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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 125, March 20, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 125, March 20, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



[Transcriber's Note: Original spelling variations have not been
standardized. Characters with macrons are shown in brackets with an
equal sign, e.g. [=u] for a letter u with a macron on top. Some scribal
abbreviations may be tentatively expanded: e.g. read "que" for q; and
"verbum" for v'b[=u]. Underscores have been used to indicate italic
fonts. A list of numbers and pages in Notes and Queries has been added
at the end.]



NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION

FOR

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. V.--No. 125. SATURDAY, MARCH 20. 1852.

Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition, 5_d._



CONTENTS.

                                                                Page


      NOTES:--

      The Caxton Coffer, by Bolton Corney                        265

      John Tradescant the Younger, an Englishman                 266

      Cowley and his Monument, by Henry Campkin                  267

      Count Königsmark and the Duchess of Somerset,
      by D. Jardine                                              269

      Folk Lore, by C. D. Lamont                                 270

      London Street Characters, by Alfred Gatty                  270

      Minor Notes:--Dean Swift on Herbert's Travels--Joe
      Miller--Hints to Book-buyers--Birmingham
      Antiquities--Buchanan and Voltaire--Indignities on the
      Bodies of Suicides                                         271

      QUERIES:--

      "God's Love," &c., and other Poems                         272

      Praying to the Devil                                       273

      Minor Queries:--John Ap Rice's Register--Prideaux's
      Doctrine of Conscience--John Adair, Geographer
      for Scotland (alive in 1715)--Clergymen first
      styled Reverend--Rev. Nathaniel Spinckes--Meaning
      of the word "Elvan"--Wiclif--Showing the
      White Feather--Gray and Locke--Horses and Sheep,
      Remains of in Churches--Archæologia Cambrensis,
      Vol. I., Reprint--Presbyterian Oath--"A Pinch of
      Snuff from Dean Swift's Box"--Cromwell's Skull--Guy,
      Thomas, Founder of Guy's Hospital, and M.P. for
      the Borough for Tamworth, d. s. p. 1724--Episcopal
      Mitre--John Lord Berkeley, Bishop of Ely--Palace of
      Lucifer--Ecclesiastical Geography--History of
      Commerce--Merchant Adventurers to Spain--King's
      College Chapel Windows--The King's Standard--James
      Wilson, M.D.                                               273

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Prestwich's Respublica--Instance
      of Longevity--Solidus Gallicus, &c.--Sept--Essay
      towards Catholic Communion--Bigot                          276

      REPLIES:--

      Age of Trees; Tilford Oak                                  277

      St. Paul's Quotation of Heathen Writers; St. Paul
      and Plato                                                  278

      Sir Alexander Cumming                                      278

      General Wolfe                                              279

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Song of "Miss Bailey"--Fern
      Storms--The Last of the Paleologi--"Whipping
      Graves"--Rev. John Paget--Old Scots March, &c.--Sir
      R. Howard's "Conquest of China"--Mary Howe--Dutch
      Chronicle of the World--Thistle of Scotland--Bull
      the Barrel--Bishop Kidder's Autobiography--Which
      are the Shadows?--Welsh Names "Blaen"--The Verb "to
      commit"--Beócera-gent--New Zealand Legend--Twenty-seven
      Children--Reeve and Muggleton--Black Book of
      Paisley--Pasquinades--Elegy on Coleman--Liber
      Conformitatum, &c.--Grimesdyke; Grimes Graves--Junius
      and the Quarterly Review again--Ink--Maps of
      Africa--Learned Men of the Name of Bacon--Paringthe
      Nails--Mottoes on Dials--Mispronounced Names of
      Places--"There's ne'er a villain," &c.                     280

      MISCELLANEOUS:--

      Notes on Books, &c.                                        285

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               286

      Notices to Correspondents                                  286

      Advertisements                                             287



Notes.


THE CAXTON COFFER.

[_Proposals of Mr. Randal Minshull, c. 1742._[1]]

  [Footnote 1: This document, though before printed, is as rare as a
  manuscript. Dibdin had not seen it when he wrote his memoir of
  Caxton, nor could he prove its existence but by a reference to the
  _Bibliotheca Westiana_. It is now reprinted from a copy in the
  Grenville collection in the British Museum. The specimen is a
  small folio, in pica type, and on thin laid paper. As my
  information on Mr. Randal Minshull is at present very scanty, I
  reserve it with the hope of more fortunate gleanings.--BOLTON
  CORNEY.]

  "Proposals for printing an exact and ample account of all the
  books printed by William Caxton, who was the first printer in
  England: wherein will be set forth some select chapters from each
  book, to shew the nature and diction thereof, with all his proems,
  prologues, epilogues, and tables, in his own words. There will be
  also interspersed several ancient and curious matters relating to
  the history of England, and other curious subjects: with a
  vocabulary of the old English words, and an explanation of them,
  which will greatly illustrate the ancient English language, as it
  was written in the reign of Edward III. and continued down to
  Henry VII. kings of England, as contained in the writings of
  Thomas Woodstock duke of Glocester, Anthony Woodville earl Rivers,
  John Gower, Geoffry Chaucer, John Lydgate, and other famous
  persons.

  "By R. Minshull, library-keeper to the right honourable the earl of
  Oxford deceas'd.

      "'Ut sylvæ foliis pronos mutantur in annos,
      Prima cadunt, ita verborum vetus interit ætas,
      Et juvenum ritu, florent modo nata vigentq;
      Debemur morti nos, nostraq;!'--HOR.

  "It is proposed by the editor hereof, as follows: viz.

  "I. This work will contain about 200 sheets of paper, printed in
  the same form of letter and paper, as this specimen.

  "II. There shall be no more printed than 500 books, suitable to
  the proposed number of subscribers.

  "III. That for the more expeditious carrying on, and effecting
  thereof, every subscriber shall pay to the editor two guineas;
  viz. one guinea at the time of subscribing, and the other guinea
  upon the delivery of a perfect book in sheets.

  "N.B. Proposals will be delivered, subscriptions taken, and proper
  receipts given for the money, by the editor R. Minshull, at Mrs.
  Reffers, in Maddox-street, near St. George's church,
  Hanover-square.

  "Received this [...] day of [...] 174[...] from [...] one guinea,
  being the first payment [for] The account of the books printed by
  William Caxton, according to the above proposals.

  "An exact and ample account of all the books printed by William
  Caxton, &c.

  "The first work of William Caxton, appears to be (as he calls it)
  The recuyell of the historyes of Troye, divided into three parts,
  the whole containing 778 pages (as numbred by my self, they not
  being figured in the printing) in a short folio, the paper being
  very thick and strong: there are no initial capital letters in
  this book, which shews that he had not formed any at that time. In
  his preface to this book he declares that he was born in the Weeld
  of Kent, where he first learned the rudiments of the English
  tongue; a place wherein he doubts not, is spoke as broad and rude
  English, as in any part of England: that he never was in France,
  but that he continued the space of thirty years, for the most
  part, in Brabant, Flanders, Holland and Zealand.

  "He also says, that this history was first translated into French,
  from several Latin authors, by a certain worshipful man, named the
  right venerable and worthy Raoul le Feure, priest and chaplain to
  Philip duke of Burgundy, in 1464; being the fourth year of the
  reign of king Edward IV. In which year he was employed by that
  king in conjunction with Richard Whetchill, esq.; to treat and
  conclude certain actions of commerce between the said king and
  Philip duke of Burgundy: their Commission, as set forth in Rymer's
  _Foedera_, is as follows; [See Rymer.]

  "It was from the said French translation that Mr. Caxton formed
  this history, in the prologue of which he stiles himself mercer of
  the city of London; and it was by the command of his royal
  patroness, Margaret, sister to king Edward IV. after her marriage
  with Charles, duke of Burgundy, that he undertook it and finish'd
  it. A description of this noble marriage is largely set forth by
  John Stow and Hollingshead, in their chronicles; the latter gives
  the following character and description of this royal princess,
  viz. 'She was a lady of excellent beauty,'" &c. [See Holinshed.]


JOHN TRADESCANT THE YOUNGER, AN ENGLISHMAN.

Great is the interest attached to the name of Tradescant, and we believe
few articles in our journal have been perused with greater satisfaction
than those by MR. SINGER and other valued correspondents, which appeared
in our third volume (pp. 119. 286. 353. 391. 393.), illustrative of
their history. In the same volume (p. 469.) a correspondent, C. C. R.,
after quoting the following mutilated MS. note, written in pencil in a
copy of Dr. Ducarel's Tract on the subject, preserved among the books in
the Ashmolean Museum--

  "Consult (with certainty of finding information concerning the
  Tradescants) the Registers of--apham, Kent,"--

suggested that Meopham was the parish referred to, and that search
should be made there by some correspondent resident in that
neighbourhood. The hint was not, however, taken, and the matter dropped
for a time.

At the close of last year we received a communication from a learned and
much valued friend, now, alas! no more[2], telling us that Meopham _was_
the place referred to, and suggesting that we should get extracts from
the register for the information of our readers. Upon this hint we
acted; but our endeavours, for reasons to which we need not more
particularly refer, failed, and it was not until our attention was
recalled to the subject by the endeavour that is making, and we trust
successfully making, to procure subscriptions for restoring the
Tradescant Monument at Lambeth, that we applied to another friend
resident in the neighbourhood of Meopham for his assistance in the
business. That assistance was (as it has ever been) rendered most
cheerfully and most effectually; and we are now enabled to lay before
our readers and the Committee of the Tradescant Monument Restoration
Fund, the following evidence that John Tradescant the younger was a Man
of Kent. It is extracted from the baptismal register of Meopham.

  [Footnote 2: That excellent man and ripe scholar, the Rev.
  Lancelot Sharpe, who was one of the first, on the appearance of
  "N. & Q.," to convey to us his good opinion of our paper, and to
  prove it by giving us his communications. For particulars of his
  life and literary labours, the reader is referred to the
  _Gentleman's Magazine_ for January, 1852, p. 99.]

  "1608 August the iiij daye John the sonne of John Tradescant was
  baptised eodem die--"

Although we are not without hopes of receiving further information from
the same source, we could not refrain from bringing this new fact in the
history of the Tradescants at once before our readers.


COWLEY AND HIS MONUMENT.

If Pope in his time could ask, "Who now reads Cowley?" and if Cowper, at
a later period, could lament that his "splendid wit" should have been
"entangled in the cobwebs of the schools," it may be in our day, when
most good people who cultivate poetry, either as readers or writers,
swear by Wordsworth or Tennyson, that the bare mention of Cowley's name,
in some circles, would be resented as a kind of impertinence. But Pope's
answer to his own question is as apposite now as when the question was
first put. If Cowley--

                "----pleases yet,
      His _moral_ pleases, not his pointed wit;
      Forgot his epic, nay pindaric art,
      But still I love the language of his _heart_."

The _Davideis_ and the _Herbs and Plants_ find few readers beyond those
who resort to them for special purposes; but poets of more recent times,
even whilst contemning his "conceits," have (as your volumes have
frequently shown) often borrowed his ideas without improving upon the
phraseology in which they have been clothed. Witness, for instance,
Cowper's transmutation of his noble line:

      "God the first garden made--the first city, Cain,"

into his own smooth generality of--

      "God made the country, and man made the town."

And Cowley's love of Nature, and his beautiful lyrics in praise of a
country life, will always keep his name before us. However, to desist
from this "nothing-if-not-critical" strain, let me beg of you to lay the
accompanying transcript [_see the next page_] of a manuscript in my
possession before your readers--that is, if you deem it of sufficient
interest.

The verses themselves, evidently of a date not long subsequent to the
erection of the Cowley monument in Westminster Abbey, are written on the
back of a damaged copy of Faithorne's engraved portrait of him. They
comprise a not very correct transcript of the Latin inscription on the
monument, a translation and paraphrase of the same, and what is styled a
"burlesque," in which one of the chief features of the monument itself
is ludicrously associated with the profession of Sir Charles
Scarborough, Cowley's friend. The "Per Carolum Scarborough, Militem,
Med. Doctorem," implies, it may be presumed, that Sir Charles was the
author of the Latin epitaph, of which it has always been understood, and
indeed it is so stated in the later biographies of the poet, that
Cowley's close friend and literary executor Sprat, Bishop of Rochester,
was the author. Scarborough published an elegy to Cowley's memory, of
which I am informed there is no copy in the British Museum library; and
being unable to refer to it in any other collection, I have no means of
ascertaining whether this elegy discloses the fact of the authorship of
the epitaph. This is not an unimportant point, since it will be
recollected that Dr. Johnson expends a considerable amount of
indignation upon the epitaph, not on account of its Latinity, but on
account of what he considers as the false sentiments of which it is made
the vehicle.

The value of the manuscript depends of course upon the possibility of
the chief item of its contents being unpublished. Whatever respect the
writer may have entertained towards Cowley, he certainly seems inclined
to be merry at the expense of Sir Charles Scarborough. The unwieldy urn
which surmounts the monument, is variously designated as a "whimwham urn
as broad as sawcer," and as "the surgeon's gally-pot." These are not
very complimentary epithets, it is true; but if they ever met the
courtly physician's eye he could afford to laugh with the laughers.
Cowley's lack of success in his attempt to obtain the mastership of the
Savoy is not forgotten; but the satirist speaks of the dead poet very
goodhumouredly, and may be said to concur in opinion with those of his
admirers who predicted for his writings an enduring immortality. But
"sugar-candy Cowley," as the burlesquer terms him, is now obliged to be
content with a few pages in the _Selections from British Poets_, where
indeed he is entitled to a very eminent position; whilst "dull Chaucer,"
as he is irreverently called, with whom the writer quietly prays that
Cowley may quietly "sleep in beggar's limbo," seems to live almost
bodily amongst us; and his vivid pictures and naïve descriptions are so
acceptable, that it may safely be predicted that an edition of the
_Canterbury Tales_ will always be a more profitable venture for a
publisher than a speculation in a new edition of the _Davideis_.

But, after all, Cowley's acceptance amongst those who immediately
survived him, is perhaps due quite as much to the recollection of his
amiable personal qualities, as to his poetic abilities; and when Charles
II., "who never _said_ a foolish thing," declared, on being informed of
the poet's death, that "Mr. Cowley had not left a better _man_ behind
him in England," the merry monarch may have intended exactly what he
said, and no more. With these rambling remarks I leave the matter, only
trusting, if I shall be found to have called attention to what may
possibly be an old acquaintance of some of your learned readers, that my
desire to contribute an occasional mite to the pages of a periodical,
from which I gather so much information, will be accepted as an apology.

The words in brackets are supplied, conjecturally, in consequence of the
manuscript being faulty in those places.

    HENRY CAMPKIN.

      per Carolum Scarborough Militem Med. Doctorem.

      ABRAHAMUS COWLEIUS.

      Anglorum Pindarus, Flaccus Maro,
      deliciæ, decus, desiderium, ævi sui
      hic juxta situs est.

      Aurea dum volitant late tua scripta per orbem,
      Et fama æternum vivis, divine Poeta,
      Hic placida jaceas requies custodiat urnam
      Cana fides, vigilentq; perennii lampade Musæ.
      Sit sacer iste locus, nec quis temerarius ausit
      Sacrilegi turbare manu venerabili bustum.
      Intacti maneant, maneant per secula dulcis
      Cowleii cineres, serventq; immobile saxum.
      Sic vovet, votumq; suum apud posteros sacratum esse voluit
      Qui viro incomparabili posuit sepulchrale marmor.

      GEORGIUS DUX BUCKINGHAMIÆ

      Excessit e vita anno ætatis 49 magnifica pompa
      elatus ex ædibus Buckinghamiis, viris illustribus
      omnium ordinum; exequias celebrantibus sepultus est
      die tertio Augusti anno 1667.

  Englished--

                ABRAHAM COWLEY;

      the English Pindar, Horace, Virgil:
      the delight, glory and desire of his age,
      lies near this place.

      Whilst that thy glorious volumes still survive
      And thou (great Poet) art in Fame alive,
      Here take thy full repose, free from alarmes,
      In th' Churches bosome and the Muses armes.

      Speak and tread softly Passengers, and none
      With an unhallowed touch pollute this stone
      Let sweet-strained Cowley in death's sleep ne're stir
      But rest, rest ever in his sepulchre.

                    BURLESQ;

      Here lies, reduc'd to ashes and cinder,
      not S'r Paul, but S'r Abraham Pindar.
      It is not fierce Horatio Vere,
      but Horatio Cowley buried here.

      Nor is this Polydore Virgil's room,
      but Cantabrigian Virgil's tomb.
      The pleasant'st child e're England bred
      The bravest youth e're Cambridge fed
      The dearest man e're wore a head.

      Whilst that thy ballads up & down do flutter
      and the town gallants of thy town muse mutter
      Possesse this church, though thou couldst not y'e Savoy
      and in her soft lap let Melpomene have thee.

      Let no Court storm nor tough-lung'd zealot blow
      thy neatly angled atomes to and fro
      And sleep in beggar's Limbo, by dull Chaucer,
      under the whim wham urn as broad as sawcer
      Whilst y't thy name doth smell as sweet as May's
      and all y'e table talk is of thy Thais
      thy miscellany and thy Davideis.

      Rot away here and let the vault endure thee
      let the religion of the house secure thee
      and let the watching muses here immure thee.

      Avaunt all ye that look profane and vile
      Stand off, stand off, a hundred thousand mile
      Nor with your thumbs this monument defile.

      Let sugar-candy Cowley sleep in's grotte
      let not y'e people wake him, let them not
      nor steal away the surgeons gally pot.

      Whilst on wing'd Pegasus thou [Phoebus' Son]
      through air and earth and sea & all do ride
      Whilst by Orinda's pipe thy praise is blown
      And thou in fairy land art deified;

      Whilst thou dost soar aloft leave coyrs behind
      to be interrd in antient monast'ry
      And to the chimeing rabble safely joyn'd
      [To] Draiton, Spencer and old Jeoffery.

      Whilst thou above wear'st a triumphant wreath
      And we the Poets militant beneath
      Anthems to thy immortal honor breath

      [Fill] the dark chest which for Apollo's heir
      Ecclesia Anglicana doth prepare
      And let the vestal nunne's watch ever here.

      Let Libitina's selfe think't no disgrace
      To be the Angel Guardian of this place
      That no rude hand this monument deface.

      Here let seraphic Cowley rest his head
      Here let him rest it in this earthy bed
      Till we all rise with glory lawrelled.

      Whilst through y'e world thy golden verses passe
      more golden than those of Pythagoras
      And whilst [sweet lyri]st thy anointed name
      is registred in the large rowle of Fame

      Here rest secure and let this minster be
      a Sanctuary in that sense to thee,
      Let the nine muses bid farewell to sleep
      ever to watch the grave thy corps doth keep.

      New consecrated is the holy ground
      no crime no guilt must here be found;
      Let not the man of vices hither come
      and with his breath profane this sacred tomb.

      Let Cowley's dust lie quiet in its urne
      till the last trump all things to ashes turn;
      Let it its station keep and quiet lie
      till the blest dawn of immortality.

      So wisheth
      And desires his wish may be
      Sacred to posterity
      He who erected this monument
      To that incomparable person

      GEORGE DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM

      He departed this life in the
      49 year of his age
      And was buried in great state out of
      the Duke of Buckingham's House
      Many illustrious persons of all
      degrees attending his funeral.

      August 3d. 1667.


COUNT KÖNIGSMARK AND THE DUCHESS OF SOMERSET.

Several notices of Count Königsmark have lately appeared in "N. & Q.,"
Walpole's mistake having occasioned a question by MR. MARKLAND
respecting his identity. There can, however, be no doubt that the person
who was tried for being accessory to the assassination of Mr. Thynne in
1681-2, and whose trial is reported at length in the 9th volume of
Howell's _State Trials_, p. 1., was Charles John Count Königsmark, as
stated by MR. BRUCE in Vol. v., p. 115. of "N. & Q.," and whose
biography and genealogy are more fully given by J. R. J. in p. 183. of
the same volume.

In the Note on this subject by J. R. J. it is stated that "the most
mysterious episode in the life of this Count Königsmark was brought on
by his sueing for England's richest and highest heiress, Elizabeth,
daughter of Josceline, second Earl of Northumberland." This is perfectly
true; but the personal history of this lady, her connexion with
Königsmark, her imputed privity to the murder of Mr. Thynne, and the
savage allusion to these circumstances by Swift thirty years afterwards,
deserve a more particular notice.

Elizabeth, Baroness Percy, was daughter and heiress of Josceline, Earl
of Northumberland, who died in 1670. According to Collins (_Peerage_,
vol. iv. p. 185.) she was four years old at the time of her father's
death; so that she was born in 1666. In 1679 she was married to Henry
Cavendish, Earl of Ogle, who was only son and heir of the Duke of
Newcastle, and who died in 1680, before either party were of puberty to
consummate the marriage. In 1681 the Lady Ogle was married to Thomas
Thynne, of Longleat, in the county of Wilts, Esquire,--a gentleman of
great wealth, a friend of the Duke of Monmouth, and the Issachar of
Dryden's "Absalom and Achitophel." Sir John Reresby, in his _Memoirs_,
p. 135., says "The lady, repenting of the match, fled from her husband
into Holland before they were bedded." Whether this elopement had any
relation to Königsmark does not appear: but a few months afterwards,
namely, in February 1681-2, Mr. Thynne was assassinated in the Haymarket
by foreigners, who were devoted friends of the Count, and who apparently
acted under his direction, or, at all events, with his acquiescence. The
Count was at that time a mere youth, and having been in London a few
months before Lady Ogle's marriage with Mr. Thynne, had then paid his
addresses to her. He returned into England about ten days before the
murder, and was in London at the time it was committed. In endeavouring
to escape beyond sea the day afterwards, he was taken in disguise at
Gravesend, brought to Westminster, and examined before King and Council.
Sir John Reresby says, "I was present upon this occasion, and observed
that he appeared before the king with all the assurance imaginable. He
was a fine person of a man, and I think his hair was the longest I ever
saw." He denied all participation in the murder, but he was committed
and tried with the principals, as an accessory before the fact; and
although acquitted by the jury, a perusal of the trial produces a strong
persuasion that he was privy to the purpose of the assassins. A fact
much pressed against him was his inquiry of the Swedish envoy, "Whether
or no, if he should kill Mr. Thynne in a duel, he could, by the laws of
England, afterwards marry the Lady Ogle?" a question which showed beyond
all doubt that he had in some form entertained a design against Mr.
Thynne's life, and also that the attainment of the lady was the motive.
But whatever may have been the intention of the Count, and whatever may
have been the nature of his intercourse with the Lady Ogle, it is quite
clear that they were not married. On the contrary, this lady of early
nuptial experience, and of romantic but somewhat suspicious
adventure,--who was married three times, and twice a widow, before she
was sixteen years old,--was married on the 30th of May, 1682, and within
four months after the murder of Mr. Thynne, to Charles Seymour, Duke of
Somerset. (Collins's _Peerage_, vol. i. p. 191.) Thus early practised in
_matrimonial_ intrigue, we find her thirty years afterwards the
accomplished organ of _political_ intrigue; the favourite and friend of
Queen Anne, and the zealous partisan of the Whig party. In that
character she became the object of Swift's pasquinade, the "Windsor
Prophecy," which, though aimed at the Duchess of Somerset, and the
destruction of her influence at court, recoiled upon the head of the
author, prevented the queen from making him a bishop, and banished him
from her favour for the remainder of her reign. The meaning of the
"Prophecy," and the keenness of its sarcasm, were of course readily
understood and appreciated by cotemporaries. Swift himself seems to have
been highly pleased with it. He says, in one of his letters to Stella,
"The Prophecy is an admirable good one, and the people are mad for it."
The above recital of the early history of the Duchess of Somerset will
render it fully intelligible at the present day. After mentioning some
incidents and characters of the time, the "Windsor Prophecy" ends thus:

      "And, dear Englond, if aught I understond,
      Beware of _Carrots_[3] from Northumberlond!
      Carrots, sown _Thynne_, a deep root may get,
      If so be they are in _Sommer set_.
      Their _conyngs mark_ thou! for I have been told,
      They _assassine_ when young, and _poison_ when old.
      Root out these _Carrots_, O thou, whose name[4]
      Is backwards and forwards always the same!
      And keep close to thee always that name[5]
      Which backwards or forwards is _almost_ the same.
      And, Englond, would'st thou be happy still,
      Bury those _Carrots_ under a _Hill_."[6]

  [Footnote 3: Alluding to the Duchess of Somerset's red hair.]

  [Footnote 4: Anna Regina.]

  [Footnote 5: Lady Masham.]

  [Footnote 6: Lady Masham's maiden name.]

    D. JARDINE.


FOLK LORE.

The pages of "N. & Q." have given the most varied and valuable
contributions to the "folk lore" of Britain; your contributors have
unquestionably saved many a scrap from oblivion, illustrated many an
obscure allusion, recorded many an old custom, and generally, by the
interesting nature of their notes (throwing, as they do, the newest and
strongest light on the darkest and most out-of-the-way nooks and corners
of the house and field life, and general turn of thought of the great
mass of the people), paved the way for a higher estimate being formed by
literary men, and the general reading public, of the real worth and
present available use of this hitherto despised branch of inquiry; and
stimulating to some extended and systematic garnering-up of those
precious fragments that still exist in unguessed abundance (sown
broad-cast, as they are, from Land's End to John o'Groat's), though fast
perishing. I am confident that there is no county or district in Great
Britain that would not yield, to a careful, diligent, and qualified
seeker, a rich and valuable harvest; and where quaint memorials of the
people might not be unearthed, to be gathered together and stored up,
ready to the moulding hand of some coming Macaulay, who may there find
illustrations to make clear, and clues to guide the searcher in the
darkest and most entangled mazes of history.

Pardon, sir, for this most prosy and long-winded preface. I have been
induced to address you by observing what is being done in other
countries, by a desire to point out an example, and stimulate to its
emulation that able and tried body of inquirers in this country, who,
for love of the subject, have _already_ collected such valuable stores.

In the _Morning Chronicle_ of Monday, the 23rd of February, 1852 (No.
26,571. p. 6.), under the heading _Denmark_, is the following:--

  "Two young Finnish students are wandering through the districts
  round Tammerfors, for the purpose of collecting and preserving old
  Finnish folk-tales, legends, songs, runes, riddles, and proverbs,
  &c. Their names are B. Paldani and O. Palander. They are not
  assisted by the Finnish Literary Society, whose funds at this
  moment are not in a condition to bear any extra expenses, but by
  two divisions of the students at Helsingfors, namely, the West
  Finnish and the Wiborg students, each of which has subscribed
  _fifty_ silver rubles for this purpose. The two literary pilgrims
  have already collected rich treasures of Finnish folk-lore. _Why
  do we not follow their example? When will some of our accomplished
  young scholars wander over the hills and dales of merry England,
  rescuing from oblivion our rich traditions, before they pass for
  ever from among us? Surely the Society of Antiquaries might
  arrange similar visits for a similar purpose. There is no want of
  men able and willing to undertake the task, only the ARRANGING
  HAND is wanting. In the meantime let every man do what he can in
  his own neighbourhood._"

In hopes that the "_arranging hand_" may, through the medium of "N. &
Q.," start out of chaos ready for its work, and the "_men able and
willing_" not be wanting, I beg to state that (being unable to aid the
cause otherwise) I will gladly contribute in the way of money, as far as
my abilities go, should any systematic plan be arranged.

    C. D. LAMONT.

  Greenock.


LONDON STREET CHARACTERS.

Mr. Dickens's graphic description of the Court of Chancery, in his new
work, _Bleak House_, contains the following sketch:

  "Standing on a seat at the side of the hall, ... is a little mad
  old woman in a squeezed bonnet, who is always in court ...
  expecting some incomprehensible judgment to be given in her
  favour. Some say she really is, or was, a party to a suit: but no
  one knows for certain, because no one cares. She carries some
  small litter in a reticule which she calls her documents:
  principally consisting of paper matches and dry lavender."

There is a diminutive creature, somewhat answering to this description,
who limps on a stick and one leg that is shorter than the other, all the
early morning in the still courts of the Temple; and seems to be waiting
the result of some consultation, before she reappears, as is her wont,
in Westminster Hall. Whether this person suggested the victim of _Bleak
House_, is a question of no moment. The story commonly told of her is a
very similar one, namely, that she was ruined and crazed, like Peter
Peebles, by the slow torture of a law-suit. Is anything known of her
real history?

What were the fortunes and fate of a poor female lunatic, who was called
_Rouge et noir_, from her crape sables and painted cheeks; and who used
to loiter every day about the Royal Exchange at four o'clock; and seemed
to depend for subsistence upon the stray bounty of the "money-changers?"
It was said that she had a brother who was hanged for forgery, and that
this drove her mad.

About thirty years ago, there might be heard any morning in the smaller
streets of "the city," a cry of "dolls' bedsteads," from a lean lame man
on a crutch; who wore an apron, and carried miniature bedsteads for
sale. Of this man it was generally reported, that he was implicated in
the Cato Street conspiracy, and turned king's evidence.

Charles Lamb describes a character, whom it is also impossible to
forget:

  "A well-known figure, or part of the figure of a man, who used to
  guide his upper half over the pavements of London, wheeling along
  with most ingenious celerity upon a machine of wood.... He was of
  a robust make, with a florid sailor-like complexion, and his head
  was bare to the storm and sunshine.... The accident which brought
  him low, took place during the riots of 1780."

Is this all that is known of this half-giant?

When the old Houses of Parliament were standing, there used to be at one
of the entrances a dwarf, long past middle age, who persisted in
offering his services as a guide. His countenance was full of grave
wisdom, quite Socratic in expression; but, I believe, he was an idiot.
Does anything of interest attach to the remembrance of him?

And, lastly, not to "stretch the line out to the crack of doom," what
became of Billy Waters? Do these street heroes die the death of common
men--in bed, and with friends near them; or do they generally find their
fate at last in the workhouse or the gaol; and get buried no one knows
when, or by whom, or where?

I cannot agree with Mr. Dickens, that "no one knows for certain" about
such persons, "_because_ no one cares." Indeed, Mr. D.'s philosophy and
practice are at variance in this matter. He makes his own sketch of "the
little mad old woman," because he feels that it will interest. How much
more would the original, could we get at it! But the truth is, these
people are as mysterious as the fireman's dog. They "come like shadows,
so depart:" leaving behind them on many minds ineffaceable impressions.
Indeed, some of us could confess with shame, that the feathered cocked
hat and fiddle of Billy Waters had survived the memory of a thousand
things of real importance: which could hardly be, were there not some
psychological force in these street characters--an inexplicable interest
and attraction.

    ALFRED GATTY.


Minor Notes.

_Dean Swift on Herbert's Travels._--In a copy, now in my library, of
Herbert's _Travels in Africa, Asia, &c._, folio, 1634, there is a very
characteristic note in the autograph of Dean Swift, to whom the book
formerly belonged. Thinking that it may not be uninteresting to some of
the readers of "N. & Q.," I send a copy of it:

  "If this book were stript of its impertinence, conceitedness, and
  tedious digressions, it would be almost worth reading, and would
  then be two-thirds smaller than it is.

  "1720. J. SWIFT."

  "The author published a new edition in his older days, with many
  additions, upon the whole more insufferable than this. He lived
  several years after the Restoration, and some friends of mine knew
  him in Ireland. He seems to have been a coxcomb both ævi vitio et
  sui."

    W. SNEYD.

  Denton.

_Joe Miller._--The remains of this patriarch of puns and jokes, hitherto
peaceably resting in the burial-ground in Portugal Street, will now be
disturbed to make way for the new buildings of King's College Hospital.
Surely "Old Joe" ought not to be carted away, and _shot_ as rubbish.
Some plain memorial of him might soon be raised, if an appeal were made
to the public; and if every one whose conscience told him he had ever
been indebted to Miller, would subscribe only a penny to the memorial
fund, the requisite sum would soon be collected.

    JAYDEE.

_Hints to Book-buyers._--Inquirers buy books on subjects which they
have, at the time, no particular intention of closely investigating:
when such intention afterwards arises, they begin to collect more
extensively. But it often happens, I suspect, that it does not come into
their heads to examine what they have already got, as to which their
memory is not good, because their acquisitions were not made under any
strong purpose of using them. The warning which suggests itself is as
follows: Always remember to examine the old library as if it were that
of a stranger, when you begin any new subject, and before you buy any
new books.

Here is another warning, not wholly unconnected with the former: Never
judge of a book, that is, of all which comes between the two boards, by
the title-page, which may be only the _first_ title-page, in spite of
the lettering at the back. Persons who bind their books will not always
be bound themselves, either by law of congruity or convenience. I once
hunted shop and stall for a speech delivered in parliament a century
ago, not knowing that I had long possessed it bound up at the end of a
Latin summary of Leibnitzian philosophy. At the risk of posthumously
revealing my real name, I will add that I wrote on the fly-leaf that I
was not the blockhead who bound the book.

    M.

_Birmingham Antiquities._--I wish to put on record in your journal a
fact concerning the antiquities of Birmingham. There is a street in this
borough, called Camden Street, which after crossing Worstone Lane,
acquires the name of Lower Camden Street. On the right-hand side of
Lower Camden Street (as you go from Camden Street), is some pasture
ground, bounded on one side by a stream called Chub-brook, which
formerly flowed into the old Hockley Pool. This pasture ground shows the
evident traces of a moat, and the foundations of several walls of a
large building. I apprehend this is the spot referred to in Hutton's
_History of Birmingham_, p. 254., fourth edition:

  "The lord Clinton and his lady seem to have occupied the
  Manor-house, and Sir Thomas (de Birmingham), unwilling to quit the
  place of his affections and of his nativity, erected a castle for
  himself at Worstone; where, though the building is totally gone,
  the vestiges of its liquid security are yet complete."

As the field will probably be built on in a short time, I wish to
identify the spot referred to by Hutton.

    C. M. I.

_Buchanan and Voltaire._--Voltaire has obtained credit for a very smart
epigram, and one which the _Edinburgh Review_ (vol. xxi. p. 271.) calls
"one of his happiest repartees." It was, however, stolen by him, either
designedly or unwittingly, from the celebrated Buchanan. Here are the
two versions, and the point will be observed to be the same in both:

  "An Englishman visiting Voltaire in his retreat at Ferney,
  happened to mention Haller, in whose praise the philosopher
  enlarged with great warmth. The other observed that this was very
  handsome on the part of M. de Voltaire, as Haller was by no means
  so liberal to M. de Voltaire. 'Alas!' said the patriarch, 'I dare
  say we are both of us very much mistaken!'"

Is not this the same as Buchanan's epigram (_Ep._, lib. 1. ed. Wets.)?

      "IN ZOILUM.

      "Frustra ego te laudo, frustra me, Zoile, lædas
        Nemo mihi credit, Zoile nemo tibi."

    PHILOBIBLION.

_Indignities on the Bodies of Suicides._--We are all aware of the
popular repugnance to permitting the bodies of suicides to be interred
within the "consecrated" or "hallowed" precincts of a churchyard. Burial
at cross-roads was the usual mode. In many parts of Scotland such
burials had to take place under cloud of night, to avoid the
interference of the rabble. But it would appear from the extract given
below, that public indignities were inflicted upon such corpses, to
testify public detestation of this crime. The extract is taken from the
_Diarey of Robert Birrel_, Burges of Edinburghe:

  "1598, Feb. 20. The 20 day of Februar, Thomas Dobie drounit
  himself in the Quarrel holes besyde the Abbay, and upone the
  morne, he wes harlit throw the toune backward, and therafter
  hangit on the gallows."

Perhaps some correspondent of "N. & Q." may be able to point out similar
instances of such a revolting procedure.

The "Abbay" referred to was the Abbey of Holyrood.

The "Quarrel," or Quarry holes, seem to have been fatal, in many cases,
both to "man and beast;" for Sir David Lyndsay, in one of his poems,
says:

      "Marry, I lent my gossip my mare, to fetch hame coals,
      And he _her drounit into the quarry holes_."

    R. S. F.

  Perth.



Queries.


"GOD'S LOVE," ETC., AND OTHER POEMS.

I should be very glad if, among the many learned contributors to the "N.
& Q.," there should be any one who can give me information respecting a
rare volume of English poetry, of which I do not recollect to have seen
any notice, or any other copy than that in my own possession.

It is a 12mo., or rather small 8vo. volume, and, by the type and general
appearance, was probably printed rather before than after 1660. It
consists of three portions:

1. "God's Love and Man's Unworthiness," which commences thus:

      "GOD! how that word hath thunder-clapt my soul
      Into a ravishment; I must condole
      My forward weakness. Ah! where shall I find
      Sufficient metaphors t' express my mind?
      Thou heart-amazing word, how hast thou fill'd
      My soul with Hallelujahs, and distill'd
      Wonders into me!"

This poem is in two parts, and extends to p. 82.

2. "A Dialogue between the Soul and Satan," p. 83 to 124, including a
short supplementary poem entitled "The Soul's Thankfulness and Request
to God."

3. "Divine Ejaculations." One hundred and forty-nine in all. Each
consists of six lines. I extract the tenth as a specimen:

      "Great God! Thy garden is defaced:
      The weeds do thrive, the flowers decay:
      O call to mind thy promise past,
      Restore thou them, cut these away.
        Till then, let not the weeds have power
        To starve or taint the poorest flower."

The copy now before me has no title-page or prefatory matter of any
kind, and it wants the second sheet, p. 17 to 32. Yet I do not think it
imperfect, for though the paging goes from p. 16 to p. 33, yet the
catch-word on the 16th page is answered by the first word on p. 33, and
the sense is consecutive.

It seems to me, therefore, that the author changed in some degree his
plan, as the work was proceeding at the press, and that the little
volume having thus the appearance of negligence and incompleteness, no
title or preface was ever printed, and the book never issued for sale.

On this, or any other point, but especially on the question who was the
writer of so much verse, I wish to receive information from some of the
readers of your very entertaining and often instructive miscellany.

    T. S.


PRAYING TO THE DEVIL.

I always thought that this unfashionable sort of worship was confined to
some obscure fanatical sects in the East, and was not prepared to find
an apparent record of its having been practised, amidst the frivolities
and plotting of the French Court, by no less celebrated a lady than
Catharine de Medicis. In the _Secret History of France for the Last
Century_ (London, printed for A. Bell, at the Cross Keys in Cornwel,
(_sic._) &c. 1714), I find such an odious charge advanced. I do not draw
attention to it with the slightest shadow of belief in a story so
ridiculous and incredible; but to ask, whether there existed any
foundation for the following statement regarding the "steel box," and if
so, what were its contents?

  "In the first Civil War, when the Prince of _Conde_ was in all
  appearance likely to prevail, and _Katherine_ was thought to be
  very near the End of her much desir'd Regency, during the Young
  King's Minority, she was known to have been for Two days together,
  retir'd to her Closet, without admitting her menial Servants to
  her Presence. Some few Days after, having call'd for Monsieur _De
  Mesme_, one of the Long Robe, and always firm to her Interest, she
  deliver'd him a Steel Box fast lock'd, to whom she said, giving
  him the Key, _That in respect she knew not what might come to be
  her Fortune, amidst those intestine Broils that then shook_
  France, _she had thought fit to inclose a thing of great Value
  within that Box, which she consign'd to his Care, not to open it
  upon Oath, but by an Express Order under her own Hand._ The Queen
  Dying, without ever calling for the Box, it continued many Years
  unopen'd in the Family of _De Mesme_, after both their Deaths,
  till at last Curiosity, or the Suspicion of some Treasure from the
  heaviness of it, tempted Monsieur _De Mesme's_ Successor to break
  it open, which he did. Instead of any Rich Present from so great a
  Queen, what Horror must the Lookers on have, when they found a
  Copper Plate of the Form and Bigness of one of the Ancient _Roman_
  Votive Shields, on which was Engraven _Queen_ Katherine de Medicis
  _on her Knees, in a Praying Posture, offering up to the Devil
  sitting upon a Throne, in one of the ugliest Shapes they use to
  Paint him,_ Charles the IXth. _then Reigning, the Duke of_ Anjou,
  _afterwards_ Henry _the_ IIId., and _the Duke of_ Alanson, _her
  Three sons, with this Motto in_ French, _So be it, I but Reign._
  This very Plate continues yet in the Custody of the House of
  _Mesme_, of which Monsieur _D'Avaux_, so famous for his Ambassies,
  was a Branch, and was not only acknowledged by him to be so, when
  Ambassador in _Holland_, but he was also pleas'd at that time, to
  promise a Great Man in _England_, a Copy of it; which is a
  Terrible Instance of the Power of Ambition in the Minds of
  _French_ Princes, and to what Divinity, if one dares give the
  Devil that name, even in Irony, they are ready to pay their
  adoration, rather than part with their hopes of Empire."--Pp. 6,
  7.

    R. S. F.

  Perth.


Minor Queries.

_John Ap Rice's Register._--Two ancient charters, formerly belonging to
the abbey of Bury St. Edmund's, and now in the possession of the
corporation of King's Lynn, bear the indorsement of J. Rhesensis, _i.e._
John Ap Rice, the commissioner who was sent by Hen. VIII. to investigate
the affairs of this abbey; and whose letter upon the subject to
secretary Cromwell is published in _Letters relating to the Suppression
of the Monasteries._ On one of the charters the indorsement has been
erased all but the name; on the other it runs thus:--"Relat' in regi[=u]
Registr' ad v'b[=u], 1536, J. Rhesens', Registr'." Is anything known of
the Royal Register referred to?

    C. W. G.

_Prideaux's Doctrine of Conscience._--Who was the author of the address
to the reader in the _Doctrine of Conscience_, by Bishop Prideaux,
published in 1656? it is signed Y. N. Bishop Prideaux died in 1650.

    G. P. P.

_John Adair, Geographer for Scotland (alive in 1715)._--I am anxious to
obtain some information respecting the ancestry, wife, death, and
descendants of this individual. I am already aware of the notices of him
in Chalmers's _Caledonia_ (ii. 58.), and in the _Bannatyne Miscellany_
(ii. 347.).

    E. N.

_Clergymen first styled Reverend._--I should be obliged if any of your
correspondents would inform me when the word "Reverend" first came into
use as distinctive of a clergyman. It never seems to have been applied
to Hooker, who is always called Mr. Hooker in the different editions of
his works.

    QUESTOR.

_Rev. Nathaniel Spinckes._--Information is requested as to the
descendants of the Rev. Nathaniel Spinckes, one of the Nonjuring
divines, who died July 28, 1727. He was rector of Glinton with Peakirk,
Northamptonshire; and it appears from Chalmers's _Biographical
Dictionary_ that he left two children, William Spinckes, Esq., and Anne,
who married Anthony Cope, Esq.

    J. P. JR.

_Meaning of the Word "Elvan."_--Will any kind philologist come to the
aid of the geologists in ascertaining the meaning of this uncouth word?
In the current number of the _Quarterly Journal of the Geological
Society_ (No. 29.) we read:

  "Certain quartziferous porphyries which occur in the mining
  districts of Cornwall as veins, partly in granite, partly in
  clay-slate, have been long there known under the name of
  'Elvans.' We have in vain sought for the origin of this term in
  English writers. Henwood expressly says (_Trans. Geol. Soc. of
  Cornwall_, vol. v.) that the etymology of the word is unknown. May
  it not perhaps be derived from a place called 'Elvan?' Reuss says,
  in his _Lehrbuch der Geognosie_, that porphyry occurs near Elvan
  in Westmoreland."

On turning to Borlase (_Natural History of Cornwall_, p. 91.), I find
that he gives the derivation as follows:

  "Quasi ab Hel-vaen, _i.e._ the stone generally found in brooks;
  unless it be a corruption of An-von, which in Cornish signifies a
  smith's anvil, and might fitly represent this very hard stone."

The term is a Cornish one, and applied to a crystalline rock usually
hard enough to strike fire readily on sharp friction; and may it not
have been derived from the Cornish word "_Elven_, a spark of fire,"
given in Borlase's vocabulary.

    S. R. P.

  Launceston.

_Wiclif._--There are few names of equal celebrity that have been so
variously spelt, the sound remaining the same whether written _Wiclif_,
_Wycliff_, _Wickliffe_, _Wykcliff_, &c. Can any authority be given, to
ascertain the correct spelling?

    J. K.

_Showing the White Feather._--What is the origin of this periphrasis for
cowardice? Certainly not the words of King Henry:

      "Press where ye see my white plume shine,
        Amidst the ranks of war;
      And be your Oriflamme to-day
        The helmet of Navarre."

    A. A. D.

  Trin. Coll. Dublin.

_Gray and Locke._--The germ of Gray's--

      "For who, to dumb forgetfulness a prey,"

occurs somewhere in Locke's _Works_. Can any one refer me to the
passage; it commences:

  "Who ever left the precincts of mortality, without," &c.

    H. E. H.

_Horses and Sheep, Remains of in Churches._--In excavating the chancel
of St. Botolph's parish church, Boston, we have discovered a quantity of
_horse's_ bones, and the jaw-bones of a _sheep_. Can any of your
correspondents enlighten us on this singular case?

    THOMAS COLLIS.

  Boston.

_Archæologia Cambrensis, Vol I., Reprint._--I have recently purchased a
copy of the above work to complete my set; but before doing so, I
enquired of Mr. Pickering the publisher, if it was in all respects as
well executed as the first copies. The answer, however, gave me no more
information than "that the numbers of vol. i. _Arch. Camb._, which were
destroyed by fire, have been _reprinted_, so as to make up a few copies,
and the price is consequently 21_s._" The "reprint" is not as well
executed as the original copies, inasmuch as nearly a whole page of
interesting matter is omitted, and very few of the reprinted pages
correspond with the good old ones. I have been a long time looking for
the first volume of the _Archæologia Cambrensis_, the greater portion of
which had been so unfortunately destroyed by fire; and though I cannot
consider the "reprint" quite as good as the old copies, still I was very
glad to obtain it. I trouble you with this "Note," not because I am
dissatisfied with the mode of execution of the reprint, but in the hope
that some of your correspondents will favour me with a few words on the
work, and inform me why the page has been omitted, and why the reprinted
pages do not agree with those of the old copies. Are there any other
faults in the "reprint" which may have escaped my notice?

    R. H.

  Dublin.

_Presbyterian Oath._--The author of the _Faggot of French Sticks_
remarks, that he never remained ignorant of anything which excited his
attention in the streets of Paris when any one passing by could give him
the information required: so now that there is such a living
encyclopædia to consult as "N. & Q.," no knowledge should be lost for
want of inquiry. In more than one publication it has been lately
asserted, that presbyterian ministers take the following oath:

  "We all subscribe, and with hands uplifted to the most High God do
  swear: 1. That we shall sincerely, really, and constantly through
  the grace of God, endeavour in our several places and callings to
  bring the church of God in the three kingdoms to the nearest
  conjunction and uniformity in religion, confession of faith, form
  of church government, &c. 2. That we shall in like manner, without
  respect of persons, endeavour the extirpation of popery and
  prelacy (that is, church government by archbishops, bishops,
  deans, and others.)"

The Bishop of Exeter, in a recent pamphlet, inserts this parenthesis:

  "(Whether this actual subscription and oath be still continued, I
  know not: but the covenant is still a part of the Kirk's
  symbolical book, and published as such for the education of the
  people)."

Will some friend north of the Tweed be kind enough to settle this point?

    C. T.

"_A Pinch of Snuff from Dean Swift's Box._"--Some years ago I saw in the
shop of a dealer in curiosities, in London, an old snuff-box, which was
said to have belonged to Dean Swift; it was accompanied with three
printed leaves, of the common octavo size, the first page of which
commenced with "A Pinch of Snuff from Dean Swift's Snuff Box," (being a
description of the snuff-box in question). The next subject on the
leaves began with "'Tis a hundred years since." The leaves appeared to
have been extracted from some Irish magazine or periodical, published
about the year 1845-6, and to contain much valuable and amusing matter.
As I have made repeated inquiries among the London booksellers in vain,
for the name of the publication from which the above-mentioned extract
was taken, I shall feel much obliged if you will permit me to make a
similar inquiry through the medium of "N. & Q.," and by so doing you
will confer a great favour upon

    A SUBSCRIBER.

  Gloucester.

_Cromwell's Skull._--I believe that a skull, maintained by arguments of
considerable weight to be the veritable skull of the Protector, is now
carefully kept in the hands of some person in London. It is understood
that this interesting relic is retained in great secrecy, from the
apprehension that a threat, intimated in the reign of George III., that
if made public, it would be seized by government, as the only party to
which it could properly belong.

It is to be hoped that the time in which such a threat could be executed
has passed by, and that no danger need now be apprehended by the
possessor for his open avowal of the facts of the case, such as they
are.

Indeed, it seems desirable that if fair means could lead to such a
result, the skull of one who filled so conspicuous a position amongst
England's most distinguished rulers, should become public property.

Perhaps some one in possession of the arguments verifying the identity
of the skull in question with that of Cromwell, would, by a
recapitulation of them, favour some readers of the "N. & Q.", and
amongst others

    J. P.

  Dudley.

_Guy, Thomas, Founder of Guy's Hospital, and M.P. for the Borough of
Tamworth, d. s. p. 1724._--Can any of your readers give information as
to the existence of any member of this family in the male line? The
senior line of descent from Guy's maternal uncle, John Voughton, became
extinct in 1843 upon the decease of Elizabeth, the relict of Dr. Clarke
of Weggington, brother of Sir Charles M. Clarke, Bart.

    KT.

_Episcopal Mitre_ (Vol. iii., p. 62. _et seq._).--In addition to this
Query, which has elicited much to interest one, I beg to know at what
_date_ and _why_ the use of the mitre in England was discontinued? At
the coronation of George IV. I, for one, was grievously disappointed not
to see the whole bench of bishops _mitred_ as well as _robed_.

    S. S.

_John Lord Berkeley, Bishop of Ely._--In the Diary of Dr. Edward Lake,
published in the _Camden Miscellany_, vol. i. p. 16., occur the
following paragraphs:--

  "Dec. 23. 1677. I administered the sacrament to the Lord John
  Barclay, being not well."

To the word Barclay, the editor, George Percy Elliott, Esq., has
subjoined the following note:--

  "Probably Lord John Berkeley; he was afterwards Bishop of
  Rochester, and subsequently of Ely, and was deprived for not
  taking the oath of allegiance to William and Mary."

Can any reader of "N. & Q." suggest any authority for the statement in
the editor's note? Francis Turner was Bishop of Ely from 1684 to 1691,
when he was deprived for refusing to take the oath of allegiance to
William and Mary. Turner was succeeded by Simon Patrick, translated from
Chichester. As to the Rochester see, that was filled by Thomas Sprat
from 1684 to 1713. His biography reminds one more of the Vicar of Bray
than the sturdy Nonjuror.

    J. Y.

  Hoxton.

_Palace of Lucifer._--In Milton's elegy upon the death of Bishop
Andrewes there is an allusion to a fabled _Palace of Lucifer_ which I do
not quite understand. It seems to refer to some romantic description or
other, and I shall be much obliged to any one that will kindly tell me
by whom. It is always important to know something of the train of an
author's reading, as we then can better understand the ordinary train of
his thoughts--

      "Serpit odoriferas per opes levis aura Favoni,
        Aura sub innumeris humida nata rosis,
      _Talis in extremis terræ Gangetidis oris
        Luciferi regis fingitur esse domus_."

      Eleg. III. _In obitum Præsulis Wintoniensis_, l. 47.

And now I will give Thomas Warton's note in full. He says:

  "I know not where this fiction is to be found. But our author has
  given a glorious description of a palace of Lucifer in the
  _Paradise Lost_, b. v. 757.:

      "'At length into the limits of the North
      They came, and Satan to his _royal seat_
      High on a hill, far blazing, as a mount,
      Rais'd on a mount, with pyramids and towers
      From diamond quarries hewn, and rocks of gold,
      The _Palace of Great Lucifer_, so call
      That structure, in the dialect of men
      Interpreted; which not long after, he,
      Affecting all equality with God,
      In imitation of that mount, whereon
      Messiah was declar'd in sight of Heaven,
      The Mountain of the Congregation call'd,' &c.

  "Here is a mixture of Ariosto and Isaiah. Because Lucifer is
  simply said by the prophet 'to sit upon the Mount of the
  Congregation on the sides of the North,' Milton builds him a
  palace on this mountain, equal in magnificence and brilliancy to
  the most superb and romantic castle. In the text, _by the utmost
  parts of the Gangetic land_, we are to understand the north; the
  river Ganges, which separates India from Scythia, arising from the
  mountain Taurus."

Some of your learned correspondents will, I doubt not, be both able and
willing to throw some light upon a difficulty which may possibly have an
indirect connexion with other difficulties also.

    RT.

  Warmington, Nov. 7. 1851.

_Ecclesiastical Geography._--Can any of your correspondents direct me to
some works on Ecclesiastical Geography?

    AJAX.

_History of Commerce._--What work gives a history of the various courses
of commerce between Europe and the East in ancient and modern times, or
in either of them, as I cannot meet with any such book in the various
catalogues and advertisements of the day?

    X. Y. Z.

  Cambria.

_Merchant Adventurers to Spain._--Where can there be found any account
of a trading company called the "Merchant Adventurers to Spain," who
flourished in the reign of Queen Elizabeth?

    C. I. P.

_King's College Chapel Windows._--In _The Blazon of Gentrie_, by John
Ferne, London, 1586, it is said (p. 248.):--

  "If anie personne doth give, or by his testament shall bequeth
  money to build a temple, the walles of a city, port, a causey,
  churches, &c., he maye set his armes upon the same. If so be that
  he did this, of his owne free will and liberalitie. But if he did
  the same by compulsion (beeing for that purpose set unto some
  mulcte or fine, for his offence, and so constrained to make his
  redemption by the building or repayring of the like things), he
  may not set his armes in such publique workes, as that bishop was,
  which being condemned in the Præmunire, redeemed the punishment of
  that offence, by the glasing of the King's College chappell
  windowes in Cambridge, a glasse-work of worthy admiration."

Is there any foundation for this story, and who was the bishop?

    C. W. G.

_The King's Standard._--Will some of your correspondents kindly inform
me where I can meet with a drawing of this standard _in blazon_? _The
Relation of the King's setting up his Standard at Nottingham_: 4to.
Lond. 1642, gives an _engraving_ of the same under the title; but I
cannot trace the mode in which the banner in question was _coloured_.

    AMANUENSIS.

_James Wilson, M.D._--In 1761 James Wilson, M.D., published in two
volumes, octavo, a reprint of the mathematical tracts of his then
deceased friend Benjamin Robins. To them he added an appendix containing
a dissertation on the controversy about the invention of fluxions, which
dissertation is very little cited. He makes various statements on his
own authority, describing himself as having been the friend of Brook
Taylor and of Dr. Pemberton. Among other things he furnishes something
which might be cited in answer to my query in Vol. v., p. 103.,
affirming that _all_ Collins's papers fell into Jones's _possession_
about the year 1708. Dr. Wilson and Martin Folkes were joint executors
of Robins, as the former states. Query, who was James Wilson, M.D.? What
was his probable age in 1712? What means exist for forming an opinion as
to his judgment and veracity, over and above his publications as
aforesaid?

    A. DE MORGAN.


Minor Queries Answered.

_Prestwich's Respublica._--I have a copy of a work called Prestwich's
_Respublica, or a Display of the Honours, Ceremonies, and Ensign of the
Commonwealth_, 1787; in which is an Alphabetical Roll of the Names and
Armorial Bearings of many of the Present Nobility of these Kingdoms. The
volume concludes with John Aspinhall, and a note states that the
remainder of the roll should be given in the second volume. Has the
second volume ever been published, as I cannot ascertain that it has? If
so, how many years after the first?

    G. P. P.

  [It was the intention of Sir John Prestwich to continue this work,
  but not having received the encouragement he expected, and
  suffering also from ill health, the second volume was not
  published. See Nichols' _Literary Anecdotes_, vol. ix. p. 23.]

_Instance of Longevity._--

  "In the obituary register for the ancient parish of St. Leonard,
  Shoreditch, is to be found the following very singular entry,
  viz.: 'Thomas Cam, died on the 28th of January, 1588, at the
  astonishing age of 207 years. He was born in the year 1381, in the
  reign of King Richard II., and lived in the reigns of twelve kings
  and queens.'"--_Times_, Dec.--1848?

Can this be authenticated; is there any truth in the story? Surely so
venerable a patriarch must have attracted the notice of some of his
cotemporaries. Your correspondent O. C. D. will, I fear, place this
"instance" in the category of "ante-register longevities."

    W. R. DEERE SALMON.

  [At the time the above paragraph was going the round of the
  papers, a friend consulted the parish clerk of St. Leonard,
  Shoreditch, respecting its authenticity, and was informed that
  some mischievous individual had altered the figure 1 into 2. It is
  correctly given by Sir Henry Ellis in his _History of Shoreditch_,
  p. 77., as follows:--"Thomas Cam, aged 107, 28 January, 1588."]

_Solidus Gallicus, &c._--Will any of your correspondents kindly construe
for me the following sentences?

  "Valebat siclus sanctuarii tetradrachma Atticum: quod Budaeus
  estimat 14 solidis Gallicis, aut circiter: nam didrachma septim
  facit solidos, sicuti drachma simplex duos, et sesquialterum,
  minus denario turonico."

What was the value of "solidus Gallicus," or French sol, or sous; for
this I presume to be its meaning in 1573, the date of the passage? And
what was the value of the "denier Tournois," if that be the meaning of
"denarium Turonicum?"

References are useless, for I have no access to libraries.

    C. W. B.

  [A numismatic friend, to whom we referred this Query, writes, "If
  it were not for the context, 'nam didrachma septim facit solidos,'
  I should suppose the 14 to be a misprint for 4. Where _could_ this
  passage be taken from? The shekel was worth a tetradrachm. The
  French 'sol' was the twentieth part of a pound. The 'denier
  Tournois' was a penny. The whole passage, after the first line
  (which is plain enough), is to me unintelligible."]

_Sept._--What is the etymology, and what the correct use, of this
Anglo-Irish word?

    A. N.

  [Dr. Ogilvie, in his _Imperial Dictionary_, has suggested the
  following derivation: "Qy. _sapia_, in the L. _prosapia_; or Heb.
  _shabet_, a clan, race, or family, proceeding from a common
  progenitor."]

_Essay towards Catholic Communion_ (Vol. v., p. 198.).--_An Essay to
procure Catholic Communion on Catholic Principles_, alluded to by J. Y.,
has just been republished by Darling, Gt. Queen Street. It is taken from
Deacon's _Complete Collection of Devotions_, 1734, and the editors
attribute its authorship to Dr. Brett, on the authority of Peter Hall's
_Fragmenta Liturgica_, vol. i. p. 42.

If J. Y. has not seen the reprint, perhaps this note may assist him in
his inquiry.

    R. J. S.

  [The above is not the same work as the one referred to in J. Y.'s
  Query, which makes a 12mo. volume of 292 pages (edit. 1781);
  whereas the reprint published by Darling is a tract of 16 pages.
  There is also a slight difference in the title-pages of each.]

_Bigot._--What is the derivation of _bigot_?

    C. M. I.

  [Richardson suggests the following:--"The French at this day apply
  the word _bigot_ to one superstitiously religious; not certainly
  from the oath _be-got_, as Menage thinks, but rather from the
  A.-S. _bigan_, colere; and hence also _begine_, a religious woman.
  (Wachter in v. _Bein-Gott_.)"

  Cotgrave says, "Bigot, an old Norman word (signifying as much as
  '_de par Dieu_,' or our 'for God's sake') made good French, and
  signifying an hypocrite, or one that seemeth much more holy than
  he is: also, a scrupulous, or superstitious fellow."

  Speight says, "_Begin_, _bigot_, superstitious, hypocrite." Upon
  which Thynne remarks, "whiche sence I knowe y't maye somewhat
  beare, because y't sauorethe of the dispositione of those _Begins_
  or _Beguines_, for that ys the true wrytinge."]



Replies.


AGE OF TREES; TILFORD OAK.

(Vol. iv., p. 401., &c.)

I hope your correspondent L., in his search for ancient trees, will not
overlook the Great Oak at Tilford near Farnham, which is worth a visit
for its size and beauty, if not for its antiquity. Mr. Brayley, in his
_History of Surrey_, vol. v. p. 288., thus speaks of it:--

  "In the Charter granted by Henry de Blois about the year 1250, to
  the monks of Waverley, he gives them leave to inclose their lands
  wherever they please, within these bounds, 'which extend,' says
  the record, 'from the Oak of Tilford, which is called the Kynghoc
  [a quercu de Tyleford quæ vocatur Kynghoc], by the king's highway
  towards Farnham, &c.' ... The Tilford Oak is still standing, and
  is known by its ancient appellation of the King's Oak: a name
  which it could not have obtained unless it had been of
  considerable age and growth at the time of the bishop's grant; and
  it may therefore be reasonably supposed to be 800 or 900 years
  old. It is a noble tree, and still flourishing apparently without
  decay."

I very much doubt the identity of the present tree with the "King's Oak"
of Henry de Blois. _First_, Because the present bounds of Waverley do
not run within 300 yards of the tree; and the bounds are hardly likely
to have been materially changed, inasmuch as the abbey lands are
freehold and tithe-free, whereas the surrounding lands are copyhold and
titheable. _Secondly_, because the tree itself appears still to be
growing and vigorous. Cobbett describes it in his _Rural Rides_, p. 15.,
1822, with his usual accuracy of observation:

  "Our direct road was right over the heath, through Tilford, to
  Farnham: but we veered a little to the left after we came to
  Tilford, at which place, on the green, we stopped to look at an
  _oak tree_, which, when I was a little boy, was but a very little
  tree, comparatively, and which is now, taken altogether, by far
  the finest tree that I ever saw in my life. The stem or shaft is
  short, that is to say, it is short before you come to the first
  limbs; but it is full thirty feet round at about eight or ten feet
  from the ground. Out of the stem there come not less than fifteen
  or sixteen limbs, many of which are from five to six feet round,
  and each of which would in fact be considered a decent stick of
  timber. I am not judge enough of timber to say anything about the
  quantity in the whole tree; but my son stepped the ground, and, as
  nearly as we could judge, the diameter of the extent of the
  branches was upwards of ninety feet, which would make a
  circumference of about 300 feet. The tree is in full growth at the
  moment. There is a little hole in one of the limbs, but with that
  exception, not the smallest sign of decay The tree has made great
  shoots in all parts of it this last summer, and there are no
  appearances of _white_ on the trunks such as are regarded as the
  symptoms of full growth. There are many sorts of oak in England:
  two very distinct. One with a pale leaf, and one with a dark leaf;
  this is of the pale leaf."

Any other references to the age or history of this tree would oblige.

    TILFORDIENSIS.

P.S. As your correspondent asked for information as to the _species_ of
large oaks, I have inclosed some of the acorn-cups.


ST. PAUL'S QUOTATION OF HEATHEN WRITERS--ST. PAUL AND PLATO.

(Vol. v., p. 175.)

The letter at Vol. v., p. 175. of "N. & Q.," reminds me of a passage in
a _Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles_, by the Rev. W. G. Humphry,
B.D., which it may not be uninteresting to cite, in connexion with what
your correspondent says of St. Paul's practice of quoting the writings
of heathen authors.

It will be the ground also of an obvious query as to the source from
which the quotation, if such it be, was borrowed by the Apostle.

In commenting upon v. 17. of chap. xiv., οὐρανόθεν, &c., he
says:

  "Both the language and the rhythm of this passage lead to the
  conjecture (which does not appear to have been proposed before)
  that it is a fragment from some lyric poem. Possibly the quotation
  is not exact, but even without alteration it may be broken into
  four lyric measures, thus:

      "Οὐρανό|θεν ἡ|μῖν ὑ|ετοὺς
      δίδους καὶ καιροὺς | καρποφόρους,
      ἐμπι|πλῶν τρο|φῆς καὶ |
      εὐφροσύνης | τὰς κα|ρδίας.

  "1. Iambic; 2. Dochmaic and Choriamb.; 3. Trochaic; 4. Choriamb.
  and Iambic."

Mr. Humphry has some remarks on St. Paul's quotations at v. 28. of chap.
xvii.

    OXONIENSIS.

  Broad Street, Oxford.

Your correspondent MR. GILL (Vol. v., p. 175.) suggests an inquiry as to
the probable extent to which St. Paul was acquainted with the writings
of Aristotle. His letter reminds me of a similar question of still
greater interest, which has often occurred to me, and to which I should
like to call your readers' attention, "Whether St. Paul had read Plato?"
I think no one who studies the 15th of the First Epistle to the
Corinthians--that sublime chapter in which the Apostle sets forth the
doctrine of the Resurrection--and who is also familiar with the _Phædo_,
can fail to be struck with a remarkable similarity in one portion of the
argument. I allude especially to the 36th verse of the chapter, and
those immediately following, "That which thou sowest is not quickened
except it die," &c. The reasoning, as almost every Christian knows, is
based on analogy, and tends to show that, as in the vegetable world life
springs from death, the seed dies, but out of it comes the perfect
plant; so the dissolution of our present body is only a necessary step
to the more glorified and complete development of our nature. In the
_Phædo_, sect. 16., Socrates is represented as employing the same
argument in defence of his doctrine of the immortality of the soul. In
the course of his discussion with Kebes and Simmius on this subject, a
consideration of the phenomena of animal and vegetable life leads him to
assert the general conclusion, "ἐκ τῶν τεθνεώτων, τὰ ζῶντά τε καὶ οἱ
ζῶντες γίγνονται," and he then proceeds to demonstrate the
probability that in like manner the soul will not only survive the body,
but reach a higher and purer condition after its death. Wetstein, whose
abundant classical illustrations of the sacred text are alluded to by
your correspondent, refers to little else than verbal parallelisms in
his notes on this chapter, and does not quote Plato at all; nor do I
remember seeing any edition of the Greek Testament in which the
coincidence is pointed out. Perhaps some of your correspondents can
elucidate this subject; it is one of great interest, and when pursued in
the reverent and religious spirit indicated by MR. GILL, can hardly fail
to prove a source of profitable investigation.

    JOSHUA G. FITCH.

My edition of the _Platonic Dialogues_ is that of N. Forster of
Christchurch, Oxford, dated 1745. In it the section I refer to is
numbered 16; but in Stallbaum and some other editors, the arrangement is
different, and the passage occurs in section 43.


SIR ALEXANDER CUMMING.

(Vol. v., p. 257.)

I have in my possession a manuscript consisting of copies of various
letters, and other memorials of Sir Alexander Cumming. It is of his own
period, but whether of his own handwriting I cannot say.

They are clearly the compositions of a person of an unsettled intellect;
but we may collect from them the following facts:--His captain's
commission was dated May 29, 1703; he was called by his mother, a few
days before her death, both Jacob and Israel. This is further explained
when he relates that Lady Cumming, his mother, set out from Edinburgh
the first of the "Borrowing Days," towards the end of March, 1709.

  "The three last days of March are called 'the Borrowing Days' in
  Scotland, on account of their being generally attended with very
  blustering weather, which inclines people to say that they would
  wish to _borrow_ three days from the month of April, in exchange
  for those three last days of the month of March. This lady was
  seventeen days in her journeys upon the road, and lived ten days
  after her arrival in London. She died on the Monday se'nnight in
  the morning after she came to London. On the Thursday before her
  death she called her son, Captain Cumming, to her bed-side, and
  gave him her blessing in the terms of the prophet Isaiah, to which
  she referred him, and gave him her own new Bible to read over on
  the occasion, and to keep for her sake. But this Bible was lost,
  with other baggage, taken by the French towards the end of the
  campaign, 1709. Colonel Swinton, this lady's eldest brother, was
  shot at the battle of Malplaquet, and died upon the field of
  battle."

The lady travelled attended by her daughter Helen Cumming, and her
servant Margaret Rae.

But I see we have been wrong in writing the name Cumming with two _m_'s.
He writes it invariably _Cuming_. This would appear of little moment,
but the change a little diminishes the probability of the writer's
favourite notion, that the Hebrew word _Cumi_ is in some way obumbrated
in his patronymic _Cuming_.

The passage of the prophet Isaiah which formed the substance of his
mother's last benediction is chap. xli. verses 8 and 9, and chap. xliii.
verses 2 and 3: "Thou _Israel_ art my servant, _Jacob_ whom I have
chosen, the seed of Abraham, my friend," &c. He inclines to think that
"the writer of the book called Isaiah was a friend to the British
nation, and that the islands of Great Britain and Ireland are those
addressed to, in order to renew their strength."

It was on April 23, 1730, O.S., that "by the unanimous consent of the
people he was made law-giver, commander, leader, and chief of the
Cherokee nation, and witness of the power of God, at a general meeting
at Nequisee, in the Cherokee Mountains." He brought with him to England
six Cherokee chiefs, and on June 18, in that year, he was allowed to
present them to the King in the Royal Chapel at Windsor. This was at the
time of the installation of the Duke of Cumberland and the Earls of
Chesterfield and Burlington. On June 22nd was the ceremony of laying his
crown at the feet of the King, when the Indian chiefs laid also their
four scalps and five eagles' tails.

In a few years the scene was changed, and in 1737 we find him confined
within the limits of the Fleet Prison; but having a rule of court, on
the 8th of November he was at Knightsbridge, where about ten in the
morning he opened the Bible for an answer to his prayers, and chanced
upon the fifty-first and fifty-second chapters of Isaiah. He feels a
call to a mission to the Jews, and contemplates visiting Poland. With
that disposition of a mind disordered as his was, to turn everything
towards a particular object, he thinks there was some mysterious
connexion between the fact that Queen Caroline was seized with the
illness which proved fatal, in her library, at ten o'clock on the
morning of the 9th of November, the day after his call.

In 1750 he was still in the Fleet Prison, from whence, on May 15, he
addressed a letter to Lord Halifax, asserting his right to the Cherokee
Mountains, and proposing a scheme for the discharge of eighty millions
of the National Debt; the scheme being, that 300,000 families of Jews
should be settled in that country for the improvement of the lands, as
industrious honest subjects. This letter notices also two facts in the
Cuming history: 1. That Sir Alexander's father had been the means of
saving the life of King George the Second; and 2. That he, Sir
Alexander, had been taken into the secret service of the crown, at
Christmas, 1718, at a salary of 300_l._ a-year, which was discontinued
at Christmas, 1721.

    J. H.

  Torrington Square.


GENERAL WOLFE.

(Vols. iv. and v., _passim._)

As everything connected with General Wolfe is entitled to notice, the
following names and public positions of his direct or collateral
ancestors may not be uninteresting to your readers. I lately furnished
you, from Ferrar's _History of Limerick_, a statement of the
circumstances under which his great-grandfather, Captain George Woulfe,
sought refuge in Yorkshire (I believe) from the proscription of Ireton,
after the capitulation, in 1651, of Limerick, when his brother Francis,
the superior of the Franciscan friars, not having been equally fortunate
in escaping, was executed, with several others, excepted from the
general pardon.

The family, of English origin, like the Roches, the Arthurs, Stackpoles,
Sextons, Creaghes, Whites, &c., settled in Limerick between the
thirteenth and fifteenth centuries, and gradually obtained high civil
positions, when their successful commercial pursuits enabled them to
acquire landed property in the adjoining county of Clare, where nearly
all the above-named English families equally became extensive
proprietors. In

      1470.    Garret Woulfe was one of the city bailiffs, as those
               subsequently called sheriffs were then named.

      1476.    Thomas Woulfe filled the same office, as did in

      1520.    His son and namesake.

      1562.    Nicholas Woulfe was bailiff.

      1567.    John Woulfe ditto.

      1578.    The same became mayor.

      1585.  } Patrick Woulfe was bailiff these two years,

      1587.  } but not in the intervening 1586.

      1590.    Thomas Woulfe   }

      1591.    Richard Woulfe  } were successively bailiffs,

      1592.    David Woulfe    } as in

      1605.    Was James Woulfe.

From this date till 1613 scarcely a year passed without the dismissal of
the chosen Catholic magistrates, and substitution by royal mandate of
Protestants. In 1613 George Woulfe, grandfather[7] of the proscribed
Captain of the same name as above, then sheriff (the title assumed since
1609), with his colleagues, John Arthur, and the mayor, David Creagh,
was deposed for refusing the oaths of supremacy, &c.

  [Footnote 7: So I was assured, many years ago, by the late Lord
  Chief Baron Wolfe, from whom I also learned that all these
  magistrates certainly sprung from the same stem, though how they
  should be respectively placed as to constitute a form of
  genealogy, I cannot now exactly indicate.]

In 1647 Patrick Woulfe was sheriff; but from 1654, when the city
surrendered to Ireton, until June 1656, Limerick was ruled by twelve
English aldermen. In 1656 Colonel Henry Ingolsby became mayor, and the
regular order of magistracy was subsequently pursued.

I cannot at present trace the genealogy in strict deduction, although I
believe it all might be collected from the subsisting papers of the
family in the county of Clare; at least from Garret, the first-named
bailiff in the preceding list. In my boyhood I saw some pedigree of it
in the hands of an antiquary named Stokes, but which it would now be
difficult to discover. If the present Sir Frederick A. G. Ouseley,
Bart., son of my old schoolfellow, the late Sir George, be in possession
of the papers of his grandfather, Captain Ralph Ouseley, I think it
likely that some documents relating to General Wolfe's family, in its
ancient line, will be found, as I recollect hearing Captain Ouseley, a
resident of Limerick, speak of them.

    J. R.

  Cork.


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Song of "Miss Bailey"_ (Vol. v., p. 248.).--I think I am certain that
when I first heard of the song of "Miss Bailey," which was about 1805,
it was as having been sung in the farce of _Love laughs at Locksmiths_.

    C. B.

_Fern Storms_ (Vol. v., p. 242.).--In Colonel Reid's _Law of Storms_, p.
483. _et seq._, 2nd edition, accounts are given of the violent whirlwind
produced by fires. It maybe supposed that in former times they were on a
larger scale than at present, and, from the great force described, they
might have affected the weather at least, when on the turn already.

    C. B.

_The last of the Paleologi_ (Vol v., p. 173.).--All that was known
respecting the descendants J. L. C. will find in an article relating to
the family in the Transactions of the Society of Antiquaries,
_Archæologia_, vol. xviii. pp. 84-104.

    G.

"_Whipping Graves_" (Vol v., p. 247.).--CYRUS REDDING will find that the
"Ritus Absolvendi jam mortuum" in the _modern Rituale Romanum_
(Mechliniæ, 1848), is performed exactly according to his description.

    G. A. T.

  Withyham.

_Rev. John Paget_ (Vol. iv., p. 133.; Vol. v., p. 66.).--CRANMORE'S
inquiry has not been fully answered, nor am I able to point out the
precise degree of relationship between John Paget and the editor of his
works, Thomas Paget. The latter became incumbent of Blackley, near
Manchester, about the year 1605, having been placed in that chapelry
chiefly through the efforts of the Rev. William Bourne, B.D., a native
of Staffordshire, who had married a kinswoman of Lord Burleigh, and who
was for many years an influential Fellow of the Collegiate Church of
Manchester. (See Hollingworth's _Mancuniensis_, pp. 106, 107.) In 1617
Thomas Paget was cited before Morton, Bishop of Chester, for
nonconformity; and shortly afterwards he was convened before Bishop
Bridgeman on the same ground. He is styled at this time "the good old
man" (Brook's _Lives_, vol. ii. p. 293.), although he lived at least
forty years afterwards. In the delightful _Autobiography of Henry
Newcome, M.A._, the Presbyterian Minister of Manchester, edited for the
Chetham Society by the Rev. Canon Parkinson, D.D. (2 vols. 4to. 1852),
are several interesting notices of Mr. Thomas Paget. He is mentioned as
"old Mr. Pagit, late of Blakeley," in 1658, and seems to have had the
rectory of Stockport in 1659, although Richard Baxter spoke of him in
1656 as "old and sickly," and then living at Shrewsbury. He was well
known, says the amiable Newcome, "as a man of much frowardness," and
able to create "much unquietness;" but Baxter hoped, "not altogether so
morose as some report him."

    F. R. R.

_Old Scots March, &c._ (Vol. v., p. 235.).--I happen to have the score
of one of the tunes inquired after by E. N., namely, _Port Athol_, as
given by the late Edward Bunting, in his collection of Irish airs, under
the name of the "Hawk of Ballyshannon." It was composed by a famous
Irish harper named Rory Dal O'Cahan, the Rory Dal of Sir Walter Scott's
_Legend of Montrose_, who visited Scotland in the reign of James VI.,
and ultimately died there. He was the author of the _Ports_ or tunes
called _Port Gordon_, _Port Lennox_, _M'Leods Supper_, _Port Athol_,
_Give me your hand_, _The Lame Beggar_, &c. &c. It has often struck me
that this last tune is the origin from whence the air called _Jock o'
Hazledean_ was drawn. It is almost the same.

    FRANCIS CROSSLEY.

_Sir R. Howard's "Conquest of China"_ (Vol. v., p. 225.).--Dryden, in
his letters to his sons, writes:

  "After my return to town, I intend to alter a play of Sir Robert
  Howard's, written long since, and lately put into my hands: 'tis
  called _The Conquest of China by the Tartars_. It will cost me six
  weeks' study, with the probable benefit of an hundred pounds."

The _Biographia Dramatica_ states that this play was never acted or
printed.

    C. I. R.

_Mary Howe_ (Vol. v., p. 226.).--Mary Howe was probably one of the three
daughters of Scrope, first Viscount Howe, by his second wife, Juliana,
daughter of William Lord Allington. She was, in 1720, appointed a maid
of honour to Caroline, Princess of Wales; and in 1725 married Thomas,
eighth Earl of Pembroke, whom she survived, as well as her second
husband, John Mordaunt, a brother of Charles, Earl of Peterborough. She
died in 1749 _s. p._

    BRAYBROOKE.

_Dutch Chronicle of the World_ (Vol. v., p. 54.).

  "_Historische Chronica._ Mit Merianischen Kupfern. viii. Theile.
  Frankf. 1630. sqq. in 4. Hæc editio propter elegantiam figurarum
  rara est. Bibl. Solger. ii. p. 298."--Bauer. _Bibl. Libror.
  Rariorum._

  "_Historische Chronica_, &c., folio. Francf. 1657.

  "---- 3 vol. fol. Francf. 1743, 45 and 59."--_Bibliothecæ Regiæ
  Catalogus_ (_in Mus. Brit._) s. v. _Abelinus_.

  "Abelin John Philip, an historian, born at Strasburgh, died 1646;
  often known by the name of John Louis Gottfried, or Gothofredus.
  _Historical Chronicle from the beginning of the World to the year
  1619_; being a number of plates by Merian, with letter-press
  descriptive of them."--_Watt's Bibl. Brit._

The life of Merian is given by Sandrart, in his _Academia Artis
Pictoriæ_. Strutt, in his _Dictionary of Engravers_, neglects to mention
that Matthæus Merianus Basileensis was employed at Nancy, together with
Brentel, A.D. 1608, in designing _Pompæ_ (funebres) _Caroli III.
Lotharingiæ Ducis_. They are etched in a slight style, but with great
spirit. The procession consists of a great many plates: these, bound up
together with the description, make a large folio volume. I bought a
copy six years ago. Can any of your readers inform me whether there is
another in England?

    BIBLIOTHECAR. CHETHAM.

_Thistle of Scotland_ (Vol. i., pp. 24. 90. 166.).--I have just
accidentally stumbled upon my promised note on this subject; and as it
appears to be entirely different from any yet offered to you, I gladly
send it for the information of your correspondents. I copied it from an
old scrap-book:

  "_The Scotch Thistle._--The origin of the national badge is thus
  handed down by tradition:--When the Danes invaded Scotland it was
  deemed unwarlike to attack an enemy in the darkness of night,
  instead of a pitched battle by day: but, on one occasion the
  invaders resolved to avail themselves of stratagem; and in order
  to prevent their tramp from being heard, they marched barefooted.
  They had thus neared the Scottish force unobserved, when a Dane
  unluckily stepped with his foot upon a superbly prickled thistle,
  and uttered a cry of pain, which discovered the assailants to the
  Scots, who ran to their arms, and defeated the foe with great
  slaughter. The thistle was immediately adopted as the insignia of
  Scotland."

    R. H.

_Bull the Barrel_ (Vol. v., p. 200.).--The practice of "bulling the
barrel" or "cask," as mentioned by C. FORBES, is an every-day occurrence
in the Navy. As soon as a rum cask is emptied, a few gallons of water
are put into the cask (and it is struck down again into the
spirit-room); this is done to keep the wood moist, and prevent it from
shrinking, so as to keep the cask water-tight: this is called "bulling
the cask;" and from the water receiving after some time a strong
impregnation, which makes it really strong grog, salt water is used,
though even the "salt-water bull," as it is called, when again poured
out, has often proved too attractive for seamen to resist. Again, it is
common to talk in the same way of "bulling a tea-pot," coffee-pot, &c.;
that is, after the first "brew" has been exhausted, by adding fresh
water, and boiling over again, to make a "_second brew_" from the old
materials. This probably was derived from "bulling the cask;" but
whether the "bulling" originally applied to the preserving the
water-tight qualities of the cask, or to the making the "second brew," I
cannot pretend to say, though I should define the present acceptation of
the term "bulling" to be "the obtaining an impregnation from that which
had been already used."

    G. M. T. R. N.

_Bishop Kidder's Autobiography_ (Vol. v., p. 228.).--Mr. Bowles, in the
introduction to his _Life of Bishop Ken_, vol. i. p. xi. (Lond. 1830),
expresses his thanks to the late Bishop of Bath and Wells "for the
information contained in the MS. life of Ken's successor, Bishop
Kidder;" and adds:

  "This work, never printed, is a very curious and valuable
  document, _preserved in the episcopal palace of Wells_."

    J. C. R.

_Which are the Shadows?_ (Vol. v., p. 196.).--The story is told as of
Wilkie at the Escurial by Southey in _The Doctor_, vol. iii. p. 235.;
also, with a fine compliment to the "British Painter," by Wordsworth, in
one of the pieces published with _Yarrow Revisited_ (1835, pp. 305-6.).
The coincidence with the note by Mr. Rogers--to whom, by the way,
Wordsworth's volume is dedicated--has long perplexed me. One is
unwilling to suppose that the touching words ascribed to the two monks
were a stock speech common to aged monks who have such pictures to show;
but what better explanation is there? I believe that the first edition
of _Italy_ appeared, not in 1830, as your correspondent supposes, but in
1822. Is the story to be found in _that_ edition?

    J. C. R.

_Welsh Names "Blaen"_ (Vol. v., p. 128.).--Although my acquaintance with
the language of the Cymri is very limited, I think that a knowledge of
the cognate Erse or Gaelic enables me to make a shrewd guess at the
meaning of the word _Blaen_, prefixed to the names of so many farms in
Wales. The Gaelic word _Baile_, pronounced _Ballé_, signifies a
town--the Scotch _toun_--or farm, and, with the preposition _an_ or
_na_--Anglicè _of_--is written _Baile'n_, pronounced _Ballen_: this, I
think, is probably the same word as _Blaen_, and means, being
interpreted, "the farm of." In the examples given by your correspondent
α, the words affixed to _Blaen_ are descriptive; many of them
scarcely differ in sound from their Gaelic synonyms _e.g._ _Blaen-awen_
is the Gaelic _Baile'n abhuinn_, pronounced _Ballen avine_, Ang. "the
farm on, or of the river;" _Blaen-argy_--Gaelic, _Baile'n airgiod_, "the
silver farm," or perhaps _'n arguin_, of strife; _Blaen-angell_--Gaelic,
_Baile'n aingeal_, "angel farm"; _Blaen-y-foss_--Gaelic,
_Baile-na-fois_, pronounced _f[=o]sh_, and synonymous with the Dutch
_lust_, "leisure or pleasure farm;" and _Blaen-nefern_--Gaelic,
_Baile-na-fearn_, "alder farm." In England these farms or towns would
have been called respectively, _Riverton_, _Silverton_, _Alderston_, and
so on. The same word, generally spelt _Bally_, forms part of the name of
a very large proportion of the small towns and farms in Ireland.

    W. A. C.

  Ormsary.

_The Verb "to commit"_ (Vol. v., p. 125.).--The verb _to commit_, in the
sense used by Junius, was employed by Lord Chesterfield so far back as
the year 1757. In a letter to his son (Nov. 26), his lordship, after
instructing Mr. Stanhope what to say to one of the foreign ministers,
directs him to send to his own court an account of what he had done:

  "Tell them you thought the measure of such great importance that
  you could not help taking this little step towards bringing it
  about, but that you mentioned it only from yourself, and that you
  have not _committed_ them by it."

Lord Chesterfield's _Letters to his Son_ were not published until 1774,
which will account for Walker ascribing to Junius the merit of
introducing into the English language the French signification of the
verb _to commit_.

    WILLIAM CRAMP.

_Beócera-gent_ (Vol. v., p. 201.).--As I asked a question relating to
the Irish, perhaps I may be allowed the so-called Irish mode of
answering it myself.

_Beócherie_ is evidently derived from _Beóceraige_, the islet of
bee-hives, or bee-keepers (who were regularly appointed officers in
Saxon England); but as I was utterly at a loss for the word _gent_, I
requested the opinion of Dr. Lèo, from whom I have received the
following satisfactory reply:--

  "The word _gent_ seems to be the same word as our German _gante_,
  and the Scottish _gauntree_; i.e. a _tree_ which forms a stand for
  barrels, hives, &c. In several parts of Germany, where the culture
  of bees has, from distant periods, been carried on extensively,
  the hives are transported from one place to another according to
  the seasons: now in the forests, when the pine-trees are in
  flower; now in the fields, when the rape blossoms; then again in
  the woods, when the heather blossoms; and at last, when winter
  approaches, in the barn. A tree forms the stand for the bee-hive,
  and thatch protects it from the rain. Such a tree seems to be the
  _beócera-gent_.

  "In an old Glossary, the old high-German word, _gantmari_, is
  interpreted as _tignarius_ (i.e. _faber tignarius_, a carpenter).
  This word presupposes another word _gant_, a beam or a rafter,
  probably equivalent to your Ang.-Sax. _gent_; and thus
  _beócera-gent_ would be a beam upon which to stand bee-hives."

The question still remains, Why was the islet in question called Parva
Hibernia?

    B. WILLIAMS.

  The Lodge, Hillingdon.

_New Zealand Legend_ (Vol. v., p. 27.).--This strange legend reminds me
of the fine passage in _Caractacus_, of which I know not whether it is
an original conception, or taken from any author:--

      "Masters of wisdom! No: my soul confides
      In that all-healing and all-forming Power,
      Who, on the radiant day when Time was born,
      Cast his broad eye upon the wild of ocean,
      And calm'd it with a glance; then, plunging deep
      His mighty arm, pluck'd from its dark domain
      This throne of freedom, lifted it to light,
      Girt it with silver cliffs, and call'd it Britain;
      He did, and will preserve it."

    C. B.

_Twenty-seven Children_ (Vol. v., p. 126.).--To E. D.'s Query, "whether
there is any well-authenticated instance of a woman having had more than
twenty-five children?" something like a reply will be found in the
following paragraph, which formed one of a series of "Curious Extracts,"
in the _Edinburgh Antiquarian Magazine_ (1848):--

  "'_Extraordinary Number of Children._--The following
  extraordinary, yet well-attested fact, is copied from Brand's
  _History of Newcastle_, lately published. The fact is mentioned
  and corroborated by a quotation from an Harleian MS. No. 980-87. A
  weaver in Scotland had, by one wife, a Scotch woman, _sixty-two_
  children, all living till they were baptized; of whom four
  daughters only lived to be women, but forty-six sons attained to
  man's estate. In 1630, Joseph Delavel, Esq., of Northumberland,
  rode thirty miles beyond Edinburgh, to be satisfied of the truth
  of this account, when he found the man and woman both living; but
  at that time had no children abiding with them. Sir John Bowes and
  three other gentlemen having, at different periods, taken each ten
  in order to bring them up; the rest also being disposed of. Three
  or four of them were at that period (1630) at
  Newcastle.'--_European Magazine_, Dec. 1786."

But, of course, the question still arises, _can_ this wonderful instance
be recognised as "a well-attested fact?"

    R. S. F.

  Perth.

In Wanley's _Wonders of the Little Moral World_ (London, 1806), vol. i.
p. 76., will be found several instances of numerous families by one
mother; in one case (No. 27.) fifty-seven children; and in another (No.
6.), no less than seventy-three! Your correspondent can refer to the
authorities, which are also given. The authenticity of one of the cases
mentioned (No. 23.) will probably be easily ascertained, as it is said
to be the copy of an inscription in the churchyard of Heydon in
Yorkshire, to the following effect:--

  "Here lieth the body of William Strutton of Padrington, buried the
  18th of May, 1734, aged ninety-seven, who had by his first wife
  twenty-eight children, and by a second wife seventeen; was father
  to forty-five, grandfather to eighty-six, great-grandfather to
  ninety-seven, and great-great-grandfather to twenty-three--in all
  251."--_Gent. Mag. Aug. 1731._

There appears to be some mistake in the reference, and I may mention
that I have not been able to find the epitaph in Mr. Urban's pages with
the assistance of the general index.[8]

    E. N.

  [Footnote 8: [It occurs in the October number of 1734, p. 571.--ED.]]

_Reeve and Muggleton_ (Vol. v., pp. 80. 236.).--One of the handsomest
quartos of our day, both in typography and engravings, is, _Two Systems
of Astronomy: first, the Newtonian System ... second, the System in
accordance with the Holy Scriptures_ ... by Isaac Frost, London, 4to.,
1846 (Simpkin and Marshall). This work is Muggletonian, and contains
some extracts from _The Divine Looking-Glass of the Third Testament of
our Lord Jesus Christ_, by Reeve and Muggleton. I request your readers
to draw no inference from the letter with which I sign my
communications.

    M.

_Black Book of Paisley_ (Vol. v., pp. 201.).--In reply to ABERDONIENSIS,
I beg to inform him that the "Maitland Club" (_Glasgow_) circulated as
the contribution of the Earl of Glasgow in the year 1832 a very handsome
volume, entitled _Registrum Monasterii de Passelet_, M.C.LXIII-M.D.XXIX.
to which there was prefixed an highly interesting prefatory notice and
illustrative notes, in which it is there stated--

  "That it may be proper to correct a popular mistake regarding
  _another_ record connected with the Monastery of Paisley. _The
  Black Book of Paisley_, quoted by Buchanan and our earlier
  historians, and which (having disappeared) was raised by later
  antiquaries into undue importance as a distinct and original
  chronicle, was nothing more than a copy of Fordun
  (_Scotichronicon_), with Bowers' Continuation. It appears to have
  been acquired by Thomas Lord Fairfax, but when Gale and Hearne
  wrote, had already been deposited in the Royal Library, where it
  is still preserved. (13. E. X.) Hearne particularly notices the
  inscription on this volume: 'Iste liber est Sancti Jacobi et
  Sancti Mirini de Pasleto.'--_Præfatio ad Fordun_, p. lxvi."

    T. G. S.

  Edinburgh.

_Pasquinades_ (Vol. v., p. 200.).--I have had these Italian lines in my
MS. book for many years as an "Epigram on Bonaparte's Legion of Honor."
If of earlier date, and another origin, they have been made good use of
by the would-be wits of the day, as a quiz upon Napoleon's honorary
badge.

    HERMES.

_Elegy on Coleman_ (Vol. v., p. 137.).--The Elegy on Coleman I have seen
paraphrased or travestied, and thus attributed to Dryden, who, not being
able to pay his wine-merchant's bill, was told, on dining with this
creditor, in the exhilaration of his cups, that if he (Dryden) would
_improvise_ four lines expressive of pleasure to God, to the Devil, to
the World, and to the Merchant, the debt would be forgiven. Instantly,
therefore, the poet extemporised the following verses, sufficiently
redolent of their inspiring source:

      "God is pleased when we abstain from sin;
      The devil is pleas'd when we remain therein;
      The world is pleas'd with good wine,
      And you're pleased when I pay for mine."

    J. R.

  Cork.

_Liber Conformitatum, &c._ (Vol. v., p. 202.).--On the _Liber
Conformitatum_, I confidently assert, from accurate inquiry, that no
edition preceded that of 1510, nor is there any authority for the
alleged one of Venice. A long account of this most disedifying volume
will be found in DeBure's _Bibliographie Instructive_, No. 4540. I am in
possession of the second edition in 1511, perfectly identical in the
text. Its absurdity is equal to its obvious, though not intended,
blasphemy; for it is written in genuine simplicity of design. I have
likewise the _Alcorand des Cordeliers_, with the second book by Conrad
Badius, the son of Jodocus Badius Ascencius, a native of Belgium, but
one of the early Parisian printers, and author himself of various works.
The title of my edition of the _Alcoran_, printed at Geneva, 1575,
differs from that of 1586, but necessarily of the same import, and
quite as prolix.

    J. R.

  Cork.

_Grimesdyke; Grimes Graves_ (Vol. v., p. 231.).--As J. F. F. has
repeated Blomefield's account of these curious pits (commonly known as
_Grimes Graves_, in Weeting parish, Norfolk), it is right to add some
more recent information respecting them. An investigation was made there
last month, by digging a trench through the middle of a pit, and at the
depth of about three feet an oval fire-place of flints was discovered,
containing numerous bones of oxen, &c. One of the smaller pits was then
similarly treated, and we found the same proofs of habitation. No stone
implements were discovered, but further researches may bring some to
light. Blomefield's statement that it is a Danish camp is quite without
foundation, and his "form of a quincunx," in which he supposed the pits
to be, could have existed only in his own imagination, stimulated by the
learned labours of Sir Thomas Browne. There can be no doubt now that
they were dwellings of the British, similar to the pits on the coast at
Weybourne. That _Grime_ was a Danish leader, "Præpositus," &c., is also
open to doubt. When so many British earthworks are designated by this
name, what is more likely than that the Saxons, not knowing whose hands
had erected them, superstitiously ascribed them to the _grim_ spirit,
the Devil?--whence _Grimsdyke_, the Devil's ditch, &c. Neither this
opinion, however, nor Mr. Guest's (a "boundary") seems applicable to a
Hundred, as _Grimeshoo_, unless as being so full of Grime's operations.

    C. R. M.

_Junius and the Quarterly Review again_ (Vol. v., p. 225.).--I confess
that I could draw quite a different conclusion from that of CAROLUS
CURSITOR respecting Junius's single misspelt mention of Lord Lyttleton's
name. If, as the reviewer argues (supposing I remember the article
correctly), the Hon. Thomas Lyttleton only once mentioned his father, in
order to prevent public attention settling on himself as the author of
_Junius's Letters_, it seems to me to be in unison with such artifice,
that he should have purposely made a slight error in spelling the name.
But is the writer, and not the printer, responsible for this blunder?

    ALFRED GATTY.

_Ink_ (Vol. v., p. 151.).--A learned Cambridge professor, who has been a
V.P.R.S., once related to me the following anecdote, in reference to the
celebrated and most practical philosopher, the late Dr. Wollaston. In
the rooms of the Royal Society the Doctor chanced to mention that he
could not, for the life of him, discover the composition of the rich
black pigment used by the ancient Egyptians in their inscriptions on the
mummy cases. He had analysed it over and over again, and invariably
found animal matter present. How was this? "Why," observed a member, to
the grievous annoyance of the somewhat self-opinioned Doctor, "they used
the ink of the (_Sepia officinalis_) cuttle-fish." This most remarkable
excretion is of the deepest black hue; and that it retains its peculiar
qualities unimpaired, even after being buried beneath the chalk
formation of this earth of our's for unnumbered periods, is proved in
the case of the well-known fossil ink of Dean Buckland. I know not
whether or no this will answer the Query of MR. W. SPARROW SIMPSON, B.A.

    COWGILL.

_Maps of Africa_ (Vol. v., p. 236.).--AJAX is informed that the best map
of Morocco that has probably appeared is given in the volume of the
_Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie_, entitled "L'Empire de Maroc par
Berbrugger." An excellent map of Algeria by R. H. Dufour, is published
at a moderate price by Longuet, 8. Rue de la Paix, Paris. The date on my
copy is 1850; it forms one of a series of maps issued by the same
parties, and forming an Atlas of Algeria. I add from the _Leipzig
Catalogue_ (1849, viertes Heft) the title of a work which may assist
AJAX in his labours. Though I have not examined the work myself, I know
it to be of some repute. The author now forms one of the mission for
exploring Central Africa:

  "Barth Dr. Heinr. Wanderungen durch die Küstenländer d.
  Mittelmeers, ausgeführt in den J. 1845, 1846 u. 1847. In 2 Bdn 1
  Bd A.u.d. T.: Wanderungen durch das Punische u. Kyrenäische
  Küstenland od. Màg'reb, Afrik'ia u. Bark'a. Mit 1 (lith. u.
  illum.) Karte (in Imp. fol.) gr. 8. Berlin, Hertz."

The travels of Dr. Barth had especial reference to the discovery and
identification of ancient localities.

    NORTHMAN.

_Learned Men of the Name of Bacon_ (Vol. iii., pp. 41. 151.; Vol. v., p.
181.).--To this list may be added that of a learned lady, namely, of the
Lady Ann Bacon (Cooke), second wife of the Lord Keeper, and mother of
the Lord Chancellor. She translated, from the Italian of Bernardine
Achine, _Twenty-five Sermons_, published about 1550.

Sir Nathaniel Bacon, the painter, was the youngest son of Nicholas, the
eldest son of the Lord Keeper, and consequently the latter's grandson.
This Nicholas, of Redgrave, Suffolk, was High Sheriff of Norfolk, 1597,
and represented the same county in the parliament of 1603. He was the
first person created a baronet; and from him are descended the Bacons of
Redgrave, Suffolk, afterwards of Great Ryburgh, Garboldisham,
Gillingham, and now of Raveningham, Norfolk, premier baronets of
England.

There are engraved portraits of Lady Ann Bacon, and of Sir Nathaniel the
painter.

    COWGILL.

_Paring the Nails_ (Vol. iii., p. 462.; Vol. v., p 142.).--In reference
to the superstitious practices in question, the readers of the _Prose
Edda_, many of whose traditions still survive amongst us, will remember
what it is therein narrated concerning the ship Naglfar. Amongst the
terror-fraught prodigies preceding Ragnarök, or the Twilight of the
Gods, and the Conflagration of the Universe, we are informed that "on
the waters floats the ship Naglfar, which is constructed of the nails of
dead men. For which reason," it is said, "great care should be taken to
die with pared nails; for he who dies with his nails unpared, supplies
materials for the building of this vessel, which both gods and men wish
may be finished as late as possible." Of this ship, the more ancient and
poetical Völn-spà also speaks in something like the following terms:--

      "A keel from distant East is nearing,
        Pilotted by Loki's hand,
      Muspellheimr's children bearing,--
        Sea-borne comes that horrid band!
      With the wolf to join, are speeding,
        In a grim and gaunt array,
      Monster-forms 'neath Loki's leading,--
        Byleist's brother leads the way."

    COWGILL.

_Mottoes on Dials._--I have not seen the following motto noticed either
in your pages or elsewhere. I quote it from memory, as I recollect
reading it many years ago on the sun-dial in front of the Hospice on the
summit of the Mont Cenis:

      "Tempore nimboso securi sistile gradum---
        Ut mihi sic vobis hora quietis erit."

    J. E. T.

_Mispronounced Names of Places_ (Vol. v., p. 196.).--Allow me to add to
P. M. M.'s list:

                 Spelling.                   Pronunciation.

      North-brook-end (Cambridgeshire)       Nobacken.
      Mountnessing (Essex)                   Moneyseen.
      Brookhampton (Glostershire)            Brockington.
      Barnstaple                             Barum.
      Crediton                               Kirton.
      Penrith                                Perith.
      Brougham                               Broome.
      Birmingham                             Brummagem.

It is hardly worth while to mention the larger tribe of contractions,
such as Alsford for Alresford, Wilsden for Willesden, Harfordwest for
Haverfordwest; nor the class of derivations from the Roman Castrum, as
Uxeter for Uttoxeter, Toster for Towcester, and the like.

The railroads are correcting these grosser errors wherever they fall in
with them. I remember a few years ago, being at Gloster, and intending
to take the train to _Cisiter_, as I had always called it. "Oh!" said
the porter, with quite the air of a _Lingo_, "you mean _Ci-ren-cester_."
But I believe the good folks of the neighbourhood still stick to
_Aberga'ny_ and _Cisiter_.

P. M. M.'s appeal to your Scotch and Irish correspondents will I think
produce little. In Scotland, names are generally pronounced as written,
with a few exceptions, such as _Enbro'_ and _Lithgow_, and perhaps a few
others: but in Ireland I do not remember a single instance of the
corruption of a name; though certainly the Irish might be forgiven if
they had contracted or mollified such names as _Drumcullagher_,
_Ballaghaddireen_, _Moatagreenoque_, and _Tamnaughtfinlaggan_. The
English are, I believe, the only people who habitually _clip_ proper
names of persons or places, but I think it is also the only language in
which the spelling of words does not afford a general guide for their
pronunciation. No other language that I know anything of can afford such
anomalies as are to be found, for instance, in _rough_, _cough_,
_lough_, _plough_, _dough_, _through_, &c. &c.

    C.

The following are such names of places as have come within my
observation:--

               Spelling.                    Pronunciation.
      Happisburgh                           Ha'sboro'.
      Wormegay                              Rungay.
      Sechehithe                            Setchey.
      Wiggenhall St. Mary _Magdalen_.[9]    Maudlin.
      Babingley                             Beverley.
      Methwold                              Muell.
      Northwold                             Nordell.
      Hockwold cum Wilton                   Hockold-Wilts.

  [Footnote 9: By the last word this place is named to distinguish
  it from others beginning with the word "Wiggenhall."]

    J. N. C.

_"There's ne'er a villain," &c._ (Vol. v., p. 242.).--In support of A.
E. B., with whose view I entirely concur, it may be added that _villain_
and _knave_ do not make the proposition such a truism as Horatio (who is
not intended for a conjuror, much less a verbal critic) admits it to be.
Alexander the Great has been called a _villain_ and a _robber_, but
never a _knave_ or a _thief_. By the Rule of Three, villain: robber::
knave: thief. As a truism, intended by Hamlet before the first line was
spoken, it is not good enough for Hamlet's wit. But, supposing the
second line invented, _pro re natâ_, to cover the retreat of the
disclosure which was advancing in the first line, it is just what might
have suggested itself--for Hamlet's uncle was both villain and knave.

    M.



Miscellaneous.


NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

Those who judge of a book's importance by its size will be most
egregiously taken in by _Regal Rome: an Introduction to Roman History by
Francis W. Newman, Professor of Latin in University College, London_. In
this small volume of less than two hundred pages the learned
professor--who holds that _wisely to disbelieve_ is our first grand
requisite in dealing with materials of mixed worth--has followed, but
not slavishly, the direction which Niebuhr's erudition and untiring
energy have so appropriated, that by many it has been supposed to be
exclusively Niebuhr's own; and the result is, that he has reconstructed
a picture of ancient Rome, to which we refer our classical readers, in
the full confidence that they will thank us for doing so; and that, if
they do not, on perusal, agree with all Mr. Newman's views, they will at
least concede to him the credit due to great learning and perspicuity.

When we consider the great influence which the Crusades exercised on the
civilisation of Europe--how prominent is the position they occupy in the
social and political history of their era--and how fertile a source of
wealth they have proved to the poets and novelists of all succeeding
ages, and of all countries--it is certainly a matter of surprise that
amid the rage for translation which has of late years manifested itself
among us, no one should have undertaken to lay before the English reader
a translation of Michaud's able and interesting narrative of this great
chapter in the history of the Middle Ages. Michaud's work acquired for
its author, and very deservedly, an European reputation; and in issuing
a well-executed version of it at a moderate price, the publisher of
_Michaud's History of the Crusades, Translated from the French_ by W.
Robson, is rendering good service, not only to those who cannot peruse
the work in the original, but to all classes of historical readers. This
(the first volume) has prefixed to it a very interesting memoir of
Michaud.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--Mr. Bohn's contributions to the cheap publications of
the month are--in his _Scientific Library_, the fourth volume of
_Humboldt's Cosmos_, translated by Otté and Paul; in his _Standard
Library, The Principal Works and Remains of the Rev. Andrew Fuller, with
a new Memoir of his Life, by his Son the Rev. A. G. Fuller_, which
contains his _Gospel its own Witness, or the Holy Nature and Divine
Harmony of the Christian Religion contrasted with the Immorality and
Absurdity of Deism_; and his _Calvinistic and Socinian Systems examined
and compared as to their moral tendency_--two works by which this
excellent Nonconformist divine did much to stem the torrent of
immorality and infidelity which the deistical and democratical writers
of his time were infusing into the minds of the people. _Cicero's
Orations_, Vol. ii., literally translated by C. D. Yonge, is the new
volume of the _Classical Library_; that of the _Illustrated Library_
being the second and concluding volume of Allan's _Battles of the
British Navy_, illustrated with eighteen portraits of our most eminent
naval worthies. The proprietors of the _National Illustrated Library_
have completed their edition of Huc's most interesting _Travels in
Tartary_ by the publication of the second volume, and have issued a new
edition in two volumes of Dr. Mackay's _Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular
Delusions_. The favour with which the original edition of this work,
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probably be increased towards the present one, as it has the advantage
of numerous woodcut illustrations, many of them highly interesting, and
all adding to the amusing character of the book.


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GEMMÆ ET SCULPTURÆ ANTIQUÆ DEPICTÆ IN LATINUM VERSÆ, per Jac. Gronovium.
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      [Transcriber's Note: List of volumes and content pages in "Notes
      and Queries", Vol. I.-V.]

      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  88 | July  5, 1851      |   1- 15 | PG # 37548 |
      | Vol. IV No.  89 | July 12, 1851      |  17- 31 | PG # 37568 |
      | Vol. IV No.  90 | July 19, 1851      |  33- 47 | PG # 37593 |
      | Vol. IV No.  91 | July 26, 1851      |  49- 79 | PG # 37778 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  92 | August  2, 1851    |  81- 94 | PG # 38324 |
      | Vol. IV No.  93 | August  9, 1851    |  97-112 | PG # 38337 |
      | Vol. IV No.  94 | August 16, 1851    | 113-127 | PG # 38350 |
      | Vol. IV No.  95 | August 23, 1851    | 129-144 | PG # 38386 |
      | Vol. IV No.  96 | August 30, 1851    | 145-167 | PG # 38405 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  97 | Sept.  6, 1851     | 169-183 | PG # 38433 |
      | Vol. IV No.  98 | Sept. 13, 1851     | 185-200 | PG # 38491 |
      | Vol. IV No.  99 | Sept. 20, 1851     | 201-216 | PG # 38574 |
      | Vol. IV No. 100 | Sept. 27, 1851     | 217-246 | PG # 38656 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 101 | Oct.  4, 1851      | 249-264 | PG # 38701 |
      | Vol. IV No. 102 | Oct. 11, 1851      | 265-287 | PG # 38773 |
      | Vol. IV No. 103 | Oct. 18, 1851      | 289-303 | PG # 38864 |
      | Vol. IV No. 104 | Oct. 25, 1851      | 305-333 | PG # 38926 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 105 | Nov.  1, 1851      | 337-358 | PG # 39076 |
      | Vol. IV No. 106 | Nov.  8, 1851      | 361-374 | PG # 39091 |
      | Vol. IV No. 107 | Nov. 15, 1851      | 377-396 | PG # 39135 |
      | Vol. IV No. 108 | Nov. 22, 1851      | 401-414 | PG # 39197 |
      | Vol. IV No. 109 | Nov. 29, 1851      | 417-430 | PG # 39233 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 110 | Dec.  6, 1851      | 433-460 | PG # 39338 |
      | Vol. IV No. 111 | Dec. 13, 1851      | 465-478 | PG # 39393 |
      | Vol. IV No. 112 | Dec. 20, 1851      | 481-494 | PG # 39438 |
      | Vol. IV No. 113 | Dec. 27, 1851      | 497-510 | PG # 39503 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. V.                                   |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         |  Pages  | PG # xxxxx |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. V  No. 114 | January  3, 1852   |   1- 18 | PG # 40171 |
      | Vol. V  No. 115 | January 10, 1852   |  25- 45 | PG # 40582 |
      | Vol. V  No. 116 | January 17, 1852   |  49- 70 | PG # 40642 |
      | Vol. V  No. 117 | January 24, 1852   |  73- 94 | PG # 40678 |
      | Vol. V  No. 118 | January 31, 1852   |  97-118 | PG # 40716 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. V  No. 119 | February  7, 1852  | 121-142 | PG # 40742 |
      | Vol. V  No. 120 | February 14, 1852  | 145-167 | PG # 40743 |
      | Vol. V  No. 121 | February 21, 1852  | 170-191 | PG # 40773 |
      | Vol. V  No. 122 | February 28, 1852  | 193-215 | PG # 40779 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. V  No. 123 | March  6, 1852     | 217-239 | PG # 40804 |
      | Vol. V  No. 124 | March 13, 1852     | 241-263 | PG # 40843 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]             | PG # 13536 |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850     | PG # 13571 |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851     | PG # 26770 |
      | INDEX TO THE FOURTH VOLUME. JULY-DEC., 1851    | PG # 40166 |
      +------------------------------------------------+------------+





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