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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 15, Slice 6 - "Justinian II." to "Kells"
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 15, Slice 6 - "Justinian II." to "Kells"" ***

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
      letters.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE JUTE: "The use of C. olitorius for the latter purpose dates
      from very ancient times, if it may be identified ..." 'if it'
      amended from 'it if'.

    ARTICLE KASHI: "Sir George Birdwood wisely considers that 'the art
      of glazing earthenware has, in Persia ..." 'earthenware' amended
      from 'eathenware'.

    ARTICLE KASHMIRI: "... a poem on Saiva philosophy by a woman named
      Lalladevi, is said to be the oldest work in the language which has
      survived." 'philosophy' amended from 'philosopy'.

    ARTICLE KAZAÑ: "Kazañ lies 650 m. E. from Moscow by rail and 253 m.
      E. of Nizhniy-Novgorod by the Volga." 'm.' missing.

    ARTICLE KAZERUN: "... of the city on a huge mound are ruins of
      buildings with underground chambers, popularly known as Kal'eh i
      Gabr ..." 'huge' amended from 'hugh'.

    ARTICLE KEARNEY: "... where the city was planned. Kearney became a
      town in 1873, a city of the second class and the county seat in
      1874, and a city of the first class in 1901." 'where' amended from
      'or' and 'planned' amended from 'platted'.

    ARTICLE KEENE: "and as responsible for the commercial treaty
      between England and Spain in 1750, was in high reputation at the
      time; it was chartered as a city in 1874." 'commercial' amended
      from 'commerical'.

    ARTICLE KELLGREN, JOHAN HENRIK: "Of his minor poems written before
      that date the most important are the charming spring-song Vinterns
      välde lyktar, and the satirical Mina löjen and Man eger ej snille
      för det man är galen." 'satirical' amended from 'satrical'.

    ARTICLE KELLS: "The most notable is St Columbkille's house,
      chancel of which was in existence in 1752." 'originally' amended
      from 'orginally'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


            VOLUME XV, SLICE VI

           Justinian II. to Kells



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  JUSTINIAN II.                    KARAMAN
  JUSTIN MARTYR                    KARAMANIA
  JUTE                             KARAMNASA
  JÜTERBOG                         KARA MUSTAFA
  JUTES                            KARAMZIN, NIKOLAI MIKHAILOVICH
  JUTIGALPA                        KARA SEA
  JUTLAND                          KARASU-BAZAR
  JUTURNA                          KARATEGHIN
  JUVENAL                          KARAULI
  JUVENCUS, GAIUS AQUILINUS        KAREN
  JUVENILE OFFENDERS               KAREN-NI
  JUVENTAS                         KARIKAL
  JUXON, WILLIAM                   KARLI
  K                                KARLOWITZ
  K2                               KARLSKRONA
  KA'BA, KAABA                     KARLSRUHE
  KABARDIA                         KARLSTAD
  KABBA                            KARLSTADT
  KABBABISH                        KARMA
  KABBALAH                         KÁRMÁN, JÓZSEF
  KABINDA                          KARNAK
  KABIR                            KARNAL
  KABUL                            KÁROLYI, ALOYS
  KABUL RIVER                      KAROSS
  KABYLES                          KARR, JEAN BAPTISTE ALPHONSE
  KACH GANDAVA                     KARRER, FELIX
  KACHIN HILLS                     KARROO
  KADUR                            KARS (province of Russia)
  KAEMPFER, ENGELBRECHT            KARS (town of Russia)
  KAFFA                            KARSHI
  KAFFIR BREAD                     KARST
  KAFFIRS                          KARSTEN, KARL JOHANN BERNHARD
  KAFFRARIA                        KARTIKEYA
  KAFIRISTAN                       KARUN
  KAGERA                           KARWAR
  KAHLUR                           KARWI
  KAHN, GUSTAVE                    KARYOGAMY
  KAHNIS, KARL FRIEDRICH AUGUST    KASAI
  K'AI-FÊNG FU                     KASBEK
  KAILAS                           KASHAN
  KAIN                             KASHGAR
  KAIRA                            KASHI
  KAIRAWAN                         KASHMIR
  KAISERSLAUTERN                   KASHMIRI
  KAISERSWERTH                     KASHUBES
  KAITHAL                          KASIMOV
  KAKAPO                           KASSA
  KAKAR                            KASSALA
  KALA-AZAR                        KASSASSIN
  KALABAGH                         KASSITES
  KALACH                           KASTAMUNI
  KALAHANDI                        KASTORIA
  KALAHARI DESERT                  KASUR
  KALAMATA                         KATAGUM
  KALAMAZOO                        KATANGA
  KALAPUYA                         KATER, HENRY
  KALAT                            KATHA
  KALAT-I-GHILZAI                  KATHIAWAR
  KALB, JOHANN                     KATKOV, MICHAEL NIKIFOROVICH
  KALCKREUTH, FRIEDRICH ADOLF      KATMANDU
  KALCKREUTH, LEOPOLD              KATO, TAKA-AKIRA
  KALEIDOSCOPE                     KATRINE, LOCH
  KALERGIS, DIMITRI                KATSENA
  KALEWALA                         KATSURA, TARO
  KALGAN                           KATTERFELTO, GUSTAVUS
  KALGOORLIE                       KATTOWITZ
  KALI                             KATWA
  KALIDASA                         KATYDID
  KALIMPONG                        KAUFBEUREN
  KALINGA                          KAUFFMANN, [MARIA ANNA] ANGELICA
  KALINJAR                         KAUFMANN, CONSTANTINE PETROVICH
  KALIR [QALIR], ELEAZER           KAUKAUNA
  KALISCH, ISIDOR                  KAULBACH, WILHELM VON
  KALISCH, MARCUS                  KAUNITZ-RIETBURG, WENZEL ANTON
  KALISPEL                         KAUP, JOHANN JAKOB
  KALISZ (government of Poland)    KAURI PINE
  KALISZ (town of Poland)          KAVA
  KALK                             KAVADH
  KALKAS                           KAVALA
  KALKBRENNER, FRIEDRICH WILHELM   KAVANAGH, ARTHUR MACMORROUGH
  KÁLLAY, BENJAMIN VON             KAVANAGH, JULIA
  KALMAR                           KAVASS
  KALMUCK                          KAVIRONDO
  KALNÓKY, GUSTAV SIEGMUND         KAW
  KALOCSA                          KAWARDHA
  KALPI                            KAY, JOHN
  KALUGA (government of Russia)    KAY, JOSEPH
  KALUGA (town of Russia)          KAYAK
  KALYAN                           KAYASTH
  KAMA                             KAYE, SIR JOHN WILLIAM
  KAMALA                           KAYSER, FRIEDRICH HEINRICH EMANUEL
  KAMCHATKA                        KAY-SHUTTLEWORTH, SIR JAMES PHILLIPS
  KAME                             KAZALA
  KAMENETS PODOLSKIY               KAZAÑ (government of Russia)
  KAMENZ                           KAZAÑ (town of Russia)
  KAMES, HENRY HOME                KAZERUN
  KAMMIN                           KAZINCZY, FERENCZ
  KAMPEN                           KAZVIN
  KAMPTEE                          KEAN, EDMUND
  KAMRUP                           KEANE, JOHN JOSEPH
  KAMYSHIN                         KEARNEY
  KANAKA                           KEARNY, PHILIP
  KANARA                           KEARNY
  KANARESE                         KEARY, ANNIE
  KANARIS, CONSTANTINE             KEATE, JOHN
  KANAUJ                           KEATS, JOHN
  KANDAHAR                         KEBLE, JOHN
  KANDI                            KECSKEMÉT
  KANDY                            KEDDAH
  KANE, ELISHA KENT                KEDGEREE
  KANE (Pennsylvania, U.S.A.)      KEEL
  KANGAROO                         KEELEY, MARY ANNE
  KANGAROO-RAT                     KEELING ISLANDS
  KANGAVAR                         KEEL-MOULDING
  KANGRA                           KEENE, CHARLES SAMUEL
  KANISHKA                         KEENE, LAURA
  KANKAKEE                         KEENE (New Hampshire, U.S.A.)
  KANKER                           KEEP, ROBERT PORTER
  KANO                             KEEP
  KANSAS                           KEEWATIN
  KANSAS CITY (Kansas, U.S.A.)     KEF
  KANSAS CITY (Missouri, U.S.A.)   KEHL
  KANSK                            KEIGHLEY
  KAN-SUH                          KEI ISLANDS
  KANT, IMMANUEL                   KEIM, KARL THEODOR
  KANURI                           KEITH (old Scottish family)
  KAOLIN                           KEITH, FRANCIS EDWARD JAMES
  KAPUNDA                          KEITH, GEORGE
  KAPURTHALA                       KEITH, GEORGE KEITH ELPHINSTONE
  KARACHI                          KEITH (burgh of Scotland)
  KARAGEORGE                       KEJ
  KARA-HISSAR                      KEKULÉ, FRIEDRICH AUGUST
  KARA-HISSAR SHARKI               KELLER, ALBERT
  KARAISKAKIS, GEORGES             KELLER, GOTTFRIED
  KARAJICH, VUK STEFANOVICH        KELLER, HELEN ADAMS
  KARA-KALPAKS                     KELLERMANN, FRANÇOIS CHRISTOPHE DE
  KARAKORUM                        KELLGREN, JOHAN HENRIK
  KARA-KUL                         KELLOGG, CLARA LOUISE
  KARA-KUM                         KELLS



JUSTINIAN II., RHINOTMETUS (669-711), East Roman emperor 685-695 and
704-711, succeeded his father Constantine IV., at the age of sixteen.
His reign was unhappy both at home and abroad. After a successful
invasion he made a truce with the Arabs, which admitted them to the
joint possession of Armenia, Iberia and Cyprus, while by removing 12,000
Christian Maronites from their native Lebanon, he gave the Arabs a
command over Asia Minor of which they took advantage in 692 by
conquering all Armenia. In 688 Justinian decisively defeated the
Bulgarians. Meanwhile the bitter dissensions caused in the Church by the
emperor, his bloody persecution of the Manichaeans, and the rapacity
with which, through his creatures Stephanus and Theodatus, he extorted
the means of gratifying his sumptuous tastes and his mania for erecting
costly buildings, drove his subjects into rebellion. In 695 they rose
under Leontius, and, after cutting off the emperor's nose (whence his
surname), banished him to Cherson in the Crimea. Leontius, after a reign
of three years, was in turn dethroned and imprisoned by Tiberius
Absimarus, who next assumed the purple. Justinian meanwhile had escaped
from Cherson and married Theodora, sister of Busirus, khan of the
Khazars. Compelled, however, by the intrigues of Tiberius, to quit his
new home, he fled to Terbelis, king of the Bulgarians. With an army of
15,000 horsemen Justinian suddenly pounced upon Constantinople, slew his
rivals Leontius and Tiberius, with thousands of their partisans, and
once more ascended the throne in 704. His second reign was marked by an
unsuccessful war against Terbelis, by Arab victories in Asia Minor, by
devastating expeditions sent against his own cities of Ravenna and
Cherson, where he inflicted horrible punishment upon the disaffected
nobles and refugees, and by the same cruel rapacity towards his
subjects. Conspiracies again broke out: Bardanes, surnamed Philippicus,
assumed the purple, and Justinian, the last of the house of Heraclius,
was assassinated in Asia Minor, December 711.

  See E. Gibbon, _Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire_ (ed. Bury,
  1896), v. 179-183; J. B. Bury, _The Later Roman Empire_ (1889), ii.
  320-330, 358-367.



JUSTIN MARTYR, one of the earliest and ablest Christian apologists, was
born about 100 at Flavia Neapolis (anc. _Sichem_), now Nablus, in
Palestinian Syria (Samaria). His parents, according to his own account,
were Pagans (_Dial. c. Tryph._ 28). He describes the course of his
religious development in the introduction to the dialogue with the Jew
Trypho, in which he relates how chance intercourse with an aged stranger
brought him to know the truth. Though this narrative is a mixture of
truth and fiction, it may be said with certainty that a thorough study
of the philosophy of Peripatetics and Pythagoreans, Stoics and
Platonists, brought home to Justin the conviction that true knowledge
was not to be found in them. On the other hand, he came to look upon the
Old Testament prophets as approved by their antiquity, sanctity, mystery
and prophecies to be interpreters of the truth. To this, as he tells us
in another place (_Apol._ ii. 12), must be added the deep impression
produced upon him by the life and death of Christ. His conversion
apparently took place at Ephesus; there, at any rate, he places his
decisive interview with the old man, and there he had those discussions
with Jews and converts to Judaism, the results of which he in later
years set down in his _Dialogue_. After his conversion he retained his
philosopher's cloak (Euseb., _Hist. Eccl._ iv. 11. 8), the distinctive
badge of the wandering professional teacher of philosophy, and went
about from place to place discussing the truths of Christianity in the
hope of bringing educated Pagans, as he himself had been brought,
through philosophy to Christ. In Rome he made a fairly long stay, giving
lectures in a class-room of his own, though not without opposition from
his fellow-teachers. Among his opponents was the Cynic Crescentius
(_Apol._ ii. 13). Eusebius (_Hist. Eccl._ iv. 16. 7-8) concludes
somewhat hastily, from the statement of Justin and his disciple Tatian
(_Orat. ad Graec._ 19), that the accusation of Justin before the
authorities, which led to his death, was due to Crescentius. But we
know, from the undoubtedly genuine _Acta SS Justini et sociorum_, that
Justin suffered the death of a martyr under the prefect Rusticus between
163 and 167.

To form an opinion of Justin as a Christian and theologian, we must turn
to his _Apology_ and to the _Dialogue_ with the Jew Trypho, for the
authenticity of all other extant works attributed to him is disputed
with good reason. The _Apology_--it is more correct to speak of one
_Apology_ than of two, for the second is only a continuation of the
first, and dependent upon it--was written in Rome about 150. In the
first part Justin defends his fellow-believers against the charge of
atheism and hostility to the state. He then draws a positive
demonstration of the truth of his religion from the effects of the new
faith, and especially from the excellence of its moral teaching, and
concludes with a comparison of Christian and Pagan doctrines, in which
the latter are set down with naïve confidence as the work of demons. As
the main support of his proof of the truth of Christianity appears his
detailed demonstration that the prophecies of the old dispensation,
which are older than the Pagan poets and philosophers, have found their
fulfilment in Christianity. A third part shows, from the practices of
their religious worship, that the Christians had in truth dedicated
themselves to God. The whole closes with an appeal to the princes, with
a reference to the edict issued by Hadrian in favour of the Christians.
In the so-called _Second Apology_, Justin takes occasion from the trial
of a Christian recently held in Rome to argue that the innocence of the
Christians was proved by the very persecutions.

Even as a Christian Justin always remained a philosopher. By his
conscious recognition of the Greek philosophy as a preparation for the
truths of the Christian religion, he appears as the first and most
distinguished in the long list of those who have endeavoured to
reconcile Christian with non-Christian culture. Christianity consists
for him in the doctrines, guaranteed by the manifestation of the Logos
in the person of Christ, of God, righteousness and immortality, truths
which have been to a certain extent foreshadowed in the monotheistic
religious philosophies. In this process the conviction of the
reconciliation of the sinner with God, of the salvation of the world and
the individual through Christ, fell into the background before the
vindication of supernatural truths intellectually conceived. Thus Justin
may give the impression of having rationalized Christianity, and of not
having given it its full value as a religion of salvation. It must not,
however, be forgotten that Justin is here speaking as the apologist of
Christianity to an educated Pagan public, on whose philosophical view of
life he had to base his arguments, and from whom he could not expect an
intimate comprehension of the religious position of Christians. That he
himself had a thorough comprehension of it he showed in the _Dialogue_
with the Jew Trypho. Here, where he had to deal with the Judaism that
believed in a Messiah, he was far better able to do justice to
Christianity as a revelation; and so we find that the arguments of this
work are much more completely in harmony with primitive Christian
theology than those of the _Apology_. He also displays in this work a
considerable knowledge of the Rabbinical writings and a skilful
polemical method which was surpassed by none of the later anti-Jewish
writers.

Justin is a most valuable authority for the life of the Christian Church
in the middle of the 2nd century. While we have elsewhere no connected
account of this, Justin's _Apology_ contains a few paragraphs (61 seq.),
which give a vivid description of the public worship of the Church and
its method of celebrating the sacraments (Baptism and the Eucharist).
And from this it is clear that though, as a theologian, Justin wished to
go his own way, as a believing Christian he was ready to make his
standpoint that of the Church and its baptismal confession of faith. His
works are also of great value for the history of the New Testament
writings. He knows of no canon of the New Testament, i.e. no fixed and
inclusive collection of the apostolic writings. His sources for the
teachings of Jesus are the "Memoirs of the Apostles," by which are
probably to be understood the Synoptic Gospels (without the Gospel
according to St John), which, according to his account, were read along
with the prophetic writings at the public services. From his writings we
derive the impression of an amiable personality, who is honestly at
pains to arrive at an understanding with his opponents. As a theologian,
he is of wide sympathies; as a writer, he is often diffuse and somewhat
dull. There are not many traces of any particular literary influence of
his writings upon the Christian Church, and this need not surprise us.
The Church as a whole took but little interest in apologetics and
polemics, nay, had at times even an instinctive feeling that in these
controversies that which she held holy might easily suffer loss. Thus
Justin's writings were not much read, and at the present time both the
_Apology_ and the _Dialogue_ are preserved in but a single MS. (cod.
Paris, 450, A.D. 1364).

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The editions of Robert Étienne (Stephanus) (1551); H.
  Sylburg (1593); F. Morel (1615); Prudentius Maranuis (1742) are
  superseded by J. C. T. Otto, _Justini philosophi et martyris opera
  quae feruntur omnia_ (3rd ed. 5 vols., Jena, 1876-1881). This edition
  contains besides the _Apologies_ (vol. i.) and the _Dialogue_ (vol.
  ii.) the following writings: _Speech to the Greeks_ (_Oratio_);
  _Address to the Greeks_ (_Cohortatio_): _On the Monarchy of God_;
  _Epistle to Diognetus_; _Fragments on the Resurrection and other
  Fragments_; _Exposition of the True Faith_; _Epistle to Zenas and
  Serenus_; _Refutation of certain Doctrines of Aristotle_; _Questions
  and Answers to the Orthodox_; _Questions of Christians to Pagans_;
  _Questions of Pagans to Christians_. None of these writings, not even
  the _Cohortatio_, which former critics ascribed to Justin, can be
  attributed to him. The authenticity of the _Dialogue_ has occasionally
  been disputed, but without reason. For a handy edition of the
  _Apology_ see G. Krüger, _Die Apologien Justins des Märtyrers_ (3rd
  ed. Tübingen, 1904). There is a good German translation with a
  comprehensive commentary by H. Veil (1894). For English translations
  consult the "Oxford Library of the Fathers" and the "Ante-Nicene
  Library." Full information about Justin's history and views may be had
  from the following monographs: C. Semisch, _Justin der Märtyrer_ (2
  vols., 1840-1842); J. Donaldson, _A Critical History of Christian
  Literature and Doctrine_, vol. 2 (1866); C. E. Freppel, _St Justin_
  (3rd ed., 1886); Moritz von Engelhardt, _Das Christentum Justins des
  Märtyrers_ (1878); T. M. Wehofer, _Die Apologie Justins des
  Philosophen und Märtyrers in litterarhistorischer Beziehung zum ersten
  Male untersucht_ (1897); Alfred Leonhard Feder, _Justins des Märtyrers
  Lehre von Jesus Christus_ (1906). On the critical questions raised by
  the spurious writings consult W. Gaul, _Die Abfassungsverhältnisse der
  pseudo-justinischen Cohortatio ad Graecos_ (1902); Adolf Harnack,
  _Diodor von Tarsus. Vier pseudo-justinische Schriften als Eigentum
  Diodors nachgewiesen_ (1901).     (G. K.)



JUTE, a vegetable fibre now occupying a position in the manufacturing
scale inferior only to cotton and flax. The term jute appears to have
been first used in 1746, when the captain of the "Wake" noted in his log
that he had sent on shore "60 bales of gunney with all the jute rope"
(_New Eng. Dict. s.v._). In 1795 W. Roxburgh sent to the directors of
the East India Company a bale of the fibre which he described as "the
jute of the natives." Importations of the substance had been made at
earlier times under the name of _pat_, an East Indian native term by
which the fibre continued to be spoken of in England till the early
years of the 19th century, when it was supplanted by the name it now
bears. This modern name appears to be derived from _jhot_ or _jhout_
(Sansk. _jhat_), the vernacular name by which the substance is known in
the Cuttack district, where the East India Company had extensive
roperies when Roxburgh first used the term.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Capsules of Jute Plants. a, _Corchorus
capsularis_; b, C. _olitorius_.]

The fibre is obtained from two species of _Corchorus_ (nat. ord.
_Tiliaceae_), _C. capsularis_ and _C. olitorius_, the products of both
being so essentially alike that neither in commerce nor agriculture is
any distinction made between them. These and various other species of
_Corchorus_ are natives of Bengal, where they have been cultivated from
very remote times for economic purposes, although there is reason to
believe that the cultivation did not originate in the northern parts of
India. The two species cultivated for jute fibre are in all respects
very similar to each other, except in their fructification and the
relatively greater size attained by _C. capsularis_. They are annual
plants from 5 to 10 ft. high, with a cylindrical stalk as thick as a
man's finger, and hardly branching except near the top. The light-green
leaves are from 4 to 5 in. long by 1½ in. broad above the base, and
taper upward into a fine point; the edges are serrated; the two lower
teeth are drawn out into bristle-like points. The small whitish-yellow
flowers are produced in clusters of two or three opposite the leaves.

The capsules or seed-pods in the case of _C. capsularis_ are globular,
rough and wrinkled, while in _C. olitorius_ they are slender, quill-like
cylinders (about 2 in. long), a very marked distinction, as may be noted
from fig. 1, in which a and b show the capsules of _C. capsularis_ and
_C. olitorius_ respectively. Fig. 2 represents a flowering top of _C.
olitorius_.

Both species are cultivated in India, not only on account of their
fibre, but also for the sake of their leaves, which are there
extensively used as a pot-herb. The use of _C. olitorius_ for the latter
purpose dates from very ancient times, if it may be identified, as some
suppose, with the mallows ([Hebrew: maluah]) mentioned in Job xxx. 4;
hence the name Jew's mallow. It is certain that the Greeks used this
plant as a pot-herb; and by many other nations around the shores of the
Mediterranean this use of it was, and is still, common. Throughout
Bengal the name by which the plants when used as edible vegetables are
recognized is _nalita_; when on the other hand they are spoken of as
fibre-producers it is generally under the name _pat_. The cultivation of
_C. capsularis_ is most prevalent in central and eastern Bengal, while
in the neighbourhood of Calcutta, where, however, the area under
cultivation is limited, _C. olitorius_ is principally grown. The fibre
known as China jute or Tien-tsin jute is the product of another plant,
_Abutilon Avicennae_, a member of the Mallow family.

_Cultivation and Cropping._--Attempts have been made to grow the jute
plant in America, Egypt, Africa and other places, but up to the present
the fibre has proved much inferior to that obtained from plants grown in
India. Here the cultivation of the plant extends from the Hugli through
eastern and northern Bengal. The successful cultivation of the plant
demands a hot, moist climate, with a fair amount of rain. Too much rain
at the beginning of the season is detrimental to the growth, while a
very dry season is disastrous. The climate of eastern and northern
Bengal appears to be ideal for the growth of the plant.

The quality of the fibre and the produce per acre depend in a measure on
the preparation of the soil. The ground should be ploughed about four
times and all weeds removed. The seed is then sown broadcast as in the
case of flax. It is only within quite recent years that any attention
has been paid to the selection of the seed. The following extract from
_Capital_ (Jan. 17, 1907) indicates the new interest taken in it.

  "Jute seed experiments are being continued and the report for 1906 has
  been issued. The object of these experiments is, of course, to obtain
  a better class of jute seed by growing plants, especially for no other
  purpose than to obtain their seed. The agricultural department has
  about 300 maunds (25,000 lb.) of selected seed for distribution this
  year. The selling price is to be _Rs._ 10 per maund. The agricultural
  department of the government of Bengal are now fully alive to the
  importance of fostering the jute industry by showing conclusively that
  attention to scientific agriculture will make two maunds of jute grow
  where only one maund grew before. Let them go on (as they will) till
  all the ryots are thoroughly indoctrinated into the new system."

The time of sowing extends from the middle of March to the middle of
June, while the reaping, which depends upon the time of sowing and upon
the weather, is performed from the end of June to the middle of October.
The crop is said to be ready for gathering when the flowers appear; if
gathered before, the fibre is weak, while if left until the seed is
ripe, the fibre is stronger, but is coarser and lacks the characteristic
lustre.

The fibre is separated from the stalks by a process of retting similar
to that for flax and hemp. In certain districts of Bengal it is the
practice to stack the crop for a few days previous to retting in order
to allow the leaves to dry and to drop off the stalks. It is stated that
the colour of the fibre is darkened if the leaves are allowed to remain
on during the process of retting. It is also thought that the drying of
the plants before retting facilitates the separation of the fibre. Any
simple operation which improves the colour of the fibre or shortens the
operation of retting is worthy of consideration. The benefits to be
derived from the above process, however, cannot be great, for the
bundles are usually taken direct to the pools and streams. The period
necessary for the completion of the retting process varies according to
the temperature and to the properties of the water, and may occupy from
two days to a month. After the first few days of immersion the stalks
are examined daily to test the progress of the retting. When the fibres
are easily separated from the stalk, the operation is complete and the
bundles should be withdrawn. The following description of the retting of
jute is taken from Royle's _Fibrous Plants of India_:--

  "The proper point being attained, the native operator, standing up to
  his middle in water, takes as many of the sticks in his hands as he
  can grasp, and removing a small portion of the bark from the ends next
  the roots, and grasping them together, he strips off the whole with a
  little management from end to end, without breaking either stem or
  fibre. Having prepared a certain quantity into this half state, he
  next proceeds to wash off: this is done by taking a large handful;
  swinging it round his head he dashes it repeatedly against the surface
  of the water, drawing it through towards him, so as to wash off the
  impurities; then, with a dexterous throw he fans it out on the surface
  of the water and carefully picks off all remaining black spots. It is
  now wrung out so as to remove as much water as possible, and then hung
  up on lines prepared on the spot, to dry in the sun."

The separated fibre is then made up into bundles ready for sending to
one of the jute presses. The jute is carefully sorted into different
qualities, and then each lot is subjected to an enormous hydraulic
pressure from which it emerges in the shape of the well-known bales,
each weighing 400 lb.

The crop naturally depends upon the quality of the soil, and upon the
attention which the fibre has received in its various stages; the yield
per acre varies in different districts. Three bales per acre, or 1200
lb. is termed a 100% crop, but the usual quantity obtained is about 2.6
bales per acre. Sometimes the crop is stated in lakhs of 100,000 bales
each. The crop in 1906 reached nearly 9,000,000 bales, and in 1907
nearly 10,000,000 was reached. The following particulars were issued on
the 19th of September 1906 by Messrs. W. F. Souter & Co., Dundee:--

  +---------+-----------+---------------+-------------+----------------------+---------------------+--------------+-----------+
  |         |           |Estimated yield|  Estimated  |  Shipment to Europe. | Shipment to America.|  Supplies to | Out-turn  |
  |  Year.  |  Actual   |     (100%     |    total    +-----------+----------+---------+-----------+ Indian mills |total crop.|
  |         | acreage.  | equal 3 bales |    crop.    |   Jute.   | Cuttings.|  Jute.  | Cuttings. |   and local  |  Bales.   |
  |         |           |   per acre).  |    Bales.   |   Bales.  |   Bales. |  Bales. |  Bales.   | consumption. |           |
  +---------+-----------+---------------+-------------+-----------+----------+---------+-----------+--------------+-----------+
  |1901--1st| 2,216,500 |     94% =     |  6,250,000  |           |          |         |           |              |           |
  | Final   | 2,249,000 |     96% =     |  6,500,000  | 3,528,691 |  54,427  | 295,921 |  426,331  | 3,100,000 =  | 7,405,370 |
  |1902--1st| 2,200,000 |     80% =     |  5,280.000  |           |          |         |           |              |           |
  | Final   | 2,200,000 |     80% =     |  5,280,000  | 2,773,621 |  39,019  | 230,415 |  207,999  | 2,600,000 =  | 5,851,054 |
  |1903--1st| 2,100,000 |     85% =     |  5,400,000  |           |          |         |           |              |           |
  | Final   | 2,250,000 |    93¾% =     |  6,500,000  | 3,161,791 |  59,562  | 329,048 |  236,959  | 3,650,000 =  | 7,437,360 |
  |1904--1st| 2,700,000 |    87½% =     |  7,100,000  |           |          |         |           |              |           |
  | Final   | 2,850,000 |     85% =     |  7,400,000  | 2,939,940 |  44,002  | 253,882 |  290,854  | 3,475,782 =  | 7,004,460 |
  |1905--1st| 3,163,500 |     87% =     |  8,250,000  |           |          |         |           |              |           |
  | Final   | 3,145,000 |     87% =     |  8,200,000 \|           |          |         |           |           \  |           |
  |         |           |   Outlying    |    200,000 /| 3,483,315 |  63,118  | 347,974 |  245,044  | 4,018,523 / =| 8,233,358 |
  |         |           |               |    Madras   |    75,384 |          |         |           |              |           |
  |1906--1st| 3,271,400\|    87% =      |   8,713,000 |           |          |         |           |              |           |
  |Outlying |    67,000/|    Madras     |     100,000 |           |          |         |           |              |           |
  | Final   | 3,336,400 |               |  8,736,220  |           |          |         |           |              |           |
  |    (Outlying Districts and Madras, say  250,000   |           |          |         |           |              |           |
  |                  bales additional)                |           |          |         |           |              |           |
  +---------------------------------------------------+-----------+----------+---------+-----------+--------------+-----------+


  Estimated consumption of jute 1906-1907.

    In Europe       Bales per annum.
  Scotland            1,250,000
  England                20,000
  Ireland                25,000
  France                475,000
  Belgium               120,000
  Germany               750,000
  Austria and Bohemia   262,000
  Norway and Sweden      62,500
  Russia                180,000
  Holland                25,000
  Spain                  90,000
  Italy                 160,000
                        -------  3,419,500 bales
      In America        600,000
                        -------    600,000   "
      In India--
  Mills               3,900,000
  Local                 500,000
                      ---------  4,400,000   "
                                 ---------------
                                 8,419,500 bales


  Statistics of consumption of jute, rejections and cuttings.

  +----------------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
  |        Consumption.        |   1894.   |   1904.   |   1906.   |
  |                            |   Bales.  |   Bales.  |   Bales.  |
  +----------------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
  | United Kingdom             | 1,200,000 | 1,200,000 | 1,295,000 |
  | Continent                  | 1,100,000 | 1,800,000 | 2,124,500 |
  | America                    |   500,000 |   500,000 |   600,000 |
  | Indian mills               | 1,500,000 | 2,900,000 | 3,900,000 |
  | Local Indian consumption   |   500,000 |   500,000 |   500,000 |
  |                            +-----------+-----------+-----------+
  | Total jute crop consumption| 4,800,000 | 6,900,000 | 8,419,500 |
  +----------------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+

A number of experiments in jute cultivation were made during 1906, and
the report showed that very encouraging results were obtained from land
manured with cow-dung. If more scientific attention be given to the
cultivation it is quite possible that what is now considered as 100%
yield may be exceeded.

_Characteristics._--The characters by which qualities of jute are judged
are colour, lustre, softness, strength, length, firmness, uniformity and
absence of roots. The best qualities are of a clear whitish-yellow
colour, with a fine silky lustre, soft and smooth to the touch, and
fine, long and uniform in fibre. When the fibre is intended for goods in
the natural colour it is essential that it should be of a light shade
and uniform, but if intended for yarns which are to be dyed a dark
shade, the colour is not so important. The cultivated plant yields a
fibre with a length of from 6 to 10 ft., but in exceptional cases it has
been known to reach 14 or 15 ft. in length. The fibre is decidedly
inferior to flax and hemp in strength and tenacity; and, owing to a
peculiarity in its microscopic structure, by which the walls of the
separate cells composing the fibre vary much in thickness at different
points, the single strands of fibre are of unequal strength. Recently
prepared fibre is always stronger, more lustrous, softer and whiter than
such as has been stored for some time--age and exposure rendering it
brown in colour and harsh and brittle in quality. Jute, indeed, is much
more woody in texture than either flax or hemp, a circumstance which may
be easily demonstrated by its behaviour under appropriate reagents; and
to that fact is due the change in colour and character it undergoes on
exposure to the air. The fibre bleaches with facility, up to a certain
point, sufficient to enable it to take brilliant and delicate shades of
dye colour, but it is with great difficulty brought to a pure white by
bleaching. A very striking and remarkable fact, which has much practical
interest, is its highly hygroscopic nature. While in a dry position and
atmosphere it may not possess more than 6% of moisture, under damp
conditions it will absorb as much as 23%.

  Sir G. Watt, in his _Dictionary of the Economic Products of India_,
  mentions the following eleven varieties of jute fibre: Serajganji,
  Narainganji, Desi, Deora, Uttariya, Deswal, Bakrabadi, Bhatial,
  Karimginji, Mirganji and Jungipuri. There are several other varieties
  of minor importance. The first four form the four classes into which
  the commercial fibre is divided, and they are commonly known as
  Serajgunge, Naraingunge, Daisee and Dowrah. Serajgunge is a soft
  fibre, but it is superior in colour, which ranges from white to grey.
  Naraingunge is a strong fibre, possesses good spinning qualities, and
  is very suitable for good warp yarns. Its colour, which is not so high
  as Serajgunge, begins with a cream shade and approaches red at the
  roots. All the better class yarns are spun from these two kinds.
  Daisee is similar to Serajgunge in softness, is of good quality and of
  great length; its drawback is the low colour, and hence it is not so
  suitable for using in natural colour. It is, however, a valuable fibre
  for carpet yarns, especially for dark yarns. Dowrah is a strong, harsh
  and low quality fibre, and is used principally for heavy wefts. Each
  class is subdivided according to the quality and colour of the
  material, and each class receives a distinctive mark called a baler's
  mark. Thus, the finest fibres may be divided as follows:--

    Superfine first marks.
    Extra fine first marks 1st, 2nd and 3rd numbers.
    Superior first marks      "        "       "
    Standard   "     "        "        "       "
    Good       "     "        "        "       "
    Ordinary   "     "        "        "       "
    Good second      "        "        "       "
    Ordinary   "     "        "        "       "

  The lower qualities are, naturally, divided into fewer varieties.

  [Illustration: FIG. 2.--_Corchorus olitorius_.]

  Each baler has his own marks, the fibres of which are guaranteed equal
  in equality to some standard mark. It would be impossible to give a
  list of the different marks, for there are hundreds, and new marks are
  constantly being added. A list of all the principal marks is issued in
  book form by the Calcutta Jute Baler's association.

  The relative prices of the different classes depend upon the crop,
  upon the demand and upon the quality of the fibre; in 1905 the prices
  of Daisee jute and First Marks were practically the same, although the
  former is always considered inferior to the latter. It does not follow
  that a large crop of jute will result in low prices, for the year
  1906-1907 was not only a record one for crops, but also for prices. R.
  F. C. grade has been as high as £40 per ton, while its lowest recorded
  price is £12. Similarly the price for First Marks reached £29, 15s. in
  1906 as compared with £9, 5s. per ton in 1897. The following table
  shows a few well-known grades with the average prices during December
  for the years 1903, 1904, 1905 and 1906.


    +-------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------+
    |       Class.      |Dec. 1903.|Dec. 1904.|Dec. 1905.|Dec. 1906.|
    +-------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------+
    |                   |  £ s. d. |  £ s. d. |  £ s. d. |  £ s. d. |
    | First marks       | 12 15  0 | 16  0  0 | 19 15  0 | 27 15  0 |
    | Blacks S C C      | 11  2  6 | 14  5  0 | 17 15  0 | 20 15  0 |
    | Red S C C         | 12  0  0 | 14 17  6 | 18 15  0 | 23 15  0 |
    | Native rejections |  8  2  6 |    --    | 14 10  0 | 15 17  6 |
    | S 4 group         |    --    |    --    | 25 10  0 | 38  0  0 |
    | R F block D group |    --    |    --    |    --    | 36  0  0 |
    | R F circle D group| 14 10  0 | 16 15  0 | 21 10  0 |    --    |
    | R F D group       | 11 15  0 | 14  2  6 | 17 12  6 | 22  0  0 |
    | N B green D       | 14  5  0 |    --    | 21  0  0 | 32  0  0 |
    | Heart T 4         | 14 12  6 | 17 10  0 | 22 10  0 | 34  0  0 |
    | Heart T 5         | 14 12  6 | 17 10  0 | 21  0  0 | 31  0  0 |
    | Daisee 2          | 12 17  6 |    --    | 18 15  0 | 25 10  0 |
    | Daisee assortment | 12 10  0 | 14 17  6 | 18  5  0 |    --    |
    | Mixed cuttings    |  4  5  0 |    --    | 10  0  0 | 10  0  0 |
    +-------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------+

_Jute Manufacture._--Long before jute came to occupy a prominent place
amongst the textile fibres of Europe, it formed the raw material of a
large and important industry throughout the regions of Eastern Bengal.
The Hindu population made the material up into cordage, paper and cloth,
the chief use of the latter being in the manufacture of gunny bags.
Indeed, up to 1830-1840 there was little or no competition with hand
labour for this class of material. The process of weaving gunnies for
bags and other coarse articles by these hand-loom weavers has been
described as follows:--

  "Seven sticks or chattee weaving-posts, called _tana para_ or warp,
  are fixed upon the ground, occupying the length equal to the measure
  of the piece to be woven, and a sufficient number of twine or thread
  is wound on them as warp called _tana_. The warp is taken up and
  removed to the weaving machine. Two pieces of wood are placed at two
  ends, which are tied to the _ohari_ and _okher_ or roller; they are
  made fast to the _khoti_. The _belut_ or treadle is put into the warp;
  next to that is the _sarsul_; a thin piece of wood is laid upon the
  warp, called _chupari_ or regulator. There is no sley used in this,
  nor is a shuttle necessary; in the room of the latter a stick covered
  with thread called _singa_ is thrown into the warp as woof, which is
  beaten in by a piece of plank called _beyno_, and as the cloth is
  woven it is wound up to the roller. Next to this is a piece of wood
  called _khetone_, which is used for smoothing and regulating the woof;
  a stick is fastened to the warp to keep the woof straight."

Gunny cloth is woven of numerous qualities, according to the purpose to
which it is devoted. Some kinds are made close and dense in texture, for
carrying such seed as poppy or rape and sugar; others less close are
used for rice, pulses, and seeds of like size, and coarser and opener
kinds again are woven for the outer cover of packages and for the sails
of country boats. There is a thin close-woven cloth made and used as
garments among the females of the aboriginal tribes near the foot of the
Himalayas, and in various localities a cloth of pure jute or of jute
mixed with cotton is used as a sheet to sleep on, as well as for wearing
purposes. To indicate the variety of uses to which jute is applied, the
following quotation may be cited from the official report of Hem Chunder
Kerr as applying to Midnapur.

  "The articles manufactured from jute are principally (1) gunny bags;
  (2) string, rope and cord; (3) _kampa_, a net-like bag for carrying
  wood or hay on bullocks; (4) _chat_, a strip of stuff for tying bales
  of cotton or cloth; (5) _dola_, a swing on which infants are rocked to
  sleep; (6) _shika_, a kind of hanging shelf for little earthen pots,
  &c.; (7) _dulina_, a floor-cloth; (8) _beera_, a small circular stand
  for wooden plates used particularly in _poojahs_; (9) painter's brush
  and brush for white-washing; (10) _ghunsi_, a waist-band worn next to
  the skin; (11) _gochh-dari_, a hair-band worn by women; (12) _mukbar_,
  a net bag used as muzzle for cattle; (13) _parchula_, false hair worn
  by players; (14) _rakhi-bandhan_, a slender arm-band worn at the
  Rakhi-poornima festival; and (15) _dhup_, small incense sticks burned
  at _poojahs_."

The fibre began to receive attention in Great Britain towards the close
of the 18th century, and early in the 19th century it was spun into yarn
and woven into cloth in the town of Abingdon. It is claimed that this
was the first British town to manufacture the material. For years small
quantities of jute were imported into Great Britain and other European
countries and into America, but it was not until the year 1832 that the
fibre may be said to have made any great impression in Great Britain.
The first really practical experiments with the fibre were made in this
year in Chapelshade Works, Dundee, and these experiments proved to be
the foundation of an enormous industry. It is interesting to note that
the site of Chapelshade Works was in 1907 cleared for the erection of a
large new technical college.

In common with practically all new industries progress was slow for a
time, but once the value of the fibre and the cloth produced from it had
become known the development was more rapid. The pioneers of the work
were confronted with many difficulties; most people condemned the fibre
and the cloth, many warps were discarded as unfit for weaving, and any
attempt to mix the fibre with flax, tow or hemp was considered a form of
deception. The real cause of most of these objections was the fact that
suitable machinery and methods of treatment had not been developed for
preparing yarns from this useful fibre. Warden in his _Linen Trade_
says:--

  "For years after its introduction the principal spinners refused to
  have anything to do with jute, and cloth made of it long retained a
  tainted reputation. Indeed, it was not until Mr. Rowan got the Dutch
  government, about 1838, to substitute jute yarns for those made from
  flax in the manufacture of the coffee bagging for their East Indian
  possessions, that the jute trade in Dundee got a proper start. That
  fortunate circumstance gave an impulse to the spinning of the fibre
  which it never lost, and since that period its progress has been truly
  astonishing."

The demand for this class of bagging, which is made from fine hessian
yarns, is still great. These fine Rio hessian yarns form an important
branch of the Dundee trade, and in some weeks during 1906 as many as
1000 bales were despatched to Brazil, besides numerous quantities to
other parts of the world.

For many years Great Britain was the only European country engaged in
the manufacture of jute, the great seat being Dundee. Gradually,
however, the trade began to extend, and now almost every European
country is partly engaged in the trade.

The success of the mechanical method of spinning and weaving of jute in
Dundee and district led to the introduction of textile machinery into
and around Calcutta. The first mill to be run there by power was started
in 1854, while by 1872 three others had been established. In the next
ten years no fewer than sixteen new mills were erected and equipped with
modern machinery from Great Britain, while in 1907 there were
thirty-nine mills engaged in the industry. The expansion of the Indian
power trade may be gathered from the following particulars of the number
of looms and spindles from 1892 to 1906. In one or two cases the number
of spindles is obtained approximately by reckoning twenty spindles per
loom, which is about the average for the Indian mills.


  +-------------+------------+--------------+
  |    Year.    |   Looms.   |   Spindles.  |
  +-------------+------------+--------------+
  |   1892-3    |    8,479   |   177,732    |
  |   1893-4    |    9,082   |   189,144    |
  |   1894-5    |    9,504   |   197,673    |
  |   1895-6    |   10,071   |   212,595    |
  |   1896-7    |   12,276   |   254,610    |
  |   1897-8    |   12,737   |   271,363    |
  |   1898-9    |   13,323   |   277,398    |
  |   1899-1900 |   14,021   |   293,218    |
  |   1900-01   |   15,242   |   315,264    |
  |   1901-02   |   16,059   |   329,300    |
  |   1902-03   |   17,091   |   350,120    |
  |   1904*     |   19,901   |   398,020**  |
  |   1905*     |   21,318   |   426,360**  |
  |   1906*     |   26,799   |   520,980**  |
  +-------------+------------+--------------+

  * End of calendar year, the remainder being taken to the 31st of
    March, the end of financial year.

  ** Approximate number of spindles.

The Calcutta looms are engaged for the most part with a few varieties of
the commoner classes of jute fabrics, but the success in this direction
has been really remarkable. Dundee, on the other hand, turns out not
only the commoner classes of fabrics, but a very large variety of other
fabrics. Amongst these may be mentioned the following: Hessian, bagging,
tarpaulin, sacking, scrims, Brussels carpets, Wilton carpets, imitation
Brussels, and several other types of carpets, rugs and matting, in
addition to a large variety of fabrics of which jute forms a part.
Calcutta has certainly taken a large part of the trade which Dundee held
in its former days, but the continually increasing demands for jute
fabrics for new purposes have enabled Dundee to enter new markets and so
to take part in the prosperity of the trade.

The development of the trade with countries outside India from 1828 to
1906 may be seen by the following figures of exports:--

  Average per year from   1828     to   1832-33       11,800  cwt.
      "     "     "       1833-34   "   1837-38       67,483   "
      "     "     "       1838-39   "   1842-43      117,047   "
      "     "     "       1843-44   "   1847-48      234,055   "
      "     "     "       1848-49   "   1852-53      439,850   "
      "     "     "       1853-54   "   1857-58      710,826   "
      "     "     "       1858-59   "   1862-63      969,724   "
      "     "     "       1863-64   "   1867-68    2,628,110   "
      "     "     "       1868-69   "   1872-73    4,858,162   "
      "     "     "       1873-74   "   1877-78    5,362,267   "
      "     "     "       1878-79   "   1882-83    7,274,000   "
      "     "     "       1883-84   "   1887-88    8,223,859   "
      "     "     "       1888-89   "   1892-93   10,372,991   "
      "     "     "       1893-94   "   1897-98   12,084,292   "
      "     "     "       1898-99   "   1902-03   11,959,189   "
      "     "     "       1903-04   "   1905-06   13,693,090   "

The subjoined table shows the extent of the trade from an agricultural,
as well as from a manufacturing, point of view. The difference between
the production and the exports represents the native consumption, for
very little jute is sent overland. The figures are taken to the 31st of
March, the end of the Indian financial year.


  +--------+-------------+-------------+--------------+
  |  Year. | Acres under | Production  |  Exports by  |
  |        | cultivation.|   in cwt.   |  sea in cwt. |
  +--------+-------------+-------------+--------------+
  |  1893  |  2,181,334  |  20,419,000 |  10,537,512  |
  |  1894  |  2,230,570  |  17,863,000 |   8,690,133  |
  |  1895  |  2,275,335  |  21,944,400 |  12,976,791  |
  |  1896  |  2,248,593  |  19,825,000 |  12,266,781  |
  |  1897  |  2,215,105  |  20,418,000 |  11,464,356  |
  |  1898  |  2,159,908  |  24,425,000 |  15,023,325  |
  |  1899  |  1,690,739  |  19,050,000 |   9,864,545  |
  |  1900  |  2,070,668  |  19,329,000 |   9,725,245  |
  |  1901  |  2,102,236  |  23,307,000 |  12,414,552  |
  |  1902  |  2,278,205  |  26,564,000 |  14,755,115  |
  |  1903  |  2,142,700  |  23,489,000 |  13,036,486  |
  |  1904  |  2,275,050  |  25,861,000 |  13,721,447  |
  |  1905  |  2,899,700  |  26,429,000 |  12,875,312  |
  |  1906  |  3,181,600  |  29,945,000 |  14,581,307  |
  +--------+-------------+-------------+--------------+

_Manufacture._--In their general features the spinning and weaving of
jute fabrics do not differ essentially as to machinery and processes
from those employed in the manufacture of hemp and heavy flax goods.
Owing, however, to the woody and brittle nature of the fibre, it has to
undergo a preliminary treatment peculiar to itself. The pioneers of the
jute industry, who did not understand this necessity, or rather who did
not know how the woody and brittle character of the fibre could be
remedied, were greatly perplexed by the difficulties they had to
encounter, the fibre spinning badly into a hard, rough and hairy yarn
owing to the splitting and breaking of the fibre. This peculiarity of
jute, coupled also with the fact that the machinery on which it was
first spun, although quite suitable for the stronger and more elastic
fibres for which it was designed, required certain modifications to suit
it to the weaker jute, was the cause of many annoyances and failures in
the early days of the trade.

  The first process in the manufacture of jute is termed batching. Batch
  setting is the first part of this operation; it consists of selecting
  the different kinds or qualities of jute for any predetermined kind of
  yarn. The number of bales for a batch seldom exceeds twelve, indeed it
  is generally about six, and of these there may be three, four or even
  more varieties or marks. The "streaks"[1] or "heads" of jute as they
  come from the bale are in a hard condition in consequence of having
  been subjected to a high hydraulic pressure during baling; it is
  therefore necessary to soften them before any further process is
  entered. The streaks are sometimes partly softened or crushed by means
  of a steam hammer during the process of opening the bale, then taken
  to the "strikers-up" where the different varieties are selected and
  hung on pins, and then taken to the jute softening machine. The more
  general practice, however, is to employ what is termed a "bale
  opener," or "jute crusher." The essential parts of one type of bale
  opener are three specially shaped rollers, the peripheries of which
  contain a number of small knobs. Two of these rollers are supported in
  the same horizontal plane of the framework, while the third or top
  roller is kept in close contact by means of weights and springs acting
  on each end of the arbor. Another type of machine termed the three
  pair roller jute opener is illustrated in fig. 3. The layers from the
  different bales are laid upon the feed cloth which carries them up to
  the rollers, between which the layers are crushed and partly
  separated. The proximity of the weighted roller or rollers to the
  fixed ones depends upon the thickness of material passing through the
  machine. The fibre is delivered by what is called the delivery cloth,
  and the batcher usually selects small streaks of about 1½ lb. to 2 lb.
  weight each and passes them on to the attendant or feeder of the
  softening machine. These small streaks are now laid as regularly as
  possible upon the feed-cloth of the softening machine, a general view
  of which is shown in fig. 4. The fibre passes between a series of
  fluted rollers, each pair of which is kept in contact by spiral
  springs as shown in the figure. The standard number of pairs is
  sixty-three, but different lengths obtain. There is also a difference
  in the structure of the flutes, some being straight, and others
  spiral, and each pair may or may not contain the same number of
  flutes. The springs allow the top rollers of each pair to rise as the
  material passes through the machine. Advantage is taken of this slight
  upward and downward movement of the top rollers to automatically
  regulate the flow of water and oil upon the material. The apparatus
  for this function is placed immediately over the 11th and 12th rollers
  of the softening machine and an idea of its construction may be
  gathered from fig. 5. In many cases the water and oil are applied by
  less automatic, but equally effective, means. The main object is to
  see that the liquids are distributed evenly while the fibre is passing
  through, and to stop the supply when the machine stops or when no
  fibre is passing. The uniform moistening of the fibre in this machine
  facilitates the subsequent operations, indeed the introduction of this
  preliminary process (originally by hand) constituted the first
  important step in the practical solution of the difficulties of jute
  spinning. The relative quantities of oil and water depend upon the
  quality of the batch. Sometimes both whale and mineral oils are used,
  but in most cases the whale oil is omitted. About 1 to 1¼ gallons of
  oil is the usual amount given per bale of 400 lb. of jute, while the
  quantity of water per bale varies from 3 to 7 gallons. The delivery
  attendants remove the streaks, give them a twist to facilitate future
  handling, and place them on what are termed jute barrows. The streaks
  are now handed over to the cutters who cut off the roots, and finally
  the material is allowed to remain for twelve to twenty-four hours to
  allow the mixture of oil and water to thoroughly spread over the
  fibre.

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.--Jute Opener. (The three machines shown in this
  article are made by Urquhart, Lindsay & Co., Ltd., Dundee.)]

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.--Jute Softening Machine.]

  When the moisture has spread sufficiently, the material is taken to
  the "breaker card," the first machine in the preparing department. A
  certain weight of jute, termed a "dollop," is laid upon the feed cloth
  for each revolution of the latter. The fibre, which should be arranged
  on the sheet as evenly as possible, is carried up by the feed cloth
  and passes between the feed roller and the shell on to the large
  cylinder. This cylinder, which has a high surface speed, carries part
  of the fibre towards the workers and strippers; the surface speed of
  the workers being much slower than that of the cylinder. The pins in
  the two rollers oppose each other, those of the workers being
  "back-set," and this arrangement, combined with the relative angle of
  the pins, and the difference in the surface speeds of the two rollers,
  results in part of the fibre being broken and carried round by the
  worker towards the stripper. This, as its name implies, strips the
  fibre off the worker, and carries it round to the cylinder. The pins
  of the stripper and cylinder point in the same direction, but since
  the surface speed of the cylinder is much greater than the surface
  speed of the stripper, it follows that the fibre is combed between the
  two, and that part is carried forward by the cylinder to be reworked.
  The strippers and workers are in pairs, of which there may be two or
  more. After passing the last pair of workers and strippers the fibre
  is carried forward towards the doffing roller, the pins of which are
  back-set, and the fibre is removed from the cylinder by the doffer,
  from which it passes between the drawing and pressing rollers into the
  conductor, and finally between the delivery and pressing rollers into
  the sliver can. It may be mentioned that more or less breaking takes
  place between each pair of rollers, the pins of which are opposed, and
  that combing and drawing out obtains between those rollers with pins
  pointing in the same direction. The ratio of the surface speeds of the
  drawing roller and the feed roller is termed the draft:--

    surface speed of drawing roller
    ------------------------------- = draft.
     surface speed of feed roller

  In this machine the draft is usually about thirteen.

  [Illustration: FIG. 5.--Improved Batching Gear.]

  The sliver from the can of the breaker card may be wound into balls,
  or it may be taken direct to the finisher card. In the latter method
  from eight to fifteen cans are placed behind the feed rollers, and all
  the slivers from these cans are united before they emerge from the
  machine. The main difference between a breaker card and a finisher
  card is that the latter is fitted with finer pins, that it contains
  two doffing rollers, and that it usually possesses a greater number of
  pairs of workers and strippers--a full circular finisher card having
  four sets.

  After the fibre has been thoroughly carded by the above machines, the
  cans containing the sliver from the finisher card are taken to the
  first drawing frame. A very common method is to let four slivers run
  into one sliver at the first drawing, then two slivers from the first
  drawing are run into one sliver at the second drawing frame. There are
  several types of drawing frames, e.g. push-bar or slide, rotary,
  spiral, ring, open-link or chain, the spiral being generally used for
  the second drawing. All, however, perform the same function, viz.,
  combing out the fibres and thus laying them parallel, and in addition
  drawing out the sliver. The designation of the machine indicates the
  particular method in which the gill pins are moved. These pins are
  much finer than those of the breaker and finisher cards, consequently
  the fibres are more thoroughly separated. The draft in the first
  drawing varies from three to five, while that in the second drawing is
  usually five to seven. It is easy to see that a certain amount of
  draft, or drawing out of the sliver, is necessary, otherwise the
  various doublings would cause the sliver to emerge thicker and thicker
  from each machine. The doublings play a very important part in the
  appearance of the ultimate rove and yarn, for the chief reason for
  doubling threads or slivers is to minimize irregularities of thickness
  and of colour in the material. In an ordinary case, the total
  doublings in jute from the breaker card to the end of the second
  drawing is ninety-six: 12 × 4 × 2 = 96; and if the slivers were made
  thinner and more of them used the ultimate result would naturally be
  improved.

  The final preparing process is that of roving. In this operation there
  is no doubling of the slivers, but each sliver passes separately
  through the machine, from the can to the spindle, is drawn out to
  about eight times its length, and receives a small amount of twist to
  strengthen it, in order that it may be successfully wound upon the
  roving bobbin by the flyer. The chief piece of mechanism in the roving
  frame is the gearing known as the "differential motion." It works in
  conjunction with the disk and scroll, the cones, or the expanding
  pulley, to impart an intermittingly variable speed to the bobbin (each
  layer of the bobbin has its own particular speed which is constant for
  the full traverse, but each change of direction of the builder is
  accompanied by a quick change of speed to the bobbin). It is essential
  that the bobbin should have such a motion, because the delivery of the
  sliver and the speed of the flyer are constant for a given size of
  rove, whereas the layers of rove on the bobbin increase in length as
  the bobbin fills. In the jute roving frame the bobbin is termed the
  "follower," because its revolutions per minute are fewer than those of
  the flyer. Each layer of rove increases the diameter of the material
  on the bobbin shank; hence, at the beginning of each layer, the speed
  of the bobbin must be increased, and kept at this increased speed for
  the whole traverse from top to bottom or vice versa.

    Let R = the revolutions per second of the flyer;
        r = the revolutions per second of the bobbin;
        d = the diameter of bobbin shaft plus the material;
        L = the length of sliver delivered per second;
    then (R - r) d·[pi] = L.

  In the above expression R, [pi] and L are constant, therefore as d
  increases the term (R - r) must decrease; this can happen only when r
  is increased, that is, when the bobbin revolves quicker. It is easy to
  see from the above expression that if the bobbin were the "leader" its
  speed would have to decrease as it filled.

  The builder, which receives its motion from the disk and scroll, from
  the cones, or from the expanding pulley, has also an intermittingly
  variable speed. It begins at a maximum speed when the bobbin is empty,
  is constant for each layer, but decreases as the bobbin fills.

  The rove yarn is now ready for the spinning frame, where a further
  draft of about eight is given. The principles of jute spinning are
  similar to those of dry spinning for flax. For very heavy jute yarns
  the spinning frame is not used--the desired amount of twist being
  given at the roving frame.

  The count of jute yarn is based upon the weight in pounds of 14,400
  yds., such length receiving the name of "spyndle." The finest yarns
  weigh 2¾ lb. to 3 lb. per spyndle, but the commonest kinds are 7 lb.,
  8 lb., 9 lb. and 10 lb. per spyndle. The sizes rise in pounds up to
  about 20 lb., then by 2 lb. up to about 50 lb. per spyndle, with much
  larger jumps above this weight. It is not uncommon to find 200 lb. to
  300 lb. rove yarn, while the weight occasionally reaches 450 lb. per
  spyndle. The different sizes of yarn are extensively used in a large
  variety of fabrics, sometimes alone, sometimes in conjunction with
  other fibres, e.g. with worsted in the various kinds of carpets, with
  cotton in tapestries and household cloths, with line and tow yarns for
  the same fabrics and for paddings, &c., and with wool for horse
  clothing. The yarns are capable of being dyed brilliant colours, but,
  unfortunately, the colours are not very fast to light. The fibre can
  also be prepared to imitate human hair with remarkable closeness, and
  advantage of this is largely taken in making stage wigs.

  For detailed information regarding jute, the cloths made from it and
  the machinery used, see the following works: Watts's _Dictionary of
  the Economic Products of India_; Royle's _Fibrous Plants of India_;
  Sharp's _Flax, Tow and Jute Spinning_; Leggatt's _Jute Spinning_;
  Woodhouse and Milne's _Jute and Linen Weaving_; and Woodhouse and
  Milne's _Textile Design: Pure and Applied_.     (T. Wo.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Also in the forms "streek," "strick" or "strike," as in Chaucer,
    _Cant. Tales_, Prologue 676, where the Pardoner's hair is compared
    with a "strike of flax." The term is also used of a handful of hemp
    or other fibre, and is one of the many technical applications of
    "strike" or "streak," which etymologically are cognate words.



JÜTERBOG, or GÜTERBOG, a town of Germany in the Prussian province of
Brandenburg, on the Nuthe, 39 m. S.W. of Berlin, at the junction of the
main lines of railway from Berlin to Dresden and Leipzig. Pop. (1900),
7407. The town is surrounded by a medieval wall, with three gateways,
and contains two Protestant churches, of which that of St Nicholas (14th
century) is remarkable for its three fine aisles. There are also a Roman
Catholic church, an old town-hall and a modern school. Jüterbog carries
on weaving and spinning both of flax and wool, and trades in the produce
of those manufactures and in cattle. Vines are cultivated in the
neighbourhood. Jüterbog belonged in the later middle ages to the
archbishopric of Magdeburg, passing to electoral Saxony in 1648, and to
Prussia in 1815. It was here that a treaty over the succession to the
duchy of Jülich was made in March 1611 between Saxony and Brandenburg,
and here in November 1644 the Swedes defeated the Imperialists. Two
miles S.W. of the town is the battlefield of Dennewitz where the
Prussians defeated the French on the 6th of September 1813.



JUTES, the third of the Teutonic nations which invaded Britain in the
5th century, called by Bede _Iutae_ or _Iuti_ (see BRITAIN,
ANGLO-SAXON). They settled in Kent and the Isle of Wight together with
the adjacent parts of Hampshire. In the latter case the national name is
said to have survived until Bede's own time, in the New Forest indeed
apparently very much later. In Kent, however, it seems to have soon
passed out of use, though there is good reason for believing that the
inhabitants of that kingdom were of a different nationality from their
neighbours (see KENT, KINGDOM OF). With regard to the origin of the
Jutes, Bede only says that Angulus (Angel) lay between the territories
of the Saxons and the Iutae--a statement which points to their identity
with the Iuti or Jyder of later times, i.e. the inhabitants of Jutland.
Some recent writers have preferred to identify the Jutes with a tribe
called Eucii mentioned in a letter from Theodberht to Justinian (_Mon.
Germ. Hist., Epist. iii._, p. 132 seq.) and settled apparently in the
neighbourhood of the Franks. But these people may themselves have come
from Jutland.

  See Bede, _Hist. Eccles_, i. 15, iv. 16.     (H. M. C.)



JUTIGALPA, or JUTICALPA, the capital of the department of Jutigalpa in
eastern Honduras, on one of the main roads from the Bay of Fonseca to
the Atlantic coast, and on a small left-hand tributary of the river
Patuca. Pop. (1905), about 18,000. Jutigalpa is the second city of
Honduras, being surpassed only by Tegucigalpa. It is the administrative
centre of a mountainous region rich in minerals, though mining is
rendered difficult by the lack of communications and the unsettled
condition of the country. The majority of the inhabitants are Indians or
half-castes, engaged in the cultivation of coffee, bananas, tobacco,
sugar or cotton.



JUTLAND (Danish _Jylland_), though embracing several islands as well as
a peninsula, may be said to belong to the continental portion of the
kingdom of Denmark. The peninsula (Chersonese or Cimbric peninsula of
ancient geography) extends northward, from a line between Lübeck and the
mouth of the Elbe, for 270 m. to the promontory of the Skaw (Skagen),
thus preventing a natural communication directly east and west between
the Baltic and North Seas. The northern portion only is Danish, and
bears the name Jutland. The southern is German, belonging to
Schleswig-Holstein. The peninsula is almost at its narrowest (36 m.) at
the frontier, but Jutland has an extreme breadth of 110 m. and the
extent from the south-western point (near Ribe) to the Skaw is 180 m.
Jutland embraces nine _amter_ (counties), namely, Hjörring, Thisted,
Aalborg, Ringkjöbing, Viborg, Randers, Aarhus, Vejle and Ribe. The main
watershed of the peninsula lies towards the east coast; therefore such
elevated ground as exists is found on the east, while the western slope
is gentle and consists of a low sandy plain of slight undulation. The
North Sea coast (western) and Skagerrack coast (north-western) consist
mainly of a sweeping line of dunes with wide lagoons behind them. In the
south the northernmost of the North Frisian Islands (Fanö) is Danish.
Towards the north a narrow mouth gives entry to the Limfjord, or
Liimfjord, which, wide and ramifying among islands to the west, narrows
to the east and pierces through to the Cattegat, thus isolating the
counties of Hjörring and Thisted (known together as Vendsyssel). It is,
however, bridged at Aalborg, and its depth rarely exceeds 12 ft. The
seaward banks of the lagoons are frequently broken in storms, and the
narrow channels through them are constantly shifting. The east coast is
slightly bolder than the west, and indented with true estuaries and
bays. From the south-east the chain of islands forming insular Denmark
extends towards Sweden, the strait between Jutland and Fünen having the
name of the Little Belt. The low and dangerous coasts, off which the
seas are generally very shallow, are efficiently served by a series of
lifeboat stations. The western coast region is well compared with the
Landes of Gascony. The interior is low. The Varde, Omme, Skjerne, Stor
and Karup, sluggish and tortuous streams draining into the western
lagoons, rise in and flow through marshes, while the eastern Limfjord is
flanked by the swamps known as Vildmose. The only considerable river is
the Gudenaa, flowing from S.W. into the Randersfjord (Cattegat), and
rising among the picturesque lakes of the county of Aarhus, where the
principal elevated ground in the peninsula is found in the Himmelbjerg
and adjacent hills (exceeding 500 ft.). The German portion of the
peninsula is generally similar to that of western Jutland, the main
difference lying in the occurrence of islands (the North Frisian) off
the west coast in place of sand-bars and lagoons. Erratic blocks are of
frequent occurrence in south Jutland. (For geology, and the general
consideration of Jutland in connexion with the whole kingdom, see
DENMARK.)

Although in ancient times well wooded, the greater portion of the
interior of Jutland consisted for centuries of barren drift-sand, which
grew nothing but heather; but since 1866, chiefly through the
instrumentality of the patriotic Heath association, assisted by annual
contributions from the state, a very large proportion of this region has
been more or less reclaimed for cultivation. The means adopted are: (i.)
the plantation of trees; (ii.) the making of irrigation canals and
irrigating meadows; (iii.) exploring for, extracting and transporting
loam, a process aided by the construction of short light railways; and
(iv.), since 1889, the experimental cultivation of fenny districts. The
activity of the association takes the form partly of giving gratuitous
advice, partly of experimental attempts, and partly of model works for
imitation. The state also makes annual grants directly to owners who are
willing to place their plantations under state supervision, for the sale
of plants at half price to the poorer peasantry, for making protective
or sheltering plantations, and for free transport of marl or loam. The
species of timber almost exclusively planted are the red fir (_Picea
excelsa_) and the mountain pine (_Pinus montana_). This admirable work
quickly caused the population to increase at a more rapid rate in the
districts where it was practised than in any other part of the Danish
kingdom. The counties of Viborg, Ringkjöbing and Ribe cover the
principal heath district.

Jutland is well served by railways. Two lines cross the frontier from
Germany on the east and west respectively and run northward near the
coasts. The eastern touches the ports of Kolding, Fredericia, Vejle,
Horsens, Aarhus, Randers, Aalborg on Limfjord, Frederikshavn and Skagen.
On the west the only port of first importance is Esbjerg. The line runs
past Skjerne, Ringkjöbing, Vemb and Holstebro to Thisted. Both throw off
many branches and are connected by lines east and west between Kolding
and Esbjerg, Skanderborg and Skjerne, Langaa and Struer on Limfjord via
Viborg. Of purely inland towns only Viborg in the midland and Hjörring
in the extreme north are of importance.



JUTURNA (older form Diuturna, the lasting), an old Latin divinity, a
personification of the never-failing springs. Her original home was on
the river Numicius near Lavinium, where there was a spring called after
her, supposed to possess healing qualities (whence the old Roman
derivation from _juvare_, to help). Her worship was early transferred to
Rome, localized by the Lacus Juturnae near the temple of Vesta, at which
Castor and Pollux, after announcing the victory of lake Regillus, were
said to have washed the sweat from their horses. At the end of the First
Punic War Lutatius Catulus erected a temple in her honour on the Campus
Martius, subsequently restored by Augustus. Juturna was associated with
two festivals: the Juturnalia on the 11th of January, probably a
dedication festival of a temple built by Augustus, and celebrated by the
college of the _fontani_, workmen employed in the construction and
maintenance of aqueducts and fountains; and the Volcanalia on the 23rd
of August, at which sacrifice was offered to Volcanus, the Nymphs and
Juturna, as protectors against outbreaks of fire. In Virgil, Juturna
appears as the sister of Turnus (probably owing to the partial
similarity of the names), on whom Jupiter, to console her for the loss
of her chastity, bestowed immortality and the control of all the lakes
and rivers of Latium. For the statement that she was the wife of Janus
and mother of Fontus (or Fons), the god of fountains, Arnobius (_Adv.
gentes_ iii. 29) is alone responsible.

  See Virgil, _Aeneid_, xii. 139 and Servius _ad loc._; Ovid, _Fasti_,
  ii. 583-616; Valerius Maximus, i. 8. 1; L. Deubner, "Juturna und die
  Ausgrabungen auf dem römischen Forum," in _Neue Jahrb. f. das
  klassische Altertum_ (1902), p. 370.



JUVENAL (DECIMUS JUNIUS JUVENALIS) (c. 60-140), Roman poet and satirist,
was born at Aquinum. Brief accounts of his life, varying considerably in
details, are prefixed to different MSS. of the works. But their common
original cannot be traced to any competent authority, and some of their
statements are intrinsically improbable. According to the version which
appears to be the earliest:--

  "Juvenal was the son or ward of a wealthy freedman; he practised
  declamation till middle age, not as a professional teacher, but as an
  amateur, and made his first essay in satire by writing the lines on
  Paris, the actor and favourite of Domitian, now found in the seventh
  satire (lines 90 seq.). Encouraged by their success, he devoted
  himself diligently to this kind of composition, but refrained for a
  long time from either publicly reciting or publishing his verses. When
  at last he did come before the public, his recitations were attended
  by great crowds and received with the utmost favour. But the lines
  originally written on Paris, having been inserted in one of his new
  satires, excited the jealous anger of an actor of the time, who was a
  favourite of the emperor, and procured the poet's banishment under the
  form of a military appointment to the extremity of Egypt. Being then
  eighty years of age, he died shortly afterwards of grief and
  vexation."

Some of these statements are so much in consonance with the indirect
evidence afforded by the satires that they may be a series of
conjectures based upon them. The rare passages in which the poet speaks
of his own position, as in satires xi. and xiii., indicate that he was
in comfortable but moderate circumstances. We should infer also that he
was not dependent on any professional occupation, and that he was
separated in social station, and probably too by tastes and manners,
from the higher class to which Tacitus and Pliny belonged, as he was by
character from the new men who rose to wealth by servility under the
empire. Juvenal is no organ of the pride and dignity, still less of the
urbanity, of the cultivated representatives of the great families of the
republic. He is the champion of the more sober virtues and ideas, and
perhaps the organ of the rancours and detraction, of an educated but
depressed and embittered middle class. He lets us know that he has no
leanings to philosophy (xiii. 121) and pours contempt on the serious
epic writing of the day (i. 162). The statement that he was a trained
and practised declaimer is confirmed both by his own words (i. 16) and
by the rhetorical mould in which his thoughts and illustrations are
cast. The allusions which fix the dates when his satires first appeared,
and the large experience of life which they imply, agree with the
statement that he did not come before the world as a professed satirist
till after middle age.

The statement that he continued to write satires long before he gave
them to the world accords well with the nature of their contents and the
elaborate character of their composition, and might almost be inferred
from the emphatic but yet guarded statement of Quintilian in his short
summary of Roman literature. After speaking of the merits of Lucilius,
Horace and Persius as satirists, he adds, "There are, too, in our own
day, distinguished writers of satire whose names will be heard of
hereafter" (_Inst. Or._ x. 1, 94). There is no Roman writer of satire
who could be mentioned along with those others by so judicious a critic,
except Juvenal. The motive which a writer of satire must have had for
secrecy under Domitian is sufficiently obvious; and the necessity of
concealment and self-suppression thus imposed upon the writer may have
permanently affected his whole manner of composition.

So far the original of these lives follows a not improbable tradition.
But when we come to the story of the poet's exile the case is otherwise.
The undoubted reference to Juvenal in Sidonius Apollinaris as the victim
of the rage of an actor only proves that the original story from which
all the varying versions of the lives are derived was generally believed
before the middle of the 5th century of our era. If Juvenal was banished
at the age of eighty, the author of his banishment could not have been
the "enraged actor" in reference to whom the original lines were
written, as Paris was put to death in 83, and Juvenal was certainly
writing satires long after 100. The satire in which the lines now appear
was probably first published soon after the accession of Hadrian, when
Juvenal was not an octogenarian but in the maturity of his powers. The
cause of the poet's banishment at that advanced age could not therefore
have been either the original composition or the first publication of
the lines.

An expression in xv. 45 is quoted as a proof that Juvenal had visited
Egypt. He may have done so as an exile or in a military command; but it
seems hardly consistent with the importance which the emperors attached
to the security of Egypt, or with the concern which they took in the
interests of the army, that these conditions were combined at an age so
unfit for military employment. If any conjecture is warrantable on so
obscure a subject, it is more likely that this temporary disgrace should
have been inflicted on the poet by Domitian. Among the many victims of
Juvenal's satire it is only against him and against one of the vilest
instruments of his court, the Egyptian Crispinus, that the poet seems to
be animated by personal hatred. A sense of wrong suffered at their hands
may perhaps have mingled with the detestation which he felt towards them
on public grounds. But if he was banished under Domitian, it must have
been either before or after 93, at which time, as we learn from an
epigram of Martial, Juvenal was in Rome.

More ancient evidence is supplied by an inscription found at Aquinum,
recording, so far as it has been deciphered, the dedication of an altar
to Ceres by a Iunius Iuvenalis, tribune of the first cohort of
Dalmatians, _duumvir quinquennalis_, and _flamen Divi Vespasiani_, a
provincial magistrate whose functions corresponded to those of the
censor at Rome. This Juvenalis may have been the poet, but he may
equally well have been a relation. The evidence of the satires does not
point to a prolonged absence from the metropolis. They are the product
of immediate and intimate familiarity with the life of the great city.
An epigram of Martial, written at the time when Juvenal was most
vigorously employed in their composition, speaks of him as settled in
Rome. He himself hints (iii. 318) that he maintained his connexion with
Aquinum, and that he had some special interest in the worship of the
"Helvinian Ceres." Nor is the tribute to the national religion implied
by the dedication of the altar to Ceres inconsistent with the beliefs
and feelings expressed in the satires. While the fables of mythology are
often treated contemptuously or humorously by him, other passages in the
satires clearly imply a conformity to, and even a respect for, the
observances of the national religion. The evidence as to the military
post filled by Juvenal is curious, when taken in connexion with the
confused tradition of his exile in a position of military importance.
But it cannot be said that the satires bear traces of military
experience; the life described in them is rather such as would present
itself to the eyes of a civilian.

The only other contemporary evidence which affords a glimpse of
Juvenal's actual life is contained in three epigrams of Martial. Two of
these (vii. 24 and 91) were written in the time of Domitian, the third
(xii. 18) early in the reign of Trajan, after Martial had retired to his
native Bilbilis. The first attests the strong regard which Martial felt
for him; but the subject of the epigram seems to hint that Juvenal was
not an easy person to get on with. In the second, addressed to Juvenal
himself, the epithet _facundus_ is applied to him, equally applicable to
his "eloquence" as satirist or rhetorician. In the last Martial imagines
his friend wandering about discontentedly through the crowded streets of
Rome, and undergoing all the discomforts incident to attendance on the
levées of the great. Two lines in the poem suggest that the satirist,
who inveighed with just severity against the worst corruptions of Roman
morals, was not too rigid a censor of the morals of his friend. Indeed,
his intimacy with Martial is a ground for not attributing to him
exceptional strictness of life.

The additional information as to the poet's life and circumstances
derivable from the satires themselves is not important. He had enjoyed
the training which all educated men received in his day (i. 15); he
speaks of his farm in the territory of Tibur (xi. 65), which furnished a
young kid and mountain asparagus for a homely dinner to which he invites
a friend during the festival of the Megalesia. From the satire in which
this invitation is contained we are able to form an idea of the style in
which he habitually lived, and to think of him as enjoying a hale and
vigorous age (203), and also as a kindly master of a household (159
seq.). The negative evidence afforded in the account of his
establishment suggests the inference that, like Lucilius and Horace,
Juvenal had no personal experience of either the cares or the softening
influence of family life. A comparison of this poem with the invitation
of Horace to Torquatus (_Ep._ i. 5) brings out strongly the differences
not in urbanity only but in kindly feeling between the two satirists.
Gaston Boissier has drawn from the indications afforded of the career
and character of the persons to whom the satires are addressed most
unfavourable conclusions as to the social circumstances and associations
of Juvenal. If we believe that these were all real people, with whom
Juvenal lived in intimacy, we should conclude that he was most
unfortunate in his associates, and that his own relations to them were
marked rather by outspoken frankness than civility. But they seem to be
more "nominis umbrae" than real men; they serve the purpose of enabling
the satirist to aim his blows at one particular object instead of
declaiming at large. They have none of the individuality and traits of
personal character discernible in the persons addressed by Horace in his
_Satires_ and _Epistles_. It is noticeable that, while Juvenal writes of
the poets and men of letters of a somewhat earlier time as if they were
still living, he makes no reference to his friend Martial or the younger
Pliny and Tacitus, who wrote their works during the years of his own
literary activity. It is equally noticeable that Juvenal's name does not
appear in Pliny's letters.

The times at which the satires were given to the world do not in all
cases coincide with those at which they were written and to which they
immediately refer. Thus the manners and personages of the age of
Domitian often supply the material of satiric representation, and are
spoken of as if they belonged to the actual life of the present,[1]
while allusions even in the earliest show that, as a finished literary
composition, it belongs to the age of Trajan. The most probable
explanation of these discrepancies is that in their present form the
satires are the work of the last thirty years of the poet's life, while
the first nine at least may have preserved with little change passages
written during his earlier manhood. The combination of the impressions,
and, perhaps of the actual compositions, of different periods also
explains a certain want of unity and continuity found in some of them.

There is no reason to doubt that the sixteen satires which we possess
were given to the world in the order in which we find them, and that
they were divided, as they are referred to in the ancient grammarians,
into five books. Book I., embracing the first five satires, was written
in the freshest vigour of the author's powers, and is animated with the
strongest hatred of Domitian. The publication of this book belongs to
the early years of Trajan. The mention of the exile of Marius (49) shows
that it was not published before 100. In the second satire, the lines 29
seq.,

  "Qualis erat nuper tragico pollutus adulter
   Concubitu,"

show that the memory of one of the foulest scandals of the reign of
Domitian was still fresh in the minds of men. The third satire, imitated
by Samuel Johnson in his _London_, presents such a picture as Rome may
have offered to the satirist at any time in the 1st century of our era;
but it was under the worst emperors, Nero and Domitian, that the arts of
flatterers and foreign adventurers were most successful, and that such
scenes of violence as that described at 277 seq. were most likely to
occur;[2] while the mention of Veiento (185) as still enjoying influence
is a distinct reference to the court of Domitian. The fourth, which
alone has any political significance, and reflects on the emperor as a
frivolous trifler rather than as a monster of lust and cruelty, is the
reproduction of a real or imaginary scene from the reign of Domitian,
and is animated by the profoundest scorn and loathing both of the tyrant
himself and of the worst instruments of his tyranny. The fifth is a
social picture of the degradation to which poor guests were exposed at
the banquets of the rich, but many of the epigrams of Martial and the
more sober evidence of one of Pliny's letters show that the picture
painted by Juvenal, though perhaps exaggerated in colouring, was drawn
from a state of society prevalent during and immediately subsequent to
the times of Domitian.[3] Book II. consists of the most elaborate of the
satires, by many critics regarded as the poet's masterpiece, the famous
sixth satire, directed against the whole female sex, which shares with
Domitian and his creatures the most cherished place in the poet's
antipathies. It shows certainly no diminution of vigour either in its
representation or its invective. The time at which this satire was
composed cannot be fixed with certainty, but some allusions render it
highly probable that it was given to the world in the later years of
Trajan, and before the accession of Hadrian. The date of the publication
of Book III., containing the seventh, eighth and ninth satires, seems to
be fixed by its opening line to the first years after the accession of
Hadrian. In the eighth satire another reference is made (120) to the
misgovernment of Marius in Africa as a recent event, and at line 51
there may be an allusion to the Eastern wars that occupied the last
years of Trajan's reign. The ninth has no allusion to determine its
date, but it is written with the same outspoken freedom as the second
and the sixth, and belongs to the period when the poet's power was most
vigorous, and his exposure of vice most uncompromising. In Book IV.,
comprising the famous tenth, the eleventh and the twelfth satires, the
author appears more as a moralist than as a pure satirist. In the tenth,
the theme of the "vanity of human wishes" is illustrated by great
historic instances, rather than by pictures of the men and manners of
the age; and, though the declamatory vigour and power of expression in
it are occasionally as great as in the earlier satires, and although
touches of Juvenal's saturnine humour, and especially of his misogyny,
appear in all the satires of this book, yet their general tone shows
that the white heat of his indignation is abated; and the lines of the
eleventh, already referred to (201 seq.),

        "Spectent juvenes quos clamor et audax
  Sponsio, quos cultae decet assedisse puellae:
  Nostra bibat vernum contrada cuticula solem,"

leave no doubt that he was well advanced in years when they were
written.

Two important dates are found in Book V., comprising satires xiii.-xvi.
At xiii. 16 Juvenal speaks of his friend Calvinus as now past sixty
years of age, having been born in the consulship of Fonteius. Now L.
Fonteius Capito was consul in 67. Again at xv. 27 an event is said to
have happened in Egypt "nuper consule Iunco." There was a L. Aemilius
Iuncus consul _suffectus_ in 127. The fifth book must therefore have
been published some time after this date. More than the fourth, this
book bears the marks of age, both in the milder tone of the sentiments
expressed, and in the feebler power of composition exhibited. The last
satire is now imperfect, and the authenticity both of this and of the
fifteenth has been questioned, though on insufficient grounds.

Thus the satires were published at different intervals, and for the most
part composed between 100 and 130, but the most powerful in feeling and
vivid in conception among them deal with the experience and impressions
of the reign of Domitian, occasionally recall the memories or traditions
of the times of Nero and Claudius, and reproduce at least one startling
page from the annals of Tiberius.[4] The same overmastering feeling
which constrained Tacitus (_Agric._ 2, 3), when the time of long
endurance and silence was over, to recall the "memory of the former
oppression," acted upon Juvenal. There is no evidence that these two
great writers, who lived and wrote at the same time, who were animated
by the same hatred of the tyrant under whom the best years of their
manhood were spent, and who both felt most deeply the degradation of
their times, were even known to one another. Tacitus belonged to the
highest official and senatorial class, Juvenal apparently to the middle
class and to that of the struggling men of letters; and this difference
in position had much influence in determining the different bent of
their genius, and in forming one to be a great national historian, the
other to be a great social satirist. If the view of the satirist is
owing to this circumstance more limited in some directions, and his
taste and temper less conformable to the best ancient standards of
propriety, he is also saved by it from prejudices to which the
traditions of his class exposed the historian. But both writers are
thoroughly national in sentiment, thoroughly masculine in tone. No
ancient authors express so strong a hatred of evil. The peculiar
greatness and value of both Juvenal and Tacitus is that they did not
shut their eyes to the evil through which they had lived, but deeply
resented it--the one with a vehement and burning passion, like the
"saeva indignatio" of Swift, the other with perhaps even deeper but more
restrained emotions of mingled scorn and sorrow, like the scorn and
sorrow of Milton when "fallen on evil days and evil tongues." In one
respect there is a difference. For Tacitus the prospect is not wholly
cheerless, the detested tyranny was at an end, and its effects might
disappear with a more beneficent rule. But the gloom of Juvenal's
pessimism is unlighted by hope.

A. C. Swinburne has suggested that the secret of Juvenal's concentrated
power consisted in this, that he knew what he hated, and that what he
did hate was despotism and democracy. But it would be hardly true to say
that the animating motive of his satire was political. It is true that
he finds the most typical examples of lust, cruelty, levity and weakness
in the emperors and their wives--in Domitian, Otho, Nero, Claudius and
Messalina. It is true also that he shares in the traditional idolatry of
Brutus, that he strikes at Augustus in his mention of the "three
disciples of Sulla," and that he has no word of recognition for what
even Tacitus acknowledges as the beneficent rule of Trajan. So too his
scorn for the Roman populace of his time, who cared only for their dole
of bread and the public games, is unqualified. But it is only in
connexion with its indirect effects that he seems to think of despotism;
and he has no thought of democracy at all. It is not for the loss of
liberty and of the senatorian rule that he chafes, but for the loss of
the old national manliness and self-respect. This feeling explains his
detestation of foreign manners and superstitions, his loathing not only
of inhuman crimes and cruelties but even of the lesser derelictions from
self-respect, his scorn of luxury and of art as ministering to luxury,
his mockery of the poetry and of the stale and dilettante culture of his
time, and perhaps, too, his indifference to the schools of philosophy
and his readiness to identify all the professors of stoicism with the
reserved and close-cropped puritans, who concealed the worst vices under
an outward appearance of austerity. The great fault of his character, as
it appears in his writings, is that he too exclusively indulged this
mood. It is much more difficult to find what he loved and admired than
what he hated. But it is characteristic of his strong nature that, where
he does betray any sign of human sympathy or tenderness, it is for those
who by their weakness and position are dependent on others for their
protection--as for "the peasant boy with the little dog, his
playfellow,"[5] or for "the home-sick lad from the Sabine highlands, who
sighs for his mother whom he has not seen for a long time, and for the
little hut and the familiar kids."[6]

If Juvenal is to be ranked as a great moralist, it is not for his
greatness and consistency as a thinker on moral questions. In the
rhetorical exaggeration of the famous tenth satire, for instance, the
highest energies of patriotism--the gallant and desperate defence of
great causes, by sword or speech--are quoted as mere examples of
disappointed ambition; and, in the indiscriminate condemnation of the
arts by which men sought to gain a livelihood, he leaves no room for the
legitimate pursuits of industry. His services to morals do not consist
in any positive contributions to the notions of active duty, but in the
strength with which he has realized and expressed the restraining
influence of the old Roman and Italian ideal of character, and also of
that religious conscience which was becoming a new power in the world.
Though he disclaims any debt to philosophy (xiii. 121), yet he really
owes more to the "Stoica dogmata," then prevalent, than he is aware of.
But his highest and rarest literary quality is his power of painting
characters, scenes, incidents and actions, whether from past history or
from contemporary life. In this power, which is also the great power of
Tacitus, he has few equals and perhaps no superior among ancient
writers. The difference between Tacitus and Juvenal in power of
representation is that the prose historian is more of an imaginative
poet, the satirist more of a realist and a grotesque humorist. Juvenal
can paint great historical pictures in all their detail--as in the
famous representation of the fall of Sejanus; he can describe a
character elaborately or hit it off with a single stroke. The picture
drawn may be a caricature, or a misrepresentation of the fact--as that
of the father of Demosthenes, "blear-eyed with the soot of the glowing
mass," &c.--but it is, with rare exceptions, realistically conceived,
and it is brought before us with the vivid touches of a Defoe or a
Swift, or of the great pictorial satirist of the 18th century, Hogarth.
Yet even in this, his most characteristic talent, his proneness to
exaggeration, the attraction which coarse and repulsive images have for
his mind, and the tendency to sacrifice general effect to minuteness of
detail not infrequently mar his best effects.

The difficulty is often felt of distinguishing between a powerful
rhetorician and a genuine poet, and it is felt particularly in the case
of Juvenal. He himself knew and has well described (vii. 53 seq.) the
conditions under which a great poet could flourish; and he felt that his
own age was incapable of producing one. He has little sense of beauty
either in human life or nature. Whenever such sense is evoked it is only
as a momentary relief to his prevailing sense of the hideousness of
contemporary life, or in protest against what he regarded as the
enervating influences of art. Even his references to the great poets of
the past indicate rather a _blasé_ sense of indifference and weariness
than a fresh enjoyment of them. Yet his power of touching the springs of
tragic awe and horror is a genuine poetical gift, of the same kind as
that which is displayed by some of the early English dramatists. But he
is, on the whole, more essentially a great rhetorician than a great
poet. His training, the practical bent of his understanding, his strong
but morose character, the circumstances of his time, and the materials
available for his art, all fitted him to rebuke his own age and all
after-times in the tones of a powerful preacher, rather than charm them
with the art of an accomplished poet. The composition of his various
satires shows no negligence, but rather excess of elaboration; but it
produces the impression of mechanical contrivance rather than of organic
growth. His movement is sustained and powerful, but there is no rise and
fall in it. The verse is most carefully constructed, and is also most
effective, but it is so with the rhetorical effectiveness of Lucan, not
with the musical charm of Virgil. The diction is full, even to excess,
of meaning, point and emphasis. Few writers have added so much to the
currency of quotation. But his style altogether wants the charm of ease
and simplicity. It wearies by the constant strain after effect, its
mock-heroics and allusive periphrasis, and excites distrust by its want
of moderation.

On the whole no one of the ten or twelve really great writers of ancient
Rome leaves on the mind so mixed an impression, both as a writer and as
a man, as Juvenal. He has little, if anything at all, of the high
imaginative mood--the mood of reverence and noble admiration--which made
Ennius, Lucretius and Virgil the truest poetical representatives of the
genius of Rome. He has nothing of the wide humanity of Cicero, of the
urbanity of Horace, of the ease and grace of Catullus. Yet he represents
another mood of ancient Rome, the mood natural to her before she was
humanized by the lessons of Greek art and thought. If we could imagine
the elder Cato living under Domitian, cut off from all share in public
life, and finding no outlet for his combative energy except in
literature, we should perhaps understand the motives of Juvenal's satire
and the place which is his due as a representative of the genius of his
country. As a man he shows many of the strong qualities of the old Roman
plebeian--the aggressive boldness, the intolerance of superiority and
privilege, which animated the tribunes in their opposition to the
senatorian rule. Even where we least like him we find nothing small or
mean to alienate our respect from him. Though he loses no opportunity of
being coarse, he is not licentious; though he is often truculent, he
cannot be called malignant. It is, indeed, impossible to say what
motives of personal chagrin, of love of detraction, of the mere literary
passion for effective writing, may have contributed to the indignation
which inspired his verse. But the prevailing impression we carry away
after reading him is that in all his early satires he was animated by a
sincere and manly detestation of the tyranny and cruelty, the debauchery
and luxury, the levity and effeminacy, the crimes and frauds, which we
know from other sources were then rife in Rome, and that a more serene
wisdom and a happier frame of mind were attained by him when old age had
somewhat allayed the fierce rage which vexed his manhood.

  AUTHORITIES.--The remarkable statements in a "life" found in a late
  Italian MS. (Barberini, viii. 18), "Iunius Iuvenalis Aquinas Iunio
  Iuvenale patre matre vero Septumuleia ex Aquinati municipio Claudio
  Nerone et L. Antistio consulibus (55) natus est, sororem habuit
  Septumuleiam quae Fuscino (_Sat._ xiv. 1) nupsit," though not
  necessarily false, cannot be accepted without confirmation.

  The earliest evidence for the banishment of Juvenal is that of
  Sidonius Apollinaris (c. 480), _Carm._ ix. 269, "Non qui tempore
  Caesaris secundi | Aeterno coluit Tomos reatu | Nec qui consimili
  deinde casu | Ad vulgi tenuem strepentis auram | Irati fuit histrionis
  exul," lines which by the exact parallel drawn between Ovid's fate and
  Juvenal's imply the belief that Juvenal died in exile. The banishment
  is also mentioned by J. Malalas, a Greek historian subsequent to
  Justinian, who gives the place as Pentapolis in Africa, _Chron._ x.
  262, Dindorf. The inscription (on a stone now lost) is as follows, the
  words and letters in brackets being the conjectural restorations of
  scholars:--"[Cere] ri sacrum | [D. Iu] nius Iuvenalis | trib. coh. [I]
  Delmatarum | II vir quinq. flamen | divi Vespasiani | vovit
  dedicav[it] que | sua pec.," _Corp. inscr. lat._ X. 5382, xiii. 201
  sqq. The best of the known manuscripts of Juvenal (P) is at
  Montpellier (125); but there are several others which cannot be
  neglected. Amongst these may be specially mentioned the Bodleian MS.
  (Canon. Lat. 41), which contains a portion of Satire vi., the
  existence of which was unknown until E. O. Winstedt published it in
  the _Classical Review_ (1899), pp. 201 seq. Another fragment in the
  Bibliothèque Nationale was described by C. E. Stuart in the _Classical
  Quarterly_ (Jan. 1909). Numerous scholia and glossaries attest the
  interest taken in Juvenal in post-classical times and the middle ages.
  There are two classes of scholia--the older or "Pithoeana," first
  published by P. Pithoeus, and the "Cornutus scholia" of less value,
  specimens of which have been published by various scholars. The
  earliest edition which need now be mentioned is that of P. Pithoeus,
  1585, in which P was first used for the text. Amongst later ones we
  may mention the commentaries of Ruperti (1819) and C. F. Heinrich
  (1839, with the old scholia), O. Jahn (1851, critical with the old
  scholia), A. Weidner (1889), L. Friedländer (1895, with a full verbal
  index). The most useful English commentaries are those of J. E. B.
  Mayor (a voluminous and learned commentary on thirteen of the
  _Satires_, ii., vi. and ix. being omitted), J. D. Lewis (1882, with a
  prose translation) and J. D. Duff (1898, expurgated, and ii. and ix.
  being omitted). There are recent critical texts: conservative and
  chiefly based on P, by F. Buecheler (1893, with selections from the
  scholia) and S. G. Owen (in the Oxford Series of Texts); on the other
  side, by A. E. Housman (1905) and by the same, but with fewer
  innovations, in the new _Corpus poetarum latinorum_, fasc. v. The two
  last-named editors alone give the newly discovered lines of Satire vi.
  There are no recent translations of Juvenal into English verse. Dryden
  translated i., iii., vi., x. and xvi., the others being committed to
  inferior hands. Other versions are Gifford's (1802), of some merit,
  and C. Badham's (1814). Johnson's imitations of Satires iii. and x.
  are well known. For the numerous articles and contributions to the
  criticism and elucidation of the _Satires_, reference should be made
  to Teuffel's _Geschichte der römischen Litteratur_ (Eng. trans. by
  Warre), § 331, and Schanz, ditto (1901, ii. § 2, § 420a).
       (W. Y. S.; J. P. P.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] This is especially noticeable in the seventh satire, but it
    applies also to the mention of Crispinus, Latinus, the class of
    _delatores_, &c., in the first, to the notice of Veiento in the
    third, of Rubellius Blandus in the eighth, of Gallicus in the
    thirteenth, &c.

  [2] Cf. Tacitus, _Annals_, xiii. 25.

  [3] Pliny's remarks on the vulgarity as well as the ostentation of
    his host imply that he regarded such behaviour as exceptional, at
    least in the circle in which he himself lived (_Ep._ ii. 6).

  [4] x. 56-107.

  [5]
     ... "Meliusne hic rusticus infans
     Cum matre et casulis et conlusore catello," &c.--ix. 60.

  [6] xi. 152, 153.



JUVENCUS, GAIUS VETTIUS AQUILINUS, Christian poet, flourished during the
reign of Constantine the Great. Nothing is known of him except that he
was a Spanish presbyter of distinguished family. About 330 he published
his _Libri evangeliorum IV._, each book containing about 800 hexameters.
The division into books is possibly a reminiscence of the number of the
Gospels. The work itself, written with the idea of ousting the
absurdities of Pagan mythology and replacing them by the truths of
Christianity, may be called the first Christian epic. In the _Praefatio_
the author expresses the hope that the sacredness of his subject may
procure him safety at the final conflagration of the world and admission
into heaven. The whole is, in the main, a poetical version of the Gospel
of Matthew, the other evangelists only being used for supplementary
details. It is founded upon a pre-vulgate Latin translation, although
there is evidence that Juvencus also consulted the Greek. In spite of
metrical irregularities, the language and style are simple and show good
taste, being free from the artificiality of other Christian poets and
prose writers, and the author has made excellent use of Virgil (his
chief model) and other classical writers. Juvencus set the fashion of
verse translations of the Bible, and the large number of MSS. of his
poem mentioned in lists and still extant are sufficient evidence of its
great popularity. According to Jerome, he was also the author of some
poems on the sacraments, but no trace of these has survived. The Latin
_Heptateuch_, a hexameter version of the first seven books of the Old
Testament, has been attributed to Juvencus amongst others; but it is now
generally supposed to be the work of a certain Cyprianus, a Gaul who
lived in the 6th century, possibly a bishop of Toulon, author of the
_Life of Caesarius_, bishop of Arelate (Arles).

  See M. Manitius, _Geschichte der christlich-lateinischen Poesie_
  (1891); A. Ebert, _Allgemeine Geschichte der Literatur des
  Mittelalters_, vol. i. (1889); editions of Juvencus by C. Marold
  (1886); J. Hümer in _Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum latinorum_,
  vol. xxiv. (Vienna, 1891); J. T. Hatfield, _A Study of Juvencus_
  (1890), dealing with syntax, metre and language; editions of the
  _Heptateuch_ by J. E. B. Mayor (1889; reviewed by W. Sanday in
  _Classical Review_, October 1889, and by J. T. Hatfield in _American
  Journal of Philology_, vol. xi., 1890), and R. Peiper, vol. xxiii. of
  the Vienna series above.



JUVENILE OFFENDERS. In modern social science the question of the proper
penal treatment of juvenile (i.e. non-adult) offenders has been
increasingly discussed; and the reformatory principle, first applied in
the case of children, has even been extended to reclaimable adult
offenders (juveniles in crime, if not in age) in a way which brings them
sufficiently within the same category to be noticed in this article. In
the old days the main idea in England was to use the same penal methods
for all criminals, young and old; when the child broke the law he was
sent to prison like his elders. It was only in comparatively recent
times that it was realized that child criminals were too often the
victims to circumstances beyond their own control. They were cursed with
inherited taint; they were brought up among evil surroundings; they
suffered from the culpable neglect of vicious parents, and still more
from bad example and pernicious promptings. They were rather potential
than actual criminals, calling for rescue and regeneration rather than
vindictive reprisals. Under the old system a painstaking English gaol
chaplain calculated that 58% of all criminals had made their first lapse
at fifteen. Boys and girls laughed at imprisonment. Striplings of
thirteen and fourteen had been committed ten, twelve, sixteen or
seventeen times. Religion and moral improvement were little regarded in
prisons, industrial and technical training were impossible. The chief
lesson learnt was an intimate and contemptuous acquaintance with the
demoralizing interior of a gaol. There were at one time in London 200
"flash houses" frequented by 6000 boys trained and proficient in
thieving and depredation.

The substantial movement for reform dates from the protests of Charles
Dickens, who roused public opinion to such an extent that the first
Reformatory School Act was passed in 1854. Sporadic efforts to meet the
evil had indeed been made earlier. In 1756 the Marine Society
established a school for the reception and reform of younger criminals;
in 1788 the City of London formed a similar institution, which grew much
later into the farm school at Redhlll. In 1838 an act of parliament
created an establishment at Parkhurst for the detention and correction
of juvenile offenders, to whom pardon was given conditional on their
entrance into some charitable institution. Parkhurst was technically a
prison, and the system combined industrial training with religious and
educational instruction. These earlier efforts had, however, been quite
insufficient to meet the evils, for in the years immediately preceding
1854 crime was being so constantly reinforced in its beginnings, under
the existing penal system, that it threatened to swamp the country.
Unofficial, but more or less accurate, figures showed that between
11,000 and 12,000 juveniles passed annually through the prisons of
England and Wales, a third of the whole number being contributed by
London alone. In 1854 the total reached 14,000. The ages of offenders
ranged from less than twelve to seventeen; 60% of the whole were between
fourteen and seventeen; 46% had been committed more than once; 18% four
times and more.

The Reformatory School Act 1854, which was thrashed out at conferences
held in Birmingham in 1851 and 1853, substituted the school for the
gaol, and all judicial benches were empowered to send delinquents to
schools when they had been guilty of acts punishable by short
imprisonment, the limit of which was at first fourteen and became
afterwards ten days. A serious flaw in this act long survived; this was
the provision that a short period of imprisonment in gaol must precede
reception into the reformatory; it was upheld by well-meaning but
mistaken people as essential for deterrence. But more enlightened
opinion condemned the rule as inflicting an indelible prison taint and
breeding contamination, even with ample and effective safeguards. Wiser
legislation has followed, and an act of 1899 abolished preliminary
imprisonment.

Existing reformatories, or "senior home office schools" as they are
officially styled, in England numbered 44 in 1907. They receive all
juvenile offenders, up to the age of sixteen, who have been convicted of
an offence punishable with penal servitude or imprisonment. The number
of these during the years between 1894 and 1906 constantly varied, but
the figure of the earliest date, 6604, was never exceeded, and in some
years it was considerably less, while in 1906 it was no more than 5586,
though the general population had increased by several millions in the
period. These figures, in comparison with those of 1854, must be deemed
highly satisfactory, even when we take into account that the latter went
up to the age of seventeen. Older offenders, between sixteen and
twenty-one, come within the category of juvenile adults and are dealt
with differently (see _Borstal Scheme_ below).

Other schools must be classed with the reformatory, although they have
no connexion with prisons and deal with youths who are only potential
criminals. The first in importance are the industrial schools. When the
newly devised reformatories were doing excellent service it was realized
that many of the rising generation might some day lapse into evil ways
but were still on the right side and might with proper precautions be
kept there. They wanted preventive, not punitive treatment, and for them
industrial schools were instituted. The germ of these establishments
existed in the Ragged Schools, "intended to educate destitute children
and save them from vagrancy and crime." They had been invented by John
Pounds (1766-1839), a Portsmouth shoemaker, who, early in the 19th
century, was moved with sympathy for these little outcasts and devoted
himself to this good work. The ragged school movement found powerful
support in active philanthropists when public attention was aroused to
the prevalence of juvenile delinquency. The first Industrial School Act
was passed in 1856 and applied only to Scotland. Next year its
provisions were extended to England, and their growth was rapid. There
were 45 schools in the beginning; in 1878 the number had more than been
doubled; in 1907 there were 102 in England and Wales and 31 in Scotland.

The provisions of the Education Acts 1871 and 1876 led to a large
increase in the number of children committed for breaches of the law and
to the establishment of two kinds of subsidiary industrial schools,
short detention of truant schools and day industrial schools in which
children do not reside but receive their meals, their elementary
education and a certain amount of industrial training. The total
admissions to truant schools in 1907 were 1368 boys, and the numbers
actually in the schools on the last day of that year were 1125 with 2568
on licence. The average length of detention was fourteen weeks and three
days on first admission, seventeen weeks and five days on first
re-admission, and twenty-three weeks six days on second re-admission.
The total number of admissions into truant schools from 1878 to the end
of 1907 was 44,315, of whom just half had been licensed and not
returned, 11,239 had been licensed and once re-admitted, 8900 had been
re-admitted twice or oftener.

The day industrial schools owed their origin to another reason than the
enforcement of the Education Acts. It was found that some special
treatment was required for large masses of youths in large cities, who
were in such a neglected or degraded condition that there was little
hope of their growing into healthy men and women or becoming good
citizens. They were left unclean, were ill-fed and insufficiently
clothed, and were not usefully taught. The total number who attended
these day schools in 1907 was 1951 boys and 1232 girls.

The disciplinary system of the English schools is planned upon the
establishment or institution system, as opposed to that of the "family"
or "boarding out" systems adopted in some countries, and some
controversy has been aroused as to the comparative value of the methods.
The British practice has always favoured the well-governed school, with
the proviso that it is kept small so that the head may know all of his
charges. But a compromise has been effected in large establishments by
dividing the boys into "houses," each containing a small manageable
total as a family under an official father or head. Under this system
the idea of the home is maintained, while uniformity of treatment and
discipline is secured by grouping several houses together under one
general authority. The plan of "boarding out" is not generally approved
of in England; the value of the domestic training is questionable and of
uncertain quality, depending entirely upon the character and fitness of
the foster-parents secured. Education must be less systematic in the
private home, industrial training is less easily carried out, and there
can be none of that _esprit de corps_ that stimulates effort in physical
training as applied to athletics and the playing of games. No very
definite decision has been arrived at as to the comparative merits of
institution life and boarding out. Among the Latin races--France, Italy,
Portugal and Spain--the former is as a rule preferred; also in Belgium;
in Germany, Holland and the United States placing out in private
families is very much the rule; in Austria-Hungary and Russia both
methods are in use.

  The total admissions to English reformatory schools from their
  creation to the 31st of December 1907 amounted to 76,455, or 64,031
  boys and 12,424 girls. The total discharges for the same period were
  70,890, or 59,081 boys and 11,809 girls. The results may be tested by
  the figures for those discharged in 1904, 1905 and 1906:--

  _Boys._--3573 were placed out, of whom 66 had died, leaving 3507; of
  these it was found that 2735 (or about 78%) were in regular
  employment; 158 (or about 4%) were in casual employment; 439 (or about
  13%) had been convicted; and 175 (or about 5%) were unknown.

  _Girls._--480, of whom 11 had died, leaving 469; of these it was found
  that 384 (or about 82%) were in regular employment; 28 (or about 6%)
  were in casual employment; 17 (or about 4%) had been convicted, and 40
  (or about 8%) were unknown.

  For industrial schools, including truant and day schools, the total
  admissions, up to the 31st of December 1907, were 153,893, or 120,955
  boys and 32,938 girls. The total discharges to the same date
  (excluding transfers) were 136,961, or 108,398 boys and 28,563 girls.
  The results as tested by those discharged in 1904, 1905 and 1906 were
  as follow:--

  _Boys._--8909 were placed out, of whom 118 had since died, leaving
  8791 to be reported on; of these it was found that 7547 (or about 86%)
  were in regular employment; 415 (or about 4.7%) were in casual
  employment; 419 (or about 4.7%) convicted or re-committed; and 410 (or
  about 4.6%) unknown.

  _Girls._--2505 placed out, of whom 50 had died, leaving 2455; of these
  2180 (or about 89%) were in regular employment; 112 (or about 4%) were
  in casual employment; 21 (or about 1%) convicted or re-committed; and
  142 (or about 6%) unknown.

  These results are of course wholly independent of those achieved by
  the juvenile-adult prison reformatory at Borstal instituted in October
  1902. The record of the first year's work of this excellent system
  showed that 50% of cases placed out had done well, thanks to the
  system and philanthropic labours of the Borstal Association.

  An interesting point in regard to the reclamation of these criminally
  inclined juveniles is the nature of the employments to which they have
  been recommended, and in which, as shown, they have done so well. In
  1904, 1905 and 1906, the total number of boys discharged and placed
  was 12,482. By far the largest number of these, nearly a sixth, joined
  the army, 679 of them entering the bands; 292 joined the navy; 961 the
  mercantile marine; 1567 went to farm service; 414 worked in factories
  or mills as skilled hands; but others joined as labourers, a general
  class the total of which was 1096. Other jobs found included miners
  (629), carters (352), iron or steel workers (214), mechanics (301),
  shoemakers (181), tailors (161), shop assistants (228), carpenters
  (178), bakers (131), messengers and porters, including 112 errand boys
  (315). The balance found employment in smaller numbers at other
  trades. The fate of 585 was unknown, 858 had been re-convicted, and
  the balance were in unrecorded or casual employment.

  The outlets found by the girls from these various schools naturally
  follow lines appropriate to their sex and the instruction received.
  Out of a total of 2985 discharged in the three years mentioned, 1235
  became general servants, 268 housemaids, 203 laundry-maids, 52 cooks,
  98 nursemaids, 65 dressmakers, 221 were engaged in factories and
  mills, and the balance was made up by marriage, death or casual
  employment.

  In Ireland the reformatory and industrial school system conforms to
  that of Great Britain. There were in 1905 six reformatory and 70
  industrial schools in Ireland, mostly under Roman Catholic management.

A short account of the reformatory methods of dealing with juvenile
offenders in certain other countries will fitly find a place here.

_Austria-Hungary._--The law leaves children of less than ten years of
age to domestic discipline, as also children above that age if not
exactly criminal, although the latter may be sent to correctional
schools. There they are detained for varying periods, but never after
twenty years of age, and they may be sent out on licence to situations
or employment found for them. These schools also receive children
between ten and fourteen guilty of crimes which are, however, by law
deemed "contraventions" only; also the destitute between the same ages
and the incorrigible whose parents cannot manage them.

In Hungary the penal code prescribes that children of less than twelve
cannot be charged with offences; those between twelve and sixteen may be
deemed to have acted without discretion, and thus escape sentence, but
are sent to a correctional school where they may be detained till they
are twenty years of age. An excellent system prevails in Hungary by
which the supervision of those liberated is entrusted to a "protector,"
a philanthropic person in the district who visits and reports upon the
conduct of the boys, much like the "probation officer" in the United
States.

_Belgium._--The law of November 1891 places the whole mass of
juveniles--those who are likely to give trouble and those who have
already done so--at the disposal of the state. The system is very
elastic, realizing the infinite variety of childish natures. The purely
paternal régime would be wasted upon the really vicious; a severe
discipline would press too heavily on the well-disposed. Accordingly,
all juveniles, male and female, are divided into six principal classes
with a corresponding treatment, it being strictly ruled that there is no
intermingling of the classes; the very youngest, rescued early, are
never to be associated with the older, who may be already vicious and
degraded and who could not fail to exercise a pernicious influence. One
of the great merits of the Belgian system is that the regulations may be
relaxed, and children of whose amendment good hopes are entertained may
be released provisionally, either to the care of parents and guardians
or to employers, artisans or agriculturists who will teach them a trade.

_Denmark._--There were 61 establishments of all classes for juveniles in
Denmark in 1906, holding some 2000 inmates. In 1874, by the will of
Countess Danner, a large female refuge was founded at Castle Jagerspris,
which holds some 360 girls. Another of the same class is the Royal
Vodrofsvei Bonnehjem at Copenhagen, founded in the same year by Mlle
Schneider. The régime preferred in Denmark is that of the family or the
very small school. The Jagerspris system is to divide the whole number
of 360 into small parties of 20 each under a nurse or official mother.
Employment in Danish schools is mainly agricultural, field labour and
gardening, with a certain amount of industrial training; and on
discharge the inmates go to farms or to apprenticeship, while a few
emigrate.

_France._--There are five methods of disposing of juvenile offenders in
France:--

  1. The preliminary or preventative prison (_maisons d'arrêt_ and _de
  justice_) for those arrested and accused.

  2. The ordinary prison for all sentenced to less than six months,
  whose time of detention is too short to admit of their transfer to a
  provincial colony. It also receives children whom parents have found
  unmanageable.

  3. The public or private penitentiary colony for the irresponsible
  children, acquitted as "without discretion," as well as for the guilty
  sentenced to more than six months' and less than two years' detention.

  4. The correctional colony, where the system is more severe, receiving
  all sentenced for more than two years and all who have misconducted
  themselves in the milder establishments.

  5. Various penitentiary houses for young females, whatever their
  particular sentence.

Foremost among French penal reformers stands the name of F. A. Demetz
(1796-1873), the founder of the famous colony of Mettray. M. Demetz was
a judge who, aghast at the evils inflicted upon children whom he was
compelled by law to imprison, left the bench and undertook to find some
other outlet for them. At that time the French law, while it acquitted
minors shown to have acted without discretion, still consigned them for
safe keeping and inevitable contamination to the common gaols. M. Demetz
conceived the idea of an agricultural colony, and in 1840 organized a
small "_société paternelle_," as it was called, of which he became
vice-president. Another philanthropist, the Vicomte de Bretignières de
Courteilles, a landed proprietor in Touraine, associated himself in the
enterprise and endowed the institution with land at Mettray near Tours.
The earliest labours at Mettray were in the development of the
institution, but as this approached completion they were applied to
farmwork, agricultural employment being the chief feature of the place.
The motto and device of Mettray was "the moralization of youth by the
cultivation of the soil"; a healthy life in the open air was to replace
the enervating and demoralizing influences of the confined prisons; and
this was effected in the usual farming operations, to which were added
gardening, vine-dressing, the raising of stock and the breeding of
silkworms. The labour was not light; on the contrary, the directors of
the colony sought by constant employment to send their charges to bed
tired, ready to sleep soundly and not romp and chatter in their
dormitories. The excellence of its aims, and the manifestly good results
that were growing out of the system, soon made Mettray a model for
imitation in France and beyond it. Many establishments were planned upon
it, started by the state or private enterprise; penitentiary colonies
were created for boys in connexion with some of the great central
prisons. The colony of Val de Yèvre has a good record. It was started by
a private philanthropist, Charles J. M. Lucas, (1803-1889) but after
five-and-twenty years was handed over to the state. Other cognate
establishments are those of Petit Quevilly near Rouen, Petit Bourg near
Paris, St Hiliar and Eysses. There are several female colonies,
especially that of Darnetal at Rouen.

It is for the magistrate or _juge d'instruction_ to select the class of
establishment to which the juvenile delinquents brought before him shall
be committed. The very young, those of twelve years of age and under,
are placed out in the country with families, unless they can be again
entrusted to their parents or committed to _maisons paternels_,
containing very limited numbers, twenty or thirty, in charge of a large
staff. After twelve, and from that age to fourteen or fifteen, the
"ungrateful age" as the French call it, boys are sent to a reformatory
or "preservative school," where they will be under stronger discipline.
For the third class, from fifteen to sixteen or eighteen, stricter
measures are necessary, so as to dispose of them in specially selected
penal colonies, as has already been done at Eysses, where the discipline
is severe, while embodying technical and industrial instruction.

_Germany._--In most parts of the German Empire juvenile delinquents and
neglected youths are treated in the same establishments. No child of
less than twelve years of age can be proceeded against in a court of
law, although in some German states destitute or abandoned children have
been taken at the ages of six, five and even three years. Youths between
twelve and eighteen may be convicted, but their offences are passed over
if they are proved to have acted without discretion. There are many
kinds of correctional institutions and a number of schools not of a
correctional character. These last are generally very small, the largest
taking barely a hundred, but are very numerous. Many private persons
have devoted themselves to the work. Count A. von der Recke-Volmerstein
(1791-1878) about 1821 founded a refuge for neglected children in
Düsselthal, between Düsseldorf and Elberstadt. Pastor T. F. Fliedner
(1800-1864) built up a fine establishment at Kaiserswerth from 1833, in
which was an infant school, a penitentiary and an orphan asylum. Another
famous name is that of W. von Türk (1774-1846), who studied under
Pestalozzi in Switzerland.

A school which has largely influenced public opinion in Great Britain,
as in Germany, is the Rauhe Haus, near Hamburg, founded by Dr Wickern in
1833. This began with a single cottage but had grown in twenty years to
a hamlet of twenty houses, with from twelve to sixteen inmates in each.
The establishment is a Lutheran one; both boys and girls are admitted,
in separate houses, and a marked feature of the place is the number of
"brothers," young men of good character qualifying for rescue work as
superintendents of homes, prison officers and schoolmasters. They take
part in the work and are in constant touch with the boys whom they
closely supervise, being bound to "keep them in sight day and night, eat
with them, sleep in their dormitories, direct their labour, accompany
them to chapel, join in their recreations and sports." These "brothers"
are honourably known throughout the world and have performed a large
work in distant lands as missionaries, prison officers and
schoolmasters. The Rauhe Haus receives three classes of juveniles:
first, the boys, mostly street arabs; second, girls of the same
category; third, children taken as boarders from private families, who
confess their inability to manage them. The instruction given is in
trades, in farming operations, gardening and fruit-raising. The pupils
are largely assisted on release, through the good offices of the
citizens of Hamburg.

_Holland._--In the Low Countries, refuges, called "Godshuis," were
founded as early as the 14th century, intended for the care and shelter
of neglected youth and indigent old age. In the 17th century people came
from all parts of Europe to learn from the Dutch how orphans and
unfortunate children could best be cared for. The Godshuis of Amsterdam
was a vast establishment, into which as many as 4000 juveniles were
sometimes crowded, with such disastrous effects that its name was
changed to that of "pesthuis," and the government in the beginning of
the present century ordered it to be emptied and closed. Other
reformatory institutions in Holland are the Netherlands Mettray, the
reform school of Zetten, near the Arnheim railway station, for
Protestant girls; and that of Alkmaar for boys; the reformatory school
of St Vincent de Paul at Amsterdam for both sexes; the Amsterdam
reformatory for young vagabonds, male and female; the reform school of
Smallepod at Amsterdam. The Netherlands Mettray, which is about five
hours' journey from Amsterdam on a farm called Rissjelt, near Zutphen,
is planned on the model of the French Mettray and was founded about 1855
by M. Suringar, a veteran Dutch philanthropist, long vice-president of
the directors of prisons in Amsterdam.

_Italy._--In Italy there is no distinction between the treatment of the
offending and the neglected or deserted in youth. There are seventeen or
more correctional establishments, eight of which are state institutions
and the rest founded by private benevolence or by charitable
associations or local communities. None of these is exclusively
agricultural; ten are industrial, seven industrial and agricultural
combined. In Italy the age of responsibility is nine, below which no
child can be charged with an offence. The Italian schools are mostly
planned on a large scale. That of Marchiondi Spagliardi accommodates
550, divided among three houses under one supreme head. The Turazza
institution at Treviso holds 380, and there are eight others with from
200 to 300 inmates. The régime is very various; the larger number of
schools are on the congregate system, with daily labour in association
and isolation by night. The "family" method is also practised with small
groups, divisions or companies, into which the children are formed
according to age or conduct.

_Sweden._--All children below the age of sixteen may be sent to a
correctional establishment or boarded out in respectable families:--

  1. If they have committed acts punishable by law which indicate moral
  perversity and it is deemed advisable to correct them.

  2. If they are neglected, ill-used, or if their moral deterioration is
  feared from the vicious life and character of parents or friends.

  3. If their conduct at school or at home is such that a more severe
  correctional treatment is necessary for their rescue.

Under this law the state is also to provide special schools to take all
above ten who have shown peculiar depravity; all who have reached
eighteen and who are not yet thought fit for freedom; all who have
relapsed after provisional release. Sweden is rich in institutions
devoted to the care of destitute and deserted children, all due to the
efforts of the charitable. The largest correctional establishment is
that founded at Hall, near the town of Sodertelge on the shores of the
Baltic. This admirable agricultural colony, modelled on that of Mettray,
owes its existence to the "Oscar-Josephine society," founded by Queen
Josephine, widow of Oscar I.

_United States._--In the words of a report made in 1878 by F. B.
Sanborn, secretary of the American Social Science Society, "America can
justly plume herself upon the work accomplished by her juvenile
reformatories since their inauguration down to the present time." The
first in point of date and still the most considerable of the
reformatories in the United States is that founded in 1825, thanks to
the unwearied efforts of the great American publicist and philanthropist
Edward Livingston, which now has its home on Randall's Island in New
York City. In the following year a reformatory of the same class was
founded in Boston, and another in the year after in Philadelphia. All
were intended to receive criminal youth. There are state reformatories
now in almost all the states of the Union, and those for juvenile adults
in New York and Massachusetts have attracted world-wide attention,
aiming so high and with such an elaboration of means that they deserve
particular description.

The great state reformatory establishment of Elmira, New York, called
into existence in 1889 with the avowed aim of compassing the reformation
of the criminal by new processes, partakes of the system involved in the
treatment of juvenile offenders. It was based upon the principle that
crime ought to be attacked in its beginnings by other than ordinary
punitive and prison methods. Under this view, the right of society to
defend itself by punishment was denied, and it was held that a youthful
offender was more sinned against than sinning. It was urged that his
crime, due largely to inherited defects, mental or physical and vicious
surroundings, was not his own fault, and he had a paramount claim to be
treated differently by the state when in custody. The state was not
justified in using powers of repression to imprison him in the usual
mechanical hard and fast fashion and then return him to society, no
better, possibly worse, than before; it was bound to regenerate him, to
change his nature, improve his physique, and give him a new mental
equipment, so that when again at large he might be fitted to take his
place amongst honest citizens, to earn his living by reputable means and
escape all temptation to drift back into crime. This is the plausible
explanation given for the state reformatory movement, which led to the
creation on such costly and extensive lines of Elmira, and of Concord in
Massachusetts, a cognate establishment. There is very little penal about
the treatment, which is that of a boarding school; the education,
thorough and carried far, includes languages, music, science and
industrial art; diet is plentiful, even luxurious; amusements and varied
recreation are permitted; well stocked libraries are provided with
entertaining books; a prison newspaper is issued (edited by an inmate).
Physical development is sedulously cultivated both by gymnastics and
military exercises, and the whole course is well adapted to change
entirely the character of the individual subjected to it. The trouble
taken in the hope of transforming erring youth into useful members of
society goes still further. The original sentence has been indefinite,
and release on parole will be granted to inmates who pass through the
various courses with credit and are supposed to have satisfied the
authorities of their desire to amend. The limit of detention need not
exceed twelve months, after which parole is possible, although the
average period passed before it is granted is twenty-two months. The
hope of permanent amendment is further sought by the fact that a
situation, generally with good wages and congenial work, provided by the
authorities, awaits every inmate at the time of his discharge. The
inmates, selected from a very large class, are first offenders, but
guilty generally of criminal offences, which include manslaughter,
burglary, forgery, fraud, robbery and receiving. The exact measure of
reformation achieved can never be exactly known, from the absence of
authentic statistics and the difficulty of following up the surveillance
of individuals when released on parole. Reports issued by the manager of
Elmira claim that 81% of those paroled have done well, but these results
are not definitely authenticated. They are based upon the ascertained
good conduct during the term of surveillance, six or twelve months only,
during which time these subjects have not yet spent the gratuities
earned and have probably still kept the situations found for them on
discharge. No doubt the material treated at Elmira and Concord is of a
kind to encourage hope of reformation, as they are first offenders and
presumably not of the criminal classes. Although the processes are open
to criticism, the discipline enforced in these state reformatories does
not err in excessive leniency. They are not "hotels," as has been
sometimes said in ridicule, where prisoners go to enjoy themselves, have
a good time, study Plato and conic sections, and pass out to an assured
future. There is plenty of hard work, mental and physical, and the
"inmates" rather envy their fellows in state prisons. A point to which
great attention is paid is that physical degeneracy lies at the bottom
of the criminal character, and great attention is paid to the
development of nervous energy and strengthening by every means the
normal and healthful functions of the body. A leading feature in the
treatment is the frequency and perfection with which bathing is carried
out. A series of Turkish baths forms a part of the course of
instruction; the baths being fitted elaborately with all the adjuncts of
shower bath, cold douche, ending with gymnastic exercises.

A remarkable and unique institution is the state reformatory for women
at Sherborn, Massachusetts, for women with sentences of more than a
year, who in the opinion of the court are fit subjects for reformatory
treatment. The majority of the inmates were convicted of drunkenness, an
offence which the law of Massachusetts visits with severity--a sentence
of two years being very common. This at once differentiates the class of
women from that in ordinary penal establishments. At the same time we
find that other women guilty of serious crime are sent by the courts to
this prison with a view to their reform. Thus of 352 inmates, while no
fewer than 200 were convicted of drunkenness, there were also 63 cases
of offences against chastity and 30 of larceny. The average age was
thirty-one and the average duration of sentence just over a year. In
appearance and in character it more resembles a hospital or home for
inebriates than a state convict prison. A system of grades or divisions
is relied upon as a stimulus to reform. The difference in grades is
denoted by small and scarcely perceptible variations of the little
details of everyday life, such as are supposed in a peculiar degree to
affect the appreciation of women, e.g. in the lowest division the women
have their meals off old and chipped china; in the next the china is
less chipped; in the highest there is no chipped china; in the next
prettily set out with tumblers, cruet-stands and a pepper pot to each
prisoner. The superintendent relies greatly also on the moralizing
influence of animals and birds. Well-behaved convicts are allowed to
tend sheep, calves, pigs, chickens, canaries and parrots. This privilege
is highly esteemed and productive, it is said, of the most softening
influences.

The "George Junior Republic" (q.v.) is a remarkable institution
established in 1895 at Freeville, near the centre of New York State, by
Mr. William Reuben George. The original features of the institution are
that the motto "Nothing without labour" is rigidly enforced, and that
self-government is carried to a point that, with mere children, would
appear whimsical were it not a proved success. The place is, as the name
implies, a miniature "republic" with laws, legislature, courts and
administration of its own, all made and carried on by the "citizens"
themselves. The tone and spirit of the place appeared to be excellent
and there is much evidence that in many cases strong and independent
character is developed in children whose antecedents have been almost
hopeless.

_Borstal Scheme in England._--The American system of state reformatories
as above described has been sharply criticized, but the principle that
underlies it is recognized as, in a measure, sound, and it has been
adopted by the English authorities. Some time back the experiment of
establishing a penal reformatory for offenders above the age hitherto
committed to reformatory schools was resolved upon. This led to the
foundation of the Borstal scheme, which was first formally started in
October 1902. The arguments which had led to it may be briefly stated
here. It had been conclusively shown that quite half the whole number of
professional criminals had been first convicted when under twenty-one
years of age, when still at a malleable period of development, when in
short the criminal habit had not yet been definitely formed. Moreover
these adolescents escaped special reformatory treatment, for sixteen is
in Great Britain the age of criminal majority, after which no youthful
offenders can be committed to the state reformatory schools. But there
was always a formidable contingent of juvenile adults between sixteen and
twenty-one, sent to penal servitude, and their numbers although
diminishing rose to an average total of 15,000. It was accordingly
decided to create a penal establishment under state control, which should
be a half-way house between the prison and the reformatory school. A
selection was made of juvenile adults, sentenced to not less than six
months and sent to Borstal in 1902 to be treated under rules approved by
the home secretary. They were to be divided on arrival into three
separate classes, penal, ordinary and special, with promotion by industry
and good conduct from the lowest to the highest, in which they enjoyed
distinctive privileges. The general system, educational and disciplinary,
was intelligent and governed by common sense. Instruction, both manual
and educational, was well suited to the recipients; the first embraced
field work, market gardening, and a knowledge of useful handicrafts; the
second was elementary but sound, aided by well-chosen libraries and
brightened by the privilege of evening association to play harmless but
interesting games. Physical development was also guaranteed by gymnastics
and regular exercises. The results were distinctly encouraging. They
arrived at Borstal "rough, untrained cubs," but rapidly improved in
demeanour and inward character, gaining self-reliance and self-respect,
and left the prison on the high road to regeneration. It was wisely
remembered that to secure lasting amendment it is not enough to chasten
the erring subject, to train his hands, to strengthen his moral sense
while still in durance; it is essential to assist him on discharge by
helping him to find work, and encourage him by timely advice to keep him
in the straight path. Too much praise cannot be accorded to the agencies
and associations which labour strenuously and unceasingly to this
excellent end. Especial good work has been done by the Borstal
association, founded under the patronage of the best known and most
distinguished persons in English public life--archbishops, judges,
cabinet ministers and privy councillors--which receives the juvenile
adults on their release and helps them to employment. Their labours,
backed by generous voluntary contributions, have produced very gratifying
results. Although the offenders originally selected to undergo the
Borstal treatment were those committed for a period of six months, it was
recognized that this limit was experimental, and that thoroughly
satisfactory results could only be obtained with sentences of at least a
year's duration, so as to give the reforming agencies ample time to
operate. In the second year's working of the system it was formally
applied to young convicts sentenced to penal servitude between the ages
of sixteen and twenty-one. In the next year it was adopted for all
offenders between the ages of sixteen and twenty-one committed to prison,
as far as the length of sentence would permit. The commissioners of
prisons, in their _Report_ for the year 1908 (Cd. 4300) thus expressed
themselves on the working of the experiment:--

  "Experience soon began to point to the probable success of this
  general application of the principle, in spite of the fact that the
  prevailing shortness of sentences operated against full benefit being
  derived from reformatory effort. The success was most marked in those
  localities where magistrates, or other benevolent persons, personally
  co-operated in making the scheme a success. Local Borstal committees
  were established at all prisons, and it was arranged that those
  members of the local committees should become _ex officio_ honorary
  members of the Central Borstal Association, which it was intended
  should become, what it now is, the parent society directing the
  general aid on discharge of this category of young prisoners."

In spite of the general adoption of the Borstal system, there was a
large class of young criminals who were outside its effects, those who
were sentenced to terms of ten days and under for trifling offences.
These juvenile adults, once having had the fear of prison taken away by
actual experience, were found to come back again and again. To remedy
this state of affairs, a bill was introduced in 1907 to give effect to
the principle of a long period of detention for all those showing a
tendency to embark on a criminal career. The bill was, however, dropped,
but a somewhat similar bill was introduced the next year and became law
under the title of The Prevention of Crime Act 1908. This measure
introduces a new departure in the treatment of professional crime by
initiating a system of detention for habitual criminals (see
RECIDIVISM). The act attempts the reformation of young offenders by
giving the court power to pass sentence of detention in a Borstal
institution for a term of not less than one year nor more than three on
those between the ages of sixteen and twenty-one who by reason of
criminal habits or tendencies or association with persons of bad
character require such instruction and discipline as appear most
conducive to their reformation. The power of detention applies also to
reformatory school offences, while such persons as are already
undergoing penal servitude or imprisonment may be transferred to a
Borstal institution if detention would conduce to their advantage. The
establishment of other Borstal institutions is authorized by the act,
while a very useful provision is the power to release on licence if
there is a reasonable probability that the offender will abstain from
crime and lead a useful and industrious life. The licence is issued on
condition that he is placed under the supervision or authority of some
society or person willing to take charge of him. Supervision is
introduced after the expiration of the term of sentence, and power is
given to transfer to prison incorrigibles or those exercising a bad
influence on the other inmates of a Borstal institution. The act marks a
noteworthy advance in the endeavour to arrest the growing habit of
crime.     (A. G.; T. A. I.)



JUVENTAS (Latin for "youth": later _Juventus_), in Roman mythology, the
tutelar goddess of young men. She was worshipped at Rome from very early
times. In the front court of the temple of Minerva on the Capitol there
was a chapel of Juventas, in which a coin had to be deposited by each
youth on his assumption of the _toga virilis_, and sacrifices were
offered on behalf of the rising manhood of the state. In connexion with
this chapel it is related that, when the temple was in course of
erection, Terminus, the god of boundaries, and Juventas refused to quit
the sites they had already appropriated as sacred to themselves, which
accordingly became part of the new sanctuary. This was interpreted as a
sign of the immovable boundaries and eternal youth of the Roman state.
It should be observed that in the oldest accounts there is no mention of
Juventas, whose name (with that of Mars) was added in support of the
augural prediction. After the Second Punic War Greek elements were
introduced into her cult. In 218 B.C., by order of the Sibylline books,
a _lectisternium_ was prepared for Juventas and a public thanksgiving to
Hercules, an association which shows the influence of the Greek Hebe,
the wife of Heracles. In 207 Marcus Livius Salinator, after the defeat
of Hasdrubal at the battle of Sena, vowed another temple to Juventas in
the Circus Maximus, which was dedicated in 191 by C. (or M.) Licinius
Lucullus; it was destroyed by fire in 16 B.C. and rebuilt by Augustus.
In imperial times, Juventas personified, not the youth of the Roman
state, but of the future emperor.

  See Dion. Halic., iii. 69, iv. 15; Livy v. 54, xxi. 62, xxxvi. 36.



JUXON, WILLIAM (1582-1663), English prelate, was the son of Robert Juxon
and was born probably at Chichester, being educated at Merchant Taylors'
School, London, and at St John's College, Oxford, where he was elected
to a scholarship in 1598. He studied law at Oxford, but afterwards he
took holy orders, and in 1609 became vicar of St Giles, Oxford, a living
which he retained until he became rector of Somerton, Oxfordshire, in
1615. In December 1621 he succeeded his friend, William Laud, as
president of St John's College, and in 1626 and 1627 he was
vice-chancellor of the university. Juxon soon obtained other important
positions, including that of chaplain-in-ordinary to Charles I. In 1627
he was made dean of Worcester and in 1632 he was nominated to the
bishopric of Hereford, an event which led him to resign the presidency
of St John's in January 1633. However, he never took up his episcopal
duties at Hereford, as in October 1633 he was consecrated bishop of
London in succession to Laud. He appears to have been an excellent
bishop, and in March 1636 Charles I. entrusted him with important
secular duties by making him lord high treasurer of England; thus for
the next five years he was dealing with the many financial and other
difficulties which beset the king and his advisers. He resigned the
treasurership in May 1641. During the Civil War the bishop, against whom
no charges were brought in parliament, lived undisturbed at Fulham
Palace, and his advice was often sought by the king, who had a very high
opinion of him, and who at his execution selected him to be with him on
the scaffold and to administer to him the last consolations of religion.
Juxon was deprived of his bishopric in 1649 and retired to Little
Compton in Gloucestershire, where he had bought an estate, and here he
became famous as the owner of a pack of hounds. At the restoration of
Charles II. he became archbishop of Canterbury and in his official
capacity he took part in the coronation of this king, but his health
soon began to fail and he died at Lambeth on the 4th of June 1663. By
his will the archbishop was a benefactor to St John's College, where he
was buried; he also aided the work of restoring St Paul's Cathedral and
rebuilt the great hall at Lambeth Palace.

  See W. H. Marah, _Memoirs of Archbishop Juxon and his Times_ (1869);
  the best authority for the archbishop's life is the article by W. H.
  Hutton in the _Dict. Nat. Biog._ (1892).



K The eleventh letter in the Phoenician alphabet and in its descendant
Greek, the tenth in Latin owing to the omission of Teth (see I), and
once more the eleventh in the alphabets of Western Europe owing to the
insertion of J. In its long history the shape of K has changed very
little. It is on the inscription of the Moabite Stone (early 9th cent.
B.C.) in the form (written from right to left) of [symbol] and [symbol].
Similar forms are also found in early Aramaic, but another form [symbol]
or [symbol], which is found in the Phoenician of Cyprus in the 9th or
10th century B.C. has had more effect upon the later development of the
Semitic forms. The length of the two back strokes and the manner in
which they join the upright are the only variations in Greek. In various
places the back strokes, treated as an angle <, become more rounded (,
so that the letter appears as K, a form which in Latin probably affected
the development of C (q.v.). In Crete it is elaborated into [symbol] and
[symbol]. In Latin K, which is found in the earliest inscriptions, was
soon replaced by C, and survived only in the abbreviations for
_Kalendae_ and the proper name _Kaeso_. The original name Kaph became in
Greek _Kappa_. The sound of K throughout has been that of the unvoiced
guttural, varying to some extent in its pronunciation according to the
nature of the vowel sound which followed it. In Anglo-Saxon C replaced K
through Latin influence, writing being almost entirely in the hands of
ecclesiastics. As the sound-changes have been discussed under C it is
necessary here only to refer to the palatalization of K followed earlier
by a final _e_ as in _watch_ (Middle English _wacche_, Anglo-Saxon
_wæcce_) by the side of _wake_ (M.E. _waken_, A.-S. _wacan_); batch,
bake, &c. Sometimes an older form of the substantive survives, as in the
Elizabethan and Northern _make_ = _mate_ alongside _match_.     (P. Gi.)



K2, or MT GODWIN-AUSTEN, the second highest mountain in the world,
ranking after Mt Everest. It is a peak of the Karakoram extension of the
Muztagh range dividing Kashmir from Chinese Turkestan. The height of K2
as at present determined by triangulation is 28,250 ft., but it is
possible that an ultimate revision of the values of refraction at high
altitudes may have the effect of lowering the height of K2, while it
would elevate those of Everest and Kinchinjunga. The latter mountain
would then rank second, and K2 third, in the scale of altitude, Everest
always maintaining its ascendancy. K2 was ascended for the first time by
the duke of the Abruzzi in June 1909, being the highest elevation on the
earth's surface ever reached by man.



KA'BA, KAABA, or KAABEH, the sacred shrine of Mahommedanism, containing
the "black stone," in the middle of the great mosque at Mecca (q.v.).



KABARDIA, a territory of S. Russia, now part of the province of Terek.
It is divided into Great and Little Kabardia by the upper river Terek,
and covers 3780 sq. m. on the northern slopes of the Caucasus range
(from Mount Elbruz to Pasis-mta, or Edena), including the Black
Mountains (Kara-dagh) and the high plains on their northern slope.
Before the Russian conquest it extended as far as the Sea of Azov. Its
population is now about 70,000. One-fourth of the territory is owned by
the aristocracy and the remainder is divided among the _auls_ or
villages. A great portion is under permanent pasture, part under
forests, and some under perpetual snow. Excellent breeds of horses are
reared, and the peasants own many cattle. The land is well cultivated in
the lower parts, the chief crops being millet, maize, wheat and oats.
Bee-keeping is extensively practised, and Kabardian honey is in repute.
Wood-cutting and the manufacture of wooden wares, the making of _búrkas_
(felt and fur cloaks), and saddlery are very general. Nalchik is the
chief town.

The Kabardians are a branch of the Adyghè (Circassians). The policy of
Russia was always to be friendly with the Kabardian aristocracy, who
were possessed of feudal rights over the Ossetes, the Ingushes, the
Abkhasians and the mountain Tatars, and had command of the roads leading
into Transcaucasia. Ivan the Terrible took Kabardia under his protection
in the 16th century. Later, Russian influence was counterbalanced by
that of the Crimean khans, but the Kabardian nobles nevertheless
supported Peter the Great during his Caucasian campaign in 1722-23. In
1739 Kabardia was recognized as being under the double protectorate of
Russia and Turkey, but thirty-five years later it was definitively
annexed to Russia, and risings of the population in 1804 and 1822 were
cruelly suppressed. Kabardia is considered as a school of good manners
in Caucasia; the Kabardian dress sets the fashion to all the
mountaineers. Kabardians constitute the best detachment of the personal
Imperial Guards at St Petersburg.

  A short grammar of the Kabardian language and a Russian-Kabardian
  dictionary, by Lopatinsky, were published in _Sbornik Materialov dla
  Opisaniya Kavkaza_ (vol. xii., Tiflis, 1891). Fragments of the poem
  "Sosyruko," some Persian tales, and the tenets of the Mussulman
  religion were printed in Kabardian in 1864, by Kazi Atazhukin and
  Shardanov. The common law of the Kabardians has been studied by Maxim
  Kovalevsky and Vsevolod Miller.



KABBA, a province of the British protectorate of Northern Nigeria,
situated chiefly on the right bank of the Niger, between 7° 5´ and 8°
45´ N. and 5° 30´ and 7° E. It has an area of 7800 sq. m. and an
estimated population of about 70,000. The province consists of
relatively healthy uplands interspersed with fertile valleys. It formed
part at one time of the Nupe emirate, and under Fula rule the armies of
Bida regularly raided for slaves and laid waste the country. Amongst the
native inhabitants the Igbira are very industrious, and crops of
tobacco, indigo, all the African grains, and a good quantity of cotton
are already grown. The sylvan products are valuable and include palm
oil, kolas, shea and rubber. Lokoja, a town which up to 1902 was the
principal British station in the protectorate, is situated in this
province. The site of Lokoja, with a surrounding tract of country at the
junction of the Benue and the Niger, was ceded to the British government
in 1841 by the _attah_ of Idah, whose dominions at that time extended to
the right bank of the river. The first British settlement was a failure.
In 1854 MacGregor Laird, who had taken an active part in promoting the
exploration of the river, sent thither Dr W. B. Baikie, who was
successful in dealing with the natives and in 1857 became the first
British consul in the interior. The town of Lokoja was founded by him in
1860. In 1868 the consulate was abolished and the settlement was left
wholly to commercial interests. In 1879 Sir George Goldie formed the
Royal Niger Company, which bought out its foreign rivals and acquired a
charter from the British government. In 1886 the company made Lokoja its
military centre, and on the transfer of the company's territories to the
Crown it remained for a time the capital of Northern Nigeria. In 1902
the political capital of the protectorate was shifted to Zungeru in the
province of Zaria, but Lokoja remains the commercial centre. The
distance of Lokoja from the sea at the Niger mouth is about 250 m.

In the absence of any central native authority the province is entirely
dependent for administration upon British initiative. It has been
divided into four administrative divisions. British and native courts of
justice have been established. A British station has been established at
Kabba town, which is an admirable site some 50 m. W. by N. of Lokoja,
about 1300 ft. above the sea, and a good road has been made from Kabba
to Lokoja. Roads have been opened through the province. (See NIGERIA.)



KABBABISH ("goatherds": James Bruce derives the name from _Hebsh_,
sheep), a tribe of African nomads of Semitic origin. It is perhaps the
largest "Arab" tribe in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, and its many clans are
scattered over the country extending S.W. from the province of Dongola
to the confines of Darfur. The Kabbabish speak Arabic, but their
pronunciation differs much from that of the true Arabs. The Kabbabish
have a tradition that they came from Tunisia and are of Mogrebin or
western descent; but while the chiefs look like Arabs, the tribesmen
resemble the Beja family. They themselves declare that one of their
clans, Kawahla, is not of Kabbabish blood, but was affiliated to them
long ago. Kawahla is a name of Arab formation, and J. L. Burckhardt
spoke of the clan as a distinct one living about Abu Haraz and on the
Atbara. The Kabbabish probably received Arab rulers, as did the Ababda.
They are chiefly employed in cattle, camel and sheep breeding, and
before the Sudan wars of 1883-99 they had a monopoly of all transport
from the Nile, north of Abu Gussi, to Kordofan. They also cultivate the
lowlands which border the Nile, where they have permanent villages. They
are of fine physique, dark with black wiry hair, carefully arranged in
tightly rolled curls which cling to the head, with regular features and
rather thick aquiline noses. Some of the tribes wear large hats like
those of the Kabyles of Algeria and Tunisia.

  See James Bruce, _Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile_ (1790);
  A. H. Keane, _Ethnology of Egyptian Sudan_ (1884); _Anglo-Egyptian
  Sudan_ (edited by Count Gleichen, 1905).



KABBALAH (late Hebrew _kabbalah_, _qabbalah_), the technical name for
the system of Jewish theosophy which played an important part in the
Christian Church in the middle ages. The term primarily denotes
"reception" and then "doctrines received by tradition." In the older
Jewish literature the name is applied to the whole body of received
religious doctrine with the exception of the Pentateuch, thus including
the Prophets and Hagiographa as well as the oral traditions ultimately
embodied in the Mishnah.[1] It is only since the 11th or 12th century
that Kabbalah has become the exclusive appellation for the renowned
system of theosophy which claims to have been transmitted
uninterruptedly by the mouths of the patriarchs and prophets ever since
the creation of the first man.


  Doctrine of the Sephiroth.

The cardinal doctrines of the Kabbalah embrace the nature of the Deity,
the Divine emanations or _Sephiroth_, the cosmogony, the creation of
angels and man, their destiny, and the import of the revealed law.
According to this esoteric doctrine, God, who is boundless, and above
everything, even above being and thinking, is called _En Soph_ ([Greek:
apeiros]); He is the space of the universe containing [Greek: to pan],
but the universe is not his space. In this boundlessness He could not be
comprehended by the intellect or described in words, and as such the En
Soph was in a certain sense _Ayin_, non-existent (_Zohar_, iii. 283).[2]
To make his existence known and comprehensible, the En Soph had to
become active and creative. As creation involves intention, desire,
thought and work, and as these are properties which imply limit and
belong to a finite being, and moreover as the imperfect and
circumscribed nature of this creation precludes the idea of its being
the direct work of the infinite and perfect, the En Soph had to become
creative, through the medium of ten Sephiroth or intelligences, which
emanated from him like rays proceeding from a luminary.

Now the wish to become manifest and known, and hence the idea of
creation, is co-eternal with the inscrutable Deity, and the first
manifestation of this primordial will is called the first _Sephirah_ or
emanation. This first Sephirah, this spiritual substance which existed
in the En Soph from all eternity, contained nine other intelligences or
_Sephiroth_. These again emanated one from the other, the second from
the first, the third from the second, and so on up to ten.

  The ten Sephiroth, which form among themselves and with the En Soph a
  strict unity, and which simply represent different aspects of one and
  the same being, are respectively denominated (1) the Crown, (2)
  Wisdom, (3) Intelligence, (4) Love, (5) Justice, (6) Beauty, (7)
  Firmness, (8) Splendour, (9) Foundation, and (10) Kingdom. Their
  evolution was as follows: "When the Holy Aged, the concealed of all
  concealed, assumed a form, he produced everything in the form of male
  and female, as things could not continue in any other form. Hence
  Wisdom, the second Sephirah, and the beginning of development, when it
  proceeded from the Holy Aged (another name of the first Sephirah)
  emanated in male and female, for Wisdom expanded, and Intelligence,
  the third Sephirah, proceeded from it, and thus were obtained male and
  female, viz. Wisdom the father and Intelligence the mother, from whose
  union the other pairs of Sephiroth successively emanated" (_Zohar_,
  iii. 290). These two opposite potencies, viz. the masculine Wisdom or
  Sephirah No. 2 and the feminine Intelligence or Sephirah No. 3 are
  joined together by the first potency, the Crown or Sephirah No. 1;
  they yield the first triad of the Sephiric decade, and constitute the
  divine head of the archetypal man.

  From the junction of Sephiroth Nos. 2 and 3 emanated the masculine
  potency Love or Mercy (4) and the feminine potency Justice (5), and
  from the junction of the latter two emanated again the uniting potency
  Beauty (6). Beauty, the sixth Sephirah, constitutes the chest in the
  archetypal man, and unites Love (4) and Justice (5), which constitute
  the divine arms, thus yielding the second triad of the Sephiric
  decade. From this second conjunction emanated again the masculine
  potency Firmness (7) and the feminine potency Splendour (8), which
  constitute the divine legs of the archetypal man; and these sent forth
  Foundation (9), which is the genital organ and medium of union between
  them, thus yielding the third triad in the Sephiric decade. Kingdom
  (10), which emanated from the ninth Sephirah, encircles all the other
  nine, inasmuch as it is the Shechinah, the divine halo, which
  encompasses the whole by its all-glorious presence.

In their totality and unity the ten Sephiroth are not only denominated
the World of Sephiroth, or the World of Emanations, but, owing to the
above representation, are called the primordial or archetypal man (=
[Greek: prôtogonos]) and the heavenly man. It is this form which, as we
are assured, the prophet Ezekiel saw in the mysterious chariot (Ezek. i.
1-28), and of which the earthly man is a faint copy.

As the three triads respectively represent intellectual, moral and
physical qualities, the first is called the Intellectual, the second the
Moral or Sensuous, and the third the Material World. According to this
theory of the archetypal man the three Sephiroth on the right-hand side
are masculine and represent the principle of rigour, the three on the
left are feminine and represent the principle of mercy, and the four
central or uniting Sephiroth represent the principle of mildness. Hence
the right is called "the Pillar of Judgment," the left "the Pillar of
Mercy," and the centre "the Middle Pillar." The middle Sephiroth are
synecdochically used to represent the worlds or triads of which they are
the uniting potencies. Hence the Crown, the first Sephirah, which unites
Wisdom and Intelligence to constitute the first triad, is by itself
denominated the Intellectual World. So Beauty is by itself described as
the Sensuous World, and in this capacity is called the Sacred King or
simply the King, whilst Kingdom, the tenth Sephirah, which unites all
the nine Sephiroth, is used to denote the Material World, and as such is
denominated the Queen or the Matron. Thus a trinity of units, viz. the
Crown, Beauty and Kingdom, is obtained within the trinity of triads. But
further, each Sephirah is as it were a trinity in itself. It (1) has its
own absolute character, (2) receives from above, and (3) communicates to
what is below. "Just as the Sacred Aged is represented by the number
three, so are all the other lights (Sephiroth) of a threefold nature"
(_Zohar_, iii. 288). In this all-important doctrine of the Sephiroth,
the Kabbalah insists upon the fact that these potencies are not
creations of the En Soph, which would be a diminution of strength; that
they form among themselves and with the En Soph a strict unity, and
simply represent different aspects of the same being, just as the
different rays which proceed from the light, and which appear different
things to the eye, are only different manifestations of one and the same
light; that for this reason they all alike partake of the perfections of
the En Soph; and that as emanations from the Infinite, the Sephiroth are
infinite and perfect like the En Soph, and yet constitute the first
finite things. They are infinite and perfect when the En Soph imparts
his fullness to them, and finite and imperfect when that fullness is
withdrawn from them.


  The Universe.

The conjunction of the Sephiroth, or, according to the language of the
Kabbalah, the union of the crowned King and Queen, produced the universe
in their own image. Worlds came into existence before the En Soph
manifested himself in the human form of emanations, but they could not
continue, and necessarily perished because the conditions of development
which obtained with the sexual opposites of the Sephiroth did not exist.
These worlds which perished are compared to sparks which fly out from a
red-hot iron beaten by a hammer, and which are extinguished according to
the distance they are removed from the burning mass. Creation is not
_ex nihilo_; it is simply a further expansion or evolution of the
Sephiroth.[3] The world reveals and makes visible the Boundless and the
concealed of the concealed. And, though it exhibits the Deity in less
splendour than its Sephiric parents exhibit the En Soph, because it is
farther removed from the primordial source of light than the Sephiroth,
still, as it is God manifested, all the multifarious forms in the world
point out the unity which they represent. Hence nothing in the whole
universe can be annihilated. Everything, spirit as well as body, must
return to the source whence it emanated (_Zohar_, ii. 218). The universe
consists of four different worlds, each of which forms a separate
Sephiric system of a decade of emanations.

  They were evolved in the following order. (1) The World Of Emanations,
  also called the Image and the Heavenly or Archetypal Man, is, as we
  have seen, a direct emanation from the En Soph. Hence it is most
  intimately allied to the Deity, and is perfect and immutable. From the
  conjunction of the King and Queen (i.e. these ten Sephiroth) is
  produced (2) the World of Creation, or the Briatic world, also called
  "the Throne." Its ten Sephiroth, being farther removed from the En
  Soph, are of a more limited and circumscribed potency, though the
  substances they comprise are of the purest nature and without any
  admixture of matter. The angel Metatron inhabits this world. He alone
  constitutes the world of pure spirit, and is the garment of Shaddai,
  i.e. the visible manifestation of the Deity. His name is numerically
  equivalent to that of the Lord (_Zohar_, iii. 231). He governs the
  visible world, preserves the harmony and guides the revolutions of all
  the spheres, and is the captain of all the myriads of angelic beings.
  This Briatic world again gave rise to (3) the World of Formation, or
  Yetziratic World. Its ten Sephiroth, being still farther removed from
  the Primordial Source, are of a less refined substance. Still they are
  yet without matter. It is the abode of the angels, who are wrapped in
  luminous garments, and who assume a sensuous form when they appear to
  men. The myriads of the angelic hosts who people this world are
  divided into ten ranks, answering to the ten Sephiroth, and each one
  of these numerous angels is set over a different part of the universe,
  and derives his name from the heavenly body or element which he guards
  (_Zohar_, i. 42). From this world finally emanated (4) the World of
  Action, also called the World of Matter. Its ten Sephiroth are made up
  of the grosser elements of the former three worlds; they consist of
  material substance limited by space and perceptible to the senses in a
  multiplicity of forms. This world is subject to constant changes and
  corruption, and is the dwelling of the evil spirits. These, the
  grossest and most deficient of all forms, are also divided into ten
  degrees, each lower than the other. The first two are nothing more
  than the absence of all visible form and organization; the third
  degree is the abode of darkness; whilst the remaining seven are "the
  seven infernal halls," occupied by the demons, who are the incarnation
  of all human vices. These seven hells are subdivided into innumerable
  compartments corresponding to every species of sin, where the demons
  torture the poor deluded human beings who have suffered themselves to
  be led astray whilst on earth. The prince of this region of darkness
  is Samael, the evil spirit, the serpent who seduced Eve. His wife is
  the Harlot or the Woman of Whoredom. The two are treated as one
  person, and are called "the Beast" (_Zohar_, ii. 255-259, with i. 35).


  Doctrine of Man.

The whole universe, however, was incomplete, and did not receive its
finishing stroke till man was formed, who is the acme of the creation
and the microcosm. "The heavenly Adam (i.e. the ten Sephiroth) who
emanated from the highest primordial obscurity (i.e. the En Soph)
created the earthly Adam" (_Zohar_, ii. 70). "Man is both the import and
the highest degree of creation, for which reason he was formed on the
sixth day. As soon as man was created everything was complete, including
the upper and nether worlds, for everything is comprised in man. He
unites in himself all forms" (_Zohar_, iii. 48). Each member of his body
corresponds to a part of the visible universe. "Just as we see in the
firmament above, covering all things, different signs which are formed
of the stars and the planets, and which contain secret things and
profound mysteries studied by those who are wise and expert in these
things; so there are in the skin, which is the cover of the body of the
son of man, and which is like the sky that covers all things above,
signs and features which are the stars and planets of the skin,
indicating secret things and profound mysteries whereby the wise are
attracted who understand the reading of the mysteries in the human
face" (_Zohar_, ii. 76). The human form is shaped after the four letters
which constitute the Jewish Tetragrammaton (q.v.; see also JEHOVAH). The
head is in the shape of [Hebrew: iod], the arms and the shoulders are
like [Hebrew: hei], the breast like [Hebrew: vav], and the two legs with
the back again resemble [Hebrew: hei] (_Zohar_, ii. 72). The souls of
the whole human race pre-exist in the World of Emanations, and are all
destined to inhabit human bodies. Like the Sephiroth from which it
emanates, every soul has ten potencies, consisting of a trinity of
triads. (1) The Spirit (_neshamah_), which is the highest degree of
being, corresponds to and is operated upon by the Crown, which is the
highest triad in the Sephiroth, and is called the Intellectual World;
(2) the Soul (_ruah_), which is the seat of the moral qualities,
corresponds to and is operated upon by Beauty, which is the second triad
in the Sephiroth, and is called the Moral World; and (3) the Cruder Soul
(_nephesh_), which is immediately connected with the body, and is the
cause of its lower instincts and the animal life, corresponds to and is
operated upon by Foundation, the third triad in the Sephiroth, called
the Material World. Each soul prior to its entering into this world
consists of male and female united into one being. When it descends on
this earth the two parts are separated and animate two different bodies.
"At the time of marriage the Holy One, blessed be he, who knows all
souls and spirits, unites them again as they were before; and they again
constitute one body and one soul, forming as it were the right and the
left of the individual.... This union, however, is influenced by the
deeds of the man and by the ways in which he walks. If the man is pure
and his conduct is pleasing in the sight of God, he is united with that
female part of the soul which was his component part prior to his birth"
(_Zohar_, i. 91). The soul's destiny upon earth is to develop those
perfections the germs of which are eternally implanted in it, and it
ultimately must return to the infinite source from which it emanated.
Hence, if, after assuming a body and sojourning upon earth, it becomes
polluted by sin and fails to acquire the experience for which it
descends from heaven, it must three times reinhabit a body, till it is
able to ascend in a purified state through repeated trials. If, after
its third residence in a human body, it is still too weak to withstand
the contamination of sin, it is united with another soul, in order that
by their combined efforts it may resist the pollution which by itself it
was unable to conquer. When the whole pleroma of pre-existent souls in
the world of the Sephiroth shall have descended and occupied human
bodies and have passed their period of probation and have returned
purified to the bosom of the infinite Source, then the soul of Messiah
will descend from the region of souls; then the great Jubilee will
commence. There shall be no more sin, no more temptation, no more
suffering. Universal restoration will take place. Satan himself, "the
venomous Beast," will be restored to his angelic nature. Life will be an
everlasting feast, a Sabbath without end. All souls will be united with
the Highest Soul, and will supplement each other in the Holy of Holies
of the Seven Halls (_Zohar_, i. 45, 168; ii. 97).


  Antiquity and Influence of Kabbalah.

According to the Kabbalah all these esoteric doctrines are contained in
the Hebrew Scriptures. The uninitiated cannot perceive them; but they
are plainly revealed to the spiritually minded, who discern the profound
import of this theosophy beneath the surface of the letters and words of
Holy Writ. "If the law simply consists of ordinary expressions and
narratives, such as the words of Esau, Hagar, Laban, the ass of Balaam
or Balaam himself, why should it be called the law of truth, the perfect
law, the true witness of God? Each word contains a sublime source, each
narrative points not only to the single instance in question, but also
to generals" (_Zohar_, iii. 149, cf. 152).

  To obtain these heavenly mysteries, which alone make the Torah
  superior to profane codes, definite hermeneutical rules are employed,
  of which the following are the most important. (1) The words of
  several verses in the Hebrew Scriptures which are regarded as
  containing a recondite sense are placed over each other, and the
  letters are formed into new words by reading them vertically. (2) The
  words of the text are ranged in squares in such a manner as to be read
  either vertically or boustrophedon. (3) The words are joined together
  and redivided. (4) The initials and final letters of several words are
  formed into separate words. (5) Every letter of a word is reduced to
  its numerical value, and the word is explained by another of the same
  quantity. (6) Every letter of a word is taken to be the initial or
  abbreviation of a word. (7) The twenty-two letters of the alphabet are
  divided into two halves; one half is placed above the other; and the
  two letters which thus become associated are interchanged. By this
  permutation, _Aleph_, the first letter of the alphabet, becomes
  _Lamed_, the twelfth letter; _Beth_ becomes _Mem_, and so on. This
  cipher alphabet is called _Albam_, from the first interchangeable
  pairs. (8) The commutation of the twenty-two letters is effected by
  the last letter of the alphabet taking the place of the first, the
  last but one the place of the second, and so forth. This cipher is
  called _Atbash_. These hermeneutical canons are much older than the
  Kabbalah. They obtained in the synagogue from time immemorial, and
  were used by the Christian fathers in the interpretation of
  Scripture.[4] Thus Canon V., according to which a word is reduced to
  its numerical value and interpreted by another word of the same value,
  is recognized in the New Testament (cf. Rev. xiii. 18). Canon VI. is
  adopted by Irenaeus, who tells us that, according to the learned among
  the Hebrews, the name Jesus contains two letters and a half, and
  signifies that Lord who contains heaven and earth [[Hebrew: ieshu] =
  [Hebrew: ieova shamaim vaaretz]] (_Against Heresies_, ii. xxiv., i.
  205, ed. Clark). The cipher _Atbash_ (Canon VIII.) is used in Jeremiah
  xxv. 26, li. 41, where Sheshach is written for Babel. In Jer. li. 1,
  [Hebrew: lev kamai], _Leb-Kamai_ ("the heart of them that rise up
  against me"), is written for [Hebrew: kasdim], _Chaldea_, by the same
  rule.

Exegesis of this sort is not the characteristic of any single circle,
people or century; unscientific methods of biblical interpretation have
prevailed from Philo's treatment of the Pentateuch to modern apologetic
interpretations of Genesis, ch. i.[5] The Kabbalah itself is but an
extreme and remarkable development of certain forms of thought which had
never been absent from Judaism; it is bound up with earlier tendencies
to mysticism, with man's inherent striving to enter into communion with
the Deity. To seek its sources would be futile. The Pythagorean theory
of numbers, Neoplatonic ideas of emanation, the Logos, the personified
Wisdom, Gnosticism--these and many other features combine to show the
antiquity of tendencies which, clad in other shapes, are already found
in the old pre-Christian Oriental religions.[6] In its more mature form
the Kabbalah belongs to the period when medieval Christian mysticism was
beginning to manifest itself (viz. in Eckhart, towards end of 13th
century); it is an age which also produced the rationalism of Maimonides
(q.v.). Although some of its foremost exponents were famous Talmudists,
it was a protest against excessive intellectualism and Aristotelian
scholasticism. It laid stress, not on external authority, as did the
Jewish law, but on individual experience and inward meditation. "The
mystics accorded the first place to prayer, which was considered as a
mystical progress towards God, demanding a state of ecstasy."[7] As a
result, some of the finest specimens of Jewish devotional literature and
some of the best types of Jewish individual character have been
Kabbalist.[8] On the other hand, the Kabbalah has been condemned, and
nowhere more strongly than among the Jews themselves. Jewish orthodoxy
found itself attacked by the more revolutionary aspects of mysticism and
its tendencies to alter established customs. While the medieval
scholasticism denied the possibility of knowing anything unattainable by
reason, the spirit of the Kabbalah held that the Deity could be
realized, and it sought to bridge the gulf. Thus it encouraged an
unrestrained emotionalism, rank superstition, an unhealthy asceticism,
and the employment of artificial means to induce the ecstatic state.
That this brought moral laxity was a stronger reason for condemning the
Kabbalah, and the evil effects of nervous degeneration find a more
recent illustration in the mysticism of the Chasidim (_Hasidim_,
"saints"), a Jewish sect in eastern Europe which started from a movement
in the 18th century against the exaggerated casuistry of contemporary
rabbis, and combined much that was spiritual and beautiful with extreme
emotionalism and degradation.[9] The appearance of the Kabbalah and of
other forms of mysticism in Judaism may seem contrary to ordinary and
narrow conceptions of orthodox Jewish legalism. Its interest lies, not
in its doctrines, which have often been absurdly over-estimated
(particularly among Christians), but in its contribution to the study of
human thought. It supplied a want which has always been felt by certain
types, and it became a movement which had mischievous effects upon
ill-balanced minds. As usual, the excessive self-introspection was not
checked by a rational criticism; the individual was guided by his own
reason, the limitations of which he did not realize; and in becoming a
law unto himself he ignored the accumulated experiences of civilized
humanity.[10]

A feature of greater interest is the extraordinary part which this
theosophy played in the Christian Church, especially at the time of the
Renaissance. We have already seen that the Sephiric decade or the
archetypal man, like Christ, is considered to be of a double nature,
both infinite and finite, perfect and imperfect. More distinct, however,
is the doctrine of the Trinity. In Deut. vi. 43, where Yahweh occurs
first, then Elohenu, and then again Yahweh, we are told "The voice
though one, consists of three elements, fire (i.e. warmth), air (i.e.
breath), and water (i.e. humidity), yet all three are one in the mystery
of the voice and can only be one. Thus also Yahweh, Elohenu, Yahweh,
constitute one--three forms which are one" (_Zohar_, ii. 43; compare
iii. 65). Discussing the thrice holy in Isaiah vi. 3, one codex of the
_Zohar_ had the following remark: "The first holy denotes the Holy
Father, the second the Holy Son, and the third the Holy Ghost" (cf.
Galatinus, _De arcanis cathol._ lib. ii. c. 3, p. 31; Wolf, _Bibliotheca
hebraica_, i. 1136). Still more distinct is the doctrine of the
atonement. "The Messiah invokes all the sufferings, pain, and
afflictions of Israel to come upon Him. Now if He did not remove them
thus and take them upon Himself, no man could endure the sufferings of
Israel, due as their punishment for transgressing the law; as it is
written (Isa. liii. 4), Surely He hath borne our griefs and carried our
sorrows" (_Zohar_, ii. 12). These and similar statements favouring the
doctrines of the New Testament made many Kabbalists of the highest
position in the synagogue embrace the Christian faith and write
elaborate books to win their Jewish brethren over to Christ. As early as
1450 a company of Jewish converts in Spain, at the head of which were
Paul de Heredia, Vidal de Saragossa de Aragon, and Davila, published
compilations of Kabbalistic treatises to prove from them the doctrines
of Christianity. They were followed by Paul Rici, professor at Pavia,
and physician to the emperor Maximilian I. Among the best-known
non-Jewish exponents of the Kabbalah were the Italian count Pico di
Mirandola (1463-1494), the renowned Johann Reuchlin (1455-1522),
Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa of Nettesheim (1487-1535), Theophrastus
Paracelsus (1493-1541), and, later, the Englishman Robert Fludd
(1574-1637). Prominent among the "nine hundred theses" which Mirandola
had placarded in Rome, and which he undertook to defend in the presence
of all European scholars, whom he invited to the Eternal City, promising
to defray their travelling expenses, was the following: "No science
yields greater proof of the divinity of Christ than magic and the
Kabbalah." Mirandola so convinced Pope Sixtus of the paramount
importance of the Kabbalah as an auxiliary to Christianity that his
holiness exerted himself to have Kabbalistic writings translated into
Latin for the use of divinity students. With equal zeal did Reuchlin act
as the apostle of the Kabbalah. His treatises exercised an almost magic
influence upon the greatest thinkers of the time. Pope Leo X. and the
early Reformers were alike captivated by the charms of the Kabbalah as
propounded by Reuchlin, and not only divines, but statesmen and
warriors, began to study the Oriental languages in order to be able to
fathom the mysteries of Jewish theosophy. The _Zohar_, that farrago of
absurdity and spiritual devotion, was the weapon with which these
Christians defended Jewish literature against hostile ecclesiastic
bodies (Abrahams, _Jew. Lit._ p. 106). Thus the Kabbalah linked the old
scholasticism with the new and independent inquiries in learning and
philosophy after the Renaissance, and although it had evolved a
remarkably bizarre conception of the universe, it partly anticipated, in
its own way, the scientific study of natural philosophy.[11] Jewish
theosophy, then, with its good and evil tendencies, and with its varied
results, may thus claim to have played no unimportant part in the
history of European scholarship and thought.

  The main sources to be noticed are:--


    Main Sources.

  1. The _Sepher Yesirah_, or "book of creation," not the old Hilkoth Y.
  ("rules of creation"), which belongs to the Talmudic period (on which
  see Kohler, _Jew. Ency._ xii. 602 seq.), but a later treatise, a
  combination of medieval natural philosophy and mysticism. It has been
  variously ascribed to the patriarch Abraham and to the illustrious
  rabbi 'Aqiba; its essential elements, however, maybe of the 3rd or 4th
  century A.D., and it is apparently earlier than the 9th (see L.
  Ginzberg, _op. cit._ 603 sqq.). It has "had a greater influence on the
  development of the Jewish mind than almost any other book after the
  completion of the Talmud" (ibid.).

  2. The _Bahir_ ("brilliant," Job. xxxvii. 21), though ascribed to
  Nehunyah b. Haqqanah (1st century A.D.), is first quoted by
  Nahmanides, and is now attributed to his teacher Ezra or Azriel
  (1160-1238). It shows the influence of the _Sepher Yesirah_, is marked
  by the teaching of a celestial Trinity, is a rough outline of what the
  _Zohar_ was destined to be, and gave the first opening to a thorough
  study of metaphysics among the Jews. (See further 1. Broydé, _Jew.
  Ency._ ii. 442 seq.).

  3. The _Zohar_ ("shining," Dan. xii. 3) is a commentary on the
  Pentateuch, according to its division into fifty-two hebdomadal
  lessons. It begins with the exposition of Gen. i. 4 ("let there be
  light") and includes eleven dissertations: (1) "Additions and
  Supplements"; (2) "The Mansions and Abodes," describing the structure
  of paradise and hell; (3) "The Mysteries of the Pentateuch,"
  describing the evolution of the Sephiroth, &c.; (4) "The Hidden
  Interpretation," deducing esoteric doctrine from the narratives in the
  Pentateuch; (5) "The Faithful Shepherd," recording discussions between
  Moses the faithful shepherd, the prophet Elijah and R. Simon b. Yohai,
  the reputed compiler of the _Zohar_; (6) "The Secret of Secrets," a
  treatise on physiognomy and psychology; (7) "The Aged," i.e. the
  prophet Elijah, discoursing with R. Simon on the doctrine of
  transmigration as evolved from Exod. xxi. 1-xxiv. 18; (8) "The Book of
  Secrets," discourses on cosmogony and demonology; (9) "The Great
  Assembly," discourses of R. Simon to his numerous assembly of
  disciples on the form of the Deity and on pneumatology; (10) "The
  Young Man," discourses by young men of superhuman origin on the
  mysteries of ablutions; and (11) "The Small Assembly," containing the
  discourses on the Sephiroth which R. Simon delivered to the small
  congregation of six surviving disciples. The _Zohar_ pretends to be a
  compilation made by Simon b. Yohai (the second century A.D.) of
  doctrines which God communicated to Adam in Paradise, and which have
  been received uninterruptedly from the mouths of the patriarchs and
  prophets. It was discovered, so the story went, in a cavern in Galilee
  where it had been hidden for a thousand years. Amongst the many facts,
  however, established by modern criticism which prove the _Zohar_ to be
  a compilation of the 13th century, are the following: (1) the _Zohar_
  itself praises most fulsomely R. Simon, its reputed author, and exalts
  him above Moses; (2) it mystically explains the Hebrew vowel points,
  which did not obtain till 570; (3) the compiler borrows two verses
  from the celebrated hymn called "The Royal Diadem," written by Ibn
  Gabirol, who was born about 1021; (4) it mentions the capture of
  Jerusalem by the crusaders and the re-taking of the Holy City by the
  Saracens; (5) it speaks of the comet which appeared at Rome, 15th July
  1264, under the pontificate of Urban IV.; (6) by a slip the _Zohar_
  assigns a reason why its contents were not revealed before 5060-5066
  A.M., i.e. 1300-1306 A.D., (7) the doctrine of the En Soph and the
  Sephiroth was not known before the 13th century; and (8) the very
  existence of the _Zohar_ itself was not known prior to the 13th
  century. Hence it is now believed that Moses de Leon (d. 1305), who
  first circulated and sold the _Zohar_ as the production of R. Simon,
  was himself the author or compiler. That eminent scholars both in the
  synagogue and in the church should have been induced to believe in its
  antiquity is owing to the fact that the _Zohar_ embodies many older
  opinions and doctrines, and the undoubted antiquity of some of them
  has served as a lever in the minds of these scholars to raise the late
  speculations about the En Soph, the Sephiroth, &c., to the same age.

  LITERATURE.--The study of the whole subject being wrapped up with
  Gnosticism and Oriental theosophy, the related literature is immense.
  Among the more important works may be mentioned, Baron von Rosenroth's
  _Kabbala Denudata_ (Sulzbach, 1677-1678; Frankfort, 1684); A. Franck,
  _La Kabbale_ (Paris, 2nd ed., 1889; German by Jellinek, Leipzig,
  1844); C. D. Ginsburg, _The Kabbalah, its Doctrines, Development and
  Literature_ (London, 1865); I. Meyer, _Qabbalah_ (Philadelphia, 1888);
  Rubin, _Kabbala und Agada_ (Vienna, 1895), _Heidentum und Kabbalah_
  (1893); Karppe, _Ét. sur les origines du Zohar_ (Paris, 1891); A. E.
  Waite, _Doctrine and Literature of the Kabbalah_ (London, 1902);
  Flügel, _Philosophy, Kabbala, &c._ (Baltimore, 1902); D. Neumark,
  _Gesch. d. Jüd. Philosophie d. Mittelalters_ (Berlin, 1907); also S.
  A. Binion, in C. D. Warner's _World's Best Literature_, 8425 sqq. See
  further the very full articles in the _Jewish Ency._ by K. Kohler and
  L. Ginzberg ("Cabbala"), I. Broydé ("Bahir," "Zohar"), with the
  references.     (C. D. G.; S. A. C.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] C. Taylor, _Sayings of the Jewish Fathers_ (1897), pp. 106 sqq.,
    175 seq.; W. Bacher, _Jew. Quart. Rev._ xx. 572 sqq. (1908).

  [2] On the _Zohar_, "the Bible of the Kabbalists," see below.

  [3] The view of a mediate creation, in the place of immediate
    creation out of nothing, and that the mediate beings were emanations,
    was much influenced by Solomon ibn Gabirol (1021-1070).

  [4] See F. Weber, _Jüdische Theologie_ (1897), pp. 118 sqq.

  [5] See C. A. Briggs, _Study of Holy Scripture_ (1899), pp. 427 sqq.,
    570.

  [6] Even the "over-Soul" of the mystic Isaac Luria (1534-1572) is a
    conception known in the 3rd century A.D. (Rabbi Resh Lakish). For the
    early stages of Kabbalistic theories, see K. Kohler, _Jew. Ency._
    iii. 457 seq., and L. Ginzberg, ibid. 459 seq.; and for examples of
    the relationship between old Oriental (especially Babylonian) and
    Jewish Kabbalistic teaching (early and late), see especially A.
    Jeremias, _Babylonisches in N. Test._ (Leipzig, 1905); E. Bischoff,
    _Bab. Astrales im Weltbilde des Thalmud u. Midrasch_ (1907).

  [7] L. Ginzberg, _Jew. Ency._ iii. 465.

  [8] See, especially, on the mystics of Safed in Upper Galilee, S.
    Schechter, _Studies_ (1908), pp. 202-285.

  [9] See the instructive article by S. Schechter, _Studies in Judaism_
    (London, 1896), pp. 1-55.

  [10] See the discriminating estimates by S. A. Hirsch, _Jew. Quart.
    Rev._ xx. 50-73; I. Abrahams, _Jew. Lit._ (1906), ch. xvii.:
    _Judaism_ (1907), ch. vi.

  [11] See, e.g., G. Margoliouth, "The Doctrine of Ether in the
    Kabbalah," _Jew. Quart. Rev._ xx. 828 sqq. On the influence of the
    Kabbalah on the Reformation, see Stöckl, _Gesch. d. Philosophie des
    Mittelalters_, ii. 232-251.



KABINDA, a Portuguese possession on the west coast of Africa north of
the mouth of the Congo. Westwards it borders the Atlantic, N. and N.E.
French Congo, S. and S.E. Belgian Congo. It has a coast-line of 93 m.,
extends inland, at its greatest breadth, 70 m., and has an area of about
3000 sq. m. In its physical features, flora, fauna and inhabitants, it
resembles the coast region of French Congo (q.v.). The only considerable
river is the Chiloango, which in part forms the boundary between
Portuguese and Belgian territory, and in its lower course divides
Kabinda into two fairly even portions. The mouth of the river is in 5°
12´ S., 12° 5´ E. The chief town, named Kabinda, is a seaport on the
right bank of the small river Bele, in 5° 33´ S., 12° 10´ E.; pop. about
10,000. From the beauty of its situation, and the fertility of the
adjacent country, it has been called the paradise of the coast. The
harbour is sheltered and commodious, with anchorage in four fathoms.
Kabinda was formerly a noted slave mart. Farther north are the ports of
Landana and Massabi. Between Kabinda and Landana is Molembo at the head
of a small bay of the same name. There is a considerable trade in palm
oil, ground nuts and other jungle produce, largely in the hands of
British and German firms.

The possession of the enclave of Kabinda by Portugal is a result of the
efforts made by that nation during the last quarter of the 19th century
to obtain sovereignty over both banks of the lower Congo. Whilst
Portugal succeeded in obtaining the southern bank of the river to the
limit of navigability from the sea, the northern bank became part of the
Congo Free State (see AFRICA, § 5). Portuguese claims to the north of
the river were, however, to some extent met by the recognition of her
right to Kabinda. The southernmost part of Kabinda is 25 m. (following
the coast-line) north of the mouth of the Congo. This district as far
north as the Chiloango river (and including the adjacent territory of
Belgian Congo) is sometimes spoken of as Kacongo. The name Loango (q.v.)
was also applied to this region as well as to the coast-lands
immediately to the north. Administratively Kabinda forms a division of
the Congo district of the province of Angola (q.v.). The inhabitants are
Bantu negroes who are called Kabindas. They are an intelligent,
energetic and enterprising people, daring sailors and active traders.



KABIR, the most notable of the Vaishnava reformers of religion in
northern India, who flourished during the first half of the 15th
century. He is counted as one of the twelve disciples of Ramanand, the
great preacher in the north (about A.D. 1400) of the doctrine of
_bhakti_ addressed to Rama, which originated with Ramanuja (12th
century) in southern India. He himself also mentions among his spiritual
forerunners Jaideo and Namdeo (or Nama) the earliest Marathi poet (both
about 1250). Legend relates that Kabir was the son of a Brahman widow,
by whom he was exposed, and was found on a lotus in Lahar Talao, a pond
near Benares, by a Musalman weaver named 'Ali (or Nuri), who with his
wife Nima adopted him and brought him up in their craft as a Musalman.
He lived most of his life at Benares, and afterwards removed to Maghar
(or Magahar), in the present district of Basti, where he is said to have
died in 1449. There appears to be no reason to doubt that he was
originally a Musalman and a weaver; his own name and that of his son
Kamal are Mahommedan, not Hindu. His adhesion to the doctrine of
Ramanand is not a solitary instance of the religious syncretism which
prevailed at this time in northern India. The religion of the earlier
Sikh _Gurus_, which was largely based upon his teaching, also aimed at
the fusion of Hinduism and Islam; and the example of Malik Muhammad,[1]
the author of the Padmawat, who lived a century later than Kabir, shows
that the relations between the two creeds were in some cases extremely
intimate. It is related that at Kabir's death the Hindus and Musalmans
each claimed him as an adherent of their faith, and that when his
funeral issued forth from his house at Maghar the contention was only
assuaged by the appearance of Kabir himself, who bade them look under
the cloth which covered the corpse, and immediately vanished. On raising
the cloth they found nothing but a heap of flowers. This was divided
between the rival faiths, half being buried by the Musalmans and the
other half burned by the Hindus.[2]

Kabir's fame as a preacher of _bhakti_, or enthusiastic devotion to a
personal God, whom he preferred to call by the Hindu names of Rama and
Hari, is greater than that of any other of the Vaishnava spiritual
leaders. His fervent conviction of the truth and power of his doctrine,
and the homely and searching expression given to it in his utterances,
in the tongue of the people and not in a learned language remote from
their understanding, won for him multitudes of adherents; and his sect,
the _Kabirpanthis_, is still one of the most numerous in northern India,
its numbers exceeding a million. Its headquarters are the _Kabir Chaura_
at Benares, where are preserved the works attributed to Kabir (called
the _Granth_), the greater part of which, however, were written by his
immediate disciples and their followers in his name.

  Those works which seem to have the best claim to be considered his own
  compositions are the _Sakhis_, or stanzas, some 5000 in number, which
  have a very wide currency even among those who do not formally belong
  to the sect, and the _Shabdawali_, consisting of a thousand "words"
  (_shabd_), or short doctrinal expositions. Perhaps some of the
  _Rekhtas_, or odes (100 in number), and of the _Ramainis_--brief
  mystical poems in very obscure language--may also be from his hand. Of
  these different forms specimens will be found translated in Professor
  H. H. Wilson's _Sketch of the Religious Sects of the Hindus_, i.
  79-90. Besides the followers who call themselves by Kabir's name,
  there may be reckoned to him many other religious sects which bear
  that of some intermediate _guru_ or master, but substantially concur
  with Kabir in doctrine and practice. Such, for instance, are the
  _Nanakshahis_ in the United Provinces, the Central Provinces, and
  Bombay, and the _Dadu-panthis_, numerous in Rajputana (Wilson, _loc.
  cit._ pp. 103 sqq.); the Sikhs, numbering two and a half millions in
  the Panjab, are also his spiritual descendants, and their _Granth_ or
  Scripture is largely stocked with texts drawn from his works.

Kabir taught the life of _bhakti_ (faith, or personal love and
devotion), the object of which is a _personal_ God, and not a
philosophical abstraction or an impersonal quality-less, all-pervading
spiritual substance (as in the Vedanta of Sankaracharya). His utterances
do not, like those of Tulsi Das, dwell upon the incidents of the human
life of Rama, whom he takes as his type of the Supreme; nevertheless, it
is the essence of his creed that God became incarnate to bring salvation
to His children, mankind, and that the human mind of this incarnation
still subsists in the Divine Person. He proclaims the unity of the
Godhead, the vanity of idols, the powerlessness of _brahmans_ or
_mullas_ to guide or help, and the divine origin of the human soul,
_divinae particula aurae_. All evil in the world is ascribed to _Maya_,
illusion or falsehood, and truth in thought, word and deed is enjoined
as the chief duty of man: "No act of devotion can equal truth; no crime
is so heinous as falsehood; in the heart where truth abides there is My
abode."[3] The distinctions of creeds are declared to be of no
importance in the presence of God: "The city of _Hara_[4] is to the
east, that of '_Ali_[5] is to the west; but explore your own heart, for
there are both _Rama_ and _Karim_;"[6] "Behold but One in all things: it
is the second that leads you astray. Every man and woman that has ever
been born is of the same nature as yourself. _He_, whose is the world,
and whose are the children of '_Ali_ and _Rama_, He is my _Guru_, He is
my _Pir_." He proclaims the universal brotherhood of man, and the duty
of kindness to all living creatures. Life is the gift of God, and must
not be violated; the shedding of blood, whether of man or animals, is a
heinous crime. The followers of Kabir do not observe celibacy, and live
quiet unostentatious lives; Wilson (p. 97) compares them to Quakers for
their hatred of violence and unobtrusive piety.

The resemblance of many of Kabir's utterances to those of Christ, and
especially to the ideas set forth in St John's gospel, is very striking;
still more so is the existence in the ritual of the sect of a
sacramental meal, involving the eating of a consecrated wafer and the
drinking of water administered by the _Mahant_ or spiritual superior,
which bears a remarkable likeness to the Eucharist. Yet, though the
deities of Hinduism and the prophet of Islam are frequently mentioned in
his sayings, the name of Jesus has nowhere been found in them. It is
conjectured that the doctrine of Ramanand, which came from southern
India, has been influenced by the Christian settlements in that region,
which go back to very early times. It is also possible that Sufiism, the
pietistic (as distinguished from the theosophic) form of which seems to
owe much to eastern Christianity, has contributed some echo of the
Gospel to Kabir's teaching. A third (but scarcely probable) hypothesis
is that the sect has borrowed both maxims and ritual, long after Kabir's
own time, from the teaching of the Roman Catholic missionaries, who were
established at Agra from the reign of Akbar (1556-1605) onwards.

  No critical edition of the writings current under the name of Kabir
  has yet been published, though collections of his sayings (chiefly the
  _Sakhis_) are constantly appearing from Indian presses. The reader is
  referred, for a summary account of his life and doctrine, to H. H.
  Wilson's _Sketch of the Religious Sects of the Hindus_ (Works, i. 68
  sqq.). Dr E. Trumpp's edition of the _Adi Granth_ (Introduction, pp.
  xcvii. sqq.) may also be consulted. Recent publications dealing with
  the subject are the Rev. G. H. Westcott's _Kabir and the Kabir Panth_
  (Cawnpore, 1908), and Mr. M. A. Macauliffe's _The Sikh Religion_
  (Oxford, 1909), vi. 122-316.     (C. J. L.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] See article HINDOSTANI LITERATURE.

  [2] An exactly similar tale is told of Nanak, the first _Guru_ of the
    Sikhs, who died in 1538.

  [3] This and the following passages in quotation marks are from
    Professor Wilson's translation of 100 _Sakhis_, pp. 83-90.

  [4] Benares; Hara, a name of Siva.

  [5] I.e. Mecca.

  [6] "The Bountiful," one of the Koranic names of God (Allah).



KABUL, the capital of Afghanistan, standing at an elevation of 6900 ft.
above the sea in 34° 32´ N. and 69° 14´ E. Estimated pop. (1901),
140,000. Lying at the foot of the bare and rocky mountains forming the
western boundary of the Kabul valley, just below the gorge made by the
Kabul River, the city extends a mile and a half east to west and one
mile north to south. Hemmed in by the mountains, there is no way of
extending it, except in a northerly direction towards the Sherpur
cantonment. As the key of northern India, Kabul has been a city of vast
importance for countless ages. It commands all the passes which here
debouch from the north through the Hindu Kush, and from the west through
Kandahar; and through it passed successive invasions of India by
Alexander the Great, Mahmud of Ghazni, Jenghiz Khan, Baber, Nadir Shah
and Ahmad Shah. Indeed from the time of Baber to that of Nadir Shah
(1526-1738) Kabul was part of the empire of Delhi. It is now some 160 m.
from the British frontier post of Jamrud near Peshawar.

Kabul was formerly walled; the old wall had seven gates, of which two
alone remain, the Lahori and the Sirdar. The city itself is a huddle of
narrow and dirty streets, with the Bala Hissar or fort forming the
south-east angle, and rising about 150 ft. above the plain. The Amir's
palace is situated outside the town about midway between it and the
Sherpur cantonment which lies about a mile to the north-east. Formerly
the greatest ornament of the city was the arcaded and roofed bazaar
called _Chihâr Châtâ_, ascribed to Ali Mardan Khan, a noble of the 17th
century, who has left behind him many monuments of his munificent public
spirit both in Kabul and in Hindustan. Its four arms had an aggregate
length of about 600 ft., with a breadth of 30. The display of goods was
remarkable, and in the evening it was illuminated. This edifice was
destroyed by Sir G. Pollock on evacuating Kabul in 1842 as a record of
the treachery of the city.

The tomb of the Sultan Baber stands on a slope about a mile to the west
of the city in a charming spot. The grave is marked by two erect slabs
of white marble. Near him lie several of his wives and children; the
garden was formerly enclosed by a marble wall; a clear stream waters the
flower-beds. From the hill that rises behind the tomb there is a noble
prospect of his beloved city, and of the all-fruitful plain stretching
to the north of it.

After the accession of Abdur Rahman in 1880 the city underwent great
changes. The Bala Hissar was destroyed and has never since been entirely
rebuilt, and a fortified cantonment at Sherpur (one side of which was
represented by the historic Bemaru ridge) had taken the place of the old
earthworks of the British occupation of 1842 which were constructed on
nearly the same site. The city streets were as narrow and evil-smelling,
the surrounding gardens as picturesque and attractive, and the wealth of
fruit was as great, as they had been fifty years previously. The amir,
however, effected many improvements. Kabul is now connected by
well-planned and metalled roads with Afghan Turkestan on the west, with
the Oxus and Bokhara on the north, and with India on the east. The road
to India was first made by British and is now maintained by Afghan
engineers. The road southwards to Ghazni and Kandahar was always
naturally excellent and has probably needed little engineering, but the
general principle of road-making in support of a military advance has
always been consistently maintained, and the expeditions of Kabul troops
to Kafiristan have been supported by a very well graded and
substantially constructed road up the Kunar valley from Jalalabad to
Asmar, and onwards to the Bashgol valley of Kafiristan. The city ways
have been improved until it has become possible for wheeled vehicles to
pass, and the various roads connecting the suburbs and the city are
efficiently maintained. A purely local railway has also been introduced,
to assist in transporting building material. The buildings erected by
Abdur Rahman were pretentious, but unmarked by any originality in design
and hardly worthy representation of the beauty and dignity of Mahommedan
architecture. They included a new palace and a durbar hall, a bridge
across the river and embankment, a pavilion and garden laid out around
the site of Baber's tomb overlooking the Chardeh valley; and many other
buildings of public utility connected with stud arrangements, the
manufacture of small arms and ammunition, and the requirements of what
may be termed a wholesale shop under European direction, besides
hospitals, dispensaries, bazaars, &c. The new palace is within an
entrenchment just outside the city. It is enclosed in a fine garden,
well planted with trees, where the harem serai (or ladies' apartments)
occupies a considerable space. The public portion of the buildings
comprise an ornamental and lofty pavilion with entrances on each side,
and a high-domed octagonal room in the centre, beautifully fitted and
appointed, where public receptions take place. The durbar hall, which is
a separate building, is 60 yards long by 20 broad, with a painted roof
supported by two rows of pillars. But the arrangement of terraced
gardens and the lightly constructed pavilion which graces the western
slopes of the hills overlooking Chardeh are the most attractive of these
innovations. Here, on a summer's day, with the scent of roses pervading
the heated air, the cool refreshment of the passing breezes and of
splashing fountains may be enjoyed by the officials of the Kabul court,
whilst they look across the beauty of the thickly planted plains of
Chardeh to the rugged outlines of Paghman and the snows of the Hindu
Kush. The artistic taste of the landscape gardening is excellent, and
the mountain scenery is not unworthy of Kashmir. It is pleasant to
record that the graveyard of those officers who fell in the Kabul
campaign of 1879-1880, which lies at the northern end of the Bemaru
ridge, is not uncared for.

  Kabul is believed to be the _Ortospanum_ or _Ortospana_ of the
  geographies of Alexander's march, a name conjectured to be a
  corruption of _Urddhasthâna_, "high place." This is the meaning of the
  name Bala Hissar. But the actual name is perhaps also found as that of
  a people in this position (Ptolemy's _Kabolitae_), if not in the name
  of a city apparently identical with Ortospana, _Carura_, in some
  copies read_ Cabura_. It was invaded by the Arabs as early as the
  thirty-fifth year of the Hegira, but it was long before the
  Mahommedans effected any lasting settlement. In the early Mahommedan
  histories and geographies we find (according to a favourite Arabic
  love of jingle) _Kâbul_ and _Zâbul_ constantly associated. Zâbul
  appears to have been the country about Ghazni. Kabul first became a
  capital when Baber made himself master of it in 1504, and here he
  reigned for fifteen years before his invasion of Hindustan. In modern
  times it became a capital again, under Timur Shah (see AFGHANISTAN),
  and so has continued both to the end of the Durani dynasty, and under
  the Barakzais, who now reign. It was occupied by Sir John Keane in
  1839, General Pollock in 1842, and again by Sir Frederick, afterwards
  Lord Roberts, in 1879.

  Kabul is also the name of the province including the city so called.
  It may be considered to embrace the whole of the plains called Koh
  Daman and Beghram, &c., to the Hindu Kush northward, with the Kohistan
  or hill country adjoining. Eastward it extends to the border of
  Jalalabad at Jagdalak; southward it includes the Logar district, and
  extends to the border of Ghazni; north-westward it includes the
  Paghman hills, and the valley of the upper Kabul river, and so to the
  Koh-i-Baba. Roughly it embraces a territory of about 100 m. square,
  chiefly mountainous. Wheat and barley are the staple products of the
  arable tracts. Artificial grasses are also much cultivated, and fruits
  largely, especially in the Koh Daman. A considerable part of the
  population spends the summer in tents. The villages are not enclosed
  by fortifications, but contain small private castles or fortalices.

  See C. Yate, _Northern Afghanistan_ (1888); J. A. Gray, _At the Court
  of the Amir_ (1895); Sir T. H. H. Holdich, _The Indian Borderland_
  (1901).     (T. H. H.*)



KABUL RIVER, a river of Afghanistan, 300 m. in length. The Kabul
(ancient _Kophes_), which is the most important (although not the
largest) river in Afghanistan, rises at the foot of the Unai pass
leading over the Sanglakh range, an offshoot of the Hindu Kush towards
Bamian and Afghan Turkestan. Its basin forms the province of Kabul,
which includes all northern Afghanistan between the Hindu Kush and the
Safed Koh ranges. From its source to the city of Kabul the course of the
river is only 45 m., and this part of it is often exhausted in summer
for purposes of irrigation. Half a mile east of Kabul it is joined by
the Logar, a much larger river, which rises beyond Ghazni among the
slopes of the Gul Koh (14,200 ft.), and drains the rich and picturesque
valleys of Logar and Wardak. Below the confluence the Kabul becomes a
rapid stream with a great volume of water and gradually absorbs the
whole drainage of the Hindu Kush. About 40 m. below Kabul the Panjshir
river joins it; 15 m. farther the Tagao; 20 m. from the Tagao junction
the united streams of Alingar and Alishang (rivers of Kafiristan); and
20 m. below that, at Balabagh, the Surkhab from the Safed Koh. Two or
three miles below Jalalabad it is joined by the Kunar, the river of
Chitral. Thenceforward it passes by deep gorges through the Mohmand
hills, curving northward until it emerges into the Peshawar plain at
Michni. Soon afterwards it receives the Swat river from the north and
the Bara river from the south, and after a further course of 40 m. falls
into the Indus at Attock. From Jalalabad downwards the river is
navigable by boats or rafts of inflated skins, and is considerably used
for purposes of commerce.



KABYLES, or KABAIL, a confederation of tribes in Algeria, Tunisia, and a
few oases of the Sahara, who form a branch of the great Berber race.
Their name is the Arabic _gabilat_ (pl.: _gabail_), and was at first
indiscriminately applied by the Arabs to all Berber peoples. The part of
Algeria which they inhabit is usually regarded as consisting of two
divisions--Great Kabylia and Lesser Kabylia, the former being also known
as the Kabylia of the Jurjura (also called Adrar Budfel, "Mountain of
Snow"). Physically many Kabyles do not present much contrast to the
Arabs of Algeria. Both Kabyle and Arab are white at birth, but rapidly
grow brown through exposure to air and sunshine. Both have in general
brown eyes and wavy hair of coarse quality, varying from dark brown to
jet black. In stature there is perhaps a little difference in favour of
the Kabyle, and he appears also to be of heavier build and more
muscular. Both are clearly long-headed. Some, however, of the purer type
of Kabyles in Kabylia proper have fair skins, ruddy complexions and blue
or grey eyes. In fact there are two distinct types of Kabyles: those
which by much admixture have approximated to Arab and negroid types, and
those which preserve Libyan features. Active, energetic and
enterprising, the Kabyle is to be found far from home--as a soldier in
the French army, as a workman in the towns, as a field labourer, or as a
pedlar or trader earning the means of purchasing his bit of ground in
his native village. The Kabyles are Mahommedans of the Sunnite branch
and the Malikite rite, looking to Morocco as the nearer centre of their
religion. Some of the Kabyles retain their vernacular speech, while
others have more or less completely adopted Arabic. The best known of
the Kabyle dialects is the Zouave[1] or Igaouaouen, those speaking it
having been settled on the northern side of the Jurjura at least from
the time of Ibn Khaldun; it is the principal basis of Hanoteau's _Essai
de grammaire kabyle_ (Paris, 1858). Unlike their southern brethren, the
Kabyles have no alphabet, and their literature is still in the stage of
oral transmission, for the most part by professional reciters.
Hanoteau's _Poésies populaires de la Kabylie du Jurjura_ (Paris, 1867)
gives the text and translation of a considerable number of historical
pieces, proverbial couplets and quatrains, dancing songs, &c.

  Consult General L. L. C. Faidherbe and Dr Paul Topinard, _Instructions
  sur l'anthropologie de l'Algérie_ (Paris, 1874); Melchior Joseph
  Eugène Daumas, _Le Sahara algérien_ (Paris, 1845) and _Moeurs et
  coutumes de l'Algérie_ (1857); De Slane's translation of Ibn Khaldun's
  _Hist. des Berbères_ (Algiers, 1852); Aucapitaine, _Les Kabyles et la
  colonie de l'Algérie_ (Paris, 1864) and _Les Beni M'zab_ (1868);
  L.J.A.C. Hanoteau and A. Letourneux, _La Kabylie et les coutumes
  kabyles_ (Paris, 1893); Charmetant, in _Jahrbücher der Verbreitung des
  Glaubens_ (1874); Masqueray, _Formation des cités ... de l'Algérie_
  (1886); Dugas, _La Kabylie et le peuple kabyle_ (Paris, 1878); Récoux,
  _La Démographie de l'Algérie_ (Paris, 1880); J. Liorel, _Races
  berbères: les Kabyles_ (Paris, 1893); MacIver and Wilkin, _Libyan
  Notes_ (1901).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] From the enlistment of Kabyles speaking the Zouave dialect the
    Zouave regiments of the French army came to be so called.



KACH GANDAVA, or KACHHI (Kach, Kej, Kiz), a low-lying flat region in
Baluchistan separating the Bugti hills from those of Kalat. It is
driven, like a wedge, into the frontier mountain system and extends for
150 m. from Jacobabad to Sibi, with nearly as great a breadth at its
base on the Sind frontier. Area, 5310 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 82,909. The
Mula pass, which connects it with the Kalat highlands, was once (when
the ancient city of Kandabel was the capital of Gandava) a much trodden
trade highway, and is still a practicable route though no longer a
popular one. The soil is fertile wherever it can be irrigated by the
floods brought down from the surrounding hills; but much of the central
portion is sandy waste. It is traversed by the North-Western railway.
The climate is unhealthy in summer, when pestilential hot winds are
sometimes destructive to life. The annual rainfall averages only 3 in.
Kachhi, though subject to the khan of Kalat, is administered under the
tribal system. There are no schools, dispensaries or gaols.

  See _Baluchistan District Gazetteer_, vol. vi. (Bombay, 1907).



KACHIN HILLS, a mountainous tract in Upper Burma, inhabited by the
Kachin or Chingpaw, who are known on the Assam frontier as Singphos.
Owing to the great number of tribes, sub-tribes and clans of the
Kachins, the part of the Kachin hills which has been taken under
administration in the Myitkyina and Bhamo districts was divided into 40
Kachin hill tracts (recently reduced to five). Beyond these tracts there
are many Kachins in Katha, Möng Mit and the northern Shan States. The
country within the Kachin hill tracts is roughly estimated at 19,177 sq.
m., and consists of a series of ranges, for the most part running north
and south, and intersected by valleys, all leading towards the
Irrawaddy, which drains the country. There were 64,405 Kachins
enumerated at the census of 1901. Philological investigations show that
it is probable that the progenitors of the Kachins or Chingpaw were the
Indo-Chinese race who, before the beginnings of history, but after the
Môn-Annam wave had covered Indo-China, forsook their home in western
China to pour over the region where Tibet, Assam, Burma and China
converge, and that the Chingpaw are the residue left round the
headquarters of the Irrawaddy and the Chindwin after those branches,
destined to become the Tibetans, the Nagas, the Burmans and the Kuki
Chins, had gone westwards and southwards. In the middle of the 19th
century the southern limit of the Kachins was 200 m. farther north than
it is now. Since then the race has been drifting steadily southward and
eastward, a vast aggregate of small independent clans united by no
common government, but all obeying a common impulse to move outwards
from their original seats along the line of least resistance. Now the
Kachins are on both sides of the border of Upper Burma, and are a force
to be reckoned with by frontier administrators. According to the Kachin
Hill Tribes Regulation of 1895, administrative responsibility is
accepted by the British government on the left bank of the Irrawaddy for
the country south of the Nmaikha, and on the right bank for the country
south of a line drawn from the confluence of the Malikha and Nmaikha
through the northern limit of the Laban district and including the jade
mines. The tribes north of this line were told that if they abstained
from raiding to the south of it they would not be interfered with. South
of that line peace was to be enforced and a small tribute exacted, with
a minimum of interference in their private affairs. On the British side
of the border the chief objects have been the disarmament of the tribes
and the construction of frontier and internal roads. A light tribute is
exacted.

  The Kachins have been the object of many police operations and two
  regular expeditions: (1) Expedition of 1892-93. Bhamo was occupied by
  the British on the 28th of December 1885, and almost immediately
  trouble began. Constant punitive measures were carried on by the
  military police; but in December 1892 a police column proceeding to
  establish a post at Sima was heavily attacked, and simultaneously the
  town of Myitkyina was raided by Kachins. A force of 1200 troops was
  sent to put down the rising. The enemy received their final blow at
  Palap, but not before three officers were killed, three wounded, and
  102 sepoys and followers killed and wounded. (2) Expedition of
  1895-96. The continued misconduct of the Sana Kachins from beyond the
  administrative border rendered punitive measures necessary. They had
  remained unpunished since the attack on Myitkyina in December 1892.
  Two columns were sent up, one of 250 rifles from Myitkyina, the other
  of 200 rifles from Mogaung, marching in December 1895. The resistance
  was insignificant, and the operations were completely successful. A
  strong force of military police is stationed at Myitkyina, with
  several outposts in the Kachin hills, and the country is never wholly
  free from crimes of violence committed by the Kachins.



KADUR, a district of Mysore state, in southern India, with an area of
2813 sq. m. Pop. (1901), 362,752, showing an increase of 9% in the
decade. The larger portion of the district consists of the Malnad or
hill country, which contains some of the wildest mountain scenery in
southern India. The western frontier is formed by the chain of the
Ghats, of which the highest peaks are the Kudremukh (6215 ft.) and the
Meniti Gudda (5451 ft.). The centre is occupied by the horse-shoe range
of the Baba Budans, containing the loftiest mountain in Mysore,
Mulaingiri (6317 ft.). The Maidan or plain country lying beneath the
amphitheatre formed by the Baba Budan hills is a most fertile region,
well watered, and with the famous "black cotton soil." The principal
rivers are the Tunga and Bhadra, which rise near each other in the
Ghats, and unite to form the Tungabhadra, a tributary of the Kistna. The
eastern region is watered by the Vedavati. At the point where this river
leaves the Baba Budan hills it is embanked to form two extensive tanks
which irrigate the lower valley. From all the rivers water is drawn off
into irrigation channels by means of anicuts or weirs. The chief natural
wealth of Kadur is in its forests, which contain inexhaustible supplies
of the finest timber, especially teak, and also furnish shelter for the
coffee plantations. Iron is found and smelted at the foot of the hills,
and corundum exists in certain localities. Wild beasts and game are
numerous, and fish are abundant.

The largest town is Tarikere (pop. 10,164); the headquarters are at
Chikmagalur (9515): The staple crop is rice, chiefly grown on the hill
slopes, where the natural rainfall is sufficient, or in the river
valley, where the fields can be irrigated. Coffee cultivation is said to
have been introduced by a Mahommedan saint, Baba Budan, more than two
centuries ago; but it first attracted European capital in 1840. The
district is served by the Southern Mahratta railway.



KAEMPFER, ENGELBRECHT (1651-1716), German traveller and physician, was
born on the 16th of November 1651 at Lemgo in Lippe-Detmold, Westphalia,
where his father was a pastor. He studied at Hameln, Lüneburg, Hamburg,
Lübeck and Danzig, and after graduating Ph.D. at Cracow, spent four
years at Königsberg in Prussia, studying medicine and natural science.
In 1681 he visited Upsala in Sweden, where he was offered inducements to
settle; but his desire for foreign travel led him to become secretary to
the embassy which Charles XI. sent through Russia to Persia in 1683. He
reached Persia by way of Moscow, Kazan and Astrakhan, landing at Nizabad
in Daghestan after a voyage in the Caspian; from Shemakha in Shirvan he
made an expedition to the Baku peninsula, being perhaps the first modern
scientist to visit these fields of "eternal fire." In 1684 he arrived in
Isfahan, then the Persian capital. When after a stay of more than a year
the Swedish embassy prepared to return, Kaempfer joined the fleet of the
Dutch East India Company in the Persian Gulf as chief surgeon, and in
spite of fever caught at Bander Abbasi he found opportunity to see
something of Arabia and of many of the western coast-lands of India. In
September 1689 he reached Batavia; spent the following winter in
studying Javanese natural history; and in May 1690 set out for Japan as
physician to the embassy sent yearly to that country by the Dutch. The
ship in which he sailed touched at Siam, whose capital he visited; and
in September 1690 he arrived at Nagasaki, the only Japanese port then
open to foreigners. Kaempfer stayed two years in Japan, during which he
twice visited Tokyo. His adroitness, insinuating manners and medical
skill overcame the habitual jealousy and reticence of the natives, and
enabled him to elicit much valuable information. In November 1692 he
left Japan for Java and Europe, and in October 1693 he landed at
Amsterdam. Receiving the degree of M.D. at Leiden, he settled down in
his native city, becoming also physician to the count of Lippe. He died
at Lemgo on the 2nd of November 1716.

  The only work Kaempfer lived to publish was _Amoenitatum exoticarum
  politico-physico-medicarum fasciculi_ V. (Lemgo, 1712), a selection
  from his papers giving results of his invaluable observations in
  Georgia, Persia and Japan. At his death the unpublished manuscripts
  were purchased by Sir Hans Sloane, and conveyed to England. Among them
  was a _History of Japan_, translated from the manuscript into English
  by J. G. Scheuchzer and published at London, in 2 vols., in 1727. The
  original German has never been published, the extant German version
  being taken from the English. Besides Japanese history, this book
  contains a description of the political, social and physical state of
  the country in the 17th century. For upwards of a hundred years it
  remained the chief source of information for the general reader, and
  is still not wholly obsolete. A life of the author is prefixed to the
  _History_.



KAFFA, a country of N.E. Africa, part of the Abyssinian empire. Kaffa
proper (formerly known also as Gomara) has an area of little more than
5000 sq. m., but the name is used in a general sense to include the
neighbouring territories of Gimirra, Jimma, Ennarea, &c. In this larger
acceptation Kaffa extends roughly from 6° to 9° N. and from 35° to 37½°
E. It forms the S.W. part of the great Abyssinian plateau and consists
of broken table-land deeply scored by mountain torrents and densely
wooded. The general elevation is about 8000 ft., while several peaks are
over 10,000 ft. From the western slopes of the plateau descend
headstreams of the Sobat. The principal river however is the Omo, the
chief feeder of Lake Rudolf. Kaffa proper is believed to be the native
home of the coffee plant (whence the name), which grows in profusion on
the mountain sides. The principal town was Bonga, 7½° N., 36° 12´ E., a
great trading centre, but the Abyssinian headquarters are at Anderacha,
about 12 m. S.S.W. of Bonga. Jiren, the capital of Jimma, 60 m. N.E. of
Bonga, is a still more important town, its weekly market being attended
by some 20,000 persons.

A great variety of races inhabit these countries of southern Ethiopia.
The Kaficho (people of Kaffa proper) are said to be of the same stock as
the northern Abyssinians and to have been separated from the rest of the
country by the Mahommedan invasion of the 16th century. Thus Jimma,
immediately north of Kaffa proper, is peopled by Mahommedan Gallas. The
Kaficho, though much mixed with Galla blood, retained their Christianity
and a knowledge of Geez, the ecclesiastical tongue of Abyssinia. The
ordinary language of the Kaficho has no outward resemblance to modern
Abyssinian. Their speech was, however, stated by Dr C. T. Beke (c. 1850)
to be cognate with the Gonga tongue, spoken in a portion of Damot, on
the northern side of the Abai. Kaffa, after having been ruled by
independent sovereigns, who were also suzerains of the neighbouring
states, was about 1895 conquered by the Abyssinians. The first European
explorer of Kaffa was Antoine de'Abbadie, who visited it in 1843. Not
until the early years of the 20th century was the country accurately
mapped.



KAFFIR BREAD, in botany, the popular name for a species of
_Encephalartos_ (_E. caffra_), one of the cycads, a native of South
Africa, so called from the farinaceous food-stuff which is found at the
apex of the stem (Gr. [Greek: en], in, [Greek: kephalê], head, and
[Greek: artos], bread). It is a tree reaching nearly 20 ft. in height,
with very stiff, spreading pinnate leaves 3 to 4 ft. long and recurving
at the tip. The species of _Encephalartos_, which are natives of
tropical and South Africa, form handsome greenhouse and conservatory
plants; some species are effectively used in subtropical gardening in
the summer months.



KAFFIRS (Arabic _Kafir_, an unbeliever), a name given by the Arabs to
the native races of the east coast of Africa. The term was current along
the east coast at the arrival of the Portuguese, and passed from them to
the Dutch and English, and to the natives themselves under the form of
_Kafula_. There are no general or collective national names for these
peoples, and the various tribal divisions are mostly designated by
historical or legendary chiefs, founders of dynasties or hereditary
chieftaincies. The term has no real ethnological value, for the Kaffirs
have no national unity. To-day it is used to describe that large family
of Bantu negroes inhabiting the greater part of the Cape, the whole of
Natal and Zululand, and the Portuguese dominions on the east coast south
of the Zambezi. The name is also loosely applied to any negro inhabitant
of South Africa. For example, the Bechuana of the Transvaal and Orange
Free State are usually called Kaffirs.

The Kaffirs are divisible into two great branches: the Ama-Zulu with the
Ama-Swazi and Ama-Tonga and the Kaffirs proper, represented by the
Ama-Xosa, the Tembu (q.v.) and the Pondo (q.v.). Hence the compound term
Zulu-Kaffir applied in a collective sense to all the Kaffir peoples.
Intermediate between these two branches were several broken tribes now
collectively known as Ama-Fengu, i.e. "wanderers" or "needy" people,
from _fenguza_, to seek service[1] (see FINGO).

  The ramifications of the Kaffirs proper cannot be understood without
  reference to the national genealogies, most of the tribal names, as
  already stated, being those of real or reputed founders of dynasties.
  Thus the term Ama-Xosa means simply the "people of Xosa," a somewhat
  mythical chief supposed to have flourished about the year 1530. Ninth
  in descent from his son Toguh was Palo, who died about 1780, leaving
  two sons, Gcaleka and Rarabe (pronounced Kha-Kha-be), from whom came
  the Ama-Gcaleka, Ama-Dhlambe (T'slambies) and the Ama-Ngquika (Gaika
  or Sandili's people). The Pondo do not descend from Xosa, but probably
  from an elder brother, while the Tembu, though apparently representing
  a younger branch, are regarded by all the Kaffir tribes as the royal
  race. Hence the Gcaleka chief, who is the head of all the Ama-Xosa
  tribes, always takes his first or "great wife" from the Tembu royal
  family, and her issue alone have any claim to the succession. The
  subjoined genealogical tree will place Kaffir relations in a clearer
  light:--

                Zuide (1500?), reputed founder of the nation.
                                      |
        +--------------------+--------+---------------+
        |                    |                        |
      Tembu.            Xosa (1530?).               Mpondo.
        |                    |                        |
    Ama-Tembu              Toguh.           +---------+-----+
    (Tambookies),                           |               |
    Tembuland       Palo (ob. 1780?),   Ama-Mponda,   Ama-Mpondumisi
    and Emigrant     10th in descent   between river        |
    Tembuland.          from Xosa.       Umtata and     Abelungu
                             |             Natal.     (dispersed?)
                             |
        +--------------------+-------------+
        |                                  |
     Gcaleka.                            Rarabe
        |                              (Khakhabe).
     Klanta.                               |
        |                   +--------------+----------------+
      Hinza.                |              |                |
        |                 Omlao.         Mbalu.         Ndhlambe
        |                   |             ---               |
      Kreli.              Ngqika.      Ama-Mbalus.    Ama-Ndhlambes
      -----                 |          Ama-Gwali.     or T'slambies,
    Ama-Gcaleka           Macomo       Ama-Ntinde.     between the
     (Galeka),              |        Ama-Gqunukwebi.  Keiskamma and
    between the           Tyali.       Ama-Velelo.      Great Kei
    Bashee and              |           Ama-Baxa.       rivers.
   Umtata rivers.        Sandili.      Imi-Dange.
                          -----       Imi-Dushane.
                        Ama-Ngqika
                         (Gaika),
                    Amatola highlands.
                       \___________________________________________/
                                             |
                                       Ama-Khakhabe.
    \______________________________________________________________/
                                    |
                                 Ama-Xosa.

  It will be seen that, as representing the elder branch, the Gcaleka
  stand apart from the rest of Xosa's descendants, whom they group
  collectively as Ama-Rarabe (Ama-Khakhabe), and whose genealogies,
  except in the case of the Gaikas and T'slambies, are very confused.
  The Ama-Xosa country lies mainly between the Keiskama and Umtata
  rivers.

  The Zulu call themselves Abantu ba-Kwa-Zulu, i.e. "people of Zulu's
  land," or briefly Bakwa-Zulu, from a legendary chief Zulu, founder of
  the royal dynasty. They were originally an obscure tribe occupying the
  basin of the Umfolosi river, but rose suddenly to power under
  Chaka,[2] who had been brought up among the neighbouring and powerful
  Umtetwas, and who succeeded the chiefs of that tribe and of his own in
  the beginning of the 19th century. But the true mother tribe seems to
  have been the extinct Ama-Ntombela, whence the Ama-Tefulu, the
  U'ndwande, U'mlelas, U'mtetwas and many others, all absorbed or
  claiming to be true Zulus. But they are only so by political
  subjection, and the gradual adoption of the Zulu dress, usages and
  speech. Hence in most cases the term Zulu implies political rather
  than blood relationship. This remark applies also to the followers of
  Mosilikatze (properly Umsilikazi), who, after a fierce struggle with
  the Bechuana, founded about 1820 a second Zulu state about the head
  waters of the Orange river. In 1837 most of them were driven
  northwards by the Boers and are now known as Matabele.

The origin of the Zulu-Kaffir race has given rise to much controversy.
It is obvious that they are not the aborigines of their present domain,
whence in comparatively recent times--since the beginning of the 16th
century--they have displaced the Hottentots and Bushmen of fundamentally
distinct stock. They themselves are conscious of their foreign origin.
Yet they are closely allied in speech (see BANTU LANGUAGES) and physique
to the surrounding Basuto, Bechuana and other members of the great South
African Negroid family. Hence their appearance in the south-east corner
of the continent is sufficiently explained by the gradual onward
movement of the populations pressing southward on the Hottentot and
Bushman domain. The specific differences in speech and appearance by
which they are distinguished from the other branches of the family must
in the same way be explained by the altered conditions of their new
habitat. Hence it is that the farther they have penetrated southwards
the farther have they become differentiated from the pure Negro type.
Thus the light and clear brown complexion prevalent amongst the
southern Tembu becomes gradually darker as we proceed northwards,
passing at last to the blue-black and sepia of the Ama-Swazi and Tekeza.
Even many of the mixed Fingo tribes are of a polished ebony colour, like
that of the Jolofs and other Senegambian negroes. The Kaffir hair is
uniformly of a woolly texture. The head is dolichocephalic, but it is
also high or long vertically,[3] and it is in this feature of
hypsistenocephaly (height and length combined) that the Kaffir presents
the most striking contrast with the pure Negro. But, the nose being
generally rather broad[4] and the lips thick, the Kaffir face, though
somewhat oval, is never regular in the European sense, the deviations
being normally in the direction of the Negro, with which race the
peculiar odour of the skin again connects the Kaffirs. In stature they
rank next to the Patagonians, Polynesians and West Africans, averaging
from 5 ft. 9 in. to 5 ft. 11 in., and even 6 ft.[5] They are slim,
well-proportioned and muscular. Owing to the hard life they lead, the
women are generally inferior in appearance to the men, except amongst
the Zulu, and especially the Tembu. Hence in the matrimonial market,
while the Ama-Xosa girl realizes no more than ten or twelve head of
cattle, the Tembu belle fetches as many as forty, and if especially fine
even eighty.

  The more warlike tribes were usually arrayed in leopard or ox skins,
  of late years generally replaced by European blankets, with feather
  head-dresses, coral and metal ornaments, bead armlets and necklaces.
  The Makua and a few others practise tattooing, and the Ama-Xosa are
  fond of painting or smearing their bodies with red ochre. Their arms
  consist chiefly of ox-hide shields 4 to 6 ft. long, the kerrie or
  club, and the assegai, of which there are two kinds, one long, with
  9-in. narrow blade, for throwing, the other short, with broad blade 12
  to 18 in. long, for stabbing. The dwellings are simple conical huts
  grouped in kraals or villages. Although cattle form their chief
  wealth, and hunting and stock-breeding their main pursuits, many have
  turned to husbandry. The Zulu raise regular crops of "mealies"
  (maize), and the Pondo cultivate a species of millet, tobacco, water
  melons, yams and other vegetables. Milk (never taken fresh), millet
  and maize form the staples of food, and meat is seldom eaten except in
  time of war.

  A young Kaffir attains man's estate socially, not at puberty, but upon
  his marriage. Polygyny is the rule and each wife is regarded as adding
  dignity to the household. Marriage is by purchase, the price being
  paid in cattle. Upon the husband's death family life is continued
  under the headship of the eldest son of the house, the widows by
  virtue of levirate becoming the property of the uncle or nearest
  males, not sons. A son inherits and honourably liquidates, if he can,
  his father's debts.

  Mentally the Kaffirs are superior to the Negro. In their social and
  political relations they display great tact and intelligence; they are
  remarkably brave, warlike and hospitable, and were honest and truthful
  until through contact with the whites they became suspicious,
  revengeful and thievish, besides acquiring most European vices. Of
  religion as ordinarily understood they have very little, and have
  certainly never developed any mythologies or dogmatic systems. It is
  more than doubtful whether they had originally formed any notion of a
  Supreme Being. Some conception, however, of a future state is implied
  by a strongly developed worship of ancestry, and by a belief in
  spirits and ghosts to whom sacrifices are made. There are no idols or
  priests, but belief in witchcraft formerly gave the "witch-doctor" or
  medicine-man overwhelming power.[6] Circumcision and polygyny are
  universal; the former is sometimes attributed to Mahommedan
  influences, but has really prevailed almost everywhere in East Africa
  from the remotest time.

  Dearer than anything else to the Kaffir are his cattle; and many
  ceremonial observances in connexion with them were once the rule.
  Formerly ox-racing was a common sport, the oxen running, riderless,
  over a ten-mile course. The owner of a champion racing ox was a
  popular hero, and these racers were valued at hundreds of head of
  cattle. Cattle are the currency of the Kaffirs in their wild state.
  Ten to twenty head are the price of a wife. When a girl marries, her
  father (if well off) presents her with a cow from his herd. This
  animal is called _ubulungu_ or "doer of good" and is regarded as
  sacred. It must never be killed nor may its descendants, as long as it
  lives. A hair of its tail is tied round the neck of each child
  immediately after birth. In large kraals there is the "dancing-ox,"
  usually of red colour. Its horns are trained to peculiar shapes by
  early mutilations. It figures in many ceremonies when it is paid a
  kind of knee-worship.

  The Kaffirs have three, not four, seasons: "Green Heads," "Kindness"
  and "Cutting"; the first and last referring to the crops, the second
  to the "warm weather." Women and children only eat after the men are
  satisfied. A light beer made from sorghum is the national drink.

  Of the few industries the chief are copper and iron smelting,
  practised by the Tembu, Zulu and Swazi, who manufacture weapons,
  spoons and agricultural implements both for their own use and for
  trade. The Swazi display some taste in wood-carving, and others
  prepare a peculiar water-tight vessel of grass. Characteristic of this
  race is their neglect of the art of navigation. Not the smallest boats
  are ever made for crossing the rivers, much less for venturing on the
  sea, except by the Makazana of Delagoa Bay and by the Zambezi people,
  who have canoes and flat-bottomed boats made of planks.

  The Kaffir race had a distinct and apparently very old political
  system, which may be described as a patriarchal monarchy limited by a
  powerful aristocracy. Under British rule the tribal independence of
  the Kaffirs has disappeared. Varying degrees of autonomy have been
  granted, but the supreme powers of the chiefs have gone, the Swazi
  being in 1904 the last to be brought to order. In the Transkeian
  Territories tribal organization exists, but it is modified by special
  legislation and the natives are under the control of special
  magistrates. To a considerable extent in Natal and throughout Zululand
  the Kaffirs are placed in reserves, where tribal organization is kept
  up under European supervision. In Basutoland the tribal organization
  is very strong, and the power of chiefs is upheld by the imperial
  government, which exercises general supervision.

  See Gustav Fritsch, _Die Eingeborenen Südafrikas_, with atlas, 30
  plates and 120 typical heads (Breslau, 1872); W. H. I. Bleek,
  _Comparative Grammar of the South African Languages_ (London and Cape
  Town, pt. i., 1862; pt. ii., 1869); Theo. Hahn, _Grundzüge einer
  Grammatik des Herero_ (Berlin, 1857); Dr Colenso, _Grammar of the
  Zulu-Kafir Language_ (1855); Girard de Rialle, _Les Peuples de
  l'Afrique et de l'Amérique_ (Paris, 1880); G. W. Stow, _The Native
  Races of South Africa_ (London, 1905); G. McC. Theal, _History and
  Ethnography of South Africa, 1505 to 1795_ (3 vols., London,
  1907-1910) and _History of South Africa since 1795_ (5 vols., London,
  1908), specially valuable for the political history of the Kaffirs;
  Caesar C. Henkel, _The Native or Transkeian Territories_ (Hamburg,
  1903); _The Natives of South Africa_ (1901), and its sequel, _The
  South African Natives_ (1908); Dudley Kidd, _The Essential Kafir_
  (1904) and _Kafir Socialism_. The last four books deal with the many
  social and economic questions raised by the contact of the Kaffir
  races with Europeans.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The Ama-Fengu are regarded both by the Zulu and Ama-Xosa as
    slaves or out-castes, without any right to the privileges of
    true-born Kaffirs. Any tribes which become broken and mixed would
    probably be regarded as Ama-Fengu by the other Kaffirs. Hence the
    multiplicity of clans, such as the Ama-Bele, Aba-Sembotweni Ama-Zizi,
    Ama-Kuze, Aba-Sekunene, Ama-Ntokaze, Ama-Tetyeni Aba-Shwawa, &c., all
    of whom are collectively grouped as Ama-Fengu.

  [2] Seventh in descent from Zulu, through Kumede, Makeba, Punga,
    Ndaba, Yama and Tezengakona or Senzangakona (Bleek, _Zulu Legends_).

  [3] P. Topinard, _Anthropology_ (1878), p. 274.

  [4] This feature varies considerably, "in the T'slambie tribes being
    broader and more of the Negro shape than in the Gaika or Gcaleka,
    while among the Ama-Tembu and Ama-Mpondo it assumes more of the
    European character. In many of them the perfect Grecian and Roman
    noses are discernible" (Fleming's _Kaffraria_, p. 92).

  [5] Gustav Fritsch gives the mean of the Ama-Xosa as 1.718 metres,
    less than that of the Guinea Negro (1.724), but more than the English
    (1.708) and Scotch (1.710).

  [6] Since the early years of the 19th century Protestant and Roman
    Catholic missions have gained hundreds of thousands of converts among
    the Kaffirs. Purely native Christian churches have also been
    organized.



KAFFRARIA, the descriptive name given to the S.E. part of the Cape
province, South Africa. Kaffraria, i.e. the land of the Kaffirs (q.v.),
is no longer an official designation. It used to comprise the districts
now known as King William's Town and East London, which formed British
Kaffraria, annexed to Cape Colony in 1865, and the territory beyond the
Kei River south of the Drakensberg Mountains as far as the Natal
frontier, known as Kaffraria proper. As a geographical term it is still
used to indicate the Transkeian territories of the Cape provinces
comprising the four administrative divisions of Transkei, Pondoland,
Tembuland and Griqualand East, incorporated into Cape Colony at various
periods between 1879 and 1894. They have a total area of 18,310 sq. m.,
and a population (1904) of 834,644, of whom 16,777 were whites.
Excluding Pondoland--not counted previously to 1904--the population had
increased from 487,364 in 1891 to 631,887 in 1904.

  _Physical Features._--The physical characteristics of Kaffraria bear a
  general resemblance to those of the Cape province proper. The country
  rises from sea-level in a series of terraces to the rugged range of
  the Drakensberg. Between that range and the coast-lands are many
  subsidiary ranges with fertile valleys through which a large number of
  rivers make their way to the Indian Ocean. These rivers have very
  rapid falls in comparison to their length and when less than 40 m.
  from the coast are still 2000 ft. above sea-level. The chief,
  beginning at the south, are the Kei, the Bashee, the Umtata, the St
  John's or Umzimvubu, and the Umtamvuna, which separates Kaffraria from
  Natal. The St John's River rises in the Drakensberg near the
  Basuto-Natal frontier. The river valley has a length of 140 m., the
  river with its many twists being double that length. It receives
  numerous tributaries, one, the Tsitza, possessing a magnificent
  waterfall, the river leaping over an almost vertical precipice of 375
  ft. The St John's reaches the sea between precipitous cliffs some 1200
  ft. high and covered with verdure. The mouth is obstructed by a sand
  bar over which there is 14 ft. of water. None of the rivers of
  Kaffraria except the St John's is navigable.

  Kaffraria is one of the most fertile regions in South Africa. The
  mountain gorges abound in fine trees, thick forest and bush cover the
  river banks, grass grows luxuriantly in the lower regions, and the
  lowlands and valleys are favourable to almost any kind of fruit, field
  and garden cultivation. The coast districts are very hot in summer,
  the temperature from October to April on an average varying from 70°
  to 90° F., while in winter the day temperature is seldom below 50°,
  though the nights are very cold. But the variation in altitude places
  climates of all grades within easy reach, from the burning coast to
  the often snow-clad mountain. Thunderstorms are frequent in summer;
  the winters are generally dry. On the whole the climate is extremely
  healthy. At St John's are sulphur springs.

  A considerable area is devoted to the raising of wheat and other
  cereals, especially in the northern district (Griqualand East), where
  in the higher valleys are many farms owned by Europeans. Large
  quantities of stock are raised. Most of the land is held by the
  natives under tribal tenure, and the ease with which their wants are
  supplied is detrimental to the full cultivation of the land. Kaffraria
  is, however, one of the chief recruiting grounds for labour throughout
  South Africa. Most of the white inhabitants are engaged in trade.

  _Towns and Communication._--The chief town is Kokstad (q.v.), pop.
  (1904), 2903, the capital of Griqualand East. Umtata (2100 ft. above
  the sea, pop. 2342) on the river of the same name, capital of
  Tembuland, is the residence of an assistant chief magistrate,
  headquarters of a division of the Cape Mounted Rifles, and seat of the
  Anglican bishopric of Kaffraria. The principal buildings are the
  cathedral, a Gothic structure, built 1901-1906, and the town-hall, a
  fine building in Renaissance style, erected 1907-1908. Port St John is
  the chief town in Pondoland, and the only harbour of the country.
  Butterworth is the chief town in Transkei. Cala (pop. about 1000), in
  the N.W. part of Tembuland, is the educational centre of Kaffraria. A
  railway, 107 m. long, the first link in the direct Cape-Natal line,
  runs from Indwe, 65 m. from Sterkstroom Junction on the main line from
  East London to the Transvaal, to Maclear, an agricultural centre in
  Griqualand East. Another railway parallel but south of that described
  also traverses Kaffraria. Starting from Amabele, a station on the main
  line from East London to the north, it goes via Butterworth (132 m.
  from East London) to Umtata (234 m.).

  _Administration and Justice._--The Cape administrative and judicial
  system is in force, save as modified by special enactments of the Cape
  parliament. A "Native Territories Penal Code" which came into
  operation on the 1st of January 1887 governs the relations of the
  natives, who are under the jurisdiction of a chief magistrate
  (resident at Cape Town) with subordinate magistrates in the
  Territories. In civil affairs the tribal organization and native laws
  are maintained. No chief, however, exercises criminal jurisdiction.
  Since 1898 certain provisions of the Glen Grey Act have been applied
  to Kaffraria (see GLEN GREY). The revenue is included in the ordinary
  budget of the Cape province. The expenditure on Kaffraria considerably
  exceeds the revenue derived from it. The franchise laws are the same
  as in the Cape proper. Though the Kaffirs outnumber the whites by
  fifty to one, white men form the bulk of the electorate, which in 1904
  numbered 4778.

  _Religion._--Numbers of Protestant missionary societies have churches
  and educational establishments in Kaffraria, but, except in Fingoland,
  the bulk of the Kaffirs are heathen. The Griquas profess Christianity
  and have their own churches and ministers. The Anglican diocese of St
  John's, Kaffraria, was founded in 1873.

_Annexation to the Cape._--The story of the conflicts between the Kaffir
tribes and the Cape colonists is told under CAPE COLONY. As early as
1819 Kaffirland, or Kaffraria, was held not to extend west beyond the
Keiskamma River. The region east of that river as far as the Kei River
became in 1847 the Crown colony of British Kaffraria, and was annexed to
Cape Colony in 1865. The Transkeian territories remained in nominal
independence until 1875, when the Tembu sought British protection. An
inter-tribal war in 1877 between Fingo and Gcaleka resulted in the
territory of the Gcaleka chief Kreli being occupied by the British. It
was not, however, till 1879 that Fingoland and the Idutywa Reserve,
together with the district then commonly called Noman's-land, were
proclaimed an integral part of the Cape. About this time most of the
rest of Kaffraria came under British control, but it was 1885 before
Gcalekaland, the coast region of Transkei, and the various districts
comprising Tembuland--Bomvanaland on the coast, Tembuland Proper and
Emigrant Tembuland--were annexed to the colony. By the annexation, the
frontier of the colony was carried to the Umtata River, so that by 1885
only Pondoland, fronting on the Indian Ocean, separated the Cape from
Natal. In Pondoland, Port St John, proclaimed British territory in 1881,
was, along with the lower reaches of the St John's River, incorporated
with Cape Colony in 1884; in 1886 the Xesibe country (Mount Ayliff) was
annexed to the Cape and added to Griqualand East; and in the following
year Rhode Valley was included within the boundary line. The rest of
Pondoland, chiefly in virtue of a British protectorate established over
all the coast region in 1885, was already more or less under British
control, and in 1894 it was annexed to the Cape in its entirety. Thus
the whole of Kaffraria was incorporated in Cape Colony, with the
exception of some 1550 sq. m., then part of Noman's-land, annexed by
Natal in 1866 and named Alfred county. To the wise administration of
Major Sir Henry G. Elliot, who served in Kaffraria in various official
capacities from 1877 to 1903, the country owes much of its prosperity.

Particulars concerning each of the four divisions of Kaffraria follow.

  _Griqualand East_ (area, 7594 sq. m.), so called to distinguish it
  from Griqualand West, a district north of the Orange River, lies
  between Basutoland (N.W.), Natal (N.E.), Tembuland (S.W.) and
  Pondoland (S.E.). It occupies the southern slopes of the Drakensberg
  or the fertile valleys at their feet. It includes most of the region
  formerly called Noman's-land, and afterwards named Adam Kok's Land
  from the Griqua chief who occupied it in 1862 with the consent of the
  British authorities, and governed the country till his death in 1876,
  establishing a _volksraad_ on the Dutch model. The Griquas are still
  ruled by an officially appointed headman. The majority of the
  inhabitants are Basutos and Kaffirs (Pondomisi, Ama-Baka and other
  tribes). The Griquas number about 6000. Since its annexation to Cape
  Colony Griqualand East has made fairly rapid progress. The population
  rose from 121,000 in 1881 to 222,685 in 1904, of whom 5901 were
  whites. Stock-breeding on the uplands, tillage on the lower slopes of
  the Drakensberg, are the chief industries. On these slopes and uplands
  the climate is delightful and well suited to Europeans. There is
  considerable trade with Basutoland in grain and stock, and through
  Kokstad with Port St John and Port Shepstone, Natal. Much of the best
  agricultural land is owned by Europeans.

  _Tembuland_ (area, 4122 sq. m.), which lies S.W. of Griqualand East
  and comprises the districts of Tembuland Proper, Emigrant Tembuland
  and Bomvanaland, takes its name from, the Tembu nation, called
  sometimes Tambookies, one of the most powerful of the Kaffir groups.
  In the national genealogies the Tembu hold an honourable position,
  being traditionally descended from Tembu, elder brother of Xosa, from
  whom most of the other Kaffirs claim descent. The inhabitants
  increased from about 160,000 in 1881 to 231,472 in 1904, of whom 8056
  were whites. The chief town is Umtata.

  _Transkei_ (area, 2552 sq. m.) comprises the districts of Fingoland,
  the Idutywa Reserve and Gcalekaland, this last being named from the
  Gcaleka nation, who claim to be the senior branch of the Xosa family,
  the principal royal line of the Kaffir tribes. They still form the
  chief element of the population, which rose from 136,000 in 1881 to
  177,730 in 1904 (1707 whites). Here are some prosperous missionary
  stations, where the natives are taught agriculture, mechanical
  industries and a knowledge of letters. The heroic deeds of Hinza,
  Kreli and other chiefs famous in the wars are still remembered; but
  witchcraft, rain-making and other pagan practices seem to have died
  out. Even more advanced in all social respects are the Fingo, who give
  their name to the district of Fingoland, and also form the bulk of the
  population in the Idutywa Reserve. They wear European clothes, support
  their schools by voluntary contributions, edit newspapers, translate
  English poetry, set their national songs to correct music, and the
  majority profess Christianity. The industrial institution of
  Blythswood, about 20 m. N.W. of Butterworth, is a branch of Lovedale
  (q.v.), and is largely supported by the Fingo.

  _Pondoland_ (area, 4040 sq. m.; pop. (1904), 202,757 (including 1113
  whites), an estimated increase of 36,000 since 1891) is bounded E. by
  the sea, N. by Natal, W. by Griqualand East, by S. and Tembuland. In
  Pondoland the primitive organization of the natives has been little
  altered and the influence of the chiefs is very great. Land is held
  almost wholly in tribal tenure, though a number of whites possess
  farms acquired before the annexation of the country. The Pondo have
  shown some appreciation of the benefits of education.

  See G. McCall Theal's _History of South Africa_ and other works cited
  under CAPE COLONY; also _The Native or Transkeian Territories_, by C.
  C. Henkel (Hamburg, 1903), a useful handbook by an ex-official in the
  Transkeian Territories.



KAFIRISTAN, a province of Afghanistan. Very little of this country was
known with accuracy and nothing at first hand until General Sir W.
(then Colonel) Lockhart headed a mission to examine the passes of the
Hindu Kush range in 1885-1886. He penetrated into the upper part of the
Bashgal valley, but after a few days he found himself compelled to
return to Chitral. Previously Major Tanner, R.A., had sought to enter
Kafiristan from Jalalabad, but sudden severe illness cut short his
enterprise. M'Nair, the famous explorer of the Indian Survey department,
believed that he had actually visited this little-known land during an
adventurous journey which he made from India and through Chitral in
disguise; but the internal evidence of his reports shows that he mistook
the Kalash district of Chitral, with its debased and idolatrous
population, for the true Kafiristan of his hopes. In 1889 Mr G. S.
Robertson (afterwards Sir George Robertson, K.C.S.I.) was sent on a
mission to Kafiristan. He only remained a few days, but a year later he
revisited the country, staying amongst the Kafirs for nearly a year.
Although his movements were hampered, his presence in the country being
regarded with suspicion, he was able to study the people, and, in spite
of intertribal jealousy, to meet members of many of the tribes. The
facts observed and the information collected by him during his sojourn
in eastern Kafiristan, and during short expeditions to the inner
valleys, are the most trustworthy foundations of our knowledge of this
interesting country.

Kafiristan, which literally means "the land of the infidel," is the name
given to a tract of country enclosed between Chitral and Afghan
territory. It was formerly peopled by pagan mountaineers, who maintained
a wild independence until 1895, when they were finally subdued by Abdur
Rahman, the amir of Kabul, who also compelled them to accept the
religion of Islam. The territory thus ill named is included between 34°
30´ and 36° N., and from about 70° to 71° 30´ E. As the western and
northern boundaries are imperfectly known, its size cannot be estimated
with any certainty. Its greatest extent is from east to west at 35° 10´
N.; its greatest breadth is probably about 71° E. The total area
approximates to 5000 sq. m. Along the N. the boundary is the province of
Badakshan, on the N.E. the Lutkho valley of Chitral. Chitral and lower
Chitral enclose it to the E., and the Kunar valley on the S.E.
Afghanistan proper supplies the S. limit. The ranges above the Nijrao
and Pansher valleys of Afghanistan wall it in upon the W. The northern
frontier is split by the narrow Minjan valley of Badakshan, which seems
to rise in the very heart of Kafiristan.

  Speaking generally, the country consists of an irregular series of
  main valleys, for the most part deep, narrow and tortuous, into which
  a varying number of still deeper, narrower and more twisted valleys,
  ravines and glens pour their torrent water. The mountain ranges of
  Metamorphic rock, which separate the main drainage valleys, are all of
  considerable altitude, rugged and difficult, with the outline of a
  choppy sea petrified. During the winter months, when the snow lies
  deep, Kafiristan becomes a number of isolated communities, with few if
  any means of intercommunication. In the whole land there is probably
  nothing in the shape of a plain. Much of the silent, gigantic country
  warms the heart as well as captivates the eye with its grandeur and
  varied beauty; much of it is the bare skeleton of the world wasted by
  countless centuries of storms and frost, and profoundly melancholy in
  its sempiternal ruin. Every variety of mountain scenery can be found:
  silent peaks and hard, naked ridges, snowfields and glaciers; mighty
  pine forests, wooded slopes and grazing grounds; or wild vine and
  pomegranate thickets bordering sparkling streams. At low elevations
  the hill-sides are covered with the wild olive and evergreen oaks.
  Many kinds of fruit trees--walnuts, mulberries, apricots and
  apples--grow near the villages or by the wayside, as well as splendid
  horse-chestnuts and other shade trees. Higher in elevation, and from
  4000 to 8000 ft., are the dense pine and cedar forests. Above this
  altitude the slopes become dreary, the juniper, cedar and wild rhubarb
  gradually giving place to scanty willow patches, tamarisk and stunted
  birches. Over 13,000 ft. there are merely mosses and rough grass.
  Familiar wildflowers blossom at different heights. The rivers teem
  with fish. Immense numbers of red-legged partridges live in the lower
  valleys, as well as pigeons and doves. Gorgeously plumaged pheasants
  are plentiful. Of wild animals the chief are the _markhor_ (a goat)
  and the _oorial_ (a sheep). In the winter the former are recklessly
  slaughtered by hunters, being either brought to bay by trained hounds,
  or trapped in pits, or caught floundering in the snow-drifts; but in
  the summer immense herds move on the higher slopes. The _ibex_ is very
  rare. Bears and leopards are fairly common, as well as the smaller
  hill creatures.


    Passes and Roads.

  All the northern passes leading into Badakshan or into the Minjan
  valley of Badakshan seem to be over 15,000 ft. in altitude. Of these
  the chief are the Mandal, the Kamah (these two alone have been
  explored by a European traveller), the Kti, the Kulam and the Ramgal
  passes. Those to the east, the Chitral passes, are somewhat lower,
  ranging from 12,000 to 14,000 ft., e.g. the Zidig, the Shui, the
  Shawal and the Parpit, while the Patkun, which crosses one of the
  dwindled spurs near the Kunar river, is only 8400 ft. high. Between
  neighbouring valleys the very numerous communicating footways must
  rarely be lower than 10,000, while they sometimes exceed 14,000 ft.
  The western passes are unknown. All these toilsome paths are so
  faintly indicated, even when free from snow, that to adventure them
  without a local guide is usually unsafe. Yet the light-framed cattle
  of these jagged mountains can be forced over many of the worst passes.
  Ordinarily the herding tracks, near the crest of the ridges and high
  above the white torrents, are scarcely discoverable to untutored eyes.
  They wind and waver, rise, drop and twist about the irregular
  semi-precipitous slopes with baffling eccentricity and abruptness.
  Nevertheless the cattle nose their way along blunderingly, but without
  hurt. Of no less importance in the open months, and the sole trade
  routes during winter, are the lower paths by the river. An unguided
  traveller is continually at fault upon these main lines of intercourse
  and traffic.


    Rivers.

  All the rivers find their tumultuous way into the Kabul, either
  directly, as the Alingar at Laghman, or after commingling with the
  Kunar at Arundu and at Chigar-Serai. The Bashgal, draining the eastern
  portion of the country, empties itself into the Kunar at Arundu. It
  draws its highest waters from three main sources at the head of the
  Bashgal valley. It glides gently through a lake close to this origin,
  and then through a smaller tarn. The first affluent of importance is
  the Skorigal, which joins it above the village of Pshui. Next comes
  the noisier Manangal water, from the Shawal pass, which enters the
  main stream at Lutdeh or Bragamatal, the chief settlement of the
  Bashgal branch of the Katir tribe. By-and-by the main stream becomes,
  at the hamlet of Sunra, a raging, shrieking torrent in a dark narrow
  valley, its run obstructed by giant boulders and great tree-trunks.
  Racing past Bagalgrom, the chief village of the Madugal Kafirs, the
  river clamours round the great spur which, 1800 ft. higher up, gives
  space for the terraces and houses of Kamdesh, the headquarters of the
  Kam people. The next important affluent is the river which drains the
  Pittigal valley, its passes and branches. Also on the left bank, and
  still lower down, is the joining-place of the Gourdesh valley waters.
  Finally it ends in the Kunar just above Arundu and Birkot. The middle
  part of Kafiristan, including the valleys occupied by the Presun, Kti,
  Ashkun and Wai tribes, is drained by a river variously called the
  Pech, the Kamah, and the Presun or Viron River. It has been only
  partially explored. Fed by the fountains and snows of the upper Presun
  valley, it is joined at the village of Shtevgrom by the torrent from
  the Kamah pass. Thence it moves quietly past meadowland, formerly set
  apart as holy ground, watering on its way all the Presun villages.
  Below the last of them, with an abrupt bend, it hurries into the
  unexplored and rockbound Tsaru country, where it absorbs on the right
  hand the Kti and the Ashkun and on the left the Wai rivers, finally
  losing itself in the Kunar, close to Chigar-Serai. Concerning the
  Alingar or Kao, which carries the drainage of western Kafiristan into
  the Kabul at Laghman, there are no trustworthy details. It is formed
  from the waters of all the valleys inhabited by the Ramgal Kafirs, and
  by that small branch of the Katirs known as the Kalam tribe.


    Climate.

  The climate varies with the altitude, but in the summer-time it is hot
  at all elevations. In the higher valleys the winter is rigorous. Snow
  falls heavily everywhere over 4000 ft. above the sea-level. During the
  winter of 1890-1891 at Kamdesh (elevation 6100 ft.) the thermometer
  never fell below 17° F. In many of the valleys the absence of wind is
  remarkable. Consequently a great deal of cold can be borne without
  discomfort. The Kunar valley, which is wet and windy in winter, but
  where snow, if it falls, melts quickly, gives a much greater sensation
  of cold than the still Kafiristan valleys of much lower actual
  temperature. A deficiency of rain necessitates the employment of a
  somewhat elaborate system of irrigation, which in its turn is
  dependent upon the snowfall.


  The Kafirs.

The present inhabitants are probably mainly descended from the broken
tribes of eastern Afghanistan, who, refusing to accept Islam (in the
10th century), were driven away by the fervid swordsmen of Mahomet.
Descending upon the feeble inhabitants of the trackless slopes and
perilous valleys of modern Kafiristan, themselves, most likely, refugees
of an earlier date, they subjugated and enslaved them and partially
amalgamated with them. These ancient peoples seem to be represented by
the Presun tribe, by the slaves and by fragments of lost peoples, now
known as the Jazhis and the Aroms. The old division of the tribes into
the Siah-Posh, or the black-robed Kafirs, and the Safed-Posh, or the
white-robed, was neither scientific nor convenient, for while the
Siah-Posh have much in common in dress, language, customs and
appearance, the Safed-Posh divisions were not more dissimilar from the
Siah-Posh than they were from one another. Perhaps the best division at
present possible is into (1) Siah-Posh, (2) Waigulis, and (3)
Presungalis or Viron folk.


    The Siah-Posh.

  The black-robed Kafirs consist of one very large, widely spread tribe,
  the Katirs, and four much smaller communities, the Kam, the Madugalis,
  the Kashtan or Kashtoz, and the Gourdesh. Numerically, it is probable
  that the Katirs are more important than all the remaining tribes put
  together. They inhabit several valleys, each community being
  independent of the others, but all acknowledging the same origin and a
  general relationship. The Katirs fall readily into the following
  groups: (a) Those of the Bashgal valley, also called Kamoz and
  Lutdehchis, who occupy eleven villages between Badawan and Sunra, the
  border hamlet of the Madugal country, namely, Ptsigrom, Pshui or
  Pshowar, Apsai, Shidgal, Bragamatal (Lutdeh), Bajindra, Badamuk,
  Oulagal, Chabu, Baprok and Purstam; (b) the Kti or Katwar Kafirs, who
  live in two settlements in the Kti valley; (c) the Kulam people, who
  have four villages in the valley of the same name; (d) the Ramgalis,
  or Gabariks, who are the most numerous, and possess the western part
  on the Afghan border. Of the remaining tribes of the Siah-Posh, the
  chief is the Kam or Kamtoz, who inhabit the Bashgal valley, from the
  Madugal boundary to the Kunar valley, and its lateral branches in
  seven chief settlements, namely, Urmir, Kambrom or Kamdesh, Mergrom,
  Kamu, Sarat, Pittigal and Bazgal. The next Siah-Posh tribe in
  importance is the Muman or Madugal Kafirs, who have three villages in
  the short tract between the Katirs and the Kam in the Bashgal valley.
  The last Siah-Posh tribe is the Kashtan or Kashtoz, who in 1891 were
  all located in one greatly overcrowded village, their outlying
  settlement having been plundered by the Afghan tribes of the Kunar
  valley. One colony of Siah-Posh Kafirs lives in the Gourdesh valley;
  but they differ from all the other tribes, and are believed to be
  descended, in great part, from the ancient people called the Aroms.


    The Waigulis.

  Our exact knowledge of the Waigulis is scanty. They seem to be related
  in language and origin with a people fierce, shy and isolated, called
  the Ashkun, who are quite unknown. The Wai speak a tongue altogether
  different from that spoken by the Siah-Posh and by the Presungalis.
  The names of their ten chief villages are Runchi, Nishi, Jamma, Amzhi,
  Chimion, Kegili, Akun or Akum, Mildesh, Bargal and Prainta. Of these
  Amzhi and Nishi are the best known.


    The Presungalis.

  The Presungalis, also called Viron, live in a high valley. In all
  respects they differ from other Kafirs, in none more than in their
  unwarlike disposition. Simple, timid, stolid-featured and rather
  clumsy, they are remarkable for their industry and powers of
  endurance. They probably represent some of the earliest immigrants.
  Six large well-built villages are occupied by them--Shtevgrom,
  Pontzgrom, Diogrom, Kstigigrom, Satsumgrom and Paskigrom.


    The Slaves.

  The slaves are fairly numerous. Their origin is probably partly from
  the very ancient inhabitants and partly from war prisoners. Coarse in
  feature and dark in tint, they cannot be distinguished from the lowest
  class of freemen, while their dress is indistinctive. They are of two
  classes--household slaves, who are treated not unkindly; and artisan
  slaves, who are the skilled handicraftsmen--carvers, blacksmiths,
  bootmakers and so forth; many of the musicians are also slaves. They
  live in a particular portion of a village, and were considered to a
  certain extent unclean, and might not approach closely to certain
  sacred spots. All slaves seem to wear the Siah-Posh dress, even when
  they own as masters the feeble Presungal folk.


    Women.

  Little respect is shown to women, except in particular cases to a few
  of advanced years. Usually they are mistresses and slaves, saleable
  chattels and field-workers. Degraded, immoral, overworked and
  carelessly fed, they are also, as a rule, unpleasant to the sight.
  Little girls are sometimes quite beautiful, but rough usage and
  exposure to all weathers soon make their complexions coarse and dark.
  They are invariably dirty and uncombed. In comparison with the men
  they are somewhat short. Physically they are capable of enormous
  labour, and are very enduring. All the field-work falls to them, as
  well as all kinds of inferior occupations, such as load-carrying. They
  have no rights as against their husbands or, failing them, their male
  relations. They cannot inherit or possess property.


    Language.

  There are certainly three tongues spoken, besides many dialects, that
  used by the Siah-Posh being of course the most common; and although it
  has many dialects, the employers of one seem to understand all the
  others. It is a Prakritic language. Of the remaining two, the Wai and
  the Presun have no similarity; they are also unlike the Siah-Posh.
  Kafirs themselves maintain that very young children from any valley
  can acquire the Wai speech, but that only those born in the Presungal
  can ever converse in that language, even roughly. To European ears it
  is disconcertingly difficult, and it is perhaps impossible to learn.


    Religion.

  Before their conquest by Abdur Rahman all the Kafirs were idolaters of
  a rather low type. There were lingering traces of ancestor-worship,
  and perhaps of fire-worship also. The gods were numerous; tribal,
  family, household deities had to be propitiated, and mischievous
  spirits and fairies haunted forests, rivers, vales and great stones.
  Imra was the Creator, and all the other supernatural powers were
  subordinate to him. Of the inferior gods, Moni seemed to be the most
  ancient; but Gísh, the war-god, was by far the most popular. It was
  his worship, doubtless, which kept the Kafirs so long independent. In
  life as a hero, and after death as a god, he symbolized hatred to the
  religion of Mahomet. Every village revered his shrine; some possessed
  two. Imra, Gísh and Moni were honoured with separate little temples,
  as was usually Dizáni goddess; but three or four of the others would
  share one between them, each looking out of a small separate square
  window. The worshipped object was either a large fragment of stone or
  an image of wood conventionally carved, with round white stones for
  eyes. Different animals were sacrificed at different shrines: cows to
  Imra, male goats and bulls to Gísh, sheep to the god of wealth; but
  goats were generally acceptable, and were also slain ceremonially to
  discover a complaisant god, to solemnize a vow, to end a quarrel, to
  ratify brotherhood. The ministers of religion were a hereditary
  priest, a well-born chanter of praise, and a buffoon of low station,
  who was supposed to become inspired at each sacrifice, and to have the
  power of seeing fairies and other spirits whenever they were near,
  also of understanding their wishes. The blood of the offering,
  together with flour, wine and butter, was cast on the shrine after the
  animal and the other gifts had been sanctified with water sprinkled by
  the officiating priests, while he cried "Súch, súch!" ("Be pure!").
  Dense clouds of smoke from burning juniper-cedar, which crackled and
  gave forth pungent incense, added to the spectacle, which was
  dignified by the bearing of the officials and solemnized by the devout
  responses of the congregation. There was no human sacrifice except
  when a prisoner of war, after a solemn service at a shrine, was taken
  away and stabbed before the wooden tomb of some unavenged headman.
  Kafirs believed in a kind of Hell where wicked people burned; but the
  Hereafter was an underground region entered by a guarded aperture, and
  inhabited by the shapes which men see in dreams. Suicide was as
  unknown as fear of dying. Melancholy afflicted only the sick and the
  bereaved. Religious traditions, miracles and anecdotes were puerile,
  and pointed no social lesson or any religious law. Music, dancing and
  songs of praise were acceptable to the gods, and every village
  (_grom_) had its dancing platform and dancing house (_grom ma_),
  furnished with a simple altar. No prayers were offered, only
  invocations, exhortative or remonstrant.


    Tribal Organization.

  The great majority of the tribes were made up of clans. A person's
  importance was derived chiefly from the wealth of his family and the
  number of male adults which it contained. The power of a family, as
  shown by the number and quality of its fighting men as well as by the
  strength of its followers, was the index of that family's influence.
  Weak clans and detached families, or poor but free households, carried
  their independence modestly. The lowest clan above the slaves sought
  service with their wealthier tribesmen as henchmen and armed
  shepherds. By intricate ceremonial, associated with complicated
  duties, social and religious, which extended over two years,
  punctuated at intervals by prodigious compulsory banquets, rich men
  could become elders or _jast_. Still further outlay and ostentation
  enabled the few who could sustain the cost to rank still higher as
  chief or _Mír_. Theoretically, all the important and outside affairs
  of the tribe were managed by the _jast_ in council; actually they were
  controlled by two or three of the most respected of that class. Very
  serious questions which inflamed the minds of the people would be
  debated in informal parliaments of the whole tribe. Kafirs have a
  remarkable fondness for discussing in conclave. Orators, consequently,
  are influential. The internal business of a tribe was managed by an
  elected magistrate with twelve assistants. It was their duty to see
  that the customs of the people were respected; that the proper seasons
  for gathering fruit were rigidly observed. They regulated the
  irrigation of the fields, moderating the incessant quarrels which
  originated in the competition for the water; and they kept the
  channels in good repair. Their chief, helped by contributions in kind
  from all householders, entertained tribal guests. He also saw that the
  weekly Kafir Sabbath, from the sowing to the carrying of the crops,
  was carefully observed, the fires kept burning, and the dancers
  collected and encouraged. Opposition to these annual magistrates or
  infraction of tribal laws was punished by fines, which were the
  perquisites and the payment of those officials. Serious offences
  against the whole people were judged by the community itself; the
  sentences ranged as high as expulsion from the settlement, accompanied
  with the burning of the culprit's house and the spoliation of his
  goods. In such cases, the family and the clan refusing to intervene,
  the offender at once became cowed into submission.


    Houses and Villages.

  Habitations are generally strong, and built largely of wood. They are
  frequently two or more storeys high, often with an open gallery at the
  top. Wealthy owners were fond of elaborate carving in simple designs
  and devices. A room is square, with a smoke-hole when possible; small
  windows, with shutters and bolts, and heavy doors fastened by a
  sliding wooden pin, are common. The nature of the ground, its
  defensible character, the necessity of not encroaching upon the scanty
  arable land, and such considerations, determine the design of the
  villages. Specimens of many varieties may be discovered. There is the
  shockingly overcrowded oblong kind, fort-shaped, three storeys high,
  and on a river's bank, which is pierced by an underground way leading
  to the water. Here all rooms look on to the large central courtyard;
  outwards are few or no windows. There is also the tiny hamlet of a few
  piled-up hovels perched on the flattish top of some huge rock,
  inaccessible when the ladder connecting it with the neighbouring
  hill-side or leading to the ground is withdrawn. Some villages on
  mounds are defended at the base by a circular wall strengthened with
  an entanglement of branches. Others cling to the knife-edged back of
  some difficult spur. Many are hidden away up side ravines. A few
  boldly rely upon the numbers of their fighting men, and are
  unprotected save by watch-towers. While frequently very picturesque at
  a distance, all are dirty and grimed with smoke; bones and horns of
  slaughtered animals litter the ground. The ground floor of a house is
  usually a winter stable for cows and the latrine, as well as the
  manure store for the household; the middle part contains the family
  treasures; on the top is the living-place. In cold valleys, such as
  the Presungal, the houses are often clustered upon a hillock, and
  penetrate into the soil to the depth of two or more apartments.
  Notched poles are the universal ladders and stairways.


    Characteristics.

  In height Kafirs average about 5 ft. 6 in. They are lean; always in
  hard condition; active jumpers, untiring walkers, expert mountaineers;
  exceptionally they are tall and heavy. With chests fairly deep, and
  muscular, springy legs, there is some lightness and want of power
  about the shoulder muscles, the arms and the hand-grasp. In complexion
  they are purely Eastern. Some tribes, notably the Wai, are fairer than
  others, but the average colour is that of the natives of the Punjab.
  Albinos, or red-haired people, number less than ½% of the population.
  As a rule, the features are well-shaped, especially the nose. The
  glance is wild and bold, with the wide-lidded, restless gaze of the
  hawk; or the exact converse--a shifty, furtive peer under lowered
  brows. This look is rather common amongst the wealthier families and
  the most famous tribesmen. The shape of a man's head not uncommonly
  indicates his social rank. Several have the brows of thinkers and men
  of affairs. The degraded forms are the bird-of-prey type--low, hairy
  foreheads, hooked noses with receding chin, or the thickened, coarse
  features of the darker slave class. Intellectually they are of good
  average power. Their moral characteristics are passionate
  covetousness, and jealousy so intense that it smothers prudence.
  Before finally destroying, it constantly endangered their wildly
  cherished independence. Revenge, especially on neighbouring Kafirs, is
  obtained at any price. Kafirs are subtle, crafty, quick in danger and
  resolute, as might be expected of people who have been plunderers and
  assassins for centuries, whose lives were the forfeit of a fault in
  unflinchingness or of a moment's vacillation. Stealthy daring, born of
  wary and healthy nerves and the training of generations, almost
  transformed into an instinct, is the national characteristic. Ghastly
  shadows, they flitted in the precincts of hostile villages far distant
  from their own valleys, living upon the poorest food carried in a
  fetid goatskin bag; ever ready to stab in the darkness or to wriggle
  through apertures, to slay as they slept men, women and babies. Then,
  with clothing for prize, and human ears as a trophy, they sped,
  watchful as hares, for their far-away hills, avenger Pathans racing
  furiously in their track. Kafirs, most faithful to one another, never
  abandoned a comrade. If he were killed, they sought to carry away his
  head for funeral observances. As traders, though cunning enough, they
  are no match for the Afghan. They were more successful as brigands and
  blackmailers than as skilled thieves. In night robbery and in
  pilfering they showed little ingenuity. Truth was considered innately
  dangerous; but a Kafir is far more trustworthy than his Mahommedan
  neighbours. Although hospitality is generally viewed as a hopeful
  investment, it can be calculated on, and is unstinted. Kafirs are
  capable of strong friendship. They are not cruel, being kind to
  children and to animals, and protective to the weak and the old.
  Family ties and the claim of blood even triumph over jealousy and
  covetousness.


    Dress, Weapons, Utensils, &c.

  The national attire of the men is a badly-cured goatskin, confined at
  the waist by a leather belt studded with nails, supporting the
  I-hilted dagger, strong but clumsy, of slave manufacture, sheathed in
  wood covered with iron or brass, and often prettily ornamented. Women
  are dressed in a long, very dark tunic of wool, ample below the
  shoulders, and edged with red. This is fastened at the bosom by an
  iron pin, a thorn, or a fibula; it is gathered round the body by a
  woven band, an inch wide, knotted in front to dangle down in tassels.
  On this girdle is carried a fantastically handled knife in a leather
  covering. The woman's tunic is sometimes worn by men. As worn by women
  its shape is something between a long frock-coat and an Inverness
  cape. Its hue and the blackness of the hairy goatskin give the name of
  Siah-Posh, "black-robed," to the majority of the clans. The other
  tribes wear such articles of cotton attire as they can obtain by
  barter, by theft, or by killing beyond the border, for only woollen
  cloth is made in the country. Of late years long robes from Chitral
  and Badakshan have been imported by the wealthy, as well as the
  material for loose cotton trousers and wide shirts. Clothing, always
  hard to obtain, is precious property. Formerly little girls, the
  children of slaves, or else poor relations, used to be sold in
  exchange for clothes and ammunition. Mahommedans eagerly bought the
  children, which enabled them in one transaction to acquire a female
  slave and to convert an infidel. Men go bareheaded, which wrinkles
  them prematurely, or they wear Chitral caps. Certain priests, and
  others of like degree, wind a strip of cotton cloth round their brows.
  Siah-Posh women wear curious horned caps or a small square white
  head-dress upon informal occasions. Females of other tribes bind their
  heads with turbans ornamented with shells and other finery. Excellent
  snow gaiters are made of goat's hair for both sexes, and of woollen
  material for women. Boots, strongly sewn, of soft red leather cannot
  be used in the snow or when it is wet, because they are imperfectly
  tanned. For the ceremonial dances all manner of gay-coloured articles
  of attire, made of cheap silk, cotton velvet, and sham cloth-of-gold,
  are displayed, and false jewelry and tawdry ornaments; but they are
  not manufactured in the country, but brought from Peshawar by pedlars.
  Woollen blankets and goat's-hair mats cover the bedsteads--four-legged
  wooden frames laced across with string or leather thongs. Low square
  stools, 18 in. broad, made upon the same principle as the bedsteads,
  are peculiar to the Kafirs and their half-breed neighbours of the
  border. Iron tripod tables, singularly Greek in design, are fashioned
  in Waigul. A warrior's weapons are a matchlock (rarely a flintlock), a
  bow and arrows, a spear and the dagger which he never puts aside day
  or night. The axes, often carried, are light and weak, and chiefly
  indicate rank. Clubs, carefully ornamented by carving, are of little
  use in a quarrel; their purpose is that of a walking-stick. As they
  are somewhat long, these walking-clubs have been often supposed to be
  leaping-poles. Swords are rarely seen, and shields, carried purely for
  ostentation, seldom. Soft stone is quarried to make large utensils,
  and great grim chests of wood become grain boxes or coffins
  indifferently. Prettily carved bowls with handles, or with dummy
  spouts, hold milk, butter, water or small quantities of flour. Wine,
  grain, everything else, is stored or carried in goatskin bags. Musical
  instruments are represented by reed flageolets, small drums, primitive
  fiddles, and a kind of harp.


    Peculiar Customs.

  Isolated and at the outskirts of every village is a house used by
  women when menstruating and for lying-in. Children are named as soon
  as born. The infant is given to the mother to suckle, while a wise
  woman rapidly recites the family ancestral names; the name pronounced
  at the instant the baby begins to feed is that by which it is
  thereafter known. Everybody has a double name, the father's being
  prefixed to that given at birth. Very often the two are the same.
  There is a special day for the first head-shaving. No hair is allowed
  on a male's scalp, except from a 4-in. circle at the back of the head,
  whence long locks hang down straight. Puberty is attained
  ceremoniously by boys. Girls simply change a fillet for a cotton cap
  when nature proclaims womanhood. Marriage is merely the purchase of a
  wife through intermediaries, accompanied by feasting. Divorce is often
  merely a sale or the sending away of a wife to slave for her parents
  in shame. Sexual morality is low. Public opinion applauds gallantry,
  and looks upon adultery as hospitality, provided it is not discovered
  by the husband. If found out, _in flagrante delicto_, there is a
  fiscal fine in cows. There is much collusion to get this penalty paid
  in poor households. Funeral rites are most elaborate, according to the
  rank and warrior fame of the deceased, if a male, and to the wealth
  and standing of the family, if a woman. Children are simply carried to
  the cemetery in a blanket, followed by a string of women lamenting. A
  really great man is mourned over for days with orations, dancing,
  wine-drinking and food distribution. Gun-firing gives notice of the
  procession. After two or three days the corpse is placed in the coffin
  at a secluded spot, and the observances are continued with a straw
  figure lashed upon a bed, to be danced about, lamented over, and
  harangued as before. During regular intervals for business and
  refreshment old women wail genealogies. A year later, with somewhat
  similar ritual, a wooden statue is inaugurated preliminary to erection
  on the roadside or in the village Valhalla. The dead are not buried,
  but deposited in great boxes collected in an assigned place. Finery is
  placed with the body, as well as vessels holding water and food.
  Several corpses may be heaped in one receptacle, which is, rarely,
  ornamented with flags; its lid is kept from warping by heavy stones.
  The wooden statues or effigies are at times sacrificed to when there
  is sickness, and at one of the many annual festivals food is set
  before them. Among the Presungal there are none of these images.
  Blood-feuds within a tribe do not exist. The slayer of his fellow,
  even by accident, has to pay a heavy compensation or else become an
  outcast. Several hamlets and at least one village are peopled by
  families who had thus been driven forth from the community. The stigma
  attaches itself to children and their marriage connexions. Its outward
  symbol is an inability to look in the face any of the dead person's
  family. This avoidance is ceremonial. In private and after dark all
  may be good friends after a decorous interval. The compensation is
  seldom paid, although payment carries with it much enhancement of
  family dignity. All the laws to punish theft, assault, adultery and
  other injury are based on a system of compensation whenever possible,
  and of enlisting the whole of the community in all acts of punishment.
  Kafirs have true conceptions of justice. There is no death penalty; a
  fighting male is too valuable a property of the whole tribe to be so
  wasted. War begins honourably with proper notice, as a rule, but the
  murder of an unsuspecting traveller may be the first intimation.
  Bullets or arrow-heads sent to a tribe or village is the correct
  announcement of hostilities. The slaying of a tribesman need not in
  all cases cause a war. Sometimes it may be avoided by the sinning
  tribe handing over a male to be killed by the injured relations.
  Ambush, early morning attacks by large numbers, and stealthy killing
  parties of two or three are the favourite tactics. Peace is made by
  the sacrifice of cows handed over by the weaker tribe to be offered up
  to a special god of the stronger. When both sides have shown equal
  force and address, the same number of animals are exchanged.
  Field-work falls exclusively to the women. It is poor. The ploughs are
  light and very shallow. A woman, who only looks as if she were yoked
  with the ox, keeps the beast in the furrows, while a second holds the
  handle. All the operations of agriculture are done primitively.
  Grazing and dairy-farming are the real trade of the Kafirs, the
  surplus produce being exchanged on the frontier or sold for Kabul
  rupees. Herders watch their charges fully armed against marauders.

_History._--The history of Kafiristan has always been of the floating
legendary sort. At the present day there are men living in Chitral and
on other parts of the Kafiristan frontier who are prepared to testify as
eye-witnesses to marvels observed, and also heard, by them, not only in
the more remote valleys but even in the Afghan borderland itself. It is
not surprising therefore that the earlier records are to a great extent
fairy tales of a more or less imaginative kind and chiefly of value to
those interested in folk-lore. Sir Henry Yule, a scientific soldier, a
profound geographer and a careful student, as the result of his
researches thought that the present Kafiristan was part of that pagan
country stretching between Kashmir and Kabul which medieval Asiatics
referred to vaguely as _Bilaur_, a name to be found in Marco Polo as
_Bolor_. The first distinct mention of the Kafirs as a separate people
appears in the history of Timur. On his march to the invasion of India
the people at Andarab appealed to Timur for help against the Kator and
the Siah-Posh Kafirs. He responded and entered the country of those
tribes through the upper part of the Panjhir valley. It was in deep
winter weather and Timur had to be let down the snows by _glissade_ in a
basket guided by ropes. A detachment of 10,000 horse which he speaks of
as having been sent against the Siah-Posh to his left, presumably
therefore to the north, met with disaster; but he himself claims to have
been victorious. Nevertheless he seems quickly to have evacuated the
impracticable mountain land, quitting the country at Khawak. He caused
an inscription to be carved in the defiles of Kator to commemorate his
invasion and to explain its route. Inside the Kafir country on the Najil
or Alishang River there is a fort still called Timur's Castle, and in
the Kalam fort there is said to be a stone engraved to record that as
the farthest point of his advance. In the _Memoirs_ of Baber there is
mention of the Kafirs raiding into Panjhir and of their taste for
drinking, every man having a leathern wine-bottle slung round his neck.
The _Ain-i-Akbari_ makes occasional mention of the Kafirs, probably on
the authority of the famous _Memoirs_; it also contains a passage which
may possibly have originated the widespread story that the Kafirs were
descendants of the Greeks. Yule however believed that this passage did
not refer to the Kafirs at all, but to the claims to descent from
Alexander of the rulers in Swat before the time of the Yusufzai. Many of
the princelings of the little Hindu-Kush states at the present day pride
themselves on a similar origin, maintaining the founders of their race
to be Alexander, "the two-horned," and a princess sent down miraculously
from heaven to wed him.

Benedict Goes, travelling from Peshawar to Kabul in 1603, heard of a
place called _Capperstam_, where no Mahommedan might enter on pain of
death. Hindu traders were allowed to visit the country, but not the
temples. Benedict Goes tasted the Kafir wine, and from all that he heard
suspected that the Kafirs might be Christians. Nothing more is heard of
the Kafirs until 1788, when Rennell's _Memoir of a Map of Hindostan_
was published. Twenty-six years later Elphinstone's _Caubal_ was
published. During the British occupation of Kabul in 1839-1840 a
deputation of Kafirs journeyed there to invite a visit to their country
from the Christians whom they assumed to be their kindred. But the
Afghans grew furiously jealous, and the deputation was sent coldly away.

After Sir George Robertson's sojourn in the country and the visit of
several Kafirs to India with him in 1892 an increasing intimacy
continued, especially with the people of the eastern valleys, until
1895, when by the terms of an agreement entered into between the
government of India and the ruler of Afghanistan the whole of the Kafir
territory came nominally under the sway of Kabul. The amir Abdur Rahman
at once set about enforcing his authority, and the curtain, partially
lifted, fell again heavily and in darkness. Nothing but rumours reached
the outside world, rumours of successful invasions, of the wholesale
deportation of boys to Kabul for instruction in the religion of Islam,
of rebellions, of terrible repressions. Finally even rumour ceased. A
powerful Asiatic ruler has the means of ensuring a silence which is
absolute, and nothing is ever known from Kabul except what the amir
wishes to be known. Probably larger numbers of the growing boys and
young men of Kafiristan are fanatical Mahommedans, fanatical with the
zeal of the recent convert, while the older people and the majority of
the population cherish their ancient customs in secret and their
degraded religion in fear and trembling--waiting dumbly for a sign.

See Sir G. S. Robertson, _Kafirs of the Hindu-Kush_ (London, 1896).
     (G. S. R.)



KAGERA, a river of east equatorial Africa, the most remote headstream of
the Nile. The sources of its principal upper branch, the Nyavarongo,
rise in the hill country immediately east of Lake Kivu. After a course
of over 400 m. the Kagera enters Victoria Nyanza on its western shore in
0° 58´ S. It is navigable by steamers for 70 m. from its mouth, being
obstructed by rapids above that point. The river was first heard of by
J. H. Speke in 1858, and was first seen (by white men) by the same
traveller (Jan. 16, 1862) on his journey to discover the Nile source.
Speke was well aware that the Kagera was the chief river emptying into
the Victoria Nyanza and in that sense _the_ headstream of the Nile. By
him the stream was called "Kitangulé," _kagera_ being given as
equivalent to "river." The exploration of the Kagera has been largely
the work of German travellers.

  See NILE; also Speke's _Discovery of the Source of the Nile_
  (Edinburgh, 1863); R. Kandt's _Caput Nili_ (Berlin, 1904); and map by
  P. Sprigade and M. Moisel in _Grosser deutscher Kolonialatlas_, No. 16
  (Berlin, 1906).



KAHLUR, or BILASPUR, a native state of India, within the Punjab. It is
one of the hill states that came under British protection after the
first Sikh war in 1846. The Gurkhas had overrun the country in the early
part of the 19th century, and expelled the raja, who was, however,
reinstated by the British in 1815. The state occupies part of the basin
of the Sutlej amid the lower slopes of the Himalaya. Area, 448 sq. m.
Pop. (1901), 90,873; estimated gross revenue, £10,000; tribute, £530.
The chief, whose title is raja, is a Chandel Rajput. The town of
Bilaspur is situated on the left bank of the Sutlej, 1465 ft. above
sea-level; pop. (1901), 3192.



KAHN, GUSTAVE (1859-   ), French poet, was born at Metz on the 21st of
December 1859. He was educated in Paris at the École des Chartes and the
École des langues orientales, and began to contribute to obscure
Parisian reviews. After four years spent in Africa he returned to Paris
in 1885, and founded in 1886 a weekly review, _La Vogue_, in which many
of his early poems appeared. In the autumn of the same year he founded,
with Jean Moréas and Paul Adam, a short-lived periodical, _Le
Symboliste_, in which they preached the nebulous poetic doctrine of
Stéphane Mallarmé; and in 1888 he became one of the editors of the
_Revue indépendante_. He contributed poetry and criticism to the French
and Belgian reviews favourable to the extreme symbolists, and, with
Catulle Mendès, he founded at the Odéon, the Théâtre Antoine and the
Théâtre Sarah Bernhardt, matinées for the production of the plays of the
younger poets. He claimed to be the earliest writer of the _vers libre_,
and explained his methods and the history of the movement in a preface
to his _Premiers poèmes_ (1897). Later books are _Le Livre d'images_
(1897); _Les Fleurs de la passion_ (1900); some novels; and a valuable
contribution to the history of modern French verse in _Symbolistes et
décadents_ (1902).



KAHNIS, KARL FRIEDRICH AUGUST (1814-1888), German Lutheran theologian,
was born at Greiz on the 22nd of December 1814. He studied at Halle, and
in 1850 was appointed professor ordinarius at Leipzig. Ten years later
he was made canon of Meissen. He retired in 1886, and died on the 20th
of June 1888 at Leipzig. Kahnis was at first a neo-Lutheran, blessed by
E. W. Hengstenberg and his pietistic friends. He then attached himself
to the Old Lutheran party, interpreting Lutheranism in a broad and
liberal spirit and showing some appreciation of rationalism. His
_Lutherische Dogmatik, historisch-genetisch dargestellt_ (3 vols.,
1861-1868; 2nd ed. in 2 vols., 1874-1875), by making concessions to
modern criticism, by spiritualizing and adapting the old dogmas, by
attacking the idea of an infallible canon of Scripture and the
conventional theory of inspiration, by laying stress on the human side
of Scripture and insisting on the progressive character of revelation,
brought him into conflict with his former friends. A. W. Diekhoff, Franz
Delitzsch (_Für und wider Kahnis_, 1863) and Hengstenberg (_Evangelische
Kirchenzeitung_, 1862) protested loudly against the heresy, and Kahnis
replied to Hengstenberg in a vigorous pamphlet, _Zeugniss für die
Grundwahrheiten des Protestantismus gegen Dr Hengstenberg_ (1862).

  Other works by Kahnis are _Lehre vom Abendmahl_ (1851), _Der innere
  Gang des deutschen Protestantismus seit Mitte des vorigen
  Jahrhunderts_ (1854; 3rd ed. in 2 vols., 1874; Eng. trans., 1856);
  _Christentum und Luthertum_ (1871); _Geschichte der deutschen
  Reformation_, vol. i. (1872); _Der Gang der Kirche in Lebensbildern_
  (1881, &c.); and _Über das Verhältnis der alten Philosophie zum
  Christentum_ (1884).



K'AI-FÊNG FU, the capital of the province of Honan, China. It is
situated in 34° 52´ N., 114° 33´ E., on a branch line of the
Peking-Hankow railway, and forms also the district city of Siang-fu. A
city on the present site was first built by Duke Chwang (774-700 B.C.)
to mark off (_k'ai_) the boundary of his fief (_fêng_); hence its name.
It has, however, passed under several _aliases_ in Chinese history.
During the Chow, Suy and T'ang dynasties (557-907) it was known as
P'ien-chow. During the Wu-tai, or five dynasties (907-960), it was the
Tung-king, or eastern capital. Under the Sung and Kin dynasties
(960-1260) it was called P'ien-king. By the Yuan or Mongol dynasty
(1260-1368) its name was again changed to P'ien-liang, and on the return
of the Chinese to power with the establishment of the Ming dynasty
(1368-1644), its original name was restored. The city is situated at the
point where the last spur of the Kuen-lun mountain system merges in the
eastern plain, and a few miles south of the Hwang-ho. Its position,
therefore, lays it Open to the destructive influences of this river. In
1642 it was totally destroyed by a flood caused by the dikes bursting,
and on several prior and subsequent occasions it has suffered injury
from the same cause. The city is large and imposing, with broad streets
and handsome buildings, the most notable of which are a twelve-storeyed
pagoda 600 ft. high, and a watch tower from which, at a height of 200
ft., the inhabitants are able to observe the approach of the yellow
waters of the river in times of flood. The city wall forms a substantial
protection and is pierced by five gates. The whole neighbourhood, which
is the site of one of the earliest settlements of the Chinese in China,
is full of historical associations, and it was in this city that the
Jews who entered China in A.D. 1163 first established a colony. For many
centuries these people held themselves aloof from the natives, and
practised the rites of their religion in a temple built and supported by
themselves. At last, however, they fell upon evil times, and in 1851,
out of the seventy families which constituted the original colony, only
seven remained. For fifty years no rabbi had ministered to the wants of
this remnant. In 1853 the city was attacked by the T'ai-p'ing rebels,
and, though at the first assault its defenders successfully resisted the
enemy, it was subsequently taken. The captors looted and partially
destroyed the town. It has now little commerce, but contains several
schools on Western lines--including a government college opened in 1902,
and a military school near the railway station. A mint was established
in 1905, and there is a district branch of the imperial post. The
population--largely Mahommedan--was estimated (1908) at 200,000. Jews
numbered about 400.



KAILAS, a mountain in Tibet. It is the highest peak of the range of
mountains lying to the north of Lake Manasorawar, with an altitude of
over 22,000 ft. It is famous in Sanskrit literature as Siva's paradise,
and is a favourite place of pilgrimage with Hindus, who regard it as the
most sacred spot on earth. A track encircles the base of the mountain,
and it takes the pilgrim three weeks to complete the round, prostrating
himself all the way.



KAIN, the name of a sub-province and of a town of Khorasan, Persia. The
sub-province extends about 300 m. N. to S., from Khaf to Seistan, and
about 150 m. W. to E., from the hills of Tun to the Afghan frontier,
comprising the whole of south-western Khorasan. It is very hilly, but
contains many wide plains and fertile villages at a mean elevation of
4000 ft. It has a population of about 150,000, rears great numbers of
camels and produces much grain, saffron, wool, silk and opium. The chief
manufactures are felts and other woollen fabrics, principally carpets,
which have a world-wide reputation. The best Kaini carpets are made at
Darakhsh, a village in the Zirkuh district and 50 m. N.E. of Birjend. It
is divided into eleven administrative divisions:--Shahabad (with the
capital Birjend), Naharjan, Alghur, Tabas sunni Khaneh, Zirkuh Shakhan,
Kain, Nimbuluk, Nehbandan, Khusf, Arab Khaneh or Momenabad.

The town of Kain, the capital of the sub-province until 1740, when it
was supplanted by Birjend, is situated 65 m. N. of Birjend on the
eastern side of a broad valley, stretching from N. to S., at the base of
the mountain Abuzar, in 33° 42´ N. and 59° 8´ E., and at an elevation of
4500 ft. Its population is barely 5000. It is surrounded by a mud wall
and bastions, and near it, on a hill rising 500 ft. above the plain, are
the ruins of an ancient castle which, together with the old town, was
destroyed either by Shah Rukh (1404-1447), a son, or by Baysunkur (d.
1433), a grandson of Timur (Tamerlane), who afterwards built a new town.
After a time the Uzbegs took possession and held the town until Shah
Abbas I. (1587-1629) expelled them. In the 18th century it fell under
the sway of the Afghans and remained a dependency of Herat until 1851. A
large number of windmills are at work outside the town. The great
mosque, now in a ruinous state, was built A.H. 796 (A.D. 1394) by Karen
b. Jamshid and repaired by Yusof Dowlatyar.



KAIRA, or KHEDA, a town and district of British India, in the northern
division of Bombay. The town is 20 m. S.W. of Ahmedabad and 7 m. from
Mehmadabad railway station. Pop. (1901), 10,392. Its antiquity is proved
by the evidence of copperplate grants to have been known as early as the
5th century. Early in the 18th century it passed to the Babi family,
with whom it remained till 1763, when it was taken by the Mahrattas; it
was finally handed over to the British in 1803. It was a large military
station till 1830, when the cantonment was removed to Deesa.

The DISTRICT OF KAIRA has an area of 1595 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 716,332,
showing a decrease of 18% in the decade, due to the results of famine.
Except a small corner of hilly ground near its northern boundary and in
the south-east and south, where the land along the Mahi is furrowed into
deep ravines, the district forms one unbroken plain, sloping gently
towards the south-west. The north and north-east portions are dotted
with patches of rich rice-land, broken by untilled tracts of low
brushwood. The centre of the district is very fertile and highly
cultivated; the luxuriant fields are surrounded by high hedges, and the
whole country is clothed with clusters of shapely trees. To the west
this belt of rich vegetation passes into a bare though well-cultivated
tract of rice-land, growing more barren and open till it reaches the
maritime belt, whitened by a salt-like crust, along the Gulf of Cambay.
The chief rivers are the Mahi on the south-east and south, and the
Sabarmati on the western boundary. The Mahi, owing to its deeply cut bed
and sandbanks, is impracticable for either navigation or irrigation; but
the waters of the Sabarmati are largely utilized for the latter purpose.
A smaller stream, the Khari, also waters a considerable area by means of
canals and sluices. The principal crops are cotton, millets, rice and
pulse; the industries are calico-printing, dyeing, and the manufacture
of soap and glass. The chief centre of trade is Nadiad, on the railway,
with a cotton-mill. A special article of export is _ghi_, or clarified
butter. The Bombay & Baroda railway runs through the district. The
famine of 1899-1900 was felt more severely here than in any other part
of the province, the loss of cattle being specially heavy.



KAIRAWAN (KEROUAN), the "sacred" city of Tunisia, 36 m. S. by W. by rail
from Susa, and about 80 m. due S. from the capital. Kairawan is built in
an open plain a little west of a stream which flows south to the
Sidi-el-Hani lake. Of the luxuriant gardens and olive groves mentioned
in the early Arabic accounts of the place hardly a remnant is left.
Kairawan, in shape an irregular oblong, is surrounded by a crenellated
brick wall with towers and bastions and five gates. The city, however,
spreads beyond the walls, chiefly to the south and west. Some of the
finest treasures of Saracenic art in Tunisia are in Kairawan; but the
city suffered greatly from the vulgarization which followed the Turkish
conquest, and also from the blundering attempts of the French to restore
buildings falling into ruin. The streets have been paved and planted
with trees, but the town retains much of its Oriental aspect. The houses
are built round a central courtyard, and present nothing but bare walls
to the street. The chief buildings are the mosques, which are open to
Christians, Kairawan being the only town in Tunisia where this privilege
is granted.

In the northern quarter stands the great mosque founded by Sidi Okba ibn
Nafi, and containing his shrine and the tombs of many rulers of Tunisia.
To the outside it presents a heavy buttressed wall, with little of
either grandeur or grace. It consists of three parts: a cloistered
court, from which rises the massive and stately minaret, the maksura or
mosque proper, and the vestibule. The maksura is a rectangular domed
chamber divided by 296 marble and porphyry columns into 17 aisles, each
aisle having 8 arches. The central aisle is wider than the others, the
columns being arranged by threes. All the columns are Roman or
Byzantine, and are the spoil of many ancient cities. Access to the
central aisle is gained through a door of sculptured wood known as the
Beautiful Gate. It has an inscription with the record of its
construction. The walls are of painted plaster-work; the mimbar or
pulpit is of carved wood, each panel bearing a different design. The
court is surrounded by a double arcade with coupled columns. In all the
mosque contains 439 columns, including two of alabaster given by one of
the Byzantine emperors. To the Mahommedan mind the crowning distinction
of the building is that through divine inspiration the founder was
enabled to set it absolutely true to Mecca. The mosque of Sidi Okba is
the prototype of many other notable mosques (see MOSQUE). Of greater
external beauty than that of Sidi Okba is the mosque of the Three Gates.
Cufic inscriptions on the façade record its erection in the 9th and its
restoration in the 15th century A.D. Internally the mosque is a single
chamber supported by sixteen Roman columns. One of the finest specimens
of Moorish architecture in Kairawan is the _zawia_ of Sidi
Abid-el-Ghariani (d. c. A.D. 1400), one of the Almoravides, in whose
family is the hereditary governorship of the city. The entrance, a door
in a false arcade of black and white marble, leads into a court whose
arches support an upper colonnade. The town contains many other notable
buildings, but none of such importance as the mosque of the Companion
(i.e. of the Prophet), outside the walls to the N.W. This mosque is
specially sacred as possessing what are said to be three hairs of the
Prophet's beard, buried with the saint, who was one of the companions
of Mahomet. (This legend gave rise to the report that the tomb contained
the remains of Mahomet's barber.) The mosque consists of several courts
and chambers, and contains some beautiful stained glass. The court which
forms the entrance to the shrine of the saint is richly adorned with
tiles and plaster-work, and is surrounded by an arcade of white marble
columns, supporting a painted wooden roof. The minaret is faced with
tiles and is surmounted by a gilded crescent. The 19th-century mosque of
Sidi Amar Abada, also outside the wall, is in the form of a cross and is
crowned with seven cupolas. In the suburbs are huge cisterns, attributed
to the 9th century, which still supply the city with water. The cemetery
covers a large area and has thousands of Cufic and Arabic inscriptions.

Formerly famous for its carpets and its oil of roses, Kairawan is now
known in northern Africa rather for copper vessels, articles in morocco
leather, potash and saltpetre. The town has a population of about
20,000, including a few hundred Europeans.

  Arab historians relate the foundation of Kairawan by Okba with
  miraculous circumstances (Tabari ii. 63; Yaqut iv. 213). The date is
  variously given (see Weil, _Gesch. d. Chalifen_, i. 283 seq.);
  according to Tabari it must have been before 670. The legend says that
  Okba determined to found a city which should be a rallying-point for
  the followers of Mahomet in Africa. He led his companions into the
  desert, and having exhorted the serpents and wild beasts, in the name
  of the Prophet, to retire, he struck his spear into the ground
  exclaiming "Here is your Kairawan" (resting-place), so naming the
  city.[1] In the 8th century Kairawan was the capital of the province
  of Ifrikia governed by amirs appointed by the caliphs. Later it became
  the capital of the Aghlabite princes, thereafter following the
  fortunes of the successive rulers of the country (see TUNISIA:
  _History_). After Mecca and Medina Kairawan is the most sacred city in
  the eyes of the Mahommedans of Africa, and constant pilgrimages are
  made to its shrines. Until the time of the French occupation no
  Christian was allowed to pass through the gates without a special
  permit from the bey, whilst Jews were altogether forbidden to approach
  the holy city. Contrary to expectation no opposition was offered by
  the citizens to the occupation of the place by the French troops in
  1881. On that occasion the native troops hastened to the mosques to
  perform their devotions; they were followed by European soldiers, and
  the mosques having thus been "violated" have remained open ever since
  to non-Mahommedans.

  See Murray's _Handbook to Algeria and Tunis_, by Sir R. L. Playfair
  (1895); A. M. Broadley, _The Last Punic War: Tunis Past and Present_
  (1882) and H. Saladin, _Tunis el Kairouan_ (1908).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Though Okba founded his city in a desert place, excavations
    undertaken in 1908 revealed the existence of Roman ruins, including a
    temple of Saturn, in the neighbourhood.



KAISERSLAUTERN, a town in the Bavarian palatinate, on the Waldlauter, in
the hilly district of Westrich, 41 m. by rail W. of Mannheim. Pop.
(1905), 52,306. Among its educational institutions are a gymnasium, a
Protestant normal school, a commercial school and an industrial museum.
The house of correction occupies the site of Frederick Barbarossa's
castle, which was demolished by the French in 1713. Kaiserslautern is
one of the most important industrial towns in the palatinate. Its
industries include cotton and wool spinning and weaving, iron-founding,
and the manufacture of beer, tobacco, gloves, boots, furniture, &c.
There is some trade in fruit and in timber.

Kaiserslautern takes its name from the emperor (Kaiser) Frederick I.,
who built a castle here about 1152, although it appears to have been a
royal residence in Carolingian times. It became an imperial city, a
dignity which it retained until 1357, when it passed to the palatinate.
In 1621 it was taken by the Spanish, in 1631 by the Swedish, in 1635 by
the imperial and in 1713 by the French troops. During 1793 and 1794 it
was the scene of fighting; and in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 it was
the base of operations of the second German army, under Prince Frederick
Charles. It was one of the early stations of the Reformation, and in
1849 was the centre of the revolutionary spirit in the palatinate.

  See Lehmann, _Urkundliche Geschichte von Kaiserslautern_
  (Kaiserslautern, 1853), and E. Jost, _Geschichte der Stadt
  Kaiserslautern_ (Kaiserslautern, 1886).



KAISERSWERTH, a town in the Prussian Rhine province, on the right bank
of the Rhine, 6 m. below Düsseldorf. Pop. (1905), 2462. It possesses a
Protestant and a large old Romanesque Roman Catholic church of the 12th
or 13th century, with a valuable shrine, said to contain the bones of St
Suitbert, and has several benevolent institutions, of which the chief is
the _Diakonissen Anstalt_, or training-school for Protestant sisters of
charity. This institution, founded by Pastor Theodor Fliedner
(1800-1864) in 1836, has more than 100 branches, some being in Asia and
America; the head establishment at Kaiserswerth includes an orphanage, a
lunatic asylum and a Magdalen institution. The Roman Catholic hospital
occupies the former Franciscan convent. The population is engaged in
silk-weaving and other small industries.

  In 710 Pippin of Heristal presented the site of the town to Bishop
  Suitbert, who built the Benedictine monastery round which the town
  gradually formed. Until 1214 Kaiserswerth lay on an island, but in
  that year Count Adolph V. of Berg, who was besieging it, dammed up
  effectually one arm of the Rhine. About the beginning of the 14th
  century Kaiserswerth, then an imperial city, came to the archbishopric
  of Cologne, and afterwards to the duchy of Juliers, whence, after some
  vicissitudes, it finally passed into the possession of the princes of
  the palatinate, whose rights, long disputed by the elector of Cologne,
  were legally settled in 1772. In 1702 the fortress was captured by the
  Austrians and Prussians, and the Kaiserpfalz, whence the young emperor
  Henry IV. was abducted by Archbishop Anno of Cologne in 1062, was
  blown up.

  See J. Disselhoff, _Das Diaconissenmutterhaus zu Kaiserswerth_ (new
  ed., 1903; Eng. trans., 1883).



KAITHAL, or KYTHAL, an ancient town of British India in Karnal district,
Punjab. Pop. (1901), 14,408. It is said to have been founded by the
mythical hero Yudisthira, and is connected by tradition with the
monkey-god Hanuman. In 1767 it fell into the hands of the Sikh
chieftain, Bhai Desu Singh, whose descendants, the bhais of Kaithal,
ranked among the most powerful Cis-Sutlej chiefs. Their territories
lapsed to the British in 1843. There remain the fort of the bhais, and
several Mahommedan tombs of the 13th century and later. There is some
trade in grain, sal-ammoniac, live stock and blankets; and cotton,
saltpetre, lac ornaments and toys are manufactured.



KAKAPO, the Maori name, signifying "night parrot," and frequently
adopted by English writers, of a bird, commonly called by the British in
New Zealand the "ground-parrot" or "owl-parrot." The existence of this
singular form was first made known in 1843 by Ernst Dieffenbach
(_Travels in N. Zealand_, ii. 194), from some of its tail-feathers
obtained by him, and he suggested that it was one of the _Cuculidae_,
possibly belonging to the genus _Centropus_, but he added that it was
becoming scarce, and that no example had been seen for many years. G. R.
Gray, noticing it in June 1845 (_Zool. Voy. "Erebus" and "Terror,"_ pt.
ix. p. 9), was able to say little more of it, but very soon afterwards a
skin was received at the British Museum, of which, in the following
September, he published a figure (_Gen. Birds_, pt. xvii.), naming it
_Strigops[1] habroptilus_, and rightly placing it among the parrots, but
he did not describe it technically for another eighteen months (_Proc.
Zool. Society_, 1847, p. 61). Many specimens have now been received in
Europe, so that it is represented in most museums, and several examples
have reached England alive.

In habits the kakapo is almost wholly nocturnal,[2] hiding in holes
(which in some instances it seems to make for itself) under the roots of
trees or rocks during the day time, and only issuing forth about sunset
to seek its food, which is solely vegetable in kind, and consists of the
twigs, leaves, seeds and fruits of trees, grass and fern roots--some
observers say mosses also. It sometimes climbs trees, but generally
remains on the ground, only using its comparatively short wings to
balance itself in running or to break its fall when it drops from a
tree--though not always then--being apparently incapable of real flight.
It thus becomes an easy prey to the marauding creatures--cats, rats and
so forth--which European colonists have, by accident or design, let
loose in New Zealand. Sir G. Grey says it had been, within the memory of
old people, abundant in every part of that country, but (writing in
1854) was then found only in the unsettled districts.

The kakapo is about the size of a raven, of a green or brownish-green
colour, thickly freckled and irregularly barred with dark brown, and
dashed here and there with longitudinal stripes of light yellow.
Examples are subject to much variation in colour and shade, and in some
the lower parts are deeply tinged with yellow. Externally the most
striking feature of the bird is its head, armed with a powerful beak
that it well knows how to use, and its face clothed with hairs and
elongated feathers that sufficiently resemble the physiognomy of an owl
to justify the generic name bestowed upon it. Of its internal structure
little has been described, and that not always correctly. Its furcula
has been said (_Proc. Zool. Society_, 1874, p. 594) to be "lost,"
whereas the clavicles, which in most birds unite to form that bone, are
present, though they do not meet, while in like manner the bird has been
declared (_op. cit._, 1867, p. 624, note) to furnish among the
_Carinatae_ "the only apparent exception to the presence of a keel" to
the sternum. The keel, however, is undoubtedly there, as remarked by
Blanchard (_Ann. Nat. Sc., Zoologie_, 4th series, vol. xi. p. 83) and A.
Milne Edwards (_Ois. Foss. de la France_, ii. 516), and, though much
reduced in size, is nearly as much developed as in the Dodo and the
Ocydrome. The aborted condition of this process can hardly be regarded
but in connexion with the incapacity of the bird for flight, and may
very likely be the result of disuse. There can be scarcely any doubt as
to the propriety of considering this genus the type of a separate family
of _Psittaci_; but whether it stands alone or some other forms
(_Pezoporus_ or _Geopsittacus_, for example, which in coloration and
habits present some curious analogies) should be placed with it, must
await future determination. In captivity the kakapo is said to show much
intelligence, as well as an affectionate and playful disposition.
Unfortunately it does not seem to share the longevity characteristic of
most parrots, and none that has been held in confinement appears to have
long survived, while many succumb speedily.

  For further details see Gould's _Birds of Australia_ (ii. 247), and
  _Handbook_ (ii. 539); Dr Finsch's _Die Papageien_ (i. 241), and Sir
  Walter Buller's _Birds of New Zealand_ especially.     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] This generic term was subsequently altered by Van der Hoeven,
    rather pedantically, to _Stringops_, a spelling now generally
    adopted.

  [2] It has, however, been occasionally observed abroad by day; and,
    in captivity, one example at least is said to have been as active by
    day as by night.



KAKAR, a Pathan tribe on the Zhob valley frontier of Baluchistan. The
Kakars inhabit the back of the Suliman mountains between Quetta and the
Gomal river; they are a very ancient race, and it is probable that they
were in possession of these slopes long before the advent of Afghan or
Arab. They are divided into many distinct tribes who have no connexion
beyond the common name of Kakar. Not only is there no chief of the
Kakars, or general _jirgah_ (or council) of the whole tribe, but in most
cases there are no recognized heads of the different clans. In 1901 they
numbered 105,444. During the second Afghan War the Kakars caused some
annoyance on the British line of communications; and the Kakars
inhabiting the Zhob valley were punished by the Zhob valley expedition
of 1884.



KALA-AZAR, or Dum-Dum fever, a tropical disease, characterized by
remittent fever, anaemia and enlargement of the spleen (splenomegaly)
and often of the liver. It is due to a protozoon parasite (see PARASITIC
DISEASES), discovered in 1900 by Leishman in the spleen, and is of a
malarial type. The treatment is similar to that for malaria. In Assam
good results have been obtained by segregation.



KALABAGH, a town of British India in the Mianwali district of the
Punjab. Pop. (1901), 5824. It is picturesquely situated at the foot of
the Salt range, on the right bank of the Indus, opposite the railway
station of Mari. The houses nestle against the side of a precipitous
hill of solid rock-salt, piled in successive tiers, the roof of each
tier forming the street which passes in front of the row immediately
above, and a cliff, also of pure rock-salt, towers above the town. The
supply of salt, which is worked from open quarries, is practically
inexhaustible. Alum also occurs in the neighbouring hills, and forms a
considerable item of local trade. Iron implements are manufactured.



KALACH, also known as DONSKAYA, a village of S.E. Russia, in the
territory of the Don Cossacks, and a river port on the Don, 31 m. N.E.
of Nizhne-Chirskaya, in 43° 30´ E. and 48° 43´ N. Its permanent
population, only about 1200, increases greatly in summer. It is the
terminus of the railway (45 m.) which connects the Don with Tsaritsyn on
the Volga, and all the goods (especially fish, petroleum, cereals and
timber) brought from the Caspian Sea up the Volga and destined for
middle Russia, or for export through the Sea of Azov, are unloaded at
Tsaritsyn and sent over to Kalach on the Don.



KALAHANDI (formerly KAROND), a feudatory state of India, which was
transferred from the Central Provinces to the Orissa division of Bengal
in 1905. A range of the Eastern Ghats runs from N.E. to S.W. through the
state, with open undulating country to the north. Area 3745 sq. m.; pop.
(1901), 350,529; estimated revenue, £8000; tribute, £800. The
inhabitants mostly belong to the aboriginal race of Khonds. A murderous
outbreak against Hindu settlers called for armed intervention in 1882.
The chief, Raghu Kishor Deo, was murdered by a servant in 1897, and
during the minority of his son, Brij Mohan Deo, the state was placed in
charge of a British political agent. The capital is Bhawani Patna.



KALAHARI DESERT, a region of South Africa, lying mainly between 20° and
28° S. and 19° and 24° E., and covering fully 120,000 sq. m. The greater
part of this territory forms the western portion of the (British)
Bechuanaland protectorate, but it extends south into that part of
Bechuanaland annexed to the Cape and west into German South-West Africa.
The Orange river marks its southern limit; westward it reaches to the
foot of the Nama and Damara hills, eastward to the cultivable parts of
Bechuanaland, northward and north-westward to the valley of the Okavango
and the bed of Lake Ngami. The Kalahari, part of the immense inner
table-land of South Africa, has an average elevation of over 3000 ft.
with a general slope from east to west and a dip northward to Ngami.
Described by Robert Moffat as "the southern Sahara," the Kalahari
resembles the great desert of North Africa in being generally arid and
in being scored by the beds of dried-up rivers. It presents however many
points of difference from the Sahara. The surface soil is mainly red
sand, but in places limestone overlies shale and conglomerates. The
ground is undulating and its appearance is comparable with that of the
ocean at times of heavy swell. The crests of the waves are represented
by sand dunes, rising from 30 to 100 ft.; the troughs between the dunes
vary greatly in breadth. On the eastern border long tongues of sand
project into the veld, while the veld in places penetrates far into the
desert. There are also, and especially along the river beds, extensive
mud flats. After heavy rain these become pans or lakes, and water is
then also found in mud-bottomed pools along the beds of the rivers. The
water in the pans is often brackish, and in some cases thickly encrusted
with salt. Pans also occur in crater-like depressions where rock rises
above the desert sands. A tough, sun-bleached grass, growing knee-high
in tufts at intervals of about 15 in., covers the dunes and gives the
general colour of the landscape. Considerable parts of the Kalahari,
chiefly in the west and north, are however covered with dense scrub and
there are occasional patches of forest. Next to the lack of water the
chief characteristics of the desert are the tuberous and herbaceous
plants and the large numbers of big game found in it. Of the plants the
most remarkable is the water-melon, of which both the bitter and sweet
variety are found, and which supplies both man and beast with water. The
game includes the lion, leopard, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, buffalo,
zebra, quagga, many kinds of antelope (among them the kudu and gnu),
baboon and ostrich. The elephant, giraffe and eland are also found. The
hunting of these three last-named animals is prohibited, and for all
game there is a close time from the beginning of September to the end of
February.

The climate is hot, dry and healthy, save in the neighbourhood of the
large marshes in the north, where malarial fever is prevalent. In this
region the drainage is N.E. to the great Makarikari marsh and the
Botletle, the river connecting the marsh with the Ngami system. In the
south the drainage is towards the Orange. The Molopo and the Kuruman,
which in their upper course in eastern Bechuanaland are perennial
streams, lose their water by evaporation and percolation on their way
westward through the Kalahari. The Molopo, a very imposing river on the
map, is dry in its lower stretches. The annual rainfall does not exceed
10 in. It occurs in the summer months, September to March, and chiefly
in thunderstorms. The country is suffering from progressive desiccation,
but there is good evidence of an abundant supply of water not far
beneath the surface. In the water-melon season a few white farmers
living on the edge of the desert send their herds thither to graze. Such
few spots as have been under cultivation by artificial irrigation yield
excellent returns to the farmer; but the chief commercial products of
the desert are the skins of animals.

  The Kalahari is the home of wandering Bushmen (q.v.), who live
  entirely by the chase, killing their prey with poisoned arrows, of
  Ba-Kalahari, and along the western border of Hottentots, who are both
  hunters and cattle-rearers. The Ba-Kalahari (men of the Kalahari), who
  constitute the majority of the inhabitants, appear to belong to the
  Batau tribe of the Bechuanas, now no longer having separate tribal
  existence, and traditionally reported to be the oldest of the Bechuana
  tribes. Their features are markedly negroid, though their skin is less
  black than that of many negro peoples. They have thin legs and arms.
  The Ba-Kalahari are said to have possessed enormous herds of large
  horned cattle until deprived of them and driven into the desert by a
  fresh migration of more powerful Bechuana tribes. Unlike the Bushmen,
  and in spite of desert life, the Ba-Kalahari have a true passion for
  agriculture and cattle-breeding. They carefully cultivate their
  gardens, though in many cases all they can grow is a scanty supply of
  melons and pumpkins, and they rear small herds of goats. They are also
  clever hunters, and from the neighbouring Bechuana chiefs obtain
  spears, knives, tobacco and dogs in exchange for the skins of the
  animals they kill. In disposition they are peaceful to timidity, grave
  and almost morose. Livingstone states that he never saw Ba-Kalahari
  children at play. An ingenious method is employed to obtain water
  where there is no open well or running stream. To one end of a reed
  about 2 ft. long a bunch of grass is tied, and this end of the reed is
  inserted in a hole dug at a spot where water is known to exist
  underground, the wet sand being rammed down firmly round it. An
  ostrich egg-shell, the usual water vessel, is placed on the ground
  alongside the reed. The water-drawer, generally a woman, then sucks up
  the water through the reed, dexterously squirting it into the adjacent
  egg-shell. To aid her aim she places between her lips a straw, the
  other end of which is inserted in the shell. The shells, when filled,
  are buried, the object of the Ba-Kalahari being to preserve their
  supplies from any sudden raid by Bushmen or other foe. Early
  travellers stated that no amount of bullying or hunting in a
  Ba-Kalahari village would result in a find of water; but that on
  friendly relations being established the natives would bring a supply,
  however arid the district. The British government has since sunk wells
  in one or two districts. Though the Ba-Kalahari have no religion in
  the strict sense of the word, they show traces of totemism, and as
  Batau, i.e. "men of the lion," revere rather than fear that beast.

  The Kalahari was first crossed to Lake Ngami by David Livingstone,
  accompanied by William C. Oswell, in 1849. In 1878-1879 a party of
  Boers, with about three hundred wagons, trekked from the Transvaal
  across the Kalahari to Ngami and thence to the hinterland of Angola.
  Many of the party, men, women and children, perished of thirst during
  the journey. Survivors stated that in all some 250 people and 9000
  cattle died.

  See BECHUANALAND. _Die Kalahari_, by Dr Siegfried Passarge (Berlin,
  1904), is a valuable treatise on the geology, topography, hydrography,
  climate and flora of the desert, with maps and bibliography. The
  author spent two years (1896-1898) in the Kalahari. See also
  _Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa_, &c., by David
  Livingstone (London, 1857).



KALAMATA (officially [Greek: Kalamai], from an ancient town near the
site), chief town of the modern Greek nomarchy of Messenia in the Morea,
situated on the left bank of the Nedon, about 1 m. from the sea. Pop.
(1907), 13,123. There is a suburb on the right bank of the stream. On a
hill behind the town are the ruins of a medieval castle, but no ancient
Greek remains have been discovered, although some travellers have
identified the site with that of the classical Pharae or Pherae. It is
the seat of a court of justice and of an archbishop. During the middle
ages it was for a time a fief of the Villehardouins. In 1685 Kalamata
was captured by the Venetians; in 1770, and again in 1821, it was the
revolutionary headquarters in the Morea. In 1825 it was sacked by
Ibrahim Pasha. Kalamata is situated in a very fruitful district, of
which it is the emporium. The harbour, though recently improved, offers
little shelter to shipping. Vessels load and discharge by means of
lighters, the outer harbour having a depth at entrance of 24 ft. and
inside of 14 ft. The inner harbour has a depth of 15 ft. and is
sheltered by a breakwater 1640 ft. in length; in the winter months the
fishing craft take shelter in the haven of Armyro. The silk industry,
formerly important, still employs about 300 women and girls in four
spinning establishments. Olive oil and silk are the chief exports.



KALAMAZOO, a city and the county-seat of Kalamazoo county, Michigan,
U.S.A., on the W. bank of the Kalamazoo River, about 49 m. S. of Grand
Rapids and 144 m. W. of Detroit. Pop. (1900) 24,404, of whom 4710 were
foreign-born; (1910 census) 39,437. It is served by the Michigan
Central, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the Grand Rapids & Indiana,
the Kalamazoo, Lake Shore & Chicago, and the Chicago, Kalamazoo &
Saginaw railways, and by interurban electric lines. The city has a
public library, and is the seat of Kalamazoo college (Baptist), which
grew out of the Kalamazoo literary institute (1833) and was chartered
under its present name in 1855; the Michigan female seminary
(Presbyterian), established in 1866; the Western State normal school
(1904); Nazareth Academy (1897), for girls; Barbour Hall (1899), a
school for boys; two private schools for the feeble-minded; and the
Michigan asylum for the insane, opened in 1859. The surrounding country
is famous for its celery, and the city is an important manufacturing
centre, ranking third among the cities of the state in the value of its
factory products in 1904. The value of the factory product in 1904 was
$13,141,767, an increase of 82.9% since 1900. The waterworks and
electric-lighting plant are owned and operated by the municipality.
Kalamazoo was settled in 1829, was known as Bronson (in honour of Titus
Bronson, an early settler) until 1836, was incorporated as the village
of Kalamazoo in 1838, and in 1884 became a city under a charter granted
in the preceding year.



KALAPUYA, or CALLAPOOYA, a tribe and stock of North-American Indians,
whose former range was the valley of the Willamette River, Oregon. They
now number little more than a hundred, on a reservation on Grande Ronde
reservation, Oregon.



KALAT, the capital of Baluchistan, situated in 29° 2´ N. and 66° 35´ E.,
about 6780 ft. above sea-level, 88 m. from Quetta. The town gives its
name also to a native state with an area, including Makran and Kharan,
of 71,593 m. and a population (1901) of 470,336. The word Kalat is
derived from _kala_--a fortress; and Kalat is the most picturesque
fortress in the Baluch highlands. It crowns a low hill, round the base
of which clusters the closely built mass of flat-roofed mud houses which
form the insignificant town. A _miri_ or citadel, having an imposing
appearance, dominates the town, and contains within its walls the palace
of the khan. It was in an upper room of this residence that Mehrab Khan,
ruler of Baluchistan, was killed during the storming of the town and
citadel by the British troops at the close of the first Afghan War in
1839. In 1901 it had a population of only 2000. The valleys immediately
surrounding the fortress are well cultivated and thickly inhabited, in
spite of their elevation and the extremes of temperature to which they
are exposed. Recent surveys of Baluchistan have determined the position
of Hozdar or Khozdar (27° 48´ N., 66° 38´ E.) to be about 50 m. S. of
Kalat. Khozdar was the former capital of Baluchistan, and is as directly
connected with the southern branches of the Mulla Pass as Kalat is with
the northern, the Mulla being the ancient trade route to Gandava
(Kandabe) and Sind. In spite of the rugged and barren nature of the
mountain districts of the Kalat highlands, the main routes through them
(concentrating on Khozdar rather than on Kalat) are comparatively easy.
The old "Pathan vat," the trade highway between Kalat and Karachi by the
Hab valley, passes through Khozdar. From Khozdar another route strikes a
little west of south to Wad, and then passes easily into Las Bela. This
is the "Kohan vat." A third route runs to Nal, and leads to the head of
the Kolwa valley (meeting with no great physical obstruction), and then
strikes into the open high road to Persia. Some of the valleys about
Kalat (Mastang, for instance) are wide and fertile, full of thriving
villages and strikingly picturesque; and in spite of the great
preponderance of mountain wilderness (a wilderness which is, however, in
many parts well adapted for the pasturage of sheep) existing in the
Sarawan lowlands almost equally with the Jalawan highlands, it is not
difficult to understand the importance which the province of Kalat,
anciently called Turan (or Tubaran), maintained in the eyes of medieval
Arab geographers (see BALUCHISTAN). New light has been thrown on the
history of Kalat by the translation of an unpublished manuscript
obtained at Tatta by Mr Tate, of the Indian Survey Department, who has
added thereto notes from the Tufhat-ul-Kiram, for the use of which he
was indebted to Khan Sahib Rasul Baksh, mukhtiardar of Tatta. According
to these authorities, the family of the khans of Kalat is of Arabic
origin, and not, as is usually stated, of Brahuic extraction. They
belong to the Ahmadzai branch of the Mirwari clan, which originally
emigrated from Oman to the Kolwa valley of Mekran. The khan of Kalat,
Mir Mahmud Khan, who succeeded his father in 1893, is the leading
chieftain in the Baluch Confederacy. The revenue of the khan is
estimated at nearly £60,000, including subsidies from the British
government; and an accrued surplus of £240,000 has been invested in
Indian securities.

  See G. P. Tate, _Kalat_ (Calcutta, 1896); _Baluchistan District
  Gazetteer_, vol. vi. (Bombay, 1907).     (T. H. H.*)



KALAT-I-GHILZAI, a fort in Afghanistan. It is situated on an isolated
rocky eminence 5543 ft. above sea-level and 200 ft. above the plain, on
the right bank of the river Tarnak, on the road between Kabul and
Kandahar, 87 m. from Kandahar and 229 m. from Kabul. It is celebrated
for its gallant defence by Captain Craigie and a sepoy garrison against
the Afghans in the first Afghan War of 1842. In memory of this feat of
arms, the 12th Pioneers still bear the name of "The Kalat-i-Ghilzai
Regiment," and carry a special colour with the motto "Invicta."



KALB, JOHANN ("BARON DE KALB") (1721-1780), German soldier in the
American War of Independence, was born in Hüttendorf, near Bayreuth, on
the 29th of June 1721. He was of peasant parentage, and left home when
he was sixteen to become a butler; in 1743 he was a lieutenant in a
German regiment in the French service, calling himself at this time Jean
de Kalb. He served with the French in the War of the Austrian
Succession, becoming captain in 1747 and major in 1756; in the Seven
Years' War he was in the corps of the comte de Broglie, rendering great
assistance to the French after Rossbach (November 1757) and showing
great bravery at Bergen (April 1759); and in 1763 he resigned his
commission. As secret agent, appointed by Choiseul, he visited America
in 1768-1769 to inquire into the feeling of the colonists toward Great
Britain. From his retirement at Milon la Chapelle, Kalb went to Metz for
garrison duty under de Broglie in 1775. Soon afterwards he received
permission to volunteer in the army of the American colonies, in which
the rank of major-general was promised to him by Silas Deane. After many
delays he sailed with eleven other officers on the ship fitted out by
Lafayette and arrived at Philadelphia in July 1777. His commission from
Deane was disallowed, but the Continental Congress granted him the rank
of major-general (dating from the 15th of September 1777), and in
October he joined the army, where his growing admiration for Washington
soon led him to view with disfavour de Broglie's scheme for putting a
European officer in chief command. Early in 1778, as second in command
to Lafayette for the proposed expedition against Canada, he accompanied
Lafayette to Albany; but no adequate preparations had been made, and the
expedition was abandoned. In April 1780, he was sent from Morristown,
New Jersey, with his division of Maryland men, his Delaware regiment and
the 1st artillery, to relieve Charleston, but on arriving at Petersburg,
Virginia, he learned that Charleston had already fallen. In his camp at
Buffalo Ford and Deep River, General Horatio Gates joined him on the
25th of July; and next day Gates led the army by the short and desolate
road directly towards Camden. On the 11th-13th of August, when Kalb
advised an immediate attack on Rawdon, Gates hesitated and then marched
to a position on the Salisbury-Charlotte road which he had previously
refused to take. On the 14th Cornwallis had occupied Camden, and a
battle took place there on the 16th when, the other American troops
having broken and fled, Kalb, unhorsed and fighting fiercely at the head
of his right wing, was wounded eleven times. He was taken prisoner and
died on the 19th of August 1780 in Camden. Here in 1825 Lafayette laid
the corner-stone of a monument to him. In 1887 a statue of him by
Ephraim Keyser was dedicated in Annapolis, Maryland.

  See Friedrich Kapp, _Leben des amerikanischen Generals Johann Kalb_
  (Stuttgart, 1862; English version, privately printed, New York, 1870),
  which is summarized in George W. Greene's _The German Element in the
  War of American Independence_ (New York, 1876).



KALCKREUTH (or KALKREUTH), FRIEDRICH ADOLF, COUNT VON (1737-1818),
Prussian soldier, entered the regiment of Gardes du Corps in 1752, and
in 1758 was adjutant or aide de camp to Frederick the Great's brother,
Prince Henry, with whom he served throughout the later stages of the
Seven Years' War. He won special distinction at the battle of Freiberg
(Sept. 29, 1762), for which Frederick promoted him major. Personal
differences with Prince Henry severed their connexion in 1766, and for
many years Kalckreuth lived in comparative retirement. But he made the
campaign of the War of the Bavarian Succession as a colonel, and on the
accession of Frederick William II. was restored to favour. He greatly
distinguished himself as a major-general in the invasion of Holland in
1787, and by 1792 had become count and lieutenant-general. Under
Brunswick he took a conspicuous part in the campaign of Valmy in 1792,
the siege and capture of Mainz in 1793, and the battle of Kaiserslautern
in 1794. In the campaigns against Napoleon in 1806 he played a marked
part for good or evil, both at Auerstädt and in the miserable retreat of
the beaten Prussians. In 1807 he defended Danzig for 78 days against the
French under Marshal Lefebvre, with far greater skill and energy than he
had shown in the previous year. He was promoted field marshal soon
afterwards, and conducted many of the negotiations at Tilsit. He died as
governor of Berlin in 1818.

  The _Dictées du Feldmaréchal Kalckreuth_ were published by his son
  (Paris, 1844).



KALCKREUTH, LEOPOLD, COUNT VON (1855-   ), German painter, a direct
descendant of the famous field-marshal (see above), was born at
Düsseldorf, received his first training at Weimar from his father, the
landscape painter Count Stanislaus von Kalckreuth (1820-1894), and
subsequently studied at the academies of Weimar and Munich. Although he
painted some portraits remarkable for their power of expression, he
devoted himself principally to depicting with relentless realism the
monotonous life of the fishing folk on the sea-coast, and of the
peasants in the fields. His palette is joyless, and almost melancholy,
and in his technique he is strongly influenced by the impressionists. He
was one of the founders of the secessionist movement. From 1885 to 1890
Count von Kalckreuth was professor at the Weimar art school. In 1890 he
resigned his professorship and retired to his estate of Höckricht in
Silesia, where he occupied himself in painting subjects drawn from the
life of the country-folk. In 1895 he became a professor at the art
school at Karlsruhe. The Munich Pinakothek has his "Rainbow" and the
Dresden Gallery his "Old Age." Among his chief works are the "Funeral at
Dachau," "Homewards," "Wedding Procession in the Carpathian Mountains,"
"The Gleaners," "Old Age," "Before the Fish Auction," "Summer," and
"Going to School."

  See A. Ph. W. v. Kalckreuth, _Gesch. der Herren, Freiherren und Grafen
  von Kalckreuth_ (Potsdam, 1904).



KALEIDOSCOPE (from Gr. [Greek: kalos], beautiful, [Greek: eidos], form,
and [Greek: skopein], to view). The article REFLECTION explains the
symmetrical arrangement of images formed by two mirrors inclined at an
angle which is a sub-multiple of four right angles. This is the
principle of the kaleidoscope, an optical toy which received its present
form at the hands of Sir David Brewster about the year 1815, and which
at once became exceedingly popular owing to the beauty and variety of
the images and the sudden and unexpected changes from one graceful form
to another. A hundred years earlier R. Bradley had employed a similar
arrangement which seems to have passed into oblivion (_New Improvements
of Planting and Gardening_, 1710). The instrument has been extensively
used by designers. In its simplest form it consists of a tube about
twelve inches long containing two glass plates, extending along its
whole length and inclined at an angle of 60°. The eye-end of the tube is
closed by a metal plate having a small hole at its centre near the
intersection of the glass plates. The other end is closed by a plate of
muffed glass at the distance of distinct vision, and parallel to this is
fixed a plate of clear glass. In the intervening space (the
_object-box_) are contained a number of fragments of brilliantly
coloured glass, and as the tube is turned round its axis these fragments
alter their positions and give rise to the various patterns. A third
reflecting plate is sometimes employed, the cross-section of the three
forming an equilateral triangle. Sir David Brewster modified his
apparatus by moving the object-box and closing the end of the tube by a
lens of short focus which forms images of distant objects at the
distance of distinct vision. These images take the place of the coloured
fragments of glass, and they are symmetrically multiplied by the
mirrors. In the _polyangular kaleidoscope_ the angle between the mirrors
can be altered at pleasure. Such instruments are occasionally found in
old collections of philosophical apparatus and they have been used in
order to explain to students the formation of multiple images.
     (C. J. J.)



KALERGIS, DIMITRI (DEMETRIOS) (1803-1867), Greek statesman, was a Cretan
by birth, studied medicine at Paris and on the outbreak of the War of
Greek Independence went to the Morea and joined the insurgents. He
fought under Karaiskakis, was taken prisoner by the Turks before Athens
and mulcted of an ear; later he acted as aide de camp to the French
philhellene Colonel Fabvier and to Count Capo d'Istria, president of
Greece. In 1832 he was promoted lieutenant-colonel. In 1843, as
commander of a cavalry division, he was the prime mover in the
insurrection which forced King Otto to dismiss his Bavarian ministers.
He was appointed military commandant of Athens and aide de camp to the
king, but after the fall of the Mavrocordato ministry in 1845 was forced
to go into exile, and spent several years in London, where he became an
intimate of Prince Louis Napoleon. In 1848 he made an abortive descent
on the Greek coast, in the hope of revolutionizing the kingdom. He was
captured, but soon released and, after a stay in the island of Zante,
went to Paris (1853). At the instance of the Western Powers he was
recalled on the outbreak of the Crimean War and appointed minister of
war in the reconstituted Mavrocordato cabinet (1854). He was, however,
disliked by King Otto and his consort, and in October 1855 was forced to
resign. In 1861 he was appointed minister plenipotentiary in Paris, in
which capacity he took an important part in the negotiations which
followed the fall of the Bavarian dynasty and led to the accession of
Prince George of Denmark to the Greek throne.



KALEWALA, or KALEVALA, the name of the Finnish national epos. It takes
its name from the three sons of Kalewa (or Finland), viz. the ancient
Wäinämöinen, the inventor of the sacred harp Kantele; the cunning
art-smith, Ilmarinen; and the gallant Lemminkäinen, who is a sort of
Arctic Don Juan. The adventures of these three heroes are wound about a
plot for securing in marriage the hand of the daughter of Louhi, a hero
from Pohjola, a land of the cold north. Ilmarinen is set to construct a
magic mill, the Sanpo, which grinds out meal, salt and gold, and as this
has fallen into the hands of the folk of Pohjola, it is needful to
recover it. The poem actually opens, however, with a very poetical
theory of the origin of the world. The virgin daughter of the
atmosphere, Luonnotar, wanders for seven hundred years in space, until
she bethinks her to invoke Ukko, the northern Zeus, who sends his eagle
to her; this bird makes its nest on the knees of Luonnotar and lays in
it seven eggs. Oat of the substance of these eggs the visible world is
made. But it is empty and sterile until Wäinämöinen descends upon it
and woos the exquisite Aino. She disappears into space, and it is to
recover from his loss and to find another bride that Wäinämöinen makes
his series of epical adventures in the dismal country of Pohjola.
Various episodes of great strangeness and beauty accompany the lengthy
recital of the struggle to acquire the magical Sanpo, which gives
prosperity to whoever possesses it. In the midst of a battle the Sanpo
is broken and falls into the sea, but one fragment floats on the waves,
and, being stranded on the shores of Finland, secures eternal felicity
for that country. At the very close of the poem a virgin, Mariatta,
brings forth a king who drives Wäinämöinen out of the country, and this
is understood to refer to the ultimate conquest of Paganism by
Christianity.

The _Kalewala_ was probably composed at various times and by various
bards, but always in sympathy with the latent traditions of the Finnish
race, and with a mixture of symbolism and realism exactly accordant with
the instincts of that race. While in the other antique epics of the
world bloodshed takes a predominant place, the _Kalewala_ is
characteristically gentle, lyrical and even domestic, dwelling at great
length on situations of moral beauty and romantic pathos. It is entirely
concerned with the folk-lore and the traditions of the primeval Finnish
race. The poem is written in eight-syllabled trochaic verse, and an idea
of its style may be obtained from Longfellow's _Hiawatha_, which is a
pretty true imitation of the Finnish epic.

  Until the 19th century the _Kalewala_ existed only in fragments in the
  memories and on the lips of the peasants. A collection of a few of
  these scattered songs was published in 1822 by Dr Zacharius Topelius,
  but it was not until 1835 that anything like a complete and
  systematically arranged collection was given to the world by Dr Elias
  Lönnrot. For years Dr Lönnrot wandered from place to place in the most
  remote districts, living with the peasantry, and taking down from
  their lips all that they knew of their popular songs. Some of the most
  valuable were discovered in the governments of Archangel and Olonetz.
  After unwearied diligence Lönnrot was successful in collecting 12,000
  lines. These he arranged as methodically as he could into thirty-two
  runes or cantos, which he published exactly as he heard them sung or
  chanted. Continuing his researches, Dr Lönnrot published in 1849 a new
  edition of 22,793 verses in fifty runes. A still more complete text
  was published by A. V. Forsman in 1887. The importance of this
  indigenous epic was at once recognized in Europe, and translations
  were made into Swedish, German and French. Several translations into
  English exist, the fullest being that by J. M. Crawford in 1888. The
  best foreign editions are those of Castren in Swedish (1844), Leouzon
  le Duc in French (1845 and 1868), Schiefner in German (1852).
       (E. G.)



KALGAN (CHANG-CHIA K'OW), a city of China, in the province of Chih-li,
with a population estimated at from 70,000 to 100,000. It lies in the
line of the Great Wall, 122 m. by rail N.W. of Peking, commanding an
important pass between China and Mongolia. Its position is stated as in
40° 50´ N. and 114° 54´ E., and its height above the sea as 2810 ft. The
valley amid the mountains in which it is situated is under excellent
cultivation, and thickly studded with villages. Kalgan consists of a
walled town or fortress and suburbs 3 m. long. The streets are wide, and
excellent shops are abundant; but the ordinary houses have an unusual
appearance, from the fact that they are mostly roofed with earth and
become covered with green-sward. Large quantities of soda are
manufactured; and the town is the seat of a very extensive transit
trade. In October 1909 it was connected by railway with Peking. In early
autumn long lines of camels come in from all quarters for the conveyance
of the tea-chests from Kalgan to Kiakhta; and each caravan usually makes
three journeys in the winter. Some Russian merchants have permanent
residences and warehouses just outside the gate. On the way to Peking
the road passes over a beautiful bridge of seven arches, ornamented with
marble figures of animals. The name Kalgan is Mongolian, and means a
barrier or "gate-beam."



KALGOORLIE, a mining town of Western Australia, 24 m. by rail E.N.E. of
Coolgardie. Pop. (1901), 6652. It is a thriving town with an electric
tramway service, and is the junction of four lines of railway. The
gold-field, discovered in 1893, is very rich, supporting about 15,000
miners. The town is supplied with water, like Coolgardie, from a source
near Perth 360 m. distant.



KALI (black), or _Kali Ma_ (the Black Mother), in Hindu mythology, the
goddess of destruction and death, the wife of Siva. According to one
theory, Calcutta owes its name to her, being originally Kalighat,
"Kali's landing-place." Siva's consort has many names (e.g. Durga,
Bhawani, Parvati, &c.). Her idol is black, with four arms, and red palms
to the hands. Her eyes are red, and her face and breasts are besmeared
with blood. Her hair is matted, and she has projecting fang-like teeth,
between which protrudes a tongue dripping with blood. She wears a
necklace of skulls, her earrings are dead bodies, and she is girded with
serpents. She stands on the body of Siva, to account for which attitude
there is an elaborate legend. She is more worshipped in Gondwana and the
forest tracts to the east and south of it than in any other part of
India. Formerly human sacrifice was the essential of her ritual. The
victim, always a male, was taken to her temple after sunset and
imprisoned there. When morning came he was dead: the priests told the
people that Kali had sucked his blood in the night. At Dantewara in
Bastar there is a famous shrine of Kali under the name of Danteswari.
Here many a human head has been presented on her altar. About 1830 it is
said that upwards of twenty-five full-grown men were immolated at once
by the raja. Cutting their flesh and burning portions of their body were
among the acts of devotion of her worshippers. Kali is goddess of
small-pox and cholera. The Thugs murdered their victims in her honour,
and to her the sacred pickaxe, wherewith their graves were dug, was
consecrated.

The _Hook-swinging Festival_ (_Churruk_ or _Churuck Puja_), one of the
most notable celebrations in honour of the goddess Kali, has now been
prohibited in British territory. Those who had vowed themselves to
self-torture submitted to be swung in the air supported only by hooks
passed through the muscles over the blade-bones. These hooks were hung
from a long crossbeam, which see-sawed upon a huge upright pole. Hoisted
into the air by men pulling down the other end of the see-saw beam, the
victim was then whirled round in a circle. The torture usually lasted
fifteen or twenty minutes.

  See A. A. Macdonell, _Vedic Mythology_ (Strassburg, 1897).



KALIDASA, the most illustrious name among the writers of the second
epoch of Sanskrit literature, which, as contrasted with the age of the
Vedic hymns, may be characterized as the period of artificial poetry.
Owing to the absence of the historical sense in the Hindu race, it is
impossible to fix with chronological exactness the lifetime of either
Kalidasa or any other Sanskrit author. Native tradition places him in
the 1st century B.C.; but the evidence on which this belief rests is
worthless. The works of the poet contain no allusions by which their
date can be directly determined; yet the extremely corrupt form of the
Prakrit or popular dialects spoken by the women and the subordinate
characters in his plays, as compared with the Prakrit in inscriptions of
ascertained age, led such authorities as Weber and Lassen to agree in
fixing on the 3rd century A.D. as the approximate period to which the
writings of Kalidasa should be referred.

He was one of the "nine gems" at the court of King Vikramaditya or
Vikrama, at Ujjain, and the tendency is now to regard the latter as
having flourished about A.D. 375; others, however, place him as late as
the 6th century. The richness of his creative fancy, his delicacy of
sentiment, and his keen appreciation of the beauties of nature, combined
with remarkable powers of description, place Kalidasa in the first rank
of Oriental poets. The effect, however, of his productions as a whole is
greatly marred by extreme artificiality of diction, which, though to a
less extent than in other Hindu poets, not unfrequently takes the form
of puerile conceits and plays on words. In this respect his writings
contrast very unfavourably with the more genuine poetry of the Vedas.
Though a true poet, he is wanting in that artistic sense of proportion
so characteristic of the Greek mind, which exactly adjusts the parts to
the whole, and combines form and matter into an inseparable poetic
unity. Kalidasa's fame rests chiefly on his dramas, but he is also
distinguished as an epic and a lyric poet.

  He wrote three plays, the plots of which all bear a general
  resemblance, inasmuch as they consist of love intrigues, which, after
  numerous and seemingly insurmountable impediments of a similar nature,
  are ultimately brought to a successful conclusion.

  Of these, _Sakuntala_ is that which has always justly enjoyed the
  greatest fame and popularity. The unqualified praise bestowed upon it
  by Goethe sufficiently guarantees its poetic merit. There are two
  recensions of the text in India, the Bengali and the Devanagari, the
  latter being generally considered older and purer. _Sakuntala_ was
  first translated into English by Sir William Jones (Calcutta, 1789),
  who used the Bengali recension. It was soon after translated into
  German by G. Forster (1791; new ed. Leipzig, 1879). An edition of the
  Sanskrit original, with French translation, was published by A. L.
  Chézy at Paris in 1830. This formed the basis of a translation by B.
  Hirzel (Zürich, 1830); later trans. by L. Fritze (Chemnitz, 1876).
  Other editions of the Bengali recension were published by Prema
  Chandra (Calcutta, 1860) for the use of European students and by R.
  Pischel (2nd ed., Kiel, 1886). The Devanagari recension was first
  edited by O. Böhtlingk (Bonn, 1842), with a German translation. On
  this were based the successive German translations of E. Meier
  (Tübingen, 1851) and E. Lobedanz (8th ed., Leipzig, 1892). The same
  recension has been edited by Dr C. Burkhard with a Sanskrit-Latin
  vocabulary and short Prakrit grammar (Breslau, 1872), and by Professor
  Monier Williams (Oxford, 2nd ed. 1876), who also translated the drama
  (5th ed., 1887). There is another translation by P. N. Patankar
  (Poona, 1888-   ). There are also a South Indian and a Cashmir
  recension.

  The _Vikramorvasi_, or _Urvasi won by Valour_, abounds with fine
  lyrical passages, and is of all Indian dramas second only to
  _Sakuntala_ in poetic beauty. It was edited by R. Lenz (Berlin, 1833)
  and translated into German by C. G. A. Höfer (Berlin, 1837), by B.
  Hirzel (1838), by E. Lobedanz (Leipzig, 1861) and F. Bollensen
  (Petersburg, 1845). There is also an English edition by Monier
  Williams, a metrical and prose version by Professor H. H. Wilson, and
  a literal prose translation by Professor E. B. Cowell (1851). The
  latest editions are by S. P. Pandit (Bombay, 1879) and K. B. Paranjpe
  (ibid. 1898).

  The third play, entitled _Malavikagnimitra_, has considerable poetical
  and dramatic merit, but is confessedly inferior to the other two. It
  possesses the advantage, however, that its hero Agnimitra and its
  heroine Malavika are more ordinary and human characters than those of
  the other plays. It is edited by O. F. Tullberg (Bonn, 1840), by
  Shankar P. Pandit, with English notes (1869), and S. S. Ayyar (Poona,
  1896); translated into German by A. Weber (1856), and into English by
  C. H. Tawney (2nd ed., Calcutta, 1898).

  Two epic poems are also attributed to Kalidasa. The longer of these is
  entitled _Raghuvamsa_, the subject of which is the same as that of the
  _Ramayana_, viz. the history of Rama, but beginning with a long
  account of his ancestors, the ancient rulers of Ayodhya (ed. by A. F.
  Stenzler, London, 1832; and with Eng. trans. and notes by Gopal
  Raghunath Nandargikar, Poona, 1897; verse trans. by P. de Lacy
  Johnstone, 1902). The other epic is the _Kumarasambhava_, the theme of
  which is the birth of Kumara, otherwise called Karttikeya or Skanda,
  god of war (ed. by Stenzler, London, 1838; K. M. Banerjea, 3rd ed.
  Calcutta, 1872; Parvanikara and Parab, Bombay, 1893; and M. R. Kale
  and S. R. Dharadhara, ibid. 1907; Eng. trans. by R. T. Griffith,
  1879). Though containing many fine passages, it is tame as a whole.

  His lyrical poems are the _Meghaduta_ and the _Ritusamhara_. The
  _Meghaduta_, or the Cloud-Messenger, describes the complaint of an
  exiled lover, and the message he sends to his wife by a cloud. It is
  full of deep feeling, and abounds with fine descriptions of the
  beauties of nature. It was edited with free English translation by H.
  H. Wilson (Calcutta, 1813), and by J. Gildemeister (Bonn, 1841); a
  German adaptation by M. Müller appeared at Königsberg (1847), and one
  by C. Schütz at Bielefeld (1859). It was edited by F. Johnson, with
  vocabulary and Wilson's metrical translation (London, 1867); later
  editions by K. P. Parab (Bombay, 1891) and K. B. Pathak (Poona, 1894).
  The _Ritusamhara_, or Collection of the Seasons, is a short poem, of
  less importance, on the six seasons of the year. There is an edition
  by P. von Bohlen, with prose Latin and metrical German translation
  (Leipzig, 1840); Eng. trans. by C. S. Sitaram Ayyar (Bombay, 1897).

  Another poem, entitled the _Nalodaya_, or Rise of Nala, edited by F.
  Benary (Berlin, 1830), W. Yates (Calcutta, 1844) and Vidyasagara
  (Calcutta, 1873), is a treatment of the story of Nala and Damayanti,
  but describes especially the restoration of Nala to prosperity and
  power. It has been ascribed to the celebrated Kalidasa, but was
  probably written by another poet of the same name. It is full of most
  absurd verbal conceits and metrical extravagances.

  So many poems, partly of a very different stamp, are attributed to
  Kalidasa that it is scarcely possible to avoid the necessity of
  assuming the existence of more authors than one of that name. It is by
  no means improbable that there were three poets thus named; indeed
  modern native astronomers are so convinced of the existence of a triad
  of authors of this name that they apply the term Kalidasa to designate
  the number three.

  On Kalidasa generally, see A. A. Macdonell's _History of Sanskrit
  Literature_ (1900), and on his date G. Huth, _Die Zeit des K._
  (Berlin, 1890).     (A. A. M.)



KALIMPONG, a village of British India, in the Darjeeling district of
Bengal, 4000 ft. above sea-level; pop. (1901), 1069. It is a frontier
market for the purchase of wool and mules from Tibet, and an important
agricultural fair is held in November. In 1900 Kalimpong was chosen by
the Church of Scotland as the site of cottage homes, known as St
Andrew's Colonial Homes, for the education and training of poor European
and Eurasian children.



KALINGA, or CALINGA, one of the nine kingdoms of southern India in
ancient times. Its exact limits varied, but included the eastern Madras
coast from Pulicat to Chicacole, running inland from the Bay of Bengal
to the Eastern Ghats. The name at one time had a wider and vaguer
meaning, comprehending Orissa, and possibly extending to the Ganges
valley. The Kalinga of Pliny certainly included Orissa, but latterly it
seems to have been confined to the Telugu-speaking country; and in the
time of Hsüan Tsang (630 A.D.) it was distinguished on the south and
west from Andhra, and on the north from Odra or Orissa. Taranatha, the
Tibetan historian, speaks of Kalinga as one division of the country of
Telinga. Hsüan Tsang speaks of Kalinga ("Kie-ling-kia") having its
capital at what has been identified with the site either of Rajahmundry
or Coringa. Both these towns, as well as Singapur, Calingapatam and
Chicacole, share the honour of having been the chief cities of Kalinga
at different periods; but inscriptions recently deciphered seem to prove
that the capital of the Ganga dynasty of Kalinga was at Mukhalingam in
the Ganjam district.



KALINJAR, a town and hill fort of British India in the Banda district of
the United Provinces. Pop. (1901), 3015. The fort stands on an isolated
rock, the termination of the Vindhya range, at an elevation of 1203 ft.,
overlooking the plains of Bundelkhand. Kalinjar is the most
characteristic specimen of the hill-fortresses, originally hill-shrines,
of central India. Its antiquity is proved by its mention in the
_Mahabharata_. It was besieged by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1023, and here the
Afghan emperor Sher Shah met his death in 1545, and Kalinjar played a
prominent part in history down to the time of the Mutiny in 1857, when
it was held by a small British garrison. Both the fort and the town,
which stands at the foot of the hill, are of interest to the antiquary
on account of their remains of temples, sculptures, inscriptions and
caves.



KALIR [QALIR], ELEAZER, Hebrew liturgical poet, whose hymns (_piyyutim_)
are found in profusion in the festival prayers of the German synagogal
rite. The age in which he lived is unknown. Some (basing the view on
Saadiah's _Sefer ha-galuy_) place him as early as the 6th century,
others regard him as belonging to the 10th century. Kalir's style is
powerful but involved; he may be described as a Hebrew Browning.

  Some beautiful renderings of Kalir's poems may be found in the volumes
  of Davis & Adler's edition of the German Festival Prayers entitled
  _Service of the Synagogue_.



KALISCH, ISIDOR (1816-1886), Jewish divine, was born at Krotoschin in
Prussia on the 15th of November 1816, and was educated at Berlin,
Breslau and Prague. In 1848 he came to London, but passed on in 1849 to
America, where he ministered as rabbi in Cleveland, Cincinnati,
Milwaukee, Detroit and Newark, New Jersey. At Newark from 1875 he gave
himself entirely to literary work, and exercised a strong influence as
leader of the radical and reforming Jewish party.

  Among his works are _Wegweisen für rationelle Forschungen in den
  biblischen Schriften_ (1853); and translations of _Nathan der Weise_
  (1869); _Sepher Jezirah_ (1877); and Munz's _History of Philosophy
  among the Jews_ (1881). He also wrote a good deal of German and Hebrew
  verse.



KALISCH, MARCUS (or MAURICE) (1828-1885), Jewish scholar, was born in
Pomerania in 1828, and died in England 1885. He was one of the pioneers
of the critical study of the Old Testament in England. At one time he
was secretary to the Chief Rabbi; in 1853 he became tutor in the
Rothschild family and enjoyed leisure to produce his commentaries and
other works. The first instalment of his commentary on the Pentateuch
was _Exodus_ (1855); this was followed by _Genesis_ (1858) and
_Leviticus_ in two parts (1867-1872). Kalisch wrote before the
publication of Wellhausen's works, and anticipated him in some important
points. Besides these works, Kalisch published in 1877-1878 two volumes
of Bible studies (on _Balaam_ and _Jonah_). He was also author of a once
popular Hebrew grammar in two volumes (1862-1863). In 1880 he published
_Path and Goal_, a brilliant discussion of human destiny. His
commentaries are of permanent value, not only because of the author's
originality, but also because of his erudition. No other works in
English contain such full citations of earlier literature.     (I. A.)



KALISPEL, or PEND D'OREILLE, a tribe of North-American Indians of
Salishan stock. They formerly ranged the country around Pend d'Oreille
Lake, Washington. They number some 600, and are settled on a reservation
in Montana.



KALISZ, a government of Russian Poland, having Prussia on the W., and
the governments of Warsaw and Piotrków on the E. Its area is 4390 sq. m.
Its surface is a lowland, sloping towards the west, and is drained by
the Prosna and the Warta and their tributaries, and also by the Bzura.
It was formerly covered with countless small lakes and thick forests;
the latter are now mostly destroyed, but many lakes and marshes exist
still. Pop. (1897), 844,358 of whom 427,978 were women, and 113,609
lived in towns; estimated pop. (1906), 983,200. They are chiefly Poles.
Roman Catholics number 83%; Jews and Protestants each amount to 7%.
Agriculture is carried to perfection on a number of estates, as also
livestock breeding. The crops principally raised are rye, wheat, oats,
barley and potatoes. Various domestic trades, including the weaving of
linen and wool, are carried on in the villages. There are some
factories, producing chiefly cloth and cottons. The government is
divided into eight districts, the chief towns of which, with their
populations in 1897, are: Kalisz (21,680), Kolo (9400), Konin (8530),
Leczyca (8863), Slupec (3758), Sieradz (7019), Turek (8141) and Wielun
(7442).



KALISZ, the chief town of the above government, situated in 51° 46´ N.
and 18° E., 147 m. by rail W.S.W. of Warsaw, on the banks of the Prosna,
which there forms the boundary of Prussia. Pop. (1871), 18,088; (1897),
21,680, of whom 37% were Jews. It is one of the oldest and finest cities
of Poland, is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, and possesses a
castle, a teachers' institute and a large public park. The industrial
establishments comprise a brewery, and factories for ribbons, cloth and
sugar, and tanneries.

  Kalisz is identified with the _Calisia_ of Ptolemy, and its antiquity
  is indicated by the abundance of coins and other objects of ancient
  art which have been discovered on the site, as well as by the numerous
  burial mounds existing in the vicinity. It was the scene of the
  decisive victory of Augustus the Strong of Poland over the Swedes on
  the 29th of October 1706, of several minor conflicts in 1813, and of
  the friendly meeting of the Russian and Prussian troops in 1835, in
  memory of which an iron obelisk was erected in the town by Nicholas I.
  in 1841. The treaty of 1813 between Russia and Prussia was signed
  here.



KALK, a town in the Prussian Rhine province, on the right bank of the
Rhine, 2 m. E. of Cologne. Pop. (1905), 25,478. Kalk is an important
junction of railway lines connecting Cologne with places on the right
bank of the river. It has various iron and chemical industries,
brickworks and breweries, and an electric tramway joins it with Cologne.



KALKAS, or KHALKAS, a Mongoloid people mainly concentrated in the
northern steppes of Mongolia near their kinsmen, the Buriats. According
to Sir H. Howorth they derive their name from the river Kalka, which
runs into the Buir lake. Of all Mongolians they physically differ most
from the true Mongol type (see MONGOLS). Their colour is a brown rather
than a yellow, and their eyes are open and not oblique. They have,
however, the broad flat face, high cheekbones and lank black hair of
their race. They number some 250,000, and their territory is divided
into the four khanates of Tushetu (Tushiyetu), Tsetien (Setzen),
Sai'noi'm (Sain Noyan) and Jesaktu (Jassaktu).



KALKBRENNER, FRIEDRICH WILHELM (1784-1849), German pianist and composer,
son of Christian Kalkbrenner (1755-1806), a Jewish musician of Cassel,
was educated at the Paris Conservatoire, and soon began to play in
public. From 1814 to 1823 he was well known as a brilliant performer and
a successful teacher in London, and then settled in Paris, dying at
Enghien, near there, in 1849. He became a member of the Paris
piano-manufacturing firm of Pleyel & Co., and made a fortune by his
business and his art combined. His numerous compositions are less
remembered now than his instruction-book, with "studies," which have had
considerable vogue among pianists.



KÁLLAY, BENJAMIN VON (1839-1903), Austro-Hungarian statesman, was born
at Budapest on the 22nd of December 1839. His family derived their name
from their estates at Nágy Kallo, in Szabolcs, and claimed descent from
the Balogh Semjen tribe, which colonized the counties of Borsod,
Szabolcs, and Szatmár, at the close of the 9th century, when the Magyars
conquered Hungary. They played a prominent part in Hungarian history as
early as the reign of Koloman (1095-1114); and from King Matthias
Corvinus (1458-1490) they received their estates at Mezö Tur, near
Kecskemét, granted to Michael Kállay for his heroic defence of Jajce in
Bosnia, and still held by his descendants. The father of Benjamin von
Kállay, a superior official of the Hungarian Government, died in 1845,
and his widow, who survived until 1903, devoted herself to the education
of her son. At an early age Kállay manifested a deep interest in
politics, and especially in the Eastern Question. He travelled in
Russia, European Turkey and Asia Minor, gaining a thorough knowledge of
Greek, Turkish and several Slavonic languages. He became as proficient
in Servian as in his native tongue. In 1867 he entered the Hungarian
Diet as Conservative deputy for Mühlbach (Szásy-Szebes); in 1869 he was
appointed consul-general at Belgrade; and in 1872 he visited Bosnia for
the first time. His views on Balkan questions strongly influenced Count
Andrássy, the Austro-Hungarian minister for foreign affairs. Leaving
Belgrade in 1875, he resumed his seat in the Diet, and shortly
afterwards founded the journal _Kélet Nepe_, or _Eastern Folk_, in which
he defended the vigorous policy of Andrássy. After the Russo-Turkish War
of 1878 he went to Philippopolis as Austro-Hungarian envoy extraordinary
on the International Eastern Rumelian Commission. In 1879 he became
second, and soon afterwards first, departmental chief at the foreign
office in Vienna. On the 4th of June 1882 he was appointed Imperial
minister of finance and administrator of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the
distinction with which he filled this office, for a period of 21 years,
is his chief title of fame (see BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA). Kállay was an
honorary member of the Budapest and Vienna academies of science, and
attained some eminence as a writer. He translated J. S. Mill's _Liberty_
into Hungarian, adding an introductory critique; while his version of
_Galatea_, a play by the Greek dramatist S. N. Basiliades (1843-1874),
proved successful on the Hungarian stage. His monographs on Servian
history (_Geschichte der Serben_) and on the Oriental ambition of Russia
(_Die Orientpolitik Russlands_) were translated into German by J. H.
Schwicker, and published at Leipzig in 1878. But, in his own opinion,
his masterpiece was an academic oration on the political and
geographical position of Hungary as a link between East and West. In
1873 Kállay married the countess Vilma Bethlen, who bore him two
daughters and a son. His popularity in Bosnia was partly due to the tact
and personal charm of his wife. He died on the 13th of July 1903.



KALMAR (CALMAR), a seaport of Sweden on the Baltic coast, chief town of
the district (_län_) of Kalmar, 250 m. S.S.W. of Stockholm by rail. Pop.
(1900), 12,715. It lies opposite the island of Öland, mainly on two
small islands, but partly on the mainland, where there is a pleasant
park. The streets are regular, and most of the houses are of wood. The
principal public edifices, however, are constructed of limestone from
Öland, including the cathedral, built by Nicodemus Tessin and his son
Nicodemus in the second half of the 17th century. Kalmar, a town of
great antiquity, was formerly strongly fortified, and there remains the
island-fortress of Kalmarnahus, dating partly from the 12th century, but
mainly from the 16th and 17th. It contains the beautiful chamber of King
Eric XIV. (d. 1577), an historical museum, and in the courtyard a fine
ornate well-cover. This stronghold stood several sieges in the 14th,
15th and 16th centuries, and the town gives name to the treaty (Kalmar
Union) by which Sweden, Norway and Denmark were united into one kingdom
in 1397. Kalmar has an artificial harbour admitting vessels drawing 19
ft. There are a school of navigation, and tobacco and match factories,
the produce of which, together with timber and oats, is exported.
Ship-building is carried on.



KALMUCK, or KALMYK STEPPE, a territory or reservation belonging to the
Kalmuck or Kalmyk Tatars, in the Russian government of Astrakhan,
bounded by the Volga on the N.E., the Manych on the S.W., the Caspian
Sea on the E., and the territory of the Don Cossacks on the N.W. Its
area is 36,900 sq. m., to which has to be added a second reservation of
3045 sq. m. on the left bank of the lower Volga. According to I. V.
Mushketov, the Kalmuck Steppe must be divided into two parts, western
and eastern. The former, occupied by the Ergeni hills, is deeply
trenched by ravines and rises 300 and occasionally 630 ft. above the
sea. It is built up of Tertiary deposits, belonging to the Sarmatian
division of the Miocene period and covered with loess and black earth,
and its escarpments represent the old shore-line of the Caspian. No
Caspian deposits are found on or within the Ergeni hills. These hills
exhibit the usual black earth flora, and they have a settled population.
The eastern part of the steppe is a plain, lying for the most part 30 to
40 ft. below the level of the sea, and sloping gently towards the Volga.
Post-Pliocene "Aral-Caspian deposits," containing the usual fossils
(_Hydrobia_, _Neritina_, eight species of _Cardium_, two of _Dreissena_,
three of _Adacna_ and _Lithoglyphus caspius_), attain thicknesses
varying from 105 ft. to 7 or 10 ft., and disappear in places. Lacustrine
and fluviatile deposits occur intermingled with the above. Large areas
of moving sands exist near Enotayevsk, where high dunes or _barkhans_
have been formed. A narrow tract of land along the coast of the Caspian,
known as the "hillocks of Baer," is covered with hillocks elongated from
west to east, perpendicularly to the coast-line, the spaces between them
being filled with water or overgrown with thickets of reed, _Salix_,
_Ulmus campestris_, almond trees, &c. An archipelago of little islands
is thus formed close to the shore by these mounds, which are backed on
the N. and N.W. by strings of salt lakes, partly desiccated. Small
streams originate in the Ergenis, but are lost as soon as they reach the
lowlands, where water can only be obtained from wells. The scanty
vegetation is a mixture of the flora of south-east Russia and that of
the deserts of central Asia. The steppe has an estimated population of
130,000 persons, living in over 27,700 _kibitkas_, or felt tents. There
are over 60 Buddhist monasteries. Part of the Kalmucks are settled
(chiefly in the hilly parts), the remainder being nomads. They breed
horses, cattle and sheep, but suffer heavy losses from murrain. Some
attempts at agriculture and tree-planting are being made. The breeding
of livestock, fishing, and some domestic trades, chiefly carried on by
the women, are the principal sources of maintenance.

  See I. V. Mushketov, _Geol. Researches in the Kalmyk Steppe in
  1884-1885_ (St Petersburg, 1894, in Russian); Kostenkov's works
  (1868-1870); and other works quoted in Semenov's _Geogr. Dict._ and
  _Russ. Encycl. Dict._     (P. A. K.; J. T. Be.)



KALNÓKY, GUSTAV SIEGMUND, COUNT (1832-1898), Austro-Hungarian statesman,
was born at Lettowitz, in Moravia, on the 29th of December 1832, of an
old Transylvanian family which had held countly rank in Hungary from the
17th century. After spending some years in a hussar regiment, in 1854 he
entered the diplomatic service without giving up his connexion with the
army, in which he reached the rank of general in 1879. He was for the
ten years 1860 to 1870 secretary of embassy at London, and then, after
serving at Rome and Copenhagen, was in 1880 appointed ambassador at St
Petersburg. His success in Russia procured for him, on the death of
Baron v. Haymerle in 1881, the appointment of minister of foreign
affairs for Austria-Hungary, a post which he held for fourteen years.
Essentially a diplomatist, he took little or no part in the vexed
internal affairs of the Dual Monarchy, and he came little before the
public except at the annual statement on foreign affairs before the
Delegations. His management of the affairs of his department was,
however, very successful; he confirmed and maintained the alliance with
Germany, which had been formed by his predecessors, and co-operated with
Bismarck in the arrangements by which Italy joined the alliance.
Kalnóky's special influence was seen in the improvement of Austrian
relations with Russia, following on the meeting of the three emperors in
September 1884 at Skiernevice, at which he was present. His Russophile
policy caused some adverse criticism in Hungary. His friendliness for
Russia did not, however, prevent him from strengthening the position of
Austria as against Russia in the Balkan Peninsula by the establishment
of a closer political and commercial understanding with Servia and
Rumania. In 1885 he interfered after the battle of Slivnitza to arrest
the advance of the Bulgarians on Belgrade, but he lost influence in
Servia after the abdication of King Milan. Though he kept aloof from the
Clerical party, Kalnóky was a strong Catholic; and his sympathy for the
difficulties of the Church caused adverse comment in Italy, when, in
1891, he stated in a speech before the Delegations that the question of
the position of the pope was still unsettled. He subsequently explained
that by this he did not refer to the Roman question, which was
permanently settled, but to the possibility of the pope leaving Rome.
The jealousy felt in Hungary against the Ultramontanes led to his fall.
In 1895 a case of clerical interference in the internal affairs of
Hungary by the nuncio Agliardi aroused a strong protest in the Hungarian
parliament, and consequent differences between Bánffy, the Hungarian
minister, and the minister for foreign affairs led to Kalnóky's
resignation. He died on the 13th of February 1898 at Prödlitz in
Moravia.



KALOCSA, a town of Hungary, in the county of Pest-Pilis-Solt-Kis-Kun, 88
m. S. of Budapest by rail. Pop. (1900), 11,372. It is situated in a
marshy but highly productive district, near the left bank of the Danube,
and was once of far greater importance than at present. Kalocsa is the
see of one of the four Roman Catholic archbishops in Hungary. Amongst
its buildings are a fine cathedral, the archiepiscopal palace, an
astronomical observatory, a seminary for priests, and colleges for
training of male and female teachers. The inhabitants of Kalocsa and its
wide-spreading communal lands are chiefly employed in the cultivation of
the vine, fruit, flax, hemp and cereals, in the capture of water-fowl
and in fishing. Kalocsa is one of the oldest towns in Hungary. The
present archbishopric, founded about 1135, is a development of a
bishopric said to have been founded in the year 1000 by King Stephen the
Saint. It suffered much during the 16th century from the hordes of
Ottomans who then ravaged the country. A large part of the town was
destroyed by a fire in 1875.



KALPI, or CALPEE, a town of British India, in the Jalaun district of the
United Provinces, on the right bank of the Jumna, 45 m. S.W. of
Cawnpore. Pop. (1901), 10,139. It was founded, according to tradition,
by Vasudeva, at the end of the 4th century A.D. In 1196 it fell to
Kutab-ud-din, the viceroy of Mahommed Ghori, and during the subsequent
Mahommedan period it played a large part in the annals of this part of
India. About the middle of the 18th century it passed into the hands of
the Mahrattas. It was captured by the British in 1803, and since 1806
has remained in British possession. In May 1858 Sir Hugh Rose (Lord
Strathnairn) defeated here a force of about 10,000 rebels under the rani
of Jhansi. Kalpi had a mint for copper coinage in the reign of Akbar;
and the East India Company made it one of their principal stations for
providing the "commercial investment." The old town, which is beside the
river, has ruins of a fort, and several temples of interest, while in
the neighbourhood are many ancient tombs. There is a lofty modern tower
ornamented with representations of the battles of the _Ramayana_. The
new town lies away from the river to the south-east. Kalpi is still a
centre of local trade (principally in grain, _ghi_ and cotton), with a
station on the Indian Midland railway from Jhansi to Cawnpore, which
here crosses the Jumna. There are manufactures of sugar and paper.



KALUGA, a government of middle Russia, surrounded by those of Moscow,
Smolensk, Orel and Tula, with an area of 11,942 sq. m. Its surface is an
undulating plain, reaching 800 to 900 ft. in its highest parts, which
lie in the S.W., and deeply trenched by watercourses, especially in the
N.E. The Oka, a main tributary of the Volga, and its confluents (the
Zhizdra and Ugra) drain all but a strip of country in the west, which is
traversed by the Bolva, an affluent of the Dnieper. The government is
built up mainly of carboniferous deposits (coal-bearing), with patches
of the soft Jurassic clays and limestones which formerly covered them.
Cretaceous deposits occur in the S.W., and Devonian limestones and
shales crop out in the S.E. The government is covered with a thick layer
of boulder clay in the north, with vast ridges and fields of boulders
brought during the Glacial Period from Finland and the government of
Olonets; large areas in the middle are strewn with flint boulders and
patches of loess are seen farther south. The mean annual temperature is
41° F. Iron ores are the chief mineral wealth, nearly 40,000 persons
being engaged in mining. Beds of coal occur in several places, and some
of them are worked. Fireclay, china-clay, chalk, grindstone, pure quartz
sand, phosphorite and copper are also extracted. Forests cover 20% of
the surface, and occur chiefly in the south. The soil is not very
suitable for agriculture, and owing to a rather dense population,
considerable numbers of the inhabitants find occupation in industry, or
as carriers and carpenters for one-half of the year at the Black Sea
ports.

The population (1,025,705 in 1860) was 1,176,353 in 1897, nearly all
Great Russians. There were 116 women to 100 men, and out of the total
population 94,853 lived in towns. The estimated population in 1906 was
1,287,300. Of the total area over 4,000,000 acres are owned by the
peasant communities, nearly 3,000,000 acres by private owners and some
250,000 by the Crown. The principal crops are rye, oats, barley,
buckwheat, and potatoes. Hemp is grown for local use and export. Bees
are kept. The chief non-agricultural industries are distilleries,
iron-works, factories for cloth, cottons, paper, matches, leather and
china, flour-mills and oil works. Large quantities of wooden wares are
fabricated in the villages of the south. A considerable trade is carried
on in hemp, hempseed and hempseed oil, corn and hides; and iron,
machinery, leather, glass, chemicals and linen are exported. The
government is divided into 11 districts, the chief towns of which, with
their populations in 1897, are: Kaluga (49,728), Borovsk (8407), Kozelsk
(5908), Likhvin (1776), Maloyaroslavets (2500), Medyn (4392), Meshchovsk
(3667), Mosalsk (2652), Peremyshl (3956), Tarusa (1989) and Zhizdra
(5996).     (P. A. K.; J. T. Be.)



KALUGA, the chief town of the above government, situated on the left
bank of the Oka, 117 m. S.W. of Moscow by rail, in 54° 31´ N. and 36° 6´
E. Pop. (1870), 36,880; (1897) 49,728. It is the see of a Greek Orthodox
bishop. The public buildings include the cathedral of the Trinity
(rebuilt in the 19th century in place of an older edifice dating from
1687), two monastic establishments, an ecclesiastical seminary, and a
lunatic asylum. The principal articles of industrial production are
leather, oil, bast mats, wax candles, starch and Kaluga cakes. The first
historical mention of Kaluga occurs in 1389; its incorporation with the
principality of Moscow took place in 1518. In 1607 it was held by the
second false Demetrius and vainly besieged for four months by the forces
of Shuisky, who had ascended the Russian throne as Basil IV. on the
death of the first false Demetrius. In 1619 Kaluga fell into the hands
of the hetman or chief of the Zaporozhian Cossacks. Later two-thirds of
its inhabitants were carried off by a plague; and in 1622 the whole
place was laid waste by a conflagration. It recovered, however, in spite
of several other conflagrations (especially in 1742 and 1754). On
several occasions Kaluga was the residence of political prisoners; among
others Shamyl, the Lesghian chief, spent his exile there (1859-1870).



KALYAN, a town of British India, in the Thana district of Bombay,
situated 33 m. N.E. of Bombay city, where the two main lines of the
Great Indian Peninsula railway diverge. Pop. (1901), 10,749. There is a
considerable industry of rice-husking. Kalyan is known to have been the
capital of a kingdom and a centre of sea-borne commerce in the early
centuries of the Christian era. The oldest remains now existing are of
Mahommedan times.



KAMA, or KAMADEVA, in Hindu mythology, the god of love. He is variously
stated to have been the child of Brahma or Dharma (virtue). In the _Rig
Veda_, Kama (desire) is described as the first movement that arose in
the One after it had come into life through the power of fervour or
abstraction. In the Atharva-Veda Kama does not mean sexual desire, but
rather the yearning after the good of all created things. Later Kama is
simply the Hindu Cupid. While attempting to lure Siva to sin, he was
destroyed by a fiery glance of the goddess' third eye. Thus in Hindu
poetry Kama is known as Ananga, the "bodiless god." Kama's wife Rati
(voluptuousness) mourned him so greatly that Siva relented, and he was
reborn as the child of Krishna and Rukmini. The babe was called
Pradyumna (Cupid). He is represented armed with a bow of sugar-cane; it
is strung with bees, and its five arrows are tipped with flowers which
overcome the five senses. A fish adorns his flag, and he rides a parrot
or sparrow, emblematic of lubricity.



KAMALA, a red powder formerly used in medicine as an anthelmintic and
employed in India as a yellow dye. It is obtained from _Mallotus
philippinensis_, Müll., a small euphorbiaceous tree from 20 to 45 ft. in
height, distributed from southern Arabia in the west to north Australia
and the Philippines in the east. In India kamala has several ancient
Sanskrit names, one of which, kapila, signifies dusky or tawny red.
Under the name of wars, kanbil, or qinbil, kamala appears to have been
known to the Arabian physicians as a remedy for tapeworm and skin
diseases as early as the 10th century, and indeed is mentioned by Paulus
Ægineta still earlier. The drug was formerly in the British
Pharmacopoeia, but is inferior to many other anthelmintics and is not
now employed.



KAMCHATKA, a peninsula of N.-E. Siberia, stretching from the land of the
Chukchis S.S.W. for 750 m., with a width of from 80 to 300 m. (51° to
62° N., and 156° to 163° E.), between the Sea of Okhotsk and Bering Sea.
It forms part of the Russian Maritime Province. Area, 104,260 sq. m.

The isthmus which connects the peninsula with the mainland is a flat
_tundra_, sloping gently both ways. The mountain chain, which Ditmar
calls central, seems to be interrupted under 57° N. by a deep
indentation corresponding to the valley of the Tighil. There too the
hydrographical network, as well as the south-west to north-east strike
of the clay-slates and metamorphic schists on Ditmar's map, seem to
indicate the existence of two chains running south-west to north-east,
parallel to the volcanic chain of S.E. Kamchatka. Glaciers were not
known till the year 1899, when they were discovered on the Byelaya and
Ushkinskaya (15,400 ft.) mountains. Thick Tertiary deposits, probably
Miocene, overlie the middle portions of the west coast. The southern
parts of the central range are composed of granites, syenites,
porphyries and crystalline slates, while in the north of Ichinskaya
volcano, which is the highest summit of the peninsula (16,920 ft.), the
mountains consist chiefly of Tertiary sandstones and old volcanic rocks.
Coal-bearing clays containing fresh-water molluscs and dicotyledonous
plants, as also conglomerates, alternate with the sandstones in these
Tertiary deposits. Amber is found in them. Very extensive layers of
melaphyre and andesite, as also of conglomerates and volcanic tuffs,
cover the middle portions of the peninsula. The south-eastern portion is
occupied by a chain of volcanoes, running along the indented coast, from
Cape Lopatka to Cape Kronotskiy (54° 25´ N.), and separated from the
rest of the peninsula by the valleys of the Bystraya (an affluent of the
Bolstraya, on the west coast) and Kamchatka rivers. Another chain of
volcanoes runs from Ichinskaya (which burst into activity several times
in the 18th and 19th centuries) to Shiveluch, seemingly parallel to the
above but farther north. The two chains contain twelve active and
twenty-six extinct volcanoes, from 7000 to more than 15,000 ft. high.
The highest volcanoes are grouped under 56° N., and the highest of them,
Kluchevskaya (16,990 ft.), is in a state of almost incessant activity
(notable outbreaks in 1729, 1737, 1841, 1853-1854, and 1896-1897), a
flow of its lava having reached to Kamchatka river in 1853. The active
Shiveluch (9900 ft.) is the last volcano of this chain. Several lakes
and probably Avacha Bay are old craters. Copper, mercury, and iron ores,
as also pure copper, ochre and sulphur, are found in the peninsula. The
principal river is the Kamchatka (325 m. long), which flows first
north-eastwards in a fertile longitudinal valley, and then, bending
suddenly to the east, pierces the above-mentioned volcanic chain. The
other rivers are the Tighil (135 m.) and the Bolstraya (120 m.), both
flowing into the Sea of Okhotsk; and the Avacha, flowing into the
Pacific.

The floating ice which accumulates in the northern parts of the Sea of
Okhotsk and the cold current which flows along the east coast of the
peninsula render its summers chilly, but the winter is relatively warm,
and temperatures below -40° F. are experienced only in the highlands of
the interior and on the Okhotsk littoral. The average temperatures at
Petropavlovsk (53° N.) are: year 37° F., January 17°, July 58°; while in
the valley of the Kamchatka the average temperature of the winter is
16°, and of the summer as high as 58° and 64°. Rain and snow are
copious, and dense fogs enshroud the coast in summer; consequently the
mountains are well clothed with timber and the meadows with grass,
except in the _tundras_ of the north. The natives eat extensively the
bulbs of the Martagon lily, and weave cloth out of the fibres of the
Kamchatka nettle. _Delphinopterus leucus_, the sea-lion (_Otaria
Stelleri_), and walrus abound off the coasts. The sea-otter (_Enhydris
marina_) has been destroyed.

The population (5846 in 1870) was 7270 in 1900. The southern part of the
peninsula is occupied by Kamchadales, who exhibit many attributes of the
Mongolian race, but are more similar to the aborigines of N.E. Asia and
N.W. America. Fishing (quantities of salmon enter the rivers) and
hunting are their chief occupations. Dog-sledges are principally used as
means of communication. The efforts of the government to introduce
cattle-breeding have failed. The Kamchadale language cannot be assigned
to any known group; its vocabulary is extremely poor. The purity of the
tongue is best preserved by the people of the Penzhinsk district on the
W. coast. North of 57° N. the peninsula is peopled with Koryaks, settled
and nomad, and Lamuts (Tunguses), who came from the W. coast of the Sea
of Okhotsk. The principal Russian settlements are: Petropavlovsk, on the
E. coast, on Avacha Bay, with an excellent roadstead; Verkhne-Kamchatsk
and Nizhne-Kamchatsk in the valley of the Kamchatka river; Bolsheryetsk,
on the Bolshaya; and Tighil, on the W. coast.

The Russians made their first settlements in Kamchatka in the end of the
17th century; in 1696 Atlasov founded Verkhne-Kamchatsk, and in 1704
Robelev founded Bolsheryetsk. In 1720 a survey of the peninsula was
undertaken; in 1725-1730 it was visited by Bering's expedition; and in
1733-1745 it was the scene of the labours of the Krasheninnikov and
Steller expedition.

  See G. A. Erman, _Reise um die Erde_ iii., (Berlin, 1848); C. von
  Ditmar, _Reisen und Aufenthalt in Kamchatka in den Jahren 1851-1855_
  (1890-1900); G. Kennan, _Tent Life in Siberia_ (1870), and paper in
  _Jour. of American Geog. Soc._ (1876); K. Diener, in _Petermann's
  Mitteilungen_ (1891, vol. xxxvii.); V. A. Obruchev, in _Izvestia_ of
  the East Siberian Geographical Society (xxiii. 4, 5; 1892); F. H. H.
  Guillemard, _Cruise of the "Marchesa"_ (2nd ed., London, 1889); and G.
  E. H. Barrett-Hamilton in _Scott. Geog. Mag._ (May, 1899), with
  bibliography.     (P. A. K.; J. T. Be.)



KAME (a form of Scandinavian _comb_, hill), in physical geography, a
short ridge or bunched mound of gravel or sand, "tumultuously
stratified," occurring in connexion with glacial deposits, having been
formed at the mouths of tunnels under the ice. When the ice-sheet melts,
these features, formerly concealed by the glacier, are revealed. They
are common in the glaciated portions of the lower Scottish valleys. By
some authorities the term "kame," or specifically "serpentine kame," is
taken as synonymous with "esker," which however is preferably to be
applied to the long mound deposited within the ice-tunnel, not to the
bunched mound at its mouth.



KAMENETS PODOLSKIY, or PODOLIAN KAMENETS (Polish Kamieniec), a town of
S.W. Russia, chief town of the government of Podolia. It stands in 48°
40´ N. and 26° 30´ E., on a high, rocky bluff of the river Smotrich, a
left-hand tributary of the Dniester, and near the Austrian frontier.
Pop. (1863), 20,699; (1900) 39,113, of whom 50% were Jews and 30% Poles.
Round the town lies a cluster of suburban villages, Polish Folwark,
Russian Folwark, Zinkovtsui, Karvasarui, &c.; and on the opposite side
of the river, accessible by a wooden bridge, stands the castle which
long frowned defiance across the Dniester to Khotin in Bessarabia.
Kamenets is the see of a Roman Catholic and a Greek Orthodox bishop. The
Roman Catholic cathedral of St Peter and St Paul, built in 1361, is
distinguished by a minaret, recalling the time when it was used as a
mosque by the Turks (1672-1699). The Greek cathedral of John the Baptist
dates from the 16th century, but up to 1798 belonged to the Basilian
monastery. Other buildings are the Orthodox Greek monastery of the
Trinity, and the Catholic Armenian church (founded in 1398), possessing
a 14th-century missal and an image of the Virgin Mary that saw the
Mongol invasion of 1239-1242. The town contains Orthodox Greek and Roman
Catholic seminaries, Jewish colleges, and an archaeological museum for
church antiquities, founded in 1890. Kamenets was laid waste by the
Mongol leader Batu in 1240. In 1434 it was made the chief town of the
province of Podolia. In the 15th and 16th centuries it suffered
frequently from the invasions of Tatars, Moldavians and Turks; and in
1672 the hetman of the Cossacks, Doroshenko, assisted by Sultan Mahommed
IV. of Turkey, made himself master of the place. Restored to Poland by
the peace of Karlowitz (1699), it passed with Podolia to Russia in 1795.
Here the Turks were defeated by the Poles in 1633, and here twenty years
later peace was concluded between the same antagonists. The
fortifications were demolished in 1813.



KAMENZ, a town in the kingdom of Saxony, on the Black Elster, 21 m. N.E.
of Dresden, on a branch line of railway from Bischofswerda. Pop. (1900),
9726. It has four Evangelical churches, among them a Wendish one, and a
handsome new town-hall with a library. The hospital is dedicated to the
memory of Lessing, who was born here. A colossal bust of the poet was
placed opposite the Wendish church in 1863, and a monument was raised to
him on a neighbouring hill in 1864. The industries of Kamenz include
wool-spinning, and the manufacture of cloth, glass, crockery and
stoneware. Built about 1200, Kamenz, was known by the name Dreikretcham
until the 16th century. In 1318 it passed to the mark of Brandenburg; in
1319 to Bohemia; and in 1635, after suffering much in the Hussite and
Thirty Years' wars, it came into the possession of Saxony. In 1706 and
1842 it was almost entirely consumed by fire.

KAMENZ is also the name of a village in Prussia, not far from Breslau;
pop. 900. This is famous on account of its Cistercian monastery, founded
in 1094. Of the house, which was closed in 1810, only a few buildings
remain.



KAMES, HENRY HOME, LORD (1696-1782), Scottish lawyer and philosopher,
son of George Home of Kames, in Berwickshire, where he was born in 1696.
After receiving a somewhat imperfect education from a private tutor, he
was in 1712 indentured to a writer to the signet in Edinburgh, but an
accidental introduction to Sir Hew Dalrymple, then president of the
court of session, determined him to aspire to the position of advocate.
He accordingly set himself to studying various branches of literature,
specially metaphysics and moral philosophy. He was called to the bar in
January 1724, and, as he lacked those brilliant qualities which
sometimes command immediate success, he employed his leisure in the
compilation of _Remarkable Decisions in the Court of Session from 1716
to 1728_ (1728). This work having attracted attention, his power of
ingenious reasoning and mastery of law gradually gained him a leading
position at the bar. In 1752 he was appointed a judge in the court of
session under the title of Lord Kames, and in 1763 he was made one of
the lords of justiciary. In 1741 he married Agatha Drummond, through
whom in 1761 he succeeded to the estate of Blair Drummond, Perthshire.
He continued to discharge his judicial duties till within a few days of
his death at Edinburgh on the 27th of December 1782.

  Lord Kames took a special interest in agricultural and commercial
  affairs. In 1755 he was appointed a member of the board of trustees
  for encouragement of the fisheries, arts and manufactures of Scotland,
  and about the same time he was named one of the commissioners for the
  management of the forfeited estates annexed to the Crown. On the
  subject of agriculture he wrote _The Gentleman Farmer_ (1776). In 1765
  he published a small pamphlet _On the Flax Husbandry of Scotland_;
  and, besides availing himself of his extensive acquaintance with the
  proprietors of Scotland to recommend the introduction of manufactures,
  he took a prominent part in furthering the project of the Forth and
  Clyde Canal. He was also one of the founders of the Physical and
  Literary Society, afterwards the Royal Society of Edinburgh. It is,
  however, as a writer on philosophy that Lord Kames is best known. In
  1751 he published his _Essays on the Principles of Morality and
  Natural Religion_ (Ger. trans., Leipzig, 1772), in which he
  endeavoured to maintain the doctrine of innate ideas, but conceded to
  man an apparent but only apparent freedom of the will. His statement
  of the latter doctrine so aroused the alarm of certain clergymen of
  the Church of Scotland that he found it necessary to withdraw what was
  regarded as a serious error, and to attribute man's delusive sense of
  freedom, not to an innate conviction implanted by God, but to the
  influence of the passions. His other philosophical works are _An
  Introduction to the Art of Thinking_ (1761), _Elements of Criticism_
  (1762), _Sketches of the History of Man_ (1774).

  See _Life of Lord Kames_, by A. F. Tytler, Lord Woodhouselee (2 vols.,
  1807).



KAMMIN, or CAMMIN, a town in the Prussian province of Pomerania, 2½ m.
from the Baltic, on the Kamminsche Bodden, a lake connected with the sea
by the Dievenow. Pop. (1905), 5923. Among its four Evangelical churches,
the cathedral and the church of St Mary are noteworthy. Iron-founding
and brewing are carried on in the town, which has also some fishing and
shipping. There is steamer communication with Stettin, about 40 m.
S.S.W. Kammin is of Wendish origin, and obtained municipal privileges in
1274. From about 1200 till 1628 it was the seat of a bishopric, which at
the latter date became a secular principality, being in 1648
incorporated with Brandenburg.

  See Küchen, _Geschichte der Stadt Kammin_ (Kammin, 1885).



KAMPEN, a town in the province of Overysel, Holland, on the left bank of
the Ysel, 3½ m. above its mouth, and a terminal railway station 8 m.
N.W. of Zwolle. It has regular steamboat communication with Zwolle,
Deventer, Amsterdam, and Enkhuizen. Pop. (1900), 19,664. Kampen is
surrounded by beautiful gardens and promenades in the place of the old
city walls, and has a fine river front. The four turreted gateways
furnish excellent examples of 16th and 17th century architecture. Of the
churches the Bovenkerk ("upper church"), or church of St Nicholas, ranks
with the cathedral of Utrecht and the Janskerk at 's Hertogenbosch as
one of the three great medieval churches in Holland. It was begun in
1369, and has double aisles, ambulatory and radiating chapels, and
contains some finely carved woodwork. The Roman Catholic Buitenkerk
("outer church") is also a fine building of the 14th century, with good
modern panelling. There are many other, though slighter, remains of the
ancient churches and monasteries of Kampen; but the most remarkable
building is the old town-hall, which is unsurpassed in Holland. It dates
from the 14th century, but was partly restored after a fire in 1543. The
exterior is adorned with niched statues and beautiful iron trellis work
round the windows. The old council-chamber is wainscoted in black oak,
and contains a remarkable sculptured chimney-piece (1545) and fine wood
carving. The town-hall contains the municipal library, collections of
tapestry, portraits and antiquities, and valuable archives relating to
the town and province. Kampen is the seat of a Christian Reformed
theological school, a gymnasium, a higher burgher school, a municipal
school of design, and a large orphanage. There are few or no local
taxes, the municipal chest being filled by the revenues derived from the
fertile delta-land, the Kampeneiland, which is always being built up at
the mouth of the Ysel. There is a considerable, trade in dairy produce;
and there are shipyards, rope-walks, a tool factory, cigar factories,
paper mills, &c.



KAMPTEE, or KAMTHI, a town of British India, in the Nagpur district of
the Central Provinces, just below the confluence of the Kanhan with the
rivers Pench and Kolar; 10 m. N.E. of Nagpur by rail. Pop. (1901),
38,888, showing a continuous decrease since 1881. Kamptee was founded in
1821, as a military cantonment in the neighbourhood of the native
capital of Nagpur, and became an important centre of trade. Since the
opening of the railway, trade has largely been diverted to Nagpur, and
the garrison has recently been reduced. The town is well laid out with
wide roads, gardens and tanks.



KAMRUP, a district of British India, in the Brahmaputra valley division
of Eastern Bengal and Assam. The headquarters are at Gauhati. Area, 3858
sq. m.; pop. (1901), 589,187, showing a decrease of 7% in the decade. In
the immediate neighbourhood of the Brahmaputra the land is low, and
exposed to annual inundation. In this marshy tract reeds and canes
flourish luxuriantly, and the only cultivation is that of rice. At a
comparatively short distance from the river banks the ground begins to
rise in undulating knolls towards the mountains of Bhutan on the north,
and towards the Khasi hills on the south. The hills south of the
Brahmaputra in some parts reach the height of 800 ft. The Brahmaputra,
which divides the district into two nearly equal portions, is navigable
by river steamers throughout the year, and receives several tributaries
navigable by large native boats in the rainy season. The chief of these
are the Manas, Chaul Khoya and Barnadi on the north, and the Kulsi and
Dibru on the south bank. There is a government forest preserve in the
district and also a plantation where seedlings of teak, _sál_, _sissu_,
_súm_, and _nahor_ are reared, and experiments are being made with the
caoutchouc tree. The population is entirely rural, the only town with
upwards of 5000 inhabitants being Gauhati (11,661). The temples of Hajo
and Kamakhya attract many pilgrims from all quarters. The staple crop of
the district is rice, of which there are three crops. The indigenous
manufactures are confined to the weaving of silk and cotton cloths for
home use, and to the making of brass cups and plates. The cultivation
and manufacture of tea by European capital is not very prosperous. The
chief exports are rice, oil-seeds, timber and cotton; the imports are
fine rice, salt, piece goods, sugar, betel-nuts, coco-nuts and hardware.
A section of the Assam-Bengal railway starts from Gauhati, and a branch
of the Eastern Bengal railway has recently been opened to the opposite
bank of the river. A metalled road runs due south from Gauhati to
Shillong.



KAMYSHIN, a town of Russia, in the government of Saratov, 145 m. by
river S.S.W. of the city of Saratov, on the right bank of the Volga.
Pop. (1861), 8644; (1897), 15,934. Being the terminus of the railway to
Tambov, Moscow and the Baltic ports, it is an important port for the
export of cereals and salt from the Volga, and it imports timber and
wooden wares. It is famous for its water-melons. Peter the Great built
here a fort, which was known at first as Dmitrievsk, but acquired its
present name in 1780.



KANAKA, a Polynesian word meaning "man," used by Polynesians to describe
themselves. Its ethnical value, never great, has been entirely destroyed
by its indiscriminate use by the French to describe all South Sea
islanders, whether black or brown. The corrupt French form _canaque_ has
been used by some English writers. The term came into prominence in
1884-1885 in connexion with the scandals arising over the kidnapping of
South Sea islanders for enforced labour on the sugar plantations of
north Queensland.



KANARA, or CANARA, the name of two adjoining districts of British India:
North Kanara in the presidency of Bombay, South Kanara in that of
Madras. Both are on the western coast.

NORTH KANARA DISTRICT forms part of the southern division of Bombay. The
administrative headquarters are at Karwar, which is also the chief
seaport. Area, 3945 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 454,490, showing an increase
of 2% in the decade. The trade of the interior, which used to pass down
to the seaports, has been largely diverted by the opening of the
Southern Mahratta railway. Along the coast rice is the chief crop, and
coco-nut palms are also important. In the upland there are valuable
gardens of areca palms, cardamoms and pepper. Rice and timber are
exported, and sandalwood-carving and salt manufacture are carried on.
The main feature in the physical geography of the district is the range
of the Western Ghats, which, running from north to south, divides it
into two parts, a lowland or coast strip (Payanghat), and an upland
plateau (Balaghat). The coast-line is only broken by the Karwar headland
in the north, and by the estuaries of four rivers and the mouths of many
smaller streams, through which the salt water finds an entrance into
numerous lagoons winding several miles inland. The breadth of the
lowlands varies from 5 to 15 miles. From this narrow belt rise a few
smooth, flat-topped hills, from 200 to 300 ft. high; and at places it is
crossed by lofty, rugged, densely wooded spurs, which, starting from the
main range, maintain almost to the coast a height of not less than 1000
ft. Among these hills lie well-tilled valleys of garden and rice land.
The plateau of the Balaghat is irregular, varying from 1500 to 2000 ft.
in height. In some parts the country rises into well-wooded knolls, in
others it is studded by small, isolated, steep hills. Except on the
banks of streams and in the more open glades, the whole is one broad
waste of woodland and forest. The open spaces are dotted with hamlets or
parcelled out into rice clearings. Of the rivers flowing eastward from
the watershed of the Sahyadri hills the only one of importance is the
Wardha or Varada, a tributary of the Tungabhadra. Of those that flow
westwards, the four principal ones, proceeding from north to south, are
the Kali, Gungawali, Tadri and Sharavati. The last of these forms the
famous Gersoppa Falls. Extensive forests clothe the hills, and are
conserved under the rules of the forest department.

SOUTH KANARA DISTRICT has its headquarters at Mangalore. Area, 4021 sq.
m. Pop. (1901), 1,134,713, showing an increase of 7% in the decade. The
district is intersected by rivers, none of which exceeds 100 miles in
length. They all take their rise in the Western Ghats, and many are
navigable during the fair weather for from 15 to 25 miles from the
coast. The chief of these streams are the Netravati, Gurpur and
Chendragiri. Numerous groves of coco-nut palms extend along the coast,
and green rice-fields are seen in every valley. The Western Ghats,
rising to a height of 3000 to 6000 ft., fringe the eastern boundary.
Forest land of great extent and value exists, but most of it is private
property. Jungle products (besides timber) consist of bamboo, cardamoms,
wild arrowroot, gall-nuts, gamboge, catechu, fibrous bark, cinnamon,
gums, resin, dyes, honey and beeswax. The forests formerly abounded in
game, which, however, is rapidly decreasing under incessant shooting.
The staple crop is rice. The chief articles of import are piece goods,
cotton yarn, oils and salt. Tiles are manufactured in several places out
of a fine potter's clay. The Azhikal-Mangalore line of the Madras
railway serves the district.

  See _South Canara District Manual_ (2 vols., Madras, 1894-1895).



KANARESE, a language of the Dravidian family, spoken by about ten
millions of people in southern India, chiefly in Mysore, Hyderabad, and
the adjoining districts of Madras and Bombay. It has an ancient
literature, written in an alphabet closely resembling that employed for
Telugu. Since the 12th century the Kanarese-speaking people have largely
adopted the Lingayat form of faith, which may be described as an
anti-Brahmanical sect of Siva worshippers (see HINDUISM). Most of them
are agriculturists, but they also engage actively in trade.



KANARIS (or CANARIS), CONSTANTINE (1790-1877), Greek patriot, belonged
to the class of coasting sailors who produced if not the most honest, at
least the bravest, and the most successful of the combatants in the
cause of Greek independence. He belonged by birth to the little island
of Psara, to the north-west of Chio. He first became prominent as the
effective leader of the signal vengeance taken by the Greeks for the
massacre at Chio in April 1822 by the Turkish Capitan Pasha. The
commander of the force of fifty small vessels and eight fireships sent
to assail the Turkish fleet was the navarch Miaoulis, but it was Kanaris
who executed the attack with the fireships on the flagship of the
Capitan Pasha on the night of the 18th of June 1822. The Turks were
celebrating the feast of Bahram at the end of the Ramadan fast. Kanaris
had two small brigs fitted as fireships, and thirty-six men. He was
allowed to come close to the Turkish flagship, and succeeded in
attaching his fireships to her, setting them on fire, and escaping with
his party. The fire reached the powder and the flagship blew up, sending
the Capitan Pasha and 2000 Turks into the air. Kanaris was undoubtedly
aided by the almost incredible sloth and folly of his opponents, but he
chose his time well, and the service of the fireships was always
considered peculiarly dangerous. That Kanaris could carry out the
venture with a volunteer party not belonging to a regularly disciplined
service, not only proved him to be a clever partisan fighter, but showed
that he was a leader of men. He repeated the feat at Tenedos in November
of 1822, and was then considered to have disposed of nearly 4000 Turks
in the two ventures. When his native island, Psara, was occupied by the
Turks he continued to serve under the command of Miaoulis. He was no
less distinguished in other attacks with fireships at Samos and Mytilene
in 1824, which finally established an utter panic in the Turkish navy.
His efforts to destroy the ships of Mehemet Ali at Alexandria in 1825
were defeated by contrary winds. When the Greeks tried to organize a
regular navy he was appointed captain of the frigate "Hellas" in 1826.
In politics he was a follower of Capo d'Istria. He helped to upset the
government of King Otho and to establish his successor, was prime
minister in 1864-1865, came back from retirement to preside over the
ministry formed during the crisis of the Russo-Turkish war, and died in
office on the 15th of September 1877. Kanaris is described as of small
stature, simple in appearance, somewhat shy and melancholy. He is justly
remembered as the most blameless of the popular heroes of the War of
Independence. He was almost the only one among them whom Dundonald, with
whom he served in a successful attack on an Egyptian war-ship near
Alexandria, exempts from the sweeping charges of cowardice he brings
against the Greeks.     (D. H.)



KANAUJ, an ancient city of British India, in Farukhabad district, United
Provinces, near the left bank of the Ganges. Pop. (1901), 18,552. Kanauj
in early times formed the capital of a great Hindu kingdom. Its
prosperity dates from a prehistoric period, and seems to have culminated
about the 6th century under Harsha. In 1019 it fell before Mahmud of
Ghazni, and again in 1194 before Mahommed Ghori. The existing ruins
extend over the lands of five villages, occupying a semicircle fully 4
m. in diameter. No Hindu buildings remain intact; but the great mosque,
constructed by Ibrahim Shah of Jaunpur in 1406 out of Hindu temples, is
still called by Hindus "Sita's Kitchen." Kanauj, which is traditionally
said to be derived from _Kanyakubja_ (= the crooked maiden), has given
its name to an important division of Brahmans in northern India.
Hinduism in Lower Bengal also dates its origin from a Brahman migration
southwards from this city, about 800 or 900. Kanauj is now noted for the
distilling of scents.



KANDAHAR, the largest city in Afghanistan, situated in 31° 37´ N. lat.
and 65° 43´ E. long., 3400 ft. above the sea. It is 370 m. distant from
Herat on the N.W., by Girishk and Farah--Girishk being 75 m., and Farah
225 m. from Kandahar. From Kabul, on the N.E., it is distant 315 m., by
Kalat-i-Ghilzai and Ghazni--Kalat-i-Ghilzai being 85 m., and Ghazni 225
m. from Kandahar. To the Peshin valley the distance is about 110 m., and
from Peshin to India the three principal routes measure approximately as
follows: by the Zhob valley to Dera Ismail Khan, 300 m.; by the Bori
valley to Dera Ghazi Khan, 275 m.; by Quetta and the Bolan to Dadar, 125
m.; and by Chappar and Nari to Sibi, 120 m. The Indian railway system
extends to New Chaman, within some 80 m. of Kandahar. Immediately round
the city is a plain, highly cultivated and well populated to the south
and west; but on the north-west barren, and bounded by a double line of
hills, rising to about 1000 ft. above its general level, and breaking
its dull monotony with irregular lines of scarped precipices, crowned
with fantastic pinnacles and peaks. To the north-west these hills form
the watershed between the valleys of the Arghandab and the Tarnak, until
they are lost in the mountain masses of the Hazarajat--a wild region
inhabited by tribes of Tatar origin, which effectually shuts off
Kandahar from communication with the north. On the south-west they lose
themselves in the sandy desert of Registan, which wraps itself round the
plain of Kandahar, and forms another impassable barrier. But there is a
break in these hills--a gate, as it were, to the great high road between
Herat and India; and it is this gate which the fortress of Kandahar so
effectually guards, and to which it owes its strategic importance. Other
routes there are, open to trade, between Herat and northern India,
either following the banks of the Hari Rud, or, more circuitously,
through the valley of the Helmund to Kabul; or the line of hills between
the Arghandab and the Tarnak may be crossed close to Kalat-i-Ghilzai;
but of the two former it may be said that they are not ways open to the
passage of Afghan armies owing to the hereditary hostility existing
between the Aeimak and Hazara tribes and the Afghans generally, while
the latter is not beyond striking distance from Kandahar. The one great
high road from Herat and the Persian frontier to India is that which
passes by Farah and crosses the Helmund at Girishk. Between Kandahar and
India the road is comparatively open, and would be available for railway
communication but for the jealous exclusiveness of the Afghans.

To the north-west, and parallel to the long ridges of the Tarnak
watershed, stretches the great road to Kabul, traversed by Nott in 1842,
and by Stewart and subsequently by Roberts in 1880. Between this and the
direct route to Peshin is a road which leads through Maruf to the Kundar
river and the Guleri pass into the plains of Hindustan at Dera Ismail
Khan. This is the most direct route to northern India, but it involves
the passage of some rough country, across the great watershed between
the basins of the Helmund and the Indus. But the best known road from
Kandahar to India is that which stretches across the series of open
stony plains interspersed with rocky hills of irregular formation
leading to the foot of the Kwaja Amran (Khojak) range, on the far side
of which from Kandahar lies the valley of Peshin. The passage of the
Kwaja Amran involves a rise and fall of some 2300 ft., but the range has
been tunnelled and a railway now connects the frontier post of New
Chaman with Quetta. Two lines of railway now connect Quetta with Sind,
the one known as the Harnai loop, the other as the Bolan or Mashkaf
line. They meet at Sibi (see BALUCHISTAN). Several roads to India have
been developed through Baluchistan, but they are all dominated from
Kandahar. Thus Kandahar becomes a sort of focus of all the direct routes
converging from the wide-stretching western frontier of India towards
Herat and Persia, and the fortress of Kandahar gives protection on the
one hand to trade between Hindustan and Herat, and on the other it lends
to Kabul security from invasion by way of Herat.

Kandahar is approximately a square-built city, surrounded by a wall of
about 3¾ m. circuit, and from 25 to 30 ft. high, with an average breadth
of 15 ft. Outside the wall is a ditch 10 ft. deep. The city and its
defences are entirely mud-built. There are four main streets crossing
each other nearly at right angles, the central "chouk" being covered
with a dome. These streets are wide and bordered with trees, and are
flanked by shops with open fronts and verandas. There are no buildings
of any great pretension in Kandahar, a few of the more wealthy Hindus
occupying the best houses. The tomb of Ahmad Shah is the only attempt at
monumental architecture. This, with its rather handsome cupola, and the
twelve minor tombs of Ahmad Shah's children grouped around, contains a
few good specimens of fretwork and of inlaid inscriptions. The four
streets of the city divide it into convenient quarters for the
accommodation of its mixed population of Duranis, Ghilzais, Parsiwans
and Kakars, numbering in all some 30,000 souls. Of these the greater
proportion are the Parsiwans (chiefly Kizilbashes).

It is reckoned that there are 1600 shops and 182 mosques in the city.
The mullahs of these mosques are generally men of considerable power.
The walls of the city are pierced by the four principal gates of
"Kabul," "Shikarpur," "Herat" and the "Idgah," opposite the four main
streets, with two minor gates, called the Top Khana and the Bardurani
respectively, in the western half of the city. The Idgah gate passes
through the citadel, which is a square-built enclosure with sides of
about 260 yds. in length. The flank defences of the main wall are
insufficient; indeed there is no pretence at scientific structure about
any part of the defences; but the site of the city is well chosen for
defence, and the water supply (drawn by canals from the Arghandab or
derived from wells) is good.

  About 4 m. west of the present city, stretched along the slopes of a
  rocky ridge, and extending into the plains at its foot, are the ruins
  of the old city of Kandahar sacked and plundered by Nadir Shah in
  1738. From the top of the ridge a small citadel overlooks the
  half-buried ruins. On the north-east face of the hill forty steps, cut
  out of solid limestone, lead upward to a small, dome-roofed recess,
  which contains some interesting Persian inscriptions cut in relief on
  the rock, recording particulars of the history of Kandahar, and
  defining the vast extent of the kingdom of the emperor Baber. Popular
  belief ascribes the foundation of the old city to Alexander the Great.

  Although Kandahar has long ceased to be the seat of government, it is
  nevertheless by far the most important trade centre in Afghanistan,
  and the revenues of the Kandahar province assist largely in supporting
  the chief power at Kabul. There are no manufactures or industries of
  any importance peculiar to Kandahar, but the long lines of bazaars
  display goods from England, Russia, Hindustan, Persia and Turkestan,
  embracing a trade area as large probably as that of any city in Asia.
  The customs and town dues together amount to a sum equal to the land
  revenue of the Kandahar province, which is of considerable extent,
  stretching to Pul-i-Sangin, 10 m. south of Kalat-i-Ghilzai on the
  Kabul side, to the Helmund on the west, and to the Hazara country on
  the north. Although Farah has been governed from Kandahar since 1863,
  its revenues are not reckoned as a part of those of the province. The
  land revenue proper is assessed in grain, the salaries of government
  officials, pay of soldiers, &c., being disbursed by "barats" or orders
  for grain at rates fixed by government, usually about 20% above the
  city market prices. The greater part of the English goods sold at
  Herat are imported by Karachi and Kandahar--a fact which testifies to
  the great insecurity of trade between Meshed and Herat. Some of the
  items included as town dues are curious. For instance, the tariff on
  animals exposed for sale includes a charge of 5% ad valorem on slave
  girls, besides a charge of 1 rupee per head. The kidney fat of all
  sheep and the skins of all goats slaughtered in the public yard are
  perquisites of government, the former being used for the manufacture
  of soap, which, with snuff, is a government monopoly. The imports
  consist chiefly of English goods, indigo, cloth, boots, leather,
  sugar, salt, iron and copper, from Hindustan, and of shawls, carpets,
  "barak" (native woollen cloth), postins (coats made of skins), shoes,
  silks, opium and carpets from Meshed, Herat and Turkestan. The exports
  are wool, cotton, madder, cummin seed, asafoetida, fruit, silk and
  horses. The system of coinage is also curious: 105 English rupees are
  melted down, and the alloy extracted, leaving 100 rupees' worth of
  silver; 295 more English rupees are then melted, and the molten metal
  mixed with the 100 rupees silver; and out of this 808 Kandahari rupees
  are coined. As the Kandahari rupee is worth about 8 annas (half an
  English rupee) the government thus realizes a profit of 1%.
  Government accounts are kept in "Kham" rupees, the "Kham" being worth
  about five-sixths of a Kandahari rupee; in other words, it about
  equals the franc, or the Persian "kran."

  Immediately to the south and west of Kandahar is a stretch of
  well-irrigated and highly cultivated country, but the valley of the
  Arghandab is the most fertile in the district, and, from the luxuriant
  abundance of its orchards and vineyards, offers the most striking
  scenes of landscape beauty. The pomegranate fields form a striking
  feature in the valley--the pomegranates of Kandahar, with its "sirdar"
  melons and grapes, being unequalled in quality by any in the East. The
  vines are grown on artificial banks, probably for want of the
  necessary wood to trellis them--the grapes being largely exported in a
  semi-dried state. Fruit, indeed, besides being largely exported, forms
  the chief staple of the food supply of the inhabitants throughout
  Afghanistan. The art of irrigation is so well understood that the
  water supply is at times exhausted, no river water being allowed to
  run to waste. The plains about Kandahar are chiefly watered by canals
  drawn from the Arghandab near Baba-wali, and conducted through the
  same gap in the hills which admits the Herat road. The amount of
  irrigation and the number of water channels form a considerable
  impediment to the movements of troops, not only immediately about
  Kandahar, but in all districts where the main rivers and streams are
  bordered by green bands of cultivation. Irrigation by "karez" is also
  largely resorted to. The karez is a system of underground channelling
  which usually taps a sub-surface water supply at the foot of some of
  the many rugged and apparently waterless hills which cover the face of
  the country. The water is not brought to the surface, but is carried
  over long distances by an underground channel or drain, which is
  constructed by sinking shafts at intervals along the required course
  and connecting the shafts by tunnelling. The general agricultural
  products of the country are wheat, barley, pulse, fruit, madder,
  asafoetida, lucerne, clover and tobacco.

  Of the mineral resources of the Kandahar district not much is known,
  but an abandoned gold mine exists about 2 m. north of the town. Some
  general idea of the resources of the Kandahar district may be gathered
  from the fact that it supplied the British troops with everything
  except luxuries during the entire period of occupation in 1879-81; and
  that, in spite of the great strain thrown on those resources by the
  presence of the two armies of Ayub Khan and of General Roberts, and
  after the total failure of the autumn crops and only a partial harvest
  the previous spring, the army was fed without great difficulty until
  the final evacuation, at one-third of the prices paid in Quetta for
  supplies drawn from India.

  _History._--Kandahar has a stormy history. Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni
  took it in the 11th century from the Afghans who then held it. In the
  beginning of the 13th century it was taken by Jenghiz Khan, and in the
  14th by Timur. In 1507 it was captured by the emperor Baber, but
  shortly afterwards it fell again into Afghan hands, to be retaken by
  Baber in 1521. Baber's son, Humayun, agreed to cede Kandahar to
  Persia, but failed to keep his word, and the Persians besieged the
  place unsuccessfully. Thus it remained in the possession of the Moguls
  till 1625, when it was taken by Shah Abbas. Aurangzeb tried to take it
  in 1649 with 5000 men, but failed. Another attempt in 1652 was equally
  unsuccessful. It remained in Persian possession till 1709, when it was
  taken by the Afghans, but was retaken after a two years' siege by
  Nadir Shah. Nadir Shah was assassinated in 1749, and immediately on
  hearing the news of his death Ahmad Shah (Abdali) seized Nadir Shah's
  treasure at Kandahar, and proclaimed himself king, with the consent,
  not only of the Afghans, but, strange to say, of the Hazaras and
  Baluchis as well. He at once changed the site of the city to its
  present position, and thus founded the Afghan kingdom, with modern
  Kandahar as its capital. Ahmad Shah died in 1773, and was succeeded by
  his son Timur, who died in 1793, and left the throne to his son Zaman
  Shah. This prince was deposed by his half-brother Mahmud, who was in
  his turn deposed by Shah Shuja, the full brother of Zaman Shah. After
  a short reign Shah Shuja was compelled to abdicate from his inability
  to repress the rising power of Fateh Khan, a Barakzai chief, and he
  took refuge first with Ranjit Singh, who then ruled the Punjab, and
  finally secured the protection of British power. Afghanistan was now
  practically dismembered. Mahmud was reinstated by Fateh Khan, whom he
  appointed his vizier, and whose nephews, Dost Mahommed Khan and Kohn
  dil Khan, he placed respectively in the governments of Kabul and
  Kandahar. Fateh Khan was barbarously murdered by Kamran (Mahmud's son)
  near Ghazni in 1818; and in retaliation Mahmud himself was driven from
  power, and the Barakzai clan secured the sovereignty of Afghanistan.
  While Dost Mahommed held Kabul, Kandahar became temporarily a sort of
  independent chiefship under two or three of his brothers. In 1839 the
  cause of Shah Shuja was actively supported by the British. Kandahar
  was occupied, and Shah Shuja reinstated on the throne of his
  ancestors. Dost Mahommed was defeated near Kabul, and after surrender
  to the British force, was deported into Hindustan. The British army of
  occupation in southern Afghanistan continued to occupy Kandahar from
  1839 till the autumn of 1842, when General Nott marched on Kabul to
  meet Pollock's advance from Jalalabad. The cantonments near the city,
  built by Nott's division, were repaired and again occupied by the
  British army in 1879, when Shere Ali was driven from power by the
  invasion of Afghanistan, nor were they finally evacuated till the
  spring of 1881. Trade statistics of late years show a gradual increase
  of exports to India from Kandahar and the countries adjacent thereto,
  but a curious falling-off in imports. The short-sighted policy of the
  amir Abdur Rahman in discouraging imports doubtless affected the
  balance, nor did his affectation of ignoring the railway between New
  Chaman and Kila Abdulla (on the Peshin side of the Khojak) conduce to
  the improvement of trade.     (T. H. H.*)



KANDI, a town of British India, in Murshidabad district, Bengal. Pop.
(1901), 12,037. It is the residence of the rajas of Paikpara, a wealthy
and devout Hindu family. The founder of this family was Ganga Govind
Singh, the banyan or agent of Warren Hastings, who was born at Kandi,
and retired hither in his old age with an immense fortune. His name has
acquired celebrity for the most magnificent _sraddha_, or funeral
obsequies, ever performed in Bengal, celebrated in honour of his mother,
at a cost, it is said, of £200,000.



KANDY, a town near the centre of Ceylon, 75 m. from Colombo by rail,
formerly the capital of a kingdom of the same name, situated towards
the heart of the island, 1718 ft. above the sea. It lies round the
margin of an artificial lake constructed by the last king of Kandy in
1806, and is beautifully surrounded by hills. The most striking objects
are the temples (of which twelve are Buddhist and four Brahman), the
tombs of the Kandian kings, and the various buildings of the royal
residence, partly allowed to fall into disrepair, partly utilized by the
government. Of the temples the Dalada Malagawa is worthy of particular
mention; it claims, as the name indicates, to be in possession of a
Buddha tooth.

Kandy was occupied by the Portuguese in the 16th century and by the
Dutch in 1763; but in both instances the native kings succeeded in
shaking off the foreign yoke. The British got possession of the place in
1803, but the garrison afterwards capitulated and were massacred, and it
was not till 1814-15 that the king was defeated and dethroned. The
British authority was formally established by the convention of March 2,
1815. In 1848, owing to an attempt at rebellion, the town was for a time
under martial law. It has been greatly improved of recent years. Sir
William Gregory when governor did much to restore the ancient Kandy
decorations, while the Victoria Jubilee Commemoration Building,
including "Ferguson Memorial Hall," and two fine hotels, add to the
improvements. The Royal Botanic Gardens are situated at Peradeniya, 3 m.
distant. Kandy is a uniquely beautiful, highland, tropical town, full of
interesting historical and Buddhistic associations. A water supply and
electric lighting have been introduced. Roman Catholic missions are
active in the work of education, for which a large block of buildings
has been erected. Church of England, Wesleyan and Baptist missions are
also at work. The population of the town in 1900 was 26,386; of the
district, 377,591. Average annual rainfall, 81½ in.; average
temperature, 75.3. There is a branch railway from Kandy, north to
Matale, 17 m.



KANE, ELISHA KENT (1820-1857), American scientist and explorer, was born
in Philadelphia on the 20th of February 1820, the son of the jurist John
Kintzing Kane (1795-1858), a friend and supporter of Andrew Jackson,
attorney-general of Pennsylvania in 1845-1846, U.S. judge of the Eastern
District of Pennsylvania after 1846, and president of the American
Philosophical Society in 1856-1858. Young Kane entered the university of
Virginia and obtained the degree of M.D. in 1842, and in the following
year entered the U.S. navy as surgeon. He had already acquired a
considerable reputation in physiological research. The ship to which he
was appointed was ordered to China, and he found opportunities during
the voyage for indulging his passion for exploration, making a journey
from Rio de Janeiro to the base of the Andes, and another from Bombay
through India to Ceylon. On the arrival of the ship at its destination
he provided a substitute for his post and crossed over to the island of
Luzon, which he explored. In 1844 he left China, and, returning by
India, Persia, Syria, Egypt, Greece, Austria, Germany and Switzerland,
reached America in 1846. In that year he was ordered to the west coast
of Africa, where he visited Dahomey, and contracted fever, which told
severely on his constitution. On his return in 1847, he exchanged the
naval for the military service, and was sent to join the U.S. army in
Mexico, where he had some extraordinary adventures, and where he was
again stricken with fever.

On the fitting out of the first Grinnell expedition, in 1850, to search
for Sir John Franklin, Kane was appointed surgeon and naturalist under
Lieut. de Haven, who commanded the ships "Advance" and "Rescue." The
expedition, after an absence of sixteen months, during nine of which the
ships were ice-bound, returned without having found any trace of the
missing vessels. Kane was in feeble health, but worked on at his
narrative of the expedition, which was published in 1854, under the
title of _The U.S. Grinnell Expedition in Search of Sir John Franklin_.
He was determined not to give up the search for Franklin, and in spite
of ill-health travelled through the States lecturing to obtain funds,
and gave up his pay for twenty months. At length Henry Grinnell fitted
out an expedition, in the little brig "Advance," of which Kane was given
the command. She sailed in June 1853, and passing up Smith Sound at the
head of Baffin Bay advanced into the enclosed sea which now bears the
name of Kane Basin, thus establishing the Polar route of many future
Arctic expeditions. Here, off the coast of Greenland, the expedition
passed two winters, accomplishing much useful geographical, as well as
scientific, work, including the attainment of what was to remain for
sixteen years the highest northern latitude, 80° 35´ N. (June 1854).
From this point a large area of open water was seen which was believed
to be an "open Polar Sea," a chimera which played an important and
delusive rôle in subsequent explorations. After enduring the greatest
hardships it was resolved to abandon the ship, Upernivik being reached
on the 5th of August 1855, whence a relief expedition brought the
explorers home. Medals were authorized by Congress, and in the following
year Dr Kane received the founder's medal of the Royal Geographical
Society, and, two years later, a gold medal from the Paris Geographical
Society. He published _The Second Grinnell Expedition_ in 1856. Dr Kane
died at Havana on the 16th of February 1857, at the age of thirty-seven.
Between his first and second arctic voyages he made the acquaintance of
the Fox family, the spiritualists. With one of the daughters, Margaret,
he carried on a long correspondence, which was afterwards published by
the lady, who declared that they were privately married.

  See _Biography of E. K. Kane_, by William Elder (1858); _Life of E. K.
  Kane and other American Explorers_, by S. M. Smucker (1858); _The
  Love-Life of Dr Kane, containing the Correspondence and a History of
  the Engagement and Secret Marriage between E. K. Kane and Margaret
  Fox_ (New York, 1866); "Discoveries of Dr Kane," in _Jour. of the Roy.
  Geog. Soc._, vol. xxviii. (reprinted in _R. G. S. Arctic Papers_ of
  1875).



KANE, a borough of McKean county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., about 90 m.
E.S.E. of Erie. Pop. (1890), 2944; (1900), 5296, (971 foreign-born);
(1910) 6626. It is served by the Pennsylvania, the Baltimore & Ohio, the
Kane & Elk, and the Big Level & Kinzua railways. It is situated about
2015 ft. above the sea in a region producing natural gas, oil, lumber
and silica, and has some reputation as a summer resort. The borough has
manufactories of window glass, plate glass and bottles, and repair shops
of the Pennsylvania railroad. Kane was settled in 1859, and was
incorporated as a borough in 1887. It was named in honour of its founder
Gen. Thomas L. Kane (1822-1883), brother of Elisha Kent Kane.



KANGAROO, the universally accepted, though not apparently the native,
designation of the more typical representatives of the marsupial family
_Macropodidae_ (see MARSUPIALIA). Although intimately connected with the
cuscuses and phalangers by means of the musk-kangaroo, the kangaroos and
wallabies, together with the rat-kangaroos, are easily distinguishable
from other diprotodont marsupials by their general conformation, and by
peculiarities in the structure of their limbs, teeth and other organs.
They vary in size from that of a sheep to a small rabbit. The head,
especially in the larger species, is small, compared with the rest of
the body, and tapers forward to the muzzle. The shoulders and fore-limbs
are feebly developed, and the hind-limbs of disproportionate strength
and magnitude, which give the animals a peculiarly awkward appearance
when moving about on all-fours, as they occasionally do when feeding.
Rapid progression is, however, performed only by the powerful
hind-limbs, the animals covering the ground by a series of immense
bounds, during which the fore part of the body is inclined forwards, and
balanced by the long, strong and tapering tail, which is carried
horizontally backwards. When not moving, they often assume a perfectly
upright position, the tail aiding the two hind-legs to form a tripod,
and the front-limbs dangling by the side of the chest. This position
gives full scope for the senses of sight, hearing and smell to warn of
the approach of enemies. The fore-paws have five digits, each armed with
a strong, curved claw. The hind-foot is extremely long, narrow and
(except in the musk-kangaroo) without the first toe. It consists mainly
of one very large and strong toe, corresponding to the fourth of the
human foot, ending in a strong curved and pointed claw (fig. 2). Close
to the outer side of this lies a smaller fifth digit, and to the inner
side two excessively slender toes (the second and third), bound together
almost to the extremity in a common integument. The two little claws of
these toes, projecting together from the skin, may be of use in
scratching and cleaning the fur of the animal, but the toes must have
quite lost all connexion with the functions of support or progression.
This type of foot-structure is termed syndactylous.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--The Great Grey Kangaroo (_Macropus giganteus_).]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Skeleton of right hind-foot of Kangaroo.]

The dental formula, when completely developed, is _incisors_ 3/1,
_canines_ 1/0, _premolars_ 3/3, _molars_ 3/3 on each side, giving a
total of 34 teeth. The three incisors of the upper jaw are arranged in a
continuous arched series, and have crowns with broad cutting edges; the
first or middle incisor is often larger than the others. Corresponding
to these in the lower jaw is but one tooth on each side, which is of
great size, directed horizontally forwards, narrow, lanceolate and
pointed with sharp edges. Owing to the slight union of the two halves of
the lower jaw in front in many species the two lower incisors work
together like the blades of a pair of scissors. The canines are absent
or rudimentary in the lower, and often deciduous at an early age in the
upper jaw. The first two premolars are compressed, with cutting
longitudinal edges, the anterior one is deciduous, being lost about the
time the second one replaces the milk-molar, so that three premolars are
never found in place and use in the same individual. The last premolar
and the molars have quadrate crowns, provided with two strong transverse
ridges, or with four obtuse cusps. In _Macropus giganteus_ and its
immediate allies, the premolars and sometimes the first molar are shed,
so that in old examples only the two posterior molars and the incisors
are found in place. The milk-dentition, as in other marsupials, is
confined to a single tooth on each side of each jaw, the other molars
and incisors being never changed. The dentition of the kangaroos,
functionally considered, thus consists of sharp-edged incisors, most
developed near the median line of the mouth, for the purpose of cropping
herbage, and ridged or tuberculated molars for crushing.

The number of vertebrae is--in the cervical region 7, dorsal 13, lumbar
6, sacral 2, caudal varying according to the length of the tail, but
generally from 21 to 25. In the fore-limb the clavicle and the radius
and ulna are well developed, allowing of considerable freedom of motion
of the fore-paw. The pelvis has large epipubic or "marsupial" bones. The
femur is short, and the tibia and fibula of great length, as is the
foot, the whole of which is applied to the ground when the animal is at
rest in the upright position.

The stomach is large and very complex, its walls being puckered by
longitudinal muscular bands into a number of folds. The alimentary canal
is long, and the caecum well developed. The young (which, as in other
marsupials, leave the uterus in an extremely small and imperfect
condition) are placed in the pouch as soon as they are born; and to this
they resort temporarily for shelter for some time after they are able to
run, jump and feed upon the herbage which forms the nourishment of the
parent. During the early period of their sojourn in the pouch, the
blind, naked, helpless young creatures (which in the great kangaroo
scarcely exceed an inch in length) are attached by their mouths to the
nipple of the mother, and are fed by milk injected into their stomach by
the contraction of the muscle covering the mammary gland. In this stage
of existence the elongated upper part of the larynx projects into the
posterior nares, and so maintains a free communication between the lungs
and the external surface, independently of the mouth and gullet, thus
averting danger of suffocation while the milk is passing down the
gullet.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Skull and teeth of Bennett's Wallaby (_Macropus
ruficollis bennettii_): i^1, i^2, i^3, first, second and third upper
incisors; pm, second premolar (the first having been already shed); m^1,
m^2, m^3, m^4, last premolar and three molars. The last, not fully
developed, is nearly concealed by the ascending part of the lower jaw.]

Kangaroos are vegetable-feeders, browsing on grass and various kinds of
herbage, but the smaller species also eat roots. They are naturally
timid and inoffensive, but the larger kinds when hard pressed will turn
and defend themselves, sometimes killing a dog by grasping it in their
fore-paws, and inflicting terrible wounds with the sharp claws of their
powerful hind-legs, supporting themselves meanwhile upon the tail. The
majority are inhabitants of Australia and Tasmania, forming one of the
most prominent and characteristic features of the fauna of these lands,
and performing the part of the deer and antelopes of other parts of the
world. They were important sources of food-supply to the natives, and
are hunted by the colonists, both for sport and on account of the damage
they do in consuming grass required for cattle and sheep. A few species
are found in New Guinea, and the adjacent islands, which belong, in the
zoological sense, to the Australian province, beyond the bounds of which
none occurs.

  The more typical representatives of the group constitute the
  sub-family _Macropodinae_, in which the cutting-edges of the upper
  incisors are nearly level, or the first pair but slightly longer than
  the others (fig. 3). The canines are rudimentary and often wanting.
  The molars are usually not longer (from before backwards) than the
  anterior premolars, and less compressed than in the next section. The
  crowns of the molars have two prominent transverse ridges. The
  fore-limbs are small with subequal toes, armed with strong, moderately
  long, curved claws. Hind-limbs very long and strongly made. Head
  small, with more or less elongated muzzle. Ears generally rather long
  and ovate.

  The typical genus _Macropus_, in which the muzzle is generally naked,
  the ears large, the fur on the nape of the neck usually directed
  backwards, the claw of the fourth hind-toe very large, and the tail
  stout and tapering, includes a large number of species. Among these,
  the great grey kangaroo (_M. giganteus_, fig. 1) deserves special
  mention on account of having been discovered during Captain Cook's
  first voyage in 1770. The great red kangaroo (_M. rufus_) is about the
  same size, while other large species are _M. antilopinus_ and _M.
  robustus_. The larger wallabies, or brush-kangaroos, such as the
  red-necked wallaby (_M. ruficollis_) constitute a group of
  smaller-sized species; while the smaller wallabies, such as the
  filander (q.v.) (_M. muelleri_) and _M. thetidis_, constitute yet
  another section. The genus ranges from the eastern Austro-Malay
  islands to New Guinea.

  Nearly allied are the rock-wallabies of Australia and Tasmania,
  constituting the genus _Petrogale_, chiefly distinguished by the
  thinner tail being more densely haired and terminating in a tuff.
  Well-known species are _P. penicillata_, _P. xanthopus_ and _P.
  lateralis_. The few species of nail-tailed wallabies, _Onychogale_,
  which are confined to the Australian mainland, take their name from
  the presence of a horny spur at the end of the tail, and are further
  distinguished by the hairy muzzle. _O. unguifer_, _O. fraenatus_ and
  _O. lunatus_ represent the group. The hare-wallabies, such as
  _Lagorchestes leporoides_, _L. hirsutus_ and _L. consepicillatus_,
  constitute a genus with the same distribution as the last, and
  likewise with a hairy muzzle, but with a rather short, evenly furred
  tail, devoid of a spur. They are great leapers and swift runners,
  mostly frequenting open stony plains.

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.--Skull and teeth of Lesueuir's Rat-Kangaroo
  (_Bettongia lesueuiri_). c, upper canine. Other letters as in fig. 3.
  The anterior premolar has been shed.]

  More distinct is the Papuan genus _Dorcopsis_, as typified by _D.
  muelleri_, although it is to some extent connected with _Macropus_ by
  _D. macleyi_. The muzzle is naked, the fur on the nape of the neck
  directed more or less completely forward, and the hind-limbs are less
  disproportionately elongated. Perhaps, however, the most distinctive
  feature of the genus is the great fore-and-aft length of the
  penultimate premolar in both jaws. Other species are _D.
  rufolateralis_ and _D. aurantiacus_. In the tree-kangaroos, which
  include the Papuan _Dendrolagus inustus_, _D. ursinus_, _D. dorianus_,
  _D. benetianus_ and _D. maximus_, and the North Queensland _D.
  lumholtzi_, the reduction in the length of the hind-limbs is carried
  to a still further degree, so that the proportions of the fore and
  hind limbs are almost normal. The genus agrees with _Dorcopsis_ in the
  direction of the hair on the neck, but the muzzle is only partially
  hairy, and the elongation of the penultimate premolar is less. These
  kangaroos are largely arboreal in their habits, but they descend to
  the ground to feed. Lastly, we have the banded wallaby, _Lagostrophus
  fasciatus_, of Western Australia, a small species characterized by its
  naked muzzle, the presence of long bristles on the hind-feet which
  conceal the claws, and also of dark transverse bands on the lower part
  of the back. The skull has a remarkably narrow and pointed muzzle and
  much inflated auditory bullae; while the two halves of the lower jaw
  are firmly welded together at their junction, thus effectually
  preventing the scissor-like action of the lower incisors distinctive
  of _Macropus_ and its immediate allies. As regards the teeth, canines
  are wanting, and the penultimate upper premolar is short, from before
  backwards, with a distinct ledge on the inner side.

  In the rat-kangaroos, or kangaroo-rats, as they are called in
  Australia, constituting the sub-family _Potoroinae_, the first upper
  incisor is narrow, curved, and much exceeds the others in length; the
  upper canines are persistent, flattened, blunt and slightly curved,
  and the first two premolars of both jaws have large, simple,
  compressed crowns, with a nearly straight or slightly concave free
  cutting-edge, and both outer and inner surfaces usually marked by a
  series of parallel, vertical grooves and ridges. Molars with quadrate
  crowns and a blunt conical cusp at each corner, the last notably
  smaller than the rest, sometimes rudimentary or absent. Forefeet
  narrow; the three middle toes considerably exceeding the first and
  fifth in length and their claws long, compressed and but slightly
  curved. Hind-feet as in _Macropus_. Tail long, and sometimes partially
  prehensile when it is used for carrying bundles of grass with which
  these animals build their nests. The group is confined to Australia
  and Tasmania, and all the species are relatively small.

  In the members of the typical genus _Potorous_ (formerly known as
  _Hypsiprymnus_) the head is long and slender, with the auditory bullae
  somewhat swollen; while the ridges on the first two premolars are few
  and perpendicular, and there are large vacuities on the palate. The
  tarsus is short and the muzzle naked. The genus includes _P.
  tridactylus_, _P. gilberti_ and _P. platyops_. In _Bettongia_, on the
  other hand, the head is shorter and wider, with smaller and more
  rounded ears, and more swollen auditory bullae. The ridges on the
  first two premolars are also more numerous and somewhat oblique (fig.
  4); the tarsus is long and the tail is prehensile. The species include
  _B. lesueuiri_, _B. gaimardi_ and _B. cuniculus_. The South Australian
  _Caloprymnus campestris_ represents a genus near akin to the last, but
  with the edge of the hairy border of the bare muzzle less emarginate
  in the middle line, still more swollen auditory bullae, very large and
  posterially expanded nasals and longer vacuities on the palate. The
  list is completed by _Aepyprymnus rufescens_, which differs from all
  the others by the hairy muzzle, and the absence of inflation in the
  auditory bullae and of vacuities in the palate.

  Perhaps, however, the most interesting member of the whole group is
  the tiny musk-kangaroo (_Hypsiprymnodon moschatus_) of north-east
  Australia, which alone represents the sub-family
  _Hypsiprymnodontinae_, characterized by the presence of an opposable
  first toe on the hind-foot and the outward inclination of the
  penultimate upper premolar, as well by the small and feeble claws. In
  all these features the musk-kangaroo connects the _Macropodidae_ with
  the _Phalangeridae_. The other teeth are like those of the
  rat-kangaroos.     (W. H. F.; R. L.*)



KANGAROO-RAT, a name applied in different parts of the world to two
widely different groups of mammals. In Australia it is used to denote
the small kangaroo-like marsupials technically known as _Potoroinae_,
which zoologists prefer to call rat-kangaroos (see MARSUPIALIA and
KANGAROO). In North America it is employed for certain small jumping
rat-like rodents nearly allied to the pocket-gophers and belonging to
the family _Geomyidae_. Kangaroo-rats in this latter series are
represented by three North American genera, of which _Dipodomys
phillipsi_, _Cricetodipus agilis_ and _Microdipodops megacephalus_ may
respectively be taken as examples. Resembling pocket-gophers in the
possession of cheek-pouches, kangaroo-rats, together with pocket-mice,
are distinguished by their elongated hind-limbs and tails, large eyes,
well-developed ears and general jerboa-like appearance and habits. The
upper incisor teeth are also relatively narrower, and there are
important differences in the skull. The cheek-teeth are rootless in
kangaroo-rats, but they develop roots in the pocket-mice. The former
inhabit open, sandy districts, where they burrow beneath rocks or
stones, and hop about like jerboas; their food consisting of grasses and
other plants.



KANGAVAR, a small district of Persia, situated between Hamadan and
Kermanshah, and, being held in fief by the family of a deceased court
official, forming a separate government. The district is very fertile
and contains 30 villages. Its revenues amount to about £500 per annum,
and its chief place is the large village of Kangavar, which has a
population of about 2500 and is 47 m. from Hamadan on the high road to
Kermanshah.



KANGRA, a town and district of British India, in the Jullundur division
of the Punjab. The town, sometimes called Nagarkot, is situated 2409 ft.
above the sea. Pop. (1901), 4746. The Katoch rajas had a stronghold
here, with a fort and rich temples. Mahmud of Ghazni took the fort in
1009 and from one of the temples carried off a vast treasure. In 1360
Kangra was again plundered, by Feroz Shah. The temple of Devi Bajreshri
was one of the oldest and wealthiest in northern India. It was
destroyed, together with the fort and the town, by an earthquake on the
4th of April 1905, when 1339 lives were lost in this place alone, and
about 20,000 elsewhere. In 1855 the headquarters of the district were
removed to the sanitarium of Dharmsala.

The district of Kangra extends from the Jullundur Doab far into the
southern ranges of the Himalaya. Besides some Rajput states, annexed
after the Sikh wars, it includes Lahul, Spiti and Kulu, which are
essentially Tibetan. The Beas is the only important river. Area, 9978
sq. m., of which Kangra proper has only 2725. Pop. (1901), 768,124;
average density 77 persons per sq. m., but with only one person per sq.
m. in Spiti. Tea cultivation was introduced into Kangra about 1850. The
Palampur fair, established by government with a view to fostering
commerce with central Asia, attracts a small concourse of Yarkandi
merchants. The Lahulis carry on an enterprising trade with Ladakh and
countries beyond the frontier, by means of pack sheep and goats. Rice,
tea, potatoes, opium, spices, wool and honey are the chief exports.

  See _Kangra District Gazetteer_ (Lahore, 1906).



KANISHKA, king of Kabul, Kashmir, and north-western India in the 2nd
century A.D., was a Tatar of the Kushan tribe, one of the five into
which the Yue-chi Tatars were divided. His dominions extended as far
down into India as Madura, and probably as far to the north-west as
Bokhara. Private inscriptions found in the Punjab and Sind, in the
Yusufzai district and at Madura, and referred by European scholars to
his reign, are dated in the years five to twenty-eight of an unknown
era. It is the references by Chinese historians to the Yue-chi tribes
before their incursion into India, together with conclusions drawn from
the history of art and literature in his reign, that render the date
given the most probable. Kanishka's predecessors on the throne were
Pagans; but shortly after his accession he professed himself, probably
from political reasons, a Buddhist. He spent vast sums in the
construction of Buddhist monuments; and under his auspices the fourth
Buddhist council, the council of Jalandhara (Jullunder) was convened
under the presidency of Vasumitra. At this council three treatises,
commentaries on the Canon, one on each of the three baskets into which
it is divided, were composed. King Kanishka had these treatises, when
completed and revised by Asvaghosha, written out on copper plates, and
enclosed the latter in stone boxes, which he placed in a memorial mound.
For some centuries afterwards these works survived in India; but they
exist now only in Chinese translations or adaptations. We are not told
in what language they were written. It was probably Sanskrit (not Pali,
the language of the Canon)--just as in Europe we have works of
exegetical commentary composed, in Latin, on the basis of the Testament
and Septuagint in Greek. This change of the language used as a medium of
literary intercourse was partly the cause, partly the effect, of a
complete revulsion in the intellectual life of India. The reign of
Kanishka was certainly the turning-point in this remarkable change. It
has been suggested with great plausibility, that the wide extent of his
domains facilitated the incursion into India of Western modes of
thought; and thus led in the first place to the corruption and gradual
decline of Buddhism, and secondly to the gradual rise of Hinduism. Only
the publication of the books written at the time will enable us to say
whether this hypothesis--for at present it is nothing more--is really a
sufficient explanation of the very important results of his reign. In
any case it was a migration of nomad hordes in Central Asia that led, in
Europe, to the downfall of the Roman civilization; and then, through the
conversion of the invaders, to medieval conditions of life and thought.
It was the very same migration of nomad hordes that led, in India, to
the downfall of the Buddhist civilization; and subsequently, after the
conversion of the Saka and Tatar invaders, to medieval Hinduism. As
India was nearer to the starting-point of the migration, its results
were felt there somewhat sooner.

  AUTHORITIES.--Vincent A. Smith, _The Early History of India_ (Oxford,
  1908); "The Kushan Period of Indian History," in _J.R.A.S._ (1903); M.
  Boyer, "L'Époque de Kaniska," in _Journal Asiatique_ (1900); T.
  Watters, _On Yuan Chwang_ (London, 1904, 1905); J. Takakusu, "The
  Sarvastivadin Abhidharma Books," in _Jour. of the Pali Text Soc._
  (1905), esp. pp. 118-130; Rhys Davids, _Buddhist India_ (London,
  1903), ch. xvi., "Kanishka."     (T. W. R. D.)



KANKAKEE, a city and the county-seat of Kankakee county, Illinois,
U.S.A., in the N.E. part of the state, on the Kankakee river, 56 m S. of
Chicago. Pop. (1900), 13,595, of whom 3346 were foreign-born; (1910
census), 13,986. Kankakee is served by the Cleveland, Cincinnati,
Chicago & St Louis, the Illinois Central, and the Chicago, Indiana &
Southern (controlled by the New York Central) railways. It is the seat
of the Eastern Hospital for the Insane (1879) a state institution; St
Joseph's Seminary (Roman Catholic) and a Conservatory of Music. At
Bourbonnais Grove, 3 m. N. of Kankakee is St Viateur's College (founded
1868), a well-known Roman Catholic divinity school, and Notre Dame
Academy, another Catholic institution. The city has a public library and
four large parks; in Court House Square there is a monument erected by
popular subscription in honour of the soldiers from Kankakee county who
died in the Civil War. There are rock quarries here, and the city
manufactures sewing machines, musical instruments, especially pianos,
foundry and machine shop products, agricultural implements and
furniture. The total value of the factory product in 1905 was
$2,089,143, an increase of 222% since 1900. Kankakee is also a shipping
point for agricultural products. It was first settled in 1832; was
platted as the town of Bourbonnais in 1853, when Kankakee county was
first organized; was chartered as the city of Kankakee in 1855, and was
re-chartered in 1892.



KANKER, a feudatory state of India, within the Central Provinces; area,
1429 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 103,536; estimated revenue, £10,000. It is a
hilly tract, containing the headwaters of the Mahanadi. The extensive
forests have recently been made profitable by the opening of a branch
railway. The residence of the raja, who is of an old Rajput family
though ruling over Gonds, is at Kanker (pop. 3906).



KANO, one of the most important provinces of the British protectorate of
Northern Nigeria. It includes the ancient emirates of Kano, Katsena,
Daura and Kazaure, and covers an area of about 31,000 sq. m. The
sub-province of Katagum was incorporated with Kano in 1905, and is
included within this area. The population of the double province is
estimated at about 2,250,000.

Kano was one of the original seven Hausa states. Written annals carry
the record of its kings back to about A.D. 900. Legendary history goes
back much further. It was conquered by the Songhoi (Songhay) in the
early part of the 16th century, and more than once appears to have made
at least partial submission to Bornu. Mahommedanism was introduced at a
period which, according to the system adopted for the dating of the
annals, must be placed either in the 12th or the 14th century. The Hausa
system of government and taxation was adopted by the Fula when in the
early part of the 19th century that Mahommedan people overran the Hausa
states. It has been erroneously stated that the Fula imposed
Mahommedanism on the Hausa states. The fact that they adopted the
existing system of government and taxation, which are based upon Koranic
law, would in itself be sufficient proof that this was not the case. But
the annals of Kano distinctly record the introduction and describe the
development of Mahommedanism at an early period of local history.

The capital is the city of Kano, situated in 12° N. and 8° 20´ E., 220
m. S.S.E. of Sokoto and 500 N.E. of Lagos. It is built on an open plain,
and is encompassed by a wall 11 m. in perimeter and pierced by thirteen
gates. The wall is from 30 to 50 ft. high and about 40 ft. thick at the
base. Round the wall is a deep double ditch, a dwarf wall running along
its centre. The gates are simply cow-hide, but are set in massive
entrance towers. Only about a third of the area (7¼ sq. m.) enclosed by
the walls is inhabited nor was the whole space ever occupied by
buildings, the intention of the founders of the city being to wall in
ground sufficient to grow food for the inhabitants during a siege. The
arable land within the city is mainly on the west and north; only to the
south-east do the houses come right to the walls. Within the walls are
two steep hills, one, Dala, about 120 ft. high being the most ancient
quarter of the town. Dala lies north-west. To its east is a great pond,
the Jakara, 1½ m. long, and by its north-east shore is the market of the
Arab merchants. Here also was the slave market. The palace of the emir,
in front of which is a large open space, is in the Fula quarter in the
south-east of the city. The palace consists of a number of buildings
covering 33 acres and surrounded by a wall 20 to 30 ft. high. The
architecture of the city is not without merit. The houses are built of
clay with (generally) flat roofs impervious to fire. Traces of Moorish
influence are evident and the horse-shoe arch is common. The audience
hall of the emir's palace--25 ft. sq. and 18 ft. high--is decorated with
designs in black, white, green and yellow, the yellow designs (formed of
micaceous sand) glistening like gold. The dome-shaped roof is supported
by twenty arches.

The city is divided into fourteen quarters, each presided over by a
headman, and inhabited by separate sections of the community. It is
probably the greatest commercial city in the central Sudan. Other towns,
like Zaria, may do as much trade, but Kano is pre-eminent as a
manufacturing centre. The chief industry is the weaving of cloth from
native grown cotton. Leather goods of all kinds are also manufactured,
and from Kano come most of the "morocco leather" goods on the European
markets. Dyeing is another large trade, as is the preparation of indigo.
Of traders there are four distinct classes. They are: (1) Arabs from
Tripoli, who export ostrich feathers, skins and ivory, and bring in
burnouses, scents, sweets, tea, sugar, &c.; (2) Salaga merchants who
import kola nuts from the hinterland of the Guinea Coast, taking in
exchange cloth and live stock and leather and other goods; (3) the
Asbenawa traders, who come from the oases of Asben or Air with camels
laden with salt and "potash" (i.e. sodium carbonates), and with herds of
cattle and sheep, receiving in return cotton and hardware and kolas; (4)
the Hausa merchants. This last class trades with the other three and
despatches caravans to Illorin and other places, where the Kano goods,
the "potash" and other merchandise are exchanged for kolas and European
goods. The "potash" finds a ready sale among the Yorubas, being largely
used for cooking purposes. In Kano itself is a great market for
livestock: camels, horses, oxen, asses and goats being on sale.

Besides Hausa, who represent the indigenous population, there are large
colonies of Kanuri (from Bornu) and Nupians in Kano. The Fula form the
aristocratic class. The population is said to amount to 100,000. About a
mile and a half east of Kano is Nassarawa, formerly the emir's suburban
residence, but since 1902 the British Residency and barracks.

  The city of Kano appears on the map of the Arab geographer, Idrisi,
  A.D. 1145, and the hill of Dala is mentioned in the earliest records
  as the original site of Kano. Barth, however, concluded that the
  present town does not date earlier than the second half of the 16th
  century, and that before the rise of the Fula power (c. 1800) scarcely
  any great Arab merchant ever visited Kano. The present town may be the
  successor of an older town occupying a position of similar
  pre-eminence. Kano submitted to the Fula without much resistance, and
  under them in the first half of the 19th century flourished greatly.
  It was visited by Hugh Clapperton, an English officer, in 1824, and in
  it Barth lived some time in 1851 and again in 1854. Barth's
  descriptions of the wealth and importance of the city attracted great
  attention in Europe, and Kano was subsequently visited by several
  travellers, missionaries, and students of Hausa, but none was
  permitted to live permanently in the city. In the closing years of the
  century, Kano became the centre of resistance to British influence,
  and the emir, Alieu, was the most inveterate of Fula slave raiders. In
  February 1903 the city was captured by a British force under Colonel
  T. L. N. Morland, and a new emir, Abbas, a brother of Alieu,
  installed.

  After the occupation by the British in 1903 the province was organized
  for administration on the same system as that adopted throughout
  northern Nigeria. The emir on his installation takes an oath of
  allegiance to the British Crown, and accepts the position of a chief
  of the first class under British rule. A resident is placed at his
  court, and assistant residents have their headquarters in the
  administrative districts of the province. British courts of justice
  are established side by side with the native courts throughout the
  province. Taxation is assessed under British supervision and paid into
  the native treasury. A fixed portion is paid by the emir to the
  British government. The emir is not allowed to maintain a standing
  army, and the city of Kano is the headquarters of the British
  garrison. The conditions of appointment of the emirs are fully laid
  down in the terms accepted at Sokoto on the close of the Sokoto-Kano
  campaign of 1903. Since the introduction of British rule there has
  been no serious trouble in the province. The emir Abbas worked loyally
  with the British and proved himself a ruler of remarkable ability and
  intelligence. He was indefatigable in dispensing justice, and himself
  presided over a native court in which he disposed of from fifty to a
  hundred cases a month. He also took an active interest in the reform
  and reorganization of the system of taxation, and in the opening of
  the country to trade. He further showed himself helpful in arranging
  difficulties which at times arose in connexion with the lesser chiefs
  of his province.

  The province of Kano is generally fertile. For a radius of 30 m. round
  the capital the country is closely cultivated and densely populated,
  with some 40 walled towns and with villages and hamlets hardly half a
  mile apart. Kano district proper contains 170 walled towns and about
  450 villages. There are many streams, but water is chiefly obtained
  from wells 15 to 40 ft. deep. The principal crops are African grains,
  wheat, onions, cotton, tobacco, indigo, with sugar-cane, cassava, &c.
  The population is chiefly agricultural, but also commercial and
  industrial. The chief industries are weaving, leather-making, dyeing
  and working in iron and pottery. Cattle are abundant. (See NIGERIA:
  _History_; and SOKOTO.)

  Consult the _Travels_ of Heinrich Barth (new ed., London, 1890);
  _Hausaland_, by C. H. Robinson (London, 1896); Northern Nigeria, by
  Sir F. D. Lugard, in vol. xxii. _Geographical Journal_ (London, 1904);
  _A Tropical Dependency_, by Lady Lugard (London, 1905); the Colonial
  Office _Reports_ on Northern Nigeria from 1902 onward, and other works
  cited under NIGERIA.     (F. L. L.)



KANSAS (known as the "Sunflower State"), the central commonwealth of the
United States of America, lying between 37° and 40° N. lat. and between
94° 38´ and 102° 1´ 34´´ W. long. (i.e. 25° W. long, from Washington).
It is bounded on the N. by Nebraska, on the E. by Missouri, on the S. by
Oklahoma, and on the W. by Colorado. The state is nearly rectangular in
shape, with a breadth of about 210 m. from N. to S. and a length of
about 410 m. from E. to W. It contains an area of 82,158 sq. m.
(including 384 sq. m. of water surface).

_Physiography._--Three physiographic regions may be distinguished within
the state--the first, a small portion of the Ozark uplift in the extreme
south-east corner; the second, the Prairie Plains, covering
approximately the east third of the state; the third, the Great Plains,
covering the remaining area. Between the latter two there is only the
most gradual transition. The entire state is indeed practically an
undulating plain, gently sloping from west to east at an average of
about 7 ft. per mile. There is also an inclination in the eastern half
from north to south, as indicated by the course of the rivers, most of
which flow south-easterly (the Kansas, with its general easterly course,
is the principal exception), the north-west corner being the highest
portion of the state. The lowest point in the state in its south-east
part, in Montgomery county, is 725 ft. above sea level. The average
elevation of the east boundary is about 850 ft., while contour lines of
3500-3900 ft. run near the west border. Somewhat more than half the
total area is below 2000 ft. The gently rolling prairie surface is
diversified by an endless succession of broad plains, isolated hills and
ridges, and moderate valleys. In places there are terraced uplands, and
in others the undulating plain is cut by erosion into low escarpments.
The bluffs on the Missouri are in places 200 ft. high, and the valley of
the Cimarron, in the south-west, has deep cuts, almost gorges. The west
central portion has considerable irregularities of contour, and the
north-west is distinctively hilly. In the south-west, below the Arkansas
river, is an area of sandhills, and the Ozark Plateau region, as above
stated, extends into the south-east corner, though not there much
elevated. The great central valley is traversed by the Kansas (or Kaw)
river, which, inclusive of the Smoky Hill Branch, extends the entire
length of the state, with lateral valleys on the north. Another broad
valley is formed in the south half of the state by the Arkansas river,
with lateral valleys on the north and south. The south-east portion
contains the important Neosho and smaller valleys. In the extreme
south-west is the valley of the Cimarron, and along the south boundary
is a network of the south tributaries of the Arkansas. Numerous small
affluents of the Missouri enrich and diversify the north-east quarter.
The streams of Kansas are usually fed by perennial springs, and, as a
rule, the east and middle portions of the state are well watered. Most
of the streams maintain a good flow of water in the driest seasons, and
in case of heavy rains many of them "underflow" the adjacent bottom
lands, saturating the permeable substratum of the country with the
surplus water, which in time drains out and feeds the subsiding streams.
This feature is particularly true of the Saline, Solomon and Smoky Hill
rivers. The west part is more elevated and water is less abundant.

[Illustration: Map of Kansas.]

  _Climate._--The climate of Kansas is exceptionally salubrious.
  Extremes of heat and cold occur, but as a rule the winters are dry and
  mild, while the summer heats are tempered by the perpetual prairie
  breezes, and the summer nights are usually cool and refreshing. The
  average annual temperature of the state for seventeen years preceding
  1903 was 54.3° F., the warmest mean being 56.0°, the coldest 52.6°.
  The extreme variation of yearly means throughout the east, west and
  middle sections during the same period was very slight, 51.6° to
  56.6°, and the greatest variation for any one section was 3.7°. The
  absolute extremes were 116° and -34°. The dryness of the air tempers
  exceedingly to the senses the cold of winter and the heat of summer.
  The temperature over the state is much more uniform than is the
  precipitation, which diminishes somewhat regularly westward. In the
  above period of seventeen years the yearly means in the west section
  varied from 11.93 to 29.21 in. (av. 19.21), in the middle from 18.58
  to 34.30 (av. 26.68), in the east from 26.00 to 45.71 (av. 34.78); the
  mean for the state ranging from 20.12 to 35.50 (av. 27.12).[1] The
  precipitation in the west is not sufficient for confident agriculture
  in any series of years, since agriculture is practically dependent
  upon the mean fall; a fact that has been and is of profound importance
  in the history of the state. The line of 20 in. fall (about the limit
  of certain agriculture) approximately bisects the state in dry years.
  The precipitation is very largely in the growing season--at Dodge the
  fall between April and October is 78% of that for the year. Freshets
  and droughts at times work havoc. The former made notable 1844 and
  1858; and the latter 1860, 1874 and 1894. Tornadoes are also a not
  infrequent infliction, least common in the west. The years 1871, 1879,
  1881 and 1892 were made memorable by particularly severe storms. There
  are 150 to 175 "growing days" for crops between the frosts of spring
  and autumn, and eight in ten days are bright with sunshine--half of
  them without a cloud. Winds are prevailingly from the south (in the
  winter often from the north-west).

  _Fauna and Flora._--The fauna and flora of the state are those which
  are characteristic of the plain region generally of which Kansas is a
  part. The state lies partly in the humid, or Carolinian, and partly in
  the arid, or Upper Sonoran, area of the Upper Austral life-zone; 100°
  W. long. is approximately the dividing line between these areas. The
  bison and elk have disappeared. A very great variety of birds is found
  within the state, either as residents or as visitants from the
  adjoining avifaunal regions--mountain, plain, northern and southern.
  In 1886 Colonel N. S. Goss compiled a list of 335 species, of which
  175 were known to breed in the state. The wild turkey, once abundant,
  was near extermination in 1886, and prairie chickens (pinnated grouse)
  have also greatly diminished in number. The jack-rabbit is
  characteristic of the prairie. Locusts ("grasshoppers" in local usage)
  have worked incalculable damage, notably in 1854, 1866, and above all
  in 1874-1875. In the last two cases their ravages extended over a
  great portion of the state.

  Kansas has no forests. Along the streams there is commonly a fringe of
  timber, which in the east is fairly heavy. There is an increasing
  scarcity westward. With the advancing settlement of the state thin
  wind-break rows become a feature of the prairies. The lessened ravages
  of prairie fires have facilitated artificial afforesting, and many
  cities, in particular, are abundantly and beautifully shaded. Oaks,
  elms, hickory, honey-locusts, white ash, sycamore and willows, the
  rapid growing but miserable box-elder and cottonwood, are the most
  common trees. Black walnut was common in the river valleys in
  Territorial days. The planting of tree reserves by the United States
  government in the arid counties of this state promises great success.
  A National Forest of 302,387 acres in Finney, Kearney, Hamilton and
  Grant counties was set aside in May 1908. Buffalo and bunch, and other
  short native prairie grasses, very nutritious ranging food but
  unavailable as hay, once covered the plains and pastured immense herds
  of buffalo and other animals, but with increasing settlement they have
  given way generally to exotic bladed species, valuable alike for
  pasture and for hay, except in the western regions. The hardy and
  ubiquitous sunflower has been chosen as the state flower or floral
  emblem. Cactus and yucca occur in the west.

  The soil of the upland prairies is generally a deep rich clay loam of
  a dark colour. The bottom lands near the streams are a black sandy
  loam; and the intermediate lands, or "second bottoms," show a rich and
  deep black loam, containing very little sand. These soils are all
  easily cultivated, free from stones, and exceedingly productive. There
  are exceptional spots on the upland prairies composed of stiff clay,
  not as easily cultivated, but very productive when properly managed
  and enriched. The south-west section is distinctively sandy.

  _Agriculture._--The United States Census of 1900 shows that of the
  farming area of the state in 1900 (41,662,970 acres, 79.6% of the
  total area), 60.1% was "improved." The value of all farm property was
  $864,100,286--of which land and improvements (including buildings),
  livestock and implements and machinery represented respectively 74.5,
  22.1 and 3.4%. Almost nine-tenths of all farms derived their principal
  income from livestock or hay and grain, these two sources being about
  equally important. Of the total value of farm products in 1899
  ($209,895,542), crops represented 53.7, animal products 45.9 and
  forest products only 0.4%. In 1899 the wheat crop was 38,778,450
  bushels, being less than that of Minnesota, North Dakota, Ohio or
  South Dakota. According to the _Year Book_ of the United States
  Department of Agriculture, the crop in 1906 was 81,830,611 bushels,
  almost one-ninth of the crop of the entire country for that year, and
  much more than the crop of any other state. In 1909 it was 87,203,000
  bushels (less than the crops of either Minnesota or North Dakota).
  Winter wheat constitutes almost the entire output. The hard varieties
  rank in the flour market with the finest Minnesota wheat. The wheat
  belt crosses the state from north to south in its central third.
  Greater even than wheat in absolute output, though not relatively to
  the output of other states, is Indian corn. In 1906 the crop was
  195,075,000 bushels, and in 1909 it was 154,225,000. The crop is very
  variable, according to seasons and prospective markets; ranging e.g.
  in the decade 1892-1901 from 42.6 (1901) to 225.1 (1899) million
  bushels. The Indian corn belt is mainly in the eastern third of the
  state. In the five years 1896-1900 the combined value of the crops of
  Indian corn and wheat exceeded the value of the same crops in any
  other state of the Union (Illinois being a close second). In the
  western third irrigation has been tried, in the earlier years
  unsuccessfully; in all Kansas, in 1899, there were 23,620 acres
  irrigated, of which 8939 were in Finney and 7071 in Kearney county. In
  this western third the rainfall is insufficient for Indian corn; but
  Kafir corn, an exceptional drought-resisting cereal, has made
  extraordinary progress in this region, and indeed generally over the
  state, since 1893, its acreage increasing 416.1% in the decade
  1895-1904. With the saccharine variety of sorghum, which increased
  greatly in the same period, this grain is replacing Indian corn. Oats
  are the third great cereal crop, the yield being 24,780,000 bushels in
  1906 and 27,185,000 in 1909. Alfalfa showed an increased acreage in
  1895-1904 of 310.8%; it is valuable in the west for the same qualities
  as the Kafir corn. The hay crop in 1909 was 2,652,000 tons. Alfalfa,
  the Japanese soy bean and the wheat fields--which furnish the finest
  of pasture in the early spring and ordinarily well into the winter
  season--are the props of a prosperous dairy industry. In the early
  'eighties the organization of creameries and cheese factories began in
  the county-seats; they depended upon gathered cream. About 1889
  separators and the whole-milk system were introduced, and about the
  same time began the service of refrigerator cars on the railways; the
  hand separator became common about 1901. Western Kansas is the dairy
  country. Its great ranges, whose insufficient rainfall makes
  impossible the certain, and therefore the profitable, cultivation of
  cereals, or other settled agriculture, lend themselves with profit to
  stock and dairy farming. Dairy products increased 60.6% in value from
  1895 to 1904, amounting in the latter year to $16,420,095. This value
  was almost equalled by that of eggs and poultry ($14,050,727), which
  increased 79.7% in the same decade. The livestock interest is
  stimulated by the enormous demand for beef-cattle at Kansas City.

  Sugar-beet culture was tried in the years following 1890 with
  indifferent success until the introduction of bounties in 1901. It has
  extended along the Arkansas valley from the Colorado beet district and
  into the north-western counties. There is a large beet-sugar factory
  at Garden City, Finney county. Experiments have been made
  unsuccessfully in sugar cane (1885) and silk culture (1885 seq.). The
  bright climate and pure atmosphere are admirably adapted to the growth
  of the apple, pear, peach, plum, grape and cherry. The smaller fruits
  also, with scarce an exception, flourish finely. The fruit product of
  Kansas ($2,431,773 in 1899) is not, however, as yet particularly
  notable when compared with that of various other states.

  According to the estimates of the state department of agriculture, of
  the total value of all agricultural products in the twenty years
  1885-1904 ($3,078,999,855), Indian corn and wheat together represented
  more than two-fifths (821.3 and 518.1 million dollars respectively),
  and livestock products nearly one-third (1024.9 millions). The
  aggregate value of all agricultural products in 1903-1904 was
  $754,954,208.

  _Minerals._--In the east portion of the state are immense beds of
  bituminous coal, often at shallow depths or cropping out on the
  surface. In 1907 more than 95% of the coal came from Crawford,
  Cherokee, Leavenworth and Osage counties, and about 91.5% from the
  first two. The total value of the production of coal in 1905
  (6,423,979 tons) was $9,350,542, and in 1908 (6,245,508 tons)
  $9,292,222. In the central portion, which belongs to the Triassic
  formation, magnesian limestone, ferruginous sandstone and gypsum are
  representative rocks. Gypsum (in beautiful crystalline form) is found
  in an almost continuous bed across the state running north-east and
  south-west with three principal areas, the northern in Marshall
  county, the central in Dickinson and Saline counties, and the southern
  (the heaviest, being 3 to 40 ft. thick) in Barber and Comanche
  counties. The product in 1908 was valued at $281,339. Magnesian
  limestone, or dolomite, is especially plentiful along the Blue,
  Republican and Neosho rivers and their tributaries. This beautiful
  stone, resembling white, grey and cream-coloured marble, is
  exceedingly useful for building purposes. It crops out in the bluffs
  in endless quantities, and is easily worked. The stone resources of
  the state are largely, but by no means exclusively, confined to the
  central part. There are marbles in Osage and other counties, shell
  marble in Montgomery county, white limestone in Chase county, a
  valuable bandera flagstone and hydraulic cement rock near Fort Scott,
  &c. The limestones produced in 1908 were valued at $403,176 and the
  sandstones at $67,950. In the central region salt is produced in
  immense quantities, within a great north to south belt about
  Hutchinson. The beds, which are exploited by the brine method at
  Hutchinson, at Ellsworth (Ellsworth county), at Anthony (Harper
  county) and at Sterling (Rice county), lie from 400 to 1200 ft.
  underground, and are in places as much as 350 ft. thick and 99% pure.
  At Kanopolis in Ellsworth county, at Lyons in Rice county and at
  Kingman, Kingman county, the salt is mined and sold as rock-salt. In
  the south-west salt is found in beds and dry incrustations, varying in
  thickness from a few inches to 2 ft. The total product from 1880-1899
  was valued at $5,538,855; the product of 1908 (when Kansas ranked
  fourth among the states producing salt) was valued at $882,984. The
  development has been mainly since 1887 at Hutchinson and since about
  1890 in the rock-salt mines. In the west portion of the state, which
  belongs to the Cretaceous formation, chalks and a species of native
  quicklime are very prominent in the river bluffs. The white and
  cream-coloured chalks are much used for building purposes, but the
  blue is usually too soft for exposure to the weather. The quicklime as
  quarried from the bluffs slakes perfectly, and with sand makes a
  fairly good mortar, without calcination or other previous preparation.
  The lignite found near the Colorado line makes a valuable domestic
  fuel.

  Natural gas, oil, zinc and lead have been discovered in south-east
  Kansas and have given that section an extraordinary growth and
  prosperity. Indications of gas were found about the time of the Civil
  War, but only in the early 'seventies were they recognized as
  unmistakable, and they were not successfully developed until the
  'eighties. Iola, in Allen county, is the centre of the field, and the
  gas yields heat, light, and a cheap fuel for smelters, cement-works
  and other manufacturing plants throughout a large region. The pools
  lie from 400 to 950 ft. below the surface; some wells have been
  drilled 1500 ft. deep. The value of the natural gas produced in the
  state was $15,873 in 1889, $2,261,836 in 1905 and $7,691,587 in 1908,
  when there were 1917 producing wells, and Kansas ranked fourth of the
  states of the United States in the value of the natural gas product,
  being surpassed by Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Ohio. Petroleum was
  discovered about 1865 in Miami and Bourbon counties, and about 1892 at
  Neodesha, Wilson county. There was only slight commercial exploitation
  before 1900. The production increased from 74,714 barrels in that year
  to 4,250,779 in 1904; in 1908 it was 1,801,781 barrels. Chanute has
  been the most active centre of production. The field was prospected
  here in the 'nineties, but developed only after 1900. In 1877 an
  immense deposit of lead was discovered on land now within the limits
  of Galena. Rich zinc blendes were at first thrown away among the
  by-products of the lead mines. After the discovery of their true
  nature there was a slow development, and at the end of the century a
  notable boom in the fields. From 1876 to 1897 the total value of the
  output of the Galena field was between $25,000,000 and $26,000,000;
  but at present Kansas is far more important as a smelter than as a
  miner of zinc and lead, and in 1906 58% of all spelter produced in the
  United States came from smelters in Kansas. In 1908 the mines' output
  was 2293 tons of lead valued at $192,612 and 8628 tons of zinc valued
  at $811,032. Pottery, fire, ochre and brick clays are abundant, the
  first two mainly in the eastern part of the state. Coffeyville has
  large vitrified brick interests. In 1908 the total value of all the
  mineral products (incompletely reported) of Kansas was $26,162,213.

  _Industry and Trade._--Manufactures are not characteristic of the
  state. The rank of the state in manufactures in 1900 was sixteenth and
  in farm products seventh in the Union. The value of the manufactured
  product in 1900, according to the Twelfth United States Census, was
  $172,129,398, an increase of 56.2% over the output of 1890; of this
  total value, the part representing establishments under the "factory
  system" was $154,008,544,[2] and in 1905 the value of the factory
  product was $198,244,992, an increase of 28.7%. Kansas City, Topeka,
  Wichita, Leavenworth and Atchison were the only cities which had
  manufactures whose gross product was valued in 1905 at more than
  $3,000,000 each; their joint product was valued at $126,515,804, and
  that of Kansas City alone was $96,473,050, almost half the output of
  the state. The most important manufacturing industry, both in 1900 and
  in 1905, was slaughtering and meat-packing--for which Kansas City is
  the second centre of the country--with a product for the state valued
  at $77,411,883 in 1900, and $96,375,639 in 1905; in both these years
  the value of the product of Kansas was exceeded only by that of
  Illinois. The flour and grist mill industry ranked next, with a
  product valued at $21,328,747 in 1900 and nearly twice that amount,
  $42,034,019, in 1905. In 1900 a quarter of the wheat crop was handled
  by the mills of the state. Lesser manufacturing interests are railway
  shop construction (value in 1905, $11,521,144); zinc smelting and
  refining (value in 1905, $10,999,468); the manufacture of cheese,
  butter and condensed milk (value in 1905, $3,946,349); and of foundry
  and machine shop products (value in 1905, $3,756,825).

  _Communications._--Kansas is excellently provided with railways, with
  an aggregate length in January 1909 of 8914.77 m. (in 1870, 1880, 1890
  respectively, 1,501, 3,244 and 8,710 m.). The most important systems
  are the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fé, the Missouri Pacific, the
  Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Union Pacific, the Missouri,
  Kansas & Texas, the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, and the St Louis &
  San Francisco systems. The first train entered Kansas on the Union
  Pacific in 1860. During the following decade the lines of the Missouri
  Pacific, the Missouri, Kansas & Texas and the Santa Fé were well under
  construction. These roads give excellent connexions with Chicago, the
  Gulf and the Pacific. Kansas has an eastern river front of 150 m. on
  the Missouri, which is navigable for steamboats of good size. The
  internal rivers of the state are not utilized for commercial purposes.

_Population._--In population Kansas ranked in 1900 and 1910 (1,690,949)
twenty-second in the Union. The decennial increases of population from
1860 to 1900 were 239.9, 173.4, 43.3 and 3.0%, the population in 1900
being 1,470,495, or 18 to the sq. m.[3] Of this number 22.5% lived in
cities of 2500 or more inhabitants. Nine cities numbered more than
10,000 inhabitants: Kansas City (51,418), Topeka--the state capital
(33,608), Wichita (24,671), Leavenworth (20,735), Atchison (15,722),
Lawrence--the seat of the state university (10,862), Fort Scott
(10,322), Galena (10,155) and Pittsburg (10,112). The life of all of
these save the last two goes back to Territorial days; but the
importance of Fort Scott, like that of Galena and Pittsburg, is due to
the development of the mineral counties in the south-east. Other cities
of above 5000 inhabitants were Hutchinson (9379), Emporia (8223),
Parsons (7682), Ottawa (6934), Newton (6208), Arkansas City (6140),
Salina (6074), Argentine (5878) and Iola (5791). The number of negroes
(3.5%) is somewhat large for a northern and western state. This is
largely owing to an exodus of coloured people from the South in
1878-1880, at a time when their condition was an unusually hard one: an
exodus turned mainly toward Kansas. The population is very largely
American-born (91.4% in 1900; 47.1% being natives of Kansas). Germans,
British, Scandinavians and Russians constitute the bulk of the
foreign-born. The west third of the state is comparatively scantily
populated, owing to its aridity. In the 'seventies, after a succession
of wet seasons, and again in the 'eighties, settlement was pushed far
westward, beyond the limits of safe agriculture, but hundreds of
settlers--and indeed many entire communities--were literally starved out
by the recurrence of droughts. Irrigation has made a surer future for
limited areas, however, and the introduction of drought-resisting crops
and the substitution of dairy and livestock interests in the place of
agriculture have brightened the outlook in the western counties, whose
population increased rapidly after 1900. The early 'eighties were made
notable by a tremendous "boom" in real estate, rural and urban,
throughout the commonwealth. As regards the distribution of religious
sects, in 1906 there were 458,190 communicants of all denominations, and
of this number 121,208 were Methodists (108,097 being Methodist
Episcopalians of the Northern Church), 93,195 were Roman Catholics,
46,299 were Baptists (34,975 being members of the Northern Baptist
Convention and 10,011 of the National (Colored) Baptist Convention),
40,765 were Presbyterians (33,465 being members of the Northern Church)
and 40,356 were Disciples of Christ. The German-Russian Mennonites,
whose immigration became notable about 1874, furnished at first many
examples of communal economy, but these were later abandoned. In 1906
the total number of Mennonites was 7445, of whom 3581 were members of
the General Conference of Mennonites of North America, 1825 belonged to
the Schellenberger Brüder-gemeinde, and the others were distributed
among seven other sects.

_Government._--The constitution is that adopted at Wyandotte on the 29th
of July 1859 and ratified by the people on the 4th of October 1859; it
came into operation on the 29th of January 1861, and was amended in
1861, 1864, 1867, 1873, 1875, 1876, 1880, 1888, 1900, 1902, 1904 and
1906. An amendment may be proposed by either branch of the legislature,
and, if approved by two-thirds of the members elected to each house as
well as by a majority of the electors voting on it at a general
election, it is adopted. A constitutional convention to revise or amend
the constitution may be called in the same manner. Universal manhood
suffrage is the rule, but women may vote in school and municipal
elections, Kansas being the first state to grant women municipal
suffrage as well as the right to hold municipal offices (1887). General
elections to state, county and township offices are biennial, in
even-numbered years, and take place on the first Tuesday after the first
Monday in November. The state executive officers are a governor,
lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, auditor, treasurer,
attorney-general and superintendent of public instruction, all elected
for a term of two years. The governor appoints, with the approval of the
Senate, a board of public works and some other administrative boards,
and he may veto any bill from the legislature, which cannot thereafter
become a law unless again approved by two-thirds of the members elected
to each house.

The legislature, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives,
meets in regular session at Topeka, the capital, on the second Tuesday
of January in odd-numbered years. The membership of the senate is
limited to 40, and that of the house of representatives to 125. Senators
are elected for four years and representatives for two years. In regular
sessions not exceeding fifty days and in special sessions not exceeding
thirty days the members of both houses are paid three dollars a day
besides an allowance for travelling expenses, but they receive no
compensation for the extra time of longer sessions. In 1908 a direct
primary law was passed applicable to all nominations except for
presidential electors, school district officers and officers in cities
of less than 5000 inhabitants; like public elections the primaries are
made a public charge; nomination is by petition signed by a certain
percentage (for state office, at least 1%; for district office, at least
2%; for sub-district or county office, at least 3%) of the party vote;
the direct nominating system applies to the candidates for the United
States Senate, the nominee chosen by the direct primaries of each party
being the nominee of the party.

  The judicial power is vested in one supreme court, thirty-eight
  district courts, one probate court for each county, and two or more
  justices of the peace for each township. All justices are elected:
  those of the supreme court, seven in number, for six years, two or
  three every two years; those of the district courts for four years;
  and those of the probate courts and the justices of the peace for two
  years. The more important affairs of each county are managed by a
  board of commissioners, who are elected by districts for four years,
  but each county elects also a clerk, a treasurer, a probate judge, a
  register of deeds, a sheriff, a coroner, an attorney, a clerk of the
  district court, and a surveyor, and the district court for the county
  appoints a county auditor. The township officers, all elected for two
  years, are a trustee, a clerk, a treasurer, two or more justices of
  the peace, two constables and one road overseer for each road
  district. Cities are governed under a general law, but by this law
  they are divided into three classes according to size, and the
  government is different for each class. Those having a population of
  more than 15,000 constitute the first class, those having a population
  of more than 2000 but not more than 15,000 constitute the second
  class, and those having a population not exceeding 2000 constitute the
  third class. Municipal elections are far removed from those of the
  state, being held in odd-numbered years in April. In cities of the
  first class the state law requires the election of a mayor, city
  clerk, city treasurer, police judge and councilmen; in those of the
  second class it requires the election of a mayor, police judge, city
  treasurer, councilmen, board of education, justices of the peace and
  constables; and in those of the third class it requires the election
  of a mayor, police judge and councilmen. Several other offices
  provided for in each class are filled by the appointment of the mayor.

  The principal grounds for a divorce in Kansas are adultery, extreme
  cruelty, habitual drunkenness, abandonment for one year, gross neglect
  of duty, and imprisonment in the penitentiary as a felon subsequent to
  marriage, but the applicant for a divorce must have resided in the
  state the entire year preceding the presentment of the petition. A
  married woman has the same rights to her property after marriage as
  before marriage, except that she is not permitted to bequeath away
  from her husband more than one-half of it without his written consent,
  and no will made by the husband can affect the right of the wife, if
  she survive him, to one-half of the property of which he died seized.
  Whenever a husband dies intestate, leaving a farm or a house and lot
  in a town or city which was the residence of the family at his death,
  his widow, widow and children, or children alone if there be no widow,
  may hold the same as a homestead to the extent of 160 acres if it be a
  farm, or one acre if it be a town or city lot. A homestead of this
  size is exempt from levy for the debts of the intestate except in case
  of an incumbrance given by consent of both husband and wife, or of
  obligations for purchase money, or of liens for making improvements,
  and the homestead of a family cannot be alienated without the joint
  consent of husband and wife. The homestead status ceases, however,
  whenever the widow marries again or when all the children arrive at
  the age of majority. An eight-hour labour law was passed in 1891 and
  was upheld by the state supreme court. In 1909 a law was passed for
  state regulation of fire insurance rates (except in the case of
  farmers' mutuals insuring farm property only) and forbidding local
  discrimination of rates within the state. In the same year a law was
  passed requiring that any corporation acting as a common carrier in
  the state must receive the permission of the state board of railway
  commissioners for the issue of stocks, bonds or other evidences of
  indebtedness.

  The manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors except for medical,
  scientific and mechanical purposes were prohibited by a constitutional
  amendment adopted in 1880. The Murray liquor law of 1881, providing
  for the enforcement of the amendment, was declared constitutional by
  the state supreme court in 1883. At many sessions of the legislature
  its enemies vainly attempted its repeal. It was more seriously
  threatened in 1890 by the "Original Package Decision," of the United
  States Supreme Court, the decision, namely, that the state law could
  not apply to liquor introduced into Kansas from another state and sold
  from the original package, such inter-state commerce being within the
  exclusive jurisdiction of Congress. That body thereupon gave Kansas
  the power needed, and its action was upheld by the Federal Supreme
  Court. The enforcement of the law has varied, however, enormously
  according to the locality. In 1906-1907 a fresh crusade to enforce the
  law was begun by the attorney-general, who brought ouster suits
  against the mayors of Wichita, Junction City, Pittsburg and
  Leavenworth for not enforcing the law and for replacing it with the
  "fine" system, which was merely an irregular licence. In 1907 the
  attorney-general's office turned its attention to outside brewing
  companies doing business in the state and secured injunctions against
  such breweries doing business in the state and the appointment of
  receivers of their property. The provision of the law permitting the
  sale of whisky for medicinal, scientific or mechanical purposes was
  repealed by a law of 1909 prohibiting the sale, manufacture or barter
  of spirituous, malt, vinous or any other intoxicating liquors within
  the state. The severity of this law was ascribed to efforts of the
  liquor interests to render it objectionable.

  The constitution forbids the contraction of a state debt exceeding
  $1,000,000. The actual debt on the 30th of June 1908 was $605,000,
  which was a permanent school fund. Taxation is on the general-property
  system. The entire system has been--as in other states where it
  prevails--extremely irregular and arbitrary as regards local
  assessments, and very imperfect; and the figures of total valuation
  (in 1880 $160,570,761, in 1890 $347,717,218, in 1906 $408,329,749, and
  in 1908, when it was supposed to be the actual valuation of all
  taxable property, $2,453,691,859), though significant of taxation
  methods, are not significant of the general condition or progress of
  the state.

  _Education._--Of higher educational institutions, the state supports
  the university of Kansas at Lawrence (1866), an agricultural college
  at Manhattan (1863; aided by the United States government); a normal
  school at Emporia (1865), a western branch of the same at Hays (1902);
  a manual training normal school (1903) at Pittsburg, western
  university (Quindaro) for negroes and the Topeka industrial and
  educational institute (1896, reorganized on the plan of Tuskegee
  institute in 1900) also for negroes. The university of Kansas was
  organized in 1864 and opened in 1866. Its engineering department was
  established in 1870, its normal department in 1876 (abolished 1885),
  its department of music in 1877, its department of law in 1878, and
  the department of pharmacy in 1885; in 1891 the preparatory department
  was abolished and the university was reorganized with "schools" in
  place of the former "departments." In 1899 a school of medicine was
  established, in connexion with which the Eleanor Taylor Bell memorial
  hospital was erected in 1905. In 1907-1908 the university had a
  faculty of 211, an enrolment of 2063 (1361 men and 702 women); the
  university library contained 60,000 volumes and 37,000 pamphlets. An
  efficient compulsory education law was passed in 1903. Kansas ranks
  very high among the states in its small percentage of illiteracy
  (inability to write)--in 1900 only 2.9% of persons at least ten years
  of age; the figures for native whites, foreign whites and negroes
  being respectively 1.3, 8.5, 22.3. In addition to the state schools,
  various flourishing private or denominational institutions are
  maintained. The largest of these are the Kansas Wesleyan University
  (Methodist Episcopal, 1886) at Salina and Baker University (Methodist
  Episcopal, 1858) at Baldwin. Among the many smaller colleges are
  Washburn College (Congregational, 1869) at Topeka, the South-west
  Kansas College (Methodist Episcopal, opened 1886) at Winfield, the
  College of Emporia (Presbyterian, 1883) at Emporia, Bethany College
  (Lutheran, 1881) at Lindsborg, Fairmount College (non-sectarian, 1895)
  at Wichita, St Mary's College (Roman Catholic, 1869) at St Mary's, and
  Ottawa University (Baptist, 1865) at Ottawa. At Topeka is the College
  of the Sisters of Bethany (Protestant Episcopal, 1861) for women.
  There are also various small professional schools and private normal
  schools. An industrial school for Indian children is maintained by the
  United States near Lawrence (Haskell Institute, 1884). Among the state
  charitable and reformatory institutions are state hospitals for the
  insane at Topeka and Osawatomie and a hospital for epileptics at
  Parsons; industrial reform schools for girls at Beloit, for boys at
  Topeka, and for criminals under twenty-five at Hutchinson; a
  penitentiary at Lansing; a soldiers' orphans' home at Atchison and a
  soldiers' home at Dodge City; and schools for feeble-minded youth at
  Winfield, for the deaf at Olathe, and for the blind at Kansas City.
  These institutions are under the supervision of a state board of
  control. The state contributes also to many institutions on a private
  basis. Most of the counties maintain poor farms and administer outdoor
  relief, and some care for insane patients at the cost of the state.

_History._--The territory now included in Kansas was first visited by
Europeans in 1541, when Francisco de Coronado led his Spaniards from New
Mexico across the buffalo plains in search of the wealth of "Quivira," a
region located by Bandelier and other authorities in Kansas north-east
of the Great Bend of the Arkansas. Thereafter, save for a brief French
occupation, 1719-1725, and possibly slight explorations equally
inconsequential, Kansas remained in undisturbed possession of the
Indians until in 1803 it passed to the United States (all save the part
west of 100° long. and south of the Arkansas river) as part of the
Louisiana Purchase. The explorations for the United States of Z. M. Pike
(1807) and S. H. Long (1819) tended to confirm old ideas of sandy wastes
west of the Mississippi. But with the establishment of prairie commerce
to Santa Fé (New Mexico), the waves of emigration to the Mormon land and
to California, the growth of traffic to Salt Lake, and the explorations
for a transcontinental railway, Kansas became well known, and was taken
out of that mythical "Great American Desert," in which, thanks
especially to Pike and to Washington Irving, it had been supposed to
lie. The trade with Santa Fé began about 1804, although regular caravans
were begun only about 1825. This trade is one of the most picturesque
chapters in border history, and picturesque in retrospect, too, is the
army of emigrants crossing the continent in "prairie schooners" to
California or Utah, of whom almost all went through Kansas.

But this movement of hunters, trappers, traders, Mormons, miners and
homeseekers left nothing to show of settlement in Kansas, for which,
therefore, the succession of Territorial governments organized for the
northern portion of the Louisiana Purchase had no real significance.
Before 1854 Kansas was an Indian land, although on its Indian
reservations (created in its east part for eastern tribes removed
thither after 1830) some few whites resided: missionaries, blacksmiths,
agents, farmers supposed to teach the Indians agriculture, and land
"squatters,"--possibly 800 in all. Fort Leavenworth was established in
1827, Fort Scott in 1842, Fort Riley in 1853. There were Methodist
(1829), Baptist, Quaker, Catholic and Presbyterian missions active by
1837. Importunities to Congress to institute a Territorial government
began in 1852. This was realized by the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854.

By that Act Kansas (which from 1854 to 1861 included a large part of
Colorado) became, for almost a decade, the storm centre of national
political passion, and her history of prime significance in the
unfolding prologue of the Civil War. Despite the Missouri Compromise,
which had prohibited slavery in the Louisiana Purchase N. of 36° 30´ N.
lat. (except in Missouri), slaves were living at the missions and
elsewhere, among Indians and whites, in 1854. The "popular sovereignty"
principle of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill involved a sectional struggle for
the new Territory. Time showed that the winning of Kansas was a question
of the lightest-footed immigrant. Slaveholders were not footloose; they
had all to lose if they should carry their blacks into Kansas and should
nevertheless fail to make it a slave-state. Thus the South had to
establish slavery by other than actual slaveholders, unless Missouri
should act for her to establish it. But Missouri did not move her
slaves; while her vicinity encouraged border partisans to seek such
establishment even without residence--by intimidation, election frauds
and outrage. This determined at once the nature of the Kansas struggle
and its outcome; and after the South had played and lost in Kansas, "the
war for the Union caught up and nationalized the verdict of the
Territorial broil."

In the summer of 1854 Missouri "squatters" began to post claims to
border lands and warn away intending anti-slavery settlers. The
immigration of these from the North was fostered in every way, notably
through the New England Emigrant Aid Company (see LAWRENCE, A. A.),
whose example was widely imitated. Little organized effort was made in
the South to settle the Territory; Lawrence (Wakarusa) and Topeka,
free-state centres, and Leavenworth, Lecompton and Atchison, pro-slavery
towns, were among those settled in 1854.

At the first election (Nov. 1854), held for a delegate to Congress, some
1700 armed Missourians invaded Kansas and stuffed the ballot boxes; and
this intimidation and fraud was practised on a much larger scale in the
election of a Territorial legislature in March 1855. The resultant
legislature (at Pawnee, later at Shawnee Mission) adopted the laws of
Missouri almost _en bloc_, made it a felony to utter a word against
slavery, made extreme pro-slavery views a qualification for office,
declared death the penalty for aiding a slave to escape, and in general
repudiated liberty for its opponents. The radical free-state men
thereupon began the importation of rifles. All criticism of this is
inconsequent; "fighting gear" was notoriously the only effective asset
of Missourians in Kansas, every Southern band in Kansas was militarily
organized and armed, and the free-state men armed only under necessity.
Furthermore, a free-state "government" was set up, the "bogus"
legislature at Shawnee being "repudiated." Perfecting their organization
in a series of popular conventions, they adopted (Dec. 1855) the Topeka
Constitution--which declared the exclusion of negroes from
Kansas--elected state officials, and sent a contestant delegate to
Congress. The Topeka "government" was simply a craftily impressive
organization, a standing protest. It met now and then, and directed
sentiment, being twice dispersed by United States troops; but it passed
no laws, and did nothing that conflicted with the Territorial government
countenanced by Congress. On the other hand, the laws of the "bogus"
legislature were generally ignored by the free-state partisans, except
in cases (e.g. the service of a writ) where that was impossible without
apparent actual rebellion against the authority of the legislature, and
therefore of Congress.

Meanwhile the "border war" began. During the (almost bloodless)
"Wakarusa War" Lawrence was threatened by an armed force from Missouri,
but was saved by the intervention of Governor Shannon. Up to this time
the initiative and the bulk of outrages lay assuredly heavily on the
pro-slavery side; hereafter they became increasingly common and more
evenly divided. In May 1856 another Missouri force entered Lawrence
without resistance, destroyed its printing offices, wrecked buildings
and pillaged generally. This was the day before the assault on Charles
Sumner (q.v.) in the Senate of the United States. These two outrages
fired Northern passion and determination. In Kansas they were a stimulus
to the most radical elements. Immediately after the sack of Lawrence,
John Brown and a small band murdered and mutilated five pro-slavery men,
on Pottawatomie Creek; a horrible deed, showing a new spirit on the
free-state side, and of ghastly consequence--for it contributed
powerfully to widen further the licence of highway robbery, pillage and
arson, the ruin of homes, the driving off of settlers, marauding
expeditions, attacks on towns, outrages in short of every kind, that
made the following months a welter of lawlessness and crime, until
Governor Geary--by putting himself above all partisanship, repudiating
Missouri, and using Federal troops--put an end to them late in 1856.
(In the isolated south-eastern counties they continued through
1856-1858, mainly to the advantage of the "jay-hawkers" of free-state
Kansas and to the terror of Missouri.)

The struggle now passed into another phase, in which questions of state
predominate. But something may be remarked in passing of the leaders in
the period of turbulence. John Brown wished to deal a blow against
slavery, but did nothing to aid any conservative political organization
to that end. James H. Lane was another radical, and always favoured
force. He was a political adventurer, an enthusiastic, energetic,
ambitious, ill-balanced man, shrewd and magnetic. He assuredly did much
for the free-state cause; meek politics were not alone sufficient in
those years in Kansas. The leader of the conservative free-soilers was
Charles Robinson (1818-1894). He was born in Massachusetts, studied
medicine at the Berkshire Medical School, and had had political
experience in California, whither he had gone in 1849, and where in
1850-1852 he was a member of the legislature and a successful
anti-slavery leader. In 1854 he had come to Kansas as an agent of the
Emigrant Aid Company. He was the author of the Topeka government idea,
or at least was its moving spirit, serving throughout as the "governor"
under it; though averse to force, he would use it if necessary, and was
first in command in the "Wakarusa War." His partisans say that he saved
Kansas, and regard Lane as a fomenter of trouble who accomplished
nothing. Andrew H. Reeder (1807-1864), who showed himself a pro-slavery
sympathizer as first Territorial governor, was removed from office for
favouring the free-state party; he became a leader in the free-state
cause. Every governor who followed him was forced by the logic of events
and truth tacitly to acknowledge that right lay with the free-state
party. Reeder and Shannon fled the Territory in fear of assassination by
the pro-slavery party, with which at first they had had most sympathy.
Among the pro-slavery leaders David Rice Atchison (1807-1886), United
States Senator in 1843-1855, accompanied both expeditions against
Lawrence; but he urged moderation, as always, at the end of what was a
legitimate result of his radical agitation.

In June 1857 delegates were elected to a constitutional convention. The
election Act did not provide for any popular vote upon the constitution
they should form, and was passed over Governor John W. Geary's veto. A
census, miserably deficient (largely owing to free-state abstention and
obstruction), was the basis of apportionment of delegates. The
free-state party demanded a popular vote on the constitution. On the
justice of this Governor Robert J. Walker and President Buchanan were at
first unequivocally agreed, and the governor promised fairplay.
Nevertheless only pro-slavery men voted, and the convention was thus
pro-slavery. The document it framed is known as the Lecompton
Constitution. Before the convention met, the free-state party,
abandoning its policy of political inaction, captured the Territorial
legislature. On the constitutional convention rested, then, all hope of
saving Kansas for slavery; and that would be impossible if they should
submit their handiwork to the people. The convention declared slave
property to be "before and higher than any constitutional sanction" and
forbade amendments affecting it; but it provided for a popular vote on
the alternatives, the "constitution with slavery" or the "constitution
with no slavery." If the latter should be adopted, slavery should cease
"except" that the right to property in slaves in the Territory should
not be interfered with. The free-state men regarded this as including
the right to property in offspring of slaves, and therefore as pure
fraud. Governor Walker stood firmly against this iniquitous scheme; he
saw that slavery was, otherwise, doomed, but he thought Kansas could be
saved to the Democratic party though lost to slavery. But President
Buchanan, under Southern influence, repudiated his former assurances.
There is reason to believe that the whole scheme was originated at
Washington, and though Buchanan was not privy to it before the event,
yet he adopted it. He abandoned Walker, who left Kansas; and he
dismissed Acting-Governor Frederick P. Stanton for convoking the (now
free-state) legislature. This body promptly ordered a vote on the third
alternative, "Against the Constitution."

The free-state men ignored the alternatives set by the Lecompton
Convention; but they participated nevertheless in the provisional
election for officers under the Lecompton government, capturing all
offices, and then, the same day, voted overwhelmingly against the
constitution (Jan. 4, 1858).

Nevertheless, Buchanan, against the urgent counsel of Governor Denver,
urged on Congress (Feb. 2) the admission of Kansas under the Lecompton
Constitution. He was opposed by Senator Stephen A. Douglas, the leader
of the Northern Democracy. The Senate upheld the President; the House of
Representatives voted down his policy; and finally both houses accepted
the English Bill, by which Kansas was virtually offered some millions of
acres of public lands if she should accept the Lecompton
Constitution.[4] On the 21st of August 1858, by a vote of 11,300 to
1788, Kansas resisted this temptation. The plan of the Administration
thus effectually miscarried, and its final result was a profound split
in the Democratic party.

The free-state men framed an excellent anti-slavery constitution at
Leavenworth in March-April 1858, but the origins of the convention were
illegal and their work was still-born. On the 29th of July 1859 still
another constitution was therefore framed at Wyandotte, and on the 4th
of October it was ratified by the people. Meanwhile the Topeka
"government" disappeared, and also, with its single purpose equally
served, the free-state party, most of it (once largely Democratic)
passing into the Republican party, now first organized in the Territory.
On the 29th of January 1861 Kansas was admitted to the Union under the
Wyandotte Constitution. The United States Census of 1860 gave her a
population of 107,204 inhabitants. The struggle in Kansas, the first
physical national struggle over slavery, was of paramount importance in
the breaking up of the Whig party, the firm establishment of an
uncompromisingly anti-slavery party, the sectionalization of the
Democracy, and the general preparation of the country for the Civil War.

Drought and famine came in 1860, and then upon the impoverished state
came the strain of the Civil War. Nevertheless Kansas furnished
proportionally a very large quota of men to the Union armies. Military
operations within her own borders were largely confined to a guerrilla
warfare, carrying on the bitter neighbourhood strife between Kansas and
Missouri. The Confederate officers began by repressing predatory
plundering from Missouri; but after James H. Lane, with an undisciplined
brigade, had crossed the border, sacking, burning and killing in his
progress, Missouri "bushrangers" retaliated in kind. Freebooters trained
in Territorial licence had a free hand on both sides. Kansas bands were
long the more successful. But William C. Quantrell, after sacking
various small Kansas towns along the Missouri river (1862-63), in August
1863 took Lawrence (q.v.) and put it mercilessly to fire and sword--the
most ghastly episode in border history. In the autumn of 1864 the
Confederate general, Sterling Price, aiming to enter Kansas from
Missouri but defeated by General Pleasanton's cavalry, retreated
southward, zig-zagging on both sides of the Missouri-Kansas line. This
ended for Kansas the border raids and the war. Lane was probably the
first United States officer to enlist negroes as soldiers. Many of them
(and Indians too) fought bravely for the state. Indian raids and wars
troubled the state from 1864 to 1878. The tribes domiciled in Kansas
were rapidly moved to Indian Territory after 1868.

After the Civil War the Republicans held uninterrupted supremacy in
national elections, and almost as complete control in the state
government, until 1892. From about 1870 onward, however, elements of
reform and of discontent were embodied in a succession of radical
parties of protest. Prohibition arose thus, was accepted by the
Republicans, and passed into the constitution. Woman suffrage became a
vital political issue. Much legislation has been passed to control the
railways. General control of the media of commerce, economic
co-operation, tax reform, banking reforms, legislation against
monopolies, disposal of state lands, legislation in aid of the farmer
and labourer, have been issues of one party or another. The movement of
the Patrons of Industry (1874), growing into the Grange, Farmers'
Alliance, and finally into the People's (Populist) party (see FARMERS'
MOVEMENT), was perhaps of greatest importance. In conjunction with the
Democrats the Populists controlled the State government in 1892-1894 and
1896-1898. These two parties decidedly outnumbered the Republicans at
the polls from 1890-1898, but they could win only by fusion. In
1892-1893, when the Populists elected the governor and the Senate, and
the Republicans (as the courts eventually determined) the House of
Representatives, political passion was so high as to threaten armed
conflicts in the capital. The Australian ballot was introduced in 1893.
In the decade following 1880, struggles in the western counties for the
location of county seats (the bitterest local political fights known in
western states) repeatedly led to bloodshed and the interference of
state militia.

    TERRITORIAL GOVERNORS[5]

  Andrew H. Reeder      July 7,  1854-Aug. 16, '55
  Wilson Shannon        Sept. 7, 1855-Aug. 18, '56
  John W. Geary         Sept. 9, 1856-Mar. 12, '57
  Robert J. Walker      May 27,  1857-Nov. 16, '57
  James W. Denver       May 12,  1858-Oct. 10, '58
  Samuel Medary         Dec. 18, 1858-Dec. 17, '60

    _Acting Governors_[6]

                                Aggregate
  Daniel Woodson        5 times (164 days) Apr. 17, 1855-Apr. 16, '57
  Frederick P. Stanton  2    "  ( 78  "  ) Apr. 16, 1857-Dec. 21, '57
  James W. Denver       1    "  ( 23  "  ) Dec. 21, 1857-May  12, '58
  Hugh S. Walsh       4(5?)  "  (177  "  ) July 3, 1858-June  16, '60
  George M. Beebe       2    "  (131  "  ) Sept. 11, 1860-Feb. 9, '61

    STATE GOVERNORS

  Charles Robinson          Republican     1861-1863
  Thomas Carney                 "          1863-1865
  Samuel J. Crawford            "          1865-1869
  N. Green (to fill vacancy)    "          1869 (3 months)
  James M. Harvey               "          1869-1873
  Thomas A. Osborn              "          1873-1877
  George T. Anthony             "          1877-1879
  John P. St John               "          1879-1883
  George W. Glick            Democrat      1883-1885
  John A. Martin            Republican     1885-1889
  Lyman U. Humphrey             "          1889-1893
  Lorenzo D. Lewelling       Populist      1893-1895
  Edmund N. Morrill         Republican     1895-1897
  John W. Leedy         Democrat-Populist  1897-1899
  W. E. Stanley             Republican     1899-1903
  Willis J. Bailey              "          1903-1905
  Edward W. Hoch                "          1905-1909
  Walter R. Stubbs              "          1909-

  AUTHORITIES.--Consult for physiographic descriptions general works on
  the United States, exploration, surveys, &c., also paper by George I.
  Adams in American Geographical Society, _Bulletin_ 34 (1902), pp.
  89-104. On climate see U.S. Department of Agriculture, _Kansas Climate
  and Crop Service_ (monthly, since 1887). On soil and agriculture, see
  _Biennial Reports_ (Topeka, 1877 seq.) of the State Board of
  Agriculture; _Experiment Station Bulletin_ of the Kansas Agricultural
  College (Manhattan); and statistics in the United States _Statistical
  Abstract_ (annual, Washington), and Federal Census reports. On
  manufactures see Federal Census reports; Kansas Bureau of Labor and
  Industry, _Annual Report_ (1885 seq.); Kansas Inspector of Coal Mines,
  _Annual Report_ (1887 seq.). On administration consult the _State of
  Kansas Blue Book_ (Topeka, periodical), and reports of the various
  state officers (Treasurer, annual, then biennial since 1877-1878;
  Board of Trustees of State Charities and Corrections, biennial,
  1877-1878 seq.; State Board of Health, founded 1885, annual, then
  biennial reports since 1901-1902; Bureau of Labor Statistics, founded
  1885, annual reports; Irrigation Commission, organized 1895, annual
  reports, &c.). On taxation see _Report and Bill of the State Tax
  Commission, created_ 1901 (Topeka, 1901). On the history of the state,
  see A. T. Andreas, _History of Kansas_ (Chicago, 1883; compiled mainly
  by J. C. Hebbard); D. W. Wilder's _Annals of Kansas_ (Topeka, 1875 and
  later), indispensable for reference; L. W. Spring's _Kansas_ (Boston,
  1885, in the American Commonwealth Series); Charles Robinson, _The
  Kansas Conflict_ (New York, 1892); Eli Thayer, _The Kansas Crusade_
  (New York, 1889); the _Proceedings of the Kansas State Historical
  Society_ (Topeka, 1891 seq.), full of the most valuable material; W.
  E. Connelley, _Kansas Territorial Governors_ (Topeka, 1900); W. E.
  Miller, _The Peopling of Kansas_ (Columbus, O., 1906), a doctoral
  dissertation of Columbia University; and for the controversy touching
  John Brown, G. W. Brown's _The Truth at Last, Reminiscences of Old
  John Brown_ (Rockford, Ill., 1880), and W. E. Connelley, _An Appeal to
  the Record ... Refuting ... Things Written for ... Charles Robinson
  and G. W. Brown_ (Topeka, 1903). W. C. Webb's _Republican Election
  Methods in Kansas, General Election of 1892, and Legislative
  Investigations_ (Topeka, 1893) may also be mentioned.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] For the thirty years 1877-1906 the mean rainfall for ten-year
    periods was: at Dodge, 22.8 in., 18.4 in. and 22.7 in.; and at
    Lawrence, 35.1 in., 39.2 in. and 36.7 in. for the first, second and
    third periods respectively.

  [2] All subsequent figures in this paragraph for manufactures in 1900
    are given for establishments under the "factory system" only, so as
    to be comparable with statistics for 1905, which do not include minor
    establishments.

  [3] According to the state census Kansas had in 1905 a total
    population of 1,544,968; nearly 28% lived in cities of 2500 or more
    inhabitants; 13 cities had more than 10,000 inhabitants: Kansas City
    (67,614). Topeka (37,641), Wichita (31,110), Leavenworth (20,934),
    Atchison (18,159), Pittsburg (15,012), Coffeyville (13,196), Fort
    Scott (12,248), Parsons (11,720), Lawrence (11,708), Hutchinson
    (11,215), Independence (11,206), and Iola (10,287). Other cities of
    above 5000 inhabitants each were: Chanute (9704), Emporia (8974),
    Winfield (7845), Salina (7829), Ottawa (7727), Arkansas City (7634),
    Newton (6601), Galena (6449), Argentine (6053), Junction City (5264)
    and Cherryvale (5089).

  [4] The English Bill was not a bribe to the degree that it has
    usually been considered to be, inasmuch as it "reduced the grant of
    land demanded by the Lecompton Ordinance from 23,500,000 acres to
    3,500,000 acres, and offered only the normal cession to new states."
    But this grant of 3,500,000 acres was conditioned on the acceptance
    of the Lecompton Constitution, and Congress made no promise of any
    grant if that Constitution were not adopted. The bill was introduced
    by William Hayden English (1822-1896), a Democratic representative in
    Congress in 1853-1861 (see Frank H. Hodder, "Some Aspects of the
    English Bill for the Admission of Kansas," in _Annual Report of the
    American Historical Association_ for the Year 1906, i. 201-210).

  [5] Terms of actual service in Kansas, not period of commissions. The
    appointment was for four years. Reeder was removed, all the others
    resigned.

  [6] Secretaries of the Territory who served as governors in the
    interims of gubernatorial terms or when the governor was absent from
    the Territory. In the case of H. S. Walsh several dates cannot be
    fixed with exactness.



KANSAS CITY, a city and the county-seat of Wyandotte county, Kansas,
U.S.A., on the W. bank of the Missouri River, at the mouth of the
Kansas, altitude about 800 ft. It is separated from its greater
neighbour, Kansas City, Missouri, only by the state line, and is the
largest city in the state. Pop. (1890), 38,315; (1900), 51,418, of whom
6,377 were foreign-born and 6509 were negroes; (1910 census) 82,331. It
is served by the Union Pacific, the Missouri Pacific, the Chicago, Rock
Island & Pacific, and the Chicago Great Western railways, and by
electric lines connecting with Leavenworth and with Kansas City,
Missouri. There are several bridges across the Kansas river. The city
covers the low, level bottom-land at the junction of the two rivers, and
spreads over the surrounding highlands to the W., the principal
residential district. Its plan is regular. The first effective steps
toward a city park and boulevard system were taken in 1907, when a board
of park commissioners, consisting of three members, was appointed by the
mayor. The city has been divided into the South Park District and the
North Park District, and at the close of 1908 there were 10 m. of
boulevards and parks aggregating 160 acres. A massive steel and concrete
toll viaduct, about 1¾ m. in length, extends from the bluffs of Kansas
City, Kan., across the Kansas valley to the bluffs of Kansas City, Mo.,
and is used by pedestrians, vehicles and street cars. There is a fine
public library building given by Andrew Carnegie. The charities of the
city are co-ordinated through the associated charities. Among charitable
state-aided institutions are the St Margaret's hospital (Roman
Catholic), Bethany hospital (Methodist), a children's home (1893), and,
for negroes, the Douglass hospital training school for nurses
(1898)--the last the largest private charity of the state. The medical
department of the Kansas state university, the other departments of
which are in Lawrence, is in Kansas City; and among the other
educational institutions of the city are the Western university and
industrial school (a co-educational school for negroes), the Kansas City
Baptist theological seminary (1902), and the Kansas City university
(Methodist Protestant, 1896), which had 454 students in 1908-1909 and
comprises Mather college (for liberal arts), Wilson high school
(preparatory), a school of elocution and oratory (in Kansas City, Mo.),
a Normal School, Kansas City Hahnemann Medical College (in Kansas City,
Mo.), and a school of theology. The city is the seat of the Kansas
(State) school for the blind. Kansas City is one of the largest cities
in the country without a drinking saloon. Industrially the city is
important for its stockyards and its meat-packing interests. With the
exception of Chicago, it is the largest livestock market in the United
States. The product-value of the city's factories in 1905 was
$96,473,050; 93.5% consisting of the product of the wholesale
slaughtering and meat-packing houses. Especially in the South-west
markets Kansas City has an advantage over Chicago, St Louis, and other
large packing centres (except St Joseph), not only in freights, but in
its situation among the "corn and beef" states; it shares also the
extraordinary railway facilities of Kansas City, Missouri. There are
various important manufactures, such as soap and candles, subsidiary to
the packing industry; and the city has large flour mills, railway and
machine shops, and foundries. A large cotton-mill, producing coarse
fabrics, was opened in 1907. Natural gas derived from the Kansas fields
became available for lighting and heating, and crude oil for fuel, in
1906.

Kansas City was founded in 1886 by the consolidation of "old" Kansas
City, Armourdale and Wyandotte (in which Armstrong and Riverview were
then included). Of these municipalities Wyandotte, the oldest, was
originally settled by the Wyandotte Indians in 1843; it was platted and
settled by whites in 1857; and was incorporated as a town in 1858, and
as a city in 1859. At Wyandotte were made the first moves for the
Territorial organization of Kansas and Nebraska. During the Kansas
struggle Wyandotte was a pro-slavery town, while Quindaro (1856), a few
miles up the Missouri, was a free-state settlement and Wyandotte's
commercial rival until after the Civil War. The convention that framed
the constitution, the Wyandotte Constitution, under which Kansas was
admitted to the Union, met here in July 1859. "Old" Kansas City was
surveyed in 1869 and was incorporated as a city in 1872. Armourdale was
laid out in 1880 and incorporated in 1882. The packing interest was
first established in 1867; the first large packing plant was that of
Armour & Co., which was removed to what is now Kansas City in 1871.
Kansas City adopted government by commission in 1909.



KANSAS CITY, a city and port of entry of Jackson county, Missouri,
U.S.A., the second in size and importance in the state, situated at the
confluence of the Missouri and Kansas rivers, adjoining Kansas City,
Kansas, and 235 m. W. by N. of St Louis. Pop. (1890), 132,716; (1900),
163,752, of whom 18,410 were foreign born (German, 4816; Irish, 3507;
Swedish, 1869; English, 1863; English-Canadian, 1369; Italian, 1034),
and 17,567 were negroes; (1910 census) 248,381. Kansas City, the gateway
to the South-west, is one of the leading railway centres of the United
States. It is served by the Union Pacific, the Missouri Pacific, the
'Frisco System, the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Atchison, Topeka &
Santa Fé, the Chicago Great Western, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul,
the Chicago & Alton, the Wabash, the Kansas City Southern, the Chicago,
Rock Island & Pacific, the Missouri, Kansas & Texas, the Leavenworth,
Kansas & Western, the Kansas City, Mexico & Orient, the St Louis, Kansas
City & Colorado, the Quincy, Omaha & Kansas City, and the St Joseph &
Grand Island railways, and by steamboat lines to numerous river ports.

The present retail, office, and wholesale sections were once high bluffs
and deep ravines, but through and across these well graded streets were
constructed. South and west of this highland, along the Kansas river, is
a low, level tract occupied chiefly by railway yards, stock yards,
wholesale houses and manufacturing establishments; north and east of the
highland is a flat section, the Missouri River bottoms, occupied largely
by manufactories, railway yards, grain elevators and homes of employés.
Much high and dry "made" land has been reclaimed from the river
flood-plain. Two great railway bridges across the Missouri, many smaller
bridges across the Kansas, and a great inter-state toll viaduct
extending from bluff to bluff across the valley of the latter river, lie
within the metropolitan area of the two cities. The streets of the
Missouri city are generally wide and excellently paved. The city-hall
(1890-1893), the courthouse (1888-1892), and the Federal Building
(1892-1900) are the most imposing of the public buildings. A convention
hall, 314 ft. long and 198 ft. wide, with a seating capacity of about
15,000, is covered by a steel-frame roof without a column for its
support; the exterior of the walls is cut stone and brick. The building
was erected within three months, to replace one destroyed by fire, for
the National Democratic Convention which met here on the 4th of July
1900. The Public Library with walls of white limestone and Texas
granite, contained (1908) 95,000 volumes. The Congregational, the
Calvary Baptist, the Second Presbyterian, the Independence Avenue
Christian, the Independence Avenue Methodist, and the Second Christian
Science churches are the finest church buildings. The board of trade
building, the building of the _Star_ newspaper, and several large office
buildings (including the Scarritt, Long, and New York Life Insurance
buildings) are worthy of mention.

Kansas City has over 2000 acres in public parks; but Swope Park,
containing 1354 acres, lies south of the city limits. The others are
distributed with a design to give each section a recreation ground
within easy walking distance, and all (including Swope) are connected by
parkways, boulevards and street-car lines. The Paseo Parkway, 250 ft.
wide, extends from N. to S. through the centre of the city for a
distance of 2½ m., and adjoining it near its middle is the Parade, or
principal playground. The city has eight cemeteries, the largest of
which are Union, Elmwood, Mt Washington, St Mary's and Forest Hill. The
charitable institutions and professional schools included in 1908 about
thirty hospitals, several children's homes and homes for the aged, an
industrial home, the Kansas City school of law, the University medical
college, and the Scarritt training school. The city has an excellent
public school system. A Methodist Episcopal institutional church,
admirably equipped, was opened in 1906. The city has a juvenile court,
and maintains a free employment bureau.

Kansas City is primarily a commercial centre, and its trade in
livestock, grain and agricultural implements is especially large. The
annual pure-bred livestock show is of national importance. The city's
factory product increased from $23,588,653 in 1900 to $35,573,049 in
1905, or 50.8%. Natural gas and crude petroleum from Kansas fields
became of industrial importance about 1906. Natural gas is used to light
the residence streets and to heat many of the residences.

Kansas City is one of the few cities in the United States empowered to
frame its own charter. The first was adopted in 1875 and the second in
1889. In 1905 a new charter, drawn on the lines of the model "municipal
program" advocated by the National Municipal League, was submitted to
popular vote, but was defeated by the influence of the saloons and other
special interests. The charter of 1908 is a revision of this proposed
charter of 1905 with the objectionable features eliminated; it was
adopted by a large majority vote. Under the provisions of the charter of
1908 the people elect a mayor, city treasurer, city comptroller, and
judges of the municipal court, each for a term of two years. The
legislative body is the common council composed of two houses, each
having as many members as there are wards in the city--14 in 1908. The
members of the lower house are elected, one by each ward, in the spring
of each even numbered year. The upper house members are elected by the
city at large and serve four years. A board of public works, board of
park commissioners, board of fire and water commissioners, a board of
civil service, a city counsellor, a city auditor, a city assessor, a
purchasing agent, and subordinate officers, are appointed by the mayor,
without confirmation by the common council. A non-partisan board
composed of citizens who must not be physicians has general control of
the city's hospitals and health department. A new hospital at a cost of
half a million dollars was completed in 1908. The charter provides for a
referendum vote on franchises, which may be ordered by the council or by
petition of the people, the signatures of 20% of the registered voters
being sufficient to force such election. Public work may be prevented by
remonstrance of interested property owners except in certain instances,
when the city, by vote of the people, may overrule all remonstrances. A
civic league attempts to give a non-partisan estimate of all municipal
candidates. The juvenile court, the arts and tenement commissions, the
municipal employment bureau, and a park board are provided for by the
charter. All the members of the city board of election commissioners and
a majority of the police board are appointed by the governor of the
state; and the police control the grant of liquor licences. The city is
supplied with water drawn from the Missouri river above the mouth of the
Kansas or Kaw (which is used as a sewer by Kansas City, Kan.); the main
pumping station and settling basins being at Quindaro, several miles up
the river in Kansas; whence the water is carried beneath the Kansas,
through a tunnel, to a high-pressure distributing station in the west
bottoms. The waterworks (direct pressure system) were acquired by the
city in 1895. All other public services are in private hands. The
street-railway service is based on a universal 5-cent transfer
throughout the metropolitan area. Some of the first overhead electric
trolleys used in the United States were used here in 1885.

The first permanent settlement within the present limits of Kansas City,
which took its name from Kansas river,[1] was established by French fur
traders about 1821. Westport, a little inland town--platted 1833, a city
1857, merged in Kansas City in 1899--now a fashionable residence
district of Kansas City--was a rival of Independence in the Santa Fé
trade which she gained almost _in toto_ in 1844 when the great Missouri
flood (the greatest the river has known) destroyed the river landing
utilized by Independence. Meanwhile, what is now Kansas City, and was
then Westport Landing, being on the river where a swift current wore a
rocky shore, steadily increased in importance and overshadowed Westport.
But in 1838 lots were surveyed and the name changed to the Town of
Kansas. It was officially organized in part in 1847, formally
incorporated as a town in 1850, chartered under its present name in
1853, re-chartered in 1875, in 1889 and in 1908. Before 1850 it was
practically the exclusive eastern terminus on the river for the Santa Fé
trade,[2] and a great outfitting point for Californian emigrants. The
history of this border trade is full of picturesque colour. During the
Civil War both Independence and Westport were the scene of battles;
Kansas City escaped, but her trade went to Leavenworth, where it had the
protection of an army post and a quiet frontier. After the war the
railways came, taking away the traffic to Santa Fé, and other cities
farther up the Missouri river took over the trade to its upper valley.
In 1866 Kansas City was entered by the first railway from St Louis; 1867
saw the beginning of the packing industry; in 1869 a railway bridge
across the Missouri assured it predominance over Leavenworth and St
Joseph; and since that time--save for a depression shortly after 1890,
following a real-estate boom--the material progress of the city has been
remarkable; the population increased from 4418 in 1860 to 32,260 in
1870, 55,785 in 1880, and 132,716 in 1890.

  See T. S. Case (ed.), _History of Kansas City, Missouri_ (Syracuse,
  1888); William Griffith, _History of Kansas City_ (Kansas City, 1900);
  for industrial history, the _Greater Kansas City Yearbook_ (1907
  seq.); for all features of municipal interest, the _Kansas City
  Annual_ (Kansas City, 1907 seq.), prepared for the Business Men's
  League.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] "Kansas"--in archaic variants of spelling and pronunciation,
    "Kansaw," and still called, locally and colloquially, the "Kaw."

  [2] Before Kansas City, first Old Franklin (opposite Boonville), then
    Ft. Osage, Liberty, Sibley, Lexington, Independence and Westport had
    successively been abandoned as terminals, as the transfer-point from
    boat to prairie caravan was moved steadily up the Missouri. Whisky,
    groceries, prints and notions were staples sent to Santa Fé; wool,
    buffalo robes and dried buffalo meat, Mexican silver coin, gold and
    silver dust and ore came in return. In 1860 the trade employed 3000
    wagons and 7000 men, and amounted to millions of dollars in value.



KANSK, a town of eastern Siberia, in the government of Yeniseisk, 151 m.
by rail E. of Krasnoyarsk, on the Kan River, a tributary of the Yenisei,
and on the Siberian highway. Pop. (1897), 7504. It is the chief town of
a district in which gold is found, but lies on low ground subject to
inundation by the river.



KAN-SUH, a north-western province of China, bounded N. by Mongolia, E.
by Shen-si, S. by Szech'uen, W. by Tibet and N.W. by Turkestan. The
boundary on the N. remains undefined, but the province may be said to
occupy the territory lying between 32° 30´40° N., and 108° and 98° 20´
E., and to contain about 260,000 sq. m. The population is estimated at
9,800,000. Western Kan-suh is mountainous, and largely a wilderness of
sand and snow, but east of the Hwang-ho the country is cultivated. The
principal river is the Hwang-ho, and in the mountains to the south of
Lan-chow Fu rises the Wei-ho, which traverses Shen-si and flows into the
Hwang-ho at Tung-kwan. The chief products of Kan-suh are cloth, horse
hides, a kind of curd like butter which is known by the Mongols under
the name of _wuta_, musk, plums, onions, dates, sweet melons and
medicines. (See CHINA.)



KANT, IMMANUEL (1724-1804), German philosopher, was born at Königsberg
on the 22nd of April 1724. His grandfather was an emigrant from
Scotland, and the name Cant is not uncommon in the north of Scotland,
whence the family is said to have come. His father was a saddler in
Königsberg, then a stronghold of Pietism, to the strong influence of
which Kant was subjected in his early years. In his tenth year he was
entered at the Collegium Fredericianum with the definite view of
studying theology. His inclination at this time was towards classics,
and he was recognized, with his school-fellow, David Ruhnken, as among
the most promising classical scholars of the college. His taste for the
greater Latin authors, particularly Lucretius, was never lost, and he
acquired at school an unusual facility in Latin composition. With Greek
authors he does not appear to have been equally familiar. During his
university course, which began in 1740, Kant was principally attracted
towards mathematics and physics. The lectures on classics do not seem to
have satisfied him, and, though he attended courses on theology, and
even preached on one or two occasions, he appears finally to have given
up the intention of entering the Church. The last years of his
university studies were much disturbed by poverty. His father died in
1746, and for nine years he was compelled to earn his own living as a
private tutor. Although he disliked the life and was not specially
qualified for it--as he used to say regarding the excellent precepts of
his _Pädagogik_, he was never able to apply them--yet he added to his
other accomplishments a grace and polish which he displayed ever
afterwards to a degree somewhat unusual in a philosopher by profession.

In 1755 Kant became tutor in the family of Count Kayserling. By the
kindness of a friend named Richter, he was enabled to resume his
university career, and in the autumn of that year he graduated as doctor
and qualified as privatdocent. For fifteen years he continued to labour
in this position, his fame as writer and lecturer steadily increasing.
Though twice he failed to obtain a professorship at Königsberg, he
steadily refused appointments elsewhere. The only academic preferment
received by him during the lengthy probation was the post of
under-librarian (1766). His lectures, at first mainly upon physics,
gradually expanded until nearly all descriptions of philosophy were
included under them.

In 1770 he obtained the chair of logic and metaphysics at Königsberg,
and delivered as his inaugural address the dissertation _De mundi
sensibilis et intelligibilis forma et principiis_. Eleven years later
appeared the _Kritik of Pure Reason_, the work towards which he had been
steadily advancing, and of which all his later writings are
developments. In 1783 he published the _Prolegomena_, intended as an
introduction to the _Kritik_, which had been found to stand in need of
some explanatory comment. A second edition of the _Kritik_, with some
modifications, appeared in 1787, after which it remained unaltered.

In spite of its frequent obscurity, its novel terminology, and its
declared opposition to prevailing systems, the Kantian philosophy made
rapid progress in Germany. In the course of ten or twelve years from the
publication of the _Kritik of Pure Reason_, it was expounded in all the
leading universities, and it even penetrated into the schools of the
Church of Rome. Such men as J. Schulz in Königsberg, J. G. Kiesewetter
in Berlin, Jakob in Halle, Born and A. L. Heydenreich in Leipzig, K. L.
Reinhold and E. Schmid in Jena, Buhle in Göttingen, Tennemann in
Marburg, and Snell in Giessen, with many others, made it the basis of
their philosophical teaching, while theologians like Tieftrunk,
Stäudlin, and Ammon eagerly applied it to Christian doctrine and
morality. Young men flocked to Königsberg as to a shrine of philosophy.
The Prussian Government even undertook the expense of their support.
Kant was hailed by some as a second Messiah. He was consulted as an
oracle on all questions of casuistry--as, for example, on the lawfulness
of inoculation for the small-pox. This universal homage for a long time
left Kant unaffected; it was only in his later years that he spoke of
his system as the limit of philosophy, and resented all further
progress. He still pursued his quiet round of lecturing and authorship,
and contributed from time to time papers to the literary journals. Of
these, among the most remarkable was his review of Herder's _Philosophy
of History_, which greatly exasperated that author, and led to a violent
act of retaliation some years after in his _Metakritik of Pure Reason_.
Schiller at this period in vain sought to engage Kant upon his _Horen_.
He remained true to the _Berlin Journal_, in which most of his
criticisms appeared.

In 1792 Kant, in the full height of his reputation, was involved in a
collision with the Government on the question of his religious
doctrines. Naturally his philosophy had excited the declared opposition
of all adherents of historical Christianity, since its plain tendency
was towards a moral rationalism, and it could not be reconciled to the
literal doctrines of the Lutheran Church. It would have been much better
to permit his exposition of the philosophy of religion to enjoy the same
literary rights as his earlier works, since Kant could not be
interdicted without first silencing a multitude of theologians who were
at least equally separated from positive Christianity. The Government,
however, judged otherwise; and after the first part of his book, _On
Religion within the Limits of Reason alone_, had appeared in the _Berlin
Journal_, the publication of the remainder, which treats in a more
rationalizing style of the peculiarities of Christianity, was forbidden.
Kant, thus shut out from Berlin, availed himself of his local privilege,
and, with the sanction of the theological faculty of his own university,
published the full work in Königsberg. The Government, probably
influenced as much by hatred and fear of the French Revolution, of which
Kant was supposed to be a partisan, as by love of orthodoxy, resented
the act; and a secret cabinet order was received by him intimating the
displeasure of the king, Frederick William II., and exacting a pledge
not to lecture or write at all on religious subjects in future. With
this mandate Kant, after a struggle, complied, and kept his engagement
till 1797, when the death of the king, according to his construction of
his promise, set him free. This incident, however, produced a very
unfavourable effect on his spirits. He withdrew in 1794 from society;
next year he gave up all his classes but one public lecture on logic or
metaphysics; and in 1797, before the removal of the interdict on his
theological teaching, he ceased altogether his public labours, after an
academic course of forty-two years. He previously, in the same year,
finished his treatises on the _Metaphysics of Ethics_, which, with his
_Anthropology_, completed in 1798, were the last considerable works that
he revised with his own hand. His _Lectures on Logic_, on _Physical
Geography_, on _Paedagogics_, were edited during his lifetime by his
friends and pupils. By way of asserting his right to resume theological
disquisition, he also issued in 1798 his _Strife of the Faculties_, in
which all the strongest points of his work on religion were urged
afresh, and the correspondence that had passed between himself and his
censors was given to the world.

From the date of his retirement from the chair Kant declined in
strength, and gave tokens of intellectual decay. His memory began to
fail, and a large work at which he wrought night and day, on the
connexion between physics and metaphysics, was found to be only a
repetition of his already published doctrines. After 1802, finding
himself attacked with a weakness in the limbs attended with frequent
fits of falling, he mitigated the Spartan severity of his life, and
consented to receive medical advice. A constant restlessness oppressed
him; his sight gave way; his conversation became an extraordinary
mixture of metaphors; and it was only at intervals that gleams of his
former power broke out, especially when some old chord of association
was struck in natural science or physical geography. A few days before
his decease, with a great effort he thanked his medical attendant for
his visits in the words, "I have not yet lost my feeling for humanity."
On the 12th of February 1804 he died, having almost completed his
eightieth year. His stature was small, and his appearance feeble. He was
little more than five feet high; his breast was almost concave, and,
like Schleiermacher, he was deformed in the right shoulder. His senses
were quick and delicate; and, though of weak constitution, he escaped
by strict regimen all serious illness.

His life was arranged with mechanical regularity; and, as he never
married, he kept the habits of his studious youth to old age. His
man-servant, who awoke him summer and winter at five o'clock, testified
that he had not once failed in thirty years to respond to the call.
After rising he studied for two hours, then lectured other two, and
spent the rest of the forenoon, till one, at his desk. He then dined at
a restaurant, which he frequently changed, to avoid the influx of
strangers, who crowded to see and hear him. This was his only regular
meal; and he often prolonged the conversation till late in the
afternoon. He then walked out for at least an hour in all weathers, and
spent the evening in lighter reading, except an hour or two devoted to
the preparation of his next day's lectures, after which he retired
between nine and ten to rest. In his earlier years he often spent his
evenings in general society, where his knowledge and conversational
talents made him the life of every party. He was especially intimate
with the families of two English merchants of the name of Green and
Motherby, where he found many opportunities of meeting ship-captains,
and other travelled persons, and thus gratifying his passion for
physical geography. This social circle included also the celebrated J.
G. Hamann, the friend of Herder and Jacobi, who was thus a mediator
between Kant and these philosophical adversaries.

Kant's reading was of the most extensive and miscellaneous kind. He
cared comparatively little for the history of speculation, but his
acquaintance with books of science, general history, travels and belles
lettres was boundless. He was well versed in English literature, chiefly
of the age of Queen Anne, and had read English philosophy from Locke to
Hume, and the Scottish school. He was at home in Voltaire and Rousseau,
but had little or no acquaintance with the French sensational
philosophy. He was familiar with all German literature up to the date of
his _Kritik_, but ceased to follow it in its great development by Goethe
and Schiller. It was his habit to obtain books in sheets from his
publishers Kanter and Nicolovius; and he read over for many years all
the new works in their catalogue, in order to keep abreast of universal
knowledge. He was fond of newspapers and works on politics; and this was
the only kind of reading that could interrupt his studies in philosophy.

As a lecturer, Kant avoided altogether that rigid style in which his
books were written. He sat behind a low desk, with a few jottings on
slips of paper, or textbooks marked on the margin, before him, and
delivered an extemporaneous address, opening up the subject by partial
glimpses, and with many anecdotes or familiar illustrations, till a
complete idea of it was presented. His voice was extremely weak, but
sometimes rose into eloquence, and always commanded perfect silence.
Though kind to his students, he refused to remit their fees, as this, he
thought, would discourage independence. It was another principle that
his chief exertions should be bestowed on the intermediate class of
talent, as the geniuses would help themselves, and the dunces were
beyond remedy.

Simple, honourable, truthful, kind-hearted and high-minded as Kant was
in all moral respects, he was somewhat deficient in the region of
sentiment. He had little enthusiasm for the beauties of nature, and
indeed never sailed out into the Baltic, or travelled more than 40 miles
from Königsberg. Music he disregarded, and all poetry that was more than
sententious prose. His ethics have been reproached with some justice as
setting up too low an ideal for the female sex. Though faithful in a
high degree to the duties of friendship, he could not bear to visit his
friends in sickness, and after their death he repressed all allusion to
their memory. His engrossing intellectual labours no doubt tended
somewhat to harden his character; and in his zeal for rectitude of
purpose he forgot the part which affection and sentiment must ever play
in the human constitution.

On the 12th of February 1904, the hundredth anniversary of Kant's death,
a Kantian society (_Kantgesellschaft_) was formed at Halle under the
leadership of Professor H. Vaihinger to promote Kantian studies. In 1909
it had an annual membership of 191; it supports the periodical
_Kantstudien_ (founded 1896; see BIBLIOGRAPHY, _ad init._).


THE WRITINGS OF KANT

  No other thinker of modern times has been throughout his work so
  penetrated with the fundamental conceptions of physical science; no
  other has been able to hold with such firmness the balance between
  empirical and speculative ideas. Beyond all question much of the
  influence which the critical philosophy has exercised and continues to
  exercise must be ascribed to this characteristic feature in the
  training of its great author.

  The early writings of Kant are almost without exception on questions
  of physical science. It was only by degrees that philosophical
  problems began to engage his attention, and that the main portion of
  his literary activity was turned towards them. The following are the
  most important of the works which bear directly on physical science.

  1. _Gedanken von der wahren Schätzung der lebendigen Kräfte_ (1747);
  an essay dealing with the famous dispute between the Cartesians and
  Leibnitzians regarding the expression for the _amount of a force_.
  According to the Cartesians, this quantity was directly proportional
  to velocity; according to their opponents, it varied with the square
  of the velocity. The dispute has now lost its interest, for physicists
  have learned to distinguish accurately the two quantities which are
  vaguely included under the expression _amount of force_, and
  consequently have been able to show in what each party was correct and
  in what it was in error. Kant's essay, with some fallacious
  explanations and divisions, criticizes acutely the arguments of the
  Leibnitzians, and concludes with an attempt to show that both modes of
  expression are correct when correctly limited and interpreted.

  2. _Whether the Earth in its Revolution has experienced some Change
  since the Earliest Times_ (1754; ed. and trans., W. Hastie, 1900,
  _Kant's Cosmogony_; cf. Lord Kelvin in _The Age of the Earth_, 1897,
  p. 7). In this brief essay Kant throws out a notion which has since
  been carried out, in ignorance of Kant's priority, by Delaunay (1865)
  and Adams. He points out that the action of the moon in raising the
  waters of the earth must have a secondary effect in the slight
  retardation of the earth's motion, and refers to a similar cause the
  fact that the moon turns always the same face to the earth.

  3. _Allgemeine Naturgeschichte und Theorie des Himmels_, published
  anonymously in 1755 (4th ed. 1808; republished H. Ebert, 1890). In
  this remarkable work Kant, proceeding from the Newtonian conception of
  the solar system, extends his consideration to the entire sidereal
  system, points out how the whole may be mechanically regarded, and
  throws out the important speculation which has since received the
  title of the nebular hypothesis. In some details, such e.g. as the
  regarding of the motion of the entire solar system as portion of the
  general cosmical mechanism, he had predecessors, among others Thomas
  Wright of Durham, but the work as a whole contains a wonderfully acute
  anticipation of much that was afterwards carried out by Herschel and
  Laplace. The hypothesis of the original nebular condition of the
  system, with the consequent explanation of the great phenomena of
  planetary formations and movements of the satellites and rings, is
  unquestionably to be assigned to Kant. (On this question see
  discussion in W. Hastie's _Kant's Cosmogony_, as above.)

  4. _Meditalionum quarundam de igne succincta delineatio_ (1755): an
  inaugural dissertation, containing little beyond the notion that
  bodies operate on one another through the medium of a uniformly
  diffused, elastic and subtle matter (ether) which is the underlying
  substance of heat and light. Both heat and light are regarded as
  vibrations of this diffused ether.

  5. _On the Causes of Earthquakes_ (1755); _Description of the
  Earthquake of 1755_ (1756); _Consideration of some Recently
  Experienced Earthquakes_ (1756).

  6. _Explanatory Remarks on the Theory of the Winds_ (1756). In this
  brief tract, Kant, apparently in entire ignorance of the explanation
  given in 1735 by Hadley, points out how the varying velocity of
  rotation of the successive zones of the earth's surface furnishes a
  key to the phenomena of periodic winds. His theory is in almost entire
  agreement with that now received. See the parallel statements from
  Kant's tract and Dove's essay on the influence of the rotation of the
  earth on the flow of its atmosphere (1835), given in Zöllner's work,
  _Ueber die Natur der Cometen_, pp. 477-482.

  7. _On the Different Races of Men_ (1775); _Determination of the
  Notion of a Human Race_ (1785); _Conjectural Beginning of Human
  History_ (1786): three tracts containing some points of interest as
  regards the empirical grounds for Kant's doctrine of teleology.
  Reference will be made to them in the notice of the _Kritik of
  Judgment_.

  8. _On the Volcanoes in the Moon_ (1785); _On the Influence of the
  Moon on the Weather_ (1794). The second of these contains a remarkable
  discussion of the relation between the centre of the moon's figure and
  its centre of gravity. From the difference between these Kant is led
  to conjecture that the climatic conditions of the side of the moon
  turned from us must be altogether unlike those of the face presented
  to us. His views have been restated by Hansen.

  9. _Lectures on Physical Geography_ (1822): published from notes of
  Kant's lectures, with the approval of the author.

  Consideration of these works is sufficient to show that Kant's mastery
  of the science of his time was complete and thorough, and that his
  philosophy is to be dealt with as having throughout a reference to
  general scientific conceptions. For more detailed treatment of his
  importance in science, reference may be made to Zöllner's essay on
  "Kant and his Merits on Natural Science" contained in the work on the
  _Nature of Comets_ (pp. 426-484); to Dietrich, _Kant and Newton_;
  Schultze, _Kant and Darwin_; Reuschle's careful analysis of the
  scientific works in the _Deutsche Vierteljahrs-Schrift_ (1868); W.
  Hastie's introduction to _Kant's Cosmogony_ (1900), which summarizes
  criticism to that date; and articles in _Kant-Studien_ (1896 foll.).

  The notice of the philosophical writings of Kant need not be more than
  bibliographical, as in the account of his philosophy it will be
  necessary to consider at some length the successive stages in the
  development of his thought. Arranged chronologically these works are
  as follows:--

  1755. _Principiorum primorum cognitionis metaphysicae novae
  dilucidatio._

  1756. _Metaphysicae cum geometria junctae usus in philosophia
  naturali, cujus specimen I. continet monadologiam physicam._

  1762. _Die falsche Spitzfindigkeit der vier syllogistischen Figuren_,
  "The False Subtlety of the Four Syllogistic Figures" (trans. T. K.
  Abbott, _Kant's Introduction to Logic and his Essay on the Mistaken
  Subtilty of the Figures_, 1885).

  1763. _Versuch den Begriff der negativen Grössen in die Weltweisheit
  einzuführen_, "Attempt to introduce the Notion of Negative Quantities
  into Philosophy."

  1763. _Der einzig mögliche Beweisgrund zu einer Demonstration des
  Daseins Gottes_, "The only possible Foundation for a Demonstration of
  the Existence of God."

  1764. _Beobachtungen über das Gefühl des Schönen und Erhabenen_ (Riga,
  1771; Königsberg, 1776).

  1764. _Untersuchung über die Deutlichkeit der Grundsätze der
  natürlichen Theologie und Moral_, "Essay on the Evidence (Clearness)
  of the Fundamental Propositions of Natural Theology and Ethics."

  1766. _Träume eines Geistersehers, erläutert durch Träume der
  Metaphysik_, "Dreams of a Ghost-seer (or Clairvoyant), explained by
  the Dreams of Metaphysic" (Eng. trans. E. F. Goerwitz, with introd. by
  F. Sewall, 1900).

  1768. _Von dem ersten Grunde des Unterschiedes der Gegenden im Raum_,
  "Foundation for the Distinction of Positions in Space."

  The above may all be regarded as belonging to the precritical period
  of Kant's development. The following introduce the notions and
  principles characteristic of the critical philosophy.

  1770. _De mundi sensibilis et intelligibilis forma et principiis._

  1781. _Kritik der reinen Vernunft_, "Kritik of Pure Reason" (revised
  ed. 1787; ed. Vaihinger, 1881 foll. and B. Erdmann, 1900; Eng. trans.,
  F. Max Müller, 1896, 2nd ed. 1907, and J. M. D. Meiklejohn, 1854).

  1783. _Prolegomena zu einer jeden künftigen Metaphysik die als
  Wissenschaft wird auftreten können_, "Prolegomena to all Future
  Metaphysic which may present itself as Science" (ed. B. Erdmann, 1878;
  Eng. trans. J. P. Mahaffy and J. H. Bernard, 2nd ed. 1889; Belfort
  Bax, 1883 and Paul Carus, 1902; and cf. M. Apel, _Kommentar zu Kants
  Prolegomena_, 1908).

  1784. _Idee zu einer allgemeinen Geschichte im weltbürgerlicher
  Absicht_, "Notion of a Universal History in a Cosmopolitan Sense."
  With this may be coupled the review of Herder in 1785.

  1785. _Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten_, "Foundations of the
  Metaphysic of Ethics" (see T. K. Abbott, _Fundamental Principles of
  the Metaphysic of Ethics_, 3rd ed. 1907).

  1786. _Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft_,
  "Metaphysical Elements of Natural Science" (ed. A. Höfler, 1900;
  trans. Belfort Bax, _Prolegomena and Metaphysical Foundations_, 1883).

  1788. _Ueber den Gebrauch teleologischer Prinzipien in der
  Philosophie_, "On the Employment of Teleological Principles in
  Philosophy."

  1788. _Kritik der praktischen Vernunft_, "Kritik of Practical Reason"
  (trans. T. K. Abbott, ed. 1898).

  1790. _Kritik der Urtheilskraft_, "Kritik of Judgment" (trans. with
  notes J. H. Bernard, 1892).

  1790. _Ueber eine Entdeckung, nach der alle neue Kritik der reinen
  Vernunft durch eine ältere entbehrlich gemacht werden soll_, "On a
  Discovery by which all the recent Critique of Pure Reason is
  superseded by a more ancient" (i.e. by Leibnitz's philosophy).

  1791. _Ueber die wirklichen Fortschritte der Metaphysik seit Leibnitz
  und Wolff_, "On the Real Advances of Metaphysics since Leibnitz and
  Wolff"; and _Ueber das Misslingen aller philosophischen Versuche in
  der Theodicee_.

  1793. _Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der blossen Vernunft_,
  "Religion within the Bounds of Reason only" (Eng. trans. J. W. Semple,
  1838).

  1794. _Ueber Philosophie überhaupt_, "On Philosophy generally," and
  _Das Ende aller Dinge_.

  1795. _Zum ewigen Frieden_ (Eng. trans., M. Campbell Smith, 1903).

  1797. _Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Rechtslehre_ (trans. W.
  Hastie), and _Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Tugendlehre_.

  1798. _Der Streit der Facultäten_, "Contest of the Faculties."

  1798. _Anthropologie in pragmatischer Hinsicht_.


  _The Kantian Philosophy._[1]

  Historians are accustomed to divide the general current of speculation
  into epochs or periods marked by the dominance of some single
  philosophic conception with its systematic evolution. Perhaps in no
  case is the character of an epoch more clearly apparent than in that
  of the critical philosophy. The great work of Kant absolutely closed
  the lines of speculation along which the philosophical literature of
  the 18th century had proceeded, and substituted for them a new and
  more comprehensive method of regarding the essential problems of
  thought, a method which has prescribed the course of philosophic
  speculation in the present age. The critical system has thus a twofold
  aspect. It takes up into itself what had characterized the previous
  efforts of modern thought, shows the imperfect nature of the
  fundamental notions therein employed, and offers a new solution of the
  problems to which these notions had been applied. It opens up a new
  series of questions upon which subsequent philosophic reflection has
  been directed, and gives to them the form, under which it is possible
  that they should be fruitfully regarded. A work of this kind is
  essentially epoch-making.

  In any complete account of the Kantian system it is therefore
  necessary that there should be constant reference, on the one hand, to
  the peculiar character of the preceding 18th-century philosophy, and,
  on the other hand, to the problems left for renewed treatment to more
  modern thought. Fortunately the development of the Kantian system
  itself furnishes such treatment as is necessary of the former
  reference. For the critical philosophy was a work of slow growth. In
  the early writings of Kant we are able to trace with great
  definiteness the successive stages through which he passed from the
  notions of the preceding philosophy to the new and comprehensive
  method which gives its special character to the critical work.
  Scarcely any great mind, it has been said with justice, ever matured
  so slowly. In the early essays we find the principles of the current
  philosophies, those of Leibnitz and English empiricism, applied in
  various directions to those problems which serve as tests of their
  truth and completeness; we note the appearance of the difficulties or
  contradictions which manifest the one-sidedness or imperfection of the
  principle applied; and we can trace the gradual growth of the new
  conceptions which were destined, in the completed system, to take the
  place of the earlier method. To understand the Kantian work it is
  indispensable to trace the history of its growth in the mind of its
  author.

  Of the two preceding stages of modern philosophy, only the second,
  that of Locke and Leibnitz, seems to have influenced practically the
  course of Kant's speculation. With the Cartesian movement as a whole
  he shows little acquaintance and no sympathy, and his own philosophic
  conception is never brought into relation with the systematic
  treatment of metaphysical problems characteristic of the Cartesian
  method. The fundamental question for philosophic reflection presented
  itself to him in the form which it had assumed in the hands of Locke
  and his successors in England, of Leibnitz and the Leibnitzian school
  in Germany. The transition from the Cartesian movement to this second
  stage of modern thought had doubtless been natural and indeed
  necessary. Nevertheless the full bearings of the philosophic question
  were somewhat obscured by the comparatively limited fashion in which
  it was then regarded. The tendency towards what may be technically
  called subjectivism, a tendency which differentiates the modern from
  the ancient method of speculation, is expressed in Locke and Leibnitz
  in a definite and peculiar fashion. However widely the two systems
  differ in details, they are at one in a certain fundamental conception
  which dominates the whole course of their philosophic construction.
  They are throughout individualist, i.e. they accept as given fact the
  existence of the concrete, thinking subject, and endeavour to show how
  this subject, as an individual conscious being, is related to the
  wider universe of which he forms part. In dealing with such a problem,
  there are evidently two lines along which investigation may proceed.
  It may be asked how the individual mind comes to know himself and the
  system of things with which he is connected, how the varied contents
  of his experience are to be accounted for, and what certainty attaches
  to his subjective consciousness of things. Regarded from the
  individualist point of view, this line of inquiry becomes purely
  psychological, and the answer may be presented, as it was presented by
  Locke, in the fashion of a natural history of the growth of conscious
  experience in the mind of the subject. Or, it may be further asked,
  how is the individual really connected with the system of things
  apparently disclosed to him in conscious experience? what is the
  precise significance of the existence which he ascribes both to
  himself and to the objects of experience? what is the nature of the
  relation between himself as one part of the system, and the system as
  a whole? This second inquiry is specifically metaphysical in bearing,
  and the kind of answer furnished to it by Leibnitz on the one hand, by
  Berkeley on the other, is in fact prescribed or determined beforehand
  by the fundamental conception of the individualist method with which
  both begin their investigations. So soon as we make clear to ourselves
  the essential nature of this method, we are able to discern the
  specific difficulties or perplexities arising in the attempt to carry
  it out systematically, and thus to note with precision the special
  problems presented to Kant at the outset of his philosophic
  reflections.

  Consider, first, the application of the method on its psychological
  side, as it appears in Locke. Starting with the assumption of
  conscious experience as the content or filling-in of the individual
  mind, Locke proceeds to explain its genesis and nature by reference to
  the real universe of things and its mechanical operation upon the
  mind. The result of the interaction of mind, i.e. the individual mind,
  and the system of things, is conscious experience, consisting of
  ideas, which may be variously compounded, divided, compared, or dealt
  with by the subjective faculties or powers with which the entity,
  Mind, is supposed to be endowed. Matter of fact and matter of
  knowledge are thus at a stroke dissevered. The very notion of relation
  between mind and things leads at once to the counter notion of the
  absolute restriction of mind to its own subjective nature. That Locke
  was unable to reconcile these opposed notions is not surprising; that
  the difficulties and obscurities of the Essay arise from the
  impossibility of reconciling them is evident on the slightest
  consideration of the main positions of that work. Of these
  difficulties the philosophies of Berkeley and Hume are systematic
  treatments. In Berkeley we find the resolute determination to accept
  only the one notion, that of mind as restricted to its own conscious
  experience, and to attempt by this means to explain the nature of the
  external reality to which obscure reference is made. Any success in
  the attempt is due only to the fact that Berkeley introduces alongside
  of his individualist notion a totally new conception, that of mind
  itself as not in the same way one of the matters of conscious
  experience, but as capable of reflection upon the whole of experience
  and of reference to the supreme mind as the ground of all reality. It
  is only in Hume that we have definitely and completely the evolution
  of the individualist notion as groundwork of a theory of knowledge;
  and it is in his writings, therefore, that we may expect to find the
  fundamental difficulty of that notion clearly apparent. It is not a
  little remarkable that we should find in Hume, not only the sceptical
  dissolution of all fixity of cognition, which is the inevitable result
  of the individualist method, but also the clearest consciousness of
  the very root of the difficulty. The systematic application of the
  doctrine that conscious experience consists only of isolated objects
  of knowledge, impressions or ideas, leads Hume to distinguish between
  truths reached by analysis and truths which involve real connexion of
  the objects of knowledge. The first he is willing to accept without
  further inquiry, though it is an error to suppose, as Kant seems to
  have supposed, that he regarded mathematical propositions as coming
  under this head (see HUME); with respect to the second, he finds
  himself, and confesses that he finds himself, hopelessly at fault. No
  real connexions between isolated objects of experience are perceived
  by us. No single matter of fact necessarily implies the existence of
  any other. In short, if the difficulty be put in its ultimate form, no
  existence thought as a distinct individual can transcend itself, or
  imply relation to any other existence. If the parts of conscious
  experience are regarded as so many distinct things, there is no
  possibility of connecting them other than contingently, if at all. If
  the individual mind be really thought as individual, it is impossible
  to explain how it should have knowledge or consciousness at all. "In
  short," says Hume, "there are two principles which I cannot render
  consistent, nor is it in my power to renounce either of them, viz.
  _that all our distinct perceptions are distinct existences, and that
  the mind never perceives any real connexion among distinct
  existences_. Did our perceptions either inhere in something simple or
  individual, or did the mind perceive some real connexion among them,
  there would be no difficulty in the case" (App. to _Treatise of Human
  Nature_).

  Thus, on the one hand, the individualist conception, when carried out
  to its full extent, leads to the total negation of all real cognition.
  If the real system of things, to which conscious experience has
  reference, be regarded as standing in casual relation to this
  experience there is no conceivable ground for the extension to reality
  of the notions which somehow are involved in thought. The same result
  is apparent, on the other hand, when we consider the theory of
  knowledge implied in the Leibnitzian individualism. The metaphysical
  conception of the monads, each of which is the universe _in nuce_,
  presents insuperable difficulties when the connexion or
  interdependence of the monads is in question, and these difficulties
  obtrude themselves when the attempt is made to work out a consistent
  doctrine of cognition. For the whole mass of cognisable fact, the
  _mundus intelligibilis_, is contained _impliciter_ in each monad, and
  the several modes of apprehension can only be regarded as so many
  stages in the developing consciousness of the monad. Sense and
  understanding, real connexion of facts and analysis of notions, are
  not, therefore, distinct in kind, but differ only in degree. The same
  fundamental axioms, the logical principles of identity and sufficient
  reason, are applicable in explanation of all given propositions. It is
  true that Leibnitz himself did not work out any complete doctrine of
  knowledge, but in the hands of his successors the theory took definite
  shape in the principle that the whole work of cognition is in essence
  analytical. The process of analysis might be complete or incomplete.
  For finite intelligences there was an inevitable incompleteness so far
  as knowledge of matters of fact was concerned. In respect to them,
  the final result was found in a series of irreducible notions or
  categories, the _prima possibilia_, the analysis and elucidation of
  which was specifically the business of philosophy or metaphysics.

  It will be observed that, in the Leibnitzian as in the empirical
  individualism, the fundamental notion is still that of the abstract
  separation of the thinking subject from the materials of conscious
  experience. From this separation arise all the difficulties in the
  effort to develop the notion systematically, and in tracing the
  history of Kant's philosophical progress we are able to discern the
  gradual perception on his part that here was to be found the ultimate
  cause of the perplexities which became apparent in considering the
  subordinate doctrines of the system. The successive essays which have
  already been enumerated as composing Kant's precritical work are not
  to be regarded as so many imperfect sketches of the doctrines of the
  _Kritik_, nor are we to look in them for anticipations of the critical
  view. They are essentially tentative, and exhibit with unusual
  clearness the manner in which the difficulties of a received theory
  force on a wider and more comprehensive view. There can be no doubt
  that some of the special features of the _Kritik_ are to be found in
  these precritical essays, e.g. the doctrine of the _Aesthetik_ is
  certainly foreshadowed in the _Dissertation_ of 1770; the _Kritik_,
  however, is no patchwork, and what appears in the _Dissertation_ takes
  an altogether new form when it is wrought into the more comprehensive
  conception of the later treatise.

  The particular problem which gave the occasion to the first of the
  precritical writings is, in an imperfect or particular fashion, the
  fundamental question to which the _Kritik_ is an answer. What is the
  nature of the distinction between knowledge gained by analysis of
  notions and knowledge of matters of fact? Kant seems never to have
  been satisfied with the Wolffian identification of logical axioms and
  of the principle of sufficient reason. The tract on the _False
  Subtlety of the Four Syllogistic Figures_, in which the view of
  thought or reason as analytic is clearly expressed, closes with the
  significant division of judgments into those which rest upon the
  logical axioms of identity and contradiction and those for which no
  logical ground can be shown. Such immediate or indemonstrable
  judgments, it is said, abound in our experience. They are, in fact, as
  Kant presently perceived, the foundations for all judgments regarding
  real existence. It was impossible that the question regarding their
  nature and legitimacy and their distinction from analytic judgments
  should not present itself to him. The three tracts belonging to the
  years 1763-1764 bring forward in the sharpest fashion the essential
  opposition between the two classes of judgments. In the _Essay on
  Negative Quantities_, the fundamental thought is the total distinction
  in kind between logical opposition (the contradictoriness of notions,
  which Kant always viewed as formed, definite products of thought) and
  real opposition. For the one adequate explanation is found in the
  logical axiom of analytical thinking; for the other no such
  explanation is to be had. Logical ground and real ground are totally
  distinct. "I can understand perfectly well," says Kant, "how a
  consequence follows from its reason according to the law of identity,
  since it is discoverable by mere analysis of the notion contained in
  it.... But how something follows from another thing and not according
  to the law of identity, this I should gladly have made clear to me....
  How shall I comprehend that, since something is, something else should
  be?" Real things, in short, are distinct existences, and, as distinct,
  not necessarily or logically connected in thought. "I have," he
  proceeds, "reflected on the nature of our knowledge in relation to our
  judgment of reason and consequent, and I intend to expound fully the
  result of my reflections. It follows from them that the relation of a
  real ground to that which is thereby posited or denied cannot be
  expressed by a judgment but only by means of a notion, which by
  analysis may certainly be reduced to yet simpler notions of real
  grounds, but yet in such a way that the final resort of all our
  cognition in this regard must be found in simple and irreducible
  notions of real grounds, the relation of which to their consequents
  cannot be made clear."

  The striking similarity between Kant's expressions in this _Essay_ and
  the remarks with which Hume introduces his analysis of the notion of
  cause has led to the supposition that at this period of his
  philosophical career Kant was definitely under the influence of the
  earlier empirical thinker. Consideration of the whole passage is quite
  sufficient to show the groundlessness of this supposition. The
  difficulty with which Kant is presented was one arising inevitably
  from reflection upon the Leibnitzian theory of knowledge, and the
  solution does not in any way go beyond that theory. It is a solution,
  in fact, which must have been impossible had the purport of Hume's
  empirical doctrine been present to Kant's mind. He is here at the
  point at which he remained for many years, accepting without any
  criticism certain fundamental notions as required for real cognition.
  His ideal of metaphysic is still that of complete analysis of given
  notions. No glimmering of the further question, Whence come these
  notions and with what right do we apply them in cognition? is yet
  apparent. Any direct influence from Hume must be referred to a later
  period in his career.

  The prize essay _On the Principles of Natural Theology and Morals_
  brings forward the same fundamental opposition--though in a special
  form. Here, for the first time, appears definitely the distinction
  between synthesis and analysis, and in the distinction is found the
  reason for the superior certainty and clearness of mathematics as
  opposed to philosophy. Mathematics, Kant thinks, proceeds
  synthetically, for in it the notions are constructed. Metaphysics, on
  the other hand, is analytical in method; in it the notions are given,
  and by analysis they are cleared up. It is to be observed that the
  description of mathematics as synthetic is not an anticipation of the
  critical doctrine on the same subject. Kant does not, in this place,
  raise the question as to the reason for assuming that the arbitrary
  syntheses of mathematical construction have any reference to reality.
  The deeper significance of synthesis has not yet become apparent.

  In the _Only Possible Ground of Proof for the Existence of God_, the
  argument, though largely Leibnitzian, advances one step farther
  towards the ultimate inquiry. For there Kant states as precisely as in
  the critique of speculative theology his fundamental doctrine that
  real existence is not a predicate to be added in thought to the
  conception of a possible subject. So far as subjective thought is
  concerned, possibility, not real existence, is contained in any
  judgment.

  The year 1765 was marked by the publication of Leibnitz's posthumous
  _Nouveaux Essais_, in which his theory of knowledge is more fully
  stated than in any of his previous tracts. In all probability Kant
  gave some attention to this work, though no special reference to it
  occurs in his writings, and it may have assisted to give additional
  precision to his doctrine. In the curious essay, _Dreams of a
  Clairvoyant_, published 1766, he emphasizes his previously reached
  conclusion that connexions of real fact are mediated in our thought by
  ultimate notions, but adds that the significance and warrant for such
  notions can be furnished only by experience. He is inclined,
  therefore, to regard as the function of metaphysics the complete
  statement of these ultimate, indemonstrable notions, and therefore the
  determination of the limits to knowledge by their means. Even at this
  point, where he approximates more closely to Hume than to any other
  thinker, the difficulty raised by Hume does not seem to occur to him.
  He still appears to think that experience does warrant the employment
  of such notions, and when there is taken into account his
  correspondence with Lambert during the next few years, one would be
  inclined to say that the _Architektonik_ of the latter represents most
  completely Kant's idea of philosophy.

  On another side Kant had been shaking himself free from the principles
  of the Leibnitzian philosophy. According to Leibnitz, space, the order
  of coexisting things, resulted from the relations of monads to one
  another. But Kant began to see that such a conception did not accord
  with the manner in which we determine directions or positions in
  space. In the curious little essay, _On the Ground of distinguishing
  Particular Divisions in Space_, he pointed out that the idea of space
  as a whole is not deducible from the experience of particular spaces,
  or particular relations of objects in space, that we only cognize
  relations in space by reference to space as a whole, and finally that
  definite positions involve reference to space as a given whole.

  The whole development of Kant's thought up to this point is
  intelligible when regarded from the Leibnitzian point of view, with
  which he started. There appears no reason to conclude that Hume at
  this time exercised any direct influence. One may go still further,
  and add that even in the _Dissertation_ of 1770, generally regarded as
  more than foreshadowing the _Kritik_, the really critical question is
  not involved. A brief notice of the contents of this tract will
  suffice to show how far removed Kant yet was from the methods and
  principles of the critical or transcendental philosophy. Sense and
  understanding, according to the _Dissertation_, are the two sources of
  knowledge. The objects of the one are things of sense or _phenomena_;
  the objects of the other are _noumena_. These are absolutely distinct,
  and are not to be regarded as differing only in degree. In _phenomena_
  we distinguish _matter_, which is given by sense, and _form_, which is
  the law of the order of sensations. Such form is twofold--the order of
  space and time. Sensations formed by space and time compose the world
  of appearance, and this when treated by the understanding, according
  to logical rules, is _experience_. But the logical use of the
  understanding is not its only use. Much more important is the _real_
  use, by which are produced the pure notions whereby we think things as
  they are. These pure notions are the laws of the operation of the
  intellect; they are _leges intellectus_.

  Apart, then, from the expanded treatment of space and time as
  subjective forms, we find in the _Dissertation_ little more than the
  very precise and definite formulation of the slowly growing opposition
  to the Leibnitzian doctrines. That the pure intellectual notions
  should be defended as springing from the nature of intellect is not
  out of harmony with the statement of the _Träume eines Geistersehers_,
  for there the pure notions were allowed to exist, but were not held to
  have validity for actual things except on grounds of experience. Here
  they are supposed to exist, dissevered from experience, and are
  allowed validity as determinations of things in themselves.

  The stage which Kant had now reached in his philosophical development
  was one of great significance. The doctrine of knowledge expressed in
  the _Dissertation_ was the final form which the Wolffian rationalism
  could assume for him, and, though many of the elements of the _Kritik_
  are contained therein, it was not really in advance of the Wolffian
  theory. The doctrine of space and time as forms of sense-perception,
  the reference of both space and time and the pure intellectual notions
  to the laws of the activity of mind itself, the distinction between
  sense and understanding as one of kind, not of degree, with the
  correlative distinction between phenomena and noumena,--all of these
  reappear, though changed and modified, in the _Kritik_. But, despite
  this resemblance, it seems clear that, so far as the _Dissertation_ is
  concerned, the way had only been prepared for the true critical
  inquiry, and that the real import of Hume's sceptical problem had not
  yet dawned upon Kant. From the manner, however, in which the doctrine
  of knowledge had been stated in the _Dissertation_, the further
  inquiry had been rendered inevitable. It had become quite impossible
  for Kant to remain longer satisfied with the ambiguous position
  assigned to a fundamental element of his doctrine of knowledge, the
  so-called pure intellectual notions. Those notions, according to the
  _Dissertation_, had no function save in relation to
  things-in-themselves, i.e. to objects which are not directly or
  immediately brought into relation to our faculty of cognition. They
  did not serve as the connecting links of formed experience; on the
  contrary, they were supposed to be absolutely dissevered from all
  experience which was possible for intelligence like ours. In his
  previous essays, Kant, while likewise maintaining that such pure,
  irreducible notions existed, had asserted in general terms that they
  applied to experience, and that their applicability or justification
  rested on experience itself, but had not raised the question as to the
  ground of such justification. Now, from another side, the supreme
  difficulty was presented--how could such notions have application to
  any objects whatsoever? For some time the correlative difficulty, how
  _objects_ of sense-perception were possible, does not seem to have
  suggested itself to Kant. In the _Dissertation_ sense-perception had
  been taken as receptivity of representations of objects, and
  experience as the product of the treatment of such representations by
  the logical or analytical processes of understanding. Some traces of
  this confused fashion of regarding sense-perceptions are left even in
  the _Kritik_, specially perhaps in the _Aesthetik_, and they give rise
  to much of the ambiguity which unfortunately attaches to the more
  developed theory of cognition. So soon, however, as the critical
  question was put, On what rests the reference of representations in us
  to the object or thing? in other words, How do we come to have
  knowledge of objects at all? it became apparent that the problem was
  one of perfect generality, and applied, not only to cognition through
  the pure notions, but to sense-perceptions likewise. It is in the
  statement of this general problem that we find the new and
  characteristic feature of Kant's work.

  There is thus no reason to doubt the substantial accuracy of Kant's
  reference to the particular occasion or cause of the critical inquiry.
  Up to the stage indicated by the _Dissertation_ he had been
  attempting, in various ways, to unite two radically divergent modes of
  explaining cognition--that which would account for the content of
  experience by reference to affection from things without us, and that
  which viewed the intellect itself as somehow furnished with the means
  of pure, rational cognition. He now discovered that Hume's sceptical
  analysis of the notion of cause was really the treatment of one
  typical or crucial instance of the much more general problem. If
  experience, says Hume, consists solely of states of mind somehow given
  to us, each of which exists as an effect, and therefore as distinct
  from others, with what right do we make the common assumption that
  parts of experience are necessarily connected? The only possible
  answer, drawn from the premises laid down, must be that there is no
  warrant for such an assumption. Necessity for thought, as Kant had
  been willing to admit and as Hume also held, involves or implies
  something more than is given in experience--for that which is given is
  contingent--and rests upon an a priori or pure notion. But a priori
  notions, did they exist, could have no claim to regulate experience.
  Hume, therefore, for his part, rejected entirely the notion of cause
  as being fictitious and delusive, and professed to account for the
  habit of regarding experience as necessarily connected by reference to
  arbitrarily formed custom of thinking. Experience, as given,
  contingent material, had a certain uniformity, and recurring
  uniformities generated in us the habit of regarding things as
  necessarily connected. That such a resort to experience for
  explanation could lead to no valid conclusion has been already noted
  as evident to Hume himself.

  The dogmatic or individualist conception of experience had thus proved
  itself inadequate to the solution of Hume's difficulty regarding the
  notion of cause,--a difficulty which Kant, erroneously, had thought to
  be the only case contemplated by his predecessor. The perception of
  its inadequacy in this respect, and the consequent generalization of
  Hume's problem, are the essential features of the new critical method.
  For Kant was now prepared to formulate his general inquiry in a
  definite fashion. His long-continued reflection on the Wolffian
  doctrine of knowledge had made clear to him that synthetic connexion,
  the essence of real cognition, was not contained in the products of
  thinking as a formal activity of mind operating on material otherwise
  supplied. On the other hand, Hume's analysis enabled him to see that
  synthetic connexion was not contained in experience regarded as given
  material. Thus neither the formal nor the material aspect of conscious
  experience, when regarded from the individualist point of view,
  supplied any foundation for real knowledge, whether a priori or
  empirical. An absolutely new conception of experience was necessary,
  if the fact of cognition was to be explained at all, and the various
  modes in which Kant expresses the business of his critical philosophy
  were merely different fashions of stating the one ultimate problem,
  differing according to the particular aspect of knowledge which he
  happened to have in view. To inquire how synthetic a priori judgments
  are possible, or how far cognition extends, or what worth attaches to
  metaphysical propositions, is simply to ask, in a specific form, what
  elements are necessarily involved in experience of which the subject
  is conscious. How is it possible for the individual thinking subject
  to connect together the parts of his experience in the mode we call
  cognition?

  The problem of the critical philosophy is, therefore, the complete
  analysis of experience from the point of view of the conditions under
  which such experience is possible for the conscious subject. The
  central ideas are thus self-consciousness, as the supreme condition
  under which experience is subjectively possible, and the manifold
  details of experience as a varied and complex whole. The solution of
  the problem demanded the utmost care in keeping the due balance
  between these ideas; and it can hardly be said that Kant was perfectly
  successful. He is frequently untrue to the more comprehensive
  conception which dominates his work as a whole. The influence of his
  previous philosophical training, nay, even the unconscious influence
  of terminology, frequently induces in his statements a certain laxity
  and want of clearness. He selects definitely for his starting point
  neither the idea of self-consciousness nor the details of experience,
  but in his actual procedure passes from one to the other, rarely, if
  ever, taking into full consideration the weighty question of their
  relation to one another. Above all, he is continuously under the
  influence of the individualist notion which he had done so much to
  explode. The conception of conscious experience, which is the net
  result of the _Kritik_, is indefinitely profounder and richer than
  that which had ruled the 18th century philosophizing, but for Kant
  such experience still appears as somehow the arbitrary product of the
  relation between the individual conscious subject and the realm of
  real facts. When he is actually analysing the conditions of knowledge,
  the influence of the individualist conception is not prominent; the
  conditions are stated as quite general, as conditions of knowledge.
  But so soon as the deeper, metaphysical problems present themselves,
  the shadow of the old doctrine reappears. Knowledge is regarded as a
  mechanical product, part furnished by the subject, part given to the
  subject, and is thus viewed as mechanically divisible into a priori
  and a posteriori, into pure and empirical, necessary and contingent.
  The individual as an agent, conscious of universal moral law, is yet
  regarded as in a measure opposed to experience, and the Kantian
  ethical code remains purely formal. The ultimate relation between
  intelligence and natural fact, expressed in the notion of end, is
  thought as problematic or contingent. The difficulties or obscurities
  of the Kantian system, of which the above are merely the more
  prominent, may all be traced to the one source, the false or at least
  inadequate idea of the individual. The more thorough explanation of
  the relation between experience as critically conceived and the
  individual subject was the problem left by Kant for his successors.

  In any detailed exposition of the critical system it would be
  requisite in the first place to state with some fullness the precise
  nature of the problems immediately before Kant, and in the second
  place to follow with some closeness the successive stages of the
  system as presented in the three main works, the _Kritik of Pure
  Reason_, the _Kritik of Practical Reason_ and the _Kritik of
  Judgment_, with the more important of the minor works, the _Metaphysic
  of Nature_ and the _Metaphysic of Ethics_. It would be necessary,
  also, in any such expanded treatment, to bring out clearly the Kantian
  classification of the philosophical sciences, and to indicate the
  relation between the critical or transcendental investigation of the
  several faculties and the more developed sciences to which that
  investigation serves as introduction. As any detailed statement of the
  critical system, however compressed, would be beyond the limits of the
  present article, it is proposed here to select only the more salient
  doctrines, and to point out in connexion with them what advance had
  been effected by Kant, and what remained for subsequent efforts at
  complete solution of the problems raised by him. Much that is of
  interest and value must necessarily be omitted in any sketch of so
  elaborate a system, and for all points of special interpretation
  reference must needs be made to the many elaborate dissertations on or
  about the Kantian philosophy.

  The doctrine from which Kant starts in his critical or transcendental
  investigation of knowledge is that to which the slow development of
  his thought had led him. The essence of cognition or knowledge was a
  synthetic act, an act of combining in thought the detached elements of
  experience. Now synthesis was explicable neither by reference to pure
  thought, the logical or elaborative faculty, which in Kant's view
  remained analytic in function, nor by reference to the effects of
  external real things upon our faculties of cognition. For, on the one
  hand, analysis or logical treatment applied only to objects of
  knowledge as already given in synthetic forms, and, on the other hand,
  real things could yield only isolated effects and not the combination
  of these effects in the forms of cognitive experience. If experience
  is to be matter of knowledge for the conscious subject, it must be
  regarded as the conjoint product of given material and synthetic
  combination. Form and matter may indeed be regarded separably and
  dealt with in isolation for purposes of critical inquiry, but in
  experience they are necessarily and inseparably united. The problem of
  the _Kritik_ thus becomes for Kant the complete statement of the
  elements necessarily involved in synthesis, and of the subjective
  processes by which these elements are realized in our individual
  consciousness. He is not asking, with Locke, whence the details of
  experience arise; he is not attempting a natural history of the growth
  of experience in the individual mind; but he is endeavouring to state
  exhaustively what conditions are necessarily involved in any fact of
  knowledge, i.e. in any synthetic combination of parts of experience by
  the conscious subject.

  So far as the elements necessarily involved in conscious experience
  are concerned, these may be enumerated briefly thus:--given data of
  sense, inner or outer; the forms of perception, i.e. space and time;
  the forms of thought, i.e. the categories; the ultimate condition of
  knowledge, the identity of the pure ego or self. The ego or self is
  the central unity in reference to which alone is any part of
  experience cognizable. But the consciousness of self is the foundation
  of knowledge only when related to given material. The ego has not in
  itself the element of difference, and the essence of knowledge is the
  consciousness of unity in difference. For knowledge, therefore, it is
  necessary that difference should be _given_ to the ego. The modes
  under which it is possible for such given difference to become portion
  of the conscious experience of the ego, the modes under which the
  isolated data can be synthetically combined so as to form a cognizable
  whole, make up the form of cognition, and upon this form rests the
  possibility of any a priori or rational knowledge.

  The notion of the ego as a purely logical unity, containing in itself
  no element of difference, and having only analytical identity, is
  fundamental in the critical system, and lies at the root of all its
  difficulties and perplexities. To say that the ego as an individual
  does not _produce_ the world of experience is by no means the same as
  to say that the ego is pure unity without element of difference. In
  the one case we are treating the ego as one of the objects of
  experience and denying of it productive efficacy; in the second case
  we are dealing with the unity of the ego as a condition of knowledge,
  of any experience whatsoever. In this second sense, it is wholly wrong
  to assert that the ego is pure identity, pure unity. The unity and
  identity of the ego, so regarded, are taken in abstraction, i.e. as
  dissevered from the more complex whole of which they are necessary
  elements. When the ego is taken as a condition of knowledge, its unity
  is not more important than the difference necessarily correlated with
  it. That the ego as a thing should not produce difference is quite
  beside the mark. The consequences of the abstract separation which
  Kant so draws between the ego and the world of experience are apparent
  throughout his whole system. Assuming at the outset an opposition
  between the two, self and matter of knowledge, he is driven by the
  exigencies of the problem of reconciliation to insert term after term
  as means of bringing them together, but never succeeds in attaining a
  junction which is more than mechanical. To the end, the ego remains,
  partly the pure logical ego, partly the concrete individual spirit,
  and no explanation is afforded of the relation between them. It is for
  this reason that the system of forms of perception and categories
  appears so contingent and haphazard. No attempt is made to show how or
  why the difference supplied for the pure logical ego should present
  itself necessarily under these forms. They are regarded rather as
  portions of the subjective mechanism of the individual consciousness.
  The mind or self appears as though it were endowed with a complex
  machinery by which alone it could act upon the material supplied to
  it. Such a crude conception is far, indeed, from doing justice to
  Kant's view, but it undoubtedly represents the underlying assumption
  of many of his cardinal doctrines. The philosophy of Fichte is
  historically interesting as that in which the deficiencies of Kant's
  fundamental position were first discerned and the attempt made to
  remedy them.

  Unfortunately for the consistency of the _Kritik_, Kant does not
  attempt to work out systematically the elements involved in knowledge
  before considering the subjective processes by which knowledge is
  realized in consciousness. He mixes up the two inquiries, and in the
  general division of his work depends rather upon the results of
  previous psychology than upon the lines prescribed by his own new
  conception of experience. He treats the elements of cognition
  separately in connexion with the several subjective processes involved
  in knowledge, viz. sense and understanding. Great ambiguity is the
  natural result of this procedure. For it was not possible for Kant to
  avoid the misleading connotation of the terms employed by him. In
  strictness, sense, understanding, imagination and reason ought to have
  had their functions defined in close relation to the elements of
  knowledge with which they are severally connected, and as these
  elements have no existence as separate facts, but only as factors in
  the complex organic whole, it might have been possible to avoid the
  error of supposing that each subjective process furnished a distinct,
  separately cognizable portion of a mechanical whole. But the use of
  separate terms, such as sense and understanding, almost unavoidably
  led to phraseology only interpretable as signifying that each
  furnished a specific kind of knowledge, and all Kant's previous
  training contributed to strengthen this erroneous view. Especially
  noteworthy is this in the case of the categories. Kant insists upon
  treating these as _Begriffe_, notions, and assigns to them certain
  characteristics of notions. But it is readily seen, and in the _Logik_
  Kant shows himself fully aware of the fact, that these pure connective
  links of experience, general aspects of objects of intelligible
  experience, do not resemble concepts formed by the so-called logical
  or elaborative processes from representations of completed objects.
  Nothing but harm can follow from any attempt to identify two products
  which differ so entirely. So, again, the _Aesthetik_ is rendered
  extremely obscure and difficult by the prevalence of the view, already
  noted as obtaining in the _Dissertation_, that sense is a faculty
  receiving representations of objects. Kant was anxious to avoid the
  error of Leibnitz, who had taken sense and understanding to differ in
  degree only, not in kind; but in avoiding the one error he fell into
  another of no less importance.

  The consideration of the several elements which in combination make up
  the fact of cognition, or perception, as it may be called, contains
  little or nothing bearing on the origin and nature of the given data
  of sense, inner or outer. The manifold of sense, which plays so
  important a part in the critical theory of knowledge, is left in an
  obscure and perplexed position. So much is clear, however, that
  according to Kant sense is not to be regarded as receptive of
  representations of objects. The data of sense are mere _stimuli_, not
  partial or confused representations. The sense-manifold is not to be
  conceived as having, _per se_, any of the qualities of objects as
  actually cognized; its parts are not cognizable _per se_, nor can it
  with propriety be said to be received successively or simultaneously.
  When we apply predicates to the sense-manifold regarded in isolation,
  we make that which is only a factor in the experience of objects into
  a separate, independent object, and use our predicates transcendently.
  Kant is not always in his language faithful to his view of the
  sense-manifold, but the theory as a whole, together with his own
  express definitions, is unmistakable. On the origin of the data of
  sense, Kant's remarks are few and little satisfactory. He very
  commonly employs the term _affection_ of the faculty of sense as
  expressing the mode of origin, but offers no further explanation of a
  term which has significance only when interpreted after a somewhat
  mechanical fashion. Unquestionably certain of his remarks indicate the
  view that the origin is to be sought in things-in-themselves, but
  against hasty misinterpretations of such remarks there are certain
  cautions to be borne in mind. The relation between phenomena and
  noumena in the Kantian system does not in the least resemble that
  which plays so important a part in modern psychology--between the
  subjective results of sense affection and the character of the
  objective conditions of such affection. Kant has pointedly declared
  that it would be a gross absurdity to suppose that in his view
  separate, distinct things-in-themselves existed corresponding to the
  several objects of perception. And, finally, it is not at all
  difficult to understand why Kant should say that the affection of
  sense originated in the action of things-in-themselves, when we
  consider what was the thing-in-itself to which he was referring. The
  thing-in-itself to which the empirical order and relations of
  sense-experience are referred is the divine order, which is not matter
  of knowledge, but involved in our practical or moral beliefs. Critics
  who limit their view to the _Kritik of Pure Reason_, and there, in all
  probability, to the first or constructive portion of the work, must
  necessarily fail to interpret the doctrines of the Kantian system,
  which do not become clear or definite till the system has been
  developed. Reason was, for Kant, an organic whole; the speculative and
  moral aspects are never severed; and the solution of problems which
  appear at first sight to belong solely to the region of speculative
  thought may be found ultimately to depend upon certain characteristics
  of our nature as practical.

  Data of sense-affection do not contain in themselves synthetic
  combination. The first conditions of such combination are found by
  Kant in the universal forms under which alone sense-phenomena manifest
  themselves in experience. These universal forms of perception, space
  and time, are necessary, a priori, and in characteristic features
  resembling intuitions, not notions. They occupy, therefore, a peculiar
  position, and one section of the _Kritik_, the _Aesthetik_, is
  entirely devoted to the consideration of them. It is important to
  observe that it is only through the a priori character of these
  perceptive forms that rational science of nature is at all possible.
  Kant is here able to resume, with fresh insight, his previous
  discussions regarding the synthetic character of mathematical
  propositions. In his early essays he had rightly drawn the distinction
  between mathematical demonstration and philosophic proof, referring
  the certainty of the first to the fact that the constructions were
  synthetic in character and entirely determined by the action of
  constructive imagination. It had not then occurred to him to ask, With
  what right do we assume that the conclusions arrived at from arbitrary
  constructions in mathematical matter have applicability to objects of
  experience? Might not mathematics be a purely imaginary science? To
  this question he is now enabled to return an answer. Space and time,
  the two essential conditions of sense-perception, are not data given
  by things, but universal forms of intellect into which all data of
  sense must be received. Hence, whatever is true of space and time
  regarded by imagination as objects, i.e. quantitative constructions,
  must be true of the objects making up our sense-experience. The same
  forms and the same constructive activity of imagination are involved
  in mathematical synthesis and in the constitution of objects of
  sense-experience. The foundation for pure or rational mathematics,
  there being included under this the pure science of movement, is thus
  laid in the critical doctrine of space and time.

  The _Aesthetik_ isolates sense-perception, and considers its forms as
  though it were an independent, complete faculty. A certain confusion,
  arising from this, is noticeable in the _Analytik_ when the necessity
  for justifying the position of the categories is under discussion, but
  the real difficulty in which Kant was involved by his doctrine of
  space and time has its roots even deeper than the erroneous isolation
  of sensibility. He has not in any way "deduced" space and time, but,
  proceeding from the ordinary current view of sense-experience, has
  found these remaining as residuum after analysis. The relation in
  which they stand to the categories or pure notions is ambiguous; and,
  when Kant has to consider the fashion in which category and data of
  sense are to be brought together, he merely places side by side as a
  priori elements the pure connective notions and the pure forms of
  perception, and finds it, apparently, only a matter of contingent
  convenience that they should harmonize with one another and so render
  cognition possible. To this point also Fichte was the first to call
  attention.

  Affection of sense, even when received into the pure forms of
  perception, is not matter of knowledge. For cognition there is
  requisite synthetic combination, and the intellectual function through
  which such combination takes place. The forms of intellectual function
  Kant proceeds to enumerate with the aid of the commonly received
  logical doctrines. For this reference to logic he has been severely
  blamed, but the precise nature of the debt due to the commonly
  accepted logical classification is very generally misconceived.
  Synthetic combination, Kant points out, is formally expressed in a
  judgment, which is the act of uniting representations. At the
  foundation of the judgments which express the types of synthetic
  combination, through which knowledge is possible, lie the pure general
  notions, the abstract aspect of the conditions under which objects are
  cognizable in experience. General logic has also to deal with the
  union of representations, though its unity is analytic merely, not
  synthetic. But the same intellectual function which serves to give
  unity in the analytic judgments of formal logic serves to give unity
  to the synthetic combinations of real perception. It appeared evident,
  then, to Kant that in the forms of judgment, as they are stated in the
  common logic, there must be found the analogues of the types of
  judgment which are involved in transcendental logic, or in the theory
  of real cognition. His view of the ordinary logic was wide and
  comprehensive, though in his restriction of the science to pure form
  one can trace the influence of his earlier training, and it is no
  small part of the value of the critical philosophy that it has revived
  the study of logic and prepared the way for a more thorough
  consideration of logical doctrines. The position assigned to logic by
  Kant is not, in all probability, one which can be defended; indeed, it
  is hard to see how Kant himself, in consistency with the critical
  doctrine of knowledge, could have retained many of the older logical
  theorems, but the precision with which the position was stated, and
  the sharpness with which logic was marked off from cognate philosophic
  disciplines, prepared the way for the more thoughtful treatment of the
  whole question.

  Formal logic thus yields to Kant the list of the general notions, pure
  intellectual predicates, or categories, through which alone experience
  is possible for a conscious subject. It has already been noted how
  serious was the error involved in the description of these as notions,
  without further attempt to clear up their precise significance. Kant,
  indeed, was mainly influenced by his strong opposition to the
  Leibnitzian rationalism, and therefore assigns the categories to
  understanding, the logical faculty, without consideration of the
  question,--which might have been suggested by the previous statements
  of the _Dissertation_,--what relation these categories held to the
  empirical notions formed by comparison, abstraction and generalization
  when directed upon representations of objects. But when the categories
  are described as notions, i.e. formed products of thought, there rises
  of necessity the problem which had presented itself to Kant at every
  stage of his precritical thinking,--with what right can we assume that
  these notions apply to objects of experience? The answer which he
  proceeds to give altogether explodes the definition of the categories
  as formed products of thought, and enables us to see more clearly the
  nature of the new conception of experience which lies in the
  background of all the critical work.

  The unity of the ego, which has been already noted as an element
  entering into the synthesis of cognition, is a unity of a quite
  distinct and peculiar kind. That the ego to which different parts of
  experience are presented must be the same ego, if there is to be
  cognition at all, is analytically evident; but the peculiarity is that
  the ego must be conscious of its own unity and identity, and this
  unity of self-consciousness is only possible in relation to difference
  not contained in the ego but given to it. The unity of apperception,
  then, as Kant calls it, is only possible in relation to synthetic
  unity of experience itself, and the forms of this synthetic unity, the
  categories, are, therefore, on the one hand, necessary as forms in
  which self-consciousness is realized, and, on the other hand,
  restricted in their application and validity to the data of given
  sense, or the particular element of experience. Thus experience
  presents itself as the organic combination of the particular of sense
  with the individual unity of the ego through the universal forms of
  the categories. Reference of representations to the unity of the
  object, synthetic unity of apperception, and subsumption of data of
  sense under the categories, are thus three sides or aspects of the one
  fundamental fact.

  In this deduction of the categories, as Kant calls it, there appears
  for the first time an endeavour to connect together into one organic
  whole the several elements entering into experience. It is evident,
  however, that much was wanting before this essential task could be
  regarded as complete. Kant has certainly brought together
  self-consciousness, the system of the categories and data of sense. He
  has shown that the conditions of self-consciousness are the conditions
  of possible experience. But he has not shown, nor did he attempt to
  show, how it was that the conditions of self-consciousness are the
  very categories arrived at by consideration of the system of logical
  judgments. He does endeavour to show, but with small success, how the
  junction of category and data of sense is brought about, for according
  to his scheme these stood, to a certain extent at least, apart from
  and independent of one another. The failure to effect an organic
  combination of the several elements was the natural consequence of the
  false start which had been made.

  The mode in which Kant endeavours to show how the several portions of
  cognition are subjectively realized brings into the clearest light the
  inconsistencies and imperfections of his doctrine. Sense had been
  assumed as furnishing the particular of knowledge, understanding as
  furnishing the universal; and it had been expressly declared that the
  particular was cognizable only in and through the universal. Still,
  each was conceived as somehow in itself complete and finished. Sense
  and understanding had distinct functions, and there was wanting some
  common term, some intermediary which should bring them into
  conjunction. Data of sense as purely particular could have nothing in
  common with the categories as purely universal. But data of sense had
  at least one universal aspect,--their aspect as the particular of the
  general forms, space and time. Categories were in themselves abstract
  and valueless, serviceable only when restricted to possible objects of
  experience. There was thus a common ground on which category and
  intuition were united in one, and an intermediate process whereby the
  universal of the category might be so far individualized as to
  comprehend the particular of sense. This intermediate process--which
  is really the junction of understanding and sense--Kant calls
  productive imagination, and it is only through productive imagination
  that knowledge or experience is actually realized in our subjective
  consciousness. The specific forms of productive imagination are called
  _schemata_, and upon the nature of the schema Kant gives much that has
  proved of extreme value for subsequent thought.

  Productive imagination is thus the concrete element of knowledge, and
  its general modes are the abstract expression of the a priori laws of
  all possible experience. The categories are restricted in their
  applicability to the schema, i.e. to the pure forms of conjunction of
  the manifold in time, and in the modes of combination of schemata and
  categories we have the foundation for the rational sciences of
  mathematics and physics. Perception or real cognition is thus
  conceived as a complex fact, involving data of sense and pure
  perceptive forms, determined by the category and realized through
  productive imagination in the schema. The system of principles which
  may be deduced from the consideration of the mode in which
  understanding and sense are united by productive imagination is the
  positive result of the critical theory of knowledge, and some of its
  features are remarkable enough to deserve attention. According to his
  usual plan, Kant arranges these principles in conformity with the
  table of the categories, dividing the four classes, however, into two
  main groups, the mathematical and the dynamical. The mathematical
  principles are the abstract expression of the necessary mode in which
  data of sense are determined by the category in the form of intuitions
  or representations of objects; the dynamical are the abstract
  expression of the modes in which the existence of objects of intuition
  is determined. The mathematical principles are constitutive, i.e.
  express determinations of the objects themselves; the dynamical are
  regulative, i.e. express the conditions under which objects can form
  parts of real experience. Under the mathematical principles come the
  general rules which furnish the ground for the application of
  quantitative reasoning to real facts of experience. For as data of
  sense are only possible objects when received in the forms of space
  and time, and as space and time are only cognized when determined in
  definite fashion by the understanding through the schema of number
  (quantity) or degree (quality), all intuitions are extensive
  quantities and contain a real element, that of sense, which has
  degree. Under the dynamical principles, the general modes in which the
  existence of objects are determined, fall the analogies of experience,
  or general rules according to which the existence of objects in
  relation to one another can be determined, and the postulates of
  experience, the general rules according to which the existence of
  objects for us or our own subjective existence can be determined. The
  analogies of experience rest upon the order of perceptions in time,
  i.e. their permanence, succession or coexistence, and the principles
  are respectively those of substance, causality and reciprocity. It is
  to be observed that Kant in the expression of these analogies reaches
  the final solution of the difficulty which had so long pressed upon
  him, the difficulty as to the relation of the pure connective notions
  to experience. These notions are not directly applicable to
  experience, nor do we find in experience anything corresponding to the
  pure intellectual notions of substance, cause and reciprocity. But
  experience is for us the combination of data of sense in the forms of
  productive imagination, forms determined by the pure intellectual
  notions, and accordingly experience is possible for us only as in
  modes corresponding to the notions. The permanent in time is substance
  in any possible experience, and no experience is possible save through
  the determination of all changes as in relation to a permanent in
  time. Determined sequence is the causal relation in any possible
  experience, and no experience is possible save through the
  determination of perceived changes as in relation to a determined
  order in time. So with coexistence and reciprocity.

  The postulates of experience are general expressions of the
  significance of existence in the experience of a conscious subject.
  The element of reality in such experience must always be given by
  intuition, and, so far as determination of existence is assumed,
  external intuition is a necessary condition of inner intuition. The
  existence of external things is as certain as the existence of the
  concrete subject, and the subject cannot cognise himself as existing
  save in relation to the world of facts of external perception. Inner
  and outer reality are strictly correlative elements in the experience
  of the conscious subject.

  Throughout the positive portion of his theory of cognition, Kant has
  been beset by the doctrine that the categories, as finished, complete
  notions, have an import or significance transcending the bounds of
  possible experience. Morever, the manner in which space and time had
  been treated made it possible for him to regard these as contingent
  forms, necessary for intelligences like ours, but not to be viewed as
  absolutely necessary. The real meaning of these peculiarities is
  hardly ever expressed by him, though it is clear that the solution of
  the matter is to be found in the inadequacy of the positive theory to
  meet the demands of reason for completed explanation. But the
  conclusion to which he was led was one of the greatest importance for
  the after development of his system. Cognition is necessarily limited.
  The categories are restricted in their application to elements of
  possible experience to that which is presented in intuition, and all
  intuition is for the ego contingent. But to assert that cognition is
  limited and its matter contingent is to form the idea of an
  intelligence for whom cognition would not be limited and for whom the
  data of intuition would not be given, contingent facts, but
  necessarily produced along with the pure categories. This idea of an
  intuitive understanding is the definite expression for the complete
  explanation which reason demands, and it involves the conception of a
  realm of objects for such an understanding, a realm of objects which,
  in opposition to the _phenomena_ of our relative and limited
  experience, may be called _noumena_ or things-in-themselves. The
  _noumenon_, therefore, is in one way the object of a non-sensuous
  intuition, but more correctly is the expression of the limited and
  partial character of our knowledge. The idea of a noumenon is thus a
  limiting notion.

  Assuredly, the difficult section of the _Kritik_, on the ground of the
  distinction between phenomena and noumena, would not have led to so
  much misconception as it has done, had Kant then brought forward what
  lies at the root of the distinction, his doctrine of reason and its
  functions. Understanding, as has been seen, is the faculty of
  cognition strictly so called; and within its realm, that of space,
  time and matter, positive knowledge is attainable. But the ultimate
  conception of understanding, that of the world of objects,
  quantitatively determined, and standing in relation of mutual
  reciprocity to one another, is not a final ground of explanation. We
  are still able and necessitated to reflect upon the whole world of
  phenomena as thus cognized, and driven to inquire after its
  significance. In our reflection we necessarily treat the objects, not
  as phenomena, as matters of positive, scientific knowledge, but as
  things-in-themselves, as noumena. The distinction between phenomena
  and noumena is, therefore, nothing but the expression of the
  distinction between understanding and reason, a distinction which,
  according to Kant, is merely subjective.

  The specific function of reason is the effort after completed
  explanation of the experience presented in cognition. But in such
  effort there are no notions to be employed other than the categories,
  and these, as has already been seen, have validity only in reference
  to objects of possible experience. We may expect, then, to find the
  transcendent employment of the categories leading into various
  difficulties and inconsistencies. The criticism of reason in its
  specific aspect throws fresh light on the limits to human knowledge
  and the significance of experience.

  Experience has presented itself as the complex result of relation
  between the ego or subject and the world of phenomena. Reason may
  therefore attempt a completed explanation either of the ego or of the
  world of phenomena or of the total relation between them. The three
  inquiries correspond to the subjects of the three ancient metaphysical
  sciences, rational psychology, rational cosmology, rational theology.
  It is readily seen, in regard to the first of them, that all attempts
  to determine the nature of the ego as a simple, perdurable, immaterial
  substance rest upon a confusion between the ego as pure logical unity
  and the ego as object of intuition, and involve a transcendent use of
  the categories of experience. It profits not to apply such categories
  to the soul, for no intuition corresponding to them is or can be
  given. The idea of the soul must be regarded as transcendent. So too
  when we endeavour, with the help of the categories of quantity,
  quality, relation and modality, to determine the nature and relation
  of parts of the world, we find that reason is landed in a peculiar
  difficulty. Any solution that can be given is too narrow for the
  demands of reason and too wide for the restrictions of understanding.
  The transcendent employment of the categories leads to antinomy, or
  equally balanced statements of apparently contradictory results. Due
  attention to the relation between understanding and reason enables us
  to solve the antinomies and to discover their precise origin and
  significance. Finally, the endeavour to find in the conception of God,
  as the supreme reality, the explanation of experience, is seen to lead
  to no valid conclusion. There is not any intuition given whereby we
  might show the reality of our idea of a Supreme Being. So far as
  knowledge is concerned, God remains a transcendental ideal.

  The criticism of the transcendental ideas, which is also the
  examination of the claims of metaphysic to rank as a science, yields a
  definite and intelligible result. These ideas, the expression of the
  various modes in which unity of reason may be sought, have no objects
  corresponding to them in the sphere of cognition. They have not,
  therefore, like the categories, any _constitutive_ value, and all
  attempts at metaphysical construction with the notions or categories
  of science must be resigned as of necessity hopeless. But the ideas
  are not, on that account, destitute of all value. They are supremely
  significant, as indicating the very essence of the function of reason.
  The limits of scientific cognition become intelligible, only when the
  sphere of understanding is subjected to critical reflexion and
  compared with the possible sphere of reason, that is, the sphere of
  rationally complete cognition. The ideas, therefore, in relation to
  knowledge strictly so called, have _regulative_ value, for they
  furnish the general precepts for extension and completion of
  knowledge, and, at the same time, since they spring from reason
  itself, they have a real value in relation to reason as the very
  inmost nature of intelligence. Self-consciousness cannot be regarded
  as merely a mechanically determined result. Free reflection upon the
  whole system of knowledge is sufficient to indicate that the sphere of
  intuition, with its rational principles, does not exhaust conscious
  experience. There still remains, over and above the realm of nature,
  the realm of free, self-conscious spirit; and, within this sphere, it
  may be anticipated that the ideas will acquire a significance richer
  and deeper than the merely regulative import which they possess in
  reference to cognition.

  Where, then, are we to look for this realm of free self-consciousness?
  Not in the sphere of cognition, where objects are mechanically
  determined, but in that of will or of reason as practical. That reason
  is practical or prescribes ends for itself is sufficiently manifest
  from the mere fact of the existence of the conception of morality or
  duty, a conception which can have no corresponding object within the
  sphere of intuition, and which is theoretically, or in accordance with
  the categories of understanding, incognizable. The presence of this
  conception is the datum upon which may be founded a special
  investigation of the conditions of reason as practical, a _Kritik_ of
  pure practical reason, and the analysis of it yields the statement of
  the formal prescripts of morality.

  The realization of duty is impossible for any being which is not
  thought as free, i.e. capable of self-determination. Freedom, it is
  true, is theoretically not an object of cognition, but its
  impossibility is not thereby demonstrated. The theoretical proof
  rather serves as useful aid towards the more exact determination of
  the nature and province of self-determination, and of its relation to
  the whole concrete nature of humanity. For in man self-determination
  and mechanical determination by empirical motives coexist, and only in
  so far as he belongs and is conscious of belonging both to the sphere
  of sense and to the sphere of reason does moral obligation become
  possible for him. The supreme end prescribed by reason in its
  practical aspect, namely, the complete subordination of the empirical
  side of nature to the prescripts of morality, demands, as conditions
  of its possible realization, the permanence of ethical progress in the
  moral agent, the certainty of freedom in self-determination, and the
  necessary harmonizing of the spheres of sense and reason through the
  intelligent author or ground of both. These conditions, the postulates
  of practical reason, are the concrete expressions of the three
  transcendental ideas, and in them we have the full significance of the
  ideas for reason. Immortality of the soul, positive freedom of will,
  and the existence of an intelligent ground of things are speculative
  ideas practically warranted, though theoretically neither demonstrable
  nor comprehensible.

  Thus reason as self-determining supplies notions of freedom; reason as
  determined supplies categories of understanding. Union between the two
  spheres, which seem at first sight disparate, is found in the
  necessary postulate that reason shall be realized, for its realization
  is only possible in the sphere of sense. But such a union, when
  regarded _in abstracto_, rests upon, or involves, a notion of quite a
  new order, that of the adaptation of nature to reason, or, as it may
  be expressed, that of end in nature. Understanding and reason thus
  coalesce in the faculty of _judgment_, which mediates between, or
  brings together, the universal and particular elements in conscious
  experience. Judgment is here merely _reflective_; that is to say, the
  particular element is given, so determined as to be possible material
  of knowledge, while the universal, not necessary for cognition, is
  supplied by reason itself. The empirical details of nature, which are
  not determined by the categories of understanding, are judged as being
  arranged or ordered by intelligence, for in no other fashion could
  nature, in its particular, contingent aspect, be thought as forming a
  complete, consistent, intelligible whole.

  The investigation of the conditions under which adaptation of nature
  to intelligence is conceivable and possible makes up the subject of
  the third great _Kritik_, the _Kritik of Judgment_, a work presenting
  unusual difficulties to the interpreter of the Kantian system. The
  general principle of the adaptation of nature to our faculties of
  cognition has two specific applications, with the second of which it
  is more closely connected than with the first. In the first place, the
  adaptation may be merely _subjective_, when the empirical condition
  for the exercise of judgment is furnished by the feeling of pleasure
  or pain; such adaptation is aesthetic. In the second place, the
  adaptation may be objective or logical, when empirical facts are given
  of such a kind that their possibility can be conceived only through
  the notion of the end realized in them; such adaptation is
  teleological, and the empirical facts in question are organisms.

  Aesthetics, or the scientific consideration of the judgments resting
  on the feelings of pleasure and pain arising from the harmony or want
  of harmony between the particular of experience and the laws of
  understanding, is the special subject of the _Kritik of Judgment_, but
  the doctrine of teleology there unfolded is the more important for the
  complete view of the critical system. For the analysis of the
  teleological judgment and of the consequences flowing from it leads to
  the final statement of the nature of experience as conceived by Kant.
  The phenomena of organic production furnish data for a special kind of
  judgment, which, however, involves or rests upon a quite general
  principle, that of the contingency of the particular element in nature
  and its subjectively necessary adaptation to our faculty of cognition.
  The notion of contingency arises, according to Kant, from the fact
  that understanding and sense are distinct, that understanding does not
  determine the particular of sense, and, consequently, that the
  principle of the adaptation of the particular to our understanding is
  merely supplied by reason on account of the peculiarity or limited
  character of understanding. End in nature, therefore, is a subjective
  or problematic conception, implying the limits of understanding, and
  consequently resting upon the idea of an understanding constituted
  unlike ours--of an intuitive understanding in which particular and
  universal should be given together. The idea of such an understanding
  is, for cognition, transcendent, for no corresponding fact of
  intuition is furnished, but it is realized with practical certainty in
  relation to reason as practical. For we are, from practical grounds,
  compelled with at least practical necessity to ascribe a certain aim
  or end to this supreme understanding. The moral law, or reason as
  practical, prescribes the realization of the highest good, and such
  realization implies a higher order than that of nature. We must,
  therefore, regard the supreme cause as a moral cause, and nature as so
  ordered that realization of the moral end is in it possible. The final
  conception of the Kantian philosophy is, therefore, that of ethical
  teleology. As Kant expresses it in a remarkable passage of the
  _Kritik_, "The systematic unity of ends in this world of
  intelligences, which, although as mere nature it is to be called only
  the world of sense, can yet as a system of freedom be called an
  intelligible, i.e. moral world (_regnum gratiae_), leads inevitably to
  the teleological unity of all things which constitute this great whole
  according to universal natural laws, just as the unity of the former
  is according to universal and necessary moral laws, and unites the
  practical with the speculative reason. The world must be represented
  as having originated from an idea, if it is to harmonize with that use
  of reason without which we should hold ourselves unworthy of
  reason--viz. the moral use, which rests entirely on the idea of the
  supreme good. Hence all natural research tends towards the form of a
  system of ends, and in its highest development would be a
  physico-theology. But this, since it arises from the moral order as a
  unity grounded in the very essence of freedom and not accidentally
  instituted by external commands, establishes the teleology of nature
  on grounds which a priori must be inseparably connected with the inner
  possibility of things. The teleology of nature is thus made to rest on
  a transcendental theology, which takes the ideal of supreme
  ontological perfection as a principle of systematic unity, a principle
  which connects all things according to universal and necessary natural
  laws, since they all have their origin in the absolute necessity of a
  single primal being" (p. 538).

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Editions and works of reference are exceedingly
  numerous. Since 1896 an indispensable guide is the periodical review
  _Kantstudien_ (Hamburg and Berlin, thrice yearly), edited by Hans
  Vaihinger and Bruno Bauch, which contains admirable original articles
  and notices of all important books on Kant and Kantianism. It has
  reproduced a number of striking portraits of Kant. For books up to
  1887 see Erich Adickes in _Philosophical Review_ (Boston, 1892 foll.);
  for 1890-1894 R. Reicke's _Kant Bibliographie_ (1895). See also in
  general the latest edition of Ueberweg's _Grundriss der Geschichte der
  Philosophie_.

  EDITIONS.--Complete editions of Kant's works are as follows: (1) G.
  Hartenstein (Leipzig, 1838-1839, 10 vols.); (2) K. Rosenkranz and F.
  W. Schubert (Leipzig, 1838-1840, 12 vols., the 12th containing a
  history of the Kantian school); (3) G. Hartenstein, "in chronological
  order" (Leipzig, 1867-1869, 8 vols.); (4) Kirchmann (in the
  "Philosophische Bibliothek," Berlin, 1868-1873, 8 vols, and
  supplement); (5) under the auspices of the Königlich Preussische
  Akademie der Wissenschaften, a new collected edition was begun in 1900
  (vol. ii., 1906) in charge of a number of editors. It was planned in
  four sections: Works, Letters, MSS. Remains and _Vorlesungen_. There
  are also useful editions of the three _Kritiks_ by Kehrbach, and
  critical editions of the _Prolegomena_ and _Kritik der reinen
  Vernunft_ by B. Erdmann (see also his _Beiträge zur Geschichte und
  Revision des Textes von Kants Kritik der reinen Vernunft_ (1900). A
  useful selection (in English) is that of John Watson, _The Philosophy
  of Kant_ (Glasgow, 1888).

  TRANSLATIONS.--There are translations in all the principal languages.
  The chief English translators are J. P. Mahaffy, W. Hastie, T. K.
  Abbott, J. H. Bernard and Belfort Bax. Their versions have been
  mentioned in the section on "Works" above.

  BIOGRAPHICAL.--Schubert in the 11th vol. of Rosenkranz's edition;
  Borowski, _Darstellung des Lebens und Charakters Kants_ (Königsberg,
  1804); Wasianski, _Kant in seinen letzten Lebensjahren_ (Königsberg,
  1804); Stuckenberg, _The Life of Immanuel Kant_ (1882); Rudolf Reicke,
  _Kants Briefwechsel_ (1900). See also several of the critical works
  below. On Kant's portraits see D. Minden, _Ueber Portraits und
  Abbildungen Imm. Kants_ (1868) and cf. frontispieces of _Kantstudien_
  (as above).

  CRITICAL (in alphabetical order of authors).--R. Adamson, _Philosophy
  of Kant_ (1879; Germ. trans., 1880); Felix Adler, _A Critique of
  Kant's Ethics_ (1908); S. Aicher, _Kants Begriff der Erkenntnis
  verglichen mit dem des Aristoteles_ (1907); M. Apel, _Immanuel Kant:
  Ein Bild seines Lebens und Denkens_ (1904); Arnoldt, _Kritische
  Exkurse im Gebiete der Kantforschung_ (1894); C. Bache, "_Kants
  Prinzip der Autonomie im Verhältnis zur Idee des Reichs der Zwecke_"
  (_Kantstudien_, 1909); B. Bauch, _Luther und Kant_ (1904); Paul Boehm,
  _Die vorkritischen Schriften Kants_ (1906); E. Caird, _Critical
  Philosophy of Kant_ (2 vols., 1889); Chalybäus, _Historische
  Entwickelung der spekulativen Philosophie von Kant bis Hegel_ (5th
  ed., 1860); H. S. Chamberlain, _Immanuel Kant_ (1909); Cousin, _Leçons
  sur la philosophie de Kant_ (4th ed., 1864); B. Erdmann, _Immanuel
  Kant, Kants Kritizismus in der 1 und 2 Auflage der "Kritik der reinen
  Vernunft_" (1877); O. Ewald, _Kants kritischer Idealismus als
  Grundlage von Erkenntnistheorie und Ethik_ (1908) and _Kants
  Methodologie in ihren Grundzügen_ (1906); Kuno Fischer, _Immanuel
  Kant_ (4th ed., 1898-1899), _Die beiden Kantischen Schulen in Jena_
  (1862), and _Commentary on Kant's Kritik of Pure Reason_ (1878); F.
  Förster, _Der Entwicklungsgang der Kantischen Ethik bis zur Kritik der
  reinen Vernunft_ (1893); A. Fouillée, _Le Moralisme de Kant et
  l'amoralisme contemporaine_ (1905); C. R. E. von Hartmann, _Kants
  Erkenntnistheorie und Metaphysik in den vier Perioden ihrer
  Entwickelung_ (1894); A. Hegler, _Die Psychologie in Kants Ethik_
  (1891); G. D. Hicks, _Die Begriffe Phänomenon und Noumenon in ihrem
  Verhältniss zu einander bei Kant_ (1897); G. Jacoby, _Herders und
  Kants Aesthetik_ (1907); W. Kabitz, _Studien zur
  Entwickelungsgeschichte der Fichteschen Wissenschaftslehre aus der
  Kantischen Philosophie_ (1902); M. Kelly, _Kant's Philosophy as
  rectified by Schopenhauer_ (1909); W. Koppelmann, _I. Kant und die
  Grundlagen der christlichen Religion_ (1890); M. Kronenberg, _Kant:
  Sein Leben und seine Lehre_ (1897; 3rd ed., 1905); E. Kühnemann,
  _Kants und Schillers Begründung der Aesthetik_ (1895) and _Die
  Kantischen Studien Schillers und die Komposition des Wallenstein_
  (1889); H. Levy, _Kants Lehre vom Schematismus der reinen
  Verstandesbegriffe_ (1901); Arthur O. Lovejoy, _Kant and the English
  Platonists_ (1908); J. P. Mahaffy, _Kant's Critical Philosophy for
  English Readers_ (1872-1874); W. Mengel, _Kants Begründung der
  Religion_ (1900); A. Messer, _Kants Ethik_ (1904); H. Meyer-Benfey,
  _Herder und Kant_ (1904); Morris, _Kant's Critique of Pure Reason_
  (Chicago, 1882); C. Oesterreich, _Kant und die Metaphysik_ (1906); F.
  Paulsen, _Kant: Sein Leben und seine Lehre_ (1898; 4th ed., 1904; Eng.
  1902); Harold H. Prichard, _Kant's Theory of Knowledge_ (1909); A.
  Seth Pringle-Pattison, _The Development from Kant to Hegel_ (1882);
  and, on Kant's philosophy of religion, in _The Philosophic Radicals_
  (1907); F. Rademaker, _Kants Lehren vom innern Sinn in der Kritik der
  reinen Vernunft_ (1908); R. Reininger, _Kants Lehre vom inneren Sinn
  und seine Theorie der Erfahrung_ (1900); C. B. Renouvier, _Critique de
  la doctrine de Kant_ (1906); H. Romundt, _Kants philosophische
  Religionslehre eine Frucht der gesammten Vernunftkritik_ (1902); T.
  Ruyssen, _Kant_ (1900); E. Saenger, _Kants Lehre vom Glauben_ (1903);
  O. Schapp, _Kants Lehre vom Genie und die Entstehung der "Kritik der
  Urteilskraft"_ (1901); Carl Schmidt, _Beiträge zur Entwickelung der
  Kant'schen Ethik_ (1900); A. Schweitzer, _Die Religionsphilosophie
  Kants_ (1899); H. Sidgwick, _Lectures on the Philosophy of Kant_
  (1905); J. H. Stirling, _Text Book to Kant_ (1881); G. Simmel, _Kant
  und Goethe_ (1906); L. Staehlin, _Kant, Lotze und Ritschl_ (1889); O.
  Thon, _Die Grundprinzipien der Kantischen Moralphilosophie_ (1895); T.
  Valentiner, _Kant und die platonische Philosophie_ (1904); C.
  Vorländer, _Kant, Schiller, Goethe_ (1907); G. C. Uphues, _Kant und
  sein Vorgänger_ (1906); W. Wallace, _Kant_ (1905); M. Wartenberg,
  _Kants Theorie der Kausalität_ (1899); John Watson, _Philosophy of
  Kant Explained_ (1908), _Kant and his English Critics_ (1881); A.
  Weir, _A Student's Introduction to Critical Philosophy_ (1906); G. A.
  Wyneken, _Hegel's Kritik Kants_ (1898); W. Windelband, _Kuno Fischer
  und sein Kant_ (1897).

  On Kant's theory of education, see E. F. Büchner, _The Educational
  Theory of Immanuel Kant_ (trans., ed., intro., 1904); trans. of _Ueber
  Pädagogik_ by Annette Churton (1899); J. Geluk, _Kant_ (1883).
       (R. Ad.; X.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] See further IDEALISM; METAPHYSICS; LOGIC, &c., where Kant's
    relation to subsequent thought is discussed.



KANURI, or BERIBERI, an African tribe of mixed origin, the dominant race
of Bornu. They are large-boned and coarse-featured, but contain
nevertheless a distinct strain of Fula blood. Beriberi (or Berberi) is
the name given them by the Hausa (see BORNU).



KAOLIN, a pure white clay, know also as china-clay, since it is an
essential ingredient in the manufacture of china, or porcelain. The word
kaolin, formerly written by some authors caulin, is said to be a
corruption of the Chinese _Kau-ling_, meaning "High Ridge," the name of
a hill east of King-te-chen, whence the earliest samples of the clay
sent to Europe were obtained by the Père d'Entrecolles, a French Jesuit
missionary in China in the early part of the 18th century. His
specimens, examined in Paris by R. A. Réaumur, showed that true
porcelain, the composition of which had not previously been known in
Europe, contained two essential ingredients, which came to be
known--though it now appears incorrectly--as kaolin and petuntse,
corresponding respectively to our china-clay and china-stone. The kaolin
confers plasticity on the paste and secures retention of form for the
ware when exposed to the heat of the kiln, whilst the petuntse gives the
translucency so characteristic of porcelain. Some of the earliest
discoveries of kaolin in Europe were at Aue, near Schneeberg in Saxony,
and at St Yrieix, near Limoges in France. In England it was discovered
in Cornwall about the year 1750 by William Cookworthy, of Plymouth; and
in 1768 he took out his patent for making porcelain from moorstone or
growan (china-stone) and growan clay (kaolin), the latter imparting
"whiteness and infusibility" to the china. These raw materials were
found first at Tregonning Hill, near Breage, and afterwards at St
Stephen's in Brannel, near St Austell; and their discovery led to the
manufacture of hard paste, or true porcelain, at Plymouth and
subsequently at Bristol.

Kaolin is a hydrous aluminium silicate, having the formula H4Al2Si2O9,
or Al2Si2O7.2H2O, but in common clay this silicate is largely mixed with
impurities. Certain clays contain pearly white hexagonal scales, usually
microscopic, referable to the monoclinic system, and having the chemical
composition of kaolin. This crystalline substance was termed kaolinite
by S. W. Johnson and J. M. Blake in 1867, and it is now regarded as the
basis of pure clay. The kaolinite of Amlwch in Anglesey has been studied
by Allan Dick. The origin of kaolin may be traced to the alteration of
certain aluminous silicates like feldspar, scapolite, beryl and topaz;
but all large deposits of china-clay are due to the decomposition of
feldspar, generally in granite, but sometimes in gneiss, pitchstone, &c.
The turbidity of many feldspars is the result of partial
"kaolinization," or alteration to kaolin. The china-clay rocks of
Cornwall and Devon are granites in which the orthoclase has become
kaolinized. These rocks are sometimes known as carclazite, a name
proposed by J. H. Collins from a typical locality, the Carclaze mine,
near St Austell. It has often been supposed that the alteration of the
granite has been effected mainly by meteoric agencies, the carbonic acid
having decomposed the alkaline silicate of the feldspar, whilst the
aluminous silicate assumes a hydrated condition and forms kaolin. In
many cases, however, it seems likely that the change has been effected
by subterranean agencies, probably by heated vapours carrying fluorine
and boron, since minerals containing these elements, like tourmaline,
often occur in association with the china-clay. According to F. H.
Butler the kaolinization of the west of England granite may have been
effected by a solution of carbonic acid at a high temperature, acting
from below.

The china-stone, or petuntse, is a granitic rock which still retains
much of the unaltered feldspar, on which its fusibility depends. In
order to prepare kaolin for the market, the china-clay rock is broken
up, and the clay washed out by means of water. The liquid containing
the clay in mechanical suspension is run into channels called "drags"
where the coarser impurities subside, and whence it passes to another
set of channels known as "micas," where the finer materials settle down.
Thus purified, the clay-water is led into a series of pits or tanks, in
which the finely divided clay is slowly deposited; and, after acquiring
sufficient consistency, it is transferred to the drying-house, or "dry,"
heated by flues, where the moisture is expelled, and the kaolin obtained
as a soft white earthy substance. The clay has extensive application in
the arts, being used not only in ceramic manufacture but in
paper-making, bleaching and various chemical industries.

Under the species "kaolinite" may be included several minerals which
have received distinctive names, such as the Saxon mineral called from
its pearly lustre nacrite, a name originally given by A. Brongniart to a
nacreous mica; pholerite found chiefly in cracks of ironstone and named
by J. Guillemin from the Greek [Greek: pholis], a scale; and lithomarge,
the old German _Steinmark_, a compact clay-like body of white, yellow or
red colour. Dr C. Hintze has pointed out that the word pholerite should
properly be written pholidite ([Greek: pholis, pholidos]). Closely
related to kaolinite is the mineral called halloysite, a name given to
it by P. Berthier after his uncle Omalius d'Halloy, the Belgian
geologist.     (F. W. R.*)



KAPUNDA, a municipal town of Light county, South Australia, 48 m. by
rail N.N.E. of Adelaide. Pop. (1901), 1805. It is the centre of a large
wheat-growing district. The celebrated copper mines discovered in 1843
were closed in 1879. There are quarries near the town, in which is found
fine marble of every colour from dark blue to white. This marble was
largely used in the Houses of Parliament at Adelaide.



KAPURTHALA, a native state of India, within the Punjab. Area, 652 sq.
m.; pop. (1901), 314,341, showing an increase of 5% in the decade;
estimated gross revenue, £178,000; tribute, £8700. The Kapurthala family
is descended from Jassa Singh, a contemporary of Nadir Shah and Ahmad
Shah, who by his intelligence and bravery made himself the leading Sikh
of his day. At one time it held possessions on both sides of the Sutlej,
and also in the Bari Doab. The cis-Sutlej estates and scattered tracts
in the Bari Doab were forfeited owing to the hostility of the chief in
the first Sikh war; but the latter were afterwards restored in
recognition of the loyalty of Raja Randhir Singh during the mutiny of
1857, when he led a contingent to Oudh which did good service. He also
received a grant of land in Oudh, 700 sq. m. in extent, yielding a gross
rental of £89,000. In Oudh, however, he exercises no sovereign powers,
occupying only the status of a large landholder, with the title of
Raja-i-Rajagan. Raja Sir Jagatjit Singh, K.C.S.I., was born in 1872,
succeeded his father in 1877, and attained his majority in 1890. During
the Tirah expedition of 1897-98 the Kapurthala imperial service infantry
took a prominent part. The territory is crossed by the railway from
Jullundur to Amritsar. The state has a large export trade in wheat,
sugar, tobacco and cotton. The hand-painted cloths and metal-work of
Phagwara are well known. The town of Kapurthala is 11 miles from
Jullundur; pop. (1901), 18,519.



KARACHI, or KURRACHEE, a seaport and district of British India, in the
Sind province of Bombay. The city is situated at the extreme western end
of the Indus delta, 500 m. by sea from Bombay and 820 m. by rail from
Lahore, being the maritime terminus of the North-Western railway, and
the main gateway for the trade of the Punjab and part of central Asia.
It is also the capital of the province of Sind. Pop. (1881), 73,500;
(1891), 105,199; (1901), 115,407. Before 1725 no town appears to have
existed here; but about that time some little trade began to centre upon
the convenient harbour, and the silting up of Shahbandar, the ancient
port of Sind, shortly afterwards drove much of its former trade and
population to the rising village. Under the Kalhora princes, the khan of
Kalat obtained a grant of the town, but in 1795 it was captured by the
Talpur Mirs, who built the fort at Manora, at the entrance to the
harbour. They also made considerable efforts to increase the trade of
the port and at the time of the British acquisition of the province the
town and suburbs contained a population of 14,000. This was in 1843,
from which time the importance of the place practically dates.

The harbour of Karachi has an extreme length and breadth of about 5 m.
It is protected by the promontory of Manora Head; and the entrance is
partially closed by rocks and by the peninsula (formerly an island) of
Kiamari. On Manora Head, which is fortified, are the buildings of the
port establishment, a cantonment, &c. Kiamari is the landing-place for
passengers and goods, and has three piers and railway connexions. The
harbour improvements were begun in 1854 with the building of the Napier
Mole or causeway connecting Kiamari with the mainland. The entrance has
a minimum depth of 25 ft.; and a large number of improvements and
extensions have been carried out by the harbour board, which was created
in 1880, and transformed in 1886 into the port trust.

The great extension of the canal colonies in the Punjab, entirely
devoted to the cultivation of wheat, has immensely increased the export
trade of Karachi. It now ranks as the third port of India, being
surpassed only by Calcutta and Bombay. The principal articles of export,
besides wheat, are oil-seeds, cotton, wool, hides and bones. The annual
value of exports, including specie, amounts to about nine millions
sterling. There are iron works and manufactures of cotton cloth, silk
scarves and carpets. The fisheries and oyster beds are important.

Among the principal public buildings are government house, the Frere
municipal hall, and the Napier barracks. The military cantonments,
stretching north-east of the city, form the headquarters of a brigade in
the 4th division of the southern army. An excellent water supply is
provided by an underground aqueduct 18 m. in length. The chief
educational institutions are the Dayaram Jethmal Arts College, with a
law class; five high schools, of which two are for Europeans and one for
Mahommedans; a convent school for girls; and an engineering class. The
average rainfall for the year is about 5 in. The rainy months are July
and August, but one or two heavy showers usually fall about Christmas.
The end of May, beginning of June, and first fortnight in October are
hot. November, December, January, February and March are delightfully
cool and dry; the remaining months are damp with a constant cool sea
breeze.

The DISTRICT OF KARACHI has an area of 11,970 sq. m. Pop. (1901),
607,439, showing an increase of 6% in the decade. It consists of an
immense tract of land stretching from the mouth of the Indus to the
Baluch boundary. It differs in general appearance from the rest of Sind,
having a rugged, mountainous region along its western border. The
country gradually slopes away to the south-east, till in the extreme
south the Indus delta presents a broad expanse of low, flat and
unpicturesque alluvium. Besides the Indus and its mouths, the only river
in the district is the Hab, forming the boundary between Sind and
Baluchistan. The Manchhar lake in Sehwan sub-division forms the only
considerable sheet of water in Sind. The hot springs at Pir Mangho are 6
m. N. of Karachi town. The principal crops are rice, millets, oil-seeds
and wheat. In addition to Karachi, there are seaports at Sirgonda and
Keti Bandar, which conduct a considerable coasting trade. Tatta was the
old capital of Sind. Kotri is an important railway station on the Indus.
The main line of the North-Western railway runs through the district.
From Kotri downwards the line has been doubled to Karachi, and at Kotri
a bridge has been constructed across the Indus opposite Hyderabad, to
connect with the Rajputana railway system.

  See A. F. Baillie, _Kurrachee: Past, Present and Future_ (1890).



KARAGEORGE (in Servian, _Karadyordye_) (c. 1766-1817), the leader of the
Servians during their first revolution against the Turks (1804-13), and
founder of the Servian dynasty Karageorgevich. His Christian name was
George (Dyordye), but being not only of dark complexion but of gloomy,
taciturn and easily excitable temper, he was nicknamed by the Servians
"Tsrni Dyordye" and by the Turks "Karageorge," both meaning "Black
George," the Turkish name becoming soon the generally adopted one. He
was born in 1766 (according to some in 1768), the son of an extremely
poor Servian peasant, Petroniye Petrovich. When quite a young man, he
entered the service of a renowned Turkish brigand, Fazli-Bey by name,
and accompanied his master on his adventurous expeditions. When twenty
he married and started a small farm. But having killed a Turk, he left
Servia for Syrmia, in Croatia-Slavonia, where the monks of the monastery
Krushedol engaged him as one of their forest guards. He remained in the
service of the monks nearly two years, then enlisted into an Austrian
regiment, and as sergeant took part in the Austrian war against Turkey
(1788-91). He deserted his regiment, returned to Servia, and settled in
the village of Topola, living sometimes as a peaceful farmer and
sometimes again as the leader of a small band of "hayduks"--men who
attacked, robbed and in most cases killed the travelling Turks in
revenge for the oppression of their country.

The circumstances in which the Servians rose against the janissaries of
the pashalik of Belgrade are related in the article on SERVIA. The
leaders of the insurgents' bands and other men of influence met about
the middle of February 1804 at the village of Orashatz, and there
elected Karageorge as the supreme leader (Vrhovni Vozd) of the nation.
Under his command the Servians speedily cleared their country not only
of the janissaries disloyal to the Sultan, but of all other Turks, who
withdrew from the open country to the fortified places. Karageorge and
his armed Servians demanded from the Sultan the privileges of
self-government. The Porte, confronted by the chances of a war with
Russia, decided in the autumn of 1806 to grant to the Servians a fairly
large measure of autonomy. Unfortunately Karageorge was comparatively
poor in political gifts and diplomatic tact. While the _hattisherif_
granting the rights demanded by the Servians was on the way to Servia,
Karageorge attacked the Turks in Belgrade and Shabats, captured the
towns first and then also the citadels, and allowed the Turkish
population of Belgrade to be massacred. At the same time the Russian
headquarters in Bucharest informed Karageorge that Russia was at war
with Turkey and that the Tsar counted on the co-operation of the
Servians. Karageorge and his Servians then definitely rejected all the
concessions which the Porte had granted them, and joined Russia, hoping
thereby to secure the complete independence of Servia. The co-operation
of the Servians with the Russians was of no great importance, and
probably disappointing to both parties. But as the principal theatre of
war was far away from Servia on the lower Danube, Karageorge was able to
give more attention to the internal organization of Servia. The national
assembly proclaimed Karageorge the hereditary chief and _gospodar_ of
the Servians (Dec. 26, 1808), he on his part promising under oath to
govern the country "through and by the national council" (senate).

Karageorge's hasty and uncompromising temper and imperious habits, as
well as his want of political tact, soon made him many enemies amongst
the more prominent Servians (voyvodes and senators). His difficulties
were considerably increased by the intrigues of the Russian political
agent to Servia, Rodophinikin. A crisis came during the summer months of
the year 1813. The treaty of peace, concluded by the Russians somewhat
hurriedly in Bucharest in 1812, did not secure efficiently the safety of
the Servians. The Turks demanded from Karageorge, as a preliminary
condition for peace, that the Servians should lay down their arms, and
Karageorge refused to comply. Thereupon the entire Turkish army which
fought against the Russians on the Danube, being disengaged, invaded
Servia. After a few inefficient attempts to stem the invasion,
Karageorge gave up the struggle, and with most of the voyvodes and
chiefs of the nation left the country, and crossed to Hungary as a
refugee (Sept. 20, 1813). From Hungary he went to Russia and settled in
Khotin (Bessarabia), enjoying a pension from the Tsar's government. But
in the summer of 1817 he suddenly and secretly left Russia and
reappeared quite alone in Servia in the neighbourhood of Semendria
(Smederevo) on the Danube. The motives and the object of his return are
not clear. Some believe that he was sent by the Hetaerists to raise up
Servia to a new war with Turkey and thereby facilitate the rising of the
Greek people. It is generally assumed, however, that, having heard that
Servia, under the guidance of Milosh Obrenovich, had obtained a certain
measure of self-government, he desired to put himself again at the head
of the nation. This impression seems to have been that of Milosh
himself, who at once reported to the Pasha of Belgrade the arrival of
Karageorge. The pasha demanded that Karageorge, alive or dead, should be
delivered to him immediately, and made Milosh personally responsible for
the execution of that order. Karageorge's removal could not
unfortunately be separated from the personal interest of Milosh; already
acknowledged as chief of the nation, Milosh did not like to be displaced
by his old chief, who in a critical moment had left the country.
Karageorge was killed (July 27, O.S., 1817) while he was asleep, and his
head was sent to the pasha for transmission to Constantinople. It is
impossible to exonerate Milosh Obrenovich from responsibility for the
murder, which became the starting-point for a series of tragedies in the
modern history of Servia.

Karageorge was one of the most remarkable Servians of the 19th century.
No other man could have led the bands of undisciplined and badly-armed
Servian peasants to such decisive victories against the Turks. Although
he never assumed the title of prince, he practically was the first chief
and master (_gospodar_) of the people of Servia. He succeeded, however,
not because he was liked but because he was feared. His gloomy silence,
his easily aroused anger, his habit of punishing without hesitation the
slightest transgressions by death, spread terror among the people. He is
believed to have killed his own father in a fit of anger when the old
man refused to follow him in his flight to Hungary at the beginning of
his career. In another fit of rage at the report that his brother
Marinko had assaulted a girl, he ordered his men to seize his brother
and to hang him there and then in his presence, and he forbade his
mother to go into mourning for him. Even by his admirers he is admitted
to have killed by his own hand no fewer than 125 men who provoked his
anger. But in battles he is acknowledged to have been always admirable,
displaying marvellous energy and valour, and giving proofs of a real
military genius. The Servians consider him one of their greatest men. In
grateful remembrance of his services to the national cause they elected
his younger son, Alexander, in 1842, to be the reigning prince of
Servia, and again in 1903 they chose his grandson, Peter Karageorgevich
(son of Alexander) to be the king of Servia.

  See SERVIA; also Ranke, _Die serbische Revolution_; Stoyan Novakovich,
  _Vaskzhs srpske drzhave_ (Belgrade, 1904); M. G. Milityevich,
  _Karadyordye_ (Belgrade, 1904).     (C. Mi.)



KARA-HISSAR ("Black Castle"). (1) AFIUM KARA-HISSAR (q.v.). (2) ICHJE,
or ISCHA KARA-HISSAR (anc. _Docimium_), a small village about 14 m. N.E.
of No. 1. Docimium was a Macedonian colony established on an older site.
It was a self-governing municipality, striking its own coins, and stood
on the Apamea-Synnada-Pessinus road, by which the celebrated marble
called Synnadic, Docimian and Phrygian was conveyed to the coast. The
quarries are 2½ m. from the village, and the marble was carried thence
direct to Synnada (Chifut Kassaba). Some of the marble has the rich
purple veins in which poets saw the blood of Atys.

  See W. M. Ramsay, _Hist. Geog. of Asia Minor_ (London, 1890); Murray,
  _Hbk. to Asia Minor_ (1893).



KARA-HISSAR SHARKI [i.e. "eastern Kara-Hissar"], also called Shabin
Kara-Hissar from the alum mines in its vicinity, the chief town of a
sanjak of the same name in the Sivas vilayet of Asia Minor. Pop. about
12,000, two-thirds Mussulman. It is the Roman _Colonia_, which gradually
superseded Pompey's foundation, _Nicopolis_, whose ruins lie at Purkh,
about 12 m. W. (hence Kara-Hissar is called Nikopoli by the Armenians).
In later Byzantine times it was an important frontier station, and did
not pass into Ottoman hands till twelve years after the capture of
Constantinople. The town, altitude 4860 ft., is built round the foot of
a lofty rock, upon which stand the ruins of the Byzantine castle,
_Maurocastron_, the Kara Hissar Daula of early Moslem chroniclers. It is
connected with its port, Kerasund, and with Sivas, Erzingan and Erzerum,
by carriage roads.



KARAISKAKIS, GEORGES (1782-1827), leader in the War of Greek
Independence, was born at Agrapha in 1782. During the earlier stages of
the war he served in the Morea, and had a somewhat discreditable share
in the intrigues which divided the Greek leaders. But he showed a sense
of the necessity for providing the country with a government, and was a
steady supporter of Capo d'Istria. His most honourable services were
performed in the middle and later stages of the war. He helped to raise
the first siege of Missolonghi in 1823, and did his best to save the
town in the second siege in 1826. In that year he commanded the patriot
forces in Rumelia, and though he failed to co-operate effectually with
other chiefs, or with the foreign sympathizers fighting for the Greeks,
he gained some successes against the Turks which were very welcome amid
the disasters of the time. He took a share in the unsuccessful attempts
to raise the siege of Athens in 1827, and made an effort to prevent the
disastrous massacre of the Turkish garrison of fort S Spiridion. He was
shot in action on the 4th of May 1827. Finlay speaks of him as a capable
partisan leader who had great influence over his men, and describes him
as of "middle size, thin, dark-complexioned, with a bright expressive
animal eye which indicated gipsy blood."

  See G. Finlay, _History of the Greek Revolution_ (London, 1861).



KARAJICH, VUK STEFANOVICH (1787-1864), the father of modern Servian
literature, was born on the 6th of November 1787 in the Servian village
of Trshich, on the border between Bosnia and Servia. Having learnt to
read and write in the old monastery Tronosha (near his native village),
he was engaged as writer and reader of letters to the commander of the
insurgents of his district at the beginning of the first Servian rising
against the Turks in 1804. Mostly in the position of a scribe to
different voyvodes, sometimes as school-teacher, he served his country
during the first revolution (1804-1813), at the collapse of which he
left Servia, but instead of following Karageorge and other voyvodes to
Russia he went to Vienna. There he was introduced to the great Slavonic
scholar Yerney Kopitar, who, having heard him recite some Servian
national ballads, encouraged him to collect the poems and popular songs,
write a grammar of the Servian language, and, if possible, a dictionary.
This programme of literary work was adhered to by Karajich, who all his
life acknowledged gratefully what he owed to his learned teacher.

In the second half of the 18th and in the beginning of the 19th century
all Servian literary efforts were written in a language which was not
the Servian vernacular, but an artificial language, of which the
foundation was the Old Slavonic in use in the churches, but somewhat
Russianized, and mixed with Servian words forced into Russian forms.
That language, called by its writers "the Slavonic-Servian," was neither
Slavonic nor Servian. It was written in Old Cyrillic letters, many of
which had no meaning in the Servian language, while there were several
sounds in that language which had no corresponding signs or letters in
the Old Slavonic alphabet. The Servian philosopher Dositey Obradovich
(who at the end of the 18th century spent some time in London teaching
Greek) was the first Servian author to proclaim the principle that the
books for the Servian people ought to be written in the language of the
people. But the great majority of his contemporaries were of opinion
that the language of Servian literature ought to be evolved out of the
dead Old Slavonic of the church books. The church naturally decidedly
supported this view. Karajich was the great reformer who changed all
this. Encouraged by Kopitar, he published in 1814 (2nd ed., 1815) in
Vienna his first book, _Mala Prostonarodna Slaveno-Serbska Pyesmaritsa_
("A small collection of Slavonic-Servian songs of the common people"),
containing a hundred lyric songs, sung by the peasant women of Servia,
and six poems about heroes, or as the Servians call them _Yunachke
pesme_, which are generally recited by the blind bards or by peasants.
From that time Karajich's literary activity moved on two parallel lines:
to give scientific justification and foundation to the adoption of the
vernacular Servian as the literary language; and, by collecting and
publishing national songs, folk-lore, proverbs, &c., to show the
richness of the Servian people's poetical and intellectual gifts, and
the wealth and beauty of the Servian language. By his reform of the
Servian alphabet and orthography, his Servian grammar and his Servian
dictionary, he established the fact that the Servian language contains
thirty distinct sounds, for six of which the Old Slavonic alphabet had
no special letters. He introduced new letters for those special sounds,
at the same time throwing out of the Old Slavonic alphabet eighteen
letters for which the Servian language had no use. This reform was
strenuously opposed by the church and many conservative authors, who
went so far as to induce the Servian government to prohibit the printing
of books in new letters, a prohibition removed in 1859. Karajich's
alphabet facilitated his reform of orthography, his principle being:
_write as you speak, and read as it is written_! Hardly any other
language in the civilized world has such a simple, logical, scientific
spelling system and orthography as the Servian has in Karajich's system.
His first grammatical essay was published in Vienna in 1814, _Pismenitsa
Serbskoga yezika po govoru prostoga naroda_ ("The grammar of the Servian
language as spoken by the common people"). An improved edition appeared
in Vienna in 1818, together with his great work _Srpski Ryechnik_
(Lexicon Serbico-Germanico-Latinum). This dictionary--containing 26,270
words--was full of important contributions to folk-lore, as Karajich
never missed an opportunity to add to the meaning of the word the
description of the national customs or popular beliefs connected with
it. A new edition of his dictionary, containing 46,270 words, was
published at Vienna in 1852. Meanwhile he gave himself earnestly to the
work of collecting the "creations of the mind of the Servian common
people." He travelled through Servian countries (Servia, Bosnia,
Herzegovina, Montenegro, Dalmatia, Syrmia, Croatia), and the result was
shown in a largely augmented edition of his _Srpske Narodne Pyesme_, of
which the first three volumes appeared at Leipzig in 1823 and 1824, the
fourth volume appearing at Vienna in 1833. _Popular Stories and Enigmas_
was published in 1821, and _Servian National Proverbs_ in 1836. From
1826 to 1834 he was the editor of an annual, called _Danitsa_ (The
Morning Star), which he filled with important contributions concerning
the ethnography and modern history of the Servian people. In 1828 he
published a historical monograph, _Milosh Obrenovich, Prince of Servia_;
in 1837, in German, _Montenegro and Montenegrins_; in 1867, _The Servian
Governing Council of State_. He supplied Leopold Ranke with the
materials for his _History of the Servian Revolution_. He also
translated the New Testament into Servian, for the British and Foreign
Bible Society (Vienna, 1847). Karajich died in Vienna on the 6th of
February 1864; and his remains were transferred to Belgrade in 1897 with
great solemnity and at the expense of the government of Servia.
     (C. Mi.)



KARA-KALPAKS ("Black Caps"), a Mongolo-Tatar people, originally dominant
along the east coast of the Aral Sea, where they still number some
thousands. They thus form geographically the transition between the
northern Kirghiz and the southern Turkomans. Once a powerful nation,
they are scattered for the most part in Astrakhan, Perm, Orenburg, in
the Caucasian province of Kuban, and in Tobolsk, Siberia, numbering in
all about 50,000. These emigrants have crossed much with the alien
populations among whom they have settled; but the pure type on the Aral
Sea are a tall powerful people, with broad flat faces, large eyes, short
noses and heavy chins. Their women are the most beautiful in Turkestan.
The name of "Black Caps" is given them in allusion to their high
sheepskin hats. They are a peaceful agricultural folk, who have suffered
much from their fierce nomad neighbours.



KARAKORUM (Turkish, "black stone débris"), the name of two cities in
Mongolia. One of these, according to G. Potanin, was the capital of the
Uighur kingdom in the 8th century, and the other was in the 13th century
a capital of the steppe monarchy of Mongolia. The same name seems also
to have been applied to the Khangai range at the headwaters of the
Orkhon. (1) The Uighur KARAKORUM, also named Mubalik ("bad town"), was
situated on the left bank of the Orkhon, in the Talal-khain-dala steppe,
to the south-east of Ughei-nor. It was deserted after the fall of the
Uighur kingdom, and in the 10th century Abaki, the founder of the Khitan
kingdom, planted on its ruins a stone bearing a description of his
victories. (2) The Mongolian KARAKORUM was founded at the birth of the
Mongolian monarchy established by Jenghiz Khan. A palace for the khan
was built in it by Chinese architects in 1234, and its walls were
erected in 1235. Plano Carpini visited it in 1246, Rubruquis in 1253,
and Marco Polo in 1275. Later, the fourth Mongolian king, Kublai, left
Karakorum, in order to reside at Kai-pin-fu, near Peking. When the khan
Arik-bog declared himself and Karakorum independent of Kublai-Khan, the
latter besieged Karakorum, took it by famine, and probably laid it waste
so thoroughly that the town was afterwards forgotten.

The exact sites of the two Mongolian capitals were only established in
1889-1891. Sir H. Yule (_The Book of Marco Polo_, 1871) was the first to
distinguish two cities of this name. The Russian traveller Paderin in
1871 visited the Uighur capital (see TURKS), named now by the Mongols
Kara Balghasun ("black city") or Khara-kherem ("black wall"), of which
only the wall and a tower are in existence, while the streets and ruins
outside the wall are seen at a distance of 1¾ m. Paderin's belief that
this was the old Mongol capital has been shown to be incorrect. As to
the Mongolian Karakorum, it is identified by several authorities with a
site on which towards the close of the 16th century the Buddhist
monastery of Erdeni Tsu was built. This monastery lies about 25 m. south
by east of the Uighur capital. North and north-east of the monastery are
ruins of ancient buildings. Professor D. Pozdnéev, who visited Erdeni
Tsu for a second time in 1892, stated that the earthen wall surrounding
the monastery might well be part of the wall of the old city. The proper
position of the two Karakorums was determined by the expedition of N.
Yadrintsev in 1889, and the two expeditions of the Helsingfors
Ugro-Finnish society (1890) and the Russian academy of science, under Dr
W. Radlov (1891), which were sent out to study Yadrintsev's discovery.

  See _Works (Trudy) of the Orkhon Expedition_ (St Petersburg, 1892);
  Yule's _Marco Polo_, edition revised by Henri Cordier (of Paris), vol.
  i. ch. xlvi. (London, 1903). Cordier confines the use of Karakorum to
  the Mongol capital; Pozdnéev, _Mongolia and the Mongols_, vol. i. (St
  Petersburg, 1896); C. W. Campbell, "Journeys in Mongolia," _Geog.
  Journ._ vol. xx. (1903), with map. Campbell's report was printed as a
  parliamentary paper (_China No. 1, 1904_).



KARA-KUL, the name of two lakes ("Great" and "Little ") of Russian
Turkestan, in the province of Ferghana, and on the Pamir plateau. Great
Kara-kul, 12 m. long and 10 m. wide (formerly much larger), is under 39°
N., to the south of the Trans-Alai range, and lies at an altitude of
13,200 ft.; it is surrounded by high mountains, and is reached from the
north over the Kyzyl-art pass (14,015 ft.). A peninsula projecting from
the south shore and an island off the north shore divide it into two
basins, a smaller eastern one which is shallow, 42 to 63 ft., and a
larger western one, which has depths of 726 to 756 ft. It has no
drainage outlet. Little Kara-kul lies in the north-east Pamir, or
Sarikol, north-west of the Mustagh-ata peak (25,850 ft.), at an altitude
of 12,700 ft. It varies in depth from 79 ft. in the south to 50 to 70
ft. in the middle, and 1000 ft. or more in the north. It is a moraine
lake; and a stream of the same name flows through it, but is named Ghez
in its farther course towards Kashgar in East Turkestan.



KARA-KUM ("Black Sands"), a flat desert in Russian Central Asia. It
extends to nearly 110,000 sq. m., and is bounded on the N.W. by the
Ust-urt plateau, between the Sea of Aral and the Caspian Sea, on the
N.E. by the Amu-darya, on the S. by the Turkoman oases, and on the W. it
nearly reaches the Caspian Sea. Only part of this surface is covered
with sand. There are broad expanses (_takyrs_) of clay soil upon which
water accumulates in the spring; in the summer these are muddy, but
later quite dry, and merely a few Solanaceae and bushes grow on them.
There is also _shor_, similar to the above but encrusted with salt and
gypsum, and relieved only by Solanaceae along their borders. The
remainder is occupied with sand, which, according to V. Mainov, assumes
five different forms. (1) _Barkhans_, chiefly in the east, which are
mounds of loose sand, 15 to 35 ft. high, hoof-shaped, having their
gently sloping convex sides turned towards the prevailing winds, and a
concave side, 30° to 40° steep, on the opposite slope. They are disposed
in groups or chains, and the winds drive them at an average rate of 20
ft. annually towards the south and south-east. Some grass (_Stipa
pennata_) and bushes of _saksaul_ (_Haloxylon ammodendron_) and other
steppe bushes (e.g. _Calligonium_, _Halimodendron_ and _Atraphaxis_)
grow on them. (2) Mounds of sand, of about the same size, but irregular
in shape and of a slightly firmer consistence, mostly bearing the same
bushes, and also _Artemisia_ and _Tamarix_; they are chiefly met with in
the east and south. (3) A sandy desert, slightly undulating, and covered
in spring with grass and flowers (e.g. tulips, _Rheum_, various
Umbelliferae), which are soon burned by the sun; they cover very large
spaces in the south-east. (4) Sands disposed in waves from 50 to 70 ft.,
and occasionally up to 100 ft. high, at a distance of from 200 to 400
ft. from each other; they cover the central portion, and their
vegetation is practically the same as in the preceding division. (5)
Dunes on the shores of the Caspian, composed of moving sands, 35 to 80
ft. high and devoid of vegetation.

A typical feature of the Kara-kum is the number of "old river beds,"
which may have been either channels of tributaries of the Amu and other
rivers or depressions which contained elongated salt lakes. Water is
only found in wells, 10 to 20 m. apart--sometimes as much as 100
m.--which are dug in the takyrs and give saline water, occasionally
unfit to drink, and in pools of rain-water retained in the lower parts
of the takyrs. The population of the Kara-kum, consisting of nomad
Kirghiz and Turkomans, is very small. The region in the north of the
province of Syr-darya, between Lake Aral and Lake Chalkarteniz, is also
called Kara-kum.     (P. A. K.; J. T. Be.)



KARAMAN (anc. _Laranda_, a name still used by the Christian
inhabitants), a town in the Konia vilayet of Asia Minor, situated in the
plain north of Mount Taurus. Pop. 8000. It has few industries and little
trade, but the medieval walls, well preserved castle and mosques are
interesting, and the old Seljuk _medresse_, or college, is a beautiful
building. Karaman is connected with Konia by railway, having a station
on the first section of the Bagdad railway. Little is known of its
ancient history except that it was destroyed by Perdiccas about 322
B.C., and afterwards became a seat of Isaurian pirates. It was occupied
by Frederick Barbarossa in 1190; in 1466 it was captured by Mahommed
II., and in 1486 by Bayezid II.



KARAMANIA, formerly an independent inland province in the south of Asia
Minor, named after Karaman, the son of an Armenian convert to Islam, who
married a daughter of Ala ed-Din Kaikobad, the Seljuk sultan of Rum, and
was granted Laranda in fief, and made governor of Selefke, 1223-1245.
The name Karaman is, however, Turkoman and that of a powerful tribe,
settled apparently near Laranda. The Armenian convert must have been
adopted into this. On the collapse of the Seljuk empire, Karaman's
grandson, Mahmud, 1279-1319, founded a state, which included Pamphylia,
Lycaonia and large parts of Cilicia, Cappadocia and Phrygia. Its
capital, Laranda, superseded Konia. This state was frequently at war
with the kings of Lesser Armenia, the Lusignan princes of Cyprus and the
knights of Rhodes. It was also engaged in a long struggle for supremacy
with the Osmanli Turks, which only ended in 1472, when it was definitely
annexed by Mahommed II. The Osmanlis divided Karamania into Kharij
north, and Ichili south, of the Taurus, and restored Konia to its
metropolitan position. The name Karamania is now often given by
geographers to Ichili only; but so far as it has had any exact
significance in modern times, it has stood for the whole province of
Konia. Before the present provincial division was made (1864), Karamania
was the eyalet of which Konia was the capital, and it did not extend to
the sea, the whole littoral from Adalia eastward being under the pasha
of Adana. Nevertheless, in Levantine popular usage at the present day,
"Karamania" signifies the coast from Adalia to Messina.     (D. G. H.)



KARAMNASA, a river of northern India, tributary to the Ganges on its
right bank, forming the boundary between Bengal and the United
Provinces. The name means "destroyer of religious merit," which is
explained by more than one legend. To this day all high-caste Hindus
have to be carried over without being defiled by the touch of its
waters.



KARA MUSTAFA (d. 1683), Turkish vizier, surnamed "Merzifunli," was a son
of Uruj Bey, a notable Sipahi of Merzifun (Marsovan), and brother-in-law
to Ahmed Kuprili, whom he succeeded as grand vizier in 1676, after
having for some years held the office of Kaimmakam or _locum tenens_.
His greed and ostentation were equalled by his incapacity, and he
behaved with characteristic insolence to the foreign ambassadors, from
whom he extorted large bribes. After conducting a campaign in Poland
which terminated unfortunately, he gave a ready response to the appeal
for aid made by the Hungarians under Imre Thököly (q.v.) when they rose
against Austria, his hope being to form out of the Habsburg dominions a
Mussulman empire of the West, of which he should be the sultan. The plan
was foiled in part by his own lack of military skill, but chiefly
through the heroic resistance of Vienna and its timely relief by John
Sobieski, king of Poland. Kara Mustafa paid for his defeat with his
life; he was beheaded at Belgrade in 1683 and his head was brought to
the sultan on a silver dish.

Another KARA MUSTAFA PASHA (d. 1643), who figures in Turkish history,
was by birth a Hungarian, who was enrolled in the Janissaries, rose to
be Kapudan Pasha under Murad IV., and after the capture of Bagdad was
made grand vizier. He was severe, but just and impartial, and strove to
effect necessary reforms by reducing the numbers of the Janissaries,
improving the coinage, and checking the state expenditure. But the
discontent of the Janissaries led to his dismissal and death in 1643.



KARAMZIN, NIKOLAI MIKHAILOVICH (1765-1826), Russian historian, critic,
novelist and poet, was born at the village of Mikhailovka, in the
government of Orenburg, and not at Simbirsk as many of his English and
German biographers incorrectly state, on the 1st of December (old style)
1765. His father was an officer in the Russian army, of Tatar
extraction. He was sent to Moscow to study under Professor Schaden,
whence he afterwards removed to St Petersburg, where he made the
acquaintance of Dmitriev, a Russian poet of some merit, and occupied
himself with translating essays by foreign writers into his native
language. After residing some time at St Petersburg, he went to
Simbirsk, where he lived in retirement till induced to revisit Moscow.
There, finding himself in the midst of the society of learned men, he
again betook himself to literary work. In 1789 he resolved to travel,
and visited Germany, France, Switzerland and England. On his return he
published his _Letters of a Russian Traveller_, which met with great
success. These letters were first printed in the _Moscow Journal_, which
he edited, but were afterwards collected and issued in six volumes
(1797-1801). In the same periodical Karamzin also published translations
of some of the tales of Marmontel, and some original stories, among
which may be mentioned _Poor Liza_ and _Natalia the Boyar's Daughter_.
In 1794 and 1795 Karamzin abandoned his literary journal, and published
a miscellany in two volumes, entitled _Aglaia_, in which appeared, among
other things, "The Island of Bornholm" and "Ilia Mourometz," a story
based upon the adventures of the well-known hero of many a Russian
legend. In 1797-1799 he issued another miscellany or poetical almanac,
_The Aonides_, in conjunction with Derzhávin and Dmitriev. In 1798 he
compiled _The Pantheon_, a collection of pieces from the works of the
most celebrated authors ancient and modern, translated into Russian.
Many of his lighter productions were subsequently printed by him in a
volume entitled _My Trifles_. In 1802 and 1803 Karamzin edited the
journal the _European Messenger_. It was not until after the publication
of this work that he realized where his strength lay, and commenced his
_History of the Russian Empire_. In order to accomplish the task, he
secluded himself for two years; and, on the cause of his retirement
becoming known to the emperor Alexander, Karamzin was invited to Tver,
where he read to the emperor the first eight volumes of his history. In
1816 he removed to St Petersburg, where he spent the happiest days of
his life, enjoying the favour of Alexander, and submitting to him the
sheets of his great work, which the emperor read over with him in the
gardens of the palace of Tzarskoë Selo. He did not, however, live to
carry his work further than the eleventh volume, terminating it at the
accession of Michael Romanov in 1613. He died on the 22nd of May (old
style) 1826, in the Taurida palace. A monument was erected to his memory
at Simbirsk in 1845.

  As an historian Karamzin has deservedly a very high reputation. Till
  the appearance of his work little had been done in this direction in
  Russia. The preceding attempt of Tatistchev was merely a rough sketch,
  inelegant in style, and without the true spirit of criticism. Karamzin
  was most industrious in accumulating materials, and the notes to his
  volumes are mines of curious information. The style of his history is
  elegant and flowing, modelled rather upon the easy sentences of the
  French prose writers than the long periodical paragraphs of the old
  Slavonic school. Perhaps Karamzin may justly be censured for the false
  gloss and romantic air thrown over the early Russian annals,
  concealing the coarseness and cruelty of the native manners; in this
  respect he reminds us of Sir Walter Scott, whose writings were at this
  time creating a great sensation throughout Europe, and probably had
  their influence upon him. Karamzin appears openly as the panegyrist of
  the autocracy; indeed, his work has been styled the "Epic of
  Despotism." He does not hesitate to avow his admiration of Ivan the
  Terrible, and considers him and his grandfather Ivan III. as the
  builders up of Russian greatness, a glory which in his earlier
  writings, perhaps at that time more under the influence of Western
  ideas, he had assigned to Peter the Great. In the battle-pieces (e.g.
  the description of the field of Koulikovo, the taking of Kazan, &c.)
  we find considerable powers of description; and the characters of many
  of the chief personages in the Russian annals are drawn in firm and
  bold lines. As a critic Karamzin was of great service to his country;
  in fact he may be regarded as the founder of the review and essay (in
  the Western style) among the Russians.



KARA SEA, a portion of the Arctic Ocean demarcated, and except on the
north-west completely enclosed, by Novaya Zemlya, Vaygach Island and the
Siberian coast. It is approached from the west by three
straits--Matochkin, between the two islands of Novaya Zemlya, and Kara
and Yugor to the north and south of Vaygach Island respectively. On the
south-east Kara Bay penetrates deeply into the mainland, and to the west
of this the short Kara river enters the sea. The sea is all shallow, the
deepest parts lying off Vaygach Island and the northern part of Novaya
Zemlya. It had long the reputation of being almost constantly ice-bound,
but after the Norwegian captain Johannesen had demonstrated its
accessibility in 1869, and Nordenskiöld had crossed it to the mouth of
the Yenisei in 1875, it was considered by many to offer a possible trade
route between European Russia and the north of Siberia. But the open
season is in any case very short, and the western straits are sometimes
ice-bound during the entire year.



KARASU-BAZAR, a town of Russia, in the Crimea and government of Taurida,
in 45° 3´ N. and 34° 26´ E., 25 m. E.N.E. of Simferopol. Pop. (1897),
12,961, consisting of Tatars, Armenians, Greeks, Qaraite Jews, and about
200 so-called Krymchaki, i.e. Jews who have adopted the Tatar language
and dress, and who live chiefly by making morocco leather goods, knives,
embroidery and so forth. The site is low, but the town is surrounded by
hills, which afford protection from the north wind. The dirty streets
full of petty traders, the gloomy bazaar with its multitude of tiny
shops, the market squares, the blind alleys, the little gates in the
dead courtyard walls, all give the place the stamp of a Tatar or Turkish
town. Placed on the high road between Simferopol and Kerch, and in the
midst of a country rich in corn land, vineyards and gardens,
Karasu-Bazar used to be a chief seat of commercial activity in the
Crimea; but it is gradually declining in importance, though still a
considerable centre for the export of fruit.

The caves of Akkaya close by give evidence of early occupation of the
spot. When in 1736 Khan Feta Ghirai was driven by the Russians from
Bakhchi-sarai he settled at Karasu-Bazar, but next year the town was
captured, plundered and burned by the Russians.



KARATEGHIN, a country of Central Asia, subject to Bokhara, and
consisting of a highland district bounded on the N. by Samarkand and
Ferghana (Khokand), on the E. by Ferghana, on the S. by Darvaz, and on
the W. by Hissar and other Bokharian provinces. The plateau is traversed
by the Surkhab or Vakhsh, a right-hand tributary of the Amu-darya
(Oxus). On the N. border run the Hissar and Zarafshan mountains, and on
the S. border the Peter I. (Periokhtan) range (24,900 ft.). The area is
8000 sq. m. and the population about 60,000--five-sixths Tajiks, the
rest Kara-kirghiz. With the neighbouring lands Karateghin has no
communication except during summer, that is, from May to September. The
winter climate is extremely severe; snow begins to fall in October and
it is May before it disappears. During the warmer months, however, the
mountain sides are richly clothed with the foliage of maple, mountain
ash, apple, pear and walnut trees; the orchards furnish, not only apples
and pears, but peaches, cherries, mulberries and apricots; and the
farmers grow sufficient corn to export. Both cattle and horses are of a
small and hardy breed. Rough woollen cloth and mohair are woven by the
natives, who also make excellent firearms and other weapons. Gold is
found in various places and there are salt-pits in the mountains. The
chief town, Harm or Garm, is a place of some 2000 inhabitants, situated
on a hill on the right bank of the Surkhab.

The native princes, who claimed to be descended from Alexander the
Great, were till 1868 practically independent, though their allegiance
was claimed in an ineffective way by Khokand, but eventually Bokhara
took advantage of their intestine feuds to secure their real submission
in 1877.



KARAULI, or KEROWLEE, a native state of India, in the Rajputana agency.
Area, 1242 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 156,786; estimated revenue about
£330,000. Almost the entire territory is composed of hills and broken
ground, but there are no lofty peaks, the highest having an elevation of
less than 1400 ft. above sea-level. The Chambal river flows along the
south-east boundary of the state. Iron ore and building stone comprise
the mineral resources. The prevailing agricultural products are millets,
which form the staple food of the people. The only manufactures consist
of a little weaving, dyeing, wood-turning and stone-cutting. The
principal imports are piece goods, salt, sugar, cotton, buffaloes and
bullocks; the exports rice and goats. The feudal aristocracy of the
state consists of Jadu Rajputs connected with the ruling house. They pay
a tribute in lieu of constant military service, but in case of emergency
or on occasions of state display they are bound to attend on the chief
with their retainers. The maharaja is the head of the clan, which claims
descent from Krishna. Maharaja Bhanwar Pal Deo, who was born in 1862 and
succeeded in 1866, was appointed G.C.I.E. in 1897, on the occasion of
Queen Victoria's diamond jubilee.

The town of KARAULI had a population in 1901 of 23,482. It dates from
1348, and is well situated in a position naturally defended by ravines
on the north and east, while it is further protected by a great wall.
The palace of the maharaja is a handsome block of buildings dating
mainly from the middle of the 18th century.



KAREN, one of the chief hill races of Burma. The Karens inhabit the
central Pegu Yoma range, forming the watershed between the Sittang and
Irrawaddy rivers, the Paunglaung range between the Sittang and the
Salween, and the eastern slopes of the Arakan Yoma mountains to the west
of the Irrawaddy delta. They are supposed to be the descendants of
Chinese tribes driven southwards by the pressure of the Shan races,
before they were again made to retire into the hills by the expansion of
the Môn power. Their own traditions ascribe their original home to the
west of the sandy desert of Gobi stretching between China and Tibet.
According to the census of 1901 they numbered in all 727,235 persons
within British India, divided into the Sgaw, 86,434, the Pwo, 174,070,
and the Bghai, 4936, while 457,355 are returned as "unspecified." The
Sgaw and Pwo are collectively known as the "White Karens," and chiefly
inhabit British territory. They take their name from the colour of their
clothes. The Bghai, or "Red Karens," who are supposed by some to be an
entirely distinct race, chiefly inhabit the independent hill state of
Karen-ni (q.v.). The Karen is of a squarer build than the Burman, his
skin is fairer, and he has more of the Mongolian obliquity of the eyes.
In character also the people differ from the Burmese. They are
singularly devoid of humour, they are stolid and cautious, and lack
altogether the light gaiety and fascination of the Burmese. They are
noted for truthfulness and chastity, but are dirty and addicted to
drink. The White Karens furnish perhaps the most notable instance of
conversion to Christianity of any native race in the British empire.
Prepared by prophecies current among them, and by curious traditions of
a biblical flavour, in addition to their antagonism to the dominant
Burmese, they embraced with fervour the new creed brought to them by the
missionaries, so that out of the 147,525 Christians in Burma according
to the census of 1901 upwards of a hundred thousand were Karens. The Red
Karens differ considerably from the White Karens. They are the wildest
and most lawless of the so-called Karen tribes. Every male belonging to
the clan used to have the rising sun tattooed in bright vermilion on his
back. The men are small and wizened, but athletic, and have broad
reddish-brown faces. Their dress consists of a short pair of breeches,
usually of a reddish colour, with black and white stripes interwoven
perpendicularly or like a tartan, and a handkerchief is tied round the
head. The Karen language is tonal, and belongs to the Siamese-Chinese
branch of the Indo-Chinese family.

  See D. M. Smeaton, _The Loyal Karens of Burma_ (1887); J. Nisbet,
  _Burma under British Rule_ (1901); M. and B. Ferrars, _Burma_ (1900);
  and O'Connor Scott, _The Silken East_ (1904).     (J. G. Sc.)



KAREN-NI, the country of the Red Karens, a collection of small states,
formerly independent, but now feudatory to Burma. It is situated
approximately between 18° 50´ and 19° 55´ N. and between 97° 10´ and 97°
50´ E. The tract is bounded on the N. by the Shan states of Möng Pai,
Hsatung and Mawkmai; on the E. by Siam; on the S. by the Papun district
of Lower Burma; and on the W. a stretch of mountainous country,
inhabited by the Bre and various other small tribes, formerly in a state
of independence, divides it from the districts of Toungoo and Yamethin.
It is divided in a general way into eastern and western Karen-ni; the
former consisting of one state, Gantarawadi, with an approximate area of
2500 sq. m.; the latter of the four small states of Kyebogyi, area about
350 sq. m.; Bawlake, 200 sq. m.; Nammekon, 50 sq. m.; and Naungpale,
about 30 sq. m. The small states of western Karen-ni were formerly all
subject to Bawlake, but the subordination has now ceased. Karen-ni
consists of two widely differing tracts of country, which roughly mark
now, and formerly actually did mark, the division into east and west.
Gantarawadi has, however, encroached westwards beyond the boundaries
which nature would assign to it. The first of these two divisions is the
southern portion of the valley of the Hpilu, or Balu stream, an open,
fairly level plain, well watered and in some parts swampy. The second
division is a series of chains of hills, intersected by deep valleys,
through which run the two main rivers, the Salween and the Pawn, and
their feeder streams. Many of the latter are dried up in the hot season
and only flow freely during the rains. The whole country being hilly,
the most conspicuous ridge is that lying between the Pawn and the
Salween, which has an average altitude of 5000 ft. It is crossed by
several tracks, passable for pack-animals, the most in use being the
road between Sawlon, the capital of Gantarawadi and Man Maü. The
principal peak east of the Salween is on the Loi Lan ridge, 7109 ft.
above mean sea-level. Parts of this ridge form the boundary between
eastern Karen-ni and Mawkmai on the west and Siam on the east. It falls
away rapidly to the south, and at Pang Salang is crossed at a height of
2200 ft. by the road from Hsataw to Mehawnghsawn. West of the Balu
valley the continuation of the eastern rim of the Myelat plateau rises
in Loi Nangpa to about 5000 ft. The Nam Pawn is a large river, with an
average breadth of 100 yds., but is unnavigable owing to its rocky bed.
Even timber cannot be floated down it without the assistance of
elephants. The Salween throughout Karen-ni is navigated by large native
craft. Its tributary, the Me Pai, on the eastern bank, is navigable as
far as Mehawnghsawn in Siamese territory. The Balu stream flows out of
the Inle lake, and is navigable from that point to close on Lawpita,
where it sinks into the ground in a marsh or succession of funnel holes.
Its breadth averages 50 yds., and its depth is 15 ft. in some places.

The chief tribes are the Red Karens (24,043), Bres (3500), and Padaungs
(1867). Total revenue, Rs. 37,000. An agent of the British government,
with a guard of military police, is posted at the village of Loikaw.
Little of the history of the Red Karens is known; but it appears to be
generally admitted that Bawlake was originally the chief state of the
whole country, east and west, but eastern Karen-ni under Papaw-gyi early
became the most powerful. Slaving raids far into the Shan states brought
on invasions from Burma, which, however, were not very successful.
Eastern Karen-ni was never reduced until Sawlapaw, having defied the
British government, was overcome and deposed by General Collett in the
beginning of 1889. Sawlawi was then appointed myoza, and received a
_sanad_, or patent of appointment, on the same terms as the chiefs of
the Shan states. The independence of the Western Karen-ni states had
been guaranteed by the British government in a treaty with King Mindon
in 1875. They were, however, formally recognized as feudatories in 1892
and were presented with _sanads_ on the 23rd of January of that year.
Gantarawadi pays a regular tribute of Rs. 5000 yearly, whereas these
chieflets pay an annual _kadaw_, or _nuzzur_, of about Rs. 100. They are
forbidden to carry out a sentence of death passed on a criminal without
the sanction of the superintendent of the southern Shan states, but
otherwise retain nearly all their customary law.

  Tin, or what is called tin, is worked in Bawlake. It appears, however,
  to be very impure. It is worked intermittently by White Karens on the
  upper waters of the Hkemapyu stream. Rubies, spinels and other stones
  are found in the upper Tu valley and in the west of Nammekon state,
  but they are of inferior quality. The trade in teak is the chief or
  only source of wealth in Karen-ni. The largest and most important
  forests are those on the left bank of the Salween. Others lie on both
  banks of the Nam Pawn, and in western Karen-ni on the Nam Tu. The
  yearly out-turn is estimated at over 20,000 logs, and forest officers
  have estimated that an annual out-turn of 9000 logs might be kept up
  without injury to the forests. Some quantity of cutch is exported, as
  also stick-lac, which the Red Karens graft so as to foster the
  production. Other valuable forest produce exists, but is not exported.
  Rice, areca-nuts, and betel-vine leaf are the chief agricultural
  products. The Red Karen women weave their own and their husbands'
  clothing. A characteristic manufacture is the _pa-si_ or Karen metal
  drum, which is made at Ngwedaung. These drums are from 2½ to 3 ft.
  across the boss, with sides of about the same depth. The sound is out
  of proportion to the metal used, and is inferior to that of the Shan
  and Burmese gongs. It is thought that the population of Karen-ni is
  steadily decreasing. The birth-rate of the people is considered to
  exceed the death-rate by very little, and the Red Karen habit of life
  is most unwholesome. Numbers have enlisted in the Burma police, but
  there are various opinions as to their value.     (J. G. Sc.)



KARIKAL, a French settlement in India, situated on the south-east coast,
within the limits of Tanjore district, with an area of 53 sq. m., and a
population (1901) of 56,595. The site was promised to the French by the
Tanjore raja in 1738, in return for services rendered, but was only
obtained by them by force in 1739. It was captured by the British in
1760, restored in 1765, again taken in 1768, and finally restored in
1817. The town is neatly built on one of the mouths of the Cauvery, and
carries on a brisk trade with Ceylon, exporting rice and importing
chiefly European articles and timber. A _chef de l'administration_,
subordinate to the government at Pondicherry, is in charge of the
settlement, and there is a tribunal of first instance.



KARLI, a village of British India, in the Poona district of the Bombay
presidency, famous for its rock caves. Pop. (1901), 903. The great cave
of Karli is said by Fergusson to be without exception the largest and
finest _chaitya_ cave in India; it was excavated at a time when the
style was in its greatest purity, and is splendidly preserved. The great
_chaitya_ hall is 126 ft. long, 45 ft. 7 in. wide, and about 46 ft.
high. A row of ornamental columns rises on either side to the ribbed
teak roof, and at the far end of the nave is a massive _dagoba_. Dating
from the beginning of the Christian era or earlier, this cave has a
wooden roof, which repeats the pattern of the walls, and which Fergusson
considers to be part of the original design. Since wood rapidly
deteriorates in India owing to the climate and the ravages of white
ants, the state of preservation of this roof is remarkable.



KARLOWITZ, or CARLOWITZ (Hungarian, _Karlóeza_; Croatian, Karlovci), a
city of Croatia-Slavonia, in the county of Syrmia; on the right bank of
the Danube, and on the railway from Peterwardein, 6 m. N.W. to Belgrade.
Pop. (1900), 5643. Karlowitz is the seat of an Orthodox metropolitan,
and has several churches and schools, and a hospital. The fruit-farms
and vineyards of the Fruska Gora, a range of hills to the south, yield
excellent plum brandy and red wine. An obelisk at Slankamen, 13 m. E. by
S., commemorates the defeat of the Turks by Louis of Baden, in 1691. The
treaty of Karlowitz, between Austria, Turkey, Poland and Venice, was
concluded in 1699; in 1848-1849 the city was the headquarters of Servian
opposition to Hungary. It was included, until 1881, in the Military
Frontier.



KARLSKRONA [CARLSCRONA,] a seaport of Sweden, on the Baltic coast, chief
town of the district (_län_) of Blekinge, and headquarters of the
Swedish navy. Pop. (1900), 23,955. It is pleasantly situated upon
islands and the mainland, 290 m. S.S.W. of Stockholm by rail. The
harbour is capacious and secure, with a sufficient depth of water for
the largest vessels. It has three entrances; the principal, and the only
one practicable for large vessels, is to the south of the town, and is
defended by two strong forts, at Drottningskär on the island of Aspö,
and on the islet of Kungsholm. The dry docks, of great extent, are cut
out of the solid granite. There is slip-accommodation for large vessels.
Karlskrona is the seat of the Royal Naval Society, and has a
navy-arsenal and hospital, and naval and other schools. Charles XI., the
founder of the town as naval headquarters (1680), is commemorated by a
bronze statue (1897). There are factories for naval equipments,
galvanized metal goods, felt hats, canvas, leather and rice, and
breweries and granite quarries. Exports are granite and timber; imports,
coal, flour, provisions, hides and machinery.



KARLSRUHE, or CARLSRUHE, a city of Germany, capital of the grand-duchy of
Baden, 33 m. S.W. of Heidelberg, on the railway Frankfort-on-Main-Basel,
and 39 m. N.W. of Stuttgart. Pop. (1895), 84,030; (1905), 111,200. It
stands on an elevated plain, 5 m. E. of the Rhine and on the fringe of
the Hardtwald forest. Karlsruhe takes its name from Karl Wilhelm,
margrave of Baden, who, owing to disputes with the citizens of Durlach,
erected here in 1715 a hunting seat, around which the town has been
built. The city is surrounded by beautiful parks and gardens. The palace
(Schloss), built in 1751-1776 on the site of the previous erection of
1715, is a plain building in the old French style, composed of a centre
and two wings, presenting nothing remarkable except the octagon tower
(_Bleiturm_), from the summit of which a splendid view of the city and
surrounding country is obtained, and the marble saloon, in which the
meridian of Cassini was fixed or drawn. In front of the palace is the
Great Circle, a semicircular line of buildings, containing the government
offices. From the palace the principal streets, fourteen in number,
radiate in the form of an expanded fan, in a S.E., S. and S.W. direction,
and are again intersected by parallel streets. This fan-like plan of the
older city has, however, been abandoned in the more modern extensions.
Karlsruhe has several fine public squares, the principal of which are the
Schlossplatz, with Schwanthaler's statue of the grand duke Karl Friedrich
in the centre, and market square (Marktplatz), with a fountain and a
statue of Louis, grand duke of Baden. In the centre of the Rondelplatz is
an obelisk in honour of the grand duke Karl Wilhelm. The finest street is
the Kaiserstrasse, running from east to west and having a length of a
mile and a half and a uniform breadth of 72 ft. In it are several of the
chief public buildings, notably the technical high school, the arsenal
and the post office. Among other notable buildings are the town hall; the
theatre; the hall of representatives; the mint; the joint museum of the
grand-ducal and national collections (natural history, archaeology,
ethnology, art and a library of over 150,000 volumes); the palace of the
heir-apparent, a late Renaissance building of 1891-1896; the imperial
bank (1893); the national industrial hall, with an exhibition of
machinery; the new law courts; and the hall of fine arts, which shelters
a good picture gallery. The city has six Evangelical and four Roman
Catholic Churches. The most noteworthy of these are the Evangelical town
church, the burial-place of the margraves of Baden; the Christuskirche,
and the Bernharduskirche. Karlsruhe possesses further the Zähringen
museum of curiosities, which is in the left wing of the Schloss; an
architectural school (1891); industrial art school and museum; cadet
school (1892); botanical and electro-technical institutes; and
horticultural and agricultural schools. Of its recent public monuments
may be mentioned one to Joseph Victor von Scheffel (1826-1886); a bronze
equestrian statue of the emperor William I. (1896); and a memorial of the
1870-71 war. Karlsruhe is the headquarters of the XIV. German army corps.
Since 1870 the industry of the city has grown rapidly, as well as the
city itself. There are large railway workshops; and the principal
branches of industry are the making of locomotives, carriages, tools and
machinery, jewelry, furniture, gloves, cement, carpets, perfumery,
tobacco and beer. There is an important arms factory. Maxau, on the
Rhine, serves as the river port of Karlsruhe and is connected with it by
a canal finished in 1901.

  See Fecht, _Geschichte der Haupt- und Residenzstadt Karlsruhe_
  (Karlsruhe, 1887); F. von Weech, _Karlsruhe, Geschichte der Stadt und
  ihrer Verwaltung_ (Karlsruhe, 1893-1902); Naeher, _Die Umgebung der
  Residenz Karlsruhe_ (Karlsruhe, 1888); and the annual _Chronik der
  Haupt- und Residenzstadt Karlsruhe._



KARLSTAD [CARLSTAD], a town of Sweden, the capital of the district
(_län_) of Vermland, on the island of Tingvalla under the northern shore
of Lake Vener, 205 m. W. of Stockholm by the Christiania railway. Pop.
(1900), 11,869. The fine Klar River here enters the lake, descending
from the mountains of the frontier. To the north-west lies the Fryksdal
or valley of the Nors River, containing three beautiful lakes and
fancifully named the "Swedish Switzerland." In this and other parts of
the district are numerous iron-works. Karlstad was founded in 1584. It
is the seat of a bishop and has a cathedral. Trade is carried on by way
of the lake and the Göta canal. There are mechanical works, match
factories and stockinet factories, and a mineral spring rich in iron,
the water of which is bottled for export. Under the constitution of
united Sweden and Norway, in the event of the necessity of electing a
Regent and the disagreement of the parliaments of the two countries,
Karlstad was indicated as the meeting-place of a delegacy for the
purpose. Here, on the 31st of August 1905 the conference met to decide
upon the severance of the union between Sweden and Norway, the delegates
concluding their work on the 23rd of September.



KARLSTADT or CARLSTADT (Hungarian, _Károlyváros_; Croatian, _Karlovac_),
a royal free city, municipality and garrison town in the county of
Agram, Croatia-Slavonia; standing on hilly ground beside the river
Kulpa, which here receives the Korana and the Dobra. Pop. (1900), 7396.
Karlstadt is on the railway from Agram to Fiume. It consists of the
fortress, now obsolete, the inner town and the suburbs. Besides the
Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches, its chief buildings are the
Franciscan monastery, law-courts and several large schools, including
one for military cadets. Karlstadt has a considerable transit trade in
grain, wine, spirits and honey, and manufactures the liqueur called
_rosoglio_.



KARMA, sometimes written KARMAN, a Sanskrit noun (from the root _kri_,
to do), meaning deed or action. In addition to this simple meaning it
has also, both in the philosophical and the colloquial speech of India a
technical meaning, denoting "a person's deeds as determining his future
lot." This is not merely in the vague sense that on the whole good will
be rewarded and evil punished, but that every single act must work out
to the uttermost its inevitable consequences, and receive its
retribution, however many ages the process may require. Every part of
the material universe--man, woman, insect, tree, stone, or whatever it
be--is the dwelling of an eternal spirit that is working out its
destiny, and while receiving reward and punishment for the past is
laying up reward and punishment for the future. This view of existence
as an endless and concomitant sowing and reaping is accepted by learned
and unlearned alike as accounting for those inequalities in human life
which might otherwise lead men to doubt the justice of God. Every act of
every person has not only a moral value producing merit or demerit, but
also an inherent power which works out its fitting reward or punishment.
To the Hindu this does not make heaven and hell unnecessary. These two
exist in many forms more or less grotesque, and after death the soul
passes to one of them and there receives its due; but that existence too
is marked by desire and action, and is therefore productive of merit or
demerit, and as the soul is thus still entangled in the meshes of karma
it must again assume an earthly garb and continue the strife. Salvation
is to the Hindu simply deliverance from the power of karma, and each of
the philosophic systems has its own method of obtaining it. The last
book of the Laws of Manu deals with _karmaphalam_, "the fruit of karma,"
and gives many curious details of the way in which sin is punished and
merit rewarded. The origin of the doctrine cannot be traced with
certainty, but there is little doubt that it is post-vedic, and that it
was readily accepted by Buddha in the 6th century B.C. As he did not
believe in the existence of soul he had to modify the doctrine (see
BUDDHISM).



KÁRMÁN, JÓZSEF (1769-1795), Hungarian author, was born at Losoncz on the
14th of March 1769, the son of a Calvinist pastor. He was educated at
Losoncz and Pest, whence he migrated to Vienna. There he made the
acquaintance of the beautiful and eccentric Countess Markovics, who was
for a time his mistress, but she was not, as has often been supposed,
the heroine of his famous novel _Fanni Hagyománai_ (Fanny's testament).
Subsequently he settled in Pest as a lawyer. His sensibility, social
charm, liberal ideas (he was one of the earliest of the Magyar
freemasons) and personal beauty, opened the doors of the best houses to
him. He was generally known as the Pest Alcibiades, and was especially
at home in the salons of the Protestant magnates. In 1792, together with
Count Ráday, he founded the first theatrical society at Buda. He
maintained that Pest, not Pressburg, should be the literary centre of
Hungary, and in 1794 founded the first Hungarian quarterly, _Urania_,
but it met with little support and ceased to exist in 1795, after three
volumes had appeared. Kármán, who had long been suffering from an
incurable disease, died in the same year. The most important
contribution to _Urania_ was his sentimental novel, _Fanni Hagyománai_,
much in the style of _La nouvelle Héloïse_ and _Werther_, the most
exquisite product of Hungarian prose in the 18th century and one of the
finest psychological romances in the literature. Kármán also wrote two
satires and fragments of an historical novel, while his literary
programme is set forth in his dissertation _Anemzet csinosodása_.

  Kármán's collected works were published in Abafi's _Nemzeti Könyvtár_
  (Pest, 1878), &c., preceded by a life of Kármán. See F. Baráth,
  _Joseph Kármán_ (Hung., Vas. Ujs, 1874); Zsolt Beöthy, article on
  Kármán in _Képes Irodalomtörtenet_ (Budapest, 1894).     (R. N. B.)



KARNAK, a village in Upper Egypt (pop. 1907, 12,585), which has given
its name to the northern half of the ruins of Thebes on the east bank of
the Nile, the southern being known as Luxor (q.v.). The Karnak ruins
comprise three great enclosures built of crude brick. The northernmost
and smallest of these contained a temple of the god Mont, built by
Amenophis III., and restored by Rameses II. and the Ptolemies. Except a
well-preserved gateway dating from the reign of Ptolemy Euergetes I.,
little more than the plan of the foundations is traceable. Its axis, the
line of which is continued beyond the enclosure wall by an avenue of
sphinxes, pointed down-stream (N.E.). The southern enclosure contained a
temple of the goddess Mut, also built by Amenophis III., and almost as
ruinous as the last, but on a much larger scale. At the back is the
sacred lake in the shape of a horse-shoe. The axis of the temple runs
approximately northward, and is continued by a great avenue of rams to
the southern pylons of the central enclosure. This last is of vast
dimensions, forming approximately a square of 1500 ft., and it contains
the greatest of all known temples, the Karnak temple of Ammon (see
ARCHITECTURE, sect. "Egyptian," with plan).

Inside and outside each of these enclosures there were a number of
subsidiary temples and shrines, mostly erected by individual kings to
special deities. The triad of Thebes was formed by Ammon, his wife Mut
and their son Khons. The large temple of Khons is in the enclosure of
the Ammon temple, and the temple of Mut, as already stated, is connected
with the latter by the avenue of rams. The Mont temple, on the other
hand, is isolated from the others and turned away from them; it is
smaller than that of Khons. Mont, however, may perhaps be considered a
special god of Thebes; he certainly was a great god from very ancient
times in the immediate neighbourhood, his seats being about 4 m. N.E. at
Medamot, the ancient Madu, and about 10 m. S.W. on the west bank at
Hermonthis.

It is probable that a temple of Ammon existed at Karnak under the Old
Kingdom, if not in the prehistoric age; but it was unimportant, and no
trace of it has been discovered. Slight remains of a considerable temple
of the Middle Kingdom survive behind the shrine of the great temple, and
numbers of fine statues of the twelfth and later dynasties have been
found; two of these were placed against the later seventh pylon, while a
large number were buried in a great pit, in the area behind that pylon,
which has yielded an enormous number of valuable and interesting
monuments reaching to the age of the Ptolemies. The axis of the early
temple lay from E. to W., and was followed by the main line of the later
growth; but at the beginning of the eighteenth dynasty, Amenophis I.
built a temple south of the west front of the old one, and at right
angles to it, and thus started a new axis which was later developed in
the series of pylons VII.-X., and the avenue to the temple of Mut. The
VIIIth pylon in particular was built by Hatshepsut, probably as an
approach to this temple of Amenophis, but eventually Tethmosis III.
cleared the latter away entirely. Thebes was then the royal residence,
and Ammon of Karnak was the great god of the state. Tethmosis I. built a
court round the temple of the Middle Kingdom, entered through a pylon
(No. V.), and later added the pylon No. IV. with obelisks in front of
it. Hatshepsut placed two splendid obelisks between the Pylons IV. and
V., and built a shrine in the court of Tethmosis I., in front of the old
temple. Tethmosis III., greatest of the Pharaohs, remodelled the
buildings about the obelisks of his unloved sister with the deliberate
intention of hiding them from view, and largely reconstructed the
surroundings of the court. At a later date, after his wars were over, he
altered Hatshepsut's sanctuary, engraving on the walls about it a record
of his campaigns; to this time also is to be attributed the erection of
a great festival hall at the back of the temple. The small innermost
pylon (No. VI.) is likewise the work of Tethmosis III. Amenophis III.,
though so great a builder at Thebes, seems to have contented himself
with erecting a great pylon (No. III.) at the west end. The closely
crowded succession of broad pylons here suggests a want of space for
westward expansion, and this is perhaps explained by a trace of a quay
found by Legrain in 1905 near the southern line of pylons; a branch of
the Nile or a large canal may have limited the growth. As has been
stated, Tethmosis III. continued on the southern axis; he destroyed the
temple of Amenophis I. and erected a larger pylon (No. VII.) to the
north of Hatshepsut's No. VIII. To these Haremheb added two great pylons
and the long avenue of ram-figures, changing the axis slightly so as to
lead direct to the temple of Mut built by Amenophis III. All of these
southern pylons are well spaced. In the angle between these pylons and
the main temple was the great rectangular sacred lake. By this time the
temple of Karnak had attained to little more than half of its ultimate
length from east to west.

With the XIXth Dynasty there is a notable change perhaps due to the
filling of the hypothetical canal. No more was added on the southern
line of building, but westward Rameses I. erected pylon No. II. at an
ample distance from that of Amenophis III., and Seti I. and Rameses II.
utilized the space between for their immense Hall of Columns, one of the
most celebrated achievements of Egyptian architecture. The materials of
which the pylon is composed bear witness to a temple having stood near
by of the heretic and unacknowledged kings of the XVIIIth Dynasty.
Haremheb's pylon No. IX. was likewise constructed out of the ruins of a
temple dedicated by Amenophis IV. (Akhenaten) to the sun-god Harmakhis.
Rameses III. built a fine temple, still well preserved, to Ammon at
right angles to the axis westward of pylon No. II.; Sheshonk I. (Dynasty
XXII.) commenced a great colonnaded court in front of the pylon,
enclosing part of this temple and a smaller triple shrine built by Seti
II. In the centre of the court Tirhaka (Tirhaka, Dynasty XXV.) set up
huge columns 64 ft. high, rivalling those of the central aisle in the
Hall of Columns, for some building now destroyed. A vast unfinished
pylon at the west end (No. I.), 370 ft. wide and 142½ ft. high, is of
later date than the court, and is usually attributed to the Ptolemaic
age. It will be observed that the successive pylons diminish in size
from the outside inwards. Portions of the solid crude-brick scaffolding
are still seen banked against this pylon. About 100 metres west of it is
a stone quay, on the platform of which stood a pair of obelisks of Seti
II.; numerous graffiti recording the height of the Nile from the XXIst
to the XXVIth Dynasties are engraved on the quay.

Besides the kings named above, numbers of others contributed in greater
or less measure to the building or decoration of the colossal temple.
Alexander the Great restored a chamber in the festival hall of Tethmosis
III., and Ptolemy Soter built the central shrine of granite in the name
of Philip Arrhidaeus. The walls throughout, as usually in Egyptian
temples, are covered with scenes and inscriptions, many of these, such
as those which record the annals of Tethmosis III., the campaign of Seti
I. in Syria, the exploit of Rameses II. at the battle of Kadesh and his
treaty with the Hittites, and the dedication of Sheshonk's victories to
Ammon, are of great historical importance. Several large stelae with
interesting inscriptions have been found in the ruins, and statues of
many ages of workmanship. In December 1903 M. Legrain, who has been
engaged for several years in clearing the temple area systematically,
first tapped an immense deposit of colossal statues, stelae and other
votive objects large and small in the space between pylon No. VII. and
the great hypostyle hall. After three seasons' work, much of it in deep
water, 750 large monuments have been extracted, while the small figures,
&c. in bronze and other materials amount to nearly 20,000. The value of
the find, both from the artistic and historical standpoints, is immense.
The purpose of the deposit is still in doubt; many of the objects are of
the finest materials and finest workmanship, and in perfect
preservation: even precious metals are not absent. Multitudes of objects
in wood, ivory, &c., have decayed beyond recovery. That all were waste
pieces seems incredible. They are found lying in the utmost confusion;
in date they range from the XIIth Dynasty to the Ptolemaic period.

The inundation annually reaches the floor of the temple, and the
saltpetre produced from the organic matter about the ruins, annually
melting and crystallizing, has disintegrated the soft sandstone in the
lower courses of the walls and the lower drums and bases of the columns.
There is moreover no solid foundation in any part of the temple. Slight
falls of masonry have taken place from time to time, and the
accumulation of rubbish was the only thing that prevented a great
disaster. Repairs, often on a large scale, have therefore gone on side
by side with the clearance, especially since the fall of many columns in
the great hall in 1899. All the columns which fell in that year were
re-erected by 1908.

The temple of Khons, in the S.W. corner of the great enclosure, is
approached by an avenue of rams, and entered through a fine pylon
erected by Euergetes I. It was built by Rameses III. and his successors
of the XXth Dynasty, with Hrihor of Dynasty XXI. Excavations in the
opposite S.E. corner have revealed flint weapons and other sepulchral
remains of the earliest periods, proving that the history of Thebes goes
back to a remote antiquity.

  See Baedeker's _Handbook for Egypt_; also _Description de l'Égypte.
  Atlas, Antiquités_ (tome iii.); A. Mariette, _Karnak, Étude
  topographique et archéologique_; L. Borchardt, _Zur Baugeschichte des
  Ammontempels von Karnak_; G. Legrain in _Recueil des travaux rélatifs
  à l'arch. Égypt._, vol. xxvii. &c.; and reports in _Annales du service
  des antiquités de l'Égypte_.     (F. Ll. G.)



KARNAL, a town and district of British India, in the Delhi division of
the Punjab. The town is 7 m. from the right bank of the Jumna, with a
railway station 76 m. N. of Delhi. Pop. (1901), 23,559. There are
manufactures of cotton cloth and boots, besides considerable local trade
and an annual horse fair.

The DISTRICT OF KARNAL stretches along the right bank of the Jumna,
north of Delhi. It is entirely an alluvial plain, but is crossed by the
low uplift of the watershed between the Indian Ocean and the Bay of
Bengal. Area, 3153 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 883,225, showing an increase of
nearly 3% in the decade. The principal crops are millets, wheat, pulse,
rice, cotton and sugar-cane. There are several factories for ginning and
pressing cotton. The district is traversed by the Delhi-Umballa-Kalka
railway, and also by the Western Jumna canal. It suffered from famine in
1896-1897, and again to some extent in 1899-1900.

No district of India can boast of a more ancient history than Karnal, as
almost every town or stream is connected with the legends of the
_Mahabharata_. The town of Karnal itself is said to owe its foundation
to Raja Karna, the mythical champion of the Kauravas in the great war
which forms the theme of the national epic. Panipat, in the south of the
district, is said to have been one of the pledges demanded from
Duryodhana by Yudisthira as the price of peace in that famous conflict.
In historical times the plains of Panipat have three times proved the
theatre of battles which decided the fate of Upper India. It was here
that Ibrahim Lodi and his vast host were defeated in 1526 by the veteran
army of Baber; in 1556 Akbar reasserted the claims of his family on the
same battlefield against the Hindu general of the house of Adil Shah,
which had driven the heirs of Baber from the throne for a brief
interval; and at Panipat too, on the 7th of January 1761, the Mahratta
confederation was defeated by Ahmad Shah Durani. During the troublous
period which then ensued the Sikhs managed to introduce themselves, and
in 1767 one of their chieftains, Desu Singh, appropriated the fort of
Kaithal, which had been built during the reign of Akbar. His
descendants, the bhais of Kaithal, were reckoned amongst the most
important Cis-Sutlej princes. Different portions of this district have
lapsed from time to time into the hands of the British.



KÁROLYI, ALOYS, COUNT (1825-1889), Austro-Hungarian diplomatist, was
born in Vienna on the 8th of August 1825. The greatness of the Hungarian
family of Károlyi dates from the time of Alexander Károlyi (1668-1743),
one of the generals of Francis Rákóczy II., who in 1711 negotiated the
peace of Szatmár between the insurgent Hungarians and the new king, the
emperor Charles VI., was made a count of the Empire in 1712, and
subsequently became a field marshal in the imperial army. Aloys Károlyi
entered the Austrian diplomatic service, and was attached successively
to embassies at various European capitals. In 1858 he was sent to St
Petersburg on a special mission to seek the support of Russia against
Napoleon III. He was ambassador at Berlin in 1866 at the time of the
rupture between Prussia and Austria, and after the Seven Weeks' War was
charged with the negotiation of the preliminaries of peace at
Nikolsburg. He was again sent to Berlin in 1871, acted as second
plenipotentiary at the Berlin congress of 1878, and was sent in the same
year to London, where he represented Austria for ten years. He died on
the 2nd of December 1889 at Tótmegyer.



KAROSS, a cloak made of sheepskin, or the hide of other animals, with
the hair left on. It is properly confined to the coat of skin without
sleeves worn by the Hottentots and Bushmen of South Africa. These
karosses are now often replaced by a blanket. Their chiefs wore karosses
of the skin of the wild cat, leopard or caracal. The word is also
loosely applied to the cloaks of leopard-skin worn by the chiefs and
principal men of the Kaffir tribes. Kaross is probably either a genuine
Hottentot word, or else an adaptation of the Dutch _kuras_ (Portuguese
_couraça_), a cuirass. In a vocabulary dated 1673 _karos_ is described
as a "corrupt Dutch word."



KARR, JEAN BAPTISTE ALPHONSE (1808-1890), French critic and novelist,
was born in Paris, on the 24th of November 1808, and after being
educated at the Collège Bourbon, became a teacher there. In 1832 he
published a novel, _Sous les tilleuls_, characterized by an attractive
originality and a delightful freshness of personal sentiment. A second
novel, _Une heure trop tard_, followed next year, and was succeeded by
many other popular works. His _Vendredi soir_ (1835) and _Le Chemin le
plus court_ (1836) continued the vein of autobiographical romance with
which he had made his first success. _Géneviève_ (1838) is one of his
best stories, and his _Voyage autour de mon jardin_ (1845) was
deservedly popular. Others were _Feu Bressier_ (1848), and _Fort en
thème_ (1853), which had some influence in stimulating educational
reform. In 1839 Alphonse Karr, who was essentially a brilliant
journalist, became editor of _Le Figaro_, to which he had been a
constant contributor; and he also started a monthly journal, _Les
Guêpes_, of a keenly satirical tone, a publication which brought him the
reputation of a somewhat bitter wit. His epigrams were frequently
quoted; e.g. "plus ça change, plus c'est la même chose," and, on the
proposal to abolish capital punishment, "je veux bien que messieurs les
assassins commencent." In 1848 he founded _Le Journal_. In 1855 he went
to live at Nice, where he indulged his predilections for floriculture,
and gave his name to more than one new variety. Indeed he practically
founded the trade in cut flowers on the Riviera. He was also devoted to
fishing, and in _Les Soirées de Sainte-Adresse_ (1853) and _Au bord de
la mer_ (1860) he made use of his experiences. His reminiscences, _Livre
de bord_, were published in 1879-1880. He died at St Raphaël (Var), on
the 29th of September 1890.



KARRER, FELIX (1825-1903), Austrian geologist, was born in Venice on the
11th of March 1825. He was educated in Vienna, and served for a time in
the war department, but he retired from the public service at the age of
thirty-two, and devoted himself to science. He made especial studies of
the Tertiary formations and fossils of the Vienna Basin, and
investigated the geological relations of the thermal and other springs
in that region. He became an authority on the foraminifera, on which
subject he published numerous papers. He wrote also a little book
entitled _Der Boden der Hauptstädte Europas_ (1881). He died in Vienna
on the 19th of April 1903.



KARROO, two extensive plateaus in the Cape province, South Africa, known
respectively as the Great and Little Karroo. Karroo is a corruption of
_Karusa_, a Hottentot word meaning dry, barren, and its use as a
place-name indicates the character of the plateaus so designated. They
form the two intermediate "steps" between the coast-lands and the inner
plateau which constitutes the largest part of South Africa. The Little
(also called Southern) Karroo is the table-land nearest the southern
coast-line of the Cape, and is bounded north by the Zwaarteberg, which
separates it from the Great Karroo. From west to east the Little Karroo
has a length of some 200 m., whilst its average width is 30 m. West of
the Zwaarteberg the Little Karroo merges into the Great Karroo. Eastward
it is limited by the hills which almost reach the sea in the direction
of St Francis and Algoa Bays. The Great Karroo is of much larger extent.
Bounded south, as stated, by the Zwaarteberg, further east by the
Zuurberg (of the coast chain), its northern limit is the mountain range
which, under various names, such as Nieuwveld and Sneeuwberg, forms the
wall of the inner plateau. To the south-west and west it is bounded by
the Hex River Mountains and the Cold Bokkeveld, eastward by the Great
Fish River. West to east it extends fully 350 m. in a straight line,
varying in breadth from more than 80 to less than 40 m. Whilst the
Little Karroo is divided by a chain of hills which run across it from
east to west, and varies in altitude from 1000 to 2000 ft., the Great
Karroo has more the aspect of a vast plain and has a level of from 2000
to 3000 ft. The total area of the Karroo plateaus is stated to be over
100,000 sq. m. The plains are dotted with low ranges of _kopjes_. The
chief characteristics of the Karroo are the absence of running water
during a great part of the year and the consequent parched aspect of the
country. There is little vegetation save stunted shrubs, such as the
mimosa (which generally marks the river beds), wild pomegranate, and wax
heaths, known collectively as Karroo bush. After the early rains the
bush bursts into gorgeous purple and yellow blossoms and vivid greens,
affording striking evidence of the fertility of the soil. Such parts of
the Karroo as are under perennial irrigation are among the most
productive lands in South Africa. Even the parched bush provides
sufficient nourishment for millions of sheep and goats. There are also
numerous ostrich farms, in particular in the districts of Oudtshoorn and
Ladismith in the Little Karroo, where lucerne grows with extraordinary
luxuriance. The Karroo is admirably adapted to sufferers from pulmonary
complaints. The dryness of the air tempers the heat of summer, which
reaches in January a mean maximum of 87° F., whilst July, the coldest
month, has a mean minimum of 36° F. A marked feature of the climate is
the great daily range (nearly 30°) in temperature; the Karroo towns are
also subject to violent dust storms. Game, formerly plentiful, has been,
with the exception of buck, almost exterminated. In a looser sense the
term Karroo is also used of the vast northern plains of the Cape which
are part of the inner table-land of the continent. (See CAPE COLONY.)



KARS, a province of Russian Transcaucasia, having the governments of
Kutais and Tiflis on the N., those of Tiflis and Erivan on the E., and
Asiatic Turkey on the S. and W. Its area amounts to 7410 sq. m. It is a
mountainous, or rather a highland, country, being in reality a plateau,
with ranges of mountains running across it. The northern border is
formed by the Arzyan range, a branch of the Ajari Mts., which attains
altitudes of over 9000 ft. In the south the Kara-dagh reach 10,270 ft.
in Mount Ala-dagh, and the Agry-dagh 10,720 ft. in Mount Ashakh; and in
the middle Allah-akhbar rises to 10,215 ft. The passes which connect
valley with valley often lie at considerable altitudes, the average of
those in the S.E. being 9000 ft. Chaldir-gol (altitude 6520 ft.) and one
or two other smaller lakes lie towards the N.E.; the Chaldir-gol is
overhung on the S.W. by the Kysyr-dagh (10,470 ft.). The east side of
the province is throughout demarcated by the Arpa-chai, which receives
from the right the Kars river, and as it leaves the province at its S.E.
corner joins the Aras. The Kura rises within the province not far from
the Kysyr-dagh and flows across it westwards, then eastwards and
north-eastwards, quitting it in the north-east. The winters are very
severe. The towns of Kaghyshman (4620 ft.) and Sarykamish (7800 ft.)
have a winter temperature like that of Finland, and at the latter place,
with an annual mean (35° F.) equal to that of Hammerfest in the extreme
north of Norway, the thermometer goes down in winter to 40° below zero
and rises in summer to 99°. The annual mean temperature at Kars is 40.5°
and at Ardahan, farther north, 37°. The Alpine meadows (_yailas_) reach
up to 1000 ft. and afford excellent pasturage in spring and summer. The
province is almost everywhere heavily forested. Firs and birches
flourish as high as 7000 ft., and the vine up to above 3000 ft. Cereals
ripen well, and barley and maize grow up to considerable altitudes.
Large numbers of cattle and sheep are bred. Extensive deposits of salt
occur at Kaghyshman and Olty. The population was 167,610 in 1883 and
292,863 in 1897. The estimated population in 1906 was 349,100. It is
mixed. In remote antiquity the province was inhabited by Armenians, the
ruins of whose capital, Ani, attest the ancient prosperity of the
country. To the Armenians succeeded the Turks, while Kurds invaded the
Alpine pasturages above the valley of the Aras; and after them
Kabardians, Circassians, Ossetes and Kara-papaks successively found a
refuge in this highland region. After the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78,
when this region was transferred to Russia by the treaty of Berlin, some
82,750 Turks emigrated to Asia Minor, their places being taken by nearly
22,000 Armenians, Greeks and Russians. At the census of 1897 the
population consisted principally of Armenians (73,400), Kurds (43,000),
Greeks (32,600), Kara-papaks (30,000), Russians, Turks and Persians. The
capital is Kars. The province is divided into four districts, the chief
towns of which are Kars (q.v.), Ardahan (pop. 800 in 1897), Kaghyshman
(3435) and Olty.     (J. T. Be.)



KARS, a fortified town of Russian Transcaucasia, in the province of
Kars, formerly at the head of a sanjak in the Turkish vilayet of
Erzerum. It is situated in 40° 37´ N. and 43° 6´ E., 185 m. by rail S.W.
of Tiflis, on a dark basalt spur of the Soghanli-dagh, above the deep
ravine of the Kars-chai, a sub-tributary of the Aras. Pop. (1878), 8672;
(1897), 20,891. There are three considerable suburbs--Orta-kapi to the
S., Bairam Pasha to the E., and Timur Pasha on the western side of the
river. At the N.W. corner of the town, overhanging the river, is the
ancient citadel, in earlier times a strong military post, but completely
commanded by the surrounding eminences. The place is, however, still
defended by a fort and batteries. There is a 10th century cathedral,
Kars being the see of a bishop of the Orthodox Greek Church. Coarse
woollens, carpets and felt are manufactured.

During the 9th and 10th centuries the seat of an independent Armenian
principality, Kars was captured and destroyed by the Seljuk Turks in the
11th century, by the Mongols in the 13th, and by Timur (Tamerlane) in
1387. The citadel, it would appear, was built by Sultan Murad III.
during the war with Persia, at the close of the 16th century. It was
strong enough to withstand a siege by Nadir Shah of Persia, in 1731, and
in 1807 it successfully resisted the Russians. After a brave defence it
surrendered on the 23rd of June 1828 to the Russian general Count I. F.
Paskevich, 11,000 men becoming prisoners of war. During the Crimean War
the Turkish garrison, guided by General Williams (Sir W. Fenwick
Williams of Kars) and other foreign officers, kept the Russians at bay
during a protracted siege; but, after the garrison had been devastated
by cholera, and food had utterly failed, nothing was left but to
capitulate (Nov. 1855). The fortress was again stormed by the Russians
in the war of 1877-78, and on its conclusion was transferred to Russia.

  See Kmety, _The Defence of Kars_ (1856), translated from the German;
  H. A. Lake, _Kars and our Captivity in Russia_ (London, 1856); and
  _Narrative of the Defence of Kars_ (London, 1857); Dr Sandwith,
  _Narrative of the Siege of Kars_ (London, 1856); C. B. Norman,
  _Armenia and the Campaign of 1877_ (London, 1878); Greene, _Russian
  Army and its Campaigns in Turkey_ (1879).



KARSHI, a town of Bokhara, in Central Asia, situated 96 m. S.E. of the
city of Bokhara, in a plain at the junction of two main confluents of
the Kashka-darya. It is a large and straggling place, with a citadel,
and the population amounts to 25,000. There are three colleges, and the
Biki mosque is a fine building inlaid with blue and white tiles. Along
the river stretches a fine promenade sheltered by poplars. Poppies and
tobacco are largely grown, the tobacco being deemed the best in Central
Asia. There is a considerable trade in grain; but the commercial
prosperity of Karshi is mainly due to its being a meeting-point for the
roads from Samarkand, Bokhara, Hissar, Balkh and Maimana, and serves as
the market where the Turkomans and Uzbegs dispose of their carpets,
knives and firearms. Its coppersmiths turn out excellent work. Karshi
was a favourite residence of Timur (Tamerlane).



KARST, in physical geography, the region east of the northern part of
the Adriatic. It is composed of high and dry limestone ridges. The
country is excessively faulted by a long series of parallel fractures
that border the N.E. Adriatic and continue inland that series of steps
which descend beneath the sea and produce the series of long parallel
islands off the coast of Triest and along the Dalmatian shore. It has
been shown by E. Suess (_Antlitz der Erde_, vol. i. pt. 2, ch. iii.)
that the N. Adriatic is a sunken dish that has descended along these
fractures and folds, which are not uncommonly the scene of earthquakes,
showing that these movements are still in progress. The crust is very
much broken in consequence and the water sinks readily through the
broken limestone rocks, which owing to their nature are also very
absorbent. The result is that the scenery is barren and desolate, and as
this structure always, wherever found, gives rise to similar features, a
landscape of this character is called a Karst landscape. The water
running in underground channels dissolves and denudes away the
underlying rock, producing great caves as at Adelsberg, and breaking the
surface with sinks, potholes and unroofed chasms. The barren nature of a
purely limestone country is seen in the treeless regions of some parts
of Derbyshire, while the underground streams and sinks of parts of
Yorkshire, and the unroofed gorge formed by the Cheddar cliffs, give
some indication of the action that in the high fractured mountains of
the Karst produces a depressing landscape which has some of the features
of the "bad lands" of America, though due to a different cause.



KARSTEN, KARL JOHANN BERNHARD (1782-1853), German mineralogist, was born
at Bützow in Mecklenburg, on the 26th of November 1782. He was author of
several comprehensive works, including _Handbuch der Eisenhüttenkunde_
(2 vols., 1816; 3rd ed., 1841); _System der Metallurgie geschichtlich,
statistisch, theoretisch und technisch_ (5 vols. with atlas, 1831-1832);
_Lehrbuch der Salinenkunde_ (2 vols., 1846-1847). He was well known as
editor of the _Archiv für Bergbau und Hüttenwesen_ (20 vols.,
1818-1831); and (with H. von Dechen) of the _Archiv für Mineralogie,
Geognosie, Bergbau und Hüttenkunde_ (26 vols., 1820-1854). He died at
Berlin on the 22nd of August 1853. His son, Dr Hermann Karsten
(1809-1877), was professor of mathematics and physics in the university
of Rostock.



KARTIKEYA, in Hindu mythology, the god of war. Of his birth there are
various legends. One relates that he had no mother but was produced by
Siva alone, and was suckled by six nymphs of the Ganges, being
miraculously endowed with six faces that he might simultaneously obtain
nourishment from each. Another story is that six babes, miraculously
conceived, were born of the six nymphs, and that Parvati, the wife of
Siva, in her great affection for them, embraced the infants so closely
that they became one, but preserved six faces, twelve arms, feet, eyes,
&c. Kartikeya became the victor of giants and the leader of the armies
of the gods. He is represented as riding a peacock. In southern India he
is known as Subramanya.



KARUN, an important river of Persia. Its head-waters are in the mountain
cluster known since at least the 14th century as Zardeh Kuh (13,000 ft.)
and situated in the Bakhtiari country about 115 m. W. of Isfahan. In its
upper course until it reaches Shushter it is called Ab i Kurang (also
Kurand and Kuran), and in the _Bundahish_, an old cosmographical work in
Pahlavi, it is named Kharae.[1] From the junction of the two principal
sources in the Zardeh Kuh at an altitude of about 8000 ft., the Ab i
Kurang is a powerful stream, full, deep and flowing with great velocity
for most of its upper course between precipices varying in height from
1000 to 3000 ft. The steepness and height of its banks make it in
general useless for irrigation purposes. From its principal sources to
Shushter the distance as the crow flies is only about 75 m., but the
course of the river is so tortuous that it travels 250 m. before it
reaches that city. Besides being fed on its journey through the
Bakhtiari country by many mountain-side streams, fresh-water and salt,
it receives various tributaries, the most important being the Ab i
Bazuft from the right and the Ab i Barz from the left. At Shushter it
divides into two branches, one the "Gerger," an artificial channel cut
in olden times and flowing east of the city, the other the "Shutait"
flowing west. These two branches, which are navigable to within a few
miles below Shushter, unite after a run of about 50 m. at Band i Kir, 24
m. S. of Shushter, and there also take up the Ab i Diz (river of
Dizful). From Band i Kir to a point two miles above Muhamrah the river
is called Karun (Rio Carom of the Portuguese writers of the 16th and
17th centuries) and is navigable all the way with the exception of about
two miles at Ahvaz, where a series of cliffs and rocky shelves cross the
river and cause rapids. Between Ahvaz and Band i Kir (46 m. by river, 24
m. by road) the river has an average depth of about 20 ft., but below
Ahvaz down to a few miles above Muhamrah it is in places very shallow,
and vessels with a draught exceeding 3 ft. are liable to ground. About
12 m. above Muhamrah and branching off to the left is a choked-up river
bed called the "blind Karun," by which the Karun found its way to the
sea in former days. Ten miles farther a part of the river branches off
to the left and due S. by a channel called Bahmashir (from
Bahman-Ardashir, the name of the district in the early middle ages)
which is navigable to the sea for vessels of little draught. The
principal river, here about a quarter of a mile broad and 20 to 30 ft.
deep, now flows west, and after passing Muhamrah enters into the Shatt
el Arab about 20 m. below Basra. This part of the river, from the
Bahmashir to the Shatt, is a little over three miles in length and, as
its name, Hafar ("dug") implies, an artificial channel. It was dug c.
A.D. 980 by Azud ed-Dowleh to facilitate communication by water between
Basra and Ahvaz, as related by the Arab geographer Mukaddasi A.D. 986.
The total length of the river is 460 to 470 m. while the distance from
the sources to its junction with the Shatt el Arab is only 160 m. as the
crow flies. The Karun up to Ahvaz was opened to international navigation
on the 30th of October 1888, and Messrs Lynch of London established a
fortnightly steamer service on it immediately after.

To increase the water supply of Isfahan Shah Tahmasp I. (1524-1576) and
some of his successors, notably Shah Abbas I. (1587-1629), undertook
some works for diverting the Kurang into a valley which drains into the
Zayendeh-rud, the river of Isfahan, by tunnelling, or cutting through a
narrow rocky ridge separating the two river systems. The result of many
years' work, a cleft 300 yds. long, 15 broad and 18 deep, cut into the
rock, probably amounting to no more than one-twentieth of the necessary
work, can be seen at the junction of the two principal sources of the
Kurang.

  On the upper Karun see Mrs Bishop, _Journeys in Persia and Kurdistan_
  (London, 1891); Lord Curzon, _Persia and the Persian Question_
  (London, 1892); Lieut.-Colonel H. A. Sawyer, "The Bakhtiari Mountains
  and Upper Elam," _Geog. Journal_ (Dec. 1894).     (A. H.-S.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The _real_ principal source of the river has been correctly
    located at ten miles above the _reputed_ principal source, but the
    name Kurang has been erroneously explained as standing for Kuh i rang
    and has been given to the mountain with the real principal source.
    Kuh i rang has been wrongly explained as meaning the "variegated
    mountain."



KARWAR, or CARWAR, a seaport of British India, administrative
headquarters of North Kanara district in the Bombay presidency; 295 m.
S. of Bombay city. Pop. (1901), 16,847. As early as 1660 the East India
Company had a factory here, with a trade in muslin and pepper; but it
suffered frequently from Dutch, Portuguese and native attacks, and in
1752 the English agent was withdrawn. Old Karwar fell into ruins, but a
new town grew up after the transfer of North Kanara to the Bombay
presidency. It is the only safe harbour all the year round between
Bombay and Cochin. In the bay is a cluster of islets called the Oyster
Rocks, on the largest of which is a lighthouse. Two smaller islands in
the bay afford good shelter to native craft during the strong north-west
winds that prevail from February to April. The commercial importance of
Karwar has declined since the opening of the railway to Marmagao in
Portuguese territory.



KARWI, a town of British India, in the Banda district of the United
Provinces, on a branch of the Indian Midland railway; pop. (1901), 7743.
Before the Mutiny it was the residence of a Mahratta noble, who lived in
great state, and whose accumulations constituted the treasure afterwards
famous as "the Kirwee and Banda Prize Money."



KARYOGAMY (Gr. [Greek: káruon], nut or kernel, thus "nucleus," and
[Greek: gámos], marriage), in biology: (1) the fusion of nuclei to form
a single nucleus in syngamic processes (see REPRODUCTION); (2) the
process of pairing in Infusoria (q.v.), in which two migratory nuclei
are interchanged and fuse with two stationary nuclei, while the
cytoplasmic bodies of the two mates are in intimate temporary union.



KASAI, or CASSAI, a river of Africa, the chief southern affluent of the
Congo. It enters the main stream in 3° 10´ S., 16° 16´ E. after a course
of over 800 m. from its source in the highlands which form the
south-western edge of the Congo basin--separating the Congo and Zambezi
systems. The Kasai and its many tributaries cover a very large part of
the Congo basin. The Kasai rises in about 12° S., 19° E. and flows first
in a north-easterly direction. About 10° 35´ S., 22° 15´ E. it makes a
rectangular bend northward and then takes a north-westerly direction.
Five rivers--the Luembo, Chiumbo, Luijimo or Luashimo, Chikapa and Lovua
or Lowo--rise west of the Kasai and run in parallel courses for a
considerable distance, falling successively into the parent stream
(between 7° and 6° S.) as it bends westward in its northern course. The
Luembo and Chiumbo join and enter the Kasai as one river. A number of
rapids occur in these streams. A few miles below the confluence of the
Lowo, the last of the five rivers named to join the Kasai, the main
stream is interrupted by the Wissmann Falls which, though not very high,
bar further navigation from the north. Below this point the river
receives several right-hand (eastern) tributaries. These also have their
source in the Zambezi-Congo watershed, rising just north of 12° S.,
flowing north in parallel lines, and in their lower course bending west
to join the Kasai. The chief of these affluents are the Lulua and the
Sankuru, the Lulua running between the Kasai and the Sankuru. The
Sankuru makes a bold curve westward on reaching 4° S., following that
parallel of latitude a considerable distance. Its waters are of a bright
yellow colour. After the junction of the two rivers (in 4° 17´ S., 20°
15´ E.), the united stream of the Kasai flows N.W. to the Congo. From
the south it is joined by the Loange and the Kwango. The Kwango is a
large river rising a little north of 12° S., and west of the source of
the Kasai. Without any marked bends it flows north--is joined from the
east by the Juma, Wamba and other streams--and has a course of 600 m.
before joining the Kasai in 3° S., 18´ E. The lower reaches of the
Kwango are navigable; the upper course is interrupted by rapids. On the
north (in 3° 8´ S., 17° E.) the lower Kasai is joined by the Lukenye or
Ikatta. This river, the most northerly affluent of the Kasai, rises
between 24° and 25° E., and about 3° S. in swampy land through which the
Lomami (another Congo affluent) flows northward. The Lukenye has an east
to west direction flowing across a level country once occupied by a
lake, of which Lake Leopold II. (q.v.), connected with the lower course
of the Lukenye, is the scanty remnant. Below the lake the Lukenye is
known as the Mfini. Near its mouth the Kasai, in its lower course
generally a broad stream strewn with islands, is narrowed to about half
a mile on passing through a gap in the inner line of the West African
highlands, by the cutting of which the old lake of the Kasai basin must
have been drained. The Kasai enters the Congo with a minimum depth of 25
feet and a breadth of about 700 yards, at a height of 942 ft. above the
sea. The confluence is known as the Kwa mouth, Kwa being an alternative
name for the lower Kasai. The volume of water entering the Congo
averages 321,000 cub. ft. per second: far the largest amount discharged
by any of the Congo affluents. In floodtime the current flows at the
rate of 5 or 6 m. an hour. The Kasai and its tributaries are navigable
for over 1500 m. by steamer.

  The Kwango affluent of the Kasai was the first of the large affluents
  of the Congo known to Europeans. It was reached by the Portuguese from
  their settlements on the west coast in the 16th century. Of its lower
  course they were ignorant. Portuguese travellers in the 18th century
  are believed to have reached the upper Kasai, but the first accurate
  knowledge of the river basin was obtained by David Livingstone, who
  reached the upper Kasai from the east and explored in part the upper
  Kwango (1854-1855). V. L. Cameron and Paul Pogge crossed the upper
  Kasai in the early "seventies." The Kwa mouth was seen by H. M.
  Stanley in his journey down the Congo in 1877, and he rightly regarded
  it as the outlet of the Kwango, though not surmising it was also the
  outlet of the Kasai. In 1882 Stanley ascended the river to the
  Kwango-Kasai confluence and thence proceeding up the Mfini discovered
  Lake Leopold II. In 1884 George Grenfell journeyed up the river beyond
  the Kwango confluence. The systematic exploration of the main stream
  and its chief tributaries was, however, mainly the work of Hermann von
  Wissmann, Ludwig Wolf, Paul Pogge and other Germans during 1880-1887.
  (See Wissmann's books, especially _Im Innern Afrikas_, Leipzig, 1888.)
  On his third journey, 1886, Wissmann was accompanied by Grenfell.
  Major von Mechow, an Austrian, explored the middle Kwango in 1880, and
  its lower course was subsequently surveyed by Grenfell and Holman
  Bentley, a Baptist missionary. In 1899-1900 a Belgian expedition under
  Captain C. Lemaire traced the Congo-Zambezi watershed, obtaining
  valuable information concerning the upper courses of the southern
  Kasai tributaries. The upper Kasai basin and its peoples were further
  investigated by a Hungarian traveller, E. Torday, in 1908-1909. (See
  Torday's paper in _Geog. Jour._, 1910; also CONGO and the authorities
  there cited.)



KASBEK (Georgian, _Mkin-vari_; Ossetian, _Urs-khokh_), one of the chief
summits of the Caucasus, situated in 42° 42´ N. and 44° 30´ E., 7 m. as
the crow flies from a station of the same name on the high road to
Tiflis. Its altitude is 16,545 ft. It rises on the range which runs
north of the main range (main water-parting), and which is pierced by
the gorges of the Ardon and the Terek. It represents an extinct volcano,
built up of trachyte and sheathed with lava, and has the shape of a
double cone, whose base lies at an altitude of 5800 ft. Owing to the
steepness of its slopes, its eight glaciers cover an aggregate surface
of not more than 8 sq. m., though one of them, Maliev, is 36 m. long.
The best-known glacier is the Dyevdorak, or Devdorak, which creeps down
the north-eastern slope into a gorge of the same name, reaching a level
of 7530 ft. At its eastern foot runs the Georgian military road through
the pass of Darial (7805 ft.). The summit was first climbed in 1868 by
D. W. Freshfield, A. W. Moore, and C. Tucker, with a Swiss guide.
Several successful ascents have been made since, the most valuable in
scientific results being that of Pastukhov (1889) and that of G.
Merzbacher and L. Purtscheller in 1890. Kasbek has a great literature,
and has left a deep mark in Russian poetry.

  See D. W. Freshfield in _Proc. Geog. Soc._ (November 1888) and _The
  Exploration of the Caucasus_ (2nd ed., 2 vols., 1902); Hatisian's
  "Kazbek Glaciers" in _Izvestia Russ. Geog. Soc._ (xxiv., 1888);
  Pastukhov in _Izvestia of the Caucasus Branch of Russ. Geog. Soc._ (x.
  1, 1891, with large-scale map).



KASHAN, a small province of Persia, situated between Isfahan and Kum. It
is divided into the two districts _germsir_, the "warm," and _sardsir_,
the "cold," the former with the city of Kashan in the plains, the latter
in the hills. It has a population of 75,000 to 80,000, and pays a yearly
revenue of about £18,000. KASHAN (Cashan) is the provincial capital, in
34° 0´ N. and 51° 27´ E., at an elevation of 3190 ft., 150 m. from
Teheran; pop. 35,000, including a few hundred Jews occupied as
silk-winders, and a few Zoroastrians engaged in trade. Great quantities
of silk stuffs, from raw material imported from Gilan, and copper
utensils are manufactured at Kashan and sent to all parts of Persia.
Kashan also exports rose-water made in villages in the hilly districts
about 20 m. from the city, and is the only place in Persia where cobalt
can be obtained, from the mine at Kamsar, 19 m. to the south. At the
foot of the hills 4 m. W. of the city are the beautiful gardens of Fin,
the scene of the official murder, on the 9th of January 1852, of Mirza
Taki Khan, Amir Nizam, the grand vizier, one of the ablest ministers
that Persia has had in modern times.



KASHGAR, an important city of Chinese Turkestan, in 39° 24´ 26´´ N.
lat., 76° 6´ 47´´ E. long., 4043 ft. above sea-level. It consists of two
towns, Kuhna Shahr or "old city," and Yangi Shahr or "new city," about
five miles apart, and separated from one another by the Kyzyl Su, a
tributary of the Tarim river. It is called Su-leh by the Chinese, which
perhaps represents an original Solek or Sorak. This name seems to be
older than Kashgar, which is said to mean "variegated houses." Situated
at the junction of routes from the valley of the Oxus, from Khokand and
Samarkand, Almati, Aksu, and Khotan, the last two leading from China and
India, Kashgar has been noted from very early times as a political and
commercial centre. Like all other cities of Central Asia, it has
changed hands repeatedly, and was from 1864-1887 the seat of government
of the Amir Yakub Beg, surnamed the Atalik Ghazi, who established and
for a brief period ruled with remarkable success a Mahommedan state
comprising the chief cities of the Tarim basin from Turfan round along
the skirt of the mountains to Khotan. But the kingdom collapsed with his
death and the Chinese retook the country in 1877 and have held it since.

Kuhna Shahr is a small fortified city on high ground overlooking the
river Tuman. Its walls are lofty and supported by buttress bastions with
loopholed turrets at intervals; the fortifications, however, are but of
hard clay and are much out of repair. The city contains about 2500
houses. Beyond the bridge, a little way off, are the ruins of ancient
Kashgar, which once covered a large extent of country on both sides of
the Tuman, and the walls of which even now are 12 feet wide at the top
and twice that in height. This city--Aski Shahr (Old Town) as it is now
called--was destroyed in 1514 by Mirza Ababakar (Abubekr) on the
approach of Sultan Said Khan's army. About two miles to the north beyond
the river is the shrine of Hazrat Afak, the saint king of the country,
who died and was buried here in 1693. It is a handsome mausoleum faced
with blue and white glazed tiles, standing under the shade of some
magnificent silver poplars. About it Yakub Beg erected a commodious
college, mosque and monastery, the whole being surrounded by rich
orchards, fruit gardens and vineyards. The Yangi Shahr of Kashgar is, as
its name implies, modern, having been built in 1838. It is of oblong
shape running north and south, and is entered by a single gateway. The
walls are lofty and massive and topped by turrets, while on each side is
a projecting bastion. The whole is surrounded by a deep and wide ditch,
which can be filled from the river, at the risk, however, of bringing
down the whole structure, for the walls are of mud, and stand upon a
porous sandy soil. In the time of the Chinese, before Yakub Beg's sway,
Yangi Shahr held a garrison of six thousand men, and was the residence
of the _amban_ or governor. Yakub erected his _orda_ or palace on the
site of the amban's residence, and two hundred ladies of his harem
occupied a commodious enclosure hard by. The population of Kashgar has
been recently estimated at 60,000 in the Kuhna Shahr and only 2000 in
the Yangi Shahr.

With the overthrow of the Chinese rule in 1865 the manufacturing
industries of Kashgar declined. Silk culture and carpet manufacture have
flourished for ages at Khotan, and the products always find a ready sale
at Kashgar. Other manufactures consist of a strong coarse cotton cloth
called _kham_ (which forms the dress of the common people, and for
winter wear is padded with cotton and quilted), boots and shoes,
saddlery, felts, furs and sheepskins made up into cloaks, and various
articles of domestic use. A curious street sight in Kashgar is presented
by the hawkers of meat pies, pastry and sweetmeats, which they trundle
about on hand-barrows just as their counterparts do in Europe; while the
knife-grinder's cart, and the vegetable seller with his tray or basket
on his head, recall exactly similar itinerant traders further west.

  The earliest authentic mention of Kashgar is during the second period
  of ascendancy of the Han dynasty, when the Chinese conquered the
  Hiungnu, Yutien (Khotan), Sulei (Kashgar), and a group of states in
  the Tarim basin almost up to the foot of the Tian Shan mountains. This
  happened in 76 B.C. Kashgar does not appear to have been known in the
  West at this time but Ptolemy speaks of Scythia beyond the Imaus,
  which is in a _Kasia Regio_, possibly exhibiting the name whence
  Kashgar and Kashgaria (often applied to the district) are formed. Next
  ensues a long epoch of obscurity. The country was converted to
  Buddhism and probably ruled by Indo-Scythian or Kushan kings. Hsüan
  Tswang passed through Kashgar (which he calls Ka-sha) on his return
  journey from India to China. The Buddhist religion, then beginning to
  decay in India, was working its way to a new growth in China, and
  contemporaneously the Nestorian Christians were establishing
  bishoprics at Herat, Merv and Samarkand, whence they subsequently
  proceeded to Kashgar, and finally to China itself. In the 8th century
  came the Arab invasion from the west, and we find Kashgar and
  Turkestan lending assistance to the reigning queen of Bokhara, to
  enable her to repel the enemy. But although the Mahommedan religion
  from the very commencement sustained checks, it nevertheless made its
  weight felt upon the independent states of Turkestan to the north and
  east, and thus acquired a steadily growing influence. It was not,
  however, till the 10th century that Islam was established at Kashgar,
  under the Uighur kingdom (see TURKS). The Uighurs appear to have been
  the descendants of the people called Tölas and to have been one of the
  many Turkish tribes who migrated westwards from China. Boghra Khan,
  the most celebrated prince of this line, was converted to
  Mahommedanism late in the 10th century and the Uighur kingdom lasted
  until 1120 but was distracted by complicated dynastic struggles. The
  Uighurs employed an alphabet based upon the Syriac and borrowed from
  the Nestorian missionaries. They spoke a dialect of Turkish preserved
  in the Kudatku Bilik, a moral treatise composed in 1065. Their kingdom
  was destroyed by an invasion of the Kara-Kitais, another Turkish tribe
  pressing westwards from the Chinese frontier, who in their turn were
  swept away in 1219 by Jenghiz Khan. His invasion gave a decided check
  to the progress of the Mahommedan creed, but on his death, and during
  the rule of the Jagatai Khans, who became converts to that faith, it
  began to reassert its ascendancy. Marco Polo visited the city, which
  he calls Cascar, about 1275 and left some notes on it.

  In 1389-1390 Timur ravaged Kashgar, Andijan and the intervening
  country. Kashgar passed through a troublous time, and in 1514, on the
  invasion of the Khan Sultan Said, was destroyed by Mirza Ababakar, who
  with the aid of ten thousand men built the new fort with massive
  defences higher up on the banks of the Tuman. The dynasty of the
  Jagatai Khans collapsed in 1572 by the dismemberment of the country
  between rival representatives; and soon after two powerful Khoja
  factions, the White and Black Mountaineers (_Ak_ and _Kara Taghluk_),
  arose, whose dissensions and warfares, with the intervention of the
  Kalmucks of Dzungaria, fill up the history till 1759, when a Chinese
  army from Ili (Kulja) invaded the country, and, after perpetrating
  wholesale massacres, finally consolidated their authority by settling
  therein Chinese emigrants, together with a Manchu garrison. The
  Chinese had thoughts of pushing their conquests towards western
  Turkestan and Samarkand, the chiefs of which sent to ask assistance of
  the Afghan king Ahmed Shah. This monarch despatched an embassy to
  Peking to demand the restitution of the Mahommedan states of Central
  Asia, but the embassy was not well received, and Ahmed Shah was too
  much engaged with the Sikhs to attempt to enforce his demands by arms.
  The Chinese continued to hold Kashgar, with sundry interruptions from
  Mahommedan revolts--one of the most serious occurring in 1827, when
  the territory was invaded and the city taken by Jahanghir Khoja;
  Chang-lung, however, the Chinese general of Ili, recovered possession
  of Kashgar and the other revolted cities in 1828. A revolt in 1829
  under Mahommed Ali Khan and Yusuf, brother of Jahanghir, was more
  successful, and resulted in the concession of several important trade
  privileges to the Mahommedans of the district of Alty Shahr (the "six
  cities"), as it was then named. Until 1846 the country enjoyed peace
  under the just and liberal rule of Zahir-ud-din, the Chinese governor,
  but in that year a fresh Khoja revolt under Kath Tora led to his
  making himself master of the city, with circumstances of unbridled
  licence and oppression. His reign was, however, brief, for at the end
  of seventy-five days, on the approach of the Chinese, he fled back to
  Khokand amid the jeers of the inhabitants. The last of the Khoja
  revolts (1857) was of about equal duration with the previous one, and
  took place under Wali-Khan, a degraded debauchee, and the murderer of
  the lamented traveller Adolf Schlagintweit.

  The great Tungani (Dungani) revolt, or insurrection of the Chinese
  Mahommedans, which broke out in 1862 in Kan-suh, spread rapidly to
  Dzungaria and through the line of towns in the Tarim basin. The
  Tungani troops in Yarkand rose, and (10th of August 1863) massacred
  some seven thousand Chinese, while the inhabitants of Kashgar, rising
  in their turn against their masters, invoked the aid of Sadik Beg, a
  Kirghiz chief, who was reinforced by Buzurg Khan, the heir of
  Jahanghir, and Yakub Beg, his general, these being despatched at
  Sadik's request by the ruler of Khokand to raise what troops they
  could to aid his Mahommedan friends in Kashgar. Sadik Beg soon
  repented of having asked for a Khoja, and eventually marched against
  Kashgar, which by this time had succumbed to Buzurg Khan and Yakub
  Beg, but was defeated and driven back to Khokand. Buzurg Khan
  delivered himself up to indolence and debauchery, but Yakub Beg, with
  singular energy and perseverance, made himself master of Yangi Shahr,
  Yangi-Hissar, Yarkand and other towns, and eventually became sole
  master of the country, Buzurg Khan proving himself totally unfitted
  for the post of ruler. Kashgar and the other cities of the Tarim basin
  remained under Yakub Beg's rule until 1877, when the Chinese regained
  possession of their ancient dominion.     (C. E. D. B.; C. El.)



KASHI, or KASI, formerly the Persian word for all glazed and enamelled
pottery irrespectively; now the accepted term for certain kinds of
enamelled tile-work, including brick-work and tile-mosaic work,
manufactured in Persia and parts of Mahommedan India, chiefly during the
16th and 17th centuries.[1]

Undoubtedly originating in the Semitic word for glass, _kas_, it is
quite possible that the name _kashi_ is immediately derived from Kashan,
a town in Persia noted for its _faïence_. This ancient pottery site, in
turn, probably receives its name from the old-time industry; as a "city
of the plain" it would obviously have no claim to the farther-eastern
suffix _shan_, meaning a mountain. Sir George Birdwood wisely considers
that "the art of glazing earthenware has, in Persia, descended in an
almost unbroken tradition from the period of the greatness of Chaldaea
and Assyria ... the name _kas_, by which it is known in Arabic and
Hebrew, carries us back to the manufacture of glass and enamels for
which great Sidon was already famous 1500 years before Christ ... the
designs used in the decoration of Sind and Punjab glazed pottery also go
to prove how much these Indian wares have been influenced by Persian
examples and the Persian tradition of the much earlier art of Nineveh
and Babylon" (_The Industrial Arts of India_, 1880). The two native
names for glass, _kanch_ and _shisha_, common to Persia and India, are,
seemingly, modifications of kashi. The Indian tradition of Chinese
potters settling in bygone days at Lahore and Hala respectively, still
lingers in the Punjab and Sind provinces, and evidently travelled
eastward from Persia with the Moguls. Howbeit in Lahore the name Chíní
is sometimes wrongly applied to _kashi_ work; and the so-called
Chíní-ka-Rauza mausoleum at Agra is an instance of this misuse. It now
seems an established fact that a colony of Chinese ceramic experts
migrated to Isfahan during the 16th century (probably in the reign, and
at the invitation, of Shah Abbas I.), and there helped to revive the
jaded pottery industry of that district.

  _Kashi_ work consisted of two kinds: (a) Enamel-faced tiles and
  bricks of strongly fired red earthenware, or terra-cotta; (b)
  Enamel-faced tiles and tesserae of lightly fired "lime-mortar," or
  sandstone. Tile-mosaic work is described by some authorities as the
  true _kashi_. From examination of figured tile-mosaic patterns, it
  would appear that, in some instances, the shaped tesserae had been cut
  out of enamelled slabs or tiles after firing; in other examples to
  have been cut into shape before receiving their facing of coloured
  enamel. Mosaic panels in the fort at Lahore are described by J. L.
  Kipling as "showing a _gul dasta_, or foliated pattern of a branching
  tree, each leaf of which is a separate piece of pottery." Conventional
  representations of foliage, flowers and fruit, intricate geometrical
  figures, interlacing arabesques, and decorative
  calligraphy--inscriptions in Arabic and Persian--constitute the
  ordinary _kashi_ designs. The colours chiefly used were cobalt blue,
  copper blue (turquoise colour), lead-antimoniate yellow (mustard
  colour), manganese purple, iron brown and tin white. A colour-scheme,
  popular with Mogul and contemporary Persian _kashigars_, was the
  design, in cobalt blue and copper blue, reserved on a ground of deep
  mustard yellow. Before applying the enamel colours, the rough face of
  the tile, or the tesserae, received a thin coating of slip of variable
  composition. It is probably owing to some defect in this part of the
  process, or to imperfect firing, that the enamelled tile surfaces on
  many old buildings, particularly on the south side, have weathered and
  flaked away.

  In India the finest examples of _kashi_ work are in the Punjab and
  Sind provinces. At Lahore, amongst many beautiful structures, the most
  notable are the mosque of Wazir Khan (A.D. 1634) and the gateways of
  three famous pleasure gardens, the Shalamar Bagh (A.D. 1637), the
  Gulabi Bagh (A.D. 1640), and the Charburji (c. A.D. 1665). At Tatta
  the Jami Masjid, built by Shah Jahan (c. A.D. 1645), is a splendid
  illustration; whilst in that "vast cemetery of six square miles" on
  the adjacent Malki plateau, are numerous Mahommedan tombs (A.D.
  1570-1640) with extraordinary _kashi_ ornamentation. Delhi, Multan,
  Jullundur, Shahdara, Lahore cantonment, Agra and Hyderabad (Sind), all
  possess excellent monuments of the best period viz. those erected
  during the reigns of Akbar and Jahangir (A.D. 1556-1628).

  In Persia, at Isfahan, Kashan, Meshed and Kerman are a few buildings
  and ruins showing the old _kashi_ work; the palace of Chehel Sitùn in
  Isfahan, built during the reign of Shah Abbas I. (c. A.D. 1600), is a
  magnificent specimen of this art.

  Occasional revivals of the manufacture have taken place both in India
  and Persia. Mahommed Sharíf, a potter of Jullundur in the Punjab,
  reproduced the Mogul enamelled tile-work in 1885, and there is a
  manuscript record of a certain Ustad Ali Mahommed, of Isfahan, who
  revived the Persian processes in 1887.     (W. B.*; C. S. C.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Káshí, the Hindu name for the sacred city of Benares, has no
    ceramic significance.



KASHMIR, or CASHMERE, a native state of India, including much of the
Himalayan mountain system to the north of the Punjab. It has been fabled
in song for its beauty (e.g. in Moore's _Lalla Rookh_), and is the chief
health resort for Europeans in India, while politically it is important
as guarding one of the approaches to India on the north-west frontier.
The proper name of the state is Jammu and Kashmir, and it comprises in
all an estimated area of 80,900 sq. m., with a population (1901) of
2,905,578, showing an increase of 14.21% in the decade. It is bounded on
the north by some petty hills chiefships and by the Karakoram mountains;
on the east by Tibet; and on the south and west by the Punjab and
North-West Frontier provinces. The state is in direct political
subordination to the Government of India, which is represented by a
resident. Its territories comprise the provinces of Jammu (including the
jagir of Punch), Kashmir, Ladakh, Baltistan and Gilgit; the Shin states
of Yaghistan, of which the most important are Chilas, Darel and Tangir,
are nominally subordinate to it, and the two former pay a tribute of
gold dust. The following are the statistics for the main divisions of
the state:--

                     Area in sq. m.    Pop. in 1901.

  Jammu                  5,223           1,521,307
  Kashmir                7,922           1,157,394
  Frontier Districts       443             226,877

The remainder of the state consists of uninhabited mountains, and its
only really important possessions are the districts of Jammu and
Kashmir.

_Physical Conformation._--The greater portion of the country is
mountainous, and with the exception of a strip of plain on the
south-west, which is continuous with the great level of the Punjab, may
be conveniently divided into the following regions:

  (1) The outer hills and the central mountains of Jammu district.
  (2) The valley of Kashmir.
  (3) The far side of the great central range, including Ladakh,
      Baltistan and Gilgit.

The hills in the outer region of Jammu, adjoining the Punjab plains,
begin with a height of 100 to 200 ft., followed by a tract of rugged
country, including various ridges running nearly parallel, with long
narrow valleys between. The average height of these ridges is from 3000
to 4000 ft. The central mountains are commonly 8000 to 10,000 ft.,
covered with pasture or else with forest. Then follow the more lofty
mountain ranges, including the region of perpetual snow. A great chain
of snowy mountains branching off south-east and north-west divides the
drainage of the Chenab and the Jhelum rivers from that of the higher
branches of the Indus. It is within spurs from this chain that the
valley of Kashmir is enclosed amid hills which rise from 14,000 to
15,000 ft., while the valley itself forms a cup-like basin at an
elevation of 5000 to 6000 ft. All beyond that great range is a wide
tract of mountainous country, bordering the north-western part of Tibet
and embracing Ladakh, Baltistan and Gilgit.

  The length of the Kashmir valley, including the inner slopes of its
  surrounding hills, is about 120 m. from north-west to south-east with
  a maximum width of about 75 m. The low and comparatively level floor
  of the basin is 84 m. long and 20 to 24 m. broad.

  The hills forming the northern half-circuit of the Kashmir valley, and
  running beyond, include many lofty mountain masses and peaks, the most
  conspicuous of which, a little outside the confines of Kashmir, is
  Nanga Parbat, the fourth highest mountain in the world, 26,656 ft.
  above the sea, with an extensive area of glacier on its eastern face.
  The great ridge which is thrown off to the south-west by Nanga Parbat
  rises, at a distance of 12 m., to another summit 20,740 ft. in height,
  from which run south-west, and south-east the ridges which are the
  northern watershed boundary of Kashmir. The former range, after
  running 70 m. south-west, between the valleys of the Kishenganga and
  the Kunhar or Nain-sukh, turns southward, closely pressing the river
  Jhelum, after it has received the Kishenganga, with a break a few
  miles farther south which admits the Kunhar. This range presents
  several prominent summits, the highest two 16,487 and 15,544 ft. above
  the sea. The range which runs south-east from the junction peak above
  mentioned divides the valley of the Kishenganga from that of the Astor
  and other tributaries of the Indus. The highest point on this range,
  where it skirts Kashmir, is 17,202 ft. above the sea. For more than 50
  m. from Nanga Parbat there are no glaciers on this range; thence
  eastward they increase; one, near the Zoji-la pass, is only 10,850 ft.
  above the sea. The mountains at the east end of the valley, running
  nearly north and south, drain inwards to the Jhelum, and on the other
  side to the Wardwan, a tributary of the Chenab. The highest part of
  this eastern boundary is 14,700 ft. There no are glaciers. The highest
  point on the Panjal range, which forms the south and south-west
  boundary, is 15,523 ft. above the sea.

  The river Jhelum (q.v.) or Behat (Sanskrit (_Vitasta_)--the Hydaspes
  of Greek historians and geographers--flows north-westward through the
  middle of the valley. After a slow and winding course it expands about
  25 m. below Srinagar, over a slight depression in the plain, and forms
  the Wular lake and marsh, which is about 12½ m. by 5 m. in extent, and
  surrounded by the lofty mountains which tower over the north and
  north-east of the valley. Leaving the lake on the south-west side,
  near the town of Sopur, the river pursues its sluggish course
  south-westward, about 18 m. to the gorge at Baramulla. From this point
  the stream is more rapid through the narrow valley which conducts it
  westward 75 m. to Muzaffarabad, where it turns sharply south, joined
  by the Kishenganga. At Islamabad, about 40 m. above Srinagar, the
  river is 5400 ft. above sea-level, and at Srinagar 5235 ft. It has
  thus a fall of about 4 ft. per mile in this part of its course. For
  the next 24 m. to the Wular lake, and thence to Baramulla, its fall is
  only about 2¼ ft. in the mile. On the 80 m. of the river in the flat
  valley between Islamabad and Baramulla, there is much boat traffic;
  but none below Baramulla, till the river comes out into the plains.

  On the north-east side of this low narrow plain of the Jhelum is a
  broad hilly tract between which and the higher boundary range runs the
  Kishenganga River. Near the east end of this interior hilly tract, and
  connected with the higher range, is one summit 17,839 ft. Around this
  peak and between the ridges which run from it are many small glaciers.
  These heights look down on one side into the beautiful valley of the
  Sind River, and on another into the valley of the Lidar, which join
  the Jhelum. Among the hills north of Srinagar rises one conspicuous
  mountain mass, 16,903 ft. in height, from which on its north side
  descend tributaries of the Kishenganga, and on the south the Wangat
  River, which flows into the Sind. By these rivers and their numerous
  affluents the whole valley of Kashmir is watered abundantly.

  Around the foot of many spurs of the hills which run down on the
  Kashmir plain are pieces of low table-land, called karéwa. These
  terraces vary in height at different parts of the valley from 100 to
  300 ft. above the alluvial plain. Those which are near each other are
  mostly about the same level, and separated by deep ravines. The level
  plain in the middle of the Kashmir valley consists of fine clay and
  sand, with water-worn pebbles. The karewas consist of horizontal beds
  of clay and sand, the lacustrine nature of which is shown by the
  shells which they contain.

  Two passes lead northward from the Kashmir valley, the Burzil (13,500
  ft.) and the Kamri (14,050). The Burzil is the main pass between
  Srinagar and Gilgit via Astor. It is usually practicable only between
  the middle of July and the middle of September. The road from Srinagar
  to Lehin Ladakh follows the Sind valley to the Zoji-la-pass (11,300
  ft.) Only a short piece of the road, where snow accumulates, prevents
  this pass being used all the year. At the south-east end of the valley
  are three passes, the Margan (11,500 ft.), the Hoksar (13,315) and the
  Marbal (11,500), leading to the valleys of the Chenab and the Ravi.
  South of Islamabad, on the direct route to Jammu and Sialkot, is the
  Banihal pass (9236 ft.). Further west on the Panjal range is the Pir
  Panjal or Panchal pass (11,400 ft.), with a second pass, the Rattan
  Pir (8200 ft.), across a second ridge about 15 m. south-west of it.
  Between the two passes is the beautifully situated fort of Baramgali.
  This place is in the domain of the raja of Punch, cousin and tributary
  of the maharaja of Kashmir. At Rajaori, south of these passes, the
  road divides: one line leads to Bhimber and Gujrat, the other to Jammu
  and Sialkot by Aknur. South-west of Baramulla is the Haji Pir pass
  (8500 ft.), which indicates the road to Punch. From Punch one road
  leads down to the plains at the town of Jhelum, another eastward
  through the hills to the Rattan Pir pass and Rajaori. Lastly, there is
  the river pass of the Jhelum, which is the easy route from the valley
  westward, having two ways down to the plains, one by Muzaffarabad and
  the Hazara valley to Hasan Abdal, the other by the British hill
  station of Murree to Rawalpindi.

  _Geology._--The general strike of the beds, and of the folds which
  have affected them, is from N.W. to S.E., parallel to the mountain
  ranges. Along the south-western border lies the zone of Tertiary beds
  which forms the Sub-Himalayas. Next to this is a great belt of
  Palaeozoic rocks, through which rise the granite, gneiss and schist of
  the Zanskar and Dhauladhar ranges and of the Pir Panjal. In the midst
  of the Palaeozoic area lie the alluvium and Pleistocene deposits of
  the Srinagar valley, and the Mesozoic and Carboniferous basin of the
  upper part of the Sind valley. Beyond the great Palaeozoic belt is a
  zone of Mesozoic and Tertiary beds which commences at Kargil and
  extends south-eastward past the Kashmir boundary to Spiti and beyond.
  Finally, in Baltistan and the Ladakh range there is a broad zone
  composed chiefly of gneiss and schist of ancient date.

  The oldest fossils found belong either to the Ordovician or Silurian
  systems. But it is not until the Carboniferous is reached that fossils
  become at all abundant (so far as is yet known). The Mesozoic deposits
  belong chiefly to the Trias and Jura, but Cretaceous beds have been
  found near the head of the Tsarap valley. The Tertiary system includes
  representatives of all the principal divisions recognized in other
  parts of the Himalayas.

  _Climate._--The valley of Kashmir, sheltered from the south-west
  monsoon by the Panjal range, has not the periodical rains of India.
  Its rainfall is irregular, greatest in the spring months. Occasional
  storms in the monsoon pass over the crests of the Panjal and give
  heavy rain on the elevated plateaus on the Kashmir side. And again
  clouds pass over the valley and are arrested by the higher hills on
  the north-east side. Snow falls on the surrounding hills at intervals
  from October to March. In the valley the first snow generally falls
  about the end of December, but never to any great amount. The hottest
  months are July, August and the greater part of September, during
  which the noon shade temperature varies from 85° to 90° and
  occasionally 95° at Srinagar, probably the hottest place in the
  valley. The coldest months are January and February, when for several
  weeks the average minimum temperature is about 15° below freezing. As
  a health resort the province, excluding Srinagar, which is insanitary
  and relaxing, has no rival anywhere in the neighbourhood of India. Its
  climate is admirably adapted to the European constitution, and in
  consequence of the varied range of temperature and the facility of
  moving about the visitor is enabled with ease to select places at
  elevations most congenial to him. Formerly only 200 passes a year were
  issued by the government, but now no restriction is placed on
  visitors, and their number increases annually. European sportsmen and
  travellers, in addition to residents of India, resort there freely.
  The railway to Rawalpindi, and a driving road thence to Srinagar make
  the valley easy of access. When the temperature in Srinagar rises at
  the beginning of June, there is a general exodus to Gulmarg, which has
  become a fashionable hill-station. This great influx of visitors has
  resulted in a corresponding diminution of game. Special game
  preservation rules have been introduced, and _nullahs_ are let out for
  stated periods with a restriction on the number of head to be shot.
  The wild animals of the country include ibex, markhor, oorial, the
  Kashmir stag, and black and brown bears. Many sportsmen now cross into
  Ladakh and the Pamirs.

_People._--The great majority of the inhabitants of Kashmir are
professedly Mahommedans, but their conversion to the faith of Islam is
comparatively recent and they are still strongly influenced by their
ancient superstitions. At the census of 1901 out of a total population
in the whole state of 2,905,578, there were 2,154,695 Mahommedans,
689,073 Hindus, 35,047 Buddhists and 25,828 Sikhs. The Hindus are mostly
found in Jammu, and the Buddhists are confined to Ladakh. In Kashmir
proper the few Hindus (60,682) are almost all Brahmans, known as
Pundits. Superstition has made the Kashmiri timid; tyranny has made him
a liar; while physical disasters have made him selfish and pessimistic.
Up to recent times the cultivator lived under a system of _begar_, which
entitled an official to take either labour or commodities free of
payment from the villages. Having no security of property, the people
had no incentive to effort, and with no security for life they lost the
independence of free men. But the land settlement of 1889 swept all
these abuses away. Restrictive monopolies, under which bricks, lime,
paper and certain other manufactures were closed to private enterprise,
were abolished. The results of the settlement are thus enumerated by Sir
Walter Lawrence: "Little by little, confidence has sprung up. Land which
had no value in 1889 is now eagerly sought after by all classes.
Cultivation has extended and improved. Houses have been rebuilt and
repaired, fields fenced in, orchards planted, vegetable gardens well
stocked and new mills constructed. Women no longer are seen toiling in
the fields, for their husbands are now at home to do the work, and the
long journeys to Gilgit are a thing of the past. When the harvest is
ripe the peasant reaps it at his own good time, and not a soldier ever
enters the villages." In consequence of this improvement in their
conditions of life and of the influx of wealth into the country brought
by visitors, the Kashmiri grows every year in material prosperity and
independence of character. The Kashmir women have a reputation for
beauty which is not altogether deserved, but the children are always
pretty.

The language spoken in Kashmir is akin to that of the Punjab, though
marked by many peculiarities. It possesses an ancient literature, which
is written in a special character (see KASHMIRI).

  _Natural Calamities._--The effect of physical calamities partly
  incidental to the climate of Kashmir, upon the character of its
  inhabitants has been referred to. The list includes fires, floods,
  earthquakes, famines and cholera. The ravages of fire are chiefly felt
  in Srinagar, where the wood houses and their thatched roofs fall an
  easy prey to the flames. The national habit of carrying a _kangar_, or
  small brazier, underneath the clothes for the purpose of warming the
  body, is a fruitful cause of fires. Srinagar is said to have been
  burnt down eighteen times. Many disastrous floods are recorded, the
  greatest being the terrible inundation which followed the slipping of
  the Khadanyar mountain below Baramula in A.D. 879. The channel of the
  Jhelum river was blocked and a large part of the valley submerged. In
  1841 a serious flood caused great damage to life and property; there
  was another in 1893, when six out of the seven bridges in Srinagar
  were washed away, 25,426 acres under crops were submerged and 2225
  houses were wrecked; another flood occurred in July 1903, when the
  bund between the Dal Lake and the canal gave way, and the lake rose 10
  ft. in half an hour. Between two and three thousand houses in and
  around Srinagar collapsed, while over 40 miles of the tonga road were
  submerged. Since the 15th century eleven great earthquakes have
  occurred, all of long duration and accompanied by great loss of life.
  During the 19th century there were four severe earthquakes, the last
  two occurring in 1864 and 1885, when some 3500 people were killed.
  Native historians record nineteen great famines, the last two
  occurring in 1831 and 1877. In 1878 it was reported that only
  two-fifths of the total population of the valley survived. During the
  19th century also there were ten epidemics of cholera, all more or
  less disastrous, while the worst (in 1892) was probably the last.
  During that year 5781 persons died in Srinagar and 5931 in the
  villages. The centre of infection is generally supposed to be the
  squalid capital of Srinagar, and some efforts to improve its
  sanitation have been made of recent years.

  _Crops._--The staple crop of the valley is rice, which forms the chief
  food of the people. Indian corn comes next; wheat, barley and oats are
  also grown. Every kind of English vegetable thrives well, especially
  asparagus, artichoke, seakale, broad beans, scarlet-runners, beetroot,
  cauliflower and cabbage. Fruit trees are met with all over the valley,
  wild but bearing fruit, and the cultivated orchards yield pears,
  apples, peaches, cherries, &c., equal to the best European produce.
  The chief trees are deodar, firs and pines, chenar or plane, maple,
  birch and walnut. There are state departments of viticulture, hops,
  horticulture and sericulture. A complete list of the flora and fauna
  of the valley will be found in Sir Walter Lawrence's book on Kashmir.

  _Industries._--The chief industry of Srinagar was formerly the weaving
  of the celebrated Kashmir shawl, which dates back to the days of the
  emperor Baber. These shawls first became fashionable in Europe in the
  reign of Napoleon, when they fetched from £10 to £100; but the
  industry received a blow at the time of the Franco-German War, and the
  famine of 1877 scattered the weavers. The place of the Kashmir shawl
  has to some extent been taken by the Kashmir carpet, but the most
  thriving industry now is that of silk-weaving. Srinagar is also
  celebrated for its silver-work, papier mâché and wood-carving. The
  minerals and metals of the Jammu district are promising, and a company
  has been formed to work them. Coal of fair quality has been found, but
  the difficulties of transport interfere with its working.

_History._--The metrical chronicle of the kings of Kashmir, called
_Rajatarangini_, was pronounced by Professor H. H. Wilson to be the only
Sanskrit composition yet discovered to which the title of history can
with any propriety be applied. It first became known to the Mahommedans
when, on Akbar's invasion of Kashmir in 1588, a copy was presented to
the emperor. A translation into Persian was made by his order, and a
summary of its contents, from this Persian translation, is given by
Abu'l Fazl in the _Á'in-i-Akbari_. The _Rajatarangini_, the first of a
series of four Sanskrit histories, was written about the middle of the
12th century by P. Kalhana. His work, in six books, makes use of earlier
writings now lost. Commencing with traditional history of very early
times, it comes down to the reign of Sangrama Deva, 1006; the second
work, by Jonaraja, takes up the history in continuation of Kalhana's,
and, entering the Mahommedan period, gives an account of the reigns down
to that of Zain-ul-ab-ad-din, 1412. P. Srivara carried on the record to
the accession of Fah Shah, 1486. And the fourth work, called
_Rajavalipataka_, by Prajnia Bhatta, completes the history to the time
of the incorporation of Kashmir in the dominions of the Mogul emperor
Akbar, 1588.

In the _Rajatarangini_ it is stated that the valley of Kashmir was
formerly a lake, and that it was drained by the great _rishi_ or sage,
Kasyapa, son of Marichi, son of Brahma, by cutting the gap in the hills
at Baramulla (Varaha-mula). When Kashmir had been drained, he brought in
the Brahmans to occupy it. This is still the local tradition, and in the
existing physical condition of the country we may see some ground for
the story which has taken this form. The name of Kasyapa is by history
and tradition connected with the draining of the lake, and the chief
town or collection of dwellings in the valley was called Kasyapa-pur--a
name which has been plausibly identified with the [Greek: Kaspapyros] of
Hecataeus (Steph. Byz., _s.v._) and [Greek: Kaspatyros] of Herodotus
(iii. 102, iv. 44). Kashmir is the country meant also by Ptolemy's
[Greek: Kaspêria]. The ancient name Kasyapa-pur was applied to the
kingdom of Kashmir when it comprehended great part of the Punjab and
extended beyond the Indus. In the 7th century Kashmir is said by the
Chinese traveller Hsüan Tsang to have included Kabul and the Punjab, and
the hill region of Gandhara, the country of the Gandarae of classical
geography.

At an early date the Sanskrit name of the country became _KásmÍr_. The
earliest inhabitants, according to the _Rajatarangini_, were the people
called Naga, a word which signifies "snake." The history shows the
prevalence in early times of tree and serpent worship, of which some
sculptured stones found in Kashmir still retain the memorials. The town
of Islamabad is called also by its ancient name Anant-nag ("eternal
snake"). The source of the Jhelum is at Vir-nag (the powerful snake),
&c. The other races mentioned as inhabiting this country and the
neighbouring hills are Gandhari, Khasa and Daradae. The Khasa people are
supposed to have given the name Kasmir. In the _Mahabharata_ the Kasmira
and Daradae are named together among the Kshattriya races of northern
India. The question whether, in the immigration of the Aryans into
India, Kashmir was taken on the way, or entered afterwards by that
people after they had reached the Punjab from the north-west, appears to
require an answer in favour of the latter view (see vol. ii. of Dr J.
Muir's _Sanskrit Texts_). The Aryan races of Kashmir and surrounding
hills, which have at the present time separate geographical
distribution, are given by Mr Drew as _Kashmírí_ (mostly Mahommedan), in
the Kashmir basin and a few scattered places outside; _Dard_ (mostly
Mahommedan) in Gilgit and hills north of Kashmir; _Dogra_ (Hindu) in
Jamma; _Dogra_ (Mahommedan, called _Chibali_) in Punch and hill country
west of Kashmir; _Pahari_ or mountaineers (Hindu) in Kishtwar, east of
Kashmir, and hills about the valley of the Chenab.

In the time of Asoka, about 245 B.C., one of the Indian Buddhist
missions was sent to Kashmir and Gandhara. After his death Brahmanism
revived. Then in the time of the three Kushan princes, Huvishka, Jushka
and Kanishka, who ruled over Kashmir about the beginning of the
Christian era, Buddhism was to a great extent restored, though for
several centuries the two religions existed together in Kashmir,
Hinduism predominating. Yet Kashmir, when Buddhism was gradually losing
its hold, continued to send Buddhist teachers to other lands. In this
Hindu-Buddhist period, and chiefly between the 5th and 10th centuries of
the Christian era, were erected the Hindu temples in Kashmir. In the 6th
and 7th centuries Kashmir was visited by some of the Chinese Buddhist
pilgrims to India. The country is called _Shie-mi_ in the narrative of
To Yeng and Sung Yun (578). One of the Chinese travellers of the next
century was for a time an elephant-tamer to the king of Kashmir. Hsüan
Tsang spent two years (631-633) in Kashmir (_Kia-chí-mí-lo_). He entered
by Baramula and left by the Pir Panjal pass. He describes the hill-girt
valley, and the abundance of flowers and fruits, and he mentions the
tradition about the lake. He found in Kashmir many Buddhists as well as
Hindus. In the following century the kings of Kashmir appear to have
paid homage and tribute to China, though this is not alluded to in the
Kashmir chronicle. Hindu kings continued to reign till about 1294, when
Udiana Deva was put to death by his Mahommedan vizier, Amir Shah, who
ascended the throne under the name of Shams-ud-din.

Of the Mahommedan rulers mentioned in the Sanskrit chronicles, one, who
reigned about the close of the 14th century, has made his name prominent
by his active opposition to the Hindu religion, and his destruction of
temples. This was Sikandar, known as _But-shikan_, or the
"idol-breaker." It was in his time that India was invaded by Timur, to
whom Sikandar made submission and paid tribute. The country fell into
the hands of the Moguls in 1588. In the time of Alamgir it passed to
Ahmad Shah Durani, on his third invasion of India (1756); and from that
time it remained in the hands of Afghans till it was wrested from them
by Ranjit Singh, the Sikh monarch of the Punjab, in 1819. Eight Hindu
and Sikh governors under Ranjit Singh and his successors were followed
by two Mahommedans similarly appointed, the second of whom, Shekh
Imam-ud-din, was in charge when the battles of the first Sikh war 1846
brought about new relations between the British Government and the
Sikhs.

Gulab Singh, a Dogra Rajput, had from a humble position been raised to
high office by Ranjit Singh, who conferred on him the small principality
of Jammu. On the final defeat of the Sikhs at Sobraon (February 1846),
Gulab Singh was called to take a leading part in arranging conditions of
peace. The treaty of Lahore (March 9, 1846) sets forth that, the British
Government having demanded, in addition to a certain assignment of
territory, a payment of a crore and a half of rupees (1½ millions
sterling), and the Sikh government being unable to pay the whole, the
maharaja (Dhulip Singh) cedes, as equivalent for one crore, the hill
country belonging to the Punjab between the Beas and the Indus,
including Kashmir and Hazara. The governor-general, Sir Henry Hardinge,
considered it expedient to make over Kashmir to the Jammu chief,
securing his friendship while the British government was administering
the Punjab on behalf of the young maharaja. Gulab Singh was well
prepared to make up the payment in default of which Kashmir was ceded to
the British; and so, in consideration of his services in restoring
peace, his independent sovereignty of the country made over to him was
recognized, and he was admitted to a separate treaty. Gulab Singh had
already, after several extensions of territory east and west of Jammu,
conquered Ladakh (a Buddhist country, and till then subject to Lhasa),
and had then annexed Skardo, which was under independent Mahommedan
rulers. He had thus by degrees half encircled Kashmir, and by this last
addition his possessions attained nearly their present form and extent.
Gulab Singh died in 1857, and was succeeded by his son, Ranbir Singh,
who died in 1885. The next ruler, Maharaja Partab Singh, G.C.S.I. (b.
1850), immediately on his accession inaugurated the settlement reforms
already described. His rule was remarkable for the reassertion of the
Kashmir sovereignty over Gilgit (q.v.). Kashmir imperial service troops
participated in the Black Mountain expedition of 1891, the Hunza Nagar
operations of 1891, and the Tirah campaign of 1897-1898. The total
revenue of the state is about £666,000.

  See Drew, _Jammu and Kashmir_ (1875); M. A. Stein, _Kalhana's
  Rajatarangini_ (1900); W. R. Lawrence, _The Valley of Kashmir_ (1895);
  Colonel A. Durand, _The Making of a Frontier_ (1899); R. Lydekker,
  "The Geology of the Kashmir and Chamba Territories," _Records of the
  Geological Survey of India_, vol. xxii. (1883); J. Duke, _Kashmir
  Handbook_ (1903).     (T. H. H.*)



KASHMIRI (properly _Kasmiri_), the name of the vernacular language
spoken in the valley of Kashmir (properly _Kasmir_) and in the hills
adjoining. In the Indian census of 1901 the number of speakers was
returned at 1,007,957. By origin it is the most southern member of the
Dard group of the Pisaca languages (see INDO-ARYAN LANGUAGES). The other
members of the group are Shina, spoken to its north in the country round
Gilgit, and Kohistani, spoken in the hill country on both sides of the
river Indus before it debouches on to the plains of India. The Pisaca
languages also include Khowar, the vernacular of Chitral, and the Kafir
group of speeches, of which the most important is the Bashgali of
Kafiristan. Of all these forms of speech Kashmiri is the only one which
possesses a literature, or indeed an alphabet. It is also the only one
which has been dealt with in the census of India, and it is therefore
impossible to give even approximate figures for the numbers of speakers
of the others. The whole family occupies the three-sided tract of
country between the Hindu-Kush and the north-western frontier of British
India.

As explained in INDO-ARYAN LANGUAGES, the Pisaca languages are Aryan,
but are neither Iranian nor Indo-Aryan. They represent the speech of an
independent Aryan migration over the Hindu-Kush directly into their
present inhospitable seats, where they have developed a phonetic system
of their own, while they have retained unchanged forms of extreme
antiquity which have long passed out of current use both in Persia and
in India. Their speakers appear to have left the main Aryan body after
the great fission which resulted in the Indo-Aryan migration, but before
all the typical peculiarities of Iranian speech had fully developed.
They are thus representatives of a stage of linguistic progress later
than that of Sanskrit, and earlier than that which we find recorded in
the Iranian Avesta.

The immigrants into Kashmir must have been Shins, speaking a language
closely allied to the ancestor of the modern Shina. They appear to have
dispossessed and absorbed an older non-Aryan people, whom local
tradition now classes as Nagas, or Snake-gods, and, at an early period,
to have come themselves under the influence of Indo-Aryan immigrants
from the south, who entered the valley along the course of the river
Jhelam. The language has therefore lost most of its original Pisaca
character, and is now a mixed one. Sanskrit has been actively studied
for many centuries, and the Kashmiri vocabulary, and even its grammar,
are now largely Indian. So much is this the case that, for convenience'
sake, it is now frequently classed (see INDO-ARYAN LANGUAGES) as
belonging to the north-western group of languages, instead of as
belonging to the Pisaca family as its origin demands. It cannot be said
that either classification is wrong.

Kashmiri has few dialects. In the valley there are slight changes of
idiom from place to place, but the only important variety is Kishtwari,
spoken in the hills south-west of Kashmir. Smaller dialects, such as
Pogul and Rambani of the hills south of the Banihal pass, may also be
mentioned. The language itself is an old one. Pure Kashmiri words are
preserved in the Sanskrit _Rajatarangini_ written by Kalhana in the 12th
century A.D., and, judging from these specimens, the language does not
appear to have changed materially since his time.

_General Character of the Language._--Kashmiri is a language of great
philological interest. The two principal features which at once strike
the student are the numerous epenthetic changes of vowels and consonants
and the employment of pronominal suffixes. In both cases the phenomena
are perfectly plain, cause and effect being alike presented to the eye
in the somewhat complicated systems of declension and conjugation. The
Indo-Aryan languages proper have long ago passed through this stage, and
many of the phenomena now presented by them are due to its influence,
although all record of it has disappeared. In this way a study of
Kashmiri explains a number of difficulties found by the student of
Indo-Aryan vernaculars.[1]

  In the following account the reader is presumed to be in possession of
  the facts recorded in the articles INDO-ARYAN LANGUAGES and PRAKRIT,
  and the following contractions will be employed: Ksh. = Kashmiri; Skr.
  = Sanskrit; P. = Pisaca; Sh. = Shina.

  A. _Vocabulary._ The vocabulary of Kashmiri is, as has been explained,
  mixed. At its basis it has a large number of words which are also
  found in the neighbouring Shina, and these are such as connote the
  most familiar ideas and such as are in most frequent use. Thus, the
  personal pronouns, the earlier numerals, the words for "father,"
  "mother," "fire," "the sun," are all closely connected with
  corresponding Shina words. There is also a large Indian element,
  consisting partly of words derived from Sanskrit vocables introduced
  in ancient times, and partly of words borrowed in later days from the
  vernaculars of the Punjab. Finally, there is a considerable Persian
  (including Arabic) element due to the long Mussulman domination of the
  Happy Valley. Many of these have been considerably altered in
  accordance with Kashmiri phonetic rules, so that they sometimes appear
  in strange forms. Thus the Persian _lagam_, a bridle, has become
  _lakam_, and the Arabic _babat_, concerning, appears as _bapat_. The
  population speaking Kashmiri is mainly Mussulman, there being, roughly
  speaking, nine Mahommedan Kashmiris to less than one Hindu. This
  difference of religion has strongly influenced the vocabulary. The
  Mussulmans use Persian and Arabic words with great freedom, while the
  Hindus, or "Pandits" as they are called, confine their borrowings
  almost entirely to words derived from Sanskrit. As the literary class
  is mostly Hindu, it follows that Kashmiri literature, taken as a
  whole, while affording most interesting and profitable study, hardly
  represents the actual language spoken by the mass of the people. There
  are, however, a few good Kashmiri works written by Mussulmans in their
  own dialect.

  B. _Written Characters._ Mussulmans and Christian missionaries employ
  an adaptation of the Persian character for their writings. This
  alphabet is quite unsuited for representing the very complex Kashmiri
  vowel system. Hindus employ the Sarada alphabet, of Indian origin and
  akin to the well-known Nagari. Kashmiri vowel sounds can be recorded
  very successfully in this character, but there is, unfortunately, no
  fixed system of spelling. The Nagari alphabet is also coming into use
  in printed books, no Sarada types being yet in existence.

  C. _Phonetics._ Comparing the Kashmiri with the Sanskrit alphabet (see
  SANSKRIT), we must first note a considerable extension of the vowel
  system. Not only does Ksh. possess the vowels _a_, _a_, _i_, _i_, _u_,
  _u_, _r_, _e_, _ai_, _o_, _au_, and the _anunasika_ or nasal symbol ~,
  but it has also a flat _a_ (like the _a_ in "hat") a flat _e_ (like
  the _e_ in "met"), a short _o_ (like the _o_ in "hot") and a broad _å_
  (like the _a_ in "all"). It also has a series of what natives call
  "_matra_-vowels," which are represented in the Roman character by
  small letters above the line, viz. _^a_, _^i_, _^u_, _^u_. Of these,
  _^a_ is simply a very short indeterminate sound something like that of
  the Hebrew _sh^awa mobile_, except that it may sometimes be the only
  vowel in a word, as in _ts^ah_, thou. The _^i_ is a hardly audible
  _i_, while _^u_ and _^u_ are quite inaudible at the end of a syllable.
  When ^i or ^u is followed by a consonant in the same syllable _^i_
  generally and _^u_ always becomes a full _i_ or _u_ respectively and
  is so pronounced. On the other hand, in similar circumstances, _^u_
  remains unchanged in writing, but is pronounced like a short German
  _ü_. It should be observed that this _^u_ always represents an older
  _i_, and is still considered to be a palatal, not, like _^u_, a labial
  vowel. Although these matra-vowels are so slightly heard, they
  exercise a great influence on the sound of a preceding syllable. We
  may compare the sound of _a_ in the English word "mar." If we add _e_
  to the end of this word we get "mare," in which the sound of the _a_
  is altogether changed, although the _e_ is not itself pronounced in
  its proper place. The back-action of these matra-vowels is technically
  known as _umlaut_ or "epenthesis," and is the most striking feature of
  the Kashmiri language, the structure of which is unintelligible
  without a thorough knowledge of the system. In the following pages
  when a vowel is epenthetically affected by a matra-vowel the fact will
  be denoted by a dot placed under it, thus _kar^u_. This is not the
  native system, according to which the change is indicated sometimes by
  a diacritical mark and sometimes by writing a different letter. The
  changes of pronunciation effected by each matra-vowel are shown in the
  following table. If natives employ a different letter to indicate the
  change the fact is mentioned. In other cases they content themselves
  with diacritical marks. When no entry is made, it should be understood
  that the sound of the vowel remains unaltered:--

    +------+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
    |Pre-  |                 _Pronunciation when followed by_                   |
    |ceding+----------------+----------------+-----------------+----------------+
    |Vowel.|    _a-matra_   |    _i-matra_   |    _u-matra_    |   _u-matra_    |
    +------+----------------+----------------+-----------------+----------------+
    |  a.  | a (ad^ar,      | a^i (kar^i, pr.| ü (as in German:| o (like first  |
    |      | be moist) (some| ka^ir^i, made, | kar^u, pr. kür, | o in "promote";|
    |      | thing like a   | plural masc.)  | made, fem.      | kar^u, pr. kor,|
    |      | short German ö)|                | sing.)          | made, masc.    |
    |      |                |                |                 | sing.)         |
    |      |                |                |                 |                |
    |  /a. | ö (kañ^ar,     | ö^i (German ö; | ö (mar^u, pr.   | å (mar^u, pr.  |
    |      | pr. köñ^ar,    | mar^i, pr.     | mör, killed,    | mår, written,  |
    |      | make one-eyed) | mö^ir^i,       | fem. sing.)     | mor^u, killed, |
    |      | (like a long   | killed, masc.  |                 | masc. sing.)   |
    |      | German ö)      | plur.)         |                 |                |
    |      |                |                |                 |                |
    |  i.  |       --       |        --      | yü (liv^u, pr.  | yu (liv^u, pr. |
    |      |                |                | lyüv, plastered,| lyuv, written  |
    |      |                |                | fem. sing.)     | lyuv^u, plas-  |
    |      |                |                |                 | tered, masc.   |
    |      |                |                |                 | sing.)         |
    |      |                |                |                 |                |
    |  /i. |       --       |        --      |        --       | yu (nil^u, pr. |
    |      |                |                |                 | nyul, written  |
    |      |                |                |                 | nyul^u, blue,  |
    |      |                |                |                 | masc. sing.)   |
    |      |                |                |                 |                |
    |  u.  |       --       | u^i (gur^i, pr.|        --       |       --       |
    |      |                | gu^ir^i,       |                 |                |
    |      |                | horses)        |                 |                |
    |      |                |                |                 |                |
    |  /u. |       --       | u^i (gur^i, pr.|        --       |       --       |
    |      |                | gu^ir^i,       |                 |                |
    |      |                | cowherds)      |                 |                |
    |      |                |                |                 |                |
    |  )e. | i (led^ar,     |        --      | yü (tsel^u, pr. | yu (tsel^u, pr.|
    |      | pr. lid^ar,    |                | tsyül, squeezed,| tsyul, written |
    |      | be yellow)     |                | fem. sing.)     | tsyul^u,       |
    |      |                |                |                 | squeezed,      |
    |      |                |                |                 | masc. sing.)   |
    |      |                |                |                 |                |
    |  /e. |       --       | i (pher^i, pr. | i (pher^u, pr.  | yu (pher^u pr. |
    |      |                | and written    | phir, written,  | phyur, written |
    |      |                | phir^i, turned,| phir^u, turned, | phyur^u,       |
    |      |                | masc. plur.)   | fem. sing.)     | turned, masc.  |
    |      |                |                |                 | sing.)         |
    |      |                |                |                 |                |
    |  )o. | u (hokh^ar,    | o^i (woth^i,   | u (woth^u, pr.  | o (woth^u pr.  |
    |      | pr. hukh^ar,   | pr. (woth^u,   | wüth, arisen,   | woth, arisen,  |
    |      | make dry)      | arisen, masc.  | fem. sing.)     | masc. sing.)   |
    |      |                | plur.)         |                 |                |
    |      |                |                |                 |                |
    |  /o. |       --       | u^i (bu^iz^i,  | u (boz^u, pr.   | u (boz^u, pr.  |
    |      |                | pr. bu^iz^i,   | buz, written,   | buz, written   |
    |      |                | written buz^i, | buz^u, heard,   | buz^u, heard,  |
    |      |                | heard. masc.   | fem. sing.)     | masc. sing.)   |
    |      |                | plur.)         |                 |                |
    +------+----------------+----------------+-----------------+----------------+

  The letters _u_ and _i_, even when not _u_-matra or _i_-matra, often
  change a preceding long _a_ to _å_, which is usually written _o_, and
  _a_ respectively. Thus _rawukh_, they have lost, is pronounced
  _råwukh_, and, in the native character, is written _rowukh_.
  Similarly _malis_ becomes _malis_ (_mölis_). The diphthong _ai_ is
  pronounced _ö_ when it commences a word; thus, _aith_, eight, is
  pronounced _öth_. When _i_ and _u_ commence a word they are pronounced
  _yi_ and _wu_ respectively. With one important exception, common to
  all Pisaca languages, Kashmiri employs every consonant found in the
  Sanskrit alphabet. The exception is the series of aspirated
  consonants, _gh_, _jh_, _dh_, _dh_ and _bh_, which are wanting in
  Ksh., the corresponding unaspirated consonants being substituted for
  them. Thus, Skr. _ghotakas_, but Ksh. _gur^u_, a horse; Skr.
  _bhavati_, Ksh. _bovi_, he will be. There is a tendency to use dental
  letters where Hindi employs cerebrals, as in Hindi _uth_, Ksh. _woth_,
  arise. Cerebral letters are, however, owing to Sanskrit influence, on
  the whole better preserved in Ksh. than in the other Pisaca languages.
  The cerebral _s_ has almost disappeared, _s_ being employed instead.
  The only common word in which it is found is the numeral _sah_, six,
  which is merely a learned spelling for _sah_, due to the influence of
  the Skr. _sat_. From the palatals _c_, _ch_, _j_, a new series of
  consonants has been formed, viz. _ts_, _tsh_ (aspirate of _ts_--i.e.
  _ts_ + _h_, not _t_ + _sh_), and _z_ (as in English, not _dz_). Thus,
  Skr. _coras_, Ksh. _tsur_, a thief; Skr. _chalayati_, Ksh. _tshali_,
  he will deceive; Skr. _jalam_, Ksh. _zal_, water. The sibilant _s_,
  and occasionally _s_, are frequently represented by _h_. Thus, Skr.
  _dasa_, Ksh. _dah_, ten; Skr. _siras_, Ksh. _hir_, a head. We may
  compare with this the Persian word _Hind_, India (compare the Greek
  [Greek: Indos], an Indian), derived from the Skr. _Sindhus_, the river
  Indus. When such an _h_ is followed by a palatal letter the _s_
  returns; thus, from the base _his-_, like this, we have the nominative
  masculine _hih^u_, but the feminine _his^u_, and the abstract noun
  _hisyar_, because _^u_ and _y_ are palatal letters.

  The palatal letters _i_, _e_, _u-matra_ and _y_ often change a
  preceding consonant. The modifications will be seen from the following
  examples: _rat-_, night; nom. plur. _rats^u_; _woth_, arise;
  _wotsh^u_, she arose: _lad_, build; _laz^u_, she was built: _ran_,
  cook; _rañ^u_, she was cooked; _pat^u_, a tablet; Ag. sing. _paci_:
  _kath-_, a stalk; nom. plur. _kache: bad-_, great; nom. plur. fem.
  _baje_: _batuk^u_, a duck; fem. _bat^ac^u_: _hokh^u_, dry; fem.
  _hoch^u; srog^u_, cheap; _srojyar_, cheapness: _wal^u_, a ring; fem.
  _waj^u_, a small ring; _los_, be weary; _los^u_ or _lots^u_, she was
  weary. These changes are each subject to certain rules. Cerebral
  letters (_t_, _th_, _d_) change only before _i_, _e_ or _y_, and not
  before _u-matra_. The others, on the contrary, do not change _i_, but
  do change before _e_, _y_ or _u-matra_.

  No word can end in an unaspirated surd consonant. If such a consonant
  falls at the end of a word it is aspirated. Thus, _ak_, one, becomes
  _akh_ (but acc. _akis_); _kat_, a ram, becomes _kath_; and hat, a
  hundred, _hath_.

  D. _Declension_. If the above phonetic rules are borne in mind,
  declension in Kashmiri is a fairly simple process. If attention is not
  paid to them, the whole system at once becomes a field of inextricable
  confusion. In the following pages it will be assumed that the reader
  is familiar with them.

  Nouns substantive and adjective have two genders, a masculine and a
  feminine. Words referring to males are masculine, and to females are
  feminine. Inanimate things are sometimes masculine and sometimes
  feminine. Pronouns have three genders, arranged on a different
  principle. One gender refers to male living beings, another to female
  living beings, and a third (or neuter) to all inanimate things whether
  they are grammatically masculine or feminine. Nouns ending in _^u_ are
  masculine, and most, but not all, of those ending in _^i_, _^u_, _e_
  or _ñ_ are feminine. Of nouns ending in consonants, some are
  masculine, and some are feminine. No rule can be formulated regarding
  these, except that all abstract nouns ending in _ar_ (a very numerous
  class) are masculine. There are four declensions. The first consists
  of masculine nouns ending in a consonant, in _a_, _e_ or _^u_ (very
  few of these last two). The second consists of the important class of
  masculine nouns in _^u_; the third of feminine nouns in _^i_, _^u_, or
  _ñ_ (being the feminines corresponding to the masculine nouns of the
  second declension); and the fourth of feminine nouns ending in _^a_,
  _e_ or a consonant.

  The noun possesses two numbers, a singular and a plural, and in each
  number there are, besides the nominative, three organic cases, the
  accusative, the case of the agent (see below, under "verbs"), and the
  ablative. The accusative, when not definite, may also be the same in
  form as the nominative. The following are the forms which a noun takes
  in each declension, the words chosen as examples being: First
  declension, _tsur_, a thief; second declension, _mal^u_, a father;
  third declension, _maj^u_, a mother; fourth declension, (a) _mal_, a
  garland, (b) _rat-_, night.

    +------+------------+----------------+------------+-------------------------+
    |      |   First    |     Second     |   Third    |    Fourth Declension.   |
    |      | Declension.|   Declension.  | Declension.|   a.          b.        |
    +------+------------+----------------+------------+-------+-----------------+
    |Sing.:|            |                |            |       |                 |
    | Nom. | tsur       | mal^u (pr. mål)| maj^u (möj)| mal   | rath            |
    | Acc. | tsuras     | malis (mölis)  | maje       | mali  | rats^u (röts)   |
    | Ag.  | tsuran     | mal^i (mö^il^i)| maji       | mali  | rats^u (röts)   |
    | Abl. | tsura      | mali           | maji       | mali  | rats^u (röts)   |
    |Plur.:|            |                |            |       |                 |
    | Nom  | tsur       | mal^i (mö^il^i)| maje       | mala  | rats^u (röts)   |
    | Acc. | tsuran     | malen          | majen      | malan | rats^un (rötsün)|
    | Ag.  |            |                |            |       |                 |
    |  and |            |                |            |       |                 |
    | Abl. | tsurau     | malyau         | majyau     | malau | rats^uv (rötsüv)|
    +------+------------+----------------+------------+-------+-----------------+


  The declension 4_b_ is confined to certain nouns in _t_, _th_, _d_,
  _n_, _h_ and _l_, in which the final consonant is liable to change
  owing to a following _u-matra_.

  Other cases are formed (as in true Indo-Aryan languages) by the
  addition of postpositions, some of which are added to the accusative,
  while others are added to the ablative case. To the former are added
  _manz_, in; _kit^u_, to or for; _sutin_, with, and others. To the
  ablative are added _sutin_, when it signifies "by means of"; _putshy_,
  for; _peth^a_, from, and others. For the genitive, masculine nouns in
  the singular, signifying animate beings, take _sand^u_, and if they
  signify things without life, take _k^u_. All masculine plural nouns
  and all feminine nouns whether singular or plural take _hand^u_.
  _Sand^u_ and _hand^u_ are added to the accusative, which drops a final
  _s_, while _k^u_ is added to the ablative. Thus, _tsura sand^u_, of
  the thief; _mal^i sand^u_, of the father; _sonak^u_ (usually written
  _sonuk^u_), of gold (_son_, abl. sing. _sona_); _tsuran nand^u_, of
  thieves; _karen hand^u_, of bracelets (second declension); _maje
  hand^u_, of the mother; _majen hand^u_, of the mothers. Masculine
  proper names, however, take _n^u_ in the singular, as in
  _Radhakrsnan^u_ of Radhakrishna. These genitive terminations, and also
  the dative termination _kit^u_, are adjectives, and agree with the
  governing noun in gender, number and case. Thus, _tsura sand^u
  neciv^u_, the son of the thief; _tsura sand^i neciv^i_, by the son of
  the thief; _tsura sanz^u kor^u_, the daughter of the thief; _kulik^u
  lang_, a bough of the tree; _kulic^u land^u_, a twig of the tree.
  _Sand^u_, has fem. sing. _sanz^u_, masc. plur. _sand^i_, fem. plur.
  _sanza_. Similarly _hand^u_. _K^u_ has fem. sing. _c^u_, masc. plur.
  _k^i_, fem. plur. _ce_; _n^u_, fem. sing. _ñ_, masc. plur. _n^i_, fem.
  plur. _ñe_. Similarly for the dative we have the following forms:
  _malis kit^u pañ^u_, water (masc.) for the father; _malis kits^u gav_,
  a cow for the father; _malis kit^i rav_, blankets (masc. plur.) for
  the father; _malis kitsa pothe_, books (fem. plur.) for the father.
  All these postpositions of the genitive and _kit^u_ of the dative are
  declined regularly as substantives, the masculine ones belonging to
  the second declension and the feminine ones to the third. Note that
  the feminine plural of _sand^u_ is _sanza_, not _sanze_, as we might
  expect; so also feminine nouns in _ts^u_, _tsh^u_, _z^u_ and _s^u_.

  Adjectives ending in _^u_ (second declension) form the feminine in
  _^u_, with the usual changes of the preceding consonant. Thus _tat^u_,
  hot, fem. _tats^u_ (pronounced _tüts_). Other adjectives do not change
  for gender. All adjectives agree with the qualified noun in gender,
  number and case, the postposition, if any, being added to the latter
  word of the two. Take, for example, _chat^u_, white, and _gur^u_, a
  horse. From these we have _chat^u gur^u_, a white horse; acc. sing.
  _chatis guris_; nom. plur. _chat^i gur^i_; and _chatyau guryau sutin_,
  by means of white horses.

  The first two personal pronouns are _boh_, I; _me_, me, by me; _as^i_,
  we; _ase_, us, by us; and _ts^ah_, thou; _tse_, thee, by thee;
  _toh^i_, ye; _tohe_ you, by you. Possessive pronouns are employed
  instead of the genitive. Thus, _myan^u_, my; _san^u_, our; _cyan^u_,
  thy; _tuhand^u_, your. For the third person, we have sing. masc.
  _suh_, fem. _soh_, neut. _tih_; acc. sing. (masc. or fem.) _tamis_ or
  _tas_, neut. _tath_; agent sing. masc. neut. _tam^i_, fem. _tami_. The
  plural is of common gender throughout. Nom. _tim_; acc. _timan_; ag.
  _timau_. The possessive pronoun is _tasand^u_, of him, of her;
  _tamyuk^n_, of it; _tihand^u_, of them. The neuter gender is used for
  all things without life.

  Other pronouns are:--This: _yih_ (com. gen.); acc. masc. fem. _yimis_,
  or _nomis_, neut, _yith_, _noth_; ag. masc. neut., _yim^i_, _nom^i_,
  fem. _yimi_, _nomi_; nom. plur. _yim_, fem. _yima_, and so on.

  That (within sight): masc. neut. _huh_, fem. _hoh_; acc. masc. fem.
  _humis_ or _amis_, neut. _huth_, and so on; nom. plur. masc _hum_.

  Who, masc. _yus_, fem. _yossa_, neut. _yih_; acc. masc. fem. _yemis_,
  _yes_, neut. _yeth_; ag. masc. neut. _yem^i_, fem. _yemi_; nom. plur.
  masc. _yim_, and so on.

  Who? masc. _kus_, fem. _kossa_, neut. _kyah_; acc. masc. fem. _kamis_,
  _kas_, neut. _kath_; ag. masc. neut. _kam^i_, fem. _kami_; nom. plur.
  masc. _kam_.

  Self, _pana_. Anyone, someone, _kah_, _kuh_, or _katshah_, neut.
  _ketshah_.

  Kashmiri makes very free use of pronominal suffixes, which are added
  to verbs to supply the place of personal terminations. These represent
  almost any case, and are as follows:--

    +--------+---------------+----------------+---------------+
    |        | First Person. | Second Person. | Third Person. |
    |        +---------------+----------------+---------------+
    | Sing.--|               |                |               |
    |  Nom.  |      _s_      |    _kh_, _h_   |      none     |
    |  Acc.  |      _m_      |    _th_, _y_   |      _s_      |
    |  Dat.  |      _m_      |       _y_      |      _s_      |
    |  Ag.   |      _m_      |    _th_, _y_   |      _n_      |
    | Plur.--|               |                |               |
    |  Nom.  |      none     |      _wa_      |      none     |
    | Other  |               |                |               |
    |  cases |      none     |      _wa_      |   _kh_, _h_   |
    +--------+---------------+----------------+---------------+

  Before these the verbal terminations are often slightly changed for
  the sake of euphony, and, when necessary for the pronunciation, the
  vowel _a_ is inserted as a junction vowel.

  In this connexion we may mention another set of suffixes also commonly
  added to verbs, with an adverbial force. Of these _na_ negatives the
  verb, as in _chuh_, he is; _chuna_, he is not; _a_ asks a question,
  as in _chwa_, is he? _ti_ adds emphasis, as in _chuti_, he is indeed;
  and _tya_ asks a question with emphasis, as in _chutya_, is he indeed?

  Two or three suffixes may be employed together, as in _kar^u_, was
  made, _karu-m_, was made by me, _kar^u-m-akh_, thou wast made by me;
  _kar^u-m-akh-a_, wast thou made by me? The two _kh_ suffixes become
  _h_ when they are followed by a pronominal suffix commencing with a
  vowel, as in _kar^u-h-as_ (for _kar^u-kh-as_), I was made by them.

  E. _Conjugation._ As in the case of the modern Indo-Aryan vernaculars,
  the conjugation of the verb is mainly participial. Three only of the
  old tenses, the present, the future and the imperative have survived,
  the first having become a future, and the second a past conditional.
  These three we may call radical tenses. The rest, viz. the Kashmiri
  present, imperfect, past, aorist, perfect and other past tenses are
  all participial.

  The verb substantive, which is also used as an auxiliary verb, has two
  tenses, a present and a past. The former is made by adding the
  pronominal suffixes of the nominative to a base _chu(h)_, and the
  latter by adding the same to a base _as^u_. Thus:--

    +---+--------------------------------------+------------------------------------+
    |   |               _Singular_             |               _Plural_             |
    |   +------------------+-------------------+------------------+-----------------+
    |   |     Masculine    |      Feminine     |     Masculine    |     Feminine    |
    +---+------------------+-------------------+------------------+-----------------+
    | 1 | chu-s , I am     | che-s, I am       | _chih_, we are   | _cheh_, we are  |
    | 2 | chu-kh, thou art | che-kh, thou art  | chi-wa, you are  | che-wa, you are |
    | 3 | chuh, he is      | cheh, she is      | chih, they are   | cheh, they are  |
    +---+------------------+-------------------+------------------+-----------------+
    | 1 | asu-s, I was     | as^u-s, I was     | as^i, we were    | asa, we were    |
    | 2 | asu-kh, thou wast| as^u-kh, thou wast| as^i-wa, you were| asa-wa, you were|
    | 3 | as^u, he was     | as^u, she was     | as^i, they were  | asa, they were  |
    +---+------------------+-------------------+------------------+-----------------+

  As for the finite verb, the modern future (old present), and the past
  conditional (old future) do not change for gender, and do not employ
  suffixes, but retain relics of the old personal terminations of the
  tenses from which they are derived. They are thus conjugated, taking
  the verbal root _kar_, as the typical verb.

    +---+--------------------------+--------------------------------------|
    |   | Future, I shall make, &c.|Past Conditional, (if) I had made, &c.|
    |   +------------+-------------+-----------------+--------------------+
    |   | _Singular_ |   _Plural_  |    _Singular_   |      _Plural_      |
    +---+------------+-------------+-----------------+--------------------+
    | 1 |   kara     |    karav    |    karahå       |      karahåv       |
    | 2 |   karakh   |    kariv    |    karahåkh     |      kar^ihiv      |
    | 3 |   kari     |    karan    |    karihe       |      karahån       |
    +---+------------+-------------+-----------------+--------------------+

  For the imperative we have 2nd person singular, _kar_, plur. _kariv_;
  third person singular and plural _karin_.

  Many of the above forms will be intelligible from a consideration of
  the closely allied Sanskrit, although they are not derived from that
  language; but some (e.g. those of the second person singular) can only
  be explained by the analogy of the Iranian and of the Pisaca
  languages.

  The present participle is formed by adding _an_ to the root; thus,
  _karan_, making. It does not change for gender. From this we get a
  present and an imperfect, formed by adding respectively the present
  and past tenses of the auxiliary verb. Thus, _karan chus_, I
  (masculine) am making, I make; _karan ches_, I (feminine) am making, I
  make; _karan asus_, I (masculine) was making; and so on.

  There are several past participles, all of which are liable to change
  for gender, and are utilized in conjugation. We have:--

    +-------------------------+--------------------------+------------------------+
    |                         |        _Singular_        |        _Plural_        |
    |                         +------------+-------------+------------+-----------+
    |                         |  Masculine |   Feminine  |  Masculine |  Feminine |
    +-------------------------+------------+-------------+------------+-----------+
    | Weak past participle    | kar^u      | kar^u       | kar^i      | kare      |
    | Strong past participle  | karyov     | karyeya     | karyey     | karyeya   |
    | Pluperfect participle   | karyav     | karyeya     | kareyey    | karyeya   |
    | Compound past participle| kar^umat^u | kar^umats^u | kar^imat^i | karematsa |
    +-------------------------+------------+-------------+------------+-----------+

  In the strong past participle and the pluperfect participle, the final
  _v_ and _y_ (like the final _h_ of _chuh_ quoted above) are not parts
  of the original words, but are only added for the sake of euphony. The
  true words are _karyo_, _karye_, _karya_ and _karyeye_. There are
  three conjugations. The first includes all transitive verbs. These
  have both the weak and the strong past participles. The second
  conjugation consists of sixty-six common intransitive verbs, which
  also have both of these participles. The third conjugation consists of
  the remaining intransitive verbs. These have only the strong past
  participle. The weak past participle in the first two conjugations
  refers to something which has lately happened, and is used to form an
  immediate past tense. The strong past participle is more indefinite,
  and is employed to form a tense corresponding to the Greek aorist. The
  pluperfect participle refers to something which happened a long time
  ago, and is used to form the past tense of narration. As the third
  conjugation has no weak past participle, the strong past participle is
  employed to make the immediate past, and the pluperfect participle is
  employed to make the aorist past, while the new pluperfect participle
  is formed to make the tense of narration. Thus, from the root _wuph_,
  fly (third conjugation) we have _wuphyov_, he flew just now, while
  _karyov_ (first conjugation) means "he was made at some indefinite
  time"; _wuphyav_, he flew at some indefinite time, but _karyav_, he
  was made a long time ago; finally, the new participle of the third
  conjugation, _wuphiyav_, he flew a long time ago.

  The corresponding tenses are formed by adding pronominal suffixes to
  the weak, the strong, or the pluperfect participle. In the last two
  the final _v_ and _y_, being no longer required by euphony, are
  dropped. In the case of transitive verbs the participles are passive
  by derivation and in signification, and hence the suffix indicating
  the subject must be in the agent case. Thus _kar^u_ means "made." For
  "I made" we must say "made by me," _karu-m_; for "thou madest,"
  _karu-th_, made by thee, and so on. If the thing made is feminine the
  participle must be feminine, and similarly if it is plural it must be
  plural. Thus, _karu-m_, I made him; _kar^u-m_, I made her; _kari-m_, I
  made them (masculine); and _kare-m_, I made them (feminine). Similarly
  from the other two participles we have _karyo-m_, I made him;
  _karyeya-m_, I made her; _karya-m_, I made him (a long time ago). The
  past participles of intransitive verbs are not passive, and hence the
  suffix indicating the subject must be in the nominative form. Thus
  _tsal^u_, escaped (second conjugation); _tsalu-s_, escaped-I, I
  (masculine) escaped; _tsaj^ü-s_, I (feminine) escaped, and so on.
  Similarly for the third conjugation, _wuphyov_, flew; _wuphyo-s_, I
  (masculine) flew; _wuphyeya-s_, I (feminine) flew, &c.

  As explained above, these suffixes may be piled one on another. As a
  further example we may give _kar^u_, made; _karu-n_, made by him, he
  made; _karu-n-as_, made by him I, he made me, or (as -_s_ also means
  "for him") he made for him; _karu-n-as-a_, did he make me? or, did he
  make for him? and so on.

  Tenses corresponding to the English perfect and pluperfect are formed
  by conjugating the auxiliary verb, adding the appropriate suffixes,
  with the compound past participle. Thus _kar^umat^u chu-n-as_, made
  am-by-him-I, he has made me; _tsal^umat^u chu-kh_, escaped art thou,
  thou hast escaped; _wuphyomat^u chu-s_, flown am-I, I have flown.
  Similarly for the pluperfect, _kar^umat^u asu-n-as_, made
  was-by-him-I, he had made me, and so on.

  Many verbs have irregular past participles. Thus _mar_, die, has
  _mud^u_; _di_, give, has _dit^u_; _khi_, eat, has _khyauv_ for its
  weak, and _kheyov_ for its strong participle, while _ni_, take, has
  _nyuv_ and _niyov_, respectively. Others must be learnt from the
  regular grammars.

  The infinitive is formed by adding -_un_ to the root; thus _kar-un_,
  to make. It is declined like a somewhat irregular noun of the first
  declension, its accusative being _karanas_. There are three forms of
  the noun of agency, of which typical examples are _kar-awun^u_,
  _kar-an-wal^u_, and _kar-an-grakh_, a maker.

  The passive is formed by conjugating the verb _yi_, come, with the
  ablative of the infinitive. Thus, _karana yiwan chuh_, it is coming by
  making, or into making, i.e. it is being made. A root is made active
  or causal by adding -_anaw_, -_aw_, or -_^araw_. Thus, _kar-anaw_,
  cause to make; _kumal_, be tender, _kumal-aw_, make tender; _kal_, be
  dumb, _kal-^araw_, make dumb. Some verbs take one form and some
  another, and there are numerous irregularities, especially in the case
  of the last.

  F. _Indeclinables._ Indeclinables (adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions
  and interjections) must be learnt from the dictionary. The number of
  interjections is very large, and they are distinguished by minute
  rules depending on the gender of the person addressed and the exact
  amount of respect due to him.

_Literature._--Kashmiri possesses a somewhat extensive literature, which
has been very little studied. The missionary William Carey published in
1821 a version of the New Testament (in the Sarada character), which was
the first book published in the language. In 1885 the Rev. J. Hinton
Knowles published at Bombay a collection of Kashmiri proverbs and
sayings, and K. F. Burkhard in 1895 published an edition of Mahmud
Gami's poem on Yusuf and Zulaikha. This, with the exception of later
translations of the Scriptures in the Persian character and a few minor
works, is all the literature that has been printed or about which
anything has been written. Mahmud Gami's poem is valuable as an example
of the Kashmiri used by Mussulmans. For Hindu literature, we may quote a
history of Krishna by Dinanatha. The very popular _Lalla-vakya_, a poem
on Saiva philosophy by a woman named _Lalladevi_, is said to be the
oldest work in the language which has survived. Another esteemed work is
the _Siva Parinaya_ of Krsna Rajanaka, a living author. These and other
books which have been studied by the present writer have little
independent value, being imitations of Sanskrit literature. Nothing is
known about the dates of most of the authors.

  AUTHORITIES.--The scientific study of Kashmiri is of very recent date.
  The only printed lexicographical work is a short vocabulary by W. J.
  Elmslie (London, 1872). K. F. Burkhard brought out a grammar of the
  Mussulman dialect in the _Proceedings of the Royal Bavarian Academy of
  Science_ for 1887-1889, of which a translation by G. A. Grierson
  appeared in the _Indian Antiquary_ of 1895 and the following years
  (reprinted as a separate publication, Bombay, 1897). T. R. Wade's
  Grammar (London, 1888) is the merest sketch, and the only attempt at a
  complete work of the kind in English is G. A. Grierson's _Essays on
  Kaçmiri Grammar_ (London and Calcutta, 1899). A valuable native
  grammar in Sanskrit, the _Kasmirasabdamrta_ of Isvara Kaula, has been
  edited by the same writer (Calcutta, 1888). For an examination of the
  origin of Kashmiri grammatical forms and the Pisaca question
  generally, see G. A. Grierson's "On Certain Suffixes in the Modern
  Indo-Aryan Vernaculars" in the _Zeitschrift für Vergleichende
  Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der Indogermanischen Sprachen_ for
  1903 and _The Pisaca Languages of North-Western India_ (London, 1906).

  The only important text which has been published is Burkhard's
  edition, with a partial translation, of Mahmud Gami's "Yusuf and
  Zulaikha" in the _Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen
  Gesellschaft_ for 1895 and 1899. The text of the _Siva Parinaya_,
  edited by G. A. Grierson, is in course of publication by the Asiatic
  Society of Bengal.     (G. A. Gr.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] See G. A. Grierson, "On Pronominal Suffixes in the Kaçmiri
    Languages," and "On the Radical and Participial Tenses of the Modern
    Indo-Aryan Languages," in _Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal_,
    vol. lxiv. (1895), pt. i. pp. 336 and 352.



KASHUBES (sing. _Kaszub_, plur. _Kaszebe_), a Slavonic people numbering
about 200,000, and living on the borders of West Prussia and Pomerania,
along the Baltic coast between Danzig and Lake Garden, and inland as far
as Konitz. They have no literature and no history, as they consist of
peasants and fishermen, the educated classes being mostly Germans or
Poles. Their language has been held to be but a dialect of Polish, but
it seems better to separate it, as in some points it is quite
independent, in some it offers a resemblance to the language of the
Polabs (q.v.). This is most seen in the western dialect of the so-called
Slovinci (of whom there are about 250 left) and Kabatki, whereas the
eastern Kashube is more like Polish, which is encroaching upon and
assimilating it. Lorentz calls the western dialect a language, and
distinguishes 38 vowels. The chief points of Kashube as against Polish
are that all its vowels can be nasal instead of a and e only, that it
has preserved quantity and a free accent, has developed several special
vowels, e.g. _ö, oe, ü_, and has preserved the original order, e.g.
_gard_ as against _grod_. The consonants are very like Polish. (See also
SLAVS.)

  AUTHORITIES.--F. Lorentz, _Slovinzische Grammatik_ (St Petersburg,
  1903) and "Die gegenseitigen Verhältnisse der sogen. Lechischen
  Sprachen," in _Arch. f. Slav. Phil._ xxiv. (1902); J. Baudouin de
  Courtenay, "Kurzes Resumé der Kaschubischen Frage," ibid. xxvi.
  (1904); G. Bronisch, _Kaschubische Dialektstudien_ (Leipzig,
  1896-1898); S. Ramult, _Stownik jezyka pomorskiego czyli
  kaszubskiego_, i.e. "Dictionary of the Seacoast (Pomeranian) or
  Kashube Language" (Cracow, 1893).     (E. H. M.)



KASIMOV, a town of Russia, in the government of Ryazañ, on the Oka
river, in 54° 56´ N. and 41° 3´ E., 75 m. E.N.E. of Ryazañ. Pop. (1897),
13,545, of whom about 1000 were Tatars. It is famed for its tanneries
and leather goods, sheepskins and post-horse bells. Founded in 1152, it
was formerly known as Meshcherski Gorodets. In the 15th century it
became the capital of a Tatar khanate, subject to Moscow, and so
remained until 1667. The town possesses a cathedral, and a mosque
supposed to have been built by Kasim, founder of the Tatar principality.
Near the mosque stands a mausoleum built by Shah-Ali in 1555. Lying on
the direct road from Astrakhan to Moscow and Nizhniy-Novgorod, Kasimov
is a place of some trade, and has a large annual fair in July. The
waiters in the best hotels of St Petersburg are mostly Kasimov Tatars.

  See Veliaminov-Zernov, _The Kasimov Tsars_ (St Petersburg, 1863-1866).



KASSA (Germ. _Kaschau_; Lat. _Cassovia_), the capital of the county of
Abauj-Torna, in Hungary, 170 m. N.E. of Budapest by rail. Pop. (1900),
35,856. Kassa is one of the oldest and handsomest towns of Hungary, and
is pleasantly situated on the right bank of the Hernád. It is surrounded
on three sides by hills covered with forests and vineyards, and opens to
the S.E. towards a pretty valley watered by the Hernád and the Tarcza.
Kassa consists of the inner town, which was the former old town
surrounded with walls, and of three suburbs separated from it by a
broad glacis. The most remarkable building, considered the grandest
masterpiece of architecture in Hungary, is the Gothic cathedral of St
Elizabeth. Begun about 1270 by Stephen V., it was continued (1342-1382)
by Queen Elizabeth, wife of Charles I., and her son Louis I., and
finished about 1468, in the reign of Matthias I. (Corvinus). The
interior was transformed in the 18th century to the Renaissance style,
and the whole church thoroughly restored in 1877-1896. The church of St
Michael and the Franciscan or garrison church date from the 13th
century. The royal law academy, founded in 1659, and sanctioned by
golden bull of King Leopold I. in 1660, has an extensive library; there
are also a museum, a Roman Catholic upper gymnasium and seminary for
priests, and other schools and benevolent institutions. Kassa is the see
of a Roman Catholic bishopric. It is the chief political and commercial
town of Upper Hungary, and the principal _entrepôt_ for the commerce
between Hungary and Galicia. Its most important manufactures are
tobacco, machinery, iron, furniture, textiles and milling. About 3 m.
N.W. of the town are the baths of Bankó, with alkaline and ferruginous
springs, and about 12 m. N.E. lies Ránk-Herlein, with an intermittent
chalybeate spring. About 20 m. W. of Kassa lies the famous
Premonstratensian abbey of Jászó, founded in the 12th century. The abbey
contains a rich library and valuable archives. In the neighbourhood is a
fine stalactite grotto, which often served as a place of refuge to the
inhabitants in war time.

Kassa was created a town and granted special privileges by Béla IV. in
1235, and was raised to the rank of a royal free town by Stephen V. in
1270. In 1290 it was surrounded with walls. The subsequent history
presents a long record of revolts, sieges and disastrous conflagrations.
In 1430 the plague carried off a great number of the inhabitants. In
1458 the right of minting money according to the pattern and value of
the Buda coinage was granted to the municipality by King Matthias I. The
bishopric was established in 1804. In the revolutionary war of 1848-49
the Hungarians were twice defeated before the walls of Kassa by the
Austrians under General Schlick, and the town was held successively by
the Austrians, Hungarians and Russians.



KASSALA, a town and _mudiria_ of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. The town, a
military station of some importance, lies on the river Gash (Mareb) in
15° 28´ N., 36° 24´ E., 260 m. E.S.E. of Khartum and 240 m. W. of
Massawa, the nearest seaport. Pop. about 20,000. It is built on a plain,
1700 ft. above the sea, at the foot of the Abyssinian highlands 15 m. W.
of the frontier of the Italian colony of Eritrea. Two dome-shaped
mountains about 2600 ft. high, jebels Mokram and Kassala, rise abruptly
from the plain some 3 m. to the east and south-east. These mountains and
the numerous gardens Kassala contains give to the place a picturesque
appearance. The chief buildings are of brick, but most of the natives
dwell in grass _tukls_. A short distance from the town is Khatmia,
containing a tomb mosque with a high tower, the headquarters of the
Morgani family. The sheikhs El Morgani are the chiefs of a religious
brotherhood widely spread and of considerable influence in the eastern
Sudan. The Morgani family are of Afghan descent. Long settled in Jidda,
the head of the family removed to the Sudan about 1800 and founded the
Morgani sect. Kassala was founded by the Egyptians in 1840 as a
fortified post from which to control their newly conquered territory
near the Abyssinian frontier. In a few years it grew into a place of
some importance. In November 1883 it was besieged by the dervishes. The
garrison held out till the 30th of July 1885 when owing to lack of food
they capitulated. Kassala was captured from the dervishes by an Italian
force under Colonel Baratieri on the 17th of July 1894 and by the
Italians was handed over on Christmas day 1897 to Egypt. The bulk of the
inhabitants are Hallenga "Arabs."

Kassala _mudiria_ contains some of the most fertile land in the
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. It corresponds roughly with the district formerly
known as Taka. It is a region of light rainfall, and cultivation depends
chiefly on the Gash flood. The river is however absolutely dry from
October to June. White durra of excellent quality is raised.



KASSASSIN, a village of Lower Egypt 22 m. by rail W. of Ismailia on the
Suez Canal. At this place, on the 28th of August and again on the 9th of
September 1882 the British force operating against Arabi Pasha was
attacked by the Egyptians--both attacks being repulsed (see EGYPT:
_Military Operations_).



KASSITES, an Elamite tribe who played an important part in the history
of Babylonia. They still inhabited the north-western mountains of Elam,
immediately south of Holwan, when Sennacherib attacked them in 702 B.C.
They are the Kossaeans of Ptolemy, who divides Susiana between them and
the Elymaeans; according to Strabo (xi. 13, 3, 6) they were the
neighbours of the Medes. Th. Nöldeke (_Gött. G. G._, 1874, pp. 173 seq.)
has shown that they are the Kissians of the older Greek authors who are
identified with the Susians by Aeschylus (_Choeph._ 424, Pers. 17, 120)
and Herodotus (v. 49, 52). We already hear of them as attacking
Babylonia in the 9th year of Samsu-iluna the son of Khammurabi, and
about 1780 B.C. they overran Babylonia and founded a dynasty there which
lasted for 576 years and nine months. In the course of centuries,
however, they were absorbed into the Babylonian population; the kings
adopted Semitic names and married into the royal family of Assyria. Like
the other languages of the non-Semitic tribes of Elam that of the
Kassites was agglutinative; a vocabulary of it has been handed down in a
cuneiform tablet, as well as a list of Kassite names with their Semitic
equivalents. It has no connexion with Indo-European, as has erroneously
been supposed. Some of the Kassite deities were introduced into the
Babylonian pantheon, and the Kassite tribe of Khabira seems to have
settled in the Babylonian plain.

  See Fr. Delitzsch, _Die Sprache der Kossäer_ (1884).     (A. H. S.)



KASTAMUNI, or KASTAMBUL. (1) A vilayet of Asia Minor which includes
Paphlagonia and parts of Pontus and Galatia. It is divided into four
sanjaks--Kastamuni, Boli, Changra and Sinope--is rich in mineral wealth,
and has many mineral springs and extensive forests, the timber being
used for charcoal and building and the bark for tanning. The products
are chiefly cereals, fruits, opium, cotton, tobacco, wool, ordinary
goat-hair and mohair, in which there is a large trade. There are
coal-mines at and near Eregli (anc. _Heracleia_) which yield steam coal
nearly as good in quality as the English, but they are badly worked. Its
population comprises about 993,000 Moslems and 27,000 Christians. (2)
The capital of the vilayet, the ancient _Castamon_, altitude 2500 ft.,
situated in the narrow valley of the Geuk Irmak (_Amnias_), and
connected by a carriage road, 54 m., with its port Ineboli on the Black
Sea. The town is noted for its copper utensils, but the famous copper
mines about 36 m. N., worked from ancient times to the 19th century, are
now abandoned. There are over 30 mosques in the town, a dervish
monastery, and numerous theological colleges (_medresses_), and the
Moslem inhabitants have a reputation for bigotry. The climate though
subject to extremes of heat and cold is healthy; in winter the roads are
often closed by snow. The population of 16,000 includes about 2500
Christians. Castamon became an important city in later Byzantine times.
It lay on the northern trunk-road to the Euphrates and was built round a
strong fortress whose ruins crown the rocky hill west of the town. It
was taken by the Danishmand Amirs of Sivas early in the 12th century,
and passed to the Turks in 1393.     (J. G. C. A.)



KASTORIA (Turkish _Kesrie_), a city of Macedonia, European Turkey, in
the vilayet of Monastir, 45 m. S. by W. of Monastir (Bitolia). Pop.
(1905), about 10,000, one-third of whom are Greeks, one-third Slavs, and
the remainder Albanians or Turks. Kastoria occupies part of a peninsula
on the western shore of Lake Kastoria, which here receives from the
north its affluent the Zhelova. The lake is formed in a deep hollow
surrounded by limestone mountains, and is drained on the south by the
Bistritza, a large river which flows S.E. nearly to the Greek frontier,
then sharply turns N.E., and finally enters the Gulf of Salonica. The
lake has an area of 20 sq. m., and is 2850 ft. above sea-level. Kastoria
is the seat of an Orthodox archbishop. It is usually identified with the
ancient _Celetrum_, captured by the Romans under Sulpicius, during the
first Macedonian campaign, 200 B.C., and better known for the defence
maintained by Bryennius against Alexis I. in 1084. A Byzantine wall with
round towers runs across the peninsula.



KASUR, a town of British India, in the Lahore district of the Punjab,
situated on the north bank of the old bed of the river Beas, 34 m. S.E.
of Lahore. Pop. (1901), 22,022. A Rajput colony seems to have occupied
the present site before the earliest Mahommedan invasion; but Kasur does
not appear in history until late in the Mussulman period, when it was
settled by a Pathan colony from beyond the Indus. It has an export trade
in grain and cotton, and manufactures of cotton and leather goods.



KATAGUM, the sub-province of the double province of Kano in the British
protectorate of Northern Nigeria. It lies approximately between 11° and
13° N. and 8° 20´ and 10° 40´ E. It is bounded N. by the French Sudan,
E. by Bornu, S. by Bauchi, and W. by Kano. Katagum consists of several
small but ancient Mahommedan emirates--Katagum, Messau, Gummel, Hadeija,
Machena, with a fringe of Bedde pagans on its eastern frontier towards
Bornu, and other pagans on the south towards Bauchi. The Waube flows
from Kano through the province via Hadeija and by Damjiri in Bornu to
Lake Chad, affording a route for the transport of goods brought by the
Zungeru-Zaria-Kano railway to the headquarters of Katagum and western
Bornu. Katagum is a fertile province inhabited by an industrious people
whose manufactures rival those of Kano.

In ancient times the province of Katagum formed the debateable country
between Bornu and the Hausa states. Though Mahommedan it resisted the
Fula invasion. Its northern emirates were for a long time subject to
Bornu, and its customs are nearly assimilated to those of Bornu. The
province was taken under administrative control by the British in
October 1903. In 1904 the capitals of Gummel, Hadeija, Messau and
Jemaari, were brought into touch with the administration and native and
provincial courts established. At the beginning of 1905 Katagum was
incorporated as a sub-province with the province of Kano, and the
administrative organization of a double province was extended over the
whole. Hadeija, which is a very wealthy town and holds an important
position both as a source of supplies and a centre of trade, received a
garrison of mounted infantry and became the capital of the sub-province.

Hadeija was an old Habe town and its name, an evident corruption of
Khadija, the name of the celebrated wife and first convert of Mahomet,
is a strong presumption of the incorrectness of the Fula claim to have
introduced Islam to its inhabitants. The ruling dynasty of Hadeija was,
however, overthrown by Fula usurpation towards the end of the 18th
century, and the Fula ruler received a flag and a blessing from Dan
Fodio at the beginning of his sacred war in the opening years of the
19th century. Nevertheless the habit of independence being strong in the
town of Hadeija the little emirate held its own against Sokoto, Bornu
and all comers. Though included nominally within the province at Katagum
it was the boast of Hadeija that it had never been conquered. It had
made nominal submission to the British in 1903 on the successful
conclusion of the Kano-Sokoto campaign, and in 1905, as has been stated,
was chosen as the capital of the sub-province. The emir's attitude
became, however, in the spring of 1906 openly antagonistic to the
British and a military expedition was sent against him. The emir with
his disaffected chiefs made a plucky stand but after five hours' street
fighting the town was reduced. The emir and three of his sons were
killed, and a new emir, the rightful heir to the throne, who had shown
himself in favour of a peaceful policy, was appointed. The offices of
the war chiefs in Hadeija were abolished and 150 yards of the town wall
were broken down.

Slave dealing is at an end in Katagum. The military station at Hadeija
forms a link in the chain of British forts which extends along the
northern frontier of the protectorate. (See NIGERIA.)     (F. L. L.)



KATANGA, a district of Belgian Congo, forming the south-eastern part of
the colony. Area, approximately, 180,000 sq. m.; estimated population
1,000,000. The natives are members of the Luba-Lunda group of Bantus.
It is a highly mineralized region, being specially rich in copper ore.
Gold, iron and tin are also mined. Katanga is bounded S. and S.E. by
Northern Rhodesia, and British capital is largely interested in the
development of its resources, the administration of the territory being
entrusted to a committee on which British members have seats. Direct
railway communication with Cape Town and Beira was established in 1909.
There is also a rail and river service via the Congo to the west coast.
(See CONGO FREE STATE.)



KATER, HENRY (1777-1835), English physicist of German descent, was born
at Bristol on the 16th of April 1777. At first he purposed to study law;
but this he abandoned on his father's death in 1794, and entered the
army, obtaining a commission in the 12th regiment of foot, then
stationed in India, where he rendered valuable assistance in the great
trigonometrical survey. Failing health obliged him to return to England;
and in 1808, being then a lieutenant, he entered on a distinguished
student career in the senior department of the Royal Military College at
Sandhurst. Shortly after he was promoted to the rank of captain. In 1814
he retired on half-pay, and devoted the remainder of his life to
scientific research. He died at London on the 26th of April 1835.

His first important contribution to scientific knowledge was the
comparison of the merits of the Cassegrainian and Gregorian telescopes,
from which (_Phil. Trans._, 1813 and 1814) he deduced that the
illuminating power of the former exceeded that of the latter in the
proportion of 5 : 2. This inferiority of the Gregorian he explained as
being probably due to the mutual interference of the rays as they
crossed at the principal focus before reflection at the second mirror.
His most valuable work was the determination of the length of the
second's pendulum, first at London and subsequently at various stations
throughout the country (_Phil. Trans._, 1818, 1819). In these researches
he skilfully took advantage of the well-known property of reciprocity
between the centres of suspension and oscillation of an oscillating
body, so as to determine experimentally the precise position of the
centre of oscillation; the distance between these centres was then the
length of the ideal simple pendulum having the same time of oscillation.
As the inventor of the floating collimator, Kater rendered a great
service to practical astronomy (_Phil. Trans._, 1825, 1828). He also
published memoirs (_Phil. Trans._, 1821, 1831) on British standards of
length and mass; and in 1832 he published an account of his labours in
verifying the Russian standards of length. For his services to Russia in
this respect he received in 1814 the decoration of the order of St.
Anne; and the same year he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society.

  His attention was also turned to the subject of compass needles, his
  Bakerian lecture "On the Best Kind of Steel and Form for a Compass
  Needle" (_Phil. Trans._, 1821) containing the results of many
  experiments. The treatise on "Mechanics" in Lardner's _Cyclopaedia_
  was partly written by him; and his interest in more purely
  astronomical questions was evidenced by two communications to the
  Astronomical Society's _Memoirs_ for 1831-1833--the one on an
  observation of Saturn's outer ring, the other on a method of
  determining longitude by means of lunar eclipses.



KATHA, a district in the northern division of Upper Burma, with an area
of 6994 sq. m., 3730 of which consists of the former separate state of
Wuntho. It is bounded N. by the Upper Chindwin, Bhamo and Myitkyina
districts, E. by the Kaukkwe River as far as the Irrawaddy, thence east
of the Irrawaddy by the Shan State of Möng Mit (Momeik), and by the
Shweli River, S. by the Ruby Mines district and Shwebo, and W. by the
Upper Chindwin district. Three ranges of hills run through the district,
known as the Minwun, Gangaw and Mangin ranges. They separate the three
main rivers--the Irrawaddy, the Mèza and the Mu. The Minwun range runs
from north to south, and forms for a considerable part of its length the
dividing line between the Katha district proper and what formerly was
the Wuntho state. Its average altitude is between 1500 and 2000 ft. The
Gangaw range runs from the north of the district for a considerable
portion of its length close to and down the right bank of the Irrawaddy
as far as Tigyaing, where the Myatheindan pagoda gives its name to the
last point. Its highest point is 4400 ft., but the average is between
1500 and 2000 ft. The Katha branch of the railway crosses it at Petsut,
a village 12 miles west of Katha town. The Mangin range runs through
Wuntho (highest peak, Maingthôn, 5450 ft.).

Gold, copper, iron and lead are found in considerable quantities in the
district. The Kyaukpazat gold-mines, worked by an English company, gave
good returns, but the quartz reef proved to be a mere pocket and is now
worked out. The iron, copper and lead are not now worked. Jade and
soapstone also exist, and salt is produced from brine wells. There are
three forest reserves in Katha, with a total area of 1119 sq. m. The
population in 1901 was 176,223, an increase of 32% in the decade. The
number of Shans is about half that of Burmese, and of Kadus half that of
Shans. The Shans are mostly in the Wuntho sub-division. Rice is the
chief crop in the plains, tea, cotton, sesamum and hill rice in the
hills. The valley of the Mèza, which is very malarious, was used as a
convict settlement under Burmese rule. The district was first occupied
by British troops in 1886, but it was not finally quieted till 1890,
when the Wuntho sawbwa was deposed and his state incorporated in Katha
district.

KATHA is the headquarters of the district. The principal means of
communication are the Irrawaddy Flotilla steamers, which run between
Mandalay and Bhamo, and the railway which communicates with Sagaing to
the south and Myitkyina to the north. A ferry-steamer plies between
Katha and Bhamo.



KATHIAWAR, or KATTYWAR, a peninsula of India, within the Gujarat
division of Bombay, giving its name to a political agency. Total area,
about 23,400 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 2,645,805. These figures include a
portion of the British district of Ahmedabad, a portion of the state of
Baroda, and the small Portuguese settlement of Diu. The peninsula is
bounded N. by the Runn of Cutch, E. by Ahmedabad district and the Gulf
of Cambay, and S. and W. by the Arabian Sea. The extreme length is 220
m.; the greatest breadth about 165 m. Generally speaking, the surface is
undulating, with low ranges running in various directions. With the
exception of the Tangha and Mandav hills, in the west of Jhalawar, and
some unimportant hills in Hallar, the northern portion of the country is
flat; but in the south, from near Gogo, the Gir range runs nearly
parallel with the coast, and at a distance of about 20 m. from it, along
the north of Babriawar and Sorath, to the neighbourhood of Girnar.
Opposite this latter mountain is the solitary Osam hill, and then still
farther west is the Barada group, between Hallar and Barada, running
about 20 m. north and south from Gumli to Ranawao. The Girnar group of
mountains is an important granitic mass, the highest peak of which rises
to 3500 ft. The principal river is the Bhadar, which rises in the Mandav
hills, and flowing S.W. falls into the sea at Navi-Bandar; it is
everywhere marked by highly cultivated lands adjoining its course of
about 115 m. Other rivers are the Aji, Machhu and Satrunji--the last
remarkable for romantic scenery. Four of the old races, the Jaitwas,
Churasamas, Solunkis and Walas still exist as proprietors of the soil
who exercised sovereignty in the country prior to the immigration of the
Jhalas, Jadejas, Purmars, Kathis, Gohels, Jats, Mahommedans and
Mahrattas, between whom the country is now chiefly portioned out.
Kathiawar has many notable antiquities, comprising a rock inscription of
Asoka, Buddhist caves, and fine Jain temples on the sacred hill of
Girnar and at Palitana.

The political agency of Kathiawar has an area of 20,882 sq. m. In 1901
the population was 2,329,196, showing a decrease of 15% in the decade
due to the results of famine. The estimated gross revenue of the several
states is £1,278,000; total tribute (payable to the British, the gaekwar
of Baroda and the nawab of Junagarh), £70,000. There are altogether 193
states of varying size and importance, of which 14 exercise independent
jurisdiction, while the rest are more or less under British
administration. The eight states of the first class are Junagaw,
Nawanagar, Bhaunagar, Porbandar, Dhrangadra, Morvi, Gondal and
Jafarabad. The headquarters of the political agent are at Rajkot, in the
centre of the peninsula, where also is the Rajkumar college, for the
education of the sons of the chiefs. There is a similar school for
_girasias_, or chiefs of lower rank, at Gondal. An excellent system of
metre-gauge railways has been provided at the cost of the leading
states. Maritime trade is also very active, the chief ports being
Porbandar, Mangrol and Verawal. In 1903-1904 the total sea-borne exports
were valued at £1,300,000, and the imports at £1,120,000. The
progressive prosperity of Kathiawar received a shock from the famine of
1899-1900, which was felt everywhere with extreme severity.



KATKOV, MICHAEL NIKIFOROVICH (1818-1887), Russian journalist, was born
in Moscow in 1818. On finishing his course at the university he devoted
himself to literature and philosophy, and showed so little individuality
that during the reign of Nicholas I. he never once came into
disagreeable contact with the authorities. With the Liberal reaction and
strong reform movement which characterized the earlier years of
Alexander II.'s reign (1855-1881) he thoroughly sympathized, and for
some time he warmly advocated the introduction of liberal institutions
of the British type, but when he perceived that the agitation was
assuming a Socialistic and Nihilist tinge, and that in some quarters of
the Liberal camp indulgence was being shown to Polish national
aspirations, he gradually modified his attitude until he came to be
regarded by the Liberals as a renegade. At the beginning of 1863 he
assumed the management and editorship of the _Moscow Gazette_, and he
retained that position till his death in 1887. During these twenty-four
years he exercised considerable influence on public opinion and even on
the Government, by representing with great ability the moderately
Conservative spirit of Moscow in opposition to the occasionally
ultra-Liberal and always cosmopolitan spirit of St Petersburg. With the
Slavophils he agreed in advocating the extension of Russian influence in
south-eastern Europe, but he carefully kept aloof from them and
condemned their archaeological and ecclesiastical sentimentality. Though
generally temperate in his views, he was extremely incisive and often
violent in his modes of expressing them, so that he made many enemies
and sometimes incurred the displeasure of the press-censure and the
ministers, against which he was more than once protected by Alexander
III. in consideration of his able advocacy of national interests. He is
remembered chiefly as an energetic opponent of Polish national
aspirations, of extreme Liberalism, of the system of public instruction
based on natural science, and of German political influence. In this
last capacity he helped to prepare the way for the Franco-Russian
alliance.



KATMANDU (less correctly KHATMANDU), the capital of the state of Nepal,
India, situated on the bank of the Vishnumati river at its confluence
with the Baghmati, in 27° 36´ N., 85° 24´ E. The town, which is said to
have been founded about 723, contains a population estimated at 70,000,
occupying 5000 houses made of brick, and usually from two to four
storeys high. Many of the houses have large projecting wooden windows or
balconies, richly carved. The maharaja's palace, a huge, rambling,
ungainly building, stands in the centre of the town, which also contains
numerous temples. One of these, a wooden building in the centre of the
town, gives it its name (_kat_ = wood). The streets are extremely
narrow, and the whole town very dirty. A British resident is stationed
about a mile north of the town.



KATO, TAKA-AKIRA (1859-   ), Japanese statesman, was born at Nagoya, and
commenced life as an employee in the great firm of Mitsu Bishi. In 1887
he became private secretary to Count Okuma, minister of state for
foreign affairs. Subsequently he served as director of a bureau in the
finance department, and from 1894 to 1899 he represented his country at
the court of St James. He received the portfolio of foreign affairs in
the fourth Ito cabinet (1900-1901), which remained in office only a few
months. Appointed again to the same position in the Saionji cabinet
(1906), he resigned after a brief interval, being opposed to the
nationalization of the private railways, which measure the cabinet
approved. He then remained without office until 1908, when he again
accepted the post of ambassador in London. He was decorated with the
grand cross of St Michael and St George, and earned the reputation of
being one of the strongest men among the junior statesmen.



KATRINE, LOCH, a fresh-water lake of Scotland, lying almost entirely in
Perthshire. The boundary between the counties of Perth and Stirling runs
from Glengyle, at the head of the lake, down the centre to a point
opposite Stronachlachar from which it strikes to the south-western shore
towards Loch Arklet. The loch, which has a south-easterly trend, is
about 8 m. long, and its greatest breadth is 1 m. It lies 364 ft. above
the sea-level. It occupies an area of 4¾ square miles and has a drainage
basin of 37½ square miles. The average depth is 142 ft., the greatest
depth being 495 ft. The average annual rainfall is 78 inches. The mean
temperature at the surface is 56.4° F., and at the bottom 41° F. The
scenery has been immortalized in Sir Walter Scott's _Lady of the Lake_.
The surrounding hills are of considerable altitude, the most remarkable
being the head of Ben A'an (1750 ft.) and the grassy craigs and broken
contour of Ben Venue (2393 ft.). It is fed by the Gyle and numerous
burns, and drained by the Achray to Loch Achray and thence by the Black
Avon to Loch Vennacher. Since 1859 it has formed the chief source of the
water-supply of Glasgow, the aqueduct leaving the lake about 1½ m. S.E.
of Stronachlachar. By powers obtained in 1885 the level of the lake was
increased by 5 ft. by a system of sluices regulating the outflow of the
Achray. One result of this damming up has been to submerge the Silver
Strand and to curtail the dimensions of Ellen's Isle. The principal
points on the shores are Glengyle, formerly a fastness of the
Macgregors, the Trossachs, the Goblins' Cave on Ben Venue, and
Stronachlachar (Gaelic, "the mason's nose"), from which there is a ferry
to Coilachra on the opposite side. A road has been constructed from the
Trossachs for nearly six miles along the northern shore. During summer
steamers ply between the Trossachs and Stronachlachar and there is a
daily service of coaches from the Trossachs to Callander (about 10 m.)
and to Aberfoyle (9 m.), and between Stronachlachar, to Inversnaid on
Loch Lomond (about 4½ m.). The road to Inversnaid runs through the
Macgregors' country referred to in Scott's _Rob Roy_.



KATSENA, an ancient state of the western Sudan, now included in the
province of Kano in the British protectorate of Northern Nigeria.
Katsena was amongst the oldest of the Hausa states. There exist
manuscripts which carry back its history for about 1000 years and
tradition ascribes the origin of the Hausa population, which is known
also by the name of Habe or Habeche, to the union of Bajibda of Bagdad
with a prehistoric queen of Daura. The conquest of the Habe of Katsena
by the Fula about the beginning of the 19th century made little
difference to the country. The more cultivated Habe were already
Mahommedan and the new rulers adopted the existing customs and system of
government. These were in many respects highly developed and included
elaborate systems of taxation and justice.

The capital of the administrative district is a town of the same name,
in 13° N., 7° 41´ E., being 160 m. E. by S. of the city of Sokoto, and
84 m. N.W. of Kano. The walls of Katsena have a circuit of between 13
and 14 miles, but only a small part of the enclosed space is inhabited.
In the 17th and 18th centuries it appears to have been the largest town
in the Hausa countries, and its inhabitants at that time numbered some
100,000. The date of the foundation of the present town must be
comparatively modern, for it is believed to have been moved from its
ancient site and at the time of Leo Africanus (c. 1513) there was no
place of any considerable size in the province of Katsena. Before that
period Katsena boasted of being the chief seat of learning throughout
the Hausa states and this reputation was maintained to the time of the
Fula conquest. In the beginning of the 19th century the town fell into
the hands of the Fula, but only after a protracted and heroic defence.
In March 1903 Sir F. Lugard visited Katsena on his way from Sokoto and
the emir and chiefs accepted British suzerainty without fighting. The
Katsena district has since formed an administrative district in the
double province of Kano and Katagum. The emir was unfaithful to his oath
of allegiance to the British crown, and was deposed in 1904. His
successor was installed and took the oath of allegiance in December of
the same year. Katsena is a rich and populous district.

  See the _Travels_ of Heinrich Barth (new ed., London, 1890, chs.
  xxiii. and xxiv.). Consult also the _Annual Reports_ on Northern
  Nigeria issued by the Colonial Office, London, particularly the Report
  for 1902.

KATSENA is also the name of a town in the district of Katsena-Allah, in
the province of Muri, Northern Nigeria. This district is watered by a
river of the same name which takes its rise in the mountains of the
German colony of Cameroon, and flows into the Benue at a point above
Abinsi.



KATSURA, TARO, MARQUESS (1847-   ), Japanese soldier and statesman, was
born in 1847 in Choshu. He commenced his career by fighting under the
Imperial banner in the civil war of the Restoration, and he displayed
such talent that he was twice sent at public expense to Germany (in 1870
and 1884) to study strategy and tactics. In 1886 he was appointed
vice-minister of war, and in 1891 the command of division devolved on
him. He led the left wing of the Japanese army in the campaign of
1894-95 against China, and made a memorable march in the depth of winter
from the north-east shore of the Yellow Sea to Haicheng, finally
occupying Niuchwang, and effecting a junction with the second army corps
which moved up the Liaotung peninsula. For these services he received
the title of viscount. He held the portfolio of war from 1898 to 1901,
when he became premier and retained office for four and a half years, a
record in Japan. In 1902 his cabinet concluded the first _entente_ with
England, which event procured for Katsura the rank of count. He also
directed state affairs throughout the war with Russia, and concluded the
offensive and defensive treaty of 1905 with Great Britain, receiving
from King Edward the grand cross of the order of St Michael and St
George, and being raised by the mikado to the rank of marquess. He
resigned the premiership in 1905 to Marquess Saionji, but was again
invited to form a cabinet in 1908. Marquess Katsura might be considered
the chief exponent of conservative views in Japan. Adhering strictly to
the doctrine that ministries were responsible to the emperor alone and
not at all to the diet, he stood wholly aloof from political parties,
only his remarkable gift of tact and conciliation enabling him to govern
on such principles.



KATTERFELTO (or KATERFELTO), GUSTAVUS (d. 1799), quack doctor and
conjurer, was born in Prussia. About 1782 he came to London, where his
advertisements in the newspapers, headed "Wonders! Wonders! Wonders!"
enabled him to trade most profitably upon the credulity of the public
during the widespread influenza epidemic of that year. His public
entertainment, which, besides conjuring, included electrical and
chemical experiments and demonstrations with the microscope, extracted a
flattering testimonial from the royal family, who witnessed it in 1784.
The poet William Cowper refers to Katterfelto in _The Task_; he became
notorious for a long tour he undertook, exciting marvel by his conjuring
performances.



KATTOWITZ, a town in the Prussian province of Silesia, on the Rawa, near
the Russian frontier, 5 m. S.E. from Beuthen by rail. Pop. (1875),
11,352; (1905), 35,772. There are large iron-works, foundries and
machine shops in the town, and near it zinc and anthracite mines. The
growth of Kattowitz, like that of other places in the same district, has
been very rapid, owing to the development of the mineral resources of
the neighbourhood. In 1815 it was a mere village, and became a town in
1867. It has monuments to the emperors William I. and Frederick III.

  See G. Hoffmann, _Geschichte der Stadt Kattowitz_ (Kattowitz, 1895).



KATWA, or CUTWA, a town of British India, in Burdwan district, Bengal,
situated at the confluence of the Bhagirathi and Ajai rivers. Pop.
(1901), 7220. It was the residence of many wealthy merchants, but its
commercial importance has declined as it is without railway
communication and the difficulties of the river navigation have
increased. It was formerly regarded as the key to Murshidabad. The old
fort, of which scarcely a vestige remains, is noted as the scene of the
defeat of the Mahrattas by Ali Vardi Khan.



KATYDID, the name given to certain North American insects, belonging to
the family _Locustidae_, and related to the green or tree grasshoppers
of England. As in other members of the family, the chirrup, alleged to
resemble the words "Katydid," is produced by the friction of a file on
the underside of the left forewing over a ridge on the upperside of the
right. Several species, belonging mostly to the genera _Microcentonus_
and _Cyrtophallus_, are known.



KAUFBEUREN, a town in the kingdom of Bavaria, on the Wertach, 55 m. S.W.
of Munich by rail. Pop. (1905), 8955. Kaufbeuren is still surrounded by
its medieval walls and presents a picturesque appearance. It has a
handsome town hall with fine paintings, an old tower (the Hexenturm, or
witches' tower), a museum and various educational institutions. The most
interesting of the ecclesiastical buildings is the chapel of St Blasius,
which was restored in 1896. The chief industries are cotton spinning,
weaving, bleaching, dyeing, printing, machine building and lithography,
and there is an active trade in wine, beer and cheese. Kaufbeuren is
said to have been founded in 842, and is first mentioned in chronicles
of the year 1126. It appears to have become a free imperial city about
1288, retaining the dignity until 1803, when it passed to Bavaria. It
was formerly a resort of pilgrims, and Roman coins have been found in
the vicinity.

  See F. Stieve, _Die Reichsstadt Kaufbeuren und die bayrische
  Restaurationspolitik_ (Munich, 1870); and Schröder, _Geschichte der
  Stadt und Katholischen Pfarrei Kaufbeuren_ (Augsburg, 1903).



KAUFFMANN, [MARIA ANNA] ANGELICA (1741-1807), the once popular artist
and Royal Academician, was born at Coire in the Grisons, on the 30th of
October 1741. Her father, John Josef Kauffmann, was a poor man and
mediocre painter, but apparently very successful in teaching his
precocious daughter. She rapidly acquired several languages, read
incessantly, and showed marked talents as a musician. Her greatest
progress, however, was in painting; and in her twelfth year she had
become a notability, with bishops and nobles for her sitters. In 1754
her father took her to Milan. Later visits to Italy of long duration
appear to have succeeded this excursion; in 1763 she visited Rome,
returning to it again in 1764. From Rome she passed to Bologna and
Venice, being everywhere fêted and caressed, as much for her talents as
for her personal charms. Writing from Rome in August 1764 to his friend
Franke, Winckelmann refers to her exceptional popularity. She was then
painting his picture, a half-length, of which she also made an etching.
She spoke Italian as well as German, he says; and she also expressed
herself with facility in French and English--one result of the
last-named accomplishment being that she painted all the English
visitors to the Eternal City. "She may be styled beautiful," he adds,
"and in singing may vie with our best virtuosi." While at Venice, she
was induced by Lady Wentworth, the wife of the English ambassador to
accompany her to London, where she appeared in 1766. One of her first
works was a portrait of Garrick, exhibited in the year of her arrival at
"Mr Moreing's great room in Maiden Lane." The rank of Lady Wentworth
opened society to her, and she was everywhere well received, the royal
family especially showing her great favour.

Her firmest friend, however, was Sir Joshua Reynolds. In his pocket-book
her name as "Miss Angelica" or "Miss Angel" appears frequently, and in
1766 he painted her, a compliment which she returned by her "Portrait of
Sir Joshua Reynolds," aetat. 46. Another instance of her intimacy with
Reynolds is to be found in the variation of Guercino's "Et in Arcadia
ego" produced by her at this date, a subject which Reynolds repeated a
few years later in his portrait of Mrs Bouverie and Mrs Crewe. When,
about November 1767, she was entrapped into a clandestine marriage with
an adventurer who passed for a Swedish count (the Count de Horn)
Reynolds befriended her, and it was doubtless owing to his good offices
that her name is found among the signatories to the famous petition to
the king for the establishment of the Royal Academy. In its first
catalogue of 1769 she appears with "R.A." after her name (an honour
which she shared with another lady and compatriot, Mary Moser); and she
contributed the "Interview of Hector and Andromache," and three other
classical compositions. From this time until 1782 she was an annual
exhibitor, sending sometimes as many as seven pictures, generally
classic or allegorical subjects. One of the most notable of her
performances was the "Leonardo expiring in the Arms of Francis the
First," which belongs to the year 1778. In 1773 she was appointed by the
Academy with others to decorate St Paul's, and it was she who, with
Biagio Rebecca, painted the Academy's old lecture room at Somerset
House. It is probable that her popularity declined a little in
consequence of her unfortunate marriage; but in 1781, after her first
husband's death (she had been long separated from him), she married
Antonio Zucchi (1728-1795), a Venetian artist then resident in England.
Shortly afterwards she retired to Rome, where she lived for twenty-five
years with much of her old prestige. In 1782 she lost her father; and in
1795--the year in which she painted the picture of Lady Hamilton--her
husband. She continued at intervals to contribute to the Academy, her
last exhibit being in 1797. After this she produced little, and in
November 1807 she died, being honoured by a splendid funeral under the
direction of Canova. The entire Academy of St Luke, with numerous
ecclesiastics and virtuosi, followed her to her tomb in S. Andrea delle
Fratte, and, as at the burial of Raphael, two of her best pictures were
carried in procession.

  The works of Angelica Kauffmann have not retained their reputation.
  She had a certain gift of grace, and considerable skill in
  composition. But her drawing is weak and faulty; her figures lack
  variety and expression; and her men are masculine women. Her
  colouring, however, is fairly enough defined by Waagen's term
  "cheerful." Rooms decorated by her brush are still to be seen in
  various quarters. At Hampton Court is a portrait of the duchess of
  Brunswick; in the National Portrait Gallery, a portrait of herself.
  There are other pictures by her at Paris, at Dresden, in the Hermitage
  at St Petersburg, and in the Alte Pinakothek at Munich. The Munich
  example is another portrait of herself; and there is a third in the
  Uffizi at Florence. A few of her works in private collections have
  been exhibited among the "Old Masters" at Burlington House. But she is
  perhaps best known by the numerous engravings from her designs by
  Schiavonetti, Bartolozzi and others. Those by Bartolozzi especially
  still find considerable favour with collectors. Her life was written
  in 1810 by Giovanni de Rossi. It has also been used as the basis of a
  romance by Léon de Wailly, 1838; and it prompted the charming novel
  contributed by Mrs Richmond Ritchie to the _Cornhill Magazine_ in 1875
  under the title of "Miss Angel."     (A. D.)



KAUFMANN, CONSTANTINE PETROVICH (1818-1882), Russian general, was born
at Maidani on the 3rd of March 1818. He entered the engineer branch in
1838, served in the campaigns in the Caucasus, rose to be colonel, and
commanded the sappers and miners at the siege of Kars in 1855. On the
capitulation of Kars he was deputed to settle the terms with General Sir
W. Fenwick Williams. In 1861 he became director-general of engineers at
the War Office, assisting General Milutin in the reorganization of the
army. Promoted lieut.-general in 1864, he was nominated
aide-de-camp-general and governor of the military conscription of Vilna.
In 1867 he became governor of Turkestan, and held the post until his
death, making himself a name in the expansion of the empire in central
Asia. He accomplished a successful campaign in 1868 against Bokhara,
capturing Samarkand and gradually subjugating the whole country. In 1873
he attacked Khiva, took the capital, and forced the khan to become a
vassal of Russia. Then followed in 1875 the campaign against Khokand, in
which Kaufmann defeated the khan, Nasr-ed-din. Khokand north of the
Syrdaria was annexed to Russia, and the independence of the rest of the
country became merely nominal. This rapid absorption of the khanates
brought Russia into close proximity to Afghanistan, and the reception of
Kaufmann's emissaries by the Amir was a main cause of the British war
with Afghanistan in 1878. Although Kaufmann was unable to induce his
government to support all his ambitious schemes of further conquest, he
sent Skobeleff in 1880 and 1881 against the Akhal Tekkés, and was
arranging to add Merv to his annexations when he died suddenly at
Tashkend on the 15th of May 1882.



KAUKAUNA, a city of Outagamie county, Wisconsin, U.S.A., on the Fox
river 7 m. N.E. of Appleton and about 100 m. N. of Milwaukee. Pop.
(1900), 5115, of whom 1044 were foreign-born (1905) 4991; (1910) 4717.
Kaukauna is served by the Chicago & North-Western railway (which has
car-shops here), by inter-urban electric railway lines connecting with
other cities in the Fox river, valley, and by river steamboats. It has a
Carnegie library, a hospital and manufactories of pulp, paper, lumber
and woodenware. Dams on the Fox River furnish a good water-power. The
city owns its waterworks. A small settlement of Indian traders was made
here as early as 1820; in 1830 a Presbyterian mission was established,
but the growth of the place was slow, and the city was not chartered
until 1885.



KAULBACH, WILHELM VON (1805-1874), German painter, was born in
Westphalia on the 15th of October 1805. His father, who was poor,
combined painting with the goldsmith's trade, but means were found to
place Wilhelm, a youth of seventeen, in the art academy of Düsseldorf,
then becoming renowned under the directorship of Peter von Cornelius.
Young Kaulbach contended against hardships, even hunger. But his courage
never failed; and, uniting genius with industry, he was ere long
foremost among the young national party which sought to revive the arts
of Germany. The ambitious work by which Louis I. sought to transform
Munich into a German Athens afforded the young painter an appropriate
sphere. Cornelius had been commissioned to execute the enormous frescoes
in the Glyptothek, and his custom was in the winters, with the aid of
Kaulbach and others, to complete the cartoons at Düsseldorf, and in the
summers, accompanied by his best scholars, to carry out the designs in
colour on the museum walls in Munich. But in 1824 Cornelius became
director of the Bavarian academy. Kaulbach, not yet twenty, followed,
took up his permanent residence in Munich, laboured hard on the public
works, executed independent commissions, and in 1849, when Cornelius
left for Berlin, succeeded to the directorship of the academy, an office
which he held till his death on the 7th of April 1874. His son Hermann
(1846-1909) also became a distinguished painter.

Kaulbach matured, after the example of the masters of the Middle Ages,
the practice of mural or monumental decoration; he once more conjoined
painting with architecture, and displayed a creative fertility and
readiness of resource scarcely found since the era of Raphael and
Michelangelo. Early in the series of his multitudinous works came the
famous Narrenhaus, the appalling memories of a certain madhouse near
Düsseldorf; the composition all the more deserves mention for points of
contact with Hogarth. Somewhat to the same category belong the
illustrations to _Reineke Fuchs_. These, together with occasional
figures or passages in complex pictorial dramas, show how dominant and
irrepressible were the artist's sense of satire and enjoyment of fun;
character in its breadth and sharpness is depicted with keenest relish,
and at times the sardonic smile bursts into the loudest laugh. Thus
occasionally the grotesque degenerates into the vulgar, the grand into
the ridiculous, as in the satire on "the Pigtail Age" in a fresco
outside the New Pinakothek. Yet these exceptional extravagances came not
of weakness but from excess of power. Kaulbach tried hard to become
Grecian and Italian; but he never reached Phidias or Raphael; in short
the blood of Dürer, Holbein and Martin Schongauer ran strong in his
veins. The art products in Munich during the middle of the 19th century
were of a quantity to preclude first-rate quality, and Kaulbach
contracted a fatal facility in covering wall and canvas by the acre. He
painted in the Hofgarten, the Odeon, the Palace and on the external
walls of the New Pinakothek. His perspicuous and showy manner also
gained him abundant occupation as a book illustrator: in the pages of
the poets his fancy revelled; he was glad to take inspiration from
Wieland, Goethe, even Klopstock; among his engraved designs are the
Shakespeare gallery, the Goethe gallery and a folio edition of the
Gospels. With regard to these examples of "the Munich school," it was
asserted that Kaulbach had been unfortunate alike in having found
Cornelius for a master and King Louis for a patron, that he attempted
"subjects far beyond him, believing that his admiration for them was
the same as inspiration"; and supplied the lack of real imagination by
"a compound of intellect and fancy."

Nevertheless in such compositions as the Destruction of Jerusalem and
the Battle of the Huns Kaulbach shows creative imagination. As a
dramatic poet he tells the story, depicts character, seizes on action
and situation, and thus as it were takes the spectator by storm. The
manner may be occasionally noisy and ranting, but the effect after its
kind is tremendous. The cartoon, which, as usual in modern German art,
is superior to the ultimate picture, was executed in the artist's prime
at the age of thirty. At this period, as here seen, the knowledge was
little short of absolute; subtle is the sense of beauty; playful,
delicate, firm the touch; the whole treatment artistic.

Ten or more years were devoted to what the Germans term a "cyclus"--a
series of pictures depicting the Tower of Babel, the Age of Homer, the
Destruction of Jerusalem, the Battle of the Huns, the Crusades and the
Reformation. These major tableaux, severally 30 ft. long, and each
comprising over one hundred figures above life-size, are surrounded by
minor compositions making more than twenty in all. The idea is to
congregate around the world's historic dramas the prime agents of
civilization; thus here are assembled allegoric figures of Architecture
and other arts, of Science and other kingdoms of knowledge, together
with lawgivers from the time of Moses, not forgetting Frederick the
Great. The chosen situation for this imposing didactic and theatric
display is the Treppenhaus or grand staircase in the new museum, Berlin;
the surface is a granulated, absorbent wall, specially prepared; the
technical method is that known as "water-glass," or "liquid flint," the
infusion of silica securing permanence. The same medium was adopted in
the later wall-pictures in the Houses of Parliament, Westminster.

The painter's last period brings no new departure; his ultimate works
stand conspicuous by exaggerations of early characteristics. The series
of designs illustrative of Goethe, which had an immense success, were
melodramatic and pandered to popular taste. The vast canvas, more than
30 ft. long, the Sea Fight at Salamis, painted for the Maximilianeum,
Munich, evinces wonted imagination and facility in composition; the
handling also retains its largeness and vigour; but in this astounding
scenic uproar moderation and the simplicity of nature are thrown to the
winds, and the whole atmosphere is hot and feverish.

  Kaulbach's was a beauty-loving art. He is not supreme as a colourist;
  he belongs in fact to a school that holds colour in subordination; but
  he laid, in common with the great masters, the sure foundation of his
  art in form and composition. Indeed, the science of composition has
  seldom if ever been so clearly understood or worked out with equal
  complexity and exactitude; the constituent lines, the relation of the
  parts to the whole, are brought into absolute agreement; in modern
  Germany painting and music have trodden parallel paths, and Kaulbach
  is musical in the melody and harmony of his compositions. His
  narrative too is lucid, and moves as a stately march or royal triumph;
  the sequence of the figures is unbroken; the arrangement of the groups
  accords with even literary form; the picture falls into incident,
  episode, dialogue, action, plot, as a drama. The style is eclectic; in
  the Age of Homer the types and the treatment are derived from Greek
  marbles and vases; then in the Tower of Babel the severity of the
  antique gives place to the suavity of the Italian renaissance; while
  in the Crusades the composition is let loose into modern romanticism,
  and so the manner descends into the midst of the 19th century. And yet
  this scholastically compounded art is so nicely adjusted and smoothly
  blended that it casts off all incongruity and becomes homogeneous as
  the issue of one mind. But a fickle public craved for change; and so
  the great master in later years waned in favour, and had to witness,
  not without inquietude, the rise of an opposing party of naturalism
  and realism.     (J. B. A.)



KAUNITZ-RIETBURG, WENZEL ANTON, PRINCE VON (1711-1794), Austrian
chancellor and diplomatist, was born at Vienna on the 2nd of February
1711. His father, Max Ulrich, was the third count of Kaunitz, and
married an heiress, Maria Ernestine Franziska von Rietburg. The family
was ancient, and was believed to have been of Slavonic origin in
Moravia. Wenzel Anton, being a second son, was designed for the church,
but on the death of his elder brother he was trained for the law and for
diplomacy, at Vienna, Leipzig and Leiden, and by travel. His family had
served the Habsburgs with some distinction, and Kaunitz had no
difficulty in obtaining employment. In 1735 he was a _Reichshofrath_.
When the Emperor Charles VI. died in 1740, he is said to have hesitated
before deciding to support Maria Theresa. If so, his hesitation did not
last long, and left no trace on his loyalty. From 1742 to 1744 he was
minister at Turin, and in the latter year was sent as minister with the
Archduke Charles of Lorraine, the governor of Belgium. He was therefore
an eye-witness of the campaigns in which Marshal Saxe overran Belgium.
At this time he was extremely discouraged, and sought for his recall.
But he had earned the approval of Maria Theresa, who sent him as
representative of Austria to the peace congress of Aix-la-Chapelle in
1748. His tenacity and dexterity established his reputation as a
diplomatist. He confirmed his hold on the regard and confidence of the
empress by the line he took after the conclusion of the peace. In 1749
Maria Theresa appealed to all her counsellors for advice as to the
policy Austria ought to pursue in view of the changed conditions
produced by the rise of Prussia. The great majority of them, including
her husband Francis I., were of opinion that the old alliance with the
sea Powers, England and Holland, should be maintained. Kaunitz, either
because he was really persuaded that the old policy must be given up, or
because he saw that the dominating idea in the mind of Maria Theresa was
the recovery of Silesia, gave it as his opinion that Frederick was now
the "most wicked and dangerous enemy of Austria," that it was hopeless
to expect the support of Protestant nations against him, and that the
only way of recovering Silesia was by an alliance with Russia and
France. The empress eagerly accepted views which were already her own,
and entrusted the adviser with the execution of his own plans. An
ambassador to France from 1750 to 1752, and after 1753 as "house, court
and state chancellor," Kaunitz laboured successfully to bring about the
alliance which led to the Seven Years' War. It was considered a great
feat of diplomacy, and established Kaunitz as the recognized master of
the art. His triumph was won in spite of personal defects and
absurdities which would have ruined most men. Kaunitz had manias rarely
found in company with absolute sanity. He would not hear of death, nor
approach a sick man. He refused to visit his dying master Joseph II. for
two whole years. He would not breathe fresh air. On the warmest summer
day he kept a handkerchief over his mouth when out of doors, and his
only exercise was riding under glass, which he did every morning for
exactly the same number of minutes. He relaxed from his work in the
company of a small dependent society of sycophants and buffoons. He was
consumed by a solemn, garrulous and pedantic vanity. When in 1770 he met
Frederick the Great at Mährisch-Neustadt, he came with a summary of
political principles, which he called a catechism, in his pocket, and
assured the king that he must be allowed to speak without interruption.
When Frederick, whose interest it was to humour him, promised to listen
quietly, Kaunitz rolled his mind out for two hours, and went away with
the firm conviction that he had at last enlightened the inferior
intellect of the king of Prussia as to what politics really were. Within
a very short time Frederick had completely deceived and out-manoeuvred
him. With all his pomposity and conceit, Kaunitz was astute, he was
laborious and orderly; when his advice was not taken he would carry out
the wishes of his masters, while no defeat ever damped his pertinacity.

To tell his history from 1750 till his retirement in 1792 would be to
tell part of the internal history of Austria, and all the international
politics of eastern and central Europe. His governing principle was to
forward the interests of "the august house of Austria," a phrase
sometimes repeated at every few lines of his despatches. In internal
affairs he in 1758 recommended, and helped to promote, a simplification
of the confused and subdivided Austrian administration. But his main
concern was always with diplomacy and foreign policy. Here he strove
with untiring energy, and no small measure of success, to extend the
Austrian dominions. After the Seven Years' War he endeavoured to avoid
great risks, and sought to secure his ends by alliances, exchanges and
claims professing to have a legal basis, and justified at enormous
length by arguments both pedantic and hypocritical. The French
Revolution had begun to alter all the relations of the Powers before his
retirement. He never understood its full meaning. Yet the circular
despatch which he addressed to the ambassadors of the emperor on the
17th of July 1794 contains the first outlines of Metternich's policy of
"legitimacy," and the first proposal for the combined action of the
powers, based on the full recognition of one another's rights, to defend
themselves against subversive principles. Kaunitz died at his house, the
Garten Palast, near Vienna, on the 27th of June 1794. He married on the
6th of May 1736, Maria Ernestine von Starhemberg, who died on the 6th of
September 1754. Four sons were born of the marriage.

  See Hormayr, _Oesterreichischer Plutarch_ (Vienna, 1823), for a
  biographical sketch based on personal knowledge. Also see Brunner,
  _Joseph II.: Correspondance avec Cobenzl et Kaunitz_ (Mayence, 1871);
  A. Beer, _Joseph II., Leopold II. und Kaunitz_ (Vienna, 1873).



KAUP, JOHANN JAKOB (1803-1873), German naturalist, was born at Darmstadt
on the 10th of April 1803. After studying at Göttingen and Heidelberg he
spent two years at Leiden, where his attention was specially devoted to
the amphibians and fishes. He then returned to Darmstadt as an assistant
in the grand ducal museum, of which in 1840 he became inspector. In 1829
he published _Skizze zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der europäischen
Thierwelt_, in which he regarded the animal world as developed from
lower to higher forms, from the amphibians through the birds to the
beasts of prey; but subsequently he repudiated this work as a youthful
indiscretion, and on the publication of Darwin's _Origin of Species_ he
declared himself against its doctrines. The extensive fossil deposits in
the neighbourhood of Darmstadt gave him ample opportunities for
palaeontological inquiries, and he gained considerable reputation by his
_Beiträge zur näheren Kenntniss der urweltlichen Säugethiere_
(1855-1862). He also wrote _Classification der Säugethiere und Vögel_
(1844), and, with H. G. Brown (1800-1862) of Heidelberg, _Die
Gavial-artigen Reste aus dem Lias_ (1842-1844). He died at Darmstadt on
the 4th of July 1873.



KAURI PINE, in botany, _Agathis australis_, a conifer native of New
Zealand where it is abundant in forests in the North Island between the
North Cape and 38° south latitude. The forests are rapidly disappearing
owing to use as timber and to destruction by fires. It is a tall
resiniferous tree, usually ranging from 80 to 100 ft. in height, with a
trunk 4 to 10 ft. in diameter, but reaching 150 ft., with a diameter of
15 to 22 ft.; it has a straight columnar trunk and a rounded bushy head.
The thick resiniferous bark falls off in large flat flakes. The leaves,
which persist for several years, are very thick and leathery; on young
trees they are lance-shaped 2 to 4 in. long and ¼ to ½ in. broad,
becoming on mature trees linear-oblong or obovate-oblong and ¾ to 1½ in.
long. The ripe cones are almost spherical, erect, and 2 to 3 in. in
diameter; the broad, flat, rather thin cone-scales fall from the axis
when ripe. Each scale bears a single compressed seed with a membranous
wing. The timber is remarkable for its strength, durability and the ease
with which it is worked. The resin, kauri-gum, is an amber-like deposit
dug in large quantities from the sites of previous forests, in lumps
generally varying in size from that of a hen's egg to that of a man's
head. The colour is of a rich brown or amber yellow, or it may be almost
colourless and translucent. It is of value for varnish-making.



KAVA (CAVA or AVA), an intoxicating, but non-alcoholic beverage,
produced principally in the islands of the South Pacific, from the roots
or leaves of a variety of the pepper plant (_Piper methysticum_). The
method of preparation is somewhat peculiar. The roots or leaves are
first chewed by young girls or boys, care being taken that only those
possessing sound teeth and excellent general health shall take part in
this operation. The chewed material is then placed in a bowl, and water
or coco-nut milk is poured over it, the whole is well stirred, and
subsequently the woody matter is removed by an ingenious but simple
mechanical manipulation. The resulting liquid, which has a muddy or
_café-au-lait_ appearance, or is of a greenish hue if made from leaves,
is now ready for consumption. The taste of the liquid is at first sweet,
and then pungent and acrid. The usual dose corresponds to about two
mouthfuls of the root. Intoxication (but this apparently only applies to
those not inured to the use of the liquor) follows in about twenty
minutes. The drunkenness produced by kava is of a melancholy, silent and
drowsy character. Excessive drinking is said to lead to skin and other
diseases, but _per contra_ many medicinal virtues are ascribed to the
preparation. There appears to be little doubt that the active principle
in this beverage is a poison of an alkaloidal nature. It seems likely
that this substance is not present as such (i.e. as a free alkaloid) in
the plant, but that it exists in the form of a glucoside, and that by
the process of chewing this glucoside is split up by one of the ferments
in the saliva into the free alkaloid and sugar.

  See _Pharm. Journ_. iii. 474; iv. 85; ix. 219; vii. 149; _Comptes
  Rendus_, l. 436, 598; lii. 206; _Journ. de Pharm._ (1860) 20; (1862)
  218; Seeman, _Flora Vitiensis_, 260; Beachy, _Voyage of the
  "Blossom,"_ ii. 120.



KAVADH (KABADES, KAUADES), a Persian name which occurs first in the
mythical history of the old Iranian kingdom as Kai Kobadh (Kaikobad). It
was borne by two kings of the Sassanid dynasty.

(1) KAVADH I., son of Peroz, crowned by the nobles in 488 in place of
his uncle Balash, who was deposed and blinded. At this time the empire
was utterly disorganized by the invasion of the Ephthalites or White
Huns from the east. After one of their victories against Peroz, Kavadh
had been a hostage among them during two years, pending the payment of a
heavy ransom. In 484 Peroz had been defeated and slain with his whole
army. Balash was not able to restore the royal authority. The hopes of
the magnates and high priests that Kavadh would suit their purpose were
soon disappointed. Kavadh gave his support to the communistic sect
founded by Mazdak, son of Bamdad, who demanded that the rich should
divide their wives and their wealth with the poor. His intention
evidently was, by adopting the doctrine of the Mazdakites, to break the
influence of the magnates. But in 496 he was deposed and incarcerated in
the "Castle of Oblivion (Lethe)" in Susiana, and his brother Jamasp
(Zamaspes) was raised to the throne. Kavadh, however, escaped and found
refuge with the Ephthalites, whose king gave him his daughter in
marriage and aided him to return to Persia. In 499 he became king again
and punished his opponents. He had to pay a tribute to the Ephthalites
and applied for subsidies to Rome, which had before supported the
Persians. But now the emperor Anastasius refused subsidies, expecting
that the two rival powers of the East would exhaust one another in war.
At the same time he intervened in the affairs of the Persian part of
Armenia. So Kavadh joined the Ephthalites and began war against the
Romans. In 502 he took Theodosiopolis in Armenia, in 503 Amida
(Diarbekr) on the Tigris. In 505 an invasion of Armenia by the western
Huns from the Caucasus led to an armistice, during which the Romans paid
subsidies to the Persians for the maintenance of the fortifications on
the Caucasus. When Justin I. (518-527) came to the throne the conflict
began anew. The Persian vassal, Mondhir of Hira, laid waste Mesopotamia
and slaughtered the monks and nuns. In 531 Belisarius was beaten at
Callinicum. Shortly afterwards Kavadh died, at the age of eighty-two, in
September 531. During his last years his favourite son Chosroes had had
great influence over him and had been proclaimed successor. He also
induced Kavadh to break with the Mazdakites, whose doctrine had spread
widely and caused great social confusion throughout Persia. In 529 they
were refuted in a theological discussion held before the throne of the
king by the orthodox Magians, and were slaughtered and persecuted
everywhere; Mazdak himself was hanged. Kavadh evidently was, as
Procopius (_Pers._ i. 6) calls him, an unusually clear-sighted and
energetic ruler. Although he could not free himself from the yoke of the
Ephthalites, he succeeded in restoring order in the interior and fought
with success against the Romans. He built some towns which were named
after him, and began to regulate the taxation.

(2) KAVADH II. SHEROE (Siroes), son of Chosroes II., was raised to the
throne in opposition to his father in February 628, after the great
victories of the emperor Heraclius. He put his father and eighteen
brothers to death, began negotiations with Heraclius, but died after a
reign of a few months.     (Ed. M.)



KAVALA, or CAVALLA, a walled town and seaport of European Turkey in the
vilayet of Salonica, on the Bay of Kavala, an inlet of the Aegean Sea.
Pop. (1905), about 5000. Kavala is built on a promontory stretching
south into the bay, and opposite the island of Thasos. There is a
harbour on each side of the promontory. The resident population is
increased in summer by an influx of peasantry, of whom during the season
5000 to 6000 are employed in curing tobacco and preparing it for export.
The finest Turkish tobacco is grown in the district, and shipped to all
parts of Europe and America, to the annual value of about £1,250,000.
Mehemet Ali was born here in 1769, and founded a Turkish school which
still exists. His birthplace, an unpretentious little house in one of
the tortuous older streets, can be distinguished by the tablet which the
municipal authorities have affixed to its front wall. Numerous Roman
remains have been found in the neighbourhood, of which the chief is the
large aqueduct on two tiers of arches which still serves to supply the
town and dilapidated citadel with water from Mount Pangeus.

  Kavala has been identified with Neapolis, at which St Paul landed on
  his way from Samothrace to Philippi (Acts xvi. 11). Neapolis was the
  port of Philippi, as Kavala now is of Seres; in the bay on which it
  stands the fleet of Brutus and Cassius was stationed during the battle
  of Philippi. Some authorities identify Neapolis with Datum ([Greek:
  Daton]), mentioned by Herodotus as famous for its gold mines.



KAVANAGH, ARTHUR MACMORROUGH (1831-1889), Irish politician, son of
Thomas Kavanagh, M.P., who traced his descent to the ancient kings of
Leinster, was born in Co. Carlow, Ireland, on the 25th of March 1831. He
had only the rudiments of arms and legs, but in spite of these physical
defects had a remarkable career. He learnt to ride in the most fearless
way, strapped to a special saddle, and managing the horse with the
stumps of his arms; and also fished, shot, drew and wrote, various
mechanical contrivances being devised to supplement his limited physical
capacities. He travelled extensively in Egypt, Asia Minor, Persia and
India between 1846 and 1853, and after succeeding to the family estates
in the latter year, he married in 1855 his cousin, Miss Frances Mary
Leathley. Assisted by his wife, he was a most philanthropic landlord,
and was an active county magistrate and chairman of the board of
guardians. A Conservative and a Protestant, he sat in Parliament for Co.
Wexford from 1866 to 1868, and for Co. Carlow from 1868 to 1880. He was
opposed to the disestablishment of the Irish Church, but supported the
Land Act of 1870, and sat on the Bessborough Commission. In 1886 he was
made a member of the Privy Council in Ireland. He died of pneumonia on
the 25th of December 1889, in London. It is supposed that his
extraordinary career suggested the idea of "Lucas Malet's" novel, _The
History of Sir Richard Calmady_.



KAVANAGH, JULIA (1824-1877), British novelist, was born at Thurles in
Tipperary, Ireland, in 1824. She was the daughter of Morgan Peter
Kavanagh (d. 1874), author of various worthless philological works and
some poems. Julia spent several years of her early life with her parents
in Normandy, laying there the foundation of a mastery of the French
language and insight into French modes of thought, which was perfected
by her later frequent and long residences in France. Miss Kavanagh's
literary career began with her arrival in London about 1844, and her
uneventful life affords few incidents to the biographer. Her first book
was _Three Paths_ (1847), a story for the young; but her first work to
attract notice was _Madeleine, a Tale of Auvergne_ (1848). Other books
followed: _A Summer and Winter in the Two Sicilies_ (1858); _French
Women of Letters_ (1862); _English Women of Letters_ (1862); _Woman in
France during the 18th Century_ (1850); and _Women of Christianity_
(1852). The scenes of her stories are almost always laid in France, and
she handles her French themes with fidelity and skill. Her style is
simple and pleasing rather than striking; and her characters are
interesting without being strongly individualized. Her most popular
novels were perhaps _Adèle_ (1857), _Queen Mab_ (1863), and _John
Dorrien_ (1875). On the outbreak of the Franco-German War Julia Kavanagh
removed with her mother from Paris to Rouen. She died at Nice on the
28th of October 1877.



KAVASS, or CAVASS (adapted from the Turkish _qawwas_, a bow-maker;
Arabic _qaws_, a bow), a Turkish name for an armed police-officer; also
for a courier such as it is usual to engage when travelling in Turkey.



KAVIRONDO, a people of British East Africa, who dwell in the valley of
the Nzoia River, on the western slopes of Mount Elgon, and along the
north-east coast of Victoria Nyanza. Kavirondo is the general name of
two distinct groups of tribes, one Bantu and the other Nilotic. Both
groups are immigrants, the Bantu from the south, the Nilotic from the
north. The Bantu appear to have been the first comers. The Nilotic
tribes, probably an offshoot of the Acholi (q.v.), appear to have
crossed the lake to reach their present home, the country around
Kavirondo Gulf. Of the two groups the Bantu now occupy a more northerly
position than their neighbours, and "are practically the most northerly
representatives of that race" (Hobley). Their further progress north was
stopped by the southward movement of the Nilotic tribes, while the
Nilotic Kavirondo in their turn had their wanderings arrested by an
irruption of Elgumi people from the east. The Elgumi are themselves
probably of Nilotic origin. Both groups of Kavirondo are physically
fine, the Nilotic stock appearing more virile than the Bantu. The Bantu
Kavirondo are divided into three principal types--the Awa-Rimi, the
Awa-Ware and the Awa-Kisii. By the Nilotic Kavirondo their Bantu
neighbours are known as Ja-Mwa. The generic name for the Nilotic tribes
is Ja-Luo. The Bantu Kavirondo call them Awa-Nyoro. The two groups have
many characteristics in common. A characteristic feature of the people
is their nakedness. Among the Nilotic Kavirondo married men who are
fathers wear a small piece of goat-skin, which though practically
useless as a covering must be worn according to tribal etiquette. Even
among men who have adopted European clothing this goat-skin must still
be worn underneath. Contact with whites has led to the adoption of
European clothing by numbers of the men, but the women, more
conservative, prefer nudity or the scanty covering which they wore
before the advent of Europeans. Among the Bantu Kavirondo married women
wear a short fringe of black string in front and a tassel of banana
fibre suspended from a girdle behind, this tassel having at a distance
the appearance of a tail. Hence the report of early travellers as to a
tailed race in Africa. The Nilotic Kavirondo women wear the tail, but
dispense with the fringe in front. For "dandy" they wear a goat-skin
slung over the shoulders. Some of the Bantu tribes practise
circumcision, the Nilotic tribes do not. Patterns are tattooed on chest
and stomach for ornament. Men, even husbands, are forbidden to touch the
women's tails, which must be worn even should any other clothing be
wrapped round the body. The Kavirondo are noted for their independent
and pugnacious nature, their honesty and their sexual morality, traits
particularly marked among the Bantu tribes. There are more women than
men, and thus the Kavirondo are naturally inclined towards polygamy.
Among the Bantu tribes a man has the refusal of all the younger sisters
of his wife as they attain puberty. Practically no woman lives unmarried
all her life, for if no suitor seeks her, she singles out a man and
offers herself to him at a "reduced price," an offer usually accepted,
as the women are excellent agricultural labourers. The Nilotic Kavirondo
incline to exogamy, endeavouring always to marry outside their clan.
Girls are betrothed at six or seven, and the husband-elect continually
makes small presents to his father-in-law-elect till the bride reaches
womanhood. It is regarded as shameful if the girl be not found a virgin
on her wedding day. She is sent back to her parents, who have to return
the marriage price, and pay a fine. The wife's adultery was formerly
punished with death, and the capital penalty was also inflicted on young
men and girls guilty of unchastity. Among the Bantu Kavirondo the usual
minimum price for a wife is forty hoes, twenty goats and one cow, paid
in instalments. The Nilotic Kavirondo pay twenty sheep and two to six
cows; the husband-elect can claim his bride when he has made half
payment. If a woman dies without bearing children, the amount of her
purchase is returnable by her father, unless the widower consents to
replace her by another sister. The women are prolific and the birth of
twins is common. This is considered a lucky event, and is celebrated by
feasting and dances. Among the Bantu Kavirondo the mother of twins must
remain in her hut for seven days. Among the Nilotic Kavirondo the
parents and the infants must stay in the hut for a whole month. If a
Bantu mother has lost two children in succession the next child born is
taken out at dawn and placed on the road, where it is left till a
neighbour, usually a woman friend who has gone that way on purpose,
picks it up. She takes it to its mother who gives a goat in return. A
somewhat similar custom prevails among the Nilotic tribes. Names are not
male and female, and a daughter often bears her father's name.

  The Kavirondo bury their dead. Among one of the Bantu tribes, the
  Awa-Kisesa, a chief is buried in the floor of his own hut in a sitting
  position, but at such a depth that the head protrudes. Over the head
  an earthenware pot is placed, and his principal wives have to remain
  in the hut till the flesh is eaten by ants or decomposes, when the
  skull is removed and buried close to the hut. Later the skeleton is
  unearthed, and reburied with much ceremony in the sacred burial place
  of the tribe. Married women of the Bantu tribes are buried in their
  hut lying on their right side with legs doubled up, the hut being then
  deserted. Among the Nilotic tribes the grave is dug beneath the
  verandah of the hut. Men of the Bantu tribes are buried in an open
  space in the midst of their huts; in the Nilotic tribes, if the first
  wife of the deceased be alive he is buried in her hut, if not, beneath
  the verandah of the hut in which he died. A child is buried near the
  door of its mother's hut. A sign of mourning is a cord of banana fibre
  worn round the neck and waist. A chief chooses, sometimes years before
  his death, one of his sons to succeed him, often giving a brass
  bracelet as insignia. A man's property is divided equally among his
  children.

  The Kavirondo are essentially an agricultural people: both men and
  women work in the fields with large iron hoes. In addition to sorghum,
  _Eleusine_ and maize, tobacco and hemp are both cultivated and smoked.
  Both sexes smoke, but the use of hemp is restricted to men and
  unmarried women, as it is thought to injure child-bearing women. Hemp
  is smoked in a hubble-bubble. The Kavirondo cultivate sesamum and make
  an oil from its seeds which they burn in little clay lamps. These
  lamps are of the ancient saucer type, the pattern being, in Hobley's
  opinion, introduced into the country by the coast people. While some
  tribes live in isolated huts, those in the north have strongly walled
  villages. The walls are of mud and formerly, among the Nilotic tribes,
  occasionally of stone. Since the advent of the British the security of
  the country has induced the Kavirondo to let the walls fall into
  disrepair. Their huts are circular with conical thatched roof, and
  fairly broad verandah all round. A portion of the hut is partitioned
  off as a sleeping-place for goats, and the fowls sleep indoors in a
  large basket. Skins form the only bedsteads. In each hut are two
  fireplaces, about which a rigid etiquette prevails. Strangers or
  distant relatives are not allowed to pass beyond the first, which is
  near the door, and is used for cooking. At the second, which is nearly
  in the middle of the hut, sit the hut owner, his wives, children,
  brothers and sisters. Around this fireplace the family sleep. Cooking
  pots, water pots and earthenware grain jars are the only other
  furniture. The food is served in small baskets. Every full grown man
  has a hut to himself, and one for each wife. The huts of the Masaba
  Kavirondo of west Elgon have the apex of the roof surmounted by a
  carved pole which Sir H. H. Johnston says is obviously a phallus.
  Among the Bantu Kavirondo a father does not eat with his sons, nor do
  brothers eat together. Among the Nilotic tribes father and sons eat
  together, usually in a separate hut with open sides. Women eat apart
  and only after the men have finished. The Kavirondo keep cattle,
  sheep, goats, fowls and a few dogs. Women do not eat sheep, fowls or
  eggs, and are not allowed to drink milk except when mixed with other
  things. The flesh of the wild cat and leopard is esteemed by most of
  the tribes. From _Eleusine_ a beer is made. The Kavirondo are plucky
  hunters, capturing the hippopotamus with ropes and traps, and
  attacking with spears the largest elephants. Fish, of which they are
  very fond, are caught by line and rod or in traps. Bee-keeping is
  common, and where trees are scarce the hives are placed on the roof of
  the hut. Among the Bantu Kavirondo goats and sheep are suffocated, the
  snout being held until the animal dies. Though a peaceful people the
  Kavirondo fight well. Their weapons are spears with rather long flat
  blades without blood-courses, and broad-bladed swords. Some use
  slings, and most carry shields. Bows and arrows are also used;
  firearms are however displacing other weapons. Kavirondo warfare was
  mainly defensive and intertribal, this last a form of vendetta. When a
  man had killed his enemy in battle he shaved his head on his return
  and he was rubbed with "medicine" (generally goat's dung), to defend
  him from the spirit of the dead man. This custom the Awa-Wanga
  abandoned when they obtained firearms. The young warriors were made to
  stab the bodies of their slain enemies. Kavirondo industries are
  salt-making, effected by burning reeds and water-plants and passing
  water through the ashes; the smelting of iron ore (confined to the
  Bantu tribes); pottery and basket-work.

  The Kavirondo have many tribes, divided, Sir H. H. Johnston suspects,
  totemically. Their religion appears to be a vague ancestor-worship,
  but the northern tribes have two gods, Awafwa and Ishishemi, the
  spirits of good and evil. To the former cattle and goats are
  sacrificed. The Kavirondo have great faith in divination from the
  entrails of a sheep. Nearly everybody and everything is to the
  Kavirondo ominous of good or evil. They have few myths or traditions;
  the ant-bear is the chief figure in their beast-legends. They believe
  in witchcraft and practise trial by ordeal. As a race the Kavirondo
  are on the increase. This is due to their fecundity and morality.
  Those who live in the low-lying lands suffer from a mild malaria,
  while abroad they are subject to dysentery and pneumonia. Epidemics of
  small-pox have occurred. Native medicine is of the simplest. They
  dress wounds with butter and leaves, and for inflammation of the lungs
  or pleurisy pierce a hole in the chest. There are no
  medicine-men--the women are the doctors. Certain of the incisor teeth
  are pulled out. If a man retains these he will, it is thought, be
  killed in warfare. Among certain tribes the women also have incisor
  teeth extracted, otherwise misfortune would befall their husbands. For
  the same reason the wife scars the skin of her forehead or stomach. A
  Kavirondo husband, before starting on a perilous journey, cuts scars
  on his wife's body to ensure him good luck. Of dances the Kavirondo
  have four--the birth dance, the death dance, that at initiation and
  one of a propitiatory kind in seasons of drought. Their music is
  plaintive and sometimes pretty, produced by a large lyre-shaped
  instrument. They use also various drums.

  The Ja-Luo women use for ear ornaments small beads attached to pieces
  of brass. Like the aggry beads of West Africa these beads are not of
  local manufacture nor of recent introduction. They are ancient, in
  colour generally blue, occasionally yellow or green, and are picked up
  in certain districts after heavy rain. By the natives they are
  supposed to come down with the rain. They are identical in shape and
  colour with ancient Egyptian beads and other beads obtained from
  ancient cities in Baluchistan.

  See C. W. Hobley, _Eastern Uganda, an Ethnological Survey_ (Anthrop.
  Inst., _Occasional Papers_, No. 1, London, 1902); Sir H. H. Johnston,
  _Uganda Protectorate_ (1902); J. F. Cunningham, _Uganda and its
  Peoples_ (1905); Paul Kollmann, _The Victoria Nyanza_ (1899).
       (T. A. J.)



KAW, or KANSA, a tribe of North American Indians of Siouan stock. They
were originally an offshoot of the Osages. Their early home was in
Missouri, whence they were driven to Kansas by the Dakotas. They were
moved from one reservation to another, till in 1873 they were settled in
Indian Territory; they have since steadily decreased, and now number
some 200.



KAWARDHA, a feudatory state of India, within the Central Provinces;
area, 798 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 57,474, showing a decrease of 37% in the
decade, due to famine; estimated revenue, £7000. Half the state consists
of hill and forest. The residence of the chief, who is a Raj Gond, is at
Kawardha (pop. 4772), which is also the headquarters of the Kabirpanthi
sect (see KABIR).



KAY, JOHN (1742-1826), Scottish caricaturist, was born near Dalkeith,
where his father was a mason. At thirteen he was apprenticed to a
barber, whom he served for six years. He then went to Edinburgh, where
in 1771 he obtained the freedom of the city by joining the corporation
of barber-surgeons. In 1785, induced by the favour which greeted certain
attempts of his to etch in aquafortis, he took down his barber's pole
and opened a small print shop in Parliament Square. There he continued
to flourish, painting miniatures, and publishing at short intervals his
sketches and caricatures of local celebrities and oddities, who abounded
at that period in Edinburgh society. He died on the 21st of February
1826.

  Kay's portraits were collected by Hugh Paton and published under the
  title _A series of original portraits and caricature etchings by the
  late John Kay, with biographical sketches and illustrative anecdotes_
  (Edin., 2 vols. 4to, 1838; 8vo ed., 4 vols., 1842; new 4to ed., with
  additional plates, 2 vols., 1877), forming a unique record of the
  social life and popular habits of Edinburgh at its most interesting
  epoch.



KAY, JOSEPH (1821-1878), English economist, was born at Salford,
Lancashire, on the 27th of February 1821. Educated privately and at
Trinity College, Cambridge, he was called to the bar at the Inner Temple
in 1848. He was appointed judge of the Salford Hundred court of record
in 1862 and in 1869 was made a queen's counsel. He is best known for a
series of works on the social condition of the poor in France,
Switzerland, Holland, Germany and Austria, the materials for which he
gathered on a four years' tour as travelling bachelor of his university.
They were _The Education of the Poor in England and Europe_ (London,
1846); _The Social Condition of the People in England and Europe_
(London, 1850, 2 vols.); _The Condition and Education of Poor Children
in English and in German Towns_ (Manchester, 1853). He was also the
author of _The Law relating to Shipmasters and Seamen_ (London, 1875)
and _Free Trade in Land_ (1879, with a memoir). He died at Dorking,
Surrey, on the 9th of October 1878.



KAYAK, or CAYAK, an Eskimo word for a fishing boat, in common use from
Greenland to Alaska. It has been erroneously derived from the Arabic
_caique_, supposed to have been applied to the native boats by early
explorers. The boat is made by covering a light wooden framework with
sealskin. A hole is pierced in the centre of the top of the boat, and
the _kayaker_ (also dressed in sealskin) laces himself up securely when
seated to prevent the entrance of water. The kayak is propelled like a
canoe by a double-bladed paddle. The name _kayak_ is properly only
applied to the boat used by an Eskimo man--that used by a woman is
called an _umiak_.



KAYASTH, the writer caste of Northern India, especially numerous and
influential in Bengal. In 1901 their total number in all India was more
than two millions. Their claim to be Kshattriyas who have taken to
clerical work is not admitted by the Brahmans. Under Mahommedan rule
they learnt Persian, and filled many important offices. They are now
eager students of English, and have supplied not only several judges to
the high court but also the first Hindu to be a member of the
governor-general's council. In Bombay their place is taken by the
Prabhus, and in Assam by the Kalitas (Kolitas); in Southern India there
is no distinct clerical caste.



KAYE, SIR JOHN WILLIAM (1814-1876), English military historian, was the
son of Charles Kaye, a solicitor, and was educated at Eton and the Royal
Military College, Addiscombe. From 1832 to 1841 he was an officer in the
Bengal Artillery, afterwards spending some years in literary pursuits
both in India and in England. In 1856 he entered the civil service of
the East India Company, and when the government of India was transferred
to the British crown succeeded John Stuart Mill as secretary of the
political and secret department of the India office. In 1871 he was made
a K.C.S.I. He died in London on the 24th of July 1876. Kaye's numerous
writings include _History of the Sepoy War in India_ (London,
1864-1876), which was revised and continued by Colonel G. B. Malleson
and published in six volumes in 1888-1889; _History of the War in
Afghanistan_ (London, 1851), republished in 1858 and 1874;
_Administration of the East India Company_ (London, 1853); _The Life and
Correspondence of Charles, Lord Metcalfe_ (London, 1854); _The Life and
Correspondence of Henry St George Tucker_ (London, 1854); _Life and
Correspondence of Sir John Malcolm_ (London, 1856); _Christianity in
India_ (London, 1859); _Lives of Indian Officers_ (London, 1867); and
two novels, _Peregrine Pultney_ and _Long engagements_. He also edited
several works dealing with Indian affairs; wrote _Essays of an Optimist_
(London, 1870); and was a frequent contributor to periodicals.



KAYSER, FRIEDRICH HEINRICH EMANUEL (1845-   ), German geologist and
palaeontologist, was born at Königsberg, on the 26th of March 1845. He
was educated at Berlin where he took his degree of Ph.D. in 1870. In
1882 he became professor of geology in the university at Marburg. He
investigated fossils of various ages and from all parts of the world,
but more especially from the Palaeozoic formations, including those of
South Africa, the Polar regions, and notably the Devonian fossils of
Germany, Bohemia and other parts of Europe.

  Among his separate works are _Lehrbuch der Geologie_ (2 vols., ii.),
  _Geologische Formationskunde_ 1891 (2nd ed., 1902), and i. _Allgemeine
  Geologie_ (1893), vol. ii. (the volume first issued) was translated
  and edited by P. Lake, 1893, under the title _Textbook of Comparative
  Geology_. Another work is _Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Fauna der
  Siegenschen Grauwacke_ (1892).



KAY-SHUTTLEWORTH, SIR JAMES PHILLIPS, BART. (1804-1877), English
politician and educationalist, was born at Rochdale, Lancashire, on the
20th of July 1804, the son of Robert Kay. At first engaged in a Rochdale
bank, in 1824 he became a medical student at Edinburgh University.
Settling in Manchester about 1827, he worked for the Ancoats and Ardwick
Dispensary, and the experience which he thus gained of the conditions of
the poor in the Lancashire factory districts, together with his interest
in economic science, led to his appointment in 1835 as poor law
commissioner in Norfolk and Suffolk and later in the London districts.
In 1839 he was appointed first secretary of the committee formed by the
Privy Council to administer the Government grant for the public
education in Great Britain. He is remembered as having founded at
Battersea, London, in conjunction with E. Carleton Tufnell, the first
training college for school teachers (1839-1840); and the system of
national school education of the present day, with its public
inspection, trained teachers and its support by state as well as local
funds, is largely due to his initiative. In 1842 he married Lady Janet
Shuttleworth, assuming by royal licence his bride's name and arms. A
breakdown in his health led him to resign his post on the committee in
1849, but subsequent recovery enabled him to take an active part in the
working of the central relief committee instituted under Lord Derby,
during the Lancashire cotton famine of 1861-1865. He was created a
baronet in 1849. Until the end of his life he interested himself in the
movements of the Liberal party in Lancashire, and the progress of
education. He died in London on the 26th of May 1877. His _Physiology,
Pathology and Treatment of Asphyxia_ became a standard textbook, and he
also wrote numerous papers on public education.

His son, Sir Ughtred James Kay-Shuttleworth (b. 1844), became a
well-known Liberal politician, sitting in parliament for Hastings from
1869 to 1880 and for the Clitheroe division of Lancashire from 1885 till
1902, when he was created Baron Shuttleworth. He was chancellor of the
duchy of Lancaster in 1886, and secretary to the Admiralty in 1892-1895.



KAZALA, or KAZALINSK, a fort and town in the Russian province of
Syr-darya in West Turkestan, at the point where the Kazala River falls
into the Syr-darya, about 50 m. from its mouth in Lake Aral, in 45° 45´
N. and 62° 7´ E., "at the junction," to quote Schuyler, "of all the
trade routes in Central Asia, as the road from Orenburg meets here with
the Khiva, Bokhara and Tashkent roads." Besides carrying on an active
trade with the Kirghiz of the surrounding country, it is of growing
importance in the general current of commerce. Pop. (1897), 7600. The
floods in the river make it an island in spring; in summer it is parched
by the sun and hot winds, and hardly a tree can be got to grow. The
streets are wide, but the houses, as well as the fairly strong fort, are
built of mud bricks.



KAZAÑ, a government of middle Russia, surrounded by the governments of
Vyatka, Ufa, Samara, Simbirsk, Nizhniy-Novgorod and Kostroma. Area
24,601 sq. m. It belongs to the basins of the Volga and its tributary
the Kama, and by these streams the government is divided into three
regions; the first, to the right of the main river, is traversed by deep
ravines sloping to the north-east, towards the Volga, and by two ranges
of hills, one of which (300 to 500 ft.) skirts the river; the second
region, between the left bank of the Volga and the left bank of the
Kama, is an open steppe; and the third, between the left bank of the
Volga and the right bank of the Kama, resembles in its eastern part the
first region, and in its western part is covered with forest. Marls,
limestones and sandstones, of Permian or Triassic age, are the principal
rocks; the Jurassic formation appears in a small part of the Tetyúshi
district in the south; and Tertiary rocks stretch along the left bank of
the Volga. Mineral springs (iron, sulphur and petroleum) exist in
several places. The Volga is navigable throughout its course of 200 m.
through Kazañ, as well as the Kama (120 m.); and the Vyatka, Kazanka,
Rutka, Tsivyl, Greater Kokshaga, Ilet, Vetluga and Mesha, are not
without value as waterways. About four hundred small lakes are
enumerated within the government; the upper and lower Kaban supply the
city of Kazañ with water.

The climate is severe, the annual mean temperature being 37.8° F. The
rainfall amounts to 16 in. Agriculture is the chief occupation, and 82%
of the population are peasants. Out of 7,672,600 acres of arable land,
4,516,500 are under crops--chiefly rye and oats, with some wheat,
barley, buckwheat, lentils, flax, hemp and potatoes. But there generally
results great scarcity, and even famine, in bad years. Live stock are
numerous. Forests cover 35% of the total area. Bee-keeping is an
important industry. Factories employ about 10,000 persons and include
flour-mills, distilleries, factories for soap, candles and tallow, and
tanneries. A great variety of petty trades, especially those connected
with wood, are carried on in the villages, partly for export. The fairs
are well attended. There is considerable shipping on the Volga, Kama,
Vyatka and their tributaries. Kazañ is divided into twelve districts.
The chief town is Kazañ (q.v.). The district capitals, with their
populations in 1897 are: Cheboksary (4568), Chistopol (20,161),
Kozmodemyansk (5212), Laishev (5439), Mamadyzh (4213), Spask (2779),
Sviyazhsk (2363), Tetyushi (4754). Tsarevokokshaisk (1654), Tsivylsk
(2337) and Yadrin (2467). Population (1879), 1,872,437; (1897),
2,190,185, of whom 1,113,555 were women, and 176,396 lived in towns. The
estimated population in 1906 was 2,504,400. It consists principally of
Russians and Tatars, with a variety of Finno-Turkish tribes: Chuvashes,
Cheremisses, Mordvinians, Votyaks, Mescheryaks, and some Jews and Poles.
The Russians belong to the Orthodox Greek Church or are Nonconformists;
the Tatars are Mussulmans; and the Finno-Turkish tribes are either
pagans or belong officially to the Orthodox Greek Church, the respective
proportions being (in 1897): Orthodox Greek, 69.4% of the whole;
Nonconformists, 1%; Mussulmans, 28.8%.     (P. A. K.; J. T. Be.)



KAZAÑ (called by the Cheremisses _Ozon_), a town of eastern Russia,
capital of the government of the same name, situated in 55° 48´ N. and
49° 26´´ E., on the river Kazanka, 3 m. from the Volga, which however
reaches the city when it overflows its banks every spring. Kazañ lies
650 m. E. from Moscow by rail and 253 m. E. of Nizhniy-Novgorod by the
Volga. Pop. (1883), 140,726; (1900), 143,707, all Russians except for
some 20,000 Tatars. The most striking feature of the city is the _kreml_
or citadel, founded in 1437, which crowns a low hill on the N.W. Within
its wall, capped with five towers, it contains several churches, amongst
them the cathedral of the Annunciation, founded in 1562 by Gury, the
first archbishop of Kazañ, Kazañ being an archiepiscopal see of the
Orthodox Greek Church. Other buildings in the kreml are a magnificent
monastery, built in 1556; an arsenal; the modern castle in which the
governor resides; and the red brick Suyumbeka tower, 246 ft. high, which
is an object of great veneration to the Tatars as the reputed
burial-place of one of their saints. A little E. of the kreml is the
Bogoroditski convent, built in 1579 for the reception of the Black
Virgin of Kazañ, a miracle-working image transferred to Moscow in 1612,
and in St Petersburg since 1710. Kazañ is the intellectual capital of
eastern Russia, and an important seat of Oriental scholarship. Its
university, founded in 1804, is attended by nearly 1000 students.
Attached to it are an excellent library of 220,000 vols., an
astronomical observatory, a botanical garden and various museums. The
ecclesiastical academy, founded in 1846, contains the old library of the
Solovetsk (Solovki) monastery, which is of importance for the history of
Russian religious sects. The city is adorned with bronze statues of Tsar
Alexander II., set up facing the kreml in 1895, and of the poet G. R.
Derzhavin (1743-1816); also with a monument commemorating the capture of
Kazañ by Ivan the Terrible. The central parts of the city consist
principally of small one-storeyed houses, surrounded by gardens, and are
inhabited chiefly by Russians, while some 20,000 Tatars dwell in the
suburbs. Kazañ is, further, the intellectual centre of the Russian
Mahommedans, who have here their more important schools and their
printing-presses. Between the city and the Volga is the Admiralty
suburb, where Peter the Great had his Caspian fleet built for his
campaigns against Persia. The more important manufactures are leather
goods, soap, wax candles, sacred images, cloth, cottons, spirits and
bells. A considerable trade is carried on with eastern Russia, and with
Turkestan and Persia. Previous to the 13th century, the present
government of Kazañ formed part of the territory of the Bulgarians, the
ruins of whose ancient capital, Bolgari or Bolgary, lie 60 m. S. of
Kazañ. The city of Kazañ itself stood, down to the 13th century, 30 m.
to the N.E., where traces of it can still be seen. In 1438 Ulugh
Mahommed (or Ulu Makhmet), khan of the Golden Horde of the Mongols,
founded, on the ruins of the Bulgarian state, the kingdom of Kazañ,
which in its turn was destroyed by Ivan the Terrible of Russia in 1552
and its territory annexed to Russia. In 1774 the city was laid waste by
the rebel Pugachev. It has suffered repeatedly from fires, especially in
1815 and 1825. The Kazañ Tatars, from having lived so long amongst
Russians and Finnish tribes, have lost a good many of the characteristic
features of their Tatar (Mongol) ancestry, and bear now the stamp of a
distinct ethnographic type. They are found also in the neighbouring
governments of Vyatka, Ufa, Orenburg, Samara, Saratov, Simbirsk, Tambov
and Nizhniy-Novgorod. They are intelligent and enterprising, and are
engaged principally in trade.

  See Pineghin's _Kazañ Old and New_ (in Russian); Velyaminov-Zernov's
  _Kasimov Tsars_ (3 vols., St Petersburg, 1863-1866); Zarinsky's
  _Sketches of Old Kazañ_ (Kazañ, 1877); Trofimov's _Siege of Kazañ in_
  1552 (Kazañ, 1890); Firsov's books on the history of the native
  population (Kazañ, 1864 and 1869); and Shpilevski, on the antiquities
  of the town and government, in _Izvestia i Zapiski_ of the Kazañ
  University (1877). A bibliography of the Oriental books published in
  the city is printed in _Bulletins_ of the St Petersburg Academy
  (1867). Compare also L. Leger's "Kazañ et les tartares," in _Bibl.
  Univ. de Genève_ (1874).     (P. A. K.; J. T. Be.)



KAZERUN, a district and town of the province of Fars in Persia. The
district is situated between Shiraz and Bushire. In its centre is the
Kazerun Valley with a direction N.W. to S.E., a fertile plain 30 m. long
and 7 to 8 m. broad, bounded S.E. by the Parishan Lake (8 m. long, 3 m.
broad) N.W. by the Boshavir River, with the ruins of the old city of
Beh-Shahpur (Beshaver, Boshavir, also, short, Shapur) and Sassanian
bas-reliefs on its banks. There also, in a cave, is a statue of Shapur.
The remainder of the district is mostly hilly country intersected by
numerous streams, plains and hills being covered with zizyphus, wild
almond and oak. The district is divided into two divisions: town and
villages, the latter being called Kuh i Marreh and again subdivided into
(1) Pusht i Kuh; (2) Yarruk; (3) Shakan. It has forty-six villages and a
population of about 15,000; it produces rice of excellent quality,
cotton, tobacco and opium, but very little corn, and bread made of the
flour of acorns is a staple of food in many villages. Wild almonds are
exported.

Kazerun, the chief place of the district, is an unwalled town situated
in the midst of the central plain, in 29° 37´ N., 51° 43´ E. at an
elevation of 2800 ft., 70 m. from Shiraz, and 96 m. from Bushire. It has
a population of about 8000, and is divided into four quarters separated
by open spaces. Adjoining it on the W. is the famous Nazar garden, with
noble avenues of orange trees planted by a former governor, Hajji Ali
Kuli Khan, in 1767. A couple of miles N. of the city behind a low range
of hills are the imposing ruins of a marble building said to stand over
the grave of Sheik Amin ed din Mahommed b. Zia ed din Mas'ud, who died
A.H. 740 (A.D. 1339). S.E. of the city on a huge mound are ruins of
buildings with underground chambers, popularly known as Kal'eh i Gabr,
"castle of the fire-worshippers."



KAZINCZY, FERENCZ (1750-1831), Hungarian author, the most indefatigable
agent in the regeneration of the Magyar language and literature at the
end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, was born on the 27th
of October 1759, at Ér-Semlyén, in the county of Bihar, Hungary. He
studied law at Kassa and Eperies, and in Pest, where he also obtained a
thorough knowledge of French and German literature, and made the
acquaintance of Gideon Ráday, who allowed him the use of his library. In
1784 Kazinczy became subnotary for the county of Abaúj; and in 1786 he
was nominated inspector of schools at Kassa. There he began to devote
himself to the restoration of the Magyar language and literature by
translations from classical foreign works, and by the augmentation of
the native vocabulary from ancient Magyar sources. In 1788, with the
assistance of Baróti Szabó and John Bacsányi, he started at Kassa the
first Magyar literary magazine, _Magyar Muzeum_; the _Orpheus_, which
succeeded it in 1790, was his own creation. Although, upon the accession
of Leopold II, Kazinczy, as a non-Catholic, was obliged to resign his
post at Kassa, his literary activity in no way decreased. He not only
assisted Gideon Ráday in the establishment and direction of the first
Magyar dramatic society, but enriched the repertoire with several
translations from foreign authors. His _Hamlet_, which first appeared at
Kassa in 1790, is a rendering from the German version of Schröder.
Implicated in the democratic conspiracy of the abbot Martinovics,
Kazinczy was arrested on the 14th of December 1794, and condemned to
death; but the sentence was commuted to imprisonment. He was released in
1801, and shortly afterwards married Sophia Török, daughter of his
former patron, and retired to his small estate at Széphalom or
"Fairhill," near Sátor-Ujhely, in the county of Zemplén. In 1828 he took
an active part in the conferences held for the establishment of the
Hungarian academy in the historical section of which he became the first
corresponding member. He died of Asiatic cholera, at Széphalom, on the
22nd of August 1831.

  Kazinczy, although possessing great beauty of style, cannot be
  regarded as a powerful and original thinker; his fame is chiefly due
  to the felicity of his translations from the masterpieces of Lessing,
  Goethe, Wieland, Klopstock, Ossian, La Rochefoucauld, Marmontel,
  Molière, Metastasio, Shakespeare, Sterne, Cicero, Sallust, Anacreon,
  and many others. He also edited the works of Baróczy (Pest, 1812, 8
  vols.) and of the poet Zrinyi (1817, 2 vols.), and the poems of Dayka
  (1813, 3 vols.) and of John Kis, (1815, 3 vols.). A collective edition
  of his works (_Szép Literatura_), consisting for the most part of
  translations, was published at Pest, 1814-1816, in 9 vols. His
  original productions (_Eredeti Mukái_), largely made up of letters,
  were edited by Joseph Bajza and Francis Toldy at Pest, 1836-1845, in 5
  vols. Editions of his poems appeared in 1858 and in 1863.



KAZVIN, a province and town of Persia. The province is situated N.W. of
Teheran and S. of Gilan. On the W. it is bounded by Khamseh. It pays a
yearly revenue of about £22,000, and contains many rich villages which
produce much grain and fruit, great quantities of the latter being dried
and exported.

Kazvin, the capital of the province, is situated at an elevation of 4165
ft., in 36° 15´ N. and 50° E., and 92 m. by road from Teheran. The city
is said to have been founded in the 4th century by the Sassanian king
Shapur II (309-379). It has been repeatedly damaged by earthquakes. Many
of its streets and most of the magnificent buildings seen there by
Chardin in 1674 and other travellers during the 17th century are in
ruins. The most remarkable remains are the palace of the Safawid shahs
and the mosque with its large blue dome. In the 16th century Shah
Tahmasp I. (1524-1576) made Kazvin his capital, and it remained so till
Shah Abbas I. (1587-1629) transferred the seat of government to Isfahán.
The town still bears the title Dar es Salteneh, "the seat of
government." Kazvin has many baths and cisterns fed by underground
canals. The system of irrigation formerly carried on by these canals
rendered the plain of Kazvin one of the most fertile regions in Persia;
now most of the canals are choked up. The city has a population of about
50,000 and a thriving transit trade, particularly since 1899 when the
carriage road between Resht and Teheran with Kazvin as a half-way stage
was opened under the auspices of the Russian "Enzeli-Teheran Road
Company." Great quantities of rice, fish and silk are brought to it
from Gilan for distribution in Persia and export to Turkey.



KEAN, EDMUND (1787-1833), was born in London on the 17th of March[1]
1787. His father was probably Edmund Kean, an architect's clerk; and his
mother was an actress, Ann Carey, grand-daughter of Henry Carey. When in
his fourth year Kean made his first appearance on the stage as Cupid in
Noverre's ballet of _Cymon_. As a child his vivacity and cleverness, and
his ready affection for those who treated him with kindness, made him a
universal favourite, but the harsh circumstances of his lot, and the
want of proper restraint, while they developed strong self-reliance,
fostered wayward tendencies. About 1794 a few benevolent persons
provided the means of sending him to school, where he mastered his tasks
with remarkable ease and rapidity; but finding the restraint
intolerable, he shipped as a cabin boy at Portsmouth. Discovering that
he had only escaped to a more rigorous bondage, he counterfeited both
deafness and lameness with a histrionic mastery which deceived even the
physicians at Madeira. On his return to England he sought the protection
of his uncle Moses Kean, mimic, ventriloquist and general entertainer,
who, besides continuing his pantomimic studies, introduced him to the
study of Shakespeare. At the same time Miss Tidswell, an actress who had
been specially kind to him from infancy, taught him the principles of
acting. On the death of his uncle he was taken charge of by Miss
Tidswell, and under her direction he began the systematic study of the
principal Shakespearian characters, displaying the peculiar originality
of his genius by interpretations entirely different from those of
Kemble. His talents and interesting countenance induced a Mrs Clarke to
adopt him, but the slight of a visitor so wounded his pride that he
suddenly left her house and went back to his old surroundings. In his
fourteenth year he obtained an engagement to play leading characters for
twenty nights in York Theatre, appearing as Hamlet, Hastings and Cato.
Shortly afterwards, while he was in the strolling troupe belonging to
Richardson's show, the rumour of his abilities reached George III., who
commanded him to recite at Windsor. He subsequently joined Saunders's
circus, where in the performance of an equestrian feat he fell and broke
his legs--the accident leaving traces of swelling in his insteps
throughout his life. About this time he picked up music from Charles
Incledon, dancing from D'Egville, and fencing from Angelo. In 1807 he
played leading parts in the Belfast theatre with Mrs Siddons, who began
by calling him "a horrid little man" and on further experience of his
ability said that he "played very, very well," but that "there was too
little of him to make a great actor." An engagement in 1808 to play
leading characters in Beverley's provincial troupe was brought to an
abrupt close by his marriage (July 17) with Miss Mary Chambers of
Waterford, the leading actress. For several years his prospects were
very gloomy, but in 1814 the committee of Drury Lane theatre, the
fortunes of which were then so low that bankruptcy seemed inevitable,
resolved to give him a chance among the "experiments" they were making
to win a return of popularity. When the expectation of his first
appearance in London was close upon him he was so feverish that he
exclaimed "If I succeed I shall go mad." His opening at Drury Lane on
the 26th of January 1814 as Shylock roused the audience to almost
uncontrollable enthusiasm. Successive appearances in Richard III.,
Hamlet, Othello, Macbeth and Lear served to demonstrate his complete
mastery of the whole range of tragic emotion. His triumph was so great
that he himself said on one occasion, "I could not feel the stage under
me." On the 29th of November 1820 Kean appeared for the first time in
New York as Richard III. The success of his visit to America was
unequivocal, although he fell into a vexatious dispute with the press.
On the 4th of June 1821 he returned to England.

Probably his irregular habits were prejudicial to the refinement of his
taste, and latterly they tended to exaggerate his special defects and
mannerisms. The adverse decision in the divorce case of Cox v. Kean on
the 17th of January 1825 caused his wife to leave him, and aroused
against him such bitter feeling, shown by the almost riotous conduct of
the audiences before which he appeared about this time, as nearly to
compel him to retire permanently into private life. A second visit to
America in 1825 was largely a repetition of the persecution which, in
the name of morality, he had suffered in England. Some cities showed him
a spirit of charity; many audiences submitted him to the grossest
insults and endangered his life by the violence of their disapproval. In
Quebec he was much impressed with the kindness of some Huron Indians who
attended his performances, and he was made chief of the tribe, receiving
the name Alanienouidet. Kean's last appearance in New York was on the
5th of December 1826 in Richard III., the rôle in which he was first
seen in America. He returned to England and was ultimately received with
all the old favour, but the contest had made him so dependent on the use
of stimulants that the gradual deterioration of his gifts was
inevitable. Still, even in their decay his great powers triumphed during
the moments of his inspiration over the absolute wreck of his physical
faculties, and compelled admiration after his gait had degenerated into
a weak hobble, and the lightning brilliancy of his eyes had become dull
and bloodshot, and the tones of his matchless voice marred by rough and
grating hoarseness. His appearance in Paris was a failure owing to a fit
of drunkenness. His last appearance on the stage was at Covent Garden,
on the 25th of March 1833 when he played Othello to the Iago of his son
Charles. At the words "Villain, be sure," in scene 3 of act iii., he
suddenly broke down, and crying in a faltering voice "O God, I am dying.
Speak to them, Charles," fell insensible into his son's arms. He died at
Richmond on the 15th of May 1833.

It was in the impersonation of the great creations of Shakespeare's
genius that the varied beauty and grandeur of the acting of Kean were
displayed in their highest form, although probably his most powerful
character was Sir Giles Overreach in Massinger's _A New Way to Pay Old
Debts_, the effect of his first impersonation of which was such that the
pit rose _en masse_, and even the actors and actresses themselves were
overcome by the terrific dramatic illusion. His only personal
disadvantage as an actor was his small stature. His countenance was
strikingly interesting and unusually mobile; he had a matchless command
of facial expression; his fine eyes scintillated with the slightest
shades of emotion and thought; his voice, though weak and harsh in the
upper register, possessed in its lower range tones of penetrating and
resistless power, and a thrilling sweetness like the witchery of the
finest music; above all, in the grander moments of his passion, his
intellect and soul seemed to rise beyond material barriers and to
glorify physical defects with their own greatness. Kean specially
excelled as the exponent of passion. In Othello, Iago, Shylock and
Richard III., characters utterly different from each other, but in which
the predominant element is some form of passion, his identification with
the personality, as he had conceived it, was as nearly as possible
perfect, and each isolated phase and aspect of the plot was elaborated
with the minutest attention to details, and yet with an absolute
subordination of these to the distinct individuality he was endeavouring
to portray. Coleridge said, "Seeing him act was like reading Shakespeare
by flashes of lightning." If the range of character in which Kean
attained supreme excellence was narrow, no one except Garrick has been
so successful in so many great impersonations. Unlike Garrick, he had no
true talent for comedy, but in the expression of biting and saturnine
wit, of grim and ghostly gaiety, he was unsurpassed. His eccentricities
at the height of his fame were numerous. Sometimes he would ride
recklessly on his horse Shylock throughout the night. He was presented
with a tame lion with which he might be found playing in his
drawing-room. The prizefighters Mendoza and Richmond the Black were
among his visitors. Grattan was his devoted friend. In his earlier days
Talma said of him, "He is a magnificent uncut gem; polish and round him
off and he will be a perfect tragedian." Macready, who was much
impressed by Kean's Richard III. and met the actor at supper, speaks of
his "unassuming manner ... partaking in some degree of shyness" and of
the "touching grace" of his singing. Kean's delivery of the three words
"I answer--NO!" in the part of Sir Edward Mortimer in _The Iron Chest_,
cast Macready into an abyss of despair at rivalling him in this rôle. So
full of dramatic interest is the life of Edmund Kean that it formed the
subject for a play by the elder Dumas, entitled _Kean on désordre et
génie_, in which Frederick-Lemaître achieved one of his greatest
triumphs.

  See Francis Phippen, _Authentic Memoirs of Edmund Kean_ (1814); B. W.
  Procter (Barry Cornwall), _The Life of Edmund Kean_ (1835); F. W.
  Hawkins, _The Life of Edmund Kean_ (1869); J. Fitzgerald Molloy, _The
  Life and Adventures of Edmund Kean_ (1888); Edward Stirling, _Old
  Drury Lane_ (1887).

His son, CHARLES JOHN KEAN (1811-1868), was born at Waterford, Ireland,
on the 18th of January 1811. After preparatory education at Worplesdon
and at Greenford, near Harrow, he was sent to Eton College, where he
remained three years. In 1827 he was offered a cadetship in the East
India Company's service, which he was prepared to accept if his father
would settle an income of £400 on his mother. The elder Kean refused to
do this, and his son determined to become an actor. He made his first
appearance at Drury Lane on the 1st of October 1827 as Norval in Home's
_Douglas_, but his continued failure to achieve popularity led him to
leave London in the spring of 1828 for the provinces. At Glasgow, on the
1st of October in this year, father and son acted together in Arnold
Payne's _Brutus_, the elder Kean in the title-part and his son as Titus.
After a visit to America in 1830, where he was received with much
favour, he appeared in 1833 at Covent Garden as Sir Edmund Mortimer in
Colman's _The Iron Chest_, but his success was not pronounced enough to
encourage him to remain in London, especially as he had already won a
high position in the provinces. In January 1838, however, he returned to
Drury Lane, and played Hamlet with a success which gave him a place
among the principal tragedians of his time. He was married to the
actress Ellen Tree (1805-1880) on the 29th of January 1842, and paid a
second visit to America with her from 1845 to 1847. Returning to
England, he entered on a successful engagement at the Haymarket, and in
1850, with Robert Keeley, became lessee of the Princess Theatre. The
most noteworthy feature of his management was a series of gorgeous
Shakespearian revivals. Charles Kean was not a great tragic actor. He
did all that could be done by the persevering cultivation of his powers,
and in many ways manifested the possession of high intelligence and
refined taste, but his defects of person and voice made it impossible
for him to give a representation at all adequate of the varying and
subtle emotions of pure tragedy. But in melodramatic parts such as the
king in Boucicault's adaptation of Casimir Delavigne's _Louis XI._, and
Louis and Fabian dei Franchi in Boucicault's adaptation of Dumas's _The
Corsican Brothers_, his success was complete. From his "tour round the
world" Kean returned in 1866 in broken health, and died in London on the
22nd of January 1868.

  See _The Life and Theatrical Times of Charles Kean_, by John William
  Cole (1859).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] This date is apparently settled by a letter from Kean in 1829, to
    Dr Gibson (see _Rothesay Express_ for the 28th of June 1893, where
    the letter is printed and vouched for), inviting him to dinner on the
    17th of March to celebrate Kean's birthday; various other dates have
    been given in books of reference, the 4th of November having been
    formerly accepted by this Encyclopaedia.



KEANE, JOHN JOSEPH (1839-   ), American Roman Catholic archbishop, was
born in Ballyshannon, Co. Donegal, Ireland, on the 12th of September
1839. His family settled in America when he was seven years old. He was
educated at Saint Charles's College, Ellicott City, Maryland, and at
Saint Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, and in 1866 was ordained a priest and
made curate of St Patrick's, Washington, D.C. On the 25th of August 1878
he was consecrated Bishop of Richmond, to succeed James Gibbons, and he
had established the Confraternity of the Holy Ghost in that diocese, and
founded schools and churches for negroes before his appointment as
rector of the Catholic University, Washington, D.C., in 1886, and his
appointment in 1888 to the see of Ajasso. He did much to upbuild the
Catholic University, but his democratic and liberal policy made him
enemies at Rome, whence there came in 1896 a request for his resignation
of the rectorate, and where he spent the years 1897-1900 as canon of St
John Lateran, assistant bishop at the pontifical throne, and counsellor
to the Propaganda. In 1900 he was consecrated archbishop of Dubuque,
Iowa. He took a prominent part in the Catholic Young Men's National
Union and in the Total Abstinence Union of North America; and was in
general charge of the Catholic delegation to the World's Parliament of
Religions held at the Columbian Exposition in 1893. He lectured widely
on temperance, education and American institutions, and in 1890 was
Dudleian lecturer at Harvard University.

  A selection from his writings and addresses was edited by Maurice
  Francis Egan under the title _Onward and Upward: A Year Book_
  (Baltimore, 1902).



KEARNEY, a city and the county-seat of Buffalo county, Nebraska, U.S.A.,
about 130 m. W. of Lincoln. Pop. (1890), 8074; (1900), 5634 (650
foreign-born); (1910), 6202. It is on the main overland line of the
Union Pacific, and on a branch of the Burlington & Missouri River
railroad. The city is situated in the broad, flat bottom-lands a short
distance N. of the Platte River. Lake Kearney, in the city, has an area
of 40 acres. The surrounding region is rich farming land, devoted
especially to the growing of alfalfa and Indian corn. At Kearney are a
State Industrial School for boys, a State Normal School, the Kearney
Military Academy, and a Carnegie library. Good water-power is provided
by a canal from the Platte River about 17 m. above Kearney, and the
city's manufactures include foundry and machine-shop products, flour and
bricks. Kearney Junction, as Kearney was called from 1872 to 1875, was
settled a year before the two railways actually formed their junction
here, where the city was planned. Kearney became a town in 1873, a city
of the second class and the county seat in 1874, and a city of the first
class in 1901. It is to be distinguished from an older and once famous
prairie city, popularly known as "Dobey Town" (i.e. Adobe), founded in
the early 'fifties on the edge of the reservation of old Fort Kearney
(removed in 1848 from Nebraska City), in Kearney county, on the S. shore
of the Platte about 6 m. S.E. of the present Kearney; here in 1861 the
post office of Kearney City was established. In the days of the prairie
freighting caravans Dobey Town was one of the most important towns
between Independence, Missouri, and the Pacific coast, and it had a
rough, wild, picturesque history; but it lost its immense freighting
interests after the Union Pacific had been extended through it in 1866.
The site of Dobey Town, together with the Fort, was abandoned in 1871.
Fort Kearney and the city too were named in honour of General Stephen W.
Kearny, and the name was at first correctly spelt without a second "e."



KEARNY, PHILIP (1815-1862), American soldier, was born in New York on
the 2nd of June 1815, and was originally intended for the legal
profession. He graduated at Columbia University (1833), but his bent was
decidedly towards soldiering, and in 1837 he obtained a commission in
the cavalry regiment of which his uncle, (General) Stephen Watts Kearny
(1794-1848), was colonel and Lieutenant Jefferson Davis adjutant. Two
years later he was sent to France to study the methods of cavalry
training in vogue there. Before his return to the United States in 1840
he had served, on leave, in Algeria. He had inherited a large fortune,
but he remained in the service, and his wide experience of cavalry work
caused him to be employed on the headquarters staff of the army. After
six more years' service Kearny left the army, but almost immediately
afterwards he rejoined, bringing with him a company of cavalry, which he
had raised and equipped chiefly at his own expense, to take part in the
Mexican war. In December 1846 he was promoted captain. In leading a
brilliant cavalry charge at Churubusco he lost his left arm, but he
remained at the front, and won the brevet of major for his gallantry at
Contreras and Churubusco. In 1851 he again resigned, to travel round the
world. He saw further active service with his old comrades of the French
cavalry in the Italian war of 1859, and received the cross of the Legion
of Honour for his conduct at Solferino. Up to the outbreak of the
American Civil War he lived in Paris, but early in 1861 he hastened home
to join the Federal army. At first as a brigade commander and later as a
divisional commander of infantry in the Army of the Potomac, he infused
into his men his own cavalry spirit of dash and bravery. At
Williamsburg, Seven Pines, and Second Bull Run, he displayed his usual
romantic courage, but at Chantilly (Sept. 1, 1862), after repulsing an
attack of the enemy, he rode out in the dark too far to the front, and
mistaking the Confederates for his own men was shot dead. His body was
sent to the Federal lines with a message from General Lee, and was
buried in Trinity Churchyard, New York. His commission as major-general
of volunteers was dated July 4, 1862, but he never received it.

  See J. W. de Peyster, _Personal and Military History of Philip Kearny_
  (New York, 1869).



KEARNY, a town of Hudson county, New Jersey, U.S.A., between the Passaic
and Hackensack rivers, adjoining Harrison, and connected with Newark by
bridges over the Passaic. Pop. (1900), 10,896, of whom 3597 were
foreign-born; (1910 census), 18,659. The New York & Greenwood Lake
division of the Erie railroad has a station at Arlington, the principal
village (in the N.W. part), which contains attractive residences of
Newark, Jersey City and New York City business men. The town covers an
area of about 7 sq. m., including a large tract of marsh-land. In Kearny
are railway repair shops of the Pennsylvania system, and a large
abattoir; and there are numerous manufactures. The value of the town's
factory products increased from $1,607,002 in 1900 to $4,427,904 in
1905, or 175.5%. Among its institutions are the State Soldiers' Home,
removed here from Newark in 1880, a Carnegie library, two Italian homes
for orphans, and a Catholic Industrial School for boys.

The neck of land between the Passaic and the Hackensack rivers, for 7 m.
N. from where they unite, was purchased from the proprietors of East
Jersey and from the Indians by Captain William Sandford in 1668 and
through Nathaniel Kingsland, sergeant-major of Barbadoes, received the
name "New Barbadoes." After the town under this name had been extended
considerably to the northward, the town of Lodi was formed out of the S.
portion in 1825, the town of Harrison was founded out of the S. portion
of Lodi in 1840, and in 1867 a portion of Harrison was set apart as a
township and named in honour of General Philip Kearny, a former
resident. Kearny was incorporated as a town in 1895.



KEARY, ANNIE (1825-1879), English novelist, was born near Wetherby,
Yorkshire, on the 3rd of March 1825, the daughter of an Irish clergyman.
She was the author of several children's books and novels, of which the
best known is _Castle Daly_, an Irish story. She also wrote an _Early
Egyptian History_ (1861) and _The Nation Around_ (1870). She died at
Eastbourne on the 3rd of March 1879.



KEATE, JOHN (1773-1852), English schoolmaster, was born at Wells,
Somersetshire, in 1773, the son of Prebendary William Keate. He was
educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge, where he had a brilliant
career as a scholar; taking holy orders, he became, about 1797, an
assistant master at Eton College. In 1809 he was elected headmaster. The
discipline of the school was then in a most unsatisfactory condition,
and Dr Keate (who took the degree of D.D. in 1810) took stern measures
to improve it. His partiality for the birch became a by-word, but he
succeeded in restoring order and strengthening the weakened authority of
the masters. Beneath an outwardly rough manner the little man concealed
a really kind heart, and when he retired in 1834, the boys, who admired
his courage, presented him with a handsome testimonial. A couple of
years before he had publicly flogged eighty boys on one day. Keate was
made a canon of Windsor in 1820. He died on the 5th of March 1852 at
Hartley Westpall, Hampshire, of which parish he had been rector since
1824.

  See Maxwell Lyte, _History of Eton College_ (3rd ed., 1899); Collins,
  _Etoniana_; Harwood, _Alumni Etonienses; Annual Register_ (1852);
  _Gentleman's Magazine_ (1852).



KEATS, JOHN (1795-1821), English poet, was born on the 29th or 31st of
October 1795 at the sign of the Swan and Hoop, 24 The Pavement,
Moorfields, London. He published his first volume of verse in 1817, his
second in the following year, his third in 1820, and died of consumption
at Rome on the 23rd of February 1821 in the fourth month of his
twenty-sixth year. (For the biographical facts see the later section of
this article.)

In Keats's first book there was little foretaste of anything greatly or
even genuinely good; but between the marshy and sandy flats of sterile
or futile verse there were undoubtedly some few purple patches of floral
promise. The style was frequently detestable--a mixture of sham
Spenserian and mock Wordsworthian, alternately florid and arid. His
second book, _Endymion_, rises in its best passages to the highest level
of Barnfield and of Lodge, the two previous poets with whom, had he
published nothing more, he might most properly have been classed; and
this, among minor minstrels, is no unenviable place. His third book
raised him at once to a foremost rank in the highest class of English
poets. Shelley, up to twenty, had written little or nothing that would
have done credit to a boy of ten; and of Keats also it may be said that
the merit of his work at twenty-five was hardly by comparison more
wonderful than its demerit at twenty-two. His first book fell as flat as
it deserved to fall; the reception of his second, though less
considerate than on the whole it deserved, was not more contemptuous
than that of immeasurably better books published about the same time by
Coleridge, Landor and Shelley. A critic of exceptional carefulness and
candour might have noted in the first book so singular an example of a
stork among the cranes as the famous and notable sonnet on Chapman's
Homer; a just judge would have indicated, a partial advocate might have
exaggerated, the value of such golden grain amid a garish harvest of
tares as the hymn to Pan and the translation into verse of Titian's
Bacchanal which glorify the weedy wilderness of _Endymion_. But the
hardest thing said of that poem by the _Quarterly_ reviewer was
unconsciously echoed by the future author of _Adonais_--that it was all
but absolutely impossible to read through; and the obscener insolence of
the "Blackguard's Magazine," as Landor afterwards very justly labelled
it, is explicable though certainly not excusable if we glance back at
such a passage as that where Endymion exchanges fulsome and liquorish
endearments with the "known unknown _from whom his being sips such
darling (!) essence_." Such nauseous and pitiful phrases as these, and
certain passages in his correspondence, make us understand the source of
the most offensive imputations or insinuations levelled against the
writer's manhood; and, while admitting that neither his love-letters,
nor the last piteous outcries of his wailing and shrieking agony, would
ever have been made public by merciful or respectful editors, we must
also admit that, if they ought never to have been published, it is no
less certain that they ought never to have been written; that a manful
kind of man or even a manly sort of boy, in his love-making or in his
suffering, will not howl and snivel after such a lamentable fashion. One
thing hitherto inexplicable a very slight and rapid glance at his
amatory correspondence will amply suffice to explain: how it came to
pass that the woman so passionately beloved by so great a poet should
have thought it the hopeless attempt of a mistaken kindness to revive
the memory of a man for whom the best that could be wished was complete
and compassionate oblivion. For the side of the man's nature presented
to her inspection, this probably was all that charity or reason could
have desired. But that there was a finer side to the man, even if
considered apart from the poet, his correspondence with his friends and
their general evidence to his character give more sufficient proof than
perhaps we might have derived from the general impression left on us by
his works; though indeed the preface to _Endymion_ itself, however
illogical in its obviously implied suggestion that the poem published
was undeniably unworthy of publication, gave proof or hint at least that
after all its author was something of a man. And the eighteenth of his
letters to Miss Brawne stands out in bright and brave contrast with such
as seem incompatible with the traditions of his character on its manlier
side. But if it must be said that he lived long enough only to give
promise of being a man, it must also be said that he lived long enough
to give assurance of being a poet who was not born to come short of the
first rank. Not even a hint of such a probability could have been
gathered from his first or even from his second appearance; after the
publication of his third volume it was no longer a matter of possible
debate among judges of tolerable competence that this improbability had
become a certainty. Two or three phrases cancelled, two or three lines
erased, would have left us in _Lamia_ one of the most faultless as
surely as one of the most glorious jewels in the crown of English
poetry. _Isabella_, feeble and awkward in narrative to a degree almost
incredible in a student of Dryden and a pupil of Leigh Hunt, is
overcharged with episodical effects of splendid and pathetic expression
beyond the reach of either. _The Eve of St Agnes_, aiming at no doubtful
success, succeeds in evading all casual difficulty in the line of
narrative; with no shadow of pretence to such interest as may be derived
from stress of incident or depth of sentiment, it stands out among all
other famous poems as a perfect and unsur