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Title: Ruins and Old Trees, Associated with Memorable Events in English History
Author: Roberts, Mary
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Ruins and Old Trees.

[Illustration: THE QUEEN'S OAK]







The Oak of Chatsworth,


  Wave on, ye old memorial trees,
  In the wintry wind and the summer breeze:
  Beacons ye are of days gone by,
  Of grief and crime, of the tear and sigh.
  Ah! may they never come again,
  In hut or hall, on hill or plain!

  But a young tree is growing,
  Where clear streams are flowing;
  Its roots are deep in the mother earth,
  In the parent soil that gave it birth,
  And its noble boughs are waving high,
  Meeting the breeze or the summer wind's sigh;
  While quivering lights and shadows play
    On the flowery sod beneath;
  And flocks lie down in the heat of day,
    'Mid the fragrant thyme and heath.

  Old trees have fallen down,
    From the sites where they stood of yore,
  And now in tower or town
    Their names are heard no more.
  When they stood in their days of pride,
    The Saxon wore his crown,
  And oft through the forest wide
    The Norman wound his horn;
  But thou in thy beauty's sheen,
    Young tree, art rising high,
  Thy waving boughs are seen,
    Against the clear blue sky.

  No dibbling foot of sportive fawn,
    In silent glen or glade,
  No squirrel bounding o'er the lawn
    Thy tender cradle made:
  But the poet's eye back glancing,
    Can sing of thy natal day,
  When the streamlets in light seem'd dancing,
    And the woods did their homage pay.

  A maiden placed thee, forest tree,
    Where thou art standing now,
  No care depress'd her thoughts of glee,
    No crown was on her brow;
  But she stood, a lov'd and loving one,
    By her noble mother's side,
  And while that gentle deed was done,
    Hearts turn'd to her with pride.

  The old memorial trees,
    That rise on rock or glen,
  Dark years of human sorrow
    Are chronicled on them;
  But Chatsworth's young oak springing,
    May spread her branches fair,
  When nought of sin or sadness
    Shall vex the earth or air.

  The crowns which God hath given,
    Shall press not then as now;
  No sceptre shall be riven,
    No care shall cloud the brow.
  Victoria! shielded by His power,
  Be thine to triumph in that hour,
  Queen of the sea-girt isle! Not then,
  As now, the Queen of suffering men,
  But reigning still, beloved and glorious,
  O'er sin, and grief, and death victorious.


Melksham Court.

Ancient Forest--Huts of the Britons on its margin. Roman Settlements in
the vale country--Destruction of the Danes--Gradual diminishing of the
Forest--Pageant in the days of Richard II. in honour of his marriage with
Anne of Luxemburg--Journey of the young Queen--Dangers attendant on the
way--Arrival in London--Margaret of Silesia, a confidential friend and
first-cousin of the Queen, accompanies her--Death of the Queen--Marriage
of Margaret; afterwards that of her Daughter to Sir William
Tyndale--Anecdote of Piastus, her immediate ancestor, and his elevation to
the throne of Poland--A descendant of Margaret of Silesia concealed for
three days and nights in the Yew-tree of Stinchcombe Wood--The Burning of
his Mansion in the Valley--Reference to William Tyndale, the Apostle of
the English Reformation, descended from Margaret--Beautiful Scenery around
the remains of the old Forest, which now bears the name of Stinchcombe
Wood--A dilapidated Court-House in the Valley, where the Tyndale family
once resided--Its present condition and past greatness.--_Page 1._

Ruins of Bradgate Palace.

Scenery before and around the Ruin--Beautiful group of Chesnut-trees
growing there in the days of Edward I.--Clear Stream of Water, beside
which Lady Jane used to walk--Ruins of the little Mill mentioned by
Leland--Vale of Newtown, Hill and Ruin--Sketch of Bradgate Palace--Lady
Jane's Tower--Concluding Observations--Poetry.--_Page 21._

Oak of Chertsey. Glendour's Oak.

Battle between Henry IV. and Hotspur--Fall of Hotspur--Battle witnessed by
Owen Glendour from the topmost branches of the Tree--Return to his Castle
in the Vale of Glyndwrdwey--Mode of Warfare--Remarks respecting him--Dread
entertained by the English of his possessing supernatural Powers--Anecdote
of his early Life--Beautiful Scenery of Bethgellert--The bard
Rhys-Cock--Stone on which he used to sit--Building of a Church by Henry
IV. in commemoration of the Battle in which Hotspur fell--Present
condition of the Church, and of Glendour's Oak.--_Page 31._

Yew Trees of Skelldale.

Historical notice of the Monks of St. Mary's at York, who took shelter
beneath seven Yew-trees--Their sanctity and mode of life--Conjectures
respecting the state of Britain, when the fraternal Yew-trees first arose
from the earth--Hardships endured by the recluses--The charity of their
Abbot to a stranger--Splendid Abbey of the Fountain.--_Page 43._

Oak of Howel Sele. The blasted Oak.

Contrast between the bleached and skeleton-looking Tree, and the lawns and
thickets by which it is surrounded--History of Howel Sele--His Fight with
his cousin Owen Glendour--His Death, and the inhuming of him within an
hollow Oak--Search made for the Chieftain by his Vassals--Weary watchings
of his Widow--Arrival of Madoc, after many years, at the Castle of the
murdered Chieftain--Telling of Glendour's Death, and how he had charged
him to make known where the body of Howel Sele was concealed--Working of
the Vassals by torch-light, and the discovery of his Bones.--_Page 51._

Queen Mary's Tower.

Winfield Castle--Peverel's Tower--Apartment and Tower of Mary, Queen of
Scots--Ruins, when best seen--Heavy Storm during the Night--Aspect of
Nature in the Morning--Old Tree within sight of Apartments occupied by
Queen Mary--Beautiful Ash growing before her window.--_Page 57._

Chesnut of Tortworth.

Celebrated as a large Tree in the days of King John--Chesnut-tree
preferred among all others by Salvator Rosa--Notice of Penda, of his son,
Wolfere, and Eva--Wolfere, Governor of Mercia--Benefactor of the City of
Gloucester--Caer Glou, or the Bright City--Persecutions of the Christians
by Penda--Piety of Eva, who became, on the death of her husband, Abbess of
the Nunnery of St. Peter's--Baptism of Penda.--_Page 61._

Oak of Ellerslie. Wallace's Oak.

Observations on the aged Tree--Place of its Growth--Sports and sorrows of
Childhood--Assembling of the Village Children, with young Wallace, under
the shade of the Oak of Ellerslie--Claim of Edward to the fealty of
Scotland on the Death of the young Queen--Advance of his
Armies--Contemporary Events--Wallace, when grown to manhood, takes up arms
against the English--Joined by his young Companions--Concealed with many
of his Officers, in an hollow of the Oak of Ellerslie, beneath which they
had played in Childhood--Escape to the old Oak of Torwood, which becomes
his head-quarters--Scenery on the banks of the Carron--Conversation with
Bruce--Captivity and Death of Wallace--Veneration in which his Memory is
held by the young People of Ellerslie--Memorial Spots associated with his
Name.--_Page 69._

The Nut-Tree of Rosamond's Grave.

Rebuke of St. Hugh, Bishop of Lincoln, to the Sisters of Godstow
Nunnery--Removal of Rosamond's Hearse from before the Altar--Her Burial in
the Churchyard--Belief of the Nuns respecting her private Marriage with
the King--Sketch of her Life--Interview with the Queen, and retirement
from her bower at Woodstock to Godstow Nunnery--Her Death--Visit to her

Castle near old Sarum, the Residence of the Earl of Salisbury surrounded
with Downs--Place of Tournament--Funeral of the Earl, and the mysterious
Disappearance of his Daughter, Ela--Riding forth of Knights in
search--Conjecture respecting her Disappearance--Ela's three
Uncles--Monastry of Bradenstoke--Adventures of an English Knight, William
Talbot, in quest of the young Heiress--His Wanderings in Normandy for the
space of two years--Discovery of the Lady Ela, when gathering Shells on
the Sea-coast--Poetry--Her Return to England, and Marriage with William
Longespé--Attachment of William Longespé to his Brother, King John, the
Companion of his Wanderings, a Friend who never Deserted him--Wretched
Condition of the Country--Founding by William Longespé of the beautiful
Cathedral of Salisbury--Going abroad of the Earl, with his Royal Nephew,
Richard--Disasters by Land and Sea--Narrow Escape from an Abbey in the
Isle of Rhé--Proposals of Marriage to the Lady Ela by Reimund de Burgh,
during the absence of her Husband--Her scornful Reply--Complaint to King
Henry by the Earl on his Return--Apology--Illness and Death of the
Earl--His Funeral--Lady Ela permitted to remain in free Widowhood--Her
Seal and Exercise of the Office of Sheriff of Wiltshire--Founding of
Lacock Nunnery, and the Priory of Hinton--Ela's Retirement from the
stately Castle, in which her young Days had passed to the Society of the
Nuns of Lacock--Visit to the plain Marble Stone that covers the Remains of
Lady Ela--Closing Observations.--_Page 91._

Remains of Dunmow Priory.

Old Church of Dunmow, by whom erected--Tomb of Sir Walter Bohun, by whom
injured--Tomb of the Lady Marian, the wife of Robinhood--Conjecture
respecting the sparing of her Effigy during the Civil Wars--Early History
of Lady Marian--Tournament--Burning of her Father's Castle--Escape to the
Forest--Single Combat with Prince John--Restoration of Robinhood, the Earl
of Huntingdon, to his estates and honours--Death of Robinhood--Retiring of
his Widow to the Priory of Dunmow--Sending of Sir Robert de Medeive, with
a poisoned Bracelet, by King John, to the lady--Her Death--Poetry.--_Page


Divisions of Great Britain by the Romans--Names given by the Saxons--Minor
Changes and final Partition by command of Alfred--Origin of marking the
respective Boundaries--Gospel-Tree near an ancient Saxon Town--Going round
of the Parishioners--Contrast between the aged Tree and the young Flowers
that spring beside it--Concluding Observations.--_Page 129._

Clipstone Palace and the Parliament Oak.

Condition of the ruined Palace--Hiding-place for solitary birds--The owl,
jackdaw, and crow--Once a place of great note--Its style of building--How
guarded--By whom inhabited--Withdrawing of King John from Clipstone Palace
to London--Its lonely appearance when thus deserted--Rumours respecting an
Interdict--Miserable state of the Country--No Burials allowed in Churches,
nor Marriages within the walls--Bells and Images taken down and laid upon
the ground--A Wedding Party--Appearance of Clipstone Palace when King
Edward I. succeeds to the Throne--Improved condition of the
Country--Notice of the lesser Barons and Burgesses--Style of Building much
improved--Wise Policy of Edward--Notice of a fine young Oak growing in
Clipstone Park--Parties made beneath its shade in the days of John--Again
in those of Edward--Grave Company sitting there--Why convened.--_Page

Ruined Villages in the New Forest.

Desolating of the New Forest--Distress of the Inhabitants--War declared
with France--Departure of the King for Normandy--Wretched condition of
Maine--Burning of Nantes--Illness of William--Bequests to his two
Sons--Their unnatural Conduct--His Death--Poetry--Neglect of his
Remains--Interruption to his Funeral--Hunting Party, convened by William
Rufus, in Malwood-Keep--Arrival of a Monk with ill tidings from
Gloucester--Accidental Death of the King--His remains found by a
Charcoal-burner, and carried to Winchester--Interment.--_Page 151._

Old Trees in Hyde Park.

Ancient condition of the Country--First emerging of one of the old Trees
from its Acorn cradle--Conjectures as to the People who inhabited Britain
at the time--Stages of vegetation in all Trees alike--Contrast between the
small beginning, and the grandeur of a full-grown Tree--Notice of the
Forest that covered the greatest part of Middlesex--Settlement of
Llyn-Din, or the Town on the Lake, called Londinium by the
Romans--Draining of the Marshes, and cutting down of the Forest, embanking
of the River and surrounding the City with a Wall--Gradual progress of
Civilization--Increase of the City--Falling to decay of the old Roman Road
that passed through a portion of Hyde-Park--Contrast between the Past and
Present.--_Page 173._

Hatfield Oak.

Poetry.--_Page 187._

Beech of the Frith Common.

No sad associations with the young Beech of the Frith Common--Its dignity
and proportions--Majesty and luxuriance of Forest-trees--Aggregate effect
produced by Woodland Scenery--The Tree which stands alone can best be
understood--Poetry.--_Page 195._

Oak of Salcey.

The Roots of aged Trees--Sketch of the Oak of Salcey, at different hours
of the day and night--Solemn Aspect of the old Oak when seen dimly in the
clear nights of the summer solstice--Loneliness of its place of
growth--Songs of early Birds--Silent at Noon-day--Sounds heard at
Eventide--Conjectures respecting the old Tree.--_Page 207._

Old Trees in Welbeck Park.

Beauty of Woodland Scenery, superior to all others--Purity and freshness
of the Breezes that sport over wild thyme and short herbage--The Duke's
Walking-stick, and the Seven Sisters--Trees in Welbeck Park.--_Page 213._

The Queen's Oak.

Tradition respecting the Queen's Oak--Sketch of the surrounding
Scenery--Inhabitants of Grafton Castle--Marriage of Elizabeth Woodville to
John Gray--Abbey of St. Alban's--Battle fought beside its walls--John Gray
wounded--Visit of Henry VI. to the dying Youth--Confiscation of his
Estates--Return of Elizabeth to her Father's house--Hunting Visit of
Edward IV. to Whitlebury Chase--Elizabeth intercedes for the restoration
of her Husband's Estates--Frequent meeting of Elizabeth and Edward beneath
the old Oak--Poetry--Marriage at Grafton--Scene in the old Palace of
Reading--Dress of the Queen--Fêtes and Tournaments--Coronation of
Elizabeth--Count James, of St. Pol, invited to attend--Meeting of Cicely
of York and the Duchess of Bedford, beside the cradle of their
Grandchild--Flight of Edward--Retirement of his Queen to Sanctuary--Birth
of a Prince--Return of the King, with the Lord Grauthuse--Great
Entertainments--Betrothing of the young Duke of York with Anne Mowbray,
infant heiress of the Duchy of Norfolk, in St. Stephen's Chapel--Scene in
the Sanctuary of Westminster--Desolate condition of Elizabeth--Her
Conversation with Archbishop Rotherham--Sophistry of Richard III.--Visit
from the Archbishop of Canterbury to the Queen--Her unwillingness to part
with her Son--Fearful Tragedies succeed--Aged Woman in the Abbey of
Bermondsey--Her venerable appearance, beautiful in its
decrepitude--Tolling of the Convent Bell--A small Boat with the Queen
Dowager's Coffin on board, seen on the River--The Queen's Daughters
accompany it to St. George's Chapel--A few old Men, meanly dressed, light
on the Funeral--Closing Observations.--_Page 217._

[Illustration: MELKSHAM COURT]

Melksham Court.

    "I stood in the ruined hall where my ancestors once dwelt. I asked for
    the noble owners. Where are they?--and the echo replied, Where are

In the midst of the lone forest which shadowed in ancient times a large
portion of the country of the Dobuni,[1] and which extended over hill and
dale, far as the distant mountains of the Silures,[2] and on either side
the river that waters this part of Britain, stood a solitary yew. On the
verge of the forest, and in places cleared of timber for the purpose, rose
the conically-shaped huts of the natives; the dwelling of the chieftain
was somewhat larger than the rest, and around it stood the wattled cabins
of his dependents. Their arts were few and simple, and their habits those
of men who were scarcely advanced beyond a savage state: corn was
occasionally cultivated, but in general they lived by hunting, or fed
upon the flocks which they pastured in the open country.

Years passed on, and while the aspect of nature remained the same, all
else was changed. This part of Britain bore no longer the appellation of
Dobuni; a term derived from the British word Duffen, because the
inhabitants frequently resided in places which lay low, and were sunk
under hills. It formed a considerable portion of Britannia Superior, and
along the side of its beautifully wooded hills, and on its thickly peopled
plains, palaces and forums, extensive military roads, aqueducts and
schools were rapidly erected. The rattling of heavy-laden cars, and the
loud sound of the woodman's axe, with the crash of stately trees, made way
for these improvements. In the course of a few short years, the country of
the Dobuni lost its wild and forest-like appearance, and far as the eye
could reach, the wide-spread landscape presented objects of fertility and
beauty. The ancient forest was also curtailed of its grandeur and extent;
and the plain country, whose rank luxuriant vegetation concealed marshes,
on which it was rarely safe to tread, except in seasons of great drought,
was cleared, and thrown open to the sun, and being quickly drained, was
covered with towns and villages; corn-fields and meadows succeeded to a
growth of underwood, and sheep and oxen grazed where the wolf had been.
Sounds too, which of all others awaken images of security and peace--the
bleating of sheep along the hills, and the lowing of oxen in the valleys,
were heard, instead of the piercing cries of those wild creatures, when
ranging in quest of prey. Meanwhile the ample river, whose capricious
windings could only be distinguished from the highest hills, was disclosed
to view, by the clearing away of tangled bushes, and the cutting down of
the huge trees that encroached upon, or shaded its bright waters. The
small skin-boats of the natives, and the stately galleys of the Romans,
glided along its surface, and commodities of various kinds were brought
from one part of the country to the other.

But the day arrived when the galley was rarely seen upon the river. When
the skin-boats of the natives ceased to spread abundance along its shores;
when many large and fair dwellings were deserted; and when the rolling of
chariots, filled with patrician families, whose villas had been erected in
some of the most beautiful parts of the country, were no longer heard on
the great military road that led from the city of Corinium. Instead of
these, bands of armed men spread over the land, for the Roman legions were
withdrawn, to save the capital from spoliation, and nothing remained for
the unhappy Britons but servitude or death. The Saxons came, for such were
the strangers called: their looks were bland, and their flowing vestments,
adorned with borders of many colours, betokened some degree of
civilization; but war was in their hearts, and soon, where cities had
stood, and peaceful homesteads met the view, all was silence and
desolation. No curling smoke was seen among the trees, the watch-dog's
bark had ceased, there were no flocks for him to guard, and only blackened
ruins told of what had been. Gradually, however, a better state of things
arose; the Saxons contrasted their past condition, their rude huts on the
far off shore, their precarious mode of life, with the elegances, and the
perfection in the arts and sciences which they observed in the homes which
they had won. They learned to adopt the habits and the manners of the
Romanized Britons, and to repair the desolations which they had wrought.
Kingdoms were established, and though war occasionally prevailed among the
chieftains, there were many who appreciated the blessings, and the
security of peace.

Next came the Danes, men of stern countenances and ruddy hair. War-chiefs,
accustomed to a life of rapine--they knew no pity; and what the Saxon
would have spared, when first he trod the shores of Britain, they
ruthlessly overthrew. The forest and vale country around the solitary yew,
was grievously infested with them. They took shelter in the hollows with
which this part of England abounded, and it was difficult to dispossess
them. Those hollows or little glens were so deep and narrow, that the rays
of the sun frequently did not enliven them for months together; yet still
some of the most accessible were brought into cultivation, and rewarded
the industrious husbandman with plentiful crops of corn and grass. Others
remained in their native wildness, and wild indeed they were. Shallow
streams ran through them, and by means of these they could alone be
visited: he who sought to explore their secret recesses must force his way
beside the channel of the stream; now stepping from stone to stone amid
the water's splash; now clinging to the branches of the trees which
drooped on either side. But whether wild or cultivated, there the Danes
settled themselves, till they were driven out in the days of Alfred.

Alfred established his throne in righteousness, and the country became
respectable and happy. Still the tree grew on, and lifted up its head
above the boughs of less stately trees, for the yew does not attain to its
highest elevation, or rest in the grandeur of its maturity, till five
hundred years have passed away, and when the period arrived, concerning
which I shall have to speak, the tree was only in its prime.

The forest had encroached upon the precincts of the fields and meadows,
during those disastrous times when the ground was trod by hostile steps,
as if it sought to recover its ancient rights; but this might not be, and
when peace was restored, the sound of the woodman's axe was heard again,
and the usurping trees fell beneath its stroke. Then, also, many of those
whose ample branches had long sheltered the margin of the cleared land,
were cut down, to make room for wider clearings; and by degrees the noble
yew, which had been in the depth of the dark forest, stood but a little
distance from the verge of the common, up which the road led, and which
being kept free from trees was reserved for the pasturing of sheep. It was
covered with short grass and tufts of wild thyme, round which the bees
came humming; and gay flowers, such as the bee-orchis, and the yellow
cistus, the pink-eyed pimpernell, and yellow rocket, grew profusely beside
the pathway. From the summit of the hill extended a noble panoramic view
of hill and dale. Downward, and far as the eye could reach, a precipitous
descent toward the vale country was covered with the trees of the old
forest, which had gradually been curtailed of its extent; towns and
villages varied the plain, through which the river flowed, and the strong
castles of Dursley and Berkeley, of Beverstone and Brimpsfield, with their
ample hunting-grounds, and the crowding dwellings of those who lived near,
were seen at intervals.

Generations came and went, and successive monarchs filled the English
throne, till the time of Harold, when on the battle-field of Hastings his
noble patrimony passed into the hands of the proud Norman. Great changes
then took place; strong castles were erected on the site of ancient Saxon
fortresses, and while seed-time and harvest did their work, and gradually
advanced and retreated, so gradually did the country emerge from out the
darkness of past ages, and attain an eminence among the nations of the
earth. But as night succeeds to day, and clouds obscure the cheerful light
of the bright sun, so did war succeed to peace, and ruthless men made
sorrowful the homes of England. When Stephen and the empress battled for
pre-eminence, fell sounds broke up the quiet of the valleys, and fugitives
often sought to hide themselves in the still close covert of the forest.

A gay pageant passed one day within sight of the noble yew. Men carrying
branches of the beech, and damsels with flowers in their hands, wound up
the road; and with them came a train of oxen, dragging a large tree, which
had been cut from out the forest. The tree was wreathed with flowers; the
horns of the oxen too were tastefully adorned, and when they reached the
summit of the hill, the tree was set up, round which the light-hearted
party danced right merrily. All this was done in honour of king Richard's
marriage. He had sought the sister of the Emperor Wenceslaus, fair Anne of
Luxemburg; and when, at length, the final arrangements were adjusted, she
left the palace of her brother, attended by the Duke of Saxony, and a
great number of knights and damsels, with men-at-arms, and a goodly
company, all well appointed to do her honour. They journeyed through
Brabant to Brussels, where the Duke and Duchess received the young queen
with great respect, and caused her attendants to be honourably
entertained, for the Duke was her uncle, and he rejoiced much in the
prospects of his niece. Anne expected merely to have spent a few pleasant
days in the society of the Duke and Duchess, but, when about to leave
them, intelligence was brought that twelve large Norman vessels, well
equipped, and filled with armed men, were cruising in the sea between
Calais and Holland, and that, under the pretence of seizing all who fell
into their hands, they were really waiting for the coming of the lady,
whom the king of France was desirous of getting into his possession, that
he might frustrate the intended alliance between the English and Germans.
The young queen was exceedingly alarmed at such unexpected intelligence.
She remained in consequence with her uncle and aunt, till the Lords de
Roasselaus and de Bousquehoir, having been deputed by the Duke to
negotiate with the King of France, obtained passports for the safe
conveyance of Anne and her attendants through his dominions, as far as
Calais, as also for the remanding of the Normans into port.

The young queen then set forwards, after taking leave of her august
relations and the ladies of the court, who witnessed her departure with
much regret. The Duke added to her train five hundred spears, and, as she
passed through Ghent and Bruges, the citizens received her with the utmost
honour. Thus she journeyed on, till being arrived at Gravelines, the earls
of Salisbury and Devonshire approached to do her homage, with five hundred
spears, and as many archers. They conducted her to Calais, and, having
safely confided her to the care of the English barons, who were appointed
to that honour by the king, they returned homeward. Great was the joy of
the Londoners, when the train, having passed over the sea to Dover, came
within sight of the city gates. Ladies of the highest rank were assembled
to receive their queen, all in their best attire, and with them came the
great authorities both of the court and city. The gates were then thrown
open with much solemnity, and Anne of Luxemburg having been conducted with
chivalrous magnificence to the Palace of Westminster, the ceremony of her
marriage was completed on the twentieth day after Christmas.

Christmas was well kept that year both in town and country; but when the
trees burst forth into leaf and beauty, and the contented note of the
solitary cuckoo, was heard in the still forest, the country people thought
that they would rejoice again, and this occasioned the May-pole to be set
up. They did not gather any branches from the yew, for the yew is a
funereal tree, used to deck the grave of him who has nought to do with the
cheerful scenes of busy life.

With the noble train who entered London came Margaret of Silesia, daughter
of the Duke of Theise, and niece to the King of Bohemia, as the
confidential friend, and first-cousin of the queen. This lady was received
with great distinction, and apartments were assigned her in the palace,
not only on account of her youth, but that she might enjoy a frequent
intercourse with the friend who was most dear to her. But these halcyon
days were not of long continuance. The queen died at Shene in Surry, and
so bitterly did the king bewail her loss, that he denounced a malediction
on the scene of her last illness, and commanded, in the wildness of his
grief, that not one stone should be left upon another of the palace where
she died. Margaret felt the death of the queen severely; she loved her
cousin with a sister's love, and the circumstance of their having left
their native land together, and their being to each other what none else
could be in a foreign country, had formed between them a bond of no common

The queen deceased without children; but Margaret having married a
gentleman of the ducal family of Norfolk, knight of the garter and
standard-bearer of England, their only child and heiress, Alana, became
the wife of Sir William Tyndale, who was equally respectable in point of
antiquity and alliances. His family possessed the valuable domain and
title of Tyndale in Northumberland, so called from the south Tyne, which,
rising in the mountains and moors of Cumberland, waters that dale, and
having joined the north Tyne near Hexham, falls into the German ocean at
Tynmouth. Their baronial residence rose proudly on an eminence which
commanded the southern banks of the river. It consisted of a spacious
antique quadrangle; the roof and walls being of immense strength and
thickness, extended in the form of the letter H; the whole was defended by
a fosse, and surmounted with four principal towers, in the position of
north and south.

  "That castle rose upon the steep, of the green vale of Tyne;
  While far below, as low they creep,
  From pool to eddy dark and deep,
  Where alders bend and willows weep,
  You hear her streams repine."

The ancestral history of Margaret of Silesia, with that of her
distinguished husband, was of no ordinary kind. Her paternal ancestors had
filled for ten generations the throne of Poland, and on her mother's side
she represented Winceslaus the Good, nearly the last of the ancient kings
of Bohemia, as also the imperial houses of Luxemburg and Austria. Among
the distinguished crowd of those who figured greatly in by-gone days,
Piastus is the one, concerning whom I would briefly speak. His character,
seen only through the twilight of remote antiquity, is necessarily
involved in great obscurity, but light enough remains to discover the
moral grandeur of its proportions, as well as to justify the curiosity of
his descendants.

Ancient Polish chronicles relate concerning him, that after the tragical
catastrophe of Popiel II., when a dreadful famine added to the calamities
of the country, and people fell dead in the streets of Cruswitz, that two
angels, in the disguise of pilgrims knocked at the door of a private
citizen, named Piastus, and asked for relief. The citizen had only a
single cask, which contained some nutritive beverage of the country,
remaining in his house, but he would not refuse to help them, and he
invited the strangers to partake. Charmed with his benevolence, they
promised him the vacant throne, at the same time directing him to open his
doors and draw for the relief of the famished population. He did so, and
found his cask inexhaustible. The assembled crowds, in their transports,
shouted, A miracle! and with one consent elevated their benefactor to the
sovereignty of Poland.

From this period the history, both of prince and people, became the
subject of authentic narrative. Piastus, like another Numa, retained in
his elevation the virtues attributed to him in his private life. The
Polish nobles, although accustomed to sanguinary catastrophes, felt their
fierceness subside beneath the sway of a monarch who reigned only to make
his people happy. He died at an advanced age, beloved, revered, and almost
adored by his subjects; and, after the lapse of nearly a thousand years,
the name of Piastus is yet repeated with affectionate veneration.

Such is the brief biographical memoranda, which it is possible to rescue
from oblivion, concerning the remote ancestry of Margaret of Silesia. She
came with great pomp and splendour to the shores of England, and curious
has it been to see, while the stream of time flowed on, how some of the
noble of the earth, her immediate descendants, were upborn upon its
billows; how, in one case, knights and squires represented an elder
branch, sober citizens a younger, and how, in a third, the lordly line
sunk suddenly beneath the billows.

When the battle of Touton, in the year 1460, made it unsafe for those who
adhered to the house of Lancaster to remain in public, the immediate
descendant of Margaret, in that branch which is associated with the aged
yew, withdrew from his paternal estate and settled in Gloucestershire,
where he assumed the name of Hitchen. He married Alicia, daughter and sole
heiress of Hunt of Hunt's Court, in Nibley, by whom he acquired that
estate, and became the grandfather of William Tyndale, who is justly
termed the apostle of the English Reformation.

As the gathering mists of a hot summer evening, when the sun is set, and
dew begins to fall, veil the bold and prominent landscape, so the
obscurity of time has settled on the Tyndale family. The outlines yet
remain: the establishment of Hugh Tyndale in Gloucestershire, during the
troubles of York and Lancaster, his marriage with Alicia, and the birth of
his three grandsons, John, William, and Thomas, are events well known; but
whether Tyndale suffered a long imprisonment in the castle of Vilvorde,
near Louvain in Flanders, during the lifetime of his parents; whether days
of sorrow and nights of weariness befell them on his account; or whether
they were first laid to rest in Nibley churchyard, near which their
mansion stood, is entirely unknown. Be this as it may, his brother Thomas
had much to suffer on his account. He was abjured for receiving letters,
and for remitting him five marks during his residence in Flanders.

Time went on, and religious animosities gradually subsided; a descendant
of Hugh Tyndale purchased Melksham Court in Stinchcombe, on the verge of
all that remained of the once great forest. It was a beautiful spot,
embosomed in trees, and moated according to the olden fashion, with its
terrace-walks and parterres. There his descendants continued to reside,
and their days seem to have passed tranquilly, till the stormy reign of
Charles I.

The valleys of Gloucestershire lying remote from the metropolis, and being
in many respects almost inaccessible, from the steepness of the hills,
having also no great public road near at hand, nor the sea within reach,
had been often spared from much suffering in very disastrous times; it was
otherwise at the present day. The forest, one of their great bulwarks, had
been curtailed during successive generations, and much of the moor country
having been brought into cultivation, towns and villages were built, and
roads were made from place to place. This opened a communication with the
thickly peopled parts of Gloucestershire, with such counties also as lay
contiguous: the quiet of the valleys was therefore broken up, and the
cities of Gloucester and of Worcester, having taken active parts in the
stirring incidents of the time, bands of armed men overspread the country.
Thomas Tyndale, the fifth in descent from the purchaser of Melksham Court,
was then residing on his patrimonial estate: he married a lady on her
mother's side, of the knightly family of Poyntz of Iron Acton; but
whether--for the mists of time have settled again on the domestic
incidents of the family--whether his lady was deceased, or whether he had
sent her with their young son and four daughters to a place of greater
security, cannot be ascertained. Certain it is, that seeing a band of
armed men advancing to the house, he fled for shelter into the forest
which skirted his domain. The forest could afford but little aid in his
distress. It was otherwise when its crowding trees extended further than
the eye could reach, now sinking into the deep, deep glens, whose circling
banks, if such they might be termed, rose far above its topmost boughs;
now ascending those high banks, and spreading over the vale country,
sinking and rising with the undulations of hill and dale, and, when the
wind howled among the branches, appearing like the tossing waves of a
restless sea. This had been; but cultivation trenched upon the good green
wood; spaces were even cleared, and its tall trees, for all the underwood
was gone, afforded a ready access to whoever liked to invade its beautiful
recesses. One hope for safety remained to the fugitive, and one only. The
yew-tree stood in all its beauty and luxuriance, near to the summit of
Stinchcombe wood, for such the old forest was now called, and thither he
fled for shelter. He was seen to leave the house by a band of soldiers,
and they hastened in pursuit of him. They thought that he would make for
the nearest glen, or else that he would seek to hide himself in some
sheltered nook among the trees. Heaven, in its mercy, prevented them from
searching the old tree, whose intermingling branches formed a close and
impervious shelter. Yet they passed, and repassed, beneath the shade, and
their words were hard to bear. They vowed to have no pity on him, nor on
his children, nor on anything that he possessed; and they said, "that if
they could discover him in his retreat, they would hew him small as herbs
for a porridge-pot." Being foiled in their search, they wreacked their
vengeance on his mansion, and during his dolorous sojourn of three days
and nights in the tree, he saw the burning of his once happy home, and
heard at intervals the voices of his pursuers, as they sought for him
again, among the glens, and through the secret passes of the wood. We know
not how, nor when the family were reunited; nor can I speak concerning the
joys and thankfulness with which they met, for the mists of time rest on
this also.

The yew-tree is still standing; around it are the remains of the old
forest, and beside it the wild common, with its thyme and flowers among
the grass. All else has changed since the days when the noble ancestor of
him who fled for refuge to the ample branches of the yew, first landed on
the English coast. Neither is the surrounding country such as it was, in
the days of Richard. The castles of Beverstone, of Brimsfield, and
Dursley, whose turrets were seen in ancient times from the summits of the
hill, are fallen to decay, and instead of these, modern dwellings, with
parks and gardens, farms and cottages, overspread the country. The
cheerful farm-house, with its lofty rookery, and wide arable, or ploughed
fields, with low fences or gray stone walls, are prominent features in the
southern portion of the landscape; as also well-timbered villages,
occasional heaths, and tufted woods, or rather groves. At the end of
summer, the strong colours of the yellow wheat and glaring poppy are
finely contrasted with the dark hue of the woods; that hue which becomes
deeper and more sombre, till the night-dews have done their work, and the
autumnal winds begin to blow, and the dark green leaves are suddenly
invested with a splendid variety of tints, from bright yellow to the
deepest orpiment.

On the verge of the old forest extend rural villages and fertile meadows,
high-aspiring elms, shallow brooks, and wooden bridges, crowding cottages
and green lanes, with here and there a church-spire, or gray tower rising
among the trees. Gentle swells and hollows, where sheep pasture on the
green sward, are seen in another portion of the landscape, with
apple-orchards and small enclosures; but along the banks of the Severn the
country assumes a different aspect. Its general characteristics are breaks
of lawn and thicket, with groves and stunted pollards, all footed and
entangled with briars and creeping plants.

A dilapidated court-house, overrun with ivy, and near it an aged church,
may be seen by him who knows their locality, from the summit of
Stinchcombe hill. The church is the waymark, for the walls of the old
court are low, and it is only when the wind favours the sight of them, by
causing the branches of near trees to bend beneath its sway, that even the
church-tower can be discerned among the young green foliage of the spring.
The gardens of the once stately mansion are gone to decay, or else, being
overgrown with grass, are fed upon by cattle; the windows were broken by
the fierceness of the flames when it was set on fire; and though strong
walls, still standing, tell of what has been, not a trace remains of the
great oriel window, and the roof has long been gone. He who wishes to
trace the former extent of the building may just discover the foundations
in some parts; but in others, not even a few scattered stones, sunk deep
in the untrodden grass, would reveal that a mansion had stood there.

Yet Nibley Court once occupied that spot; there a happy family dwelt, and
busy scenes went on--the sports of childhood, and the daily incidents of
domestic life. There my ancestors resided. But all are gone, and
scarcely-discovered ruins, which, as regard all grandeur of appearance,
might have belonged to a barn or an out-house, alone remain.

The yew-tree still lives, but that also betokens the lapse of time. Its
once ample boughs are few; they yield no shelter now; the blue sky may be
seen through them; the stem also teaches that ages have passed away, since
it bore up a noble canopy of mingled boughs. A rabbit from the warren on
the common might run up the scarred trunk, but it could not find a
hiding-place among the scattered branches.

[Illustration: BRADGATE PALACE]

Bradgate Palace.

  "This was thy home then, gentle Jane,
    This thy green solitude;--and here
  At evening, from thy gleaming pane,
    Thine eye oft watch'd the dappled deer,
  While the soft sun was in its wane,
    Browsing beneath the brooklet clear;
  The brook runs still, the sun sets now,
    The trees wave still; but where art thou?"

A rocky bank, with scattered sheep, are objects on which the mind loves to
rest. Such is the back-ground of Bradgate ruin, the birth-place of the
beautiful Jane Grey, the illustrious and ill-fated scion of the house of
Suffolk, concerning whom it was related by one who had seen and loved her,
that even in her eighteenth year she had the innocence of childhood, the
beauty of youth, the solidity of middle, and the gravity of old age; the
life of a saint, and yet the death of a malefactor. On that rocky bank she
had often gazed, for though man passes from his inheritance, and noble
dwellings crumble to the dust, nature changes not. Rude eminences extend
further back, on which the wild rose and sweet-briar have long fixed
themselves, with bramble-bushes, ferns, and fox-glove; they are skirted by
low and romantic dingles, where sheep pasture, and butterflies sport from
one flower to another. He who approaches the old ruin, from the little
village of Cropston, can hardly picture to himself that time has done its
work in laying low the ancient palace of the Greys. On the left, stands
that noble group of chesnut-trees, under the shade of which little Jane
used to play; on the right extends a slate coppice, intermingled with moss
and flowers, in beautiful contrast with the deep shade of the old
chesnuts, the roots of which are laved by the clear trout-stream, on which
stood a corn-mill in Leland's days;--"that faire and plentiful springe of
water, brought by master Brok, as a man would judge, agayne the hille,
thorough the lodge, and thereby it dryveth the mylee." The mill came into
decay when the mansion was deserted, and no one went thither for the
grinding of his corn; some of the large stones fell into the stream, and
interrupted for a short space the rapid flowing of the water, and among
them grow the water-dock and bulrush, with large river-weeds and trailing
plants. Again it hurries on, dancing from amid the roots and broken masses
of huge stones, clear and sparkling, and fringed with ferns and flowers,
the delight of Jane, when she used to watch beside it with Elmer, that
"deare friend and schoolmaster, who taught her so gently and yet so
pleasantly, that she thought the time as nothing, while she was with
him." This streamlet laves in its course the once hospitable mansion of
the Greys, and passes from thence into the fertile meadows of Smithland.
Beautiful too is the vale of Newtown, lonely yet romantic, the favourite
resort of all who delight in the sylvan solitudes of nature--where, as
legends tell, Jane used to walk--with its hill and tower in the distance,
the nearest neighbours of Bradgate Palace, now, like that, all roofless
and deserted. What a contrast, in its loneliness, to the busy tide of
care, ever rolling on, in the ancestral halls, the towns and villages,
that vary the mighty landscape, which extends before the elevated
solitude, with its aged ruin! That ruin was dwelt in once, not by the owl
and bat, its sole tenants now, but by living men and women, who held
pleasant intercourse with the inhabitants of Bradgate Palace; with
dwellers too, in places, the sites of which, grass has long grown over, or
which the antiquary can hardly trace. Woods and fields and streamlets are
seen from the same high hill; wide commons and quiet valleys, with dells
and dingles; and above them extends the glorious dome of heaven, where
light summer-clouds are speeding, and the bright sun looks down on the
lovely scene beneath.

Back to my old ruin--for high hills, and far off scenes, are not the
objects of my search. Back to my old ruin, which stands alone in its
desolation, while all around is verdurous and joyful. Full shining on it,
are the warm beams of a summer sun, and soft breezes shake the tufts of
ferns and wallflowers that spring from out the crannies, the rents of
ruin, which time has made in the old walls. Butterflies shut and open
their gorgeous wings on the golden disk of that bright flower, which loves
to fling its friendly mantle over fallen greatness, and now carpets with
luxuriant vegetation the broken pavement, through the interstices of which
its broad leaves rise up. Birds are singing on the trees, and bees come
humming to gather pollen from the flowers of the noble chesnuts that droop
in all their beauty and luxuriance over the old ruins. Those who have long
ceased from among the living used to gaze on them, and gather their
beautiful tufts of pyramidical white flowers with which to adorn the open
spaces in the oriel window. They grew here far back as the reign of
Edward, when the great park of Bradgate, with its circumference of seven
miles, came into the possession of the Earl of Ferrars, for the chesnut is
a tree of long duration, and the stately group is beginning to decline.
Little now remains of the once princely mansion, the palace, large and
fair and beautiful, as wrote the historian Fuller. The walls are low and
roofless, broken and dismantled, and scarcely is it possible to point out
the different apartments that once resounded with cheerful voices. All is
still and lonely now; the tilt-yard is nearly perfect, but none are
playing there; the garden-walls, with their broad terrace-walks, remain
entire, but none are walking there; gray and yellow lichens, with tufts of
moss, dot over the old stones, and so wild and high has grown the grass,
that it looks as if no one had trodden there for ages. A noble
pleasure-ground formerly extended round the mansion, and beyond it was the
spacious park, where the duke and duchess, the parents of Lady Jane, with
all the household, gentlemen and gentlewomen, used to hunt. Traces of
walks and alleys, and broad spaces for exercise or pleasure are still
visible, though generations have passed away since the members of the
house of Groby sauntered among them, and the place has much the appearance
of a wilderness; yet the aspect is not that of total wildness, of a spot
where the hand of man has never been; indications everywhere present
themselves, that where the nettle, and the dandelion, with its golden
petals and sphere of down, reign undisturbed, the rose and lily once grew
luxuriantly. The house too, how desolate and changed! The earls of
Leicester, of Hinton, and of Ferrars presided here; then came Sir Edward
Grey, Lord Ferrars of Groby, and then the Earl of Huntingdon. Here also
resided the Marquis of Dorset, the son-in-law of him who wedded the
Dowager Queen of France, Charles Brandon, "cloths of gold and freize," as
sung the courtly poet, when contrasting his own condition with that of the
widowed queen.

  "Cloth of freize, be not too bold,
  Though thou art matched with cloth of gold;
  Cloth of gold, do not despise,
  Though thou art matched with cloth of frieze."

Tradition points through the dim vista of long ages to a broken tower, as
the one where Lady Jane resided, and which bears her name. Beside it is a
chapel, wherein are effigies of Lord Grey of Groby, and the Lady Grey, his
wife. The chapel is carefully preserved, but all else are in ruins:--the
tower, the great hall, the state apartment, the refectory, the
tennis-court, nothing remains of them but lichen-tinted walls, or ruins
black with smoke. Here then, amid lone ruins and green trees, beside the
streamlet's rush and the old grove of chesnuts, where the lavrock and the
titlark, the goldfinch and the thrush are singing, with no companions but
rejoicing birds and flowers, let me recall the mournful realities of
bygone days.

  "Here, in departed days, the gentle maid,
    The lovely and the good, with infant glee,
  Along the margin of the streamlet play'd,
    Or gathered wild flowers 'neath each mossy tree;
  And little recked what cares were her's to be,
    While listening to the skylark's soaring lay,
  Or merry grasshopper that carolled free,
    In verdant haunts, throughout the livelong day,
    That beauteous child, as blithe, as sorrowless as they.

  "And here, where sighs the summer breeze among
    These echoing halls, deserted now and bare,
  Oft o'er some tome of ancient lore she hung,--
    No student ever since so wondrous fair!
  Or lifted up her soul to God in prayer,
    And pondered on his verse, of price untold,
  Radiant with wisdom's gems beyond compare,
    Richer than richest mines of purest gold,--
    The star that guides our steps safe to the Saviour's fold.

  "To fancy's wizard gaze, fleet o'er yon height,
    Hunters and hounds tumultuous sweep along;
  And many a lovely dame and youthful knight
    Gaily commingle with the stalwarth throng
  Of valiant nobles, famed in olden song;
    But not amid them, as they rapid ride,
  Is that meek damsel--trained by grievous wrong
    Of haughty parents to abase her pride,
    Ere yet her lot it was to be more sternly tried.

  "Here from her casement, as she cast a look,
    Oft might she mourn their reckless sport to scan;
  And well rejoice to find, in classic book,
    Solace,--withdrawn from all that pleasure can
  Impart to rude and riot-loving man:
    Aye, and when at the banquet, revels ran
  To loud extreme, she here was wont to haste,
    And marvel at Creation's mighty plan;
  Or with old bards and sages pleasure taste,
  Unknown to Folly's crowd, whose days all run to waste.

  "And thus it was--the child of solitude,
    She grew apart, beneath that Father's eye
  Who careth for the wild-birds' nestling brood,
    And decks the flow'ret with its varied dye;
    Nor, in His presence, had she cause to sigh
  For the vain pageants of delusive mirth;
    Trained to uplift her soul, in musing high,
  From this dark vale of wretchedness and dearth,
  Aloft, above the stars, where angels have their birth.

  "Well had she need! a scaffold was the path
    To that abode her soul had often sought;
  Scarce crowned before the stormiest clouds of wrath
    Rolled o'er her head, with scathing ruin fraught.
    Alas, for human greatness! it is nought!
  And nought she found it, save a deadly snare.
    Enchantment, by the evil genii wrought,
  Whose diadems conceal the brow of care;
  Whose tissued robes display a lustre false, as fair.

  "Beautiful martyr! widowed by the hand
    That reft thee of thy life, ere yet 'twas thine;
  Thy grave to find beneath a guilty land,
    Thou hast no need of gilded niche or shrine!
    Fond recollections round thy memory twine--
  A sacred halo circles thy brief years;
    'Tis thine, redeemed from sin and death, to shine
  Eternally above this world of fears:
  Where Christ himself, thy King, hath wiped away all tears.

  "Farewell, thou mouldering relic of the past!
    An hour unmeetly was not spent with thee:
  Events as rapid as the autumn's blast
    Have hurried onward, since 'twas thine to see
    The fairest flower of England pensively
  Expand and blossom 'neath thy rugged shade;
    And here thou stand'st, while circling seasons flee,
  A monumental pile of that sweet maid,
  Whom men of cruel hands within the charnel laid."
                      _The Author of the Visions of Solitude._


[Illustration: GLENDOUR'S OAK]

Glendour's Oak.

  "Survivor sole, and hardly such, of all
  That once lived here, thy brethren:
  A shatter'd veteran, hollow trunk'd,
  And with excoriate forks deformed--
  Relic of ages."

Such is the Oak of Chertsey, that celebrated tree, over which the storms
of many centuries have passed. The sunny bank on which it grows is covered
with primroses and cowslips, and among them the little pimpernel and
violet lift up their modest heads. Tufts of eyebright, with cuckoo-flowers
and sweet woodroof, grow also, beside the hollies and stunted hawthorns,
which are seen upon the common; their fragrant flowers and green leaves
present a striking contrast to the time-worn tree; the one tells of other
days, of ages that have passed since its stately stem arose in all the
grandeur of sylvan majesty; the other, in their freshness and their
loveliness, breathe only of youth and beauty.

The view is somewhat confined, but the eye that likes to rest on a quiet
home-scene finds much in it to admire. An ample river winds through green
meadows, with trees on either side, and, in the distance, is a church with
its solitary turret, and rude porch of the olden time. The gentle murmur
of a stream is heard at intervals, and the sighing of the wind among the
branches of the aged oak; on high the lark lifts up his song of joy, and
the warbling of birds breaks upon the stillness of the place; that of the
chaffinch and the throstle, the goldfinch and the linnet, and the sweet
full tone of the contented blackbird. They much affect this spot, it is so
lone, yet cheerful.

Time was when the site of the old tree resounded with the clang of arms,
and rueful sights were seen from its topmost boughs, for the Oak of
Chertsey was then in its prime; the now rough and quarried bark was smooth
and glossy, and its ample branches sheltered an extensive space, where
sheep could lie down at noon.

A dreadful battle was fought between Henry IV. and Hotspur a short way
off, and scarcely had any battle occurred in those ages of which the shock
was more terrible. Furious and repeated vollies of "arrowy sleet,"
discharged from the strong bows of Hotspur's archers, did great execution
in the royal army; they were showered from a rising ground covered with
green sward, on which the shepherds loved to pasture their flocks, and
where the village children used to gather cowslips and yellow-cups. But
the flocks had been driven off, and the frightened children were in their
homes; the rising ground was no place for them. The arrows that were thus
furiously discharged did their work, and many fell; the king's bowmen
were not wanting in return, and the battle raged with great fury. Henry
was in the thickest of the fight, and his gallant son, who afterwards
carried misery and desolation throughout the fields of France, signalized
himself that day. Percy, too, supported the fame which he had earned in
many a hard-fought battle, and Douglas, his ancient enemy, though now his
friend, still appeared his rival, amid the horror and confusion of the
scene. He raged through the field in search of the king, and as Henry,
either to elude the vigilance of the enemy, or to encourage his own men by
the belief of his presence everywhere, had accoutred several captains in
the royal garb, the sword of Douglas rendered this honour fatal to many.
At length the standard of the king, fluttering high in air, recalled
Douglas to the spot, and little heeding the flight of arrows, which
rattled on his armour like hail, nor yet the chosen band who were
appointed to guard the banner, he and his associate Hotspur pierced their
way thither. Henry was thrice unhorsed, and would have been either taken
or slain, had not his men kept back, with desperate valour, the furious
onset of the assailants, while the Earl of March forced him from the scene
of danger. Yet still they sought him, and having beaten down his banner,
and slain its bearer, with many of the faithful band appointed to guard
the royal flag, victory began to swerve in favour of the rebel army. But
in one moment a loud voice sounded far and wide over the dreadful scene.
It proclaimed, "Hotspur is dead," and with this thrilling cry ended the
conflict of the day. Douglas, was taken prisoner, and there fell, on
either side, near two thousand three hundred gentlemen, beside six
thousand private men.

Owen Glendour heard the shout which proclaimed that his friend had fallen,
for he witnessed the battle from the top of the lofty oak. He had marched
with a large army to within a mile of Shrewsbury, and if the king had not
proceeded thither with great haste, he would have joined his friend
Hotspur. A broad and rapid river lay in front, and he pressed on to cross,
if possible, before the beaming helmets, which he saw advancing rapidly
over the plain country, could reach the town. But a heavy rain had fallen,
and the water was exceedingly high; the ford at Shelton was, in
consequence, impassable, and the bridge at Shrewsbury was strongly
guarded. Owen Glendour therefore halted. He saw with grief the forces of
Hotspur drawn up in order of battle immediately before him, for he knew
that he could lend no assistance, and, when the next morning dawned, the
armies had joined fight.

Owen Glendour then climbed the large oak; of which the topmost branches
afforded a full view of the battle-field and the surrounding country. He
saw from thence the furious onset, and heard the shock of battle; horses
and men contending, and the dreadful shouts which, reverberating from the
hollows of the hills, sounded like distant thunder; he heard, too, the
one loud voice which told that his friend had fallen.

Owen Glendour returned to his castle in the Vale of Glyndwrdwey: it was
situated amid the wildest and the sternest scenery, beside the torrent's
roar, and surrounded with all the magnificence of rock and fell. There did
he soon assemble to his standard those ardent spirits who preferred death
to slavery, and who vowed that the blue hills and the pleasant valleys of
their fathers' land should never be subjected to the yoke of a usurper.
Daring adventures, and strange escapes by flood and field, marked his
onward course. The English regarded him with superstitious dread; the
Welch looked to him as one possessed of more than mortal power; and thus
during fifteen years did he resist the aggressions of a monarch, whose
prowess had long been known, the efforts too of a chivalrous nobility, and
a martial people.

Yet Glendour was not designed by nature for a life of daring hardihood and
of murderous intent. He was amiable and beloved in private life, and, his
parents having designed him for the bar, he was qualifying himself as an
able lawyer, when intelligence was brought that Henry IV. had granted a
large portion of his paternal acres to Lord Grey of Rhuthin, that
treacherous nobleman who had long sought to prejudice the king against
him. Owen Glendour closed the book that lay before him; he declared that a
descendant of the Princes of Powys was not to be so treated; and having
drawn his sword from out the scabbard, he sheathed it not again while
life remained. A fierce battle, on the banks of the Evyrnwy, made Lord
Grey his prisoner, and the payment of a thousand marks, with the marriage
of his daughter to that nobleman, alone obtained for him his liberty.

It was noted that disasters of various kinds attended the expeditions of
King Henry into Wales. The natives of the country attributed them to the
magic powers of Owen Glendour, whom they believed able to control the
elements, and who, when his men grew faint and weary, and he himself
wished for a short respite from the toils of war, could pour upon the
bands of Henry the fury of the northern storm. It was said that he could
loose the secret springs of the wild cataract, and cause it to send forth
such a flood of water, that the moors and valleys, through which the
invader had to pass, would seem like an inland sea. Some believed that he
could even summon the loud thunders from their secret cell, and cause the
forked lightning to strike terror into the stoutest heart; that in one
moment he could not only bring to his assistance a wild storm from off the
hills, but that, when the beautiful glens and woods appeared in all their
loveliness and repose, and every hill was lighted up with a glorious
sunbeam, he could suddenly obscure them with the darkest shades of night.
Thus men thought; they saw not, in the strange and terrible calamities
which continually opposed the progress of King Henry, a continuation of
events which had attended him since the death of Richard. Richard had been
the friend and benefactor of Glendour; he had fought for him while living,
and now that he was gone, he sought not only to revenge his death, but to
preserve his native land from the usurpations of a foreign yoke. He
performed, in consequence, such feats of valour, bore up beneath the
pressure of such heavy trials, and devised such masterly schemes to
circumvent the devices of the enemy, as his countrymen believed could
neither be planned nor achieved by mortal mind or arm. They knew not the
strength and the enthusiasm which injury and oppression will produce in
either. Excited, therefore, to the highest pitch of feeling, Owen inspired
his men with much of his own energy: aided by them, he foiled the power of
the wary and martial Henry, and drove him ignominiously from the field. At
the head of his choicest armies, the English king had often to retreat
before a handful of men, whose chief had been unused to a military life;
and though Glendour and his adherents were reduced at times to take
shelter in caves and fastnesses, known only to themselves, they emerged
again, and fell with terrible fury on the English, in moments, too, when
they thought themselves most secure from their aggressions.

Had Glendour lived in peaceful times, he would have been a poet of no
ordinary rank. The bard Rhys Coch, was his cotemporary and chosen
associate in his days of woes and wanderings. A stone still remains near
Bethgellert, where the bard used to sit and pour forth the melody of his
harp to his own inspiring lays. There, tradition says, Glendour would sit
beside him in that beloved retreat, where around them was all the stern
majesty of nature, in her darkest, her loneliest, her loveliest moods. The
rapid Gwinan prattled near them over her rocky bed, laving on one side
green meadows, filled with cowslips and cuckoo-flowers, where cattle feed,
and skirted with groves of oak, and ash, and birch; on the other, its
bright waters race beside a wild and heathy tract of moorland, which
slopes upward to the very base of Snowdon, that king of mountains, whose
awful brow is often hidden in the clouds.

The bard, too, had suffered much, and had fled from cave to cave, and from
hill to hill, pursued by the English forces, who sought to still those
bold and pathetic strains--those deep laments, which aroused his
countrymen to fresh deeds of valour against their oppressors. His enemies
were not permitted to accomplish their designs. He continually eluded
their pursuit, and died at length in peace, amid his beloved haunts of

Here then stands the ancient tree, though reft of its former greatness.
More than four hundred years have elapsed since Owen Glendour climbed its
lofty trunk, and surveyed the battle-field of Tewksbury; since his
bannered hosts were stationed round, and he heard the shout which told him
that his friend had fallen.

From this tree, also, might be heard, in ancient times, the sound of the
workman's hammer, for King Henry appointed that a chapel should be built,
and two priests placed within it, to pray both morning and evening for the
souls of those who had been slain. Rapidly the chapel rose, for men
thought that they did good service to their Maker when they wrought in
such holy work; and the chapel, being enlarged in after years, became a
handsome parish church. The condition of the time-worn tree, and of the
church are somewhat similar. The tree is grown so hollow that it seems to
stand on little more than a circle of bark, yet life still lingers, green
leaves appear in the spring season, and acorns are gathered from its
branches in the autumn. Great part of the once stately building has
likewise fallen to decay; ivy grows luxuriantly over the broken walls, and
sparrows build their nests among the matted branches; but Divine worship
is to this day still carried on in the part that remains entire. The
country people and neighbouring gentry meet there; they bear the name of
Englishmen, though blending in themselves varied and dissimilar races--the
ancient Briton and the Roman, the Dane, the Saxon, and the Norman. But how
widely different in their habits and their manners from those who assisted
in building the ancient chapel, and those who assembled within its walls
when the chapel was completed!

[Illustration: Yew-Trees of Skelldale.]

The Yew-Trees of Skelldale.

                      "Worthy indeed of note
  Are those fraternal yews of lone Skelldale,
  Joined in one solemn and capacious grove;
  Huge trunks! and each particular trunk a growth
  Of intertwisted fibres serpentine,
  Nor uninformed with phantasy, and looks
  That threaten the profane; a pillared shade,
  Upon whose grassless floor of red-brown hue,
  By sheddings from the pining umbrage tinged
  Perennially, beneath whose sable roof
  Of boughs, as if for festal purpose decked
  With unrejoicing berries, ghostly shapes
  May meet at noon-tide: Fear and trembling hope,
  Silence and foresight--death the skeleton,
  And time the shadow--there to celebrate,
  As in a natural temple, scatter'd o'er
  With altars undisturb'd of mossy stone,
  United worship; or in mute repose
  To lie and listen to the mountain stream."

The busy hum of men has long ceased from the spot where stand the
fraternal yew-trees. Ages have passed away since the illuminator sat
intent on his pleasant labours in the ruin hard by--since he put aside his
liquid gold and Tyrian purple, and laid him down to rest in the
burying-place beside the abbey. The copier of manuscripts closed his book
there, more than five hundred years ago; he, too, is gone, and with him
all those who lived while he was living. The abbot, who presided in regal
state; the brotherhood, in their cowls and gowns; learned men, who studied
in their quiet cells, and the busy comers and goers, who worked either in
the abbey-fields, or performed such menial labours as the condition of the
place required--not a trace of them remains: even the stately monastery is
in ruins, but the yew-trees still cast the shadow of their noble branches
on the grassless floor of red-brown hue. Their history is inseparably
connected with that of the ruined abbey, for they stood in their present
site, and afforded a shelter to its founders, long before one stone was
laid upon another of the stately building. Those who passed in the days of
the Saxon king, Ethelbald, through the Wolds of Yorkshire, near Skelldale,
in their way to Ripon, might see a company of men assembled in a wild and
romantic spot, watered by a rivulet, and surrounded with rocks and woods.
These men were monks, who, desiring to imitate the extraordinary sanctity
of the Cistercian abbey of Rieval, had withdrawn from their own monastery
of St Mary's at York, and being sanctioned in their preference by the
archbishop, they retired to this desolate and uncultivated spot. They had
no house to shelter them, nor certainty of provisions to subsist on; but,
in the depth of the lone valley, stood an aged elm, among the ample
branches of which they erected a straw roof, and this was their only
shelter for some time. But at length the rain fell fast, and the wind rose
high, and they were constrained to quit the shelter of the elm for that of
seven stately yew-trees, which grew on the south side of the valley, where
a splendid abbey afterwards arose. These trees were of extraordinary size,
for the trunk of one of them measured twenty-six feet in circumference, at
the height of three feet above the root. Neither history nor tradition
have preserved the knowledge of that period when they first arose from out
the ground. Ages may have passed since, and countries rose and waned. The
yew-trees of Skelldale may have continued growing even from the brilliant
periods of Thebes and Memphis, when Phoenician barks traded to the Isle of
Tin, and all around them was one wild impenetrable forest. But the
yew-trees were now in their prime, and beneath them the monks took shelter
by night and by day, from the rain and snow, and the cold east wind, that
swept moaning through the valley. Thus they lived, drinking at the stream
when thirsty, and allaying their hunger with the bread which their
archbishop sent them from time to time. When the snow melted from the
branches of the sheltering trees, and the cold east wind was still--when
the delicate yellow blossoms of the yew varied its dark funereal branches,
and bees came humming to gather in the pollen, they cleared a small spot
of ground to serve them as a garden, and built a wooden chapel. Thus they
passed the first winter, and their piety was noised abroad. Many repaired
to them from distant parts, some for instruction, others to join the
fraternity; and as their numbers increased, their privations increased
also. They were often reduced to the necessity of eating the leaves of
trees and wild herbs; but their fortitude did not fail them, and one day
when their stock of provisions consisted of merely two loaves and a half,
a passing stranger asked for a morsel of bread. "Give him a loaf," said
the abbot; "the Lord will provide." The hope thus piously expressed, was
soon fulfilled, and a cart piled with bread was seen coming down the rocky
pathway, a present from Eustace Fitz-John, owner of the neighbouring
castle of Knaresborough.

Time passed on, and none who witnessed the privations which the monks of
Skelldale endured, could have pictured to themselves the future greatness
of their monastery. Meanwhile, the garden flourished, and fields were
added to those which they began to cultivate, till at length, wrote one of
the secluses, "We have bread and cheese, butter and ale, and in time we
shall have beef and mutton." He lamented that the soil was too poor for
the growth of vines; but he added, "that the garden was well supplied with
pot-herbs." Of these he gave no particular description, but we may presume
that they consisted of colewort and onions, of peas and beans, of spinach,
and radishes with a vegetable called feret, most probably carrot, or
perhaps beet, and a variety of sweet-herbs, for such were in use among the
Saxons. At length the privations of the monks of Skelldale ceased, as also
the necessity for labour. Hugh, Dean of York, bequeathed to them his
wealth, and benefactions having poured in successively, from different
quarters, the abbey became exceedingly rich in land and cattle, with plate
and costly vestments. A wild and beautiful spot was also bestowed on
Fountains Abbey by the Percy family; this was Walham Cove, situated among
the hilly and mountainous tracts of the West-Riding of Yorkshire. It was
included in lands belonging to the manor of Walham, and possessed a
valuable right of fishing in the ample stream that flowed from out an
immense and perpendicular crag of limestone, more than three hundred feet
in height, that stretched across the valley like a magnificent screen.
Thither the monks of Fountains Abbey used to repair; thither, too, many of
those recluses, who wearied with fights and forage in foreign lands,
sought for rest within the abbey walls, loved to muse and moralize upon
the passing waters. But they learned not wisdom from them, nor read in
things inanimate, lessons that might have taught them to retain the habits
of their predecessors. Most of those devoted men, who had sought to
worship their Creator in privacy and stillness, were laid down to rest.
They had laboured with their hands while living, and thankfully saw the
blessings which they sought, spring from out the earth they cultivated;
those who filled their places were not actuated by the same necessity,
and hence the passer-by no longer beheld a humble cloister, with its
garden and low fence, but instead of this a stately building, the Abbey of
the Fountain, as it was called in reference to the stream that flowed
beside it, fresh and untroubled as when the monks of St. Mary's first
sought the precincts of the dale. There were many in after years who
desired that their mortal remains might be deposited beneath the abbey
walls, and for this purpose they devised large sums of money:--some who
had been in the deathful career of storm and siege, and those, the flowers
of chivalry, who had won the prize at tilts and tournaments; when armed
knight met knight, and high-born ladies gazed on and awarded the victor's
meed. Rest they had not found on earth, amid the stunning tide of crime
and human care, and they wished that bells might toll for them, and
prayers be said for them, beside the rushing waters of the Skill. The
mental eye, back glancing, through the vista of long ages, sees at
intervals successive funerals slowly proceeding through the abbey gates.
Warriors of the noble house of Percy borne there. Lord Rieland, one of the
twenty guardians of the Magna Charta, he who sustained the shock of arms
and cheered on his vassals in the Barons' wars. He too, Lord Henry de
Percy, another member of that ancient race, who followed in after years
the banner of King Edward into Scotland, was borne by his tall yeomen to
that still and narrow bed which receives alike the prince and peasant.
Others also followed, great in their day, and filled while living with
busy schemes, but of whom, as years were added, scarcely a trace
remained.--Where knees bent in prayer, and the white-robed priest chanted
the high requiem, a broken stone figure, recumbent on a lichen-dotted
stone, points out a warrior's resting-place; and perchance a mound thrown
up, with broken slabs of richly-sculptured marble, indicate that some one
who had figured greatly in past ages lay there; again, a broken crosier,
or a pilgrim's staff, tell of years spent in wanderings, and in prayer.


[Illustration: HOWE SELE'S OAK]

Howel Sele's Oak.

  "I mark'd a broad and blasted oak,
    Scorched by the lightning's livid glare,
  Hollow its stem from branch to branch,
    And all its shrivell'd arms were bare.
  E'en to this day, the peasant still,
    With cautious fear, avoids the ground;
  In each wild branch a spectre sees,
   And trembles at each rising sound."

How beautiful is this wild spot, with its accompaniments of lawn and
thicket, with its clear stream, now prattling over a rocky bed, and now
dancing in playful eddies beside the tufts of grass and yellow flowers,
that skirt the margin of the water! Innumerable boughs shut out the
distant prospect, and neither a church-spire, nor curling smoke, ascending
from some lone cottage, betoken the abode of men. In the midst of this
fair spot stands a "caverned, huge, and thunder-blasted oak;" its dry
branches are white with age, the bark has long since fallen from them, and
most impressive is the contrast which it presents to the lightness and the
freshness of the young green trees among which it stands, as among them,
though not of them. Beyond their verdurous circle are a variety of
romantic dingles, covered with blackberry-bushes, with moss, and ivy.
Gigantic trees fling the shadow of their noble branches over the green
sward, and the spaces between them are filled, here, and there, with an
exuberant growth of underwood. The music of almost every feathered
songster that frequents the woods of England is heard in this wild spot;
but except the buzzing of flies that rise in crowds from the copses, and
the pleasant rippling of the stream, no other sound meets the ear.

The old tree with its bleached and skeleton arms has a fearful name, and
stout of heart must the man be who would pass within sight of it when the
sun is set behind the hill, and the trees cast their lengthened shadows on
the grass. It is called the 'haunted oak,' the 'spirit's blasted tree,' or
the 'hobgoblin's hollow tree,' and dismal is the tale to which the name

Howel Sele, whose sad history is associated with this blasted oak, was
lord of the wide domain which extends around it for many miles. We know
not whether his heart was secretly inclined to espouse the faction of
Henry IV., or whether he loved a life of ease, and preferred to dwell in
his castle-hall, hoping that the storm which threatened to overwhelm his
country might pass away. Certain it is that Owen Glendour thought not well
of him, and perhaps with reason. He came not forth to assist in delivering
his country from the aggressions of a foreign enemy; some even said that
he had been induced to desert her cause, and that he only waited for an
opportunity to avow himself. Others, whispered, that he looked with a
jealous eye on the generous Glendour; and that he feared not to speak of
him as the sole leader of a desperate faction, who, if deprived of their
head, had no other hope.

Glendour knew that such evil rumours were abroad, and it seemed as if he
wished to set his kinsman at defiance; for having taken with him his
chosen companion Madog, he set forth to drive the red deer from the forest
brake, in the domains of the unbending lord of Nannau. But the lord of
Nannau could not brook that his red deer should be thus vexed and driven,
and when one of these noble animals crossed his path, closely pursued by
the fiery Glendour with hound and horn, he rushed from the forest and
summoned his cousin to single combat. It was a fatal one for Howel; he
fell on the green sward, in the very place where all is now so verdurous
and joyful, and his corpse was dragged by his enraged kinsman beneath the
tree, whose bare and sapless branches and high top, bald with dry
antiquity, whose gnarled and rugged trunk, and large projecting roots are
almost fearful in their decay.

The tree was hollow at that time, and the companion of Glendour having,
with his assistance, lifted the corpse of the unhappy chieftain from off
the ground, dropped it within the oak. This was a ruthless deed, but the
natural gentleness of Owen Glendour had been perverted by the scenes in
which he mingled, and by the oppression that was exercised towards him. He
saw only, in the husband and the father who had fallen by his hand, one,
who, if he favoured not the cause of the usurper, was yet indifferent to
the welfare of his country. He, therefore, sought not for him Christian
burial, in consecrated ground.

Glendour could no longer tarry in the domains of the murdered chieftain,
for he knew how greatly Howel was beloved, and that when the hour of his
return was passed, every glen and forest-path would be sought for him.
Calling to his companion, he hastened back to his stronghold, Glyndwrdry,
where, amid rocks and waterfalls, and the howling of fierce winds, he
passed a few more unquiet years. The wretched day which caused him to
become a murderer, and deprived Nannau of her lord, was one of anxiety and
grief. Far and wide did his vassals haste, now down the glen, now in the
depth of the still forest, now scouring over the wide moor, and now making
every rock resound with his name. But in vain did they hurry along the
forest paths, or dash amid the torrent's roar, or scour over the wide
moor, echo alone answered to their loud shouts. In vain did the sorrowing
wife of Howel look out through the gloom of evening, and listen for his
footsteps; and when the moon shone bright, and louder sounded the wild
torrent, and the whoop of the owl was heard, did she pace her lonely
chamber and strain her sight through the gathered mist, to see if he was

The next day, and the next, did the vassals of Nannau renew their search.
Again every glen was visited, and every forest-walk was traced and
retraced; the base, too, of every hill was carefully examined, lest the
chieftain should have fallen from some height, which the creeping bramble
and thickly-tangled underwood had concealed. But no trace of Howel was

Thus one year succeeded to another, and no tidings of the chieftain were
received, till at length an armed horseman was seen to urge his weary
steed up the hill that leads to Nannau, from the neighbouring town of
Dolgelly. The rain fell fast, and the wind blew a perfect hurricane, but
he seemed not to heed either the one or the other, or to spare the horse
on which he rode. The vassals hastened to the castle-gate, and the lady
looked anxiously from the window. Perhaps a faint hope flashed across her
mind that the Lord of Nannau was returning. But it was not him, although
the stranger brought tidings where he might be found. He told the lady
that the enemy of her house was dead; that he in dying, had conjured him
to bring to her ear tidings of her husband, and to make known the dreadful
mystery of his sudden disappearance. He then told his tale; for it was
Madoc, who came thus late, and he referred to the blasted oak in
confirmation of the truth. The vassals of Nannau hurried thither, and
with them went Madoc, but he could not bear to see the bringing forth of
him, whom he had helped to sepulchre within its trunk; he shrunk from
witnessing the awful sight that was about to be revealed, and plunging
into the forest was soon on the road to Dolgelly. The evening was far
advanced when Madoc reached the castle, and now the night had closed in.
The vassals worked by torch-light, for such was the lady's command, and
their own eagerness confirmed it. Their strokes fell heavy on the trunk of
the tree, which sounded hollow, and somewhat of a rattling was heard
within, as if of iron and of bones. Some feared to continue, and truly it
was solemn work, for the night was dark, and the wind exceeding loud, and
the tree stood forth in its sepulchral whiteness, with its long
skeleton-looking and bleached arms, which the lightning had riven. A few
strokes more, and the horrid mystery' was revealed. There stood the
skeleton of Howell; his right hand grasped a rusty sword, and those who
saw it, well remembered that it had often been wielded by their chieftain.

[Illustration: QUEEN MARY'S TOWER.]

Queen Mary's Tower.

  Oh! 'tis a strange unearthly sound,
  When loud the raging wind rides round
  This ruined home of other days;
  The warrior's boast, the minstrel's praise!
  For now the stately pile is low,
  And rank the grass and nettles grow,
  Where princes sat in regal state,
  And bold retainers past the gate.--
  The strong old gate, all broken now,
  Twin'd with the ivy's matted bough.--M. R.

Such is Winfield castle; and its noble oak, the old oak which bears its
name, stands within sight of the long suite of rooms where Mary Stuart
passed nine years of her sad captivity; for even nine years, however
passed, teaches many a heavy lesson. Much of grief and sorrow, and those
strange reverses which only the great may feel in all their fulness and
their bitterness, had been comprised in the short life of this unhappy
princess, once the Queen of France, then of Scotland, but at length a
prisoner, when she passed beneath the portcullis of Winfield castle. Other
tales of sorrow and endurance, but none more pitiable, were connected
with this old castle: its early history is lost in the uncertainty of
ages; no one knows who built it, or why it stands in this wild spot,
whether its origin be Saxon or Danish; except that its first and oldest
name was given in commemoration of some forgotten victory. Peverel of the
Peak, erected the high tower, with a portion of the walls, and successive
chieftains added to the structure, till at length the castle came to be
much spoken of for its size and strength. Peverel's tower still remains,
with a part of the old building, but that portion of it which more than
any other awakens images of bygone days, are the rooms of state, with a
small tower on the wall, where the captive queen resided; tradition says
that she used to spend much of her time in summer on the roof of the
tower, watching for signals from Leonard Dacre, who made many attempts to
procure her liberation, either by force or stratagem. But the vigilance of
the Earl of Shrewsbury was not readily eluded; and for nine long years did
Mary inhabit this stern fortress, and watch from her high tower for
succour that never came.

Ruins are best seen in wintry weather, when storms and thunder are abroad,
and the woods are bare of leaves. Such was the fourteenth of October, when
some years back, the narrator, saw for the first time, that dilapidated
portion of Winfield castle. The rain had been exceeding heavy in the
night, and the wind blew a perfect hurricane, making the tall trees groan
and sway, beneath its fury, and driving the autumn leaves in shoals upon
the ground. But the rain had ceased, and the loud wind was still, except
when it came in gusts, moaning over the wide heath, and around the ancient
castle, with that wailing sound which is heard only in places where men
have dwelt, as if singing the wild requiem of departed greatness. The
skirt of the heavy storm-cloud was seen retreating in the west, with its
grey windy banners; while, on high, rolling masses of dark clouds were
following swiftly, as if they feared to be left behind. Now they were no
more seen; clouds, of a still somewhat stormy character, succeeded them,
hurrying across the heavens, and changing as they passed, at one moment
dark and threatening, at another light and fleecy; while at intervals the
blue sky appeared, and the sun broke forth gloriously, causing the earth
to look as if it smiled from some internal consciousness of delight.

The view from the old tree accorded well with the stormy aspect of the
heavens on that day. Full in front rises the stately keep, with its broken
battlements and rusted portcullis, its strong iron-bossed oaken door,
rusted also on its hinges, brown and broken, with large spaces, showing
the desolate and grass-grown area within. To the right of the keep extends
a high wall, flanked with a round tower, and then a long sweep of wall,
without windows, separated by a strong jutting out from another wall,
wherein are the state apartments which Mary occupied. Here stands the
tower which bears her name, and from amid a mass of ruins at the base
springs up a beautiful ash, which rises to the highest story, and waves
before her window. Well might that tree be called Mary's Ash, for the ash
is the Venus of the forest, the most graceful of all trees, and she was
the loveliest of her kind. It seems to grow there, a living thing, where
all else tells of death and ruin; a beautiful and appropriate memorial of
one who was the fairest among women, in the days of her sojourning. Unlike
the oak of Winfield, which stands in its strength, rugged and embossed,
with upheaved roots and strong boughs, fitted to resist the storms of
ages; standing, perhaps, when Peverel of the Peak, leaving his stronghold
on the summit of the castle-rock, raised here his tower in a fairer spot,
deep forested, with green fields, and ample hunting grounds. When, too,
successive chieftains enlarged the bold structure, and presided with all
the pomp and splendour of feudal magnificence. But the ash had no root
within the soil when Mary lived here,--when the Earl of Shrewsbury, his
stately dame, her maidens, and his men-at-arms, inhabited the castle. The
ash sprung up since Mary went away, and now its leafless branches wave
before the window where she used to watch and weep.

[Illustration: The Chesnut of TORTWORTH]

The Chesnut of Tortworth.

  When Eva, the gentle one, came,
    And sat down in my ample shade;
  And with her was that noble Thane,
    The lov'd one of the Saxon maid;

  I call'd to the rustling breeze,
    That my boughs might their homage pay;
  While the joyous birds sang from the trees,
    And the soaring lark warbled his lay.--M. R.

The great Chesnut of Tortworth stood where now it stands, far back as the
reign of John, at which period it bore the name that still distinguishes
it among trees of the same species. It was then in all its grandeur and
luxuriance, and its noble branches cast a deep and lengthened shade upon
the waste beneath, for grass and flowers do not readily vegetate under the
shadow of the chesnut. But the deer of the forest resorted thither to feed
on the nuts, when shaken from the boughs by autumn winds; thither, also,
troops of wild hogs, which the Saxons used to pasture in the woods, would
gather beside the tree, and listen for the dropping of the kernels that
fell in their ripeness to the ground.

Had Salvator Rosa been living when the great chesnut was in its prime, he
would have braved the dangers both of land and sea to have studied its
magnificent proportions, for this is the tree which graces all his
landscapes; it flourished in the mountains of Calabria, where he painted,
and there he observed it in all its forms, breaking and disposing of it,
in a variety of beautiful shapes, as the exigences of his compositions
required. But Salvator Rosa was not then living, nor, perhaps, his
ancestors for many generations; neither was the art of painting developed
in England; that beautiful art, which transmits to canvas the glow of an
evening sky, and the effects of foliage when shaken by the wind; which
embodies, within the space of a few inches, an extent of many miles, with
mingled wood and flood, bold headlands and mountains fading in the
distance, or crowded cities, with their palaces and schools. Even the
Bayeux tapestry, which chronicled, in after years, events connected with
civil history and domestic misery, presented merely an ungraceful
portraiture of passing events.

The tree had attained nearly to its altitude at that period of England's
sorrows, when the fierce Penda carried war and desolation through some of
her fairest provinces. At this time, also, his son, being appointed
Governor of Mercia, resided with his wife, Eva, at Glocester, in the
centre of his dominions, where many persecuted persons, who fled from the
sword of Penda, were secretly protected and relieved, for Eva was a
Christian, and her husband inclined to her faith. Gloucester, where they
held their court, was a place of great antiquity. It was one of the
twenty-eight cities which the Britons erected, previous to their conquest
by the Romans, and was called Caer-Glou, or Caer-Gloyw, which signified,
in their language, the bright or splendid town, from its situation on an
eminence at the termination of the flat and marshy part of the kingdom of
Mercia, and being well watered with an ample river.

Wolfere presided over the dominions which his father confided to his care,
with equal wisdom and consideration; but within the range of the highest
window of his palace, grievous sights were witnessed at one time, by those
who had the hardihood to look for them. A dreadful battle was fought in
the neighbourhood of Corinium, at about twelve miles distant, between the
fierce king, for whom Wolfere ruled, and the King of Wessex. Corinium was
much fallen from its ancient grandeur: it had been, in former times, the
seat of arts and elegance; Roman generals lived there, and there
Constantine occasionally resided; but war and time had greatly changed its
once royal aspect, though still a considerable city, and having within its
precincts a store of goods and cattle. Penda desired to possess them, and
the hard victory which he gained before the walls gave the inhabitants an
earnest of the calamities that awaited them. The consequences of this
great victory were severely felt in the kingdom of Wessex, and again,
throughout the wide expanse of the Cotswold Hills, and among the
beautiful vales of Mercia, were acted those scenes of misery, which the
youths of that day had shuddered to hear beside the blazing hearth-stone,
when narrated in the winter tales of their grandfathers.

The victory which Penda had gained, within sight of his son's palace at
Gloucester, was succeeded by the fall of the brave Oswold, near Oswestry,
in Shropshire. The kingdom of Bernicia was added by his death to the
already extensive dominions of the conqueror, and with the increase of his
territories, increased also the sufferings of the Christians, whom he
persecuted with unwearied malignity. Penda was born a pagan, and as such
he passed the period of his youth and middle age. According to the custom
of his country, he worshipped images of wood and stone, and joined
devoutly in all the unhallowed rites which had been established by his
Saxon ancestors; like them he believed that demons of good or ill presided
over the fields and groves, and he sought to obtain the favour of the one,
and to conciliate the other, by such observances and propitiations as the
priesthood had enjoined. To them he was devoutly attached, and his temper
being naturally inclined to seriousness, somewhat too, unyielding, with a
strong bias to religion, he sought to extirpate the Christian faith, which
had been represented to him as tending equally to overthrow the altars of
his ruthless deities, with the throne itself.

But the Saviour, whose disciples he thus ignorantly persecuted, refused
not, on his behalf, the prayers of one who ceased not to supplicate that
he might become a sharer in the hopes and blessings of which she knew the
value. This was Eva, who has been already mentioned as the wife of his
son, Wolfere, the governor of Mercia. Men of the present generation, those
even who live where she once lived, have heard little concerning her.
Historians speak rather of crimes and sorrows; they chronicle what the
great adversary of mankind has achieved to make nations miserable; the
life spent in quiet duty, the lifting up of the heart in secret prayer,
are no themes for them. But the memorial of Eva is in heaven, her record
is on high, and there is reason to believe that she was allowed to witness
the softening of that rugged temper, which had occasioned such a variety
of wretchedness--to hear, also, that Penda allowed the preaching of
Christianity in his dominions nearly two years before his death. It was
even said that he was baptized by Bishop Aiden, with Sigebert, King of the

Eva died in good old age, after presiding for more than thirty years over
the nunnery of St Peter's, at Gloucester. She retired thither on the death
of her husband, and greatly benefited the abbey to which it was attached,
by causing the revenues to be increased, and by obtaining the confirmation
of former donations. With her terminated the office of lady Abbess, during
the cruel war which succeeded, between Egbert and the King of Mercia, when
the nuns were forced to depart, and the abbey became desolate. The roof
which had sheltered the remains of former Abbesses, of Eilburg, who
governed the nunnery, both religiously and prudently, for more than half a
century, and of Kyneburg, the widow of Elred, King of Northumberland, was
thrown open to the winds of heaven, and nothing remained of its former
splendour but walls black with smoke, and a few broken effigies.

Neither Wolfere, nor his wife Eva, anticipated that such would be the fate
of the noble abbey which the piety of former kings had founded, and which
the governor of Mercia sought to enlarge and beautify, because Eva loved
to worship there. The future is in mercy veiled from the eyes of men; they
could not bear to contemplate events that are often close at hand, for
though strength is promised for the day of sorrow, it is not given before
that sorrow comes. Eva went, as she was wont, on every holy day, to offer
prayers, and to present her gifts within the hallowed walls of St Peter's
Abbey, and Wolfere continued to embellish the noble city that was confided
to his care, by causing many spacious buildings to be erected both for
ornament and use. The city had suffered greatly in former wars, and he not
only rebuilt such portions of the walls as had been broken down, but so
enlarged and adorned it, that it was soon spoken of as one of the finest
cities in the Heptarchy. Great hospitality was also exercised at his
court, and many found a shelter there, whose homes had been destroyed in
the rage of civil discord.

The presidency of Wolfere, therefore, over the kingdom of Mercia; the
noble acts which he achieved in beautifying and enlarging the city of
Caer-Glou, and the quiet, unassuming labours of his wife, Eva, were
cotemporary with the Chesnut of Tortworth when it first attained its high
standing among forest-trees. It may be, that the venerable ruin, whose
decaying trunk is still surmounted by a few verdant branches, was looked
upon in its day of pride, by Wolfere and Eva. Tortworth was mentioned, in
the time of John, as an ancient place, and the tree of which we speak was
called the Great Chesnut. It grew within the garden-wall of the old
mansion, and we have no reason to believe that the site on which it stood,
had been recently reclaimed from the forest.

[Illustration: WALLACE'S OAK]

Wallace's Oak.

  The old Memorial tree is down;
    But its stirring legend still lives on:
  A tale of grief and withering woe,
    Of tears that ceased long ago.--M. R.

The noble Oak of Ellerslie sheltered the birth-place of Wallace. Centuries
have passed since then, and now it stands in the centre of a small common,
time-worn and reft of all its greatness, a magnificent ruin; although,
within the memory of man, its ample branches extended over a Scotch acre
of ground. Wallace, and the children of the village, used to play beneath
its shelter: they would gather acorns for cups and balls, and rest on the
green sward when they were hot and weary.

A poet, perhaps, would tell you that the patriarchal tree loved to look
down on the young "wee things," whose remotest ancestors--precursors, it
may be, of a thousand generations, to the period concerning which we
speak--had dwelt beside it; that it liked to screen them from the noonday
heat; and that, when a sudden shower, driving furiously from off the
hills, made the fondlings haste beneath its branches, it kept off the
heavy rain-drops that they might not harm the merry crowd. Certain it is
that the village children liked best to play beneath the shade of the old
oak, and that their parents knew where to seek for the young truants, when
they had wandered from school or home. We can all enter into the feelings
of children, for we have been children ourselves; we can remember how the
primrose and the cowslip, although the gathering of them often gained for
us both colds and chidings; the nest of the hedge-sparrow, or the coming
forth of the white thorn, were things of vast importance; what delight the
finding of them imparted, and how every new object powerfully excited the
young mind, because they had all, and each, the charm of novelty. We know,
also, that as months and years pass on, somewhat of care begins to steal
across all this joyousness, as the shadow of a passing cloud obscures a
sunny landscape; that the cares of every day occurrence--the difficulty of
finding bread for a large young family--the father's weariness after a day
of labour, and the anxious feelings of the mother, are soon shared in by
children. They feel more than any one imagines who does not vividly
remember what his or her feelings have been in very early life, although
the feelings were not, perhaps, depressed by circumstances of equal trial.
Time goes on, and it is not only home sorrows that engross the mind; if
the days in which they live, are stormy, and men speak of their country's
wrongs, the striplings aspire to aid in seeking redress; and the ardour by
which their fathers are excited, is reflected in them with double
vividness. Thus it was at the period when Wallace lived. The thoughts of
all were much engrossed by the terrible condition of the country, and the
once playful children, who used to assemble beneath the Oak of Ellerslie,
now grown up to boyhood, heard from their fathers that the English army
was advancing with all speed towards the border land. Edward led them on,
but he had no right to the crown of Scotland. Alexander III., who had
filled till lately the now vacant throne, and who had espoused the sister
of Edward, most probably inherited, after a period of eight hundred years,
and through a succession of males, the sceptre of all the Scottish
princes; of those, who, although the country had been continually exposed
to such factions and convulsions as are incident to all barbarous, and to
many civilized nations, had governed her rocks and fastnesses, from a
period whose commencement is lost in the obscurity of ages. But the king
was dead; he had fallen from his horse at Kinghorn, and the maid of
Norway, as she was termed, daughter of Eric, her king, and his own fair
daughter Margaret, was the only representative of the Scottish dynasty.
Alexander had wisely caused her to be recognized by the states of
Scotland, as the lawful heir of the kingdom, and though an infant and a
foreigner, she was immediately received as such. Margaret was accordingly
proclaimed queen, and the dispositions which had been made against the
event of Alexander's death appeared so just and prudent, that no
disorders, as might naturally be apprehended, ensued in the kingdom. Five
guardians, the Bishops of St. Andrew's and Glasgow, the Earls of Fife and
Bucan, and James Steward, were appointed to take charge of the young
princess. These men, who were distinguished for their talents and
integrity, entered peaceably upon the administration, and the infant
queen, under the protection of Edward, her great uncle, and Eric her
father, set forth on her voyage towards Scotland. But either the fatigue
attendant on an expedition by sea, or else, in her young mind, grief at
leaving the companions of her childhood, affected her health; she suddenly
became ill, and died on the passage.

There were sad hearts in Scotland, when the heavy tidings reached her of
the young queen's death; and when it was heard by those who met at evening
around the oak of Ellerslie, they looked anxiously one upon the other, for
they knew not what to say; it seemed to them that all hope for the weal of
Scotland was about to be extinguished. They knew that Edward was both
powerful and crafty; that having lately, by force of arms, brought Wales
under subjection, he had designed, by the marriage of Margaret with his
eldest son, to unite the whole island under one monarchy. With this view
he had dispatched an embassy to the states of Scotland, when the late king
died, and the proposal being favourable to the happiness and security of
the kingdom, it was readily assented to. It was even agreed by the five
guardians, that their young sovereign should be educated at the English
court, while they at the same time, stipulated that Scotland should enjoy
her ancient liberties and customs, and that in case the prince and
Margaret should die without children, the crown of Scotland should revert
to the next heir. The projected marriage promised well, but the sudden
death of the young princess left only a dismal prospect for the kingdom.
No breaking-out among the people immediately ensued, for the regency was
sufficiently powerful to keep the crown from sudden spoliation. It was
otherwise in the course of a short time, for several pretenders laid claim
to the vacant throne. The posterity of William, King of Scotland, the
prince who was taken prisoner by Henry II., being extinct on the death of
Margaret, the crown devolved by natural right to the representatives of
David, Earl of Huntingdon, brother to William, whose male line being also
extinct, left the succession open to the descendants of his daughters.
John Baliol represented his maternal ancestor Margaret, one of the three
daughters of the Earl of Huntingdon, married to Alan, Lord of Galloway;
Robert Bruce of Annandale, his mother Isabella; and John Hastings, the
lady Adama, who espoused Henry Lord Hastings. This last pretended that the
kingdom of Scotland, like other inheritances, was divisible among the
three co-heiresses of the Earl of Huntingdon, and that he, in right of his
mother, was entitled to a third. Baliol and Bruce spurned at the thought
of dismembering the country, while each asserted the superiority of his
own claim. Baliol was sprung from the elder branch, Bruce was one degree
nearer the common stock; if the principle of representation was regarded,
the former had the better claim; if consanguinity was considered, the
latter was entitled to the preference. The sentiments of men were divided,
all the nobility took part with one or other of the claimants, and the
people implicitly followed their leaders. The different claimants
themselves had great power and numerous retainers in Scotland, and each
thought himself secure of gaining the Scottish throne. The danger which
threatened the country was therefore iminent. The most thoughtless saw
that a furious civil war would infallibly occur, unless some plan could be
devised for adverting so terrible a calamity; and men, high in power, of
all parties, and themselves secretly inclining either to Baliol, or Bruce,
or Hastings, resolved, if possible, to lay aside their mutual differences,
and to agree upon some measure for preserving the public peace.

Many and lengthened were the discussions which they held. The best and
most obvious method of averting the threatened calamity, was to prevail
upon two of the contending parties to lay aside their mutual claims. But
this they would not do; each saw, or fancied that he saw, the crown of
Scotland within his grasp, and he cared not if it was gained at the cost
of a civil war. Another expedient then occurred to those who sat in
council for the public good. This was the submitting of the question to
the judgment of King Edward. For such a measure they had many precedents.
The English king and his barons, in the preceding reign, had endeavoured
to settle their differences by a reference to the King of France, and the
integrity of that monarch had prevented any of the bad effects which might
otherwise have ensued. The kings of France and Arragon, and afterwards
other princes, had appealed in like manner to Edward's arbitration, and he
had acquitted himself with honour in his decisions. The parliament of
Scotland, therefore, wishing if possible to prevent the misery attendant
on civil discord, and allured by the great reputation of the English
monarch, as well as by the amicable correspondence which had existed
between the kingdoms, agreed in making a reference to Edward. Men of
probity were chosen as deputies, and among these, Frazer, Bishop of St.
Andrews, left his quiet home on the plains of Fife, at a short distance
from the German ocean, to undertake a long and perilous expedition to the
English court. They remembered that her monarch would have stood in the
relationship of a father to their young queen, they had heard much
concerning his integrity and honour, and how he had kept peace in France
and Arragon, and they flattered themselves that he would now interfere in
the affairs of a sister kingdom, with such authority as none of the
competitors would dare to withstand.

Hope revived in Scotland, and many fondly trusted that the heavy cloud
which had begun to settle on her mountains, and threatened to deluge her
plains with wretchedness, would yet pass away.

Men often possess a high character for virtue, because they have no
temptation to act wrong. In the case of France and Arragon, the remoteness
of the states, the great power of their respective princes, and the little
interest which Edward had on either side, induced him to acquit himself
with strict impartiality in his decisions. It was not so in the present
case, and the temptation was too strong for the English monarch to resist.
He secretly purposed to lay hold of the present favourable opportunity,
and if not to create, at least to revive, his claim of a feudal supremacy
over Scotland; a claim which had hitherto lain in the deepest obscurity,
and which, if it had ever been an object of attention, or had been so much
as suspected, would have prevented the Scottish barons from choosing him
as umpire. Passing by the archives of the empire, which, had his claim
been real, must have afforded numerous records of homage done by the
Scottish princes, he caused the monasteries to be ransacked for old
chronicles and histories of bygone days, and from these every passage was
transcribed which seemed to favour his pretensions. The amount of all such
transcripts, when taken collectively, merely went to show that the Scots
had occasionally been defeated by the English, and had concluded peace on
disadvantageous terms. It was proved, indeed, that when the King of
Scotland, William, was taken prisoner at the battle of Alnwic, he was
constrained, for the recovery of his liberty, to swear fealty to the
victor. But even this faint claim to feudal superiority on one side, of
submission on the other, was done away by Richard II. That monarch being
desirous to conciliate the friendship of the Scottish king, before his
departure for the Holy Land, renounced the homage, which he said, in
express terms, had been extorted by his father.

The commissioners soon perceived with dismay, that all which they could
urge against the pretensions of the English monarch, were utterly
unavailing. They heard, too, that a royal commission had been issued for
the fitting out of a great armament, and intelligence quickly followed
that the army was on its march to Scotland.

Edward and his men-at-arms, reached Norham Castle, on the southern banks
of the Tweed, where he insiduously invited the Scottish parliament, and
all the competitors to attend him, in order to determine the cause which
had been referred to his arbitration. They came, but not on equal terms,
for the English king brought with him a large body of warlike men, ready
to do his bidding; while the parliament found themselves betrayed into a
situation in which it was impossible to make any stand, for the liberty
and independence of their country. One anxious year for Scotland passed
on, while Edward pretended, impartially, to examine the claims of the
various competitors, for nine others had now started. Having thus gained
time for the furtherance of his ambitious view, he pronounced sentence in
favour of Baliol. Baliol was, therefore, placed on the throne of Scotland,
with the shadow merely of royal authority, for many and humiliating were
the concessions which Edward required of the seeming king. They were such
as even his mild and yielding disposition could not brook, and at length,
taking advantage of a favourable juncture, he resolved to make a desperate
effort for the restoration of his rights.

Rumours were soon afloat that an English army was rapidly advancing, and
scarcely was the intelligence received, than it was also heard that some
of the most powerful among the Scottish nobles, with Robert Bruce, the
father and the son, and the Earls of March and Angus, foreseeing the ruin
of their country from the concurrence of intestine divisions, and a
foreign invasion, had submitted to the English king. Other rumours
followed, fraught with distress for Scotland. Some related that the
English troops had actually crossed the Tweed without opposition, at
Coldstream; others that Baliol, having procured for himself, and for his
nation, Pope Celestine's dispensation from former oaths, renounced the
homage which he had done to England, and was already at the head of a
great army. Some spoke what they believed, others as they wished; but
there was little ground for exultation as respected the movements of the
Scotch king. Instead of bringing into the field any effective force, with
which to oppose the encroachments of the English, he was constrained to
hear of their continual successes. The castle of Roxborough was taken;
Edinburgh and Stirling opened their gates to the enemy. All the southern
portions of the country were readily subdued, and Edward, still better to
reduce the northern, whose rocks and fastnesses afforded some security,
sent for a strong reinforcement of Welch and Irish. These men, being
accustomed to a desultory kind of warfare, were best fitted to pursue the
fugitive Scots into the recesses of their glens and mountains. The quiet
valleys and the upland solitudes, which had been untrodden by stranger
steps for ages, were visited in consequence, and hostile men sat down
beneath the shade of the old Oak of Ellerslie.

The spirit of the nation was broken at this period. Edward marched
northward to Aberdeen and Elgin, without meeting an enemy. No Scotchman
approached, but to pay him homage. Even the bold chieftains, ever
refractory to their own princes, and averse to the restraint of laws,
endeavoured to prevent the devastation of their mountain homes, by giving
the usurper early proofs of obedience. The bards alone stood firm; they
sung to the music of their harps the high and moving strains which, in
ancient days, had roused those who heard them to a pitch of the wildest

Scotland being thus reduced to a state of seeming dependence, the English
forces generally repassed the Tweed, although strong garrisons remained in
every castle of importance. They had carried with them that ancient
stone, on which, from the remotest period either of history or of
tradition, the Kings of Scotland received the rite of inauguration. They
believed, on the faith of an ancient prophecy, that wherever this stone
was placed, their nation should always govern; it was also treasured up in
the minds of men, among their fondest traditions, that the day would come
when one of Scottish birth should rule over England. Scone was no longer
permitted to retain the true palladium of their monarchy; it was proudly
carried off, and placed in the palace of Westminster. There was seeming
tranquillity throughout Scotland on the day of its removal from the
ancient church at Scone, but the hearts of all who saw it pass, or who
heard of its removal, burned within them. The deed was spoken of
throughout all Scotland. Men heard of it in the remotest parts; the
chieftain in his castle-hall, the peasant in his highland hut; they were
constrained to smother the indignation that glowed within them, yet they
secretly awaited a favourable opportunity to assert the independence of
their country. Baliol, too, was carried, a prisoner, to London; his great
seal was broken, and when, after the lapse of two years' confinement in
the Tower, he was restored to liberty, it was with the harsh condition
that he should submit to a voluntary banishment in France. Thither,
accordingly, he retired, and died in a private station.

Scotland, meanwhile, was in a deplorable condition. Her king was
powerless, and the administration of the country was in the hands of
rapacious men--of Ormesby, who had been appointed justiciary by Edward;
and Cressingham the treasurer. The latter had no other object than to
amass money by rapine and injustice; the former was notorious for the
rigour and severity of his temper: and both, treating the Scots as a
conquered people, made them sensible too early of the grievous servitude
into which they had fallen.

William Wallace was now grown to man's estate. His young companions had
grown up also, and the group of merry children, that had played under the
old Oak of Ellerslie, were now thoughtful men and women; for the troubles
of the days in which they lived, made even the young grow thoughtful. The
old men wished that they could wield their good weapons as in days of
yore, for then, they said, stout-hearts that beat beneath the highland
tartan, would not have tamely yielded to become the vassals of proud
England. Their country had once held, they said, a station among the
kingdoms of the earth, but now she was fallen and degraded; their king was
taken from them, and mercenary men oppressed the people with heavy taxes.
Thus spoke the old men of Ellerslie, and such were the thoughts of
thousands throughout the land.

Wallace and his young companions, actuated by that enthusiasm which the
oft-told tale of ancient valour and present degradation, was calculated to
inspire; excited also by the conversation of strangers from the north,
and stimulated by the present favourable aspect of affairs, (for the
English troops were mostly withdrawn to their own country,) resolved to
attempt the desperate enterprise of delivering their native land from the
dominion of foreigners. Wallace was well-fitted for the purpose. He was a
man of gigantic strength, his nerves were braced by a youth of hardihood
and exercise; he possessed likewise ability to bear fatigue, and the
utmost severity of weather. Nor were his mental characteristics less
remarkable. He was endowed with heroic courage, with disinterested
magnanimity, and incredible patience. The ill conduct of an English
officer had provoked him beyond endurance, and finding himself obnoxious
to the severity of the administration, he fled into the woods which
surrounded his once happy home, and invited to his banner all those whom
their crimes, or misfortunes, or avowed hatred to the English, had reduced
to a like necessity.

Beginning with small attempts, in which he was uniformly successful,
Wallace gradually proceeded to momentous enterprises. He was enabled by
his knowledge of the country to ensure a safe retreat whenever it was
needful to hide himself among the morasses and the mountains; and it was
said, that he once concealed himself, with three hundred of his men, among
the branches of the aged oak, beneath which he had played in childhood.
But Ellerslie was not long a place for him, though he still loved to
linger in its beautiful retreats. They were too well known to those who
sought to take his life, for the village in which his parents lived, lay
not far distant from one of the strong castles, in which the English had a
garrison. He went, therefore, to Torwood, in the county of Stirling, and
made the giant oak which stood there his head-quarters. It was believed to
be the largest tree that ever grew in Scotland. Centuries were chronicled
on its venerable trunk, and tradition traced it to the era of the Druids.
The remains of a circle of unhewn stone were seen within its precincts,
and near it was an ancient causeway. Wallace often slept in its hollow
trunk during his protracted struggles against the tyranny of Edward, with
many of his officers, for the cavity afforded an ample space.

The old Oak of Torwood was to him a favourite haunt; perhaps it was
associated in his mind with the one he had left at Ellerslie: but other,
and far-off scenes, were often the theatre of his most heroic actions,
when, having ensured a retreat from the close pursuit of the enemy, he
collected his dispersed associates, and unexpectedly appearing in another
quarter, surprised and routed the unwary English. Such actions soon gained
for him the applause and admiration of his countrymen. They seemed to
vindicate the nation from the ignominy into which it had fallen, by its
tame submission to a foreign yoke; and although no man of rank ventured as
yet to join his party, he was universally spoken of, by all who desired
the independence of their country, as one who promised to realise their
most ardent wishes.

Cambuskenneth, on the opposite banks of the impetuous Forth, became the
theatre of a decisive victory, which seemed about to deliver Scotland from
the oppression of a foreign yoke. Wallace, at this time, stood alone with
a band of faithful men, who adhered to him in all his struggles and
vicissitudes. Earl Warrenne, whom the king had originally appointed
Governor of Scotland, on the abdication of Baliol, which office he had
relinquished conditionally, from ill health, had crossed the border-land
with an army of forty thousand men; he now sought by the celerity of his
armament, and his march, to compensate for his past negligence in the
appointment of Cressingham and Ormsby. Advancing with incredible rapidity,
he suddenly entered Annandale, and came up with the Scots at Ervine,
before their forces were collected, and before they had put themselves in
a posture of defence. Many of the nobles being thus unexpectedly placed in
a great dilemma, thought to save their estates by submitting to Earl
Warrenne. But Wallace, nothing daunted, awaited his further progress on
the banks of the Forth. Victory declared in his favour, and the wreck of
the invading army, being driven from the field, made its escape to

Had Wallace been permitted to retain the dignity of regent or guardian of
the kingdom, under the captive Baliol, all might yet have been well with
Scotland. The elevation of the patriot chief, though purchased by so great
merit, and such eminent services, was not, however, agreeable to the
nobility; they could not brook that a private gentleman should be raised
above them by his rank, still less by his wisdom and reputation. Wallace
himself, sensible of their jealousies, and fearing for the safety of his
country, resigned his authority, and retained only the command over that
small troop, many of whom had been his companions in their boyhood days,
whose parents had dwelt with his, beside the Oak of Ellerslie, and who
refused to follow the standard of any other leader. Nobly, therefore, did
he consent to serve under the Steward of Scotland, and Cummin of Badenoch,
into whose hands the great chieftains had devolved the guardianship of
their country. Meanwhile another army crossed the Forth, and the two
commanders proposed to await its coming up on the banks of Falkirk river.
Wallace was also there with his chosen band. In this battle the Scots were
worsted, and it seemed to those who heard of it, that the ruin of Scotland
was inevitable.

Wallace, although he continually exposed himself in the hottest of the
fray, was enabled by his military skill and great presence of mind, to
keep his men together. Retiring behind the Carron, he marched along the
banks of the river, which protected him from the enemy. The country on
either side was wild and picturesque; the yellow gorse was in blossom, and
the continuous flowers of the heath seemed to shed a purple light upon
the mountains. It was then in all its beauty, for even the sternest scenes
are beautiful when decked in their summer glory, when gay flowers grow
upon the rocks, and birds and butterflies sport among them. The heavens
above were clear, and the shadows of flying clouds seemed to set the plain
country in motion; where the grass grew wild and high, it looked as if
innumerable pigmies were passing swiftly beneath the blades, and causing
them to rock to and fro with their rapid movement. But not a sound was
heard, except the heavy tread of weary men, and the murmur of the river
over its pebbly bed.

Young Bruce, who had given many proofs of aspiring genius, and who had
served hitherto in the English army, appeared on the opposite bank of the
river. While standing there, and thinking, perhaps, as men are apt to
think, when the loveliness of creation is presented in striking contrast
to scenes of ruin and desolation, he observed the Scottish chief, who was
distinguished as well by his majestic port, as by the intrepid activity of
his behaviour. Calling out to him, he demanded a short conference, and
having represented to Wallace the fruitless and ruinous enterprise in
which he was engaged, he endeavoured to bend his ardent spirit to
submission. He represented the almost hopeless condition of the country,
the prevailing factions among the people, and the jealousy of the chiefs.
He spoke concerning the wisdom and martial character of Edward, and how
impossible it was that a weak state, deprived of its head, could long
maintain such an unequal warfare. He told him, that if the love of his
country was his motive for persevering, his obstinacy tended to prolong
her woes; if he carried his views to personal aggrandisement and ambition,
he might remember from past experience, that the proud nobles who
constituted the aristocracy of Scotland, had already refused to submit to
personal merit, although the elevation to which that merit attained had
been won by the greatest privations, and by the consummate skill which had
gained for them the hard-earned victory of Cambuskenneth.

Wallace was not slow to answer. He told young Bruce, that if he had acted
as the champion of his country, it was solely because no leader had
arisen, beneath whose banner he could lead on his faithful men. Why was
not Bruce himself that leader? He had noble birth, and strength; he was in
the vigour of his days, and yet, although uniting personal merit to
dignity of family, he had been induced to desert the post which Heaven had
assigned him. He told him that the Scots, possessed of such a head, would
gladly assemble to his standard; that the proud nobles would submit to
him, because he was of more exalted birth than any of them, being himself
of royal descent; and that even now, though many brave, and some greatly
distinguished men, had fallen on the battle-field at no great distance,
and it seemed as if all hope as respects the future weal of Scotland was
about to be extinguished; yet, if the noble youth to whom he spoke would
but arouse himself, he might oppose successfully the power and abilities
of Edward. Wallace urged him further to consider, that the Most High
rarely offered a more glorious prize before the view either of virtue or
ambition, than the acquisition of a crown, with the defence of national
independence. That for his own part, while life remained, he should regard
neither his own ease, nor yet the hardships to which he was exposed; that
Scotland was dearer to him than the closest ties that entwine themselves
around a brave man's heart, and that he was determined, as far as in him
lay, to prolong, not her misery, but her independence, and to save her if
possible from receiving the chains of a haughty victor. Bruce felt that
what he said was true. From that moment he repented of his engagement with
Edward, and opening his eyes to the honourable path, which the
noble-minded Wallace had pointed out to him, he secretly determined to
embrace the cause, however desperate, of his oppressed country.

Armies met again; other battles followed, and for two miserable years did
the Scots and English fight hand to hand for the liberty or subjugation of
Scotland. Edward at length triumphed, and Wallace became his prisoner. The
boy of Ellerslie, he, who in after life thought only to preserve his
country from spoliation; who was determined, amid the general defection,
the abrogation of laws and customs, and the razing of all monuments of
antiquity, still to maintain her independence, was betrayed into Edward's
hands, by a false friend, whom he had made acquainted with the place of
his retreat. He was carried in chains to London, to be tried as a rebel
and a traitor, though he had never made submission, nor sworn fealty to
England, and to be executed on Tower Hill.

The old Oak of Ellerslie is still standing, and young children play
beneath its shade; the birds fly in and out, and around it the life and
business of husbandry proceeds, as if neither grief nor death, had ever
visited the beautiful hills and dales that lie around.

More than five centuries have passed away since young Wallace played with
his companions beside the tree, and a few short years, subtracted from
that period, since he took shelter with many of his playmates, when grown
up to manhood, among its ample branches. But though long since barbarously
executed, and though his bones might not be laid to rest in the land which
he sought to save, he is not forgotten in the hallowed spot--the
birth-place of his parents--which he loved above all others. The children
of the village are still taught to lisp his name, and are carried to hear
of him beneath his own old tree. All his favourite haunts by glen or burn,
or up the mountain-side, are fondly traced by the young men and maidens
when their work is done. Here, they say, he used to sit and listen to the
strain of the pibroch, and from off the margin of the little stream he
gathered flowers in his days of childhood. Yonder are the mountains,
through the secret passes of which he used to conduct his small company of
valiant men, when the storm of war gathered dense and dark, and from which
he rushed like a mountain-torrent on the enemies of his country. Close at
hand, say they, and extending even to the verge of the common on which
stands the village of Ellerslie, are a few trees of the ancient wood,
which often served for a hiding-place during his rapid alternations of
advance and of retreat, and when in the small beginnings, which suited
best with his youth--with the youth, too, of his companions--he gave good
earnest of what his single arm might have effected, if secret jealousies
and discordant counsels had not undermined his best concerted plans.


  Oh many a one that weeps alone,
    And whom the stern world brushes by,
  Has friends whom kings might proudly own,
    Though all unseen by mortal eye.--M. R.

"Away with that unseemly object!" said the stern St. Hugh, bishop of
Lincoln, to the sisters of Godstow Nunnery, when he came in the course of
visitation to their quiet dwelling among the rich meadows of Evenlod.
"Away with that unseemly object! the hearse of one who was a Magdalen, is
not a fitting spectacle for a quire of nuns to contemplate, nor is the
front of the holy altar a proper place for such an exhibition."

The sisters dared not refuse, and the coffin which contained the remains
of Fair Rosamond was removed to the church-yard. But they said among
themselves, that the stern bishop needed not to have thus harshly judged,
for Rosamond had lived among them for many years, in the utmost innocence
and seclusion. They knew too, for so tradition tells, though the truth
could not then be safely spoken, that poor Rosamond did not deserve the
harsh aspersions of St. Hugh. It was believed that King Henry had married
her in early life, but secretly, and without such witnesses as might
avail, to have her constituted queen of England. Henry himself, when
driven nearly to distraction by the rebellion of his acknowledged sons,
spoke unadvisedly certain words, that confirmed the belief of the
simple-hearted nuns. He said to one of the sons of Rosamond, who met him
at the head of an armed company, "Thou art my legitimate son; the rest
have no claim on me."[3]

Rosamond was told, most probably by the queen herself, of King Henry's
conduct, for the queen, having seen him walking one day in the
pleasure-grounds at Woodstock, with the end of a ball of silk attached to
his spurs, and wondering greatly at the circumstance, resolved to follow
him. She took up the ball, and when he went away, she followed warily, the
silk meanwhile unwinding, till at length he suddenly disappeared in a
thicket belonging to the celebrated labyrinth of Woodstock. The queen went
no further, and kept the matter to herself. She, however, took advantage
of his absence on a distant journey, and having threaded the mazes of the
labyrinth, she began searching the thicket into which the king had
disappeared. Finding a low door carefully concealed, the queen caused it
to be forced open, and passing on with a beating heart, through a long,
winding, subterraneous passage, she emerged again into the open air, and
following on a little further, she discovered a lodge, situated in the
most retired part of the forest. Beautiful trees grew round, with a
spacious garden, and a bower, in which a young lady was seen busily
engaged in embroidery. This isolated fact records merely the circumstance
which led to the finding of Fair Rosamond by Queen Eleanor; it speaks, not
of the bitter misery of the one, nor the distress occasioned to the other,
nor, most probably, the making known by Rosamond, in the first moment of
her dismay, that she believed herself the wife of the man who had entailed
such wretchedness upon her. But whatever might have passed at that
interview, its result was, the retiring of Fair Rosamond from her secret
bower to the nunnery of Godstow, where she passed twenty years of her
weary life, and died when she was forty years of age, in "the high odour
of sanctity." Her grave remained unclosed, according to the fashion of the
times, but a sort of temporary covering, somewhat resembling a tent, was
raised immediately above it. The coffin and the tent were both before the
altar, and over them was spread a pall of fair white silk, with tapers
burning round, and richly emblazoned banners waving over. Thus lying in
state, it awaited the erection of a costly monument, till St. Hugh
commanded its expulsion. But the nuns remembered their poor sister, whom
they had laid to rest in that open grave; and when the bishop died, they
gathered her bones from out the place of their interment into a bag, which
they inclosed in a leather case, and tenderly deposited before the altar.

The altar has long since been broken, and the place wherein the memorial
tent, with its pall of fair white silk, was stationed, is roofless now.
Instead of tapers burning round, and emblazoned banners waving over,
springs up a solitary nut-tree--the Nut-tree of Rosamond's grave. It bears
a profusion of nuts, but without kernels, empty as the deceptive pleasures
of this world's pageants.[4]

And silent too, sad, vacant, and unpeopled, is the mound on which once
stood the castle of William Longespé, poor Rosamond's eldest son. It was a
drear and treeless elevation, rising over the wide extent of downs, that
were seen spreading far as the eye could reach; yet there were glad hearts
within, young children and cheerful voices, the lady Ela and William
Longespé, with their visitors and dependants, and those who came and went,
making that stately castle to seem a royal residence.

William Longespé was distinguished for his chivalry and feats of arms, the
lady Ela for her mild and benignant virtues. They had married in early
life, and her estates and honours, according to the customs of the feudal
ages, had served to enoble a brave and deserving youth, who had no other
patrimony than his sword. Ela was born among the beautiful shades of
Amesbury, whither her mother had retired before her birth. It was called
the ladies' bower, and was appended to the castle of Salisbury, as that of
Woodstock to Oxford castle, and there her young days passed among trees
and flowers, till, as years passed on, she became the delight and ornament
of her father's court. Earl William stood high in favour with King
Richard. He carried the dove-surmounted verge, or rod, before that monarch
at his coronation; and to him was confided the responsible office of
keeping the king's charter, for licensing tournaments throughout the
country.[5] His titular castle frowned over the stern ramparts of
Sarisbyrig, where no stream was heard to murmur, nor the song of birds
came remotely on the ear, except the joyous warble of the soaring lark, or
the simple unvaried note of the whinchat, seeking its insect food among
the thyme hills. But instead of woods and streams, the castle was
surrounded with extensive downs, covered with short herbage, and in the
space where two valleys obliquely intersected each other, was one of the
five fields, or steads, for the holding of feats of arms. The field was
full in view of the majestic fortress of old Sarum, and although it seemed
as a dip, or rather hollow in the elevated downs, it afforded ample space
for the combatants and spectators, and those who stood on the highest
point of what--had seats been cut in the broad slope--might have been
termed an amphitheatre, looked down on the rich and smiling banks of the
Avon and the Nadder, with the venerable towers of Wilton Abbey.[6] Here
then, were often witnessed the proudest exhibitions of chivalric
enterprise, and often did the little Ela gaze with awe and wonder from the
windows of her father's castle, on knight and banners, and all the pomp
and pageantry of those heroic games.

Scarcely, however, had Ela attained her eighth year, when the Earl of
Salisbury having died, after a short illness, she became the orphan
heiress of his princely patrimony, and an exile; for scarcely had the
banners, and the scutcheons, and the mutes passed by, and all the pomp of
death went after him to his last resting-place, than the little Ela
suddenly disappeared, and was nowhere to be found. Some said that her
mother sought her sorrowing; others, that she gave but little heed, and
that while knights and servants rode the country over, asking questions of
all they met, and exploring every brake and hollow on the ample downs;
returning ever and anon, either with some hope of finding the lost child,
or else to consult with her lady mother concerning the next course to
pursue; she alone seemed as if indifferent to the matter. The countess had
large possessions in Normandy or Champaign, and it was at length
conjectured that the orphan had been sent to her relations, lest King
Richard should avail himself of his feudal right, to marry her according
to his will. But such was not the case, though true in part, as respected
her distant home. Ela had three uncles, of whom the eldest was next heir
to the great possessions of the deceased earl. No historic light gleams on
the biography of these kinsmen, excepting that being younger brothers,
without patrimony, and unmarried, they retired into the monastery of
Bradenstoke.[7] Yet tradition tells, that when the elder brother heard of
Ela's fatherless condition, he threw aside his cowl, and assumed the
cuirass. It might have been, that often in the silence and the solitude of
that old abbey, when passing its dimly-lighted cloisters, dark thoughts
had worked within him; that scowling on his books and beads, he had
contrasted his condition as a poor and obscure monk, with the grandeur and
the vast possessions of the earldom of Salisbury. The pope absolved him
from vows of poverty, for thus it is recorded in the traditions of the
place, and forth he came, a claimant to the honours and the wealth of that
illustrious house. Tradition lingers among old walls and deserted hearths;
there may be nothing for history to glean, but her lowlier sister loves to
keep alive the feeble glimmering of her lone lamp, in places from whence
all other light is gone.

Rightly, therefore, did the anxious and affectionate mother of young Ela
seek to remove her daughter from the reach of one whose ambitious and
turbulent disposition might have prompted him to crime. But the days in
which she lived were those of stirring incidents. A train of gallant
troubadours gave life and animation to the court of lion-hearted Richard,
and the mysterious disappearance of the orphan heiress was with them a
theme of frequent conjecture and resolve. An English knight, of the name
of William Talbot, inspired, it would seem, by the romantic adventures of
the minstrel Blondel, resolved to find out the place of her concealment.
He went forth attired as a pilgrim, with his staff and cockle-shell, and
having landed on the coast of Normandy, he wandered to and fro, for the
space of two years,[8] as if in quest of the shrine at which he sought to
pay his vows. There were shrines in the depth of solitary forests, and to
such he bent his way, others in populous towns, and before them he would
duly kneel, asking questions of those he met, and warily seeking to
discover where the lost one was concealed. At length, so the poet tells,
he saw a maiden, whose English accent and fair hair denoted her foreign
birth, come forth with her companions from a castle on the coast. Talbot
concealed himself behind a rock, and listened while the maiden, who was
gathering shells from off the sand, spoke of the far country whence she
came. It seemed to him that she gazed wistfully over the wide sea, and
when the dew began to fall, and the bell tolled out from the grey turret,
she looked back from beneath the postern, as if to catch a last glimpse of
the dim waters. Laying aside his pilgrim dress, he assumed that of a
wandering troubadour, and gained admittance to the inmates of the castle.
He recounted the deeds of former times, concerning the perils of King
Richard, and how the minstrel Blondel, wandering through storm and
sunshine, had found the prison of his master. He repeated the wild strain
which Blondel had sung before the old fortress, and the answering melody
that responded from within; and thus in sentiment, if not in words, for
the thoughts are those of the minstrel Peter d'Auvergne, the gallant
Talbot made known his errand to the orphan daughter.[9]

  Haste, haste thee, haste, my faithful bird,
    O'er the tumbling and tossing sea,
  Breathe to my love the sighs you have heard,
    And her answer respond to me.

  O, the fond bird flew from the green hill's side,
    Where blossoming roses blow,
  She spread her wing o'er the ocean wide,
    While the blue waves danced below.

  And the strains which she sang to the evening star,
    As it rose o'er the darkling hill,
  She pour'd forth again to the lov'd one afar,
    By the gush of the flowing rill.

  The lady heard in her lonely bower,
    As she gazed on the wandering moon;
  When her pale beams brightened the old grey tower,
    Riding now in her highest noon.

  Ah! thou dost not heed my plaintive strain,
    For thus the fair bird sang;
  I have flown in my haste o'er the stormy main,
    From groves where my music rang.

  Where my music rang, when the glow-worm's light
    Glimmer'd oft in the darkling glen,
  And no sounds were heard 'mid the stilly night,
    From the homes, or the haunts of men.

  Save from one, who fear'd not the dew nor the damp,
    Who told me his true love tale,
  As he linger'd alone, by the glow-worm's lamp,
    In the depth of the hawthorn dale.

  Methinks e'en now, o'er the dewy grass,
    All alone on the moonlit plain,
  Will his constant step, 'mid the dim light pass,
    To list for my answering strain.

  And that answering strain the young knight heard,
    As he stole from his castle hall,
  For the lady breathed low to the faithful bird,
    Words of love from her distant thrall.

Thus sung the troubadour, and the maiden longed to see again the wide
downs on which her young eyes had gazed, for she knew not the thraldom
that awaited a rich heiress in those days of feudal tyranny. The book of
Lacock is silent with regard to the means by which the troubadour
contrived to bear her off, concerning her perils by sea or land, or her
joyous meeting with her widowed mother. The book tells merely, that King
Richard bestowed her hand on his brother Longespé, and with it the vast
possessions and the title of the Earl of Salisbury. Longespé was then a
youth, just rising into manhood,[10] and happy was it for the orphan
heiress that King Richard gave her to one whom she could love. For it
happened not unfrequently that great heiresses were married to stern men,
either that their lands might enrich the younger sons of royalty, or else
to repay services that had been rendered the crown. It is generally
conjectured, that Richard designed the Lady Ela for his brother from the
period of his father's death, when the hostile conduct of her uncle
occasioned the young child to be sent away. His faithful Talbot sought and
found her, most probably by the desire of the king, for he was loyal and
experienced, and in none of the minstrel knights whom he admitted as
companions to the festive board, did King Richard more unreservedly
confide. He was proud, also, to be numbered among the devoted friends of
the youthful Longespé, and in after years his name occurs among the
witnesses to several charters given by the earl.[11] Whether, therefore,
he was a friend of Longespé from his days of boyhood, or whether he had
earned that friendship by his services in recovering the lovely Ela,
certain it is, that neither his friendship nor his services were
forgotten, and that when Longespé obtained the honours and possessions of
the house of Salisbury, Talbot became an inmate of his castle.[12]

Ela returned to her father's hall, to the old castle of Sarum, from which
she had looked in her childhood on the feats of arms that were exhibited
in the tournament arena. But those days had passed, for King John, who now
filled the throne, cared little for jousts or minstrelsy. His thoughts
brooded in sullen mood on the discontents that were abroad, and on the
distracted condition of the country. Meanwhile the chivalrous and devoted
Longespé accompanied King John, who went from place to place like the wild
Arab, staying nowhere, ever restless and inconstant. The Lady Ela
occasionally accompanied her husband in his expeditions, but she preferred
the order and dignity of her own well-regulated household to the
migrations of the court. The earl, too, was often weary of his mode of
life, but his affection to his brother made him willing to relinquish his
home comforts, and if the king was ever sincerely attached to any human
being, it was to the gallant Longespé. There is little doubt but that his
affection for the earl induced him to erect a tomb to the memory of his
unhappy mother, whose remains had been removed from the place of their
interment; it was tastefully embossed with fine brass, and had an
inscription around the edge.[13] When the differences that existed
between the monarch and his barons arose to a fearful height, and the
month of June witnessed the proud triumph of the rebel chiefs, and the
acquisition of Magna Charta, on the field of Runnimede, the brother stood
unshaken in his fidelity. Many had transferred their allegiance from the
king to the prevailing party, and John was reduced by an imperious
necessity to a reluctant and insincere concession; but the banners of the
Earl of Salisbury[14] floated in the camp of his royal kinsman, together
with those of the Earls of Pembroke, Arundel, and Warren. The country was
quiet for a season, but at length disturbances broke out again. It was no
longer safe to venture unattended, by an armed force, beyond the precincts
of the castle, and the "most dear friend and brother" of the wayward
monarch, shared in the disasters of his reign. At one time a prisoner,[15]
at another deputed to place garrisons in the castles of Windsor, Hertford,
and Berkhampstead, and to cut off supplies from the city of London, where
the insurgents had fixed themselves. At length, hardened by the scenes of
misery to which he had been accustomed, his kindlier feelings seemed to be
totally obscured. Marching at the head of troops, with the fierce
Falcasius de Breant, the earl imbibed his spirit, and shared in his
enormities. Before them was often a smiling and well-peopled country,
behind them a desolate wilderness,[16] and while the earl and Falcasius
were thus mercilessly occupied, the king's arms spread equal desolation in
other parts, till at length the castles of Mountsorrel, in Leicestershire,
and that of Robert de Ros, in Yorkshire, alone remained to the insurgent
barons. To this succeeded the coming over of the French king, in order to
assist the barons, the seeming defection of the earl, the death of John,
and the coronation of young Henry. The country was again at peace, and
Longespé returned to his home and family. With the passing away of battle
scenes, seemed to have passed also the fierce spirit of the earl. We hear
of him as a kind husband and indulgent father, as a bounteous master, and
one who loved to promote good works. The gentle influence of Lady Ela
apparently recalled him to the mood of better days, as the associating
with De Breant had urged him to deeds of rapine and injustice. The
beautiful cathedral of Salisbury was founded by him, and thither came, at
his request, the bishop of the diocese, with a few earls and barons, and a
vast concourse of people from all parts, on the day appointed for laying
the first stone. Divine service having been performed in the ancient
edifice, the bishop put off his shoes, and walked in procession with his
clergy to the site of the new foundation, singing the litany as they went.
The bishop then addressed the people, and taking a stone in his hand, he
placed it in the name of Pope Honorius, and afterwards another, for the
Archbishop of Canterbury. The fourth was laid by the Earl of Salisbury,
the fifth by the Countess Ela, "a truly praise-worthy woman," as wrote
William de Wanda, afterwards Dean of Sarum, "because she was filled with
the fear of the Lord." Other stones were added by a few noblemen,
archdeacons, and canons of the church of Sarum, amidst the acclamations of
the assembled multitude, many of whom wept for joy, and gladly contributed
according to their ability. A negociation was then pending with the Welch
at Tewkesbury, or the company would have been much larger, but most of the
nobility who passed that way on their return, requested leave to add each
a stone, and some bound themselves to make contributions for the next
seven years.[17]

To this succeeded the stern and stirring incidents of war, for King
Henry's brother, having recently received the honour of knighthood, with
the earldoms of Cornwall and Poictou, it was resolved that he should
commence his military career on the plains of Gascony, under the guidance
of his uncle, the Earl of Salisbury, and Philip de Albeney.[18] Forth,
then, they went, with sixty knights and their attendants, and an army of
French and English, and again were homes despoiled, and castles set on
fire, and fields and vineyards trodden down by hostile steps, till,
having achieved the purpose of their predatory warfare, the earl and his
companions embarked for England. But the nights were dark, and October
winds, gathering strength and fierceness from the early setting in of a
long winter, tost their unwieldy ships like cockle-shells on the face of
the deep waters. The chieftains despaired of life, as did the bravest of
the seamen, and the earl resolved to throw overboard whatever he
possessed, either of rings, or gold, or silver, rich vestments, or
scutcheoned banners, that as he had entered life unprovided with them, so
he might pass in like manner to his eternal home. But a waxen light, of
large size and brilliancy, was seen by all on board, suddenly appearing on
the summit of the mast, and near it stood a female of surpassing beauty,
who preserved that warning light, shining in the midnight darkness, from
being extinguished by the wind or rain. Seeing this, the mariners took
courage, and when the day began to dawn, the violence of the storm abated,
a fresh gale sprung up, and urged the ship onward to the isle of Rhé,
about three miles distant from Rochelle. As they neared the coast, an old
abbey came in sight, and thither the earl sent messengers on landing,
requesting favour and protection, and that he might remain concealed from
his enemies till a fair wind should admit of his returning home. To this
the abbot gave consent, and received both the earl and his companions with
kindness and hospitality. But the island was in charge of Savaric de
Maloleone, who served the French king, and kept watch over the adjoining
coast, and great peril would have accrued to Earl William, had not two of
Maloleone's retainers gone secretly to the abbey and warned him to remain
no longer, telling him, that unless he left the island before the
following morning, he would be captured by their comrades, who guarded the
island and the straits. Upon this the earl, after presenting them with
twenty pounds sterling, hastened to the shore, from which the whole
company embarked on a raging sea. They trusted, as the distance was but
short, that they should speedily gain the English coast, but in this they
were mistaken, and, for three long wintry months, did those ill-fated men
struggle with the raging elements, before they arrived within sight of

Meanwhile, the Lady Ela hoped from day to day that the earl might yet
return, but, still as weeks past on, and the storms of winter gathered
strength, she began to fear that his ships had been lost at sea. There
were also other wives and mothers, who suffered as intensely as the
countess, for among the knights and soldiers that accompanied him on his
perilous undertaking, many had families at home, who looked wistfully for
their return. But the Lady Ela had trials that especially attended her
high rank and large possessions, for although a matron, whose age and
dignity might have commanded more respect, she became an object of pursuit
to the fortune-hunters of the court. Hubert de Burgh, who stood high in
favour with Henry III., sought for his nephew the hand of the widowed
countess, and the youth, entering with a kindred spirit into the
interested views of his ambitious kinsman, prepared for the undertaking.
De Burgh had been twice at Salisbury in attendance on the king during the
earl's perilous voyage,[20] and it is therefore not surprising that the
future disposal of the honours and broad lands of the Lady Ela should have
become an object of his speculations. Henry III. was said to be much
afflicted by the supposed death of the earl, but when De Burgh petitioned
that he would permit his inheritance to pass with the Lady Ela into his
own family, the king readily gave leave, on condition that the countess
could be induced to consent. The justiciary, for such was the office of De
Burgh, accordingly dispatched his nephew, on a courser richly caparisoned,
with knights and squires sumptuously arrayed, that he might present
himself in a distinguished manner before the countess. But the lady
scorned his suit; she heeded neither his flattering speeches nor large
promises, and she told him, with becoming dignity, that messengers had
arrived from her absent husband, bringing the welcome news that he was
both safe and well. She added, further, that if indeed the earl was dead,
she would in no wise receive the nephew of the Justiciary De Burgh as a
second husband. "Therefore," said she, "you may seek a marriage
elsewhere, because you find that you have come hither in vain." On hearing
this, Reimund de Burgh became exceedingly crest-fallen, and, having
remounted his gaily trapped courser, he hurried from the castle with his

The earl returned to his home on the fourth of the ides of January, and
went the following day to see the king, who was then ill at Marlborough.
He made a heavy complaint to his royal nephew, that base men had been
allowed to insult his countess with proffers unworthy of her. He had been
abroad, he said, and suffered much in the king's service, and it seemed
hard that advantage should be taken of his protracted absence by the
Justiciary de Burgh, to send a certain low-bred man, who was not even a
knight, into the presence of his wife, with the intention of constraining
her to an unlawful marriage, had she not most nobly repelled him. He
added, moreover, that unless the king caused full reparation to be made by
the justiciary, for so great an outrage, he would himself seek redress,
though it should involve a serious disturbance of the country. The king,
who was greatly rejoiced to see his uncle, well knowing that he was both
powerful and valorous, did not attempt to excuse himself, and the
Justiciary de Burg being present at the interview, wisely resolved to
atone for his misconduct, by confessing that the fault rested with him. He
besought the earl to pass the matter over, and to accept, as a proof of
his forgiveness, some fine horses, and other costly gifts. He next
invited the earl to dine with him, who went accordingly on the day
appointed, but being taken ill immediately after dinner, he was obliged to
return home. Rumours went abroad that poison had been administered, but
the character of De Burgh does not warrant any suspicion of the kind.[22]
The hardships which the earl sustained while abroad, with his subsequent
agitation, occasioned by the insult offered to his countess, were
sufficient to account for his sudden illness. Finding himself dying, he
sent for the Bishop of Salisbury, that he might receive in the confession
and viaticum, such blessings as were needful to one in his condition. The
bishop came immediately, and, when he entered the apartment, bearing with
him the sacred elements, the earl sprung from his bed, and hastily tying a
rough noose about his neck, he threw himself weeping upon the floor. He
was, he said, a traitor to the Most High, and could not rise till he had
confessed his past sins, and received the communion of the life-giving
sacrament, that he might testify himself to be the servant of his Creator.
He afterwards continued for some days in prayer, and such acts of
penitence as his faith enjoined, and he then peaceably yielded up his soul
to his Redeemer;[23] to Him "who willeth not the death of a sinner, but
rather that he should turn from his wickedness and live."

The earl died on the seventh of March, 1226, and his corpse, according to
the fashion of the age, was immediately removed to the cathedral of New
Sarum. The day was stormy, and loud gusts of wind, accompanied with heavy
rain, swept over the open downs, but still the funeral train went on, with
its long, long line of torches, for it might not be that the corpse of one
who had been so great on earth, should remain from out the sacred walls of
the cathedral which he had founded. It was about a mile from the castle to
the church, and a multitude of people followed; some were loud in their
lamentations, others wept silently as they went; for the earl had been a
kind master, and it seemed hard that he should so soon be taken from them,
who had but just returned to his home. They remembered, too, that only
eight weeks before, and at the same hour of the day, he had passed through
the wide portals of the magnificent cathedral to offer praises and
thanksgivings for his preservation and safe return; that on the very spot
where he was then received in procession by the clergy, with great
demonstrations of joy,[24] the same company was coming forth to meet him,
who was now being borne a corpse before them; for the bier was met at the
western door by the bishop and the neighbouring chieftains, with the
cathedral clergy, choristers, and precentor, chanting in Latin as they
passed up the nave, the same funeral service which is now chanted in
English, on occasions of public funerals within the walls of cathedrals.

His martial figure of grey marble still reposes on his tomb, sleeping, as
it were, from century to century with his sword and shield. The features
of this son, and brother, and uncle of kings, are only partially exposed,
through a small aperture in the hood of mail, which covers his mouth and
chin, the eyebrows betoken somewhat of a lofty and impetuous feeling, but
the eyes seem gentle and intelligent.[25]

The day of death is light, in comparison of its bitterness, with that of
the interment. In the former case, the spirit indeed has passed away, yet
the form remains. The wife, or child, or parent can sit beside the couch,
and gaze on the still unchanged features. But when the grave has once
closed upon the loved one, what words can tell the utter desolation that
presses on the heart! Thus felt the Lady Ela, when the last words of the
solemn service ceased, when the sound of footsteps neared to the grave's
edge, and somewhat heavy seemed to be letting down into the darkness and
the depth,--when her half-averted eye looked for the last time on the
narrow coffin, resting now within the grave, but soon to be concealed for
ever. Lady Ela heeded not the words of comfort which the pale priest
spoke, nor yet the solemn chanting that burst forth again, as if to bear
her spirit up with holy hopes from out the wretchedness of her sad lot.
But the Lord, in whom she trusted, did not forsake her, and when she
returned to her home, it was with a firm resolve to devote herself to the
service of her Maker, by cherishing the memory of her husband, and taking
care of her large family.

It was happy for the Lady Ela that she was suffered to remain in free
widowhood; that even the powerful Justiciary de Burgh and his aspiring
nephew dared not molest her. This was an especial favour, and as such the
countess ever regarded it, for ladies of large estates were rarely
permitted to continue single; their lands and dignities passed by right of
inheritance to persons whom they were often constrained to marry.[26]
Thus, at the same period of English history, the rich heiress of Albemarle
conferred the title of earl successively on her three husbands, William
Mandeville, William de Fortibus, and Baldwin de Betun. The countess,
therefore, being priviliged to continue in a widowed state, exercised the
office of Sheriff of Wiltshire, and that of Castellan of Old Sarum, even
when her son became of age, and claimed, by his mother's wish, the
investiture of the earldom; the king his cousin refused it, not in
displeasure, but according to the principles of feudal law; and hence it
happened, that in consequence of the Lady Ela's protracted life, the
earldom of Salisbury continued dormant, and as she survived both her son
and grandson, it was never renewed in the house of Longespé. The great
seal with which the countess ratified the many legal instruments that were
required in the administration of her feudal rights is still extant. We
may not perhaps regard it as presenting a portrait of the Countess Ela,
like the effigy of her husband in Salisbury cathedral, but it affords, no
doubt, a faithful resemblance of her noble and dignified bearing, and of
her graceful, though simple costume. Her right hand is on her breast, her
left supports a hawk, the usual symbol of nobility, her head is covered
with a singularly small cap, possibly, the precursor of the more recent
coronet; her long hair flows negligently upon her neck, and on either side
the royal lions of Salisbury appear to gaze on her, like the lions of
Spenser's "Fairy Queen," on the desolate lady Una.[27]

Seven years had now elapsed from the time of the earl's death, during
which the countess sedulously fulfilled the duties of her high condition.
Her eldest son, who was then a minor, married the rich heiress of two
baronies, the daughter of Richard de Camville, and the Lady Eustachia.[28]
Richard, Stephen, and Nicholas were gone forth into the world, and her
daughters Isabella, Petronilla, Ela, and Sola being either married or of
age, the countess thought herself at liberty to relinquish the arduous
duties in which she had hitherto been engaged, and to devote herself to a
secluded life. Yielding, therefore, to the natural desire of withdrawing
from the busy world, she proceeded to undertake a task that was
calculated as much for a season to add to her employments, as it
afterwards contributed to her repose.

River scenery has ever been a passion with me. I can gaze unwearied on the
tranquil flowing of deep, clear waters, now shaded with old trees, that
droop their branches to the water's edge, and now by rock and underwood,
where roses and wild honeysuckles, harebells, and primroses mingle their
beauty and their fragrance. Such is the tranquil Avon, passing in gloom
and depth, dark, silent, and unruffled, among rocks and trees; or
murmuring in its onward course, with that calm sound of moving waters
which seems to tell of peace and solitude. It is flowing now, through a
spacious and level meadow, with tall elms, and cattle feeding on its
margin, and in the distance, high spiral chimneys appear at intervals
among the trees. They belong to the ancient nunnery of Lacock, which the
Lady Ela founded; not standing as many stand, with smokeless chimneys,
lone and tenantless, over which the creeping ivy and wild wall-flower seek
to hide the rents of ruin, but dwelt in still; a place where the living
may think of those who are resting in the cells beneath, who have neither
heard the winds of winter, nor felt the cheering sunbeams for more than
six hundred years.

This spacious and level meadow, with its tall elms and cattle, was once a
glade; this bright river, now journeying in shade and sunshine along
peopled districts, flowed once in silence and in loneliness through the
ancient forests of Chippenham and Melksham. Yonder, and at a distance
over the wide wood, rises the high and lonely arch of Malmesbury Abbey,
the "august, but melancholy mother," as the poet Bowles has well observed,
with a poet's feeling, of many a cell or monastery beside the Avon.
Battlements and buttresses, seen far off in the bright sunshine, point out
the remains of Bradenstoke Abbey, rising among old trees, and seeming to
overlook the river as it winds through the vale and pastures of Somerford
and Christian Malford. Scarcely a vestige remains of Stanley priory; its
walls are low and roofless, but the bright blue "forget-me-not," nestling
itself among ferns and foxgloves in the fissures of the walls, seems to
call upon the passenger to remember that men once thought, and felt, and
suffered, where all now is silent and deserted--an emblem-flower, a living
motto, inscribed on the wrecks of ruin. But Lacock Abbey, standing on the
verge of the spacious and level meadow, is still inhabited, and its
cloisters are fresh, as if they were just completed, although the arches
are hung with ivy. More than six centuries have passed since the Countess
of Salisbury came, in the year 1232, accompanied by such persons as she
loved to consort with, to this remote part of her hereditary domain. The
woods around were bursting into leaf, and the "one word spoken" of the
contented cuckoo was heard at intervals.

It was early in the month of April,[29] and as yet the winds were chill,
but April was in unison with her past life, one of storm and sunshine, and
now about to close, as respected this world's turmoils, amid the beautiful
scenes of woodland and of river. Two monasteries were founded by the
countess on that memorable day; Lacock, which she designed for her own
abode, in which holy canonesses might dwell, continually and devoutly
serving the Most High; the other, the priory of Henton, of the Carthusian
order.[30] It was believed that the countess in thus founding these
religious establishments, desired to perform the vows of her husband,
which he made during his great perils, when returning from Gascony to
England. A few years more, and the bright sun which beamed on the day of
the foundation of Lacock nunnery, looked down on a dark marble stone,
which men placed, with heavy hearts, over the remains of its noble
foundress. "As I stood, in a moody day of the declining year," wrote
one,[31] who has recorded with deep feeling the long-forgotten history of
the Lady Ela, "and thought of her youthful romantic history, a gleam of
pale sunshine struggled through the dark drapery of ivy, and fell upon the
spot. At the same moment a wintry bird, which had taken shelter among the
branches, piped one small note; no other sound was heard amid the profound
silence of the place, and as the short note ceased, the gleam faded

[Illustration: Dunmow Priory.]

Dunmow Priory.

  The old tree, the old tree,
    Has fallen long ago;
  But I shall tell of thee, old tree,
    As if thou wert standing now.

  How thy ample branches spread,
    In the days of ruthless John;
  How they waved o'er the silent dead,
    When the last dread deed was done.--M. R.

Dancing lights and shadows are playing on the tomb of Lady Marian.[32]
They are cast by the old tree whose waving branches, seen through the
lofty window, with its tracery and mullions, grey and time-worn, recall to
my mind the day in which it stood with its brotherhood beside the little
church of Dunmow, when bold Robinhood, the outlawed Earl of Huntingdon,
passed and repassed with his lady and their archers through the green
recesses of Sherwood forest. The contiguous priory was standing then, but
this memorial of the olden time, the present church of Dunmow, formed
merely the south aisle of a magnificent collegiate church, and of a
religious house founded many years before the days of Robinhood, by the
sister of Raef Baynard, who held the manor in the time of Domesday survey.
Far and near extended a wild forest with its glens and dingles, but
farmhouses are standing now where the wolf used to range, and a public
road passes within sight of the ancient building, from which it is divided
by a corn-field, and burying-ground, with head-stones worn and
lichen-dotted, and crumbling from long exposure to the weather. How still
and solemn is this place! Here knees have bent in prayer for successive
generations, and here successive generations have been laid to rest; the
poor beside the church--a few of noble birth within the walls. Sir Walter
Bohun is one of these. His plate armour and leathern shirt indicate that
his days were passed in warlike deeds, and beside him rests his lady, dame
Matilda, who wears the insignia of her courtly rank; her tiara and lace,
her earrings and her necklace. Their heads repose on cushions, and their
hands are raised in the attitude of prayer. The effigies of both have
suffered; the legs of Sir Walter are broken at the knees, and the delicate
fret-work of the lace which adorns his lady has been rudely handled. Other
steps than those which used to tread softly, as befits a house of prayer,
were heard here when this deed was done. Men, with peaked beards and round
hats, halted beneath the Oak of Dunmow, and they thought they did good
service to their Maker when they despoiled the old effigies; they, too,
have passed from among the living, and though their sojourn occasioned
great distress and terror in the neighbourhood, no trace of them remains
at Dunmow, excepting in the mischief which they did. Sir James Hallet
rests here also, and a few mural monuments remain upon the walls, but the
one tomb, which of all others is most dear, upon which the quivering
lights and shadows play, and sunbeams shed a softened radiance, is that of
the Lady Marian. Shielded by a beautiful screen of dark old oak, coeval
with the building, and which separates the nave from the chancel; it
stands forth in bold relief, a relic of the olden time, which the
convulsions of ages--foreign wars and civil feuds, have yet spared. The
head is covered with a woollen coif, the neck encircled with a collar, and
a string of pendants falls upon an embroidered cape; a rich girdle and
long robe, with sleeves close to the wrists, and hands covered with rings
further indicate her rank. Angels were stationed beside the head, and a
dog crouched on either side her feet. But rough hands marred this tomb
also, the angels, who seemed to watch over the sleeping effigy, were
rudely broken, though the effigy itself was spared. Perhaps the lady who
lay within the tomb was associated with the fondest recollections of the
rebel leader. It may be, that he had gathered nuts amid the open spaces of
the forest where she dwelt; before years of crime and peril had hardened
his young heart, or, perhaps, when sick and restless upon his bed, his
mother might have told him concerning the Lady Marian's woes and
wanderings; how she fled from her father's castle, when that castle was in
flames, and how bold Robinhood and Little John shielded her from harm.

More than six hundred years have passed away since a company of monks from
the adjacent priory brought hither the corpse of Lady Marian to inter it
within the church; since the boughs of the old tree, waving in the cold
night air, cast their uncertain shadows on the long train of veiled nuns,
as they entered by torch-light the low arched door-way of the church.

Marian had passed her young days in Baynard castle, on the borders of
Sherwood Forest. Her father, Richard Fitz Walter, gave a tournament when
his daughter attained her eighteenth year; knights and squires assembled
from all parts; ladies came attired in robes of costly silk; and during
three whole days, jousts and sports continued without intermission; but on
the fourth, a stranger, clad in burnished mail, entered the lists and
vanquished the bravest of his competitors. No one knew whence he came, but
his gallant bearing and handsome countenance, won the heart of the young
queen of that high festival, and she trembled when she hung the golden
chain around his neck. It was said, too, by those who looked on, that the
mysterious victor was observed to turn pale; but he departed as he
entered, suddenly and in haste, and the tramp of his stately steed was
heard afar in the still forest.

Prince John was at the banquet, yet he liked not the noble owner of the
castle; he had no thoughts in common with those of a true and loyal
knight, and having been reproved for some evil expressions he went away in
anger, and vowed revenge. A few short months and the brother of Fitz
Walter departed for the Holy Land, taking with him a considerable number
of his brother's men-at-arms, when John, watching his opportunity, led on
an armed band against the castle, and slew its owner. Marian fled to the
green forest, where she wandered all the day, and concealed herself at
night among the underwood. The next day, she met the stranger knight, whom
she had crowned a short time before, when Baynard castle was in all its
pride, and her father presided there. His burnished coat of mail was laid
aside, and a simple suit of Lincoln green betokened his mode of life.
Soothly did he greet the lady, and told her not to fear, for though he was
Robinhood, the outlawed Earl of Huntingdon, at the mention of whose name
stern warriors trembled in their halls, and ecclesiastics turned pale, his
good men should shield her well.

Lady Marian laid aside her whimple and her veil, and the better to conceal
herself, put on a light kind of armour, such as young men wore on days of
festival, for she had not strength to bear the heavy casque and buckler.
In this garb she encountered King John, who called upon her to surrender;
but he who stood before her was the murderer of her father, and what will
not the recollection of such a deed produce in even the gentlest bosom; in
one, too, who, perhaps, had not been taught the blessed precept which
teaches to forgive. "Yield," said the prince, for he knew not the damsel
in her strange attire; he thought, most probably, that the youth before
him was in the service of the outlaw, and that his command would be
sufficient to enforce obedience. The stranger was not thus to be subdued,
and so firmly did she maintain her assumed character, that the prince was
obliged to withdraw. John heard that his antagonist was no other than the
young flower of Baynard castle, Marian, whose father he had slain, and he
resolved to be avenged on her also.

Maid Marian became the wife of Robinhood, and when King Richard restored
to him his earldom and estates, she presided in his baronial hall with
equal courtesy and magnificence. John succeeded to the throne on his
brother's death, and then the vengeance which had long brooded in his
sullen breast fell heavy on the earl; he was again outlawed, and for many
long and weary years did his fair young wife follow his fortunes. Time,
and the hardships which he endured, had at length weakened the strength of
the bold outlaw. He tried his shafts one morning, and finding that they
neither flew so far, nor so fast as his strong arm was wont to send them,
he resolved to repair to Kirkley nunnery, where his cousin presided as
prioress. He had heard much of her skill in medicine, and hoped that she
might stay the fever that raged in his veins. "Thrice welcome, cousin
Robert," she said, but treachery was in her heart, for she bore no
good-will to him who plundered both the church and churchmen. Robert
passed through the strong oaken door, but he returned not again, save as a
corpse borne by his tall bowmen wearily along, to bury beneath some fine
trees near Kirkley.

At this sad period of her life the countess took refuge in Dunmow Priory.
It stood in a wild and secluded spot on the borders of Sherwood Forest;
that great forest to which she had fled for refuge in her young days, and
where her married life had passed. John heard that she was there, and he
rejoiced in the thought of vengeance, for he remembered their rencounter
in years gone by, and how she had worsted him on that memorable day.
Summoning, therefore, a gallant knight, Robert de Medeive, common ancestor
of the present Earl Manvers, and of one, to whom we owe this biographic
memoranda of the Lady Marian, he bade him go with all speed to the Priory
of Dunmow, and present to the Countess of Huntingdon a valuable bracelet,
as a token of amity and reconciliation. Years chequered with much of
sorrow had passed since the fall of Baynard castle; since the encounter of
Marian and the prince in Sherwood Forest; perhaps she had learned in her
cell, the blessedness and the duty of forgiveness. Walter had heard
concerning the noble lady who thus cordially received him as an herald
from the king--of the sufferings of her young days, and how the brave Earl
Huntingdon had given her a home when her own fair patrimony was in the
hands of strangers. Her bloom, indeed, had faded, together with the
sprightliness which rendered her the darling of her father's house; but
her noble bearing and matron beauty which time still spared, caused the
rough warrior to gaze on her with mingled love and admiration. But he
wished not to be thus entangled, and, therefore, bidding her adieu, he
hastened on his way. The way was long and lonely, now over a wide common;
now through the depth of a dark forest, beside a rapid streamlet, or
through a valley where high trees drooped on either side, in all the
majesty and luxuriance of uncultivated nature. The knight looked not on
these, however beautiful; he cared not for the grandeur or sublimity of
the mighty landscape, which extended at times before him, or the sylvan
beauty of woodland scenery; he thought only of the high-minded dame to
whom he had borne the pledge of amity; till at length her image rose
before him with an intensity of feeling that caused him to turn his
horse's head, and to retrace the way which he had come. The day had closed
in before he reached the priory, but the light of many tapers streamed
through the windows of the adjoining church on the weary knight, and the
dirge of death sounded solemnly through the stillness of the forest. The
priory seemed deserted; there was no one to answer his impatient
questions; all were either within the church or around the door, and
thither he too hastened with trembling steps, for his heart sunk within
him. The chancel was lighted up, and before the curiously carved screen
of dark old oak lay the corpse of the Lady Marian; it was covered with
flowers according to the fashion of the age, for as yet this custom of the
olden time was not laid aside. The bracelet was on her wrist; its fiery
poison had dried her life's blood, and cankered the flesh it touched. Her
face was ghastly pale, but a heavenly smile irradiated her fine
countenance; it told that all within was peace--that even the last dire
deed had not disturbed her thought of heaven. The veiled nuns stood
around--their loud sobs were heard, even the officiating priests and
brothers wept bitterly; and the "dies iræ" died away on their quivering
lips as the warrior entered. He flung himself upon the bier, and uttered,
in the wildness of his anguish, a thousand maledictions on his wretched
head. It was long before he could be removed, and then he returned neither
to the camp nor court. He relinquished his mail and helmet for the cowl
and gown, and became a faithful brother of the order of St. Augustine.

Peace be with thee, noble lady; a quiet waiting in the place of rest,
whither thy spirit is departed, for the summons of thy Lord. This earth
has changed greatly since thy young feet trod the precincts of Sherwood
Forest; the contiguous priory has fallen down, thy father's castle is
still in ruins; all thy companions in the hall and cloister have passed
from the earth; and here, within this venerable relic of the olden time,
in the midst of a field of corn, reposes thy mortal frame. Lady
Marian--Peace be with thee. Rest in hope, till the hour of His coming,
who shall awake all those who sleep in him, and when, to borrow the
beautiful language of inspiration, the groaning creation "shall be
delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the
children of God."[33]

  "When the Holy One, the Glorious One, returns in might and power,
  And the long-oppressed world emerges, from out her darksome hour;
  Her darksome hour of grief, and death, and bitter pain,
  When the Holy One, the Blessed One, returns to earth again.

  Where the hosts of Satan trod, bright angels shall descend,
  And loved ones, and vanished ones, their steps shall hither wend.
  They come from the silent land, where they have waited long,
  And sweet as mortals never heard shall be their choral song.

  We too shall sing with them, for the curse shall pass away,
  And earth look brighter far than on her natal day,
  When the Lord for whom we waited in glory comes to reign,
  And many whom we dearly loved do follow in his train."--M. R.


[Illustration: THE GOSPEL TREE.]

The Gospel-Tree.

  Lone, beside the forest rill,
    Stands an old tree reft and broken;
  'Neath its scant boughs waving still,
    Words of faith and hope were spoken,
  In time of dearth and bitter woe,
  At least six hundred years ago.--M. R.

Britain was anciently divided into a variety of states, which bore the
names of those who dwelt in them, or else had reference to some
peculiarity of situation or of climate. When the Romans gained the
ascendancy, they put aside the way-marks of the olden times, and divided
their new territories into Britannia Barbara, Prima, and Secunda, with
such lesser partitions as pleased them best. Then came the Saxons. They,
too, made changes, and he who returned after some years' absence to the
shores of Britain, sought in vain for the places which he remembered in
early life, and with which the dearest associations were connected. The
plains and rivers, the hills and valleys, still remained, and above them
extended the blue heavens, for men could not dry up the fountain of the
one, nor vary the aspect of the other, nor cause the glorious moon and
planets to forsake their prescribed bounds. All else was changed. Most of
the towns and villages had new names given them, and from out the chaos of
war and time arose the seven kingdoms of the Saxon Heptarchy. Minor
changes followed, and when Alfred united the whole country under his
paternal sway, he projected a final division of the kingdom into counties,
with well-defined boundaries and names.

The counties were again divided into parishes, and then commenced the
annual festival of marking the respective boundaries. This was done by the
inhabitants, who went round them every year, and stopped at certain spots,
where different ceremonies were performed, in order that the localities
might be impressed on the memory of the young, as they were attested by
the recollections of the old. Rogation week, or one of the three days
before Holy Thursday, the feast of our Lord's ascension, was selected for
the purpose, at which time the minister of the parish, accompanied by his
churchwardens and chief parishioners, went round the boundaries, and
stopped at remarkable spots and trees, where he recited passages in the
gospels, and implored the blessing of the Most High on the fruits of the
earth, beseeching Him to preserve the rights and properties of the
inhabitants, and to keep them in safety. Many a memorial-tree, thus
honoured, carried down the recollection of bygone days to the men of
other generations; and among these the gospel-beech, which stood at a
short distance from an ancient Saxon town, among the beautiful beech woods
of Gloucestershire, recalled to mind that ages must have passed since that
failing tree, shadowed with its ample foliage the earth beneath. Now
time-worn and riven, hollow, too, yet throwing out green leaves in the
spring, it marked one of the extremities of the parish, in its retired
coppice on the rugged side of a wild common, while beside it a stream
gushed forth, and went leaping and sparkling into the vale below. A
variety of flowers grew round the well-head of the stream, the primrose
and the snowdrop, the yellow daffodil and violet, all young, and fresh,
and lovely, as if in mockery of the time-worn tree. There stood the
parishioners, in their doublets, with heads uncovered, while the priest
recited a few appropriate sentences from that holy book in which he loved
to instruct them. Playful children, too, were there, young men and
maidens, for on such occasions most of the parishioners trooped forth,
some because they loved their pastor, and were glad to hear the sacred
words that proceeded from his lips; others because the walk was pleasant,
and to gather the early flowers of the year. This custom, itself of great
antiquity, was conjectured to be derived from the Pagan feast of
Terminalia, the fabled guardian of fields and landmarks, and the promoter
of good fellowship among men. It was adopted by the Christians during a
period of calamity and death, and now a gospel-tree or stone, stands as a
memorial in almost every parish. The site was duly visited from year to
year, and the doing so was attended with circumstances of peculiar
interest. He who had traced the boundaries of his parish with manly step,
and who with unwrinkled brow, erect and firm, read the sentences that
breathed of confidence and truth, changed with the changing years. When a
few years had passed by, it became toil and weariness to him to trace the
same rounds. Those who as playful boys, intent on sport, had been thrust
into the stream that marked in one place the boundary of the parish, or
dragged in another through a coppice, or driven up a tree as if in anger,
to make them remember the boundaries, were now grave and thoughtful men,
with young striplings beside them. A few years more, and not one of the
grown-up people are left. The gospel-tree may remain, but of those who
stood as boys or aged men, as young maidens or grave matrons, beneath its
shade, some will be laid down in the narrow house, and others will not
even present a trace of what they were. Another minister will fill the
office of his predecessor, and even the younger children will be grown up
to manhood. He who then passes through the village may see old and
wrinkled persons looking from their cottage windows, or seated on the
green to bless the procession. Those aged persons are strangely altered
from what, they were. Who may recognise in them, the young men and
maidens, who now with joyous hearts and unwearied steps, are pressing
round the boundaries!

Thus might have thought and felt the men and women who first stood beside
the gospel-tree when the experience of a few short years gave them some
little insight into the changes of human life. When not a trace of that
company remained, others stood in the same place, and many thought the
same among succeeding generations; content to suffer, and to see the
breaking asunder of every earthly tie, of all that renders life desirable,
while yet the sacred volume declares to those who read and understand,
that the present state of human wretchedness is not designed to last for


[Illustration: CLIPSTONE PALACE]

Ruins of Clipstone Palace.

  Where have ye gone, ye statesmen great,
  That have left your home so desolate?
  Where have ye vanished, king and peer,
  And left what ye liv'd for, lying here?
  Sin can follow where gold may not,
  Pictures and books the damp may rot;
  And creepers may hang frail lines of flowers
  Down the crevices of ancient towers:
  But what hath passed from the soul of mortal,
    Be it thought or word of pride,
  Hath gone with him through the dim, low portal,
    And waiteth by his side.--F. W. FABER.

Little now remains of the old palace where King John and Edward I.
resided. Creeping ivy covers the once strong walls, and large elder bushes
springing from out the rents which time has made, afford a shelter to such
birds as like to build their nests in solitary places. The goatsucker is
one of these; you may hear her mournful voice at night, as if she bewailed
and lamented the downfall of the once stately building; the gray owl is
also there; the jackdaw and carrion-crow; they are never seen beside the
cottage door, or in cheerful apple-orchards, covered with blossoms, where
the goldfinch and linnet, the joyous throstle and the bullfinch, love to
nestle. All is lonely here, the long grass which grows wild and high,
around and within the ruin, is rarely trodden on, and so damp and chill is
the feeling of the place, that the sheep and cattle that graze upon the
common rarely seek it, unless in the hottest summer-day, when they cannot
find shelter elsewhere. Yet this lone and melancholy spot was not always
thus deserted: the broken-down walls encircled a spacious area, within
which was all the life and business, the gladness and festivity of a
palace; there was the great hall and the refectory, the chapel, where
prayer was duly offered, the rooms of state, and apartments of various
descriptions. Men-at-arms guarded the strong gate by night and by day, and
when its ample doors were opened by the king's command, a troop of horse
might freely pass, and large companies did come and go, for great
hospitality was occasionally exercised in Clipstone palace.

Fancy, that nimble fairy, who calls up the images of bygone days, who
causes men to live again, and re-people the fair scenes in which they once
rejoiced or suffered; who builds up the ruined wall, and removes the
unsightly branches which keep off the pleasant sunbeams, bids the stately
palace of Clipstone to stand forth in all its majesty. Touched by her
wand, the mists of ages have rolled away, and surely a more goodly
building rarely meets the eye.

The walls are thick, and the embattled parapets present a range of towers,
each of which are firmly guarded. The knight or palmer, he who comes in
peace or war, has to pass over a strong drawbridge, and through the
barbican or watch-tower by which the castle is further strengthened. He
sees over his head a portcullis armed with iron spikes like a harrow, and
as he passes through the long stone passage, he hears the heavy tread of
the guard going their rounds along the high wall, by which the entrance is
flanked on either side. The deep moat with its heavy and sluggish waters,
the inner and outer ballia, the guard and the portcullis, all and each
betoken that the country is in an unsettled state; but within the area on
which the castle stands all is bustle and animation, its ample space
contains barracks and residences for the workmen attached to the palace,
together with a well and chapel, and in the centre stands the keep, where
the king presides, and where his great officers have their abode. A
terrace walk extends around the keep, and appended to it is a straight
bowling-green, where amusements of various kinds are going on. The old
castle looks gloomy to him who passes by; it stands an isolated object,
stern and lonely, as if nothing within or around it, held communion with
any living thing. But such is not the case, for the monarch holds his
court here; King John, who has lately come to the throne, and with him is
that kind and gentle lady, his fair queen, who tries to soften the rugged
temper of her husband. Lords of high degree are invited guests; with them
are a large company of knights and squires, and while tilts and
tournaments are going on within the walls, the retainers of the castle are
seen coming with provisions, or else driving both sheep and cattle, for
the demand for them is great. Alms are duly given by the express desire of
the queen, and those who seek for shelter are hospitably entertained.

In winter, the banquet room is lighted up with large torches, and a band
of minstrels make the castle resound with their songs and roundelays. You
may hear occasionally the trampling of horses, even when the company are
set at table, and see a number of young gallants, of knights, too, and
minstrels, coming through the great stone entrance, mounted on steeds
richly caparisoned, and clad in fantastic vestments of green and gold,
with high caps and ribands. Thus accoutred, they ride round the hall, and
pay their respects to the assembled guests with such speeches as best
please them. But, torches are not needed now, for summer is at its height.
Some converse in the great halls, others mount to the top of the high
keep, where they amuse themselves with observing the comers and goers from
the castle, and in watching whether any knights or ladies, mounted on
their palfreys, are coming from afar; others go forth to hunt over the
wild moor, or to chase the deer in his forest haunts. Others, again, amuse
themselves with tennis, or foot-ball, or in feats of arms. Knights and
squires are seen going to and fro, conversing on foreign news, or on the
valorous achievements of those with whom they are acquainted.

The queen thinks well of such proceedings, and she endeavours to promote
the kindly intercourse that subsists within the walls. But now they are
put aside. The king is weary of them. The jest and laugh, the discoursing
of the old, and the amusements of the young, suit not with his turn of
mind or the sad condition of the country. He has other thoughts than those
of gladness and festivity, and growing weary of the hospitable life which
he is constrained to lead at Clipstone palace, he has suddenly withdrawn
from thence and gone to London.

Clipstone looks lonely now. The minstrel's harp is silent, neither knights
nor ladies ride forth over the wild moor, and rarely does any one seek for
hospitality within the walls. A few men-at-arms guard the place, and you
may hear the baying of the watch-dogs at eveningtide; but this is rather
from impatience than necessity, for they miss the riders who used to pat
their shaggy heads, and speak to them as they passed.

Sad rumours are afloat, but the place is so remote that no one knows what
to believe. Some say that a civil war has broken out; others that the
country is laid under an interdict, that the church doors are to be
closed, and that no one is to be interred in consecrated ground.

A church may be seen among the trees, beside the stream where it forms a
small cascade that falls with a pleasant murmur into the vale below. It is
a church of the olden time, with its primitive-looking porch, and creeping
vine. Prayers have been offered there ever since the days of Alfred, and
beside it the villagers have been laid to rest for successive generations:
a few bells call the people to their matins and vespers, and some images
stand within the walls of the edifice.

Prayers may not be offered now, for the good old priest has received
orders to close the doors, and to take down the bells. It is sad to see
the few images that have long recalled to recollection the holy lives of
those whose memory they are designed to perpetuate, lying with the ancient
cross upon the ground, and, as if the air itself is polluted, and may
pollute them by its contact, the priest and his attendants carefully cover
them, even from their own approach and veneration. The bells, too, which
used to ring out, that all might hear and make ready for the house of
prayer, are taken down and placed beside the grey tower from whence they
had long sounded in seasons of gladness or sorrow. No one hears the
passing bell that was wont to call the neighbours to intercede for him who
lay weak and sinking upon his bed.

The living partake of no religious rite, except baptism to new-born
infants and the communion to the dying; the dead may not lay in
consecrated ground, neither are words of peace, nor any hallowed ceremony
spoken or performed at their obsequies. Graves are opened beside the
public road, on some wild common, or lone forest; those who dig them seem
filled with more than usual sadness, for they have not yet learned to
think that it is a matter of indifference where their friends are buried.
Strange it is, that in these fearful times any should think of marrying.
Yet such there are, and now a bridal company is seen passing up the narrow
pathway that leads to the small church. The sun shines as brightly as if
all on earth were happy; the trees wave in the soft summer wind, and the
butterflies and bees flit from one flower to another, or rest on the tufts
of wild thyme that skirt the path. But the old people look exceeding
sorrowful, and there are no smiles on the faces of the young. They stop at
the entrance of the churchyard, at the old stile with its thatched roof,
where part of the ceremony is wont to be performed, and the bride and
bridegroom stand there, as if they almost feared to go on. The sod which
used to be kept so nicely that a weed might not lift up its head unbidden,
has grown long and rank. It overtops the graves; and the thistle, and that
unsightly weed the great cow-parsnip, with its sickly-looking flower, has
sprung up in rank luxuriance. The bells are placed beside the church, and
near them the images, and the one old cross are lying on the ground,
covered up in a manner which cause them to look like corpses waiting for

In a moment the old church and its venerable yew--the sad bridal
company--the bells and images are gone. A new scene presents itself, for
more than eighty years have passed since these things were done, and the
aspect of everything is changed.

Clipstone Palace does not look gloomy now. Alterations have been made,
though it is difficult to say how or where. There is the keep and the
bastion, the wall and moat, but the place looks lighter, the men-at-arms
are not so heavily loaded with armour, and the knights and ladies wear a
lighter and a gayer dress. Their palfreys are elegantly caparisoned, and
they go forth with hawks upon their wrists, and hounds running by their
sides, with only a few attendants. The dwellings of the poorer classes are
more comfortable than in the days of John, and they have around them small
enclosures, in which grow pot-herbs, and fragrant flowers. The country,
too, is cultivated in many parts, and all look peaceful and contented.

He who surveys the landscape from an eminence, will observe that houses
have been built, which, although not rising to the dignity of castles,
have much of the ancient baronial style, being strongly moated, and having
the entrance guarded with a portcullis. They consist of a quadrangle, with
a large area in the centre, into which both sheep and oxen are often
driven for greater security by night. The fields around are in general
well attended to, and large gardens, stocked with fruit and vegetables,
supply not only the wants of the respective families, but also provides
abundance of such medicinal herbs, as is convenient to have within reach.
This style of building evinces a considerable improvement in society, for
during the insecure condition of the country, when Clipstone Palace was
last brought into view, every baronial residence was strongly fortified,
and scarcely any intermediate gradations existed between the vassal and
his lord, except in commercial cities. Men had consequently little
inclination to cultivate the arts of peace. The knight or squire who rode
forth fully caparisoned, and armed cap-à-pie, turned not aside his charger
into the recesses of the forest to gather such beautiful flowers as might
grow therein, when there was danger in his path; the serf, who toiled hard
to sustain his wife and children, had neither time nor inclination to seek
out, or to plant around his cabin either the wild rose or the honeysuckle.
The wild rose grew, as now it grows, fragrant and beautiful; the
honeysuckle, too, and wild flowers of all scents and hues sprung beside
the common, or skirted the thorny brake; but the outlaw often lurked among
them, and it was death to him who sought, unarmed or alone, the beautiful
solitude of nature. But now that the country is at peace, and the towns
and cities contain a class of persons who grow rich by commerce, and who
frequently obtain in their intercourse with foreign nations, curious
specimens both of art and nature, men begin to lay aside that dread of
their fellow-men which has hitherto caused them to think most of their
personal safety, and to direct their attention towards improving their own

The dwellings which arose in consequence throughout the country, and give
the traveller a feeling of security as he passes beside their gardens, or
through the pathways which lead across the fields, are inhabited by a
class of men who had no political existence in the days of John. These are
the lesser barons. They originated with the partition of the great estates
which had been given by the Norman conqueror to his immediate followers,
and which anciently conferred power on individual families. Many of these
had escheated to the crown when the heads of them, having taken part in
civil broils, either fell in battle or fled into foreign lands. The king
then generally parcelled such estates among his courtiers according to
their merits; others were divided, either to make provisions for younger
children, or partitioned among coheirs, and hence originated a number of
small estates, which required economy in the management, and caused the
proprietor to remain much at home, where he occupied himself in
cultivating his paternal or appropriated acres, and in attending to his

It is the wise policy of Edward, who resides much at Clipstone Palace
during the pleasant months of summer, to encourage and protect the lower
orders of society. He is not ignorant concerning the transactions of other
days; though a long interval has elapsed since the crown was overawed by
the turbulent barons in the days of John; since that stern and vindictive
monarch sat sullenly brooding over his sad condition, and devising schemes
for aggrandisement or revenge in the same apartment which King Edward
enlivens with his presence; from the embattled parapets of which he can
survey the smiling and well-peopled landscape.

A fine young oak grew on the west side of Clipstone Palace in the days of
John; it was noticed at that time for its girth and height, and was much
admired by many who resided within the park. Parties were assembled
occasionally beneath its shade, and the minstrel would wake up his harp in
a fine summer evening. Those who loved his lays gathered around him, and
while they listened to the deep music that he poured forth, and to the
thrilling strains by which it was accompanied, the sun often set below the
horizon, and his beams shed a purple light on the rising ground, while the
plain country and the woods were covered with the mists of evening. Had
the tree a voice, or could its leaves form words when shaken by the wind,
how much of ancient history--how many tales of loves and woes--of human
suffering and human joys, would be unfolded! The tree looks not now as it
did then; somewhat of its grace has passed away, but there is more of
majesty; the branches are exceeding ample, and the stem is beginning to be
slightly furrowed. Knights and ladies still sit beneath its shade, as in
the days of John, and the minstrel's harp is awakened at their bidding,
while the same bright sun is setting in his glory behind the hills, on
which the inmates of the palace looked in bygone days. The same hopes and
joys--the same ties of family and of kindred, were among them as among
those of the present day. Modified, indeed, by the times in which they
lived--by the hopes or the misgivings of that eventful period, but still
the same in all their bearings, on the weal or woe of knight or lady, sire
or son.

Now there is another company sitting there; men of grave countenances and
full age. Their plaited ruffs and satin doublets, their high-crowned hats
and plumes, though reverently laid aside, the richness of their vestments
and, above all, their dignified demeanour, show that they are of high
degree. Some have broad and ample foreheads, furrowed with deep thought;
others seem worn with care; some again appear to have sustained the shock
of many battles, and among them are a few with staffs and crosiers, whose
countenances denote a life of prayer and abstraction. This goodly company
are the counsellors of the king, together with the greater and lesser
barons and knights, assembled at his bidding: they hold a parliament
beneath the noble tree, for such is the royal pleasure. The king presides
in state among them, and right and left, and immediately before him, seats
are placed for those whose rank entitles them to the pre-eminence, while
the burgesses sit apart. They are deliberating on matters of great
importance; on the affairs, perhaps, of Scotland; for the young Queen
Margaret is dead, and the king is devising schemes for obtaining
possession of the country. It is a solemn sight to see men thus
deliberating, as if eternity depended on their decision, while the very
tree beneath which they meet, and the adjacent palace, might teach that
human life is even as a vapour.

Gradually as the mist of ages were dispersed, so gradually do they return.
They gather over the assembly, and cover, as with a light transparent
mantle, the palace with its embattled parapets, and men-at-arms, the moat,
and drawbridge. Fainter and fainter grows the scene; the king may yet
dimly be discerned, and one among the rest seems speaking with great
earnestness; now the strained eye discerns them no longer. All and each
are concealed from the view. Where stood the noble oak, and those who were
assembled beneath its branches, a solitary spot of ground, with an aged,
riven, and time-worn tree, alone appears: in the place of a stately
palace, broken ruins meet the eye, and a few straggling sheep graze beside


[Illustration: William Rufus and the Monk of Gloucester.]

Ruined Villages in the New Forest.

  "The fire from off the hearth hath fled,
  The smoke in air has vanished.
  The last, long, lingering look is given;
  The stifled sigh, and the parting groan,
  And the sufferers on their way are gone."

The memorial-tree, from which the arrow of Sir Walter Tyrrel glanced, and
beside which the king lay extended on the ground, is now exceeding old,
and scarcely a trace remains of its former greatness. It stood in this
wild spot, when the stern decree went forth, which enjoined that
throughout the whole extent of the south-western part of Hampshire,
measuring thirty miles from Salisbury to the sea, and in circumference at
least ninety miles, all trace of human habitation should be swept away.
William might have indulged his passion for the chase in the many parks
and forests which Anglo-Saxon monarchs had reserved for the purpose, but
he preferred rather to have a vast hunting-ground for his "superfluous and
insatiate pleasure" in the immediate neighbourhood of Winchester, his
favourite place of residence. The wide expanse that was thus doomed to
inevitable desolation was called Ytene or Ytchtene; it comprised numerous
villages and homesteads, churches, and ancestral halls, where Saxon
families of rank resided, and where an industrious population followed the
daily routine of pasturage and husbandry.[34] A large proportion had been
consequently brought into cultivation; yet sufficient still remained to
afford a harbour for numerous wild animals. This part comprised many
sylvan spots of great beauty, with tracts of common land, covered with the
golden blossomed gorse, and tufts of ferns, or else with short herbage,
intermingled with wild thyme. Noble groups of forest-trees were seen at
intervals, with clear running streams, and masses of huge stones which
projected from among the grass. The sun rose on the morning of the fatal
day in cloudless beauty, and fresh breezes tempered the heat, which, at
harvest-time is often great; the people were already in the fields, and
the creaking of heavy-laden waggons was heard at intervals, with the
sweeping sound of the rapid sickle. In a moment the scene was changed.
Bands of Norman soldiers rushed in and drove all before them. They trod
down the standing corn, and commanded the terrified inhabitants of hall
and hut, to depart in haste. More than one hundred manors, villages, and
hamlets were depopulated, even the churches were thrown down--those
venerated places, where the voice of prayer and thanksgiving had been
heard for generations; where the young bride pledged her vows, and where
words of peace were spoken to cheer the hearts of those who laid their
friends to rest beside the walls. He who passed the next day over the
wide waste, saw only ruins black with smoke, trampled fields, and
dismantled churches. Here and there broken implements of husbandry met the
view, and beside them, not unfrequently, the corpse of him who had dared
to resist the harsh mandate of the Conqueror. Females, too, had fallen to
the earth in their terror and distress, and young children were in their
death-sleep, among the tufts of flowers where they had sported the day
before. Many stately buildings were pulled down at once; others, having
their roofs thrown open, were left to be destroyed by the weather, and
hence it not seldom happened that a stranger, in passing through a meadow
into one of those shady coverts, which still varied the aspect of the
country, forgetting, in the freshness and the loveliness of all around
him, the terrible undoings of previous days, might see through the
undulating branches of the trees, the walls or roofs of houses, which
looked as if they had escaped the general ruin. They stood, apparently, in
the midst of cultivated fields, occasionally by the road side, and their
pointed roofs were covered with the vine or honeysuckle. On a nearer
approach the illusion vanished, not a sound disturbed the silence of the
place; the houses which looked so inviting when seen at a short distance,
showed that the hand of ruin had done its work. The doors were broken
open, the windows dashed in, the roofs were open to the winds of heaven,
and the little gardens overrun with weeds. Large rents appeared in the
walls, which were generally made of wood, neatly plastered, and he who
looked through the breaches saw that tufts of rank grass, had grown up in
the spaces between the stones, with which the floors were occasionally
paved. The ruins of an antique abbey were often close at hand, with its
richly painted windows, broken through and through; or, perhaps, the
shattered walls of some hospitable dwelling, in which a Saxon thane had
resided. The open space before the house, where, in summer weather, the
family used to assemble, where the harp was heard, and the young people
amused themselves with sports of various kinds, was overrun with weeds.
There was no print of footsteps on the grass, no trace that the place had
recently been inhabited; those who once lived there had found another
home; perhaps the low and silent one which alone remains for the houseless
and the miserable.

It was said of the proud Norman, that he loved wild beasts as if he had
been their father. He enacted laws for their preservation, which tended to
render him extremely unpopular, and while the slaying of a man might be
atoned for by a moderate compensation, it was decreed, that whoever should
kill a stag or deer, a wild boar, or even a hare, should be punished with
total blindness.[35] Even the Norman chiefs, who were in general great
lovers of the chase, were prohibited from keeping sporting dogs on their
own estates unless they subjected the poor animals to such a mutilation
of their fore-paws as rendered them unfit for hunting. This enactment
pressed hard upon the Norman and English barons, for many of them depended
chiefly for subsistence on their bows and nets.

Where the labour of man has ceased, vegetation soon asserts her empire,
and fields, when left to themselves, become, according to their soil,
either wild or stony, or else covered with a dense growth of underwood,
and tall trees. Such was the case over the wide expanse which had been
rendered desolate; the spaces of common ground, with golden blossomed
gorse and wild thyme, continued such as they had been, but trees grew
thick and fast, the beautiful groves became woods in the course of a short
time, and the once cultivated country was rapidly absorbed in the
wilderness portions of Ytchtene. A vast forest darkened the land, and all
trace of ruined homes and dismantled churches disappeared in many parts,
while in others, either the line of erections might be traced by the
elevation of the soil, or else large blocks of stone, and here and there a
broken arch, or doorway, long pointed out the site of a church or castle.
Names, too, are even now retained, with the recollection of their own sad
histories. Church-place and Church-moore seems to mark the solitary spots
as the sites of ancient buildings, where the Anglo-Saxons worshipped and
dwelt in peace, before the stern decree of the unrelenting conqueror razed
the sacred edifices. Thompson's Castle recalls to mind, the cheerfulness
and hospitality that presided in an ancestral hall, while the termination
of _ham_ and _ton_, annexed to many of the woodlands, may be taken as an
evidence that where innumerable boughs are waving, a thronging population
once inhabited.

The memorial-tree, which now stands lone and seamed, was then a sapling,
for such we may conjecture to have been the case, according to the
well-known longevity of forest-trees. Three events of great interest are
associated with it--the making desolate a wide extent of country; the
death of the proud Norman, by whose command the work of ruin was achieved;
and the untimely end of his successor.

Had the history of William I. been written with reference to his private
actions, it might be noticed that a tissue of domestic sorrows succeeded
to the laying desolate of Ytchtene. His wife Matilda died a few years
after, and his fair daughter Gundreda, the cherished one in her father's
house, was cut off in the flower of her youth. He saw with grief the
jealousy that subsisted between his sons William and Henry, and during the
time that Duke Robert, his first-born, continued an exile and a fugitive,
Richard, his second son, was gored to death by a stag, as he was hunting
over the wide expanse which his father had depopulated. Men spoke of the
sad event as a just punishment on him who had respected neither the lives
nor feelings of those who once had dwelt there. Some said, this is but
one; we shall see others of his family to whom the forest will prove
fatal, and they spoke true.

War was declared with France, and a gathering of the bandit chiefs who had
accompanied the king from Normandy, with their sons, and all who held of
him a fief, was convened at Sarum. Thither, accordingly, they came, barons
and men-at-arms, abbots and their vassals, to the number of six thousand,
all bound to do service to the king, and having oaths of homage and
allegiance tended to them in the place of their assembling, that both
those who went, and such as remained behind, might afresh remember to do
his bidding. Sarum was well suited for the purpose, both on account of its
accommodations, and the fine downs by which it was surrounded. It was
anciently a place of considerable note, at first a Roman station,
afterwards the residence of the Emperor Severus.

When the assembly which had met at Sarum was dissolved, the king returned
to London, whence he shortly afterwards departed for the continent, taking
with him his two sons, and a "mighty mass of money," as wrote one who
lived at the time, "piled together for some great attempt," and followed
by the execrations of his Saxon subjects. The object of the expedition was
expressly to take possession of the city of Mantes, with a rich territory
situated between the Epte and the Oise. It is needless to speak of the
negociations with which the French king endeavoured to amuse his rival,
while he secretly authorized his barons to make excursions on the
frontiers of Normandy; or of the deadly hatred which induced William to
delay his attack on Maine till the approach of autumn made his vengeance
more dreadful to the country. The corn was nearly ready for the sickle,
and the grapes hung in ripening clusters on the vines, when the fierce
king ordered his men to advance on the devoted territory; when in the
bitterness of his spirit he marched his cavalry through the corn-fields,
and caused his soldiers to tear up the vines and cut down the pleasant
trees. Mantes could offer but a weak resistance, and the town was set on
fire. This was the last scene of the tragedy in which the Norman conqueror
had acted a conspicuous part; which commenced on the battle-field of
Hastings, and ended in the monastery of St. Gervas. Riding beside the
ruined town, to view the misery which he had wrought, his horse trod on
some hot cinders; the frightened creature plunged violently, and the king
being unable to retain his seat, fell to the ground. The injury which he
sustained caused him to be carried in a litter to a religious house, in
the neighbourhood of Rouen, where his army was encamped, for he could not
bear, he said, the noise of the great city. It was told by those who were
present at the time, that although he at first preserved much apparent
dignity, and conversed calmly on the events of his past life, and
concerning the vanity of human greatness; when death drew near, the case
was otherwise. He then spoke and felt as a dying man, who was shortly to
appear before the tribunal of his Maker, there to render an account of all
the deeds which he had done, of all the gifts committed to his care, of
his riches and his power. His hard heart softened then, and he bitterly
bewailed the cruelties which he had committed. He thought of the fair city
which he had ordered to be set in flames, and though he could not bring to
life the many who had fallen in the dreadful day of its undoing, nor
soothe the mental anguish which that day had caused, he sent a messenger
in haste with a large sum for the rebuilding of the monasteries and
churches. The noble patrimony which he had wrested from ill-fated Harold,
was considered with other thoughts than those with which he left the
shores of England. A large sum was also remitted to the religious houses,
that he might obtain remission for the robberies which he had committed
there. Some who waited beside his couch suggested that whoever sought for
mercy at the hand of the Most High, must show mercy to his fellow-men, and
they entreated him to remember the unhappy persons who had pined for many
years in their lone prison-houses, shut out from all the privileges of
social life. The fierce king felt that it was easier to give money for
rebuilding churches than pardon to an enemy; and it was not till he
apprehended his last hour to be close at hand, that he gave orders for
releasing the state-prisoners. The Earls of Moriar, of Beron, and Ulnot,
the brother of Harold, were accordingly set at liberty; and the Norman,
Roger Fitz Osborn, formerly Earl of Hereford, with Odo, the turbulent
Bishop of Bayeux, also received permission to leave their respective
prisons, although the king remarked with reference to the latter, that by
so doing he was letting loose a firebrand, that might desolate both
England and Normandy.

One morning early, the chief prelates and barons received a summons to
assemble with all haste in the chamber of the king, who finding his end
approach, desired to finish the settlement of his affairs. They came
accordingly, though the day had not yet dawned, and found with him his two
sons, Henry and William, who waited impatiently for the declaration of his
will. "I bequeath the duchy of Normandy," said he, "to my eldest son
Robert. As to the crown of England, I bequeath it to no one, for I did not
receive it, like the duchy of Normandy, from my father, but acquired it by
conquest, and the shedding of blood, with mine own sword. The succession
of that kingdom, I therefore, leave to the decision of the Almighty. My
own most fervent wish is, that my son William, who has ever been dutiful
to me in all things, may obtain and prosper in it." "And what do you give
me, O my father?" impatiently cried Prince Henry, who had not been
mentioned. "Five thousand pounds weight of silver out of my treasury," was
his answer. "But what can I do with five thousand pounds of silver, if I
have neither lands nor a home?" "Be patient," rejoined the king, "and have
trust in the Lord; suffer thy elder brothers to precede thee--thy time
will come after theirs." On hearing this, Prince Henry hurried off to
secure the silver, which he weighed with great care, and then provided
himself with a strong coffer, having locks and iron bindings to keep his
treasure safe. William, also, staid no longer by the bed-side of his dying
parent; he called for his attendants, and hastened to the coast, that he
might pass over without delay to take possession of his crown. He, whose
sword had made many childless, was thus deserted in his hour of greatest
need by his unnatural sons.

The sun had scarcely risen over the plains of Rouen, and scarcely had his
beams lighted the lofty pinnacles of the church and abbey, when the
conqueror was roused from his stupor by the sound of the church bell.
Eagerly inquiring what the sound meant, he was answered that they were
tolling the hour of prime, in the church of St. Mary. On hearing this, he
seemed to revive for a few moments, and then suddenly lifting up his
hands, he cried aloud, "I recommend my soul to my Lady Mary, the holy
mother of our Lord!" having thus said, he sunk back and expired.

  What busy meddling thoughts had power
  To haunt him e'er that solemn hour,
  What broken thoughts of by-gone days,
  Visions of youth, and welcome lays,
  Lays, that the harp could soothly sound,
  When merry steps went pranking round.
  And then his father's castle hall,
  And sooth and bland the cheerful call,
  Of voices lov'd in distant clime,
  Were seen and heard at that sad time;
  Lov'd forms did round his pillow bend,
  And gentle hands his bidding tend,
  The wife and mother by his side,
  In bloom of youth and beauty's pride,
  His own dear child, Gundreda fair,
  With gentle step and smile was there;
  But soon the fitful dream was gone,
  The dying man was all alone,
  Save that stern men were waiting round,
  With cowl and casque, and helm unbound.--M. R.

His last sigh was a signal for a general flight and scramble. The knights
buckled on their spurs, the priests and doctors, who had passed the night
by his bed-side, made no delay in leaving their wearisome occupation. "To
horse! to horse!" resounded through the monastery, and each one galloped
off to his own home, in order to secure his interests or his property. A
few of the king's servants, and some vassals of minor rank staid behind,
but not to do honour to the poor remains of him who had been their king.
They spoke loudly and trod heavily, where but a short time before men
would scarcely have dared to whisper; where the noiseless step and hushed
sound, told the rank and sufferings of him, whom now the voice of seven
thunders would not wake. They proceeded without remorse to rifle the
apartment both of arms and silver vessels; they even took away the linen
and royal vestments, and having hastily packed them in bundles, each man
threw the one, which he secured, upon his steed, and galloped away like
the rest. From six till nine the corpse of the mighty conqueror lay on the
bare boards, with scarcely a sheet to cover him. One son was gone, the
other was looking to his pelf, his officers and men-at-arms, priests and
doctors had deserted him; the queen, who would have watched beside his
dying couch, and soothed his restless pillow, who clearly loved him whilst
living, and would not have forsaken him when dead, was herself in the
still grave. His favourite and youngest daughter, had likewise been laid
to rest, and Eleanor, Margaret, Alela, Constance, and Cecilia were far
distant. Here, then, lay the corpse of William in the dismantled
apartment, while the men of Rouen, who were thrown into the greatest
consternation by the event of the king's death, hurried about the streets,
asking news of one another, or advice concerning the present emergency, or
else busied themselves in hiding such things as were most valuable. At
length the monks and clergy recollected the condition of the deceased
monarch, and forming a procession, they went with a crucifix and lighted
tapers to pray over the dishonoured body. The Archbishop of Rouen wished
that the interment should take place at Caen, in preference to his own
city, it being thought most proper that the church of St. Stephen, which
the king had built, and royally endowed, should be honoured with his
sepulchre. But there was no one to give orders concerning the obsequies of
him who had been so great on earth; his sons and brothers, every relation,
and all the chiefs who had shared his favours were away. Not one was found
even to make inquiry respecting the interment, excepting a poor knight who
lived in the neighbourhood, and who charged himself with the trouble and
expense of the funeral, "out of his natural good nature, and love of the
Most High." Arrangements were made accordingly, and the corpse being
carried by water to Caen, was received by the abbots and monks of St.
Stephen, while the inhabitants of the city, having formed a procession,
headed by the neighbouring ecclesiastics, proceeded towards the abbey.
Suddenly a fire broke out, and each one, whether priest or layman, running
to his home or monastery to prevent the spreading of the flames, the
brothers of St. Stephen alone remained with the bier. Onward, then, they
went, and there was somewhat of funereal solemnity in the last sad act,
for mitred abbots in their robes, with bishops and ecclesiastics in their
gowns and cowls, stood within the abbey walls, in order to receive the
corpse. Mass was then performed, the Bishop of Evreux pronounced a
panegyric on him who had borne the name of Conqueror while living, and who
had done great deeds among his fellow-men, and the bier on which lay the
body of the king, attired in royal robes, and being in no respect
concealed from the view, was about to be lowered into the grave, when a
stern voice forbade the interment. "Bishop," it said, "the man whom you
have praised was a robber. The very ground on which we are standing is
mine; and this is the site of my father's house. He took it from me by
violence to build this church upon its ruins. I reclaim it as my right,
and in the name of the Most High I forbid you to bury him there, or to
cover him with my glebe." The man who spoke thus boldly, was Asseline
Fitz-Arthur. He had vainly sought for justice from the king while living,
and he loudly proclaimed the fact of his injustice and oppression, before
his face, when dead. It seemed fearful to the bystanders, that the funeral
should thus be strangely hindered; that as at first no one had cared to
bury him, whose pale, shrunk countenance and lifeless form was still
upheld above the grave; when some at length were gathered, who thought to
do him honour, the most were hurried off by an alarm of fire, and that at
the very moment of his interment, even the solemn act could not proceed in
peace. Many who were present well remembered the pulling down of
Fitz-Arthur's house, and the distress which it occasioned, and the bishop
being assured of the fact, gave his son, sixty shillings for the grave
alone, and engaged to procure the full value of his land. One moment more,
and the corpse remained among living men; another, and it disappeared in
the darkness of the tomb, and the remainder of the ceremony being hurried
over, the assembly broke up in haste.

  "The red king lies in Malwood Keep.
  To drive the deer o'er lawn and steep,
    He's bound him with the morn;
  His steeds are swift, his hounds are good,
    The like in covert or high wood,
  Were never cheered with horn."--W. STEWART ROSE.

Barons and men-at-arms were assembled in Malwood-Keep, at the invitation
of William Rufus, who proposed to hold a chase, and to follow the red-deer
over the wide hunting-grounds, where once stood the pleasant homes, which
his father had rendered desolate. Prince Henry was there also, and he who
passed at nightfall might have heard loud shouts of revelry resounding
from the castle, while the bright light which streamed from the windows,
gave a strange effect to the giant shadows, which the tall trees of the
dark forest cast on the greensward. A loud cry was heard that night which
awakened all who slept, and caused them to start in terror from their
beds; it came from the king's chamber, whose voice resounding through the
castle, loudly invoked the blessed Virgin, and called in great fear for
lights to be brought immediately. He told those who hastened to his
assistance that he had seen a hideous vision, and he enjoined them to pass
the night at his bed-side, and to divert him with pleasant converse, lest
being left alone, the vision should appear again. At length the morning
began to dawn, and the forest which had looked so gloomy at nightfall was
gloriously lighted up with the bright beams of an August sun; no strange
mysterious-looking shadows caused the passer-by to feel afraid; but
instead of these, waving branches gently rustled in the morning breeze,
and the cheerful songs of early birds resounded from the thickets. William
began to prepare for the chase, and while he was thus employed, an artizan
brought him six new arrows. He praised their workmanship, and putting
aside four for himself, he gave the other two to Sir Walter Tyrrel, or, as
he was often called, Sir Walter de Poix, from his estates in France,
saying, as he presented them, "Good weapons are due to him, who knows how
to make a right use of them." The breakfast-tables were plentifully
supplied, and those who sat around them, talked of the expected pleasures
of the chase, while the red king ate and drank even more than he was wont.
Perhaps the fearful vision of the night still troubled him, and he sought
to put aside the recollection; for it was observed that his spirits rose
at length to the highest pitch. Malwood-Keep resounded with merriment as
it had done the night before, and the horses were seen standing ready
saddled, with hounds in leashes, and grooms and huntsmen preparing for the
chase. Many of the younger barons were already mounted, and their horses
were curvetting on the grass, as though they partook of the impatience of
their riders, while every now and then the blast of the hunter's horn, in
the hand of some young squire, gave notice to those within, that the sun
was already high. All was gaiety and animation, and boisterous mirth
within and around Malwood-Keep, when a stranger was seen approaching
through the forest, grave, and yet in haste. He spoke as one who had
business of moment to communicate, and which admitted of no delay, but his
look and voice sufficed to check the eagerness of those who sought to know
whence, and why, he came. He told the king, when admitted to his presence,
that he had travelled both far and fast; that the Norman abbot of St.
Peter's at Gloucester had sent to inform his majesty how greatly he was
troubled on his account, for that one of his monks had dreamed a dream
which foreboded a sudden and awful death to him.--"To horse!" hastily
exclaimed the king, "Walter de Poix, do you think that I am one of those
fools who give up their pleasure, or their business, for such matters? the
man is a true monk, he dreameth for the sake of money; give him an hundred
pence, and bid him dream of better fortune to our person."

Forth went the hunting train, and while some rode one way, some another,
according to the manner adopted in the chase, Sir Walter de Tyrrel, the
king's especial favourite, remained with him, and their dogs hunted
together. They had good sport, and none thought of returning, although the
sun was sinking in the west and the shadows of the forest-trees began to
lengthen on the grass, at which time an hart came bounding by, between the
king and his companion, who stood concealed in a thicket. The king drew
his bow, but the string broke, and the arrow took no effect; the hart
being startled at the sound, paused in his speed, and looked on all sides,
as if doubtful which way to turn. The king, meanwhile gazing steadfastly
at the creature, raised his bridle-hand above his eyes, that he might
shade them from the glare of the sun, which now shone almost horizontally
through the forest, and being unprovided with a second bow, he called out
"Shoot Walter, shoot away!"[36] Tyrrel drew his bow, but the arrow went
not forth in a straight line, it glanced against a tree, and struck the
king in its side-course against his breast, which was left exposed by the
raised arm. The fork-head pierced his heart, and in an instant he expired.
No words were spoken, no prayer passed his lips; one dismal groan alone
was heard, and the red king lay extended on the grass.[37] Sir Walter flew
to his side, but he saw that his master was beyond all human aid, and
mounting his horse he hastened to the sea-coast, from whence he embarked
for Normandy. He was heard of soon after, as having fled into the
dominions of the French king, and the next account of him was, that he had
gone to the Holy Land.

Popular superstition had long darkened the New Forest with awful spectres;
it was even said that words were heard in its deepest solitudes, of awful
import, denouncing vengeance on the Norman and his evil counsellors. This
was not strange, for men could still remember the driving out of the
unoffending population; the traces of their dwellings might be seen at
intervals, and many a broken cross denoted where a church had stood. The
human mind naturally recoils from scenes of horror, and few were bold
enough to visit even the outskirts of the forest, at nightfall, and alone.
A son of Duke Robert was killed while hunting in the forest by a random
arrow, and now again the blood of the Conqueror was poured on the site of
an Anglo-Saxon church, which the father of him who lay extended on the
earth had pulled down.[38] Rufus had left the bed-side of his dying parent
while life still lingered, intent only on obtaining the English crown; he
even left the care of his interment to the hands of strangers, for it does
not seem that he at all concerned himself about the matter. Now then was
he also left alone, in the depth of the still forest. Walter Tyrrel,
intent only on effecting his escape, or else bewildered by the suddenness
of the calamity, did not seek for any one to assist in burying him; his
companions in the chase were eagerly following their amusement, and
chanced not to pass where he was lying. At length the royal corpse was
discovered by a poor charcoal-burner, who put it, still bleeding, into his
cart, and drove off to Winchester. The intelligence soon spread, and Henry
hastened to seize the treasures that belonged to the crown, while the
knights, who had reassembled at Malwood-Keep, thought only how the
accident might affect themselves; no one caring to show respect to the
remains of the unhappy monarch, with whom they had banquetted the evening
before. It was afterwards observed by many, that as the corpse of the
Conqueror lay extended on a board, with scarcely a vestment to cover him,
so, by a remarkable coincidence, the body of his unnatural son, unwashed,
without even a mantle, and hideous to look upon, remained in the cart of
the charcoal-burner till the next day, when it was conveyed in the same
condition to the cathedral church of Winchester. There, however, some
faint show of respect was paid to what had been a king: it was interred in
the centre of the choir, where, as wrote the chronicler of this sad
history, many persons looked on, but few grieved. It was even said by
some, that the fall of a high tower which covered his tomb with ruins,
showed the just displeasure of Heaven against one, who having deserted his
dying parent, sought not to repair the evils which he had done, who
neither acting justly, nor living righteously, was undeserving of
Christian burial.



The Old Trees in Hyde Park.

  "What are the boasted palaces of man,
  Imperial city or triumphal arch,
  To the strong oak, that gathers strength from time
  To grapple with the storm? Time watch'd
  The blossom on the parent bough. Time saw
  The acorn loosen from the spray. Time pass'd,
  While springing from its swad'ling shell, yon oak,
  The cloud-crowned monarch of the woods, up sprang
  A royal hero from his nurse's arms.
  Time gave it seasons, and time gave it years,
  Ages bestow'd, and centuries grudg'd not;
  Time knew the sapling when gay summer's breath
  Shook to the roots the infant oak, which after
  Tempests moved not. Time hollow'd in its trunk
  A tomb for centuries; and buried there
  The epochs of the rise and fall of states,
  The fading generations of the world,
  The memory of man."

Hyde Park was covered in ancient times with a dense growth of tall trees
and underwood, which extending from sea to sea, shaded a large portion of
the states of the Iceni and Trinobantes, the Cantii and the Regni. But the
aspect of external nature has changed since; instead of noble trees and
all the varied undulations of innumerable boughs, now gently waving in the
breeze of summer, and now furiously wrought upon by the northern blast,
great London has arisen where all was wood and swamp, and on the space
which still retains somewhat of the character that once it bore, are all
the accompaniments of a modern park. Clumps of trees, arranged by the hand
of taste, flowering shrubs, and beautifully tufted groves, delight the eye
with their beauty or their fragrance; walks and carriage-drives, lead
among them, and through that portion, which bears especially the name of
park, winds a gentle river, which reflects on its mirror-like waters,
green sloping banks, where cattle graze.

An aged tree grows on the right hand of the road, beside the river, with
its trunk devoid of bark, and cracked in all directions, the effect of
long exposure to the weather. Its bare and skeleton-looking branches are
also without bark, and beside it stands another tree, the twin brother of
its desolation. These trees are very aged, for the oldest inhabitant in
the neighbourhood remembers to have seen them in the same condition when
he climbed their trunks, a playful boy in search of the owl's nest; but
she was too wary to confide her young to so poor a shelter.

Those who, in their haste, wish to accomplish the designs which they have
projected with too precipitate haste, may derive a moral lesson from these
once noble trees. Each was once enfolded within an auburn nut, a cup and
ball that babes might play with, and which the joyous squirrel, when
seeking her food, might have carried off with ease; and nibbled in a
moment all the delicate ramifications, and the embryo vastness of the
future tree. Autumnal rains mellowed the ground on which the acorns were
deposited, we know not whether by the hand of man, or whether, dropping
from a bough before the forest had disappeared from the moor, some
skipping deer, dibbling the soft earth with his pointed hoof, prepared a
receptacle in which the acorns might rest secure, till the return of
spring. Here then lay the auburn nuts. Leaves reft by the winds of Autumn
fell thick and fast upon the earth, and over them the snow formed a light
covering; and though the wind howled in its fury, and the heavy storm
raged through the forest, the acorns remained safe till the winds ceased
their contention, and the storm-clouds passed by. Then did the acorns
open by virtue of that secret and mighty power which re-clothes the
forest-boughs with leaves, and causes the herbless soil, to be covered
with grass and flowers. Two small lobes first uprose from out the soil,
formed with the exactest symmetry, and being in themselves both thick and
well furnished with pores, they served not only to shield the small buds
that lay between them, but to yield abundant moisture for the support of
their nascent life. Presently a young leaf emerged from the bud, then the
leaf was pushed upwards by the supporting stem, till at length other small
leaves appeared, and the character of a tree was gradually assumed.
Meanwhile the tender scions were watered with early dews, and warmed by a
bright sun; the rain fell on them, and the internal heat which had
preserved life within the acorns, while they lay embedded in the cold
earth, did its work, and the trees advanced in their growth.

What people inhabited Britain when these things were being done? Were they
the natives of the island, or were they Romans, Danes, or Saxons, Picts or
Scots? Did the rude dwellings of our remotest ancestors skirt the margin
of the forest on the plain country? did their woad-dyed chieftains walk
beneath the parent trees; or the Druid cut with his golden knife, the
hallowed misletoe from their branches? Were the gentle undulations of hill
and dale varied with palaces and forums? did the Roman dwell among them,
or were they trod upon by the ruthless Dane, or the proud Norman, when the
trees attained to their maturity? No spirit dwells within their trunks,
as the poets feigned concerning their brethren of Dodona; no voice answers
to the question. The sighing of the wind alone is heard among their
sapless branches.

Thus much we know, that in all forest-trees the stages of vegetation are
alike. But century after century must have rolled on, till the giant bulk
of the noble trees were fully developed, till their stately columns,
upheld an ample canopy of spreading boughs, beneath which the flocks that
grazed in the open spaces of the forest might find a shelter from the
storm. Time was, when the settling of a fly upon the saplings could shake
them to the root, but at this period of their history, a tempest would not
disturb them. The busiest thoughts might find an ample field to range in,
when comparing the small beginnings, with the matchless grandeur of these
once noble trees. How, at their prime age, the smooth bark, by which they
were enveloped, contained within their girth, wood sufficient to plank the
deck and sides of a large vessel; how their tortuous arms would have
yielded many a load of timber, which, if drawn by oxen, might have wearied
the ponderous creatures, long before they reached the place of
destination, at even a short distance. But, in those ages, oaks were not
hewn down as they now are. Still the trees grew on, till their
moss-cushioned roots upheaved above the earth, and their smooth trunks,
becoming rugged, were embossed with globose wens. Then decay began her
noiseless work; one atom, and then another, were silently disjointed from
the rest, till at length a labour was achieved in the breaking down of
these firm trees, which, had it been done by the hand of man, would have
made the wide forest ring. Nothing now remains of the once gigantic trees,
not even the semblance of their ancient selves--nothing but shapeless
trunks, heavy ponderous masses, with here and there a strip of rugged
bark, in the interstices of which, tufts of moss and pendent ferns have
struck their roots. There is nothing either in the trunks or branches to
tempt the woodman's hatchet, and therefore, the old trees still remain.
Their roots are firmly interlaced in the earth, they clasp the blocks of
stone that lie buried beneath the soil, with their stout spurs and knotted
fangs, while here and there a projecting mass rises above the scanty
herbage, dotted over with the yellow lichen and little nailwort which
grows on dry walls and rocks. Crooked into every imaginable shape, they
still hold their stems erect, memorials of past ages, revealers of what
time has done;--yea, perhaps, also what the hand of man has achieved,
though the old trees stand not, as many others, chroniclers connected with
some of those memorable events, which give a date to history, and are
waymarks, which identify the noiseless steps of time. The winds of many
winters have reft off the giant branches which long since afforded a
shelter from the blast; rovers of the forest--men, perhaps, with bow and
shaft, have burnt them. Some have left, in breaking, a bleached and
splintered stump, but concerning others there is no trace even of the
branch on which they grew; rough bark has grown most probably over it, and
moss and tufted lichens have taken root in the interstices. Still, life
lingers in the worn-out trees, and proofs are not wanting, that its secret
and mighty power is yet working, though death preponderates. The passer-by
sees with astonishment, young green leaves in the interstices of the
quarried bark; he sees them, but can hardly believe that the shapeless
thing which stands before him has life hidden where all seems to denote
death; that her sweet force is equally available in the furrowed oak, as
among the young green trees of the neighbouring coppice, which sprung, it
may be, from out the earth, a thousand years later, in the lapse of time.

The old trees are well qualified by age, to teach lessons of wisdom to
hoary men. Had they a voice, they could discourse much concerning the
mutability of things below; how nations have risen and waned, while they
advanced to maturity, and of the gradual emerging of a mighty people from
the darkness of past ages, to the highest pitch of intellectual culture.
But this may not be, for the gifts of speech and reason, of voice and
memory, are not for these ancient tenants of the soil. Leaning against
their mossy trunks, with no prompter, and no hearer, except the time-worn
trees and the calm still scene around me, let me be myself the oracle, and
discourse to mine own ear, concerning the mutations of past ages.

Here, then, in bye-gone days, stood one vast forest, with its dells and
dingles, its clear prattling streams, and ceaseless murmur of wind among
the branches. We know not that men dwelt within its precincts, or that the
natives of the country, our remotest ancestors, built their wattled
dwellings, or fed their flocks in the open spaces; most probably not, for
the wild animals that ranged here were dangerous to contend with. Years
went on, and men clad in skins, and dyed blue with woad, came from the
shores of Gaul. They established themselves in the plain country which is
bounded by the British Channel, and formed at length a considerable
settlement beside the river that waters this part of Britain. They also
threw up bulwarks, and added to the natural strength of the place by
forming ramparts and sinking fosses. The settlement was called Llyn-din,
or the town on the lake, Llyn being the British term for a broad expanse
of water or lake. It was appropriately given, for the low grounds on the
Surrey side of the river were often overflowed, as also those that extend
from Wapping marsh to the Isle of Dogs, and still further, for many miles
along the Essex coast. At length, strangers from another country settled
there. They saw that the land was good, and that the trees which crowded
around the settlement, and shadowed on either side the current of the
river, might be cleared away. They were men who soon carried into
execution the schemes which they devised, and having enlarged the place,
and raised within it noble buildings, for beauty and security, they gave
it the name of Londinium. A fort was built, and ships came from a
distance, bringing with them the productions of other climes. Then began
the trees of the great forest to fall beneath the axe of the woodcutter,
and the marshy places were brought into cultivation. Londinium rapidly
advanced to the dignity of a military station; it even became the capital
of one of the great provinces, into which the Romans divided Britain.

A spirit of enterprise had ever characterised the polished people who now
gained an ascendency; not only were the marshy places in the forest
drained for the purpose of feeding cattle, but the low-ground which lay
along the river, and which, in rainy seasons, presented an unsightly
aspect, was recovered from the waters. Embankments were thrown up on
either side to prevent the encroachments of the tide. They commenced in
what are now St. George's Fields, and continued along the adjoining and
equally shallow marshes, till they terminated in the grand sea-wall of the
deep fens of Essex. Thus, in comparatively a short period, those vast
tracts of land which presented, during winter, only a dreary expanse of
troubled waters; in the summer, small stagnant pools, with a dry crust of
mud, and here and there tufts of rushes, or rank grass, were covered with
splendid villas, and a thronging population.

The giant work of embanking the river was succeeded by making one of those
great military roads which opened a communication from one end of the
island to the other. This was the old Watling or Gathelin Street: it led
from London to Dover, and was much travelled on by those who were going to
embark for the Imperial city. The making of the road broke up the quiet of
the forest, through an extent of which it had to pass; nothing was heard
but the crashing of noble trees, and the rattling of cars, heavily laden
with stone and lime; it was carried within sight of the old trees, and,
having crossed what is now the Oxford road, at Cumberland-gate, it ran to
the west of Westminster, over the river Thames, and onward into Kent. This
was its broad outline, and the country through which it lay had been
reclaimed either from the forest or the river. It was exceedingly
frequented, and carriages of all descriptions continually passed and
repassed, either in going to, or else returning from the city.

Londinium was next surrounded with a wall, and a considerable extent of
forest-land was cleared for the purpose of being enclosed within its ample
range. It was said that the mother of Constantine, who liked much to
reside in the rising city, greatly favoured this great work, and that she
urged her son to promote the grandeur and security of the place. The wall
encompassed the city from right to left. It began at the fort, which
occupied a portion of what is now the Tower, and made a circuit of nearly
two miles, and one furlong. Another wall, strongly defended with towers
and bastions, extended along the banks of the river, to the distance of
one mile, and one hundred and twenty yards. The height of the wall was
twenty two feet, that of the towers forty feet, and the space of ground
enclosed within the circumference of both walls, was computed at three
hundred and eighty acres.

Thus stood Londinium. Patricians and military officers, merchants and
artificers, resorted thither from all parts, and there Constantine held
his court, with the splendour of Imperial Rome. A few more years, and the
power of the Romans began to wane, and with it waned also, the prosperity
of the sea-girt isle. Stranger barks came from the shores of Saxony, and
in them armed men of fierce countenances, who knew little of the arts of
civilized life. What they saw, they conquered, and the noble city with its
palaces and forums, its schools, of eloquence, and temples for Pagan
worship, fell into their hands. Then might be seen from the old trees the
red glare of the burning city; but it was again rebuilt, and though, in
after years, the Danes sorely oppressed its inhabitants, it resumed its
high standing as the metropolis of Britain; the seat of arts and commerce;
kings reigned within its walls, and merchants came from all parts of the
known world, bringing with them the productions of other countries, and
exciting a spirit of enquiry and enterprise, throughout all classes of

The old trees remained as they were, and London, for so the city was
called at length, increased in might and power; the swarming population
could no longer be contained within its walls, and the walls were broken
down in consequence. Villages were built in places where, but a few years
before, was a dense growth of underwood, with high trees that cast their
lengthened shadows on the ground. Gradually the city enlarged her bounds,
and those groups of houses which had been called villages, and which stood
in the midst of pleasant fields, well-watered and reclaimed from the
forest, were reached by lines of streets, and so encroaching were they,
that it was thought advisable to retain some portion of the ancient forest
as a royal park, both for exercise and ornament. If the trees of the
forest could have spoken, they would have rejoiced at this, but none more
than the old trees, my own memorial trees, these relics of past ages;
though now beginning to decay, long tufts of lichens having struck their
roots into the rough bark, and many of their noblest branches having been
long since broken by fierce winds, or rovers of the forest. They nearly
stood alone, for very few remained of those which had grown here, when all
around was one wide forest, one intermingling of shadowing boughs from sea
to sea, or spaces of waste land, untilled and tenantless. The old Roman
road, which had been raised with so much cost and care, soon fell to
decay; its materials were carried off, and the green sward rapidly
extended over that portion of it which passed through Hyde Park and St.
James's Park. Those who like to tread where the Romans trod, may yet walk
on a small portion of their ancient route, in the public road leading to
Westminster Abbey, on the side nearest the turnpike.

The retaining part of the old forest was a desirable measure, for the
advance of London towards this quarter, was alone restrained by the
prescribed boundaries; and now the windows of her crowding houses look
upon the trees and grass, and the ceaseless hum of human voices, which she
sends forth from all her hundred gates, is heard continually, with the
mingled sound of rolling carriages, of heavy waggons, and the trampling of
horses' feet. Magnificent equipages drive along the smoothly gravelled
roads, with which the modern park that extends around the old tree is
intersected. Riders on steeds, such as the ancient Britons saw not, and
even the polished Romans could hardly have imagined, pass and repass among
the trees, and gaily attired pedestrians walk beneath their shade. Strange
contrast to what has been! The mental eye, back glancing through the vista
of long ages, still loves to dwell on the loneliness and the grandeur, on
the gloom and depth of the wide forest: it mourns over the ages and the
generations that have passed away, since the memorial trees emerged from
their cradle in the earth. Some hand might inscribe on their rough bark
that all is vanity, that the glorious earth was not designed to be thus
made a charnel-house; but, among those who pass the aged trees, few would
stop their progress, or their discourse, to read the inscription; and,
among those who read, fewer, perhaps, would desire that it should be

[Illustration: Hatfield Oak.]

Hatfield Oak.

    [Queen Elizabeth is said to have been seated beneath the shade of
    Hatfield Oak when she received intelligence of the death of her sister

  How dim and indistinct the silent scene!
    O'er groves and valleys sleeping mists are spread,
  Like a soft silvery mantle; while the stream,
    Scarce heard to flow, steals on its pebbly bed;
  Nor e'en a ripple wakes the silence round,
  As if it flowed, perchance, through some enchanted ground.

  But O, the gorgeous tint, the dazzling glow
    In the clear west; for scarce the sun is gone!
  That glowing tint doth yet a radiance throw
    On the hill-top, while, aye, each old grey stone
  Glitters like diamonds 'mid the mountain heath,
  While fades, in deep'ning gloom, the sleeping vale beneath.

  One lonely spot, which oft, in solemn mood,
    Men have gazed on in ages long gone by,
  Where stands that relic of the good green wood,
    The aged oak, prompting a tear or sigh;
  That lonely spot gleams o'er the misty scene,
  Catching the splendour of the dazzling sheen.

  And, aye, the lichens that have fixed deep
    Their tiny roots within the furrowed bough;
  And one small flower, which still her vigils keep,
    The blue forget-me-not, are glowing now,
  In characters, methinks, of living flame,
  Seeming to print the old oak's massy frame.

  It looks as if a bright and sudden beam,
    Within that oak, broke forth with fervid ray,
  Tinting its old boughs with a golden gleam,
    Bright as the deep glow of the parting day;
  Tempting the passer-by to linger still,
  Amid the deep'ning gloom that broods o'er dale and hill.

  Ah! linger still, nor fear the chill night-wind;
    It comes not yet, for scarce the sun is gone!
  Each living emblem, speaking to the mind,
    May counsel well, and cheer, if reft and lone,
  Thy sad thoughts, earthward bend, giving but little heed
  To signs of mercy near, waiting each hour of need.

  Men may learn from them, be it joy or pain,
    That bids the heart its wonted calm forego,
  Sunbeams, or showers, loud wind, or driving rain,
    The morning hoar frost, or the dazzling snow,
  The small bird, journeying through the pathless skies,
  May win dull thought, from earthly care to rise.

  It might be, that in such a glowing hour,
    When shone the old oak, as with living flame,
  While anxious thoughts within her breast had power,
    Forth from yon aged hall[39] a lady came
  To meet the freshness of the evening breeze,
  Viewless, yet rustling still among the trees.

  Oh! there were hearts within that stately hall,
    Though ruined now, that beat with high alarm,
  And champing steeds, and warders waiting all
    To guard, if need might be, from gathering harm,
  And cautious looks, and voices speaking low,
  As if they feared an hour of coming woe.

  Yes, life or death, eternity or time,
    Waited the passing of that anxious day;
  A throne, a prison, much perchance of crime,
    Should statesmen battle, each in stern array;
  Should death steal onward through a palace gate,
  Warning his victim from her hall of state.

  The mind back glancing through long ages past,
    E'en to the changes in that fitful scene,
  Calls forth from out the dim, the lone, the vast,
    One act to gaze on, noting what hath been
  In dreamy life; though all we now descry
  Seems as a mournful vision sweeping by.

  Look then on her, for whom no evening gleam,
    Nor soft wind rustling in the young green trees,
  Can soothe the wasting grief--the fever'd dream--
    The wandering thought, finding but little ease;
  For each fond hope from the sad heart is flown,
  Like leaves by autumn winds, all sear'd and gone.

  Her hall is lonely now, her throne of state
    Strangers may gaze at; one lone couch of pain
  Holdeth her now, and pale care seems to wait
    Beside that couch, despite the weeping train
  Who vainly seek, with fond officious zeal,
  To soothe the rankling grief they may not heal.

  Through the dim oriel streams that sunny glow
    Which tints the old oak with its parting beam
  And one last flush gleams on the cold, damp brow
    Whence life is ebbing, like a fitful dream,--
  Too soon for those whom anxious boding fill,
  Her weeping train of ladies, watching still.

  Why watch ye now? Seven thunders would not wake
    That dreaded one--her load of life laid down.
  Her sleep is sound. Her stern heart may not ache,
    Nor throb the brow that wore a joyless crown;
  An instant past a queen. For love or hate,
  She cares not now; waiting at mercy's gate.

  Hark to swift footsteps on the dewy grass,
    'Mid the dim twilight, for the flush is gone
  That lit yon death-couch. Hasting on they pass
    To hail, as queen, the lone and captive one.
  Captive, and yet a queen! one moment more
  Shall give to her the crown that anxious Mary wore.

[Illustration: The Beech of the Frith Common.]

The Beech of the Frith Common.

  "Thrice fifty summers have I stood
  In beauteous, leafy solitude,
  Since childhood in my rustling bower
  First spent its sweet and sportive hour,
  Since youthful lovers in my shade
  Their vows of truth and honour paid;
  And on my trunk's smooth, glossy frame
  Carv'd many a long-forgotten name:
  Oh! by the vows of gentle sound,
  First breath'd upon this sacred ground;
  By all that truth hath whisper'd here,
  Or beauty heard with willing ear,
  As love's own altar honour me,
  Spare, woodman, spare the beechen tree."--ROGERS.

Let him who loves to mark the changes of the seasons, and to watch the
alternations which spring and summer, autumn and winter, produce in the
vegetable kingdom, stand beside one of those magnificent columns which
spring from out the parent earth, and bear on high a canopy of branches.
Let him choose that season when the leaves are just beginning to expand,
when the swelling buds assume a reddish tint, and here and there a young
green leaf has unfolded, in all its freshness and its beauty, as yet
unsoiled by a passing atom, or unbeaten by a single rain-drop. The
clouds, how beautiful they look, and the deep blue sky above them! for
both are clearly seen through the ramified branches; the first, when
driven swiftly by soft breezes from the west; the other, in all its
grandeur and extent, as when the morning stars rejoiced together, and it
first appeared like a glorious pavilion based on the distant hills.

Such is the Beech of the Frith Common. It stands alone in the centre of a
beautiful common, covered with wild flowers and short herbage, and the
fragrant thyme, among which the industrious bee loves to nestle, and to
gather in her harvests. The nest of the skylark is among the
juniper-bushes that skirt the margin of the common; its joyous tenant is
up in air, warbling and rejoicing, and making his high home resound with
melody. And well may he rejoice, for he has no sadness to damp his song,
no earth-born cares to bring him down. But if we seek for one, albeit
assigned to earth, and being unable to soar into mid air, yet thankful and
making the best of her humble lot, list to the contented cuckoo; she bids
the valley ring with her note, it is unvaried, and some people would fain
say that it is wearisome;--no such thing, it is the very voice of spring,
telling of sweet flowers and lengthening days, of soft May showers, and of
the coming of wandering birds from far-off shores, to make glad the fields
of Britain. The Beech of the Frith Common has no voice with which to swell
the chorus that has just begun, and which increases daily, as first one
musician and then another, comes in aid. But this noble tree is to the eye
what music is to the ear. Look at the stately stem, how smooth and glossy;
time has not yet furrowed it, nor has the pendent lichen and gray moss
rooted themselves in its rough fissures. No records of human crime, nor
human care are chronicled upon its bark, no ruin stands near on which the
woes of ages have gathered and brood heavy; no associations connected with
the beautiful tree, of midnight murders and broken hearts, the tears of
orphans and the prayers of oppressed ones, for patience or for redress.
Neither is there any trace upon the common, that a circle of unhewn stones
ever stood within its precincts, where unhallowed rites were practised,
and midnight incantations uttered; nor even that the grave of Briton or of
Gaul, of Roman or of Saxon, were made there, for the turf is smooth as

Stately stands the tree, the tree beloved of all. The oak is a majestic
tree, the chesnut one of the most umbrageous of forest trees, the elm
rises like a pyramid of verdure, the ash has its drooping branches, the
maple is celebrated for its light and quivering foliage, but the beech is
the poets' tree, the lovers' tree. Have you not heard that young men often
haunt the forest, and disfigure the even and silvery bark of beech-trees,
by making them the depositors of the names of their beloved ones? "The
bark," say they, "conveys a happy emblem," and while thus employed they
please themselves with thinking, that as the letters of the name
increase, so will their love.

Here then stands the beech-tree, in all its dignity and fair proportions,
its firm trunk based in the earth, but with no knarled roots upheaving the
soil around, and making it unsightly. When the celebrated Smeaton pondered
within himself concerning the possibility of constructing a building on
the Eddystone rock, which might resist the tremendous violence of
contending seas, which had swept away the previous erections of Winstanley
and Rudyerd, and left not a stone remaining; seas which dash at least two
hundred feet above the rock, and the sound of whose deafening surges
resemble the continuous roar of thunder, his thoughts involuntarily turned
towards the oak. He considered its large swelling base, which becomes
reduced to one third, occasionally to one half of its original dimensions,
by a gradual and upward tapering of the living shaft, and it appeared to
him that a building might be erected on the model of the oak, that would
be fully able to resist the action of external violence. Thus thinking, he
projected the light-house of Eddystone, which soon proved, amid the
tremendous fury of contending elements, that he had not erred in taking
nature for his guide. A beech or elm might have suggested the same
thought, for in the trunk of every forest-tree the material is so disposed
that the greater portion pertains to the base of the column; that part,
especially, which rises from the root is thickest, and why is this? not
only because a tapering column is far more beautiful than one of equal
girth, but because the disturbing force at the top, acts more powerfully
on the lower sections, than on the higher. It is needful that the base of
the column should be strengthened, and it is equally unnecessary that the
top should be of the same thickness as the base. Two purposes are
consequently answered. The tree is rendered stronger and more elegant, and
a certain portion of material is given to one part, without weakening the
other. A tree is, therefore, equally adapted by its construction to resist
the fury of the tempest, of that unseen, yet mighty force which comes
against it, when the fierce northern blast howls through the forest; as
also the load of snow which often presses heavily upon its topmost

There is not throughout the vegetable kingdom a more glorious object than
a tree, with its smooth and tapering trunk, and its canopy of mingling
boughs. Who can estimate correctly the majesty with which it is invested,
or the grace and grandeur of its proportions, and its bulk? The finest
trees often grow on mountainous heights, harmonizing with the illimitable
expanse of heaven, or surrounded with the wildest extent of forest
scenery. Their intrinsic bulk is therefore lessened to the eye, and it is
not till they are singled from the surrounding landscape, and subjected to
a rule and measure, that an opinion can be formed with respect to their
vast size and height. Even then, the certainty often fails to impress the
mind, for figures convey but an imperfect conception of length and
breadth, of height and girth. Some more familiar illustrations are wanting
to prove that many a majestic tree, which is admired among its sylvan
brethren, as the proudest ornament of a park or forest, is in reality an
enormous mass, which the passer-by would gaze at with awe and admiration,
if seen beside the dwellings and the palaces of men; or compared with the
moving objects which pass and repass in the streets of a great city. Our
native woods often contain noble specimens, of which the bulk is ten or
twelve feet in diameter, a width greater by three feet than the
carriage-way of Fetter lane, near Temple-bar; and oaks might be named, on
the block of which two men could thresh without incommoding one the other.
The famous Greendale Oak is pierced by a road, over which it forms a
triumphal arch, higher by several inches than the poets' postern at
Westminster Abbey. The celebrated table in Dudley Castle which is formed
of a single oaken plank, is longer than the wooden bridge that crosses the
lake in the Regent's park; and the roof of the great hall of Westminster,
which is spoken of with admiration on account of its vast span, being
unsupported by a single pillar, is little more than one-third the width of
the noble canopy of waving branches that are upheld by the Worksop Oak.
The massive rafters of the spacious roof rest on strong walls, but the
branches of the tree spring from one common centre. Architects can alone
estimate the excessive purchase which boughs, of at least one hundred and
eighty-nine feet, must have on the trunk into which they are inserted.
Those of the Oak of Ellerslie cover a Scotch acre of ground; and in the
Three-shire Oak, its branches drip over an extent of seven hundred and
seven square yards. The tree itself grows in a nook that is formed by the
junction of the three counties of York, Nottingham, and Derby; and as the
trunk is so constructed, being tapering and firmly rooted in the earth, in
order that it may uphold the boughs and repel the fury of the winds, so
are the boughs themselves, made with an especial reference to the purpose
for which they are designed. They are much thicker at the place of their
insertion in the trunk than at the extremity; that their tendency to break
may thus be uniform. We owe to this, the graceful waving of innumerable
boughs, here aspiring in airy lightness above the general mass, and there
gracefully feathering to the ground, the pleasing murmur of their foliage
when rustling in the warm breeze of summer, and the elegant ramifications
which are perceptible in winter. But whether seen against the clear blue
ether of a winter sky, or presenting a broad and ample breadth of shade;
whether raged against by a fierce tempest, or having the foliage gently
shaken by playful breezes; the giant resistance in one case, or the
ceaseless quiver of the other, owe their power, and their play, to the
unseen members of the mighty column which are buried deep within the
earth. These, though still, are ever working. Though they cannot move
themselves, they move others. They draw up the moisture of the earth and
send it, by means of a secret influence on an undiscoverable machinery,
which is seen in its effects, though the way in which it operates is
entirely unknown, to fill with life the smallest leaf that quivers in the
sunbeams, or the tender bud that is not yet emerged from its silken

They serve likewise to brace the tree within the earth, and they vary
according to climate and locality. Take the beech for instance, which
flourishes alike in deep valleys, and on windy hills. When growing in a
sheltered place the roots are thrown out equally, like rays diverging from
a common centre. When standing on an eminence or on a plain, exposed to
the action of a wind that blows generally from one quarter, the roots
spread out and grapple the firm soil towards the quarter from which the
wind comes. In this country it is generally south-west, or
west-south-west; hence it happens that when other causes do not interfere,
our native trees generally incline their heads to the north-east, and
their strongest roots go forth in an opposite direction, for the evident
purpose of holding the tree firm, when the storms beat upon it. Trees are,
consequently, often uprooted by a sudden squall of wind from the east or
north-east, which have withstood the tempests of ages.

The aggregate effect produced by forest scenery is magnificent--the deep
retiring woodland, the waving of innumerable branches, the majestic
columns which uphold them, the mingled tints and hues, the dancing of the
lights and shadows on the ground, the long, long vistas which extend far
as the eye can reach, when the view of external nature is shut out, when
there is neither a green meadow nor distant hill to be seen, nor even a
fence nor railing, nothing which betokens the hand of man; but noble trees
around, and a magnificent canopy of mingled boughs; when not a sound is
heard except the rustling of the wind in the topmost branches, or
perchance the plaintive voice of the ring-dove, which loves to build her
nest in solitary places. But the tree, which like the Beech of the Frith
Common, stands alone, can best be understood. The mind can rest upon it,
and the eye can embrace its beautiful proportions. Wisdom may be gained by
him who loves to read the ample page of nature, while musing beneath its
branches, for every leaf is an open book, every tender bud tells much
concerning the goodness of that Being whose beneficence is equally
conspicuous in the smallest, as in the mightiest of created things.

  This noble tree grows on a sunny hill side,
    And merry birds sing round it all the day long;
  Oh the joy of my childhood, at evening tide,
    To sit in its shadow and list the birds' song!

  No sound then was heard but the gush of the rill,
    Or the woodpecker tapping some hollow beech-tree;
  While the sun shed his last purple glow on the hill,
    And the last hum was heard of the home-loving bee.

  But now far away from that sunny hill side,
    'Mid the stir and the din of the proud city's throng,
  I think, is that tree standing yet in its pride?
    Are the echoes still woke by the merry birds' song?

  They tell me the woodcutter's hatchet was heard,
    To thin the tall trees where they drooped o'er the lea;
  But he marr'd not the home of the wandering bird,
    The haunt of my childhood, my own beechen-tree.

  May peace in the cot of that woodman abide,
    And grateful birds sing to him all the day long,
  May his steps long be firm on the sunny hill's side.
    And echo respond to the voice of his song.

  I can think of that tree, where no green trees are seen,
    'Mid the city's loud din, for the spirit is free,
  And dear to me still is the wild daisied green.
    Where thy branches are waving, my own beechen-tree.

[Illustration: THE SALCEY OAK]

The Salcey Oak

  "Thou wert a bauble once, a cup and ball,
  Which babes might play with, and the thievish jay,
  Seeking her food, with ease might have purloin'd
  The auburn nut that held thee, swallowing down
  Thy yet close-folded latitude of boughs,
  And all thy embryo vastness at a gulph."--COWPER.

By virtue of those indices which naturalists discover in the trunks and
boughs of aged trees, it is conjectured that the autumns of fifteen
hundred years have visited the Oak of Salcey. Standing remote from those
frequented parts of Britain, where a thronging population causes the
increase of buildings and the making of new roads, protected also by the
inland situation of the little forest by which it is surrounded, the old
tree has remained entire. It stands a living cavern, with an arched
entrance on either side, within whose ample circumference large animals
may lie down at noon, and where the careful shepherd often folds his flock
at nightfall. It measures forty-six feet ten inches at the base, and at
one yard from the ground the girth is thirty-nine feet ten inches.

The knotted roots of the old tree have been laid bare by time or
accidents, or by that living principle which causes aged trees to unearth
their roots, and to raise the soil into hillocks; successive storms or the
heavy tread of cattle have worn away the hillocks, and the roots being
left in arches, produce an equally fantastic and picturesque effect. I
have frequently observed the same peculiarity among the deep beech-woods
of Gloucestershire; grass does not generally grow beneath them, yet in
places open to the sun, primroses nestle in the interstices, and long
pendent fern-leaves with the nailwort and forget-me-not grow profusely;
but more commonly the bare and knarled roots are without verdure, and they
often afford a welcome covert to the wild rabbit, who makes them the
portals of her burrow.

The effect which is thus produced is well deserving the attention of the
artist. The roots of such trees as grow on high and rugged banks, are
occasionally unearthed to the extent of several feet, while between them,
are deep hollows, running far back, with masses of freestone, and pendent
ferns; and groups of innocent sheep, may be often seen with their heads
projecting beneath the long fibres of the thickly tangled roots. Pliny
relates that in countries subject to the shock of earthquakes, or where
the living principle in trees is extremely vigorous, in consequence of
soil or climate, the roots are often raised to a surprising height, that
they look like arches, beneath which troops of cavalry may pass, as
through the open and stately portals of a town.

The venerable tree which has given rise to this digression, stands in the
centre of a grassy area, where cattle pasture, and though still bearing
the name of forest, the site on which it grows, exhibits little that would
recall to mind, that it was once covered with noble trees. A few still
remain, some apparently of great age, others in different stages of growth
or of decay; but to the eye and to the heart, the one which is called by
pre-eminence the Salcey Oak, must be alone.

He who loves to watch the motions of animals, and the flight of birds; the
passing of summer clouds, and the gradual advancing and receding of the
light; the aspect too of nature, when shone upon by the bright warm
sunbeams or at the fall of night, may find much to interest him in, and
around the time-worn tree. Seen dimly in the dubious nights of the summer
solstice, it presents the aspect of a cavern overgrown with bushes, within
which a flock of sheep are often quietly reposing, or a cow has laid down
to rest, with her little one beside her. The dew meanwhile is heavy on the
grass, and not a sound is heard. The inmates of the nearest farm-house are
not yet moving, neither is any animal abroad, nor have the early birds
left the boughs on which they rest. That sound of waters which of all
others is the loudest, when all else is still, which seems to gather
strength when the night is deepest, and often causes him who loiters in
the fields to think that he is listening to the congregated roar of some
far-off torrent, when perhaps only a little streamlet is brawling among
the trees; that solemn sound is not heard here, for no running streams are
close at hand. Nothing then is heard in the silence of this lone hour, but
the rustle of the aspen-leaves, which are never still, even in the hot
nights of summer, when not a breeze is felt, or the last whoop of the gray
owl, when she hastens to shelter herself in the cavernous old tree, for
that is her favourite abode. The nightingale does not affect the Oak of
Salcey, neither does the lark love to raise his voice in the midst of the
old trees, where no young copses, covered with wild roses and
honeysuckles, invite him to place his nest among them.

When the day dawns, and objects become visible, forth come the hare and
rabbit from their shady coverts, and joyous birds from the shelter of
trees and bushes. The early blackbird, nature's sweetest minstrel, sings
loudly that all may hear, and shaking off their slumbers may be up and
doing; his full strain of melody does not always wait for the rising of
the sun, he rather bids him welcome on his first appearance. Heralded by
his clear voice, the chorus of singing birds commences. The lark rises
high in air, the thrush and throstle, the linnet and the goldfinch pour
forth such enchanting notes, as man, with all his science, cannot imitate.
The rays of the bright sun shine into the hollow of the tree, and rouse
the innocent sheep which slept there, to pasture on the fresh grass; the
cattle too are moving, some from the great oak, others from the
coppice-wood, which is seen at intervals among the trees. The business of
the farm now commences, and the labourers are abroad. You may, perhaps,
chance to see one of them pass this way, in going to, or returning from
the fields, either to gather in the crops of hay, or corn, or to plough
the land according to the season of the year. But this is of rare
occurrence, few care to visit the old oak, and the pathway does not lead
across the area by which it is surrounded.

At noon day when the sun is high, how quiet is this place! The song-birds
are silent, but the hum of insects is at its height; they float up and
down, and seem to rest on the soft air, as if threading the mazes of a
dance, and then advancing and retreating with a ceaseless buzz. But when
the shadow of the tree lengthens upon the grass, and the beams of the
setting sun tint its topmost boughs of a golden hue, first one bird
carols, and then another. Then also the breathing of the oxen, and the
brushing sound which they make in cropping the damp grass, become audible.
No one listens to them at noon, but the deep silence which begins to steal
over the place, when twilight renders the large objects alone visible,
brings the slightest movement to the ear. At length even such faint sounds
are heard no longer; the birds cease their songs, and when the moonbeams
shine into the cavern which time has formed in the Oak of Salcey, it may
be seen that both sheep and cattle have retired thither.

At one season of the year the oak is beat upon by heavy rain, and loud
winds howl furiously around its aged head; at another it is white with
snow, or the hoar frost of winter settles on it. At length green leaves
peep forth from among the fissures of the trunk and boughs, and the
sapling trees are green also.

There is little else to record in connexion with this aged tree. Peasants
may have sheltered their flocks for ages beneath its canopy of branches,
when those branches were full of sap, and when stately trees stood round
in all their greatness, where now only a grassy area meets the eye. But no
ancient ruins are to be seen by him who climbs the trunk, nor yet the
traces of any city which might have invited the aggressions of an enemy.
We conjecture, therefore, that a forest, with breaks of lawn and thicket,
and perhaps a common on which the peasant built his hut, and the homestead
arose in peaceful times, might have extended round the oak of Salcey. The
ground on which we tread presents sufficient indications that such has
been the case. The millfoil-yarrow, the wild camomile, the gravel
birdweed, and stonebasil, ancient tenants of the soil, which grow only in
the purest air of heaven, on waste land and stony banks, are seen in
company with the wild bluebell and the crested cowwheat, with which the
mower filleth not his hand, nor he that bindeth sheaves his bosom.


Old Trees in Welbeck Park.

  "There oft the Muse, what most delights her, sees
  Long living galleries of aged trees;
  Bold sons of earth, that lift their arms so high,
  As if once more they would invade the sky.
  In such green palaces the first kings reign'd,
  Slept in their shades, and angels entertain'd.
  With such old counsellors they did advise,
  And, by frequenting sacred groves, grew wise.
  Free from the impediments of light and noise,
  Man, thus retir'd, his noblest thoughts employs."--WALLER.

Valleys and cultivated fields, have each their characteristics of richness
or of loveliness, but they have no beauty in comparison with that of
woodland scenery. The wild thyme and moss, the short-cropped herbage, the
tufts of fern and golden-blossomed gorse, that vary the ground on which we
tread; the solemn depth of the lone forest, the noble groups of trees that
diversify the open spaces, and the clear streams that flow silently
through the deep soil, bordered with cowslips and wild marigolds, have
all, and each, their own peculiar attractions. Who has not been sensible
when passing among them of an hilarity of feeling, a delight, which he has
experienced nowhere else, which carries him onward from one spot to
another, now in the midst of trees, and now again in the open space, as if
he could never weary? Then, the sweet fresh breezes of the spring, how
pure they are, sporting over the green herbage or among the trees. They
are not infected with sighs of human sorrow; they have not passed beside
the couch of dying men, or through the throng of a great city. They are
sporting now as they sported a thousand years ago, among the branches of
some of the old trees, which still remain, relics of bygone days,
memorials of what has been. Those breezes are still the same, for the
circumambient fluid, which gives hilarity and freshness to everything that
lives and moves on the surface of the earth, is not subjected to the
unalterable law which seems impressed on all beside. Earthly things grow
old, or assume some new character. Even the kindred element of water
evaporates, and is replenished by means of rain or dew; the soil is blown
away in dust, and renewed again by the decay of vegetables. Men cease from
off the earth; in one day their thoughts perish; cities which they have
erected, noble structures, destined to last for ages, crumble silently, or
else are overthrown by war or earthquakes; but the air, though ever
moving, neither evaporates, nor is susceptible of change. Thus, then,
whether in the character of a whirlwind, or of zephyr; whether as a breeze
of spring, or tempest from the north, has it raged or sported in the
branches of the stately tree, which stands among its brethren of the
forest, resembling a noble column, surrounded by crowding houses. It is
termed the Duke's Walking-Stick, but the hand that would essay to move the
shaft from out the place where it has stood for ages, must be gifted with
a power and a spell, which even the wildest fancy has never yet assigned
to any being of mortal mould; not even to those giants of fierce bearing,
with whom she loves to people her land of fiction. The column stands
alone, its smooth trunk is branchless to a giddy height, and its topmost
boughs are higher than the roof of Westminster Abbey at its loftiest
elevation. A tree, with which the branches of no other tree can mingle,
solitary in the midst of its sylvan brotherhood, having no communion in
its stateliness, either with the oak, over which long ages have passed, or
with the sapling of yesterday. Thoughts of home and kindred are blended
with that other tree, to which the lovers of forest scenery make a
pilgrimage--the seven Sisters, for such is the name of a contiguous tree,
with several columns, which, upspringing from the same root, are seen to
mingle their leaves and branches. The bird which confides her nest in
spring to the sheltering boughs of the one, teaches her young to nestle
among the opening leaves of the other; so closely are they entwined, that
a squirrel would find it difficult to make his way between them. We know
not why the cognomen which distinguishes this favourite tree was given, or
the period of its greatest perfection, whether it arose from out the earth
in Saxon or Norman times, or whether seven ladies of a Ducal family,
sisters in birth and love, gave that fond name to the noble tree, because
of its interwoven stems.

The Queen's Oak.

  O Lady! on thy regal brow
  The shades of death are gathered now!
  What matter, if in queenly bower,
  Was past of life thy fitful hour?
  In cloister gray, where meets at eve
  The whispering winds that softly breathe;
  Or, if in leafy glen afar,
  To some lone cot the guiding star
  Of him, who turn'd with weary feet
  Thy joyous answering smile to meet?
  What matter, if in hut or hall,
  Was spread o'er thee the funeral pall;
  If mutes and banners waited round,
  Or flowrets decked thy simple mound?
  If wrought on earth thy Maker's will,
  No meddling fiend shall work thee ill:
  O blest thy waiting-place shall be,
  Till the grave shall set her captive free,
  Through His dear might who came to bless
  Man in his utter helplessness.--M. R.

What see you in that old oak more than in any other tree, except that its
trunk is white with age, and that gray lichens hang in tufts from out the
interstices of the bark? That tree, stranger, was a silent witness of
scenes long past. It stood when England was rent asunder during the
fearful contest of the Roses; and beside its noble trunk met those, in all
the pride of chivalry and loveliness of beauty, who now are resting from
life's weary pilgrimage beneath the tomb of Quentin Matsys.

Who has not heard concerning the Duchess Dowager of Bedford, how she left
her high estate to wed a simple squire, and to dwell with him in the
beautiful solitude of her dower castle of Grafton, far from the scene of
her former greatness! The noble trees that grouped around the castle wall,
mingled with those of the wide forest of Whittlebury, a royal chase, on
the verge of which, and at no great distance from the castle, stood this
aged tree, then in all the pride of sylvan majesty; and far as the eye
could reach, extended one vast sweep of woodland scenery, with breaks of
lawn and thicket. The inhabitants of Grafton Castle passed the first years
of their wedded life in comparative obscurity, exercising hospitality,
according to the manners of the age, yet keeping as much as possible apart
from the dangers and excitements of public life. At length the necessity
of providing for the elder branches of an increasing family, rendered it
desirable to strengthen their connexions, and the Duchess of Bedford,
whose rank was more exalted than her fortune, resolved to introduce them
at the court of her friend, Queen Margaret, to whom her eldest daughter,
the beautiful Elizabeth Woodville, was appointed maid of honour.[40]

Years passed on, and Elizabeth was united to John Gray, son and heir to
Lord Ferrars of Groby, possessor of the ancient domain of Bradgate,[41] by
reason of his descent from Petronilla, daughter of Grantmesnil, one of the
proudest of our Norman nobility. Withdrawn from her quiet home by the
stirring incidents that attended the fierce contest between the rival
houses of York and Lancaster, Elizabeth accompanied her husband during the
campaign, and shared with him in many of its perils. It was even said that
Queen Margaret persuaded her to visit king-making Warwick in his camp,
under the pretence of requesting some little favour, for the stout earl
was ever kind to her; but in reality to make observations relative to the
number and condition of his troops. This was on the eve of the great
battle of St. Albans, which took place at a short distance from the abbey.
The abbey stood, in peaceable times, like a vast granary, which
continually received and gave out its produce, into which was gathered
both corn, and wine, and oil, barley, and the fruits of the earth, and to
which not fewer than twelve cells and hospitals were appended. And
scarcely was there a forest, chase, or wood throughout the greatest part
of England, which did not in some measure contribute a supply to the abbey
of its timber or venison. Successive monarchs banquetted within its walls,
and while the abbots were distinguished for their extensive hospitality,
the poor were not forgotten. Thus stood St. Albans, often in stormy times
a place of refuge, into which the peasants drove their cattle and were
secure, and while the storm of war raged furiously without, there was
safety and abundance within. But it was not always so, and St. Albans was
sacked more than once. The infuriated followers of Wat Tyler set fire to
the papers and written records of the abbey, and in after times it was
exposed to all the horrors of civil war, when the rival houses of York and
Lancaster battled close beside its walls, and beneath the floor of our
Lady's chapel rest the remains of many who fought and fell in those
murderous conflicts. Showers and warm sunbeams contribute their aid
ofttimes to repair the ravages which war has made in the aspect of nature.
The trodden fields were again covered with corn; dwellings which had been
set on fire, were speedily rebuilt, and all went on as before. Tributes of
corn, and wine, and oil, were brought into the abbey, and the poor and
destitute received their daily doles. But men had not yet learned that war
and misery are synonymous. The second battle of St. Albans, at which the
forces of Queen Margaret were, for a brief space, triumphant, was deeply
felt within the abbey. Wounded men, borne by their companions from the
fray, were continually brought in; and when the battle ceased, it was
fearful to hear the continual tolling of the bell, sounding daily from
morning till night, while the dead were being interred; if holding rank
among the living, within the precincts of the monastery, if otherwise, in
an adjoining field.[42] The husband of Elizabeth Woodville, Gray Lord
Ferrars, was then in the twenty-fifth year of his age. Handsome, valorous,
and intrepid, and devotedly attached to the cause of Henry VI.; he was
appointed commander of the Red-rose cavalry, and, while leading on the
memorable onset by which the field was won, he received a mortal wound, of
which he died a few days after, at the village of Colney, on the
twenty-eighth of February 1461.[43] Henry VI. visited and endeavoured to
console the dying youth, and sought, with the usual kindliness of his
nature, to reconcile him to the thought of death, by pointing to the only
Refuge, on whom his own hopes rested. Some chroniclers relate, that,
according to the fashion of the age, he conferred the honour of knighthood
on the wounded earl, for the sake of his sons, for although his father,
Lord Ferrars, had died two months before, the distracted condition of the
country had prevented the young nobleman from taking his place in the
house of peers. A deep and rancorous feeling seems to have existed against
the memory of this brave and devoted adherent of King Henry; his harmless
children, the eldest of whom was not more than four years of age, were
deprived of their inheritance, and his widow was not permitted to remain
on the family estate; the fine old mansion, with its broad lands, was
confiscated; it became the property of another, who repaired thither to
take possession, and with him his family and dependents, who filled all
the offices and places of trust and profit which the adherents of the
house of Gray had hitherto enjoyed. Elizabeth, therefore, sought again the
paternal roof. Sad was the day of her return, yet she only was changed.
The avenue of noble trees waved in the breeze, fresh and shady as when
last she passed; the fields, too, looked as green and lovely, and through
them lay the pathway, fringed with wild flowers, where she had often
gathered, with her young companions, fresh garlands of sweet flowers, with
which to bedeck themselves. The mansion had not been altered, since the
family returned from court, at the accession of Edward IV. There was the
open door, down the steps of which the train of sisters had followed their
stately mother, when they set forth a few years before, at the invitation
of Queen Margaret, to visit her court; the eldest, appointed to be her
maid of honour;[44] the others, with promises of favour and promotion.
They had now returned, for there was neither favour nor promotion for
adherents of the Red-rose, and Catherine, and Anne, and Mary, were waiting
to receive Elizabeth with blended feelings of joy and sorrow; joy, to
welcome back their sister; sorrow, to see her widow's weeds and orphan
children. Time had not changed them, nor were the faithful servants, who
had seen, a few years back, their young mistress depart, with tears and
blessings, yet broken down. Here, then, at a short distance from this
time-worn tree, Elizabeth continued to reside in Grafton Castle, devoted
to the education of her sons; for whom, as well as for herself, she was
dependent on the bounty of her father.

Edward came at length to hunt in the forest of Whittlebury, for this great
forest was a royal chase, abounding with shady coverts and open spaces,
where the fern grew wild and high, and dancing lights and shadows seemed
to sport over a wilderness of broken ground and coppice-wood. Elizabeth
heard that he would pass at a short distance from her mother's dower
castle, and she resolved to wait for him under the shade of the tall tree,
which bears her name. The mingled sound of hounds and horns, with the
trampling of horses on the green turf, soon reached her ear, and presently
the monarch passed that way with his gallant train of hunters. She was
then, for such is the tradition of the neighbourhood,[45] with her
fatherless boys, on this very spot, for she had thrown herself on the
ground, and besought him, with many tears, to have pity on her
impoverished and bereaved children. The sight of beauty in affliction
softened the stern heart of the monarch, while the anxiety of a mother for
her children seemed to awaken in his heart feelings of kindliness and
compassion, to which he had been long a stranger, and he raised her from
the ground, with assurances of favour and consideration.

Legends tell, that they met again under the same old tree, for that
Edward seemed to prefer that their interviews should take place where he
had first seen and loved the beautiful Elizabeth. History relates that the
espousals were privately solemnised early in the morning of the first of
May 1464, at the town of Grafton, near Stony Stratford. None were present
excepting the Duchess of Bedford, the priest, and two gentlewomen, with a
young man, who assisted in singing. The priest who wedded them lies buried
before the altar, in the church of the Minoresses at London-bridge.[46]

  O what a mingled throng are passing now,
  As in a mirror, which time seems to hold
  For men to gaze in! Actors in all scenes,
  Mingled, and yet distinct, with names on each,
  Given by Him who sent them forth to bless
  Their homes or kindred--dwelling where they may.
  Kings, with their crowned heads, and he who serves--
  The anxious tradesman, and the gentle one
  Who walks with peace, looking on meads and streams--
  Loving the sound of whispering winds at eve,
  Of warbling birds, and prattling streams that gush
  'Mid flowers and ferns, and green hills meeting round;
  For such are seen, e'en near the deadly fray
  Of battle fields, where meet the sire and son.
  The Red-rose conquering now--and then the Pale;
  And he, who skulks in forest haunt, or cave
  When morning dawns, walks as a chief at eve.

Look, then, at the strange eventful scenes in the life of Elizabeth
Woodville, as they pass before the mental vision, now in brightness and
in beauty, and now in shade and sadness.

Observe that gallant gentleman, holding a lady by the hand, in a large and
antique apartment, for the scene has changed from Grafton Castle to the
old palace of Reading. That gentleman is Edward IV., and standing round,
are peers and princes of the realm, adherents of the house of York, whom
the king has convened in council, that he may present to them the lady
Elizabeth as his rightful queen,--one whom he had wedded because of her
exalted worth, for he could never hope to espouse a foreign princess, on
account of the house of Lancaster.[47] The queen is apparently little more
than twenty-eight years of age, and her delicate and modest beauty is not
impaired by either time or sorrow. Her head is encircled with a high crown
of peculiar richness, the numerous points of which are finished by
fleur-de-lis. Rich pearls, strung in an elaborate pattern, encircle her
beautiful neck, while a small ring, in the middle of her forehead, divides
her pale yellow tresses, which descend in waving curls of great length and
profusion. Her face is exceedingly fair, and her eyes are timidly cast
down. She is royally attired in a splendid kind of gold brocade, woven in
stripes of blue and gold, of which the wearing is restricted to the royal
reigning family, with a close boddice and tight sleeves, and ermine
robings, turned back over the shoulders, and the whole dress is girded
round the waist with a crimson scarf. Her skirt is full and flowing, with
a broad ermine border, and a train of many yards in length, held up by a
trainbearer, a fair and gentle-looking damsel, most probably one of the
queen's sisters, who has gracefully folded the extremity around her arms.
A rich blue satin petticoat is seen beneath the drapery, and the shoes
that peep forth occasionally are of a pointed form.[48]

From that old room of state, where stands the fair young queen, thus
regally attired, passes on the pageant of king and lady, and bearded
counsellors, in solemn pomp, to the stately abbey church of Reading, the
lady led by the young Duke of Clarence, where she is publicly declared
queen; and where having made her offering, she is receiving the
congratulations of the assembled nobility, among whom, some people say, is
the Earl of Warwick. Brilliant fêtes and tournaments succeed, such as have
not been seen in England, since the gorgeous days of Edward III., when he
held high state in Windsor Castle. Elizabeth presides in all, with her
lovely train of sisters, and around them gather, as shepherds to "the star
of Arcady, or Tyrian cynosure," many a gallant knight and noble, proud to
tilt in honour of those fair damsels, and to receive from them the prize
that beauty awards to valour. Listen now to the loud hum that mighty
London sends through all her gates, for sights and sounds of revelry
pertain to this bright act in the life of our sovereign lady. Knights,
and citizens, and throngs of people are filling every street, and crowding
every window. The queen is passing through the city to her palace of
Westminster, in a litter borne on poles, and supported by stately prancing
steeds; and right and left, behind and in advance, ride valiant men, whom
the king has deputed to this honour. The queen has come from Eltham
Palace, where the hawthorn-trees are all in blossom, and the little birds
are singing blithely, as if to hail their queen on the day of her
coronation. And when the train of knights and citizens is seen passing
beneath the lofty portal of the ancient abbey, sweet sounds greet them,
not of joyous birds that warble their harmonious concerts among the trees
in Eltham park, but deep solemn music, and glorious human voices chanting
in unison; and thus welcomed and attended, enters Elizabeth, to pass forth
again a crowned and anointed woman. And with her is Count James, of St.
Pol, uncle to the Duchess of Bedford, with a hundred knights and their
attendants; a sovereign prince, and near kinsman of the queen, whom
Charles the Bold had deputed to be present at the coronation. King Edward
desired that the peers of England and the citizens of London should be
assured that the lady whom he married was worthy, by her high descent, to
share his throne, and he had requested the French king to induce some of
the princes of the house of Luxemburg to visit England, and claim kindred
with his wife. Count James set forth accordingly, for now that his fair
cousin wore a crown, he was proud to acknowledge the connexion. It was
otherwise a few years before with the house of Luxemburg: they had not
only chosen to forget the mother of Elizabeth, because she married a
private gentleman, "though he was the handsomest man in all England, and
the duchess was an exceeding handsome gentlewoman." They had not only
chosen to withold their countenance, but had even spoken such harsh words,
that neither the knight nor lady dared to claim kindred with them on the
continent, for the father of that same count, who was now in England,
would have slain them both, had they ventured within his reach. All was
now forgotten, and he who looks with the mental eye through the long, long
vista of past ages, may discern in the dim distance, gorgeous pageants,
and tilts and tournaments, ladies coming forth from their old Gothic
castles to grace the court, with chevaliers of France and England, each
from their baronial residences, mingling in feats of arms and festivals.
And then, beside the small couch of a fair infant, are seen standing the
haughty Cicely of York, and the royally descended Jaquetta of Bedford,
grandmothers of the young scion, made friends that day, as they bend with
looks of love over the unconscious sleeping one. Sleep on, fair child, thy
brow shall wear a crown, but weary years of woes and wanderings are before

  The hand of the reaper,
    Cuts the ears that are hoary:
  But the voice of the weeper,
    Wails manhood in glory.--SCOTT.

It is the middle of corn harvest, and reapers are cutting down the rich
brown ears, on the verge of the great forest, where first met the Lady
Elizabeth and King Edward. All around the Queen's Oak, the oak of
Whittlebury Chase, is one vast joyous solitude of woods and waters,
lonely, yet cheerful; without any habitation, yet not unpeopled, for noble
antlers are seen emerging from the brushwood, and joyous birds and
butterflies fly in and out among the trees, or flit from one flower to
another. All is stillness, and beauty, and luxuriance; and let him who has
found a covert within the woody range, venture not far away, for there are
fearful doings in the land.

Gradually melt away the mists of time, that have hidden for a while the
court of Westminster, but the king is not there, nor yet the queen, nor
the couch on which the young child lay; but instead of these, strange men
are seen hurrying from room to room, as if in quest of plunder. The moon
is up, and her pale beams shine on the white sails of a small vessel, that
urges its way, as in fear, from the shores of Lynn, in Norfolk.[50] They
shine, likewise, on a mother with three little girls, and a noble looking
dame, the Lady Scrope, who have taken refuge in a strong and gloomy
building at the end of St. Margaret's church-yard. That lone mother is
the beautiful Queen of England, she has fled to sanctuary on the approach
of Warwick's army, for the ship, whose white sails glisten in the clear
cold moonbeams, conveys her husband abroad in quest of succour. Stern men
are prowling round the gloomy building, but no one dares to go within, for
the queen has registered herself and her three children, Elizabeth, Mary,
and Cicely, and the Lady Scrope, as inmates of sanctuary. That gloomy
place has sheltered murderers and robbers, men, too, who were in peril of
their lives, for treason against their king; but in the present evil
times, ladies and young children often find a home within its walls, when
all other homes are broken up. And thus, all comfortless and forlorn, is
waiting the Queen of England, for the birth of that fair child, who first
saw light within the sanctuary of Westminster.[51] No distinction is there
between the kindred of a prince or peasant, when the crown is put aside,
no royal spell with which to chace away either want or sorrow. The Queen
of England soon began to be in need, and must have been constrained to
surrender to the army of Queen Margaret, had not provisions been secretly
conveyed to her by a kind-hearted butcher of the name of Gould, who could
not bear, he said, to think that the lady and her children should be
distressed for lack of food.

The infant prince is about to be baptized, and this with no greater
ceremony than if he had been a poor man's child. A poor man's child might
have more to gladden him, smiling faces and fresh air, but around this son
of a throneless monarch are sad countenances and gloomy walls. No costly
gifts are presented, and for attendants there remain but one or two kind
friends, faithful among faithless thousands. No cloth of gold adorns the
Gothic font of hewn stone, round which the little band of fond and
faithful friends are gathered, while the sacred ceremony is performed by
the sub-prior, who gives to the young prince the name of his father. Those
who promise for him, poor child, that he shall renounce the pomps and
pleasures of the world, when his noble patrimony seems lost to him, are
his grandmother and the Lady Scrope, that devoted woman, who adheres to
the queen in all her trials. The good abbot, Thomas Milling, performs the
office of godfather, no other man being either willing or at hand to do
the desolate one that service.

Hark now to the sound of cheerful voices. They come from those who no
longer fear to be regarded as adherents of the house of York. King Edward
is returned, and with him a gallant company of gentlemen are seen pressing
onward to the sanctuary. One moment more, the bolted doors fly open, and
the king and queen, with their three little girls, are preparing to leave
the sanctuary; the infant prince, borne in the arms of his nurse, and his
blithe and gladsome sisters, making the old walls resound with their
joyous voices. Men speak much concerning the valorous conduct of Queen
Margaret, and all which she has done and suffered in order to replace her
husband on the throne. But they speak more of the gentle Elizabeth; how
she had sat down in meekness and in patience within the walls of that
dismal place, where murderers and traitors had harboured in other times,
waiting quietly till it pleased the Most High to send her better days,
sojourning, indeed, in trouble, heaviness, and sorrow, yet sustaining it
as became a Christian woman, having much to fear, yet hoping against

The queen is playing now with her ladies at a courtly game called the
marteaux, while others are amusing themselves as best befit them,
according to the fashion of the times. King Edward is dancing with the
Lady Elizabeth, his eldest daughter, and all is mirth and revelry, and
joyousness, and well may those rejoice, who but a few days before knew not
where to find a hiding-place. Who is that stately gentleman, whose dress
and accent bespeak him from foreign parts, on whom all eyes are turned,
and even the king salutes with more than kingly courtesy? The Lord of
Grauthuse, Louis of Bruges. At once a nobleman, a merchant, and a man of
letters, acting as deputy in the Low Countries for his master, Charles the
Bold. He received and welcomed his royal guest, when in the preceding year
the king fled from England, with a few attendants, "the most distressed
company of creatures that were ever seen," for Edward had left his
military coat, lined with martin's fur, with the master of the ship,
having no other means of paying him, and was put on shore in his
waistcoat. Unlike many in those days, who made the exiles of either
faction, whether of the red or paler rose, pay dearly for their
prison-houses, or hard fare, the Lord of Grauthuse fed and clothed the
king and his attendants. He lent him ships and money, without which he
could not have returned to his family, and afforded him every facility for
making good his landing on the shores of Britain.[53] The minstrel has
ceased now, and night and silence pervade the castle. The moon, which
looked down on the white sail of King Edward, passing in its swiftness and
its loneliness over the dark waters, shines now on the ancient turrets of
Windsor Castle, wherein the king is sleeping. And there, too, his wife and
children, his courtiers and his guards, are resting, and no sound is heard
except the heavy tramp of the warders as they go their rounds, or
perchance the deep bay of some listening hound, which the leveret's light
step on the damp grass has roused from his slumber.

Morning returns, and the cheerful sights and sounds of busy life. St.
George's Chapel, with its painted windows and knights' banners are
brightening in the sunbeams, while our lady's mass is sung, with the full
harmony of the choristers' sweet voices. The king is there, Lady Elizabeth
and the Lord Grauthuse, for it seems as if his late deliverance from so
much peril had wrought good thoughts within him.

Again the scene is changed, from the chapel to the quadrant. The innocent
young prince is being carried by Sir Richard Vaughan. He can hardly speak
as yet, but his chamberlain has taught him to bid the Lord Grauthuse
welcome, who saved his father, and brought himself from his dolorous
birth-place, to enjoy at once his liberty, and the sun's cheering light.
That faithful chamberlain who carries the young prince everywhere, after
his father's footsteps, will yet be called upon to act in a very different
scene. He is attending the king and count from place to place, now in the
lodge at Windsor Park, where the royal family dine together, afterwards
through the garden and vineyard of pleasure, for the king desires to show
his guest the many and varied excellencies of his kingly dwelling.

Pageants sweep by, and nobles are presiding in halls of state. See the
monarch, too, in his kingly robes, with his cap of maintenance, and right
and left his lords, both spiritual and temporal. And list to that grave
man, who declares before the king and nobles, the intent and the desire of
the commons, with regard to the queen and Lord Grauthuse; upon the one is
bestowed all honour and commendation of her womanly behaviour and great
constancy during the nation's peril; to the other, is conveyed that
nation's gratitude for his kindness and humanity to her sovereign lord, by
the king, creating him Earl of Winchester. And surely the ceremony of that
creation is one of no ordinary interest. The king is passing now into
Whitehall, and thither too goes the queen from her own apartment, wearing
a crown upon her head, with the young prince in his small robes of state,
borne after her in the arms of Master Vaughan. And thus the king and
queen, and that fair child, proceed through the abbey church, to the
shrine of St. Edward, where their offerings are presented. Next, in the
review of pageantries and banquet-halls, hunting scenes and revels, in the
beautiful bowers of Eltham Palace, rises from out the mingled scene, the
rich and gorgeous spectacle of the betrothing of the young Duke of York
with Anne Mowbray, the infant heiress of the duchy of Norfolk. St.
Stephen's chapel is being hung with arras of gold, and men are employed
both day and night in putting up the drapery, which standing in its
richness, must yet be gracefully arranged in broad folds around the
pillars and the columns. All this is done, and the closed doors are opened
for the entrance of stately ladies and train-bearers, great lords and
their attendants, the beauty and the chivalry of the house of York. And
now the flourish of loud trumpets and the clang of cymbals announce the
king's approach, and the full quire is pealing forth its melody of mingled
voices and high minstrelsy. The king is entering with the young Prince of
Wales and the three princesses, Elizabeth, Mary, and Cicely; the queen
follows, leading the small bridegroom of five years' old, her brother,
Earl Rivers, conducts the baby bride, who looks awestruck and wondering,
at the unusual sights and sounds. Thus striking its roots deep, with young
scions rising round, stands the red rose of England in all its richness
and luxuriance.

Look at that desolate woman, who is sitting all sorrowful and dismayed on
the rushes that strew the floor of a large and antique apartment. Her long
hair, once her richest ornament, has fallen from beneath her widow's cap,
and flowing in all its wonted beauty, over her slight form, is resting on
the pavement. Fearful scenes have passed before the view of England's
queen since her proud day in St. Stephen's chapel--her husband's couch of
death, his deep remorse for sins committed or duties passed over; his
funeral, his empty throne, murder, and usurpation. There is the sound of
many footsteps treading heavily and in haste, and the putting down of
boxes; men are seen busy in conveying household stuff, and chests and
packages, but that desolate woman does not seem to heed them--she is
thinking only of her sorrows, and the dangers that surround her family,
for intelligence was brought to her at midnight that the Duke of
Gloucester had intercepted the young king on his way from Ludlow to the
metropolis; that he had seized his person, and caused the arrest of her
brother, Earl Rivers, and Lord Gray, her son, together with the faithful
Vaughan, who used to carry prince Edward when an infant.[54]

Bitterly does she lament having listened to the evil counsellors, who
prevented her from placing a strong escort around the person of her son;
but she remembered, even in the midst of her exceeding grief, that herself
and her young family had before been saved by taking refuge in the
sanctuary, and she resolved to go thither without delay. Rising up,
therefore, in the midst of the dark night, she caused her innocent
children to be brought to her, and hastened with them from the palace of
Westminster to the residence of the good abbot. She knew that if able to
keep her second son in safety, it would ensure the life of the young king;
but she did not go as heretofore into the ancient sanctuary, for the whole
of the abbey, with its rooms of state and spacious gardens, was equally
privileged, and she felt that she was welcome. Never yet has the right of
sanctuary been violated, even in the worst of times; and, perhaps, a ray
of hope is lighting up in the breast of that lone woman; but now the door
is opening, and the venerable Archbishop Rotherham, who resides in
York-place, beside the abbey, enters, with a cheerful countenance, and
communicates a message, sent him by Lord Hastings in the night, and which
he believed to be of good import. Bourchier, the primate, accompanies him,
and they come in full credence of the duke's good faith, who has
endeavoured, with much sophistry, to convince the privy council that his
designs are just and honourable.

The queen seems unwilling to receive their message; her just apprehensions
are not to be removed by the hopes which they endeavour to excite. The
good archbishop seeks to comfort her by saying that he trusts the matter
is none so sore as she takes it for, and that he is in good hope, and
relieved from fear by the message sent from the Lord Chamberlain Hastings.
"Ah, woe worth him," replies the queen, "for he is one of them that
labours to destroy me and my children." "Madam," rejoins the bishop, "be
of good cheer: I do assure you, if they crown any other king than your
son, whom they now have with them, we shall, on the morrow, crown his
brother, whom you have with you. And here is the great seal, which, in
likewise, as that noble prince, your husband, delivered unto me, so here I
deliver it unto you, to the use and behoof of your son."[55]

This sad scene, like others of joy and sorrow in the life of poor
Elizabeth, is fading from before the view, but, while it lingers, look
well at the spacious hall wherein the queen has taken refuge, with its
circular hearthstone in the centre, and an opening in the roof above,
through which the smoke escapes in winter. The further end is nobly
screened with oak panelling, laticed at the top, and having several doors
of ancient workmanship, that open on winding stairs, leading to numerous
small stone chambers, with carved windows and stone mullions. There are
also state apartments, of which the walls are covered with richly carved
oak; an organ-room, and the abbot's grand reception-room, with its Gothic
window of painted glass, but with such we have no concern.

May, sweet May is come, and the hearth-stone is decked with green branches
and bright flowers; the birth of the young day, but withering before its
close. Emblems of the failing hopes of her who sits all desolate beside
them, and with her are two beautiful and serious-looking maidens, the
princesses Elizabeth and Mary, and four young children, from three to
eleven years of age; Richard, Duke of York, Anne, Catherine, and Bridget.
At one time the terrified children hide in the folds of their mother's
robe; at another, their cheerful voices are heard, calling to each other
as they run from room to room; now in the state apartment, and now in some
winding passage, or asking leave to wander forth among the bees and
flowers in the quiet garden of the abbey. Poor children, your grief is
light, and it passes soon, like an April shower; but darker clouds are
gathering, and their crushing rain will fall heavily even upon you.

An aged man is seen advancing towards the abbey, and with him a
deputation, apparently of no mean rank. His robes and crosier denote his
dignity, for it is the Archbishop of Canterbury, who is about to pay a
visit to the queen, with a message from the Lord Protector, who has placed
the young king in the Tower, under the pretence of awaiting his
coronation, and who also desires to gain possession of his brother. A long
and stormy debate had taken place in the star-chamber, close to
Elizabeth's retreat. It was argued there, that men and women might remain
in sanctuary, but that young children had no need, they being guileless of
all crimes that might affect the state; that consequently the Duke of
Gloucester might possess himself of his nephew whenever it pleased him.
The archbishop was extremely concerned when he heard all this, and he
proferred his services to speak with the queen, rather than force should
be used.[56]

The scene has changed from the great hall, with its fresh flowers around
the hearthstone, and its floor strewed with green rushes, to the great
Jerusalem chamber, with its Gothic window of richly stained and painted
glass, its curious tapestry, and ancient picture of King Richard. Observe
the venerable man, beneath the surface of whose placid and pale features
deep feelings are at work. He knows not what to say, nor how to prepare
the mind of the poor queen for the stern resolve of the hunchbacked
protector, with regard to the young prince. At length he began by urging
that the king required the company of his brother, being much cast down
for the want of a playfellow.

"Troweth the protector," replies the queen, (heaven grant that he may
prove a protector,) "that the king doth lack a playfellow? Can none be
found to play with the king but only his brother, who hath no wish to
play because of sickness? as though princes so young as they be, could not
play without their peers, or children could not play without their
kindred, with whom, for the most part, they agree worse than with
strangers!" The archbishop knew not what to say in answer, he liked not to
tell her that the protector was resolved to gain possession of the young
prince, and he waited in the hope that she might be inclined to accede to
his request. At length the queen, taking her son by the hand, said, in a
compressed and solemn tone, "My lord, and all my lords now present, I will
not be so suspicious as to mistrust your truth. Lo here is this gentleman
whom, I doubt not, would be safely kept by me if I were permitted; and
well do I know there be some such deadly enemies to my blood, that if they
wist where any lay, they would let it out if they could. The desire of a
kingdom knoweth no kindred; brothers have been brothers' bane, and may the
nephews be sure of the uncle? Each of these children are safe while they
be asunder; notwithstanding, I here deliver him, and his brother's life
with him, into your hands, and of you I shall require them before God and
man. Faithful ye be, I wot well, and power ye have, if ye list, to keep
them safe; but if ye think I fear too much, yet beware ye fear not too
little! Farewell, my own sweet son! God send you good keeping. Let me kiss
you once ere you go, for God knoweth when we shall kiss together again."
Tenderly embracing the afflicted boy, she is seen "weeping bitterly over
him, and he too is weeping as fast in his turn."[57]

Fearful tragedies are acting now in the dim distance of time's
perspective. They flit before the mental view, fading, and seeming to
appear again; yet not the same, though like in terror and in kind. The
shadowy figures of Hastings, of Gray, and Rivers, are seen passing from
the block, and then the innocent forms of two young children, emerging
from the gloomy range of fortresses belonging to the Tower. And loud is
heard the sobbing, and the pitiful screams of the poor mother, as she
beats upon her breast, and calls her sweet babes by name; and, kneeling
down, implores the vengeance of the Just One, on the guilty head of him
who has thus cruelly deprived her of her sons.

The vaulted door of a spacious room is opening, and across the furthest
end seems flitting a strange succession of sad scenes--a young child's[58]
funeral passes, and then a burst of anguish comes remotely to the ear, as
if across wide waters, from a stern man, who yet cannot hide his sorrow;
then a woman's wail, but the wail soon dies away, and a death scene and a
funeral pass in faint review.[59] Then the great fight of Bosworth, where
a king is slain, and another takes his crown; a bridal follows and a

Thus they pass; events of other days are shadows now; terrible, indeed,
at the period of their reality, but when ended, how soon forgotten! yet
not forgotten by the aged woman, who is resting, as in a quiet home,
within that spacious room in the Abbey of Bermondsey. It is her right to
be there, for the prior and monks are bound by their charter to entertain,
and that most hospitably, the representative of their great founder,
Clare, Earl of Gloucester. Edward VI. was the sole heir of that family,
and the queen dowager is privileged to occupy the nobly panelled halls,
and state-chambers, that are expressly reserved for the descendants of the

The waves and billows of life's deepest waters have passed over that aged
woman who is sitting in a richly carved chair, at the great oriel-window,
watching the summer clouds as they flit over the smiling landscape, and
cast their shadows on the abbey fields. Her venerable figure, beautiful
even in its decrepitude, though not with the beauty of sunny youth, yet
such as the bright ray of the setting sun sheds over an autumn landscape,
recalls the faint remembrance of a lovely woman who once stood, with two
orphan boys beneath the oak of Whittlebury, to sue for the restitution of
her broad lands, from the gallant Edward.

Hark to the toll of the convent bell. It is tolling for Elizabeth
Woodville, late Queen Dowager of England, and the requiem is being sung,
which breathes peace to the passing spirit. The moon is up, and yet the
night is dark and gloomy, by reason of the heavy clouds that are rolling
past, and he who looks narrowly on the deep dark waters of the river may
discern a small boat gliding on, with the coffin of the queen on board,
and four attendants, but when the moon shines out you can distinguish the
prior of the Charterhouse by his robes, with two others in deep mourning,
yet without insignia, by which to designate them, and one female figure.
Now the rowers stop, and the coffin is being carried through the little
park into Windsor Castle, a few torches serving to guide the bearers,
which appear and disappear among the trees, like the twinkling lights of
glow-worms in the grass.

Stately figures are kneeling round the coffin, where it remains for a
while, ready to be borne to its last resting-place, and among the mourners
one is discerned in the dress of a nun. Again the coffin is upborne, and
the queen's daughters fall behind, with a train of shadowy forms, ladies,
and earls, and viscounts, moving onward to St. George's chapel. Strange it
seems, that neither plumes nor scutcheons are to be seen; that when the
dirge is being sung, the twelve old men, whose office it is to chant the
requiem for the dead, are not even clad in sable vestments: appearing
rather like a dozen old men indiscriminately and hastily brought together
for the purpose, and permitted to retain the garments of poverty, in which
they were found, and, instead of flambeaux, they light on the funeral with
old torches and torches ends.[61] Some say, that the queen, when dying,
expressed an earnest wish for a speedy and private funeral. If so, her
request was punctually fulfilled. Yet still it is remarkable that no more
of pomp should appertain to the obsequies of her who had been Queen of
England--that scutcheons and nodding plumes, and other mourning tokens,
were wanting to distinguish that illustrious one's last sojourn on earth.


Joseph Rickerby, Printer, Sherbourn Lane.


[1] Gloucestershire.

[2] South Wales.

[3] Lingard.

[4] Southey's visit to Godstow nunnery.--CAMDEN.

[5] Roger de Hoveden.

[6] Hatcher's Account of Salisbury.

[7] The Old Peerage, by Brooke.

[8] Dugdale incorrectly says months, instead of years, a mistake corrected
by Bowles.

[9] History of Lacock Abbey. Monsieur de Saint Palage's great work on the
History of Troubadours.

[10] Book of Lacock.

[11] Close Rolls, May 2. Rhymer's Foedore, 1207.

[12] Book of Lacock.

[13] A most beautiful copy was deposited, and may still be seen, in the
chamber of Records at Salisbury Cathedral.

[14] Clause Rolls.

[15] Dugdale, from a MS. Oxon, in Bibl. Bodl. n. 11. f. 177, et 178. p. a.

[16] Matt. of Paris. Clause Rolls.

[17] Register of Osmund, among the MSS. of the Cathedral. Narrative, by
William de Wanda, published in the first volume of Wilkins's Concilia.

[18] Matt. Paris. Foedera.

[19] Matt. Paris.

[20] William de Wanda's Church History.

[21] History of Lacock. Matt. Paris.

[22] History of Lacock Abbey.

[23] Matt. of Westminster.

[24] Chron. of W. de Wanda. Wilkin's Concilia, vol. 1 page 559.

[25] Annals and Antiquities of Lacock Abbey.

[26] Book of Lacock Abbey.

[27] Annals of Lacock, p. 180.

[28] Madox's History of the Exchequer, p. 218.

[29] Book of Lacock.

[30] Book of Lacock.

[31] Historian of Lacock Abbey.

[32] Marian is the legendary name of the Countess of Huntingdon.

[33] Rom. viii. 21.

[34] Rapin.

[35] M. Paris.

[36] Hen. Knyghton.

[37] A small silver cross of beautiful workmanship was found buried a few
years since, near the fatal tree.

[38] Mentioned by Walter Hennyngforde, and quoted in Grafton's Chronicle.

[39] The Palace of Bishops Hatfield, then a royal residence, where the
Princess Elizabeth resided in a kind of honourable custody, though still
rigorously guarded.

[40] Hall's Chronicle, p. 365. Parliamentary History. Vol. II. 345.

[41] Afterwards the home of Lady Jane Gray.

[42] History of St. Albans.

[43] Whethemstede and Guthrie.

[44] Parliamentary History. Vol. II. p. 345.

[45] Baker's Northamptonshire.

[46] Fragment Chronicle, printed by Heane, at the end of the Sprott.

[47] The Sprott. Chronicle.

[48] Lives of the Queens of England, by Alice Strickland.

[49] Monstrelet.

[50] Hall. Comines.

[51] It is conjectured that the prince was born in the Jerusalem Chamber,
which the kind abbot relinquished to the queen.

[52] Fleetwood's Chronicle.

[53] Narrative of Louis of Bruges, Lord Grauthuse, edited by Sir F.

[54] Cont. Hist. Croyl. Sir Thomas More. Hall.

[55] Sir Thomas More.

[56] Hall.

[57] Hall, 355. Sir Thomas Moore, 358.

[58] Only son of Richard III.

[59] Death and funeral of Richard's Queen.

[60] Annals of the Abbey of Bermondsey.

[61] Arundel MSS. 30. referred to in the Lives of the Queens of England.

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