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Title: The Art of Invigorating and Prolonging Life - By Food, Clothes, Air, Exercise, Wine, Sleep, &c. and - Peptic Precepts, Pointing Out Agreeable and Effectual - Methods to Prevent and Relieve Indigestion, and to Regulate - and Strengthen the Action of the Stomach and Bowels
Author: Kitchiner, William, 1775?-1827
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Art of Invigorating and Prolonging Life - By Food, Clothes, Air, Exercise, Wine, Sleep, &c. and - Peptic Precepts, Pointing Out Agreeable and Effectual - Methods to Prevent and Relieve Indigestion, and to Regulate - and Strengthen the Action of the Stomach and Bowels" ***

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Transcriber's notes:

In this plain text version, bold script is denoted by =equals signs= and
italic script by _underscores_. Text that was originally rendered in
small capitals now appears in full capitals.

No attempt has been made to standardise the numerous inconsistencies
throughout the text with respect to punctuation, [e.g. (No. 490,)/(No.
490.)/(No. 490)/(No. 490).], spelling, case and hyphenation [e.g. P.
36/p. 88, DR. MOFFETT/Dr. MUFFETT, Colton/Coulton, toothach/toothache,
Head-Ach/Head-ach/Head-ache, nightmare/Night-Mare/night-mare,
mouthsful/mouthfuls, scum/skum, table-spoonful/tablespooonful,
Curacoa/Curaçoa, and others]. These and various archaic spellings all
remain as in the original. The transcription also replicates the
original text in its use of upper case, lower case, small capitals, and

On the other hand, several errors, omissions and uncertainties were
corrected after referring to the subsequent edition (3rd) of the book
for clarification: for example, missing characters resulting from
incomplete scan images; missing quotation marks; a missing value for
'Port' in the table on page 138; and a three-paragraph apparent
'blockquote' on page 141 (actually a partial footnote that had become
separated from its preceding paragraphs on page 139), is now reunited
with the rest of the footnote. A few incorrect page references have been

The incorrect sequencing of the index replicates that in the original
publication. In that era the letters i and j were interchangeable, and
words beginning with these letters are grouped together in the index.
The words and abbreviations Ditto, ditto, Do., do., are used
inconsistently in the index.

Numbered items (sometimes asterisked) of the style (No. 463*) are
references to the 3rd edition of "The Cook's Oracle" as mentioned at the
top of the page that follows the Contents list.

The footnotes, which are numerous and sometimes lengthy, have been
relocated to the end of the e-book. A few of the original
cross-references pointed to the _page_ on which the relevant footnote
was located rather than to the footnote itself. As the footnotes are no
longer on those pages, readers of this plain text version might have
difficulty following such cross-references. On page 17, reference to a
footnote that simply stated 'see Index' has been changed to an in-line
reference (as used elsewhere in the text).

                                THE ART
                            PEPTIC PRECEPTS,
                              POINTING OUT
                         TO PREVENT AND RELIEVE
                                 AND TO
                                 OF THE
                          STOMACH AND BOWELS.

                 Suaviter in modo, sed fortiter in re.

                   THE AUTHOR OF "THE COOK'S ORACLE,"
                              &c. &c. &c.

                           _SECOND EDITION._

                  AND A. CONSTABLE AND CO., EDINBURGH.


                                 TO THE
                          NERVOUS AND BILIOUS,
                             THE FOLLOWING
                                 ON THE
                       IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED.



  ART OF INVIGORATING LIFE               1

  Reducing Corpulence                   50

  Sleep                                 65

  Siesta                                94

  Clothes                              103

  Fire                                 113

  Air                                  119

  Exercise                             122

  Wine                                 127

  Peptic Precepts                      156

  Index                                267

       THE NUMBERS _affixed to the various Articles of Food, &c.
            are those referred to in the_ THIRD EDITION _of_

                             COOK'S ORACLE:
                       RECEIPTS FOR PLAIN COOKERY
                                 ON THE


                          MOST HIGHLY FINISHED
             Broths, Gravies, Soups, Sauces, Store Sauces,
                        AND FLAVOURING ESSENCES:

                   _The Quantity of each Article is_
                    _THE WHOLE BEING THE RESULT OF_
                           Actual Experiments
                             INSTITUTED IN
                      THE KITCHEN OF A PHYSICIAN.

                         "Miscuit utile dulce."

                           THE THIRD EDITION,


                 AND HURST, ROBINSON, & Co. CHEAPSIDE.
        _And sold also by all Booksellers in Town and Country._


                                THE ART
                           Diet and Regimen.

    "The choice and measure of the materials of which our Body is
    composed,--and what we take daily by POUNDS,--is at least of as much
    importance as what we take seldom, and only by _Grains_ and
    _Spoonsful_."--DR. ARBUTHNOT on _Aliment_, pref. p. iii.

The Editor of the following pages had originally an extremely Delicate
Constitution;--and at an early period devoted himself to the study of
Physic, with the hope--of learning how to make the most of his small
stock of Health.

The System he adopted, succeeded, and he is arrived at his forty-third
year, in tolerable good Health; and this without any uncomfortable
abstinence:--his maxim has ever been, "_dum Vivimus, Vivamus_."

He does not mean the Aguish existence of the votary of Fashion--whose
Body is burning from voluptuous intemperance to-day, and freezing in
miserable collapse to-morrow--not extravagantly consuming in a Day, the
animal spirits which Nature intended for the animation of a Week--but
keeping the expense of the machinery of Life within the income of
Health,--which the Constitution can regularly and comfortably supply.

This is the grand "arcanum duplicatum" for "Living all the days of your

The Art of Invigorating the Health, and improving the Strength of Man,
has hitherto only been considered for the purpose of training[1] him for
Athletic Exercises--but I have often thought that a similar plan might
be adopted with considerable advantage, to animate and strengthen
enfeebled Constitutions--prevent Gout--reduce Corpulency--cure Nervous
and Chronic Weakness--Hypochondriac and Bilious Disorders, &c.--_to
increase the Enjoyment, and prolong the duration of Feeble Life_--for
which _Medicine_, unassisted by DIET AND REGIMEN,--affords but very
trifling and temporary help.

The universal desire of repairing, perfecting, and prolonging Life, has
induced many ingenious men to try innumerable experiments on almost all
the products of the Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral kingdoms, with the
hope of discovering Agents, that will not merely increase or diminish
the force or frequency of the Pulse; but with an ardour as romantic as
the search after the Philosopher's Stone, they have vainly hoped, that
_Panaceas_ might be found possessing the power of curing "all the evils
that flesh is heir to."

This is evident enough to all who have examined the early
Pharmacopœias, which are full of heterogeneous compounds, the
inventions of interested, and the imaginations of ignorant men.

The liberal and enlightened Physicians of the last and present century
have gradually expunged most of these, and made the science of Medicine
sufficiently intelligible to those whose business it is to learn it--if
Medicine be entirely divested of its Mystery, its power over the Mind,
which in most cases forms its main strength, will no longer exist.

It was a favourite remark of the celebrated Dr. John Brown[2], that "if
a student in Physic employed seven years in storing his memory with the
accepted, but,--unfortunately, in nine cases out of ten,--imaginary
powers of Medicine, he would, if he did not possess very extraordinary
sagacity, lose a much longer time in discovering the multiform delusions
his medical oracles had imposed upon him--before he ascertains that,
with the exception of _Mercury_ for the Lues,--_Bark_ for
Intermittents,--and _Sulphur_ for Psora--the _Materia Medica_ does not
furnish many Specifics--and may be almost reduced to Evacuants and
Stimuli:"--However, these, skilfully administered, afford all the
assistance to Nature, that can be obtained from Art!

Let not the uninitiated in Medical Mysteries imagine for a moment, that
the Editor desires to depreciate their Importance--but observe once for
all--that he has only one reason for writing this Book--which is, to
warn you against the ordinary causes of Disorder--and to teach you the
easiest and most salutary method of preventing or subduing it, and of
recovering and preserving Health and Strength, when, in spite of all
your prudence, you are overtaken by sickness, and have no Medical Friend
ready to defend you.

Experience has so long proved the actual importance of TRAINING--that
Pugilists will not willingly engage without such preparation.

The principal rules for which are,--to go to Bed early--to Rise
early--to take as much _Exercise_ as you can in the open air, without
fatigue--to _Eat and Drink_ moderately of plain nourishing Food--and
especially,--to keep _the Mind_ diverted[3], and in as easy and cheerful
a state as possible.

Somewhat such a system is followed at the fashionable watering
places--and great would be the improvement of Health that would result
from it,--if it was not continually counteracted, by visits to the Ball
Room[4] and the Card Table.

A residence in the Country will avail little, if you carry with you
there, the irregular habits, and late hours of fashionable Life.

Do not expect much benefit from mere change of _Air_--the purest breezes
of the country will produce very little effect, unless accompanied by
plenty of regular _Exercise_[5]--_Temperance_--and, above all,
_Tranquillity of Mind_.--See _Obs. on_ "AIR" and "EXERCISE."

The following is a brief sketch of the usual METHOD OF TRAINING PERSONS

The Alimentary Canal[6] is cleansed by an Emetic, and then two or three
Purgatives.--See _Index_.

They are directed to eat Beef and Mutton[7]--rather _under_, than
_over_-done, and without either Seasoning or Sauce--_Broils_, (No. 94),
are preferred to either _Roasts_ (No. 19), or _Boils_--and stale Bread
or Biscuit.

Vegetables, are allowed.

Beef and Mutton only (fresh, not salted) are ordered;--but we believe
this restriction is seldom entirely submitted to.

Nothing tends more to renovate the Constitution, than a temporary
retirement to the Country.

The necessity of breathing a pure Air, and the strictest Temperance, are
uniformly and absolutely insisted upon by all Trainers;--the striking
advantages resulting therefrom, we have heard as universally
acknowledged by those who have been trained.

_Mild Home-brewed Ale_ is recommended for Drink--about three pints per
day--taken with Breakfast and Dinner, and a little at Supper--not in
large draughts--but by mouthfuls, alternately with your food.

_Stale Beer_ often disturbs delicate Bowels--if your Palate warns you
that Malt Liquor is inclined to be hard, neutralize it with a little
_Carbonate of Potash_;--that good sound Beer, which is neither nauseous
from its newness, nor noxious from its staleness, is in unison with the
animating diet of Animal Food, which we are recommending as the most
effective antidote to debility, &c. experience has sufficiently
proved.--There can be no doubt, that the combination of the tonic power
of the Hop, and the nourishment of the Malt, is much more invigorating
than any simple vinous spirit,--but the difficulty of obtaining it good,
ready brewed--and the trouble of Brewing is so great--that happy are
those who are contented with Good Toast and Water (No. 463*), as a
diluent to solid food--and a few glasses of wine as a finishing "_Bonne

Those who do not like Beer--are allowed Wine and Water--Red wine is
preferred to White, and _not more_ than half a pint, (_i. e._ eight
ounces), or four common sized wine glasses, after Dinner--none after
Supper--nor any Spirits, however diluted.

Eight hours' _Sleep_ are necessary--but this is generally left to the
previous habits of the Person; those who take active Exercise, require
adequate Rest.

BREAKFAST[8] upon meat at eight o'clock--DINNER at two--SUPPER is not
advised, but they may have a little bit of cold meat about eight
o'clock, and take a walk after, between it and ten, when they go to

_The Time requisite to screw a Man up to his fullest Strength_, depends
upon his previous habits and Age. In the Vigour of Life, between 20 and
35, a Month or two is generally sufficient:--more or less, according as
he is older, and as his previous Habits have been in opposition to the
above system.

By this mode of proceeding for two or three months--the Constitution of
the human frame is greatly improved, and the Courage proportionately
increased,--a person who was breathless, and panting on the least
exertion--and had a certain share of those Nervous and Bilious
Complaints, which are occasionally the companions of all who reside in
great Cities--becomes enabled to run with ease and fleetness.

The Restorative Process having proceeded with healthful
regularity--every part of the Constitution is effectively invigorated--a
Man feels so conscious of the actual augmentation of all his powers,
both Bodily and Mental, that he will undertake with alacrity--a task
which before he shrunk from encountering.

The clearness of THE COMPLEXION is considered the _best criterion of a
Man's being in good condition_--to which we add the appearance of the
UNDER-LIP--which is plump and rosy, in proportion to the healthy
plethora of the constitution:--this is a much more certain symptom of
vigorous Health than any indication you can form from the appearance of
the Tongue--or the PULSE, which is another very uncertain and deceiving
Index,--the strength and frequency of which, not only varies in
different persons, but in the same person in different circumstances and
positions;--in some Irritable Constitutions _the vibration of the Heart
varies almost as often as it Beats_--when we walk--stand--sit--or lie
down--early in the morning--late in the evening--elated with good
news--depressed by bad, &c.--when the Stomach is empty--after taking
food--after a full meal of Nutritive food--after a spare one of _Maigre
materials_. Moreover, it is impossible to ascertain the degree of
deviation from Health by feeling a Pulse--unless we are well acquainted
with the peculiarity of it, when the patient is in Health.

The Editor has now arrived at the most difficult part of his work, and
needs all the assistance that Training can give, to excite him to
proceed with any hope of developing the subject, with that perspicuity
and effect--which it deserves, and he desires to give it.

The _Food_--_Clothes_--_Fire_--_Air_--_Exercise_--_Sleep_--_Wine_, &c.
which may be most advisable for invigorating the Health of one
individual--may be by no means the best adapted to produce a like good
effect with another;--at the time of Life most people arrive at, before
they think about these things--they are often become the slaves of
habits which have grown with their growth, and strengthened with their
strength--and the utmost that can be done after our 40th year, is to
endeavour very gradually to correct them.

We caution those who are past the Meridian of Life (see _Index_)--to
beware of suddenly abandoning established Customs, (especially of
diminishing the warmth of their Clothing, or the nutritive quality of
what they Eat and Drink), which, by long usage, often become as
indispensable, as a Mathematical Valetudinarian reckoned his Flannel
Waistcoat was--"in the _ratio_ that my _Body_ would be uncomfortable
without my _Skin_--would my _Skin_ be, without my _Flannel Waistcoat_."

We recommend those who are in search of Health and Strength, to read
the remarks which are classed under the titles

With the greatest deference, we submit the following sketch, to be
variously modified by the Medical Adviser--according to the season of
the Year--the Age--Constitution--and previous habits of the
Patient,--the purpose it is intended to accomplish--or the Disorder it
is intended to prevent or cure.

The first thing to be done, is to put the Principal Viscera into a
condition to absorb the _pabulum vitæ_, we put into the Stomach--as
much depends on the state of the Organs of Digestion[9] as on the
quality of our Diet:--therefore commence with taking, early in the
morning, fasting, about half an hour before Breakfast, about two drams
of _Epsom Salts_ (_i. e._ as much as will move the Bowels twice, not
more,) in half a pint of warm water.--See _Index_.

The following day, go into a _Tepid Bath_, heated to about 95 degrees of

The Third day, take another dose of Salts--keeping to a light diet of
Fish--Broths, &c. (Nos. 490, 563, 564, and 572). During the next week,
take the TONIC TINCTURE, as directed in (No. 569). See _Index_. Thus
far--any person may proceed without any difficulty,--and great benefit
will he derive therefrom, if he cannot pursue the following part of the

RISE early--if the Weather permits, amuse yourself with Exercise in the
open air for some time before BREAKFAST--the material for which, I leave
entirely to the previous habit of the Individual.

Such is the sensibility of the Stomach, when recruited by a good night's
rest, that of all alterations in Diet, it will be most disappointed at
any change of this Meal--either of the time it is taken--or of the
quantity, or quality of it--so much so, that the functions of a delicate
Stomach will be frequently deranged throughout the whole Day after.

The BREAKFAST I recommend, is Good Milk Gruel (No. 572), see _Index_, or
Beef Tea (No. 563), see _Index_, or Portable Beef Tea (No. 252); a pint
of the latter may be made for two-pence halfpenny, as easily as a Basin
of Gruel.

The interval between _Breakfast_ and _Eleven_ o'clock, is the best time
for Intellectual business--then _Exercise_ again till about
_Twelve_--when probably the Appetite will be craving for a LUNCHEON,
which may consist of a bit of roasted Poultry,--a basin of good Beef
Tea, or Eggs poached, (No. 546), or boiled in the Shell, (No. 547), Fish
plainly dressed, (No. 144, or 145, &c.), or a Sandwich (No. 504),--stale
Bread--and half a pint of good Home-brewed Beer--or Toast and Water,
(No. 463*),--see _Index_,--with about one-fourth or one-third part of
its measure of Wine, of which Port is preferred.

The solidity of the LUNCHEON should be proportionate to the time it is
intended to enable you to wait for your Dinner, and the activity of the
Exercise you take in the mean-time.

Take Exercise and Amusement as much as is convenient in the open air
again, till past Four--then rest, and prepare for DINNER at
_Five_--which should be confined to One Dish, of roasted Beef (No. 19),
or Mutton (No. 23), five days in the week--boiled meat one--and roasted
Poultry one--with a portion of sufficiently boiled ripe
Vegetables--mashed Potatoes are preferred, see (No. 106), and the other
fourteen ways of dressing this useful root.

The same restrictions from other articles of Food[10], as we have
already mentioned in the plan for Training--_i. e._ if the person
trained--has not arrived at that time of Life, when habit has become so
strong--that to deprive him of those accustomed Indulgencies, &c. by
which his health has hitherto been supported--would be as barbarous--as
to take away Crutches from the Lame.

DRINK at Dinner, a pint of home-brewed Beer, or Toast and Water (No.
463*), with one-third or one-fourth part Wine, and a few glasses of Wine
after--the less, the better--but take as much as custom has made
necessary to excite that degree of circulation in your system, without
which, you are uncomfortable. Read _Obs. on_ "WINE."

AFTER DINNER sit quiet for a couple of hours--the _Semi-Siesta_ is a
pleasant position--_i. e._ the Feet on a stool about eight inches
high,--or if your Exercise has fatigued you, lie down, and indulge in
Horizontal Refreshment[11]:--this you may sometimes do with advantage
before Dinner, if you have taken more Exercise than usual, and you feel
tired:--when the Body is fatigued, the Stomach, by sympathy, will, in
proportion, be incapable of doing its business of Digestion.

AT SEVEN, a little Tea, or warmed Milk with a very little Rum, a bit of
Sugar, and a little Nutmeg in it--after which, Exercise and Amusement
again, if convenient, in the open air.

For SUPPER, a Biscuit, or a Sandwich, (No. 504), or a bit of cold Fowl,
&c. and a glass of Beer, or Wine, and Toast and Water (No. 463*),--and
occasionally (No. 572), _i. e. as light a Supper as possible_--the
sooner after _Ten_ you retire to rest, the better.

_For those who Dine very late_--the best Supper is Gruel (No. 572), or a
little Bread and Cheese, or Pounded Cheese (No. 542), and a glass of
Beer--but if You have had an early, or a _Ban Yan Dinner_--or Instinct
suggests that the exhaustion, from extraordinary exertion, requires more
restorative materials,--furnish your Stomach with a Chop or a Chicken,
&c. or some of the easily digestible and nutritive materials referred
to in the _Index_ under the article _Food for Feeble Stomachs_--and as
much diffusible stimulus as will animate the Circulation, and ensure the
influence of "Nature's sweet restorer, Balmy Sleep,"--the soundness of
which,--depends entirely on the Stomach being in good temper, and the
Heart supporting the circulation with Salutary Vigour. See the _Art of

For the Diet to be confined to Beef and Mutton, is a sufficient
abridgment of the amusements of the Mouth--it is a barbarous
mortification, to insist on these being always cooked the same way[12],
and we advise an occasional indulgence in the whole range of plain
Cookery, from (No. 1) to (No. 98).

_Broils_ (No. 94) are ordered in the plan for Training, probably,
because the most convenient manner of obtaining the desired portion
_Hot_,--(Food is then most easy of Digestion--_before the process of
Digestion can commence, it must take the temperature of the
Stomach_--which, when in a languid state, has no superfluous Heat to
spare--) but as the Lean part is often scorched and dried, and the Fat
becomes empyreumatic, from being in immediate contact with the Fire--a
slice of well roasted Ribs (No. 20),--or Sir Loin of Beef (No. 19), or a
Leg, Neck, Loin, or Saddle of Mutton (No. 23, or 26, or 31), must be
infinitely more succulent and nutritive--whether this be rather _over_,
or _under_-done, the previous habits of the Eater must determine--the
Medium, between _over_ and _under_-dressing--is in general most
Agreeable, and certainly most Wholesome.

That _Meat_ which is considerably _under_-done, contains more Nutriment
than that which is _over_-done, is true enough;--that which is _not done
at all_, contains a great deal more--but, in the ratio that it is
_Raw_[13], so is it unfortunately difficult of digestion, as
_Spallanzani_ (see _Index_) has proved by actual and satisfactory

OUR FOOD MUST BE DONE--_either by our Cook,--or by our Stomach_,--before
Digestion can take place--(see 1st page of _Obs._ on _Siesta_); surely
no man in his senses, would willingly be so wanting in consideration of
the comfort, &c. of his Stomach, as to give it the needless trouble of
Cooking and Digesting also--and waste its valuable energies in work
which a Spit or a Stewpan can do better.

Thoroughly dressed BEEF (No. 19), or MUTTON (No. 23), is incomparably
the most animating Food we can furnish our Stomachs with, and sound
HOME-BREWED BEER, the most invigorating Drink--It is indeed, Gentle
Reader, notwithstanding a foolish fashion has banished the natural
beverage of Great Britain--as extremely ungenteel.--

    "Your Wine tippling, Dram sipping fellows retreat,
    But your Beer-drinking Briton can never be beat."

_The best Tests of the Restorative qualities of Food_--are a small
quantity of it satisfying Hunger,--the strength of the Pulse after
it,--and the length of Time which elapses before Appetite returns
again:--according to these Rules, the Editor's own experience gives a
decided verdict in favour of Roasted or Broiled Beef (No. 19 or 94), or
Mutton (No. 26 or 23), as most nutritive,--then Game and Poultry, of
which the meat is Brown, (No. 59, or 61, or 74), next Veal and Lamb and
Poultry, of which the meat is White--the Fat kinds of Fish,
Eels--Salmon--Herrings, &c. and least nutritive, the white kinds of
Fish--such as Whiting, Cod, Soles, Haddocks, &c. For further
information, see _Oysters_, (No. 181).

The celebrated Trainer, Sir Thomas Parkyns, &c., "greatly preferred
BEEF-EATERS--to _Sheep-biters_, as they called those who ate Mutton."

By DR. STARK'S _very curious Experiments on Diet_, p. 110, it appears,
that "when he fed upon _Roasted Goose_, he was much more vigorous both
in Body and Mind, than with any other food."

That _Fish_ is less nutritive than FLESH--the speedy return of Hunger
after a dinner of Fish is sufficient proof--when a Trainer at
Newmarket[14] wishes _to waste a Jockey_--he is not allowed _Pudding_,
if Fish can be had.

Crabs,--Lobsters (No. 176), Prawns, &c. unless thoroughly boiled, (which
those sold ready boiled seldom are), are tremendously indigestible.

_Shell Fish_ have long held a high rank in the catalogue of easily
digestible and speedily restorative Foods:--of these _Oysters_ (No.
181), certainly deserve the best character; but we think that they, as
well as _Eggs_,--_Gelatinous Substances_,--_Rich Broths_[15], &c. have
acquired not a little more reputation for these qualities than they

OYSTERS are often cold and uncomfortable to Dyspeptic Stomachs--unless
warmed with a certain quantity of Pepper, and good White Wine.

_To recruit the Animal Spirits, and produce Strength_, there is nothing
like BEEF and MUTTON--moreover, when kept till properly tender, none
will give less trouble to the Digestive organs--and more substantial
excitement to the Constitution.

The Editor has dined for some years principally upon plainly roasted or
boiled Beef and Mutton, and has often observed, that if he changes it
for any other Food for several days together--that he suffers a
diminution of strength, &c. and is disposed on such days to drink an
additional Glass of _Wine_, &c. See _Index_.

However, the fitness of various Foods, and Drinks--and the quantity of
Nutriment which they afford--depends very much upon how they are
prepared, and as much on the inclination and abilities of the concoctive
faculties, which have the task of converting them into Chyle.

It is quite as absurd, to suppose, that one kind of Diet, &c. is
equally adapted to every kind of Constitution--as that one Remedy will
cure all Diseases.

_To produce the highest degree of Health and Strength_--we must supply
the Stomach with not merely that material which contains the greatest
quantity of Nourishment--but in making our reckoning, must take into the
account, the degree in which it is adapted to the habits and powers of
the Organ which is to digest it--the Arms of a Giant are of little use
in the Hands of a Dwarf.

_The Plan we have proposed, was calculated for Midsummer-day_,--when
plenty of hard Exercise in the open Air will soon create an Appetite for
the substantial Diet we have recommended--it is taken for granted, that
a Person has the opportunity of devoting a couple of months to the
re-establishment of his Health--and that during that time, he will be
content to consider himself in the same state as any other Animal out of
condition--and disposed to submit cheerfully to such a modification of
the rules recommended, as his Medical Adviser may deem most convenient
to the circumstances of the Case, and the Age, the Constitution, and
previous habits of the Patient, &c. &c.

_Every part of this system must be observed in proportion_--and EXERCISE
increased in the same degree, that NOURISHMENT is introduced to the

_The best General Rule for Diet_ that I can write, is to Eat and Drink
only of such Foods--at such times,--and in such quantities--as
Experience has convinced you, agree with your Constitution--and
absolutely to avoid all other.

A very different Regimen must be observed by those who live a Life with
Labour--or Exercise--or of Indolence,--and at the different Periods of

HUMAN LIFE may be divided into _Three Stages_.

The FIRST, _The period of Preparation_ from our birth, till about our
21st year, when the Body has generally attained the _acmé_ of
expansion:--till then, a continual and copious supply of Chyle is
necessary, not only to keep our machinery in repair, but to furnish
material for the increase of it.

The SECOND from 21 to 42, _The period of Active Usefulness_; during
which, nothing more is wanted, than to restore the daily waste,
occasioned by the actions of the Vital and Animal Functions.

The THIRD, _The period of Decline_: this comes on and proceeds with more
or less celerity, according to the original strength of the
Constitution, and the Economy[16] with which it has been managed during
the second period. (Age is a relative term,--one man is as old at 40 as
another is at 60): but after 42, the most vigorous become gradually more
passive[17]--and after 63, pretty nearly quite so.


       |  3  |  6  |  9  |  12 |
     1 | | | | | | | | | | | | |--Ideas received through the Senses.
       |_______________________|--Speaking, and Pronunciation.
       |_______________________|--Letters, and Spelling.
       |_______________________|--Ideas retained in the Memory.
     5 |_______________________|--Reading and Repeating.
       |_______________________|--Grammar of his own Language.
       |_______________________|--Memory exercised.
       |_______________________|--Moral and Religions Lessons.
       |_______________________|--Natural History and Experiments.
    10 |_______________________|--Dancing, Music, Drawing, Exercises.
       |_______________________|--History of his own Country.
       |_______________________|--French and Italian.
    15 |_______________________|--Translations.
       |_______________________|--Compositions in Verse and Prose.
       |_______________________|--Rhetoric and Declamation.
       |_______________________|--History and Law.
       |_______________________|--Logic and Mathematics.
    20 |_______________________|--Rhetorical Exercises.
       |_______________________|--Philosophy and Politics.
       |_______________________|--Compositions in his own Language.
       |_______________________|--Declamations continued.
       |_______________________|--Ancient Orators studied.
    25 |_______________________|--Travel and Conversation.
       |_______________________|--Speeches at the Bar, or in Parliament.
       |_______________________|--State Affairs.
       |_______________________|--Historical Studies continued.
       |_______________________|--Law and Eloquence.
    30 |_______________________|--Public Life.
       |_______________________|--Private and Social Virtues.
       |_______________________|--Habits of Eloquence improved.
       |_______________________|--Philosophy resumed at leisure.
       |_______________________|--Orations published.
    35 |_______________________|--Exertions in State and Parliament.
       |_______________________|--Civil Knowledge mature.
       |_______________________|--Eloquence perfect.
       |_______________________|--National Rights defended.
       |_______________________|--The Learned protected.
    40 |_______________________|--The Virtuous assisted.
       |_______________________|--Compositions published.
       |_______________________|--Science improved.
       |_______________________|--Parliamentary Affairs.
       |_______________________|--Laws enacted, and supported.
    45 |_______________________|--Fine Arts patronized.
       |_______________________|--Government of his Family.
       |_______________________|--Education of his Children.
       |_______________________|--Vigilance as a Magistrate.
       |_______________________|--Firmness as a Patriot.
    50 |_______________________|--Virtue as a Citizen.
       |_______________________|--Historical Works.
       |_______________________|--Oratorical Works.
       |_______________________|--Philosophical Works.
       |_______________________|--Political Works.
    55 |_______________________|--Mathematical Works.
       |_______________________| }
       |_______________________| }
       |_______________________| }Continuation of former Pursuits.
       |_______________________| }
    60 |_______________________| }
       |_______________________|--Fruits of his Labour enjoyed.
       |_______________________|--A glorious Retirement.
       |_______________________|--An amiable Family.
       |_______________________|--Universal Respect.
    65 |_______________________|--Consciousness of a Virtuous Life.
       |_______________________| }
       |_______________________| }
       |_______________________| }_Perfection of Earthly Happiness_.
       |_______________________| }
    70 |_______________________|--Preparation for ETERNITY.

_The most common cause of Dyspeptic Disorders_, which are so prevalent
at the commencement of the Third Period of Life--is an increasing
indolence, inducing us to diminish the degree of the active Exercise we
have been in the habit of taking--without in a corresponding degree
diminishing the quantity of our Food--on the contrary, people seem to
expect the Stomach to grow stronger and to work harder as it gets Older,
and to almost entirely support the Circulation without the help of

As the activity of our existence--and the accommodating powers of the
Stomach, &c. diminish--in like degree--must we lessen the quantity--and
be careful of the quality of our Food, eat oftener and less at a
time--or Indigestion--and the multitude of Disorders of which it is the
fruitful parent, will soon destroy us.

The System of CORNARO has been oftener quoted, than understood--most
people imagine, it was one of rigid Abstinence and comfortless
Self-denial--but this was not the case:--his Code of Longevity consisted
in steadily obeying the suggestions of Instinct--and Economizing his
Vitality, and living under his income of Health,--carefully regulating
his temper--and cultivating cheerful habits.


He tells us that _when Fourscore_

"I am used to take in all twelve ounces of solid nourishment, such as
Meat, and the yolk of an Egg, &c. and fourteen ounces of drink:--I eat
Bread, Soup, New-laid Eggs, Veal, Kid, Mutton, Partridge, Pullets,
Pigeons, &c. and some Sea and River Fish.

"I made choice of such Wines and Meats as agreed with my Constitution,
and declined all other diet--and proportioned the quantity thereof to
the strength of my Stomach, and abridged my Food--as my years increased.

"Every one is the best judge of the food which is most agreeable to his
own Stomach,--it is next to impossible, to judge what is best for
another;--the Constitutions of men are as different from each other as
their complexions."--p. 36.

"1st. Take care of the quality.

"2dly. Of the quantity--so as to eat and drink nothing that offends the
Stomach, nor any more than you can easily digest: your experience ought
to be your guide in these two principles when you arrive at _Forty_: by
that time you ought to know that you are in the midst of your life;
thanks to the goodness of your Constitution which has carried you so
far: but that when you are arrived to this period, you go down the hill
apace--and it is necessary for you to change your course of life,
especially with regard to the quantity and quality of your diet--because
it is on that, the health and length of our days do radically depend.
Lastly; if the former part of our lives has been altogether sensual--the
latter ought to be rational and regular; order being necessary for the
preservation of all things, especially the life of man.--Longevity
cannot be attained without continence and sobriety[18]."

    "At _thirty_ Man suspects himself a Fool,
    Knows it at _forty_, and reforms his plan."

By the small quantity of Food, and great proportion of his Meat to his
Drink, this noble Venetian, at the age of _forty_, freed himself, by the
advice of his Physicians, from several grievous disorders contracted by
intemperance, and lived in health of body, and great cheerfulness of
mind, to above an hundred.--Briefly, the secret of his Longevity seems
to have been, a gradually increasing Temperance "in omnibus"--and
probably, after a certain time of Life, abstinence from the "opus

The source of physical and moral Health, Happiness, and Longevity,--

    "Reason's whole pleasure, all the Joys of Sense
    Lie in three words, Health, peace, and competence.
    But Health consists in temperance alone;
    And Peace, oh Virtue! Peace is all thy own."


_Intensive Life_, can only be purchased at the price of _Extensive_.

If you force the Heart to gallop as fast during the second, as it does
during the first stage of life--and make the steady fire of 42, to blaze
as brightly as the flame of 21,--it will very soon be burnt out.

Those who cannot be content to submit to that diminution of action
ordained by nature, against which there is no appeal,--as it is the
absolute covenant, by the most attentive and implicit observance of
which we can only hope to hold our lease of life comfortably,--will soon
bring to the diminished energy of the Second Stage of Life--the
Paralysis of the Third.

From 40 to 60, a witty French author tells us, is "_La belle saison[19]
pour la Gourmandise_;"--for the artificial pleasures of the Palate, it
may be, and the _Bon Vivant_ cultivates them as the means of prolonging
the vigour of Youth--and procrastinating the approach of Age.

Restoration may certainly be considerably facilitated, by preparing and
dressing food so as to render it easily soluble--if the secret of
Rejuvenization be ever discovered; it will be found in the Kitchen.

Very soon after we pass the _Meridian of Life_, (which, according to
those who train men for athletic exercises, and to Dr. Jameson,[20] is
our 28th, and to Dr. Cheyne, about our 35th year,) the elasticity of the
Animal System imperceptibly diminishes,--our Senses become less
susceptible, and are every hour getting the worse for wear, however
Self-Love, assisted by your Hair-dresser, and Tailor, &c. may endeavour
to persuade you to the contrary.

Digestion and Sleep are less perfect--the restorative process more and
more fails to keep pace with the consuming process--the body is
insufficiently repaired, more easily deranged, and with more difficulty
brought into adjustment again; till at length the vital power being
diminished, and the organs deteriorated,--Nourishment can neither be
received, or prepared and diffused through the constitution--and
Consumption so much exceeds Renovation, that decay rapidly closes the
scene of Life.

One may form some Idea of _the Self-consumption of the human body_, by
reflecting that the pulsation of the Heart, and the motion of the Blood
connected with it, takes place 100,000 times every day; _i. e._ on an

   the pulse[21] beats 70 times in a minute,
         multiplied by 60 minutes in an hour,
                       24 hours in a day,
                   100800 pulsations in a day.

What Machine, of the most adamantine material, will not soon be the
worse for wear, from such incessant vibration--especially if the
Mainsprings of it are not preserved in a state of due regulation?

The generative faculties, which are the last that Nature finishes--are
the first that fail.--Economy in the exercise of them--especially before
and after the second period of Life--is the grand precept for the
restoration and accumulation of Strength, the preservation of Health,
and the prolongation of Life;--we are vigorous, in proportion to the
perfection of the performance of the Restorative process, _i. e._ as we
Eat hearty, and Sleep soundly--as our Body loses the power of renovating
itself, in like ratio, fails its faculty of creating--what may be a
salutary subduction of the superfluous health of the Second--during the
Third period of life, will be a destructive sacrifice of the strength of
both the Mind and the Body.--See also the 9th chapter of the _First_
Edition of WILLICH _on Diet_. 8vo. 1799.

The next organical defect, (we perceive too plainly for our self-love to
mistake it,) is manifested by THE EYE[22]. To read a small print--you
must remove it from the Eye further than you have been accustomed to
do--and place it in a better light.

The FALSETTO Voice now begins to fail, and THE EAR loses some of its
quickness--several extraordinary Musicians have been able till then, if
a handful of the keys of a Harpsichord were put down so as to produce
the most irrelative combinations--to name each half note without a
mistake.--When I mentioned this to that excellent Organ Player, Mr.
Charles Wesley, he said, "At the age of twenty, I could do it
myself--but I can't now." He was then in his 55th year.

About the same time, the Palate is no longer contented with being
employed as a mere shovel to the Stomach,--and as it finds its master
becomes every day more difficult to please--learns to be a more watchful

After 40,--the strongest People begin to talk about being _Bilious_, or
_Nervous_, &c. &c. and the Stomach will no longer do its duty
properly--unless the Food offered to it is perfectly agreeable to
it--when offended, _Indigestion_ brings with it, all that melancholy
depression of the Animal Spirits, which disables a Man from either
thinking with precision, or acting with vigour--during the distressing
suspension of the restorative process--arise all those miseries of Mind
and Body, which drive Fools to get drunk, and make Madmen commit
suicide:--without due attention to Diet, &c. the Third period of Life is
little better than a Chronic Disease.

As our assimilating powers become enfeebled, we must endeavour to
entertain them with food so prepared, as to give them the least
trouble, and the most nourishment[23].

In the proportion that our Food is restorative, and properly
digested--our bodies are preserved in Health and Strength--and all our
faculties continue vigorous and perfect.

If it is unwholesome, ill-prepared, and indigestible--the Body
languishes, and is exhausted even in its youth--its strength and
faculties daily decrease, and it sinks beneath the weight of the painful
sensations attendant on a state of Decay.

Would to Heaven that a Cook could help our Stomachs, as much as an
Optician can our Eyes: our Existence would be as much more perfect than
it now is, as our Sight is superior to our other Senses.

"The vigour of the Mind decays with that of the Body--and not only
Humour and Invention, but even Judgment and Resolution, change and
languish, with ill constitution of Body and of Health."--Sir WILLIAM

The following account of the successful REDUCTION OF CORPULENCE AND
IMPROVEMENT OF HEALTH, the Editor can vouch for being a faithful
statement of Facts.

    30 January, 1821.


In consequence of the Conversation I had with you, upon the advantages I
had derived from Exercise and attention to Diet in the reduction of
Weight, and your desire that I should communicate as far as I recollect
them, the particulars of my Case; I have great pleasure in forwarding to
you the following Statement.

I measure in height six Feet and half an Inch,--possess a sound
Constitution and considerable activity.--At _the age of_ _Thirty_ I
weighed about 18 Stone--two years afterwards I had reached the great
weight of nineteen Stone, in perfect Health, always sleeping well and
enjoying good Appetite and Spirits--soon after, however, I began to
experience the usual attendants on fullness of Habit, a disinclination
to rise in the morning from drowsiness, heaviness about the Forehead
after I had risen, and a disposition to Giddiness;--I was also attacked
by a complaint in one of my Eyes, the Symptoms of which it is
unnecessary to describe, but it proved to be occasioned by fullness of
blood, as it was removed by cupping in the temple. I lost four ounces of
blood from the temple; and thinking that the loss of a little more might
be advantageous, I had eight ounces taken from the back; and in order to
prevent the necessity, as far as possible, of future bleeding, I
resolved to reduce the system--by increasing my Exercise and diminishing
my Diet.

I therefore took an early opportunity of seeing Mr. Jackson, (whose
respectability and skill as a teacher of sparring is universally
acknowledged,) and after some Conversation with him, determined upon
acting under his Advice.

I accordingly commenced _Sparring_, having provided myself with flannel
Dresses, which I always used, being extremely careful on changing them
to avoid the risk of cold, and I recollect no instance in which I was
not successful.

I also had recourse to _Riding_ Schools, riding without stirrups, so as
to have the advantage of the most powerful exercise the Horse could
give;--these exercises I took in the morning in the proportion probably
of sparring twice a week, and riding three or four times.

Frequently at night I resumed my Exercise,--_Walking_ and sometimes
_Running_, generally performing about five miles an hour, till I again
produced perspiration; every other Opportunity I could resort to of
bodily exercise I also availed myself of.

In respect to diet, I had accustomed myself to Suppers and drinking
excellent Table Beer in large quantities, and for probably ten Years,
had indulged myself with Brandy and Water after Supper:--this practice I
entirely discontinued, substituting Toast and Water with my Dinner, and
Tea and a good allowance of Toast for Supper, always avoiding copious

I left off drinking malt Liquor as a habit, and indeed, very seldom
drank it at all.--I took somewhat less meat at Dinner, avoiding Pies and
Puddings as much as possible, but always took three or four Glasses of
Port after dinner.

During the time I was under this training, I took the opinion of an
eminent Physician upon the subject, who entirely approved of my Plan,
and recommended the occasional use of Aperient medicine, but which I
seldom resorted to.

_The Result of all this, was a reduction of my Weight of upwards of
three Stone_, or about Forty-five Pounds, _in about six or seven
months_.--I found my activity very much increased, and my wind
excellent, but, I think, my Strength not quite so great, though I did
not experience any material Reduction of it: my Health was perfect

I then relaxed my System a little, and have up to the present time,
being a period of ten Years, avoided the necessity of bleeding, and have
enjoyed an almost uninterrupted continuance of good Health, although my
Weight has gradually increased; sometimes, however, fluctuating between
7 or 8 Pounds and a Stone, according to my means of Exercise,--always
increasing in Winter, and losing in Summer;--and at this moment (January
29th, 1821,) I am about a Stone more than I ought to be, having
ascertained, that my best bodily Strength, is at sixteen Stone and a

When the object is _to Reduce Weight_, rest and moderate Food will
always sufficiently restore the exhaustion arising from Exercise;--if
an additional quantity of Food and nourishing Liquors be resorted to,
the Body will in general be restored to the weight it was before the

I have sometimes lost from ten ounces to a Pound in weight by an Hour's
sparring. If the object be not to reduce the weight, the Food may safely
be proportioned to the Exercise.

You will readily perceive, that the plan I adopted, ought only to be
resorted to by Persons of sound Constitution and of athletic bodily
Frame,--it would be absurd to lay down a general rule for the adoption
of all fat men.

I think, with all lusty men, the drinking of malt Liquor of any kind is
injurious,--Meat taken more than once a day is liable to the same
Objection. I still persevere in the disuse of malt Liquors and Spirits,
and Suppers, seldom taking more than four Glasses of Wine as a
habit,--although I do not now deem it necessary to make myself so far
the Slave of habit, as to refuse the Pleasures of the Table when they

    I am, dear Sir,

    Yours very truly,

       *       *       *       *       *

The following are the most interesting Facts in Dr. Bryan Robinson's
Essay on the Food and Discharges of the Human Body, 8vo. 1748, which has
become scarce.

"I am now, in _May_ 1747, in the 68th year of my age. The length of my
Body is 63 Inches: I am of a sanguine but not robust constitution--and
am at present neither lean nor fat. In the year 1721 the Morning weight
of my body without Clothes, was about 131 Avoirdupois pounds, the daily
weight of my food at a medium was about 85 Avoirdupois ounces, and the
proportion of my Drink to my Meat, I judge was at that time about
2.5--to 1.

"At the latter end of _May_ 1744, my weight was above 164 pounds, and
the proportion of my Drink to my Meat was considerably greater than
before, and had been so for some time. I was then seized with a
Paralytic disorder, which obliged me to make an alteration in my diet.
In order to settle the proportion of my Drink to my Meat, I considered
what others have said concerning this proportion.

"According to _Sanctorius_, though he reckons it a disproportion, the
drink to the meat in his time, was about 10 to 3 in temperate bodies.

    CORNARO'S drink to his Meat, was as    7 to 6.
    Mr. RYE'S, in winter, as               4 to 3.
    Dr. LINING'S, at a medium             11 to 3.
    And my drink to my meat                5 to 2.
    A mean taken from all these makes the
      Drink to the Meat--about             2 to 1.

    B. ROBINSON _on Food and Discharges_, p. 34.

"At the age of 64, by lessening my food, and increasing the proportion
of my meat to my drink, _i. e._ by lessening my drink about a third
part, (_i. e._ to 20 ounces) and my meat about a sixth, (_i. e._ 38
ounces) of what they were in 1721, I have freed myself for these two
years past from the returns of a _Sore throat_ and
_Diarrhœa_,--Disorders I often had, though they were but slight, and
never confined me. I have been much more costive than I was before, when
I lived more fully, and took more Exercise, and have greatly, for my
age, recovered the paralytic weakness I was seized with three years ago.

"Hence we gather, that good and constant Health consists in a just
quantity of food; and a just proportion of the meat to the drink: and
that to be freed from chronical disorders contracted by
Intemperance--the quantity of food ought to be lessened; and the
proportion of the meat to the drink increased--more or less, according
to the greatness of the disorders, p. 61.

"I commonly ate four ounces of Bread and Butter, and drank half a pound
of a very weak infusion of Green Tea for _Breakfast_. For _Dinner_ I
took two ounces of Bread, and the rest Flesh-meat,--Beef, Mutton, Pork,
Veal, Hare, Rabbit, Goose, Turkey, Fowl tame and wild, and Fish. I
generally chose the strongest meats as fittest, since they agreed well
with my stomach, to keep up the power of my body under this great
diminution of my food; I seldom took any _Garden stuff_--finding that it
commonly lessened perspiration and _increased my weight_.--I drank four
ounces of water with my meat and a pound of Claret after I had done
eating. At night I ate nothing, but drank 12 ounces of water with a pipe
of Tobacco, p. 63.

"There is but one Weight, under which a grown body can enjoy the best
and most uninterrupted Health. p. 91. That Weight is such as enables the
Heart to supply the several parts of the body with just quantities of
Blood. p. 100.

"The weight under which an Animal has the greatest strength and
activity--which I shall call its _Athletic weight_,--is that weight
under which the Heart--and the proportion of the weight of the Heart to
the weight of the body are greatest: the strength of the Muscles is
measured by the strength of the Heart, p. 117.

"If the weight of the body of an Animal be greater than its _Athletic
Weight_, it may be reduced to that weight by evacuations, dry food and
exercise. These lessen the weight of the Body, by wasting its fat, and
lessening its Liver; and they increase the weight of the Heart, by
increasing the quantity and motion of the blood. Thus a game Cock in ten
days is reduced to his athletic weight, and prepared for fighting.

"If the Food, which with Evacuations and Exercise, reduced the Cock to
his athletic weight in ten days, be continued any longer, the Cock will
not have that strength and activity which he had before under his
athletic weight; which may be owing to the loss of weight going on after
he arrives at his athletic weight.

"It is known by experiment, that a Cock cannot stand above 24 hours at
his athletic weight, and that a Cock has changed very much for the worse
in 12 hours.

"When a Cock is at the top of his condition, that is, when he is at his
athletic weight, his Head is of a glowing red colour, his Neck thick,
and his Thigh thick and firm;--the day after his complexion is less
glowing, his Neck thinner, and his Thigh softer;--and the third day his
Thigh will be very soft and flaccid. p. 119.

"If the increase of weight in a small compass of time, rise to above a
certain quantity, it will cause disorders.

"I can bear an increase of above a pound and a half in one day, and an
increase of three or four pounds in six or seven days, without being
disordered; but think I should suffer from an increase of five or six
pounds in that time.

"An increase of weight may be carried off by lessening the Food,--or by
increasing the Discharges.--The discharges may be increased either by
exercise, or by evacuations procured by art.

"By lessening the daily quantity of my food to 23 ounces, I have lost 26
ounces;--by fasting a whole day, I lost 48 ounces, having gained 27 the
day before.

"Mr. Rye was a strong, well set, corpulent man, of a sanguine
complexion; by a brisk walk for one hour before breakfast he threw off,
by insensible perspiration, one pound of increased weight; by a walk of
three hours, he threw off two pounds of increased weight. The best way
to take off an increase of weight which threatens a distemper, is either
by fasting or exercise. p. 84.

"The mean loss of weight by several grown bodies caused by a purging
medicine composed of a drachm of _Jalap_ and ten grains of _Calomel_,
was about 2-3/4 Avoirdupois pounds; and the mean quantity of Liquor,
drank during the time of Purging, was about double the loss of
Weight."--ROBINSON _on the Animal Economy_, p. 458.

"I have lost, by a spontaneous _Diarrhœa_, two pounds in twenty-four
hours; and Mr. Rye lost twice that quantity in the same time."--_On the
Food and Discharges of Human Bodies_, by B. ROBINSON, p. 84.

"Most _Chronic Diseases_--arise from too much _Food_ and too little
_Exercise_,--both of which lessen the weight of the Heart and the
quantity of Blood;--the first by causing fatness; the second by a
diminution of the blood's motion.

"Hence, when the LIVER is grown too large by Intemperance and
Inactivity, it may be lessened and brought to a healthful magnitude by
Temperance and Exercise.--It may be emptied other ways by art; but
nothing can prevent its filling again, and consequently secure good and
constant Health--but an exact Diet and Exercise. Purging and Vomiting
may lessen the Liver, and reduce it to its just magnitude;--but these
evacuations cannot prevent its increasing again, so long as persons
live too fully, and use too little exercise--and can only be done by
lessening the Food and increasing the Exercise."

"Much sleep, much food, and little exercise, are the principal things
which make animals grow fat. If the Body, on account of Age or other
Infirmities, cannot use sufficient Exercise, and takes much the same
quantity of Sleep, its weight must be lessened by lessening the Food,
which may be done by lessening the Drink, without making any change in
the Meat; as I have proved myself by experience."--p. 90.

On this subject, see also--Dr. STARK on _Diet_, and SANCTORIUS'
_Medecina Statica_. Dr. HEMING on _Corpulency_.--Mr. WADD on
_Corpulency_.--Dr. ARBUTHNOT on _Aliment_.


    "When tired with vain rotations of the Day,
    Sleep winds us up for the succeeding dawn."


Health may be as much injured by interrupted and _insufficient Sleep_,
as by luxurious indulgence.

Valetudinarians who regularly retire to rest, and arise at certain
hours, are unable, without injurious violence to their feelings--to
resist the inclination to do so.

    "Pliant Nature more or less demands
    As Custom forms her; and _all sudden change
    She hates_, of Habit even from _bad_ to _good_.
    If faults in Life--or new emergencies
    From Habits[24] urge you by _long time_ confirm'd,
    Slow must the change arrive, and stage by stage,
    Slow as the stealing progress of the Year."

    ARMSTRONG'S _Art of Preserving Health_.

How important it is, then, to cultivate good and convenient
Habits:--_Custom_ will soon render the most rigid rules, not only easy,
but agreeable.--

    "The Strong, by bad habits, grow weaker, we know;
    And by good ones, the Weak will grow stronger also."

The Debilitated require much more rest than the Robust:--nothing is so
restorative to the nerves, as sound, and uninterrupted Sleep, which is
the chief source of both Bodily and Mental Strength.

The Studious need a full portion of Sleep, which seems to be as
necessary nutriment to the Brain, as Food is to the Stomach.

Our Strength and Spirits are infinitely more exhausted by the exercise
of our Mental, than by the labour of our Corporeal faculties--let any
person try the effect of _Intense Application_ for a few hours--He will
soon find how much his Body is fatigued thereby, although He has not
stirred from the Chair He sat on.

Those who are candidates for Health--must be as circumspect in the task
they set their mind,--as in the exercise they give to their Body.

Dr. ARMSTRONG, the Poet of Health, observes,

    "'Tis _the great Art of_ LIFE to manage well
    The restless Mind."

The grand secret seems to be, to contrive that the exercise of the Body,
and that of the Mind, may serve as relaxations to each other.

Over Exertion, or Anxiety of Mind, disturbs Digestion infinitely more
than any fatigue of Body--the Brain demands a much more abundant supply
of the Animal Spirits, than is required for the excitement of mere Legs
and Arms.

    "'Tis the Sword that wears out the Scabbard."

Of the two ways of fertilizing the Brain--by Sleep, or by Spirituous
Stimulus--(for some write best in the Morning, others when wound up with
Wine, after Dinner or Supper:) the former is much less expensive--and
less injurious to the constitution than either Port, or Brandy, whose
aid it is said that some of our best Authors have been indebted to, for
their most brilliant productions.

Calling one day on a literary friend, we found him reclining on a
Sofa--on expressing our concern to find him indisposed, he said, "No, I
was only _hatching_,--I have been writing till I was quite tired--my
paper must go to Press to day--so I was taking my usual restorative--_A
Nap_--which if it only lasts five minutes, so refreshes my Mind--that
my Pen goes to work again spontaneously."

Is it not better _Economy of Time_, to go to sleep for half an
hour,--than to go on noodling all day in a nerveless and
semi-superannuated state--if not asleep, certainly not effectively
Awake--for any purpose requiring the Energy of either the Body, or the

"_A Forty Winks Nap_," in an horizontal posture, is the best preparative
for any extraordinary exertion of either.

Those who possess, and employ the powers of the Mind most--seldom attain
the greatest Age[25]:--see BRUNAUD _de L'Hygiene des Gens de Lettres,
Paris_, 8vo. 1819:--the Envy their Talent excites,--the Disappointment
they often meet with in their expectations of receiving the utmost
attention and respect, (which the world has seldom the gratitude to pay
them while they live,) keep them in a perpetual state of irritation and
disquiet--which frets them prematurely to their Grave[26].

_To rest a whole Day_--under great fatigue of either Body or Mind, is
occasionally extremely beneficial--it is impossible to regulate Sleep by
the hour;--when the Mind and the Body have received all the refreshment
which Sleep can give, people cannot lie in Bed, and till then, they
should not Rise[27].

    "Preach not me your musty Rules
      Ye Drones, that mould in idle cell;
    The Heart is wiser than the Schools,
      The Senses always reason well."


Our Philosophical Poet here gives the best practical maxim on the
subject for Valetudinarians--who, by following his advice, may render
their Existence, instead of a dull unvaried round of joyless, useless
self-denial,--a circle of agreeable sensation;--for instance, go not to
your Bed till You are tired of sitting up--then remain in an Horizontal
posture,--till You long to change it for a Vertical: thus, by a little
management, the inevitable business of Life may be converted into a
source of continual Enjoyment.

All-healing Sleep soon neutralizes the corroding caustic of Care--and
blunts even the barbed arrows of the marble-hearted Fiend, Ingratitude.

When the Pulse is almost paralysed by Anxiety,--half an hour's repose,
will cheer the circulation, restore tranquillity to the perturbed
spirit--and dissipate those heavy clouds of _Ennui_, which sometimes
threaten to eclipse the brightest Minds, and best Hearts.--Child of Woe,
lay thy Head on thy pillow, (instead of thy Mouth to the bottle,) and
bless me for directing Thee to the true source of Lethe--and most
sovereign _Nepenthé_ for the Sorrows of Human Life.

The Time requisite to restore the waste occasioned by the action of the
Day--depends on the activity of the habits, and on the Health of the
Individual,--in general it cannot be less than Seven--and need not be
more than Nine hours[28].

Invalids will derive much benefit from indulging in the _Siesta_
whenever they feel languid.

A Sailor will tell you, that a Seaman can sleep as much in five hours,
as a Landsman can in ten.

Whether rising very early lengthens Life we know not,--but think that
sitting up very late shortens it,--and recommend you to rise by eight,
and retire to rest by eleven; your feelings will bear out the adage,
that "_one_ Hour's rest before midnight, is worth _two_ after."

When OLD PEOPLE have been examined with a view to ascertain the causes
of their Longevity, they have uniformly agreed in one thing only,--that
they ALL _went to Bed early, and rose early_.

    "Early to bed, and early to rise,
    Will make you healthy, wealthy, and wise."

Dr. FRANKLIN published an ingenious Essay on the advantage of early
rising--He called it "_an Economical Project_," and calculated, that the
saving that might be made in the City of Paris, _by using Sunshine
instead of Candles_--at no less than £4,000,000 Sterling.

If the Delicate, and the nervous, the very Young, or the very Old--sit
up beyond their usual hour, they feel the want of artificial aid, to
raise their spirits to what is no more than the ordinary pitch of those
who are in the vigour of their Life--and must fly from the festive
board--or purchase a few hours of hilarity at the heavy price of
Head-Ach and Dyspepsia for many days after; and a terrible exasperation
of any Chronic Complaint they are afflicted with.

When the Body and Mind are both craving repose--to force their action,
by the spur of spirituous stimulus, is the most extravagant waste of the
"VIS VITÆ," that Fashion ever invented to consume her foolish
Votaries--for Fools they certainly are, who mortgage the comfort of a
Week, for the conviviality of an Hour--with the certainty of their term
of Life being speedily foreclosed by Gout, Palsy, &c.

Among the most distressing miseries of this "Elysium of Bricks and
Mortar," may be reckoned how rarely we enjoy "the sweets of a Slumber

Sound passes through the thin PARTY WALLS of modern Houses, (_which of
the first rate, at the_ FIRE PLACE, _are only four inches in
thickness_;) with most unfortunate facility; this is really an evil of
the first magnitude,--if You are so unlucky as to have for next door
neighbours--fashionable folks who turn night into day, or such as
delight in the sublime Economy of Cindersaving, or Cobweb catching,--it
is in vain to seek repose, before the former has indulged in the
Evening's recreation of raking out the Fire, and has played with the
Poker till it has made all the red coals black; or, after _Molidusta_,
the Tidy One, has awoke the Morn--with "the Broom, the bonny, bonny

A determined Dusthunter, or Cindersaver, murders its neighbour's
sleep--with as little mercy, as Macbeth did Malcolm's--and bangs doors,
and rattles Window shutters, till the "Earth trembles, and Air is

All attempts to conciliate a Savage who is in this fancy--will be labour
in vain--the arrangement of its fire[29] is equally the occupation of
the morning, and the amusement of the evening; the preservation of a
Cinder and the destruction of a Cobweb, are the main business of its
existence:--the best advice we can give you, gentle Reader--is to send
it this little Book--and beseech it to place the following pages
opposite to its Optic nerves some morning--after you have diverted it
from Sleep every half hour during the preceding Night[30].

Counsellor SCRIBBLEFAST, a Special Pleader, who lived on a ground-floor
in the Temple--about the time that Sergeant PONDER who dwelt on the
first floor, retired to rest, began to practise his Violoncello, _"And
his loud voice in Thunder spoke."_--The Student above--by way of giving
him a gentle hint, struck up _"Gently strike the warbling Lyre,"_ and
Will. Harmony's favourite Hornpipes of _"Dont Ye,"_ and _"Pray be
Quiet:"_ however, the _dolce_ and _pianissimo_ of poor PONDER produced
no diminution of the _prestissimo_ and _fortissimo_ of the indefatigable

PONDER, prayed "silence in the Court," and complained in most pathetic
terms--but, alas! his "_lowly suit and plaintive ditty_" made not the
least impression on him who was beneath him.--He at length procured a
set of Skettles, and as soon as his musical neighbour had done fiddling,
he began _con strepito_, and bowled away merrily till the morning
dawned.--The enraged Musician did not wait long after daylight, to put
in his plea against such proceedings, and received in reply, that such
exercise had been ordered by a Physician, as the properest Paregoric,
after being disturbed by the thorough Bass of the Big Fiddle below--this
soon convinced the tormentor of Catgut, who dwelt on the Ground-Floor,
that He could not annoy his superior with Impunity, and produced silence
on both sides.

People are very unwisely inconsiderate how much it is their own
Interest to attend to the comforts of their Neighbours, for which we
have a divine command "to love our neighbour as ourself." "_Sic utere
tuo, ut alienum non lædas_," is the maxim of our English law.
Interrupting one's Sleep is as prejudicial to Health, as any of the
nuisances Blackstone enumerates as actionable.

The majority of the _Dogs_,--_Parrots_,--_Piano-Fortes_, &c. in this
Metropolis, are _Actionable Nuisances_!!!

However inferior in rank and fortune, &c. your next door neighbour may
be--there are moments when He may render you the most valuable
service.--"A Lion owed his life to the exertions of a Mouse."

Those who have not the power to please--should have the discretion not
to offend;--the most humble may have opportunities to return a Kindness,
or resent an Insult.

It is Madness to wantonly annoy any one.

There is plenty of Time for the performance of all offensively noisy
operations, between 10 in the Morning and 10 at Night--during which the
industrious Housemaid may indulge her Arms in their full swing--and
while she polishes her black-leaded grate to the lustre which is so
lovely in the eyes of "_the Tidy_," the TAT-TOO her brush strikes up
against its sides may be performed without distressing the irritable
ears of her Nervous Neighbours--to whom _undisturbed Repose is the most
Vital Nourishment_.

_Little Sweep Soot Ho_ is another dreadful disturber.--The shrill
screaming of these poor boys, "making night hideous," (indeed at any
time) at five or six o'clock in cold dark weather, is a most barbarous
custom, and frequently disturbs a whole street before they rouse the
drowsy sluggard who sent for him--his _Row dy Dow_ when he reaches the
top of the Chimney, and his progress down again, awaken the soundest
sleepers, who often wish, that, instead of the Chimney,--he was smiting
the skull of the Barbarian who set the poor Child to work at such an
unseasonable hour.

The Editor's feelings are tremblingly alive on this subject.

    "Finis coronat opus."

However soundly he has slept during the early part of the night--if the
finishing Nap in the morning is interrupted from continuing to its
natural termination--his whole System is shook by it, and all that sleep
has before done for him, is undone in an instant;--he gets up distracted
and languid, and the only part of his head that is of any use to him, is
the hole between his Nose and Chin.

The firm Health of those who live in the Country, arises not merely from
breathing a purer Air,--but from quiet and regular habits, especially
the enjoyment of plenty of undisturbed Repose,--this enables them to
take Exercise, which gives them an Appetite, and by taking their food at
less distant and more equally divided intervals--they receive a more
regular supply of that salutary nourishment, which is necessary to
restore the wear of the system, and support it in an uniform state of
excitement,--equally exempt from the languor of inanition, and the
fever of repletion.

Thus, the Animal Functions are performed with a perfection and
regularity, the tranquillity of which, in the incessantly irregular
habits of a Town-life, is continually interrupted,--some ridiculous
Anxiety or other consumes the Animal Spirits, and the important process
of Restoration is imperfectly performed.

_Dyspeptic and Nervous disorders_, and an inferior degree of both
extensive and intensive Life[31] are the inevitable consequence, and are
the lowest price for (what are called) _the Pleasures of Fashionable

Dr. Cadogan has told us (very truly) that Chronic diseases, (and we may
add, most of those equivocal Disorders, which are continually teasing
people, but are too insignificant to induce them to institute a medical
process to remove them,) are caused by Indolence--Intemperance--and

It is the fashion to refer all these Disorders to Debility--but Debility
is no more than the effect of Indolence, Intemperance, and Vexation--the
two first are under our own immediate control--and Temperance, Industry,
and Activity, are the best remedies to prevent, or remove the Debility
which reduces our means of resisting the third.

During _the Summer_ of Life[32], _i. e._ the second period of it, (see
page 34,) while we hope that every thing may come right, the Heart
bounds with vigour, and the Vital flame burns too brightly to be much,
or long subdued by vexation.

This originally least cause, soon becomes the greatest, and in _the
Autumn_ of our existence, when Experience has dissipated the theatric
illusion with which Hope varnished the expectations of our earlier days,
we begin to fear that every thing will go wrong.

                  "The whips and scorns of Time,
    The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely,
    The pangs of despis'd Love, the Law's delay,
    The insolence of office, and the spurns
    That patient merit of the unworthy takes."

The insatiable ruling passions of the second and third periods of
Life,--Ambition and Avarice,--the loss of our first and best friends,
our Parents,--regret for the past, and anxiety about the future, prevent
the enjoyment of the present,--and are _the cause of those Nervous and
Bilious Disorders_, which attack most of us at the commencement of the
third period of Life--these _precursors of Palsy and Gout_, may
generally be traced to Disappointments and Anxiety of mind[33]; and

People need not groan about the Insanities and Absurdities of others--it
is surely quite sufficient to suffer for our own, of which most of us
have plenty--we ought to endeavour to convert those of others, into
causes of comfort and consolation, instead of fretting about them--if
you receive rudeness in return for civility--and ingratitude for
kindness, it may move your Pity--but should never excite your
Anger--instead of murmuring at Heaven for having created such Crazy
Creatures! be fervently thankful that you are not equally inconsistent
and ridiculous--and Pray, that your own Mind, may not be afflicted with
the like aberrations.

_Indigestion_[34], is the chief cause of perturbed Sleep, and often
excites the imaginary presence of that troublesome Bedfellow _the
Nightmare_. On this subject see _Peptic Precepts_ (Index.)

Some cannot Sleep if they eat any Supper--and certainly the lighter this
meal is, the better--Others, need not put on their Night cap, if they
do not first bribe their Stomachs to good behaviour by a certain
quantity of Bread and Cheese and Beer, &c. &c., and go to Bed almost
immediately after.

As to the wholesomeness of _a Solid Supper, per se_, we do not think it
advisable,--but habit may have made it indispensable, and we know it is
often the most comfortable Meal among the middle ranks of Society, who
have as large a share of Health as any.

We caution _Bad sleepers_ to beware how they indulge in the habit of
exciting sleep, by taking any of the preparations of _Opium_--they are
all injurious to the Stomach--and often inconvenient in their effects
upon the Bowels:--

"REPOSE _by small fatigue is earned_, and Weariness can snore upon the
flint, when nesty Sloth, finds a down pillow hard."

As there can be no good _Digestion_ without diligent _Mastication_,--so
there can be no sound _Sleep_, without sufficient _Exercise_.

_The most inoffensive and agreeable Anodyne_ is to drink some good White
Wine, or Mulled Wine, by way of a supplement to your Night cap.--One
glass, taken when in Bed, immediately before lying down, is as effective
as two or three if you sit up any time after.--(See _Tewahdiddle_, No.

Many people, if awoke during their first sleep, are unsettled all that
night--and uncomfortable and nervous the following day.--The first sleep
of those who eat Suppers, commonly terminates when the food passes from
the Stomach.--Invalids then awake, and sometimes remain so, in a
Feverish state,--the Stomach feeling discontented from being unoccupied,
and having nothing to play with:--a small crust of Bread, or a bit of
Biscuit well chewed, accompanied or not, as Experience and Instinct will
suggest, with a few mouthsful of Mutton or Beef Broth (No. 564), or
Toast and Water (No. 463*), or single Grog[35], (_i. e._ one Brandy to
nine Waters), will often restore its tranquillity, and catch Sleep
again, which nothing invites so irresistibly, as introducing something
to the Stomach,--that will entertain it, without fatiguing it.

We have heard persons say they have been much distressed by an
intemperate craving for Food when they awoke out of their first sleep,
and have not got to sleep soundly again after--and risen in the morning
as tired as when they went to bed at night--but without any appetite for
Breakfast--such will derive great benefit from the foregoing Advice.

_A Broth_ (No. 564), _or Gruel_ (No. 572) _Supper_, is perhaps the best
for the Dyspeptic,--and those who have eaten and drank plentifully at

THE BED ROOM should be in the quietest situation possible, as it were
"_the Temple of Silence_,"--and, if possible, not less than 16 feet
square--the height of this Apartment, _in which we pass almost half of
our Time_, is in modern houses absurdly abridged, to increase that of
the Drawing Room, which is often not occupied once in a month:--instead
of living in the pleasant part of the House, where they might enjoy
Light and Air, how often we find people squeezing themselves into "a
nice snug Parlour," where Apollo cannot spy.

We do not recommend either _Curtains_ or _Tester_, &c. to the BED,
especially during the Summer;--by the help of these, those who might
have the benefit of the free circulation of air in a large Room, very
ingeniously contrive to reduce it to a small Closet:--_Chimney-Boards_
and _Window-Curtains_ are also inadmissible in a Bed Room; but
Valetudinarians who are easily awoke, or very susceptible of Cold, will
do wisely to avail themselves of well made _Double[36] Windows and
Doors_, these exclude both Noise and Cold in a very considerable degree.

_The best Bed_ is a well stuffed and well curled _Horsehair Mattress_,
six inches thick at the Head, gradually diminishing to three at Feet,
on this another Mattress five or six inches in thickness: these should
be unpicked and exposed to the air, once every Year. An elastic
Horsehair mattress, is incomparably the most pleasant, as well as the
most wholesome Bed.

_Bed Rooms_ should be thoroughly ventilated by leaving both the Window
and the Door open every day when the weather is not cold or damp--during
which the Bed should remain unmade, and the Clothes be taken off and
spread out for an hour, at least, before the Bed is made again.

_In very Hot Weather_, the temperature becomes considerably cooler every
minute after ten o'clock--between eight o'clock and twelve, the
Thermometer often falls in Sultry weather--from ten to twenty
degrees--and those who can sit up till twelve o'clock, will have the
advantage of sleeping in an Atmosphere many degrees cooler, than those
who go to bed at ten:--this is extremely important to Nervous
Invalids--who however extremely they may suffer from heat, we cannot
advise to sleep with the smallest part of the window open during the
night--in such sultry days, the _Siesta_ (see page 94,) will not only be
a great support against the heat, but will help You to sit up to enjoy
the advantage above stated.

_A Fire in the Bed Room_, is sometimes indispensable--but not as usually
made--it is commonly lighted only just before bed-time, and prevents
Sleep by the noise it makes, and the unaccustomed stimulus of its light.

Chimneys frequently smoke when a fire is first lighted, particularly in
snowy and frosty weather; and an Invalid has to encounter not only the
damp and cold of the Room--but has his Lungs irritated with the
sulphureous puffs from the fresh lighted Fire.

A Fire should be lighted about three or four hours before, and so
managed that it may burn entirely out half an hour before you go to
Bed--then the air of the room will be comfortably warmed--and certainly
more fit to receive an Invalid who has been sitting all day in a parlour
as hot as an Oven,--than a damp chamber, that is as cold as a Well.


The Power of _Position_ and _Temperature_ to alleviate the Paroxysms of
many Chronic Disorders, has not received the consideration it
deserves--a little attention to the variations of the Pulse, will soon
point out the effect they produce on the Circulation, &c.--_extremes of
Heat and Cold_, with respect to Food, Drink, and Air, are equally to be
guarded against.

_Old and Cold Stomachs_--The Gouty--and those whose Digestive Faculties
are Feeble--should never have any thing _Cold_[37], or _Old_, put into
them--especially in Cold Weather.

_Food must take the temperature of our Stomach_, (which is probably not
less than 120,) _before Digestion can commence_.

When the Stomach is feeble, _Cold Food_ frequently produces
Flatulence--Palpitation of the Heart, &c.--and all the other troublesome
accompaniments of Indigestion.--The immediate remedy for these is Hot
Brandy and Water, and the horizontal Posture.

_Dyspeptic Invalids_ will find 75 a good temperature for their drink at
Dinner, and 120 for Tea, &c.

Persons who are in a state of Debility from Age,--or other causes,--will
derive much benefit from laying down, and seeking Repose whenever they
feel fatigued, especially during (the first half-hour at least of) the
business of Digestion--and will receive almost as much refreshment from
half an hour's Sleep--as from Half a Pint of Wine.

_The Restorative influence of the recumbent Posture_, cannot be
conceived--the increased energy it gives to the circulation, and to the
organs of Digestion, can only be understood by those Invalids who have
experienced the comforts of it.

_The Siesta_ is not only advisable, but indispensable to those whose
occupations oblige them to keep late hours.

ACTORS especially, whose profession is, of all others, the most
fatiguing--and requires both the Mind and the Body to be in the most
intense exertion between 10 and 12 o'clock at Night,--should avail
themselves of the _Siesta_--which is the true source of Energy--half an
hour's repose in the horizontal posture, is a most beneficial

_Good Beef Tea_[38], (No. 563), with a little bit of slightly toasted
Bread taken about nine o'clock--is a comforting restorative, which will
support You through exertions that, without such assistance, are
exhausting--and you go to bed fatigued--get up fevered, &c.

When Performers feel _Nervous, &c._--and fear the circulation is below
_Par_,--and too languid to afford the due excitement, half an hour
before they sing, &c.--they will do wisely, to wind up their System,
with a little "_Balsamum Vitæ_."--See "PEPTIC PRECEPTS."--Or tune their
throats to the pitch of healthy vibration with a small glass of
JOHNSON'S[39] "_Witte Curacoa_," see (No. 474) and Index, a glass of
Wine, or other stimulus.--

To "Wet your Whistle," is occasionally, as absolutely necessary, as "to
rosin the Bow of a Violin."--See "Observations on Vocal Music," prefixed
to the Opera of _Ivanhoe_.

ACTORS and SINGERS are continually assailed by a variety of
circumstances extremely unfavourable to Health--especially from sitting
up late at night--to counteract which, we recommend _the Siesta_, and
plenty of Exercise in a pure Air.

When they feel _Nervous_--_Bilious, &c. i. e._ that their whole System
is so deranged by fatigue and anxiety, that they cannot proceed
effectively and comfortably,--they must give their Throats two or three
days' rest--cleanse the Alimentary Canal with Peristaltic
Persuaders--see Index--and corroborate the Organs of Digestion with the
Tonic Tincture (No. 569), see Index.

Strong PEPPERMINT LOZENGES, made by SMITH, Fell Street, Wood Street,
Cheapside, are very convenient portable Carminatives:--as soon as they
are dissolved, their influence is felt from the beginning to the end of
the Alimentary Canal--they dissipate Flatulence so immediately, that
they well deserve the name of _Vegetable Ether_; and are recommended to
SINGERS and PUBLIC SPEAKERS--as giving effective excitement to the
Organs of Voice--as a support against the distressing effects of Fasting
too long--and to give energy to the Stomach between Meals.

THE POWER OF THE VOICE depends upon the vigorous state of the
circulation supplying the Organs of Voice, with energy to execute the
intentions of the Singer or Speaker--without which--the most accurate
Ear and experienced Throat, will sometimes fail in producing the exact
quality and quantity of Tone they intend.

That the VOICE is sometimes _too Flat_, or _too Sharp, &c._ is not a
matter of astonishment--to those who really understand how arduous a
task Singers have sometimes to perform;--it would only be wonderful if
it was not--how is the Throat exempted from those collapses which
occasionally render imperfect the action of every other fibre and
function of our Body?

The _Dyspeptic_, who Tries the effect of Recumbency after Eating,--will
soon be convinced that _Tristram Shandy_ was right enough, when he said,
that "both pain, and pleasure, are best supported in an horizontal

"If after Dinner the Poppies of repletion shed their influence on thy
Eyelids--indulge thou kind Nature's hint."--"A quiet slumber in a
comfortable warm room, favoureth the operation of Digestion--and thou
shalt rise, refreshed, and ready for the amusements of the Evening."

The _Semi-Siesta_ is a pleasant position--(_i. e._ putting up the feet
on a stool about eight inches high;) but catching a nap in a Chair is
advisable only as a substitute when the Horizontal posture is not
convenient--when you can, lie down on a Sofa--loosen all ligatures--and
give your Bowels fair play.

These opinions,--which are the results of Personal experience--are
exactly in unison with those of the following Medical Professors.

"From Eating comes Sleep--from Sleep Digestion."--SANCTORIUS, Sec. iv.
Aph. 59.

"Perhaps one of the uses of Sleep, and of the horizontal posture during
that period--may be to facilitate the introduction of Chyle into the
Blood."--CRUICKSHANK _on the Absorbents_, p. 95.

"The Brute Creation invariably lay down and enjoy a state of rest, the
moment their stomachs are filled. People who are feeble, digest their
Dinner best, if they lie down and sleep as most Animals do, when their
stomachs are full."--DARWIN'S _Zoonomia_, vol. iv. p. 137.

"Dr. HARWOOD, Professor of Anatomy at Cambridge, took two pointers who
were equally hungry, and fed them equally well,--_one_ he suffered to
follow the promptings of Instinct--curled himself round till he was
comfortable--and went to sleep, as animals generally do after
eating--the _other_ was kept for about two hours in constant exercise.
On his return home--the two Dogs were killed.--In the Stomach of the
_one_ who had been quiet and asleep, all the food was digested; in the
Stomach of _the other_, that process was hardly begun."

"Quiet of Body and Mind for two hours after Dinner, is certainly useful
to the Studious, the Delicate, and the Invalid."--ADAIR _on Diet_, p.

"After Dinner, rest for three hours."--ABERNETHY'S _Surgical Obs_. 8vo.
1817, p. 93.

"After Dinner sit a while."--_Eng. Prov._

"If you have a strong propensity to Sleep after Dinner--indulge it, the
process of Digestion goes on much better during Sleep, and I have always
found an irresistible propensity to it--whenever Dyspeptic symptoms were
considerable."--WALLER _on Incubus_, 1816, p. 109.

"Aged Men--and weake bodies, a short _Sleepe_ after Dinner doth help to
nourish."--LORD BACON'S _Nat. Hist. Cent._ I. 57.


Of all the Customs of Clothing, the most extremely absurd is the usual
arrangement of _Bed Clothes_, which in order as the chambermaid fancies
to make the Bed look pretty in the Day time--are left long at the head,
that they may cover the Pillows; when they are turned down, You have an
intolerable load on your Lungs, and that part of the Body which is most
exposed during the day--is smothered at night--with double the quantity
of Clothes that any other part has.

Sleep is prevented by an unpleasant degree of either Heat or Cold; and
in this ever-varying climate, where often "in one monstrous day all
seasons mix," delicate Thermometrical persons will derive much comfort
from keeping a Counterpane in reserve for an additional covering _in
very Cold Weather:_ when some extra clothing is as needful by Night,--as
a great coat is by Day.

A Gentleman who has a mind to carry the adjustment of his Clothes to a
nicety--may have the shelves of his Wardrobe numbered 30, 40, 50, 60,
&c. and according to the degree of Cold pointed to by his
Fahrenheit[40], he may wear a corresponding defence against it:--This
mode of adjusting Dress according to the vicissitudes of the weather,
&c. is as rational as the ordinary practice of regulating it by the
Almanack, or the Fashion, which in this uncertain Climate and capricious
Age--will as often lead us wrong, as right.

Leave off your Winter Clothes late in the Spring;--put them on early in
the Autumn. By wearing your Winter Clothes during the first half dozen
warm days--You get some fine perspirations--which are highly salutary in
removing obstructions in the cutaneous pores, &c.

_Delicate and Dyspeptic persons are often distressed by changing their
Dress_,--which must be as uniform as possible,--in thickness--in
quality--and in form,--especially (Flannel, or indeed) whatever is worn
next to the Skin.

The change of a thick Waistcoat for a thin one--or a long one for a
shorter one--not putting on Winter garments soon enough, or leaving them
off too soon,--will often excite a violent disorder in the Lungs--or
Bowels, &c. and exasperate any constitutional complaint.

Those who wear _Flannel Waistcoats_, are recommended to have their new
ones about the middle of November, with sleeves to them coming down to
the wrist--the shortening these sleeves in the warm weather, is as
effective an antidote against extreme Heat--as lengthening them, and
closing the Cuff of the Coat, is against intense Cold.

Our COAT[41] should be made so large--that when buttoned we may be as
easy as when it is unbuttoned, so that without any unpleasant increase
of pressure on the Chest, &c. we can wear it closely buttoned up to the
Chin--the power of doing this is a convenient provision against the
sudden alternations from heat to cold--buttoning up this outer garment,
will protect the delicate from many mischiefs which so often arise in
this inconstant climate from the want of such a defence; and the
additional warmth it produces will often cure slight Colds, &c.

Another way of accumulating Caloric, is to have two sets of button holes
to the CUFF of the Coat, (especially of your Great Coat,) one of which
will bring it quite close round the wrist.

When the Circulation is languid, and your _Feet are Cold_--wear worsted
Stockings, have your Shoes well warmed--and when you take them from the
Fire--put your Slippers[42] to it--that they may be warm and comfortable
for you on your return home.

_In Wet Weather_ wear Shoes with double upper-leathers--- two thin
leathers will keep you much drier than one thick one, and are more
pliable--the Currier's Dubbing is the best nourisher of Leather--and
renders it as soft as satin, and impervious to Water.

The mean temperature of England is about 50 degrees of Fahrenheit--it
sometimes rises 25 degrees above this, in the height of Summer,--falls
about as much below, in the depth of Winter--and in Summer frequently
varies from 20 to 30 degrees between Mid-day and Midnight.

_The restoration, and the preservation of the Health, especially of
those who have passed their_ FORTIETH _Year_,--depends upon minute and
unremitting attentions to Food,--Clothes,--Exercise, &c. which taken
singly may appear trifling--but combined, are of infinite importance.

"_If you are careful of it, Glass will last as long as Iron._" By a
regular observance of a few salutary precepts, a delicate Constitution
will last as long, and afford its Proprietor as many Amusements, as a
Strong Body,--whose Mind takes but little care of it.

Invalids are advised to put on a Great Coat when they go out, and the
temperature of the external air is not higher than 40. Some susceptible
Constitutions require this additional clothing when the Thermometer
falls below 50; especially at the commencement of the Cold weather.

A GREAT COAT must be kept in a Room where there is a Fire,--if it has
been hung up in a cold damp Hall, as it often is, it will contribute
about as much to your Calorification,--as if You wrapped a Wet Blanket
about You.

_Clothes_ should be warm enough to defend us from Cold[43],--and
large[44] enough to let every movement be made with as much ease when
they are on,--as when they are off.

Those whose employments are sedentary,--especially hard Students--who
often neglect taking sufficient Exercise[45], suffer extremely from the
pressure of tight _Waistbands_--_Garters, &c._ which are the cause of
many of the mischiefs that arise from long sitting--during which they
should be loosened.

_Braces_ have been generally considered a great improvement in modern
dress--because they render the pressure of the Waistband unnecessary,
which when extremely close is certainly prejudicial--but we have always
thought they have produced more inconvenience than they have
removed--for if the inferior Viscera get thereby more freedom of
action--the superior suffer for it--and, moreover, _Ruptures_ are much
more frequent--the Girdle which formerly prevented them being
removed,--and, instead of that useful and partial horizontal pressure,
in spite of the elastic springs which have been attached to the Braces,
the whole body is grievously oppressed by the Vertical Bands.

The best material for Breeches, is the elastic worsted stocking stuff.

_Tight Stays_--and _Braces_--obstruct the circulation of the Blood, &c.
are the cause of many Chronic Complaints, and often create Organic


As we advance in Age--the force of the circulation being lessened, the
warmth of our Clothes and our coverings at night should be gradually
increased. "After the age of 35, it may be better to exceed, rather than
be deficient in clothing."--ADAIR'S _Cautions_, p. 390.

Cold often kills the infirm and the aged, and is the proximate cause of
most Palsies;--it is extremely desirable that Bed and Sitting Rooms for
Winter occupation, should have a Southern aspect--when the Thermometer
is below 30, the proper place for people beyond 60, is their own
Fire-side:--many of the disorders and Deaths of persons at this period
of Life--originate from irregularity in Diet, Temperature, &c. by Dining
out, and frisking about, joining in Christmas Gambols, &c. in Cold

_The Art of making a room comfortably warm_, does not consist merely in
making a very large Fire in it--but depends as much on the keeping of
cold air out--this is best done by _Double Windows_, see page 91, and
double Doors,--at least take care that your Sashes fit close,--that the
beads of the window frames are tight--stop the aperture between the
skirting boards and the floor with putty--and list the Doors.

We suppose it almost needless to say that every room in the house should
be thoroughly ventilated[47] by a current of fresh Air--at least once
every day, when the weather is not very damp--or cold. By making a Fire
accordingly--this may be done almost every Day in the Year.

If You leave the Door open for _Five_ minutes--it will let in more cold
air than your Fire can make warm in _Fifteen_--therefore, initiate your
Domestics in these first principles of the _Economy of Caloric_,--and
when the Weather is cold, caution them to keep Doors shut.

A regular Temperature may be preserved by a simple contrivance attached
to a Thermometer, which will open an aperture to admit the external
air--when the apartment is heated above the degree desired (_i. e._
about 60 for common constitutions,) and exclude it when it falls below

A Room, which is in constant occupation all day--may be occasionally
_pumped_ by moving the door backward and forward for several minutes.

We do not advise Invalids to indulge themselves in heating their rooms
to a higher temperature[48] than from 60 to 65.--Those who have resided
the best part of their Life in warm climates--will like the latter best.
While we recommend the Aged and Infirm to be kept comfortably warm--they
must at the same time cautiously avoid excess of heat.

When the Thermometer tells them that the external air is under
60,--whether it be in July, or in January,--those who are susceptible of
Cold, must tell their Servants to keep a small fire--especially if the
Weather be at the same time damp.

Those who, from caprice, or parsimony,--instead of obeying this
comfortable and salutary precept, sit shivering and murmuring, and
refuse to employ the Coal-merchant, as a substitute for the Sun--may
soon spend in Physic, more than they have saved in Fuel.

By raising the temperature of my Room to about 65, taking a full dose of
Epsom Salts, and a Broth Diet, and retiring to rest an hour sooner than
usual, I have often very speedily got rid of _Colds_, &c.

The following _Plan of Lighting and managing a Fire_, has been attended
with great comfort and convenience to myself, (particularly at the
beginning and the end of winter, when a very small fire is sufficient),
and I think considerable saving of coals.

Fill your Grate with fresh coals quite up to the upper bar but one, then
lay in your faggot of wood in the usual manner, rather collected in a
mass, than scattered, that a body of concentrated heat may be produced
as soon as possible; over the faggot place the cinders of the preceding
day--piled up as high as the grate will admit, and placed loosely in
rather large fragments--in order that the draft may be free--a bit or
two of fresh coal may be added to the cinders when once they are
lighted, but no small coal must be thrown on at first, for the reason
above stated:--when all is prepared, light the wood, when the cinders
becoming in a short time thoroughly ignited--the gas rising from the
coals below, which will now be effected by the heat, will take fire as
it passes through them, leaving a very small portion of smoke to go up
the Chimney.

The advantage of this mode of lighting a fire is, that small coal is
better suited to the purpose than large--except a few pieces in front to
keep the small from falling out of the Grate--it may be kept in reserve,
to be put on afterwards if wanted. I have frequently known my fire
lighted at 8 o'clock in the morning, continue burning till 11 at night,
without any thing being done to it: when apparently quite out, on being
stirred, you have in a few minutes a glowing fire: it will sometimes be
necessary to loosen, or stir slightly the upper part of the fire if it
begins to cake--but the lower part must not be touched, otherwise it
will burn away too soon.


Many Invalids are hurried into their Grave--by the indiscreet kindness
of their friends forcing them from the comforts of Home--for the sake of
Air more abounding with _Oxygen, i. e._ the vivifying part of the
atmosphere:--that great benefit is received from what is _called_ change
of air is true enough--it is seldom considered that there is also a
change in most of the other circumstances of the patient--many, of
infinitely more importance, than that which derives all the credit of
the Cure.

For instance, if a person living in a confined part of the
City--neglecting exercise, harassed all day by the anxieties of
Business, and sitting up late at Night, &c. be removed to the
tranquillity of rural scenes, which invite him to be almost constantly
taking Exercise in the open Air, and retiring to rest at an early
hour--and thus, instead of being surrounded by irritations unfavourable
to Health, enjoying all the "_jucunda oblivia vitæ_" which are
favourable to it--such a Change will often do wonders, and sufficiently
account for the miraculous cures attributed to--_Change of Air_.

Chemical Philosophers assert indeed--that a Gallon of the unsavoury Gas
from Garlick Hill, gives as high a proportion of _Oxygen_, as the like
quantity of the ethereal element of Primrose Hill:--this seems
incredible, and must arise either from the imperfection of the
_Eudiometer_ giving erroneous results, or from the air being
impregnated with matter unfriendly to Health, which the instruments
employed to analyze it, have not the power of denoting:--let any one
thread the mazes of a crowded city, and walk for the same space of time
in a pleasant Country--the animal spirits will soon testify, which is
the most exhilarating.

However, people certainly do live long, and enjoy Health, in situations
apparently very unfavourable to Animal Life.

Our Omniscient Creator has given to our Lungs, the same faculty of
extracting nutriment from various kinds of Air--as the Stomach has from
various kinds of Aliment:--the Poor man who feeds on the coarsest food,
is supported by it in as sound Health, as the Rich man who fares
sumptuously every day.

Well then, in nine cases out of ten, to change the Atmosphere we have
been long accustomed to, is as unadvisable as a change in the Food we
have been used to--unless other circumstances make it so, than the mere
change of Place.

The Opulent Invalid who has been long indulged with a Home arranged to
his humour--must beware (especially during any exacerbation of his
infirmity) of leaving it--it would be almost as desperate a procedure as
to eject an Oyster from his Shells.


    "By ceaseless action, all that is subsists,
    Constant rotation of the unwearied wheel
    That nature rides upon, maintains her health,
    Her beauty, her fertility. She dreads an instant's pause,
    And lives but while she moves."--COWPER'S _Task_.

    "The wise, for Health on EXERCISE depend;
    God never made his work for Man to mend."

The more luxuriously you live, the more Exercise[49] you require,--the
"_Bon Vivant_" may depend upon the truth of the advice which Sir Charles
Scarborough gave to the Duchess of Portsmouth, "You must Eat less,--or
take more Exercise[50]--or take Physic,--or be Sick."

Exercise is the grand power to promote the Circulation through the
capillary vessels, by which the constitution is preserved from
obstructions,--Appetite increased, and Digestion improved in all its
stages,--the due distribution of nourishment, invigorates the Nervous
System, gives firmness and elasticity to the Muscles, and strength to
every part of the System.

Exercise, to have its full effect, must be continued till we feel a
sensible degree of _Perspiration_,--(which is the _Panacea for the
prevention of Corpulence_)--see page 50--and should, at least once
a-day, proceed to the borders of fatigue, but never pass them,--or we
shall be weakened instead of strengthened.

Health depends upon perpetual Secretion and Absorption, and Exercise
only can produce this.

After Exercise, take care to get cool gradually--when your Head
perspires, rub it, and your Face, &c. dry with a cloth:--this is better
for the Hair than the best "Bear's Grease," and will beautify the
Complexion beyond "_La Cosmétique Royale_," or all the Red and White
Olympian Dew that was ever imported.

One of the most important precepts for the preservation of Health, is to
take care of _the Skin_[51].

In Winter, the surface of the Body, the Feet, &c. should be washed twice
or thrice a Week, with water of the temperature of about 98, and wiped
every Day with a wet towel;--_a Tepid Bath_ of the like temperature once
a fortnight will also conduce much to both health and comfort. Some
advise that the surface of the Body be wiped every morning with a wet
sponge, and rubbed dry after, with not too fine a cloth.


    "Le Vin est l'un des produits de la nature les plus difficiles à
    juger et à bien choisir: et les plus habiles gourmets sont souvent
    mis en défaut."--_Manuel du Sommelier_, Paris, 1817, p. 1.

Wine, especially Port, is generally twice spoiled--before it is
considered fit to be drank!!!

The _Wine-Maker_ spoils it first, by over-loading it with _Brandy_ to
make it keep.--

The _Wine-Drinker_ keeps it till time has not only dissipated the
superabundant spirit,--but even until the acetous fermentation begins to
be evident,--this, it is the taste now to call "_Flavour_,"--and Wine is
not liked, till it has lost so much of its exhilarating power, that you
may drink a Pint of it, before receiving that degree of
excitement,--which the Wine-drinker requires to make him Happy. We mean
a legal PINT containing 16 ounces.

The measure of a BOTTLE OF WINE ought to be as definitive, as that of a
POT OF PORTER:--is it not astonishing that the Legislature have not
ordered _a Standard and Stamped Quart_, for the Wine-merchant--as they
have a Pot for the Publican?

This would be equally as desirable to the respectable Wine-merchant,--as
to the Public.

It would protect the former against the injurious competition of those
who at present, by vending Wine in Bottles of inferior dimension, impose
on the unwary purchaser under pretence of selling at a lower than the
Market price.

    The purchaser of a Dozen Bottles of Wine expects to receive Three
    Gallons of Wine.

    _Proportions of the Wine Gallon, according to the last
    London Pharmacopœia_:--

    Gallon. Pints. Fluid Ounces. Drachms. Minims or Drops.
       1   =  8    =   128     =   1024  =  61,440

    There are   32 ounces in a legal wine quart.
    Multiply by 12 quarts in three gallons.
               384 ounces in ditto.

    Measure the number of ounces your bottle holds--divide 384 by it,
    and the quotient will give you the number of such bottles required
    to contain three gallons of wine.

    Some Bottles do not contain more than 26 ounces.

       26) 384 (14 Bottles, 1 Pint, and a Quarter.


               Multiply        26, _i. e._ the number of ounces
               By              12  your bottle will contain.
                              312  the number of ounces
                                   contained in your dozen
                                   bottles, which
             Ought to hold    384  the number of ounces in
             Subtract         312    Three Gallons.
    Divide by the number } 32) 72 (2 Quarts and half a Pint
    of ounces in a Quart,}     64     short of measure.
                                8 ounces.

    So, instead of THREE GALLONS--you have only _Two Gallons, one Quart,
    and a Pint and a half_.

_The Quantity a Bottle will contain_, may easily be accurately
ascertained, by LYNES'S _graduated Glass measure_, which holds half a
pint, and is divided into ounces, &c.--_it is a convenient vessel to
mix_ GROG _in_.

A PIPE OF PORT contains, on the average, 138 Gallons, of which three
must be allowed for Lees, &c.--This is enough for waste, if the Wine has
been properly fined, and steadily bottled.

      A BUTT OF SHERRY contains 130 gallons.
                MADEIRA,        110 ditto.
    Hogshead of CLARET,          55 ditto.

It is convenient for small Families to have part of their Wine in _Pint

That Wine is much best when quite fresh opened, is a fact it is needless
to observe,--half a Pint of Wine (_i. e._ 8 ounces, _i. e._ 4 ordinary
wine-glasses) is as much as most people (who have not spoiled their
stomachs by intemperance) require.

The Rage for Superannuated Wine,--is one of the most _ridiculous Vulgar
Errors of Modern Epicurism_,--"the Bee's Wing," "thick Crust[52] on the
Bottle," "loss of strength, &c." which Wine-fanciers consider the Beauty
of their tawny favourite, "fine Old Port,"--are forbidding
manifestations of decomposition, and the departure of some of the best
qualities of the Wine.

The Age[53] of maturity for exportation from Oporto, is said to be the
second year after the Vintage, (probably sometimes not quite so long.)

Our Wine-merchants keep it in Wood from two to six years longer,
according to its original strength, &c.--surely this must be long enough
to do all that can be done by keeping it--what crude Wine it must be to
require even this time to ameliorate it--the necessity for which, must
arise either from some error in the original manufacture,--or a false
taste, which does not relish it, till Time has changed its original

_Ordinary Port_ is a very uncleansed, fretful Wine--and experienced
judges have assured us, that _the Best Port_ is rather impoverished than
improved, by being kept in Bottle longer than Two[54] Years, _i. e._
supposing it to have been previously from two to four years in the Cask
in this Country,--observing, that all that the outrageous advocates for
"_vin passé_"--really know about it, is, that SHERRY _is Yellow_,--and
PORT _is Black_,--and that if they drink enough of either of them,--it
will make them Drunk.

WHITE WINES, especially _Sherry_ and _Madeira_, being more perfectly
fermented, and thoroughly fined before they are bottled--if kept in a
cellar of uniform temperature, are not so rapidly deteriorated by Age.

_The Temperature of a Good Cellar_ is nearly the same throughout the
year. _Double Doors_ help to preserve this. It must be dry, and be kept
as clean as possible.

_The Art of preserving Wines_, is to keep them from fretting, which is
done by keeping them in the same degree of heat, and careful
Corking[55]. "If persons wish to preserve the fine flavour of their
Wines, they ought _on no account_ to permit any Bacon, Cheese, Onions,
Potatoes, or Cider, in their wine-cellars. Or, if there be any
disagreeable stench in the Cellar, the wine will indubitably imbibe it;
consequently, instead of being fragrant and charming to the nose and
palate, it will be extremely disagreeable."--CARNELL _on Wine Making_,
8vo. 1814, p. 124. See also _Manuel du Sommelier, par A. Jullien_,
Paris, 1817.

That MADEIRA (if properly matured before) improves in quality by being
carried to the _East Indies_ and back, by which Voyage it loses from 8
to 10 Gallons,--or to the _West_, by which about 5 are
wasted[56],--however these round-about manœuvres may tickle the fancy
of those folks who cannot relish any thing that is not far-fetched,
dear-bought, and hard to be had, and to whom rarity is the "_sine qua
non_" of recommendation--it is one of those inconvenient prejudices,
from which common sense preserve us!

The Vulgar objection to _New Wine_--(by which we mean Wine that has been
maturing in Wood two years in Portugal--two in England--and in Bottle
more than twelve months), is, that its exhilarating qualities are too
abundant, and intoxicate in too small a dose--those "_Bons Vivants_," to
whom "the Bottle, the Sun of the table," and who are not in the habit
of crying to go home to Bed while they can see it shining,--require
Wines weaker than those which are usually imported from Spain and
Portugal,--however PORT and SHERRY may be easily reduced to the standard
desired by the long-sitter,--"_paululum aceti acetosi_," will give the
Acid Goût,--"_aqua pura_" will subdue their Spirit "_ad libitum_,"--and
produce _an imitation of the flavour acquired by Age, extempore_--and
You can thus very easily make fine fruity nutritious new Wine,--as
Light,--and as Old[57],--and as Poor, as you please--and fit it exactly
to your customer's palate, whether "_Massa drinky for Drinky,--or drinky
for Drunky Massa._"

_To ameliorate very new, or very old Wine_--mix a bottle of the one with
a bottle of the other--or to a bottle of very old Port add a glass or
two of good new Claret--to very new, a glass of Sherry.

Of all our Senses,--_the Taste_, especially for Liquids, is the most
sophisticated Slave of Habit--"De gustibus, non est disputandum."

The Astringent matter, and Alcohol--which render PORT WINE the prop of
an Englishman's Heart--are intolerable to the palate of an Italian, or
Frenchman.--But a Stomach which has been accustomed to be wound up by
the double stimulus of Astringents, and Alcohol also,--will not be
content with the latter only,--especially if that be in less
quantity--as it is in the _Italian and French Wines_; which, therefore,
for the generality of Englishmen, are insufficiently excitant.

He who has been in the habit of drinking PORTER at Dinner,--and PORT
after--will feel uncomfortable with _Home-brewed Ale_, and _Claret_.

Mr. ACCUM, the chemist, analyzed for the Editor, some PORT and SHERRY of
the finest quality--the PORT[58] yielded 20 per cent--and the SHERRY
19-25 per cent, of ALCOHOL of 825 specific gravity--_i. e._ the
strongest Spirit of Wine that can be drawn, full double the strength of
BRANDY, which seldom has 40 per Cent, and common GIN[59] not more than
30--or 25.

Some people have a notion that if they go to the Docks, they can
purchase a Pipe of Wine for twenty pounds less, than they must pay to a
regular Wine Merchant--and, moreover, have it _neat as imported_--as if
all Wines of the same _Name_, were of the same Quality.

PORT _varies at Oporto in quality and price as much as_ PORTER _does in
London_--it is needless to say how difficult it is to obtain the best
Beer at any price--it is quite as difficult to obtain the best Port Wine
at Oporto, where the very superior wine is all bought up at a
proportionately high price by the agents for the London Wine Merchants.

BRANDIES and WINES _vary in quality quite as much as they do in Price_:
not less than twenty pounds per Pipe in the country where they are made.

The only way to obtain genuine wholesome liquor, is to apply to a
respectable Wine Merchant--and beg of him to send you the best wine at
the regular market price.

If you are particular about the Quality of what you buy--the less You
ask about the price of it the better--if you are not, bargain as hard
as you please.

The Editor buys his _Wines_ of Messrs. DANVERS and CLARKE, No. 122,
Upper Thames Street; his _Brandy and Liqueurs_[60] of Messrs. JOHNSON,
in Pall Mall; and his _Spirits_, &c. of Mr. RICKARDS, Piccadilly.

_A Moral and Physical Thermometer; or, a Scale of the Progress of
Temperance and Intemperance, by_ J. C. LETTSOM, M. D.

LIQUORS, _with their_ EFFECTS, _in their usual Order_.


 70-|-| WATER.                  } {           Health, Wealth,
    |-|                         } {
    |-|                         } {
    |-|                         } {           Serenity of Mind,
    |-|                         } {
 60-|-| Milk and Water.         } {
    |-|                         } {           Reputation, long Life,
    |-|                         } {             and
    |-|                         } {
    |-|                         } {           Happiness.
 50-|-| Small Beer.             } {
    |-|                         } {
    |-|                         } {
    |-|                         } {
    |-|                         } {
 40-|-| Cyder and Perry.        } {           Cheerfulness,
    |-|                         } {
    |-|                         } {
    |-|                         } {
    |-|                         } {           Strength, and
 30-|-| Wine.                   } {
    |-|                         } {
    |-|                         } {
    |-|                         } {           Nourishment, when taken
    |-|                         } {
 20-|-| Porter.                 } {
    |-|                         } {             only at Meals, and in
    |-|                         } {
    |-|                         } {
    |-|                         } {             moderate Quantities.
 10-|-| Strong Beer.            } {
  0-|-|                     INTEMPERANCE.
    |-|                }{   VICES.   }{     DISEASES.     }{PUNISHMENTS.
    |-|                }{            }{                   }{
 10-|-|Punch.          }{Idleness.   }{Sickness,          }{
    |-|                }{            }{Puking, and        }{
    |-|                }{            }{Tremors of the     }{Debt.
    |-|                }{Peevishness.}{  Hands in the     }{
    |-|                }{            }{  Morning.         }{
 20-|-|Toddy and Crank.}{            }{                   }{Black Eye.
    |-|                }{            }{                   }{
    |-|                }{Quarrelling.}{Bloatedness.       }{
    |-|                }{            }{                   }{
    |-|{Grog, and      }{            }{Inflamed Eyes.     }{
 30-|-|{Brandy and     }{Fighting.   }{                   }{Rags.
    |-|{Water.         }{            }{Red Nose and Face. }{
    |-|                }{Lying.      }{Sore and swelled   }{Hunger.
    |-|                }{            }{  Legs.            }{
    |-|                }{            }{                   }{
 40-|-|Flip and Shrub. }{Swearing.   }{Jaundice.          }{Hospital.
    |-|                }{            }{                   }{
    |-|                }{            }{                   }{
    |-|{Bitters infused}{Obscenity.  }{Pains in the Limbs,}{Poor-house.
    |-|{in Spirits.    }{            }{  and burning in   }{
 50-|-|{Usquebaugh.    }{Swindling.  }{  the Palms of the }{
    |-|{Hystericwater. }{            }{  Hands, and Soles }{Jail.
    |-|                }{            }{  of the Feet.     }{
    |-|{Gin, Anniseed, }{Perjury.    }{Dropsy.            }{Whipping.
    |-|{Brandy,        }{            }{Epilepsy.          }{
 60-|-|{Rum, and       }{Burglary.   }{Melancholy.        }{The Hulks.
    |-|{Whisky in the  }{            }{Madness.           }{
    |-|{_Morning_.     }{            }{Palsy.             }{Botany Bay.
    |-|                }{Murder.     }{Apoplexy.          }{
    |-|{Do, during     }{            }{                   }{
 70-|-|{the _Day and_  }{            }{                   }{
    |-|{_Night_.       }{Suicide.    }{DEATH.             }{GALLOWS.

_Those who drink Wine[61], &c. for the purpose it was given_, as a
Cordial, to cheer the Circulation, when it falters from Fatigue, Age, or
profuse Evacuations of any kind, "for the Stomach's sake," as St. Paul
recommends it, and for our "often infirmities" as a medicine--will
understand, that of all the ways of saving, to run any risk of buying
inferior Wine, is the most ridiculously unwise Economy.

To _Ice Wine_ is another very unprofitable and inconvenient custom--and
not only deteriorates its flavour, but by rendering it dull in the
mouth--people are induced to drink too much, as they are deprived of the
advantage of knowing when they have got enough--for as soon as the Wine
becomes warm in their Stomachs,--the dose they have taken merely to
exhilarate them--makes them drunk.

_The true Economy of Drinking_,--is to excite as much Exhilaration as
may be,--with as little Wine.

We deprecate the custom of _sitting for Hours after Dinner, and keeping
the Stomach in an incessant state of irritation by sipping
Wine,--nothing can be more prejudicial to Digestion_[62]--it is much
better to mix Food and Drink--and to take them by alternate
mouthsful.--See page 11.

Our "VINUM BRITANNICUM"--good Home-brewed Beer--which has been very
deservedly called "_Liquid Bread_," is preferable to any other Beverage
during Dinner or Supper--or _Port_ or _Sherry_ diluted with about three
or four times their quantity of Toast and Water--(No. 463*): undiluted,
these Wines are too strong to be drank during Dinner,--they act so
powerfully on the feelings of the Stomach, that they dull the desire for
solid Food, by producing the sensation of Restoration,--and the System,
instead of receiving material to repair and strengthen it,--is merely
stimulated during the action of the Vinous spirit.

However, the dull stimulus of Distention, is insufficient for some
delicate Stomachs, which do absolutely require to be screwed up with a
certain quantity of diffusible Stimulus[63],--without which, they cannot
proceed effectively to the business of Digestion,--or indeed any other
business--we do not recommend such, especially if they have passed the
Meridian of Life, to attempt to entirely wean themselves of it--but
advise them, _immediately after Dinner_, to drink as much as is
necessary to excite that degree of action in their System, without which
they are uncomfortable, and then to stop.--See Observations on

Now-a-days, _Babies_ are brought to table after Dinner by Children of
larger growth--to drink Wine,--which has as bad an effect on their
tender susceptible stomachs, as the like quantity of ALCOHOL would
produce upon an Adult.

Wine has been called "the Milk of Old Age," so "Milk is the Wine of
Youth." As Dr. Johnson observed, it is much easier to be abstinent than
to be temperate--and no man should habitually take Wine as Food till he
is past 30 years of age[64] at least;--happy is He who preserves this
best of Cordials in reserve, and only takes it to support his Mind and
Heart when distressed by anxiety and fatigue. That which may be a
needful stimulus at 40 or 50, will inflame the Passions into madness at
20 or 30--and at an earlier period is absolute Poison.

Among other _innumerable Advantages which the Water-drinker enjoys_,
remember he saves at least FIFTY GUINEAS per annum--which the Beer and
Wine drinker wastes--as much to the detriment of his health, as the
diminution of his Finances: moreover, nothing deteriorates the sense of
Taste so soon as strong liquors--the _Water-drinker_ enjoys an exquisite
sensibility of Palate, and relish for plain food, that a Wine-drinker
has no idea of.

Some people make it a rule to drink a certain number of Glasses of Wine
during and after dinner, whether they are dry, or languid, or not--this
is as ridiculous as it would be to eat a certain number of Mutton Chops
whether you are hungry or not. The effect produced by Wine is seldom the
same, even in the same person--and depends on the state of the animal
spirits at the time--whether the stomach be full or empty, &c.

The more simply Life is supported, and the less Stimulus we use, the
better--and Happy are the Young and Healthy who are wise enough to be
convinced that Water is the best drink, and Salt the best sauce.

But in Invalids past the Meridian of Life, we believe as much mischief
is going on when our Pulse hobbles along as if the Heart was too tired
to carry on the Circulation, as can possibly be done to the constitution
by taking such a portion of Wine as will remove the collapse--and excite
the mainspring of Life to vibrate with healthful vigour.

The following is the Editor's plan of taking liquid food at
Dinner,--when he cannot get Good Beer:--he has two wine glasses of
Sherry, or one of Whiskey[65], or Brandy, (No. 471), and three-fourths
of a pint of good Toast and Water, (No. 463), (which when Dyspeptic he
has warmed to about Summer Heat, _i. e._ 75 of Fahrenheit,) and puts a
wine-glass of Sherry, or half a glass of Whiskey, &c. into half a pint
of the water, and the other glass of Sherry, or half glass of Whiskey,
&c. into the remaining quarter pint--thus increasing the strength of the
liquid towards the conclusion of Dinner, after which he drinks from two
to four glasses of Port or Sherry--as Instinct suggests the state of the
circulation requires--if it be very languid, a _Liqueur_ glass of
JOHNSON'S[66] _Witte Curaçoa_[67] is occasionally recommended as a
renovating _Bonne Bouche_--about a quarter of an hour after dinner, he
lies down on a Sofa, and sleeps for about half an hour--this has been
his custom for the last twenty years--half an hour's horizontal posture
is more restorative to him--than if he had sat up and drank three or
four more glasses of wine.

As to _the Wholesomeness of various Wines_[68],--that depends on the
integrity and skill of the Wine-maker,--and upon the peculiar state of
the stomach of the Wine-drinker:--when my Stomach is not in Good
Temper,--it generally desires to have _Red Wine_,--but when in best
Health,--nothing affronts it more than to put _Port_ into it--and one of
the first symptoms of its coming into adjustment, is a wish for _White

One of the chief causes of that derangement of the Stomach, which
delicate and aged persons so constantly complain of after _Dining
out_--is the drinking of Wines, &c. which they are unused to.

_White_, deserve to be preferred to _Red Wines_,--because the latter
being harder pressed, and subjected to a stronger fermentation to
extract the colouring matter from the husks of the Grape, are more
loaded with feculence.

Of RED WINES, _Claret_ is the best; and it is to be lamented, that the
Duty imposed upon it is so great, that to moderate fortunes it amounts
to a prohibition--when we make this observation, we do not mean to
impeach the prudence which has induced those who no doubt best
understand the subject,--to determine that political necessity
imperatively decrees that the delightful and salubrious wines of
France--must be taxed twice as high as the coarse unwholesome wines of

Of the _White_ Wines, we believe that _Sherry_ is the most easy--and
_Madeira_ the most difficult to obtain genuine--most of the SWEET Wines
are as artificially compounded, as the Beers of this country; the
addition of Capillaire to Port wine, makes what is commonly called
_Tent_. _Mountain, Calcavella, &c._ are made up in the same manner.

For further Illustrations of this subject, see ACCUM _on Adulterations_,
2d Edition, 12mo. 1820.

_An Inquiry into the Effects of Fermented Liquors, by a Water-drinker_,
2d Edit. 1818.

SANDFORD'S _Remarks on Wine_. Worcester, 1799.

LETTSOM, _on the Effects of Hard Drinking_.

TROTTER, _on Drunkenness_, 1804.

ACCUM'S _Art of making English Wine_, 1820.

CARNELL, _on Family Wine Making_, 1814.

ACCUM, _on Brewing_, 1820.

RAWLINSON, _on Brewing in Small Quantities_,--printed for Johnson, 1807,
price 1s.; _and Home Brewed Ale_, printed for Robinson, 1804, price 2s.

_Facts Proving Water the best Beverage._ Printed by Smeeton, in St.
Martin's Lane.

_Manuel de Sommelier, par_ A. JULLIEN, Paris, 1817.


    "Suaviter in modo, sed fortiter in re."

Not one Constitution in a thousand, is so happily constructed or is
constantly in such perfect adjustment, that the operations of the
Abdominal Viscera (on which every other movement of the system depends)
proceed with healthful regularity.

The following hints will point out to the Reader, how to employ Art to
afford that assistance to Nature, which in Indisposition and Age, is so
often required, and will teach him to counteract in the most prompt and
agreeable manner--the effects of those accidental deviations from strict
Temperance,--which sometimes overcome the most abstemious
philosopher--when the seducing charms of Conviviality tempt him to
forego the prudent maxims of his cooler moments.

They will help those who have delicate Constitutions, to obtain their
fair share of Health and Strength,--and instruct the Weak, so to
economize the powers they have, that they may enjoy Life as well as the

To humour that desire for the marvellous, which is so universal in
medical (as well as in other) matters,--the makers of _Aperient Pills_
generally select the most DRASTIC PURGATIVES, which operating
considerably in a dose of a few grains, excite admiration in the
Patient, and faith in their powers, in proportion as a small dose
produces a great effect,--who seldom considers how irritating such
materials must be,--and consequently how injurious to a Stomach in a
state of Debility, and perhaps deranged by indulging Appetite beyond the
bounds of moderation.

INDIGESTION will sometimes overtake the most experienced Epicure;--when
the gustatory nerves are in good humour, Hunger and Savoury Viands will
sometimes seduce the Tongue of a "_Grand Gourmand_" to betray the
interest of his Stomach[69] in spite of his Brains.

On such an unfortunate occasion,--whether the intestinal commotion be
excited by having eaten too much, or too strong food--lie down--have
your Tea early after Dinner--and drink it warm.

This is a hint to help the Invalid, whose digestion is so delicate, that
it is sometimes disordered by a Meal of the strictest Temperance. If the
anxiety, &c. about the Stomach does not speedily abate, apply the
"_Stomach Warmer_." This valuable companion to Aged and Gouty Subjects,
may be procured at No. 58, Haymarket.

A certain degree of Heat is absolutely necessary to excite and support a
regular process of Digestion;--when the Circulation is languid, and the
food difficult of solution, in Aged persons and Invalids,--_External
Heat_ will considerably assist Concoction, and the application of this
califacient concave will enable the Digestive organs to overcome
refractory materials,--and convert them into laudable Chyle.

Unless the Constitution is so confoundedly debilitated, that the
Circulation cannot run alone--_Abstinence_[70] is the
easiest--cheapest--and best cure for the disorders which arise from
_Indigestion_ or _Intemperance_. I do not mean what Celsus calls the
first degree of it, "when the sick man takes nothing," but the second,
"when he takes nothing but what he ought."

The Chylopoietic organs are uncomfortable when entirely
unoccupied,--when the Stomach is too tired to work, and too weak to be
employed on actual service,--it desires something to be introduced to
it, that will entertain it till it recovers its energy.

After INTEMPERATE FEASTING one day, let the food of the following day be
Liquid, or of such materials as are easy of solution.

Various expedients have been recommended for preventing and relieving
the disorders arising from too copious libations of "the Regal purple

When a good fellow has been sacrificing rather too liberally at the
shrine of the Jolly God, the best remedy to help the Stomach to get rid
of its burthen, is to take for Supper some GRUEL, (No. 572, _see
Index_,) with half an ounce of Butter, and a teaspoonful of _Epsom Salt_
in it; or two or three _Peristaltic Persuaders_,--which some
Gastropholists take as a provocative to appetite, about an hour before

Some persons take as a "_sequitur_" a drachm of _Carbonate of Soda_.

Others a teaspoonful of _Calcined Magnesia_:--when immediate relief is
required, never administer this uncertain medicine, which, if the
Stomach has no Acid ready to dissolve it,--will remain inert; it must be
taken, only when _Heart-burn_ and symptoms of Acidity are manifest.

As a _Finale_ to the day of the Feast, or the _Overture_ of the day
after, take (No. 481*,) or two drachms of _Epsom Salt_ in half a pint of
_Beef Tea_,--or some _Tincture of Rhubarb_ in hot water,--the first
thing to be done, is to endeavour to get rid of the offending material.

A Breakfast of _Beef Tea_[71] (No. 563,) is an excellent
Restorative;--when _the Languor following Hard Drinking_ is very
distressing, indulge in the horizontal posture; (see _Siesta_, p. 94;)
nothing relieves it so effectually, or so soon cheers the Circulation,
and sets all right;--get an early Luncheon of restorative Broth or

HARD DRINKING _is doubly debilitating, when pursued beyond the usual
hour of retiring to Rest._

Those devotees to the Bottle, who never suffer the orgies of Bacchus to
encroach on the time which Nature demands for Sleep,--escape with
impunity, many of the evils which soon--and irreparably--impair the
Health of the Midnight reveller.

A facetious observer of the inordinate degree in which some people will
indulge their Palate, to the gratification of which they sacrifice all
their other senses,--recommends such to have their Soup seasoned with a
tasteless purgative, as the Food of insane persons sometimes is, and so
prepare their bowels for the hard work they are going to give them!!

To let the Stomach have a holiday occasionally--_i. e._ a Liquid diet,
of Broth and Vegetable Soup, is one of the most agreeable and most
wholesome ways of restoring its Tone.

_If your Appetite[72] be languid_, take additional Exercise in a pure
open Air,--or Dine half an hour later than usual, and so give time for
the Gastric Juices to assemble in full force;--or dine upon Fish--or
_Chinese Soup_, _i. e._ Tea.

If these simple means are ineffectual,--the next step, is to produce
energetic vibration in the Alimentary tube, without exciting inordinate
action, or debilitating depletion; and to empty the Bowels, without
irritating them.

Sometimes _when the languor occasioned by Dyspepsia, &c. is extreme_,
the Torpor of the System becomes so tremendous--that no Stimulus will
help it, and the Heart feels as if it was tired of beating--a moderate
dose of a quickly operating Aperient, _i. e._ half an ounce of Tincture
of Rhubarb, and two drachms of Epsom Salts in a tumbler of hot
water--will speedily restore its wonted energy.

THE STOMACH is the centre of Sympathy;--if the most minute fibre of the
human frame be hurt, intelligence of the injury instantaneously
arrives;--and the Stomach is disturbed, in proportion to the importance
of the Member, and the degree in which it is offended.

If either the Body or the Mind be fatigued,--the Stomach invariably
sympathizes;--if the most robust do any thing too much, the Stomach is
soon affronted,--and does too little:--unless this mainspring of Health
be in perfect adjustment, the machinery of life will vibrate with
languor;--especially those parts which are naturally weak, or have been
injured by Accidents, &c. Constipation is increased in costive
habits--and Diarrhœa in such as are subject thereto--and all Chronic
complaints are exasperated, especially in persons past the age of 35

Of the various helps to Science, none perhaps more rapidly facilitate
the acquirement of knowledge, than analogical reasoning; or illustrating
an Art we are ignorant of, by one we are acquainted with.

THE HUMAN FRAME may be compared to a Watch, of which the Heart is the
Mainspring--the Stomach the regulator,--and what we put into it, the Key
by which the machine is wound up;--_according to the
quantity,--quality,--and proper digestion of what we Eat[73] and Drink,
will be the pace of_ _the Pulse, and the action of the System in
general_:--when we observe a due proportion between the quantum of
Exercise and that of Excitement, all goes well.--If the machine be
disordered, the same expedients are employed for its re-adjustment, as
are used by the Watch-maker; it must be carefully cleaned, and
judiciously oiled.

Eating _Salads_ after Dinner,--and chilling the Stomach, and checking
the process of digestion by swilling cold _Soda Water_--we hold to be
other Vulgar Errors.

It is your superfluous SECOND COURSES,--and ridiculous variety of
Wines,--Liqueurs,--Ices, Desserts, &c.--which (are served up more to
gratify the pride of the Host, than the appetite of the Guests that)
_overcome the Stomach, and paralyze Digestion_, and seduce "Children of
larger Growth" to sacrifice the health and comfort of several days--for
the Baby-pleasure of tickling their tongue for a few minutes, with
Trifles and Custards!!

Most of those who have written on what--by a strange perversion of
language--are most non-naturally termed the non-naturals,--have merely
laid before the Public a nonsensical register of the peculiarities of
their own Palate, and the idiosyncracies of their own Constitution[74].

Some omnivorous Cormorants have such an ever-craving Appetite, that they
are raging with hunger as soon as they open their Eyes,--and bolt half a
dozen hard Eggs before they are well awake;--Others are so perfectly
restored by that "chief nourisher in Life's feast," Balmy Sleep, that
they do not think about Eating,--till they have been up and actively
employed for several hours.

The strong Food, which the strong action of strong bodies
requires--would soon destroy weak ones,--if the latter attempt to follow
the example of the former,--instead of feeling invigorated, their
Stomachs will be as oppressed, as a Porter is with a load that is too
heavy for him,--and, under the idea of swallowing what are called
strengthening nourishing things,--will very soon make themselves ready
for the Undertaker.

Some people seem to think, that the more plentifully they stuff
themselves, the better they must thrive, and the stronger they must

It is not the quantity that we swallow,--but that which is properly
digested, which nourishes us.

A Moderate Meal well digested, renders the body vigorous,--glutting it
with superfluity, (which is only turned into excrement instead of
aliment, and if not speedily evacuated,) not only oppresses the System,
but produces all sorts of Disorders.

Some are continually inviting _Indigestion_,--by eating _Water-cresses_,
or other undressed Vegetables[75], "to sweeten their Blood,"--or
_Oysters_ "to enrich it."--Others fancy their Dinner cannot digest till
they have closed the orifice of their Stomachs with a certain portion of
_Cheese_,--if the preceding Dinner has been a light one, a little bit of
Cheese after it may not do much harm, but its character for encouraging
concoction is undeserved,--there is not a more absurd Vulgar Error, than
the often quoted proverb, that

    "Cheese is a surly Elf,
    Digesting all things, but itself."

A Third never eats Goose, &c. without remembering that _Brandy_ or
_Cayenne_ is the Latin for it.

A much less portion of Stimulus is necessary after a hearty meal of
califactive materials, such as good Beef or Mutton--than after a
_maigre_ Dinner of Fish, &c.

Another _Vulgar Error_ in the school of Good Living, is, that "_Good
eating_ requires _Good drinking_."--_Good_ eating generally implies
_high_ seasoned Viands,--the savoury Herbs, and stimulating Spices with
which these _Haut-Gouts_ are sprinkled and stuffed, &c. are sufficient
to encourage the digestive faculties to work "_con amore_" without any
"_douceur_" of Vinous irrigation,--but many persons make it a rule,
after eating Pig, &c. to take a glass of _Liqueur_, or _Eau de Vie_,
&c.--or, as when used in this manner, it would be as properly called,
"_eau de mort_."

INDIGESTION, or, to use the term of the day, A BILIOUS ATTACK,--_as
often arises from over-exertion, or_ ANXIETY OF MIND,--as from
refractory Food; it frequently produces FLATULENCE[76], and flatulence
produces _Palpitation of the Heart_; which is most difficult to stop,
when it comes on about an hour or two after a Meal;--the Stomach seems
incapable of proceeding in its business, from being over-distended with
wind, which pressing on the Heart and larger vessels, obstructs the
Circulation:--as soon as this flatulence is dispelled, all goes well
again:--inflating the Lungs to the utmost, _i. e._ taking in as much
breath as you can, and holding it as long as you can, will sometimes act
as a counterbalance, and produce relief.

This is the first thing to do when this distressing Spasm attacks
you,--if it is not immediately checked; take a strong _Peppermint_, or
_Ginger Lozenge_, (see page 99,) sit,--or if possible lie down and
loosen all ligatures; the horizontal posture and perfect quiet are grand
Panaceas in this disorder;--if these do not soon settle it, drink some
stimulus: sometimes a teacupful of _Hot water_, with a teaspoonful of
common salt in it, will suffice,--or a couple of glasses of _Wine_,--or
one of _Brandy_ in one of hot water: either of these will generally soon
restore sufficient energy to the Stomach, to enable it to expel the
enemy that offends it, and set the circulation to work freely again.--If
these means are not immediately efficacious, take half an ounce of
_Tincture of Rhubarb_ in a quarter pint of hot water,--or three or four
_Peristaltic Persuaders_, with half a pint of hot water.

If this complaint comes on when the Bowels are costive,--they must be
put into motion as speedily as possible, by some of the means
recommended in the following pages.

It will sometimes come on during the collapsed state of the system,

_Those who take no Food between an early_ BREAKFAST--_and a late_
DINNER,--for fear, as they term it, of spoiling the latter
meal,--generally complain of _Flatulence_,--_Languor_, _Lowness of
Spirits_, &c. (and those who are troubled by a _Cough_, have often a
paroxysm of it,) for the hour or more before Dinner;--and _Heartburn_,
&c. after it:--the former arising from fasting too long, the latter from
indulging an Appetite so over excited, that a Baron of Beef, a Pail of
Port Wine, and a Tubful of Tea, will hardly satisfy it.

The languor of _Inanition_, and the fever of _Repletion_, may be easily
avoided by eating a LUNCHEON,--solid and nutritive, in proportion as the
DINNER is protracted, and the activity of the Exercise to be taken in
the mean-time.

The oftener you eat, the less ought to be eaten at a time; and the less
you eat at a time, the oftener you ought to eat:--_a weak_ _Stomach_
has a much better chance of digesting two light meals, than one heavy

The Stomach should be allowed time to empty itself, before we fill it

There is not only a considerable difference in the digestibility of
various Foods,--but also of the time required by different Stomachs to
digest them--the sign of which, is the return of Appetite.

The digestion of Aliment is perfect, and quickly performed, in
proportion to the keenness of our Appetite at the time of taking
it--more or less perfect Mastication--and the vigorous state of the
organs of Digestion,--as a general rule, _the interval of Fasting_
should seldom be less than three, nor more than five
hours[77],--Digestion being generally completed within that time.

The Fashion of A.D. 1820 has introduced a much longer fast ("a windy
recreation," as father Paul assures the lay brother) than even the
elasticity of robust Health can endure, without distressing the
adjustment of the System,--and creating such an over-excited appetite,
that the Stomach does not feel it has had enough,--till it finds that it
has been crammed too much[78].

    "When Hunger[79] calls, obey, nor often wait
    Till hunger sharpen to corrosive pain;
    For the keen appetite will feast beyond
    What nature well can bear."

This important truth--we would most strongly press on the consideration
of Those who attend our COURTS OF LAW, and PARLIAMENT.

Many industrious Professional men, in order to add a few pounds to their
Income--in a few years are quite worn out--from their digestive
faculties being continually disordered and fretted for want of _regular_
supplies of _Food_; and sufficient _Sleep_.

An Egg boiled in the shell for five minutes, or _Les Tablettes de
Bouillon_ (No. 252), and a bit of Bread, is a convenient provision
against the former--_the Siesta_ (see page 94) is the best Antidote for
the latter.

The sensation of _Hunger_ arises from the Gastric juices acting upon the
coats of the Stomach--how injurious it must be to fast so long, that by
neglecting to supply it with some alimentary substance which this fluid
was formed to dissolve,--the Stomach becomes in danger of being digested

Those who feel a gnawing, as they call it, in their Stomach, should not
wait till the stated hour of dinner, but eat a little forthwith, that
the Stomach may have something to work upon.

By _too long Fasting_, Wind accumulates in the Stomach, especially of
those who have passed the meridian of Life--and produces a distressing
Flatulence--Languor--Faintness--Giddiness--Palpitation of the Heart, &c.

If the Morning has been occupied by anxiety in Business,--or the Mind or
Body is fatigued by over-exertion--these symptoms will sometimes come
on about an hour or two before the usual time of Dining,--well
masticating a bit of Biscuit, and letting a strong Peppermint Lozenge
(see page 99) dissolve in the mouth as soon as you feel the first
symptoms of Flatulence,--will often pacify the Stomach, and prevent the
increase of these complaints.

DR. WHYTT, whose observations on _Nervous Disorders_, (like this work),
are valuable, inasmuch as they are the authentic narrative of his own
Experience--says, page 344, "When my Stomach has been weak, after I have
been indisposed, I have often found myself much better for a glass of
Claret and a bit of bread, an hour or more before Dinner, and I have
ordered it in the same way to others, and again in the evening, an hour
or more before Supper, with advantage."

There is no doubt of the propriety of DR. W.'s prescription, the
Editor's own feelings bear witness to it. For those who are just
recovering from Diseases which have left them in a state of great
Debility, a glass of Wine and a bit of Bread,--or a cup of good _Beef
Tea_, (see page 96) are perhaps as good TONICS as any,--they not only
remove Languor, but at the same time furnish Nutriment.

We have known weak Stomachs, when kept fasting beyond the time they
expected,--become so exhausted--they would refuse to receive any solid
Food,--until restored to good temper,--and wound up by some Wine, or
other stimulus--as Instinct proposed.

Feeble Persons, who are subject to such sudden attacks, should always
travel armed with a _Pocket Pistol_ charged with a couple of glasses of
White Wine, or, "_Veritable Eau de Vie_,"--a Biscuit, and some strong
Peppermint or Ginger Lozenges, or see "_Tablettes de Bouillon_" (No.
252):--when their Stomach is uneasy from emptiness, &c. these crutches
will support the Circulation,--and considerably diminish, and sometimes
entirely prevent the distressing effects which Invalids suffer from too
long a Fast[80].

What a contrast there is between the materials of the morning meal A.D.
1550, when Queen Elizabeth's Maids of Honour began the day with a _Round
of Beef_,--or a _Red Herring_, and a _flaggon of Ale_--and in 1821, when
the Sportsman, and even the day-Labourer, breakfast on what Cooks call
"_Chinese Soup_," i. e. Tea.

SWIFT has jocosely observed, such is the extent of modern Epicurism,
that "_the World[81] must be encompassed--before a Washerwoman can sit
down to Breakfast_," _i. e._ by a voyage to the East for Tea, and to the
West for Sugar.

In THE NORTHUMBERLAND HOUSEHOLD BOOK for 1512, we are informed that "_a
Thousand Pounds_ was the sum annually expended in Housekeeping,--this
_maintained_ 166 _Persons_,--and the Wheat was then 5_s._ 8_d._ per

"The Family rose at six in the morning,--my Lord and my Lady had set on
their Table for BREAKFAST, _at Seven o'clock_ in the morning,

    A quart of Beer,
    A quart of Wine,
    Two pieces of Salt Fish,
    Half a dozen Red Herrings,
    Four White ones, and
    A Dish of Sprats!!!

"_They_ DINED _at Ten_--SUPPED _at Four_ in the afternoon,--The Gates
were all shut at nine, and no further ingress or egress permitted."--See
pages 314 and 318.

    But now, A.D. 1821,

    "The Gentleman who dines the latest
    Is, in our Street, esteemed the greatest:
    But surely greater than them all,
    Is he who never Dines[82] at all."

    DINNERS at _Night_,


    SUPPERS in the _Morning_,

A few Cautionary Hints to Modern Fashionables.--

    "The Ancients did delight, forsooth,
    To sport in allegoric Truth;
    Apollo, as we long have read since,
    Was God of Music, and of Med'cines.
    _In Prose_, APOLLO is the Sun,
    And when he has his course begun,
    The allegory then implies
    'Tis Time for wise men to arise;
    For ancient sages all commend
    The morning, as the Muses friend;
    But modern Wits are seldom able
    To sift the moral of this fable;--
    But give to Sleep's oblivious power
    The treasures of the morning hour,
    And leave reluctant, and with Pain,
    With feeble nerve, and muddy Brain,
    Their favorite couches late at noon,
    And quit them then perhaps too soon,
    Mistaking by a sunblind sight
    The Night for Day--and Day for Night.
    Quitting their healthful guide Apollo,
    What fatal follies do they follow!
    _Dinners_ at night--and in the Morn
    _Suppers_, serv'd up as if in scorn
    Of Nature's wholesome regulations,
    Both in their Viands and Potations.
    Besides, Apollo is M. D.
    As all Mythologists agree,
    And skill'd in Herbs and all their virtues,
    As well as Ayton is, or Curtis.
    No doubt his excellence would stoop
    To dictate a Receipt for _Soup_,
    Show as much skill in dressing _Salad_,
    As in composing of a _Ballad_,
    'Twixt Health and Riot draw a line,
    And teach us How--and When--to dine.
    The Stomach, that great Organ, soon,
    If overcharg'd, is out of tune,
    Blown up with Wind that sore annoys
    The Ear with most unhallow'd noise!!
    Now all these Sorrows and Diseases
    A man may fly from if he pleases;
    For rising early will restore
    His powers to what they were before,
    Teach him to Dine at Nature's call,
    And to Sup lightly, if at all;
    Teach him each morning to preserve
    The active brain, and steady nerve;
    Provide him with a share of Health
    For the pursuit of fame, or wealth;
    And leave the folly of _Night Dinners_
    To Fools and Dandies, and Old Sinners!!!"

That distressing interruption of the Circulation, which is called
"NIGHTMARE," "Globus Hystericus," "Spasms," "Cramp," or "Gout," in the
Stomach, with which few who have passed the Meridian of Life[83], are so
fortunate as not to be too well acquainted, we believe to arise from the
same causes--which in the day produce Palpitation of the Heart.

The Editor is now in his forty-third year, and has been from his youth
occasionally afflicted with both these disorders; sometimes without
being able to imagine what has produced them:--sometimes he has not been
attacked with either of these complaints for many months; they have then
seized him for a week or more,--and as unaccountably ceased.

THE NIGHTMARE has generally come on about three o'clock in the
morning,--at the termination of the first, or rather at the commencement
of the second sleep;--quite as often when he has taken only a liquid or
very light supper,--as when he has eaten some solid food, and gone to
bed soon after;--and most frequently after he has Dined[84] out: not
from the quantity, but the quality of the food and drink he has taken,
the change of the time of taking it. The fatigue attending his
performance of Amphytrion at his own table, has also occasionally
produced it.

It appears to be occasioned by want of Action in the System, being
generally preceded by Languor--(which, if not removed, may proceed to
produce--_Palsy_--or _Death_,) caused either by depression of the power
of the Heart by anxiety,--obstruction of the peristaltic motion by the
oppression of indigestible matter,--or interruption of the performance
of the Restorative Process.

It is certainly not to be prevented by Abstinence, for during the time
that the Editor was trying the effect of a spare diet, he was most
frequently afflicted with it.--See _Obs._ on SLEEP, &c. It is only to be
relieved by Stimulants, and in an extreme case--by quickly acting
Aperients, &c. See following pages.

Some persons are peculiarly subject to it when they lie on their
back,--others if on their left side:--when the Editor has any
disposition to this malady, it is certainly exasperated if he lays upon
his right side,--especially during the first part of the Night,--it is a
good Custom to lay one half of the Night on one side, and the other half
on the other.

When this appalling pause of the Circulation takes place--he wakes, with
the idea that another minute of such suspended action will terminate
his Existence:--his first recourse is to force the action of the Lungs
by breathing as quick and as deep as possible.--He feels very
languid,--and to prevent a return of the fit, drinks a couple of glasses
of _White Wine_,--or half a wine-glass of _Brandy_, in a wine-glass of
_Peppermint Water_.

Sometimes the Disorder does not terminate with one paroxysm, but recurs
as soon as Sleep returns:--when this is the case, get half a tumbler of
Hot Water, add to it a wine-glass of _Peppermint Water_, and half that
quantity of _Tincture of Rhubarb_, or fifty drops of _Sal Volatile_, or

The symptom of security from a repetition of the Fit, is a vermicular
sensation, betokening that the peristaltic motion, and the Circulation
is restored to its regular pace again.

His belief that many sudden and unaccountable Deaths in the night have
arisen from Invalids not knowing how to manage this Disorder, induces
the Editor to relate his own personal experience concerning it--and the
Remedies which he has found effectual to remove it.

    "Non ignara mali, miseris succurrere disco."

The case is very similar to what Dr. WHYTT relates of himself, in his
_Observations on Nervous, Hysteric, and Hypochondriac Disorders_, 8vo.
1767[85]; by which, Dr. CULLEN, in p. 10 of his _Clinical Lectures_,
says, "he has done more than all his predecessors."

Mr. WALLER has written a very sensible Essay on the _Nightmare_--those
who are much afflicted with it, cannot lay out 3_s._ 6_d._ better, than
in buying his book--12mo. 1816. He says, "it most frequently proceeds
from acidity in the Stomach, and recommends _Carbonate of Soda_, to be
taken in the Beer you Drink at dinner." He tells us "he derived his
information, as to the cause, and cure of this distressing disorder,
from a personal acquaintance with it for many years."

How devoutly it is to be wished that all Authors would follow good old
SYDENHAM and Mr. WALLER'S example,--and give us a register of the
progress of those chronic complaints which they have themselves been
afflicted with, and the regimen, &c. which they have found most
effectual to alleviate and cure them;--and, instead of what they
think,--write only what they know,--as the pains-taking
minutely accurately observing Dr. STARK have in their _Dietetical

Dr. WHYTT has immortalized himself by the candid relation of his own
infirmities, and his circumstantial account of the Regimen, &c. which
enabled him to bear up against them,--which forms the most valuable
collection of observations on _Nervous Complaints_, that experience and
liberality have yet presented to the public.

_One page of_ PERSONAL EXPERIENCE, _is worth folios of theoretic
Fancies_,--_or Clinical Cases_, which can only be illuminated by the
twilight of conjecture:--they may be faithful narratives of the accounts
given by Patients, yet, as these are very often imposed upon by their
imagination attributing effects to very different causes than those
which produce them, they are often very inaccurate deductions.

THE DELICATE AND THE NERVOUS, will derive the greatest advantage from
keeping _a Register of their Health_,--they should note, and avoid
whatever disagrees with them,--and endeavour to ascertain, what kind and
quantity of Food--Exercise--Occupation and Pleasures, &c. are most
agreeable to their constitution, and take them at those regular periods
which appear most convenient to them. However this advice may excite
the smiles of those who are swelling "in all the pride of superfluous
Health," such methodical movements will considerably improve the
enjoyment, and prolong the life of the Valetudinary and the Aged: for
whom, Instinct is the best Guide in the choice of Aliment.

None but the most obstinately ignorant Visionary, would dream of laying
down absolute Rules[86] for governing the caprice and whims of the
infirm Stomachs of Crazy Valetudinarians. Codes of Dietetics[87] are
almost useless,--the suggestions of Reason are often in direct
opposition to the desires of Appetite.

In most matters regarding the adjustment of that supreme organ of
existence,--the STOMACH,--"honest Instinct[88] comes a
Volunteer."--_Ventriloquism_ seldom falls to make out a fair title, to
be called "unerring." A due respect to the suggestions of Instinct,
every Invalid will find highly advantageous,--natural longing has
frequently pointed out Food--by which _Acute Diseases_ have been cured,
when the most consummate medical skill was at fault, and Life at its
lowest ebb.

It is needless to insist upon the importance of Diet and Regimen in
_Chronic Disorders_.

Be content with ONE[89] Dish,--from want of submission to this salutary
rule of Temperance--as many men dig their Grave with their _Teeth_, as
with the _Tankard_;--DRUNKENNESS is deplorably destructive, but her
demurer sister GLUTTONY destroys an hundred to her one.

_Instinct_ speaks pretty plainly to those whose instruments of Digestion
are in a delicate state--and is an infinitely surer guide than any
Dietetic rules that can be contrived.

That the Food which we fancy most--generally sits easiest on the
Stomach--is a fact which the experience of almost every individual can

The functions of Digestion go on merrily when exercised by Aliment which
the Stomach asks for--they often labour in vain when we eat merely
because it is the usual hour of Dining--or out of necessity, to amuse
the Gastric juices, and "lull the grinding stomach's hungry rage."

To affirm that any thing is wholesome, or unwholesome,--without
considering the subject in all the circumstances to which it bears
relation, and the unaccountable peculiarities of different
Constitutions,--is, with submission, talking nonsense.

Let every Man consult his Stomach;--to eat and drink such things--and in
such quantities--as agree with that perfectly well, is wholesome for
him, whilst they continue to do so[90]:--that which satisfies and
refreshes us, and causes no uneasiness after, may safely be taken in
moderation--whenever the Appetite is keen--whether it be at Dinner or

What we have been longest used to, is most likely to agree with us

The wholesomeness, &c. of all Food, depends very much on the quality of
it--and the way in which it is cooked.

Those who are poor in Health, must live as they can;--certainly the less
Stimulus any of us use the better, provided it be sufficient to properly
carry on the Circulation:--I sometimes hold it lawful to excite Appetite
when it is feeble by Age, or debilitated by Indisposition.

Those Stimuli which excite the circulation at the least expense of
nervous irritation--and afford the greatest quantity of nutriment, must
be most acceptable to the Stomach, when it demands restorative diet.

A healthful impetus may be given to the System by a well seasoned
_Soup_, or a restorative _Ragout_, at half the expense to the machinery
of Life, than by the use of those Spirituous Stimuli--which fan a
feverish fire--exciting action without supplying the expenditure of the
principle producing it--and merely quicken the circulation for a few
minutes, without contributing any material to feed the Lamp of
Life--which, if it be originally or organically defective--or is
impaired by Time or Disease--will sometimes not burn brightly, unless it
be supplied with the best oil, and trimmed in the most skilful manner.

Good _Mock Turtle_, see (No. 246, or 247*,) will agree with weak
stomachs surprisingly well; so will that made by BIRCH _in Cornhill_,
and by KAY _at Albion House_, Aldersgate Street.--This excellent Soup,
is frequently ordered for Dyspeptic patients, by the senior Physician to
one of the largest hospitals in this Metropolis: as a man of science and
talent, certainly in as high estimation as any of his cotemporaries.

Ox-tail Soup (No. 240,) Giblet Soup (No. 244,) and (No. 87,) and (No.
89,) (No. 489,) and (No. 503,) are very agreeable extempore
Restoratives,--so easy of digestion, that they are a sinecure to the
Stomach, and give very little trouble to the chylopoietic organs--those
whose Teeth are defective--and those whose Circulation is below
_par_,--will find them acceptable Foods.

"_Experto crede_,"--the reader will remember _Baglivi's_ chapter "_de
Idolis Medicorum_," wherein he tells us, that "Physicians always
prescribe to others, what they like themselves." The learned MANDEVILLE
has favoured us with five pages on the incomparably invigorating virtues
of _Stock Fish_!! a kind of Cod which is dried without being salted. See
pages 316, &c. of his _Treatise on Hypochondriasis_.

The best Answers, to all inquiries about _The Wholesomes_, are the
following Questions;--"Do you like it?" "Does it agree with you?"--"then
eat in moderation, and you cannot do very wrong."

Those who have long lived luxuriously, to be sufficiently nourished,
must be regularly supplied with Food that is nutritive, and Drink that
is stimulating[91],--_Spice and_ _Wine_, are as needful to the "BON
VIVANT" of a certain Age--as its _Mother's Milk_, is to a NEW-BORN

The decrease of the energy of Life arises from the decrease of the
action of the organs of the Body--especially those of Digestion,--which
in early life is so intense and perfect, that a Child, after its common
unexcitant meal of Bread and Milk, is as hilarious and frolicsome as an
Adult person is after a certain quantity of Roast Beef and Port.

The infirm stomachs of Invalids, require a little indulgence[92]--like
other bad instruments, they often want oiling, and screwing, and winding
up and adjusting with the utmost care, to keep them in tolerable
order;--and will receive the most salutary Stimulus, from now and then
making a full meal of a favourite dish. This is not a singular notion of
my own, though it may not exactly agree with the fastidious fancy of
_Dr. Sangrado's_ disciples,--that Starvation and Phlebotomy, are
Sovereign Remedies for all Disorders.

Those philanthropic Physicians, Dr. Diet,--Dr. Quiet,--and Dr.
Merryman,--hold the same doctrine as the _Magnus Coquus_--_i. e._ the
Author of "the Cook's Oracle," to whose culinary skill we have been so
repeatedly indebted in the composition of this work.

As excessive Eating and Drinking is certainly the most frequent cause of
the disorders of the Rich,--so privation is the common source of
complaints among the Poor;--the cause of the one, is the cure of the
other--but where one of the latter dies of Want, how many thousands of
the former are destroyed by Indigestion!

If strong Spices and savoury Herbs excite appetite--they (in an
increased ratio,) accelerate the action of the Bowels--and hurry the
food through the alimentary canal, too rapidly to allow the Absorbents
to do their work properly.

_Salt_ is the most salubrious and easily obtainable relish which Nature
has given us to give sapidity to other substances; and has this
advantage over all other Sauces, that if taken to excess--it carries its
remedy with it in its Aperient quality.

We suspect that most mischief is done by the immoderate and constant use
of the _Common Condiments_.--We have seen some puritanical folks, who
are for ever boasting that _They never touch_ MADE DISHES, &c. (one
would suppose they had the _Tongue of Pityllus_[93],) so be-devil every
morsel they put into their Mouth--with PEPPER, and MUSTARD, &c. that
they made their common food ten times more _piquante_--than the
burn-gullet _Bonne Bouche_ of an eastern Nabob, or _a Broiled Devil_,
enveloped in "veritable Sauce d'Enfer."--See (No. 355 and 538).

We do not condemn the moderate use of Spices, but the constant and
excessive abuse of them,--by which the papillary nerves of the tongue
become so blunted, that in a little time they lose all relish for useful
nourishing food, and the Epicure is punished with all the sufferings of
incessant and incurable Indigestion,--perturbed Sleep--and the horrors
of the Night-Mare, &c. &c.--However, enough has been written by a
thousand cautionists, to convince any rational creature of the advantage
resulting to both the Body and the Mind from a simple and frugal
fare:--the great secret of Health and Longevity is to keep up the
sensibility of the Stomach.

No Regimen[94] can be contrived that will suit every body.

    "Try all the bounties of this fertile Globe,
    There is not such a salutary Food
    As suits with every Stomach."

    Dr. ARMSTRONG'S _Art of Preserving
    Health_, book ii. line 120.

"I knew a black servant of Mr. Pitt, an Indian Merchant in America, who
was fond of SOUP _made of_ RATTLE SNAKES,--in which the Head, without
any regard to the Poison, was boiled along with the rest of the
animal."--Dr. G. FORDYCE, _on Digestion_, &c. 8vo. 1791, p. 119.

No food is so delicious that it pleases all palates,--nothing can be
more correct than the old adage, "one man's meat is another man's

It would be as difficult for a Laplander, or an earth-eating Ottomaque,
to convince our good citizens that Train Oil, and gutter-mud, is a more
elegant relish than their favourite Turtle--as for the former to fancy
that Kay or Birch's Soup can be as agreeable as the Grease and Garbage
which custom has taught them to think delicious.

    "Man differs more from Man
    Than Man from Beast."--COLMAN.

_Celsus_[95] very sensibly says, that "a healthy man, under his own
government, ought not to tie himself up by strict rules,--nor to abstain
from any sort of food; that he ought sometimes to fast, and sometimes to
feast." _Sanis, sunt omnia Sana._

When the Stomach sends forth eructant signals of distress, for help
against Indigestion, the _Peristaltic Persuaders_ (see the end of this
Essay) are as agreeable and effectual assistance as can be offered; and
for delicate Constitutions, and those that are impaired by Age or
Intemperance, are a valuable Panacea.

They derive, and deserve this name, from the peculiar mildness of their
operation[96]. One or two very gently increase the action of the
principal viscera, help them to do their work a little faster,--and
enable the Stomach to serve with an ejectment whatever offends it,--and
move it into the Bowels.

Thus _Indigestion_ is easily and speedily removed,--_Appetite_
restored,--(the mouths of the absorbing vessels being cleansed)
_Nutrition_ is facilitated,--and _Strength_ of Body, and _Energy_ of
Mind[97], are the happy results.

If an immediate operation be desired, take some _Tincture of
Rhubarb_--as a _Pill_ is the most gentle and gradually operating form
for a drug--a _Tincture_ in which it is as it were ready digested, is
the most immediate in its action.

TO MAKE TINCTURE OF RHUBARB.--Steep three ounces of the best Rhubarb
(pounded) and half an ounce of Carraway Seeds, (pounded) in a bottle of
Brandy, for ten days. A table-spoonful in a wine-glass of hot water will
generally be enough.

_Compound Tincture of Senna_, has been recommended, especially to those
who have accustomed themselves to the use of spirituous Liquors and high
living. Several similar preparations are sold under the name of _Daffy's
Elixir_--or as much EPSOM SALT, in half a pint of _hot_ water, as
experience has informed you, will produce one motion,--a Tea-spoonful
(_i. e._ from one to two drachms) will generally do this--especially if
it be taken in the morning, fasting, _i. e._ at least half an hour
before Breakfast.

_The best way of covering the taste of_ SALT, is to put a lump of
_Sugar_ and a bit of thin-cut _Lemon Peel_[98] into the hot water, for a
few minutes before you stir the Salt into it,--to which you may add a
few grains of grated _Ginger_.

EPSOM SALT is _a very speedy laxative_, often operating within an
hour,--does the business required of it with great regularity,--and is
more uniform in what it does,--and when it does it,--than any
Aperient;--ten minutes after you have taken it, encourage its operation
by drinking half a pint, or more, of warm water--weak Broth--Tea--thin
Gruel (No. 572), with some salt and butter in it--or _Soda Water_ (No.
481.*) See Index.

"_Nil tam ad sanitatem, et longevitatem conducit, quam crebræ et
domesticæ purgationes._"--LORD BACON.--_i. e._ "Nothing contributes so
much to preserve Health, and prolong Life, as frequently cleansing the
alimentary canal with gentle laxatives."

We perfectly agree with Lord Bacon, and believe that in nine cases out
of ten, for which TONIC MEDICINES are administered, _Peristaltic
Persuaders_ will not only much more certainly improve Appetite,--but
invigorate the Constitution; by facilitating the absorption of
nutriment,--which, in aged and debilitated people, is often prevented by
the mouths of the vessels being half closed by the accumulation of
viscid mucus, &c.

APERIENT MEDICINE does enough, if it increases the customary
Evacuation,--and does too much,--if it does more,--than excite one
additional motion.

Bowels which are forced into double action to-day--must, consequently,
be costive to-morrow, and Constipation will be caused by the remedy you
have recourse to to remove it,--this has given rise to a _Vulgar
Error_,--that the use of even the mildest Laxative is followed by

_Rhubarb_ is particularly under this prejudice,--because it has been
more frequently employed as a domestic remedy,--and unadvisedly
administered in either too little, or too large a Dose. It has, however,
been recommended by a Physician of acknowledged Ability, and extensive

"If the Bowels are constipated, they should be kept regular by a Pill of
Rhubarb of five grains every morning."--PEMBERTON _on the Abdominal
Viscera_, p. 113.

People are often needlessly uneasy about the Action of their Bowels.--If
their general Health is good, and they have neither Head-ach nor other
deranged sensations, and they live temperately, during the second period
of Life, whether they have two motions in one day, or one in two days,
perhaps is not of much consequence;--however, that the Alvine
Exoneration should take place regularly is certainly most
desirable;--especially after _Thirty-Five_ years of age[99], when the
elasticity of the machinery of Life begins to diminish.

_To acquire a Habit of Regularity_, Mr. LOCKE, who was a Physician as
well as a Philosopher, advises that "if any person, as soon as he has
breakfasted, would presently solicit nature, so as to obtain a stool, he
might in time, by a constant application, bring it to be habitual." He
says "I have known none who have been steady in the prosecution of this
plan, who did not in a few months obtain the desired success."--_On
Education_, p. 23, &c.

"It is well known that the alvine evacuation is periodical, and
subjected to the power of habit; if the regular call is not obeyed, the
necessity for the evacuation passes away; and the call being again and
again neglected, habitual costiveness is the consequence."--HAMILTON _on
Purgatives_, p. 72.

It will facilitate the acquirement of this salutary evacuation,--to take
at night--such a dose of an Aperient medicine, as Experience has pointed
out, as just sufficient to assist nature to produce a Motion in the

HABITUAL COSTIVENESS is not curable by Drugs alone,--and is most
agreeably corrected by _Diet and Regimen_, those most important, and
only effectual, although much neglected (because little understood)
means of permanently alleviating _Chronic Complaints_, for which

    "Coquina est optima Medicina."

Strong Constitutions are generally _Costive_[100],--that perfect and
vigorous action of the absorbents, which is the cause of their strength,
is also the cause of their Constipation:--

    "Oportet sanorum, sedes esse figuratas."

This ought to make them content,--but the Constipated are for ever
murmuring about a habit--which, if managed with moderate care,--is the
fundamental basis of Health and Long Life. A little attention to Regimen
will generally prevent it--a simple Laxative will suffice to remove
it--and neither will be often necessary, for those who observe a
deobstruent Diet--take proper Exercise in a pure Air--sufficient liquid
Food--and eat freely of Butter, Salt, and Sugar.

The peculiarity of most Constitutions is so convenient, that almost all
Costive persons--by attending to the effects which various things
produce upon their Bowels--may find, in their usual Food and Drink, the
means of persuading their sluggish Viscera to vibrate with healthful

A SUPPER or BREAKFAST of thin Gruel, (No. 572,) with plenty of Butter
and Salt in it,--ripe Fruits, particularly _Grapes_[101],--Oranges,--
Treacle,--roasted Apples,--stewed Prunes,--Figs,--Raisins,--
Tamarinds,--French Plumbs, &c.;--will almost always produce the desired

Two or three strong _Cinnamon or Ginger Lozenges_, (see page 234,)
gradually dissolved in the mouth when the Stomach is empty, will act as
an Aperient on many persons.

SALAD OIL is a very pleasant _Peristaltic Persuader_:--by the following
means it may be introduced (as a supper) to the most delicate
Stomach,--without any offence to the most fastidious Palate.

Put a table-spoonful of Sherry into a wine-glass--on this a
table-spoonful of Olive Oil--on this another table-spoonful of
Sherry--or rub together a table-spoonful or two of Oil, with the yolk of
an Egg boiled hard, (No. 547,) add a little Vinegar and Salt to it, and
eat it at Supper as a Sauce to a Salad (No. 138*) of Mustard and
Cresses,--or Lettuce,--Radishes,--Button Onions,--Celery,--Cucumber,
&c.;--or cold boiled Asparagus,--Brocoli,--Cauliflower,--Carrot,--or
Turnip,--Kidney or French Beans,--or Pease;--or Pickled Salmon, (No.
161,) Lobster, (No. 176,) Shrimps, Herrings, Sprats, (No. 170**,) or
Mackarel, (No. 168,) or as a Sauce to cold Meat, &c.

You may give it an infinite variety of agreeable flavours; the
ingredients to produce which are enumerated in (No. 372) of "THE COOK'S

Hypochondriac people are fond of taking Medicine at certain times, the
spring and fall,--at the full or the new Moon, &c. whether they want it
or not.--For those in Health to attempt to improve it by taking Physic,
is absurd indeed. Remember the epitaph on the Italian Count--

        "I was well--
      Wished to be better--
    Took Physic--and died."

Hypochondriasis--Spleen--Vapours--the Blue Devils--the Bile--Nervous
Debility, &c. are but so many different names for those Disorders which
arise either from CHRONIC WEAKNESS of the Constitution--or an
inconsiderate management of it.--A man who has a strong stamina will
bear irregularities with impunity--which will soon destroy a more
delicate frame.

We do not laugh at the melancholy of the Hypochondriac,--or consider his
Complaints as merely the hallucinations of _un Malade Imaginaire_; but
trace the cause of them to either some Indigestion interrupting the
functions of the Alimentary Canal--which a gentle Aperient would
immediately remove--or the ineffective performance of the Restorative
Process--insufficiently nutritive Diet--or depression of the vital and
animal functions from anxiety or over-exertion of either the Mind or the
Body:--which nothing but Rest and nutritive Food can repair.

The Editor of this little treatise has had from his Youth to bear up
against an highly irritable nervous system,--the means he has found
useful to manage and support it, he is now recording for the benefit of
other Nervous Invalids.

       *       *       *       *       *

We advise our Friends--never to call in even the gentle aid of
Peristaltic Persuaders,--but when Instinct absolutely insists upon
it--some of the Indications of which are, "A disagreeable taste in the
Mouth--Eructations--Want of Appetite--Sensations of distention in the
Stomach and Bowels--Pains in the Stomach or
Head--Vertigo--Feverishness--Restlessness--Peevishness," &c.--but these
will often disappear by taking a liquid meal, instead of a solid one, or
using more exercise, will often answer the purpose.--Mr. Jones very
sensibly observes, "if people will by no means rest from constantly
tampering with laxatives, instead of using exercise, the habit of using
the _Lavement_ every evening cannot be so destructive, as it irritates
only _twelve inches_ of intestine, and spares raking down the other
_thirty-nine feet_."--_See Med. Vul. Errors_, p. 44.

RELAXED BOWELS[102] are often extremely unmanageable, and difficult to
regulate--and are the principal cause of that _Chronic Weakness_ which
is so generally complained of, and of many other distressing Nervous

If the Bowels are unfaithful to the Stomach, and, instead of playing
fair,--let go their hold of the "Pabulum Vitæ," before the Absorbents
have properly performed the process which that grand organ has prepared
for them--Nutrition will be deficient; and Flatulence, &c. &c.
Giddiness,--Spasms,--Head-ache,--and Back-ache,--and what are called
_Bilious and Nervous_ Disorders,--and all the Diseases incident to
Debility, will attack you on the slightest cause.

Those who are afflicted with a relaxation of the Bowels, are advised to
a _Dry diet_, rather than a _Liquid one_, and must submit to a Regimen
diametrically contrary to that we have recommended to cure Constipation.

"Since I lessened my Drink I have been much more costive than I was
before, and have for two years past freed myself from a Diarrhœa.
Costiveness generally attends dry food in other animals as well as
men."--B. ROBINSON, _on Food and Discharges_, p. 82 and 64.

Live principally upon Animal Food sufficiently cooked, and Stale Bread,
or biscuit;--instead of Malt liquor (unless it be very mild and good
Homebrewed Beer, which is the best of all Beverages) drink Beef-Tea,
(No. 563), or well made Toast and Water[103] (No. 463*), with about
one-fourth part of Wine, and a little Sugar and grated Nutmeg or Ginger
in it;--if the Stomach be troubled with Acidity, or great Flatulence,
one-eighth part of Brandy may agree with it better:--_whatever You eat
and drink should be Warmed_.--See page 94 on _Siesta_, and page 158.

Be watchful of the effects of the Food which you take,--avoid whatever
appears to irritate, and _eat only that which experience has proved

IRRITABLE BOWELS are excited to inconveniently increased action by any
thing that the Stomach has either not the ability, or the inclination,
to prepare for them,--and _Diarrhœa_ is the consequence.

The easiest and most effectual method of restoring tranquillity in the
Bowels--is to be content with a light diet of Gruel, Broth, or Fish, &c.
till the return of a keen Appetite assures you, that the Stomach has
recovered its powers, and being ready for action, requires its usual
supply of solid food.

_When the Bowels get a trick of emptying themselves too often_,--a
teaspoonful of Compound Powder of Chalk in your Tea,--or a wine-glassful
of the following mixture, taken twice or thrice a day, will generally
cure them of it very speedily:--

    ℞ Chalk mixture, six ounces.
        Tincture of Cinnamon (No. 416*), one ditto.
        Opiate Confection, one drachm.

    Mixed together.

If Diarrhœa continues obstinate, more powerful Astringents[104] may
be necessary.

TINCTURE OF CINNAMON (No. 416*) is one of the best cordial tonics--see
also (No. 569) and (Nos. 413 & 15.)

OPIUM LOZENGES, containing a quarter of a grain each, and strongly
flavoured with Oil of Peppermint, are recommended to those who are
troubled with relaxed Bowels.

STRONG PEPPERMINT LOZENGES are the most convenient portable
carminative:--as soon as they are dissolved, their influence is felt
from the beginning, to the end of the Alimentary Canal;--they dissipate
flatulence so immediately, that they well deserve the name of _Vegetable
Æther_; and are recommended to SINGERS[105] AND PUBLIC SPEAKERS, as
giving effective excitement to the organs of the Voice,--as a support
against the distressing effects of fasting too long--and to give energy
to the Stomach between meals.

N.B. _Sixty different sorts of Lozenges_, are made in the most
superlative manner, by Mr. Smith, Fell Street, Wood Street, Cheapside.

His _Rose Jujubes_--are a very elegant preparation, which those who have
not a remarkably Sweet Breath, are recommended to take the last thing at
night, and the first in the morning--the breath smells faintest when the
Stomach is emptiest.

His _Mellifluous Aromatics_ are so delicately flavoured, they moisten
the mouth and throat without cloying the Palate, Stomach, &c., which is
more than can be said of most Lozenges.


      Turkey Rhubarb, finely pulverized, two drachms.
      Syrup (by weight) one drachm.
      Oil of Carraway, ten drops (minums).
    Made into Pills, each of which will contain _Three
    Grains of Rhubarb_.

THE DOSE OF THE PERSUADERS must be adapted to the constitutional
peculiarity of the Patient:--when you wish to accelerate or augment the
Alvine Exoneration--take two, three, or more, according to the effect
you desire to produce--_two Pills_ will do as much for one person as
_five_ or _six_ will for another; they generally will very regularly
perform what you wish to-day,--without interfering with what you hope
will happen to-morrow;--and are, therefore, as convenient an argument
against Constipation as any we are acquainted with.

_The most convenient opportunity to introduce them to the Stomach_--is
early in the Morning, when it is unoccupied,--and has no particular
business to attend to, _i. e._ at least half an hour before Breakfast.

_Physic_ should never interrupt the Stomach, when it is engaged in
digesting _Food_--perhaps the best time to take it, is when you awake
out of your first Sleep--or as soon as you awake in the morning.
Moreover, such is the increased sensibility of some Stomachs at that
time, that half the quantity of Medicine will suffice.

From _two to four Persuaders_ will generally produce one additional
motion within twelve hours.

They may be taken at any time--by the most DELICATE FEMALES, whose
Constitutions are so often distressed by Constipation[106], and
destroyed by the drastic purgatives they take to relieve it. See also
page 224.

Their agreeable flavour recommends them as the most convenient aperient
for CHILDREN, whose indispositions most frequently arise from
obstructions in the Bowels;--it is not always a very easy task to
prevail upon a spoiled Child to take Physic;--therefore--we have made
our Pill to taste exactly like Gingerbread.

For INFANTS, too young to swallow a Pill, pound it, and mix it with
Currant Jelly, Honey, or Treacle.

ON THE FIRST ATTACK OF DISEASE--it may generally be disarmed by
discharging the contents of the Bowels:--IN EVERY DISORDER[107] the main
point is carefully to watch, and constantly to keep up the activity of
the Alimentary Canal--for want of due attention to this, MILLIONS
(especially of _Children_) HAVE DIED OF MEDICABLE DISORDERS!!

FOR BILIOUS OR LIVER[108] COMPLAINTS, (which are now the fashionable
names for all those deranged sensations of the Abdominal Viscera--which
as often arise from the want, as from the excess of Bile--and perhaps
most frequently from _Indigestion_)--and for expelling WORMS[109], for
which it is the fashion to administer _Mercury_[110] (which, because it
is the only remedy for one Disease, people suppose must be a _panacea_
for every disorder) and other drastic mineral medicines, which are
awfully uncertain both in their strength and in their operation.

If, instead of two or three times a week tormenting your Bowels with
_Corrosive Cathartics_,--_Hydragogues_,--_Phlegmagogues_, &c., you take
one or two gentle PERSUADERS, twice or thrice a day;--they will excite a
gradual and regularly increased action of the Viscera--restore the tone
of the Alimentary tube--and speedily and effectually cure the disorder,
without injuring the Constitution.

There is not a more universal or more mischievous _Vulgar Error_, than
the notion, that Physic is efficacious, in proportion as it is extremely
disagreeable to take, and frightfully violent in its operation,--unless
a medicine actually produces more Distress in the System, than the
Disorder it is administered to remove--in fact, if the Remedy be not
worse than the Disease, the million have no faith in it--and are not
satisfied that they can be perfectly cured if they escape
Phlebotomy,--unless put to extreme pain, and plentifully supplied with
Black Doses, and drastic Drugs;--they have the best opinion of that
Doctor who most furiously

    "_Vomits_--_Purges_--_Blisters_--_Bleeds_, and _Sweats 'em_."

To perfectly content them that you have most profoundly considered their
case, you must to such Prescription--add a Proscription of every thing
they appear particularly partial to!!!

People who in all other respects appear to be very rational--and are apt
to try other questions by the rules of Common Sense, in matters relating
to their Health, surrender their understanding to the fashion of the
Day,--and in the present Century, on all occasions take _Calomel_ as
coolly as in the last, their Grandfathers inundated their poor Stomachs
with _Tar-Water_.

       *       *       *       *       *

TONIC TINCTURE, (No. 569) is

    Peruvian Bark, bruised,  one ounce and a half.
    Orange Peel,     do.     one ounce.
    Brandy, or Proof Spirit, one pint.

Let these ingredients steep for ten days, shaking the bottle every
day--let it remain quiet two days--and then decant the clear liquor.

Dose--one teaspoonful in a wineglass of water, twice a day, when you
feel languid, _i. e._ when the Stomach is empty, about an hour before
Dinner, and in the Evening. Twenty grains of the Powder of Bark may be
added to it occasionally.

To this agreeable Aromatic Tonic we are under personal obligations, for
frequently putting our Stomach into good temper, and procuring us good
Appetite and good Digestion.

In low Nervous affections, arising from a languid Circulation--and, when
the Stomach is in a state of shabby debility from age--intemperance, or
other causes--this is a most acceptable restorative.

N.B. TEA made with dried and bruised _Seville Orange Peel_, (in the same
manner as common Tea,) and drank with milk and sugar, has been taken for
Breakfast by _Nervous_ and _Dyspeptic_ persons with great benefit.

CHEWING a bit of _Orange Peel_ twice a day when the Stomach is empty,
will be found very grateful, and strengthening to it.--

       *       *       *       *       *


Two ounces of CASCARILLA Bark (bruised)--or dried ORANGE PEEL,--or
COLOMBA ROOT--infused for a fortnight in a pint of Brandy, will give you
the Tinctures called by those names.

Dose--one or two teaspoonsful in a wine-glass of water.

       *       *       *       *       *


This excellent Cordial is made by pouring a bottle of genuine Cogniac
(No. 471) on three ounces of bruised Cinnamon (Cassia will not do). This
cordial restorative was more in vogue formerly, than it is now;--a
teaspoonful of it, and a lump of Sugar, in a glass of good Sherry or
Madeira, with the yolk of an Egg beat up in it--was called "_Balsamum

    "_Cur moriatur homo, qui sumit de Cinnamomo?_"--"Cinnamon is verie
    comfortable to the Stomacke, and the principall partes of the

    "_Ventriculum, Jecur, Lienem Cerebrum, nervosque juvant et
    roborat._"--"I reckon it a great treasure for a student to have by
    him, in his closet, to take now and then a spoonfull."--COGAN'S
    _Haven of Health_, 4to. 1584, p. 111.

_Obs._--Two teaspoonsful in a wineglass of water--are a present and
pleasant remedy in Nervous Languors--and in relaxations of the
Bowels--in the latter case five drops of Laudanum may be added to each

       *       *       *       *       *

SODA WATER, (No. 481*.)

The best way of producing agreeable _Pneumatic Punch_, as a learned
Chemist has called this refreshing refrigerant, is to fill two half-pint
Tumblers half full of Water,--stir into one 30 grains of _Carbonate of
Potash_,--into the other 25 grains of _Citric[111] Acid_, (both being
previously finely pounded,)--when the powders are perfectly
dissolved--pour the contents of one tumbler into the other--and
sparkling Soda Water is instantaneously produced.

To make DOUBLE SODA WATER, use double the quantity of the Powder.

_Single Soda Water_ is a delightful drink in sultry weather--and may be
very agreeably flavoured by dissolving a little Raspberry or Red Currant
Jelly in the Water, (before you add the Carbonate of Potash to it), or a
little Tincture of Ginger, (No. 411,)--or Syrup of Ginger, (No.
394,)--or Syrup of Lemon Peel, (No. 393,)--or infuse a roll of fresh and
thin-cut Lemon Peel, and a bit of Sugar in the water--or rub down a few
drops of (No. 408,) with a bit of Lump Sugar, with or without a little
grated Ginger;--a glass of Sherry or a tablespoonful of Brandy is
sometimes added.

The addition of a teaspoonful of the TONIC TINCTURE (No. 569,) will give
you a very refreshing Stomachic--and ten drops of _Tinct. Ferri
Muriati_ put into the water in which you dissolve the Citric Acid--a
fine effervescing Chalybeate.

_The day after a Feast_, if you feel fevered and heated, you cannot do
better than drink a half-pint glass or two of _Single Soda Water_
between Breakfast and Dinner.

DOUBLE SODA WATER (especially if made with tepid water) is an excellent
auxiliary to accelerate the operation of Aperient Medicine--and, if
taken in the Morning fasting, will sometimes move the Bowels without
further assistance.

If some good _Cogniac_ or Essence of Ginger (No. 411) be added to it, it
is one of the best helps to set the Stomach to work--and remove the
distressing languor which sometimes follows hard drinking.

       *       *       *       *       *


The fragrant _aroma_ of Ginger is so extremely volatile, that it
evaporates almost as soon as it is pounded--the fine Lemon peel _goût_
flies off presently.

If Ginger is taken to produce an immediate effect--to warm the
Stomach--dispel Flatulence, &c., or as an addition to Aperient
Medicine--the following is the best preparation of it:--

Steep three ounces of _fresh grated_ Ginger, and one ounce of fresh
Lemon Peel, (cut thin) in a quart of Brandy--or Proof Spirit, for ten
days, shaking it up each day.

N.B. TINCTURE OF ALLSPICE, which is sometimes called _Essence of
Bishop_, for making _Mulled Wine_, _&c._ extempore, is prepared in the
same manner.

       *       *       *       *       *

GRUEL, (No. 252).

1st. Ask those who are to eat it, if they like it _THICK_ or _thin_; if
the latter, mix well together by degrees, in a pint basin, _one_
tablespoonful of Oatmeal with three of cold water;--if the former, _two_

Have ready, in a Stewpan, a pint of boiling water or milk--pour this by
degrees to the Oatmeal you have mixed--return it into the Stewpan--set
it on the fire--and let it boil for five minutes--stirring it all the
time to prevent the Oatmeal from burning at the bottom of the
Stewpan--skim--and strain it through a Hair Sieve.

2d. To convert this into CAUDLE--add a little Ale--Wine--or Brandy--with
Sugar--and _if the Bowels are disordered_, a little Nutmeg or Ginger

Gruel may be made with Broth[112] (No. 490,) or (No. 252,) or (No. 564,)
instead of Water--(to make _Crowdie_, see No. 205*,)--and may be
flavoured with _Sweet Herbs_--_Soup Roots_ and _Savoury Spices_--by
boiling them for a few minutes in the water you are going to make the
Gruel with--or ZEST (No. 255)--Pea Powder (No. 458)--or dried
Mint--Mushroom Catsup (No. 439)--or a few grains of Curry Powder (No.
455)--or Savoury Ragout Powder (No. 457)--or Cayenne (No. 404)--or
Celery Seed bruised--or Soup Herb Powder (No. 459)--or an Onion minced
very fine and bruised in with the Oatmeal--or a little Eschalot Wine
(No. 402)--or Essence of Celery (No. 409)--or (No. 413)--(No. 417)--or
(No. 420), &c.

PLAIN GRUEL, such as is directed in the first part of this Recipe, is
one of the best Breakfasts and Suppers that we can recommend to the
rational Epicure;--is the most comforting soother of an irritable
Stomach that we know--and particularly acceptable to it _after a hard
day's work of Intemperate Feasting_--when the addition of half an ounce
of Butter, and a teaspoonful of Epsom Salt will give it an aperient
quality, which will assist the principal Viscera to get rid of their

"_Water Gruel_" (says Tryon in his Obs. on Health, 16mo. 1688, p. 42,)
is "the KING _of Spoon Meats_," and "the QUEEN _of Soups_," and
gratifies nature beyond all others.

In the "_Art of Thriving_," 1697, p. 8, are directions for preparing
Fourscore Noble and Wholesome Dishes, upon most of which _a Man may live
excellent well for Twopence a_ _day_: the author's _Obs._ on _Water
Gruel_ is, that "ESSENCE OF OATMEAL" makes "_a noble and exhilarating

Dr. FRANKLIN'S favourite Breakfast was a good basin of warm Gruel, in
which there was a small slice of Butter with Toasted Bread and
Nutmeg--the expense of this, he reckoned at three half-pence.

"Mastication is a very necessary Preparation of solid Aliment, without
which there can be no good Digestion."--The above are the first lines in
ARBUTHNOT'S _Essay on Aliment_.

This first act of the important process of Digestion, is most perfectly
performed, when the flavour, &c. of our Food is agreeable to our
Taste;--we naturally detain upon our Palate those things which please
it,--and the Meat we relish most, is consequently most broken down by
chewing, and most intimately incorporated with the Saliva--this is the
reason why what we desire most, we digest best.

Here, is a sufficient answer, to the Folios which have sprung from the
Pens of cynical and senseless Scribblers--on whom Nature not having
bestowed a Palate, they have proscribed those pleasures they had not
Sense[113] to taste, or comprehend the wise purposes for which they were
given to us, and

    "Compound for Sins they are inclin'd to,
    By damning those they have no mind to."

How large a share of the business of Digestion is managed by
Mastication, has been shown by the experiments of _Spallanzani_[114].

To Chew long, and leisurely, is the only way to extract the essence of
our food--to enjoy the taste of it, and to render it easily convertible
into laudable Chyle, by the facility it gives to the gastric juices to
dissolve it without trouble.

The pleasure of the _Palate_, and the health of the _Stomach_, are
equally promoted by this salutary habit, which all should be taught to
acquire in their infancy.

The more tender meat is, the more we may eat of it.--That which is most
difficult to Chew, is of course most difficult to Digest.

From 30 to 40 (according to the tenderness of the meat) has been
calculated as the mean number of Munches, that solid meat requires, to
prepare it for its journey down _the Red Lane_; less will be sufficient
for tender, delicate, and easily digestible white meats.

The sagacious _Gourmand_, will calculate this precisely,--and not waste
his precious moments in useless Jaw-work, or invite an Indigestion by
neglecting _Mastication_.

I cannot give any positive rules for this, it depends on the state of
the Teeth[115]; every one, especially _the Dyspeptic_, ought to
ascertain the condition of these useful working tools; and to use them
with proportionate diligence, is an indispensable exercise which every
rational Epicure will most cheerfully perform, who has any regard for
the welfare of his Stomach[116].

It has been recommended, that those whose Teeth are defective, should
mince their meat--this will certainly save trouble to both Teeth and
Stomach--nevertheless, it is advisable, let the meat be minced ever so
fine, to endeavour to mumble it into a pulp before it be introduced to
the Stomach--on account of the advantage derived from its admixture with

"By experiment, I determined the quantity of _Saliva_ secreted in half
an hour, to be _whilst the parts were at rest_, four drachms,--whilst
_eating_, five ounces four drachms."--STARK _on Diet_, p. 99.

MASTICATION is the source of all good Digestion;--_with its assistance_,
almost any thing may be put into any stomach with impunity:--_without
it_, Digestion is always difficult, and often impossible: and be it
always remembered, it is not merely what we eat, but what we digest
well, that nourishes us.

The sagacious _Gourmand_ is ever mindful of his motto--

    "Masticate, Denticate, Chump, Grind, and Swallow."

The four first acts, he knows he must perform properly,--before he dare
attempt the fifth.

Those who cannot enjoy a savoury morsel on account of their Teeth, or
rather on account of the want of them, we refer to the note at the foot
of p. 260, and also have the pleasure to inform them, that PATENT
MASTICATORS are made by PALMER, _Cutler, in St. James's Street_.

To those who may inadvertently exercise their Masticative faculties on
unworthy materials--or longer on worthy ones than nature finds
convenient, we recommend "Peristaltic Persuaders." See page 235.

When either the _Teeth_ or _Stomach_ are extremely feeble, especial
care must be taken _to keep Meat till it is tender_--before it is
cooked--and call in the aid of the _Pestle_ and _Mortar_.--And see Nos.
10,--18,--87,--89,--175,--178; from 185 to 250,--502--542--and
especially 503. Or dress in the usual way whatever is best liked--mince
it--put it into a Mortar--and pound it with a little Broth or melted
Butter,--Vegetable,--Herb,--Spice,--Zest, No. 255, &c.--according to the
taste, &c. of the Eater.--The business of the Stomach is thus very
materially facilitated.

"Mincing or Pounding Meat--saveth the grinding of the Teeth; and
therefore (no doubt) is more nourishing, especially in Age,--or to them
that have weak teeth; but Butter is not proper for weak bodies,--and
therefore, moisten it in pounding with a little Claret Wine, and a very
little Cinnamon or Nutmeg."--LORD BACON'S _Natural History_, Century

This is important Advice for those who are afflicted with "_Tic
Douloureux_,"--the paroxysm of which is generally provoked by the
exercise of Eating,--and the Editor has known that dreadful disorder
cured by the Patient frequently taking food thus prepared in small
portions, instead of a regular meal.

The TEETH should be cleaned after every meal with a "TOOTH PRESERVER,"
(_i. e._ a very soft brush,) and then rinsed with _tepid_ water--_never
neglect this at night_;--nothing destroys the Teeth so fast as suffering
food to stick between them--those who observe this rule, will seldom
have any occasion for _Dentifrices_--_Essences of Ivory_--_Indurating
Liquid Enamels_, _&c._

But it is the rage just now with some Dentists, to recommend Brushes so
hard, that they fetch Blood like a Lancet wherever they touch; and
instead of "_Teeth Preservers_," these should rather be termed "_Gum

Not even a Philosopher can endure the TOOTHACH patiently--what an
overcoming agony then it must be to a _Grand Gourmand_!--depriving him
of the means of enjoying an amusement which to him is the grand solace
for all sublunary cares.--To alleviate, and indeed generally to cure
this intolerable pain--we recommend

    _Toothache and Anti-rheumatic Embrocation_, (No. 567.)

    Sal Volatile--three parts.
    Laudanum--one part.

Mix and rub the part in pain therewith frequently. If the Tooth which
aches is hollow, drop some of this on a bit of cotton, and put it into
the Tooth,--if the pain does not abate within an hour--take out the
cotton, and put another piece in--changing it every hour four or five
times, till the pain ceases.

In a general Face-ach, or sore Throat--moisten a piece of flannel with
it and put it to the part affected,--rub any part afflicted with
Rheumatism night and morning, and in the middle of the day. I have
frequently cured old and inveterate Rheumatic affections with this


    Actors, Hints to, concerning their Health, 96

    Ale, 11, 144
      Stale ditto, how to make fresh, 11

    Abernethy, Mr., quoted, 9, 41, 49, 102, 159, 178, 238

    Abstinence, cheapest Cure for Intemperance, 159

    Athletic weight, what, 59

    Air, on the change of, 8
      Do. Note at foot of 66
      Stagnant, Dr. Struve's Obs. on, 114
      General Obs. on change of, &c., 119
      not always advisable 121

    Animal Food, 10

    Alcohol, proportion of, in Wines, Brandy, Gin, &c., 138
      Dr. Philips's Obs. on 145

    Arbuthnot, Dr., quoted, 1, 19
      Obs. on Mastication 250

    Anxiety of Mind, Evils arising from, 85 to 87
      Do. Sir John Sinclair on, Note to, 86
      Do. Dr. Whytt, do., 86
      Do. Sir Thomas Barnard, do., 86
      Do. Dr. Colton, do., 86

    Appetite, to refresh, 163
      Three Sorts of, in Note to, 163
      Varieties of, 169
      Montaigne's Obs. on, 200

    Aperients, what the best, 215
      what they ought to do, 219
      Lord Bacon's Obs, 219
      Mr. Locke's do., 221
      Dr. Hamilton's do., 221
      best time to introduce them to the Stomach, 235
      for Children, 237

    Astringents, 232

    Bacon, Lord, his Obs. on Aperients, 219
      on Food for those whose Teeth are defective, 263

    Barclay, Captain, quoted, 3, 7
      his Diet during his extraordinary walk, 13

    Balsamum Vitæ, 97

    Brown, Dr., his Obs. on the Materia Medica, &c., 5

    Bath, tepid, 126

    Brain, the two ways of fertilizing, 68

    Bed Room, 90
      Curtains, 91

    Bed, best, 91
      ventilated, 92
      Do. in hot weather, 92
      A Fire in, 93
      Clothes, 103
      Ditto, ditto, in cold weather, 104

    Beef, 10, 22, 31
      eaters preferred to Sheep-biters, 29
      Tea, how to make, 96, 182
      a good Tonic, 182
      on the digestibility of, 177
      Obs. on, by Bryan Robinson. By the Editor. By Mr. Astley Cooper,

    Beer, 11, 23, 28, 144

    Breakfast, 20
      Do. of Beef Tea recommended after hard drinking, 161
      of Queen Elizabeth, A.D. 1550, 184
      of a Washerwoman in A.D. 1821, 184

    Bread, Liquid, 144
      Crust of, wonderful virtues of, 169

    Broils, 26

    Broths, in what degree nutritive, 30
      excellent Mutton, 254

    Breath, _Rose Jujubes_ for those who have not a remarkable sweet,

    Blumenbach on the Pulse, 45

    Bowels, constipated, how to regulate, 220
      relaxed, do., 228

    Braces, 111

    Bons Vivants, hint to, 122
      Do. do., 207 and 208

    Brandy, how much it wastes in keeping, 135
      where to buy it, 141

    Bilious Attack, 172
      Disorders, 238

    Bishop, Essence of, 248

    Bouillon, Tablettes de, 179
      Do. how to make, 251

    Cadogan, Dr., Address to him quoted, 169
      quoted, 83

    Calcavella Wine, 154

    Calomel, 242

    Cellar, the temperature of a good, 133
      on the management of, 134

    Cheyne, Dr., quoted, 87, 216

    Corpulency, to reduce, 29, 50, 64
      Authors who have written thereon, 64
      by walking, 62
      by fasting, 62
      by purging, 62
      Panacea for, 125

    Customs, 17
      Dr. Armstrong's Obs. on. Struve's do., 65

    Crabs, 30

    Colton, his Obs. on Intemperance, 34

    Cornaro, a compendium of his system in his own words, 38
      liked New Wine, 136

    Cold Food and Drink, bad for the Dyspeptic and Gouty, 94

    Cold, the frequent cause of Palsy, 113
      an easy way to get rid of one, 117

    Chronic Disorders, common cause of, 63
      importance of Regimen in, 202

    Cooper, Mr. Astley, quoted 177

    Condiments, the excessive use of common, 210

    Chimney Sweeping, 81
      Boards, 91

    Clothes, 103
      how to adjust them to a nicety, 104
      Disorders arising from change of, 106
      J. Stewart's Obs. on, 106
      tight and thin very injurious, 110

    Coat, 106
      Great one, where to keep, 110

    Corks, Obs. on, 134

    Cosmetic, 125

    Crowdie, 250

    Curaçoa, 141
      how to make, 150

    Cucumber, how to eat, 171

    Claret, 153

    Cheese, 171

    Chyle, Dr. Moore's Obs. on the, 212
      Sir John Sinclair's do., 213

    Cinnamon Lozenges, aperient, 224
      Tincture, 233
        how to make, 244

    Cramp in the Stomach, remedy for, 189

    Costiveness, habitual, how to cure, 222
      Do. by a Supper or Breakfast, 224
      Do. by Grapes, 224
      Do. fresh or dried Fruits, 224
      Do. Cinnamon or Ginger Lozenges, 224
      Do. Salad Oil, &c., 225

    Darwin, Dr., quoted, 178

    Diet, a general rule for, 33
      The proportion of Meat to Drink, 57
      Facts relative to, 213

    Death, sudden in the night, a common cause of, 193

    Digestibility of various Foods, 176

    Digestion, the process of, how long about, 176
      Spallanzani's Obs. thereon, 176
      when it goes on merrily, 203
      how exquisitely perfect in Children, 208

    Dinner, 21 to 24
      a Ban Yan, 24
      best time for, 179
      Hour of, A.D. 1570, 183
      Dr. Cogan's Obs. on, 183
      Mr. Warner's do., 183
      Mr. Pye's do., 183
      in the Northumberland Household Book for A.D. 1512, 184
      Hour of in 1821, Verses on, 186
      at Night, and Supper in the Morning, 186

    Dining out, 114 & 153
      bad effects from, 191

    Doors, double, 91

    Dogs, 80

    Dyspeptic Disorders, the common cause of, 38
      Do., 83
      Persons should have warm Food, 94 & 95
      when extreme, remedy for, 164
      Hint to, 260

    Drinkers, three sorts of, 141
      Thermometer for, 142
      Hints for hard, 162
      Do., 164

    Drinking, the Economy of, 144

    Diarrhœa, 228
      Rules for those subject to, 230

    Eating, good, 172

    Ear, instance of a fine one, 47

    Edmonds, Mr. the Dentist 260

    Eggs, how nutritive, 30

    Ennui, remedy for, 73

    Exercise, the indispensable importance of, 8
      Mr. Abernethy on, 9
      Dr. Cheyne, 9
      must be increased, &c., 33
      Neglect of, the great cause of Indigestion, 38
      Obs. on the importance of, 122
      Do. by Cowper, 122
      Do. by Armstrong, 122
      Do. by Dr. Cadogan, 123
      Do. Sir Chas. Scarborough, 123

    English Melodies, 233

    Epicurism, Dr. Swift's Obs. on, 185

    Eudiometer, 120

    Economy of Drinking, 144

    Epsom Salt, 217
      the most agreeable way to take it, 218

    Essence of Meat, how to obtain, 251
      Oatmeal, 256

    Fat, what makes animals, 64

    Fasting a day, effect of, 62
      too long, the bad effects of, and how to avoid them, 175, 180,

    Feasting, intemperate, to remove the disorders arising from, 160

    Falconer, Dr. quoted, 25

    Fish not so nutritive as Flesh, 29 and 30
      Shell, do., 30

    Forty-Winks, a nap of, 23

    Forty, a Man at, 199

    Food, what easiest of Digestion, 26
      Test of the relative restorative powers of Meat, Poultry, and
        Fish, 28
      Scale of, do., 28
      Gelatinous, 30
      what most invigorating, 31, 32
      the Editor's own experience, 31
      how important to Health, &c., 49
      for those whose Teeth are defective, 263

    Flannel Waistcoats, 106

    Franklin, Dr. his Economical Project, 75

    Fashionable Society, disorders of, 83

    Fitzgerald, Mr. quoted, 84

    Flatulence, the common cause of,
      and how to prevent and remove it, 99, 172, and 175

    Feet, when cold, 108
      should be kept very clean, 126

    Fire, on the management of a, 113
      plan of lighting, 117

    Garters, 111

    Goose roasted, how invigorating, 29
      the Latin for it, 171

    Grog, the strength of, 89

    Gruel, various ways of making and flavouring, 248
      Tryon's Obs. on, 255

    Gin, proportion of Spirit in, 139

    Ginger Lozenges, 173
      Aperient, 224

    Ginger, Tincture of, how to make,
      preferable and more convenient than the powder, 247

    Gourmand's motto, 262

    Gum-bleeders, 264

    Hatching, 68

    Health, Happiness, and Longevity, Pope's recipe for, 42

    Heat, external, promotes Digestion, 158 and 159

    Heartburn, remedy for, 161

    Heart, palpitation of, 173

    Horizontal Refreshment, 23

    Heberden, Dr. his Obs. on Regimen, 198

    Hunter, J. on digestibility of dressed and raw Meats, 27

    Hunger, 180

    Heidelburgh Tun, 131

    Hours, early one's, how Healthful, 74
      late, the bane of the delicate and nervous, 75

    Huffeland quoted, 126

    Jackson, Mr. teacher of Sparring, 51

    Jameson, Dr. quoted, 35

    Ice after Dinner, 167

    Jones, Sir William, his Andrometer, 36

    Jellies, in what degree nutritive, 30

    Jockey, to waste one, 29

    Inebriation, how to relieve the indispositions arising from, 160
      when doubly debilitating, 162

    Indigestion, 48
      common cause of, 38
      how to relieve, 157
      Do. when extreme, 164
      often caused by Anxiety of Mind, 172
      Daubenton recommends Ipecacuanha for, 189

    Ivanhoe, the preface to it quoted, 98

    Johnson, his Curaçoa, 98, 141
      Brandy, &c., 141

    Irish Whiskey, 149

    Intemperance, how to cure the Chronic complaints occasioned by it,

    Instinct, the best guide in the choice of Aliment, 198
      Dr. Heberden's Obs. on, 198
      Mr. Abernethy, do., 198
      from Domestic Management, 199
      from Evylyn, 200
      from Young, 200
      from Montaigne, 200
      from Dr. W. Hunter, 200
      from J. Hunter, 201
      from Dr. Armstrong, 201
      from Dr. Smith, 201
      from Dr. Adair, 201
      from Dr. Withers, 202
      from Dr. Sydenham, 202
      from Spectator, 202
      from Dr. Mandeville, 203

    Kitchiner, Dr. quoted, 47

    Life, how to live all the Days of, 2 and 42
      the Meridian of, 17, 43
      divided into Three Stages, 33 and 34
      calculation showing the rate of Self-Consumption, 44
      Do. of the expectations of, at various ages, 45
      Do. note at foot of p., 83
      what the great Art of, 67
      Literary men, not long-lived, 69
      a country, 82

    Lavement, 228

    Lettsom, Dr. his moral and physical Thermometer, 142

    Lemon Peel, how to make Quintessence of, 218

    Lip, under, plump and rosy, the most certain criterion of Health,

    Liver, how to render Healthful, 63
      Complaints, 239

    Liver, Mr. Carlisle's Observations on, 239

    Lobsters, 30

    Locke, Mr. quoted, 221

    Liquid Bread, 144

    Luncheon, 21, 175

    Lungs, 121

    Longings, especially in Acute Diseases, 202
      Withers' Obs. on, 202

    LOZENGES, 60 sorts made by Mr. Smith,
      Fell Street, Wood Street, Cheapside, 234

    Magnesia, an uncertain Medicine, 161

    Mastication, how important to Digestion, 88
      Dr. Arbuthnot Obs. on, 256
      Spallanzani ditto, 258
      calculation of the mean number of Munches requisite, 259

    Masticators, patent, where to buy, 262

    Mathematical Valetudinarian, a calculation of, 18

    Mattress, of Horse-hair, 91

    Matrimony, 70
      best ages for, 70

    Meat _under_-done, 27
      _over_-done, 27
      thoroughly done most digestible, 27
      Essence of, 251
      Minced, recommended by Lord Bacon, 263

    Mercury, Obs. on, 240

    Measure, Lyne's glass, 129

    Madeira, 134
      Obs., 154

    Mind, how important tranquillity of, 9
      the vigour of, decays with that of the Body, 50
      exertion of, more exhausting than that of the Body, 66, 67, and 87
      Anxiety of, paralyses Digestion, 67
      Anxiety of, a common cause of Indigestion, 172

    Mellifluous Aromatics, 234

    Mutton, 10-22
      Digestibility of, 177
      Chops, delicately stewed, 254
      Broth, excellent, 254

    Midnight, one hour's rest before, worth two after, 74

    Mock Turtle recommended, 206
      Birch's ditto, 206
      Kay's ditto, 206

    Mountain Wine, 154

    Mulled Wine, to make extempore, 248

    Nap of 40 winks, 69

    Noisy Neighbours, hints to, 76 to 82
      Actionable Nuisances, 80

    Nervous Disorders, 83
      Dr. Whytt's Obs. on, 181
      people should keep a register of their Health, 197

    Nightmare, chief cause of, 87
      Obs. on, 189 and following pages.
      the Editor's case of, 190
      remedies for, 192, 193
      Dr. Whytt's case of, 194
      Mr. Waller's Essay on, 195

    Northumberland Household Book, 185

    Oysters, 30
      not so nutritive as supposed, 30, 171

    Opium, Obs. on, 88
      Lozenges, 233

    Orange Peel, for nervous people, 243

    Palpitation of the Heart, the cause and cure of, 173
      Do. oftener arises from Indigestion, than from Organic Disease,

    Pocket Pistol, how to charge a, 182

    Parkins, Sir Thomas, preferred Beef-Eaters to Sheep-Biters, 91

    Parliament, hints to Members of, 179

    Portable Soup, 249

    Party-Walls, their thinness, 76

    Peppermint Lozenges, 99, 173, 233

    Peptic Precepts, 156

    Prawns, 30

    Perspiration, the panacea for Corpulence, 125

    Pulse, an uncertain Index, 16
      Scale of its pace at various ages, 45
      when languid, 73

    Peck, Mr., his Geographie de la Gourmandise, 185

    Piano-Fortes, 80

    Position, the influence of, in alleviating Disease, 97

    Port, the contents of a Pipe of, 130
      Obs. on, 137
      how to purchase, 140

    Purgatives, bad effects of violent, 157
      Ditto, 240
      Ditto, 241

    Peristaltic Persuaders, 215, 219
      how to make, 235
      when to take, 227, 236
      for Children, 237

    Pills, the advantages of, 216

    Ragout, a restorative, when advisable, 204

    Regimen, Dr. Heberden's Obs. on, 198
      Dr. Armstrong's Do., 213
      Celsus' Do., 215
      Dr. Arbuthnot's Do., 215
      importance in chronic Complaints, 202

    Restorative, Extempore, 206

    Ratcliffe, Dr., quoted, 172

    Riding, useful to reduce Corpulence, 52

    Robinson, Dr. Bryan, extract from his Essay on Food and Discharges,
      his own regimen, 58

    Rhubarb, tincture of, to make, 217

    Rhubarb Pill, recommended by Dr. Pemberton, 220

    Rheumatism, remedy for, 265

    Ruptures, 112

    Relaxed Bowels, 228
      Locke on, 228
      Cheyne on, 229

    Salad Oil, remedy for Constipation, 225

    Salt, the best Sauce, 210

    Sanctorius, the proportion of his Meat to his Drink, 57

    Sauces recommended by Dr. Moffet, 208

    Siesta, the, 68
      recommended, 94
      Do. by Sanctorius, 101
      Do. Cruickshank, 101
      Do. Dr. Darwin, 102
      Do. Dr. Harwood, 102
      Do. Dr. Adair, 102
      Do. Mr. Abernethy, 102
      Do. Eng. Proverb, 103
      Do. Waller, 103
      Do. Lord Bacon, 103

    Semi-Siesta, 23, 101

    Senna, tincture of, 217

    Second Courses, Obs. on, 167

    Scribblefast, Counsellor, his case, 78

    Shell Fish, 30

    Scudamore, Dr., quoted, 177

    Sleep, 12 to 65
      Struve, Dr., Obs. on the importance of, 71
      time required to, 73
      Dr. Cheyne's remark on, note to, 87
      Exercise, the best source of it, 88
      other means of inviting it, 88

    Senses, few people have one perfect, 257
      Mr. Stewart's division of, into noxious and innocent, 257

    Supper, 24
      the best for those who dine late, 24
      Do. for those who dine early, 24
      Obs. on its influence on Sleep, 87
      Obs. on a solid one, 88

    Supper, best for the Dyspeptic, 90
      in the Morning, 186

    Singers, hints respecting their Health, 96

    Stark, his experiments on Diet, 29
      Obs. on the Saliva, 261

    Sparring, the exercise of recommended, 52
      weight reduced during an hour, 55

    Salads, 167

    Soup, how to season, 163
      Mock Turtle, 206
      of Rattle Snakes, 214
      Portable, to make, 249

    Sun-shine preferred by Dr. Franklin to Candle-light, 75

    Stock Fish, recommended by Dr. Mandeville, 207

    Skin, the, 125

    Sherry, the contents of a Butt of, 130
      analysed for the Editor, 138
      Obs. on, 154

    Scotch and Irish Whiskey, 149

    Soda Water, various ways of making, 245
      Obs. on, 167

    Stomach Warmers, where to be had, 158
      how much it will hold, note under, 158
      must occasionally have a Holiday, 163
      centre of Sympathy, 165
      Wind in the, 173
      put out of temper by fasting too long, 182
      Dr. Hunter says, tells the Head what it wants, 200
      Dr. Smith Do., 201
      Dr. Adair Do., 201
      let it have what it asks for, 203
      Dr. Whytt's Obs. on how much its disposition, &c. varies, 204
      of Invalids require screwing up, 208
      Cheyne's Obs. on the importance of a clean one, 216

    Stomachic Tinctures, 244

    Spice and Wine, 207

    Spasms in Stomach, how to manage, 173, 189

    Smith, Mr., his 60 sorts of Lozenges, 234

    Stewart, John, the traveller, his Obs. on Clothes, 106
      Do. on the Senses, 257

    Spallanzani quoted, 258

    Sweet Wines, 154

    Tar Water, 242

    Temperature, to preserve that of a room regular, 115
      best for sitting rooms, 116
      the influence of in alleviating Disease, 94
      the mean of England, 108
      Observations, &c., 113

    Thermometers, where to be placed, 105

    Tent Wine, 154

    Training, Captain Barclay's Obs. on, 3
      Do. quoted, 7
      principal rules for, 7
      rules, 9
      Diet ordered, 10
      time required to screw a Man up to his fullest strength, 14
      Criterions of Good Condition, 15
      first preparation for, 18
      on the mode of Cookery, &c. most invigorating, 25
      Food must be taken warm, 26
      Do., and thoroughly done, 27
      John Hunter's Obs. on Do., 27
      Spallanzani, experiment to prove it, 27
      diet in wasting a Jockey, 29

    Teeth, to take care of, 260
      the value of, 261
      Food for those whose Teeth are defective, 263
      Preservers, 264
      Ache, remedy for, 265

    Tic Douloureux, 264

    Tewahdiddle, 89

    Tongue of Pityllus, 210

    Time, the Economy of, 69

    Tonic Medicines, 182, 219
      Tincture, 242

    Toast and Water, to make, 230

    Tablettes de Bouillon, how to make, 251

    Thriving, the art of, quoted, 255

    Valetudinarians, maxim for, from Comus, 72

    Vegetables, undressed, 171

    Voice, when the falsetto begins to fail, 47
      what the power of depends upon, 99

    Ventriloquism, 173, 200

    Vinum Britannicum, 144

    Wadd on Corpulency, 29

    Waistbands, 111

    Walking, how it reduces weight, 62

    Water-Cresses, 171

    Water-drinking, the advantages of, 147

    Weather, wet, 108

    Wesley, Mr. Chas., his extraordinary Ear, 47

    Windows, Double, 91
      Curtains, 91

    Wine, 127
      ounces in a Quart of, 128
      how to measure the contents of a bottle of, 128, 129
      Port, how old it ought to be, 132
      the art of preserving, 133
      White, why preferable to Red, 133, 153
      when to bottle, 133
      New, objection to, 135
      Do. to make old, 136
      Cornaro, Obs. on old, 136
      proportion of Alcohol in, 138
      Do. to Brandy, 138
      Do. in Gin, 139
      recommended by St. Paul, 143
      Iceing Wine, 143
      no man must drink it habitually before 30, 147
      Do. Dr. Trotter's Obs. on, 147
      silly rule of some people about drinking, 148
      the relative wholesomeness of, 151
      only three sorts of Wine, note under, 151
      three sorts of drinkers, 141
      Sweet Wines, Tent, &c., how made, 154
      Vinum Britannicum, 144
      Writers on, a list of, 154

    Whiskey, 149

    Wind in the Stomach, 173

    Whytt, Dr., quoted, 181
      his case of night-mare, 194

    Wholesomes, the, 207

    Worms, remedies for, 240

    Young, his Obs. on Sleep, 65




[1] The advantages of the training system are not confined to
pedestrians and pugilists alone--they extend to every man; and were
training generally introduced instead of medicines, as an expedient for
the prevention and cure of diseases, its beneficial consequences would
promote his happiness and prolong his life. "Our Health, Vigour, and
Activity, must depend upon regimen and exercise; or, in other words,
upon the observance of those rules which constitute the theory of the
training process."--CAPT. BARCLAY _on Training_, p. 239.

"It has been made a question, whether Training produces a _lasting_, or
only a _temporary_ effect on the constitution? It is undeniable, that if
a man be brought to a better condition; if corpulency, and the
impurities of his body disappear; and if his wind and strength be
improved by any process whatever, his good state of health will
continue, until some derangement of his frame shall take place from
accidental or natural causes. If he shall relapse into intemperance, or
neglect the means of preserving his health, either by omitting to take
the necessary exercise, or by indulging in debilitating propensities, he
must expect such encroachments to be made on his constitution, as must
soon unhinge his system. But if he shall observe a different plan--the
beneficial effects of the training process will remain until the gradual
decay of his natural functions shall, in mature old age, intimate the
approach of his dissolution."--CAPT. BARCLAY _on Training_, p. 240.

[2] See the 338th aphorism in COULTON'S _Lacon_. 1820. 5th Edition.

[3] "Besides his usual or regular Exercise, a person under training
ought to employ himself, in the intervals, in every kind of exertion
which tends to activity, such as cricket, bowls, throwing quoits, &c.
that during the whole day, both body and mind may be constantly
occupied."--CAPT. BARCLAY _on Training_, p. 231.

"The nature of the disposition of the person trained should also be
known, that every cause of irritation may be avoided; for, as it
requires great patience and perseverance to undergo training, every
expedient to soothe and encourage the mind should be adopted."--CAPT.
BARCLAY _on Training_, p. 237.

[4] Forty years ago, Balls, &c. used to begin in the Evening, _i. e._ at
seven, and end at Night, _i. e._ twelve; now it is _extremely ungenteel_
to begin before Midnight, or finish till the Morning.

[5] "The Studious, the Contemplative, the Valetudinary, and those of
weak nerves--if they aim at Health and Long Life, must make Exercise in
a good air, a part of their Religion."--CHEYNE _on Long Life_, p. 98.

"Whenever circumstances would permit, I have recommended patients to
take as much exercise as they could, short of producing fatigue; to live
much in the open air; and, if possible, not to suffer their minds to be
agitated by anxiety or fatigued by exertion."--p. 90.

"I do not allow the state of the weather to be urged as an objection to
the prosecution of measures so essential to Health, since it is in the
power of every one to protect themselves from cold by clothing, and the
exercise may be taken in a chamber with the windows thrown open, by
actively walking backwards and forwards, as sailors do on
ship-board."--p. 93. See ABERNETHY'S _Surgical Observations_. 1817.

[6] One of the invariable consequences of training is to increase the
solidity, and diminish the frequency of the alvine exoneration, and
persons become costive as they improve in condition:--if this
disposition takes place to an inconvenient degree,--see _Peptic
Precepts_, _Index_.

[7] "Animal Food being composed of the most nutritious parts of the food
on which the animal lived, and having been already digested by the
proper organs of an animal--requires only solution and mixture--whereas
vegetable food must be converted into a substance of an animal nature by
the proper action of our own viscera, and consequently requires more
labour of the stomach, and other digestive organs."--BURTON _on the
Non-Naturals_, p. 213.

[8] The following was the Food taken by Capt. Barclay in his most
extraordinary walk of 1000 miles in 1000 successive hours, June 1, 1809.
"He _Breakfasted_ after returning from his walk, at five in the morning.
He ate a roasted Fowl, and drank a pint of strong Ale, and then took two
cups of Tea with Bread and Butter.

"He _Lunched_ at twelve; the one day on Beef Steaks, and the other on
Mutton Chops, of which he ate a considerable quantity.

"He _Dined_ at six, either on Roast Beef, or Mutton Chops. His drink was
Porter, and two or three glasses of wine.

"He _Supped_ at eleven, on a cold fowl. He ate such vegetables as were
in season; and the quantity of Animal food he took daily, was from five
to six pounds."--See _Pedestrianism_, p. 6.

"_His style of Walking is_ to bend forward the body, and to throw its
weight on the knees. His step is short, and his feet are raised only a
few inches from the ground. Any person who will try this plan, will find
that his pace will be quickened, at the same time he will walk with more
ease to himself, and be better able to endure the fatigue of a long
journey, than by walking in a posture perfectly erect, which throws too
much of the weight of the body on the ankle-joints. He always uses
thick-soled shoes, and lamb's wool stockings. It is a good rule to shift
the stockings frequently during the performance of a long distance; but
it is indispensably requisite to have shoes with thick soles, and so
large, that all unnecessary pressure on the feet may be avoided."--p.

[9] "According to the force of the Chylopoetic Organs, a larger or less
quantity of Chyle may be abstracted from the same quantity of
Food."--ARBUTHNOT _on Aliment_, p. 24.

[10] "Nothing comes to perfection under a stated period of growth; and
till it attains this, it will, of course, afford inferior nutriment.
Beef and Mutton are much easier of digestion, and more nutritious, than
Veal or Lamb. If the flesh of Mutton and Lamb, Beef and Veal, are
compared, they will be found of a different texture, the two young meats
of a more stringy indivisible nature than the others, which makes them
harder of digestion."--_Domestic Management_, 12mo. 1813. p. 151.

[11] "_A 40 Winks Nap_," in an Horizontal posture, is the most reviving
preparative for any great exertion of either the Mind or the Body;--to
which it is as proper an _Overture_ as it is a _Finale_.--See _Siesta_,

[12] "Few persons, even in the best health, can, without disgust, bear
to be confined to a peculiar food, or way of living, for any length of
time, (which is a strong argument that variety of food is natural to
mankind); and if so,--the debilitated stomachs of Valetudinarians cannot
be expected to be less fastidious."--FALCONER _on Diet_, p. 8.

[13] "It appears from my experiments, that _boiled_, and _roasted_, and
even _putrid_ meat, is easier of digestion than _raw_."--See J. HUNTER
_on the Animal Economy_, p. 220.

[14] "Newmarket affords abundant proofs, how much may be done by
training; Jockies sometimes reduce themselves a Stone and a half in a
week."--WADD _on Corpulency_, 8vo. 1816.--p. 35.

[15] "A Dog was fed on the _Richest Broth_, yet could not be kept alive;
while another, which had only the _Meat boiled to a Chip_, (and water),
throve very well. This shows the folly of attempting to nourish Men by
concentrated Soups, Jellies, &c."--SINCLAIR'S _Code of Health_.

If this experiment be accurate--what becomes of the theoretic visions of
those who have written about Strengthening Jellies, Nourishing Broths,

[16] "The excesses of our Youth, are drafts upon our old Age, payable
with interest, about twenty years after date."--COLTON'S _Lacon_. 5th
Edition, 1820. p. 51.

  The Teeth are renewed at the 7th year.
  Puberty arrives at twice seven                                     14.
  Full stature at three times seven                                  21.
  The vigour of growth at four times seven                           28.
  The greatest vigour of Body and Mind at five times seven           35.
  The commencement of decay at six times seven                       42.
  General Decay, and decrease of energy, at seven times seven        49.
  Old Age at eight times seven                                       56.
  And the grand climacteric of the Ancients at nine times seven      63.

Dr. JAMESON _on the Changes of the Human Body_, p. 31.

[18] "Cornaro found that as the powers of his stomach declined with the
powers of Life in general, that it was necessary that he should diminish
the quantity of his food; and by so doing, he retained to the last the
feelings of Health."--ABERNETHY'S _Surg. Obs._ p. 71.

[19] And for Culinary Operators from 25 to 40. Before the former, they
can hardly accumulate sufficient experience; and after the latter, they
every day lose a portion of their "_bon goût_" and activity.

[20] See his sensible Essay on the Changes of the Human Body at
different Ages. 8vo. 1811.--p. 89.

    "The Pulse in the new-born Infant, while
    placidly sleeping, is about                     140 in a minute.
    Towards the end of the first Year               124
    Towards the end of the second Year              110
    Towards the end of the third and fourth Years    96
    When the first Teeth drop out                    86
    At Puberty                                       80
    At Manhood                                       75
    At Sixty, about                                  60"

    BLUMENBACH'S _Physiology_, p. 40.

The expectations of Life are thus calculated by De Moivre--Subtract the
age of the person from 86, half the remainder will be the expectation of
that Life.

[22] See the history of a case of Spectacles, &c. in page 61 of Dr.
KITCHINER'S _Practical Observations on Telescopes, Opera Glasses,
&c._--Third Edition.

[23] "In proportion as the powers of the Stomach are weak, so ought we
to diminish the quantity of our food, and take care that it be as
nutritive, and as easy of digestion as possible."--ABERNETHY'S _Surgical
Observations_, p. 67.

[24] "Nothing is a greater Enemy to feeble life, than laying aside old
habits--or leaving a climate, or place, to which one has been long
accustomed: the irritation occasioned by such changes is highly

"Even pernicious habits, insalubrious air, &c. must be abandoned with
great caution--or we shall thereby hasten the end of our
Patient."--STRUVE'S _Asthenology_, p. 398.

[25] "Those who have lived longest, have been persons without either
Avarice or Ambition, enjoying that tranquillity of Soul, which is the
source of the happiness and health of our early days--and strangers to
those torments of mind which usually accompany more advanced years, and
by which the Body is wasted and consumed."--_Code of Health_, vol. i. p.
60-63, &c.

"In the return made by Dr. ROBERTSON, (and published by Sir JOHN
SINCLAIR, in the 164th page of the second volume of the Appendix to his
Code of Health,) from Greenwich Hospital, of 2410 In-Pensioners,
ninety-six--_i. e._ about one-twenty-fifth are beyond eighty--thirteen
beyond ninety--and one beyond one hundred. They almost all used
_Tobacco_--and most of them acknowledged the habit of _Drinking_ freely.
Some of them had _no teeth_ for twenty years--and fourteen only had good
ones--one who was one hundred and thirteen years old, had lost all his
Teeth upwards of thirty years.

"The organ of _Vision_ was impaired in about one-half--that of _Hearing_
in only one-fifth: this may be accounted for--the _Eye_ is a more
delicate organ than the _Ear_--and the least deterioration of its action
is more immediately observed.--Of the _ninety-six_ they almost all had
been married, and _four_ of them after eighty years of age--only nine
were Batchelors--this is a strong argument in favour of Matrimony.

"_The Best Ages for Marriage_, all other circumstances being favourable,
are between the eighteenth and twenty-fifth year for Females, and
between the twenty-fifth and thirty-sixth for Males. The body is then in
the most complete state to propagate a healthy Offspring--the Ages when
the prolific powers begin to cease in both sexes will nearly
correspond--and the probable expectation of Life will be sufficiently
long, for parents to provide for their children."--JAMESON _on the Human
Body_, p. 336.

[26] "Regular and sufficient Sleep, serves on the one hand, for
repairing the lost powers, and on the other, for lessening consumption,
by lessening vital activity. Hence the lives of people who are exposed
to the most debilitating fatigue, are prolonged to a considerable age,
when they enjoy Sleep in its fullest extent."--STRUVE'S _Asthenology_,
8vo. 1801, p. 199.

[27] "It is a perfect barbarism to awake any one, when Sleep, that "balm
of hurt minds," is exerting its benign influence, and the worn body is
receiving its most cheering restorative."--_Hints for the Preservation
of Health_, 12mo.

[28] In high Health seven or eight hours will complete this refreshment,
and hence arises the false inference drawn from an observation probably
just, that long-lived persons are always early risers: not that early
rising makes them long-lived, but that people in the highest vigour of
Health are naturally early risers--- because they sleep more soundly,
and all that repose can do for them, is done in less time, than with
those who sleep less soundly. A disposition to lie in Bed beyond the
usual hour, generally arises from some derangement of the Digestive
Organs.--_Hints for the Preservation of Health_, p. 32.

[29] The best Fire-feeder is a pair of Steak Tongs.

[30] The method taken to tame unruly Colts, &c. is to walk them about
the whole of the night previous to attempting to break them:--want of
Sleep speedily subdues the spirit of the wildest, and the strength of
the strongest creatures, and renders savage animals tame and tractable.

[31] In Vienna, Berlin, Paris, and London, the twentieth or twenty-third
person dies annually; while, in the Country around them, the proportion
is only one in thirty or forty; in remote country villages, from one in
forty to one in fifty--the smallest degree of human mortality on record
is one in sixty.

    "When warm with Hope, in Life's aspiring morn,
    The Tints of Fancy every scene adorn,
    The glowing landscape charms the poet's view,
    And Youth believes the fairy prospect true.
    But soon, Experience proves his Eye betray'd,
    And all the picture darkens into shade."


    _Beautifully Set to Music by_ SHIELD,
    _and printed in his Cento._

[33] "Above all,--it is of essential importance to Health, to preserve
the tranquillity of the mind,--and not to sink under the disappointments
of life, to which all, but particularly the old, are frequently
exposed.--Nothing ought to disturb the mind of an individual who is
conscious of having done all the good in his power."--SINCLAIR'S _Code
of Health_, p. 459.

"Nothing hurts more the nervous System, and particularly the concoctive
powers, than fear, grief, or anxiety."--WHYTT on _Nerves_, p. 349.

"I shall add to my list, as _the eighth deadly sin_, that of ANXIETY OF
MIND; and resolve not to be pining and miserable, when I ought to be
grateful and happy."--Sir THOMAS BARNARD, Bt. _on the Comforts of Old
Age_, p. 135.

"Anguish of mind has driven thousands to suicide; anguish of body, none.

"This proves that the health of the Mind, is of far more consequence to
our happiness than the health of the Body;--both are deserving of much
more attention than either of them receive."--COULTON'S _Lacon_. 1820,
p. 240.

[34] "Sleep is _sound_--_sweet_--and _refreshing_, according as the
alimentary organs are _easy_, _quiet_, and _clean_."--CHEYNE _on Long
Life_, p. 79.

[35] "The _Grog_ on board a ship is generally one Spirit and three
waters--this is too strong."--See the Hon. JOHN COCHRANE'S _Seaman's
Guide_, 8vo. 1797, p. 37.

[36] If they are not extremely well made, by a superior workman--and of
seasoned Wood,--they are of little or no use.

[37] "_Cold_ Drink is an enemy to Concoction, and the parent of
Crudities."--_Essay on Warm Beer_, 8vo. p. 15.

[38] To make BEEF TEA.--Cut a pound of lean gravy Meat into thin
slices,--put it into a quart and half a pint of cold water, set it over
a gentle fire where it will become gradually warm--when the scum rises
catch it, cover the saucepan close, and let it continue boiling for
about two hours,--skim the fat off, strain it through a sieve or napkin,
skim it again--let it stand ten minutes to settle, and then pour off the
clear Tea.

To make half a pint of _Beef Tea_ in five minutes for three halfpence,
see (No. 252),--and to make good _Mutton Broth_ for nothing, (No. 490),
of _the third Edition_ of the "COOK'S ORACLE."

N.B. An Onion, and a few grains of Black Pepper, are sometimes added. If
the meat is boiled till it is thoroughly tender, mince it, and pound it
as directed in (No. 503) OF THE COOK'S ORACLE, and you may have a dish
of _Potted Beef_ for the trouble of making it.

[39] Brandy and _Liqueur_ Merchant, No. 2, Colonnade, Pall Mall.

[40] Thermometers intended to give the temperature of Rooms, should be
so placed as to be equally removed from the radiant heat of the
Fire--and from currents of Air from the Door.

Out of Doors they should be in a northern situation, sheltered from
Sunshine, or reflected Heat, &c.

[41] The following _Observations_ on Clothing, are copied from the life
of John Stewart, the Traveller, printed for Egerton, 1813, p. 9.--"I
clothed myself at all times very warm, and by buttoning and unbuttoning
I could accommodate to the sudden change of climate and season, and
preserved thereby that equilibre of the secretions and excrements on
which Health and Life depends; for clothing forms a factitious heat, as
a substitute to the muscular heat, declining with age or sickness; on
which action of heat vitality and all the other functions of vital
organism depend."

[42] THE BEST SLIPPERS are a pair of old shoes--_the worst_, those of
plaited cloth--which make the feet tender--and are a hotter covering for
them in the House--than you give them when you go out.

[43] "Only Fools and Beggars suffer from Cold, the latter not being able
to procure sufficient clothes, the former not having the sense to wear

[44] "Narrow sleeves are a very great check on the muscular exercise of
the Arms--the Waistcoat, in its present fashionable form, may be very
properly termed a strait one. The Waistcoat should be long enough to
cover the breeches two or three inches all round. The wrists and knees,
but more particularly the latter, are braced with ligatures, or tight
buttoning; and the Legs, which require the utmost freedom of motion, are
secured into leathern cases or Boots--though the wearer perhaps is never
mounted on Horseback.

"To complete the whole, as the _Head_ is confined by a tight Hat, but
rarely suited to its natural shape, so in regard to shoes the shape of
the foot and the easy expansion of the Toes are never consulted--but the
shape regulated by the fashion of the Day, however tight and
uncomfortable."--SINCLAIR'S _Code of Health_, 4th Edit. p. 357.

[45] "Those who do not take a sufficient quantity of EXERCISE--soon
suffer from a number of Disorders,--want of Appetite--want of
Sleep--flatulence, &c. &c. Obstruction--relaxation of the Bowels--and
all the diversified symptoms of Nervous Complaints. Men of Letters
suffer much, and from neglecting to take Exercise, are often the most
unhealthy of human beings--even that Temperance by which many of them
are distinguished, is no effectual remedy against the mischiefs of a
sedentary life, which can only be counteracted by a proper quantity of
Exercise and Air."

[46] "Stays and stiff Jackets are most pernicious; they disfigure the
beautiful and upright shape of a Woman, and injure the Breast and
Bowels; obstruct the breathing and digestion; hurt the breast and
nipples so much that many Mothers have been prevented by their use from
suckling their Children; many hence get Cancers, and at last lose both
Health and Life--for they render the delivery of Women very difficult
and dangerous both to Mother and Child."--_From_ DR. FAUST'S _Catechism
of Health_, 12mo. p. 39. Edinburgh, 1797.

[47] "Stagnant air becomes corrupted in the same manner as stagnant
water,--opening windows and making currents of air, are the best means
of purifying it."--STRUVE'S _Asthenology_, p. 348.

[48] "The natural heat of the Human Body is 98 of Fahrenheit's
Thermometer--any temperature applied to it lower than 98, gives a
sensation of Cold, but if the temperature applied is not below 62, the
sensation of cold will not continue long, but be soon changed to a
sensation of heat, and in this climate, Air, &c. applied to the living
man, does not diminish the temperature of his Body, unless the
temperature of it be below 62; if it is above that, it increases
it."--CULLEN'S _First Lines_, vol. i. p. 130.

[49] "The Cordials, Volatiles, Bracers, Strengtheners, &c. given by
common practitioners, may keep up an increased circulation for a few
hours, but their action soon subsides.

_"The Circulation of the Blood can only be properly carried on through
the medium of Exercise or labour._--See page 38.

"Art cannot come up to Nature in this most salutary of all her
operations. That sprightly Vigour, and alacrity of Health, which we
enjoy in an active course of Life--that Zest in appetite, and
refreshment after eating, which sated Luxury seeks in vain from art, is
owing wholly to new blood made every day from fresh food, prepared and
distributed by the joint action of all the parts of the Body."--CADOGAN
_on Gout_, p. 34.

[50] "There is no rule more essential to those who are advanced in Life,
than never to give way to a remission of Exercise. By degrees the demand
for exercise may shrink, in extreme old age, to little more than a bare
quit-rent; but that quit-rent must be paid, since life is held by the

"Whoever examines the accounts handed down to us of the Longest Livers,
will generally find, that to the very last they used some exercise, as
walking a certain distance every day, &c. This is mentioned as something
surprising in them, considering their great age; whereas the truth is,
that their living to such an age, without some such exercise, would have
been the wonder. Exercise keeps off obstructions, which are the
principal sources of diseases, and ultimately of death. Motion then is
the tenure of life; and old people who humour or indulge an inclination
to sloth and inactivity, (which is too apt to grow upon them on the
least encouragement), act as unwisely as the poor traveller, who,
bewildered in trackless snow, and surprised by a chilling frost, instead
of resisting the temptation to sleep, suffers it to steal upon him,
though he knows, that, by its fatal blandishments, he can never expect
to wake again, but must inevitably perish."--_Institutes of Health_, p.

[51] "The most ignorant person knows, that proper care of the skin is
indispensably necessary for the well-being of horses, &c.

"The Groom often denies himself rest, that he may dress and curry his
horses sufficiently; it is, therefore, wonderful, that the enlightened
people of these days should neglect the care of their own skin so much,
that I think I may, without exaggeration, assert, that _among the
greater part of men,--the Pores of the Skin are half closed and unfit
for use_."--From p. 235 of HUFFELAND'S _Art of Prolonging Life_,--which
persons of all ages may peruse with much advantage.

[52] A _thick Crust_ is not always the consequence of the Wine having
been very long time in the Bottle--but is rather a sign that it was too
little time in the Cask, or has been kept in a very cold cellar.

[53] "Had the man that first filled the _Heidelburgh Tun_, been placed
as sentinel to see that no other Wine was put into it, I believe that he
would have found it much better at 25 or 30 years old, than at 100 or
150, had he lived so long--retained his senses, and been permitted now
and then to taste it--a privilege with which the natives are seldom

"To give a great price for Wine, and keep it till it begins to perish,
is a great pity." I cannot believe that very aged Wine, when bordering
on Acid, is wholesome, though some Wine-drinkers seem to prefer it in
that state. "Respecting _Port Wine_, there is a great fuss made by some
about its _age_, and the _crust_ on the bottle; as if the age and crust
on the bottle constituted the quality of the Wine." "Such _crusty_
gentlemen shall not select Wine for me."--YOUNG'S _Epicure_, 8vo. 1815,
p. 23, 28, &c.

[54] "Wines bottled in good order, may be fit to drink in six months,
(especially if bottled in October), but they are not in perfection
before twelve. From that to two years they may continue so; but it would
be improper to keep them longer."--_Edinburgh Encyclop. Britan._ vol.
xviii. p. 72, Article _Wine_.

[55] "Cork the bottles very closely with good Cork, and lay them on
their sides, that the Cork may not dry and facilitate the access of the
air. For the greater safety, the Cork may be covered with a coating of
cerement applied by means of a Brush, or the neck of the bottle may be
immersed in a mixture of melted wax, rosin, or pitch."--ACCUM _on making
Wine_, 1820, p. 40.

[56] A PUNCHEON OF BRANDY containing 130 Gallons, after remaining in
Cask in a Merchant's Cellar for three years, lost two Gallons in
measure, and ten Gallons in strength. The stronger the Spirit, the
sooner it evaporates.

The London Dock Company are not answerable for any decrease of quantity
in a PIPE OF WINE left under their care, provided it does not exceed one
Gallon for each year--which it is supposed to waste in that time.

[57] CORNARO complains that _old_ Wine was very disagreeable to his
Stomach, and _new_ wine very grateful; his dose was fourteen ounces,
(_i. e._ seven wine-glasses) per day.

[58] "Fermented liquors furnish very different proportions of
Alcohol--and it has been sometimes supposed that it does not pre-exist
to the amount in which it is obtained by distillation; but some
experiments I made upon the subject in 1811 and 1813, and which are
printed in the _Phil. Trans._ for three years, tend to show that it is a
real educt, and not formed by the action of heat upon the elements
existing in the fermented liquor. The following table exhibits the
proportion of Alcohol by measure, existing in one hundred pints of
Wine."--BRANDE'S _Manual of Chemistry_, 8vo. 1819, p. 400.

    Hock         14
    Claret       15
    Sherry       19
    Port         20
    Madeira      24 per cent Alcohol.

[59] "It would save many lives if Gin, &c. was not allowed to be sold
until reduced to one third the strength of Proof Spirit. People do not
at first drink from any liking or desire, but being cold, or faint with
hunger or fatigue, they find immediate comfort and refreshment from the
use of Spirits--and as they can purchase a dram with less money than
they can cover their back, or fill their belly, so they gratify the
strongest and least expensive appetite--and insensibly become

"Ardent Spirits are not only eminently destructive to the Body, but are
the most powerful incentives to Vice of every kind; Drunkenness
engenders all other Crimes. Does the Robber pause in his Trade? Does the
Murderer hesitate?--they are presently wound up at the Gin shop. Has the
Seducer tried his arts in vain? The Brothel is more indebted to this
source, than to all the other lures to Seduction."--From _Hints for the
Preservation of Health_.--CALLOW, 1813, 12mo. p. 2.

"There are _Three sorts of Drinkers_: one drinks to satisfy Nature, and
to support his Body, and requires it as necessary to his Being.

"Another drinks a _degree_ beyond this, and takes a larger dose to
exhilarate and cheer his mind, and help him to sleep--these two are
lawful drinkers.

"A third drinks neither for the good of the Body or the Mind, but to
stupify and drown both."--MAYNWARINGE _on Health, &c._ 12mo. 1683, p.

[60] JOHNSON'S WITTE CURAÇOA takes precedence of all the _Liqueurs_ we
have ever tasted.

[61] "The _Blood_ of the _Grape_ appeareth to be Blood, in it is Life,
it is from the _Vine_, and that the Plant of life; and that the
difference between this Plant, and the Tree of Life in Paradise, were
but _magis_ and _minus_, is not so improbable as to be rejected by any,
for they will be both granted Plants of Life, and they very much respond
in their nature as well as Appellation. What the fruit was that sprang
from that in Paradise, is not as yet known, or not so perfectly
understood as that of the Vine, the nature of which is so lively as that
_Galen_ will affirm it to augment radical heat, which is the way to live
for ever."--See Dr. WHITAKER _on the Blood of the Grape_, 16mo. 1654, p.
3 and 31.

[62] In our PEPTIC PRECEPTS, we have pointed out the most convenient
ways of counteracting the dilapidating effects of excessive vinous
irrigation, which is doubly debilitating,--when you suffer the
fascinations of the festive Bowl to seduce You to sacrifice to Bacchus,
those hours which are due to the drowsy God of Night.

[63] "More or less _Alcohol_ is necessary to support the usual vigour of
the greater number of people even in Health--nothing therefore can be
more injudicious than wholly to deprive them of this support when they
are weakened by disease--Dyspeptics who have been accustomed to its use,
cannot be deprived of it--a very moderate use of Wine can hardly be said
to be injurious: we see those who use it in this way, live as long, and
enjoy as good health, as those who wholly abstain from it."--Dr. PHILIP,
_on Indigestion_, 8vo. 1821, pp. 139 and 144.

[64] "No man in health can need Wine till he arrives at 40: he may then
begin with two glasses in the day: at 50 he may add two more."--See
TROTTER _on Drunkenness_, 1804, p. 151.

[65] _Scotch or Irish_ WHISKEY is an infinitely purer spirit than
_English_ GIN--which is an uncertain compound of various Essential Oils,

[66] Brandy and _Liqueur_ Merchant, No. 2, Colonnade, Pall Mall.

[67] TO MAKE A QUART OF CURAÇOA.--To a pint of the cleanest and
strongest _Rectified Spirit_, (sold by Rickards, Piccadilly,) add two
drachms and a half of the _Sweet Oil of Orange Peel_, (sold by Stewart,
No. 11, Old Broad Street, near the Bank,) shake it up,--dissolve a pound
of good Lump Sugar in a pint of cold water, make this into a Clarified
Syrup, (No. 475), which add to the Spirit, shake it up, and let it stand
till the following day--then line a funnel with a piece of muslin, and
that with filtering paper, and filter it two or three times till it is
quite bright;--or dissolve a drachm and a half of Carbonate of Potash in
about a quarter pint of the Liqueur by rubbing it together in a
mortar--adding it to the Liqueur, and shaking it well up--then
incorporate a like quantity of pounded Alum in another quarter pint of
the Liqueur--and return it to the Liqueur, shake it well up--and in a
little time it will become fine. This Liqueur is an admirable
cordial--and a tea-spoonful in a Tumbler of water, is a very refreshing
Summer drink, and a great improvement to PUNCH.

_Obs._ We do not offer this Receipt as a Rival to Mr. Johnson's
Curaçoa--it is only proposed as an humble substitute for that
incomparable Liqueur.

[68] "Il y a pour le Gourmet plus de soixante sortes de vins;--il n'y en
a que trois pour le Chimiste;--savoir, les vins mousseux, les vins
faits, les vins sucrés. Le sucre existe tout formé par la nature dans
les raisins mûrs de tous les pays; sa proportion fait la principale
différence des vins; c'est le sucre seul qui établit la fermentation
vineuse: si l'on enferme le vin avant qu'elle soit terminée, le gaz, qui
était sur le point de s'échapper, reste dans la liqueur, et le vin est
mousseux. _Ce gaz est de l'acide carbonique_, le même air qui fait
mousser le cidre, la bière, l'hydromel, et les eaux minérales de Seltz,
de Chateldon. Il est dangereux à respirer en quantité, puisqu'il
asphyxie les animaux; mais il est très-salubre à boire ainsi combiné.
Si, au contraire, la fermentation est terminée, le sucre s'est changé
dans le vin, en _eau de vie_, qui tient en dissolution le tartre, le
principe colorant, et le principe extractif du raisin. Voilà, ce qui
constitue les vins faits; ils ne moussent plus, et ils sont plus ou
moins généreux suivant les proportions de leurs principes.

"Enfin, quand le sucre naturel au raisin est trop abondant pour
fermenter en totalité, une portion reste dans la liqueur sous forme de
Sirop, et constitue les vins sucrés d'Espagne, de Constance, etc.--La
différence de saveur dépend d'un arôme particulier, propre au raisin de
chaque climat."--_Cours Gastronomique_, 8vo. 1809. p. 289.

[69] "The human Stomach is capable, in the adult, of containing about
three quarts of water."--BLUMENBACH'S _Physiology_, p. 145.

[70] "By adopting an abstinent plan of diet, even to a degree that
produces a sensation of want in the System, we do that which is most
likely to create appetite and increase the powers of
digestion."--ABERNETHY'S _Surg. Obs._ 68.

[71] To make BEEF or MUTTON TEA.--Cut a pound of lean gravy-meat into
thin slices--put it into a quart and half a pint of cold water--set it
over a gentle fire where it will become gradually warm--when the skum
rises catch it, cover the Saucepan close, and let it continue boiling
for about two hours--skim the fat off, strain it through a sieve or a
napkin--skim it again--let it stand ten minutes to settle, and then pour
off the clear Tea. To make _half a pint_ of BEEF TEA _in five minutes
for three half-pence_, see No. 252; and to make good _Mutton Broth for
Nothing_, No. 490.

N.B.--An Onion, and a few grains of Black Pepper, &c. are sometimes
added. If the Meat is boiled till it is thoroughly tender, mince it and
pound it as directed in No. 503 of the COOK'S ORACLE--and you may have a
dish of POTTED BEEF for the trouble of making it.

[72] "Il y a trois sortes d'appétits; celui que l'on éprouve à jeûn;
sensation impérieuse qui ne chicane point sur le mets, et qui vous fait
venir l'eau à la bouche, à l'aspect d'un bon ragoût. Je le compare au
désir impétueux d'un jeune homme qui voit sourire la beauté qu'il
aime.--_Le second_ appétit est celui que l'on ressent lorsque, s'étant
mis à table sans faim, on a déjà goûté d'un plat succulent, et qui a
consacré le proverbe, _l'appétit vient en mangeant_. Je l'assimile à
l'état d'un mari dont le cœur tiède s'échauffe aux premières caresses
de sa femme.--_Le troisième_ appétit est celui qu'excite un mets
délicieux qui paraît à la fin d'un repas, lorsque, l'estomac satisfait,
l'homme sobre allait quitter la table sans regret. Celui-là trouve son
emblème dans les feux du libertinage, qui quoique illusoires, font
naître cependant quelques plaisirs réels. La connaissance de cette
métaphysique de l'appétit doit guider le Cuisinier habile dans la
composition du premier, du second et du troisième service."--_Cours
Gastronomique_, p. 64.

[73] "It is but INCREASING or _diminishing_ the velocity of certain
fluids in the animal machine,--to elate the Soul with the gayest
hopes,--or to sink her into the deepest despair; to depress the HERO
into a _Coward_--or advance the _Coward_ into a HERO."--FITZOSBORNE'S
_Letters_, 1. viii.


    "SALT, PEPPER, and MUSTARD, ay, VINEGAR too,
    Are quite as unwholesome as CURRY I vow,
    All lovers of Goose, Duck, or Pig, he'll engage,
    That eat it with Onion, Salt, Pepper or Sage,
    Will find ill effects from 't," and therefore no doubt
    Their prudence should tell them,--best eat it without!
    But, alas! these are subjects on which there's no reas'ning,
    For you'll still eat your Goose, Duck, or Pig, with its seas'ning;
    And what is far worse--notwithstanding his huffing,
    You'll make for your Hare and your Veal a good stuffing:
    And I fear, if a Leg of good Mutton you boil
    With Sauce of vile Capers, that Mutton you'll spoil;
    And tho', as you think, to procure good Digestion,
    A mouthful of Cheese is the best thing in question:
    "In _Gath_ do not tell, nor in _Askalon_ blab it,
    You're strictly forbidden to eat a _Welsh Rabbit_."
    And _Bread_, "the main staff of our life," some will call
    No more nor no less,--than "the worst thing of all."--

See THE LADY'S _Address to Willy Cadogan in his Kitchen_, 4to. 1771.

Some Minute Philosopher has published an 8vo. pamphlet of 56 pages! on
the omnipotent "_virtues of a Crust of Bread eaten early in the morning
fasting!!_" We have no doubt it is an admirable Specific for that
grievous disorder of the Stomach called Hunger.

[75] Are very crude indigestible materials for a weak Stomach, unless
warmed by (No. 372);--with the assistance of which, and plenty of
Pepper, you may eat even _Cucumber_ with impunity.

[76] DR. RADCLIFFE, who succeeded better by speaking plainly to his
Patients, than some of his successors have by the most subtle
Politeness,--when asked what _was the best Remedy for Wind in the
Stomach_, replied, "That which will expel it quickest"--inquiring of the
Ventose subject whether the Wind passed _per Ascensum_, _vel per
Descensum_, observing,--that the former is the most aggravated state of
_Ventriloquism_, the latter a sign that the Bowels are recovering their
Healthful Tone.

[77] "My Stomach digests food so slowly, that I cannot study for five or
six hours after a very sparing dinner."--SPALLANZANI _on Digestion,
&c._, vol. i. p. 280.

"If the quantity of Food be given, its Quality will cause a difference
in the time of digesting; for instance, slimy and viscid meats are
longer in digesting in the Stomach than meats of a contrary nature; the
flesh of some young animals is not so soon digested as the flesh of the
same animals arrived at their full growth; thus _Veal_ and _Lamb_ are
not so soon digested as _Beef_ and _Mutton_.

"A man who took a vomit every second night for some months, observed,
that when he had taken CHICKEN for Dinner, he always threw it up
undigested, but never threw up any of his Food undigested when he made
his Dinner of _Beef_ or _Mutton_."--BRYAN ROBINSON _on the Food and
Discharges of Human Bodies_, 1748, p. 95.

Beef and Mutton seem to give less trouble to the Editor's Stomach than
any kind of Poultry.

The following is copied from Dr. Scudamore on Gout, 2d Edition, p. 509,
being some of the Experiments related by Mr. Astley Cooper in his
lecture delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons in 1814, which have
only been published in Dr. S.'s book, who informs us, they were
performed upon Dogs, with a view to ascertain the comparative solvent
power of the gastric juice upon different articles of food.

    "_Experiment 5._

    Food.     Form.     Quantity.   Animal killed.    Loss by

    Cheese.  Square.    100 pints.     4 hours.         76.
    Mutton.   -----       -----         -----           65.
    Pork.     -----       -----         -----           36.
    Veal.     -----       -----         -----           15.
    Beef.     -----       -----         -----           11.

    "_Experiment 6._

    Food.     Form.     Quantity.   Animal killed.    Loss by

    Beef.  Long & Nar.  100 pints.     2 hours.          0.
    Rabbit.   -----       -----         -----            0.
    Cod Fish. -----       -----         -----            74.

    "_Experiment 9._

    Roast Veal  Do.     100 pints.     2 hours.           7.
    Boiled do.  Do.       -----         -----            30.

[78] "Those who have _weak stomachs_, will be better able to digest
their food, if they take their meals at _regular hours_; because they
have both the stimulus of the aliment they take, and the periodical
habit to assist digestion."--DARWIN'S _Zoonomia_, vol. i. p. 454.

"We often tease and disorder our Stomachs by fasting for too long a
period, and when we have thus brought on what I may call a discontented
state of the organ, unfitting it for its office, we set to a meal, and
fill it to its utmost, regardless of its powers or its
feelings."--ABERNETHY'S _Surg. Obs._ p. 70.

[79] "A Philosopher being asked what was _the best time to dine_,
answered,--For a Rich man, when he could get a Stomach;--for a Poor man,
when he could get Meat."

[80] "When four hours be past, after Breakfast, a man may safely taste
his Dinner,--the most convenient time for dinner, is about _eleven of
the clocke_ before noone,--in 1570, this was the usual time of serving
it in the University of Oxford,--elsewhere about noone,--it commonly
consisted of boyled biefe, with pottage, bread and beere, and no
more,--the quantity of _biefe_ was in value an _halfe-penny_ for each
mouth,--they supped at five of the clocke in the Afternoon."--_Vide_
COGAN'S _Haven of Health_, 1584, p. 187.

_Early_ hours were as _Genteel_ in Dr. Cogan's time, as _late_ ones are
now, 1821.

"Perhaps none of our Old English customs have undergone so thorough a
change, as the hours of rising,--taking refreshment--the number of meals
per day--and the time of retiring to rest.

"The stately dames of Edward IV.'s Court, rose with the Lark,
despatched their dinner at eleven o'clock in the forenoon, and shortly
after eight were wrapt in slumber.--How would these reasonable people
(reasonable at least in this respect) be astonished could they but be
witnesses to the present distribution of time among the Children of
Fashion!--Would they not call the perverse conduct of those who _rise_
at one or two, _dine_ at eight,--and retire to bed when the morning is
unfolding all its glories, and nature putting on her most pleasing
aspect,--absolute insanity!!"--WARNER'S _Antiq. Cul._ p. 134.

"The modern hours of eating are got to an excess that is perfectly
ridiculous. Now, what do people get by this? If they make Dinner their
principal Meal, and do not wish to pall their appetite by eating before
it--they injure their health. Then in Winter they have two hours of
candlelight before Dinner, and in Summer they are at table during the
pleasantest part of the Day; and all this, to get a LONG MORNING,--_for
Idle People, to whom one would suppose the shortest morning would seem
too Long_."--PYE'S _Sketches_, 12mo. 1797, p. 174.

[81] Mr. Peck, Grocer, &c., No. 175, Strand, has printed a very
ingenious chart of the "_Geographie de la Gourmandise_."--"A Map of the
four quarters of the World, intended to show the different parts from
whence all the articles in his catalogue are imported."--See also "CARTE
GASTRONOMIQUE DE LA FRANCE," prefixed to that entertaining work, "COURS
GASTRONOMIQUE," 8vo. 1809.

[82] "A Wag, on being told it was the fashion to dine later and later
every day, said, He supposed it would end at last in not dining till

[83] "It is at the _commencement of Decline_, _i. e._ about our 40th
year, that the Stomach begins to require peculiar care and precaution.
People who have been subject to Indigestions before, have them then more
frequent and more violent; and those who have never been so afflicted,
begin to suffer them from slight causes: a want of attention to which
too frequently leads to the destruction of the best constitutions,
especially of the studious, who neglect to take due exercise. The remedy
proposed is Ipecacuanha, in a dose that will not occasion any nausea;
but enough to excite such an increased action of the vermicular movement
of the stomach, that the phlegm may be separated and expelled from that

"The effects of it surpassed his most sanguine hopes: by the use of it,
notwithstanding he had naturally a delicate constitution, he weathered
the storms of the Revolution," &c., and lived to be 84.

The above is an extract from Dr. BUCHAN'S translation of Mr. DAUBENTON'S
_Observations on Indigestion_. This treatise brought Ipecacuanha
Lozenges into fashion, as the most easy and agreeable manner of taking
it: they contain about one-sixth of a grain, and are prepared and sold
by SAVORY and MOORE, Chemists, in Bond Street.

[84] Delicate people, who are accustomed to dine at a certain hour, on
certain food, &c., are generally deranged as often as they dine out, and
change the hour, &c.

The Editor has a patient who never Dines out without suffering severely
for several days after--not from over-eating or drinking, &c., but from
the change of Diet, and the time of taking it. His habit is to make a
hearty meal off one dish at Five o'clock, and drink with it some good
heartening home-brewed Beer, and two or three glasses of Wine--that has
not been kept till it has lost its best qualities.

[85] Dr. W. says: "When the Stomach is in a sound state, and Digestion
is properly performed, the spirits are good, and the Body is light and
easy; but when that organ is out of order, a languor, debility,
discontent, melancholy watchfulness, or troublesome dreams, the
nightmare, &c. are the consequences. I have often been seized with a
slight _Incubus_, attended with a faintness, as if the circulation was a
good deal obstructed, before I was fully asleep, which has made me get
up suddenly: while I lay awake I felt nothing of these symptoms, except
some degree of uneasiness about my stomach; but when I was just about to
fall asleep, they began to return again." "In this way I have gone on
for two or three hours or more, in the beginning of the night. At last,
I found that a dram of _Brandy_, after the first attack, kept me easy
the whole night," p. 312.

"When affected with uneasy sensation from wind, I have not only been
sensible of a general debility and flatness of spirits, but the
unexpected opening of a door, or any such trifling unforeseen accident,
has instantly occasioned an odd sensation about my heart, extending
itself to my head and arms, &c. At other times, when my stomach is in a
firmer state, I have no such feeling: at least, in a very small degree,
from causes which might be thought more apt to produce them. Fainting,
Tremors, Palpitations of the Heart, convulsive motions, and all those
disorders which are called nervous, &c. &c. are often owing more to the
infirm state of the first passages, than to any fault either in the
Brain or Heart," p. 132, &c.

Dr. Whytt died A.D. 1766, in his 52d year.

[86] "Physicians appear to be too strict and particular in their rules
of diet and regimen; too anxious attention to those rules hath often
hurt those who were well, and added unnecessarily to the distresses of
the sick.--Whether meat should be boiled or roasted, or dressed in any
other plain way, and what sort of vegetables should be eaten with it, I
never yet met with any person of common sense (except in an acute
illness) whom I did not think much fitter to choose for himself, than I
was to determine for him."--DR. HEBERDEN _on Diet_.

"When the Stomach is weak, it seems particularly necessary that our food
should be nutritive and easy of digestion.

"I may further observe, that its qualities should be adapted to the
feelings of the stomach.

"In proof of this proposition, numerous instances might be mentioned of
apparently unfit substances agreeing with the Stomach, being digested
and even quieting an irritable state of the stomach, merely because they
were suitable to its feelings. Instances might also be mentioned of
changes in Diet producing a tranquil and healthy state of stomach in
cases where medicines had been tried in vain."--ABERNETHY, _Surg. Obs._
p. 68.

[87] "_A Fool_, or a PHYSICIAN _at Forty_, is an adage containing more
truth than is commonly believed.--He who has not by that time learned to
observe the causes of self-disorder--shows little signs of wisdom; and
He who has carefully noted the things which create disorder in himself,
must by his own experience possess much knowledge, that a Physician at a
pop visit ought not to pretend to."--_Domestic Management_, 1813, p.

[88] "GRILLUS, who, according to the doctrine of _Transmigration_, (as
_Plutarch_ tells us) had, in his turn, been a BEAST, discourses how much
better he fed and lived then, than when he was turned to MAN again, as
knowing then what food was best and most proper for him, which
_Sarcophagists_ (flesh-eaters) in all this time were yet to
seek."--EVYLYN'S _Acetana_, 12mo. 1699, p. 86.

    "Instinct than Reason makes more wholesome Meals."--YOUNG.

"My Appetite is in several things of itself happily enough accommodated
to the health of my Stomach; whatever I take against my liking does me
harm; but nothing hurts me that I eat with appetite and delight."--_Vide
honest_ MONTAIGNE'S _Essay on Experience_, book iii. chap. xiii.

"The Stomach gives information when the supplies have been expended, and
represents with great exactness the quantity and quality of whatever is
wanted in the present state of the machine, and, in proportion as it
meets with neglect, rises in its demand, and urges its petition with a
louder voice."--DR. WM. HUNTER'S _Introductory Lecture_, 4to. p. 81.

"Take Food in proportion to the quantity of nourishment contained in it,
of which the Stomach appears from Instinct to be capable of
judging."--J. HUNTER _on the Animal Economy_, 4to. p. 221.

    "Prompted by Instinct's never erring power,
    Each creature knows its proper aliment,
    Directed, bounded by this power within,
    Their cravings are well aimed; Voluptuous Man,
    Is by superior faculties misled;
    Misled from pleasure--even in quest of Joy."
                ARMSTRONG'S _Art of Preserving Health_.

"Our stomach is, in general, a pretty good Judge of what is best for
it,--thousands have perished for being inattentive to its calls--for one
who has implicitly obeyed them."--DR. SMITH'S _Guide in Sickness_, 8vo.
p. 59.

"In every case wherein we wish to preserve strength, (as in most
chronical complaints) we should be extremely cautious in prescribing a
rigid regimen,--especially if it is intended to be long
continued."--"Things disagreeable to the palate, seldom digest well, or
contribute to the nourishment of the Body."--FALCONER _on Diet_, pp. 7,
and 8.

"What is most grateful to the Palate, sits most easy on the
Stomach."--ADAIR _on Diet_, p. 28.

"LONGINGS directed by the pure guidance of INSTINCT, and not arising
merely from opinion, may not only be satisfied with Impunity, but
generally be indulged in with advantage."--WITHERS _on the Abuse of
Medicine_, 8vo. p. 233.

[89] "As to the quality of food, although whatever is easy of digestion,
singly considered, deserves the preference, yet regard must be had to
the palate and to the appetite, because it is frequently found, that
what the Stomach earnestly covets, though of difficult digestion, does
nevertheless digest better than what is esteemed of easier digestion if
the Stomach nauseates it: I am of opinion the patient ought to eat only
of _one dish_ at a meal."--SYDENHAM _on Gout_.

"Every Animal but Man keeps to _one dish_--Herbs are the food of this
species--Fish of that--and Flesh of a third."--SPECTATOR, No. 95.

"Be content with _one dish_ at a meal, in the choice of that consult
your palate."--MANDEVILLE _on Hypochondriasis_, p. 316.

[90] "It is surprising how much the condition and disposition of the
Stomach and Intestines will vary in the same person at different
times."--WHYTT _on the Nerves_; p. 127.

[91] "Many people, to be sufficiently nourished, must be supplied with
food exceedingly stimulating."--STRUVE'S _Asthenology_, 8vo. 1801, p.

[92] "Whosoever dreameth that no _Sick_ Man should be allured to meat,
by delightful and pleasant Sauces, seemeth as froward and fantastical as
He that would never whet his knife.

"Why hath nature brought forth such variety of Herbs, Roots, Spices, &c.
fit for nothing but Sauces, &c. but that by them, the Sick should be
allured to feed.

"Abstinence is as dangerous, as Fulness and Satiety is
inconvenient."--DR. MOFFETT _on Foods_, 12mo. 1746, p. 343.

[93] "This gentleman had so cold a Stomach, (saith _Suidas_,) that he
made a sheath for his Tongue, that he might swallow down his Pottage
scalding hot; yea, I myself have known a Shropshire Gentleman of the
like quality."--Dr. MUFFETT _on Food_, 4to. 1655, p. 287.

[94] "The Chyle appears to be of the same nature, from whatever aliment
it has been extracted; if the medical people in different countries were
questioned, each would probably approve of the diet used in their
own--and would find plausible arguments to prove its superiority, with
numerous and admirable examples among their countrymen in support of
their theory.

"An Englishman would probably be of opinion that wheat-bread, and a
large portion of animal food, gives the strongest and most substantial

"An Irishman, or a Scotsman, would probably maintain that a small
portion of animal food,--with plenty of potatoes and oatmeal, is far
better adapted to form a vigorous and hardy race. The Laplanders live
almost entirely upon Animal food--the Hindoos, Gentoos, &c. never taste
any thing but Vegetables."--MOORE'S _Mat. Med._ p. 70.

"In the course of a few years, the produce of several acres of land, a
number of large oxen, and many tuns of liquor, are consumed by one
individual; whilst he continues nearly the same, whether he drinks the
pure stream, or beverage the most skilfully compounded; whether he feeds
on a variety of articles produced from the animal and vegetable kingdom,
or confines himself to one particular substance; and whether his food is
prepared in the most simple manner, or by the most refined and
artificial modes that luxury has invented."--_Code of Health_, vol. i.
p. 402.

_Facts relative to Diet._--"Dr. B. Franklin, of Philadelphia, informed
me that he himself, when a journeyman printer, lived a fortnight on
bread and water, at the rate of ten pennyworth of bread per week, and
that he found himself stout and hearty with this diet."

"By Sir John Pringle I was told that he knew a lady now 90 years of age,
who eat only the pure fat of meat."

"Dr. Cirelli says, that the Neapolitan Physicians frequently allow their
patients in fevers, nothing but water for forty days together."--Dr.
STARK, _on Diet, &c._ 4to. 1788, p. 92, a work well worth the purchase
of any person curious upon this subject. As is also Dr. BRYAN ROBINSON,
on _Food and Discharges of Human Bodies_.

[95] "A constant adherence to one sort of Diet, may have bad effects on
any Constitution. Nature has provided a great Variety of Nourishment for
Human Creatures, and furnished us with Appetites to desire, and Organs
to digest them.

"An unerring Regularity is almost impracticable, and the swerving from
it, when it has grown habitual, dangerous; for every unusual thing in a
human body becomes a stimulus, as Wine or Flesh Meat to one not used to
them; therefore _Celsus's_ Rule, with proper moral restrictions, is a
good one."--ARBUTHNOT _on Aliment_, pp. 218 and 219.

[96] A PILL is the mildest form of administering Medicine, because of
its gradual solution in the Stomach, and the same quantity of the same
material, taken in a draught, produces a very different effect.

[97] "He that would have _a clear Head_, must have _a clean
Stomach_."--CHEYNE _on Health_, p. 34.

[98] _Quintessence of Lemon Peel_, (No. 418).--Best oil of Lemon, one
drachm,--strongest rectified Spirit, two ounces, introduced by degrees,
till the spirit kills and completely mixes with the oil. This elegant
and useful preparation, possesses all the delightful fragrance and
flavour of the freshest Lemon Peel--for which you will find it a
satisfactory substitute. A few drops on the Sugar you make Punch with,
will instantly impregnate it with as much flavour as the troublesome and
tedious method of rubbing the sugar on the rind.

[99] "I have observed that in mature Age, and in the decline of Life,
symptoms which are attributed to previous irregularities, to
idiosyncracy, to hereditary disposition, to disease, and to approaching
old age, frequently arise from Constipation of the Bowels."--HAMILTON
_on Purgative Medicines_, 1806, p. 7.

[100] "_Astriction of the Belly_ is commonly a sign of strong
Chylopoetick Organs."--ARBUTHNOT _on Aliment_, p. 24.

[101] Beautiful and full ripe Hot-house Grapes may be procured in the
greatest perfection at the Fruit Shops in Covent Garden, almost all the
year round--and the Editor has frequently given them to delicate women,
who have been afflicted with feverish complaints, to the quantity of a
Pound per day, with the most satisfactory effect--they were extremely
grateful in cooling their parched mouths, and at once most agreeably and
effectually supplied the place of both Saline Draughts and Aperient

[102] "People who have Relaxed Bowels have seldom strong thoughts or
strong bodies."--LOCKE _on Education_, sec. 23.

"The cure for relaxed _Nerves_ (the source of all chronic disorders)
must necessarily begin at the Stomach. He who attempts to cure a Nervous
distemper without _firm Bowels_--labours in vain; for it is impossible
that the Constitution of those who have _Slippery Bowels_--should ever
be braced."--CHEYNE _on Long Life_, p. 107.

[103] "To make TOAST AND WATER.--Cut a bit of the upper crust of Bread,
about twice the thickness Toast is usually cut--toast it carefully, till
it be completely browned all over, but not at all blackened or burnt:
put this into a jug, and pour upon it as much boiling water as you wish
to make into drink--cover the jug--let it stand till cold. The fresher
made--the better. _Obs._--A roll of fresh thin cut Lemon Peel or dried
Orange Peel, infused with the Bread, is a grateful addition, and makes a
very refreshing Summer drink--and when the proportion of the fluids is
destroyed by profuse perspiration, may be drank plentifully. Let a large
jug be made early in the day, it will then become warm by the heat of
the Air, and may be drank freely with impunity; cold Water fresh drawn
from a well cannot without danger."

[104] Dr. Pemberton recommends the following Bolus:--

  ℞ Kino. pulv. ℈j.
      Confect. Opiat. gr. xii.
  Misc. Fiat bolus, ter quotidie sumendus.

See his _Observations on the Diseases of the Abdominal Viscera_, 8vo.
1807, p. 140.

[105] Here followed, in the first Edition, some _Observations on
Singing_. See page 98 of this book--But most of them are taken out, and
will shortly be published by Messrs. Hurst and Robinson, No. 90,
Cheapside, as part of the Prefatory matter of "THE ENGLISH MELODIES,"
selected by the Author of this work, from the Library of Wm. Kitchiner,
M. D.

[106] "A knowledge how to regulate the alvine evacuation, constitutes
much of the prophylactic part of Medicine; hence, how necessary it is to
advise those who either wish to preserve good Health, or are in quest of
the lost treasure, to attend to this circumstance."--HAMILTON _on
Purgatives_, p. 7.

"How much it behoves those who have the charge of young people,
particularly of the female sex, to impress them with the propriety, nay
with the absolute necessity of attention to the regular state of the
Bowels; and to put it in their power, by the use of proper means, to
guard against constipation; and at the same time to watch over them,
lest, through indolence, they neglect a circumstance which, promoting in
the gay season of youth, the enjoyment of health and happiness, opposes
a sure barrier against the inroads of chlorosis, &c., always a
distressing, and sometimes a fatal complaint."--_Ibid._ p. 76.

[107] "There are three things which I consider as necessary to the cure
of disorder.

"_1st_, That the Stomach should thoroughly digest all the food that is
put into it.

"The patient perceiving the necessity of obtaining this end, becomes
attentive to his Diet, and observes the effect which the quantity and
quality of his food and medicines have upon his feelings, and the
apparent powers of his Stomach.

"_2dly_, That the residue of the food should be daily discharged from
the Bowels: here, too, the patient, apprised of the design, notes what
kind and dose of purgative medicine best effect the intention, and
whether it answers better if taken at once, or at intervals.

"_3dly_, That the secretion of Bile should be right, both with respect
to quantity and quality. In cases wherein the secretion of Bile has been
for a long time deficient or faulty, I recommend unirritating and
undebilitating doses of Mercury, (_i. e._ pil. hydrarg.) to be taken
every second or third night till the stools become of the wet rhubarb
colour."--P. 90.

"Any kind of Brown, which dilution will not convert into yellow, I
should consider as unhealthy."--P. 36.

See MR. ABERNETHY'S _Surgical Observations_.

[108] "A popular hypothesis is now very prevalent, which attributes
nearly all Diseases to a disturbed state of THE LIVER--for which,
Mercurial drugs are lavished almost indiscriminately. The folly of
expecting to repel this, or any other opinion which is favourable to the
natural indolence of mankind, is obvious, especially when it is at the
same time upholden by the empirical interests of greedy
individuals."--A. CARLISLE _on Old Age_, 2d edit. p. 88.

[109] "It is a dubious question, whether WORMS or the _Violent
Purgatives_ which are forced into the human Stomach, by the decisive
energy of medical logic, to destroy and expel them, have been most
destructive to the human species."--WITHERS _on the Abuse of Medicine_,
8vo. 1794, p. 19 and 117.

[110] "MERCURY and ANTIMONY, elaborated into Poisons by Chemistry--i. e.
_Calomel_, _Emetic Tartar_, _James's Powders_, &c. have torn many a
Stomach into rags, so that it could never bear common food
after."--CADOGAN _on Gout_, 8vo. 1771, p. 79.

[111] The flavour of _Coxwell's Citric Acid_ is much more agreeable than
the _Tartaric_, which, being cheaper, is sometimes substituted for it.

[112] PORTABLE SOUP, _or_ GLAZE.--(No. 252.)--Desire the Butcher to
break the bones of a Leg or a Shin of Beef, of 10 pounds weight (the
fresher killed the better), put it into a Soup-pot (a DIGESTER is the
best utensil for this purpose) that will well hold it; just cover it
with cold water, and set it on the fire to heat gradually till it nearly
boils, (this should be at least an hour);--skim it attentively while any
scum rises,--pour in a little cold water, to throw up the scum that may
remain,--let it come to a boil again, and again skim it carefully: when
no more scum rises, and the broth appears clear, (put in neither Roots
nor Herbs nor Salt,) let it boil for eight or ten hours, and then strain
it through a hair sieve into a brown stone pan; set the Broth where it
will cool quickly; put the meat into a sieve, let it drain, make Potted
Beef (No. 503),--or it will be very acceptable to many poor families.
Next day remove every particle of _Fat_ from the top of it, and pour it
through a Tammis or fine sieve as quietly as possible into a Stewpan,
taking care not to let any of the settlings at the bottom of the stone
pan go into the Stewpan, which should be of thick Copper, perfectly well
tinned; add a quarter of an ounce of whole Black Pepper to it, let it
boil briskly, with the stewpan uncovered, on a quick fire: if any scum
rises, take it off with a skimmer; when it begins to thicken, and is
reduced to about a quart, put it into a smaller stewpan; set it over a
gentler fire, till it is reduced to the thickness of a very thick Syrup;
take care that it does not burn,--_a moment's inattention now will lose
you all your labour, and the soup will be spoiled_:--take a little of it
out in a spoon and let it cool; if it sets into strong Jelly, it is done
enough;--if it does not, boil it a little longer, till it does;--have
ready some little pots, such as are used for Potted Meats, about an inch
and a half deep, taking care that they are quite dry;--we recommend it
to be kept in these pots, if it is for home consumption--(_the less it
is reduced, the better is the flavour of the Soup_)--if it be
sufficiently concentrated to keep for six months;--if you wish to
preserve it longer, put it into such bladders as are used for German
Sausages,--or if you prefer it in the form of Cakes, pour it into a dish
about a quarter of an inch deep; when it is cold, turn it out and weigh
the Cake, and divide it with a paste-cutter into pieces of half an ounce
and an ounce each; place them in a warm room, and turn them frequently
till they are thoroughly dried;--this will take a week or ten days; turn
them twice a day;--when well hardened, if kept in a dry place, they may
be preserved for several years in any climate.

This extract of Meat makes excellent "_Tablettes de Bouillon_," for
those who are obliged to endure long fasting.

_Obs._--The uses of this concentrated _Essence of Meat_ are numerous. It
is equally economical and convenient for making _extempore_ Broths,
Sauces and Gravies for Hashed or Stewed Meat, Game, or Poultry, &c.

You may thicken it and flavour it as directed in (No. 329);--to make
_Gravy_, Sauces, &c. take double the quantity ordered for _Broth_.

If you have time and opportunity, as there is no seasoning in the Soup,
either of Roots, Herbs, or Spice, boil an Onion with or without a bit of
Parsley, and Sweet Herbs, and a few corns of Allspice, or other Spice,
in the water you melt the Soup in, which may be flavoured with Mushroom
Catsup (No. 439),--or Eschalot Wine (No. 402),--Essence of Sweet Herbs
(No. 417),--Savoury Spice (Nos. 421, or 457),--Essence of Celery (No.
409), &c. or Zest (No. 255);--these may be combined in the proportions
most agreeable to the palate of the Eater--and are as portable as
Portable Soup, for a very small portion will flavour a Pint.

The Editor adds nothing to the solution of this Soup, but a very little
ground Black Pepper and some Salt.

_Mem._ THIS PORTABLE SOUP is a most convenient article in
Cookery--especially in _Small Families_, where it will save a great deal
of time and trouble. It is also _Economical_, for no more will be melted
than is wanted--so there is no waste.

SHIN OF BEEF, weighing nine pounds, and costing 1_s._ 10-1/2_d._
produced nine ounces of concentrated Soup, sufficiently reduced to keep
for several months. After the boiling, the Bones in this joint weighed
two pounds and a quarter, and the Meat two pounds and a quarter.

As it is difficult to obtain this ready-made of good quality--and we
could not find any proper and circumstantial directions for making it,
which on trial answered the purpose,--and it is really a great
acquisition to the Army and Navy--to Travellers, Invalids, &c.--the
Editor has bestowed some time, &c. in endeavouring to learn--and to
teach how it may be prepared in the easiest,--most economical and
perfect manner.

The ordinary selling price is from 10_s._ to 12_s._--but you may make it
according to the above Receipt for 3_s._ 6_d._ per Pound--_i. e._ for
2-1/2_d._ per Ounce, which will make you a Pint of Broth.

Those who do not regard the expense, and like the flavour, may add the
lean of Ham, in the proportion of a pound to eight pounds of Leg of

It may also be flavoured, by adding to it, at the time you put the Broth
into the smaller Stewpan, Mushroom Catsup, Shallot Wine, Essences of
Spice or Herbs, &c.;--we prefer it quite plain--it is then ready to be
converted in an instant into a basin of Beef Tea for an Invalid, and any
flavour may be immediately communicated to it by the Magazine of Taste
(No. 463.)

_Mutton Chops delicately Stewed, and good Mutton Broth._--(No.
490.)--Put a Pound of Chops into a stewpan with cold water enough to
cover them, and half a pint over, and an Onion,--when it is coming to a
boil, skim it, cover the pan close, and set it _over a very slow Fire_
till the Chops are tender,--if they have been kept a proper time, they
will take about three quarters of an hour's _very gentle simmering_.
Send up Turnips with them, (No. 130), they may be boiled with the chops,
skim well, and then send all up in a deep dish, with the Broth they were
stewed in.

N.B. _The Broth_ will make an Economist one,--and _the Meat_ another
wholesome and comfortable meal.

[113] Men are but rarely "framed so in the prodigality of Nature," as to
have all their Senses in perfection--very few have a single one, that
approximates within many degrees of it--the Eye of Raphael, the Ear of
Handel, the Palate of Apicius--or the sensitive touch of the blind Girl,
who could _feel Colours_--are pancratic faculties which are seldom

The following division of the Senses is so excellent, that I copy it
from the scarce Book referred to below:--

"I distinguish the SIX SENSES by the character of noxious and innocent.
The first three, _Thinking_--_Seeing_--and _Hearing_--are the innocent.
The last three, _Feeling_--_Tasting_--and _Smelling_--the noxious.

"I pursue Happiness, or systematic pleasurable sensation, in the
cultivation of the first class--and in the control of the latter."--See

[114] "I took two pieces of Mutton, each weighing 45 grains, and having
_chewed_ one as much as I used to chew my food--enclosed them in two
separate spheres--and swallowed them at the same time--these tubes were
voided at the same time--of the masticated meat there remained only 4
grains--of the other there were 18 left."

"_The necessity of Mastication_ is sufficiently known--there is perhaps
no person who has not, some time or other, suffered from Indigestion,
for want of having chewed his food properly. The reason is obvious. Not
to mention the saliva which moistens the food, and predisposes it to be
dissolved, it cannot be doubted, that when it is reduced to pieces by
the action of the Teeth, the gastric fluid penetrates, and attacking it
at more points, dissolves it more speedily than when it was whole. This
is true of menstrua in general, which always dissolve bodies sooner when
they have been previously broken to pieces. This is also the reason why,
in other experiments, masticated bread and _dressed_ flesh were more
readily dissolved than unchewed bread and _raw_ flesh. The boiling had
made it tenderer, and consequently disposed it to allow ingress to the
gastric fluid."--SPALLANZANI _on Digestion_, vol. i. p. 277.

[115] In no branch of the practice of Physic, is there more _Dangerous
Quackery_, than in this department--the only means we can furnish our
friends with to avoid this--is to recommend them to apply to a
scientific Dentist of acknowledged integrity and experience.--Our own
Mouth is under considerable obligations to Mr. EDMONDS, of Conduit
Street, Hanover Square.

[116] "Slave-dealers are well acquainted with the characteristic signs
of perfect Health--any defect of which much diminishes the value of a
Slave. The want of _a Tooth_ makes a Slave worth two Dollars
less."--FINKE'S _Medical Geography_, vol. i. p. 449.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Art of Invigorating and Prolonging Life - By Food, Clothes, Air, Exercise, Wine, Sleep, &c. and - Peptic Precepts, Pointing Out Agreeable and Effectual - Methods to Prevent and Relieve Indigestion, and to Regulate - and Strengthen the Action of the Stomach and Bowels" ***

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