kings.
This is due to the inclusion of a number of narratives which are partly
of a political character, and partly are interested in the work of
contemporary prophets. The climax is reached in the overthrow of Omri's
dynasty by the usurper Jehu, when, after a period of close intercourse
between Israel and Judah, its two kings perished. The annals of each
kingdom would naturally deal independently with these events, but the
present literary structure of 1 Kings xvii.-2 Kings xi. is extremely
complicated by the presence of the narratives referred to. First as
regards the framework, the epitome of Ahab is preserved in xvi. 29-34
and xxii. 39; it contains some unknown references (his ivory house and
cities), and a stern religious judgment upon his Phoenician alliance, on
which the intervening chapters throw more light. The colourless summary
of his son Ahaziah (xxii. 51-53)[6] finds its conclusion in 2 Kings i.
17 seq. where v. 18 should precede the accession of his brother Jehoram
(v. 17b). Jehoram is again introduced in iii. 1-3 (note the variant
synchronism), but the usual conclusion is wanting. In Judah, Jehoshaphat
was succeeded by his son Jehoram, who had married Athaliah the daughter
of Ahab and Jezebel (viii. 16-24); to the annalistic details (vv. 20-22)
2 Chron. xxi. 11 sqq. adds a novel narrative. His son Ahaziah (viii. 25
sqq.) is similarly denounced for his relations with Israel. He is again
introduced in the isolated ix. 29, while Lucian's recension adds after
x. 36 a variant summary of his reign but _without_ the regular
introduction. Further confusion appears in the Septuagint, which inserts
after i. 18 (Jehoram of Israel) a notice corresponding to iii. 1-3, and
concludes "and the anger of the Lord was kindled against the house of
Ahab." This would be appropriate in a position nearer ix. seq. where the
deaths of Jehoram and Ahaziah are described. These and other examples of
serious disorder in the framework may be associated with the literary
features of the narratives of Elijah and Elisha.

  Of the more detailed narratives those that deal with the northern
  kingdom are scarcely Judaean (see 1 Kings xix. 3), and they do not
  criticize Elijah's work, as the Judaean compiler denounces the whole
  history of the north. But they are plainly not of one origin. To
  supplement the articles ELIJAH and ELISHA, it is to be noticed that
  the account of Naboth's death in the history of Elijah (1 Kings xxi.)
  differs in details from that in the history of Elisha and Jehu (2
  Kings ix.), and the latter more precise narrative presupposes events
  recorded in the extant accounts of Elijah but not these events
  themselves. In 1 Kings xx., xxii. 1-28 (xxi. follows xix. in the LXX.)
  Ahab is viewed rather more favourably than in the Elijah-narratives
  (xix., xxi.) or in the compiler's summary. Ch. xxii. 6, moreover,
  proves that there is some exaggeration in xviii. 4, 13; the great
  contest between Elijah and the king, between Yahweh and Baal, has been
  idealized. The denunciation of Ahab in xx. 35-43 has some notable
  points of contact with xiii. and seems to be a supplement to the
  preceding incidents. Ch. xxii. is important for its ideas of
  prophetism (especially vv. 19-23; cf. Ezek. xiv. 9; 2 Sam. xxiv. 1 [in
  contrast to 1 Chron. xxi. 1]); a gloss at the end of v. 28, omitted by
  the Septuagint, wrongly identifies Micaiah with the well-known Micah
  (i. 2). Although the punishment passed upon Ahab in xxi. 20 sqq.
  (20b-26 betray the compiler's hand; cf. xiv. 10 seq.) is modified in
  v. 29, this is ignored in the account of his death, xxii. 38, which
  takes place at Samaria (see below).

  The episode of Elijah and Ahaziah (2 Kings i.) is marked by the
  revelation through an angel. The prophet's name appears in an unusual
  form (viz. _eliyyah_, not -_yahu_), especially in vv. 2-8. The
  prediction of Ahaziah's fate finds a parallel in 2 Chron. xxi. 12-15;
  the more supernatural additions have been compared with the late story
  in 1 Sam. xix. 18-24. The ascension of Elijah (2 Kings ii.) is related
  as the introduction to the work of Elisha, which apparently begins
  before the death of Jehoshaphat (see iii. 1, 11 sqq.; contrast 2
  Chron. _loc. cit._). Among the stories of Elisha are some which find
  him at the head of the prophetic gilds (iv. 1, 38-44, vi. 1-7), whilst
  in others he has friendly relations with the "king of Israel" and the
  court. As a personage of almost superhuman dignity he moves in certain
  narratives where political records appear to have been utilized to
  describe the activity of the prophets. The Moabite campaign (iii.)
  concerns a revolt already referred to in the isolated i. 1; there are
  parallels with the story of Jehoshaphat and Ahab (iii. 7, 11 seq.; cf.
  1 Kings xxii. 4 seq., 7 sqq.), contrast, however, xxii. 7 (where
  Elijah is not even named) and iii. 11 seq. But Jehoshaphat's death has
  been already recorded (1 Kings xxii. 50), and, while Lucian's
  recension in 2 Kings iii. reads Ahaziah, i. 17 presupposes the
  accession of the _Judaean_ Jehoram. Other political narratives may
  underlie the stories of the Aramaean wars; with vi. 24-vii. 20 (after
  the complete cessation of hostilities in vi. 23) compare the general
  style of 1 Kings xx., xxii.; with the famine in Samaria, vi. 25; cf.
  ibid. xvii.; with the victory, cf. ibid. xx. The account of Elisha and
  Hazael (viii. 7-15) implies friendly relations with Damascus (in v. 12
  the terrors of war are in the future), but the description of Jehu's
  accession (ix.) is in the midst of hostilities. Ch. ix. 7-10a are a
  Deuteronomic insertion amplifying the message in vv. 3-6 (cf. 1 Kings
  xxi. 20 seq.). The origin of the repetition in ix. 14-15a (cf. viii.
  28 seq.) is not clear. The oracle in ix. 25 seq. is not that in 1
  Kings xxi. 19 seq., and mentions the additional detail that Naboth's
  sons were slain. Here his field or portion is located near Jezreel,
  but in 1 Kings xxi. 18 his vineyard is by the royal palace in Samaria
  (cf. xxii. 38 and contrast xxi. 1, where the LXX. omits reference to
  Jezreel). This fluctuation reappears in 2 Kings x. 1, 11 seq., and 17;
  in ix. 27 compared with 2 Chron. xxii. 9; and in the singular
  duplication of an historical incident, viz. the war against the
  Aramaeans at Ramoth-Gilead (a) by Jehoshaphat and Ahab, and (b) by
  Ahaziah and Jehoram, in each case with the death of the Israelite
  king, at Samaria and Jezreel respectively (see above and observe the
  contradiction in 1 Kings xxi. 29 and xxii. 38). These and other
  critical questions in this section are involved with (a) the
  probability that Elisha's work belongs rather to the accession of
  Jehu, with whose dynasty he was on most intimate terms until his death
  some forty-five years later (2 Kings xiii. 14-21), and (b) the problem
  of the wars between Israel and Syria which appear to have begun only
  in the time of Jehu (x. 32). See _Jew. Quart. Rev._ (1908), pp.
  597-630, and JEWS: _History_, § 11 seq.

  Dynasty of Jehu.

In the annals of Jehu's dynasty the editorial introduction to Jehu
himself is wanting (x. 32 sqq.), although Lucian's recension in x. 36
concludes in annalistic manner the lives of Jehoram of Israel and
Ahaziah of Judah. The summary mentions the beginning of the Aramaean
wars, the continuation of which is found in the redactor's account of
his successor Jehoahaz (xiii. 1-9). But xiii. 4-6 modify the disasters,
and by pointing to the "saviour" or deliverer (cf. Judg. iii. 9, 15)
anticipate xiv. 27. The self-contained account of his son Jehoash (xiii.
10-13) is supplemented (a) by the story of the death of Elisha (vv.
14-21) and (b) by some account of the Aramaean wars (vv. 22-25), where
v. 23, like vv. 4-6 (Lucian's recension actually reads it after v. 7),
is noteworthy for the sympathy towards the northern kingdom. Further (c)
the defeat of Amaziah of Judah appears in xiv. 8-14 after the annals of
Judah, although from an Israelite source (v. 11b Bethshemesh defined as
belonging to Judah, see also v. 15, and with the repetition of the
concluding statements in v. 15 seq., see xiii. 12 seq.). These features
and the transference of xiii. 12 seq. after xiii. 25 in Lucian's
recension point to late adjustment. In Judaean history, Jehu's reform
and the overthrow of Jezebel in the north (ix., x. 15-28) find their
counterpart in the murder of Athaliah and the destruction of the temple
of Baal in Judah (xi. 18). But the framework is incomplete. The
editorial conclusion of the reign of Ahaziah, the introduction to that
of Athaliah, and the sources for both are wanting. A lengthy Judaean
document is incorporated detailing the accession of Joash and the
prominence of the abruptly introduced priest Jehoiada. The interest in
the Temple and temple-procedure is obvious; and both xi. and xii. have
points of resemblance with xxii. seq. (see below and cf. also xi. 4, 7,
11, 19, with 1 Kings xiv. 27 seq.). The usual epitome is found in xi.
21-xii. 3 (the age at accession should follow the synchronism, so
Lucian), with fragments of annalistic matter in xii. 17-21 (another
version in 2 Chron. xxiv. 23 sqq.). For Joash's son Amaziah see above;
xiv. 6 refers to Deut. xxiv. 16, and 2 Chron. xxv. 5-16 replaces v. 7 by
a lengthy narrative with some interesting details. Azariah or Uzziah is
briefly summarized in xv. 1-7, hence the notice in xiv. 22 seems out of
place; perhaps the usual statements of Amaziah's death and burial (cf.
xiv. 20b, 22b), which were to be expected after v. 18, have been
supplemented by the account of the rebellion (vv. 19, 20a, 21).[7] The
chronological notes for the accession of Azariah imply different views
of the history of Judah after the defeat of Amaziah; with xiv. 17, cf.
xiii. 10, xiv. 2, 23, but contrast xv. 1, and again v. 8.[8]

The important reign of Jeroboam (2) is dismissed as briefly as that of
Azariah (xiv. 23-29). The end of the Aramaean war presupposed by v. 25
is supplemented by the sympathetic addition in v. 26 seq. (cf. xiii. 4
seq. 23). Of his successors Zechariah, Shallum and Menahem only the
briefest records remain, now imbedded in the editorial framework (xv.
8-25). The summary of Pekah (perhaps the same as Pekahiah, the confusion
being due to the compiler) contains excerpts which form the continuation
of the older material in v. 25 (cf. also vv. 10, 14, 16, 19, 20). For an
apparently similar adjustment of an earlier record to the framework see
above on 1 Kings xv. 25-31, xvi. 8-25. The account of Hoshea's
conspiracy (xv. 29 seq.) gives the Israelite version with which
Tiglath-Pileser's own statement can now be compared. Two accounts of the
fall of Samaria are given, one of which is under the reign of the
contemporary Judaean Hezekiah (xvii. i-6, xviii. 9-12); the chronology
is again intricate. Reflections on the disappearance of the northern
kingdom appear in xvii. 7-23 and xviii. 12; the latter belongs to the
Judaean history. The former is composite; xvii. 21-23 (cf. v. 18) look
back to the introduction of calf-worship by Jeroboam (1), and agree with
the compiler's usual standpoint; but vv. 19-20 include Judah and
presuppose the exile. The remaining verses survey types of idolatry
partly of a general kind (vv. 9-12, 16a), and partly characteristic of
Judah in the last years of the monarchy (vv. 16b, 17). The brief account
of the subsequent history of Israel in xvii. 24-41 is not from one
source, since the piety of the new settlers (v. 32-34a, 41) conflicts
with the later point of view in 34b-40. The last-mentioned supplements
the epilogue in xvii. 7-23, forms a solemn conclusion to the history of
the northern kingdom, and is apparently aimed at the Samaritans.


III. _Later History of Judah._--The summary of Jotham (xv. 32-38) shows
interest in the Temple (v. 35) and alludes to the hostility of Pekah (v.
37) upon which the Israelite annals are silent. 2. Chron. xxvii. expands
the former but replaces the latter by other not unrelated details (see
UZZIAH). But xv. 37 is resumed afresh in the account of the reign of
Ahaz (xvi. 5 sqq.; the text in v. 6 is confused)--another version in 2
Chron. xxviii. 5 sqq.--and is supplemented by a description, evidently
from the Temple records, in which the ritual innovations by "king Ahaz"
(in contrast to "Ahaz" alone in vv. 5-9) are described (vv. 10-18).
There is further variation of detail in 2 Chron. xxviii. 20-27. The
summary of Hezekiah (xviii. 1-8) emphasizes his important religious
reforms (greatly expanded in 2 Chron. xxix. seq. from a later
standpoint), and includes two references to his military achievements.
Of these v. 8 is ignored in Chron., and v. 7 is supplemented by (a) the
annalistic extract in vv. 13-16, and (b) narratives in which the great
contemporary prophet Isaiah is the central figure. The latter are later
than Isaiah himself (xix. 37 refers to 681 B.C.) and reappear, with some
abbreviation and rearrangement, in Isa. xxxvi.-xxxix. (see ISAIAH). They
are partly duplicate (cf. xix. 7 with vv. 28, 33; vv. 10-13 with xviii.
28-35), and consist of two portions, xviii. 17-xix. 8 (Isa. xxxvi.
2-xxxvii. 8) and xix. 9b-35 (Isa. xxxvii. 9b-36); to which of these xix.
9a and v. 36 seq. belong is disputed. 2 Chron. xxxii. (where these
accounts are condensed) is in general agreement with 2 Kings xviii. 7,
as against vv. 14-16. The poetical fragment, xix. 21-28, is connected
with the sign in vv. 29-31; both seem to break the connexion between
xix. 20 and 32 sqq. Chap. xx. 1-19 appears to belong to an earlier
period in Hezekiah's reign (see v. 6 and cf. 2 Chron. xxxii. 25 seq.);
with vv. 1-11 note carefully the forms in Isa. xxxviii. 1-8, 21 seq.,
and 2 Chron. xxxii. 24-26; with xx. 12-19 (Isa. xxxix) contrast the
brief allusion in 2 Chron. xxxii. 31. In v. 17 seq. the exile is
foreshadowed. Use has probably been made of a late cycle of
Isaiah-stories; such a work is actually mentioned in 2 Chron. xxxii. 32.
The accounts of the reactionary kings Manasseh and Amon, although now by
the compiler, give some reference to political events (see xxi. 17, 23
seq.); xxi. 7-15 refer to the exile and find a parallel in xxiii. 26
seq., and xxi. 10 sqq. are replaced in 2 Chron. xxxiii. 10-20 by a novel
record of Manasseh's penitence (see also ibid. v. 23 and note omission
of 2 Kings xxiii. 26 from Chron).

Josiah's reign forms the climax of the history. The usual framework
(xxii. 1; 2, xxiii. 28, 30b) is supplemented by narratives dealing with
the Temple repairs and the reforms of Josiah. These are closely related
to xi. seq. (cf. xxii. 3-7 with xii. 4 sqq.), but show many signs of
revision; xxii. 16 seq., xxiii. 26 seq., point distinctly to the exile,
and xxiii. 16-20 is an insertion (the altar in v. 16 is already
destroyed in v. 15) after 1 Kings xiii. But it is difficult elsewhere to
distinguish safely between the original records and the later additions.
In their present shape the reforms of Josiah are described in terms that
point to an acquaintance with the teaching of Deuteronomy which
promulgates the reforms themselves.[9]

  The annalistic notice in xxiii. 29 seq. (contrast xxii. 20) should
  precede v. 28; 2 Chron. xxxv. 20-27 gives another version in the
  correct position and ignores 2 Kings xxiii. 24-27 (see however the
  Septuagint). For the last four kings of Judah, the references to the
  worship at the high places (presumably abolished by Josiah) are
  wanting, and the literary source is only cited for Jehoiakim; xxiv. 3
  seq. (and probably v. 2), which treat the fall of Judah as the
  punishment for Manasseh's sins, are a Deuteronomistic insertion (2
  Chron. xxxvi. 6 sqq. differs widely; see, however, the Septuagint); v.
  13 seq. and v. 15 seq. are duplicates. With xxiv. 18-xxv. 21 cf. Jer.
  lii. 1-27 (the text of the latter, especially vv. 19 sqq. is
  superior); and the fragments _ibid._ xxxix. 1-10. Ch. xxv. 22-26
  appears in much fuller form in Jer. xl. seq. (see xl. 7-9, xli. 1-3,
  17 seq.). It is noteworthy that Jeremiah does not enter into the
  history in Kings (contrast Isaiah above). The book of Chronicles in
  general has a briefer account of the last years, and ignores both the
  narratives which also appear in Jeremiah and the concluding hopeful
  note struck by the restoration of Jehoiachin (xxv. 27-30). This last,
  with the addition of statistical data, forms the present conclusion
  also of the book of Jeremiah.

_Conclusions._--A survey of these narratives as a whole strengthens our
impression of the merely mechanical character of the redaction by which
they are united. Though editors have written something of their own in
almost every chapter, generally from the standpoint of religious
pragmatism, there is not the least attempt to work the materials into a
history in our sense of the word; and in particular the northern and
southern histories are practically independent, being merely pieced
together in a sort of mosaic in consonance with the chronological
system, which we have seen to be really later than the main redaction.
It is very probable that the order of the pieces was considerably
readjusted by the author of the chronology; of this indeed the
Septuagint still shows traces. But with all its imperfections as judged
from a modern standpoint, the redaction has the great merit of
preserving material nearer to the actual history than would have been
the case had narratives been rewritten from much later standpoints--as
often in the book of Chronicles.

Questions of date and of the growth of the literary process are still
unsettled, but it is clear that there was an independent history of
(north) Israel with its own chronological scheme. It was based upon
annals and fuller political records, and at some period apparently
passed through circles where the purely domestic stories of the prophets
(Elisha) were current.[10] This was ultimately taken over by a Judaean
editor who was under the influence of the far-reaching reforms ascribed
to the 18th year of Josiah (621 B.C.). Certain passages seem to imply
that in his time the Temple was still standing and the Davidic dynasty
uninterrupted. Also the phrase "unto this day" sometimes apparently
presupposes a pre-exilic date. On the other hand, the history is carried
down to the end of Jehoiachin's life (xxv. 27 refers to his fifty-fifth
year, vv. 29 seq. look back on his death), and a number of allusions
point decisively to the post-exilic period. Consequently, most scholars
are agreed that an original pre-exilic Deuteronomic compilation made
shortly after Josiah's reforms received subsequent additions from a
later Deuteronomic writer.

These questions depend upon several intricate literary and historical
problems. At the outset (a) the compiler deals with history from the
Deuteronomic standpoint, selecting certain notices and referring further
to _separate_ chronicles of Israel and Judah. The canonical book of
Chronicles refers to such a _combined_ work, but is confined to Judah;
it follows the religious judgment passed upon the kings, but it
introduces new details apparently derived from extant annals, replaces
the annalistic excerpts found in Kings by other passages, or uses new
narratives which at times are clearly based upon older sources. Next (b)
the Septuagint proves that Kings did not reach its present form until a
very late date; "each represents a stage and not always the same stage
in the long protracted labours of the redactors" (Kuenen).[11] In
agreement with this are the unambiguous indications of the post-exilic
age (especially in the Judaean history) consisting of complete
passages, obvious interpolations, and also sporadic phrases in
narratives whose pre-exilic origin is sometimes clear and sometimes only
to be presumed. Further (c), the Septuagint supports the independent
conclusion that the elaborate synchronisms belong to a late stage in the
redaction. Consequently it is necessary to allow that the previous
arrangement of the material may have been different; the actual wording
of the introductory notices was necessarily also affected. In general,
it becomes ever more difficult to distinguish between passages
incorporated by an early redactor and those which may have been inserted
later, though possibly from old sources. Where the regular framework is
disturbed such considerations become more cogent. The relation of
annalistic materials in 1 Sam. (xiii. i; xiv. 47-51, &c.) to the longer
detailed narratives will bear upon the question, as also the relation of
2 Sam. ix-xx. to 1 Kings i. seq. (see SAMUEL, BOOKS OF). Again (d) the
lengths of the reigns of the Judaean kings form an integral part of the
framework, and their total, with fifty years of exile, allows four
hundred and eighty years from the beginning of the Temple to the return
from Babylon.[12] This round number (cf. again 1 Kings vi. 1) points to
a date subsequent to 537, and Robertson Smith has observed that almost
all events dated by the years of the kings of Jerusalem have reference
to the affairs of the Temple. This suggests a connexion between the
chronology and the incorporation of those narratives in which the Temple
is clearly the centre of interest. (e) But, apart from the question of
the origin of the more detailed Judaean records, the arguments for a
pre-exilic Judaean Deuteronomic compilation are not quite decisive. The
phrase "unto this day" is not necessarily valid (cf. 2 Chron. v. 9,
viii. 8, xxi. 10 with 1 Kings viii. 8, ix. 21, 2 Kings viii. 22), and
depends largely upon the compiler's sagacity. Also, the existence of the
Temple and of the Davidic dynasty (1 Kings viii. 14-53; ix. 3; xi.
36-38; xv. 4; 2 Kings viii. 19; cf. 2 Chron. xiii. 5) is equally
applicable to the time of the second temple when Zerubbabel, the Davidic
representative, kindled new hopes and aspirations. Indeed, if the object
of the Deuteronomic compiler is to show from past history that "the
sovereign is responsible for the purity of the national religion"
(Moore, _Ency. Bib._ col. 2079), a date somewhere after the death of
Jehoiachin (released in 561) in the age of Zerubbabel and the new Temple
equally satisfies the conditions. With this is concerned (f) the
question whether, on historical grounds, the account of the introduction
of Deuteronomic reforms by Josiah is trustworthy.[13] Moreover, although
a twofold Deuteronomic redaction of Kings is generally recognized, the
criteria for the presumably pre-exilic form are not so decisive as those
which certainly distinguish the post-exilic portions, and it is
frequently very difficult to assign Deuteronomic passages to the earlier
rather than to the later. Again, apart from the contrast between the
Israelite detailed narratives (relatively early) and those of Judaean
origin (often secondary), it is noteworthy that the sympathetic
treatment of northern history in 2 Kings xiii. 4 seq. 23, xiv. 26 has
literary parallels in the Deuteronomic redaction of Judges (where
Israelite tradition is again predominant), but is quite distinct from
the hostile feeling to the north which is also Deuteronomic. Even the
northern prophet Hosea (q.v.) approximates the Deuteronomic standpoint,
and the possibility that the first Deuteronomic compilation of Kings
could originate outside Judah is strengthened by the fact that an
Israelite source could be drawn upon for an impartial account of Judaean
history (2 Kings xiv. 8-15). Finally, (g) literary and historical
problems here converge. Although Judaean writers ultimately rejected as
heathen a people who could claim to be followers of Yahweh (Ezra iv. 2;
2 Kings xvii. 28, 33; contrast ibid. 34-40, a _secondary_ insertion),
the anti-Samaritan feeling had previously been at most only in an
incipient stage, and there is reason to infer that relations between the
peoples of north and south had been closer.[14] The book of Kings
reveals changing historical conditions in its literary features, and it
is significant that the very age where the background is to be sought is
that which has been (intentionally?) left most obscure: the chronicler's
history of the Judaean monarchy (Chron.--Ezra--Nehemiah), as any
comparison will show, has its own representation of the course of
events, and has virtually superseded both Kings and Jeremiah, which have
now an abrupt conclusion. (See further S. A. Cook, _Jew. Quart. Rev._
(1907), pp. 158 sqq.; and the articles JEWS: _History_, §§ 20, 22;
PALESTINE: _History_).

  LITERATURE.--A. Kuenen, _Einleitung_; J. Wellhausen, _Compos. d.
  Hexateuch_, pp. 266-302; H. Winckler, _Alttest. Untersuchungen_
  (1892); and B. Stade, _Akademische Reden_ (1899; on 1 Kings v.-vii.; 2
  Kings x.-xiv.; xv.-xxi.); S. R. Driver, _Lit. of O. T._ (1909); see
  also C. Holzhey, _Das Buch. d. Könige_ (1899); the commentaries of
  Benzinger (1899) and Kittel (1900), and especially F. C. Kent,
  _Israel's Hist. and Biog. Narr._ (1905). The article by W. R. Smith,
  _Ency. Brit._, 9th ed. (partly retained here), is revised and
  supplemented by E. Kautzsch in the _Ency. Bib._ For the Hebrew text
  see Klostermann's _Sam. u. Könige_ (1887); C. F. Burney, _Notes on the
  Hebrew Text_ (1903); and Stade and Schwally's edition in Haupt's
  _Sacred Books of the Old Testament_ (1904). For English readers, J.
  Skinner's commentary in the _Century Bible_, and W. E. Barnes in the
  _Cambridge Bible_, are useful introductions.     (S. A. C.)


  [1] Cp. the brief annalistic form of the Babylonian chronicles (for a
    specimen, see C. F. Kent, _Israel's Hist. and Biog. Narratives_, p.
    502 seq.). For a synchronistic history of Assyria and Babylonia,
    prepared for diplomatic purposes, see Schrader's _Keilinschr. Bibl._
    i. 194 sqq.; also L. W. King, _Studies in Eastern Hist._ i.
    (Tukulti-Ninib), pp. i, 75 seq. (with interesting variant

  [2] The term "Israel" as applied to the northern kingdom is apt to be
    ambiguous, since as a general national name, with a religious
    significance, it can include or suggest the inclusion of Judah.

  [3] Here and elsewhere a careful study (e.g. of the marginal
    references in the Revised Version) will prove the close relation
    between the "Deuteronomic" passages and the book of Deuteronomy
    itself. The bearing of this upon the traditional date of that book
    should not be overlooked.

  [4] See art. JEROBOAM; also W. R. Smith, _Old Test. in Jew. Church_,
    pp. 117 sqq.; H. Winckler, _Alttest. Untersuchungen_, pp. 1 sqq., and
    the subsequent criticisms by C. F. Burney (_Kings_, pp. 163 sqq.); J.
    Skinner (_Kings_, pp. 443 sqq.); and Ed. Meyer (_Israeliten u.
    Nachbarstämme_, pp. 357 sqq.).

  [5] Notice should everywhere be taken of those prophetical stories
    which have the linguistic features of the Deuteronomic writers, or
    which differ in style and expression from the prophecies of Amos,
    Hosea and others, previous to Jeremiah.

  [6] The division of the two books at this point is an innovation
    first made in the LXX. and Vulgate.

  [7] Both xiv. 22 and xv. 5 presuppose fuller records of which 2
    Chron. xxvi. 6-7, 16-20 may represent merely later and less
    trustworthy versions.

  [8] See F. Rühl, _Deutsche Zeit. f. Geschichtwissens_, xii. 54 sqq.;
    also JEWS: _History_, § 12.

  [9] See further the special study by E. Day, _Journ. Bib. Lit._
    (1902), pp. 197 sqq.

  [10] Cf. similarly the prophetic narratives in the books of Samuel

  [11] "The LXX. of Kings is not a corrupt reproduction of the Hebrew
    _receptus_, but represents another recension of the text. Neither
    recension can claim absolute superiority. The defects of the LXX. lie
    on the surface, and are greatly aggravated by the condition of the
    Greek text, which has suffered much in transmission, and particularly
    has in many places been corrected after the later Greek versions that
    express the Hebrew _receptus_ of the 2nd century of our era. Yet the
    LXX. not only preserves many good readings in detail, but throws much
    light on the long-continued process of redaction at the hand of
    successive editors or copyists of which the extant Hebrew of Kings is
    the outcome. Even the false readings of the Greek are instructive,
    for both recensions were exposed to corrupting influences of
    precisely the same kind" (W. R. SMITH).

  [12] See W. R. Smith, _Journ. of Philology_, x. 209 sqq.; _Prophets
    of Israel_, p. 147. seq.; and K. Marti, _Ency. Bib._ art.

  [13] Against earlier doubts by Havet (1878), Vernes (1887) and Horst
    (1888), see W. E. Addis, _Documents of Hexateuch_, ii. 2 sqq.; but
    the whole question has been reopened by E. Day (loc. cit. above) and
    R. H. Kennett (_Journ. Theol. Stud._, July 1906, 481 sqq.).

  [14] See Kennett. _Journ. Theol. Stud._ 1905, pp. 169 sqq.; 1906, pp.
    488 sqq.; and cf. J. A. Montgomery, _The Samaritans_ (1907), pp. 47,
    53 seq., 57, 59, 61 sqq.

KING'S BENCH, COURT OF, in England, one of the superior courts of common
law. This court, the most ancient of English courts--in its correct
legal title, "the court of the king before the king himself," _coram
ipso rege_--is far older than parliament itself, for it can be traced
back clearly, both in character and the essence of its jurisdiction, to
the reign of King Alfred. The king's bench, and the two offshoots of the
_aula regia_, the common pleas and the exchequer, for many years
possessed co-ordinate jurisdiction, although there were a few cases in
which each had exclusive authority, and in point of dignity precedence
was given to the court of king's bench, the lord chief justice of which
was also styled lord chief justice of England, being the highest
permanent judge of the Crown. The court of exchequer attended to the
business of the revenue, the common pleas to private actions between
citizens, and the king's bench retained criminal cases and such other
jurisdiction as had not been divided between the other two courts. By an
act of 1830 the court of exchequer chamber was constituted as a court of
appeal for errors in law in all three courts. Like the court of
exchequer, the king's bench assumed by means of an ingenious fiction the
jurisdiction in civil matters which properly belonged to the common

Under the Judicature Act 1873 the court of king's bench became the
king's bench division of the High Court of Justice. It consists of the
lord chief justice and fourteen puisne judges. It exercises original
jurisdiction and also appellate jurisdiction from the county courts and
other inferior courts. By the act of 1873 (sec. 45) this appellate
jurisdiction is conferred upon the High Court generally, but in practice
it is exercised by a divisional court of the king's bench division only.
The determination of such appeals by the High Court is final, unless
leave to appeal is given by the court which heard the appeal or by the
court of appeal. There was an exception to this rule as regards certain
orders of quarter sessions, the history of which involves some
complication. But by sec. 1 (5) of the Court of Session Act 1894 the
rule applies to all cases where there is a right of appeal to the High
Court from any court or person. It may be here mentioned that if leave
is given to appeal to the court of appeal there is a further appeal to
the House of Lords, except in bankruptcy (Bankruptcy Appeals (County
Courts) Act 1884), when the decision of the court of appeal on appeal
from a divisional court sitting in appeal is made final and conclusive.

There are masters in the king's bench division. Unlike the masters in
the chancery division, they have original jurisdiction, and are not
attached to any particular judge. They hear applications in chambers,
act as taxing masters and occasionally as referees to conduct inquiries,
take accounts, and assess damages. There is an appeal from the master to
the judge in chambers. Formerly there was an appeal from the judge in
chambers to a divisional court in every case and thence to the court of
appeal, until the multiplication of appeals in small interlocutory
matters became a scandal. Under the Supreme Court of Judicature
(Procedure) Act 1894 there is no right of appeal to the court of appeal
in any interlocutory matters (except those mentioned in subs. (b))
without the leave of the judge or of the court of appeal, and in matters
of "practice and procedure" the appeal lies (with leave) directly to the
court of appeal from the judge in chambers.

KINGSBRIDGE, a market town in the Totnes parliamentary division of
Devonshire, England, 48 m. S.S.W. of Exeter, on a branch of the Great
Western railway. Pop. of urban district (1901), 3025. It lies 6 m. from
the English Channel, at the head of an inlet or estuary which receives
only small streams, on a sharply sloping site. The church of St Edmund
is mainly Perpendicular, but there are Transitional Norman and Early
English portions. The town-hall contains a natural history museum. A
house called Pindar Lodge stands on the site of the birthplace of John
Wolcot ("Peter Pindar," 1738-1819). William Cookworthy (1705-1780), a
porcelain manufacturer, the first to exploit the deposits of kaolin in
the south-west of England, was also born at Kingsbridge. The township of
Dodbrooke, included within the civil parish, adjoins Kingsbridge on the
north-east. Some iron-founding and ship-building, with a coasting trade,
are carried on.

Kingsbridge (_Kyngysbrygge_) was formerly included in the manor of
Churchstow, the first trace of its separate existence being found in the
Hundred Roll of 1276, which records that in the manor of Churchstow
there is a new borough, which has a Friday market and a separate assize
of bread and ale. The name Kingsbridge however does not appear till half
a century later. When Kingsbridge became a separate parish is not
certainly known, but it was before 1414 when the church was rebuilt and
consecrated to St Edmund. In 1461 the abbot of Buckfastleigh obtained a
Saturday market at Kingsbridge and a three-days' fair at the feast of St
Margaret, both of which are still held. The manor remained in possession
of the abbot until the Dissolution, when it was granted to Sir William
Petre. Kingsbridge was never represented in parliament or incorporated
by charter, the government being by a portreeve, and down to the present
day the steward of the manor holds a court leet and court baron and
appoints a portreeve and constables. In 1798 the town mills were
converted into a woollen manufactory, which up to recent times produced
large quantities of cloth, and the serge manufacture was introduced
early in the 19th century. The town has been famous from remote times
for a beverage called "white ale." Included in Kingsbridge is the little
town of Dodbrooke, which at the time of the Domesday Survey had a
population of 42, and a flock of 108 sheep and 27 goats; and in 1257 was
granted a Wednesday market and a fair at the Feast of St Mary Magdalene.

  See "Victoria County History": _Devonshire; Kingsbridge and Sulcombe,
  with the intermediate Estuary, historically and topographically
  depicted_ (Kingsbridge, 1819); S. F. Fox, _Kingsbridge Estuary_
  (Kingsbridge, 1864).

KING'S COUNTY, a county of Ireland in the province of Leinster, bounded
N. by Meath and Westmeath, W. by Roscommon, Galway and Tipperary (the
boundary with the first two counties being the river Shannon); S. by
Tipperary and Queen's County, and E. by Kildare. The area is 493,999
acres or about 772 sq. m. The greater part of the county is included in
the central plain of Ireland. In the south-east the Slieve Bloom
Mountains form the boundary between King's County and Queen's County,
and run into the former county from south-west to north-east for a
distance of about 20 m. consisting of a mass of lofty and precipitous
crags through which there are two narrow passes, the Black Gap and the
Gap of Glandine. In the north-east Croghan Hill, a beautiful green
eminence, rises to a height over 700 ft. The remainder of the county is
flat, but a range of low hills crosses its north-eastern division to the
north of the Barrow. In the centre of the county from east to west a
large portion is occupied by the Bog of Allen. The county shares in the
advantage of the navigation of the Shannon, which skirts its western
side. The Brosna, which issues from Loch Ennell in Westmeath, enters the
county near the town of Clara, and flowing south-westwards across its
north-west corner, discharges itself into the Shannon after receiving
the Clodagh and the Broughill. A small portion of the north-eastern
extremity is skirted by the upper Boyne. The Barrow forms the
south-eastern boundary with Queen's County. The Little Brosna, which
rises in the Slieve Bloom Mountains, forms the boundary of King's County
with Tipperary, and falls into the Shannon.

This county lies in the great Carboniferous Limestone plain, with
clay-soils and bogs upon its surface, and many drier deposits of
esker-gravels rising as green hills above the general level. The Slieve
Bloom Mountains, consisting of Old Red Sandstone with Silurian inliers,
form a bold feature in the south. North of Philipstown, the prominent
mass of Croghan Hill is formed of basic volcanic rocks contemporaneous
with the Carboniferous Limestone, and comparable with those in Co.

Notwithstanding the large area occupied by bogs, the climate is
generally healthy, and less moist than that of several neighbouring
districts. The whole of the county would appear to have been covered
formerly by a vast forest, and the district bordering on Tipperary is
still richly wooded. The soil naturally is not of great fertility except
in special cases, but is capable of being rendered so by the judicious
application of bog and lime manures according to its special defects. It
is generally either a deep bog or a shallow gravelly loam. On the
borders of the Slieve Bloom Mountains there are some very rich and
fertile pastures, and there are also extensive grazing districts on the
borders of Westmeath, which are chiefly occupied by sheep. Along the
banks of the Shannon there are some fine tracts of meadow land. With the
exception of the tract occupied by the Bog of Allen, the remainder of
the county is nearly all under tillage, the most productive portion
being that to the north-west of the Hill of Croghan. The percentage of
tillage to pasture is roughly as 1 to 2¼. Oats, barley and rye, potatoes
and turnips, are all considerably grown; wheat is almost neglected, and
the acreage of all crops has a decreasing tendency. Cattle, sheep, pigs
and poultry are bred increasingly; dairies are numerous in the north of
the county, and the sheep are pastured chiefly in the hilly districts.

The county is traversed from S.E. to N.W. by the Portarlington,
Tullamore, Clara and Athlone line of the Great Southern and Western
railway, with a branch from Clara to Banagher; from Roscrea (Co.
Tipperary) a branch of this company runs to Parsonstown (Birr); while
the Midland Great Western has branches from its main line from Enfield
(Co. Kildare) to Edenderry, and from Streamstown (Co. Westmeath) to
Clara. The Grand Canal runs through the length of the county from east
to west, entering the Shannon at Shannon harbour.

The population (65,563 in 1891; 60,187 in 1901), decreasing through
emigration, includes about 89% of Roman Catholics. The decrease is
rather below the average. The chief towns are Tullamore (the county
town, pop. 4639) and Birr or Parsonstown (4438), with Edenderry and
Clara. Philipstown near Tullamore was formerly the capital of the county
and was the centre of the kingdom of Offaly. The county comprises 12
baronies and 46 civil parishes. It returns two members to parliament,
for the Birr and Tullamore divisions respectively. Previous to the
Union, King's County returned six members to parliament, two for the
county, and two for each of the boroughs of Philipstown and Banagher.
Assizes are held at Tullamore and quarter sessions at Parsonstown,
Philipstown and Tullamore. The county is divided into the Protestant
dioceses of Killaloe, Meath and Ossory; and the Roman Catholic dioceses
of Ardagh, Kildare and Leighlin, Ossory and Clonfert.

King's County, with portions of Tipperary, Queen's County and Kildare,
at an early period formed one kingdom under the name of Offaly, a title
which it retained after the landing of the English. Subsequently it was
known as Glenmallery, Western Glenmallery pretty nearly corresponding to
the present King's County, and Eastern Glenmallery to Queen's County. By
a statute of 1556 the western district was constituted a shire under the
name of King's County in honour of Philip, consort of Queen Mary--the
principal town, formerly the seat of the O'Connors, being called
Philipstown; and the eastern district at the same time received the name
of Queen's County in honour of Mary. Perhaps the oldest antiquarian
relic is the large pyramid of white stones in the Slieve Bloom Mountains
called the Temple of the Sun or the White Obelisk. There are a
considerable number of Danish raths, and a chain of moats commanding the
passes of the bogs extended throughout the county. On the borders of
Tipperary is an ancient causeway leading presumably to a crannog or
lake-dwelling. The most important ecclesiastical ruins are those of the
seven churches of Clonmacnoise (q.v.) on the Shannon in the north-west
of the county, where an abbey was founded by St Kieran in 648, and where
the remains include those of churches, two round towers, crosses,
inscribed stones and a castle. Among the more famous religious houses in
addition to Clonmacnoise were Durrow Abbey, founded by St Columba in
550; Monasteroris founded in the 14th century by John Bermingham, earl
of Louth; and Seirkyran Abbey, founded in the beginning of the 5th
century. The principal old castles are Rathmore, probably the most
ancient in the county; Banagher, commanding an important pass on the
Shannon; Leap Castle, in the Slieve Bloom Mountains; and Birr or
Parsonstown, now the seat of the earl of Rosse.

KINGSDOWN, THOMAS PEMBERTON LEIGH, BARON (1793-1867), the eldest son of
Thomas Pemberton, a chancery barrister, was born in London on the 11th
of February 1793. He was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1816, and
at once acquired a lucrative equity practice. He sat in parliament for
Rye (1831-1832) and for Ripon (1835-1843). He was made a king's counsel
in 1829. Of a retiring disposition, he seldom took part in parliamentary
debates, although in 1838 in the case of _Stockdale_ v. _Hansard_ he
took a considerable part in upholding the privileges of parliament. In
1841 he accepted the post of attorney-general for the duchy of Cornwall.
In 1842 a relative, Sir Robert H. Leigh, left him a life interest in his
Wigan estates, amounting to some £15,000 a year; he then assumed the
additional surname of Leigh. Having accepted the chancellorship of the
duchy of Cornwall and a privy councillorship, he became a member of the
judicial committee of the privy council, and for nearly twenty years
devoted his energies and talents to the work of that body; his
judgments, more particularly in prize cases, of which he took especial
charge, are remarkable not only for legal precision and accuracy, but
for their form and expression. In 1858, on the formation of Lord Derby's
administration, he was offered the Great Seal, but declined; in the same
year, however, he was raised to the peerage as Baron Kingsdown. He died
at his seat, Lorry Hill, near Sittingbourne, Kent, on the 7th of October
1867. Lord Kingsdown never married, and his title became extinct.

  See _Recollections of Life at the Bar and in Parliament_, by Lord
  Kingsdown (privately printed for friends, 1868); _The Times_ (8th of
  October 1867).

KING'S EVIL, an old, but not yet obsolete, name given to the scrofula,
which in the popular estimation was deemed capable of cure by the royal
touch. The practice of "touching" for the scrofula, or "King's Evil,"
was confined amongst the nations of Europe to the two Royal Houses of
England and France. As the monarchs of both these countries owned the
exclusive right of being anointed with the pure chrism, and not with the
ordinary sacred oil, it has been surmised that the common belief in the
sanctity of the chrism was in some manner inseparably connected with
faith in the healing powers of the royal touch. The kings both of France
and England claimed a sole and special right to this supernatural gift:
the house of France deducing its origin from Clovis (5th century) and
that of England declaring Edward th e Confessor the first owner of this
virtue. That the Saxon origin of the royal power of healing was the
popular theory in England is evident from the striking and accurate
description of the ceremony in _Macbeth_ (act vi. scene iii.).
Nevertheless the practice of this rite cannot be traced back to an
earlier date than the reign of Edward III. in England, and of St Louis
(Louis IX.) in France; consequently, it is believed that the performance
of healing by the touch emanated in the first instance from the French
Crusader-King, whose miraculous powers were subsequently transmitted to
his descendant and representative, Isabella of Valois, wife of Edward
II. of England. In any case, Queen Isabella's son and heir, Edward III.,
claimant to the French throne through his mother, was the first English
king to order a public display of an attribute that had hitherto been
associated with the Valois kings alone. From his reign dates the use of
the "touch-piece," a gold medal given to the sufferer as a kind of
talisman, which was originally the angel coin, stamped with designs of
St Michael and of a three-masted ship.

The actual ceremony seems first to have consisted of the sovereign's
personal act of washing the diseased flesh with water, but under Henry
VII. the use of an ablution was omitted, and a regular office was drawn
up for insertion in the Service Book. At the "Ceremonies for the
Healing" the king now merely touched his afflicted subject in the
presence of the court chaplain who offered up certain prayers and
afterwards presented the touch-piece, pierced so that it might be
suspended by a ribbon round the patient's neck. Henry VII.'s office was
henceforth issued with variations from time to time under successive
kings, nor did it disappear from certain editions of the Book of Common
Prayer until the middle of the 18th century. The practice of the Royal
Healing seems to have reached the height of its popularity during the
reign of Charles II., who is stated on good authority to have touched
over 100,000 strumous persons. So great a number of applicants becoming
a nuisance to the Court, it was afterwards enacted that special
certificates should in future be granted to individuals demanding the
touch, and such certificates are occasionally to be found amongst old
parish registers of the close of the 17th century. After the Revolution,
William of Orange refused to touch, and referred all applicants to the
exiled James II. at St Germain; but Queen Anne touched frequently, one
of her patients being Dr Samuel Johnson in his infancy. The Hanoverian
kings declined to touch, and there exists no further record of any
ceremony of healing henceforward at the English court. The practice,
however, was continued by the exiled Stuarts, and was constantly
performed in Italy by James Stuart, "the Old Pretender," and by his two
sons, Charles and Henry (Cardinal York).     (H. M. V.)

KINGSFORD, WILLIAM (1819-1898), British engineer and Canadian historian,
was born in London on the 23rd of December 1819. He first studied
architecture, but disliking the confinement of an office enlisted in the
1st Dragoon Guards, obtaining his discharge in Canada in 1841. After
serving for a time in the office of the city surveyor of Montreal he
made a survey for the Lachine canal (1846-1848), and was employed in the
United States in the building of the Hudson River railroad in 1849, and
in Panama on the railroad being constructed there in 1851. In 1853 he
was surveyor and, afterwards district superintendent for the Grand Trunk
railroad, remaining in the employment of that company until 1864. The
following year he went to England but returned to Canada in 1867 in the
hope of taking part in the construction of the Intercolonial Railway. In
this he was unsuccessful, but from 1872 to 1879 he held a government
post in charge of the harbours of the Great Lakes and the St Lawrence.
He had previously written books on engineering and topographical
subjects, and in 1880 he began to study the records of Canadian history
at Ottawa. Among other books he published _Canadian Archaeology_ (1886)
and _Early Bibliography of Ontario_ (1892). But the great work of his
life was a _History of Canada_ in 10 volumes (1887-1897), ending with
the union of Upper and Lower Canada in 1841. Kingsford died on the 28th
of September 1898.

KINGSLEY, CHARLES (1819-1875), English clergyman, poet and novelist, was
born on the 12th of June 1819, at Holne vicarage, Dartmoor, Devon. His
early years were spent at Barnack in the Fen country and at Clovelly in
North Devon. The scenery of both made a great impression on his mind,
and was afterwards described with singular vividness in his writings. He
was educated at private schools and at King's College, London, after his
father's promotion to the rectory of St Luke's, Chelsea. In 1838 he
entered Magdalene College, Cambridge, and in 1842 he was ordained to the
curacy of Eversley in Hampshire, to the rectory of which he was not long
afterwards presented, and this, with short intervals, was his home for
the remaining thirty-three years of his life. In 1844 he married Fanny,
daughter of Pascoe Grenfell, and in 1848 he published his first volume,
_The Saint's Tragedy_. In 1859 he became chaplain to Queen Victoria; in
1860 he was appointed to the professorship of modern history at
Cambridge, which he resigned in 1869; and soon after he was appointed to
a canonry at Chester. In 1873 this was exchanged for a canonry at
Westminster. He died at Eversley on the 23rd of January 1875.

With the exception of occasional changes of residence in England,
generally for the sake of his wife's health, one or two short holiday
trips abroad, a tour in the West Indies, and another in America to visit
his eldest son settled there as an engineer, his life was spent in the
peaceful, if active, occupations of a clergyman who did his duty
earnestly, and of a vigorous and prolific writer. But in spite of this
apparently uneventful life, he was for many years one of the most
prominent men of his time, and by his personality and his books he
exercised considerable influence on the thought of his generation.
Though not profoundly learned, he was a man of wide and various
information, whose interests and sympathies embraced many branches of
human knowledge. He was an enthusiastic student in particular of natural
history and geology. Sprung on the father's side from an old English
race of country squires, and on his mother's side from a good West
Indian family who had been slaveholders for generations, he had a keen
love of sport and a genuine sympathy with country-folk, but he had at
the same time something of the scorn for lower races to be found in the
members of a dominant race.

With the sympathetic organization which made him keenly sensible of the
wants of the poor, he threw himself heartily into the movement known as
Christian Socialism, of which Frederick Denison Maurice was the
recognized leader, and for many years he was considered as an extreme
radical in a profession the traditions of which were conservative. While
in this phase he wrote his novels _Yeast_ and _Alton Locke_, in which,
though he pointed out unsparingly the folly of extremes, he certainly
sympathized not only with the poor, but with much that was done and said
by the leaders in the Chartist movement. Yet even then he considered
that the true leaders of the people were a peer and a dean, and there
was no real inconsistency in the fact that at a later period he was
among the most strenuous defenders of Governor Eyre in the measures
adopted by him to put down the Jamaican disturbances. He looked rather
to the extension of the co-operative principle and to sanitary reform
for the amelioration of the condition of the people than to any radical
political change. His politics might therefore have been described as
Toryism tempered by sympathy, or as Radicalism tempered by hereditary
scorn of subject races. He was bitterly opposed to what he considered to
be the medievalism and narrowness of the Oxford Tractarian Movement. In
_Macmillan's Magazine_ for January 1864 he asserted that truth for its
own sake was not obligatory with the Roman Catholic clergy, quoting as
his authority John Henry Newman (q.v.). In the ensuing controversy
Kingsley was completely discomfited. He was a broad churchman, who held
what would be called a liberal theology, but the Church, its
organization, its creed, its dogma, had ever an increasing hold upon
him. Although at one period he certainly shrank from reciting the
Athanasian Creed in church, he was towards the close of his life found
ready to join an association for the defence of this formulary. The more
orthodox and conservative elements in his character gained the upper
hand as time went on, but careful students of him and his writings will
find a deep conservatism underlying the most radical utterances of his
earlier years, while a passionate sympathy for the poor, the afflicted
and the weak held possession of him till the last hour of his life.

Both as a writer and in his personal intercourse with men, Kingsley was
a thoroughly stimulating teacher. As with his own teacher, Maurice, his
influence on other men rather consisted in inducing them to think for
themselves than in leading them to adopt his own views, never, perhaps,
very definite. But his healthy and stimulating influence was largely due
to the fact that he interpreted the thoughts which were stirring in the
minds of many of his contemporaries.

As a preacher he was vivid, eager and earnest, equally plain-spoken and
uncompromising when preaching to a fashionable congregation or to his
own village poor. One of the very best of his writings is a sermon
called _The Message of the Church to Working Men_; and the best of his
published discourses are the _Twenty-five Village Sermons_ which he
preached in the early years of his Eversley life.

As a novelist his chief power lay in his descriptive faculties. The
descriptions of South American scenery in _Westward Ho!_, of the
Egyptian desert in _Hypatia_, of the North Devon scenery in _Two Years
Ago_, are among the most brilliant pieces of word-painting in English
prose-writing; and the American scenery is even more vividly and more
truthfully described when he had seen it only by the eye of his
imagination than in his work _At Last_, which was written after he had
visited the tropics. His sympathy for children taught him how to secure
their interests. His version of the old Greek stories entitled _The
Heroes_, and _Water-babies_ and _Madam How and Lady Why_, in which he
deals with popular natural history, take high rank among books for

As a poet he wrote but little, but there are passages in _The Saint's
Tragedy_ and many isolated lyrics, which are worthy of a place in all
standard collections of English literature. _Andromeda_ is a very
successful attempt at naturalizing the hexameter as a form of English
verse, and reproduces with great skill the sonorous roll of the Greek

In person Charles Kingsley was tall and spare, sinewy rather than
powerful, and of a restless excitable temperament. His complexion was
swarthy, his hair dark, and his eye bright and piercing. His temper was
hot, kept under rigid control; his disposition tender, gentle and
loving, with flashing scorn and indignation against all that was ignoble
and impure; he was a good husband, father and friend. One of his
daughters, Mary St Leger Kingsley (Mrs Harrison), has become well known
as a novelist under the pseudonym of "Lucas Malet."

  Kingsley's life was written by his widow in 1877, entitled _Charles
  Kingsley, his Letters and Memories of his Life_, and presents a very
  touching and beautiful picture of her husband, but perhaps hardly does
  justice to his humour, his wit, his overflowing vitality and boyish

  The following is a list of Kingsley's writings:--_Saint's Tragedy_, a
  drama (1848); _Alton Locke_, a novel (1849); _Yeast_, a novel (1849);
  _Twenty-five Village Sermons_ (1849); _Phaeton, or Loose Thoughts for
  Loose Thinkers_ (1852); _Sermons on National Subjects_ (1st series,
  1852); _Hypatia_, a novel (1853); _Glaucus, or the Wonders of the
  Shore_ (1855); _Sermons on National Subjects_ (2nd series, 1854);
  _Alexandria and her Schools_ (1854); _Westward Ho!_ a novel (1855);
  _Sermons for the Times_ (1855); _The Heroes_, Greek fairy tales
  (1856); _Two Years Ago_, a novel (1857); _Andromeda and other Poems_
  (1858); _The Good News of God_, sermons (1859); _Miscellanies_ (1859);
  _Limits of Exact Science applied to History_ (Inaugural Lectures,
  1860); _Town and Country Sermons_ (1861); _Sermons on the Pentateuch_
  (1863); _Water-babies_ (1863); _The Roman and the Teuton_ (1864);
  _David and other Sermons_ (1866); _Hereward the Wake_, a novel (1866);
  _The Ancient Regime_ (Lectures at the Royal Institution, 1867); _Water
  of Life and other Sermons_ (1867); _The Hermits_ (1869); _Madam How
  and Lady Why_ (1869); _At last_ (1871); _Town Geology_ (1872);
  _Discipline and other Sermons_ (1872); _Prose Idylls_ (1873); _Plays
  and Puritans_ (1873); _Health and Education_ (1874); _Westminster
  Sermons_ (1874); _Lectures delivered in America_ (1875). He was a
  large contributor to periodical literature; many of his essays are
  included in _Prose Idylls_ and other works in the above list. But no
  collection has been made of some of his more characteristic writings
  in the _Christian Socialist_ and _Politics for the People_, many of
  them signed by the pseudonym he then assumed, "Parson Lot."

KINGSLEY, HENRY (1830-1876), English novelist, younger brother of
Charles Kingsley, was born at Barnack, Northamptonshire, on the 2nd of
January 1830. In 1853 he left Oxford, where he was an undergraduate at
Worcester College, for the Australian goldfields. This venture, however,
was not a success, and after five years he returned to England. He
achieved considerable popularity with his _Recollections of Geoffrey
Hamlyn_ (1859), a novel of Australian life. This was the first of a
series of novels of which _Ravenshoe_ (1861) and _The Hillyars and The
Burtons_ (1865) are the best known. These stories are characterized by
much vigour, abundance of incident, and healthy sentiment. He edited for
eighteen months the _Edinburgh Daily Review_, for which he had acted as
war correspondent during the Franco-German War. He died at Cuckfield,
Sussex, on the 24th of May 1876.

KINGSLEY, MARY HENRIETTA (1862-1900), English traveller, ethnologist and
author, daughter of George Henry Kingsley (1827-1892), was born in
Islington, London, on the 13th of October 1862. Her father, though less
widely known than his brothers, Charles and Henry (see above), was a man
of versatile abilities, with a passion for travelling which he managed
to indulge in combination with his practice as a doctor. He wrote one
popular book of travel, _South Sea Bubbles, by the Earl and the Doctor_
(1872), in collaboration with the 13th earl of Pembroke. Mary Kingsley's
reading in history, poetry and philosophy was wide if desultory, but she
was most attracted to natural history. Her family moved to Cambridge in
1886, where she studied the science of sociology. The loss of both
parents in 1892 left her free to pursue her own course, and she resolved
to study native religion and law in West Africa with a view to
completing a book which her father had left unfinished. With her study
of "raw fetish" she combined that of a scientific collector of
fresh-water fishes. She started for the West Coast in August 1893; and
at Kabinda, at Old Calabar, Fernando Po and on the Lower Congo she
pursued her investigations, returning to England in June 1894. She
gained sufficient knowledge of the native customs to contribute an
introduction to Mr R. E. Dennett's _Notes on the Folk Lore of the Fjort_
(1898). Miss Kingsley made careful preparations for a second visit to
the same coast; and in December 1894, provided by the British Museum
authorities with a collector's equipment, she proceeded via Old Calabar
to French Congo, and ascended the Ogowé River. From this point her
journey, in part across country hitherto untrodden by Europeans, was a
long series of adventures and hairbreadth escapes, at one time from the
dangers of land and water, at another from the cannibal Fang. Returning
to the coast Miss Kingsley went to Corisco and to the German colony of
Cameroon, where she made the ascent of the Great Cameroon (13,760 ft.)
from a direction until then unattempted. She returned to England in
October 1895. The story of her adventures and her investigations in
fetish is vividly told in her _Travels in West Africa_ (1897). The book
aroused wide interest, and she lectured to scientific gatherings on the
fauna, flora and folk-lore of West Africa, and to commercial audiences
on the trade of that region and its possible developments, always with a
protest against the lack of detailed knowledge characteristic of modern
dealings with new fields of trade. In both cases she spoke with
authority, for she had brought back a considerable number of new
specimens of fishes and plants, and had herself traded in rubber and oil
in the districts through which she passed. But her chief concern was for
the development of the negro on African, not European, lines and for the
government of the British possessions on the West Coast by methods which
left the native "a free unsmashed man--not a whitewashed slave or an
enemy." With undaunted energy Miss Kingsley made preparations for a
third journey to the West Coast, but the Anglo-Boer War changed her
plans, and she decided to go first to South Africa to nurse fever
cases. She died of enteric fever at Simon's Town, where she was engaged
in tending Boer prisoners, on the 3rd of June 1900. Miss Kingsley's
works, besides her _Travels_, include _West African Studies, The Story
of West Africa_, a memoir of her father prefixed to his _Notes on Sport
and Travel_ (1899), and many contributions to the study of West African
law and folk-lore. To continue the investigation of the subjects Miss
Kingsley had made her own "The African Society" was founded in 1901.

  Valuable biographical information from the pen of Mr George A.
  Macmillan is prefixed to a second edition (1901) of the _Studies_.

KING'S LYNN (LYNN or LYNN REGIS), a market town, seaport and municipal
and parliamentary borough of Norfolk, England, on the estuary of the
Great Ouse near its outflow into the Wash. Pop. (1901), 20,288. It is 97
m. N. by E. from London by the Great Eastern railway, and is also served
by the Midland and Great Northern joint line. On the land side the town
was formerly defended by a fosse, and there are still considerable
remains of the old wall, including the handsome South Gate of the 15th
century. Several by-channels of the river, passing through the town, are
known as fleets, recalling the similar _flethe_ of Hamburg. The Public
Walks forms a pleasant promenade parallel to the wall, and in the centre
of it stands a picturesque octagonal Chapel of the Red Mount, exhibiting
ornate Perpendicular work, and once frequented by pilgrims. The church
of St Margaret, formerly the priory church, is a fine building with two
towers at the west end, one of which was formerly surmounted by a spire,
blown down in 1741. Norman or transitional work appears in the base of
both towers, of which the southern also shows Early English and
Decorated work, while the northern is chiefly Perpendicular. There is a
fine Perpendicular east window of circular form. The church possesses
two of the finest monumental brasses in existence, dated respectively
1349 and 1364. St Nicholas chapel, at the north end of the town, is also
of rich Perpendicular workmanship, with a tower of earlier date. All
Saints' church in South Lynn is a beautiful Decorated cruciform
structure. Of a Franciscan friary there remains the Perpendicular Grey
Friars' Steeple, and the doorway remains of a priests' college founded
in 1502. At the grammar school, founded in the reign of Henry VIII., but
occupying modern buildings, Eugene Aram was usher. Among the other
public buildings are the guildhall, with Renaissance front, the corn
exchange, the picturesque custom-house of the 17th century, the
athenaeum (including a museum, hall and other departments), the Stanley
Library and the municipal buildings. The fisheries of the town are
important, including extensive mussel-fisheries under the jurisdiction
of the corporation, and there are also breweries, corn-mills, iron and
brass foundries, agricultural implement manufactories, ship-building
yards, rope and sail works. Lynn Harbour has an area of 30 acres and an
average depth at low tide of 10 ft. There is also good anchorage in the
roads leading from the Wash to the docks. There are two docks of 6¾ and
10 acres area respectively. A considerable traffic is carried on by
barges on the Ouse. The municipal and parliamentary boroughs of Lynn are
co-extensive; the parliamentary borough returns one member. The town is
governed by a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors. Area, 3061 acres.

As Lynn (Lun, Lenne, Bishop's Lynn) owes its origin to the trade which
its early settlers carried by the Ouse and its tributaries its history
dates from the period of settled occupation by the Saxons. It belonged
to the bishops of Thetford before the Conquest and remained with the see
when it was translated to Norwich. Herbert de Losinga (c. 1054-1119)
granted its jurisdiction to the cathedral of Norwich but this right was
resumed by a later bishop, John de Gray, who in 1204 had obtained from
John a charter establishing Lynn as a free borough. A fuller grant in
1206 gave the burgesses a gild merchant, the husting court to be held
once a week only, and general liberties according to the customs of
Oxford, saving the rights of the bishop and the earl of Arundel, whose
ancestor William D'Albini had received from William II. the moiety of
the tolbooth. Among numerous later charters one of 1268 confirmed the
privilege granted to the burgesses by the bishop of choosing a mayor;
another of 1416 re-established his election by the aldermen alone. Henry
VIII. granted Lynn two charters, the first (1524) incorporating it under
mayor and aldermen; the second (1537) changing its name to King's Lynn
and transferring to the corporation all the rights hitherto enjoyed by
the bishop. Edward VI. added the possessions of the gild of the Trinity,
or gild merchant, and St George's gild, while Queen Mary annexed South
Lynn. Admiralty rights were granted by James I. Lynn, which had declared
for the Crown in 1643, surrendered its privileges to Charles II. in
1684, but recovered its charter on the eve of the Revolution. A fair
held on the festival of St Margaret (July 20) was included in the grant
to the monks of Norwich about 1100. Three charters of John granting the
bishop fairs on the feasts of St Nicholas, St Ursula and St Margaret are
extant, and another of Edward I., changing the last to the feast of St
Peter ad Vincula (Aug. 1). A local act was passed in 1558-1559 for
keeping a mart or fair once a year. In the eighteenth century besides
the pleasure fair, still held in February, there was another in October,
now abolished. A royal charter of 1524 established the cattle, corn and
general provisions market, still held every Tuesday and Saturday. Lynn
has ranked high among English seaports from early times.

  See E. M. Beloe, _Our Borough_ (1899); H. Harrod, _Report on Deeds,
  &c._;, of King's Lynn (1874); _Victoria County History: Norfolk_.

KING'S MOUNTAIN, a mountainous ridge in Gaston county, North Carolina
and York county, South Carolina, U.S.A. It is an outlier of the Blue
Ridge running parallel with it, i.e. N.E. and S.W., but in contrast with
the other mountains of the Blue Ridge, King's Mountain has a crest
marked with sharp and irregular notches. Its highest point and great
escarpment are in North Carolina. About 1½ m. S. of the line between the
two states, where the ridge is about 60 ft. above the surrounding
country and very narrow at the top, the battle of King's Mountain was
fought on the 7th of October 1780 between a force of about 100
Provincial Rangers and about 1000 Loyalist militia under Major Patrick
Ferguson (1744-1780), and an American force of about 900 backwoodsmen
under Colonels William Campbell (1745-1781), Benjamin Cleveland
(1738-1806), Isaac Shelby, John Sevier and James Williams (1740-1780),
in which the Americans were victorious. The British loss is stated as
119 killed (including the commander), 123 wounded, and 664 prisoners;
the American loss was 28 killed (including Colonel Williams) and 62
wounded. The victory largely contributed to the success of General
Nathanael Greene's campaign against Lord Cornwallis. There has been some
dispute as to the exact site of the engagement, but the weight of
evidence is in favour of the position mentioned above, on the South
Carolina side of the line. A monument erected in 1815 was replaced in
1880 by a much larger one, and a monument for which Congress
appropriated $30,000 in 1906, was completed in 1909.

  See L. C. Draper, _King's Mountain and its Heroes_ (Cincinnati, 1881);
  and Edward McCrady, _South Carolina in the Revolution 1775-1780_ (New
  York, 1901).

KINGSTON, ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF (1720-1788), sometimes called countess
of Bristol, was the daughter of Colonel Thomas Chudleigh (d. 1726), and
was appointed maid of honour to Augusta, princess of Wales, in 1743,
probably through the good offices of her friend, William Pulteney, earl
of Bath. Being a very beautiful woman Miss Chudleigh did not lack
admirers, among whom were James, 6th duke of Hamilton, and Augustus John
Hervey, afterwards 3rd earl of Bristol. Hamilton, however, left England,
and on the 4th of August 1744 she was privately married to Hervey at
Lainston, near Winchester. Both husband and wife being poor, their union
was kept secret to enable Elizabeth to retain her post at court, while
Hervey, who was a naval officer, rejoined his ship, returning to England
towards the close of 1746. The marriage was a very unhappy one, and the
pair soon ceased to live together; but when it appeared probable that
Hervey would succeed his brother as earl of Bristol, his wife took
steps to obtain proof of her marriage. This did not, however, prevent
her from becoming the mistress of Evelyn Pierrepont, 2nd duke of
Kingston, and she was not only a very prominent figure in London
society, but in 1765 in Berlin she was honoured by the attentions of
Frederick the Great. By this time Hervey wished for a divorce from his
wife; but Elizabeth, although equally anxious to be free, was unwilling
to face the publicity attendant upon this step. However she began a suit
of jactitation against Hervey. This case was doubtless collusive, and
after Elizabeth had sworn she was unmarried, the court in February 1769
pronounced her a spinster. Within a month she married Kingston, who died
four years later, leaving her all his property on condition that she
remained a widow. Visiting Rome the duchess was received with honour by
Clement XIV.; after which she hurried back to England to defend herself
from a charge of bigamy, which had been preferred against her by
Kingston's nephew, Evelyn Meadows (d. 1826). The house of Lords in 1776
found her guilty, and retaining her fortune she hurriedly left England
to avoid further proceedings on the part of the Meadows family, who had
a reversionary interest in the Kingston estates. She lived for a time in
Calais, and then repaired to St Petersburg, near which city she bought
an estate which she named "Chudleigh." Afterwards she resided in Paris,
Rome, and elsewhere, and died in Paris on the 26th of August 1788. The
duchess was a coarse and licentious woman, and was ridiculed as Kitty
Crocodile by the comedian Samuel Foote in a play _A Trip to Calais_,
which, however, he was not allowed to produce. She is said to have been
the original of Thackeray's characters, Beatrice and Baroness Bernstein.

  There is an account of the duchess in J. H. Jesse's _Memoirs of the
  Court of England 1688-1760_, vol. iv. (1901).

KINGSTON, WILLIAM HENRY GILES (1814-1880), English novelist, son of Lucy
Henry Kingston, was born in London on the 28th of February 1814. Much of
his youth was spent at Oporto, where his father was a merchant, but when
he entered the business, he made his headquarters in London. He early
wrote newspaper articles on Portuguese subjects. These were translated
into Portuguese, and the author received a Portuguese order of
knighthood and a pension for his services in the conclusion of the
commercial treaty of 1842. In 1844 his first book, _The Circassian
Chief_, appeared, and in 1845 _The Prime Minister, a Story of the Days
of the Great Marquis of Pombal_. The _Lusitanian Sketches_ describe
Kingston's travels in Portugal. In 1851 _Peter the Whaler_, his first
book for boys, came out. These books proved so popular that Kingston
retired from business, and devoted himself to the production of tales of
adventure for boys. Within thirty years he wrote upwards of one hundred
and thirty such books. He had a practical knowledge of seamanship, and
his stories of the sea, full of thrilling adventures and hairbreadth
escapes, exactly hit the taste of his boy readers. Characteristic
specimens of his work are _The Three Midshipmen_; _The Three
Lieutenants_; _The Three Commanders_; and _The Three Admirals_. He also
wrote popular accounts of famous travellers by land and sea, and
translated some of the stories of Jules Verne.

In all philanthropic schemes Kingston took deep interest; he was the
promoter of the mission to seamen; and he acted as secretary of a
society for promoting an improved system of emigration. He was editor of
the _Colonist_ for a short time in 1844 and of the _Colonial Magazine
and East Indian Review_ from 1849 to 1851. He was a supporter of the
volunteer movement in England from the first. He died at Willesden on
the 5th of August 1880.

KINGSTON, the chief city of Frontenac county, Ontario, Canada, at the
north-eastern extremity of Lake Ontario, and the mouth of the Cataraqui
River. Pop. (1901), 17,961. It is an important station on the Grand
Trunk railway, the terminus of the Kingston & Pembroke railway, and has
steamboat communication with other ports on Lake Ontario and the Bay of
Quinte, on the St Lawrence and the Rideau canal. It contains a fine
stone graving dock, 280 ft. long, 100 ft. wide, and with a depth of 16
ft. at low water on the sill. The fortifications, which at one time
made it one of the strongest fortresses in Canada, are now out of date.
The sterility of the surrounding country, and the growth of railways
have lessened its commercial importance, but it still contains a number
of small factories, and important locomotive works and ship-building
yards. As an educational and residential centre it retains high rank,
and is a popular summer resort. It is the seat of an Anglican and of a
Roman Catholic bishopric, of the Royal Military College (founded by the
Dominion government in 1875), of an artillery school, and of Queen's
University, an institution founded in 1839 under the nominal control of
the Presbyterian church, now including about 1200 students. In the
suburbs are a Dominion penitentiary, and a provincial lunatic asylum.
Founded by the French in 1673, under the name of Kateracoui, soon
changed to Fort Frontenac, it played an important part in the wars
between English and French. Taken and destroyed by the English in 1758,
it was refounded in 1782 under its present name, and was from 1841 to
1844 the capital of Canada.

KINGSTON, a city and the county-seat of Ulster county, New York, U.S.A.,
on the Hudson River, at the mouth of Rondout Creek, about 90 m. N. of
New York and about 53 m. S. of Albany. Pop. (1900), 24,535--3551 being
foreign-born; (1910 census) 25,908. It is served by the West Shore
(which here crosses Rondout Creek on a high bridge), the New York
Ontario & Western, the Ulster & Delaware, and the Wallkill Valley
railways, by a ferry across the river to Rhinecliff, where connexion is
made with the New York Central & Hudson River railroad, and by steamboat
lines to New York, Albany and other river points. The principal part of
the city is built on a level plateau about 150 ft. above the river;
other parts of the site vary from flatlands to rough highlands. To the
N.W. is the mountain scenery of the Catskills, to the S.W. the
Shawangunk Mountains and Lake Mohonk, and in the distance across the
river are the Berkshire Hills. The most prominent public buildings are
the post office and the city hall; in front of the latter is a Soldiers'
and Sailors' Monument. The city has a Carnegie library. The "Senate
House"--now the property of the state, with a colonial museum--was
erected about 1676; it was the meeting place of the first State Senate
in 1777, and was burned (except the walls) in October of that year. The
court house (1818) stands on the site of the old court house, in which
Governor George Clinton was inaugurated in July 1777, and in which Chief
Justice John Jay held the first term of the New York Supreme Court in
September 1777. The Elmendorf Tavern (1723) was the meeting-place of the
New York Council of Safety in October 1777. Kingston Academy was
organized in 1773, and in 1864 was transferred to the Kingston Board of
Education and became part of the city's public school system; its
present building dates from 1806. Kingston's principal manufactures are
tobacco, cigars and cigarettes, street railway cars and boats; other
manufactures are Rosendale cement, bricks, shirts, lace curtains,
brushes, motor wheels, sash and blinds. The city ships large quantities
of building and flag stones quarried in the vicinity. The total value of
the factory product in 1905 was $5,000,922, an increase of 26.5% since

In 1614 a small fort was built by the Dutch at the mouth of Rondout
Creek, and in 1652 a settlement was established in the vicinity and
named Esopus after the Esopus Indians, who were a subdivision of the
Munsee branch of the Delawares, and whose name meant "small river,"
referring possibly to Rondout Creek. The settlement was deserted in
1655-56 on account of threatened Indian attacks. In 1658 a stockade was
built by the order of Governor Peter Stuyvesant, and from this event the
actual founding of the city is generally dated. In 1659 the massacre of
several drunken Indians by the soldiers caused a general rising of the
Indians, who unsuccessfully attacked the stockade, killing some of the
soldiers and inhabitants, and capturing and torturing others.
Hostilities continued into the following year. In 1661 the governor
named the place Wiltwyck and gave it a municipal charter. In 1663 it
suffered from another Indian attack, a number of the inhabitants being
slain or taken prisoners. The English took possession in 1664, and in
1660 Wiltwyck was named Kingston, after Kingston Lisle, near Wantage,
England, the family seat of Governor Francis Lovelace. In the same year
the English garrison was removed. In 1673-1674 Kingston was again
temporarily under the control of the Dutch, who called it Swanenburg. In
1777 the convention which drafted the new state constitution met in
Kingston, and during part of the year Kingston was the seat of the new
state government. On the 16th of October 1777 the British under General
Sir John Vaughan (1748-95) sacked it and burned nearly all its
buildings. In 1908 the body of George Clinton was removed from
Washington, D.C., and reinterred in Kingston on the 250th anniversary of
the building of the stockade. In 1787 Kingston was one of the places
contemplated as a site for the national capital. In 1805 it was
incorporated as a village, and in 1872 it absorbed the villages of
Rondout and Wilbur and was made a city.

  See M. Schoonmaker, _History of Kingston_ (New York, 1888).

KINGSTON, a borough of Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., on the
North Branch of the Susquehanna river, opposite Wilkes-Barré. Pop.
(1900), 3846 (1039 foreign-born); (1910) 6449. Kingston is served by the
Delaware, Lackawanna &. Western and the Lehigh Valley railways. It is
the seat of Wyoming Seminary (1844; co-educational), a well-known
secondary school. Anthracite coal is mined here; there are railway
repair and machine-shops; and among the borough's manufactures are
hosiery, silk goods, underwear and adding machines. Kingston (at first
called "Kingstown," from Kings Towne, Rhode Island) was commonly known
in its early days as the "Forty Township," because the first permanent
settlement was made by forty pioneers from Connecticut, who were sent
out by the Susquehanna Company and took possession of the district in
its name in 1769. In 1772 the famous "Forty Fort," a stockade
fortification, was built here, and in 1777 it was rebuilt, strengthened
and enlarged. Here on the 3rd of July 1778 about 400 men and boys met,
and under the command of Colonel Zebulon Butler (1731-95) went out to
meet a force of about 1100 British troops and Indians, commanded by
Major John Butler and Old King (Sayenqueraghte). The Americans were
defeated in the engagement that followed, and many of the prisoners
taken were massacred or tortured by the Indians. A monument near the
site of the fort commemorates the battle and massacre. Kingston was
incorporated as a borough in 1857. (See WYOMING VALLEY.)

KINGSTON, the capital and chief port of Jamaica, West Indies. Pop.
(1901), 46,542, mostly negroes. It is situated in the county of Surrey,
in the south-east of the island, standing on the north shore of a
land-locked harbour--for its size one of the finest in the world--and
with its suburbs occupying an area of 1080 acres. The town contains the
principal government offices. It has a good water supply, a telephone
service and a supply of both gas and electric light, while electric
trams ply between the town and its suburbs. The Institute of Jamaica
maintains a public library, museum and art gallery especially devoted to
local interests. The old parish church in King Street, dating probably
from 1692 was the burial-place of William Hall (1699) and Admiral Benbow
(1702). The suburbs are remarkable for their beauty. The climate is dry
and healthy, and the temperature ranges from 93° to 66° F. Kingston was
founded in 1693, after the neighbouring town of Port Royal had been
ruined by an earthquake in 1692. In 1703, Port Royal having been again
laid waste by fire, Kingston became the commercial, and in 1872 the
political, capital of the island. On several occasions Kingston was
almost entirely consumed by fire, the conflagrations of 1780, 1843, 1862
and 1882 being particularly severe. On the 14th of January 1907 it was
devastated by a terrible earthquake. A long immunity had led to the
erection of many buildings not specially designed to withstand such
shocks, and these and the fire which followed were so destructive that
practically the whole town had to be rebuilt. (See JAMAICA.)

KINGSTON-ON-THAMES, a market town and municipal borough in the Kingston
parliamentary division of Surrey, England, 11 m. S.W. of Charing Cross,
London; on the London and South-Western railway. Pop. (1901), 34,375.
It has a frontage with public walks and gardens upon the right bank of
the Thames, and is in close proximity to Richmond and Bushey Parks, its
pleasant situation rendering it a favourite residential district. The
ancient wooden bridge over the river, which was in existence as early as
1223, was superseded by a structure of stone in 1827. The parish church
of All Saints, chiefly Perpendicular in style, contains several brasses
of the 15th century, and monuments by Chantrey and others; the grammar
school, rebuilt in 1878, was originally founded as a chantry by Edward
Lovekyn in 1305, and converted into a school by Queen Elizabeth. Near
the parish church stood the chapel of St Mary, where it is alleged the
Saxon kings were crowned. The ancient stone said to have been used as a
throne at these coronations was removed to the market-place in 1850. At
Norbiton, within the borough, is the Royal Cambridge Asylum for
soldiers' widows (1854). At Kingston Hill is an industrial and training
school for girls, opened in 1892. There are large market gardens in the
neighbourhood, and the town possesses oil-mills, flour-mills, breweries
and brick and tile works. The borough is under a mayor, 8 aldermen and
24 councillors. Area, 1133 acres.

The position of Kingston (_Cyningestun_, _Chingestune_) on the Thames
where there was probably a ford accounts for its origin; its later
prosperity was due to the bridge which existed in 1223 and possibly long
before. In 836 or 838 it was the meeting-place of the council under
Ecgbert, and in the 10th century some if not all of the West Saxon kings
were crowned at Kingston. In the time of Edward the Confessor it was a
royal manor, and in 1086 included a church, five mills and three
fisheries. Domesday also mentions bedels in Kingston. The original
charters were granted by John in 1200 and 1209, by which the free men of
Kingston were empowered to hold the town in fee-farm for ever, with all
the liberties that it had while in the king's hands. Henry III.
sanctioned the gild-merchant which had existed previously, and granted
other privileges. These charters were confirmed and extended by many
succeeding monarchs down to Charles I. Henry VI. incorporated the town
under two bailiffs. Except for temporary surrenders of their corporate
privileges under Charles II. and James II. the government of the borough
continued in its original form until 1835, when it was reincorporated
under the title of mayor, aldermen and burgesses. Kingston returned two
members to parliament in 1311, 1313, 1353 and 1373, but never
afterwards. The market, still held on Saturdays, was granted by James
I., and the Wednesday market by Charles II. To these a cattle-market on
Thursdays has been added by the corporation. The only remaining fair,
now held on the 13th of November, was granted by Henry III., and was
then held on the morrow of All Souls and seven days following.

KINGSTON-UPON-HULL, EARLS AND DUKES OF. These titles were borne by the
family of Pierrepont, or Pierrepoint, from 1628 to 1773.

ROBERT PIERREPONT (1584-1643), second son of Sir Henry Pierrepont of
Holme Pierrepont, Nottinghamshire, was member of parliament for
Nottingham in 1601, and was created Baron Pierrepont and Viscount Newark
in 1627, being made earl of Kingston-upon-Hull in the following year. He
remained neutral on the outbreak of the Civil War; but afterwards he
joined the king, and was appointed lieutenant-general of the counties of
Lincoln, Rutland, Huntingdon, Cambridge and Norfolk. Whilst defending
Gainsborough he was taken prisoner, and was accidentally killed on the
25th of July 1643 while being conveyed to Hull. The earl had five sons,
one of whom was Francis Pierrepont (d. 1659), a colonel in the
parliamentary army and afterwards a member of the Long Parliament; and
another was William Pierrepont (q.v.), a leading member of the
parliamentary party.

His son HENRY PIERREPONT (1606-1680), 2nd earl of Kingston and 1st
marquess of Dorchester, was member of parliament for Nottinghamshire,
and was called to the House of Lords as Baron Pierrepont in 1641. During
the earlier part of the Civil War he was at Oxford in attendance upon
the king, whom he represented at the negotiations at Uxbridge. In 1645
he was made a privy councillor and created marquess of Dorchester; but
in 1647 he compounded for his estates by paying a large fine to the
parliamentarians. Afterwards the marquess, who was always fond of books,
spent his time mainly in London engaged in the study of medicine and
law, his devotion to the former science bringing upon him a certain
amount of ridicule and abuse. After the Restoration he was restored to
the privy council, and was made recorder of Nottingham and a fellow of
the Royal Society. Dorchester had two daughters, but no sons, and when
he died in London on the 8th of December 1680 the title of marquess of
Dorchester became extinct. He was succeeded as 3rd earl of Kingston by
Robert (d. 1682), a son of Robert Pierrepont of Thoresby,
Nottinghamshire, and as 4th earl by Robert's brother William (d. 1690).

EVELYN PIERREPONT (c. 1655-1726), 5th earl and 1st duke of Kingston,
another brother had been member of parliament for East Retford before
his accession to the peerage. While serving as one of the commissioners
for the union with Scotland he was created marquess of Dorchester in
1706, and took a leading part in the business of the House of Lords. He
was made a privy councillor and in 1715 was created duke of Kingston;
afterwards serving as lord privy seal and lord president of the council.
The duke, who died on the 5th of March 1726, was a prominent figure in
the fashionable society of his day. He was twice married, and had five
daughters, among whom was Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (q.v.), and one son,
William, earl of Kingston (d. 1713).

The latter's son, EVELYN PIERREPONT (1711-1773), succeeded his
grandfather as second duke of Kingston. When the rebellion of 1745 broke
out he raised a regiment called "Kingston's light horse," which
distinguished itself at Culloden. The duke, who attained the rank of
general in the army, is described by Horace Walpole as "a very weak man,
of the greatest beauty and finest person in England." He is chiefly
famous for his connexion with Elizabeth Chudleigh, who claimed to be
duchess of Kingston (q.v.). The Kingston titles became extinct on the
duke's death without children on the 23rd of September 1773, but on the
death of the duchess in 1788 the estates came to his nephew Charles
Meadows (1737-1816), who took the name of Pierrepont and was created
Baron Pierrepont and Viscount Newark in 1796, and Earl Manvers in 1806.
His descendant, the present Earl Manvers, is thus the representative of
the dukes of Kingston.

KINGSTOWN, a seaport of Co. Dublin, Ireland, in the south parliamentary
division, at the south-eastern extremity of Dublin Bay, 6 m. S.E. from
Dublin by the Dublin & South-Eastern railway. Pop. of urban district
(1901), 17,377. It is a large seaport and favourite watering-place, and
possesses several fine streets, with electric trams, and terraces
commanding picturesque sea views. The original name of Kingstown was
Dunleary, which was exchanged for the present designation after the
embarkation of George IV. at the port on his return from Ireland in
1821, an event which is also commemorated by a granite obelisk erected
near the harbour. The town was a mere fishing village until the
construction of an extensive harbour, begun in 1817 and finally
completed in 1859. The eastern pier has a length of 3500 ft. and the
western of 4950 ft., the total area enclosed being about 250 acres, with
a varying depth of from 15 to 27 ft. Kingstown is the station of the
City of Dublin Steam Packet Company's mail steamers to Holyhead in
connexion with the London & North-Western railway. It has large export
and import trade both with Great Britain and foreign countries. The
principal export is cattle, and the principal imports corn and
provisions. Kingstown is the centre of an extensive sea-fishery; and
there are three yacht clubs: the Royal Irish, Royal St George and Royal

KING-TÊ CHÊN, a town near Fu-liang Hien, in the province of Kiang-si,
China, and the principal seat of the porcelain manufacture in that
empire. Being situated on the south bank of the river Chang, it was in
ancient times known as _Chang-nan Chên_, or "town on the south of the
river Chang." It is unwalled, and straggles along the bank of the river.
The streets are narrow, and crowded with a population which is reckoned
at a million, the vast majority of whom find employment at the porcelain
factories. Since the Ch'in dynasty (557-589) this has been the great
trade of the place, which was then called by its earlier name. In the
reign of King-tê (Chên-tsung) of the Sung dynasty, early in the 11th
century A.D., a manufactory was founded there for making vases and
objects of art for the use of the emperor. Hence its adoption of its
present title. Since the time of the Ming dynasty a magistrate has been
specially appointed to superintend the factories and to despatch at
regulated intervals the imperial porcelain to Peking. The town is
situated on a vast plain surrounded by mountains, and boasts of three
thousand porcelain furnaces. These constantly burning fires are the
causes of frequent conflagrations, and at night give the city the
appearance of a place on fire. The people are as a rule orderly, though
they have on several occasions shown a hostile bearing towards foreign
visitors. This is probably to be accounted for by a desire to keep their
art as far as possible a mystery, which appears less unreasonable when
it is remembered that the two kinds of earth of which the porcelain is
made are not found at King-tê Chên, but are brought from K'i-mun in the
neighbouring province of Ngan-hui, and that there is therefore no reason
why the trade should be necessarily maintained at that place. The two
kinds of earth are known as pai-tun-tsze, which is a fine fusible quartz
powder, and kaolin, which is not fusible, and is said to give strength
to the ware. Both materials are prepared in the shape of bricks at
K'i-mun, and are brought down the Chang to the seat of the manufacture.

KINGUSSIE, a town of Inverness-shire, Scotland. Pop. (1901), 987. It
lies at a height of 750 ft. above sea-level, on the left bank of the
Spey, here crossed by a bridge, 46½ m. S. by S.E. of Inverness by the
Highland railway. It was founded towards the end of the 18th century by
the duke of Gordon, in the hope of its becoming a centre of woollen
manufactures. This expectation, however, was not realized, but in time
the place grew popular as a health resort, the scenery in every
direction being remarkably picturesque. On the right bank of the river
is Ruthven, where James Macpherson was born in 1736, and on the left
bank, some 2½ m. from Kingussie, is the house of Belleville (previously
known as Raitts) which he acquired from Mackintosh of Borlum and where
he died in 1796. The mansion, renamed Balavil by Macpherson's
great-grandson, was burned down in 1903, when the fine library
(including some MSS. of Sir David Brewster, who had married the poet's
second daughter) was destroyed. Of Ruthven Castle, one of the residences
of the Comyns of Badenoch, only the ruins of the walls remain. Here the
Jacobites made an ineffectual rally under Lord George Murray after the
battle of Culloden.

KING WILLIAM'S TOWN, a town of South Africa, in the Cape province and on
the Buffalo River, 42 m. by rail W.N.W. of the port of East London. Pop.
(1904), 9506, of whom 5987 were whites. It is the headquarters of the
Cape Mounted Police. "King," as the town is locally called, stands 1275
ft. above the sea at the foot of the Amatola Mountains, and in the midst
of a thickly populated agricultural district. The town is well laid out
and most of the public buildings and merchants' stores are built of
stone. There are manufactories of sweets and jams, candles, soap,
matches and leather, and a large trade in wool, hides and grains is done
with East London. "King" is also an important entrepôt for trade with
the natives throughout Kaffraria, with which there is direct railway
communication. Founded by Sir Benjamin D'Urban in May 1835 during the
Kaffir War of that year, the town is named after William IV. It was
abandoned in December 1836, but was reoccupied in 1846 and was the
capital of British Kaffraria from its creation in 1847 to its
incorporation in 1865 with Cape Colony. Many of the colonists in the
neighbouring districts are descendants of members of the German legion
disbanded after the Crimean War and provided with homes in Cape Colony;
hence such names as Berlin, Potsdam, Braunschweig, Frankfurt, given to
settlements in this part of the country.

KINKAJOU (_Cercoleptes caudivolvulus_ or _Potos flavus_), the single
species of an aberrant genus of the raccoon family (_Procyonidae_). It
has been split up into a number of local races. A native of the forests
of the warmer parts of South and Central America, the kinkajou is about
the size of a cat, of a uniform pale, yellowish-brown colour, nocturnal
and arboreal in its habits, feeding on fruit, honey, eggs and small
birds and mammals, and is of a tolerably gentle disposition and easily
tamed. (See CARNIVORA.)

KINKEL, JOHANN GOTTFRIED (1815-1882), German poet, was born on the 11th
of August 1815 at Obercassel near Bonn. Having studied theology at Bonn
and afterwards in Berlin, he established himself at Bonn in 1836 as
_privat docent_ of theology, later became master at the gymnasium there,
and was for a short time assistant preacher in Cologne. Changing his
religious opinions, he abandoned theology and delivered lectures on the
history of art, in which he had become interested on a journey to Italy
in 1837. In 1846 he was appointed extraordinary professor of the history
of art at Bonn University. For his share in the revolution in the
Palatinate in 1849 Kinkel was arrested and, sentenced to penal servitude
for life, was interned in the fortress of Spandau. His friend Carl
Schurz contrived in November 1850 to effect his escape to England,
whence he went to the United States. Returning to London in 1853, he for
several years taught German and lectured on German literature, and in
1858 founded the German paper _Hermann_. In 1866 he accepted the
professorship of archaeology and the history of art at the Polytechnikum
in Zürich, in which city he died on the 13th of November 1882.

The popularity which Kinkel enjoyed in his day was hardly justified by
his talent; his poetry is of the sweetly sentimental type which was much
in vogue in Germany about the middle of the 19th century. His _Gedichte_
first appeared in 1843, and have gone through several editions. He is to
be seen to most advantage in the verse romances, _Otto der Schütz, eine
rheinische Geschichte in zwölf Abenteuern_ (1846) which in 1896 had
attained its 75th edition, and _Der Grobschmied von Antwerpen_ (1868).
Among Kinkel's other works may be mentioned the tragedy _Nimrod_ (1857),
and his history of art, _Geschichte der bildenden Künste bei den
christlichen Völkern_ (1845). Kinkel's first wife, Johanna, _née_ Mockel
(1810-1858), assisted her husband in his literary work, and was herself
an author of considerable merit. Her admirable autobiographical novel
_Hans Ibeles in London_ was not published until 1860, after her death.
She also wrote on musical subjects.

  See A. Strodtmann, _Gottfried Kinkel_ (2 vols., Hamburg, 1851); and O.
  Henne am Rhyn, _G. Kinkel, ein Lebensbild_ (Zürich, 1883).

KINNING PARK, a southern suburb of Glasgow, Scotland. Pop. (1901),
13,852. It is situated on the left bank of the Clyde between Glasgow,
with which it is connected by tramway and subway, and Govan. Since 1850
it has grown from a rural village to a busy centre mainly inhabited by
artisans and labourers. Its principal industries are engineering, bread
and biscuit baking, soap-making and paint-making.

KINNOR (Gr. [Greek: kinyra]), the Hebrew name for an ancient stringed
instrument, the first mentioned in the Bible (Gen. iv. 21), where it is
now always translated "harp." The identification of the instrument has
been much discussed, but, from the standpoint of the history of musical
instruments, the weight of evidence is in favour of the view that the
Semitic _kinnor_ is the Greek _cithara_ (q.v.). This instrument was
already in use before 2000 B.C. among the Semitic races and in a higher
state of development than it ever attained in Greece during the best
classic period. It is unlikely that an instrument (which also appears on
Hebrew coins) so widely known and used in various parts of Asia Minor in
remote times, and occurring among the Hittite sculptures, should pass
unmentioned in the Bible, with the exception of the verses in Dan. iii.

KINO, the West African name of an astringent drug introduced into
European medicine in 1757 by John Fothergill. When described by him it
was believed to have been brought from the river Gambia in West Africa,
and when first imported it was sold in England as _Gummi rubrum
astringens gambiense_. It was obtained from _Pterocarpus erinaceus_. The
drug now recognized as the legitimate kind is East Indian, Malabar or
Amboyna kino, which is the evaporated juice obtained from incisions in
the trunk of _Pterocarpus Marsupium_ (Leguminosae), though Botany Bay
or eucalyptus kino is used in Australia. When exuding from the tree it
resembles red-currant jelly, but hardens in a few hours after exposure
to the air and sun. When sufficiently dried it is packed into wooden
boxes for exportation. When these are opened it breaks up into angular
brittle fragments of a blackish-red colour and shining surface. In cold
water it is only partially dissolved, leaving a pale flocculent residue
which is soluble in boiling water but deposited again on cooling. It is
soluble in alcohol and caustic alkalis, but not in ether.

The chief constituent of the drug is kino-tannic acid, which is present
to the extent of about 75 %; it is only very slightly soluble in cold
water. It is not absorbed at all from the stomach and only very slowly
from the intestine. Other constituents are gum, pyrocatechin, and
kinoin, a crystalline neutral principle. Kino-red is also present in
small quantity, being an oxidation product of kino-tannic acid. The
useful preparations of this drug are the tincture (dose ½-1 drachm), and
the _pulvis kino compositus_ (dose 5-20 gr.) which contains one part of
opium in twenty. The drug is frequently used in diarrhoea, its value
being due to the relative insolubility of kino-tannic acid, which
enables it to affect the lower part of the intestine. In this respect it
is parallel with catechu. It is not now used as a gargle, antiseptics
being recognized as the rational treatment for sore-throat.

KINORHYNCHA, an isolated group of minute animals containing the single
genus _Echinoderes_ F. Dujardin, with some eighteen species. They occur
in mud and on sea-weeds at the bottom of shallow seas below low-water
mark and devour organic débris.

[Illustration: (After Hartog, from _Cambridge Natural History_, vol.
ii., "Worms, &c.," by permission of Messrs. Macmillan & Co., Ltd.)

b, bristle; cs, caudal spine; ph, pharynx; s & s´, the spines on the two
segments of the proboscis; sg, salivary glands; st, stomach.]

The body is enclosed in a stout cuticle, prolonged in places into spines
and bristles. These are especially conspicuous in two rings round the
proboscis and in the two posterior caudal spines. The body is divided
into eleven segments and the protrusible proboscis apparently into two,
and the cuticle of the central segment is thickened to form three
plates, one dorsal and two ventrolateral. The cuticle is secreted by an
epidermis in which no cell boundaries are to be seen; it sends out
processes into the bristles. The mouth opens at the tip of the
retractile proboscis; it leads into a short thin-walled tube which opens
into an oval muscular gizzard lined with a thick cuticle; at the
posterior end of this are some minute glands and then follows a large
stomach slightly sacculated in each segment, this tapers through the
rectum to the terminal anus. A pair of pear-shaped, ciliated glands
inside lie in the eighth segment and open on the ninth. They are
regarded as kidneys. The nervous system consists of a ganglion or brain,
which lies dorsally about the level of the junction of the pharynx and
the stomach, a nerve ring and a segmented neutral cord. The only sense
organs described are eyes, which occur in some species, and may number
one to four pairs.

The Kinorhyncha are dioecious. The testes reach forward to the fifth and
even to the second segment, and open one each side of the anus. The
ovaries open in a similar position but never reach farther forward than
the fourth segment. The external openings in the male are armed with a
pair of hollowed spines. The animals are probably oviparous.

  LITERATURE.--F. Dujardin, _Ann. Sci. Nat._, 3rd series, Zool. xv.
  1851, p. 158; W. Reinhard, _Zeitschr. wiss. Zool._ xlv. 1887, pp.
  401-467, t. xx.-xxii.; C. Zelinka, _Verh. d. Deutsch. Zool. Ges._,
  1894.     (A. E. S.)

KINROSS-SHIRE, a county of Scotland, bounded N. and W. by Perthshire, on
the extreme S.W. by Clackmannanshire and S. and E. by Fifeshire. Its
area is 52,410 acres or 81.9 sq. m. Excepting Clackmannan it is the
smallest county in Scotland both in point of area and of population. On
its confines the shire is hilly. To the N. and W. are several peaks of
the Ochils, the highest being Innerdouny (1621 ft.) and Mellock (1573);
to the E. are the heights of the Lomond group, such as White Craigs
(1492 ft.) and Bishop Hill; to the S. are Benarty (1131 ft.) on the Fife
border and farther west the Cleish Hills, reaching in Dumglow an
altitude of 1241 ft. With the exception of the Leven, which drains Loch
Leven and of which only the first mile of its course belongs to the
county, all the streams are short. Green's Burn, the North and South
Queich, and the Gairney are the principal. Loch Leven, the only lake, is
remarkable rather for its associations than its natural features. The
scenery on the Devon, west of the Crook, the river here forming the
boundary with Perthshire, is of a lovely and romantic character. At one
place the stream rushes through the rocky gorge with a loud clacking
sound which has given to the spot the name of the Devil's Mill, and
later it flows under the Rumbling Bridge. In reality there are two
bridges, one built over the other, in the same vertical line. The lower
one dates from 1713 and is unused; but the loftier and larger one,
erected in 1816, commands a beautiful view. A little farther west is the
graceful cascade of the Caldron Linn, the fall of which was lessened,
however, by a collapse of the rocks in 1886.

  _Geology._--The northern higher portion of the county is occupied by
  the Lower Old Red Sandstone volcanic lavas and agglomerates of the
  Ochils. The coarse character of some of the lower agglomerate beds is
  well seen in the gorge at Rumbling Bridge. The beds dip gently towards
  the S.S.E.; in a north-easterly direction they contain more sandy
  sediments, and the agglomerates and breccias frequently become
  conglomerates. The plain of Kinross is occupied by the soft
  sandstones, marls and conglomerates of the upper Old Red Sandstone,
  which rest unconformably upon the lower division with a strong dip.
  Southward and eastward these rocks dip conformably beneath the Lower
  Carboniferous cement stone series of the Calciferous Sandstone group.
  The overlying Carboniferous limestone occupies only a small area in
  the south and east of the county. Intrusive basalt sheets have been
  intercalated between some of the Carboniferous strata, and the
  superior resisting power of this rock has been the cause of the
  existence of West Lomond, Benarty, Cleish Hills and Bishop Hill, which
  are formed of soft marls and sandstones capped by basalt. The Hurlet
  limestone is worked on the Lomond and Bishop Hills. East- and
  west-running dikes of basalt are found in the north-east of the
  county, traversing the Old Red volcanic rocks. Kames of gravel and
  sand and similar glacial detritus are widely spread over the older

_Climate and Industries._--The lower part of the county is generally
well sheltered and adapted to all kinds of crops; and the climate,
though wet and cold, offers no hindrance to high farming. The average
annual rainfall is 35.5 inches, and the temperature for the year is 48°
F., for January 38° F. and for July 59°.5 F. More than half of the
holdings exceed 50 acres each. Much of the land has been reclaimed, the
mossy tracts when drained and cultivated being very fertile. Barley is
the principal crop, and oats also is grown largely, but the acreage
under wheat is small. Turnips and potatoes are the chief green crops,
the former the more important. The raising of livestock is pursued with
great enterprise, the hilly land being well suited for this industry,
although many cattle are pastured on the lowland farms. The cattle are
mainly a native breed, which has been much improved by crossing. The
number of sheep is high for the area. Although most of the horses are
used for agricultural work, a considerable proportion are kept solely
for breeding. Tartans, plaids and other woollens, and linen are
manufactured at Kinross and Milnathort, which is besides an important
centre for livestock sales. Brewing and milling are also carried on in
the county town, but stock-raising and agriculture are the staple
interests. The North British railway company's lines, from the south and
west run through the county via Kinross, and the Mid-Fife line branches
off at Mawcarse Junction.

_Population and Government._--The population was 6673 in 1891 and 6981
in 1901, when 55 persons spoke Gaelic and English. The only towns are
Kinross (pop. in 1901, 2136) and Milnathort (1052). Kinross is the
county town, and of considerable antiquity. The county unites with
Clackmannanshire to return one member to parliament. It forms a
sheriffdom with Fifeshire and a sheriff-substitute sits at Kinross. The
shire is under school-board jurisdiction.

_History._--For several centuries the shire formed part of Fife, and
during that period shared its history. Towards the middle of the 13th
century, however, the parishes of Kinross and Orwell seem to have been
constituted into a shire, which, at the date (1305) of Edward I.'s
ordinance for the government of Scotland, had become an hereditary
sheriffdom, John of Kinross then being named for the office. James I.
dispensed with the attendance of small barons in 1427 and introduced the
principle of representation, when the shire returned one member to the
Scots parliament. The inclusion of the Fife parishes of Portmoak, Cleish
and Tullibole in 1685, due to the influence of Sir William Bruce, the
royal architect and heritable sheriff, converted the older shire into
the modern county. Excepting, however, the dramatic and romantic
episodes connected with the castle of Loch Leven, the annals of the
shire, so far as the national story is concerned, are vacant. As to its
antiquities, there are traces of an ancient fort or camp on the top of
Dumglow, and on a hill on the northern boundary of the parish of Orwell
a remarkable cairn, called Cairn-a-vain, in the centre of which a stone
cist was discovered in 1810 containing an urn full of bones and
charcoal. Close to the town of Kinross, on the margin of Loch Leven,
stands Kinross House, which was built in 1685 by Sir William Bruce as a
residence for the Duke of York (James II.) in case the Exclusion Bill
should debar him from the throne of England. The mansion, however, was
never occupied by royalty.

  See Æ. J. G. Mackay, _History of Fife and Kinross_ (Edinburgh, 1896);
  W. J. N. Liddall, _The Place Names of Fife and Kinross_ (Edinburgh,
  1895); C. Ross, _Antiquities of Kinross-shire_ (Perth, 1886); R. B.
  Begg, _History of Lochleven Castle_ (Kinross, 1887).

KINSALE, a market town and seaport of Co. Cork, Ireland, in the
south-east parliamentary division, on the east shore of Kinsale Harbour
(the estuary of the Bandon river) 24 m. south of Cork by the Cork Bandon
& South Coast railway, the terminus of a branch line. Pop. of urban
district (1901), 4250. The town occupies chiefly the acclivity of
Compass Hill, and while of picturesque appearance is built in a very
irregular manner, the streets being narrow and precipitous. The Charles
Fort was completed by the duke of Ormonde in 1677 and captured by the
earl of Marlborough in 1690. The parish church of St Multose is an
ancient but inelegant structure, said to have been founded as a
conventual church in the 12th century by the saint to whom it is
dedicated. Kinsale, with the neighbouring villages of Scilly and Cove,
is much frequented by summer visitors, and is the headquarters of the
South of Ireland Fishing Company, with a fishery pier and a commodious
harbour with 6 to 8 fathoms of water; but the general trade is of little
importance owing to the proximity of Queenstown and Cork. The Old Head
of Kinsale, at the west of the harbour entrance, affords fine views of
the coast, and is commonly the first British land sighted by ships bound
from New York, &c., to Queenstown.

Kinsale is said to derive its name from _cean taile_, the headland in
the sea. At an early period the town belonged to the De Courcys, a
representative of whom was created baron of Kinsale or Kingsale in 1181.
It received a charter of incorporation from Edward III., having
previously been a borough by prescription, and its privileges were
confirmed and extended by various subsequent sovereigns. For several
centuries previous to the Union it returned two members to the Irish
parliament. It was the scene of an engagement between the French and
English fleets in 1380, was forcibly entered by the English in 1488,
captured by the Spaniards and retaken by the English in 1601, and
entered by the English in 1641, who expelled the Irish inhabitants.
Finally, it was the scene of the landing of James II. and of the French
army sent to his assistance in 1689, and was taken by the English in the
following year.

KINTORE, a royal and police burgh of Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Pop.
(1901), 789. It is situated on the Don, 13¼ m. N.W. of Aberdeen by the
Great North of Scotland railway. It is a place of some antiquity, having
been made a royal burgh in the reign of William the Lion (d. 1214).
Kintore forms one of the Elgin group of parliamentary burghs, the others
being Banff, Cullen, Elgin, Inverurie and Peterhead. One mile to the
south-west are the ruins of Hallforest Castle, of which two storeys
still exist, once a hunting-seat of Robert Bruce and afterwards a
residence of the Keiths, earls marischal. There are several examples of
sculptured stones and circles in the parish, and 2 m. to the north-west
is the site of Bruce's camp, which is also ascribed to the period of the
Romans. Near it is Thainston House, the residence of Sir Andrew Mitchell
(1708-1771), the British envoy to Frederick the Great. Kintore gives the
title of earl in the Scottish, and of baron in the British peerage to
the head of the Keith-Falconer family.

KIOTO (KYOTO), the former capital of Japan, in the province of
Yamashiro, in 35° 01´ N., 135° 46´ E. Pop. (1903), 379,404. The
Kamo-gawa, upon which it stands, is a mere rivulet in ordinary times,
trickling through a wide bed of pebbles; but the city is traversed by
several aqueducts, and was connected with Lake Biwa in 1890 by a canal
6(7/8) m. long, which carries an abundance of water for manufacturing
purposes, brings the great lake and the city into navigable
communication, and forms with the Kamo-gawa canal and the Kamo-gawa
itself a through route to Osaka, from which Kioto is 25 m. distant by
rail. Founded in the year 793, Kioto remained the capital of the empire
during nearly eleven centuries. The emperor Kwammu, when he selected
this remarkably picturesque spot for the residence of his court, caused
the city to be laid out with mathematical accuracy, after the model of
the Tang dynasty's capital in China. Its area, 3 m. by 3½, was
intersected by 18 principal thoroughfares, 9 running due north and
south, and 9 due east and west, the two systems being connected at
intervals by minor streets. At the middle of the northern face stood the
palace, its enclosure covering three-quarters of a square mile, and from
it to the centre of the south face ran an avenue 283 ft. wide and 3½ m.
long. Conflagrations and subsequent reconstructions modified the
regularity of this plan, but much of it still remains, and its story is
perpetuated in the nomenclature of the streets. In its days of greatest
prosperity Kioto contained only half a million inhabitants, thus never
even approximating to the size of the Tokugawa metropolis, Yedo, or the
Hojo capital Kamakura. The emperor Kwammu called it Heian-jo, or the
"city of peace," when he made it the seat of government; but the people
knew it as Miyako, or Kyoto, terms both of which signify "capital," and
in modern times it is often spoken of as Saikyo, or western capital, in
opposition to Tokyo, or eastern capital. Having been so long the
imperial, intellectual, political and artistic metropolis of the realm,
the city abounds with evidences of its unique career. Magnificent
temples and shrines, grand monuments of architectural and artistic
skill, beautiful gardens, gorgeous festivals, and numerous _ateliers_
where the traditions of Japanese art are obeyed with attractive results,
offer to the foreign visitor a fund of interest. Clear water ripples
everywhere through the city, and to this water Kioto owes something of
its importance, for nowhere else in Japan can fabrics be bleached so
white or dyed in such brilliant colours. The people, like their
neighbours of Osaka, are full of manufacturing energy. Not only do they
preserve, amid all the progress of the age, their old-time eminence as
producers of the finest porcelain, faience, embroidery, brocades,
bronze, _cloisonné_ enamel, fans, toys and metal-work of all kinds, but
they have also adapted themselves to the foreign market, and weave and
dye quantities of silk fabrics, for which a large and constantly growing
demand is found in Europe and America. Nowhere else can be traced with
equal clearness the part played in Japanese civilization by Buddhism,
with its magnificent paraphernalia and imposing ceremonial spectacles;
nowhere else, side by side with this luxurious factor, can be witnessed
in more striking juxtaposition the austere purity and severe simplicity
of the Shinto cult; and nowhere else can be more intelligently observed
the fine faculty of the Japanese for utilizing, emphasizing and
enhancing the beauties of nature. The citizens' dwellings and the shops,
on the other hand, are insignificant and even sombre in appearance,
their exterior conveying no idea of the pretty chambers within or of the
tastefully laid-out grounds upon which they open behind. Kioto is
celebrated equally for its cherry and azalea blossoms in the spring, and
for the colours of its autumn foliage.

KIOWAS, a tribe and stock of North American Indians. Their former range
was around the Arkansas and Canadian rivers, in Indian Territory
(Oklahoma), Colorado and New Mexico. A fierce people, they made raids
upon the settlers in western Texas until 1868, when they were placed on
a reservation in Indian Territory. In 1874 they broke out again, but in
the following year were finally subdued. In number about 1200, and
settled in Oklahoma, they are the sole representatives of the Kiowan
linguistic stock.

  See J. Mooney, "Calendar History of the Kiowa Indians," _17th Report
  of Bureau of American Ethnology_ (Washington, 1898).

KIPLING, RUDYARD (1865-   ), British author, was born in Bombay on the
30th of December 1865. His father, John Lockwood Kipling (1837-1911), an
artist of considerable ability, was from 1875 to 1893 curator of the
Lahore museum in India. His mother was Miss Alice Macdonald of
Birmingham, two of whose sisters were married respectively to Sir E.
Burne-Jones and Sir Edward Poynter. He was educated at the United
Services College, Westward Ho, North Devon, of which a somewhat lurid
account is given in his story _Stalky and Co._ On his return to India he
became at the age of seventeen the sub-editor of the Lahore _Civil and
Military Gazette_. In 1886, in his twenty-first year, he published
_Departmental Ditties_, a volume of light verse chiefly satirical, only
in two or three poems giving promise of his authentic poetical note. In
1887 he published _Plain Tales from the Hills_, a collection mainly of
the stories contributed to his own journal. During the next two years he
brought out, in six slim paper-covered volumes of Wheeler's Railway
Library (Allahabad), _Soldiers Three_, _The Story of the Gadsbys_, _In
Black and White_, _Under the Deodars_, _The Phantom 'Rickshaw_ and _Wee
Willie Winkee_, at a rupee apiece. These were in form and substance a
continuation of the _Plain Tales_. This series of tales, all written
before the author was twenty-four, revealed a new master of fiction. A
few, but those the best, he afterwards said that his father gave him.
The rest were the harvest of his own powers of observation vitalized by
imagination. In method they owed something to Bret Harte; in matter and
spirit they were absolutely original. They were unequal, as his books
continued to be throughout; the sketches of Anglo-Indian social life
being generally inferior to the rest. The style was to some extent
disfigured by jerkiness and mannered tricks. But Mr Kipling possessed
the supreme spell of the story-teller to entrance and transport. The
freshness of the invention, the variety of character, the vigour of
narrative, the raciness of dialogue, the magic of atmosphere, were alike
remarkable. The soldier-stories, especially the exuberant vitality of
the cycle which contains the immortal Mulvaney, established the author's
fame throughout the world. The child-stories and tales of the British
official were not less masterly, while the tales of native life and of
adventure "beyond the pale" disclosed an even finer and deeper vein of
romance. India, which had been an old story for generations of
Englishmen, was revealed in these brilliant pictures as if seen for the
first time in its variety, colour and passion, vivid as mirage,
enchanting as the _Arabian Nights_. The new author's talent was quickly
recognized in India, but it was not till the books reached England that
his true rank was appreciated and proclaimed. Between 1887 and 1889 he
travelled through India, China, Japan and America, finally arriving in
England to find himself already famous. His travel sketches, contributed
to _The Civil and Military Gazette_ and _The Pioneer_, were afterwards
collected (the author's hand having been forced by unauthorized
publication) in the two volumes _From Sea to Sea_ (1899). A further set
of Indian tales, equal to the best, appeared in _Macmillan's Magazine_
and were republished with others in _Life's Handicap_ (1891). In _The
Light that Failed_ (1891, after appearing with a different ending in
_Lippincott's Magazine_) Mr Kipling essayed his first long story
(dramatized 1905), but with comparative unsuccess. In his subsequent
work his delight in the display of descriptive and verbal technicalities
grew on him. His polemic against "the sheltered life" and "little
Englandism" became more didactic. His terseness sometimes degenerated
into abruptness and obscurity. But in the meanwhile his genius became
prominent in verse. Readers of the _Plain Tales_ had been impressed by
the snatches of poetry prefixed to them for motto, certain of them being
subscribed "Barrack Room Ballad." Mr Kipling now contributed to the
_National Observer_, then edited by W. E. Henley, a series of _Barrack
Room Ballads_. These vigorous verses in soldier slang, when published in
a book in 1892, together with the fine ballad of "East and West" and
other poems, won for their author a second fame, wider than he had
attained as a story-teller. In this volume the Ballads of the "Bolivar"
and of the "Clampherdown," introducing Mr Kipling's poetry of the ocean
and the engine-room, and "The Flag of England," finding a voice for the
Imperial sentiment, which--largely under the influence of Mr Kipling's
own writings--had been rapidly gaining force in England, gave the
key-note of much of his later verse. In 1898 Mr Kipling paid the first
of several visits to South Africa and became imbued with a type of
imperialism that reacted on his literature, not altogether to its
advantage. Before finally settling in England Mr Kipling lived some
years in America and married in 1892 Miss Caroline Starr Balestier,
sister of the Wolcott Balestier to whom he dedicated _Barrack Room
Ballads_, and with whom in collaboration he wrote the _Naulahka_ (1891),
one of his less successful books. The next collection of stories, _Many
Inventions_ (1893), contained the splendid Mulvaney extravaganza, "My
Lord the Elephant"; a vividly realized tale of metempsychosis, "The
Finest Story in the World"; and in that fascinating tale "In the Rukh,"
the prelude to the next new exhibition of the author's genius. This came
in 1894 with _The Jungle Book_, followed in 1895 by _The Second Jungle
Book_. With these inspired beast-stories Kipling conquered a new world
and a new audience, and produced what many critics regard as his most
flawless work. His chief subsequent publications were _The Seven Seas_
(poems), 1896; _Captains Courageous_ (a yarn of deep-sea fishery), 1897;
_The Day's Work_ (collected stories), 1898; _A Fleet in Being_ (an
account of a cruise in a man-of-war), 1898; _Stalky and Co._ (mentioned
above), 1899; _From Sea to Sea_ (mentioned above), 1899; _Kim_, 1901;
_Just So Stories_ (for children), 1902; _The Five Nations_ (poems,
concluding with what proved Mr Kipling's most universally known and
popular poem, "Recessional," originally published in _The Times_ on the
17th of July 1897 on the occasion of Queen Victoria's second jubilee),
1903; _Traffics and Discoveries_ (collected stories), 1904; _Puck of
Pook's Hill_ (stories), 1906; _Actions and Reactions_ (stories), 1909.
Of these _Kim_ was notable as far the most successful of Mr Kipling's
longer narratives, though it is itself rather in the nature of a string
of episodes. But everything he wrote, even to a farcical extravaganza
inspired by his enthusiasm for the motor-car, breathed the meteoric
energy that was the nature of the man. A vigorous and unconventional
poet, a pioneer in the modern phase of literary Imperialism, and one of
the rare masters in English prose of the art of the short story, Mr
Kipling had already by the opening of the 20th century won the most
conspicuous place among the creative literary forces of his day. His
position in English literature was recognized in 1907 by the award to
him of the Nobel prize.

  See Rudyard Kipling's chapter in _My First Book_ (Chatto, 1894); "A
  Bibliography of Rudyard Kipling," by John Lane, in _Rudyard Kipling: a
  Criticism_, by Richard de Gallienne; "Mr Kipling's Short Stories" in
  _Questions at Issue_, by Edmund Gosse (1893); "Mr Kipling's Stories"
  in _Essays in Little_, by Andrew Lang; "Mr Kipling's Stories," by J.
  M. Barrie in the _Contemporary Review_ (March 1891); articles in the
  _Quarterly Review_ (July 1892) and _Edinburgh Review_ (Jan. 1898); and
  section on Kipling in _Poets of the Younger Generation_, by William
  Archer (1902). See also for bibliography to 1903 _English Illustrated
  Magazine_, new series, vol. xxx. pp. 298 and 429-432.     (W. P. J.)

KIPPER, properly the name by which the male salmon is known at some
period of the breeding season. At the approach of this season the male
fish develops a sharp cartilaginous beak, known as the "kip," from which
the name "kipper" is said to be derived. The earliest uses of the word
(in Old English _cypera_ and Middle English _kypre_) seem to include
salmon of both sexes, and there is no certainty as to the etymology.
Skeat derives it from the Old English _kippian_, "to spawn." The term
has been applied by various writers to salmon both during and after
milting; early quotations leave the precise meaning of the word obscure,
but generally refer to the unwholesomeness of the fish as food during
the whole breeding season. It has been usually accepted, without much
direct evidence, that from the practice of rendering the breeding (i.e.
"kipper") salmon fit for food by splitting, salting and smoke-drying
them, the term "kipper" is also used of other fish, particularly
herrings cured in the same way. The "bloater" as distinct from the
"kipper" is a herring cured whole without being split open.

KIPPIS, ANDREW (1725-1795), English nonconformist divine and biographer,
son of Robert Kippis, a silk-hosier, was born at Nottingham on the 28th
of March 1725. From school at Sleaford in Lincolnshire he passed at the
age of sixteen to the nonconformist academy at Northampton, of which Dr
Doddridge was then president. In 1746 Kippis became minister of a church
at Boston; in 1750 he removed to Dorking in Surrey; and in 1753 he
became pastor of a Presbyterian congregation at Westminster, where he
remained till his death on the 8th of October 1795. Kippis took a
prominent part in the affairs of his church. From 1763 till 1784 he was
classical and philological tutor in Coward's training college at Hoxton;
and subsequently for some years at another institution of the same kind
at Hackney. In 1778 he was elected a fellow of the Antiquarian Society,
and a fellow of the Royal Society in 1779.

  Kippis was a very voluminous writer. He contributed largely to _The
  Gentleman's Magazine_, _The Monthly Review_ and _The Library_; and he
  had a good deal to do with the establishment and conduct of _The New
  Annual Register_. He published also a number of sermons and occasional
  pamphlets; and he prefixed a life of the author to a collected edition
  of Dr Nathaniel Lardner's _Works_ (1788). He wrote a life of Dr
  Doddridge, which is prefixed to Doddridge's _Exposition of the New
  Testament_ (1792). His chief work is his edition of the _Biographia
  Britannica_, of which, however, he only lived to publish 5 vols.
  (folio, 1778-1793). In this work he had the assistance of Dr Towers.
  See notice by A. Rees, D.D., in _The New Annual Register_ for 1795.

KIRBY, WILLIAM (1759-1850), English entomologist, was born at Witnesham
in Suffolk on the 19th of September 1759. From the village school of
Witnesham he passed to Ipswich grammar school, and thence to Caius
College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1781. Taking holy orders in
1782, he spent his entire life in the peaceful seclusion of an English
country parsonage at Barham in Suffolk. His favourite study was natural
history; and eventually entomology engrossed all his leisure. His first
work of importance was his _Monographia Apum Angliae_ (2 vols. 8vo,
1802), which as the first scientific treatise on its subject brought him
into notice with the leading entomologists of his own and foreign
countries. The practical result of a friendship formed in 1805 with
William Spence, of Hull, was the jointly written _Introduction to
Entomology_ (4 vols., 1815-1826; 7th ed., 1856), one of the most popular
books of science that have ever appeared. In 1830 he was chosen to write
one of the _Bridgewater Treatises_, his subject being _The History,
Habits, and Instincts of Animals_ (2 vols., 1835). This undeniably fell
short of his earlier works in point of scientific value. He died on the
4th of July 1850.

  Besides the books already mentioned he was the author of many papers
  in the _Transactions of the Linnean Society_, the _Zoological Journal_
  and other periodicals; _Strictures on Sir James Smith's Hypothesis
  respecting the Lilies of the Field of our Saviour and the Acanthus of
  Virgil_ (1819); _Seven Sermons on our Lord's Temptations_ (1829); and
  he wrote the sections on insects in the _Account of the Animals seen
  by the late Northern Expedition while within the Arctic Circle_
  (1821), and in _Fauna Boreali-Americana_ (1837). His _Life_ by the
  Rev. John Freeman, published in 1852, contains a list of his works.

KIRCHER, ATHANASIUS (1601-1680), German scholar and mathematician, was
born on the 2nd of May 1601, at Geisa near Fulda. He was educated at the
Jesuit college of Fulda, and entered upon his noviciate in that order at
Mainz in 1618. He became professor of philosophy, mathematics, and
Oriental languages at Würzburg, whence he was driven (1631) by the
troubles of the Thirty Years' War to Avignon. Through the influence of
Cardinal Barberini he next (1635) settled in Rome, where for eight years
he taught mathematics in the Collegio Romano, but ultimately resigned
this appointment to study hieroglyphics and other archaeological
subjects. He died on the 28th of November 1680.

  Kircher was a man of wide and varied learning, but singularly devoid
  of judgment and critical discernment. His voluminous writings in
  philology, natural history, physics and mathematics often accordingly
  have a good deal of the historical interest which attaches to
  pioneering work, however imperfectly performed; otherwise they now
  take rank as curiosities of literature merely. They include _Ars
  Magnesia_ (1631); _Magnes, sive de arte magnetica opus tripartitum_
  (1641); and _Magneticum naturae regnum_ (1667); _Prodromus Coptus_
  (1636); _Lingua Aegyptiaca restituta_ (1643); _Obeliscus Pamphilius_
  (1650); and _Oedipus Aegyptiacus, hoc est universalis doctrinae
  hieroglyphicae instauratio_ (1652-1655)--works which may claim the
  merit of having first called attention to Egyptian hieroglyphics; _Ars
  magna lucis et umbrae in mundo_ (1645-1646); _Musurgia universalis,
  sive ars magna consoni et dissoni_ (1650); _Polygraphia, seu
  artificium linguarum quo cum omnibus mundi populis poterit quis
  respondere_ (1663); _Mundus subterraneus, quo subterrestris mundi
  opificium, universae denique naturae divitiae, abditorum effectuum
  causae demonstrantur_ (1665-1678); _China illustrata_ (1667); _Ars
  magna sciendi_ (1669); and _Latium_ (1669), a work which may still be
  consulted with advantage. The _Specula Melitensis Encyclica_ (1638)
  gives an account of a kind of calculating machine of his invention.
  The valuable collection of antiquities which he bequeathed to the
  Collegio Romano has been described by Buonanni (_Musaeum
  Kircherianum_, 1709; republished by Battara in 1773).

KIRCHHEIM-UNTER-TECK, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Württemberg,
is prettily situated on the Lauter, at the north-west foot of the Rauhe
Alb, 15 m. S.E. of Stuttgart by rail. Pop. (1905), 8830. The town has a
royal castle built in 1538, two schools and several benevolent
institutions. The manufactures include cotton goods, damask,
pianofortes, machinery, furniture, chemicals and cement. The town also
has wool-spinning establishments and breweries, and a corn exchange. It
is the most important wool market in South Germany, and has also a trade
in fruit, timber and pigs. In the vicinity are the ruins of the castle
of Teck, the hereditary stronghold of the dukes of that name. Kirchheim
has belonged to Württemberg since 1381.

KIRCHHOFF, GUSTAV ROBERT (1824-1887), German physicist, was born at
Königsberg (Prussia) on the 12th of March 1824, and was educated at the
university of his native town, where he graduated Ph.D. in 1847. After
acting as _privat-docent_ at Berlin for some time, he became
extraordinary professor of physics at Breslau in 1850. Four years later
he was appointed professor of physics at Heidelberg, and in 1875 he was
transferred to Berlin, where he died on the 17th of October 1887.
Kirchhoff's contributions to mathematical physics were numerous and
important, his strength lying in his powers of stating a new physical
problem in terms of mathematics, not merely in working out the solution
after it had been so formulated. A number of his papers were concerned
with electrical questions. One of the earliest was devoted to electrical
conduction in a thin plate, and especially in a circular one, and it
also contained a theorem which enables the distribution of currents in a
network of conductors to be ascertained. Another discussed conduction in
curved sheets; a third the distribution of electricity in two
influencing spheres; a fourth the determination of the constant on which
depends the intensity of induced currents; while others were devoted to
Ohm's law, the motion of electricity in submarine cables, induced
magnetism, &c. In other papers, again, various miscellaneous topics were
treated--the thermal conductivity of iron, crystalline reflection and
refraction, certain propositions in the thermodynamics of solution and
vaporization, &c. An important part of his work was contained in his
_Vorlesungen über mathematische Physik_ (1876), in which the principles
of dynamics, as well as various special problems, were treated in a
somewhat novel and original manner. But his name is best known for the
researches, experimental and mathematical, in radiation which led him,
in company with R. W. von Bunsen, to the development of spectrum
analysis as a complete system in 1859-1860. He can scarcely be called
its inventor, for not only had many investigators already used the prism
as an instrument of chemical inquiry, but considerable progress had been
made towards the explanation of the principles upon which spectrum
analysis rests. But to him belongs the merit of having, most probably
without knowing what had already been done, enunciated a complete
account of its theory, and of thus having firmly established it as a
means by which the chemical constituents of celestial bodies can be
discovered through the comparison of their spectra with those of the
various elements that exist on this earth.

KIRCHHOFF, JOHANN WILHELM ADOLF (1826-1908), German classical scholar
and epigraphist, was born in Berlin on the 6th of January 1826. In 1865
he was appointed professor of classical philology in the university of
his native city. He died on the 26th of February 1908. He is the author
of _Die Homerische Odyssee_ (1859), putting forward an entirely new
theory as to the composition of the _Odyssey_; editions of Plotinus
(1856), Euripides (1855 and 1877-1878). Aeschylus (1880), Hesiod (_Works
and Days_, 1889), Xenophon, _On the Athenian Constitution_ (3rd ed.,
1889); _Über die Entstehungszeit des Herodotischen Geschichtswerkes_
(2nd ed., 1878); _Thukydides und sein Urkundenmaterial_ (1895).

  The following works are the result of his epigraphical and
  palaeographical studies: _Die Umbrischen Sprachdenkmäler_ (1851); _Das
  Stadlrecht von Bantia_ (1853), on the tablet discovered in 1790 at
  Oppido near Banzi, containing a plebiscite relating to the municipal
  affairs of the ancient Bantia; _Das Gotische Runenalphabet_ (1852);
  _Die Fränkischen Runen_ (1855); _Studien zur Geschichte des
  Griechischen Alphabets_ (4th ed., 1887). The second part of vol. iv.
  of the _Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum_ (1859, containing the
  Christian inscriptions) and vol. i. of the _C. I. Atticarum_ (1873,
  containing the inscriptions before 403) with supplements thereto (vol.
  iv. pts. 1-3, 1877-1891) are edited by him.

KIRGHIZ, a large and widespread division of the Turkish family, of which
there are two main branches, the Kara-Kirghiz of the uplands and the
Kirghiz-Kazaks of the steppe. They jointly number about 3,000,000, and
occupy an area of perhaps the same number of square miles, stretching
from Kulja westwards to the lower Volga, and from the headstreams of the
Ob southwards to the Pamir and the Turkoman country. They seem closely
allied ethnically to the Mongolians and in speech to the Tatars. But
both Mongols and Tatars belonged themselves originally to one racial
stock and formed part of the same hordes or nomadic armies: also the
Western Turks have to a large extent lost their original physique and
become largely assimilated to the regular "Caucasian" type. But the
Kirghiz have either remained nearly altogether unmixed, as in the
uplands, or else have intermingled in the steppe mainly with the Volga
Kalmucks in the west, and with the Dzungarian nomads in the east, all
alike of Mongol stock. Hence they have everywhere to a large extent
preserved the common Mongolian features, while retaining their primitive
Tatar speech. Physically they are a middle-sized, square-built race,
inclined to stoutness, especially in the steppe, mostly with long black
hair, scant beard or none, small, black and oblique eyes, though blue or
grey also occur in the south, broad Mongoloid features, high cheekbones,
broad, flat nose, small mouth, brachycephalous head, very small hands
and feet, dirty brown or swarthy complexion, often yellowish, but also
occasionally fair. These characteristics, while affiliating them
directly to the Mongol stock, also betray an admixture of foreign
elements, probably due to Finnish influences in the north, and Tajik or
Iranian blood in the south. Their speech also, while purely Turkic in
structure, possesses, not only many Mongolian and a few Persian and even
Arabic words, but also some terms unknown to the other branches of the
Mongolo-Tatar linguistic family, and which should perhaps be traced to
the Kiang-Kuan, Wu-sun, Ting-ling, and other peoples of South Siberia
partly absorbed by them.

_The Kara-Kirghiz._--The Kara or "Black" Kirghiz, so called from the
colour of their tents, are known to the Russians either as Chernyie
(Black) or Dikokammenyie (Wild Stone or Rocky) Kirghiz, and are the
Block Kirghiz of some English writers. They are on the whole the purest
and best representatives of the race, and properly speaking to them
alone belongs the distinctive national name Kirghiz or Krghiz. This term
is commonly traced to a legendary chief, Kirghiz, sprung of Oghuz-Khan,
ninth in descent from Japheth. It occurs in its present form for the
first time in the account of the embassy sent in 569 by the East Roman
emperor Justin II. to the Uighur Khan, Dugla-Ditubulu, where it is
stated that this prince presented a slave of the Kirghiz tribe to
Zemark, head of the mission. In the Chinese chronicles the word assumes
the form Ki-li-ki-tz', and the writers of the Yuan dynasty (1280-1367)
place the territory of these people 10,000 li north-west of Pekin, about
the headstreams of the Yenisei. In the records of the T'ang dynasty
(618-907) they are spoken of under the name of Kha-kia-tz' (pronounced
Khaka, and sometimes transliterated Haka), and it is mentioned that
these Khakas were of the same speech as the Khoei-khu. From this it
follows that they were of Mongolo-Tatar stock, and are wrongly
identified by some ethnologists with the Kiang-Kuan, Wu-sun, or
Ting-ling, all of whom are described as tall, with red hair, "green" or
grey eyes, and fair complexion, and must therefore have been of Finnish
stock, akin to the present Soyotes of the upper Yenisei.

  The Kara-Kirghiz are by the Chinese and Mongolians called _Burut_,
  where _ut_ is the Mongolian plural ending, as in Tangut, Yakut,
  modified to _yat_ in Buryat, the collective name of the Siberian
  Mongolians of the Baikal district. Thus the term _Bur_ is the common
  Mongolian designation both of the Baikal Mongols and of the
  Kara-Kirghiz, who occupied this very region and the upper Yenisei
  valley generally till comparatively recent times. For the original
  home of their ancestors, the Khakas, lay in the south of the present
  governments of Yeniseisk and Tomsk, stretching thence southwards
  beyond the Sayan range to the Tannuola hills in Chinese territory.
  Here the Russians first met them in the 17th century, and by the aid
  of the Kazaks exterminated all those east of the Irtish, driving the
  rest farther west and south-westwards. Most of them took refuge with
  their kinsmen, the Kara-Kirghiz nomad highlanders, whose homes, at
  least since the 13th century, have been the Ala-tau range, the
  Issyk-kul basin, the Tekes, Chu and Talass river valleys, the
  Tian-shan range, the uplands draining both to the Tarim and to the
  Jaxartes and Oxus, including Khokand, Karateghin and Shignan
  southwards to the Pamir table-land, visited by them in summer. They
  thus occupy most of the uplands along the Russo-Chinese frontier,
  between 35° and 50° N. lat. and between 70° and 85° E. long.

  The Kara-Kirghiz are all grouped in two main sections--the On or
  "Right" in the east, with seven branches (Bogu, Sary-Bagishch,
  Son-Bagishch, Sultu or Solye, Cherik, Sayak, Bassinz), and the Sol or
  "Left" in the west, with four branches (Kokche or Kûchy, Soru, Mundus,
  Kitai or Kintai). The Sol section occupies the region between the
  Talass and Oxus headstreams in Ferghana (Khokand) and Bokhara, where
  they come in contact with the Galchas or Highland Tajiks. The On
  section lies on both sides of the Tian-shan, about Lake Issyk-kul, and
  in the Chu, Tekes and Narin (upper Jaxartes) valleys.

  The total number of Kara-Kirghiz exceeds 800,000.

  All are essentially nomads, occupied mainly with stock breeding,
  chiefly horses of a small but hardy breed, sheep of the fat-tailed
  species, oxen used both for riding and as pack animals, some goats,
  and camels of both species. Agriculture is limited chiefly to the
  cultivation of wheat, barley and millet, from the last of which a
  coarse vodka or brandy is distilled. Trade is carried on chiefly by
  barter, cattle being taken by the dealers from China, Turkestan and
  Russia in exchange for manufactured goods.

  The Kara-Kirghiz are governed by the "manaps," or tribal rulers, who
  enjoy almost unlimited authority, and may even sell or kill their
  subjects. In religious matters they differ little from the Kazaks,
  whose practices are described below. Although generally recognizing
  Russian sovereignty since 1864, they pay no taxes.

_The Kazaks._--Though not unknown to them, the term Kirghiz is never
used by the steppe nomads, who always call themselves simply Kazaks,
commonly interpreted as riders. The first authentic reference to this
name is by the Persian poet and historian Firdousi (1020), who speaks of
the Kazak tribes as much dreaded steppe marauders, all mounted and armed
with lances. From this circumstance the term Kazak came to be gradually
applied to all freebooters similarly equipped, and it thus spread from
the Aralo-Caspian basin to South Russia, where it still survives under
the form of Cossack, spelt Kazak or Kozak in Russian. Hence though Kazak
and Cossack are originally the same word, the former now designates a
Mongolo-Tatar nomad race, the latter various members of the Slav family.
Since the 18th century the Russians have used the compound expression
Kirghiz-Kazak, chiefly in order to distinguish them from their own
Cossacks, at that time overrunning Siberia. Siegmund Herberstein
(1486-1566) is the first European who mentions them by name, and it is
noteworthy that he speaks of them as "Tartars," that is, a people rather
of Turki than Mongolian stock.

  In their present homes, the so-called "Kirghiz steppes," they are far
  more numerous and widespread than their Kara-Kirghiz kinsmen,
  stretching almost uninterruptedly from Lake Balkash round the Aral and
  Caspian Seas westwards to the lower Volga, and from the river Irtish
  southwards to the lower Oxus and Ust-Urt plateau. Their domain, which
  is nearly 2,000,000 sq. m. in extent, thus lies mainly between 45° and
  55° N. lat. and from 45° to 80° E. long. Here they came under the sway
  of Jenghiz Khan, after whose death they fell to the share of his son
  Juji, head of the Golden Horde, but continued to retain their own
  khans. When the Uzbegs acquired the ascendancy, many of the former
  subjects of the Juji and Jagatai hordes fell off and joined the
  Kazaks. Thus about the year 1500 were formed two powerful states in
  the Kipchak and Kheta steppes, the Mogul-Ulus and the Kazak, the
  latter of whom, under their khan Arslane, are said by Sultan Baber to
  have had as many as 400,000 fighting men. Their numbers continued to
  be swollen by voluntary or enforced accessions from the fragments of
  the Golden Horde, such as the Kipchaks, Naimans, Konrats, Jalairs,
  Kankali, whose names are still preserved in the tribal divisions of
  the Kazaks. And as some of these peoples were undoubtedly of true
  Mongolian stock, their names have given a colour to the statement that
  all the Kazaks were rather of Mongol than of Turki origin. But the
  universal prevalence of a nearly pure variety of the Turki speech
  throughout the Kazak steppes is almost alone sufficient to show that
  the Tatar element must at all times have been in the ascendant. Very
  various accounts have been given of the relationship of the Kipchak to
  the Kirghiz, but at present they seem to form a subdivision of the
  Kirghiz-Kazaks. The Kara-Kalpaks are an allied but apparently separate

  The Kirghiz-Kazaks have long been grouped in three large "hordes" or
  encampments, further subdivided into a number of so-called "races,"
  which are again grouped in tribes, and these in sections, branches and
  auls, or communities of from five to fifteen tents. The division into
  hordes has been traditionally referred to a powerful khan, who divided
  his states amongst his three sons, the eldest of whom became the
  founder of the Ulu-Yuz, or Great Horde, the second of the Urta-Yuz, or
  Middle Horde, and the third of the Kachi-Yuz, or Little Horde. The
  last two under their common khan Abulkhair voluntarily submitted in
  1730 to the Empress Anne. Most of the Great Horde were subdued by
  Yunus, khan of Ferghana, in 1798, and all the still independent tribes
  finally accepted Russian sovereignty in 1819.

  Since 1801 a fourth division, known as the Inner or Bukeyevskaya
  Horde, from the name of their first khan, Bukei, has been settled in
  the Orenburg steppe.

  But these divisions affect the common people alone, all the higher
  orders and ruling families being broadly classed as White and Black
  Kost or Bones. The White Bones comprise only the khans and their
  descendants, besides the issue of the khojas or Moslem "saints." The
  Black Bones include all the rest, except the _Telengut_ or servants of
  the khans, and the _Kûl_ or slaves.

The Kazaks are an honest and trustworthy people, but heavy, sluggish,
sullen and unfriendly. Even the hospitality enjoined by the Koran is
displayed only towards the orthodox Sunnite sect. So essentially nomadic
are all the tribes that they cannot adopt a settled life without losing
the very sentiment of their nationality, and becoming rapidly absorbed
in the Slav population. They dwell exclusively in semicircular tents
consisting of a light wooden framework, and red cloth or felt covering,
with an opening above for light and ventilation.

The camp life of the Kazaks seems almost unendurable to Europeans in
winter, when they are confined altogether to the tent, and exposed to
endless discomforts. In summer the day is spent mostly in sleep or
drinking koumiss, followed at night by feasting and the recital of
tales, varied with songs accompanied by the music of the flute and
balalaika. But horsemanship is the great amusement of all true Kazaks,
who may almost be said to be born in the saddle. Hence, though excellent
riders, they are bad walkers. Though hardy and long-lived, they are
uncleanly in their habits and often decimated by small-pox and Siberian
plague. They have no fixed meals, and live mainly on mutton and goat and
horse flesh, and instead of bread use the so-called balamyk, a mess of
flour fried in dripping and diluted in water. The universal drink is
koumiss, which is wholesome, nourishing and a specific against all chest

The dress consists of the chapân, a flowing robe of which one or two are
worn in summer and several in winter, fastened with a silk or leather
girdle, in which are stuck a knife, tobacco pouch, seal and a few other
trinkets. Broad silk or cloth pantaloons are often worn over the chapân,
which is of velvet, silk, cotton or felt, according to the rank of the
wearer. Large black or red leather boots, with round white felt pointed
caps, complete the costume, which is much the same for both sexes.

Like the Kara-Kirghiz, the Kazaks are nominally Sunnites, but Shamanists
at heart, worshipping, besides the Kudai or good divinity, the Shaitan
or bad spirit. Their faith is strong in the _talchi_ or soothsayer and
other charlatans, who know everything, can do everything, and heal all
disorders at pleasure. But they are not fanatics, though holding the
abstract doctrine that the "Kafir" may be lawfully oppressed, including
in this category not only Buddhists and Christians, but even Mahommedans
of the Shiah sect. There are no fasts or ablutions, mosques or mollahs,
or regular prayers. Although Mussulmans since the beginning of the 16th
century, they have scarcely yet found their way to Mecca, their pilgrims
visiting instead the more convenient shrines of the "saints" scattered
over eastern Turkestan. Unlike the Mongolians, the Kazaks treat their
dead with great respect, and the low steppe hills are often entirely
covered with monuments raised above their graves.

Letters are neglected to such an extent that whoever can merely write is
regarded as a savant, while he becomes a prodigy of learning if able to
read the Koran in the original. Yet the Kazaks are naturally both
musical and poetical, and possess a considerable number of national
songs, which are usually repeated with variations from mouth to mouth.

The Kazaks still choose their own khans, who, though confirmed by the
Russian government, possess little authority beyond their respective
tribes. The real rulers are the elders or umpires and sultans, all
appointed by public election. Brigandage and raids arising out of tribal
feuds, which were formerly recognized institutions, are now severely
punished, sometimes even with death. Capital punishment, usually by
hanging or strangling, is inflicted for murder and adultery, while
three, nine or twenty-seven times the value of the stolen property is
exacted for theft.

The domestic animals, daily pursuits and industries of the Kazaks differ
but slightly from those of the Kara-Kirghiz. Some of the wealthy steppe
nomads own as many as 20,000 of the large fat-tailed sheep. Goats are
kept chiefly as guides for these flocks; and the horses, though small,
are hardy, swift, light-footed and capable of covering from 50 to 60
miles at a stretch. Amongst the Kazaks there are a few workers in
silver, copper and iron, the chief arts besides, being skin dressing,
wool spinning and dyeing, carpet and felt weaving. Trade is confined
mainly to an exchange of live stock for woven and other goods from
Russia, China and Turkestan.

Since their subjection to Russia the Kazaks have become less lawless,
but scarcely less nomadic. A change of habit in this respect is opposed
alike to their tastes and to the climatic and other outward conditions.
See also TURKS.

  LITERATURE.--Alexis Levshin, _Description des hordes et des steppes
  des Kirghiz-Kazaks_, translated from the Russian by Ferry de Cigny
  (1840); W. Radloff, _Proben der Volksliteratur der Türkischen Stämme
  Südsiberiens_; Ch. de Ujfalvy, _Le Kohistan, le Ferghanah, et
  Kouldja_; also _Bull. de la Soc. de Géo._ (1878-1879); Semenoff, paper
  in _Petermann's Mittheilungen_ (1859), No. 3; Valikhanov's _Travels in
  1858-1859_; Madame de Ujfalvy, papers in _Tour du Monde_ (1874);
  Vambéry, _Die primitive Cultur des Turko-Tatarischen Volkes_; P. S.
  Pallas, _Observations sur les Kirghiz_ (1769; French trans., 1803);
  Andriev, "La Horde Moyenne," in _Bull. de la Soc. de Géogr. de St
  Petersburg_ (1875); Radomtsev, _Excursion dans le steppe Kirghiz_;
  Lansdell, _Russian Centralasia_ (1885); Jadrinzer, _La Sibérie_
  (1886). Skrine and Ross, _Heart of Asia_ (1899); E. H. Parker, _A
  Thousand Years of the Tartars_ (1895). Various Russian works by
  Nalivkin, published in Turkestan, contain much valuable information,
  and N. N. Pantusov, _Specimens of Kirghiz Popular Poetry_, with
  Russian translations (Kazan, 1903-1904).

KIRIN, a province of central Manchuria, with a capital bearing the same
name. The province has an area of 90,000 sq. m., and a population of
6,500,000. The chief towns besides the capital are Kwang-chêng-tsze, 80
m. N.W. of the capital, and Harbin on the Sungari river. The city of
KIRIN is situated at the foot of the Lau-Ye-Ling mountains, on the left
bank of the Sungari or Girin-ula, there 300 yds. wide, and is served by
a branch of the Manchurian railway. The situation is one of exceptional
beauty; but the streets are narrow, irregular and indescribably filthy.
The western part of the town is built upon a swamp and is under water a
great part of the year. The dockyards are supplied with machinery from
Europe and are efficient. Tobacco is the principal article of trade, the
kind grown in the province being greatly prized throughout the Chinese
empire under the name of "Manchu leaf." Formerly ginseng was also an
important staple, but the supply from this quarter of the country has
been exhausted. Outside the town lies a plain "thickly covered with open
coffins containing the dead bodies of Chinese emigrants exposed for
identification and removal by their friends; if no claim is made during
ten years the remains are buried on the spot." Kirin was chosen by the
emperor K'anghi as a military post during the wars with the Eleuths; and
it owes its Chinese name of Ch'uen-ch'ang, i.e. Naval Yard, to his
building there the vessels for the transport of his troops. The
population was estimated at 300,000 in 1812; in 1909 it was about

KIRK, SIR JOHN (1832-   ), British naturalist and administrator, son of
the Rev. John Kirk, was born at Barry, near Arbroath, on the 19th of
December 1832. He was educated at Edinburgh for the medical profession,
and after serving on the civil medical staff throughout the Crimean War,
was appointed in February 1858 physician and naturalist to David
Livingstone's second expedition to Central Africa. He was by
Livingstone's side in most of his journeyings during the next five
years, and was one of the first four white men to behold Lake Nyassa
(Sept. 16, 1859). He was finally invalided home on the 9th of May 1863.
The reputation he gained during this expedition led to his appointment
in January 1866 as acting surgeon to the political agency at Zanzibar.
In 1868 he became assistant political agent, being raised to the rank of
consul-general in 1873 and agent in 1880. He retired from that post in
1887. The twenty-one years spent by Kirk in Zanzibar covered the most
critical period of the history of European intervention in East Africa;
and during the greater part of that time he was the virtual ruler of the
country. With Seyyid Bargash, who became sultan in 1870, he had a
controlling influence, and after the failure of Sir Bartle Frere's
efforts he succeeded in obtaining (June 5, 1873) the sultan's signature
to a treaty abolishing the slave trade in his dominions. In 1877 Bargash
offered to a British merchant--Sir W. Mackinnon--a lease of his mainland
territories, and he gave Kirk a declaration in which he bound himself
not to cede territory to any other power than Great Britain, a
declaration ignored by the British government. When Germany in 1885
claimed districts considered by the sultan to belong to Zanzibar, Kirk
intervened to prevent Bargash going in person to Berlin to protest and
induced him to submit to the dismemberment of his dominions. In the
delicate negotiations which followed Kirk used his powers to checkmate
the German designs to supplant the British in Zanzibar itself; this he
did without destroying the Arab form of government. He also directed the
efforts, this time successful, to obtain for Britain a portion of the
mainland--Bargash in May 1887 granting to Mackinnon a lease of territory
which led to the foundation of British East Africa. Having thus served
both Great Britain and Zanzibar, Kirk resigned his post (July 1887),
retiring from the consular service. In 1889-1890 he was a
plenipotentiary at the slave trade conference in Brussels, and was one
of the delegates who fixed the tariff duties to be imposed in the Congo
basin. In 1895 he was sent by the British government on a mission to the
Niger; and on his return he was appointed a member of the Foreign Office
committee for constructing the Uganda railway. As a naturalist Kirk took
high rank, and many species of the flora and fauna of Central Africa
were made known by him, and several bear his name, e.g. the _Otogale
kirkii_ (a lemuroid), the _Madoqua kirkii_ (a diminutive antelope), the
_Landolphia kirkii_ and the _Clematis kirkii_. For his services to
geography he received in 1882 the patrons' medal of the Royal
Geographical Society, of which society he became foreign secretary. Kirk
was created K.C.B. in 1900. He married, in 1867, Miss Helen Cooke.

KIRKBY, JOHN (d. 1290