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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 127, April 3, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 127, April 3, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

[Transcriber's note: Original spelling varieties have not been
standardized. Characters with macrons have been marked in brackets with
an equal sign, as [=e] for a letter e with a macron on top; scribal
abbreviations, as e.g. "It[=m]" could tentatively be expanded to "Item".
Underscores have been used to indicate _italic_ (for Greek, _spaced_)
fonts. A list of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries" has been added
at the end.]





"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. V.--No. 127. SATURDAY, APRIL 3. 1852.

Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition, 5_d._




      Bonaparte and Lord Whitworth, by Lord Braybrooke           313

      Notes on Prynne's Breviate, by Archbishop Laud             314

      Epitaph on Voltaire                                        316

      The Miller's Melody, Fragment of an Old Ballad             316

      Minor Notes:--Dr. Johnson, a Prophet--Coleridge and
      Plato--Epitaph in St. Giles' Church, Norwich--Hair in
      Seals--To "eliminate"                                      317


      Algernon Sidney, by Hepworth Dixon                         318

      Old Irish Tales                                            318

      Political Pamphlets                                        319

      Minor Queries:--The Book of Nicholas Leigh--Gabriel
      Harvey's Notes on Chaucer--The Cholera and the
      Electrometer--Terre Isaac--Daundelyon--Mallet's Death
      and Burial--Classical Quotations in Grotius--The
      Authorised Version--Rector's Chancel--Duchess of
      Lancaster--Cheke's Clock--Ruthven Family--"The Man in the
      Almanack"--Arkwright--Burial, Law respecting--Mr. Borrow's
      Muggletonians--Puritan Antipathy to Custard--"Corruptio
      Optimi," &c.--Miss Fanshawe's Enigma--Mary Ambree          319

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Sir W. Stanley--Mires--Somerlayes
      --Wyned--Cromwell Family--Beholden--Men of Kent and
      Kentish Men--Bee-park--A great Man who could not
      spell--Glass-making in England--Eustace--Mas--John Le
      Neve--Meaning of Crow                                      321


      Presbyterian Oath                                          323

      The Old Countess of Desmond, by the Knight of Kerry        323

      Shakspeare's Sickle or Shekel                              324

      A few more Words about "Dulcarnon," by S. W. Singer        325

      English Surnames, by Mark Antony Lower                     326

      Rev. John Paget                                            327

      Letter to a Brigadier-General                              328

      Maps of Africa                                             329

      Replies to Minor Queries:--James Wilson, M.D.--History
      of Commerce--Ecclesiastical Geography--Butts Family--Friday
      at Sea--A Pinch of Snuff from Dean Swift's Box--English
      Translation of the Canons--Few Descents through a
      long Period--Tandem D. O. M.--Land Holland--Arc de
      Arbouin--Derivation of "Martinique"--Bigot--Davies
      Queries--Fawsley, Heraldic Atchievement--Old Scots
      March--Periwinkle--Erasmus' Paraphrase--"Black Gowns and
      Red Coats"--Arms of Manchester--Sir Thomas Frowyk--John
      Goldesborough--Corrupted Names of Places--Story of
      Ginevra--Ornamental Hermits--Dr. Fell--List of
      Prothonotaries--The Vellum-bound Junius--Plague
      Stones--George Trehern--St. Christopher--White
      Livers--Torshel's Design to harmonise the Bible            329


      Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                     334

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               334

      Notices to Correspondents                                  334

      Advertisements                                             335



The Rev. J. Sanford has authorised me to place the following letter in
your hands, in order that you may print it in "N. & Q." should it appear
to be of sufficient interest.


"I send you an account of the very memorable scene which occurred at
Madame Bonaparte's drawing-room on the 13th of March, 1803. I believe I
am the only living witness, as those who were near the person of Lord
Whitworth were members of the corps diplomatique, Cobenzel, Marcoff,
Lucchesini, all dead. Many years after I became intimately acquainted
with the Marchese Lucchesini at Florence, when I had an opportunity of
referring to that remarkable conversation.

"It was announced that Madame Bonaparte was to receive on the following
Sunday, and it was reported that she was to have maids of honour for the
first time; a little curiosity was excited on this score. The apartment
of Madame B. was on the opposite side of the Tuilleries in which
Bonaparte held his levees. I was acquainted with Lord Whitworth, who
told me to place myself near to him, in order to afford facility for
presentation, as Madame B. would occupy an arm-chair to which he
pointed, and on each side of which were two tabourets. As all foreigners
had been presented to General B. at his levee, his presence was not
expected. The rooms, two in number, were not very large; the ladies were
seated round the rooms in arm-chairs: a passage was left, I suppose, for
Madame B. to pass without obstacle. When the door of the adjoining room
was opened, instead of Madame B. the First Consul entered; and as Lord
Whitworth was the first ambassador he encountered, he addressed him by
enquiring about the Duchess of Dorset's health, she being absent from a
cold. He then observed that we had had fifteen years' war; Lord W.
smiled very courteously, and said it was fifteen years too much. We
shall probably, replied General B., have fifteen years more: and if so,
England will have to answer for it to all Europe, and to God and man. He
then enquired where the armaments in Holland were going on, for he knew
of none. Then for a moment he quitted Lord W. and passed all the
ladies' addressing Mrs. Greathead only, though the Duchess of Gordon and
her daughter, Lady Georgina, were present. After speaking to several
officers in the centre of the room, which was crowded, he returned to
Lord W. and asked why Malta was not given up. Lord W. then looked more
serious, and said he had no doubt that Malta would be given up when the
other articles of the treaty were complied with. General B. then left
the room, and Madame B. immediately entered. As soon as the drawing-room
was over, I observed to Lord W. that it was the first cabinet council I
had ever witnessed; he laughingly answered, by far the most numerously
attended. Lord W. then addressed the American Minister, who was very
deaf, and repeated what had passed, and I perceived that he was very
much offended at what had occurred. In justice to the First Consul, I
must say that the impropriety consisted in the unfitness of the place
for such a subject; the tone of his voice was not raised, as was said at
the time. He spoke in the same tone as when he enquired for the Duchess
of Dorset."


I have two Queries to propose; but before I can do so effectually, it is
necessary to enter into an explanation and statement of facts, which may
be considered as Notes conveying information which will, I anticipate,
prove new and interesting to many readers of "N. & Q."

On the 2nd of September, 1644, Archbishop Laud, then a man of more than
threescore years and ten, but still with intellect vigorous, active, and
unimpaired by age or trouble, appeared at the bar of the House of Lords,
to recapitulate in one address the various points of his defence, which
had been made at intervals during the six months previous, as the trial
had gone on, from time to time, since the 12th of the preceding March.
On coming to the bar, he was for the moment staggered by seeing, in the
hands of each of his judges, a blue book, containing, as he had just
learnt, great part of his own most secret memoranda and most private
thoughts, extracted by the bitterest of his opponents out of his Diary
and MS. book of devotions. This was Prynne's _Breviate of the Life of
William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury; extracted (for the most part)_
verbatim _out of his own Diary, and other writings, under his own hand_.

  "So soon as I came to the bar," (this is his own account,) "I saw
  every Lord present with a new thin book in folio, in a blue coat.
  I heard that morning that Mr. Pryn had printed my Diary, and
  published it to the world, to disgrace me. Some notes of his own
  are made upon it. The first and the last are two desperate
  untruths, beside some others. This was the book then in the Lords'
  hands, and I assure myself, that time picked for it, that the
  sight of it might damp me, and disinable me to speak. I confess I
  was a little troubled at it. But after I had gathered up myself,
  and looked up to God, I went on to the business of the day, and
  thus I spake."--_History of Troubles and Trial_, c. xlii. pp. 411,

In his defence he turned this circumstance, and the use previously made
of his Diary and Devotions during the course of his trial, very happily
to account. After speaking of the means which had been used to frame the
charges against him, how he had been "sifted to the very bran," he says:

  "My very pockets searched; and my Diary, nay, my very Prayer Book
  taken from me, and after used against me; and that, in some cases,
  not to prove, but to make a charge. Yet I am thus far glad, even
  for this sad accident. For by my Diary your Lordships have seen
  the passages of my life; and by my Prayer Book, the greatest
  secrets between God and my soul: so that you may be sure you have
  me at the very bottom. Yet, blessed be God, no disloyalty is found
  in the one; no Popery in the other."--_Ibid._ c. xliii. p. 413.

The recapitulation over, the Archbishop was remanded to the Tower, and
prosecuted the work on which he had been long engaged, _The History of
his Troubles and Tryal_: intending, when that was finished, to publish a
reply to this _Breviate_. His words are:

  "For this _Breviate_ of his, if God lend me life and strength to
  end this (the History) first, I shall discover to the world the
  base and malitious slanders with which it is fraught."--_Ibid._ c.
  xx. p. 254.

His life was not spared to do more than carry on that History to the day
preceding the passing of the bill of attainder by the Lords, three
months after the publication of the _Breviate_. Thus it ends:

  "And thus far had I proceeded in this sad history by Jan. 3,
  1644-45. The rest shall follow as it comes to my
  knowledge."--_Ibid._ c. xlvi. p. 443.

Wharton adds this note:

  "Next day the Archbishop, receiving the news that the bill of
  attainder had passed the House of Lords, broke off his history,
  and prepared himself for death."

He was beheaded the 10th day of the same month, January 1645.

The information I have to communicate, after this long preface, is, that
a copy of this book of Prynne's, with marginal notes by the Archbishop,
made apparently in preparation for the answer which he contemplated, is
still extant; and I shall be thankful to any of your readers who can
give any further information on the subject.

In this copy the notes are only a transcript from those made by the
Archbishop; and partly, perhaps, owing to the narrow margin of Prynne's
book, we have to regret that they are not more copious; but, such they
are, they are of value, as throwing new light on some points of history;
and they appear not to have been known to any of the biographers of
Laud, or to those who, as Archbishop Sancroft and Wharton, sought most
carefully after his literary remains.

The volume of which I speak is the property of an Institution at
Warrington, "The Warrington Museum and Library," to which it was
presented by Mr. Crosfield, of Fir Grove, Latchford, at the time of the
library being established, in 1848, having been bought by his father at
a book-stall in Manchester some years previously.

A transcript of the notes is now before me; which the Committee of the
Museum have, with great liberality, allowed to be made for the edition
of the Archbishop's works now publishing in _The Anglo-Catholic
Library_. The readiness which they have shown to impart the benefit of
their collection, and the kindness with which the Hon. Secretary, Mr.
Marsh, has given a full and accurate account of the MS. information, and
himself transcribed the notes, deserve the most public acknowledgment.

That the notes in this volume are not written by the Archbishop is
proved decisively, not only by the handwriting, but by the following
note on Prynne's translation of the _Diary_, at p. 9. last line,--"I,
whiles others were absent, held the cup to him," on which the following
is the note:--

  "In yt Breviate in which ye Archbp. has made [his notes], 'tis
  printed city, and in this place he has [written] 'In my diary 'tis
  calicem. Note that....'"

Owing to the edge of the paper being worn, some parts of the note are
lost; they have been conjecturally filled up by the words in brackets.

On the title-page is written, in a hand cotemporary with the transcript:

  "Memorand. Mr. Prynn presented this worke of his to the Lds. Sep.
  2nd, 1644, ye same day that ye poor Archbp. was to make his
  recapitulation, divers Lords holding it in their hands all the
  while, &c."

And beneath this, apparently in the same hand, is written:

  "This I suppose was written by Mr. Dell, secretary to Archbp."

It is inferred that this memorandum had been made by Mr. Dell on the
Archbishop's copy, and transcribed together with the notes.

Now the Queries I have to make are these three:

1. Whether any copies of Prynne's _Breviate_ are extant, having, in the
last line of the ninth page cited above, the misprint _city_ for

2. Whether any information can be given which may lead to the discovery
of the copy containing the original notes of the Archbishop, of which
the Warrington copy is a transcript?

3. Whether any allusion to the fact of the Archbishop having made such
notes is made by any cotemporary writer? Antony Wood, Wharton, and
Heylin do not mention it.

In respect to the second Query, I presume to ask every one who has
access to a copy of Prynne's _Breviate_ to look into it, and see whether
it contains MS. marginal notes. I do so, because in so many cases copies
of works stand in their places in libraries unopened, and with contents
unknown; the knowledge of their special value having perhaps been
possessed by some curious collector or librarian, but not being noted
down, having died with him: and the owner of the volume, should it be
found, will receive his reward in the consciousness of possessing a
treasure, such as it is, which before he knew not of--some of the last
writing of a great man, imprisoned and anticipating death, who was
engaged in vindicating himself from misrepresentation and calumnies,
part of which had adhered to his memory till these notes came to light.

For the identification of that volume, should it be found, and for the
information of your readers, I will transcribe the first paragraph of
the _Breviate_, with the Archbishop's _marginalia_:

  "Hee was borne at _Redding_ in _Barkshire_, _October 7, 1573_, of
  poore (a) and obscure (b) parents, in a cottage (c), just over
  against the (d) Cage: which Cage since his comming to the
  Archbishoprick of _Canterbury_, upon complaint of Master
  _Elveston_ (that it was a dishonour the Cage should be suffered to
  stand so neare the house, where so great a royall Favourite and
  Prelate had his birth) was removed to some other place; and the
  cottage (e) pulled downe, and new-built by the Bishop."

  (a) "All this, if true, is no fault of mine."

  (b) "My father had born all offices in ye town save ye mayoralty."

  (c) "The howsing wh'ch my father dwelt in is rented at this day
  at thirty-three pounds a year."

  (d) "The Cage stood two streets off from my father's house all his
  life time, and divers years after, as many yet living know. By
  whom it was remov'd into yt street, and why out again, I know

  (e) "No one stick of ye cottage was pulled down by me."

The passage which concludes the notes on p. 35. is unfortunately maimed
by the wearing away of the edges of the leaves; it is as follows:--

   ... "And as I hope for comfort in my Saviour this is true ...
   uncharitable conclusion, my life is in ye hands of God ...
   blessed be His name. But let not Mr. Pryn call for Blood...."

It should be added that the volume has been formerly in the hands of
some one who took an interest in the Archbishop's history, as a few
notes in a handwriting of the last century are inserted on slips in
various parts of the volume, chiefly passages from the _Diary_
"maliciously omitted by Prynne."

The writer of this notice has not the means of identifying the hand by
which these more recent notes, or the transcript of those of the
Archbishop, were written; but will take this occasion of suggesting what
has often appeared to him a great desideratum in literature--that is, a
collection of fac-similes of the autographs of distinguished people,
whether literary or public characters; not merely their signatures,
which are found in existing collections of autography, but passages
sufficiently long to aid in identifying their ordinary writing, and, if
possible, taken from writing made at different periods of their lives.
With the improvements of mechanical skill which we enjoy, such works
might be afforded at a much cheaper rate than formerly, and would, it is
conceived, command a remunerating sale.

It remains only to add, that information on the points about which
inquiry is made may be communicated through the medium of the "N. & Q.,"
or by letter to the Rev. James Bliss, Ogborne St. Andrew, near
Marlborough, who is engaged in editing the works of Archbishop Laud; and
who would be glad to receive any information with respect to unpublished
letters or papers of the Archbishop.

    C. R. O.

  [Footnote 1: [It is clear there have been two editions of Prynne's
  _Breviate_, both printed in the year 1644. The copy in the King's
  Library, at the British Museum, contains the misprinted word
  _city_, but is corrected in the Errata, at the bottom of p. 35.;
  whereas the copy in the Grenville Library has it correctly printed
  _cup_, and the list of Errata is omitted.--ED.]]


I send you two versions of the epitaph on Voltaire given in Vol. iv., p.
73., not for their intrinsic merit, but as illustrations of a curious
physiological trait, as to the nature and power, or powerlessness, of

      "Plus bel esprit que grand génie,
      Sans loi, sans moeurs, et sans vertu,
      Il est mort, comme il a vécu,
      Couvert de gloire et d'infamie."

Version No. 1.:

      "With far less intellect than wit,
        Lawless, immoral, and debased;
      His life and death each other fit,
        At once applauded and disgraced."

Version No. 2.:

      "Much more a wit, than man of mind;
      Alike to law, truth, morals blind!
      Consistent as he lived he died,
      His age's scandal, and its pride."

These are not offered as competing in excellence, for they are both the
productions of the same mind, but for the purpose of recording the
following remarkable fact respecting their composition. No. 2. was
written down immediately on reading your Number in July last (1851);
having composed it, I took from my library shelf Lord Brougham's _Life
of Voltaire_, in which I knew the lines were, for the purpose of
pencilling in my rendering of them. You may conceive my surprise at
finding already there the version No. 1. with the date 1848, which I had
made in that year, but of which I had so totally lost all remembrance,
that not a single turn of thought or expression in one resembles the
other. I perfectly remember the mental process of hammering out No. 2.,
and can confidently affirm that, during the time, no recollection
whatever of No. 1., or anything about it, ever crossed my thought. I
fear such a total obliteration is a token of failure in a faculty once
powerful and accurate, but, perhaps, unduly tasked; yet I offer it to be
recorded as a singular fact connected with this wonderful function of

    A. B. R.



When I was a good little boy, I was a favourite visitor to an old maiden
lady, whose memory retained such a store of old ballads and folk-lore as
would be a treasure to many a reader of "N. & Q." were she still living
and able to communicate. One ballad, parts of which, as well as the
tune, still haunt my memory, I have tried to recover in its integrity
but in vain; and of all the little wearers of frocks and pinafores, who
had the privilege of occasionally assembling round the dear old lady's
tea-table, and for whose amusement she was wont to sing it, I fear I am
the sole survivor. The associations connected with this song may perhaps
have invested it with an undue degree of interest to me, but I think it
sufficiently curious to desire to insert as much as I can remember of it
in "N. & Q." in the hope that some of your correspondents may be able to
supply the deficiencies. I wish I could at the same time convey an idea
of the air. It began in a slow quaint strain, with these words:--

      "Oh! was it eke a pheasant cock,
      Or eke a pheasant hen,
      Or was it the bodye of a faire ladye
      Come swimming down the stream?
      Oh! it was not a pheasant cock,
      Nor eke a pheasant hen,
      But it was the bodye of a faire ladye,
      Came swimming down the stream."

For the next two verses I am at fault, but their purport was that the
body "stopped hard by a miller's mill," and that this "miller chanced to
come by," and took it out of the water "to make a melodye."

My venerable friend's tune here became a more lively one, and the time
quicker; but I can only recollect a few of the couplets, and those not
correctly, nor in order of sequence, in which the transformation of the
lady into a viol is described:

      "And what did he do with her fair bodye?
                  Fal the lal the lal laral lody.
      He made it a case for his melodye,
                  Fal, &c.
      And what did he do with her legs so strong?
                  Fal, &c.
      He made them a stand for his violon,
                  Fal, &c.
      And what did he do with her hair so fine?
                  Fal, &c.
      He made of it strings for his violine,
                  Fal, &c.
      And what did he do with her arms so long?
                  Fal, &c.
      He made them bows for his violon,
                  Fal, &c.
      And what did he do with her nose so thin?
                  Fal, &c.
      He made it a bridge for his violin,
                  Fal, &c.
      And what did he do with her eyes so bright?
                  Fal, &c.
      He made them spectacles to put to his sight,
                  Fal, &c.
      And what did he do with her petty toes?
                  Fal, &c.
      He made them a nosegay to put to his nose,
                  Fal, &c."

    G. A. C.

Minor Notes.

_Doctor Johnson a Prophet._--Can any of your readers inform me where the
following anecdote is recorded? It bears the mark of authenticity, and
if so adds, to the extraordinary gifts of the great moralist, that of
prophecy; be it observed, however, that the prognostication is founded
on a deduction of science. As the Doctor was one evening leaning out of
the window of his house in Bolt Court, Fleet Street, he observed the
parish lamplighter nimbly ascend a ladder for the purpose of lighting
one of the old glimmering oil lamps which only served to make "darkness
visible." The man had scarcely descended the ladder half way, when he
discovered that the flame had expired; quickly returning he lifted the
cover partially, and thrusting the end of his torch beneath it, the
flame was instantly communicated to the wick by the thick vapour which
issued from it.

"Ah!" exclaimed the Doctor, after a pause, and giving utterance to his
thoughts, "Ah! one of these days the streets of London will be lighted
by smoke!" It is needless to add that in the succeeding century the
prediction was verified.

    M. W. B.

_Coleridge and Plato._--Without becoming "a piddler in minute
plagiarisms" (as Gifford called Warton), I think the following
coincidence worth noting. S. T. Coleridge, in his "Lines on an Autumnal
Evening," has these lines:

      "On seraph wing I'd float a dream by night,
      To soothe my love with shadows of delight;
      Or soar aloft to be the spangled skies.
      And gaze upon her with a thousand eyes."

Plato had written ("To Stella," in _Anthol. Palat._):

      Ἀστέρας εἰσαθρεῖς Ἀστὴρ ἐμός· εἴθε γενοίμην
        Οὐρανὸς ὡς μυρίοις ὄμμασιν εἴς σε βλέπω.

I cannot withhold Shelley's exquisite version:

      "Fair star of life and love, my soul's delight!
        Why lookest thou on the crystalline skies?
      O that my spirit were yon heaven of night,
        Which gazes on thee with its thousand eyes!"

_Revolt of Islam_, c. ix. st. 36.

Dr. Wellesley's _Anthologia Polyglotta_ contains several versions of
Plato's lines. There is also one by Swynfen Jervis, in Lewis's
_Biographical History of Philosophy_, s. v. Plato.

    C. P. PH***.

_Epitaph in St. Giles' Church, Norwich._--

        Sorori Francisce Sve
            S. R. Q. P.

      "My name speaks what I was, and am, and have,
      A Bedding field, a piece of earth, a grave,
      Where I expect, untill my soule shall bring
      Unto the field an everlasting spring;
      For rayse and rayse out of the earth and slime,
      God did the first, and will the second time.
                Obiit Die 10 Maii 1637."

The above epitaph is curious; but what is the meaning of the letters "S.
R. Q. P.?"


_Hair in Seals._--Stillingfleet, referring to a MS. author, who wrote a
chronicle of St. Augustine's, says:

  "He observes one particular custom of the Normans, _that they were
  wont to put some of the hair of their heads or beards into the wax
  of their seals_: I suppose rather to be kept as monuments than as
  adding any strength or weight to their charters. So he observes,
  _that some of the hair of William, Earl of Warren, was in his time
  kept in the Priory of Lewis_."--_Orig. Brit._, chap. I., _Works_,
  Lond. 1710, tom. iii. p. 13.

    J. SANSOM.

_To_ "_eliminate_."--The meaning of this word, according both to its
etymology and its usage in the Latin authors, is quite clear; it is to
"turn out of doors." Figuratively, it has been used by mathematicians to
denote the process by which all incidental matters are gradually thrown
out of an equation to be solved, &c., so that only its essential
conditions at last remain. Of late, however, I have observed it used not
of the _act_ of elimination, but of the _result_; a sense quite foreign
to its true meaning, and producing great ambiguity. Thus, in a recent
Discourse, the object of biblical exegesis is declared to be "the
_elimination_ of the statements of the Bible respecting doctrine;" the
author evidently meaning, not what his words imply,--to get rid of the
statements of the Bible,--though that has been sometimes the problem of
exegesis, but to present the doctrinal result in a clear form, and
detached from everything else.




In no way, perhaps, has "N. & Q." been so useful to the literary public
as in making itself the ready means of concentrating on any given point
the various readings of many persons; unless, indeed, it should be
considered more useful to have proved how courteous, how willing to
oblige--even at some personal sacrifices--men of reading are in this day
and generation. The information recently sent from so many quarters in
relation to General Wolfe is a good example of what may be done in other
cases; that about Sterne in Paris is another. The latter instance
suggests to me a way in which some of your correspondents, whose private
communications I have had to acknowledge in reference to other
inquiries, might do me a real service at no great inconvenience perhaps
to themselves.

I am collecting materials for a volume on Algernon Sydney. A great part
of this illustrious patriot's life was spent abroad; in many parts of
the continent, France, Holland, Denmark, Italy, Germany, &c. This part
of his history has been so far veiled in considerable obscurity, and
incidents of it misrepresented. Some better knowledge of it than we now
possess, must be, I think, recoverable. A man of Sydney's birth, active
temperament, and distinguished abilities, must have been spoken of in
many letters and memoirs of that time. No doubt anecdotes and traits of
character may be found in cotemporary French, Italian, German, and
Scandinavian literature.

But with a library so vast to examine, no single man could ever feel
sure that nothing was overlooked. Other explorers, working for
themselves, may have hit upon statements or anecdotes of the greatest
value to me. May I ask any such to oblige me by references to any works
in which the information that I seek is to be found; sent either to "N.
& Q.," or to my address as under?


  84. St. John's Wood Terrace.


A black-letter duodecimo, printed in London in 1584, under the anomalous
title of _Beware the Cat_, was advertised for sale in one of Thorpe's
Catalogues a few years back, at a price of seven guineas. The copy was
believed to be unique; it had been in the libraries of several book
collectors, and among others of Mr. Heber, who considered it the most
curious volume illustrative of the times, in all his vast collection. It
appears, by the short abstract of contents, that the book contains some
curious notices of Ireland and Irishmen; an "account" is given "of the
civil wars in Ireland, by Mackmorro, and all the rest of the wild Irish
lords." This hero was probably Art Kavanagh, "the Mac-Morrogh" (the
hereditary title of the chief of the Leinster septs) whose rebellions
were, on two occasions, the cause of Richard II.'s two great expeditions
to Ireland. Then follows the tale of "Fitz-Harris and the Prior of
Tintern Abbey." Fitz-Harris, or Fitz-Henry, was an Anglo-Irish baron,
who resided in the south of the county of Wexford, in the neighbourhood
of a convent, which having been founded by Marshal, Earl of Pembroke,
and supplied with monks from Tintern in Monmouthshire, was named after
the parent monastery. The Fitz-Harris's are said to have descended from
Meyler Fitz-Henry, the "indomitor totius gentis Hiberniæ," but they
became, to quote Spenser's adage current of the Anglo-Irish of his day,

      "As Irish as O'Hanlan's breech;"

they "matched with the Kavanaghs of Carlow, and held with them," and
thus became involved in the interminable feuds of the native tribes,
and, like them, they left their estates to their bastards.

"The fashion of the Irish wars at that time" is there described, but
probably not more graphically than in Derrick's quaint doggrel verses.
"The Irish Churle's Tale" is next told; the churl was the husbandman,
the "Protectionist" of the day, who doubtless could tell many piteous
tales of oppression, rapine, and ravishment, whose only hope of
protection lay in acting as a sort of sponge to some "wild lord" (who
would guard him from being plundered by others, that he might himself
devour his substance), and whose "tenant-right" cry of that day was
"spend me, but defend me."

The volume affirms that "the wild Irishmen were better than we in
reverencing their religion:" the verb is used in the preterimperfect
tense. "The old Irish diet was to dine at night;" this is even a
stranger assertion. Higden, in his _Polychronicon_, declares of the
Irish clergy,

  "They ben chaste, and sayen many prayers, and done great
  abstinence a-day, and drinketh all night."

That glorious _chanson à boire_, commencing

      "I cannot eat but little meat,
        My stomach is not good;
      But I do think that I can drink
        With him that wears a hood!"

must have been composed in Ireland. If the old black-letter book had
said that the Irish _got their dinner_ at night, it would have been
nearer the truth, for the larders of the Milesian chiefs in the
neighbourhood of the English pale were often supplied by the nocturnal
marauds of their cattle-lifters. However, I see that Stanihurst writes
that the Irish dined in winter _before_ day, and in summer about the
seventh hour.

Can any of your readers say in whose possession this book is now? I was
informed that it was purchased by a dignitary of Cambridge University.

    H. F. H.



The loan of the following works is much desired by a gentleman who has
in vain tried to find them in the British Museum, or to purchase them.
They belong to a class of books which being of little money-value are
generally _wasted_ by booksellers, rarely or never inserted in their

_A Collection of Letters on Government, Liberty and the Constitution_,
which appeared from the time Lord Bute was appointed First Lord of the
Treasury to the Death of Lord Egremont. 3 vols. [possibly 4], published
in 1774 by Almon.

_A Collection of esteemed Political Tracts_, which appeared 1764, 5, and
6. 3 or 4 vols. published 1766 or 7, by Almon.

_A Collection of most Interesting Political Letters_ which appeared in
the Public Papers from 1763 to 1765. 3 or 4 vols. Almon, 1766.

_The Briton_ (a Periodical). 1763.

_The Auditor_ (a Periodical). 1763.

_A Collection of all Remarkable and Personal Passages in the Briton,
North Briton, and Auditor._ Almon, 1765.

_The Expostulation_, a Poem. Bingley, 1768.

_Vox Senatus._ 1771.

_Two Remarkable Letters of Junius and The Freeholder._ 1770.

_Junius's Letters._ Wheble, 1771 (not 1772 or 1775).

_Wilkes's Speeches._ 3 vols.

The Editor of "N. & Q." has undertaken to take charge of them, and when
done with to return them safely to their respective owners.

    Q. N.

Minor Queries.

_The Book of Nicholas Leigh._--Some twenty or thirty years since a
gentleman named Abraham Roth resided in London, having in his possession
a manuscript of the early part of the seventeenth century bearing the
above title, and relating to the history and internal polity of the town
of Kilkenny. It is frequently quoted by Dr. Ledwich in his _Antiquities
of Kilkenny and Irishtown_. Mr. Roth subsequently deceased in London,
and it is believed his books and other effects were sold there.

Qy. Is _The Book of Nicholas Leigh_ known to any of the correspondents
or readers of "N. & Q.?"



_Gabriel Harvey's Notes on Chaucer._--It appears by a note of Park's in
Warton's _Poetry_, vol. iii. p. 86. (ed. 1840), that Bishop Percy had in
his possession a copy of Speght's _Chaucer_, in which was a note by
Gabriel Harvey to the effect that some of Heywood's _Epigrams_ were
supposed to be "conceits and devices of pleasant Sir Thomas More." Is
the copy of Speght in existence, and where? If it contain many notes by
Harvey, they would probably prove to be worth recording.


_The Cholera and the Electrometer._--During the late visitation of
cholera, observations were made tending to establish a relation between
the state of the Electrometer and the quotidian fluctuations of the

Where can any authentic account of these observations be found, and what
is the name of the observer?

     T. J.

_Terre Isaac._--Can I be referred to any source of information
respecting Isaac, mentioned in _Domesday Book_ as holding lands in
Norfolk of the gift of the Conqueror, and whether he had any

    G. A. C.

_Daundelyon._--One of the earliest Queries kindly inserted in Vol. i.,
p. 92., requesting information regarding the legend and tradition of the
tenor bell at Margate, being still unanswered, be pleased to append as a
note the following lines from a descriptive poem called _The Margate
Guide_, 1797, by the late Mr. Zechariah Cozens, an esteemed local
antiquary, now buried within its sound:

      "But on the north John Daundelyon lies,
      Whose wondrous deeds our children yet surprise;
      Still at his feet his faithful dog remains,
      Who with his master equal notice claims;
      For by their joint exertions legends tell,
      They brought from far the ponderous tenor bell."

  "_Note._--Concerning this bell the inhabitants repeat this
  traditionary rhyme:

      "John de Daundelyon with his great dog,
      Brought over this bell upon a mill cog."

      Page 31.

    E. D.

_Mallet's Death and Burial._--Where did Mallet the poet die, and where
was he buried?


_Classical Quotations in Grotius._--I have been told that Grotius quoted
from memory _alone_ when writing his _Commentary_; is this possible,
considering the number and variety of the quotations? One thing is
certainly very remarkable, and goes some way towards favouring this
notion, viz., in many of the quotations there are mistakes,--words are
inserted, or rather substituted for others, but without destroying the
sense. This I have frequently observed myself; but the observation
applies only, as far as I know, to the _poetical_ quotations;--may he
not have quoted the _poetry_ from memory, and, for the _prose_, had
recourse to the original?

    L. G.

_The Authorised Version._--You have allowed some discussion in your
pages on what I consider the certainly incorrect translation of Heb.
xiii. 4. in our authorised version. I do not think it at all desirable
to encourage a captious spirit of fault-finding towards that admirable
translation, but fair criticism is assuredly allowable. Can any of your
correspondents account for the rendering in Heb. x. 23. of τὴν
ὁμολογίαν τῆς _ἐλπίδος_ by "the _pro_fession of our _faith_?"

I have never seen any reply to a former Query of mine (Vol. ii., p.
217.) about the omission of the word "holy" in the article on the Church
in the Nicene Creed in all our Prayer-books. It is not omitted in the
original Greek and Latin.

    J. M. W.

_Rector's Chancel._--Would you, or one of your correspondents, kindly
inform me how the following case has been settled; it is one which in
all probability has often arisen, but I have not yet been able to learn
anything about it that is satisfactory.

In old times when a church became too small for the parish, the ordinary
custom was to build an additional part to it in such a way that the old
church, after the alteration, formed an aisle to the new part, which
henceforth because the nave. Until the Reformation the altar in the old
chancel would probably remain after the new chancel was built, and be
used as an inferior altar, while the new altar would be used for high
mass; under these circumstances the rector's right in the chancel would
probably remain untouched, and his obligation to keep it in repair
undisputed. But when, at the Reformation, all but high altars were taken
away, which chancel was accounted the rector's, the new, or the old, or
both? This question has just arisen in an adjoining county.

    H. C. K.

  ---- Rectory, Hereford.

_Duchess of Lancaster._--Can any of your correspondents inform us
whether the Queen is really Duchess of Lancaster? The Lancastrians have
always rather prided themselves on that circumstance, but some wise
person has lately made the discovery that William III. never created
himself Duke of Lancaster, nor any of the Hanoverian dynasty, and that
consequently the title remains with the Stuarts, although the duchy
privileges belong to the Crown. Is this really the truth?


_Cheke's Clock._--Strype, in his _Life of Sir John Cheke_, mentions that
among other presents bestowed on him by the king, was his own clock,
which after his death came into the possession of Dr. Edwin Sandys,
Bishop of Worcester, who, about 1563, gave it as a new year's gift to
Cecil the Secretary. Can any of your readers give a description of this
clock, or what became of it after coming into Cecil's possession?

    C. B. T.

_Ruthven Family._--In a pedigree by Vincent in the College of Arms, two
sons of Patrick Ruthven are to be found, the first called Cames de
Gowrie, the second Robert Ruthven; they were alive in 1660. Can any of
your correspondents tell me what became of them?

    S. C.

"_The Man in the Almanack._"--Will some kind correspondent favour me
with an elucidation of the phrase "Man in the Almanack," which occurs in
the following quotation from the epilogue to Nat. Lee's _Gloriana, or
the Court of Augustus Cæsar_?

      "The ladies, too, neglecting every grace,
      Mob'd up in night cloaths, came with lace to face,
      The Towre upon the forehead all turn'd back,
      And stuck with pins like th' Man i' th' Almanack."

Has this any reference to the practice of "pricking for fortunes?"


_Arkwright._--What is the origin of this name? It might have been the
family name of the patriarch Noah, but I suppose it hardly goes so far


_Burial, Law respecting._--Is there in existence any law rendering
burial in consecrated ground compulsory? Most people have a strong
desire to receive such interment; but some few might prefer to have
their mortal remains deposited in some loved spot, far away from other
graves,--in a scene where many happy hours had been passed. It would be
a very unusual thing; but supposing such a desire to exist, could its
execution be prevented? It is recorded that Manasseh, King of Judah,
"slept with his fathers, and was buried in the garden of his own house,
in the gardens of Uzza."--2 Kings xxi. 18.


_Mr. Borrow's Muggletonians._--If this gentleman correctly states (in
his _Lavengro_) that a minister of the Antinomians, with whom he was
formerly acquainted, was otherwise called a Muggletonian, the
inconceivable fact of that wretched maniac of the seventeenth century
(whose portrait indicates the most hopeless fatuity) still having
believers, must be a fact. But I marvel how Antinomianism should arise
out of the teaching of an Unitarian, as Muggleton was. Can Mr. B. have
confounded Muggleton with Huntington?

    A. N.

_Puritan Antipathy to Custard._--Can any of your readers inform me why
"custard" was held in such abomination by the Puritans?--See _Ken's
Life_, by W. L. Bowles, vol. i. p. 143.

    W. N.

_"Corruptio Optimi," &c._--To what source is the well-known saying,
"Corruptio optimi fit pessima," to be traced?


_Miss Fanshawe's Enigma._--The enigma of Miss Catherine Fanshawe on the
letter "H" is so good, as to make me wish much to see the other by the
same lady, to which E. H. Y. refers in your Number of Vol. v., p. 258.
If E. H. Y. could procure a copy, and send it to you for publication, he
would probably oblige many besides

    E. S. S. W.


_Mary Ambree._--Is there any good account (not scattered notices) of
Mary Ambree?

      "That _Mary Ambree_
      Who marched so free
      To the siege of Gaunt,
      And death could not daunt,
      As the ballad doth vaunt?"


Minor Queries Answered.

_Sir W. Stanley._--I find in one of the usual history books in use that
Sir William Stanley, who was beheaded for high treason, for saying "If
Perkin Wabbeck is son of Edward IV., I will supply him with five hundred
men," was executed in the third year of Henry VII. Now, in a memorandum
of the time in a _Horæ B. Virg._ in my possession, it states:

  "Memorandum: Quod die lune xvio die Februarii anno Regis Henrici
  Septimi Decimo Willius Stanley, Miles, Camerarius regis prædicti
  receptus fuit apud Turrim London, et ductus usque scaffold et
  ibidem fuit decapitatus. Johannes Warner et Nicholas Allwyn tunc
  vic. London."

Could you help me to the true account?


  Cross House, Ilminster, Somerset.

  [The memorandum in the _Horæ_ agrees with the date given in
  Fabyan's _Chronicle_, p. 685., edit. 1811, viz. February 16, 1495.
  Fuller, in his _Worthies_, also states that Allwyn and Warner were
  sheriffs of London in the tenth year of Henry VII.]

_Mires--Somerlayes._--In the appointment of a pinder for the town of
Hunstanton, Norfolk, dated 1644, these two words occur: "No person shall
feed any _mires_ with any beast," &c. _Mire_ is clearly the same as
_meer_, i.e. the strip of unploughed ground bounding adjacent fields.
"None shall tye any of their cattle upon anothers _somerlayes_ without
leave of the owner," &c. I suppose _somerlaye_ to be the same as
_somerland_, explained by Halliwell to mean, land lying fallow during
summer. I find neither word in Forby's _Glossary_.

    C. W. G.

  [Grass laid down for summer pasture, is called in Kent, _lay
  fields_; doubtless _somerlayes_ are such. Probably a corruption of
  _lea_, the _lesura_ of Latin charters.]

_Wyned._--In an old precedent (seventeenth century) of a lease of a
house, I find the words "divers parcels of _wyned_ waynescott windowes
and other implements of household." What is _wyned_?

    C. W. G.

  [A friend, who is extremely well versed in early records, and to
  whom we referred this Query, observes, "I have never met with the
  word, nor can I find a trace of it anywhere. I suspect that the
  querist has misread his MS., and that, in the original, it is
  _payned_, for _paned_. In the slovenly writing of that period many
  a form of _pa_ might be mistaken for _w_. The upstroke of the _p_
  is often driven high. I have seen many a _pa_ like this

_Cromwell Family._--Two leaves, paged from 243 to 246, cuttings from an
old magazine, seemingly having dates down to 1772, entitled "Account of
the Male Descendants of Oliver Cromwell. By the Rev. Mr. Hewling Luson,
of Lowestoft, in Suffolk. In a Letter to Dr. Brooke." [Concluded from
our last, page 197.] The next article commencing, "On the Knowledge of
Mankind. From Lord Chesterfield's Letters to his Son," having lately
come into my hands, I shall feel greatly obliged by being informed
through "N. & Q.," or otherwise, where may I meet with the previous part
of such account of the Cromwell family, or the title and date of such

    W. P. A.

  [Mr. Luson's letter to Dr. Brooke, referred to by our
  correspondent, will be found in Hughes's _Letters_, edited by
  Duncombe, vol. ii. Appendix, p. xxxii. edit. 1773.]

_Beholden._--Is the word "beholden" a corruption of the Dutch
"gehouden," or is it a past participle from the verb "to behold?" If the
latter, how comes it from signifying "seen," to denote "indebted"?

    A. F. S.

  [If our correspondent had referred to Richardson's _Dictionary_,
  his difficulty would have been removed on reading this derivation
  and definition:

  "_Angl.-Saxon_, Be-healdan, Be-haldan, Healdan. _Dutch_, Behouden,
  tenere, servare, observare. To keep or hold (_sc._ the eye fixed
  upon any object), to look at it, to observe, to consider."]

_Men of Kent and Kentish Men._--The natives of Kent are often spoken of
in these different terms. Will you be so good as to inform me what is
the difference between these most undoubtedly distinctive people?

    B. M.

  [A very old man, in our younger days, whose informant lived temp.
  Jac. II., used to explain it thus:--When the Conqueror marched
  from Dover towards London, he was stopped at Swansconope, by
  Stigand, at the head of the "Men of Kent," with oak boughs "all on
  their brawny shoulders," as emblems of peace, on condition of his
  preserving inviolate the Saxon laws and customs of Kent; else they
  were ready to fight unto the death for them. The Conqueror chose
  the first alternative: hence we retain our Law of Gavelkind, &c.,
  and hence the inhabitants of the part of Kent lying between
  Rochester and London, being "invicti," have ever since been
  designated as "Men of Kent," while those to the eastward, through
  whose district the Conqueror marched unopposed, are only "Kentish
  Men." This is hardly a satisfactory account; but we give it as we
  had it.

  We suspect the _real_ origin of the terms to have been, a mode of
  distinguishing any man whose family had been long settled in the
  county (from time immemorial, it may be), from new settlers; the
  former being genuine "Men of Kent," the latter only "Kentish." The
  monosyllabic name of the county probably led to this play upon the
  word, which could not have been achieved in the "shires."]

_Bee-Park._--This term is used in Cornish title-deeds. What species of
inclosure does it express? Do any such exist now?

    C. W. G.

  [We have never met with the word, and can only guess at random
  that it is _quasi_ "the bee-croft," the enclosure where the bees
  were kept; always remembering that formerly, when honey was an
  article of large consumption, immense stores of these insects must
  have been kept. In royal inventories we have "honey casks"
  enumerated to an immense amount.]

_A great Man who could not spell._--Of what great historical character
is it recorded, that though by no means deficient in education, he never
could succeed in spelling correctly? I have an impression of having read
this in some biography a few years since, and I think it was a great
military commander, who always committed this error in his despatches,
though a man of acknowledged high talents and well-informed mind, and
conscious of this defect, which he had endeavoured in vain to overcome.


  [Does our correspondent allude to the Duke of Marlborough, who was
  avowedly "loose in his cacography" as Lord Duberly has it?]

_Glass-making in England._--The appearance in your pages of several very
interesting Notes on the First Paper-mill in England leads me to beg
space for a few Queries on another subject of Art-History.

1. _When_, _where_, and under what circumstances, was the first
manufactory for _glass_ established in England?

2. What writer first notices the introduction or use of glass, in our

3. Are there any works of authority published devoted to this material?
If so, may I request some of your learned contributors to direct me to
them, or, in fact, to any good notice of its early history?


  5. Holland Place, North Brixton.

  [Fosbroke, in his _Encyclopædia of Antiquities_, vol. i. p. 397.,
  has given some curious notices of the early manufacture of this
  useful article. The art of glass-making was known to the early
  Egyptians, as is fully discussed in a Memoir by M. Boudet, in the
  _Description de l'Egypt_, vol. ix. _Antiq. Mémoires_. See also the
  _Encyclopædia Metropolitana_, vol. viii. p. 469, which contains
  many historical notices, from a neat and concise sketch published
  by Mr. Pellatt, of the firm of Pellatt and Green, whose works are
  scientifically conducted on a scale of considerable magnitude.]

_Eustace._--Was Eustachius Monachus ever in Guernsey?


  [It is very probable. Some of the crew of this renowned pirate
  were captured at Sark. See Michel's Introduction to the _Roman
  d'Eustache le Moine_, 8vo. 1834, where copies of most of our
  records, and of the passages in our early historians, in which
  Eustace is mentioned, have been collected with great care.]

_Mas._--I inquired what was the meaning of Mass Robert Fleming, and I
partly answer my own question, by saying that Cameronian preachers were
so styled, or rather Mas with one "s" before their Christian names,--as
Mas David Williamson, Mas John King: see John Creichton's _Memoirs_. But
I ask again, how the title arises, and whether it is short for master?

    A. N.

  [Nares, in his _Glossary_, has given several examples from our
  earlier dramatists in which _Mas_ is used as a colloquial
  abbreviation of _Master_, the plural being _Masse_.]

_John Le Neve._--Who was John Le Neve, the compiler and editor of the
_Fasti Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ_, fol. 1716? He has been, though erroneously,
supposed to be a brother of Peter Le Neve, Norroy. When did he die?


  [John Le Neve was born in Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, Dec.
  27, 1679. In his twelfth year he was sent to Eton School, and at
  the age of sixteen became a fellow-commoner of Trinity College,
  Cambridge, where he remained three years. He married Frances, the
  second daughter of Thomas Boughton, of King's Cliffe, in
  Northamptonshire, by whom he had four sons and four daughters. He
  died about 1722. Mr. Lysons, in _Environs of London_, says he had
  a house at Stratford, Bow. (See Nichols's _Lit. Anecdotes_, vol.
  i. p. 128.) In Cole's MSS., vol. i. p. 143., is the following
  curious note respecting his _Fasti_:--"I was told by my worthy
  friend and benefactor, Browne Willis, Esq., that though Mr. John
  Le Neve has the name and credit of the _Fasti Ecclesiae
  Anglicanae_, yet the real compiler of that most useful book was
  Bishop Kennett." The Bodleian contains a copy of this work, with
  MS. additions by Bishop Tanner.]

_Meaning of Crow._--At page 437. of Lloyd's _Statesmen and Favourites of
England_ is a letter from Queen Elizabeth addressed to the mother of Sir
John Norris, written upon the occasion of the death of the said Sir
John, which she commences thus: "My own Crow." This appears to me a very
curious mode of address, particularly from a queen to a subject, and
seems to mark a more than ordinary intimacy between the correspondents,
for it has been suggested to me that it is still used as a term of
endearment, in the same way as "duck," &c. are used: I have, however,
never before met with it myself, and have sent you a Note of it now, not
only because I consider it curious that the queen should thus write, but
because I hope that some of your correspondents may be able to suggest
how this word came to be thus used.



  [Queen Elizabeth had pet-names, or nick-names, for all the people
  of her court. Burghley was her "Spirit," Mountjoy her
  "Kitchen-maid;" and so of many others.]



(Vol. v., p. 274.)

No such oath as that given in page 274. of "N. & Q." is taken by
Presbyterian ministers. Immediately previous to the ordination of a
minister of the church of Scotland, the Moderator--that is, the member
of Presbytery who presides upon the occasion--calls upon him to answer
certain questions, acknowledging the Scriptures to be the word of God,
the doctrines of the Confession of Faith to be the truth of God;
disowning certain doctrinal errors; declaring his belief that the
Presbyterian government and discipline of this church are founded on the
word of God, and agreeable thereto; expressing the views with which he
enters the ministry, and his resolution faithfully to discharge its
duties. Having answered these questions satisfactorily, he is set aside
to the work of the ministry by prayer and imposition of the hands of the
Presbytery (the local Ecclesiastical Court).

At the conclusion of the service he is called on to sign what is called
the Formula, an abstract of the first portion of the questions put to
him. It is as follows:--

  "I, A. B., do hereby declare, that I do sincerely own and believe
  the whole doctrine contained in the Confession of Faith, approven
  by the General Assemblies of this national church, and ratified by
  law in the year 1690, and frequently confirmed by divers acts of
  parliament since that time, to be the truths of God; and I do own
  the same as the confession of my faith: as likewise, I do own the
  purity of worship presently authorised and practised in this
  church, and also the Presbyterian government and discipline now so
  happily established therein; which doctrine, worship, and church
  government, I am persuaded, are founded upon the word of God, and
  agreeable thereto: and I promise that, through the grace of God, I
  shall firmly and constantly adhere to the same; and to the utmost
  of my power, shall, in my station, assert, maintain, and defend
  the said doctrine, worship, discipline, and government of this
  church by Kirk Sessions, Presbyteries, Provincial Synods, and
  General Assemblies; and that I shall in my practice conform myself
  to the said worship, and submit to the said discipline and
  government, and never endeavour directly or indirectly the
  prejudice or subversion of the same: and I promise that I shall
  follow no divisive course from the present establishment in this
  church: renouncing all doctrines, tenets, and opinions whatsoever,
  contrary to or inconsistent with the said doctrine, worship,
  discipline, or government of this church.

  "Signed, A. B."

No oath is taken, and no obligation come under but the above. In the
Confession of Faith, under the head Church, the supremacy of the Pope is
denied; but neither in that, the Questions, or the Formula, is there any
other reference to any other form of church government.



(Vol. v., p. 145.)

As there has been, from time to time, much written in your very
interesting publication on the subject of the "Old Countess of Desmond,"
it may, perhaps, not be unacceptable that I should give you a
description of an old family picture in my possession, said to be of
that person, to which allusion has been made by some of your
correspondents, especially by A. B. R., in your paper of Saturday, 14th
February. The painting in question has been for a great number of years
in the possession of my family, and from my earliest childhood I have
heard it designated as that of the old "Countess of Desmond," although
there is no mention of her name thereon. My father for a long time
thought it was a work of Rembrandt; but on a close examination there was
discovered the name of "G. Douw," low at the left-hand side; and since
the picture has been cleaned, the signature has become more distinct. It
is painted on board of dark-coloured oak, of eleven inches by eight and
a half. The portrait, which reaches to below the bust, and represents a
person sitting, is eight and a half inches in length; the face about
two and three quarter inches. It is admitted by the best judges to be a
painting of great merit. It represents, as well as it is possible,
extreme old age, with an extraordinary degree of still remaining vigour,
and in this respect certainly fits exactly the character of its subject.
The dress is correctly described by your correspondent A. B. R. The
forehead is not very high, but square and intellectual--deeply wrinkled;
the nose is rather long, and very well formed; the eyes dark; the mouth
compressed, and denoting quiet firmness; the expression altogether
pleasing and placid, and the face one that must have been handsome in
youth. Should any of your correspondents wish to see this picture, I
shall leave it for a short time in the hands of my bookseller, Mr.
Newman, 3. Bruton Street, Bond Street, who has kindly consented to take
charge of it, and to show it to those who feel an interest in such

It must, at first sight, appear strange that such men as G. Douw, the
painter of the picture in question, or Rembrandt to whom are attributed
other portraits of this old lady, should have condescended to copy from
other artists, (for the respective dates render it quite impossible they
could have painted from life in this instance): however, it is natural
to suppose that this extraordinary instance of longevity made great
noise at the time of, and for some time after, her death, and that a
correct representation of such a physical phenomenon, although the work
of an inferior artist, may well have afforded a fitting study for even
such eminent painters as Rembrandt and G. Douw.

As I am on this subject, I shall further trouble you with a circumstance
in connexion therewith, which has recently come to my knowledge. My
friend, Mr. Herbert, M.P., of Muckross Abbey, Killarney, has also an old
family picture of the same lady, with a very curious inscription, which,
while it would appear to go far towards establishing several of her
characteristic attributes, has also its peculiar difficulties, which I
shall presently point out, in the hope that some of your correspondents
who are learned in such matters may explain them. The inscription, which
is on the canvass itself, is as follows:

  "Catharine, Countesse of Desmonde, as she appeared at ye court of
  our Sovraigne Lord King James, in thys preasant A.D. 1614, and in
  ye 140th yeare of her age. Thither she came from Bristol to seek
  relief, ye house of Desmonde having been ruined by Attainder. She
  was married in ye Reigne of King Edward IV., and in ye course of
  her long Pilgrimage renewed her teeth twice: her Principal
  residence is at Inchiquin, in Munster, whither she undoubtedlye
  proposeth (her Purpose accomplished) incontinentlie to return.

Now, as to the authenticity of this picture, there can, I should think,
be no question. It has not been _got up_ for the present antiquarian
controversy; for it is known to have been in existence in the family of
Mr. Herbert for a great many years. It could not well be a mystification
of the intervening "middle age," for in that case it would doubtless
have been brought forward at _the time_, to establish a particular
theory as to this lady. I think, therefore, it is only reasonable to
suppose that it was painted at the time it professes. It may also be
mentioned, in corroboration, that a connoisseur who examined this
picture for Mr. Herbert attributed it to the hand of Jamieson, the
Scotch painter, who lived at a time that would render it quite possible
for him to have painted it from life. So far so good. The main
difficulty is that of the dates given in the inscription. If the
Countess was 140 in 1614, and therefore born in 1474, she could have
been but eight or nine years old at the death of Edward IV., and
therefore could not have been married in his reign. It is difficult to
account for this discrepancy, except by supposing that the old lady sank
ten years of her age (and there are statements in existence of 1464
being the year of her birth); or else by supposing that the story of her
marriage in the reign of Edward IV. was not her own, but communicated,
at second-hand and erroneously, to the artist.

On this point I hope some of your more learned correspondents will
favour us with their opinion. There has also been recently sent me by a
friend an extract from the "Birch Collection," British Museum (Add. MSS.
4161.), being transcripts of a _Table Book of Robert Sidney, second Earl
of Leicester_, which contradicts the inscription in some particulars:
but Lord Leicester writes in a loose and apparently not very authentic
style. He states, on the authority of a "Mr. Harnet," that the Countess
of Desmond came to petition "the Queen" (Elizabeth), and not King James;
and quotes Sir W. Raleigh (on memory) as saying that he (Sir W. R.) saw
her in England in 1589. He also talks of her death as occurring at the
end of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and as being caused by a fall from
a "nutt-tree." I do not think, indeed, that much weight should attach to
these notes of Lord Leicester; but it is fair to give all that comes to
light, whether it makes against or for the authenticity of what one
wishes to establish.


  Union Club, London.


(_Value of Solidus Gallicus?_)

(Vol. v., p. 277.)

I undertake to answer C. W. B.'s Query with the greater readiness,
because it affords me an opportunity of upholding that which has ever
been the leading object in every amendment of Shakspeare's text
advocated by me, viz., the unravelling and explaining, rather than the
alteration, of the original. Perhaps it is with a similar aim that C. W.
B. wishes to investigate the value of "siclus;" if so, he must pardon me
if I forestall him.

I see no difficulty in the passage which he asks to have construed; its
meaning is this:

  "The sacred sickle (or shekel) was equivalent to an Attic
  tetradrachma, which Budæus estimated at 14 Gallic solidi, or
  thereabouts; for the didrachma was seven solidi, since the single
  drachma made three and a half solidi, _less_ a denier Tournois."

Which is as much as to say, that the sickle equalled fourteen solidi,
less four deniers; or 13-2/3 solidi.

But owing to the rapid declension in the value of French coin after the
tenth century, it is manifestly impossible to assign a value to these
solidi unless the precise date of their coinage were known. A writer
may, of course, allude to coin indefinitely precedent to his own time.
In the present case, however, we may, as a matter of curiosity,
_analytically_ approximate to a result in this way:--

The drachma is now known to have contained about 65 grains of pure
silver, consequently the tetradrachma contained 260 grains. The present
franc contains about 70 grains of pure silver, and consequently the sol,
or 20th part, is 3-1/2 grains.

This last, multiplied by 13-2/3, produces about 48 grains. But the
weight of the tetradrachma is 260 grains; therefore the sol with which
the comparison was made must have contained upwards of fivefold its
present value in pure silver.

Now, according to the depreciation tables of M. Dennis, this condition
obtained in 1483, under Charles VIII., at which time Budæus was actually
living, having been born in 1467; but from other circumstances I am
induced to believe that the solidus gallicus mentioned by him was coined
by Louis XII. in 1498, at which time the quantity of pure silver was
fourfold and a half that of the present day.

So much in answer to C. W. B.'s Query; now for its relation to
Shakspeare's text, with which however the "siclus" in question has
nothing in common except the name; since the "sickles," so beautifully
alluded to by Isabella, in _Measure for Measure_ (Act II. Sc. 2.), were
_sicli aurei_, "of the tested gold."

But I have designedly used the word _sickle_ as the English
representative of the Latin _siclus_ (Gallicè _cicle_), because it is
the original word of Shakspeare, which was subsequently, most
unwarrantably and unwisely, altered by the commentators to _shekels_ in
conformity with the Hebraicised word of our scriptural translation.[2]
Hence it is that "sickles" has come to be looked upon as _a corruption
of the text_; and "shekels" as a very clever _conjectural emendation_!

We retain _sickle_, Anglicè for _sicula_, a scythe; but we refuse it to
Shakspeare for a word almost identical in sound--_siculus_, or siclus!

The real corruption has been that of Shakspeare's commentators, not his
printers'; and I hope that some future editor of his plays will have the
courage to permit him to spell this, and other proper names, in his own
way. For how can his text continue to be an example of his language, if
his words may be altered to suit the _précieuse_ fashion of subsequent

    A. E. B.


  [Footnote 2: [Our correspondent of course alludes to King James's
  translation. Upon reference to Sir Frederic Madden's admirable
  edition of Wickliffe's Bible, we find A. E. B.'s position directly
  corroborated: "The erthe that thou askist is worth foure hundryd
  _sicles_ of silver."--Genesis, xxiii. 15. And in Exodus, xxx. 13.,
  "A _sicle_ that is a nounce hath twenti half scripples;" or, as in
  the second edition, "A _sicle_ hath twenti halpens."--ED.]]


(Vol. i., p. 254.; Vol. v., pp. 252-3.)

By the aid of Dr. Adam Littleton and your correspondent A. N., all
future editors of Chaucer and glossarists are helped over this _pons
asinorum_: the word being evidently nothing more than the adoption of
the Arabic DHU 'LKARNEIN, i.e. _two-horned_; and hence, as the reputed
son of Jupiter Ammon, Alexander's oriental name, Iscander _Dhu
'lkarnein_, i.e. Bicornis.

The legend of the building of the wall, in the fabulous Eastern lives of
Alexander, is to be found in the 18th chapter of the Koran; and it is
related with variations and amplification by Sir John Mandeville. The
metrical as well as prose romances on the subject of Alexander also
contain it; and those who wish for more information will find it in the
third volume of Weber's _Metrical Romances_, p. 331.

I cannot say that I am quite convinced of the truth of the ingenious
supposition of your correspondent, that "Sending to Dulcarnein is merely
an ellipsis of the person for his place, _i.e._ for the rampart of
Dulcarnein." It appears to me more probable, that as, according to St.
Jerome and other writers of the Middle Ages, the _Dilemma_ was also
called Syllogismum _Cornutum_, its Arabic name was _Dhu 'lkarnein_; and
we know how much in science and literature the darker ages were indebted
to the Arabian writers. Wyttenbach, in his _Logic_, says "_Dilemma_
etiam _Cornutus_ est; quod _utrimque_ veluti _Cornibus_ pugnat." At any
rate it is clear that the enclosure had another name:

      "En Ynde si naist uns grans mons
      Qui est une grans regions
      C'on apiele _Mont Capien_.
      Illuec a unes gens sans bien,
      Qu' Alixandres dedens enclost,
      Et sont la gent _Got_ et _Magot_."

      _Extrait de l'Image du Monde, par Le Roux de Lincy, Livre des
      Légendes_, p. 208.

It does not appear to me that _to be at Dalcarnon_ is equivalent to
being _sent to Coventry_, or to Jericho, as your correspondent A. N.
supposes; or that the word _flemyng_, in this passage, means
_banishing_, but rather _defeating_, _daunting_, _dismaying_, in which
sense it occurs more than once in Layamon; thus, vol. ii. p. 410.:--

      "Thine feond _flæmen_
      & driven hem of londen."

The general sense of the word is, however, _to expel_, _to drive out_,
and not _to enclose_, as Alexander is said to have done the Gog and
Magog people, by his iron, or rather bituminous, wall. Now those who
were at Dulcarnon, or _in a Dilemma_, might well be said to be defeated
or dismayed.

Let us hope that some oriental scholar among your correspondents may be
able to indicate where the word is to be found in some Arabian expositor
of logic or dialectic, &c., and thus set the question entirely at rest.

Are we never to have an edition of Chaucer worthy of him, and creditable
to us? Had our northern neighbours possessed such a treasure, every MS.
in existence would have been examined and collated, and the text
settled. His language would have been thoroughly investigated and
explained[3], and every possible source of elucidation made available.
May we not hope that the able editor of Layamon and Wickliffe will yet
add to the obligation every lover of our early literature owes to him,
an edition of our first great poet, such as his previous labours have
shown that he is so well qualified to give?

  [Footnote 3: This is evident from the interest the Germans have
  manifested, _e.g._ the younger Gesenius, in his able essay, _De
  Lingua Chauceri Commentationem Grammaticam_; and Edward Fiedler's
  _Translation of the Canterbury Tales_.]

    S. W. SINGER.


(Vol. v., p. 290.)

I have, as most of the readers of "N. & Q." are aware, for a
considerable time past turned my attention to the subject of _English
Surnames_, and the sale of three editions of my work under that title
shows that such a book was a desideratum. Chapters on the origin of
surnames exist in Camden's _Remaines_, Verstegan's _Restitution_, and
elsewhere, and there are detached notices in the _Gentleman's Magazine_
and other periodicals; but my work is the first, and as yet the _only_
independent treatise on the subject. Any one who will be at the trouble
to compare my first and third editions will at once see how this inquiry
has grown under my hands; but although I have collected and classified
6000 names, much still remains to be accomplished. Under this
conviction, I am now engaged in the compilation of a _Dictionary of
English Family Names_, which I hope to complete within the present year.
My plan will include:

I. The name.

II. The class to which it belongs. The classes will be about twenty in

III. The etymology of each name when necessary.

IV. Definitions and remarks.

V. Illustrative quotations from old English authors.

VI. The century in which the name first occurs.

VII. The corruptions and most remarkable variations which the name has

VIII. Proverbs associated with family names, _e.g._:--

      "All the _Tracys_
      Have the wind in their faces,"

in allusion to the judgment of heaven which is said to have befallen the
posterity of Wm. de Traci, one of the assassins of Thos. à Becket.

IX. Anecdotes and traditions.

My object in making this statement, is to solicit from the numerous and
learned correspondents of "N. & Q." contributions of surnames and
suggestions in furtherance of my undertaking; and from the Editor,
permission to query from time to time upon the origin, date, and history
of such surnames as I am unable satisfactorily to elucidate without
assistance. A field so large requires the co-operation of many
labourers. I have already secured the friendly aid of some of the most
competent antiquaries in England; and I confidently anticipate for the
forthcoming collection a degree of success proportioned to the amount of
labour and research bestowed upon it.

Of _local_ surnames few will be introduced; for, as nearly every landed
property has given a name to the family of its early proprietor, it
would be impossible to include all the names so derived. Only the more
remarkable ones of this class, which would appear at first sight to come
from a totally different source, will be admitted. Blennerhasset,
Polkinghom, Woodhead, Wisdom, Bodycoat, and Crawl, for example, are
names of places, and surnames have been derived from them, although few
except the persons resident in the particular localities are aware that
any such places exist. Most of the names that baffle all historical and
etymological acumen are probably of this class.

I wish it to be understood that my dictionary will only include family,
that is, _hereditary_ surnames. Merely personal sobriquets which died
with their first possessors (and which are found in large numbers in
ancient records) will be passed by, unless they should illustrate some
appellative which has descended to our times.

In conclusion, this work is by no means intended to supersede my
_English Surnames_, which contains much matter unsuited to dictionary
arrangement, and is intended to convey information on a neglected
subject in a popular form. The illustrations in the _Dictionary_ will
for the most part be new, with references to the _English Surnames_ for

The foregoing announcement was intended to be sent to "N. & Q." some
weeks since. I am now induced to forward it without further delay,
because I see the subject of surnames introduced in to-day's number by
two different correspondents. COWGILL, the first of these, could, if so
disposed, render me efficient help. As to the remarks of J. H. on the
works of "Lower and others" (_what others?_), they clearly show that he
has never read what he so summarily condemns, or he would not now have
to ask for the supposed number of surnames in England, which is given in
my third edition, vol. i., preface, p. xiii. Though I am, perhaps, more
fully aware than any other person of the defects and demerits of my
_English Surnames_, I think the literary public will hardly deny me the
credit of "_some_ study and research," praise which has been awarded me
by better critics than J. H. It is not my practice to notice the
censures of anonymous writers, but I cannot forbear adverting to two
points in J. H.'s short communication. In the first place his desire for
a work giving _all_ the names used in England, and "showing when they
were first adopted or brought into this country," shows his entire want
of acquaintance with the existing state of the nomenclature of English
families. A glance at a few pages of so common a book as the _London
Directory_, will convince any competent observer that there are hundreds
upon hundreds of surnames that would baffle the most imaginative
etymologist. Secondly, J. H. proposes that an author treating on the
subject of family names, should begin "with the Britons." Does he really
suppose that the Celtic possessors of our island bore family names
according to the modern practice? If so, "Lower and (many) others" can
assure him that his antiquarian and historical knowledge must be of a
somewhat limited kind.




(Vol. iv., p. 133.; Vol. v., pp. 66. 280.)

Since the Notes, kindly transmitted from Holland in answer to my Query
respecting the family of the Rev. John Paget, appeared in "N. & Q.," I
have discovered that the Pagets to whom my Query related, as well as the
others alluded to by your correspondents, were all of the family of
Paget of Rothley, Leicestershire, of whom a (partially incomplete)
pedigree is given in Nichols's _Leicestershire_, vol. iv. p. 481. I was
led to this conclusion by finding that Robert Paget (the writer of a
preface before alluded to "from Dort, 1641") mentions in his will
Roadley (Rothley) in Leicestershire as his birthplace, and speaks of his
brother George as residing in his "patrimoniall house" there: he is
probably the Robert, son of Michael Paget, and great-grandson of the
Rev. Harold Paget, vicar of Rothley in 1564, who is mentioned in the
pedigree as born at Rothley in 1611: he died at Dordt in 1684. The
pedigree gives him an uncle named Thomas, born in 1589 (two indeed of
that name, and both born the same year!); this will do very well for the
Rev. Thomas Paget, incumbent of Blackley, and rector of Stockport; and
another named John, who died, aged seven, in 1582: still I cannot help
believing that John Paget, the writer, was this Robert's uncle, and feel
mightily disposed to metamorphose one of the two Thomases into John. The
Rev. Thomas Paget died in October, 1660, leaving his property to his two
sons, Nathan M.D., and Thomas a clergyman. What relation was he to that
Mr. Paget to whom Dee, the astrologer (see his _Diary_, p. 55. Camden
Society, 1842), sold a house in Manchester in 1595? His son, Dr. Nathan,
in a _Thesis on the Plague_, printed at Leyden in 1639, describes
himself on the title-page as Mancestr-Anglus. According to Mr. Paget's
will, dated May 23, 1660, he was then minister at Stockport, Cheshire;
and I am inclined to think him identical with Thomas Paget, rector of
St. Chads, Shrewsbury, from 1646 to 1659, although Owen and Blakeway
(_History of Shrewsbury_, 2 vols. 4to. 1825) consider the latter to be
son of John (James?) Paget, Baron of the Exchequer, temp. Car. I.: this
descent is, I am confident, erroneous. Thomas Paget appears to have gone
to Amsterdam in 1639 on the death of the Rev. John Paget, and to have
returned to England in 1646, in which year his son John (who must have
been much younger than his two other sons, and is, moreover, not
mentioned in his will dated 1660) was baptized at Shrewsbury. Dr. Nathan
Paget was an intimate friend of Milton, and cousin to the poet's fourth
wife, Elizabeth Minshull, of whose family descent (which appears to be
rather obscure) I may, at another time, communicate some particulars.

Whilst the subject of the Pagets (a very interesting one to me), I
cannot refrain from noticing, even at the risk of encroaching on your
space, a singular mistake of Anthony à Wood respecting another writer
(though of an entirely different family) of the name of Paget. Speaking
of the Rev. Ephraim Paget (_Athen. Oxon._, vol. ii. p. 51.) he says:

  "One of both his names (his uncle I think) translated into English
  _Sermons upon Ruth_, Lond. 1586, in oct., written originally by
  Lod. Lavater; but whether the said Ephraim Paget was educated at
  Oxon, I cannot justly say, though two or more of his sirname and
  time occur in our registers."

Had Anthony ever _seen_ the book in question, he would have been aware
that the title-page informs him that it was translated by Ephraim
Pagitt, a child of eleven years of age; and as, according to the said
Anthony's account, Ephraim was born in 1575, he would also at once have
seen that Ephraim himself--not that ideal personage, his "uncle of the
same name"--was the translator.



(Vol. v., p 296.)

Your correspondent W. C. begins his letter modestly. "If," he says,
Thomas Lord Lyttleton wrote _The Letters of Junius_, and "if" Junius
wrote the "Letter to the Brigadier-General," then he sees a difficulty.
Why, of course he does: but as nobody but the writer in the _Quarterly_
believes that the said Thomas did write the _Letters of Junius_, and as
it has never been proved that Junius did write the "Letter to a
Brigadier," I must believe that something remains to be done before we
proceed a step farther either in the way of argument or inference.
Unless some such resolution be come to by inquirers, we shall never get
out of the mazes in which this question has been involved, by like
conditional statements, and the conditional arguments founded thereon.

As to the Lyttleton story, I shall dismiss it at once: it is not
entitled to the sort of respectability which attaches to a case put
hypothetically, nor to the honour of an "if;" and I must remind your
correspondent that in a Junius question "general belief" is no evidence.
Every story, however absurd, once asserted, is "generally believed,"
until some one (a rare and exceptional case) proves that it is not
true--probably that it could not be true. The general belief, for
example, that the "Letter to a Brigadier" was written by Junius, is not,
so far as I know, supported by a tittle of evidence. It is all assertion
and assumption, founded on the opinion of A., B., and C., as to "style,"
&c. Now, as some two dozen different persons have been proved, by like
confident opinions, on like evidence, to be the writer of _Junius's
Letters_, I may be excused when I acknowledge that the test is not with
me quite conclusive. In respect, however, to this "Letter to a
Brigadier," Mr. Britton and Sir David Brewster have proceeded somewhat
further. Having, with others, come to the conclusion that Junius was the
writer, Mr. Britton proceeds to show that Barré served in Canada under
Wolfe, and was the very man, from circumstances, position, and feelings,
who could, would, and did write that letter. Sir David endeavours to
show that Macleane was in like circumstance, stimulated by like
feelings, and was the veritable Simon; founding his argument mainly on
the belief that Macleane was also serving there as surgeon of Otway's
regiment. It has been shown in the _Athenæum_ that Macleane never was
surgeon of Otway's regiment, and that in all probability he never was in
Canada: in brief, that the memoir is a mistake from beginning to end. As
all, however, that is urged by Sir David in favour of Macleane, as one
who had served under Wolfe, may be thought to strengthen, to that
extent, the claim of Barré, who certainly did so serve, and was severely
wounded, let us look at the facts.

Barré was wounded at the capture of Quebec; and, under date of Oct.
1759, Knox, in his _Historical Journal_, says, "Colonel Carlton and
Major Barré retired to the southward for the recovery of their wounds."
From his letter to Mr. Pitt (_Chath. Corr._), we find that Barré was at
New York, April 28, 1760. He appears subsequently to have joined Amherst
before Montreal; and on the capture of Montreal, on Sept. 8, 1760, he
was appointed to convey the despatches to England, and arrived in London
on the 5th October. These are facts public and unquestioned--admitted by
Mr. Britton.

Now for a fact out of the "Letter to a Brigadier." I could give you half
a dozen of like character, but space is precious, and one, I think, will
be sufficient. The writer quotes _in extenso_ a letter written by
Townshend, published in _The Daily Advertiser_, and dated "South Audley
Square, 20th June, 1760." Mr. Britton admits that the pamphlet must have
been published "some time before the 5th October, as on that day a
Refutation appeared;" it was, in fact, reviewed, or rather abused, in
the _Critical Review_ for September. We have proof, therefore, that the
"Letter to a Brigadier" was written after 20th June, and founded, in
part, on facts known _in London_ only on the 21st of June at the
earliest: the probabilities are that it was published in August or
September, certainly before the 5th October. How then could it have been
written by a man in America, serving before Montreal?

    L. B. G.


(Vol. v., p. 261.)

I do not know why, because a man publishes maps of Africa at Gotha, they
should not be "fancy portraits," any more than why a man's book should
be a good one, because it is printed on a composition which nobody but a
German would have the effrontery to call paper.

I had seen Spruner's Map a few weeks after it came out, and the
conclusion I came to about it at the time was, that it was certainly a
fancy portrait. I shall be glad to be shown that I am in error; and, as
I am more sure of the fact that I did come to this conclusion after some
examination, than I am of the argument whereby I arrived at it--for my
memory is singularly gifted in this way--I should be obliged by E. C.
H., or any of your correspondents, informing me what grounds there are
for believing Spruner, or any one else, to have produced a map or maps
of the north coast of Africa between long. 5° west, and 25° east of
Greenwich, or any portion of the said coast,--said map or maps being the
result of actual survey. Moreover, if I further inquire when any survey
whatever took place of this coast at any time, and profess my utter
ignorance of the history of our present _North_ African maps, and my
great doubts of their credibility, let not your correspondents imagine
that this is one of a _few_ things that I ought to be acquainted with,
and really know nothing whatever about.


Replies to Minor Queries.

_James Wilson, M.D._ (Vol. v., p. 276.).--To the numerous list of men
whose services to literature our English biographers have injudiciously
omitted to record may be added James Wilson, M.D. As editor of the
_Mathematical tracts_ of Mr. Benjamin Robins in 1761, he has often been
noticed with commendation. Beyond that circumstance, all is obscurity.

He wrote, however, a valuable _Dissertation on the rise and progress of
the modern art of navigation_, which was first published by Mr. John
Robertson in his _Elements of navigation_ in 1764, and republished by
him in 1772. The authors shall now speak for themselves:--

  "This edition [of the _Elements of navigation_] is also enriched
  with the history of the art of navigation; for with the author's
  leave, I have published the following dissertation on that
  subject, written by Dr. Wilson, believing it would afford the most
  ample satisfaction on that subject."--John ROBERTSON, 1764.

  "My enquiries into these matters [navigation] induced the late
  learned Dr. James Wilson to review and complete his observations
  on the subject, and produced his _Dissertation_ on the history of
  the art of navigation, which he was pleased to give me leave to
  publish with the second edition of this work.... The second
  edition of these _Elements_ having also been well received by the
  public, Dr. Wilson took the pains to revise his _Dissertation_,
  which he improved in many particulars."--John ROBERTSON, Nov. 1,

  "This _Dissertation_, written at first by desire, is now reprinted
  with alterations. Though I may be thought to have dwelt too long
  on some particulars, not directly relating to the subject; yet I
  hope that what is so delivered, will not be altogether
  unentertaining to the candid reader. As to any apology for having
  handled a matter quite foreign to my way of life, I shall only
  plead, that very young, living in a sea-port town, I was eager to
  be acquainted with an art that could enable the mariner to arrive
  across the wide and pathless ocean at his desired harbour."

  London. James WILSON, 1771?

The united libraries of Henry Pemberton, M.D., F.R.S., and James Wilson,
M.D., were sold in 1772. The sale occupied eighteen evenings, and
produced 701_l._ 17_s._ 6_d._ The learned writers, who were intimate
friends, died within seven months of each other in 1771.


_History of Commerce_ (Vol. v., p. 276.).--As a learned and lucid
account of the early commercial intercourse between Europe and the
eastern countries, I believe there is no work comparable to that
entitled _Histoire du commerce entre le Levant et l'Europe depuis les
croisades jusqu'à la fondation des colonies d'Amérique_, par G. B.
Depping. Paris, 1830. 8vo. 2 vols. This subject was proposed in 1826, as
a prize essay, by the Académie royale des inscriptions et
belles-lettres, and M. Depping was the successful competitor. The prize,
a gold medal of the value of 1500 francs, was awarded in 1828. M. le
baron Silvestre de Sacy, whose profound acquaintance with oriental
history and literature enabled him to detect some slight errors in the
work, thus concludes his review of it in the _Journal des savants_:
"Mais ces légères critiques ne m'empêchent pas de rendre toute justice à
un travail véritablement estimable, et digne de l'honneur qu'il a obtenu
de l'Académie des belles-lettres."


_Ecclesiastical Geography_ (Vol. v., p. 276.).--There is a work on this
subject by I. E. T. Wiltsch, _Handbuch der Kirchlichen Geographie and
Statistik_, Berlin, 1846, 2 vols. 8vo., which, in so far as I have
looked at it, appears to be carefully done.

    J. C. R.

_Butts Family_ (Vol. iv., p. 501.).--I read yesterday an article signed
COWGILL, asking information concerning the family of Butts, anciently of
Thornage, Norfolk. Sir William Butts, physician to Henry VIII., and Dr.
Robert Butts, my great-grandfather, formerly Bishop of Norwich, were of
that family, and if your correspondent will communicate privately with
me, I shall be happy to receive from him, and communicate to him, any
particulars of a public character concerning a family of which I am
nearly the only representative. My address is "Rev. Edward Drury Butts,
Camesworth, Bridport."

    E. D. B.

_Friday at Sea_ (Vol. v., p. 200.).--The story to which your
correspondent? refers may be found in a note to one of Fennimore
Cooper's sea novels; I do not remember which, and am unable at present
to ascertain by reference to the book itself. If my recollection be
accurate, the novelist speaks of it as an event of which he had personal
knowledge, and does not quote any earlier authority.

    K. E.

It is a most curious circumstance connected with the superstition
sailors have regarding putting to sea on a Friday, which will now have
greater weight attached to it than ever, that I can inform your
correspondent, W. FRASER, that the ill-fated Amazon, Captain Symons, did
really sail on a Friday, as he suggested she might have done.

The day was January 2, 1852, by Lloyd's Lists, which is the day of the
month the West India mail always leaves this country.

    J. S. O.

  Old Broad Street.

_A Pinch of Snuff from Dean Swift's Box_ (Vol. v., p. 274.).--The
printed leaves inquired for by A SUBSCRIBER, are from the _Irish Union
Magazine_, No. 2., April, 1845, and are quoted at p. 182. of Wilde's
_Closing Scenes of Dean Swift's Life_, where may be found several
particulars of the snuff-box inquired about. The inscription within the
lid is curious, and is copied by Wilde.

    E. D.

_English Translation of the Canons_ (Vol. v., p. 246.).--M. tells us
that in the second clause of the 36th canon of 1603, the words _quodque
eodem taliter uti liceat_ are translated "and that the same may be
lawfully used," the word _taliter_ being altogether omitted in the
English. What authority is there for this statement? In all the copies
of the English Canons that I have examined, the translation is exact,
viz., "and that it may lawfully _so_ be used;" and that the form now
presented for subscription at ordination agrees with this, may be
inferred from the fact that the words are so printed in Mr. Hodgson's
_Instructions for the Clergy_ (6th edition, p. 8.).

It would seem that M. has confounded with the Canons of 1603 an older
form, which was prescribed by Archbishop Whitgift in 1584 (Cardwell,
_Docum. Annals_, i. 414.). The words of that form agree with your
correspondent's quotation; and it has also a bearing on his assumption
that the 36th canon was originally presented for subscription in Latin,
and that the English version has been wrongfully substituted. Not only
is there (as I believe) no proof of this assumption; but we have the
fact that a set of _English_ articles, substantially the same with those
of the 36th canon of 1603 (or rather 1604), was subscribed for twenty
years before the body of the canons existed.

    J. C. R.

_Few Descents through a long Period._--The pedigree of the noble family
of Dartmouth, given by Edmondson in his _Baronagium Genealogicum_, No.
197., contains an extraordinary instance of few descents through a long
period of time.

The stock of descent is Thomas Legge, Sheriff of London in 1343, and
Lord Mayor in 1346. He had a son, Simon, whose son, Thomas, had issue,
William, who had issue an only son, Edward. This Edward had thirteen
children, one of whom, John, is stated to have died in 1702, aged 109.
Supposing Thomas Legge to have been 46 years old at his Mayoralty
(_i.e._ born in 1300) these six lives would extend over more than 400
years. This is so extraordinary that I append a Query. Is Edmondson's
_Genealogy_ correct, or are there any intermediate descents omitted?

The ages at death of four only of Edward's children are given, and they,
too, are remarkable: the before-mentioned John, aged 109 years;
Elizabeth (unmarried), 105 years; Margaret (married ---- Fitzgerald,
Esq.), 105 years; and Anne (married ---- Anthony, Esq.), 112 years. Can
any of your correspondents inform me the years when any of these died,
or where they are buried? to enable me to verify these facts by

    C. H. B.

  30. Clarence Street, Islington.

_Tandem D. O. M._ (Vol. iii, p. 62.).--Looking over some of the back
numbers, I see under this heading a very tantalising announcement of a
rich store of venerable literature in an ancient mansion in a distant
part of Cornwall. It would be very desirable to know the _habitat_ of
such an unique collection of books. Will FABER MARINUS gratify the
readers of "N. & Q." by allowing it to be known?

    S. S.

_Land Holland_ (Vol. ii., p. 267.).--Has not your querist J. B. C.
mistaken the initial letter here,--read _H_ for _M_? I have often met in
Court Rolls with Land _Molland_, viz., held by _mill_ service.

    G. A. C.

_Arc de Arbouin_ (Vol. v., p. 249.).--In East Anglia the Hornbeam
(_Carpinus betulus_) is called _Harber_ or _Arber_ wood.

    G. A. C.

_Derivation of "Martinique"_ (Vol. v., p. 11.).--M. de Magnard, in the
opening chapter of his novel of _Outre-mer_, says the name of
"Martinique" is derived from that which the island had received from the

  "Ce nom de 'Martinique' dérive par corruption de l'ancien nom
  sauvage et indigène, _Matinina_."


  St. Lucia.

_Bigot_ (Vol. v., p. 277.).--I beg to direct attention to the subjoined
extract from Mr. Trench's _Lectures on the Study of Words_, a most able
and interesting little work:

  "'Bigot' is another word widely spread over Europe, of which I am
  inclined to think that we should look for the derivation where it
  is not generally sought, and here too we must turn to Spain for
  the explanation. It has much perplexed inquirers, and two
  explanations of it are current; one of which traces it up to the
  early Normans, while they yet retained their northern tongue, and
  to their often adjuration by the name of God, with sometimes
  reference to a famous scene in French history, in which Rollo,
  Duke of Normandy, played a conspicuous part; the other puts it in
  connexion with 'Beguines,' often called in Latin 'Beguttæ,' a name
  by which certain communities of pietest women were known in the
  Middle Ages. Yet I cannot but think it probable, that rather than
  to either of these sources, we owe the word to that mighty
  impression which the Spaniards began to make upon all Europe in
  the fifteenth century, and made for a long time after. Now the
  word 'bigote' means in Spanish 'mustachio;' and, as contrasted
  with the smooth or nearly smooth upper lip of most other people,
  at that time the Spaniards were the 'men of the mustachio.' That
  it was their characteristic feature comes out in Shakspeare's
  _Love's Labour's Lost_, where Armado, the 'fantastical Spaniard,'
  describes the king, 'his familiar, as sometimes being pleased to
  lean on his poor shoulder, and dally with his mustachio.' [Act V.
  Sc. 1.] That they themselves connected firmness and resolution
  with the mustachio, that it was esteemed the outward symbol of
  these, is plain from such phrases as 'hombre de bigote,' a man of
  resolution; 'tener bigotes,' to stand firm. But that in which they
  eminently displayed their firmness and resolution in those days,
  was their adherence to whatever the Roman See required and taught.
  What then more natural, or more entirely according to the law of
  the generation of names, than that this striking and
  distinguishing outward feature of the Spaniard should have been
  laid hold of to express that character and condition which
  eminently were his, and then transferred to all others who shared
  the same? The mustachio is, in like manner, in France a symbol of
  military courage; and thus 'un vieux moustache,' is an old soldier
  of courage and military bearing. And strengthening this view, the
  earliest use of the word which Richardson gives, is a passage from
  Bishop Hall, where 'bigot' is used to signify a pervert to
  Romanism: 'he was turned both _bigot_ and physician.' In further
  proof that the Spaniard was in those times the standing
  representative of the bigot and the persecutor, we need but turn
  to the older editions of Fox's _Book of Martyrs_, where the Pagan
  persecutors of the early Christians are usually arrayed in the
  armour of Spanish soldiers, and sometimes graced with tremendous

  2nd edit. 80-82.

Mr. Trench's derivation of _bigot_ is, I think, very preferable to those
you cite.

    C. H. COOPER.

_Davies Queries_ (Vol. iv., p. 256.).--LLAW GYFFES asks for a correct
description of the monument erected to Sir John Davys, Davis, or Davies,
in St. Martin's church. Perhaps the following will answer his purpose:
it is extracted from one of a series of MS. volumes in my possession, in
the autograph of John Le Neve:--

  "On the 3rd pillar, on the south range, a plain white marble
  monument, in memory of Sir _John Davis_, Knight. Inscrip.:

  "D. O. M. S. Johannes Davys, Equestris Ordinis, quondam attornati
  Regii Generalis amplissima Provincia regno Hib. functus. Inde in
  patriam revocatus inter Servientes Domini Regis ad Regem primum
  locum sustinuit, ob. 1626.

  "Accubat Dignissimo Marito incomparabilis Uxorque illustre genus
  et generi pares animos, Christiana Mansuetudine temperavit,
  Erudita supra sexum mitis infra sortem, plurimis major, quia
  humilior, in eximia forma sublime ingenium, in venusta Comitate,
  singularem modestiam, in Foemineo Corpore virales spiritus, in
  Rebus adversissimis serenam mentem, in Impio seculo Pietatem et
  Rectitudinem inconcussa possedit.

  "Non illi Robustam animam ad res lauta laxavit, aut Angusta
  contraxit, sed utramq; sortem pari animoq; non excepit modo sed
  rexit. Quippe Dei plena cui plenitudini mundus, nec benig. addere
  nec malignus detrahere potuisset.

  "Talis Deum jamdudum spirans et sursum aspirans, sui ante et Reip.
  fata præsaga, salutisq; Æterna certissima, ingenti lætoq; ardore
  in Servatoris dilectissimi sinum ipsius sanguine totam animam
  efflavit, rebus humanis exempta, immortalitate induit 3 nonas
  Quintilis, _An. Kal._ 1652.

  "Arms; on a Lozenge; Argent a Heart Gules, on a Chief Sable 3

  "Also at the bottom of the Monument, Sable a Fess Ermin between 3
  Cinquefoils Argent."


_Fawsley, Heraldic Atchievement_ (Vol. v., p. 297.).--See Baker's
_Northamptonshire_, vol. i. p. 385-6., where the shield of the knightly
quarterings is noticed in describing the Manor house.


_Old Scots March_ (Vol. v., pp. 104. 235.).--Your correspondent E. N.,
after quoting a passage from Mr. Tytler's _Dissertation on Scottish
Music_, says he has "never yet been able to meet with any of the _ports_
here referred to." I have the pleasure to inform him that several
curious ancient _ports_ have been preserved, and may be found in the
_Skene MS._, and in _Gordon of Straloch's Lute Book_.

_Port_, in Gaelic, signifies an air, either sung or played upon an
instrument. Mr. Tytler correctly describes this species of composition
as of the plaintive strain, and _modulated for the harp_. All the
existing specimens answer to this character.

The _Ports_ which are contained in the above-named MSS., are named as
follows: "Rory Dall's Port," "Port Ballangowne," "Jean Lindsay's Port,"

It may be necessary to say, that these tunes are written in an obsolete
notation called _tablature_. Translations, however, are in my
possession, and if E. N. wishes for copies, he is quite welcome to have
them if he will favour me with a communication.


  29. St. Mark's Crescent, Regent's Park.

_Periwinkle_ (Vol. i., p. 77.).--The following note, from Withering's
_Arrangement of British Plants_, vol. ii. p. 341. ed. 1830, will perhaps
be acceptable to MELANION:--

  "VINCA. PERIWINKLE. (From _vincio_, to bind; its runners trailing
  round other plants. Or to those who prefer a more interesting
  association, we would intimate that of such was formed in ancient
  times the bridal zone, which none but the bridegroom was
  privileged to untie. In modern Italy it is said to be appropriated
  to a far different usage, that of enwreathing deceased infants;
  and is hence called _Fior di Morto_.--E.)"


_Erasmus' Paraphrase_ (Vol. i., p. 172.).--If it be allowable to answer
one's own Query, and not too late to go back to Vol. i., I should like
to notice that the fragment therein referred to corresponds, as far as
it goes, with an edition "Empriented in Flete Strete the last daie of
Januarie, Anno Domini, 1548," by Edward Whitchurch, and is no doubt part
of that edition. In the Churchwardens' Accounts for this parish it is
thus mentioned:

      "1589. It[=m], pd. to Mr Vicar w'ch he layde downe
                     for ye Englyshe Paraphrase of Erasmus   ijs.

             "It[=m], chaynes for two bookes                xijd.

             "It[=m], spent at chayninge ye same             ijd."


  Ecclesfield Hall.

"_Black Gowns and Red Coats_" (Vol. v., p. 297.).--I am not aware that
it was ever any secret, or, at any rate, that there is any occasion to
make it so now, that the satire _Black Gowns and Red Coats_ was the
production of George Cox, M.A., and Fellow of New College, Oxford;
neither did I ever hear of its suppression. The satire is certainly
somewhat severe; but even those who fell under its lash could scarcely
deny its great ability, or the high poetical talent which it evinced.
Such as knew the marvellous promise of his youth can never cease to
lament that it pleased God to bring the author's life to a premature and
unhappy close.

I have a copy of the little book, which I would gladly _lend_ to any one
making a proper application through the publisher.

    C. W. B.

_Arms of Manchester_ (Vol. v., p. 59.).--The arms of Manchester (gules 3
hindlets enhanced or) are those attributed to the family of Grelle, De
Greslet, or Grelly, feudal Barons of Manchester under the Normans. The
town has used them for years; long before the charter of incorporation.

    P. P.

_Sir Thomas Frowyk_ (Vol. v., p. 295.).--Thomas Frowyk was, in all
likelihood, of a family long connected with the government of London.
According to Fuller, he was born at Ealing in Middlesex, and was son of
Thomas Frowyk, Esq. [if I do not greatly err he was knighted in or
before the reign of Richard III.] of Gunnersbury, by the daughter and
heiress of Sir John Sturgeon, knight. He was "bred in the study of our
municipal law," and read on the statute Prerogative Regis (17 Edw. II.
stat. 1.), but in what inn of court, or in what year, I have not seen
stated. He was (with others) made serjeant-at-law, by writ tested 10th
September, 1496. The feast was kept on the 16th of November following,
at Ely House in Holborn, "where dined the King, Queen, and all the chief
lords of England." He was afterwards one of the King's serjeants. On the
11th July, 1502, he (with Mr. Justice Fisher and Humphrey Conyngsbye,
one of the King's serjeants) made an award between the University and
town of Cambridge adjusting disputes between the two bodies, and
defining in minute detail their respective jurisdictions. On the 30th
September, 1502, he was constituted Lord Chief Justice of the Common
Pleas, and was, at or about the same time, knighted. In 19 Hen. VIII. he
was, by Act of Parliament, appointed one of the feoffees to the use of
the King's will. He died 17th October, 1505, being, as it is said, under
forty years old. He was buried, with Joan his wife, in the church of
Finchley. He left a large estate to his two daughters, of whom Elah, the
eldest, was married to Sir John Spelman, Justice of the King's Bench,
"grandfather to Sir Henry, that renowned knight." Sir Thomas Frowyk's
arms (azure a cheveron between 3 leopards' faces or) were in a window of
the hall of Serjeants' Inn, Fleet Street; and the same coat (quartering
Sturgeon and another) was in a window at St. Dunstan's in the West.
(Fuller's _Worthies in Middlesex_; Dugdale's _Origines Juridiciales_,
47. 128. 328.; _Chronica Series_, 74. 76.; _Bibliotheca Legum Angliæ_,
ii. 192.; _Excerpta Historica_, 119. 121. 123.; _Plumpton
Correspondence_, 152, 153. 161. 165.; Cooper's _Annals of Cambridge_,
258. 260.; _Rotuli Parliamentorum_, vi. 522.; _Collectanea Topographica
et Genealogica_, iv. 107.)

    C. H. COOPER.


_John Goldesborough_ (Vol. v., p. 294.).--John Goldesborough, or
Goldesburgh, was born 18th October, 1568, studied at Oxford, and went
thence to the Middle Temple, where he was called to the Bar. In or about
1613 he was constituted Second Prothonotary of the Common Pleas, which
office he held till his death, 9th October, 1618. He was buried in the
Temple Church, where there is, or was, a monumental brass to his memory,
having thereon his and his wife's effigies, with an inscription in
English. His Reports were printed several years after his death. (Wood's
_Athenæ Oxonienses_, i. 293. 369.; Dugdale's _Origines Juridiciales_,
63. 178.; _Bibliotheca Legum Angliæ_, i. 236. 242., ii. 213.; _Reports
of Deputy Keeper of Public Records, Second Report, Appendix_, ii. p.
73.; _Fourth Report, Appendix_, ii. p. 37.)

    C. H. COOPER.


_Corrupted Names of Places_ (Vol. v., p. 285.).--I beg to offer a few
additions to mispronounced names of places:

      Rampisham        Dorset           Ransom
      Beaminster         Do.            Bemmister
      Portisham          Do.            Possum
      Portishead       Somerset         Posset.

In Sussex the names of places ending in _ly_ are pronounced with the
accent on the last syllable; _e.g._ West Hoath_ly_, Helling_ly_, &c. In
Gloucestershire, a place written Newland is unexpectedly called Newlànd.

    C. W. B.

My memory enables me to make the following small additions to the list
of "Popular Dialects" requested by your correspondent P. M. M. The names
of the towns are derived exclusively from my native county, Essex:

      Spelling.            Pronunciation.
      Bradwell             Bradell
      Brentwood            Burnt'ood
      Brightlingsea        Bricklesea
      Chelmsford           Chensford
      Coggeshall           Cockshall
      Colchester           Cou'chester
      Davenham             Dagnum
      Kelvedon             Kelldon
      Margaretting         Margretten
      Mersy Island         Masy Island
      Mount Nissing        Money's End
      Toulleshunt Darcy    Toussent Darcy.

    M. W. B.

_Story of Ginevra_ (Vol. v., pp. 129. 209.).--Bramshall, Hants (of which
there are some views in Nash's _Mansions_), claims to be connected with
a Ginevra tradition, so that Rogers seems to be justified in stating
that "many" old houses in this country do so.

    P. P.

_Ornamental Hermits_ (Vol. v., pp. 123. 207.).--FLORENCE must be in
error as to the locality of one of her hermits. There is no place called
Marcham in Lancashire, nor any resident family of Powyss. The late Lord
Lilford certainly married a Lancashire heiress in 1797, and became
possessed of property near Warrington. Whether he had a hermit, I cannot
say but I never heard of a hermit in the Preston neighbourhood.

    P. P.

_Dr. Fell_ (Vol. v., p. 296.).--Mr. Tom Sheridan, the only child of
Richard Brinsley Sheridan by his wife (Miss Elizabeth Linley), is author
of the lines on Dr. Fell. They were written on the celebrated Dr. Parr,
under whose tuition he was. Why he gave to Dr. Parr the nomen "Dr.
Fell," I do not know. I have often heard my dear mother repeat the

      "I do not like thee, Dr. Fell,
      The reason why I cannot tell,
      But this I know full well,
      I do not like thee, Dr. Fell."

The metre of the third line would be more perfect by the addition of the
dissyllable; but the lines I have so often heard want this.

My mother was very intimate with the Sheridan family, and many years
agone she informed me that Miss Jane Linley (afterwards Mrs. Ward) told
her that young Tom Sheridan composed the foregoing lines on Dr. Parr.

    E. F.

_List of Prothonotaries_ (Vol. v., p. 294.).--Lists of the
prothonotaries of the Court of Common Pleas, from Henry VIII. to George
IV., may be collected from the _Reports of the Deputy Keeper of Public
Records, Second Report, Appendix_, ii. 67-88.; _Fourth Report,
Appendix_, ii. 30-52.

    C. H. COOPER.


_The Vellum-bound Junius_ (Vol. iii., p. 262.; Vol. v., p. 303.).--Since
I wrote to you I have seen my informant, and am now enabled to state,
that what your correspondent calls "the vellum-bound Junius," at Stowe,
was, as I said, printed on vellum, but _was not bound in vellum_.

    V. B. J.

_Plague Stones_ (Vol. v., p. 308.).--The three following places, where
these stones of exchange were erected, have just occurred to me, and I
forward them to add to the desired list:--

At Derby the stone was known by the name of the Headless Cross; and it
has within the last few years been removed for preservation to the
Arboretum in that town.

A stone of a similar name existed at Shrewsbury.

At East Retford, in Nottinghamshire, was also one, called the Broad

    L. JEWITT.

_George Trehern_ (Vol. v., p. 295.).--George Trehern, or Treheryon, was
Autumn Reader of Lincoln's Inn, 12 Hen. VIII.; Lent Reader there 16 Hen.
VIII.; and one of the Governors of that society 12 & 17 Hen. VIII. His
reading on Carta Forestæ appears to have been printed in 4to., but in
what year is not stated. (Dugdale's _Origines Juridiciales_, 251. 259.;
_Bibliotheca Legum Angliæ_, i. 24., ii. 191.)

    C. H. COOPER.


_St. Christopher_ (Vol. v., p. 265.).--I know not whether Mr. Drake's
explanation (referred to by E. A. H. L.) be the same as that given in
_Sacred and Legendary Art_, but the latter seems sufficiently

  "It was believed that in consequence of his prayer, those who
  beheld the figure of St. Christopher were exempt during that day
  from all perils of earthquake, fire, and flood. The mere sight of
  his image, that type of strength, was deemed sufficient to inspire
  with courage those who had to struggle with the evils and
  casualties of life, and to reinvigorate those who were exhausted
  by the labours of husbandry.... Hence it became a custom to place
  his image in conspicuous places, to paint it of colossal size on
  the walls of churches and houses, where it is sometimes seen
  occupying the whole height of the building, and is visible from a
  great distance, being considered as a good omen for all those who
  look upon it. A mountain in Granada, which is first seen by ships
  arriving from the African coast, is called San Cristobal, in
  allusion to this poetical superstition."--_S. and L. Art_, p. 262.


_White Livers_ (Vol. v., p. 127.).--The superstition, that a man or
woman who survives several wives or husbands has a white liver, is
common among the lower orders in Lancashire.

    P. P.

_Torshel's Design to harmonise the Bible_ (Vol. v., p. 199.).--This rare
and valuable tract is reprinted in _The Phenix_, 1707, vol. i. pp.




The success which has attended the endeavour to supply, by means of the
London Library in St. James's Square, the want so long felt by scholars
and reading men, of a library of circulation of works of a higher class
than those to be met with in ordinary subscription libraries, has just
been rendered evident by the publication of the second volume of its

From this it appears that there are now in this admirable
collection--for it is an admirable one--fifteen thousand distinct works
(upwards, we believe, of forty-five thousand volumes), comprising the
best and most expensive works in every department of learning, which
scholars and men of learning may have the use of in their own studies
for the small subscription of two pounds a year. There is little wonder
that the plan has succeeded, for it has been well carried out,--thanks
to the zeal of the Managing Committee, and to the care and attention of
Mr. Cochrane, its able and most efficient Librarian.

_The History of the Restoration of Monarchy in France_, by Alphonse de
Lamartine. Volume the Second.--The brilliant and eloquent narrative
contained in this volume includes the period between Napoleon's
departure from Fontainebleau and his abdication. In the course of this
history we are presented with scene after scene which dazzle us with all
the gorgeous colouring of a panorama; but which, when we come to look
into their details, are found to be almost as obscure and indefinite as
the objects in those attractive works of art to which we have likened
them. The work has all the charms of a romance; but we fear purchases
this reputation by sacrificing the more sober requirements of a history.

_Lectures and Addresses in Aid of Popular Education_, by the Right Hon.
the Earl of Carlisle.--It would be difficult to find a more faithful or
a more gratifying type of the present age than this new part of _The
Traveller's Library_, in which we see one of England's "belted earls,"
and one of the most amiable and accomplished men of his time, recording
the experiences of his travels; and inviting to join him in the delights
which he has gathered from literary pursuits,--not a crowd of titled
listeners, but "a band of the hard-handed working men" fresh from the
anvil and the loom.

_Were Heretics ever burned at Rome? A Report of the Proceedings of the
Roman Inquisition against Fulgentio Manfredi, taken from the Original
Manuscript brought from Italy by a French Officer, and edited, with a
parallel English Version, and Notes_, by the Rev. Richard Gibbings,
M.A.--The _Dublin Review_ for June 1850 having boldly asserted as a
fact, that "the Roman Inquisition--that is to say, the tribunal which
was immediately subject to the control and direction of the Popes
themselves, in their own city, has never been known to order the
execution of capital punishment"--the Rev. Richard Gibbings has
published, in contradiction of such assertion, this important document,
in the history of Father Fulgentio, who was hanged and burned in the
_Campo di Fiore_.




FUSELI. London, 1765. 8vo.

INCLUDING THE YEAR 1707. London, folio.


BENTLEY'S MISCELLANY. The first two Volumes. In Numbers preferred.

MARVELL'S WORKS. 3 Vols. 4to.


KINGSTON-ON-HULL, any work upon.

EDWIN AND EMMA. Taylor, 1776. 5_s._ will be given for a perfect copy.


  ---- ---- ---- ---- Vols. VIII. and IX. in Numbers.






Amstelodami, 1685.


Plantin. 1614.


BARONIUS. London, 1616.

and Lugd. Batav. 1757-66. Vol. III.

RACCOLTA DI OPUSCULI SCIENTIFICI, &c., dal Padre Calogera. Venezia,

THE WHOLE DUTY OF A CHRISTIAN, by Way of Question and Answer: designed
for the Use of Charity Schools. By Robert Nelson, 1718.

QUARTERLY REVIEW. Nos. 153. to 166., both inclusive.


THE CRITIC, London Literary Journal. First 6 Nos. for 1851.

VOLTAIRE, OEUVRES COMPLETES DE. Aux Deux-Ponts. Chez Sanson et
Compagnie. Vols. I. & II. 1791-2.


SPECTATOR. No. 1223. Dec. 6, 1851.

ANNUAL REGISTER, from 1816 inclusive to the present time.

and also from Vol. XXX.



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      [Transcriber's Note: List of volumes and content pages in "Notes
      and Queries", Vol. I.-V.]

      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx |
      | Vol. IV No.  88 | July  5, 1851      |   1- 15 | PG # 37548 |
      | Vol. IV No.  89 | July 12, 1851      |  17- 31 | PG # 37568 |
      | Vol. IV No.  90 | July 19, 1851      |  33- 47 | PG # 37593 |
      | Vol. IV No.  91 | July 26, 1851      |  49- 79 | PG # 37778 |
      | Vol. IV No.  92 | August  2, 1851    |  81- 94 | PG # 38324 |
      | Vol. IV No.  93 | August  9, 1851    |  97-112 | PG # 38337 |
      | Vol. IV No.  94 | August 16, 1851    | 113-127 | PG # 38350 |
      | Vol. IV No.  95 | August 23, 1851    | 129-144 | PG # 38386 |
      | Vol. IV No.  96 | August 30, 1851    | 145-167 | PG # 38405 |
      | Vol. IV No.  97 | Sept.  6, 1851     | 169-183 | PG # 38433 |
      | Vol. IV No.  98 | Sept. 13, 1851     | 185-200 | PG # 38491 |
      | Vol. IV No.  99 | Sept. 20, 1851     | 201-216 | PG # 38574 |
      | Vol. IV No. 100 | Sept. 27, 1851     | 217-246 | PG # 38656 |
      | Vol. IV No. 101 | Oct.  4, 1851      | 249-264 | PG # 38701 |
      | Vol. IV No. 102 | Oct. 11, 1851      | 265-287 | PG # 38773 |
      | Vol. IV No. 103 | Oct. 18, 1851      | 289-303 | PG # 38864 |
      | Vol. IV No. 104 | Oct. 25, 1851      | 305-333 | PG # 38926 |
      | Vol. IV No. 105 | Nov.  1, 1851      | 337-358 | PG # 39076 |
      | Vol. IV No. 106 | Nov.  8, 1851      | 361-374 | PG # 39091 |
      | Vol. IV No. 107 | Nov. 15, 1851      | 377-396 | PG # 39135 |
      | Vol. IV No. 108 | Nov. 22, 1851      | 401-414 | PG # 39197 |
      | Vol. IV No. 109 | Nov. 29, 1851      | 417-430 | PG # 39233 |
      | Vol. IV No. 110 | Dec.  6, 1851      | 433-460 | PG # 39338 |
      | Vol. IV No. 111 | Dec. 13, 1851      | 465-478 | PG # 39393 |
      | Vol. IV No. 112 | Dec. 20, 1851      | 481-494 | PG # 39438 |
      | Vol. IV No. 113 | Dec. 27, 1851      | 497-510 | PG # 39503 |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. V.                                   |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         |  Pages  | PG # xxxxx |
      | Vol. V  No. 114 | January  3, 1852   |   1- 18 | PG # 40171 |
      | Vol. V  No. 115 | January 10, 1852   |  25- 45 | PG # 40582 |
      | Vol. V  No. 116 | January 17, 1852   |  49- 70 | PG # 40642 |
      | Vol. V  No. 117 | January 24, 1852   |  73- 94 | PG # 40678 |
      | Vol. V  No. 118 | January 31, 1852   |  97-118 | PG # 40716 |
      | Vol. V  No. 119 | February  7, 1852  | 121-142 | PG # 40742 |
      | Vol. V  No. 120 | February 14, 1852  | 145-167 | PG # 40743 |
      | Vol. V  No. 121 | February 21, 1852  | 170-191 | PG # 40773 |
      | Vol. V  No. 122 | February 28, 1852  | 193-215 | PG # 40779 |
      | Vol. V  No. 123 | March  6, 1852     | 217-239 | PG # 40804 |
      | Vol. V  No. 124 | March 13, 1852     | 241-263 | PG # 40843 |
      | Vol. V  No. 125 | March 20, 1852     | 265-287 | PG # 40910 |
      | Vol. V  No. 126 | March 27, 1852     | 289-310 | PG # 40987 |
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]             | PG # 13536 |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850     | PG # 13571 |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851     | PG # 26770 |
      | INDEX TO THE FOURTH VOLUME. JULY-DEC., 1851    | PG # 40166 |

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 127, April 3, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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