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Title: The Diary of John Evelyn (Vol 1 of 2)
Author: Evelyn, John, 1620-1706
Language: English
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[Illustration: _CHARLES I. IN PRISON_

_Photogravure after De La Roche_]



  THE DIARY OF JOHN EVELYN

  EDITED FROM THE ORIGINAL MSS BY
  WILLIAM BRAY
  Fellow of the Antiquarian Society

  IN TWO VOLUMES

  VOL. I

  WITH A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION
  BY THE EDITOR

  AND A SPECIAL INTRODUCTION BY
  RICHARD GARNETT, LL.D.
  Of the British Museum

  M. WALTER DUNNE, PUBLISHER
  WASHINGTON & LONDON



  COPYRIGHT, 1901,
  BY
  M. WALTER DUNNE,
  PUBLISHER



ILLUSTRATIONS


VOLUME I.

  CHARLES I. IN PRISON                                    _Frontispiece_
  Photogravure after De La Roche.

  LORD WILLIAM RUSSELL TAKING LEAVE OF HIS CHILDREN, 1683           180
  Photogravure after a painting by Bridges.

  OLIVER CROMWELL DICTATING TO JOHN MILTON                          284
  The letter to the Duke of Savoy to stop the persecution
  of the Protestants of Piedmont, 1655.
  Photogravure from an engraving by Sartain after Newenham.


VOLUME II.

  THE DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM                                  _Frontispiece_
  From an old painting.

  NELL GWYNNE                                                        64
  Photogravure after Sir Peter Lely.



EVELYN'S DIARY


The two chief diarists of the age of Charles the Second are, _mutatis
mutandis_, not ill characterized by the remark of a wicked wit upon the
brothers Austin. "John Austin," it was said, "served God and died poor:
Charles Austin served the devil, and died rich. Both were clever fellows.
Charles was much the cleverer of the two." Thus John Evelyn and Samuel
Pepys, the former a perfect model of decorum, the latter a grievous
example of indecorum, have respectively left us diaries, of which the
indecorous is to the decorous as a zoölogical garden is to a museum:
while the disparity between the testamentary bequests of the two Austins
but imperfectly represents the reputation standing to Pepys's account
with posterity in comparison with that accruing to his sedate and
dignified contemporary.

Museums, nevertheless, have their uses, and Evelyn's comparatively jejune
record has laid us under no small obligation. But for Pepys's amazing
indiscretion and garrulity, qualities of which one cannot have too little
in life, or too much in the record of it, Evelyn would have been esteemed
the first diarist of his age. Unable for want of these qualifications to
draw any adequate picture of the stirring life around him, he has
executed at least one portrait admirably, his own. The likeness is,
moreover, valuable, as there is every reason to suppose it typical, and
representative of a very important class of society, the well-bred and
well-conducted section of the untitled aristocracy of England. We may
well believe that these men were not only the salt but the substance of
their order. There was an ill-bred section exclusively devoted to
festivity and sport. There was an ill-conducted section, plunged into the
dissipations of court life. But the majority were men like Evelyn: not,
perhaps, equally refined by culture and travel, or equally interested in
literary research and scientific experiment, but well informed and
polite; no strangers to the Court, yet hardly to be called courtiers,
and preferring country to town; loyal to Church and King but not
fanatical or rancorous; as yet but slightly imbued with the principles of
civil and religious liberty, yet adverse to carry the dogma of divine
right further than the right of succession; fortunate in having survived
all ideas of serfdom or vassalage, and in having few private interests
not fairly reconcilable with the general good. Evelyn was made to be the
spokesman of such a class, and, meaning to speak only for himself, he
delivers its mind concerning the Commonwealth and the Restoration, the
conduct of the later Stuart Kings and the Revolution.

Evelyn's Diary practically begins where many think he had no business to
be diarising, beyond the seas. The position of a loyalist who solaces
himself in Italy while his King is fighting for his crown certainly
requires explanation: it may be sufficient apology for Evelyn that
without the family estates he could be of no great service to the King,
and that these, lying near London, were actually in the grasp of the
Parliament. He was also but one of a large family and it was doubtless
convenient that one member should be out of harm's way. His three years'
absence (1643-6) has certainly proved advantageous to posterity. Evelyn
is, indeed, a mere sight-seer, but this renders his tour a precise record
of the objects which the sight-seer of the seventeenth century was
expected to note, and a mirror not only of the taste but of the feeling
of the time. There is no cult of anything, but there is curiosity about
everything; there is no perception of the sentiment of a landscape, but
real enjoyment of the landscape itself; antiquity is not unappreciated,
but modern works impart more real pleasure. Of the philosophical
reflections which afterward rose to the mind of Gibbon there is hardly a
vestige, and of course Evelyn is at an immeasurable distance from Byron
and De Staël. But he gives us exactly what we want, the actual attitude
of a cultivated young Englishman in presence of classic and renaissance
art with its background of Southern nature. We may register without undue
self-complacency a great development of the modern world in the
æsthetical region of the intellect, which implies many other kinds of
progress. It is interesting to compare with Evelyn's narrative the
chapters recording the visit to Italy supposed to have been made at this
very period by John Inglesant, who inevitably sees with the eyes of the
nineteenth century. Evelyn's casual remarks on foreign manners and
institutions display good sense, without extraordinary insight; in
description he is frequently observant and graphic, as in his account of
the galley slaves, and of Venetian female costumes. He naturally regards
Alpine scenery as "melancholy and troublesome."

Returned to England, Evelyn strictly follows the line of the average
English country gentleman, execrating the execution of Charles I.,
disgusted beyond measure with the suppression of the Church of England
service, but submissive to the powers that be until there are evident
indications of a change, which he promotes in anything but a Quixotic
spirit. Although he is sincerely attached to the monarchy, the condition
of the Church is evidently a matter of greater concern to him: Cromwell
would have done much to reconcile the royalists to his government, had it
been possible for him to have restored the liturgy and episcopacy. The
same lesson is to be derived from his demeanor during the reigns of
Charles and James. The exultation with which the Restoration is at first
hailed soon evaporates. The scandals of the Court are an offense,
notwithstanding Evelyn's personal attachment to the King. But the chief
point is not vice or favoritism or mismanagement, but alliances with
Roman Catholic powers against Protestant nations. Evelyn is enraged to
see Charles missing the part so clearly pointed out to him by Providence
as the protector of the Protestant religion all over Europe. The
conversion of the Duke of York is a fearful blow, James's ecclesiastical
policy after his accession adds to Evelyn's discontent day by day, while
political tyranny passes almost without remark. At last the old cavalier
is glad to welcome the Prince of Orange as deliverer, and though he has
no enthusiasm for William in his character as King, he remains his
dutiful subject. Just because Evelyn was by no means an extraordinary
person, he represents the plain straightforward sense of the English
gentry. The questions of the seventeenth century were far more religious
than political. The synthesis "Church and King" expressed the dearest
convictions of the great majority of English country families, but when
the two became incompatible they left no doubt which held the first place
in their hearts. They acted instinctively on the principle of the Persian
lady who preferred her brother to her husband. It was not impossible to
find a new King, but there was no alternative to the English Church.

Evelyn's memoirs thus possess a value far exceeding the modest measure of
worth allowed them by De Quincey: "They are useful as now and then
enabling one to fix the date of a particular event, but for little
besides." The Diary's direct contribution to historical accuracy is
insignificant; it is an index, not to chronological minutiæ, but to the
general progress of moral and political improvement. The editor of 1857
certainly goes too far in asserting that "All that might have been
excluded from the range of his opinions, his feelings and sympathies
embraced"; but it is interesting to observe the gradual widening of
Evelyn's sympathies with good men of all parties, and to find him in his
latter days criticising the evidence produced in support of the Popish
Plot on the one hand, and deploring the just condemnation of Algernon
Sydney on the other. It is true that, so far as the sufferings of his
country are concerned, his attitude is rather that of the Levite than of
the Samaritan; but more lively popular sympathies would have destroyed
the peculiar value attaching to the testimony of the reluctant witness.
We should, for example, have thought little of such a passage as the
following from the pen of Burnet, from Evelyn it is significant indeed:--

    _October 14, 1688._--The King's birthday. No guns from the Tower as
    usual. The sun eclipsed at its rising. This day signal for the
    victory of William the Conqueror against Harold, near Battel in
    Sussex. The wind, which had been hitherto west, was east all this
    day. Wonderful expectation of the Dutch fleet. Public prayers
    ordered to be read in the churches against invasion.

It might be difficult to produce a nearer approximation in secular
literature to Daniel's "_Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin_."

There is little else in the Diary equally striking, though Evelyn's
description of Whitehall on the eve of the death of Charles the Second
ranks among the memorable passages of the language. It is nevertheless
full of interesting anecdotes and curious notices, especially of the
scientific research which, in default of any adequate public
organization, was in that age more efficaciously promoted by students
than by professors. De Quincey censures Evelyn for omitting to record the
conversation of the men with whom he associated, but he does not consider
that the Diary in its present shape is a digest of memoranda made long
previously, and that time failed at one period and memory at the other.
De Quincey, whose extreme acuteness was commonly evinced on the negative
side of a question, saw the weak points of the Diary upon its first
publication much more clearly than his contemporaries did, and was
betrayed into illiberality by resentment at what he thought its
undeserved vogue. Evelyn has in truth been fortunate; his record, which
his contemporaries would have neglected, appeared (1818) just in time to
be a precursor of the Anglican movement, a tendency evinced in a similar
fashion by the vindication, no doubt mistaken, of the Caroline authorship
of the "Icon Basilike." Evelyn was a welcome encounter to men of this
cast of thought, and was hailed as a model of piety, culture, and
urbanity, without sufficient consideration of his deficiencies as a
loyalist and a patriot. It also conduced to his reputation that all his
other writings should have virtually perished except his "Sylva," like
his Diary a landmark in the history of improvement, though in a widely
different department. But for his lack of diplomatic talent, he might be
compared with an eminent and much applauded, but in our times somewhat
decrescent, contemporary, Sir William Temple. Both these eminent persons
would have aroused a warmer feeling in posterity, and have effected more
for its instruction and entertainment, if they could occasionally have
dashed their dignity with an infusion of the grotesqueness, we will not
say of Pepys, but of Roger North. To them, however, their dignity was
their character, and although we could have wished them a larger measure
of geniality, we must feel indebted to them for their preservation of a
refined social type.

[Illustration: Richard Garnett (signature)]



EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION


Evelyn lived in the busy and important times of King Charles I., Oliver
Cromwell, King Charles II., King James II., and King William, and early
accustomed himself to note such things as occurred, which he thought
worthy of remembrance. He was known to, and had much personal intercourse
with, the Kings Charles II. and James II.; and he was in habits of great
intimacy with many of the ministers of these two monarchs, and with many
of the eminent men of those days, as well among the clergy as the laity.
Foreigners distinguished for learning, or arts, who came to England, did
not leave it without visiting him.

The following pages contribute extensive and important particulars of
this eminent man. They show that he did not travel merely to count
steeples, as he expresses himself in one of his Letters: they develop his
private character as one of the most amiable kind. With a strong
predilection for monarchy, with a personal attachment to Kings Charles
II. and James II., formed when they resided at Paris, he was yet utterly
averse to the arbitrary measures of these monarchs.

Strongly and steadily attached to the doctrine and practice of the Church
of England, he yet felt the most liberal sentiments for those who
differed from him in opinion. He lived in intimacy with men of all
persuasions; nor did he think it necessary to break connection with
anyone who had ever been induced to desert the Church of England, and
embrace the doctrines of that of Rome. In writing to the brother of a
gentleman thus circumstanced, in 1659, he expresses himself in this
admirable manner: "For the rest, we must commit to Providence the success
of times and mitigation of proselytical fervors; having for my own
particular a very great charity for all who sincerely adore the Blessed
Jesus, our common and dear Saviour, as being full of hope that God
(however the present zeal of some, and the scandals taken by others at
the instant [present] affliction of the Church of England may transport
them) will at last compassionate our infirmities, clarify our judgments,
and make abatement for our ignorances, superstructures, passions, and
errors of corrupt times and interests, of which the Romish persuasion can
no way acquit herself, whatever the present prosperity and secular polity
may pretend. But God will make all things manifest in his own time, only
let us possess ourselves in patience and charity. This will cover a
multitude of imperfections."

He speaks with great moderation of the Roman Catholics in general,
admitting that some of the laws enacted against them might be mitigated;
but of the Jesuits he had the very worst opinion, considering them as a
most dangerous Society, and the principal authors of the misfortunes
which befell King James II., and of the horrible persecutions of the
Protestants in France and Savoy.

He must have conducted himself with uncommon prudence and address, for he
had personal friends in the Court of Cromwell, at the same time that he
was corresponding with his father-in-law, Sir Richard Browne, the
Ambassador of King Charles II. at Paris; and at the same period that he
paid his court to the King, he maintained his intimacy with a disgraced
minister.

In his travels, he made acquaintance not only with men eminent for
learning, but with men ingenious in every art and profession.

His manners we may presume to have been most agreeable; for his company
was sought by the greatest men, not merely by inviting him to their own
tables, but by their repeated visits to him at his own house; and this
was equally the case with regard to ladies, of many of whom he speaks in
the highest style of admiration, affection, and respect. He was master of
the French, Italian, and Spanish languages. That he had read a great deal
is manifest; but at what time he found opportunities for study, it is not
easy to say. He acknowledges himself to have been idle, while at Oxford;
and, when on his travels, he had little time for reading, except when he
stayed about nineteen weeks in France, and at Padua, where he was
likewise stationary for several months. At Rome, he remained a
considerable time, but, while there, he was so continually engaged in
viewing the great variety of interesting objects to be seen in that city,
that he could have found little leisure for reading. When resident in
England, he was so much occupied in the business of his numerous offices,
in paying visits, in receiving company at home, and in examining whatever
was deemed worthy of curiosity, or of scientific observation, that it is
astonishing how he found the opportunity to compose the numerous books
which he published, and the much greater number of Papers, on almost
every subject, which still remain in manuscript; to say nothing of the
very extensive and voluminous correspondence which he appears to have
carried on during his long life, with men of the greatest eminence in
Church and State, and the most distinguished for learning, both
Englishmen and foreigners. In this correspondence he does not seem to
have made use of an amanuensis; and he has left transcripts in his own
hand of great numbers of letters both received and sent. He observes,
indeed, in one of these, that he seldom went to bed before twelve, or
closed his eyes before one o'clock.

He was happy in a wife of congenial dispositions with his own, of an
enlightened mind, who had read much, and was skilled in etching and
painting, yet attentive to the domestic concerns of her household, and a
most affectionate mother.

His grandfather, George, was not the first of the family who settled in
Surrey. John, father of this George, was of Kingston, in 1520, and
married a daughter of David Vincent, Esq., Lord of the Manor of Long
Ditton, near Kingston, which afterward came in the hands of George, who
there carried on the manufacture of gunpowder. He purchased very
considerable estates in Surrey, and three of his sons became heads of
three families, viz, Thomas, his eldest son, at Long Ditton; John, at
Godstone, and Richard at Wotton. Each of these three families had the
title of Baronet conferred on them at different times, viz, at Godstone,
in 1660; Long Ditton, in 1683; and Wotton, in 1713.

The manufacture of gunpowder was carried on at Godstone as well as at
Long Ditton; but it does not appear that there ever was any mill at
Wotton, or that the purchase of that place was made with such a view.

It may be not altogether incurious to observe, that though Mr. Evelyn's
father was a man of very considerable fortune, the first rudiments of
this son's learning were acquired from the village schoolmaster over the
porch of Wotton Church. Of his progress at another school, and at
college, he himself speaks with great humility; nor did he add much to
his stock of knowledge, while he resided in the Middle Temple, to which
his father sent him, with the intention that he should apply to what he
calls "an impolished study," which he says he never liked.

The "Biographia" does not notice his tour in France, Flanders, and
Holland, in 1641, when he made a short campaign as a volunteer in an
English regiment then in service in Flanders.[1] Nor does it notice his
having set out, with intent to join King Charles I. at Brentford; and
subsequently desisting when the result of that battle became known, on
the ground that his brother's as well as his own estates were so near
London as to be fully in power of the Parliament, and that their
continued adherence would have been certain ruin to themselves without
any advantage to his Majesty. In this dangerous conjuncture he asked and
obtained the King's leave to travel. Of these travels, and the
observations he made therein, an ample account is given in this Diary.

    [Footnote 1: This expression is, perhaps, hardly applicable to the
    fact of Evelyn's having witnessed a siege merely as a curious
    spectator. He reached the camp on the 2d, and left it on the 8th of
    August, 1641. It is certain, however, that during these six days he
    took his turn on duty, and trailed a pike.--See Diary.]

The national troubles coming on before he had engaged in any settled plan
for his future life, it appears that he had thoughts of living in the
most private manner, and that, with his brother's permission, he had even
begun to prepare a place for retirement at Wotton. Nor did he afterward
wholly abandon his intention, if the plan of a college, which he sent to
Mr. Boyle in 1659, was really formed on a serious idea. This scheme is
given at length in the "Biographia," and in Dr. Hunter's edition of the
"Sylva" in 1776; but it may be observed that he proposes it should not be
more than twenty-five miles from London.

As to his answer to Sir George Mackenzie's panegyric on Solitude, in
which Mr. Evelyn takes the opposite part and urges the preference to
which public employment and an active life is entitled,--it may be
considered as the playful essay of one who, for the sake of argument,
would controvert another's position, though in reality agreeing with his
own opinion; if we think him serious in two letters to Mr. Abraham
Cowley, dated 12th March and 24th August, 1666, in the former of which he
writes: "You had reason to be astonished at the presumption, not to name
it affront, that I, who have so highly celebrated recess, and envied it
in others, should become an advocate for the enemy, which of all others
it abhors and flies from. I conjure you to believe that I am still of the
same mind, and that there is no person alive who does more honor and
breathe after the life and repose you so happily cultivate and advance by
your example; but, as those who praised dirt, a flea, and the gout, so
have I public employment in that trifling Essay, and that in so weak a
style compared with my antagonist's, as by that alone it will appear I
neither was nor could be serious, and I hope you believe I speak my very
soul to you.

    '_Sunt enim Musis sua ludicra mista Camoenis
    Otia sunt----_'"

In the other, he says, "I pronounce it to you from my heart as oft as I
consider it, that I look on your fruitions with inexpressible emulation,
and should think myself more happy than crowned heads, were I, as you,
the arbiter of mine own life, and could break from those gilded toys to
taste your well-described joys with such a wife and such a friend, whose
conversation exceeds all that the mistaken world calls happiness." But,
in truth, Mr. Evelyn's mind was too active to admit of solitude at all
times, however desirable it might appear to him in theory.

After he had settled at Deptford, which was in the time of Cromwell, he
kept up a constant correspondence with Sir Richard Browne (his
father-in-law), the King's Ambassador at Paris; and though his connection
must have been known, it does not appear that he met with any
interruption from the government here. Indeed, though he remained a
decided Royalist, he managed so well as to have intimate friends even
among those nearly connected with Cromwell; and to this we may attribute
his being able to avoid taking the Covenant, which he says he never did
take. In 1659, he published "An Apology for the Royal Party"; and soon
after printed a paper which was of great service to the King, entitled
"The Late News, or Message from Brussels Unmasked," which was an answer
to a pamphlet designed to represent the King in the worst light.

On the Restoration, we find him very frequently at Court; and he became
engaged in many public employments, still attending to his studies and
literary pursuits. Among these, is particularly to be mentioned the Royal
Society, in the establishment and conduct of which he took a very active
part. He procured Mr. Howard's library to be given to them; and by his
influence, in 1667, the Arundelian Marbles were obtained for the
University of Oxford.

His first appointment to a public office was in 1662, as a Commissioner
for reforming the buildings, ways, streets, and incumbrances, and
regulating hackney coaches in London. In the same year he sat as a
Commissioner on an inquiry into the conduct of the Lord Mayor, etc.,
concerning Sir Thomas Gresham's charities. In 1664 he was in a commission
for regulating the Mint; in the same year was appointed one of the
Commissioners for the care of the Sick and Wounded in the Dutch war; and
he was continued in the same employment in the second war with that
country.

He was one of the Commissioners for the repair of St. Paul's Cathedral,
shortly before it was burned in 1666. In that year he was also in a
commission for regulating the farming and making saltpetre; and in 1671
we find him a Commissioner of Plantations on the establishment of the
board, to which the Council of Trade was added in 1672.

In 1685 he was one of the Commissioners of the Privy Seal, during the
absence of the Earl of Clarendon (who held that office), on his going
Lord Lieutenant to Ireland. On the foundation of Greenwich Hospital, in
1695, he was one of the Commissioners; and, on the 30th of June, 1696,
laid the first stone of that building. He was also appointed Treasurer,
with a salary of £200 a year; but he says that it was a long time before
he received any part of it.

When the Czar of Muscovy came to England, in 1698, proposing to instruct
himself in the art of shipbuilding, he was desirous of having the use of
Sayes Court, in consequence of its vicinity to the King's dockyard at
Deptford. This was conceded; but during his stay he did so much damage
that Mr. Evelyn had an allowance of £150 for it. He especially regrets
the mischief done to his famous holly hedge, which might have been
thought beyond the reach of damage. But one of Czar Peter's favorite
recreations had been to demolish the hedges by riding through them in a
wheelbarrow.

October, 1699, his elder brother, George Evelyn, dying without male
issue, aged eighty-three, he succeeded to the paternal estate; and in May
following, he quitted Sayes Court and went to Wotton, where he passed the
remainder of his life, with the exception of occasional visits to London,
where he retained a house. In the great storm of 1703, he mentions in his
last edition of the "Sylva," above one thousand trees were blown down in
sight of his residence.

He died at his house in London, 27th February, 1705-6, in the
eighty-sixth year of his age, and was buried at Wotton. His lady survived
him nearly three years, dying 9th February, 1708-9, in her seventy-fourth
year, and was buried near him at Wotton.

Of Evelyn's children, a son, who died at the age of five, and a daughter,
who died at the age of nineteen, were almost prodigies. The particulars
of their extraordinary endowments, and the profound manner in which he
was affected at their deaths, may be seen in these volumes.

One daughter was well and happily settled; another less so; but she did
not survive her marriage more than a few months. The only son who lived
to the age of manhood, inherited his father's love of learning, and
distinguished himself by several publications.

Mr. Evelyn's employment as a Commissioner for the care of the Sick and
Wounded was very laborious; and, from the nature of it, must have been
extremely unpleasant. Almost the whole labor was in his department, which
included all the ports between the river Thames and Portsmouth; and he
had to travel in all seasons and weathers, by land and by water, in the
execution of his office, to which he gave the strictest attention. It
was rendered still more disagreeable by the great difficulty which he
found in procuring money for support of the prisoners. In the library at
Wotton, are copies of numerous letters to the Lord Treasurer and Officers
of State, representing, in the strongest terms, the great distress of the
poor men, and of those who had furnished lodging and necessaries for
them. At one time, there were such arrears of payment to the victuallers,
that, on landing additional sick and wounded, they lay some time in the
streets, the publicans refusing to receive them, and shutting up their
houses. After all this trouble and fatigue, he found as great difficulty
in getting his accounts settled.[2] In January, 1665-6, he formed a plan
for an Infirmary at Chatham, which he sent to Mr. Pepys, to be laid
before the Admiralty, with his reasons for recommending it; but it does
not appear that it was carried into execution.

    [Footnote 2: 2d October, 1665, he writes to the Lord Chancellor,
    Lord Arlington, Sir William Coventry, and Sir Philip Warwick,
    complaining of want of money for the prisoners: praying that while
    he and his brother Commissioners adventure their persons and all
    that is dear to them, in this uncomfortable service, they may not be
    exposed to ruin, and to a necessity of abandoning their care; and
    adding that they have lost their officers and servants by the
    pestilence, and are hourly environed with the saddest objects of
    perishing people. "I have," says he, "fifteen places full of sick
    men, where they put me to unspeakable trouble; the magistrates and
    justices, who should further us in our exigencies, hindering the
    people from giving us quarters, jealous of the contagion, and
    causing them to shut the doors at our approach."]

His employments, in connection with the repair of St. Paul's (which,
however, occupied him but a brief time), as in the Commission of Trade
and Plantations, and in the building of Greenwich Hospital, were much
better adapted to his inclinations and pursuits.

As a Commissioner of the Privy Seal in the reign of King James II., he
had a difficult task to perform. He was most steadily attached to the
Church of England, and the King required the Seal to be affixed to many
things incompatible with the welfare of that Church. This, on some
occasions, he refused to do, particularly to a license to Dr. Obadiah
Walker to print Popish books;[3] and on other occasions he absented
himself, leaving it to his brother Commissioners to act as they thought
fit. Such, however, was the King's estimation of him, that no displeasure
was evinced on this account.

    [Footnote 3: Dr. Walker had been a member of the Church of England,
    but had renounced it, and turned Papist.]

Of Evelyn's attempt to bring Colonel Morley (Cromwell's Lieutenant of the
Tower, immediately preceding the Restoration) over to the King's
interest, an imperfect account is given in the "Biographia." The fact is,
that there was great friendship between these gentlemen, and Evelyn did
endeavor to engage the Colonel in the King's interest. He saw him several
times, and put his life into his hands by writing to him on 12th January,
1659-60; he did not succeed, and Colonel Morley was too much his friend
to betray him; but so far from the Colonel having settled matters
privately with Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, or General Monk, as there
described, he was obliged, when the Restoration took place, actually to
apply to Evelyn to procure his pardon; who obtained it accordingly,
though, as he states, the Colonel was obliged to pay a large sum of money
for it. This could not have happened, if there had been any previous
negotiation with General Monk.

Dr. Campbell took some pains to vindicate Mr. Evelyn's book, entitled,
"Navigation and Commerce, their Origin and Progress," from the charge of
being an imperfect work, unequal to the expectation excited by the title.
But the Doctor, who had not the information which this Journal so amply
affords on this subject, was not aware that what was so printed was
nothing more than an Introduction to the History of the Dutch War; a work
undertaken by Evelyn at the express command of King Charles II., and the
materials for which were furnished by the Officers of State. The
completion of this work, after considerable progress had been made in it,
was put a stop to by the King himself, for what reason does not appear;
but perhaps it was found that Evelyn was inclined to tell too much of the
truth concerning a transaction, which it will be seen by his Journal that
he utterly reprobated. His copy of the History, as far as he had
proceeded, he put into the hands of his friend, Mr. Pepys, of the
Admiralty, who did not return it; but the books and manuscripts belonging
to Mr. Pepys passed into the possession of Magdalen College, Cambridge.

From the numerous authors who have spoken in high terms of Mr. Evelyn, we
will select the two following notices of him.

In the "Biographia Britannica" Dr. Campbell says, "It is certain that
very few authors who have written in our language deserve the character
of able and agreeable writers so well as Mr. Evelyn, who, though he was
acquainted with most sciences, and wrote upon many different subjects,
yet was very far, indeed the farthest of most men of his time, from being
a superficial writer. He had genius, he had taste, he had learning; and
he knew how to give all these a proper place in his works, so as never to
pass for a pedant, even with such as were least in love with literature,
and to be justly esteemed a polite author by those who knew it best."

Horace Walpole (afterward Earl of Orford), in his Catalogue of Engravers,
gives us the following admirably drawn character: "If Mr. Evelyn had not
been an artist himself, as I think I can prove he was, I should yet have
found it difficult to deny myself the pleasure of allotting him a place
among the arts he loved, promoted, patronized; and it would be but
justice to inscribe his name with due panegyric in these records, as I
have once or twice taken the liberty to criticise him. But they are
trifling blemishes compared with his amiable virtues and beneficence; and
it may be remarked that the worst I have said of him is, that he knew
more than he always communicated. It is no unwelcome satire to say, that
a man's intelligence and philosophy is inexhaustible. I mean not to write
his biography, but I must observe, that his life, which was extended to
eighty-six years, was a course of inquiry, study, curiosity, instruction,
and benevolence. The works of the Creator, and the minute labors of the
creature, were all objects of his pursuit. He unfolded the perfection of
the one, and assisted the imperfection of the other. He adored from
examination; was a courtier that flattered only by informing his Prince,
and by pointing out what was worthy of him to countenance; and really was
the neighbor of the Gospel, for there was no man that might not have been
the better for him. Whoever peruses a list of his works will subscribe to
my assertion. He was one of the first promoters of the Royal Society; a
patron of the ingenious and the indigent; and peculiarly serviceable to
the lettered world; for, besides his writings and discoveries, he
obtained the Arundelian Marbles for the University of Oxford, and the
Arundelian Library for the Royal Society. Nor is it the least part of his
praise, that he who proposed to Mr. Boyle the erection of a Philosophical
College for retired and speculative persons, had the honesty to write in
defense of active life against Sir George Mackenzie's 'Essay on
Solitude.' He knew that retirement, in his own hands, was industry and
benefit to mankind; but in those of others, laziness and inutility."

Evelyn was buried in the Dormitory adjoining Wotton Church.

On a white marble, covering a tomb shaped like a coffin, raised about
three feet above the floor, is inscribed:

                Here lies the Body
              of JOHN EVELYN, Esq.,
            of this place, second son
             of Richard Evelyn, Esq.;
          who having serv'd the Publick
      in several employments, of which that
     of Commissioner of the Privy-Seal in the
       Reign of King James the 2d was most
       honourable, and perpetuated his fame
        by far more lasting monuments than
       those of Stone or Brass, his learned
    and usefull Works, fell asleep the 27 day
      of February 1705-6, being the 86 year
      of his age, in full hope of a glorious
    Resurrection, thro' Faith in Jesus Christ.
        Living in an age of extraordinary
        Events and Revolutions, he learnt
        (as himself asserted) this Truth,
         which pursuant to his intention
                is here declared--
     _That all is vanity which is not honest,
        and that there is no solid wisdom
               but in real Piety._
         Of five Sons and three Daughters
            born to him from his most
           vertuous and excellent Wife,
         Mary, sole daughter and heiress
           of Sir Rich. Browne of Sayes
           Court near Deptford in Kent,
           onely one daughter, Susanna,
            married to William Draper
             Esq., of Adscomb in this
            County, survived him; the
             two others dying in the
             flower of their age, and
           all the Sons very young, except
                one named John, who
            deceased 24 March, 1698-9,
            in the 45 year of his age,
            leaving one son, John, and
             one daughter, Elizabeth.



VOLUME I.

1620-1664


VOLUME II.

1665-1706



DIARY OF JOHN EVELYN.


I was born at Wotton, in the County of Surrey, about twenty minutes past
two in the morning, being on Tuesday the 31st and last of October, 1620,
after my father had been married about seven years,[4] and that my mother
had borne him three children; viz, two daughters and one son, about the
33d year of his age, and the 23d of my mother's.

    [Footnote 4: He was married at St. Thomas's, Southwark, 27th
    January, 1613. My sister Eliza was born at nine at night, 28th
    November, 1614; Jane at four in the morning, 16th February, 1616; my
    brother George at nine at night, Wednesday, 18th June, 1617; and my
    brother Richard, 9th November, 1622.--_Note by Evelyn._]

[Sidenote: WOTTON]

My father, named Richard, was of a sanguine complexion, mixed with a dash
of choler: his hair inclining to light, which, though exceedingly thick,
became hoary by the time he had attained to thirty years of age; it was
somewhat curled toward the extremities; his beard, which he wore a little
peaked, as the mode was, of a brownish color, and so continued to the
last, save that it was somewhat mingled with gray hairs about his cheeks,
which, with his countenance, were clear and fresh-colored; his eyes
extraordinary quick and piercing; an ample forehead,--in sum, a very
well-composed visage and manly aspect: for the rest, he was but low of
stature, yet very strong. He was, for his life, so exact and temperate,
that I have heard he had never been surprised by excess, being ascetic
and sparing. His wisdom was great, and his judgment most acute; of solid
discourse, affable, humble, and in nothing affected; of a thriving, neat,
silent, and methodical genius, discreetly severe, yet liberal upon all
just occasions, both to his children, to strangers, and servants; a lover
of hospitality; and, in brief, of a singular and Christian moderation in
all his actions; not illiterate, nor obscure, as, having continued
Justice of the Peace and of the Quorum, he served his country as High
Sheriff, being, as I take it, the last dignified with that office for
Sussex and Surrey together, the same year, before their separation. He
was yet a studious decliner of honors and titles; being already in that
esteem with his country, that they could have added little to him besides
their burden. He was a person of that rare conversation that, upon
frequent recollection, and calling to mind passages of his life and
discourse, I could never charge him with the least passion, or
inadvertency. His estate was esteemed about £4000 per annum, well wooded,
and full of timber.

My mother's name was Eleanor, sole daughter and heiress of John
Standsfield, Esq., of an ancient and honorable family (though now
extinct) in Shropshire, by his wife Eleanor Comber, of a good and
well-known house in Sussex. She was of proper personage; of a brown
complexion; her eyes and hair of a lovely black; of constitution more
inclined to a religious melancholy, or pious sadness; of a rare memory,
and most exemplary life; for economy and prudence, esteemed one of the
most conspicuous in her country: which rendered her loss much deplored,
both by those who knew, and such as only heard of her.

Thus much, in brief, touching my parents; nor was it reasonable I should
speak less of them to whom I owe so much.

The place of my birth was Wotton, in the parish of Wotton, or Blackheath,
in the county of Surrey, the then mansion-house of my father, left him by
my grandfather, afterward and now my eldest brother's. It is situated in
the most southern part of the shire; and, though in a valley, yet really
upon part of Leith Hill, one of the most eminent in England for the
prodigious prospect to be seen from its summit, though by few observed.
From it may be discerned twelve or thirteen counties, with part of the
sea on the coast of Sussex, in a serene day. The house is large and
ancient, suitable to those hospitable times, and so sweetly environed
with those delicious streams and venerable woods, as in the judgment of
strangers as well as Englishmen it may be compared to one of the most
pleasant seats in the nation, and most tempting for a great person and a
wanton purse to render it conspicuous. It has rising grounds, meadows,
woods, and water, in abundance.

The distance from London little more than twenty miles, and yet so
securely placed, as if it were one hundred; three miles from Dorking,
which serves it abundantly with provision as well of land as sea; six
from Guildford, twelve from Kingston. I will say nothing of the air,
because the pre-eminence is universally given to Surrey, the soil being
dry and sandy; but I should speak much of the gardens, fountains, and
groves that adorn it, were they not as generally known to be among the
most natural, and (till this later and universal luxury of the whole
nation, since abounding in such expenses) the most magnificent that
England afforded; and which indeed gave one of the first examples to that
elegancy, since so much in vogue, and followed in the managing of their
waters, and other elegancies of that nature. Let me add, the contiguity
of five or six manors, the patronage of the livings about it, and what
Themistocles pronounced for none of the least advantages--the good
neighborhood. All which conspire here to render it an honorable and
handsome royalty, fit for the present possessor, my worthy brother, and
his noble lady, whose constant liberality gives them title both to the
place and the affections of all that know them. Thus, with the poet:

    _Nescio quâ natale solum dulcedine cunctos
    Ducit, et immemores non sinit esse sui._

I had given me the name of my grandfather, my mother's father, who,
together with a sister of Sir Thomas Evelyn, of Long Ditton, and Mr.
Comber, a near relation of my mother, were my susceptors. The solemnity
(yet upon what accident I know not, unless some indisposition in me) was
performed in the dining-room by Parson Higham, the present incumbent of
the parish, according to the forms prescribed by the then glorious Church
of England.

I was now (in regard to my mother's weakness, or rather custom of persons
of quality) put to nurse to one Peter, a neighbor's wife and tenant, of a
good, comely, brown, wholesome complexion, and in a most sweet place
toward the hills, flanked with wood and refreshed with streams; the
affection to which kind of solitude I sucked in with my very milk. It
appears, by a note of my father's, that I sucked till 17th of January,
1622, or at least I came not home before.[5]

    [Footnote 5: The whole of this passage, so characteristic of the
    writer's tastes and genius, and both the paragraphs before and after
    it, are printed for the first time in this edition. Portions of the
    preceding description of Wotton are also first taken from the
    original; and it may not be out of place to add that, more
    especially in the first fifty pages of this volume, a very large
    number of curious and interesting additions are made to Evelyn's
    text from the Manuscript of the Diary at Wotton.]

1623. The very first thing that I can call to memory, and from which time
forward I began to observe, was this year (1623) my youngest brother,
being in his nurse's arms, who, being then two days and nine months
younger than myself, was the last child of my dear parents.

1624. I was not initiated into any rudiments until near four years of
age, and then one Frier taught us at the church-porch of Wotton; and I do
perfectly remember the great talk and stir about Il Conde Gondomar, now
Ambassador from Spain (for near about this time was the match of our
Prince with the Infanta proposed); and the effects of that comet, 1618,
still working in the prodigious revolutions now beginning in Europe,
especially in Germany, whose sad commotions sprang from the Bohemians'
defection from the Emperor Matthias; upon which quarrel the Swedes broke
in, giving umbrage to the rest of the princes, and the whole Christian
world cause to deplore it, as never since enjoying perfect tranquillity.

1625. I was this year (being the first of the reign of King Charles) sent
by my father to Lewes, in Sussex, to be with my grandfather, Standsfield,
with whom I passed my childhood. This was the year in which the
pestilence was so epidemical, that there died in London 5,000 a week, and
I well remember the strict watches and examinations upon the ways as we
passed; and I was shortly after so dangerously sick of a fever that (as I
have heard) the physicians despaired of me.

1626. My picture was drawn in oil by one Chanterell, no ill painter.

1627. My grandfather, Standsfield, died this year, on the 5th of
February: I remember perfectly the solemnity at his funeral. He was
buried in the parish church of All Souls, where my grandmother, his
second wife, erected him a pious monument. About this time, was the
consecration of the Church of South Malling, near Lewes, by Dr. Field,
Bishop of Oxford (one Mr. Coxhall preached, who was afterward minister);
the building whereof was chiefly procured by my grandfather, who having
the impropriation, gave £20 a year out of it to this church. I afterward
sold the impropriation. I laid one of the first stones at the building of
the church.

1628-30. It was not till the year 1628, that I was put to learn my Latin
rudiments, and to write, of one Citolin, a Frenchman, in Lewes. I very
well remember that general muster previous to the Isle of Rhè's
expedition, and that I was one day awakened in the morning with the news
of the Duke of Buckingham being slain by that wretch, Felton, after our
disgrace before La Rochelle. And I now took so extraordinary a fancy to
drawing and designing, that I could never after wean my inclinations from
it, to the expense of much precious time, which might have been more
advantageously employed. I was now put to school to one Mr. Potts, in the
Cliff at Lewes, from whom, on the 7th of January, 1630, being the day
after Epiphany, I went to the free-school at Southover, near the town, of
which one Agnes Morley had been the foundress, and now Edward Snatt was
the master, under whom I remained till I was sent to the University.[6]
This year, my grandmother (with whom I sojourned) being married to one
Mr. Newton, a learned and most religious gentleman, we went from the
Cliff to dwell at his house in Southover. I do most perfectly remember
the jubilee which was universally expressed for the happy birth of the
Prince of Wales, 29th of May, now Charles II., our most gracious
Sovereign.

    [Footnote 6: Long afterward, Evelyn was in the habit of paying great
    respect to his old teacher.]

1631. There happened now an extraordinary dearth in England, corn bearing
an excessive price; and, in imitation of what I had seen my father do, I
began to observe matters more punctually, which I did use to set down in
a blank almanac. The Lord of Castlehaven's arraignment for many shameful
exorbitances was now all the talk, and the birth of the Princess Mary,
afterward Princess of Orange.

21st October, 1632. My eldest sister was married to Edward Darcy, Esq.,
who little deserved so excellent a person, a woman of so rare virtue. I
was not present at the nuptials; but I was soon afterward sent for into
Surrey, and my father would willingly have weaned me from my fondness of
my too indulgent grandmother, intending to have placed me at Eton; but,
not being so provident for my own benefit, and unreasonably terrified
with the report of the severe discipline there, I was sent back to Lewes;
which perverseness of mine I have since a thousand times deplored. This
was the first time that ever my parents had seen all their children
together in prosperity. While I was now trifling at home, I saw London,
where I lay one night only. The next day, I dined at Beddington, where I
was much delighted with the gardens and curiosities. Thence, we returned
to the Lady Darcy's, at Sutton; thence to Wotton; and, on the 16th of
August following, 1633, back to Lewes.

3d November, 1633. This year my father was appointed Sheriff, the last,
as I think, who served in that honorable office for Surrey and Sussex,
before they were disjoined. He had 116 servants in liveries, every one
liveried in green satin doublets; divers gentlemen and persons of quality
waited on him in the same garb and habit, which at that time (when thirty
or forty was the usual retinue of the High Sheriff) was esteemed a great
matter. Nor was this out of the least vanity that my father exceeded (who
was one of the greatest decliners of it); but because he could not refuse
the civility of his friends and relations, who voluntarily came
themselves, or sent in their servants. But my father was afterward most
unjustly and spitefully molested by that jeering judge, Richardson, for
reprieving the execution of a woman, to gratify my Lord of Lindsey, then
Admiral: but out of this he emerged with as much honor as trouble. The
king made this year his progress into Scotland, and Duke James was born.

15th December, 1634: My dear sister, Darcy, departed this life, being
arrived to her 20th year of age; in virtue advanced beyond her years, or
the merit of her husband, the worst of men. She had been brought to bed
the 2d of June before, but the infant died soon after her, the 24th of
December. I was therefore sent for home the second time, to celebrate the
obsequies of my sister; who was interred in a very honorable manner in
our dormitory joining to the parish church, where now her monument
stands.

1635. But my dear mother being now dangerously sick, I was, on the 3d of
September following, sent for to Wotton. Whom I found so far spent, that,
all human assistance failing, she in a most heavenly manner departed this
life upon the 29th of the same month, about eight in the evening of
Michaelmas-day. It was a malignant fever which took her away, about the
37th of her age, and 22d of her marriage, to our irreparable loss and the
regret of all that knew her. Certain it is, that the visible cause of her
indisposition proceeded from grief upon the loss of her daughter, and the
infant that followed it; and it is as certain, that when she perceived
the peril whereto its excess had engaged her, she strove to compose
herself and allay it; but it was too late, and she was forced to succumb.
Therefore summoning all her children then living (I shall never forget
it), she expressed herself in a manner so heavenly, with instructions so
pious and Christian, as made us strangely sensible of the extraordinary
loss then imminent; after which, embracing every one of us she gave to
each a ring with her blessing and dismissed us. Then, taking my father by
the hand, she recommended us to his care; and, because she was extremely
zealous for the education of my younger brother, she requested my father
that he might be sent with me to Lewes; and so having importuned him that
what he designed to bestow on her funeral, he would rather dispose among
the poor, she labored to compose herself for the blessed change which she
now expected. There was not a servant in the house whom she did not
expressly send for, advise, and infinitely affect with her counsel. Thus
she continued to employ her intervals, either instructing her relations,
or preparing of herself.

Though her physicians, Dr. Meverell, Dr. Clement, and Dr. Rand, had given
over all hopes of her recovery, and Sir Sanders Duncombe had tried his
celebrated and famous powder, yet she was many days impairing, and
endured the sharpest conflicts of her sickness with admirable patience
and most Christian resignation, retaining both her intellectuals and
ardent affections for her dissolution, to the very article of her
departure. When near her dissolution, she laid her hand on every one of
her children; and taking solemn leave of my father, with elevated heart
and eyes, she quietly expired, and resigned her soul to God. Thus ended
that prudent and pious woman, in the flower of her age, to the
inconsolable affliction of her husband, irreparable loss of her children,
and universal regret of all that knew her. She was interred, as near as
might be, to her daughter Darcy, the 3d of October, at night, but with no
mean ceremony.

It was the 3d of the ensuing November, after my brother George was gone
back to Oxford, ere I returned to Lewes, when I made way, according to
instructions received of my father, for my brother Richard, who was sent
the 12th after.

1636. This year being extremely dry, the pestilence much increased in
London, and divers parts of England.

13th February, 1637: I was especially admitted (and, as I remember, my
other brother) into the Middle Temple, London, though absent, and as yet
at school. There were now large contributions to the distressed
Palatinates.

The 10th of December my father sent a servant to bring us necessaries,
and the plague beginning now to cease, on the 3d of April, 1637, I left
school, where, till about the last year, I have been extremely remiss in
my studies; so as I went to the University rather out of shame of abiding
longer at school, than for any fitness, as by sad experience I found:
which put me to re-learn all that I had neglected, or but perfunctorily
gained.

[Sidenote: OXFORD]

10th May, 1637. I was admitted a Fellow-commoner of Baliol College,
Oxford; and, on the 29th, I was matriculated in the vestry of St. Mary's,
where I subscribed the Articles, and took the oaths: Dr. Baily, head of
St. John's, being vice-chancellor, afterward bishop. It appears by a
letter of my father's, that he was upon treaty with one Mr. Bathurst
(afterward Doctor and President), of Trinity College, who should have
been my tutor; but, lest my brother's tutor, Dr. Hobbs, more zealous in
his life than industrious to his pupils, should receive it as an affront,
and especially for that Fellow-commoners in Baliol were no more exempt
from exercise than the meanest scholars there, my father sent me thither
to one Mr. George Bradshaw (_nomen invisum!_ yet the son of an excellent
father, beneficed in Surrey). I ever thought my tutor had parts enough;
but as his ambition made him much suspected of the College, so his grudge
to Dr. Lawrence, the governor of it (whom he afterward supplanted), took
up so much of his time, that he seldom or never had the opportunity to
discharge his duty to his scholars. This I perceiving, associated myself
with one Mr. James Thicknesse (then a young man of the foundation,
afterward a Fellow of the house), by whose learned and friendly
conversation I received great advantage. At my first arrival, Dr.
Parkhurst was master: and after his decease, Dr. Lawrence, a chaplain of
his Majesty's and Margaret Professor, succeeded, an acute and learned
person; nor do I much reproach his severity, considering that the
extraordinary remissness of discipline had (till his coming) much
detracted from the reputation of that College.

There came in my time to the College one Nathaniel Conopios, out of
Greece, from Cyrill, the patriarch of Constantinople, who, returning many
years after, was made (as I understand) Bishop of Smyrna. He was the
first I ever saw drink coffee; which custom came not into England till
thirty years after.[7]

    [Footnote 7: Evelyn should have said "till twenty years after," not
    thirty. Coffee was introduced into England, and coffee-houses set
    up, in 1658.]

After I was somewhat settled there in my formalities (for then was the
University exceedingly regular, under the exact discipline of William
Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, then Chancellor), I added, as benefactor
to the library of the College, these books--"_ex dono Johannis Evelyni,
hujus Coll. Socio-Commensalis, filii Richardi Evelyni, è com. Surriæ,
armig^r_."--

"_Zanchii Opera_," vols. 1, 2, 3.

"_Granado in Thomam Aquinatem_," vols. 1, 2, 3.

"_Novarini Electa Sacra_" and "_Cresolii Anthologia Sacra_"; authors, it
seems, much desired by the students of divinity there.

Upon the 2d of July, being the first Sunday of the month, I first
received the blessed Sacrament of the Lord's Supper in the college
chapel, one Mr. Cooper, a Fellow of the house, preaching; and at this
time was the Church of England in her greatest splendor, all things
decent, and becoming the Peace, and the persons that governed. The most
of the following week I spent in visiting the Colleges, and several
rarities of the University, which do very much affect young comers.

18th July, 1637. I accompanied my eldest brother, who then quitted
Oxford, into the country; and, on the 9th of August, went to visit my
friends at Lewes, whence I returned the 12th to Wotton. On the 17th of
September, I received the blessed Sacrament at Wotton church, and 23d of
October went back to Oxford.

5th November, 1637. I received again the Holy Communion in our college
chapel, one Prouse, a Fellow (but a mad one), preaching.

9th December, 1637. I offered at my first exercise in the Hall, and
answered my opponent; and, upon the 11th following, declaimed in the
chapel before the Master, Fellows, and Scholars, according to the custom.
The 15th after, I first of all opposed in the Hall.

The Christmas ensuing, being at a Comedy which the gentlemen of Exeter
College presented to the University, and standing, for the better
advantage of seeing, upon a table in the Hall, which was near to another,
in the dark, being constrained by the extraordinary press to quit my
station, in leaping down to save myself I dashed my right leg with such
violence against the sharp edge of the other board, as gave me a hurt
which held me in cure till almost Easter, and confined me to my study.

22d January, 1638. I would needs be admitted into the dancing and
vaulting schools; of which late activity one Stokes, the master, did
afterward set forth a pretty book, which was published, with many witty
elogies before it.

4th February, 1638. One Mr. Wariner preached in our chapel; and, on the
25th, Mr. Wentworth, a kinsman of the Earl of Strafford; after which
followed the blessed Sacrament.

13th April, 1638. My father ordered that I should begin to manage my own
expenses, which till then my tutor had done; at which I was much
satisfied.

[Sidenote: PORTSMOUTH]

9th July, 1638. I went home to visit my friends, and, on the 26th, with
my brother and sister to Lewes, where we abode till the 31st; and thence
to one Mr. Michael's, of Houghton, near Arundel, where we were very well
treated; and, on the 2d of August, to Portsmouth, and thence, having
surveyed the fortifications (a great rarity in that blessed halcyon time
in England), we passed into the Isle of Wight, to the house of my Lady
Richards, in a place called Yaverland; but were turned the following day
to Chichester, where, having viewed the city and fair cathedral, we
returned home.

About the beginning of September, I was so afflicted with a quartan ague,
that I could by no means get rid of it till the December following. This
was the fatal year wherein the rebellious Scots opposed the King, upon
the pretense of the introduction of some new ceremonies and the Book of
Common Prayer, and madly began our confusions, and their own destruction,
too, as it proved in event.

14th January, 1639. I came back to Oxford, after my tedious
indisposition, and to the infinite loss of my time; and now I began to
look upon the rudiments of music, in which I afterward arrived to some
formal knowledge, though to small perfection of hand, because I was so
frequently diverted with inclinations to newer trifles.

20th May, 1639. Accompanied with one Mr. J. Crafford (who afterward being
my fellow-traveler in Italy, there changed his religion), I took a
journey of pleasure to see the Somersetshire baths, Bristol, Cirencester,
Malmesbury, Abington, and divers other towns of lesser note; and returned
the 25th.

8th October, 1639. I went back to Oxford.

14th December, 1639. According to injunctions from the Heads of Colleges,
I went (among the rest) to the Confirmation at St. Mary's, where, after
sermon, the Bishop of Oxford laid his hands upon us, with the usual form
of benediction prescribed: but this received (I fear) for the more part
out of curiosity, rather than with that due preparation and advice which
had been requisite, could not be so effectual as otherwise that admirable
and useful institution might have been, and as I have since deplored it.

21st January, 1640. Came my brother, Richard, from school, to be my
chamber-fellow at the University. He was admitted the next day and
matriculated the 31st.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

11th April, 1640. I went to London to see the solemnity of his Majesty's
riding through the city in state to the Short Parliament, which began the
13th following,--a very glorious and magnificent sight, the King circled
with his royal diadem and the affections of his people: but the day after
I returned to Wotton again, where I stayed, my father's indisposition
suffering great intervals, till April 27th, when I was sent to London to
be first resident at the Middle Temple: so as my being at the University,
in regard of these avocations, was of very small benefit to me. Upon May
the 5th following, was the Parliament unhappily dissolved; and, on the
20th I returned with my brother George to Wotton, who, on the 28th of the
same month, was married at Albury to Mrs. Caldwell (an heiress of an
ancient Leicestershire family, where part of the nuptials were
celebrated).

10th June, 1640. I repaired with my brother to the term, to go into our
new lodgings (that were formerly in Essex-court), being a very handsome
apartment just over against the Hall-court, but four pair of stairs high,
which gave us the advantage of the fairer prospect; but did not much
contribute to the love of that impolished study, to which (I suppose) my
father had designed me, when he paid £145 to purchase our present lives,
and assignments afterward.

London, and especially the Court, were at this period in frequent
disorders, and great insolences were committed by the abused and too
happy City: in particular, the Bishop of Canterbury's Palace at Lambeth
was assaulted by a rude rabble from Southwark, my Lord Chamberlain
imprisoned and many scandalous libels and invectives scattered about the
streets, to the reproach of Government, and the fermentation of our since
distractions: so that, upon the 25th of June, I was sent for to Wotton,
and the 27th after, my father's indisposition augmenting, by advice of
the physicians he repaired to the Bath.

7th July, 1640. My brother George and I, understanding the peril my
father was in upon a sudden attack of his infirmity, rode post from
Guildford toward him, and found him extraordinary weak; yet so as that,
continuing his course, he held out till the 8th of September, when I
returned home with him in his litter.

15th October, 1640. I went to the Temple, it being Michaelmas Term.

30th December, 1640. I saw his Majesty (coming from his Northern
Expedition) ride in pomp and a kind of ovation, with all the marks of a
happy peace, restored to the affections of his people, being conducted
through London with a most splendid cavalcade; and on the 3d of November
following (a day never to be mentioned without a curse), to that long
ungrateful, foolish, and fatal Parliament, the beginning of all our
sorrows for twenty years after, and the period of the most happy monarch
in the world: _Quis talia fando!_

But my father being by this time entered into a dropsy, an indisposition
the most unsuspected, being a person so exemplarily temperate, and of
admirable regimen, hastened me back to Wotton, December the 12th; where,
the 24th following, between twelve and one o'clock at noon, departed this
life that excellent man and indulgent parent, retaining his senses and
piety to the last, which he most tenderly expressed in blessing us, whom
he now left to the world and the worst of times, while he was taken from
the evil to come.

1641. It was a sad and lugubrious beginning of the year, when on the 2d
of January, 1640-1, we at night followed the mourning hearse to the
church at Wotton; when, after a sermon and funeral oration by the
minister, my father was interred near his formerly erected monument, and
mingled with the ashes of our mother, his dear wife. Thus we were bereft
of both our parents in a period when we most of all stood in need of
their counsel and assistance, especially myself, of a raw, vain,
uncertain, and very unwary inclination: but so it pleased God to make
trial of my conduct in a conjuncture of the greatest and most prodigious
hazard that ever the youth of England saw; and, if I did not amidst all
this impeach my liberty nor my virtue with the rest who made shipwreck of
both, it was more the infinite goodness and mercy of God than the least
providence or discretion of mine own, who now thought of nothing but the
pursuit of vanity, and the confused imaginations of young men.

15th April, 1641. I repaired to London to hear and see the famous trial
of the Earl of Strafford, Lord-Deputy of Ireland, who, on the 22d of
March, had been summoned before both Houses of Parliament, and now
appeared in Westminster-hall,[8] which was prepared with scaffolds for
the Lords and Commons, who, together with the King, Queen, Prince, and
flower of the noblesse, were spectators and auditors of the greatest
malice and the greatest innocency that ever met before so illustrous an
assembly. It was Thomas, Earl of Arundel and Surrey, Earl Marshal of
England, who was made High Steward upon this occasion; and the sequel is
too well known to need any notice of the event.

    [Footnote 8: On the 15th of April Strafford made his eloquent
    defense, which it seems to have been Evelyn's good fortune to be
    present at. And here the reader may remark the fact, not without
    significance, that between the entries on this page of the Diary
    which relate to Lord Strafford, the young Prince of Orange came over
    to make love to the Princess Royal, then twelve years old; and that
    the marriage was subsequently celebrated amid extraordinary Court
    rejoicings and festivities, in which the King took a prominent part,
    during the short interval which elapsed between the sentence and
    execution of the King's great and unfortunate minister.]

On the 27th of April, came over out of Holland the young Prince of
Orange, with a splendid equipage, to make love to his Majesty's eldest
daughter, the now Princess Royal.

That evening, was celebrated the pompous funeral of the Duke of Richmond,
who was carried in effigy, with all the ensigns of that illustrious
family, in an open chariot, in great solemnity, through London to
Westminster Abbey.

On the 12th of May, I beheld on Tower-hill the fatal stroke which severed
the wisest head in England from the shoulders of the Earl of Strafford,
whose crime coming under the cognizance of no human law or statute, a new
one was made, not to be a precedent, but his destruction. With what
reluctancy the King signed the execution, he has sufficiently expressed;
to which he imputes his own unjust suffering--to such exorbitancy were
things arrived.

On the 24th of May, I returned to Wotton; and, on the 28th of June, I
went to London with my sister, Jane, and the day after sat to one
Vanderborcht for my picture in oil, at Arundel-house, whose servant that
excellent painter was, brought out of Germany when the Earl returned from
Vienna (whither he was sent Ambassador-extraordinary, with great pomp and
charge, though without any effect, through the artifice of the Jesuited
Spaniard who governed all in that conjuncture). With Vanderborcht, the
painter, he brought over Winceslaus Hollar, the sculptor, who engraved
not only the unhappy Deputy's trial in Westminster-hall, but his
decapitation; as he did several other historical things, then relating to
the accidents happening during the Rebellion in England, with great
skill; besides many cities, towns, and landscapes, not only of this
nation, but of foreign parts, and divers portraits of famous persons then
in being; and things designed from the best pieces of the rare paintings
and masters of which the Earl of Arundel was possessor, purchased and
collected in his travels with incredible expense: so as, though Hollar's
were but etched in aquafortis, I account the collection to be the most
authentic and useful extant. Hollar was the son of a gentleman near
Prague, in Bohemia, and my very good friend, perverted at last by the
Jesuits at Antwerp to change his religion; a very honest, simple,
well-meaning man, who at last came over again into England, where he
died. We have the whole history of the king's reign, from his trial in
Westminster-hall and before, to the restoration of King Charles II.,
represented in several sculptures, with that also of Archbishop Laud, by
this indefatigable artist; besides innumerable sculptures in the works of
Dugdale, Ashmole, and other historical and useful works. I am the more
particular upon this for the fruit of that collection, which I wish I had
entire.

This picture[9] I presented to my sister, being at her request, on my
resolution to absent myself from this ill face of things at home, which
gave umbrage to wiser than myself that the medal was reversing, and our
calamities but yet in their infancy: so that, on the 15th of July, having
procured a pass at the Custom-house, where I repeated my oath of
allegiance, I went from London to Gravesend, accompanied with one Mr.
Caryll, a Surrey gentleman, and our servants, where we arrived by six
o'clock that evening, with a purpose to take the first opportunity of a
passage for Holland. But the wind as yet not favorable, we had time to
view the Block-house of that town, which answered to another over against
it at Tilbury, famous for the rendezvous of Queen Elizabeth, in the year
1588, which we found stored with twenty pieces of cannon, and other
ammunition proportionable. On the 19th of July, we made a short excursion
to Rochester, and having seen the cathedral went to Chatham to see the
Royal Sovereign, a glorious vessel of burden lately built there, being
for defense and ornament, the richest that ever spread cloth before the
wind. She carried an hundred brass cannon, and was 1,200 tons; a rare
sailer, the work of the famous Phineas Pett, inventor of the
frigate-fashion of building, to this day practiced. But what is to be
deplored as to this vessel is, that it cost his Majesty the affections of
his subjects, perverted by the malcontent of great ones, who took
occasion to quarrel for his having raised a very slight tax for the
building of this, and equipping the rest of the navy, without an act of
Parliament; though, by the suffrages of the major part of the Judges the
King might legally do in times of imminent danger, of which his Majesty
was best apprised. But this not satisfying a jealous party, it was
condemned as unprecedented, and not justifiable as to the Royal
prerogative; and, accordingly, the Judges were removed out of their
places, fined, and imprisoned.[10]

    [Footnote 9: His own portrait.]

    [Footnote 10: In such manner Evelyn refers to the tax of Ship-money.
    But compare this remarkable passage, now first printed from the
    original, with the tone in which, eight years later, he spoke of the
    only chance by which monarchy in England might be saved; namely,
    that of "doing nothing as to government but what shall be approved
    by the old way of a free parliament, and the known laws of the
    land."]

We returned again this evening, and on the 21st of July embarked in a
Dutch frigate, bound for Flushing, convoyed and accompanied by five other
stout vessels, whereof one was a man-of-war. The next day at noon, we
landed at Flushing.

[Sidenote: DE VERE]

Being desirous to overtake the Leagure,[11] which was then before Genep,
ere the summer should be too far spent, we went this evening from
Flushing to Middleburg, another fine town in this island, to De Vere,
whence the most ancient and illustrious Earls of Oxford derive their
family, who have spent so much blood in assisting the state during their
wars. From De Vere we passed over many towns, houses, and ruins of
demolished suburbs, etc., which have formerly been swallowed up by the
sea; at what time no less than eight of those islands had been
irrecoverably lost.

    [Footnote 11: The meaning of this expression is, that they should be
    in time to witness the siege.]

The next day we arrived at Dort, the first town of Holland, furnished
with all German commodities, and especially Rhenish wines and timber. It
hath almost at the extremity a very spacious and venerable church; a
stately senate house, wherein was holden that famous synod against the
Arminians in 1618; and in that hall hangeth a picture of "The Passion,"
an exceeding rare and much-esteemed piece.

From Dort, being desirous to hasten toward the army, I took wagon this
afternoon to Rotterdam, whither we were hurried in less than an hour,
though it be ten miles distant; so furiously do those Foremen drive. I
went first to visit the great church, the Doole, the Bourse, and the
public statue of the learned Erasmus, of brass. They showed us his house,
or rather the mean cottage, wherein he was born, over which there are
extant these lines, in capital letters:

    ÆDIBUS HIS ORTUS, MUNDUM DECORAVIT ERASMUS
       ARTIBUS INGENIO, RELIGIONE, FIDE.

The 26th of July I passed by a straight and commodious river through
Delft to the Hague; in which journey I observed divers leprous poor
creatures dwelling in solitary huts on the brink of the water, and
permitted to ask the charity of passengers, which is conveyed to them in
a floating box that they cast out.

Arrived at the Hague, I went first to the Queen of Bohemia's court, where
I had the honor to kiss her Majesty's hand, and several of the
Princesses', her daughters. Prince Maurice was also there, newly come out
of Germany; and my Lord Finch, not long before fled out of England from
the fury of the Parliament. It was a fasting day with the Queen for the
unfortunate death of her husband, and the presence chamber had been hung
with black velvet ever since his decease.

[Sidenote: NIMEGUEN]

The 28th of July I went to Leyden; and the 29th to Utrecht, being thirty
English miles distant (as they reckon by hours). It was now Kermas, or a
fair, in this town, the streets swarming with boors and rudeness, so
that early the next morning, having visited the ancient Bishop's court,
and the two famous churches, I satisfied my curiosity till my return, and
better leisure. We then came to Rynen, where the Queen of Bohemia hath a
neat and well built palace, or country house, after the Italian manner,
as I remember; and so, crossing the Rhine, upon which this villa is
situated, lodged that night in a countryman's house. The 31st to
Nimeguen; and on the 2d of August we arrived at the Leagure, where was
then the whole army encamped about Genep, a very strong castle situated
on the river Waal; but, being taken four or five days before, we had only
a sight of the demolitions. The next Sunday was the thanksgiving sermons
performed in Colonel Goring's regiment (eldest son of the since Earl of
Norwich) by Mr. Goffe, his chaplain (now turned Roman, and
father-confessor to the Queen-mother). The evening was spent in firing
cannon and other expressions of military triumphs.

Now, according to the compliment, I was received a volunteer in the
company of Captain Apsley, of whose Captain-lieutenant, Honywood (Apsley
being absent), I received many civilities.

The 3d of August, at night, we rode about the lines of circumvallation,
the general being then in the field. The next day I was accommodated with
a very spacious and commodious tent for my lodging; as before I was with
a horse, which I had at command, and a hut which during the excessive
heats was a great convenience; for the sun piercing the canvas of the
tent, it was during the day unsufferable, and at night not seldom
infested with mists and fogs, which ascended from the river.

6th August, 1641. As the turn came about, we were ordered to watch on a
horn-work near our quarters, and trail a pike, being the next morning
relieved by a company of French. This was our continual duty till the
castle was refortified, and all danger of quitting that station secured;
whence I went to see a Convent of Franciscan Friars, not far from our
quarters, where we found both the chapel and refectory full, crowded with
the goods of such poor people as at the approach of the army had fled
with them thither for sanctuary. On the day following, I went to view all
the trenches, approaches, and mines, etc. of the besiegers; and, in
particular, I took special notice of the wheel-bridge, which engine his
Excellency had made to run over the moat when they stormed the castle; as
it is since described (with all the other particulars of this siege) by
the author of that incomparable work, "Hollandia Illustrata." The walls
and ramparts of earth, which a mine had broken and crumbled, were of
prodigious thickness.

Upon the 8th of August, I dined in the horse-quarters with Sir Robert
Stone and his lady, Sir William Stradling, and divers Cavaliers; where
there was very good cheer, but hot service for a young drinker, as then I
was; so that, being pretty well satisfied with the confusion of armies
and sieges (if such that of the United Provinces may be called, where
their quarters and encampments are so admirably regular, and orders so
exactly observed, as few cities, the best governed in time of peace,
exceed it for all conveniences), I took my leave of the Leagure and
Camerades; and, on the 12th of August, I embarked on the "Waal," in
company with three grave divines, who entertained us a great part of our
passage with a long dispute concerning the lawfulness of church-music. We
now sailed by Teil, where we landed some of our freight; and about five
o'clock we touched at a pretty town named Bommell, that had divers
English in garrison. It stands upon Contribution-land, which subjects the
environs to the Spanish incursions. We sailed also by an exceeding strong
fort called Lovestein, famous for the escape of the learned Hugo Grotius,
who, being in durance as a capital offender, as was the unhappy
Barneveldt, by the stratagem of his lady, was conveyed in a trunk
supposed to be filled with books only. We lay at Gorcum, a very strong
and considerable frontier.

13th August, 1641. We arrived late at Rotterdam, where was their annual
mart or fair, so furnished with pictures (especially landscapes and
drolleries, as they call those clownish representations), that I was
amazed. Some of these I bought and sent into England. The reason of this
store of pictures, and their cheapness, proceeds from their want of land
to employ their stock, so that it is an ordinary thing to find a common
farmer lay out two or three thousand pounds in this commodity. Their
houses are full of them, and they vend them at their fairs to very great
gains. Here I first saw an elephant, who was extremely well disciplined
and obedient. It was a beast of a monstrous size, yet as flexible and
nimble in the joints, contrary to the vulgar tradition, as could be
imagined from so prodigious a bulk and strange fabric; but I most of all
admired the dexterity and strength of its proboscis, on which it was able
to support two or three men, and by which it took and reached whatever
was offered to it; its teeth were but short, being a female, and not old.
I was also shown a pelican, or _onocratulas_ of Pliny, with its large
gullets, in which he kept his reserve of fish; the plumage was white,
legs red, flat, and film-footed, likewise a cock with four legs, two
rumps and vents: also a hen which had two large spurs growing out of her
sides, penetrating the feathers of her wings.

17th August, 1641. I passed again through Delft, and visited the church
in which was the monument of Prince William of Nassau,--the first of the
Williams, and savior (as they call him) of their liberty, which cost him
his life by a vile assassination. It is a piece of rare art, consisting
of several figures, as big as the life, in copper. There is in the same
place a magnificent tomb of his son and successor, Maurice. The
senate-house hath a very stately portico, supported with choice columns
of black marble, as I remember, of one entire stone. Within, there hangs
a weighty vessel of wood, not unlike a butter-churn, which the
adventurous woman that hath two husbands at one time is to wear on her
shoulders, her head peeping out at the top only, and so led about the
town, as a penance for her incontinence. From hence, we went the next day
to Ryswick, a stately country-house of the Prince of Orange, for nothing
more remarkable than the delicious walks planted with lime trees, and the
modern paintings within.

[Sidenote: HAGUE]

[Sidenote: AMSTERDAM]

19th August, 1641. We returned to the Hague, and went to visit the Hoff,
or Prince's Court, with the adjoining gardens full of ornament, close
walks, statues, marbles, grots, fountains, and artificial music. There is
to this palace a stately hall, not much inferior to ours of Westminster,
hung round with colors and other trophies taken from the Spaniards;[12]
and the sides below are furnished with shops. Next day (the 20th) I
returned to Delft, thence to Rotterdam, the Hague, and Leyden, where
immediately I mounted a wagon, which that night, late as it was, brought
us to Haerlem. About seven in the morning after I came to Amsterdam,
where being provided with a lodging, the first thing I went to see was a
Synagogue of the Jews (being Saturday), whose ceremonies, ornaments,
lamps, law, and schools, afforded matter for my contemplation. The women
were secluded from the men, being seated in galleries above, shut with
lattices, having their heads muffled with linen, after a fantastical and
somewhat extraordinary fashion; the men, wearing a large calico mantle,
yellow colored, over their hats, all the while waving their bodies, while
at their devotions. From thence, I went to a place without the town,
called Overkirk, where they have a spacious field assigned them to bury
their dead, full of sepulchers with Hebraic inscriptions, some of them
stately and costly. Looking through one of these monuments, where the
stones were disjointed, I perceived divers books and papers lie about a
corpse; for it seems, when any learned Rabbi dies, they bury some of his
books with him. With the help of a stick, I raked out several, written in
Hebrew characters, but much impaired. As we returned, we stepped in to
see the Spin-house, a kind of bridewell, where incorrigible and lewd
women are kept in discipline and labor, but all neat. We were shown an
hospital for poor travelers and pilgrims, built by Queen Elizabeth of
England; and another maintained by the city.

    [Footnote 12: Westminster hall used to be so in Term time, and
    during the sitting of Parliament, as late as the beginning of the
    reign of George III.]

The State or Senate-house of this town, if the design be perfected, will
be one of the most costly and magnificent pieces of architecture in
Europe, especially for the materials and the carvings. In the Doole is
painted, on a very large table, the bust of Marie de Medicis, supported
by four royal diadems, the work of one Vanderdall, who hath set his name
thereon, 1st September, 1638.

On Sunday, I heard an English sermon at the Presbyterian congregation,
where they had chalked upon a slate the psalms that were to be sung, so
that all the congregation might see them without the bidding of a clerk.
I was told, that after such an age no minister was permitted to preach,
but had his maintenance continued during life.

I purposely changed my lodgings, being desirous to converse with the
sectaries that swarmed in this city, out of whose spawn came those almost
innumerable broods in England afterward. It was at a Brownist's house,
where we had an extraordinary good table. There was in pension with us my
Lord Keeper, Finch, and one Sir J. Fotherbee. Here I also found an
English Carmelite, who was going through Germany with an Irish gentleman.
I now went to see the Weese-house, a foundation like our Charter-house,
for the education of decayed persons, orphans, and poor children, where
they are taught several occupations. The girls are so well brought up to
housewifery, that men of good worth, who seek that chiefly in a woman,
frequently take their wives from this hospital. Thence to the Rasp-house,
where the lusty knaves are compelled to work; and the rasping of brasil
and logwood for the dyers is very hard labor. To the Dool-house, for
madmen and fools. But none did I so much admire, as an Hospital for their
lame and decrepit soldiers and seamen, where the accommodations are very
great, the building answerable; and, indeed, for the like public
charities the provisions are admirable in this country, where, as no idle
vagabonds are suffered (as in England they are), there is hardly a child
of four or five years old, but they find some employment for it.

It was on a Sunday morning that I went to the Bourse, or Exchange, after
their sermons were ended, to see the Dog-market, which lasts till two in
the afternoon, in this place of convention of merchants from all parts of
the world. The building is not comparable to that of London, built by
that worthy citizen, Sir Thomas Gresham, yet in one respect exceeding it,
that vessels of considerable burden ride at the very quay contiguous to
it; and indeed it is by extraordinary industry that as well this city, as
generally all the towns of Holland, are so accommodated with graffs,
cuts, sluices, moles, and rivers, made by hand, that nothing is more
frequent than to see a whole navy, belonging to this mercantile people,
riding at anchor before their very doors: and yet their streets even,
straight, and well paved, the houses so uniform and planted with lime
trees, as nothing can be more beautiful.

The next day we were entertained at a kind of tavern, called the
Briloft, appertaining to a rich Anabaptist, where, in the upper rooms of
the house, were divers pretty waterworks, rising 108 feet from the
ground. Here were many quaint devices, fountains, artificial music,
noises of beasts, and chirping of birds; but what pleased me most was a
large pendant candlestick, branching into several sockets, furnished all
with ordinary candles to appearance, out of the wicks spouting out
streams of water, instead of flames. This seemed then and was a rarity,
before the philosophy of compressed air made it intelligible. There was
likewise a cylinder that entertained the company with a variety of
chimes, the hammers striking upon the brims of porcelain dishes, suited
to the tones and notes, without cracking any of them. Many other
waterworks were shown.

The Kaiser's or Emperor's Graft, which is an ample and long street,
appearing like a city in a forest; the lime trees planted just before
each house, and at the margin of that goodly aqueduct so curiously
wharfed with Klincard brick, which likewise paves the streets, than which
nothing can be more useful and neat. This part of Amsterdam is built and
gained upon the main sea, supported by piles at an immense charge, and
fitted for the most busy concourse of traffickers and people of commerce
beyond any place, or mart, in the world. Nor must I forget the port of
entrance into an issue of this town, composed of very magnificent pieces
of architecture, some of the ancient and best manner, as are divers
churches.

The turrets, or steeples, are adorned after a particular manner and
invention; the chimes of bells are so rarely managed, that being curious
to know whether the motion was from any engine, I went up to that of St.
Nicholas, where I found one who played all sorts of compositions from the
tablature before him, as if he had fingered an organ; for so were the
hammers fastened with wires to several keys put into a frame twenty feet
below the bells, upon which (by the help of a wooden instrument, not much
unlike a weaver's shuttle, that guarded his hand) he struck on the keys
and played to admiration. All this while, through the clattering of the
wires, din of the too nearly sounding bells, and noise that his wooden
gloves made, the confusion was so great, that it was impossible for the
musician, or any that stood near him, to hear anything at all; yet, to
those at a distance, and especially in the streets, the harmony and the
time were the most exact and agreeable.

The south church is richly paved with black and white marble,--the west
is a new fabric; and generally all the churches in Holland are furnished
with organs, lamps, and monuments, carefully preserved from the fury and
impiety of popular reformers, whose zeal has foolishly transported them
in other places rather to act like madmen than religious.

[Sidenote: HAERLEM]

Upon St. Bartholomew's day, I went among the booksellers, and visited the
famous Hondius and Bleaw's shop, to buy some maps, atlases, and other
works of that kind. At another shop, I furnished myself with some shells
and Indian curiosities; and so, toward the end of August, I returned
again to Haerlem by the river, ten miles in length, straight as a line,
and of competent breadth for ships to sail by one another. They showed us
a cottage where, they told us, dwelt a woman who had been married to her
twenty-fifth husband, and being now a widow, was prohibited to marry in
future; yet it could not be proved that she had ever made away with any
of her husbands, though the suspicion had brought her divers times to
trouble.

Haerlem is a very delicate town and hath one of the fairest churches of
the Gothic design I had ever seen. There hang in the steeple, which is
very high, two silver bells, said to have been brought from Damietta, in
Egypt, by an earl of Holland, in memory of whose success they are rung
out every evening. In the nave hang the goodliest branches of brass for
tapers that I have seen, esteemed of great value for the curiosity of the
workmanship; also a fair pair of organs, which I could not find they made
use of in divine service, or so much as to assist them in singing psalms,
but only for show, and to recreate the people before and after their
devotions, while the burgomasters were walking and conferring about their
affairs. Near the west window hang two models of ships, completely
equipped, in memory of that invention of saws under their keels, with
which they cut through the chain of booms, which barred the port of
Damietta. Having visited this church, the fish-market, and made some
inquiry about the printing-house, the invention whereof is said to have
been in this town, I returned to Leyden.

[Sidenote: LEYDEN]

At Leyden, I was carried up to the castle, or Pyrgus, built on a very
steep artificial mount, cast up (as reported) by Hengist the Saxon, on
his return out of England, as a place to retire to, in case of any sudden
inundations.

The churches are many and fair; in one of them lies buried the learned
and illustrious Joseph Scaliger, without any extraordinary inscription,
who, having left the world a monument of his worth more lasting than
marble, needed nothing more than his own name; which I think is all
engraven on his sepulcher. He left his library to this University.

28th August, 1641. I went to see the college and schools, which are
nothing extraordinary, and was complimented with a _matricula_ by the
_magnificus_ Professor, who first in Latin demanded of me where my
lodging in the town was, my name, age, birth, and to what Faculty I
addicted myself; then, recording my answers in a book, he administered an
oath to me that I should observe the statutes and orders of the
University while I stayed, and then delivered me a ticket, by virtue
whereof I was made excise-free; for all which worthy privileges, and the
pains of writing, he accepted of a rix-dollar.

Here was now the famous Dan. Heinsius, whom I so longed to see, as well
as the no less famous printer, Elzevir's printing-house and shop,
renowned for the politeness of the character and editions of what he has
published through Europe. Hence to the physic-garden, well stored with
exotic plants, if the catalogue presented to me by the gardener be a
faithful register.

But, among all the rarities of this place, I was much pleased with a
sight of their anatomy-school, theater, and repository adjoining, which
is well furnished with natural curiosities; skeletons, from the whale and
elephant to the fly and spider; which last is a very delicate piece of
art, to see how the bones (if I may so call them of so tender an insect)
could be separated from the mucilaginous parts of that minute animal.
Among a great variety of other things, I was shown the knife newly taken
out of a drunken Dutchman's guts, by an incision in his side, after it
had slipped from his fingers into his stomach. The pictures of the
chirurgeon and his patient, both living, were there.

There is without the town a fair Mall, curiously planted.

Returning to my lodging, I was showed the statue, cut in stone, of the
happy monk, whom they report to have been the first inventor of
typography, set over the door; but this is much controverted by others,
who strive for the glory of it, besides John Gutenberg.

I was brought acquainted with a Burgundian Jew, who had married an
apostate Kentish woman. I asked him divers questions: he told me, among
other things, that the World should never end; that our souls
transmigrated, and that even those of the most holy persons did penance
in the bodies of brutes after death,--and so he interpreted the
banishment and savage life of Nebuchadnezzar: that all the Jews should
rise again, and be led to Jerusalem; that the Romans only were the
occasion of our Savior's death, whom he affirmed (as the Turks do) to be
a great prophet, but not the Messiah. He showed me several books of their
devotion, which he had translated into English, for the instruction of
his wife; he told me that when the Messiah came, all the ships, barks,
and vessels of Holland should, by the power of certain strange
whirlwinds, be loosed from their anchors, and transported in a moment to
all the desolate ports and havens throughout the world, wherever the
dispersion was, to convey their brethren and tribes to the Holy City;
with other such like stuff. He was a merry drunken fellow, but would by
no means handle any money (for something I purchased of him), it being
Saturday; but desired me to leave it in the window, meaning to receive it
on Sunday morning.

1st September, 1641. I went to Delft and Rotterdam, and two days after
back to the Hague, to bespeak a suit of horseman's armor, which I caused
to be made to fit me. I now rode out of town to see the monument of the
woman, pretended to have been a countess of Holland, reported to have had
as many children at one birth, as there are days in the year. The basins
were hung up in which they were baptized, together with a large
description of the matter-of-fact in a frame of carved work, in the
church of Lysdun, a desolate place. As I returned, I diverted to see one
of the Prince's Palaces, called the Hoff Van Hounsler's Dyck, a very fair
cloistered and quadrangular building. The gallery is prettily painted
with several huntings, and at one end a gordian knot, with rustical
instruments so artificially represented, as to deceive an accurate eye to
distinguish it from actual relievo. The ceiling of the staircase is
painted with the "Rape of Ganymede," and other pendant figures, the work
of F. Covenberg, of whose hand I bought an excellent drollery, which I
afterward parted with to my brother George of Wotton, where it now hangs.
To this palace join a fair garden and park, curiously planted with limes.

8th September, 1641. Returned to Rotterdam, through Delftshaven and
Sedan, where were at that time Colonel Goring's winter quarters. This
town has heretofore been very much talked of for witches.

10th September, 1641. I took a wagon for Dort, to be present at the
reception of the Queen-mother, Marie de Medicis, Dowager of France, widow
of Henry the Great, and mother to the French King, Louis XIII., and the
Queen of England, whence she newly arrived, tossed to and fro by the
various fortune of her life. From this city, she designed for Cologne,
conducted by the Earl of Arundel and the Herr Van Bredrod. At this
interview, I saw the Princess of Orange, and the lady her daughter,
afterward married to the House of Brandenburgh. There was little
remarkable in this reception befitting the greatness of her person; but
an universal discontent, which accompanied that unlucky woman wherever
she went.

12th September, 1641. I went toward Bois-le-Duc, where we arrived on the
16th, at the time when the new citadel was advancing, with innumerable
hands, and incomparable inventions for draining off the waters out of the
fens and morasses about it, being by buckets, mills, cochleas, pumps, and
the like; in which the Hollanders are the most expert in Europe. Here
were now sixteen companies and nine troops of horse. They were also
cutting a new river, to pass from the town to a castle not far from it.
Here we split our skiff, falling foul upon another through negligence of
the master, who was fain to run aground, to our no little hazard. At our
arrival, a soldier conveyed us to the Governor, where our names were
taken, and our persons examined very strictly.

17th September, 1641. I was permitted to walk the round and view the
works, and to visit a convent of religious women of the order of St.
Clara (who by the capitulation were allowed to enjoy their monastery and
maintenance undisturbed, at the surrender of the town twelve years
since), where we had a collation and very civil entertainment. They had a
neat chapel, in which the heart of the Duke of Cleves, their founder,
lies inhumed under a plate of brass. Within the cloister is a garden, and
in the middle of it an overgrown lime tree, out of whose stem, near the
root, issue five upright and exceeding tall suckers, or bolls, the like
whereof for evenness and height I had not observed.

The chief church of this city is curiously carved within and without,
furnished with a pair of organs, and a most magnificent font of copper.

18th September, 1641. I went to see that most impregnable town and fort
of Hysdune, where I was exceedingly obliged to one Colonel Crombe, the
lieutenant-governor, who would needs make me accept the honor of being
captain of the watch, and to give the word this night. The fortification
is very irregular, but esteemed one of the most considerable for strength
and situation in the Netherlands. We departed toward Gorcum. Here Sir
Kenelm Digby, traveling toward Cologne, met us.

The next morning, the 19th, we arrived at Dort, passing by the Decoys,
where they catch innumerable quantities of fowl.

[Sidenote: ROTTERDAM]

22d September, 1641. I went again to Rotterdam to receive a pass which I
expected from Brussels, securing me through Brabant and Flanders,
designing to go into England through those countries. The Cardinal
Infante, brother to the King of Spain, was then governor. By this pass,
having obtained another from the Prince of Orange, upon the 24th of
September I departed through Dort; but met with very bad tempestuous
weather, being several times driven back, and obliged to lie at anchor
off Keele, other vessels lying there waiting better weather. The 25th and
26th we made other essays; but were again repulsed to the harbor, where
lay sixty vessels waiting to sail. But, on the 27th, we, impatient of the
time and inhospitableness of the place, sailed again with a contrary and
impetuous wind and a terrible sea, in great jeopardy; for we had much
ado to keep ourselves above water, the billows breaking desperately on
our vessel: we were driven into Williamstadt, a place garrisoned by the
English, where the governor had a fair house. The works, and especially
the counterscarp, are curiously hedged with quick, and planted with a
stately row of limes on the rampart. The church is of a round structure,
with a cupola, and the town belongs entirely to the Prince of Orange, as
does that of Breda, and some other places.

28th September, 1641. Failing of an appointment, I was constrained to
return to Dort for a bill of exchange; but it was the 1st of October ere
I could get back. At Keele, I numbered 141 vessels, who durst not yet
venture out; but, animated by the master of a stout bark, after a small
encounter of weather, we arrived by four that evening at Steenbergen. In
the passage we sailed over a sea called the Plaats, an exceeding
dangerous water, by reason of two contrary tides which meet there very
impetuously. Here, because of the many shelves, we were forced to tide it
along the Channel; but, ere we could gain the place, the ebb was so far
spent, that we were compelled to foot it at least two long miles, through
a most pelting shower of rain.

2d October, 1641. With a gentleman of the Rhyngraves, I went in a cart,
or tumbrel (for it was no better; no other accommodation could be
procured), of two wheels and one horse, to Bergen-op-Zoom, meeting by the
way divers parties of his Highness's army now retiring toward their
winter quarters; the convoy skiffs riding by thousands along the harbor.
The fort was heretofore built by the English.

The next morning I embarked for Lillo, having refused a convoy of horse
which was offered me. The tide being against us, we landed short of the
fort on the beach, where we marched half leg deep in mud, ere we could
gain the dyke, which, being five or six miles from Lillo, we were forced
to walk on foot very wet and discomposed; and then entering a boat we
passed the ferry, and came to the castle. Being taken before the
Governor, he demanded my pass, to which he set his hand, and asked two
rix-dollars for a fee, which methought appeared very exorbitant in a
soldier of his quality. I told him that I had already purchased my pass
of the commissaries at Rotterdam; at which, in a great fury, snatching
the paper out of my hand, he flung it scornfully under the table, and
bade me try whether I could get to Antwerp without his permission: but I
had no sooner given him the dollars, then he returned the passport
surlily enough, and made me pay fourteen Dutch shillings to the cantone,
or searcher, for my contempt, which I was glad to do for fear of further
trouble, should he have discovered my Spanish pass, in which the States
were therein treated by the name of rebels. Besides all these exactions,
I gave the commissary six shillings, to the soldiers something, and, ere
perfectly clear of this frontier, thirty-one stivers to the man-of-war,
who lay blocking up the river between Lillo and the opposite sconce
called Lifkinshoeck.

[Sidenote: ANTWERP]

4th October, 1641. We sailed by several Spanish forts, out of one of
which, St. Mary's port, came a Don on board us, to whom I showed my
Spanish pass, which he signed, and civilly dismissed us. Hence, sailing
by another man-of-war, to which we lowered our topsails, we at length
arrived at Antwerp.

The lodgings here are very handsome and convenient. I lost little time;
but, with the aid of one Mr. Lewkner, our conductor, we visited divers
churches, colleges, and monasteries. The Church of the Jesuits is most
sumptuous and magnificent; a glorious fabric without and within, wholly
incrusted with marble, inlaid and polished into divers representations of
histories, landscapes, and flowers. On the high altar is placed the
statue of the Blessed Virgin and our Savior in white marble, with a boss
in the girdle set with very fair and rich sapphires, and divers other
stones of price. The choir is a glorious piece of architecture: the
pulpit supported by four angels, and adorned with other carvings, and
rare pictures by Rubens, now lately dead, and divers votive tables and
relics. Hence, to the Vroù Kirk, or Nôtre Dame of Antwerp: it is a very
venerable fabric, built after the Gothic manner, especially the tower,
which I ascended, the better to take a view of the country adjacent;
which, happening on a day when the sun shone exceedingly bright, and
darted his rays without any interruption, afforded so bright a reflection
to us who were above, and had a full prospect of both land and water
about it, that I was much confirmed in my opinion of the moon's being of
some such substance as this earthly globe: perceiving all the subjacent
country, at so small an horizontal distance, to repercuss such a light as
I could hardly look against, save where the river, and other large water
within our view, appeared of a more dark and uniform color; resembling
those spots in the moon supposed to be seas there, according to Hevelius,
and as they appear in our late telescopes. I numbered in this church
thirty privileged altars, that of St. Sebastian adorned with a painting
of his martyrdom.

We went to see the Jerusalem Church, affirmed to have been founded by one
who, upon divers great wagers, passed to and fro between that city and
Antwerp, on foot, by which he procured large sums of money, which he
bestowed on this pious structure.[13] Hence, to St. Mary's Chapel, where
I had some conference with two English Jesuits, confessors to Colonel
Jaye's regiment. These fathers conducted us to the Cloister of Nuns,
where we heard a Dutch sermon upon the exposure of the Host. The
Senate-house of this city is a very spacious and magnificent building.

    [Footnote 13: This notice, slipped by accident into the entries
    which refer to Antwerp, belongs to those of Bruges.]

5th October, 1641. I visited the Jesuits' School, which, for the fame of
their method, I greatly desired to see. They were divided into four
classes, with several inscriptions over each: as, first, _Ad majorem Dei
gloriam_; over the second, _Princeps diligentiæ_; the third, _Imperator
Byzantiorum_; over the fourth and uppermost, _Imperator Romanorum_. Under
these, the scholars and pupils and their places, or forms with titles and
priority according to their proficiency. Their dormitory and lodgings
above were exceedingly neat. They have a prison for the offenders and
less diligent; and, in an ample court, to recreate themselves in, is an
aviary, and a yard, where eagles, vultures, foxes, monkeys, and other
animals are kept, to divert the boys withal at their hours of remission.
To this school join the music and mathematical schools, and lastly a
pretty, neat chapel. The great street is built after the Italian mode, in
the middle whereof is erected a glorious crucifix of white and black
marble, greater than the life. This is a very fair and noble street,
clean, well paved, and sweet to admiration.

The Oesters house, belonging to the East India Company, is a stately
palace, adorned with more than 300 windows. From hence, walking into the
Gun-garden, I was allowed to see as much of the citadel as is permitted
to strangers. It is a matchless piece of modern fortification,
accommodated with lodgments for the soldiers and magazines. The graffs,
ramparts, and platforms are stupendous. Returning by the shop of
Plantine, I bought some books, for the namesake only of that famous
printer.

But there was nothing about this city which more ravished me than those
delicious shades and walks of stately trees, which render the fortified
works of the town one of the sweetest places in Europe; nor did I ever
observe a more quiet, clean, elegantly built and civil place, than this
magnificent and famous city of Antwerp. In the evening, I was invited to
Signor Duerte's, a Portuguese by nation, an exceeding rich merchant,
whose palace I found to be furnished like a prince's. His three daughters
entertained us with rare music, vocal and instrumental, which was
finished with a handsome collation. I took leave of the ladies and of
sweet Antwerp, as late as it was, embarking for Brussels on the Scheldt
in a vessel, which delivered us to a second boat (in another river) drawn
or towed by horses. In this passage, we frequently changed our barge, by
reason of the bridges thwarting our course. Here I observed numerous
families inhabiting their vessels and floating dwellings, so built and
divided by cabins, as few houses on land enjoyed better accommodation;
stored with all sorts of utensils, neat chambers, a pretty parlor, and
kept so sweet, that nothing could be more refreshing. The rivers on which
they are drawn are very clear and still waters, and pass through a most
pleasant country on both the banks. We had in our boat a very good
ordinary, and excellent company. The cut is straight as a line for twenty
English miles. What I much admired was, near the midway, another
artificial river, which intersects this at right angles, but on an
eminence of ground, and is carried in an aqueduct of stone so far above
the other as that the waters neither mingle, nor hinder one another's
passage.

We came to a town called Villefrow, where all the passengers went on
shore to wash at a fountain issuing out of a pillar, and then came
aboard again. On the margin of this long tract are abundance of shrines
and images, defended from the injuries of the weather by niches of stone
wherein they are placed.

[Sidenote: BRUSSELS]

7th October, 1641. We arrived at Brussels at nine in the morning. The
Stadt-house, near the market place, is, for the carving in freestone, a
most laborious and finished piece, well worthy observation. The
flesh-shambles are also built of stone. I was pleased with certain small
engines, by which a girl, or boy, was able to draw up, or let down, great
bridges, which in divers parts of this city crossed the channel for the
benefit of passengers. The walls of this town are very entire, and full
of towers at competent distances. The cathedral is built upon a very high
and exceeding steep ascent, to which we mounted by fair steps of stone.
Hence I walked to a convent of English Nuns, with whom I sat discoursing
most part of the afternoon.

8th October, 1641. Being the morning I came away, I went to see the
Prince's Court, an ancient, confused building, not much unlike the Hofft,
at the Hague: there is here likewise a very large hall, where they vend
all sorts of wares. Through this we passed by the chapel, which is indeed
rarely arched, and in the middle of it was the hearse, or catafalque, of
the late Archduchess, the wise and pious Clara Eugenia. Out of this we
were conducted to the lodgings, tapestried with incomparable arras, and
adorned with many excellent pieces of Rubens, old and young Breugel,
Titian, and Stenwick, with stories of most of the late actions in the
Netherlands.

By an accident we could not see the library. There is a fair terrace
which looks to the vineyard, in which, on pedestals, are fixed the
statues of all the Spanish kings of the house of Austria. The opposite
walls are painted by Rubens, being an history of the late tumults in
Belgia: in the last piece, the Archduchess shuts a great pair of gates
upon Mars, who is coming out of hell, armed, and in a menacing posture;
which, with that other of the Infanta taking leave of Don Philip IV., is
a most incomparable table.

From hence, we walked into the park, which for being entirely within the
walls of the city is particularly remarkable: nor is it less pleasant
than if in the most solitary recesses; so naturally is it furnished with
whatever may render it agreeable, melancholy, and country-like. Here is a
stately heronry, divers springs of water, artificial cascades, rocks,
grots; one whereof is composed of the extravagant roots of trees,
cunningly built and hung together with wires. In this park are both
fallow and red deer.

From hence, we were led into the Menage, and out of that into a most
sweet and delicious garden, where was another grot of more neat and
costly materials, full of noble statues, and entertaining us with
artificial music; but the hedge of water, in form of lattice-work, which
the fountaineer caused to ascend out of the earth by degrees, exceedingly
pleased and surprised me; for thus, with a pervious wall, or rather a
palisade hedge of water, was the whole parterre environed.

There is likewise a fair aviary; and in the court next it are kept divers
sorts of animals, rare and exotic fowl, as eagles, cranes, storks,
bustards, pheasants of several kinds, and a duck having four wings. In
another division of the same close are rabbits of an almost perfect
yellow color.

There was no Court now in the palace; the Infante Cardinal, who was the
Governor of Flanders, being dead but newly, and every one in deep
mourning.

At near eleven o'clock, I repaired to his Majesty's agent, Sir Henry de
Vic, who very courteously received me, and accommodated me with a coach
and six horses, which carried me from Brussels to Ghent, where it was to
meet my Lord of Arundel, Earl Marshal of England, who had requested me
when I was at Antwerp to send it for him, if I went not thither myself.

Thus taking leave of Brussels and a sad Court, yet full of gallant
persons (for in this small city, the acquaintance being universal, ladies
and gentlemen, I perceived had great diversions, and frequent meetings),
I hastened toward Ghent. On the way, I met with divers little wagons,
prettily contrived, and full of peddling merchandise, drawn by mastiff
dogs, harnessed completely like so many coach horses; in some four, in
others six, as in Brussels itself I had observed. In Antwerp I saw, as I
remember, four dogs draw five lusty children in a chariot: the master
commands them whither he pleases, crying his wares about the streets.
After passing through Ouse, by six in the evening, I arrived at Ghent.
This is a city of so great a circumference, that it is reported to be
seven leagues round; but there is not half of it now built, much of it
remaining in fields and desolate pastures even within the walls, which
have strong gates toward the west, and two fair churches.

Here I beheld the palace wherein John of Gaunt and Charles V. were born;
whose statue[14] stands in the market-place, upon a high pillar, with his
sword drawn, to which (as I was told) the magistrates and burghers were
wont to repair upon a certain day every year with ropes about their
necks, in token of submission and penance for an old rebellion of theirs;
but now the hemp is changed into a blue ribbon. Here is planted the
basilisco, or great gun, so much talked of. The Lys and the Scheldt
meeting in this vast city, divide it into twenty-six islands, which are
united by many bridges, somewhat resembling Venice. This night I supped
with the Abbot of Andoyne, a pleasant and courteous priest.

    [Footnote 14: That of Charles V.]

8th October, 1641. I passed by a boat to Bruges, taking in at a redoubt a
convoy of fourteen musketeers, because the other side of the river, being
Contribution-land, was subject to the inroads and depredations of the
bordering States. This river was cut by the famous Marquis Spinola, and
is in my judgment a wonderful piece of labor, and a worthy public work,
being in some places forced through the main rock, to an incredible
depth, for thirty miles. At the end of each mile is built a small
redoubt, which communicates a line to the next, and so the whole way,
from whence we received many volleys of shot, in compliment to my Lord
Marshal, who was in our vessel, a passenger with us. At five that
evening, we were met by the magistrates of Bruges, who came out to convey
my Lord to his lodgings, at whose cost he was entertained that night.

The morning after we went to see the Stadt-house and adjoining aqueduct,
the church, and market-place, where we saw cheeses and butter piled up in
heaps; also the fortifications and graffs, which are extremely large.

The 9th, we arrived at Ostend by a straight and artificial river. Here,
with leave of the captain of the watch, I was carried to survey the
river and harbor, with fortifications on one side thereof: the east and
south are mud and earth walls. It is a very strong place, and lately
stood a memorable siege three years, three months, three weeks, and three
days. I went to see the church of St. Peter, and the cloisters of the
Franciscans.

10th October, 1641. I went by wagon, accompanied with a jovial
commissary, to Dunkirk, the journey being made all on the sea sands. On
our arrival, we first viewed the court of guards, the works, the
townhouse, and the new church; the latter is very beautiful within; and
another, wherein they showed us an excellent piece of "Our Savior's
Bearing the Cross." The harbor, in two channels, coming up to the town,
was choked with a multitude of prizes.

From hence, the next day, I marched three English miles toward the packet
boat, being a pretty frigate of six guns, which embarked us for England
about three in the afternoon.

[Sidenote: DOVER]

At our going off, the fort, against which our pinnace anchored saluted my
Lord Marshal with twelve great guns, which we answered with three. Not
having the wind favorable, we anchored that night before Calais. About
midnight, we weighed; and, at four in the morning, though not far from
Dover, we could not make the pier till four that afternoon, the wind
proving contrary and driving us westward: but at last we got on shore,
October the 12th.

From Dover, I that night rode post to Canterbury. Here I visited the
cathedral, then in great splendor; those famous windows being entire,
since demolished by the fanatics. The next morning by Sittingbourne, I
came to Rochester, and thence to Gravesend, where a light-horseman (as
they call it) taking us in, we spent our tide as far as Greenwich. From
hence, after we had a little refreshed ourselves at the College (for by
reason of contagion then in London we balked the inns), we came to
London, landing at Arundel stairs. Here I took leave of his Lordship, and
retired to my lodgings in the Middle Temple, being about two in the
morning, the 14th of October.

16th October, 1641. I went to see my brother at Wotton. On the 31st of
that month (unfortunate for the Irish Rebellion, which broke out on the
23d), I was one and twenty years of age.

7th November, 1641. After receiving the Sacrament at Wotton church, I
visited my Lord Marshal at Albury.

23d November, 1641. I returned to London; and, on the 25th, saw his
Majesty ride through the City after his coming out of Scotland, and a
Peace proclaimed, with great acclamations and joy of the giddy people.

15th December, 1641. I was elected one of the Comptrollers of the Middle
Temple revellers, as the fashion of the young students and gentlemen was,
the Christmas being kept this year with great solemnity; but, being
desirous to pass it in the country, I got leave to resign my staff of
office, and went with my brother Richard to Wotton.

10th January, 1642. I gave a visit to my cousin Hatton, of Ditton.

19th January, 1642. I went to London, where I stayed till 5th of March,
studying a little, but dancing and fooling more.

3d October, 1642. To Chichester, and hence the next day to see the siege
of Portsmouth; for now was that bloody difference between the King and
Parliament broken out, which ended in the fatal tragedy so many years
after. It was on the day of its being rendered to Sir William Waller;
which gave me an opportunity of taking my leave of Colonel Goring, the
governor, now embarking for France. This day was fought that signal
battle at Edgehill. Thence I went to Southampton and Winchester, where I
visited the castle, school, church, and King Arthur's Round Table; but
especially the church, and its Saxon kings' monuments, which I esteemed a
worthy antiquity.

The 12th of November was the battle of Brentford, surprisingly fought;
and to the great consternation of the City, had his Majesty (as it was
believed he would) pursued his advantage. I came in with my horse and
arms just at the retreat; but was not permitted to stay longer than the
15th, by reason of the army marching to Gloucester; which would have left
both me and my brothers exposed to ruin, without any advantage to his
Majesty.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

7th December, 1642. I went from Wotton to London, to see the so much
celebrated line of communication, and on the 10th returned to Wotton,
nobody knowing of my having been in his Majesty's army.

10th March, 1643. I went to Hartingford-berry to visit my cousin,
Keightly.

11th March, 1643. I went to see my Lord of Salisbury's Palace at
Hatfield, where the most considerable rarity, besides the house (inferior
to few then in England for its architecture), were the garden and
vineyard, rarely well watered and planted. They also showed us the
picture of Secretary Cecil, in Mosaic work, very well done by some
Italian hand.

I must not forget what amazed us exceedingly in the night before, namely,
a shining cloud in the air, in shape resembling a sword, the point
reaching to the north; it was as bright as the moon, the rest of the sky
being very serene. It began about eleven at night, and vanished not till
above one, being seen by all the south of England. I made many journeys
to and from London.

15th April, 1643. To Hatfield, and near the town of Hertford I went to
see Sir J. Harrison's house new built. Returning to London, I called to
see his Majesty's house and gardens at Theobald's, since demolished by
the rebels.

2d May, 1643. I went from Wotton to London, where I saw the furious and
zealous people demolish that stately Cross in Cheapside.

On the 4th I returned, with no little regret, for the confusion that
threatened us. Resolving to possess myself in some quiet, if it might be,
in a time of so great jealousy, I built by my brother's permission, a
study, made a fish-pond, an island, and some other solitudes and
retirements at Wotton; which gave the first occasion of improving them to
those waterworks and gardens which afterward succeeded them, and became
at that time the most famous of England.

12th July, 1643. I sent my black menage horse and furniture with a friend
to his Majesty, then at Oxford.

23d July, 1643. The Covenant being pressed, I absented myself; but,
finding it impossible to evade the doing very unhandsome things, and
which had been a great cause of my perpetual motions hitherto between
Wotton and London, October the 2d, I obtained a license of his Majesty,
dated at Oxford and signed by the King, to travel again.

6th November, 1643. Lying by the way from Wotton at Sir Ralph
Whitfield's, at Blechingley (whither both my brothers had conducted me),
I arrived at London on the 7th, and two days after took boat at the
Tower-wharf, which carried me as far as Sittingbourne, though not without
danger, I being only in a pair of oars, exposed to a hideous storm: but
it pleased God that we got in before the peril was considerable. From
thence, I went by post to Dover, accompanied with one Mr. Thicknesse, a
very dear friend of mine.

11th November, 1643. Having a reasonable good passage, though the weather
was snowy and untoward enough, we came before Calais, where, as we went
on shore, mistaking the tide, our shallop struck on the sands, with no
little danger; but at length we got off.

Calais is considered an extraordinary well-fortified place, in the old
castle and new citadel regarding the sea. The haven consists of a long
bank of sand, lying opposite to it. The market place and the church are
remarkable things, besides those relics of our former dominion there. I
remember there were engraven in stone, upon the front of an ancient
dwelling which was showed us, these words in English--"God save the
King," together with the name of the architect and date. The walls of the
town are substantial; but the situation toward the land is not pleasant,
by reason of the marshes and low grounds about it.

12th November, 1643. After dinner we took horse with the Messagere,
hoping to have arrived at Boulogne that night; but there fell so great a
snow, accompanied with hail, rain, and sudden darkness, that we had much
ado to gain the next village; and in this passage, being to cross a
valley by a causeway, and a bridge built over a small river, the rain
that had fallen making it an impetuous stream for near a quarter of a
mile, my horse slipping had almost been the occasion of my perishing. We
none of us went to bed; for the soldiers in those parts leaving little in
the villages, we had enough to do to get ourselves dry, by morning,
between the fire and the fresh straw. The next day early, we arrived at
Boulogne.

This is a double town, one part of it situate on a high rock, or downs;
the other, called the lower town, is yet with a great declivity toward
the sea; both of them defended by a strong castle, which stands on a
notable eminence. Under the town runs the river, which is yet but an
inconsiderable brook. Henry VIII., in the siege of this place is said to
have used those great leathern guns which I have since beheld in the
Tower of London, inscribed, "_Non Marte opus est cui non deficit
Mercurius_"; if at least the history be true, which my Lord Herbert
doubts.

The next morning, in some danger of parties [Spanish] surprising us, we
came to Montreuil, built on the summit of a most conspicuous hill,
environed with fair and ample meadows; but all the suburbs had been from
time to time ruined, and were now lately burnt by the Spanish inroads.
This town is fortified with two very deep dry ditches; the walls about
the bastions and citadel are a noble piece of masonry. The church is more
glorious without than within; the market place large; but the inhabitants
are miserably poor. The next day, we came to Abbeville, having passed all
this way in continual expectation of the volunteers, as they call them.
This town affords a good aspect toward the hill from whence we descended:
nor does it deceive us; for it is handsomely built, and has many pleasant
and useful streams passing through it, the main river being the Somme,
which discharges itself into the sea at St. Valery, almost in view of the
town. The principal church is a very handsome piece of Gothic
architecture, and the ports and ramparts sweetly planted for defense and
ornament. In the morning, they brought us choice of guns and pistols to
sell at reasonable rates, and neatly made, being here a merchandise of
great account, the town abounding in gunsmiths.

[Sidenote: ST. DENIS]

[Sidenote: PARIS]

Hence we advanced to Beauvais, another town of good note, and having the
first vineyards we had seen. The next day to Beaumont, and the morrow to
Paris, having taken our repast at St. Denis, two leagues from that great
city. St. Denis is considerable only for its stately cathedral, and the
dormitory of the French kings, there inhumed as ours at Westminster
Abbey. The treasury is esteemed one of the richest in Europe. The church
was built by King Dagobert,[15] but since much enlarged, being now 390
feet long, 100 in breadth, and 80 in height, without comprehending the
cover: it has also a very high shaft of stone, and the gates are of
brass. Here, while the monks conducted us, we were showed the ancient and
modern sepulchers of their kings, beginning with the founder to Louis his
son, with Charles Martel and Pepin, son and father of Charlemagne. These
lie in the choir, and without it are many more: among the rest that of
Bertrand du Guesclin, Constable of France; in the chapel of Charles V.,
all his posterity; and near him the magnificent sepulcher of Francis I.,
with his children, wars, victories, and triumphs engraven in marble. In
the nave of the church lies the catafalque, or hearse, of Louis XIII.,
Henry II., a noble tomb of Francis II., and Charles IX. Above are bodies
of several Saints; below, under a state of black velvet, the late Louis
XIII., father of this present monarch. Every one of the ten chapels, or
oratories, had some Saints in them; among the rest, one of the Holy
Innocents. The treasury is kept in the sacristy above, in which are
crosses of massy gold and silver, studded with precious stones, one of
gold three feet high, set with sapphires, rubies, and great oriental
pearls. Another given by Charles the Great, having a noble amethyst in
the middle of it, stones and pearls of inestimable value. Among the still
more valuable relics are, a nail from our Savior's Cross, in a box of
gold full of precious stones; a crucifix of the true wood of the Cross,
carved by Pope Clement III., enchased in a crystal covered with gold; a
box in which is some of the Virgin's hair; some of the linen in which our
blessed Savior was wrapped at his nativity; in a huge reliquary, modeled
like a church, some of our Savior's blood, hair, clothes, linen with
which he wiped the Apostles' feet; with many other equally authentic
toys, which the friar who conducted us would have us believe were
authentic relics. Among the treasures is the crown of Charlemagne, his
seven-foot high scepter and hand of justice, the agraffe of his royal
mantle, beset with diamonds and rubies, his sword, belt, and spurs of
gold; the crown of St. Louis, covered with precious stones, among which
is one vast ruby, uncut, of inestimable value, weighing 300 carats (under
which is set one of the thorns of our blessed Savior's crown), his
sword, seal, and hand of justice. The two crowns of Henry IV., his
scepter, hand of justice, and spurs. The two crowns of his son Louis. In
the cloak-royal of Anne of Bretagne is a very great and rare ruby. Divers
books covered with solid plates of gold, and studded with precious
stones. Two vases of beryl, two of agate, whereof one is esteemed for its
bigness, color, and embossed carving, the best now to be seen: by a
special favor I was permitted to take the measure and dimensions of it;
the story is a Bacchanalia and sacrifice to Priapus; a very holy thing
truly, and fit for a cloister! It is really antique, and the noblest
jewel there. There is also a large gondola of chrysolite, a huge urn of
porphyry, another of calcedon, a vase of onyx, the largest I had ever
seen of that stone; two of crystal; a morsel of one of the waterpots in
which our Savior did his first miracle; the effigies of the Queen of
Saba, of Julius, Augustus, Mark Antony, Cleopatra, and others, upon
sapphires, topazes, agates, and cornelians: that of the queen of Saba[16]
has a Moorish face; those of Julius and Nero on agates are rarely colored
and cut. A cup in which Solomon was used to drink, and an Apollo on a
great amethyst. There lay in a window a mirror of a kind of stone said to
have belonged to the poet Virgil. Charlemagne's chessmen, full of Arabic
characters. In the press next the door, the brass lantern full of
crystals, said to have conducted Judas and his company to apprehend our
blessed Savior. A fair unicorn's horn, sent by a king of Persia, about
seven feet long. In another press (over which stands the picture in oil
of their Orleans Amazon with her sword), the effigies of the late French
kings in wax, like ours in Westminster, covered with their robes; with a
world of other rarities. Having rewarded our courteous friar, we took
horse for Paris, where we arrived about five in the afternoon. In the way
were fair crosses of stone carved with fleur-de-lis at every furlong's
end, where they affirm St. Denis rested and laid down his head after
martyrdom, carrying it from the place where this monastery is builded. We
lay at Paris at the Ville de Venice; where, after I had something
refreshed, I went to visit Sir Richard Browne, his Majesty's Resident
with the French king.

    [Footnote 15: A. D. 630.]

    [Footnote 16: Or Sheba.]

5th December, 1643. The Earl of Norwich came as Ambassador extraordinary:
I went to meet him in a coach and six horses, at the palace of Monsieur
de Bassompière, where I saw that gallant person, his gardens, terraces,
and rare prospects. My lord was waited on by the master of the
ceremonies, and a very great cavalcade of men of quality, to the Palais
Cardinal, where on the 23d he had audience of the French king, and the
queen Regent his mother, in the golden chamber of presence. From thence,
I conducted him to his lodgings in Rue St. Denis, and so took my leave.

24th December, 1643. I went with some company to see some remarkable
places without the city: as the Isle, and how it is encompassed by the
Rivers Seine and the Ouse. The city is divided into three parts, whereof
the town is greatest. The city lies between it and the University in form
of an island. Over the Seine is a stately bridge called Pont Neuf, begun
by Henry III. in 1578, finished by Henry IV. his successor. It is all of
hewn freestone found under the streets, but more plentifully at
Montmartre, and consists of twelve arches, in the midst of which ends the
point of an island, on which are built handsome artificers' houses. There
is one large passage for coaches, and two for foot passengers three or
four feet higher, and of convenient breadth for eight or ten to go
abreast. On the middle of this stately bridge, on one side, stands the
famous statue of Henry the Great on horseback, exceeding the natural
proportion by much; and, on the four faces of a stately pedestal (which
is composed of various sorts of polished marbles and rich moldings),
inscriptions of his victories and most signal actions are engraven in
brass. The statue and horse are of copper, the work of the great John di
Bologna, and sent from Florence by Ferdinand the First, and Cosmo the
Second, uncle and cousin to Mary de Medicis, the wife of King Henry,
whose statue it represents. The place where it is erected is inclosed
with a strong and beautiful grate of iron, about which there are always
mountebanks showing their feats to the idle passengers. From hence is a
rare prospect toward the Louvre and suburbs of St. Germains, the Isle du
Palais, and Nôtre Dame. At the foot of this bridge is a water-house, on
the front whereof, at a great height, is the story of Our Savior and the
woman of Samaria pouring water out of a bucket. Above, is a very rare
dial of several motions, with a chime, etc. The water is conveyed by huge
wheels, pumps, and other engines, from the river beneath. The confluence
of the people and multitude of coaches passing every moment over the
bridge, to a new spectator is an agreeable diversion. Other bridges there
are, as that of Nôtre Dame and the Pont-au-Change, etc., fairly built,
with houses of stone, which are laid over this river; only the Pont St.
Anne, landing the suburbs of St. Germains at the Tuileries, is built of
wood, having likewise a water house in the midst of it, and a statue of
Neptune casting water out of a whale's mouth, of lead, but much inferior
to the Samaritan.

The University lies southwest on higher ground, contiguous to, but the
lesser part of, Paris. They reckon no less than sixty-five colleges; but
they in nothing approach ours at Oxford for state and order. The
booksellers dwell within the University. The schools (of which more
hereafter) are very regular.

The suburbs are those of St. Denis, Honoré, St. Marcel, St. Jaques, St.
Michael, St. Victoire, and St. Germains, which last is the largest, and
where the nobility and persons of best quality are seated: and truly
Paris, comprehending the suburbs, is, for the material the houses are
built with, and many noble and magnificent piles, one of the most gallant
cities in the world; large in circuit, of a round form, very populous,
but situated in a bottom, environed with gentle declivities, rendering
some places very dirty, and making it smell as if sulphur were mingled
with the mud; yet it is paved with a kind of freestone, of near a foot
square, which renders it more easy to walk on than our pebbles in London.

On Christmas eve, I went to see the Cathedral at Nôtre Dame, erected by
Philip Augustus, but begun by King Robert, son of Hugh Capet. It consists
of a Gothic fabric, sustained with 120 pillars, which make two aisles in
the church round about the choir, without comprehending the chapels,
being 174 paces long, 60 wide, and 100 high. The choir is inclosed with
stonework graven with the sacred history, and contains forty-five chapels
chancelled with iron. At the front of the chief entrance are statues in
relievo of the kings, twenty-eight in number, from Childebert to the
founder, Philip; and above them are two high square towers, and another
of a smaller size, bearing a spire in the middle, where the body of the
church forms a cross. The great tower is ascended by 389 steps, having
twelve galleries from one to the other. They greatly reverence the
crucifix over the screen of the choir, with an image of the Blessed
Virgin. There are some good modern paintings hanging on the pillars. The
most conspicuous statute is the huge colossal one of St. Christopher;
with divers other figures of men, houses, prospects and rocks, about this
gigantic piece; being of one stone, and more remarkable for its bulk than
any other perfection. This is the prime church of France for dignity,
having archdeacons, vicars, canons, priests, and chaplains in good store,
to the number of 127. It is also the palace of the archbishop. The young
king was there with a great and martial guard, who entered the nave of
the church with drums and fifes, at the ceasing of which I was
entertained with the church music; and so I left him.

4th January, 1644. I passed this day with one Mr. J. Wall, an Irish
gentleman, who had been a friar in Spain, and afterward a reader in St.
Isodore's chair, at Rome; but was, I know not how, getting away, and
pretending to be a soldier of fortune, an absolute cavalier, having, as
he told us, been a captain of horse in Germany. It is certain he was an
excellent disputant, and so strangely given to it that nothing could pass
him. He would needs persuade me to go with him this morning to the
Jesuits' College, to witness his polemical talent. We found the Fathers
in their Church at the Rue St. Antoine, where one of them showed us that
noble fabric, which for its cupola, pavings, incrustations of marble, the
pulpit, altars (especially the high altar), organ, lavatorium, etc., but
above all, for the richly carved and incomparable front I esteem to be
one of the most perfect pieces of architecture in Europe, emulating even
some of the greatest now at Rome itself. But this not being what our
friar sought, he led us into the adjoining convent, where, having shown
us the library, they began a very hot dispute on some points of divinity,
which our cavalier contested only to show his pride, and to that
indiscreet height, that the Jesuits would hardly bring us to our coach,
they being put beside all patience. The next day, we went into the
University, and into the College of Navarre, which is a spacious,
well-built quadrangle, having a very noble library.

Thence to the Sorbonne, an ancient fabric built by one Robert de
Sorbonne, whose name it retains, but the restoration which the late
Cardinal de Richelieu has made to it renders it one of the most excellent
modern buildings; the sumptuous church, of admirable architecture, is far
superior to the rest. The cupola, portico, and whole design of the
church, are very magnificent.

We entered into some of the schools, and in that of divinity we found a
grave Doctor in his chair, with a multitude of auditors, who all write as
he dictates; and this they call a Course. After we had sat a little, our
cavalier started up, and rudely enough began to dispute with the doctor;
at which, and especially as he was clad in the Spanish habit, which in
Paris is the greatest bugbear imaginable, the scholars and doctor fell
into such a fit of laughter, that nobody could be heard speak for a
while: but silence being obtained, he began to speak Latin, and made his
apology in so good a style, that their derision was turned to admiration;
and beginning to argue, he so baffled the Professor, that with universal
applause they all rose up, and did him great honors, waiting on us to the
very street and our coach, and testifying great satisfaction.

2d February, 1644. I heard the news of my nephew George's birth, which
was on January 15th, English style, 1644.

3d February, 1644. I went to the Exchange. The late addition to the
buildings is very noble; but the galleries where they sell their petty
merchandise nothing so stately as ours at London, no more than the place
where they walk below, being only a low vault.

The Palaise, as they call the upper part, was built in the time of Philip
the Fair, noble and spacious. The great Hall annexed to it, is arched
with stone, having a range of pillars in the middle, round which, and at
the sides, are shops of all kinds, especially booksellers'. One side is
full of pews for the clerks of the advocates, who swarm here (as ours at
Westminster). At one of the ends stands an altar, at which mass is said
daily. Within are several chambers, courts, treasuries, etc. Above that
is the most rich and glorious Salle d'Audience, the chamber of St.
Louis, and other superior Courts where the Parliament sits, richly gilt
on embossed carvings and frets, and exceedingly beautified.

Within the place where they sell their wares, is another narrower
gallery, full of shops and toys, etc., which looks down into the
prison-yard. Descending by a large pair of stairs, we passed by Sainte
Chapelle, which is a church built by St. Louis, 1242, after the Gothic
manner: it stands on another church, which is under it, sustained by
pillars at the sides, which seem so weak as to appear extraordinary in
the artist. This chapel is most famous for its relics, having as they
pretend, almost the entire crown of thorns: the agate patine, rarely
sculptured, judged one of the largest and best in Europe. There was now a
very beautiful spire erecting. The court below is very spacious, capable
of holding many coaches, and surrounded with shops, especially
engravers', goldsmiths', and watchmakers'. In it are a fair fountain and
portico. The Isle du Palais consists of a triangular brick building,
whereof one side, looking to the river, is inhabited by goldsmiths.
Within the court are private dwellings. The front, looking on the great
bridge, is possessed by mountebanks, operators, and puppet-players. On
the other part, is the every day's market for all sorts of provisions,
especially bread, herbs, flowers, orange trees, choice shrubs. Here is a
shop called NOAH'S ARK, where are sold all curiosities, natural or
artificial, Indian or European, for luxury or use, as cabinets, shells,
ivory, porcelain, dried fishes, insects, birds, pictures, and a thousand
exotic extravagances. Passing hence, we viewed the port Dauphine, an arch
of excellent workmanship; the street bearing the same name, is ample and
straight.

4th February, 1644. I went to see the Marais de Temple, where are a noble
church and palace, heretofore dedicated to the Knights Templar, now
converted to a piazza, not much unlike ours at Covent Garden; but large
and not so pleasant, though built all about with divers considerable
palaces.

The Church of St. Geneviève is a place of great devotion, dedicated to
another of their Amazons, said to have delivered the city from the
English; for which she is esteemed the tutelary saint of Paris. It stands
on a steep eminence, having a very high spire, and is governed by canons
regular. At the Palais Royal Henry IV. built a fair quadrangle of stately
palaces, arched underneath. In the middle of a spacious area, stands on a
noble pedestal a brazen statue of Louis XIII., which, though made in
imitation of that in the Roman capitol, is nothing so much esteemed as
that on the Pont Neuf.

The hospital of the Quinze-Vingts, in the Rue St. Honoré, is an excellent
foundation; but above all is the Hôtel Dieu for men and women, near Nôtre
Dame, a princely, pious, and expensive structure. That of the Charité
gave me great satisfaction, in seeing how decently and christianly the
sick people are attended, even to delicacy. I have seen them served by
noble persons, men and women. They have also gardens, walks, and
fountains. Divers persons are here cut for the stone, with great success,
yearly in May. The two Châtelets (supposed to have been built by Julius
Cæsar) are places of judicature in criminal causes; to which is a strong
prison. The courts are spacious and magnificent.

8th February, 1644. I took coach and went to see the famous Jardine
Royale, which is an inclosure walled in, consisting of all varieties of
ground for planting and culture of medical simples. It is well chosen,
having in it hills, meadows, wood and upland, natural and artificial, and
is richly stored with exotic plants. In the middle of the parterre is a
fair fountain. There is a very fine house, chapel, laboratory, orangery,
and other accommodations for the President, who is always one of the
king's chief physicians.

From hence, we went to the other side of the town, and to some distance
from it, to the Bois de Vincennes, going by the Bastille, which is the
fortress, tower, and magazine of this great city. It is very spacious
within, and there the Grand Master of the artillery has his house, with
fair gardens and walks.

The Bois de Vincennes has in it a square and noble castle, with
magnificent apartments, fit for a royal court, not forgetting the chapel.
It is the chief prison for persons of quality. About it there is a park
walled in, full of deer; and in one part there is a grove of goodly pine
trees.

The next day, I went to see the Louvre with more attention, its several
courts and pavilions. One of the quadrangles, begun by Henry IV., and
finished by his son and grandson, is a superb, but mixed structure. The
cornices, moldings, and compartments, with the insertion of several
colored marbles, have been of great expense.

We went through the long gallery, paved with white and black marble,
richly fretted and painted _à fresco_. The front looking to the river,
though of rare work for the carving, yet wants of that magnificence which
a plainer and truer design would have contributed to it.

In the Cour aux Tuileries is a princely fabric; the winding geometrical
stone stairs, with the cupola, I take to be as bold and noble a piece of
architecture as any in Europe of the kind. To this is a _corps de logis_,
worthy of so great a prince. Under these buildings, through a garden in
which is an ample fountain, was the king's printing house, and that
famous letter so much esteemed. Here I bought divers of the classic
authors, poets, and others.

We returned through another gallery, larger, but not so long, where hung
the pictures of all the kings and queens and prime nobility of France.

Descending hence, we were let into a lower very large room, called the
_Salle des Antiques_, which is a vaulted Cimelia, destined for statues
only, among which stands that so celebrated Diana of the Ephesians, said
to be the same which uttered oracles in that renowned Temple. Besides
these colossean figures of marble, I must not forget the huge globe
suspended by chains. The pavings, inlayings, and incrustations of this
Hall, are very rich.

In another more private garden toward the Queen's apartment is a walk, or
cloister, under arches, whose terrace is paved with stones of a great
breadth; it looks toward the river, and has a pleasant aviary, fountain,
stately cypresses, etc. On the river are seen a prodigious number of
barges and boats of great length, full of hay, corn, wood, wine, and
other commodities, which this vast city daily consumes. Under the long
gallery we have described, dwell goldsmiths, painters, statuaries, and
architects, who being the most famous for their art in Christendom have
stipends allowed them by the King. Into that of Monsieur Saracin we
entered, who was then molding for an image of a Madonna to be cast in
gold of a great size to be sent by the Queen Regent to Loretto, as an
offering for the birth of the Dauphin, now the young King.

I finished this day with a walk in the great garden of the Tuileries,
rarely contrived for privacy, shade, or company, by groves, plantations
of tall trees, especially that in the middle, being of elms, the other of
mulberries; and that labyrinth of cypresses; not omitting the noble
hedges of pomegranates, fountains, fish-ponds, and an aviary; but, above
all, the artificial echo, redoubling the words so distinctly; and, as it
is never without some fair nymph singing to its grateful returns;
standing at one of the focuses, which is under a tree or little cabinet
of hedges, the voice seems to descend from the clouds; at another, as if
it was underground. This being at the bottom of the garden, we were let
into another, which being kept with all imaginary accurateness as to the
orangery, precious shrubs, and rare fruits, seemed a Paradise. From a
terrace in this place we saw so many coaches, as one would hardly think
could be maintained in the whole city, going, late as it was in the year,
toward the course, which is a place adjoining, of near an English mile
long, planted with four rows of trees, making a large circle in the
middle. This course is walled about, near breast high, with squared
freestone, and has a stately arch at the entrance, with sculpture and
statues about it, built by Mary di Medicis. Here it is that the gallants
and ladies of the Court take the air and divert themselves, as with us in
Hyde Park, the circle being capable of containing a hundred coaches to
turn commodiously, and the larger of the plantations for five or six
coaches abreast.

Returning through the Tuileries, we saw a building in which are kept wild
beasts for the King's pleasure, a bear, a wolf, a wild boar, a leopard,
etc.

[Sidenote: ST. CLOUD]

27th February, 1644. Accompanied with some English gentlemen, we took
horse to see St. Germains-en-Laye, a stately country house of the King,
some five leagues from Paris. By the way, we alighted at St. Cloud,
where, on an eminence near the river, the Archbishop of Paris has a
garden, for the house is not very considerable, rarely watered and
furnished with fountains, statues, and groves; the walks are very fair;
the fountain of Laocoon is in a large square pool, throwing the water
near forty feet high, and having about it a multitude of statues and
basins, and is a surprising object. But nothing is more esteemed than the
cascade falling from the great steps into the lowest and longest walk
from the Mount Parnassus, which consists of a grotto, or shell-house, on
the summit of the hill, wherein are divers waterworks and contrivances to
wet the spectators; this is covered with a fair cupola, the walls painted
with the Muses, and statues placed thick about it, whereof some are
antique and good. In the upper walks are two perspectives, seeming to
enlarge the alleys, and in this garden are many other ingenious
contrivances. The palace, as I said, is not extraordinary. The outer
walls only painted _à fresco_. In the court is a Volary, and the statues
of Charles IX., Henry III., IV., and Louis XIII., on horseback,
mezzo-relievo'd in plaster. In the garden is a small chapel; and under
shelter is the figure of Cleopatra, taken from the Belvidere original,
with others. From the terrace above is a tempest well painted; and thence
an excellent prospect toward Paris, the meadows, and river.

At an inn in this village is a host who treats all the great persons in
princely lodgings for furniture and plate, but they pay well for it, as I
have done. Indeed, the entertainment is very splendid, and not
unreasonable, considering the excellent manner of dressing their meat,
and of the service. Here are many debauches and excessive revelings, as
being out of all noise and observance.

[Sidenote: ST. GERMAINS]

From hence, about a league further, we went to see Cardinal Richelieu's
villa, at Ruell. The house is small, but fairly built, in form of a
castle, moated round. The offices are toward the road, and over against
it are large vineyards, walled in. But, though the house is not of the
greatest, the gardens about it are so magnificent, that I doubt whether
Italy has any exceeding it for all rarities of pleasure. The garden
nearest the pavilion is a parterre, having in the midst divers noble
brass statues, perpetually spouting water into an ample basin, with other
figures of the same metal; but what is most admirable is the vast
inclosure, and variety of ground, in the large garden, containing
vineyards, cornfields, meadows, groves (whereof one is of perennial
greens), and walks of vast length, so accurately kept and cultivated,
that nothing can be more agreeable. On one of these walks, within a
square of tall trees, is a basilisk of copper, which, managed by the
fountaineer, casts water near sixty feet high, and will of itself move
round so swiftly, that one can hardly escape wetting. This leads to the
Citronière, which is a noble conserve of all those rarities; and at the
end of it is the Arch of Constantine, painted on a wall in oil, as large
as the real one at Rome, so well done, that even a man skilled in
painting, may mistake it for stone and sculpture. The sky and hills,
which seem to be between the arches, are so natural, that swallows and
other birds, thinking to fly through, have dashed themselves against the
wall. I was infinitely taken with this agreeable cheat. At the further
part of this walk is that plentiful, though artificial cascade, which
rolls down a very steep declivity, and over the marble steps and basins,
with an astonishing noise and fury; each basin hath a jetto in it,
flowing like sheets of transparent glass, especially that which rises
over the great shell of lead, from whence it glides silently down a
channel through the middle of a spacious gravel walk, terminating in a
grotto. Here are also fountains that cast water to a great height, and
large ponds, two of which have islands for harbor of fowls, of which
there is store. One of these islands has a receptacle for them built of
vast pieces of rock, near fifty feet high, grown over with moss, ivy,
etc., shaded at a competent distance with tall trees: in this rupellary
nidary do the fowl lay eggs, and breed. We then saw a large and very rare
grotto of shell-work, in the shape of Satyrs, and other wild fancies: in
the middle stands a marble table, on which a fountain plays in divers
forms of glasses, cups, crosses, fans, crowns, etc. Then the fountaineer
represented a shower of rain from the top, met by small jets from below.
At going out, two extravagant musketeers shot us with a stream of water
from their musket barrels. Before this grotto is a long pool into which
ran divers spouts of water from leaden escalop basins. The viewing this
paradise made us late at St. Germains.

The first building of this palace is of Charles V., called the Sage; but
Francis I. (that true virtuoso) made it complete; speaking as to the
style of magnificence then in fashion, which was with too great a mixture
of the Gothic, as may be seen in what there is remaining of his in the
old Castle, an irregular piece as built on the old foundation, and having
a moat about it. It has yet some spacious and handsome rooms of state,
and a chapel neatly painted. The new Castle is at some distance, divided
from this by a court, of a lower, but more modern design, built by Henry
IV. To this belong six terraces, built of brick and stone, descending in
cascades toward the river, cut out of the natural hill, having under them
goodly vaulted galleries; of these, four have subterranean grots and
rocks, where are represented several objects in the manner of scenes and
other motions, by force of water, shown by the light of torches only;
among these, is Orpheus with his music; and the animals, which dance
after his harp; in the second, is the King and Dolphin;[17] in the third,
is Neptune sounding his trumpet, his chariot drawn by sea horses; in the
fourth, the story of Perseus and Andromeda; mills; hermitages; men
fishing; birds chirping; and many other devices. There is also a dry grot
to refresh in; all having a fine prospect toward the river, and the
goodly country about it, especially the forest. At the bottom, is a
parterre; the upper terrace nearly half a mile in length, with double
declivities, arched and balustered with stone, of vast and royal cost.

    [Footnote 17: Dauphin.]

In the pavilion of the new Castle are many fair rooms, well painted, and
leading into a very noble garden and park, where is a pall-mall, in the
midst of which, on one of the sides, is a chapel, with stone cupola,
though small, yet of a handsome order of architecture. Out of the park
you go into the forest, which being very large, is stored with deer, wild
boars, wolves, and other wild game. The Tennis Court, and Cavallerizzo,
for the menaged horses, are also observable.

[Sidenote: PARIS]

We returned to Paris by Madrid, another villa of the King's, built by
Francis I., and called by that name to absolve him of his oath that he
would not go from Madrid (in which he was prisoner), in Spain, but from
whence he made his escape. This house is also built in a park, and
walled in. We next called in at the Bonnes-hommes, well situated, with a
fair chapel and library.

1st March, 1644. I went to see the Count de Liancourt's Palace in the Rue
de Seine, which is well built. Toward his study and bedchamber joins a
little garden, which, though very narrow, by the addition of a
well-painted perspective, is to appearance greatly enlarged; to this
there is another part, supported by arches in which runs a stream of
water, rising in the aviary, out of a statue, and seeming to flow for
some miles, by being artificially continued in the painting, when it
sinks down at the wall. It is a very agreeable deceit. At the end of this
garden is a little theater, made to change with divers pretty scenes, and
the stage so ordered, with figures of men and women painted on light
boards, and cut out, and, by a person who stands underneath, made to act
as if they were speaking, by guiding them, and reciting words in
different tones, as the parts require. We were led into a round cabinet,
where was a neat invention for reflecting lights, by lining divers
sconces with thin shining plates of gilded copper.

In one of the rooms of state was an excellent painting of Poussin, being
a Satyr kneeling; over the chimney, the Coronation of the Virgin, by
Paulo Veronese; another Madonna over the door, and that of Joseph, by
Cigali; in the Hall, a Cavaliero di Malta, attended by his page, said to
be of Michael Angelo; the Rape of Proserpine, with a very large landscape
of Correggio. In the next room are some paintings of Primaticcio,
especially the Helena, the naked Lady brought before Alexander, well
painted, and a Ceres. In the bedchamber a picture of the Cardinal de
Liancourt, of Raphael, rarely colored. In the cabinet are divers pieces
of Bassano, two of Polemburg, four of Paulo Brill, the skies a little too
blue. A Madonna of Nicholao, excellently painted on a stone; a Judith of
Mantegna; three women of Jeronimo; one of Stenwick; a Madonna after
Titian, and a Magdalen of the same hand, as the Count esteems it: two
small pieces of Paulo Veronese, being the Martyrdoms of St. Justina and
St. Catherine; a Madonna of Lucas Van Leyden, sent him from our King; six
more of old Bassano; two excellent drawings of Albert; a Magdalen of
Leonardo da Vinci; four of Paulo; a very rare Madonna of Titian, given
him also by our King; the _Ecce Homo_, shut up in a frame of velvet, for
the life and accurate finishing exceeding all description. Some curious
agates, and a chaplet of admirable invention, the intaglios being all on
fruit stones. The Count was so exceeding civil, that he would needs make
his lady go out of her dressing room, that he might show us the
curiosities and pictures in it.

We went thence to visit one Monsieur Perishot, one of the greatest
virtuosos in France, for his collection of pictures, agates, medals, and
flowers, especially tulips and anemonies. The chiefest of his paintings
was a Sebastian, of Titian.

From him we went to Monsieur Frene's, who showed us many rare drawings, a
Rape of Helen in black chalk; many excellent things of Sneiders, all
naked; some of Julio and Michael Angelo; a Madonna of Passignano; some
things of Parmensis, and other masters.

The next morning, being recommended to one Monsieur de Hausse, President
of the Parliament, and once Ambassador at Venice for the French King, we
were very civilly received, and showed his library. Among his paintings
were a rare Venus and Adonis of Veronese, a St. Anthony, after the first
manner of Correggio, and a rare Madonna of Palma.

Sunday, the 6th of March, I went to Charenton, two leagues from Paris, to
hear and see the manner of the French Protestant Church service. The
place of meeting they call the Temple, a very fair and spacious room,
built of freestone, very decently adorned with paintings of the Tables of
the Law, the Lord's Prayer, and Creed. The pulpit stands at the upper end
in the middle, having an inclosure of seats about it, where the Elders
and persons of greatest quality and strangers, sit; the rest of the
congregation on forms and low stools, but none in pews, as in our
churches, to their great disgrace, as nothing so orderly, as here the
stools and other cumber are removed when the assembly rises. I was
greatly pleased with their harmonious singing the Psalms, which they all
learn perfectly well, their children being as duly taught these, as their
catechism.

In our passage, we went by that famous bridge over the Marne, where that
renowned echo returns the voice of a good singer nine or ten times.

7th March, 1644. I set forward with some company toward Fontainebleau, a
sumptuous Palace of the King's, like ours at Hampton Court, about
fourteen leagues from the city. By the way, we pass through a forest so
prodigiously encompassed with hideous rocks of whitish hard stone, heaped
one on another in mountainous heights, that I think the like is nowhere
to be found more horrid and solitary. It abounds with stags, wolves,
boars, and not long after a lynx, or ounce, was killed among them, which
had devoured some passengers. On the summit of one of these gloomy
precipices, intermingled with trees and shrubs, the stones hanging over,
and menacing ruin, is built an hermitage. In these solitudes, rogues
frequently lurk and do mischief (and for whom we were all well appointed
with our carabines); but we arrived safe in the evening at the village,
where we lay at the Horne, going early next morning to the Palace.

This House is nothing so stately and uniform as Hampton Court, but
Francis I. began much to beautify it; most of all Henry IV. (and not a
little) the late King. It abounds with fair halls, chambers, and
galleries; in the longest, which is 360 feet long, and 18 broad, are
painted the Victories of that great Prince, Henry IV. That of Francis I.,
called the grand Gallery, has all the King's palaces painted in it; above
these, in sixty pieces of excellent work in fresco, is the History of
Ulysses, from Homer, by Primaticcio, in the time of Henry III., esteemed
the most renowned in Europe for the design. The Cabinet is full of
excellent pictures, especially a Woman, of Raphael. In the Hall of the
Guards is a piece of tapestry painted on the wall, very naturally,
representing the victories of Charles VII. over our countrymen. In the
Salle des Festins is a rare Chimney-piece, and Henry IV. on horseback, of
white marble, esteemed worth 18,000 crowns; Clementia and Pax, nobly
done. On columns of jasper, two lions of brass. The new stairs, and a
half circular court, are of modern and good architecture, as is a chapel
built by Louis XIII., all of jasper, with several incrustations of marble
through the inside.

Having seen the rooms, we went to the volary, which has a cupola in the
middle of it, great trees and bushes, it being full of birds who drank at
two fountains. There is also a fair tennis court, and noble stables; but
the beauty of all are the gardens. In the Court of the Fountains stand
divers antiquities and statues, especially a Mercury. In the Queen's
Garden is a Diana ejecting a fountain, with numerous other brass statues.

The great Garden, 180 toises long and 154 wide, has in the center a
fountain of Tyber of a Colossean figure of brass, with the Wolf over
Romulus and Remus. At each corner of the garden rises a fountain. In the
garden of the piscina, is a Hercules of white marble; next, is that of
the pines, and without that a canal of an English mile in length, at the
end of which rise three jettos in the form of a fleur-de-lis, of a great
height; on the margin are excellent walks planted with trees. The carps
come familiarly to hand (to be fed). Hence they brought us to a spring,
which they say being first discovered by a dog, gave occasion of
beautifying this place, both with the palace and gardens. The white and
terrific rocks at some distance in the forest, yield one of the most
august and stupendous prospects imaginable. The park about this place is
very large, and the town full of noblemen's houses.

Next morning, we were invited by a painter, who was keeper of the
pictures and rarities, to see his own collection. We were led through a
gallery of old Rosso's work, at the end of which, in another cabinet,
were three Madonnas of Raphael, and two of Andrea del Sarto. In the
Academy where the painter himself wrought, was a St. Michael of Raphael,
very rare; St. John Baptist of Leonardo, and a Woman's head; a Queen of
Sicily, and St. Margaret of Raphael; two more Madonnas, whereof one very
large, by the same hand; some more of del Sarto; a St. Jerome, of Perino
del Vaga; the Rape of Proserpine, very good; and a great number of
drawings.

Returning part of our way to Paris, that day, we visited a house called
_Maison Rouge_, having an excellent prospect, grot, and fountains, one
whereof rises fifty feet, and resembles the noise of a tempest, battle of
guns, etc., at its issue.

Thence to Essone, a house of Monsieur Essling, who is a great virtuoso;
there are many good paintings in it; but nothing so observable as his
gardens, fountains, fish-pools, especially that in a triangular form, the
water cast out by a multitude of heads about it; there is a noble
cascade and pretty baths, with all accommodations. Under a marble table
is a fountain of serpents twisting about a globe.

We alighted next at Corbeil, a town famous for the siege by Henry IV.
Here we slept, and returned next morning to Paris.

18th March, 1644. I went with Sir J. Cotton, a Cambridgeshire Knight, a
journey into Normandy. The first day, we passed by Gaillon, the
Archbishop of Rouen's Palace. The gardens are highly commended, but we
did not go in, intending to reach Pontoise by dinner. This town is built
in a very gallant place, has a noble bridge over the Oise, and is well
refreshed with fountains.

This is the first town in Normandy, and the furthest that the vineyards
extend to on this side of the country, which is fuller of plains, wood,
and inclosures, with some towns toward the sea, very like England.

[Sidenote: ROUEN]

We lay this night at a village, called Magny. The next day, descending a
very steep hill, we dined at Fleury, after riding five leagues down St.
Catherine, to Rouen, which affords a goodly prospect, to the ruins of
that chapel and mountain. This country so abounds with wolves that a
shepherd whom we met, told us one of his companions was strangled by one
of them the day before, and that in the midst of his flock. The fields
are mostly planted with pears and apples, and other cider fruits. It is
plentifully furnished with quarries of stone and slate, and hath iron in
abundance.

I lay at the White Cross, in Rouen, which is a very large city, on the
Seine, having two smaller rivers besides, called the Aubette and Robec.
There stand yet the ruins of a magnificent bridge of stone, now supplied
by one of boats only, to which come up vessels of considerable burden.
The other side of the water consists of meadows, and there have the
Reformed a church.

The Cathedral Nôtre Dame was built, as they acknowledge, by the English;
some English words graven in Gothic characters upon the front seem to
confirm it. The towers and whole church are full of carving. It has three
steeples, with a pyramid; in one of these, I saw the famous bell so much
talked of, thirteen feet in height, thirty-two round, the diameter
eleven, weighing 40,000 pounds.

In the Chapel d'Amboise, built by a Cardinal of that name, lies his body,
with several fair monuments. The choir has behind it a great dragon
painted on the wall, which they say had done much harm to the
inhabitants, till vanquished by St. Romain, their Archbishop; for which
there is an annual procession. It was now near Easter, and many images
were exposed with scenes and stories representing the Passion; made up of
little puppets, to which there was great resort and devotion, with
offerings. Before the church is a fair palace. St. Ouen is another goodly
church and an abbey with fine gardens. Here the King hath lodgings, when
he makes his progress through these parts. The structure, where the Court
of Parliament is kept, is very magnificent, containing very fair halls
and chambers, especially La Chambre Dorée. The town-house is also well
built, and so are some gentlemen's houses; but most part of the rest are
of timber, like our merchants' in London, in the wooden part of the city.

21st March, 1644. On Easter Monday, we dined at Totes, a solitary inn
between Rouen and Dieppe, at which latter place we arrived. This town is
situated between two mountains, not unpleasantly, and is washed on the
north by our English seas.

The port is commodious; but the entrance difficult. It has one very ample
and fair street, in which is a pretty church. The Fort Pollet consists of
a strong earth-work, and commands the haven, as on the other side does
the castle, which is also well fortified, with the citadel before it; nor
is the town itself a little strong. It abounds with workmen, who make and
sell curiosities of ivory and tortoise-shells; and indeed whatever the
East Indies afford of cabinets, porcelain, natural and exotic rarities,
are here to be had, with abundant choice.

23d March, 1644. We passed along the coast by a very rocky and rugged
way, which forced us to alight many times before we came to Havre de
Grace, where we lay that night.

The next morning, we saw the citadel, strong and regular, well stored
with artillery and ammunition of all sorts: the works furnished with fair
brass cannon, having a motto, _Ratio ultima Regum_. The allogements of
the garrison are uniform; a spacious place for drawing up the soldiers,
a pretty chapel, and a fair house for the Governor. The Duke of Richelieu
being now in the fort, we went to salute him; who received us very
civilly, and commanded that we should be showed whatever we desired to
see. The citadel was built by the late Cardinal de Richelieu, uncle of
the present Duke, and may be esteemed one of the strongest in France. The
haven is very capacious.

When we had done here, we embarked ourselves and horses to pass to
Honfleur, about four or five leagues distant, where the Seine falls into
the sea. It is a poor fisher-town, remarkable for nothing so much as the
odd, yet useful habits which the good women wear, of bears' and other
skins, as of rugs at Dieppe, and all along these maritime coasts.

[Sidenote: CAEN]

25th March, 1644. We arrived at Caen, a noble and beautiful town, situate
on the river Orne, which passes quite through it, the two sides of the
town joined only by a bridge of one entire arch. We lay at the Angel,
where we were very well used, the place being abundantly furnished with
provisions, at a cheap rate. The most considerable object is the great
Abbey and Church, large and rich, built after the Gothic manner, having
two spires and middle lantern at the west end, all of stone. The choir
round and large, in the center whereof elevated on a square, handsome,
but plain sepulcher, is this inscription:

    "Hoc sepulchrum invictissimi juxta et clementissimi conquestoris,
    Gulielmi, dum viverat Anglorum Regis, Normannorum Cenomannorumque
    Principis, hujus insignis Abbatiae piissimi Fundatoris: Cum anno
    1562 vesano hæreticorum furore direptum fuisset, pio tandem
    nobilium ejusdem Abbatiae religiosorum gratitudinis sensu in tam
    beneficum largitorem, instauratum fuit, a^o D'ni 1642. D'no Johanne
    de Bailhache Assætorii proto priore. D.D."

On the other side are these monkish rhymes:

    "Qui rexit rigidos Northmannos, atq. Britannos
      Audacter vicit, fortiter obtinuit,
    Et Cenomanensis virtute coërcuit ensis,
      Imperiique sui Legibus applicuit.
    Rex magnus parvâ jacet hâc Gulielm' in Urnâ,
      Sufficit et magno parva domus Domino.
    Ter septem gradibus te volverat atq. duobus
      Virginis in gremio Phoebus, et hic obiit."

We went to the castle, which is strong and fair, and so is the
town-house, built on the bridge which unites the two towns. Here are
schools and an University for the Jurists.

The whole town is handsomely built of that excellent stone so well known
by that name in England. I was led to a pretty garden, planted with
hedges of alaternus, having at the entrance a screen at an exceeding
height, accurately cut in topiary work, with well understood
architecture, consisting of pillars, niches, friezes, and other
ornaments, with great curiosity; some of the columns curiously wreathed,
others spiral, all according to art.

[Sidenote: PARIS]

28th March, 1644. We went toward Paris, lying the first night at Evreux,
a Bishop's seat, an ancient town, with a fair cathedral; so the next day
we arrived at Paris.

1st April, 1644. I went to see more exactly the rooms of the fine Palace
of Luxemburg, in the Fauxbourg St. Germains, built by Mary di Medicis,
and I think one of the most noble, entire, and finished piles that is to
be seen, taking it with the garden and all its accomplishments. The
gallery is of the painting of Rubens, being the history of the
Foundress's Life, rarely designed; at the end of it is the Duke of
Orleans' library, well furnished with excellent books, all bound in
maroquin and gilded, the valance of the shelves being of green velvet,
fringed with gold. In the cabinet joining to it are only the smaller
volumes, with six cabinets of medals, and an excellent collection of
shells and agates, whereof some are prodigiously rich. This Duke being
very learned in medals and plants, nothing of that kind escapes him.
There are other spacious, noble, and princely furnished rooms, which look
toward the gardens, which are nothing inferior to the rest.

The court below is formed into a square by a corridor, having over the
chief entrance a stately cupola, covered with stone: the rest is
cloistered and arched on pilasters of rustic work. The terrace ascending
before the front, paved with white and black marble, is balustered with
white marble, exquisitely polished.

Only the hall below is low, and the staircase somewhat of a heavy design,
but the facia toward the parterre which is also arched and vaulted with
stone, is of admirable beauty and full of sculpture.

The gardens are near an English mile in compass, inclosed with a stately
wall, and in a good air. The parterre is indeed of box, but so rarely
designed and accurately kept cut, that the embroidery makes a wonderful
effect to the lodgings which front it. 'Tis divided into four squares and
as many circular knots, having in the center a noble basin of marble near
thirty feet in diameter (as I remember), in which a Triton of brass holds
a dolphin, that casts a girandola of water near thirty feet high, playing
perpetually, the water being conveyed from Arceuil by an aqueduct of
stone, built after the old Roman magnificence. About this ample parterre,
the spacious walks and all included, runs a border of freestone, adorned
with pedestals for pots and statues, and part of it near the steps of the
terrace, with a rail and baluster of pure white marble.

The walks are exactly fair, long, and variously descending and so justly
planted with limes, elms, and other trees, that nothing can be more
delicious, especially that of the hornbeam hedge, which being high and
stately, buts full on the fountain.

Toward the further end, is an excavation intended for a vast fish-pool,
but never finished, and near it is an inclosure for a garden of simples,
well kept; and here the Duke keeps tortoises in great number, who use the
pool of water on one side of the garden. Here is also a conservatory for
snow. At the upper part, toward the palace, is a grove of tall elms cut
into a star, every ray being a walk, whose center is a large fountain.

The rest of the ground is made into several inclosures (all hedge-work or
rows of trees) of whole fields, meadows, bocages, some of them containing
divers acres.

Next the street side, and more contiguous to the house, are knots in
trail, or grass work, where likewise runs a fountain. Toward the grotto
and stables, within a wall, is a garden of choice flowers, in which the
duke spends many thousand pistoles. In sum, nothing is wanted to render
this palace and gardens perfectly beautiful and magnificent; nor is it
one of the least diversions to see the number of persons of quality,
citizens and strangers, who frequent it, and to whom all access is freely
permitted, so that you shall see some walks and retirements full of
gallants and ladies; in others melancholy friars; in others, studious
scholars; in others, jolly citizens, some sitting or lying on the grass,
others running and jumping; some playing at bowls and ball, others
dancing and singing; and all this without the least disturbance, by
reason of the largeness of the place.

What is most admirable, you see no gardeners, or men at work, and yet all
is kept in such exquisite order, as if they did nothing else but work; it
is so early in the morning, that all is dispatched and done without the
least confusion.

I have been the larger in the description of this paradise, for the
extraordinary delight I have taken in those sweet retirements. The
Cabinet and Chapel nearer the garden-front have some choice pictures. All
the houses near this are also very noble palaces, especially Petite
Luxemburg. The ascent of the street is handsome from its breadth,
situation, and buildings.

I went next to view Paris from the top of St. Jacques' steeple, esteemed
the highest in the town, from whence I had a full view of the whole city
and suburbs, both which, as I judge, are not so large as London: though
the dissimilitude of their several forms and situations, this being
round, London long,--renders it difficult to determine; but there is no
comparison between the buildings, palaces, and materials, this being
entirely of stone and more sumptuous, though I esteem our piazzas to
exceed theirs.

Hence I took a turn in St. Innocent's churchyard, where the story of the
devouring quality of the ground (consuming bodies in twenty-four hours),
the vast charnels of bones, tombs, pyramids, and sepulchers, took up much
of my time, together with the hieroglyphical characters of Nicholas
Flamel's philosophical work, who had founded this church, and divers
other charitable establishments, as he testifies in his book.

Here divers clerks get their livelihood by inditing letters for poor
maids and other ignorant people who come to them for advice, and to write
for them into the country, both to their sweethearts, parents, and
friends; every large gravestone serving for a table. Joining to this
church is a common fountain, with good relievos upon it.

The next day I was carried to see a French gentleman's curious
collection, which abounded in fair and rich jewels of all sorts of
precious stones, most of them of great sizes and value; agates and
onyxes, some of them admirably colored and antique; nor inferior were his
landscapes from the best hands, most of which he had caused to be copied
in miniature; one of which, rarely painted on stone, was broken by one of
our company, by the mischance of setting it up: but such was the temper
and civility of the gentleman, that it altered nothing of his free and
noble humor.

The next morning, I was had by a friend to the garden of Monsieur Morine,
who, from being an ordinary gardener, is become one of the most skillful
and curious persons in France for his rare collection of shells, flowers,
and insects.

His garden is of an exact oval figure, planted with cypress, cut flat and
set as even as a wall: the tulips, anemones, ranunculuses, crocuses,
etc., are held to be of the rarest, and draw all the admirers of that
kind to his house during the season. He lived in a kind of hermitage at
one side of his garden, where his collection of porcelain and coral,
whereof one is carved into a large crucifix, is much esteemed. He has
also books of prints, by Albert [Durer], Van Leyden, Callot, etc. His
collection of all sorts of insects, especially of butterflies, is most
curious; these he spreads and so medicates, that no corruption invading
them, he keeps them in drawers, so placed as to represent a beautiful
piece of tapestry.

He showed me the remarks he had made on their propagation, which he
promised to publish. Some of these, as also of his best flowers, he had
caused to be painted in miniature by rare hands, and some in oil.

6th April, 1644. I sent my sister my own picture in water colors,[18]
which she requested of me, and went to see divers of the fairest palaces
of the town, as that of Vendôme, very large and stately; Lougueville;
Guise; Condé; Chevereuse; Nevers, esteemed one of the best in Paris
toward the river.

    [Footnote 18: In the first and second editions of the "Diary" many
    trifling personal details, such as this mention of the author having
    sent his own picture in water colors to his sister, were omitted. It
    is not necessary to point them out in detail. They are always of
    this personal character; as, among other examples, the mention of
    the wet weather preventing the diarist from stirring out, and that
    of his coming weary to his lodgings.]

I often went to the Palais Cardinal, bequeathed by Richelieu to the King,
on condition that it should be called by his name; at this time, the King
resided in it, because of the building of the Louvre. It is a very noble
house, though somewhat low; the galleries, paintings of the most
illustrious persons of both sexes, the Queen's baths, presence-chamber
with its rich carved and gilded roof, theater, and large garden, in which
is an ample fountain, grove, and mall, worthy of remark. Here I also
frequently went to see them ride and exercise the great horse, especially
at the Academy of Monsieur du Plessis, and de Veau, whose schools of that
art are frequented by the nobility; and here also young gentlemen are
taught to fence, dance, play on music, and something in fortification and
the mathematics. The design is admirable, some keeping near a hundred
brave horses, all managed to the great saddle.

12th April, 1644. I took coach, to see a general muster of all the _gens
d'armes_ about the city, in the Bois de Boulogne, before their Majesties
and all the Grandees. They were reputed to be near 20,000, besides the
spectators, who much exceeded them in number. Here they performed all
their motions; and, being drawn up, horse and foot, into several figures,
represented a battle.

[Sidenote: ORLEANS]

The summer now drawing near, I determined to spend the rest of it in some
more remote town on the river Loire; and, on 19th of April, I took leave
of Paris, and, by the way of the messenger, agreed for my passage to
Orleans.

The way from Paris to this city, as indeed most of the roads in France,
is paved with a small square freestone, so that the country does not much
molest the traveler with dirt and ill way, as in England, only 'tis
somewhat hard to the poor horses' feet, which causes them to ride more
temperately, seldom going out of the trot, or _grand pas_, as they call
it. We passed divers walled towns, or villages; among others of note,
Chartres and Etampes, where we lay the first night. This has a fair
church. The next day, we had an excellent road; but had liked to come
short home: for no sooner were we entered two or three leagues into the
Forest of Orleans (which extends itself many miles), but the company
behind us were set on by rogues, who, shooting from the hedges and
frequent covert, slew four upon the spot. Among the slain was a captain
of Swiss, of the regiment of Picardy, a person much lamented. This
disaster made such an alarm in Orleans at our arrival, that the Prevôt
Marshal, with his assistants, going in pursuit, brought in two whom they
had shot, and exposed them in the great market place, to see if any would
take cognizance of them. I had great cause to give God thanks for this
escape; when coming to Orleans and lying at the White Cross, I found Mr.
John Nicholas, eldest son to Mr. Secretary. In the night a cat kittened
on my bed, and left on it a young one having six ears, eight legs, two
bodies from the middle downward, and two tails. I found it dead, but
warm, in the morning when I awaked.

21st April, 1644. I went about to view the city, which is well built of
stone, on the side of the Loire. About the middle of the river is an
island, full of walks and fair trees, with some houses. This is
contiguous to the town by a stately stone bridge, reaching to the
opposite suburbs, built likewise on the edge of a hill, from whence is a
beautiful prospect. At one of the extremes of the bridge are strong
towers, and about the middle, on one side, is the statue of the Virgin
Mary, or Pieta, with the dead Christ in her lap, as big as the life. At
one side of the cross, kneels Charles VII., armed, and at the other Joan
d'Arc, armed also like a cavalier, with boots and spurs, her hair
disheveled, as the deliveress of the town from our countrymen, when they
besieged it. The figures are all cast in copper, with a pedestal full of
inscriptions, as well as a fair column joining it, which is all adorned
with fleurs-de-lis and a crucifix, with two saints proceeding (as it
were) from two branches out of its capital. The inscriptions on the cross
are in Latin: "_Mors Christi in cruce nos á contagione, labis et
æternorum morborum sanavit_." On the pedestal: "_Rex in hoc signo hostes
profligavit, et Johanna Virgo Aureliam obsidio liberavit. Non diu ab
impiis diruta, restituta sunt hoc anno D'ni 1578. Jean Buret, m.
f._"--"_Octannoque Galliam servitute Britannicâ liberavit. A Domino factum
est illud, et est mirabile in oculis nostris; in quorum memorià hæc
nostræ fidei Insignia_." To this is made an annual procession on 12th of
May, mass being sung before it, attended with great ceremony and
concourse of people. The wine of this place is so strong, that the King's
cup bearers are, as I was assured, sworn never to give the King any of
it: but it is a very noble liquor, and much of it transported into other
countries. The town is much frequented by strangers, especially Germans,
for the great purity of the language here spoken, as well as for divers
other privileges, and the University, which causes the English to make no
long sojourn here, except such as can drink and debauch. The city stands
in the county of Bealse (Blaisois); was once styled a Kingdom, afterward
a Duchy, as at present, belonging to the second son of France. Many
Councils have been held here, and some Kings crowned. The University is
very ancient, divided now by the students into that of four nations,
French, High Dutch, Normans, and Picardines, who have each their
respective protectors, several officers, treasurers, consuls, seals, etc.
There are in it two reasonable fair public libraries, whence one may
borrow a book to one's chamber, giving but a note under hand, which is an
extraordinary custom, and a confidence that has cost many libraries dear.
The first church I went to visit was St. Croix; it has been a stately
fabric, but now much ruined by the late civil wars. They report the tower
of it to have been the highest in France. There is the beginning of a
fair reparation. About this cathedral there is a very spacious cemetery.
The townhouse is also very nobly built, with a high tower to it. The
market place and streets, some whereof are deliciously planted with
limes, are ample and straight, so well paved with a kind of pebble, that
I have not seen a neater town in France. In fine, this city was by
Francis I. esteemed the most agreeable of his vast dominions.

28th April, 1644. Taking boat on the Loire, I went toward Blois, the
passage and river being both very pleasant. Passing Mehun, we dined at
Baugenci, and slept at a little town called St. Dieu. Quitting our bark,
we hired horses to Blois, by the way of Chambord, a famous house of the
King's, built by Francis I. in the middle of a solitary park, full of
deer, inclosed with a wall. I was particularly desirous of seeing this
palace, from the extravagance of the design, especially the staircase,
mentioned by Palladio. It is said that 1800 workmen were constantly
employed in this fabric for twelve years: if so, it is wonderful that it
was not finished, it being no greater than divers gentlemen's houses in
England, both for room and circuit. The carvings are indeed very rich and
full. The staircase is devised with four entries, or assents, which cross
one another, so that though four persons meet, they never come in sight,
but by small loopholes, till they land. It consists of 274 steps (as I
remember), and is an extraordinary work, but of far greater expense than
use or beauty. The chimneys of the house appear like so many towers.
About the whole is a large deep moat. The country about is full of corn,
and wine, with many fair noblemen's houses.

[Sidenote: BLOIS]

We arrived at Blois in the evening. The town is hilly, uneven, and
rugged, standing on the side of the Loire, having suburbs joined by a
stately stone bridge, on which is a pyramid with an inscription. At the
entrance of the castle is a stone statue of Louis XII. on horseback, as
large as life, under a Gothic state; and a little below are these words:

    "Hic ubi natus erat dextro Ludovicus Olympo,
      Sumpsit honoratâ regia sceptra manu;
    Felix quæ tanti fulsit Lux nuncia Regis!
      Gallica non alio principe digna fuit."

Under this is a very wide pair of gates, nailed full of wolves and
wild-boars' heads. Behind the castle the present Duke Gaston had begun a
fair building, through which we walked into a large garden, esteemed for
its furniture one of the fairest, especially for simples and exotic
plants, in which he takes extraordinary delight. On the right hand is a
long gallery full of ancient statues and inscriptions, both of marble and
brass; the length, 300 paces, divides the garden into higher and lower
ground, having a very noble fountain. There is the portrait of a hart,
taken in the forest by Louis XII., which has twenty-four antlers on its
head. In the Collegiate Church of St. Savior, we saw many sepulchres of
the Earls of Blois.

On Sunday, being May-day, we walked up into Pall Mall, very long, and so
noble shaded with tall trees (being in the midst of a great wood), that
unless that of Tours, I had not seen a statelier.

From hence, we proceeded with a friend of mine through the adjoining
forest, to see if we could meet any wolves, which are here in such
numbers that they often come and take children out of the very streets;
yet will not the Duke, who is sovereign here, permit them to be
destroyed. We walked five or six miles outright; but met with none; yet a
gentleman, who was resting himself under a tree, with his horse grazing
by him, told us that half an hour before, two wolves had set upon his
horse, and had in probability devoured him, but for a dog which lay by
him. At a little village at the end of this wood, we ate excellent cream,
and visited a castle builded on a very steep cliff.

Blois is a town where the language is exactly spoken; the inhabitants
very courteous; the air so good, that it is the ordinary nursery of the
King's children. The people are so ingenious, that, for goldsmith's work
and watches, no place in France affords the like. The pastures by the
river are very rich and pleasant.

2d May, 1644. We took boat again, passing by Charmont, a proud castle on
the left hand; before it is a sweet island, deliciously shaded with tall
trees. A little distance from hence, we went on shore at Amboise, a very
agreeable village, built of stone, and the houses covered with blue
slate, as the towns on the Loire generally are; but the castle chiefly
invited us, the thickness of whose towers from the river to the top, was
admirable. We entered by the drawbridge, which has an invention to let
one fall, if not premonished. It is full of halls and spacious chambers,
and one staircase is large enough, and sufficiently commodious, to
receive a coach, and land it on the very tower, as they told us had been
done. There is some artillery in it; but that which is most observable is
in the ancient chapel, viz, a stag's head, or branches, hung up by
chains, consisting of twenty browantlers, the beam bigger than a man's
middle, and of an incredible length. Indeed, it is monstrous, and yet I
cannot conceive how it should be artificial they show also the ribs and
vertebræ of the same beast; but these might be made of whalebone.

Leaving the castle, we passed Mont Louis, a village having no houses
above ground but such only as are hewn out of the main rocks of excellent
freestone. Here and there the funnel of a chimney appears on the surface
among the vineyards which are over them, and in this manner they inhabit
the caves, as it were sea-cliffs, on one side of the river for many
miles.

[Sidenote: TOURS]

We now came within sight of Tours, where we were designed for the rest of
the time I had resolved to stay in France, the sojournment being so
agreeable. Tours is situate on the east side of a hill on the river
Loire, having a fair bridge of stone called St. Edme; the streets are
very long, straight, spacious, well built, and exceeding clean; the
suburbs large and pleasant, joined to the city by another bridge. Both
the church and monastery of St. Martin are large, of Gothic building,
having four square towers, fair organs, and a stately altar, where they
show the bones and ashes of St. Martin, with other relics. The Mall
without comparison is the noblest in Europe for length and shade, having
seven rows of the tallest and goodliest elms I had ever beheld, the
innermost of which do so embrace each other, and at such a height, that
nothing can be more solemn and majestical. Here we played a party, or
party or two, and then walked about the town walls, built of square
stone, filled with earth, and having a moat. No city in France exceeds it
in beauty, or delight.

6th May, 1644. We went to St. Gatian, reported to have been built by our
countrymen; the dial and clockwork are much esteemed. The church has two
handsome towers and spires of stone, and the whole fabric is very noble
and venerable. To this joins the palace of the Archbishop, consisting
both of old and new building, with many fair rooms, and a fair garden.
Here I grew acquainted with one Monsieur Merey, a very good musician. The
Archbishop treated me very courteously. We visited divers other churches,
chapels, and monasteries for the most part neatly built, and full of
pretty paintings, especially the Convent of the Capuchins, which has a
prospect over the whole city, and many fair walks.

8th May, 1644. I went to see their manufactures in silk (for in this town
they drive a very considerable trade with silk-worms), their pressing and
watering the grograms and camlets, with weights of an extraordinary
poise, put into a rolling engine. Here I took a master of the language,
and studied the tongue very diligently, recreating myself sometimes at
the Mall, and sometimes about the town. The house opposite my lodging had
been formerly a King's palace; the outside was totally covered with
fleur-de-lis, embossed out of the stone. Here Mary de Medicis held her
Court, when she was compelled to retire from Paris by the persecution of
the great Cardinal.

25th May, 1644. Was the Fête Dieu, and a goodly procession of all the
religious orders, the whole streets hung with their best tapestries, and
their most precious movables exposed; silks, damasks, velvets, plate, and
pictures in abundance; the streets strewed with flowers, and full of
pageantry, banners, and bravery.

6th June, 1644. I went by water to visit that goodly and venerable Abbey
of Marmoutiers, being one of the greatest in the kingdom; to it is a very
ample church of stone, with a very high pyramid. Among other relics the
Monks showed us is the Holy Ampoulle, the same with that which sacres
their Kings at Rheims, this being the one that anointed Henry IV.
Ascending many steps, we went into the Abbot's Palace, where we were
showed a vast tun (as big as that at Heidelberg), which they report St.
Martin (as I remember) filled from one cluster of grapes growing there.

7th June, 1644. We walked about two miles from the city to an agreeable
solitude, called Du Plessis, a house belonging to the King. It has many
pretty gardens, full of nightingales; and, in the chapel, lies buried the
famous poet, Ronsard.

Returning, we stepped into a Convent of Franciscans, called St. Cosmo,
where the cloister is painted with the miracles of their St. Francis à
Paula, whose ashes lie in their chapel, with this inscription: "_Corpus
Sancti Fran. à Paula 1507, 13 Aprilis, concrematur verò ab Hæreticis anno
1562, cujus quidem ossa et cineres hìc jacent_." The tomb has four small
pyramids of marble at each corner.

9th June, 1644. I was invited to a vineyard, which was so artificially
planted and supported with arched poles, that stooping down one might see
from end to end, a very great length, under the vines, the bunches
hanging down in abundance.

20th June, 1644. We took horse to see certain natural caves, called
Gouttière, near Colombière, where there is a spring within the bowels of
the earth, very deep and so excessive cold, that the drops meeting with
some lapidescent matter, it converts them into a hard stone, which hangs
about it like icicles, having many others in the form of comfitures and
sugar plums, as we call them.

Near this, we went under the ground almost two furlongs, lighted with
candles, to see the source and spring which serves the whole city, by a
passage cut through the main rock of freestone.

28th June, 1644. I went to see the palace and gardens of Chevereux, a
sweet place.

30th June, 1644. I walked through the vineyards as far as Roche Corbé, to
the ruins of an old and very strong castle, said to have been built by
the English, of great height, on the precipice of a dreadful cliff, from
whence the country and river yield a most incomparable prospect.

27th July, 1644. I heard excellent music at the Jesuits, who have here a
school and convent, but a mean chapel. We have now store of those
admirable melons, so much celebrated in France for the best in the
kingdom.

1st August, 1644. My valet, one Garro, a Spaniard, born in Biscao, having
misbehaved, I was forced to discharge him; he demanded of me (besides his
wages) no less than 100 crowns to carry him to his country; refusing to
pay it, as no part of our agreement, he had the impudence to arrest me;
the next day I was to appear in Court, where both our avocats pleaded
before the Lieutenant Civil; but it was so unreasonable a pretense, that
the Judge had not patience to hear it out. The Judge immediately
acquitted me, after he had reproached the avocat who took part with my
servant, he rose from the Bench, and making a courteous excuse to me,
that being a stranger I should be so used, he conducted me through the
court to the street-door. This varlet afterward threatened to pistol me.
The next day, I waited on the Lieutenant, to thank him for his great
civility.

18th August, 1644. The Queen of England came to Tours, having newly
arrived in France, and going for Paris. She was very nobly received by
the people and clergy, who went to meet her with the trained bands.
After the harangue, the Archbishop entertained her at his Palace, where I
paid my duty to her. The 20th she set forward to Paris.

8th September, 1644. Two of my kinsmen came from Paris to this place,
where I settled them in their pension and exercises.

14th September, 1644. We took post for Richelieu, passing by l'Isle
Bouchard, a village in the way. The next day, we arrived, and went to see
the Cardinal's Palace, near it. The town is built in a low, marshy
ground, having a narrow river cut by hand, very even and straight,
capable of bringing up a small vessel. It consists of only one
considerable street, the houses on both sides (as indeed throughout the
town) built exactly uniform, after a modern handsome design. It has a
large goodly market house and place, opposite to which is the church
built of freestone, having two pyramids of stone, which stand hollow from
the towers. The church is well built, and of a well-ordered architecture,
within handsomely paved and adorned. To this place belongs an Academy,
where, besides the exercise of the horse, arms, dancing, etc., all the
sciences are taught in the vulgar French by professors stipendiated by
the great Cardinal, who by this, the cheap living there, and divers
privileges, not only designed the improvement of the vulgar language, but
to draw people and strangers to the town; but since the Cardinal's death,
it is thinly inhabited; standing so much out of the way, and in a place
not well situated for health, or pleasure. He was allured to build by the
name of the place, and an old house there belonging to his ancestors.
This pretty town is handsomely walled about and moated, with a kind of
slight fortification, two fair gates and drawbridges. Before the gate,
toward the palace, is a spacious circle, where the fair is annually kept.
About a flight-shot from the town is the Cardinal's house, a princely
pile, though on an old design, not altogether Gothic, but mixed, and
environed by a clear moat. The rooms are stately, most richly furnished
with tissue, damask, arras, and velvet, pictures, statues, vases, and all
sorts of antiquities, especially the Cæsars, in oriental alabaster. The
long gallery is painted with the famous acts of the Founder; the roof
with the life of Julius Cæsar; at the end of it is a cupola, or singing
theatre, supported by very stately pillars of black marble. The chapel
anciently belonged to the family of the Founder. The court is very ample.
The gardens without are very large, and the parterres of excellent
embroidery, set with many statues of brass and marble; the groves,
meadows, and walks are a real Paradise.

16th September, 1644. We returned to Tours, from whence, after nineteen
weeks' sojourn, we traveled toward the more southern part of France,
minding now to shape my course so, as I might winter in Italy. With my
friend, Mr. Thicknesse, and our guide, we went the first day seven
leagues to a castle called Chenonceau, built by Catherine de Medicis, and
now belonging to the Duke de Vendôme, standing on a bridge. In the
gallery, among divers other excellent statues, is that of Scipio
Africanus, of oriental alabaster.

[Sidenote: BOURGES]

21st September, 1644. We passed by Villefranche, where we dined, and so
by Muneton, lying at Viaron-au-mouton, which was twenty leagues. The next
day by Murg to Bourges, four leagues, where we spent the day. This is the
capital of Berry, an University much frequented by the Dutch, situated on
the river Eure. It stands high, is strong, and well placed for defense;
is environed with meadows and vines, and the living here is very cheap.
In the suburbs of St. Privé, there is a fountain of sharp water which
they report wholesome against the stone. They showed us a vast tree which
they say stands in the center of France. The French tongue is spoken with
great purity in this place. St. Stephen's church is the cathedral, well
built _à la Gothique_, full of sepulchres without-side, with the
representation of the final Judgment over one of the ports. Here they
show the chapel of Claude de la Chastre, a famous soldier who had served
six kings of France in their wars. St. Chapelle is built much like that
at Paris, full of relics, and containing the bones of one Briat, a giant
of fifteen cubits high. It was erected by John, Duke of Berry, and there
is showed the coronet of the dukedom. The great tower is a Pharos for
defense of the town, very strong, in thickness eighteen feet, fortified
with graffs and works; there is a garrison in it, and a strange engine
for throwing great stones, and the iron cage where Louis, Duke of
Orleans, was kept by Charles VIII. Near the Town-house stands the College
of Jesuits, where was heretofore an Amphitheater. I was courteously
entertained by a Jesuit, who had us into the garden, where we fell into
disputation. The house of Jaques Coeur is worth seeing. Bourges is an
Archbishopric and Primacy of Aquitaine. I took my leave of Mr. Nicholas,
and some other English there; and, on the 23d, proceeded on my journey by
Pont du Charge; and lay that evening at Coulaiure, thirteen leagues.

24th September, 1644. By Franchesse, St. Menoux, thence to Moulins, where
we dined. This is the chief town of the Bourbonnois, on the river Allier,
very navigable. The streets are fair; the castle has a noble prospect,
and has been the seat of the Dukes. Here is a pretty park and garden.
After dinner, came many who offered knives and scissors to sell; it being
a town famous for these trifles. This Duchy of Bourbon is ordinarily
assigned for the dowry of the Queens of France.

Hence, we took horse for Varennes, an obscure village, where we lay that
night. The next day, we went somewhat out of the way to see the town of
Bourbon l'Archambaut, from whose ancient and rugged castle is derived the
name of the present Royal Family of France. The castle stands on a flinty
rock, overlooking the town. In the midst of the streets are some baths of
medicinal waters, some of them excessive hot, but nothing so neatly
walled and adorned as ours in Somersetshire; and indeed they are chiefly
used to drink of, our Queen being then lodged there for that purpose.
After dinner, I went to see the St. Chapelle, a prime place of devotion,
where is kept one of the thorns of our Savior's crown, and a piece of the
real cross; excellent paintings on glass, and some few statues of stone
and wood, which they show for curiosities. Hence, we went forward to La
Palise, a village that lodged us that night.

26th September, 1644. We arrived at Roane, where we quitted our guide,
and took post for Lyons. Roane seemed to me one of the pleasantest and
most agreeable places imaginable, for a retired person: for, besides the
situation on the Loire, there are excellent provisions cheap and
abundant. It being late when we left this town, we rode no further than
Tarare that night (passing St. Saforin), a little desolate village in a
valley near a pleasant stream, encompassed with fresh meadows and
vineyards. The hills which we rode over before we descended, and
afterward, on the Lyons side of this place, are high and mountainous; fir
and pines growing frequently on them. The air methought was much altered
as well as the manner of the houses, which are built flatter, more after
the eastern manner. Before I went to bed, I took a landscape of this
pleasant terrace. There followed a most violent tempest of thunder and
lightning.

[Sidenote: LYONS]

27th September, 1644. We rode by Pont Charu to Lyons, which being but six
leagues we soon accomplished, having made eighty-five leagues from Tours
in seven days. Here at the Golden Lion, rue de Flandre, I met divers of
my acquaintance, who, coming from Paris, were designed for Italy. We lost
no time in seeing the city, because of being ready to accompany these
gentlemen in their journey. Lyons is excellently situated on the
confluence of the rivers Soane and Rhone, which wash the walls of the
city in a very rapid stream; each of these has its bridge; that over the
Rhone consists of twenty-eight arches. The two high cliffs, called St.
Just and St. Sebastian, are very stately; on one of them stands a strong
fort, garrisoned. We visited the cathedral, St. Jean, where was one of
the fairest clocks for art and busy invention I had ever seen. The fabric
of the church is gothic, as are likewise those of St. Etienne and St.
Croix. From the top of one of the towers of St. Jean (for it has four) we
beheld the whole city and country, with a prospect reaching to the Alps,
many leagues distant. The Archbishop's palace is fairly built. The church
of St. Nisier is the greatest; that of the Jacobins is well built. Here
are divers other fine churches and very noble buildings we had not time
to visit, only that of the Charité, or great hospital for poor, infirm
people, entertaining about 1,500 souls, with a school, granary, gardens,
and all conveniences, maintained at a wonderful expense, worthy seeing.
The place of the _Belle Cour_ is very spacious, observable for the view
it affords, so various and agreeable, of hills, rocks, vineyards,
gardens, precipices, and other extravagant and incomparable advantages
presenting themselves together. The Pall Mall is set with fair trees. In
fine, this stately, clean, and noble city, built all of stone, abounds
in persons of quality and rich merchants: those of Florence obtaining
great privileges above the rest. In the Town-house, they show two tables
of brass, on which is engraven Claudius's speech, pronounced to the
Senate, concerning the franchising of the town, with the Roman
privileges. There are also other antiquities.

30th September, 1644. We bargained with a waterman to carry us to Avignon
on the river, and got the first night to Vienne, in Dauphiné. This is an
Archbishopric, and the province gives title to the heir-apparent of
France. Here we supped and lay, having among other dainties, a dish of
truffles, which is a certain earth-nut, found out by a hog trained to it,
and for which those animals are sold at a great price. It is in truth an
incomparable meat. We were shown the ruins of an amphitheatre, pretty
entire; and many handsome palaces, especially that of Pontius Pilate, not
far from the town, at the foot of a solitary mountain, near the river,
having four pinnacles. Here it is reported he passed his exile, and
precipitated himself into the lake not far from it. The house is modern,
and seems to be the seat of some gentleman; being in a very pleasant,
though melancholy place. The cathedral of Vienne is St. Maurice; and
there are many other pretty buildings, but nothing more so, than the
mills where they hammer and polish the sword blades.

Hence, the next morning we swam (for the river here is so rapid that the
boat was only steered) to a small village called Thein, where we dined.
Over against this is another town, named Tournon, where is a very strong
castle under a high precipice. To the castle joins the Jesuits' College,
who have a fair library. The prospect was so tempting, that I could not
forbear designing it with my crayon.

We then came to Valence, a capital city carrying the title of a Duchy;
but the Bishop is now sole Lord temporal of it, and the country about it.
The town having a University famous for the study of the civil law, is
much frequented; but the churches are none of the fairest, having been
greatly defaced in the time of the wars. The streets are full of pretty
fountains. The citadel is strong and garrisoned. Here we passed the
night, and the next morning by Pont St. Esprit, which consists of
twenty-two arches; in the piers of the arches are windows, as it were, to
receive the water when it is high and full. Here we went on shore, it
being very dangerous to pass the bridge in a boat.

[Sidenote: AVIGNON]

Hence, leaving our barge, we took horse, seeing at a distance the town
and principality of Orange; and, lodging one night on the way, we arrived
at noon at Avignon. This town has belonged to the Popes ever since the
time of Clement V.; being, in 1352, alienated by Jane, Queen of Naples
and Sicily. Entering the gates, the soldiers at the guard took our
pistols and carbines, and examined us very strictly; after that, having
obtained the Governor's and the Vice-Legate's leave to tarry three days,
we were civilly conducted to our lodging. The city is on the Rhone, and
divided from the newer part, or town, which is on the other side of the
river, by a very fair stone bridge (which has been broken); at one end is
a very high rock, on which is a strong castle well furnished with
artillery. The walls of the city are of large, square freestone, the most
neat and best in repair I ever saw. It is full of well-built palaces;
those of the Vice-Legate and Archbishop being the most magnificent. There
are many sumptuous churches, especially that of St. Magdalene and St.
Martial, wherein the tomb of the Cardinal d'Amboise is the most
observable. Clement VI. lies buried in that of the Celestines, the altar
whereof is exceedingly rich: but for nothing I more admired it than the
tomb of Madonna Laura, the celebrated mistress of Petrarch. We saw the
Arsenal, the Pope's palace, and the Synagogue of the Jews, who here are
distinguished by their red hats. Vaucluse, so much renowned for the
solitude of Petrarch, we beheld from the castle; but could not go to
visit it for want of time, being now taking mules and a guide for
Marseilles.

We lay at Loumas; the next morning, came to Aix, having passed that
extremely rapid and dangerous river of Durance. In this tract, all the
heaths, or commons, are covered with rosemary, lavender, lentiscus, and
the like sweet shrubs, for many miles together; which to me was very
pleasant. Aix is the chief city of Provence, being a Parliament and
Presidential town, with other royal Courts and Metropolitan jurisdiction.
It is well built, the houses very high, and the streets ample. The
Cathedral, St. Savior's, is a noble pile adorned with innumerable
figures; especially that of St. Michael; the Baptisterie, the Palace, the
Court, built in a most spacious piazza, are very fair. The Duke of
Guise's house is worth seeing, being furnished with many antiquities in
and about it. The Jesuits have here a royal College, and the City is a
University.

7th October, 1644. We had a most delicious journey to Marseilles, through
a country sweetly declining to the south and Mediterranean coasts, full
of vineyards and olive-yards, orange trees, myrtles, pomegranates, and
the like sweet plantations, to which belong pleasantly-situated villas to
the number of above 1,500, built all of freestone, and in prospect
showing as if they were so many heaps of snow dropped out of the clouds
among those perennial greens. It was almost at the shutting of the gates
that we arrived. Marseilles is on the sea-coast, on a pleasant rising
ground, well walled, with an excellent port for ships and galleys,
secured by a huge chain of iron drawn across the harbor at pleasure; and
there is a well-fortified tower with three other forts, especially that
built on a rock; but the castle commanding the city is that of Notre Dame
de la Garde. In the chapel hung up are divers crocodiles' skins.

We went then to visit the galleys, being about twenty-five in number; the
Capitaine of the Galley Royal gave us most courteous entertainment in his
cabin, the slaves in the interim playing both loud and soft music very
rarely. Then he showed us how he commanded their motions with a nod, and
his whistle making them row out. The spectacle was to me new and strange,
to see so many hundreds of miserably naked persons, their heads being
shaven close, and having only high red bonnets, a pair of coarse canvas
drawers, their whole backs and legs naked, doubly chained about their
middle and legs, in couples, and made fast to their seats, and all
commanded in a trice by an imperious and cruel seaman. One Turk among the
rest he much favored, who waited on him in his cabin, but with no other
dress than the rest, and a chain locked about his leg, but not coupled.
This galley was richly carved and gilded, and most of the rest were very
beautiful. After bestowing something on the slaves, the capitaine sent a
band of them to give us music at dinner where we lodged. I was amazed to
contemplate how these miserable caitiffs lie in their galley crowded
together; yet there was hardly one but had some occupation, by which, as
leisure and calms permitted, they got some little money, insomuch as some
of them have, after many years of cruel servitude, been able to purchase
their liberty. The rising-forward and falling-back at their oar, is a
miserable spectacle, and the noise of their chains, with the roaring of
the beaten waters, has something of strange and fearful in it to one
unaccustomed to it. They are ruled and chastised by strokes on their
backs and soles of their feet, on the least disorder, and without the
least humanity, yet are they cheerful and full of knavery.

After dinner, we saw the church of St. Victoire, where is that saint's
head in a shrine of silver, which weighs 600 pounds. Thence to Notre
Dame, exceedingly well built, which is the cathedral. Thence to the Duke
of Guise's Palace, the Palace of Justice, and the Maison du Roi; but
nothing is more strange than the great number of slaves working in the
streets, and carrying burdens, with their confused noises, and jingling
of their huge chains. The chief trade of the town is in silks and drugs
out of Africa, Syria, and Egypt, and Barbary horses, which are brought
hither in great numbers. The town is governed by four captains, has three
consuls, and one assessor, three judges royal; the merchants have a judge
for ordinary causes. Here we bought umbrellas against the heats, and
consulted of our journey to Cannes by land, for fear of the Picaroon
Turks, who make prize of any small vessels about these parts; we not
finding a galley bound for Genoa, whither we were designed.

[Sidenote: PERIGUEUX]

9th October, 1644. We took mules, passing the first night very late in
sight of St. Baume, and the solitary grot where they affirmed Mary
Magdalen did her penance. The next day, we lay at Perigueux, a city built
on an old foundation; witness the ruins of a most stately amphitheatre,
which I went out to design, being about a flight-shot from the town; they
call it now the Rolsies. There is also a strong tower near the town,
called the Visone, but the town and city are at some distance from each
other. It is a bishopric; has a cathedral with divers noblemen's houses
in sight of the sea. The place was formerly called Forum Julij, well
known by antiquaries.

10th October, 1644. We proceeded by the ruins of a stately aqueduct. The
soil about the country is rocky, full of pines and rare simples.

11th October, 1644. We lay at Cannes, which is a small port on the
Mediterranean; here we agreed with a seaman to carry us to Genoa, and,
having procured a bill of health (without which there is no admission at
any town in Italy), we embarked on the 12th. We touched at the islands of
St. Margaret and St. Honore, lately retaken from the Spaniards with great
bravery by Prince Harcourt. Here, having paid some small duty, we bought
some trifles offered us by the soldiers, but without going on shore.
Hence, we coasted within two leagues of Antibes, which is the utmost town
in France. Thence by Nice, a city in Savoy, built all of brick, which
gives it a very pleasant appearance toward the sea, having a very high
castle which commands it. We sailed by Morgus, now called Monaco, having
passed Villa Franca, heretofore Portus Herculis, when, arriving after the
gates were shut, we were forced to abide all night in the barge, which
was put into the haven, the wind coming contrary. In the morning, we were
hastened away, having no time permitted us by our avaricious master to go
up and see this strong and considerable place, which now belongs to a
prince of the family of Grimaldi, of Genoa, who has put both it and
himself under the protection of the French. The situation is on a
promontory of solid stone and rock. The town walls very fair. We were
told that within it was an ample court, and a palace, furnished with the
most rich and princely movables, and a collection of statues, pictures,
and massy plate to an immense amount.

[Sidenote: SAVONA]

We sailed by Menton and Ventimiglia, being the first city of the republic
of Genoa; supped at Oneglia, where we anchored and lay on shore. The next
morning, we coasted in view of the Isle of Corsica, and St. Remo, where
the shore is furnished with evergreens, oranges, citrons, and date trees;
we lay at Port Mauritio. The next morning by Diano, Araisso, famous for
the best coral fishing, growing in abundance on the rocks, deep and
continually covered by the sea. By Albenga and Finale, a very fair and
strong town belonging to the King of Spain, for which reason a monsieur
in our vessel was extremely afraid, as was the patron of our bark, for
they frequently catch French prizes as they creep by these shores to go
into Italy; he therefore plied both sails and oars, to get under the
protection of a Genoese galley that passed not far before us, and in
whose company we sailed as far as the Cape of Savona, a town built at the
rise of the Apennines: for all this coast (except a little of St. Remo)
is a high and steep mountainous ground, consisting all of rock-marble,
without any grass, tree, or rivage, formidable to look on. A strange
object it is, to consider how some poor cottages stand fast on the
declivities of these precipices, and by what steps the inhabitants ascend
to them. The rock consists of all sorts of the most precious marbles.

Here, on the 15th, forsaking our galley, we encountered a little foul
weather, which made us creep _terra, terra_, as they call it, and so a
vessel that encountered us advised us to do; but our patron, striving to
double the point of Savona, making out into the wind put us into great
hazard; for blowing very hard from land between those horrid gaps of the
mountains, it set so violently, as raised on the sudden so great a sea,
that we could not recover the weather-shore for many hours, insomuch
that, what with the water already entered, and the confusion of fearful
passengers (of which one was an Irish bishop, and his brother, a priest,
were confessing some as at the article of death), we were almost
abandoned to despair, our pilot himself giving us up for lost. And now,
as we were weary with pumping and laving out the water, almost sinking,
it pleased God on the sudden to appease the wind, and with much ado and
great peril we recovered the shore, which we now kept in view within half
a league in sight of those pleasant villas, and within scent of those
fragrant orchards which are on this coast, full of princely retirements
for the sumptuousness of their buildings, and nobleness of the
plantations, especially those at St. Pietro d'Arena; from whence, the
wind blowing as it did, might perfectly be smelt the peculiar joys of
Italy in the perfumes of orange, citron, and jasmine flowers, for divers
leagues seaward.[19]

    [Footnote 19: Evelyn seems to have been much enchanted by the
    fragrancy of the air of this coast, for he has noticed it again in
    his dedication of the "Fumifugium," to Charles the Second.]

[Sidenote: GENOA]

16th October, 1644. We got to anchor under the Pharos, or watch-tower,
built on a high rock at the mouth of the Mole of Genoa, the weather being
still so foul that for two hours at least we durst not stand into the
haven. Toward evening we adventured, and came on shore by the
Prattique-house, where, after strict examination by the Syndics, we were
had to the Ducal Palace, and there our names being taken, we were
conducted to our inn, kept by one Zacharias, an Englishman. I shall never
forget a story of our host Zachary, who, on the relation of our peril,
told us another of his own, being shipwrecked, as he affirmed solemnly,
in the middle of a great sea somewhere in the West Indies, that he swam
no less than twenty-two leagues to another island, with a tinderbox
wrapped up in his hair, which was not so much as wet all the way; that
picking up the carpenter's tools with other provisions in a chest, he and
the carpenter, who accompanied him (good swimmers it seems both), floated
the chest before them; and, arriving at last in a place full of wood,
they built another vessel, and so escaped! After this story, we no more
talked of our danger; Zachary put us quite down.

17th October, 1644. Accompanied by a most courteous marchand, called
Tomson, we went to view the rarities. The city is built in the hollow or
bosom of a mountain, whose ascent is very steep, high, and rocky, so
that, from the Lantern and Mole to the hill, it represents the shape of a
theater; the streets and buildings so ranged one above another, as our
seats are in the playhouses; but, from their materials, beauty, and
structure, never was an artificial scene more beautiful to the eye, nor
is any place, for the size of it, so full of well-designed and stately
palaces, as may be easily concluded by that rare book in a large folio
which the great virtuoso and painter, Paul Rubens, has published, though
it contains [the description of] only one street and two or three
churches.

The first palace we went to visit was that of Hieronymo del Negros, to
which we passed by boat across the harbor. Here I could not but observe
the sudden and devilish passion of a seaman, who plying us was
intercepted by another fellow, that interposed his boat before him and
took us in; for the tears gushing out of his eyes, he put his finger in
his mouth and almost bit it off by the joint, showing it to his
antagonist as an assurance to him of some bloody revenge, if ever he came
near that part of the harbor again. Indeed this beautiful city is more
stained with such horrid acts of revenge and murders, than any one place
in Europe, or haply in the world, where there is a political government,
which makes it unsafe to strangers. It is made a galley matter to carry a
knife whose point is not broken off.

This palace of Negros is richly furnished with the rarest pictures; on
the terrace, or hilly garden, there is a grove of stately trees, among
which are sheep, shepherds, and wild beasts, cut very artificially in a
gray stone; fountains, rocks, and fish ponds; casting your eyes one way,
you would imagine yourself in a wilderness and silent country; sideways,
in the heart of a great city; and backward, in the midst of the sea. All
this is within one acre of ground. In the house, I noticed those
red-plaster floors which are made so hard, and kept so polished, that for
some time one would take them for whole pieces of porphyry. I have
frequently wondered that we never practiced this [art] in England for
cabinets and rooms of state, for it appears to me beyond any invention of
that kind; but by their carefully covering them with canvass and fine
mattresses, where there is much passage, I suppose they are not lasting
there in glory, and haply they are often repaired.

There are numerous other palaces of particular curiosities, for the
marchands being very rich, have, like our neighbors, the Hollanders,
little or no extent of ground to employ their estates in; as those in
pictures and hangings, so these lay it out on marble houses and rich
furniture. One of the greatest here for circuit is that of the Prince
Doria, which reaches from the sea to the summit of the mountains. The
house is most magnificently built without, nor less gloriously furnished
within, having whole tables and bedsteads of massy silver, many of them
set with agates, onyxes, cornelians, lazulis, pearls, torquoises, and
other precious stones. The pictures and statues are innumerable. To this
palace belong three gardens, the first whereof is beautified with a
terrace, supported by pillars of marble; there is a fountain of eagles,
and one of Neptune, with other sea-gods, all of the purest white marble;
they stand in a most ample basin of the same stone. At the side of this
garden is such an aviary as Sir Francis Bacon describes in his "_Sermones
Fidelium_," or "Essays," wherein grow trees of more than two feet
diameter, besides cypress, myrtles, lentiscuses, and other rare shrubs,
which serve to nestle and perch all sorts of birds, who have air and
place enough under their airy canopy, supported with huge iron work,
stupendous for its fabric and the charge. The other two gardens are full
of orange trees, citrons, and pomegranates, fountains, grots, and
statues. One of the latter is a colossal Jupiter, under which is the
sepulchre of a beloved dog, for the care of which one of this family
received of the King of Spain 500 crowns a year, during the life of that
faithful animal. The reservoir of water here is a most admirable piece of
art; and so is the grotto over against it.

We went hence to the Palace of the Dukes, where is also the Court of
Justice; thence to the Merchant's Walk, rarely covered. Near the Ducal
Palace we saw the public armory, which was almost all new, most neatly
kept and ordered, sufficient for 30,000 men. We were showed many rare
inventions and engines of war peculiar to that armory, as in the state
when guns were first put in use. The garrison of the town chiefly
consists of Germans and Corsicans. The famous Strada Nova, built wholly
of polished marble, was designed by Rubens, and for stateliness of the
buildings, paving, and evenness of the street, is far superior to any in
Europe, for the number of houses; that of Don Carlo Doria is a most
magnificent structure. In the gardens of the old Marquis Spinola, I saw
huge citrons hanging on the trees, applied like our apricots to the
walls. The churches are no less splendid than the palaces; that of St.
Francis is wholly built of Parian marble; St. Laurence, in the middle of
the city, of white and black polished stone, the inside wholly incrusted
with marble and other precious materials; on the altar of St. John stand
four sumptuous columns of porphyry; and here we were showed an emerald,
supposed to be one of the largest in the world. The church of St.
Ambrosio, belonging to the Jesuits, will, when finished, exceed all the
rest; and that of the Annunciada, founded at the charges of one family,
in the present and future design can never be outdone for cost and art.
From the churches we walked to the Mole, a work of solid huge stone,
stretching itself near 600 paces into the main sea, and secures the
harbor, heretofore of no safety. Of all the wonders of Italy, for the art
and nature of the design, nothing parallels this. We passed over to the
Pharos, or Lantern, a tower of very great height. Here we took horses,
and made the circuit of the city as far as the new walls, built of a
prodigious height, and with Herculean industry; witness those vast pieces
of whole mountains which they have hewn away, and blown up with
gunpowder, to render them steep and inaccessible. They are not much less
than twenty English miles in extent, reaching beyond the utmost buildings
of the city. From one of these promontories we could easily discern the
island of Corsica; and from the same, eastward, we saw a vale having a
great torrent running through a most desolate barren country; and then
turning our eyes more northward, saw those delicious villas of St. Pietro
d'Arena, which present another Genoa to you, the ravishing retirements of
the Genoese nobility. Hence, with much pain, we descended toward the
Arsenal, where the galleys lie in excellent order.

The inhabitants of the city are much affected to the Spanish mode and
stately garb. From the narrowness of the streets, they use sedans and
litters, and not coaches.

19th October, 1644. We embarked in a felucca for Livorno, or Leghorn; but
the sea running very high, we put in at Porto Venere, which we made with
peril, between two narrow horrid rocks, against which the sea dashed with
great velocity; but we were soon delivered into as great a calm and a
most ample harbor, being in the Golfo di Spetia. From hence, we could see
Pliny's Delphini Promontorium, now called Capo fino. Here stood that
famous city of Luna, whence the port was named Lunaris, being about two
leagues over, more resembling a lake than a haven, but defended by
castles and excessive high mountains. We landed at Lerici, where, being
Sunday, was a great procession, carrying the Sacrament about the streets
in solemn devotion. After dinner we took post-horses, passing through
whole groves of olive trees, the way somewhat rugged and hilly at first,
but afterward pleasant. Thus we passed through the towns of Sarzana and
Massa, and the vast marble quarries of Carrara, and lodged in an obscure
inn, at a place called Viregio. The next morning we arrived at Pisa,
where I met my old friend, Mr. Thomas Henshaw, who was then newly come
out of Spain, and from whose company I never parted till more than a year
after.

The city of Pisa is as much worth seeing as any in Italy; it has
contended with Rome, Florence, Sardinia, Sicily, and even Carthage. The
palace and church of St. Stefano (where the order of knighthood called by
that name was instituted) drew first our curiosity, the outside thereof
being altogether of polished marble; within, it is full of tables
relating to this Order; over which hang divers banners and pendants, with
other trophies taken by them from the Turks, against whom they are
particularly obliged to fight; though a religious order, they are
permitted to marry. At the front of the palace stands a fountain, and the
statue of the great Duke Cosmo. The Campanile, or Settezonio, built by
John Venipont, a German, consists of several orders of pillars, thirty in
a row, designed to be much higher. It stands alone on the right side of
the cathedral, strangely remarkable for this, that the beholder would
expect it to fall, being built exceedingly declining, by a rare address
of the architect; and how it is supported from falling I think would
puzzle a good geometrician. The Duomo, or Cathedral, standing near it, is
a superb structure, beautified with six columns of great antiquity; the
gates are of brass, of admirable workmanship. The cemetery called Campo
Santo is made of divers galley ladings of earth formerly brought from
Jerusalem, said to be of such a nature, as to consume dead bodies in
forty hours. 'Tis cloistered with marble arches; and here lies buried the
learned Philip Decius, who taught in this University. At one side of this
church stands an ample and well-wrought marble vessel, which heretofore
contained the tribute paid yearly by the city to Cæsar. It is placed, as
I remember, on a pillar of opal stone, with divers other antique urns.
Near this, and in the same field, is the Baptistery of San Giovanni,
built of pure white marble, and covered with so artificial a cupola,
that the voice uttered under it seems to break out of a cloud. The font
and pulpit, supported by four lions, is of inestimable value for the
preciousness of the materials. The place where these buildings stand they
call the AREA. Hence, we went to the College, to which joins a gallery so
furnished with natural rarities, stones, minerals, shells, dried animals,
skeletons, etc., as is hardly to be seen in Italy. To this the Physic
Garden lies, where is a noble palm tree, and very fine waterworks. The
river Arno runs through the middle of this stately city, whence the main
street is named Lung 'Arno. It is so ample that the Duke's galleys, built
in the arsenal here, are easily conveyed to Livorno; over the river is an
arch, the like of which, for its flatness, and serving for a bridge, is
nowhere in Europe. The Duke has a stately Palace, before which is placed
the statue of Ferdinand the Third; over against it is the Exchange, built
of marble. Since this city came to be under the Dukes of Tuscany, it has
been much depopulated, though there is hardly in Italy any which exceeds
it for stately edifices. The situation of it is low and flat; but the
inhabitants have spacious gardens, and even fields within the walls.

[Sidenote: LIVORNO]

21st October, 1644. We took coach to Livorno, through the Great Duke's
new park full of huge cork trees, the underwood all myrtles, among which
were many buffaloes feeding, a kind of wild ox, short nose with horns
reversed; those who work with them command them, as our bearwards do the
bears, with a ring through the nose, and a cord. Much of this park, as
well as a great part of the country about it, is very fenny, and the air
very bad.

Leghorn is the prime port belonging to all the Duke's territories;
heretofore a very obscure town, but since Duke Ferdinand has strongly
fortified it (after the modern way), drained the marshes by cutting a
channel thence to Pisa navigable sixteen miles, and has raised a Mole,
emulating that at Genoa, to secure the shipping, it is become a place of
great receipt; it has also a place for the galleys, where they lie safe.
Before the sea is an ample piazza for the market, where are the statues
in copper of the four slaves, much exceeding the life for proportion,
and, in the judgment of most artists, one of the best pieces of modern
work. Here, especially in this piazza, is such a concourse of slaves,
Turks, Moors, and other nations, that the number and confusion is
prodigious; some buying, others selling, others drinking, others playing,
some working, others sleeping, fighting, singing, weeping, all nearly
naked, and miserably chained. Here was a tent, where any idle fellow
might stake his liberty against a few crowns, at dice, or other hazard;
and, if he lost, he was immediately chained and led away to the galleys,
where he was to serve a term of years, but from whence they seldom
returned; many sottish persons, in a drunken bravado, would try their
fortune in this way.

The houses of this neat town are very uniform, and excellently painted _á
fresco_ on the outer walls, with representations of many of their
victories over the Turks. The houses, though low on account of the
earthquakes which frequently happen here, (as did one during my being in
Italy), are very well built; the piazza is very fair and commodious, and,
with the church, whose four columns at the portico are of black marble
polished, gave the first hint to the building both of the church and
piazza in Covent Garden with us, though very imperfectly pursued.

[Sidenote: FLORENCE]

22d October, 1644. From Livorno, I took coach to Empoly, where we lay,
and the next day arrived at Florence, being recommended to the house of
Signor Baritiére, in the Piazza del Spirito Santo, where we were
exceedingly well treated. Florence is at the foot of the Apennines, the
west part full of stately groves and pleasant meadows, beautified with
more than a thousand houses and country palaces of note, belonging to
gentlemen of the town. The river Arno runs through the city, in a broad,
but very shallow channel, dividing it, as it were, in the middle, and
over it are four most sumptuous bridges of stone. On that nearest to our
quarter are the four Seasons, in white marble; on another are the
goldsmiths' shops; at the head of the former stands a column of ophite,
upon which a statue of Justice, with her balance and sword, cut out of
porphyry, and the more remarkable for being the first which had been
carved out of that hard material, and brought to perfection, after the
art had been utterly lost; they say this was done by hardening the tools
in the juice of certain herbs. This statue was erected in that corner,
because there Cosmo was first saluted with the news of Sienna being
taken.

Near this is the famous Palazzo di Strozzi, a princely piece of
architecture, in a rustic manner. The Palace of Pitti was built by that
family, but of late greatly beautified by Cosmo with huge square stones
of the Doric, Ionic, and the Corinthian orders, with a terrace at each
side having rustic uncut balustrades, with a fountain that ends in a
cascade seen from the great gate, and so forming a vista to the gardens.
Nothing is more admirable than the vacant staircase, marbles, statues,
urns, pictures, court, grotto, and waterworks. In the quadrangle is a
huge jetto of water in a volto of four faces, with noble statues at each
square, especially the Diana of porphyry above the grotto. We were here
shown a prodigious great loadstone.

The garden has every variety, hills, dales, rocks, groves, aviaries,
vivaries, fountains, especially one of five jettos, the middle basin
being one of the longest stones I ever saw. Here is everything to make
such a Paradise delightful. In the garden I saw a rose grafted on an
orange tree. There was much topiary-work, and columns in architecture
about the hedges. The Duke has added an ample laboratory, over against
which stands a fort on a hill, where they told us his treasure is kept.
In this Palace the Duke ordinarily resides, living with his Swiss guards,
after the frugal Italian way, and even selling what he can spare of his
wines, at the cellar under his very house, wicker bottles dangling over
even the chief entrance into the palace, serving for a vintner's bush.

In the Church of Santo Spirito the altar and reliquary are most rich, and
full of precious stones; there are four pillars of a kind of serpentine,
and some of blue. Hence we went to another Palace of the Duke's, called
Palazzo Vecchio, before which is a statue of David, by Michael Angelo,
and one of Hercules, killing Cacus, the work of Baccio Bandinelli. The
quadrangle about this is of the Corinthian order, and in the hall are
many rare marbles, as those of Leo X. and Clement VII., both Popes of the
Medicean family; also the acts of Cosmo, in rare painting. In the chapel
is kept (as they would make one believe) the original Gospel of St. John,
written with his own hand; and the famous Florentine Pandects, and
divers precious stones. Near it is another pendent Tower like that of
Pisa, always threatening ruin.

Under the Court of Justice is a stately arcade for men to walk in, and
over that, the shops of divers rare artists who continually work for the
great Duke. Above this is that renowned Ceimeliarcha, or repository,
wherein are hundreds of admirable antiquities, statues of marble and
metal, vases of porphyry, etc.; but among the statues none so famous as
the Scipio, the Boar, the Idol of Apollo, brought from the Delphic
Temple, and two triumphant columns. Over these hang the pictures of the
most famous persons and illustrious men in arts or arms, to the number of
300, taken out of the museum of Paulus Jovius. They then led us into a
large square room, in the middle of which stood a cabinet of an
octangular form, so adorned and furnished with crystals, agates, and
sculptures, as exceeds any description. This cabinet is called the
_Tribuna_ and in it is a pearl as big as an hazelnut. The cabinet is of
ebony, lazuli, and jasper; over the door is a round of M. Angelo; on the
cabinet, Leo X. with other paintings of Raphael, del Sarto, Perugino, and
Correggio, viz, a St. John, a Virgin, a Boy, two Apostles, two heads of
Durer, rarely carved. Over this cabinet is a globe of ivory, excellently
carved; the Labors of Hercules, in massy silver, and many incomparable
pictures in small. There is another, which had about it eight Oriental
columns of alabaster, on each whereof was placed a head of a Cæsar,
covered with a canopy so richly set with precious stones, that they
resembled a firmament of stars. Within it was our Savior's Passion, and
the twelve Apostles in amber. This cabinet was valued at two hundred
thousand crowns. In another, with calcedon pillars, was a series of
golden medals. Here is also another rich ebony cabinet cupolaed with a
tortoise shell, and containing a collection of gold medals esteemed worth
50,000 crowns; a wreathed pillar of Oriental alabaster, divers paintings
of Da Vinci, Pontorno, del Sarto, an _Ecce Homo_ of Titian, a Boy of
Bronzini, etc. They showed us a branch of coral fixed on the rock, which
they affirm does still grow. In another room, is kept the Tabernacle
appointed for the chapel of St. Laurence, about which are placed small
statues of Saints, of precious material; a piece of such art and cost,
that having been these forty years in perfecting, it is one of the most
curious things in the world. Here were divers tables of Pietra Commesso,
which is a marble ground inlaid with several sorts of marbles and stones
of various colors representing flowers, trees, beasts, birds, and
landscapes. In one is represented the town of Leghorn, by the same hand
who inlaid the altar of St. Laurence, Domenico Benotti, of whom I
purchased nineteen pieces of the same work for a cabinet. In a press near
this they showed an iron nail, one half whereof being converted into gold
by one Thurnheuser, a German chemist, is looked on as a great rarity; but
it plainly appeared to have been soldered together. There is a curious
watch, a monstrous turquoise as big as an egg, on which is carved an
emperor's head.

In the armory are kept many antique habits, as those of Chinese kings;
the sword of Charlemagne; Hannibal's headpiece; a loadstone of a yard
long, which bears up 86 lbs. weight, in a chain of seventeen links, such
as the slaves are tied to. In another room are such rare turneries in
ivory, as are not to be described for their curiosity. There is a fair
pillar of oriental alabaster; twelve vast and complete services of silver
plate, and one of gold, all of excellent workmanship; a rich embroidered
saddle of pearls sent by the Emperor to this Duke; and here is that
embroidered chair set with precious stones in which he sits, when, on St.
John's day, he receives the tribute of the cities.

25th October, 1644. We went to the Portico where the famous statue of
Judith and Holofernes stands, also the Medusa, all of copper; but what is
most admirable is the Rape of a Sabine, with another man under foot, the
confusion and turning of whose limbs is most admirable. It is of one
entire marble, the work of John di Bologna, and is most stupendous; this
stands directly against the great piazza, where, to adorn one fountain,
are erected four marble statues and eight of brass, representing Neptune
and his family of sea gods, of a Colossean magnitude, with four sea
horses, in Parian marble of Lamedrati, in the midst of a very great
basin: a work, I think, hardly to be paralleled. Here is also the famous
statue of David, by M. Angelo; Hercules and Cacus, by Baccio Bandinelli;
the Perseus, in copper, by Benevento, and the Judith of Donatelli, which
stand publicly before the old Palace with the Centaur of Bologna, huge
Colossean figures. Near this stand Cosmo di Medicis on horseback, in
brass on a pedestal of marble, and four copper bassorelievos by John di
Bologna, with divers inscriptions; the Ferdinand the First, on horseback,
is of Pietro Tacca. The brazen boar, which serves for another public
fountain, is admirable.

After dinner, we went to the Church of the Annunciata, where the Duke and
his Court were at their devotions, being a place of extraordinary repute
for sanctity: for here is a shrine that does great miracles, [proved] by
innumerable votive tablets, etc., covering almost the walls of the whole
church. This is the image of Gabriel, who saluted the Blessed Virgin, and
which the artist finished so well, that he was in despair of performing
the Virgin's face so well; whereupon it was miraculously done for him
while he slept; but others say it was painted by St. Luke himself.
Whoever it was, infinite is the devotion of both sexes to it. The altar
is set off with four columns of oriental alabaster, and lighted by thirty
great silver lamps. There are innumerable other pictures by rare masters.
Our Savior's Passion in brass tables inserted in marble, is the work of
John di Bologna and Baccio Bandinelli.

To this church joins a convent, whose cloister is painted in _fresco_
very rarely. There is also near it an hospital for 1,000 persons, with
nurse-children, and several other charitable accommodations.

At the Duke's Cavalerizza, the Prince has a stable of the finest horses
of all countries, Arabs, Turks, Barbs, Gennets, English, etc., which are
continually exercised in the _manège_.

Near this is a place where are kept several wild beasts, as wolves, cats,
bears, tigers, and lions. They are loose in a deep walled court, and
therefore to be seen with more pleasure than those at the Tower of
London, in their grates. One of the lions leaped to a surprising height,
to catch a joint of mutton which I caused to be hung down.

[Sidenote: SIENNA]

[20]There are many plain brick towers erected for defense, when this was
a free state. The highest is called the Mangio, standing at the foot of
the piazza which we went first to see after our arrival. At the entrance
of this tower is a chapel open toward the piazza, of marble well adorned
with sculpture.

    [Footnote 20: There seems to be here an omission in the MS. between
    their leaving Florence and going to Sienna.]

On the other side is the Signoria, or Court of Justice, well built _a la
moderna_, of brick; indeed the bricks of Sienna are so well made, that
they look almost as well as porphyry itself, having a kind of natural
polish.

In the Senate-house is a very fair Hall where they sometimes entertain
the people with public shows and operas, as they call them. Toward the
left are the statues of Romulus and Remus with the wolf, all of brass,
placed on a column of ophite stone, which they report was brought from
the renowned Ephesian Temple. These ensigns being the arms of the town,
are set up in divers of the streets and public ways both within and far
without the city.

The piazza compasses the facciáta of the court and chapel, and, being
made with descending steps, much resembles the figure of an escalop
shell. The white ranges of pavement, intermixed with the excellent bricks
above mentioned, with which the town is generally well paved, render it
very clean. About this market place (for so it is) are many fair palaces,
though not built with excess of elegance. There stands an arch, the work
of Baltazzar di Sienna, built with wonderful ingenuity, so that it is not
easy to conceive how it is supported, yet it has some imperceptible
contiguations, which do not betray themselves easily to the eye. On the
edge of the piazza is a goodly fountain beautified with statues, the
water issuing out of the wolves' mouths, being the work of Jacobo
Quercei, a famous artist. There are divers other public fountains in the
city, of good design.

After this we walked to the Sapienza, which is the University, or rather
College, where the high Germans enjoy many particular privileges when
they addict themselves to the civil law: and indeed this place has
produced many excellent scholars, besides those three Popes, Alexander,
Pius II., and III., of that name, the learned Æneas Sylvius; and both
were of the ancient house of the Piccolomini.

The chief street is called Strada Romana, in which Pius II. has built a
most stately palace of square stone, with an incomparable portico
joining near to it. The town is commanded by a castle which hath four
bastions and a garrison of soldiers. Near it is a list to ride horses in,
much frequented by the gallants in summer.

Not far from hence is the Church and Convent of the Dominicans, where in
the chapel of St. Catherine of Sienna they show her head, the rest of her
body being translated to Rome. The Duomo, or Cathedral, both without and
within, is of large square stones of black and white marble polished, of
inexpressible beauty, as is the front adorned with sculpture and rare
statues. In the middle is a stately cupola and two columns of sundry
streaked colored marble. About the body of the church, on a cornice
within, are inserted the heads of all the Popes. The pulpit is beautified
with marble figures, a piece of exquisite work; but what exceeds all
description is the pavement, where (besides the various emblems and other
figures in the nave) the choir is wrought with the history of the Bible,
so artificially expressed in the natural colors of the marbles, that few
pictures exceed it. Here stands a Christo, rarely cut in marble, and on
the large high altar is a brazen vessel of admirable invention and art.
The organs are exceeding sweet and well tuned. On the left side of the
altar is the library, where are painted the acts of Æneas Sylvius, and
others by Raphael. They showed us an arm of St. John the Baptist,
wherewith, they say, he baptized our Savior in Jordan; it was given by
the King of Peloponnesus to one of the Popes, as an inscription
testifies. They have also St. Peter's sword, with which he smote off the
ear of Malchus.

Just against the cathedral, we went into the Hospital, where they
entertain and refresh for three or four days, gratis, such pilgrims as go
to Rome. In the chapel belonging to it lies the body of St. Susorius,
their founder, as yet uncorrupted, though dead many hundreds of years.
They show one of the nails which pierced our Savior, and Saint
Chrysostom's "Comment on the Gospel," written by his own hand. Below the
hill stands the pool called Fonte Brande, where fish are fed for pleasure
more than food.

St. Francis's Church is a large pile, near which, yet a little without
the city, grows a tree which they report in their legend grew from the
Saint's staff, which, on going to sleep, he fixed in the ground, and at
his waking found it had grown a large tree. They affirm that the wood of
it in decoction cures sundry diseases.

[Sidenote: TORRINIERI]

2d November, 1644. We went from Sienna, desirous of being present at the
cavalcade of the new Pope, Innocent X.,[21] who had not yet made the
grand procession to St. John di Laterano. We set out by Porto Romano, the
country all about the town being rare for hunting and game. Wild boar and
venison are frequently sold in the shops in many of the towns about it.
We passed near Monte Oliveto, where the monastery of that Order is
pleasantly situated, and worth seeing. Passing over a bridge, which, by
the inscription, appears to have been built by Prince Matthias, we went
through Buon-Convento, famous for the death of the Emperor, Henry VII.,
who was here poisoned with the Holy Eucharist. Thence, we came to
Torrinieri, where we dined. This village is in a sweet valley, in view of
Montalcino, famous for the rare Muscatello.[22] After three miles more,
we go by St. Quirico, and lay at a private osteria near it, where, after
we were provided of lodging, came in Cardinal Donghi, a Genoese by birth,
now come from Rome; he was so civil as to entertain us with great
respect, hearing we were English, for that, he told us he had been once
in our country. Among other discourse, he related how a dove had been
seen to sit on the chair in the Conclave at the election of Pope
Innocent, which he magnified as a great good omen, with other particulars
which we inquired of him, till our suppers parted us. He came in great
state with his own bedstead and all the furniture, yet would by no means
suffer us to resign the room we had taken up in the lodging before his
arrival. Next morning, we rode by Monte Pientio, or, as vulgarly called,
Monte Mantumiato, which is of an excessive height, ever and anon peeping
above any clouds with its snowy head, till we had climbed to the inn at
Radicofani, built by Ferdinand, the great Duke, for the necessary
refreshment of travelers in so inhospitable a place. As we ascended, we
entered a very thick, solid, and dark body of clouds, looking like rocks
at a little distance, which lasted near a mile in going up; they were dry
misty vapors, hanging undissolved for a vast thickness, and obscuring
both the sun and earth, so that we seemed to be in the sea rather than in
the clouds, till, having pierced through it, we came into a most serene
heaven, as if we had been above all human conversation, the mountain
appearing more like a great island than joined to any other hills; for we
could perceive nothing but a sea of thick clouds rolling under our feet
like huge waves, every now and then suffering the top of some other
mountain to peep through, which we could discover many miles off: and
between some breaches of the clouds we could see landscapes and villages
of the subjacent country. This was one of the most pleasant, new, and
altogether surprising objects that I had ever beheld.

    [Footnote 21: John Baptista Pamphili, chosen Pope in October, 1644,
    died in 1655.]

    [Footnote 22: The wine so called.]

On the summit of this horrid rock (for so it is) is built a very strong
fort, garrisoned, and somewhat beneath it is a small town; the provisions
are drawn up with ropes and engines, the precipice being otherwise
inaccessible. At one end of the town lie heaps of rocks so strangely
broken off from the ragged mountain, as would affright one with their
horror and menacing postures. Just opposite to the inn gushed out a
plentiful and most useful fountain which falls into a great trough of
stone, bearing the Duke of Tuscany's arms. Here we dined, and I with my
black lead pen took the prospect. It is one of the utmost confines of the
Etrurian State toward St. Peter's Patrimony, since the gift of Matilda to
Gregory VII., as is pretended.

Here we pass a stone bridge, built by Pope Gregory XIV., and thence
immediately to Acquapendente, a town situated on a very ragged rock, down
which precipitates an entire river (which gives it the denomination),
with a most horrid roaring noise. We lay at the posthouse, on which is
this inscription:

    "_L'Insegna della Posta, é posta a posta,
    In questa posta, fin che habbia à sua posta
    Ogn'un Cavallo a Vetturi in Posta._"

Before it was dark, we went to see the Monastery of the Franciscans,
famous for six learned Popes, and sundry other great scholars, especially
the renowned physician and anatomist, Fabricius de Acquapendente, who was
bred and born there.

4th November, 1644. After a little riding, we descended toward the Lake
of Bolsena, which being above twenty miles in circuit, yields from hence
a most incomparable prospect. Near the middle of it are two small
islands, in one of which is a convent of melancholy Capuchins, where
those of the Farnesian family are interred. Pliny calls it _Tarquiniensis
Lacus_, and talks of divers floating islands about it, but they did not
appear to us. The lake is environed with mountains, at one of whose sides
we passed toward the town Bolsena, anciently Volsinium, famous in those
times, as is testified by divers rare sculptures in the court of St.
Christiana's church, the urn, altar, and jasper columns.

After seven miles' riding, passing through a wood heretofore sacred to
Juno, we came to Montefiascone, the head of the Falisci, a famous people
in old time, and heretofore Falernum, as renowned for its excellent wine,
as now for the story of the Dutch Bishop, who lies buried in St.
Flavian's church with this epitaph:

    "_Propter Est, Est, dominus meus mortuus est._"

Because, having ordered his servant to ride before, and inquire where the
best wine was, and there write _Est_, the man found some so good that he
wrote _Est, Est_, upon the vessels, and the Bishop drinking too much of
it, died.

[Sidenote: VITERBO]

From Montefiascone, we travel a plain and pleasant champaign to Viterbo,
which presents itself with much state afar off, in regard of her many
lofty pinnacles and towers; neither does it deceive our expectation; for
it is exceedingly beautified with public fountains, especially that at
the entrance, which is all of brass and adorned with many rare figures,
and salutes the passenger with a most agreeable object and refreshing
waters. There are many Popes buried in this city, and in the palace is
this odd inscription:

    "_Osiridis victoriam in Gigantas litteris historiographicis in hoc
    antiquissimo marmore inscriptam, ex Herculis olim, nunc Divi
    Laurentij Templo translatam, ad conversanda: vetustiss: patriæ
    monumenta atq' decora his locandum statuit S.P.Q.V._"

Under it:

    "_Sum Osiris Rex Jupiter universo in terrarum orbe._"

    "_Sum Osiris Rex qui ab Itala in Gigantes exercitus veni, vidi, et
    vici._"

    "_Sum Osiris Rex qui terrarum pacata Italiam decem a'nos quorum
    inventor fui._"

Near the town is a sulphurous fountain, which continually boils. After
dinner we took horse by the new way of Capranica, and so passing near
Mount Ciminus and the Lake, we began to enter the plains of Rome; at
which sight my thoughts were strangely elevated, but soon allayed by so
violent a shower, which fell just as we were contemplating that proud
Mistress of the world, and descending by the Vatican (for at that gate we
entered), that before we got into the city I was wet to the skin.

[Sidenote: ROME]

I came to Rome on the 4th of November, 1644, about five at night; and
being perplexed for a convenient lodging, wandered up and down on
horseback, till at last one conducted us to Monsieur Petit's, a
Frenchman, near the Piazza Spagnola. Here I alighted, and, having
bargained with my host for twenty crowns a month, I caused a good fire to
be made in my chamber and went to bed, being so very wet. The next
morning (for I was resolved to spend no time idly here) I got acquainted
with several persons who had long lived at Rome. I was especially
recommended to Father John, a Benedictine monk and Superior of his Order
for the English College of Douay, a person of singular learning,
religion, and humanity; also to Mr. Patrick Cary, an Abbot, brother to
our learned Lord Falkland, a witty young priest, who afterward came over
to our church; Dr. Bacon and Dr. Gibbs, physicians who had dependence on
Cardinal Caponi, the latter being an excellent poet; Father Courtney, the
chief of the Jesuits in the English College; my Lord of Somerset, brother
to the Marquis of Worcester; and some others, from whom I received
instructions how to behave in town, with directions to masters and books
to take in search of the antiquities, churches, collections, etc.
Accordingly, the next day, November 6th, I began to be very
pragmatical.[23]

    [Footnote 23: The sense in which Evelyn uses this word is that of
    its old signification, as being very active and full of business,
    setting to work systematically with what he came upon, namely, to
    view the antiquities and beauties of Rome.]

In the first place, our sights-man (for so they name certain persons here
who get their living by leading strangers about to see the city) went to
the Palace Farnese, a magnificent square structure, built by Michael
Angelo, of the three orders of columns after the ancient manner, and when
architecture was but newly recovered from the Gothic barbarity. The court
is square and terraced, having two pairs of stairs which lead to the
upper rooms, and conducted us to that famous gallery painted by Augustine
Caracci, than which nothing is more rare of that art; so deep and
well-studied are all the figures, that it would require more judgment
than I confess I had, to determine whether they were flat, or embossed.
Thence, we passed into another, painted in chiaroscúro, representing the
fabulous history of Hercules. We went out on a terrace, where was a
pretty garden on the leads, for it is built in a place that has no extent
of ground backward. The great hall is wrought by Salviati and Zuccharo,
furnished with statues, one of which being modern is the figure of a
Farnese, in a triumphant posture, of white marble, worthy of admiration.
Here we were shown the Museum of Fulvius Ursinos, replete with
innumerable collections; but the Major-Domo being absent, we could not at
this time see all we wished. Descending into the court, we with
astonishment contemplated those two incomparable statues of Hercules and
Flora, so much celebrated by Pliny, and indeed by all antiquity, as two
of the most rare pieces in the world; there likewise stands a modern
statue of Hercules and two Gladiators, not to be despised. In a second
court was a temporary shelter of boards over the most stupendous and
never-to-be-sufficiently-admired Torso of Amphion and Dirce, represented
in five figures, exceeding the life in magnitude, of the purest white
marble, the contending work of those famous statuaries, Apollonius and
Taurisco, in the time of Augustus, hewed out of one entire stone, and
remaining unblemished, to be valued beyond all the marbles of the world
for its antiquity and workmanship. There are divers other heads and
busts. At the entrance of this stately palace stand two rare and vast
fountains of garnito stone, brought into this piazza out of Titus's
Baths. Here, in summer, the gentlemen of Rome take the FRESCO in their
coaches and on foot. At the sides of this court, we visited the palace
of Signor Pichini, who has a good collection of antiquities, especially
the Adonis of Parian marble, which my Lord Arundel would once have
purchased, if a great price would have been taken for it.

We went into the CAMPO VACCINO, by the ruins of the Temple of Peace,
built by Titus Vespasianus, and thought to be the largest as well as the
most richly furnished of all the Roman dedicated places: it is now a heap
rather than a temple, yet the roof and _volto_ continue firm, showing it
to have been formerly of incomparable workmanship. This goodly structure
was, none knows how, consumed by fire the very night, by all computation,
that our blessed Savior was born.

From hence we passed by the place into which Curtius precipitated himself
for the love of his country, now without any sign of a lake, or vorago.
Near this stand some columns of white marble, of exquisite work, supposed
to be part of the Temple of Jupiter Tonans, built by Augustus; the work
of the capitals (being Corinthian) and architrave is excellent, full of
sacrificing utensils. There are three other of Jupiter Stator. Opposite
to these are the oratories, or churches, of St. Cosmo and Damiano,
heretofore the Temples of Romulus; a pretty old fabric, with a tribunal,
or tholus within, wrought all of Mosaic. The gates before it are brass,
and the whole much obliged to Pope Urban VIII. In this sacred place lie
the bodies of those two martyrs; and in a chapel on the right hand is a
rare painting of Cavaliere Baglioni.

We next entered St. Lorenzo in Miranda. The portico is supported by a
range of most stately columns; the inscription cut in the architrave
shows it to have been the Temple of Faustina. It is now made a fair
church, and has an hospital which joins it. On the same side is St.
Adriano, heretofore dedicated to Saturn. Before this was once placed a
military column, supposed to be set in the center of the city, from
whence they used to compute the distance of all the cities and places of
note under the dominion of those universal monarchs. To this church are
likewise brazen gates and a noble front; just opposite we saw the heaps
and ruins of Cicero's palace. Hence we went toward Mons Capitolinus, at
the foot of which stands the arch of Septimus Severus, full and entire,
save where the pedestal and some of the lower members are choked up with
ruins and earth. This arch is exceedingly enriched with sculpture and
trophies, with a large inscription. In the terrestrial and naval battles
here graven, is seen the Roman Aries (the battering-ram); and this was
the first triumphal arch set up in Rome. The Capitol, to which we climbed
by very broad steps, is built about a square court, at the right hand of
which, going up from Campo Vaccino, gushes a plentiful stream from the
statue of Tiber, in porphyry, very antique, and another representing
Rome; but, above all, is the admirable figure of Marforius, casting water
into a most ample concha. The front of this court is crowned with an
excellent fabric containing the Courts of Justice, and where the Criminal
Notary sits, and others. In one of the halls they show the statues of
Gregory XIII. and Paul III., with several others. To this joins a
handsome tower, the whole faciata adorned with noble statues, both on the
outside and on the battlements, ascended by a double pair of stairs, and
a stately Posario.

In the center of the court stands that incomparable horse bearing the
Emperor Marcus Aurelius, as big as the life, of Corinthian metal, placed
on a pedestal of marble, esteemed one of the noblest pieces of work now
extant, antique and very rare. There is also a vast head of a colossean
magnitude, of white marble, fixed in the wall. At the descending stairs
are set two horses of white marble governed by two naked slaves, taken to
be Castor and Pollux, brought from Pompey's Theatre. On the balustrade,
the trophies of Marius against the Cimbrians, very ancient and
instructive. At the foot of the steps toward the left hand is that
Colonna Miliaria, with the globe of brass on it, mentioned to have been
formerly set in Campo Vaccino. On the same hand, is the palace of the
Signiori Conservatori, or three Consuls, now the civil governors of the
city, containing the fraternities, or halls and guilds (as we call them),
of sundry companies, and other offices of state. Under the portico
within, are the statues of Augustus Cæsar, a Bacchus, and the so renowned
Colonna Rostrata of Duillius, with the excellent bassi-relievi. In a
smaller court, the statue of Constantine, on a fountain, a Minerva's head
of brass, and that of Commodus, to which belongs a hand, the thumb
whereof is at least an ell long, and yet proportionable; but the rest of
the _colosse_ is lost. In the corner of this court stand a horse and lion
fighting, as big as life, in white marble, exceedingly valued; likewise
the Rape of the Sabines; two cumbent figures of Alexander and Mammea; two
monstrous feet of a _colosse_ of Apollo; the Sepulchre of Agrippina; and
the standard, or antique measure of the Roman foot. Ascending by the
steps of the other corner, are inserted four basso-relievos, viz, the
triumph and sacrifice of Marcus Aurelius, which last, for the antiquity
and rareness of the work, I caused my painter, Carlo Neapolitano, to
copy. There are also two statues of the Muses, and one of Adrian, the
Emperor; above stands the figure of Marius, and by the wall Marsyas bound
to a tree; all of them excellent and antique. Above in the lobby are
inserted into the walls those ancient laws, on brass, called the Twelve
Tables; a fair Madonna of Pietro Perugino, painted on the wall; near
which are the archives, full of ancient records.

In the great hall are divers excellent paintings of Cavaliero Giuseppe
d'Arpino, a statue in brass of Sextus V. and of Leo X., of marble. In
another hall are many modern statues of their late Consuls and Governors,
set about with fine antique heads; others are painted by excellent
masters, representing the actions of M. Scævola, Horatius Cocles, etc.
The room where the Conservatori now feast upon solemn days, is tapestried
with crimson damask, embroidered with gold, having a state or
_balduquino_ of crimson velvet, very rich; the frieze above rarely
painted. Here are in brass, Romulus and Remus sucking the wolf, of brass,
with the Shepherd, Faustulus, by them; also the boy plucking the thorn
out of his foot, of brass, so much admired by artists. There are also
holy statues and heads of Saints. In a gallery near adjoining are the
names of the ancient Consuls, Prætors, and Fasti Romani, so celebrated by
the learned; also the figure of an old woman; two others representing
Poverty; and more in fragments. In another large room, furnished with
velvet, are the statue of Adonis, very rare, and divers antique heads. In
the next chamber, is an old statue of Cicero, one of another Consul, a
Hercules in brass, two women's heads of incomparable work, six other
statues; and, over the chimney, a very rare basso-relievo, and other
figures. In a little lobby before the chapel, is the statue of Hannibal,
a Bacchus very antique, _bustoes_ of Pan and Mercury, with other old
heads. All these noble statues, etc., belong to the city, and cannot be
disposed of to any private person, or removed hence, but are preserved
for the honor of the place, though great sums have been offered for them
by divers Princes, lovers of art, and antiquity. We now left the Capitol,
certainly one of the most renowned places in the world, even as now built
by the design of the famous M. Angelo.

Returning home by Ara Coeli, we mounted to it by more than 100 marble
steps, not in devotion, as I observed some to do on their bare knees, but
to see those two famous statues of Constantine, in white marble, placed
there out of his baths. In this church is a Madonna, reported to be
painted by St. Luke, and a column, on which we saw the print of a foot,
which they affirm to have been that of the Angel, seen on the Castle of
St. Angelo. Here the feast of our Blessed Savior's nativity being yearly
celebrated with divers pageants, they began to make the preparation.
Having viewed the Palace and fountain, at the other side of the stairs,
we returned weary to our lodgings.

On the 7th of November, we went again near the Capitol, toward the
Tarpeian rock, where it has a goodly prospect of the Tiber. Thence,
descending by the Tullianum, where they told us St. Peter was imprisoned,
they showed us a chapel (S. Pietro de Vincoli) in which a rocky side of
it bears the impression of his face. In the nave of the church gushes a
fountain, which they say was caused by the Apostle's prayers, when having
converted some of his fellow-captives he wanted water to make them
Christians. The painting of the Ascension is by Raphael. We then walked
about Mount Palatinus and the Aventine, and thence to the Circus Maximus,
capable of holding 40,000 spectators, now a heap of ruins, converted into
gardens. Then by the _Forum Boarium_, where they have a tradition that
Hercules slew Cacus, some ruins of his temple remaining. The Temple of
Janus Quadrifrons, having four arches, importing the four Seasons, and on
each side niches for the months, is still a substantial and pretty entire
antiquity. Near to this is the Arcus Argentariorum. Bending now toward
the Tiber, we went into the Theater of Marcellus, which would hold 80,000
persons, built by Augustus, and dedicated to his nephew; the
architecture, from what remains, appears to be inferior to none. It is
now wholly converted into the house of the Savelli, one of the old Roman
families. The people were now generally busy in erecting temporary
triumphs and arches with statues and flattering inscriptions against his
Holiness's grand procession to St. John di Laterani, among which the Jews
also began one in testimony of gratitude for their protection under the
Papal State. The Palazzo Barberini, designed by the present Pope's
architect, Cavaliero Bernini, seems from the size to be as princely an
object, as any modern building in Europe. It has a double portico, at the
end of which we ascended by two pair of oval stairs, all of stone, and
void in the well. One of these led us into a stately hall, the _volto_
whereof was newly painted _á fresco_, by the rare hand of Pietro
Berretini il Cortone. To this is annexed a gallery completely furnished
with whatever art can call rare and singular, and a library full of
worthy collections, medals, marbles, and manuscripts; but, above all, an
Egyptian Osiris, remarkable for its unknown material and antiquity. In
one of the rooms near this hangs the Sposaliccio of St. Sebastian, the
original of Annibal Caracci, of which I procured a copy, little inferior
to the prototype; a table, in my judgment, superior to anything I had
seen in Rome. In the court is a vast broken guglia, or obelisk, having
divers hieroglyphics cut on it.

8th November, 1644. We visited the Jesuits' Church, the front whereof is
esteemed a noble piece of architecture, the design of Jacomo della Porta
and the famous Vignola. In this church lies the body of their renowned
Ignatius Loyola, an arm of Xaverius, their other Apostle; and, at the
right end of their high altar, their champion, Cardinal Bellarmine. Here
Father Kircher (professor of Mathematics and the oriental tongues) showed
us many singular courtesies, leading us into their refectory,
dispensatory, laboratory, gardens, and finally (through a hall hung round
with pictures of such of their order as had been executed for their
pragmatical and busy adventures) into his own study, where, with Dutch
patience, he showed us his perpetual motions, catoptrics, magnetical
experiments, models, and a thousand other crotchets and devices, most of
them since published by himself, or his industrious scholar, Schotti.

Returning home, we had time to view the Palazzo de Medicis, which was an
house of the Duke of Florence near our lodging, upon the brow of Mons
Pincius, having a fine prospect toward the Campo Marzo. It is a
magnificent, strong building, with a substruction very remarkable, and a
portico supported with columns toward the gardens, with two huge lions,
of marble, at the end of the balustrade. The whole outside of the
_facciata_ is incrusted with antique and rare basso-relievos and statues.
Descending into the garden is a noble fountain governed by a Mercury of
brass. At a little distance, on the left, is a lodge full of fine
statues, among which the Sabines, antique and singularly rare. In the
arcade near this stand twenty-four statues of great price, and hard by is
a mount planted with cypresses, representing a fortress, with a goodly
fountain in the middle. Here is also a row balustred with white marble,
covered over with the natural shrubs, ivy, and other perennial greens,
divers statues and heads being placed as in niches. At a little distance
are those famed statues of Niobe and her family, in all fifteen, as large
as the life, of which we have ample mention in Pliny, esteemed among the
best pieces of work in the world for the passions they express, and all
other perfections of that stupendous art. There is likewise in this
garden a fair obelisk, full of hieroglyphics. In going out, the fountain
before the front casts water near fifty feet in height, when it is
received in a most ample marble basin. Here they usually rode the great
horse every morning; which gave me much diversion from the terrace of my
own chamber, where I could see all their motions. This evening, I was
invited to hear rare music at the Chiesa Nova; the black marble pillars
within led us to that most precious oratory of Philippus Nerius, their
founder; they being of the oratory of secular priests, under no vow.
There are in it divers good pictures, as the Assumption of Girolamo
Mutiano; the Crucifix; the Visitation of Elizabeth; the Presentation of
the Blessed Virgin; Christo Sepolto, of Guido Rheno, Caravaggio, Arpino,
and others. This fair church consists of fourteen altars, and as many
chapels. In it is buried (besides their Saint) Cæsar Baronius, the great
annalist. Through this, we went into the _sacristia_, where, the tapers
being lighted, one of the Order preached; after him stepped up a child of
eight or nine years old, who pronounced an oration with so much grace,
that I never was better pleased than to hear Italian so well and so
intelligently spoken. This course it seems they frequently use, to bring
their scholars to a habit of speaking distinctly, and forming their
action and assurance, which none so much want as ours in England. This
being finished, began their _motettos_, which in a lofty cupola richly
painted, were sung by eunuchs, and other rare voices, accompanied by
theorbos, harpsichords, and viols, so that we were even ravished with the
entertainment of the evening. This room is painted by Cortona, and has in
it two figures in the niches, and the church stands in one of the most
stately streets of Rome.

10th November, 1644. We went to see Prince Ludovisio's villa, where was
formerly the _Viridarium_ of the poet, Sallust. The house is very
magnificent, and the extent of the ground exceedingly large, considering
that it is in a city; in every quarter of the garden are antique statues,
and walks planted with cypress. To this garden belongs a house of
retirement, built in the figure of a cross, after a particular
ordonnance, especially the staircase. The whiteness and smoothness of the
excellent pargeting was a thing I much observed, being almost as even and
polished, as if it had been of marble. Above, is a fair prospect of the
city. In one of the chambers hang two famous pieces of Bassano, the one a
Vulcan, the other a Nativity; there is a German clock full of rare and
extraordinary motions; and, in a little room below are many precious
marbles, columns, urns, vases, and noble statues of porphyry, oriental
alabaster, and other rare materials. About this fabric is an ample area,
environed with sixteen vast jars of red earth, wherein the Romans used to
preserve their oil, or wine rather, which they buried, and such as are
properly called _testæ_. In the Palace I must never forget the famous
statue of the Gladiator, spoken of by Pliny, so much followed by all the
rare artists as the many copies testify, dispersed through almost all
Europe, both in stone and metal. There is also a Hercules, a head of
porphyry, and one of Marcus Aurelius. In the villa-house is a man's body
flesh and all, petrified, and even converted to marble, as it was found
in the Alps, and sent by the Emperor to one of the Popes; it lay in a
chest, or coffin, lined with black velvet, and one of the arms being
broken, you may see the perfect bone from the flesh which remains entire.
The Rape of Proserpine, in marble, is of the purest white, the work of
Bernini. In the cabinet near it are innumerable small brass figures, and
other curiosities. But what some look upon as exceeding all the rest, is
a very rich bedstead (which sort of gross furniture the Italians much
glory in, as formerly did our grandfathers in England in their inlaid
wooden ones) inlaid with all sorts of precious stones and antique heads,
onyxes, agates, and cornelians, esteemed to be worth 80 or 90,000 crowns.
Here are also divers cabinets and tables of the Florence work, besides
pictures in the gallery, especially the Apollo--a conceited chair to
sleep in with the legs stretched out, with hooks, and pieces of wood to
draw out longer or shorter.

From this villa, we went to see Signor Angeloni's study, who very
courteously showed us such a collection of rare medals as is hardly to be
paralleled; divers good pictures, and many outlandish and Indian
curiosities, and things of nature.

From him, we walked to Monte Cavallo, heretofore called Mons Quirinalis,
where we saw those two rare horses, the work of the rivals Phidias and
Praxiteles, as they were sent to Nero (by Tiridates King) out of Armenia.
They were placed on pedestals of white marble by Sextus V., by whom I
suppose their injuries were repaired, and are governed by four naked
slaves, like those at the foot of the Capitol. Here runs a most noble
fountain, regarding four of the most stately streets for building and
beauty to be seen in any city of Europe. Opposite to these statues is the
Pope's summer palace, built by Gregory XIII.; and, in my opinion, it is,
for largeness and the architecture, one of the most conspicuous in Rome,
having a stately portico which leads round the court under columns, in
the centre of which there runs a beautiful fountain. The chapel is
incrusted with such precious materials, that nothing can be more rich,
or glorious, nor are the other ornaments and movables about it at all
inferior. The hall is painted by Lanfranci, and others. The garden, which
is called the Belvedere di Monte Cavallo, in emulation of that of the
Vatican, is most excellent for air and prospect; its exquisite fountains,
close walks, grots, piscinas, or stews for fish, planted about with
venerable cypresses, and refreshed with water-music, aviaries, and other
rarities.

12th November, 1644. We saw Dioclesian's Baths, whose ruins testify the
vastness of the original foundation and magnificence; by what M. Angelo
took from the ornaments about it, 'tis said he restored the then almost
lost art of architecture. This monstrous pile was built by the labor of
the primitive Christians, then under one of the ten great persecutions.
The Church of St. Bernardo is made out of one only of these ruinous
cupolas, and is in the form of an urn with a cover.

Opposite to this, is the Fontana delle Therme, otherwise called _Fons
Felix_; in it is a basso-relievo of white marble, representing Moses
striking the rock, which is adorned with camels, men, women, and children
drinking, as large as life; a work for the design and vastness truly
magnificent. The water is conveyed no less than twenty-two miles in an
aqueduct by Sextus V., _ex agro Columna_, by way of Præneste, as the
inscription testifies. It gushes into three ample lavers raised about
with stone, before which are placed two lions of a strange black stone,
very rare and antique. Near this are the store-houses for the city's
corn, and over against it the Church of St. Susanna, where were the
gardens of Sallust. The faciàta of this church is noble, the _soffito_
within gilded and full of pictures; especially famous is that of Susanna,
by Baldassa di Bologna. The tribunal of the high altar is of exquisite
work, from whose marble steps you descend under ground to the repository
of divers Saints. The picture over this altar is the work of Jacomo
Siciliano. The foundation is for Bernadine Nuns.

Santa Maria della Vittoria presents us with the most ravishing front. In
this church was sung the Te Deum by Gregory XV., after the signal victory
of the Emperor at Prague; the standards then taken still hang up, and the
impress waving this motto over the Pope's arms, _Extirpentur_. I
observed that the high altar was much frequented for an image of the
Virgin. It has some rare statues, as Paul ravished into the third heaven,
by Fiamingo, and some good pictures. From this, we bent toward
Dioclesian's Baths, never satisfied with contemplating that immense pile,
in building which 150,000 Christians were destined to labor fourteen
years, and were then all murdered. Here is a monastery of Carthusians,
called Santa Maria degli Angeli, the architecture of M. Angelo, and the
cloister encompassing walls in an ample garden.

Mont Alto's villa is entered by a stately gate of stone built on the
Viminalis, and is no other than a spacious park full of fountains,
especially that which salutes us at the front; stews for fish; the
cypress walks are so beset with statues, inscriptions, relievos, and
other ancient marbles, that nothing can be more stately and solemn. The
citron trees are uncommonly large. In the palace joining to it are
innumerable collections of value. Returning, we stepped into St. Agnes
church, where there is a tribunal of antique mosaic, and on the altar a
most rich ciborio of brass, with a statue of St. Agnes in oriental
alabaster. The church of Santa Constanza has a noble cupola. Here they
showed us a stone ship borne on a column heretofore sacred to Bacchus, as
the relievo intimates by the drunken emblems and instruments wrought upon
it. The altar is of rich porphyry, as I remember. Looking back, we had
the entire view of the Via Pia down to the two horses before the Monte
Cavallo, before mentioned, one of the most glorious sights for state and
magnificence that any city can show a traveler. We returned by Porta Pia,
and the Via Salaria, near Campo Scelerato, in whose gloomy caves the
wanton Vestals were heretofore immured alive.

Thence to Via Felix, a straight and noble street but very precipitous,
till we came to the four fountains of Lepidus, built at the abutments of
four stately ways, making an exact cross of right angles; and, at the
fountains, are as many cumbent figures of marble, under very large niches
of stone, the water pouring into huge basins. The church of St. Carlo is
a singular fabric for neatness, of an oval design, built of a new white
stone; the columns are worth notice. Under it is another church of a
structure nothing less admirable.

Next, we came to Santa Maria Maggiore, built upon the Esqueline Mountain,
which gives it a most conspicuous face to the street at a great distance.
The design is mixed partly antique, partly modern. Here they affirm that
the Blessed Virgin appearing, showed where it should be built 300 years
since. The first pavement is rare and antique; so is the portico built by
P. P. Eugenius II. The _ciborio_ is the work of Paris Romano, and the
tribunal of Mosaic.

We were showed in the church a _concha_ of porphyry, wherein they say
Patricius, the founder, lies. This is one of the most famous of the seven
Roman Churches, and is, in my opinion at least, after St. Peter's, the
most magnificent. Above all, for incomparable glory and materials, are
the two chapels of Sextus V. and Paulus V. That of Sextus was designed by
Dom. Fontana, in which are two rare great statues, and some good pieces
of painting; and here they pretended to show some of the Holy Innocents'
bodies slain by Herod: as also that renowned tabernacle of metal, gilt,
sustained by four angels, holding as many tapers, placed on the altar. In
this chapel is the statue of Sextus, in copper, with basso-relievos of
most of his famous acts, in Parian marble; but that of P. Paulus, which
we next entered, opposite to this, is beyond all imagination glorious,
and above description. It is so encircled with agates, and other most
precious materials, as to dazzle and confound the beholders. The
basso-relievos are for the most part of pure snowy marble, intermixed
with figures of molten brass, double gilt, on _lapis lazuli_. The altar
is a most stupendous piece; but most incomparable is the cupola painted
by Giuseppe Rheni, and the present Baglioni, full of exquisite
sculptures. There is a most sumptuous _sacristia_; and the piece over the
altar was by the hand of St. Luke; if you will believe it. Paulus V. hath
here likewise built two other altars; under the one lie the bones of the
Apostle, St. Matthias. In another oratory, is the statue of this Pope,
and the head of the Congo Ambassador, who was converted at Rome, and died
here. In a third chapel, designed by Michael Angelo, lie the bodies of
Platina, and the Cardinal of Toledo, Honorius III., Nicephorus IV., the
ashes of St. Hierom, and many others. In that of Sextus V., before
mentioned, was showed us part of the crib in which Christ was swaddled
at Bethlehem; there is also the statue of Pius V.; and going out at the
further end, is the resurrection of Lazarus, by a very rare hand. In the
portico, is this late inscription: "_Cardinal Antonio Barberino
Archypresbytero, aream marmoream quam Christianorum pietas exsculpsit,
laborante sub Tyrannis ecclesiâ, ut esset loci sanctitate venerabilior,
Francis Gualdus Arm. Eques S. Stephani è suis ædibus huc transtulit et
ornavit, 1632_." Just before this portico, stands a very sublime and
stately Corinthian column, of white marble, translated hither for an
ornament from the old Temple of Peace, built by Vespasian, having on the
plinth of the capital the image of our Lady, gilt on metal; at the
pedestal runs a fountain. Going down the hill, we saw the obelisk taken
from the Mausoleum of Augustus, and erected in this place by Domenico
Fontana, with this epigraph: "_Sextus V. Pont. Max. Obeliscum ex Egypto
advectum, Augusti in Mausoleo dicatum, eversum deinde et in plures
confractum partes, in via ad S. Rochum jacentem, in pristinam faciem
restitutum Salutiferæ Cruci feliciùs hic erigi jussit, anno MDLXXXVIII,
Pont. III_"; and so we came weary to our lodgings.

At the foot of this hill, is the church of St. Prudentia, in which is a
well, filled with the blood and bones of several martyrs, but grated over
with iron, and visited by many devotees. Near this stands the church of
her sister, S. Praxedeis, much frequented for the same reason. In a
little obscure place, canceled in with iron work, is the pillar, or
stump, at which they relate our Blessed Savior was scourged, being full
of bloody spots, at which the devout sex are always rubbing their
chaplets, and convey their kisses by a stick having a tassel on it. Here,
besides a noble statue of St. Peter, is the tomb of the famous Cardinal
Cajetan, an excellent piece; and here they hold that St. Peter said his
first mass at Rome, with the same altar and the stone he kneeled on, he
having been first lodged in this house, as they compute about the
forty-fourth year of the Incarnation. They also show many relics, or
rather rags, of his mantle. St. Laurence in Panisperna did next invite
us, where that martyr was cruelly broiled on the gridiron, there yet
remaining. St. Bridget is buried in this church under a stately monument.
In the front of the pile is the suffering of St. Laurence painted _á
fresco_ on the wall. The fabric is nothing but Gothic. On the left is the
Therma Novatii; and, on the right, Agrippina's Lavacrum.

14th November, 1644. We passed again through the stately Capitol and
Campo Vaccino toward the Amphitheater of Vespasian, but first stayed to
look at Titus's Triumphal Arch, erected by the people of Rome, in honor
of his victory at Jerusalem; on the left hand whereof he is represented
drawn in a chariot with four horses abreast; on the right hand, or side
of the arch within, is sculptured in figures, or basso-relievo as big as
the life (and in one entire marble) the Ark of the Covenant, on which
stands the seven-branched candlestick described in Leviticus, as also the
two Tables of the Law, all borne on men's shoulders by the bars, as they
are described in some of St. Hierom's bibles; before this, go many
crowned and laureated figures, and twelve Roman _fasces_ with other
sacred vessels. This much confirmed the idea I before had; and therefore,
for the light it gave to the Holy History, I caused my painter, Carlo, to
copy it exactly. The rest of the work of the Arch is of the noblest, best
understood _composita_; and the inscription is this, in capital letters:

                      S. P. Q. R.
    D. TITO, D. VESPASIANI, F. VESPASIANI AVGVSTO.

Santa Maria Nova is on the place where they told us Simon Magus fell out
of the air at St. Peter's prayer, and burst himself to pieces on a flint.
Near this is a marble monument, erected by the people of Rome in memory
of the Pope's return from Avignon. Being now passed the ruins of
Meta-Sudante (which stood before the Colosseum, so called, because there
once stood here the statue of Commodus provided to refresh the
gladiators), we enter the mighty ruins of the Vespasian Amphitheatre,
begun by Vespasian, and finished by that excellent prince, Titus. It is
830 Roman palms in length (_i.e._ 130 paces), 90 in breadth at the area,
with caves for the wild beasts which used to be baited by men instead of
dogs; the whole oval periphery 2888-4/7 palms, and capable of containing
87,000 spectators with ease and all accommodation: the three rows of
circles are yet entire; the first was for the senators, the middle for
the nobility, the third for the people. At the dedication of this place
were 5,000 wild beasts slain in three months during which the feast
lasted, to the expense of ten millions of gold. It was built of Tiburtine
stone, a vast height, with the five orders of architecture, by 30,000
captive Jews. It is without, of a perfect circle, and was once adorned
thick with statues, and remained entire, till of late that some of the
stones were carried away to repair the city walls and build the Farnesian
palace. That which still appears most admirable is, the contrivance of
the porticos, vaults, and stairs, with the excessive altitude, which well
deserves this distich of the poet:

    "_Omnis Cæsareo cedat labor Amphitheatro;
    Unum pro cunctis fama loquatur opus._"

Near it is a small chapel called Santa Maria della Pieta nel Colisseo,
which is erected on the steps, or stages, very lofty at one of its sides,
or ranges, within, and where there lives only a melancholy hermit. I
ascended to the very top of it with wonderful admiration.

The Arch of Constantine the Great is close by the Meta-Sudante, before
mentioned, at the beginning of the Via Appia, on one side Monte Celio,
and is perfectly entire, erected by the people in memory of his victory
over Maxentius, at the Pons Milvius, now Ponte Mole. In the front is this
inscription:

    IMP. CAES. FL. CONSTANTINO MAXIMO
        P. F. AVGVSTO S. P. Q. R.
    QVOD INSTINCTV DIVINITATIS MENTIS
       MAGNITVDINE CVM EXERCITV SVO
     TAM DE TYRANNO QVAM DE OMNI EIVS
       FACTIONE VNO TEMPORE IVSTIS
       REMPVBLICAM VLTVS EST ARMIS
    ARCVM TRIVMPHIS INSIGNEM DICAVIT.

Hence, we went to St. Gregorio, in Monte Celio, where are many privileged
altars, and there they showed us an arm of that saint, and other relics.
Before this church stands a very noble portico.

15th November, 1644. Was very wet, and I stirred not out, and the 16th I
went to visit Father John, Provincial of the Benedictines.

17th November, 1644. I walked to Villa Borghese, a house and ample garden
on Mons Pincius, yet somewhat without the city walls, circumscribed by
another wall full of small turrets and banqueting-houses; which makes it
appear at a distance like a little town. Within it is an elysium of
delight, having in the centre of it a noble palace; but the entrance of
the garden presents us with a very glorious fabric, or rather door-case,
adorned with divers excellent marble statues. This garden abounded with
all sorts of delicious fruit and exotic simples, fountains of sundry
inventions, groves, and small rivulets. There is also adjoining to it a
vivarium for ostriches, peacocks, swans, cranes, etc., and divers strange
beasts, deer, and hares. The grotto is very rare, and represents, among
other devices, artificial rain, and sundry shapes of vessels, flowers,
etc.; which is effected by changing the heads of the fountains. The
groves are of cypress, laurel, pine, myrtle, and olive. The four sphinxes
are very antique, and worthy observation. To this is a volary, full of
curious birds. The house is square with turrets, from which the prospect
is excellent toward Rome, and the environing hills, covered as they now
are with snow, which indeed commonly continues even a great part of the
summer, affording sweet refreshment. Round the house is a baluster of
white marble, with frequent jettos of water, and adorned with a multitude
of statues. The walls of the house are covered with antique incrustations
of history, as that of Curtius, the Rape of Europa, Leda, etc. The
cornices above consist of fruitages and festoons, between which are
niches furnished with statues, which order is observed to the very roof.
In the lodge, at the entry, are divers good statues of Consuls, etc.,
with two pieces of field artillery upon carriages, (a mode much practiced
in Italy before the great men's houses) which they look on as a piece of
state more than defense. In the first hall within, are the twelve Roman
Emperors, of excellent marble; between them stand porphyry columns, and
other precious stones of vast height and magnitude, with urns of oriental
alabaster. Tables of pietra-commessa: and here is that renowned Diana
which Pompey worshiped, of eastern marble: the most incomparable Seneca
of touch, bleeding in an huge vase of porphyry, resembling the drops of
his blood; the so famous Gladiator, and the Hermaphrodite upon a quilt of
stone. The new piece of Daphne, and David, of Cavaliero Bernini, is
observable for the pure whiteness of the stone, and the art of the
statuary plainly stupendous. There is a multitude of rare pictures of
infinite value, by the best masters; huge tables of porphyry, and two
exquisitely wrought vases of the same. In another chamber, are divers
sorts of instruments of music: among other toys that of a satyr, which so
artificially expressed a human voice, with the motion of eyes and head,
that it might easily afright one who was not prepared for that most
extravagant sight. They showed us also a chair that catches fast any one
who sits down in it, so as not to be able to stir out, by certain springs
concealed in the arms and back thereof, which at sitting down surprises a
man on the sudden, locking him in by the arms and thighs, after a true
treacherous Italian guise. The perspective is also considerable, composed
by the position of looking-glasses, which render a strange multiplication
of things resembling divers most richly furnished rooms. Here stands a
rare clock of German work; in a word, nothing but what is magnificent is
to be seen in this Paradise.

The next day, I went to the Vatican, where, in the morning, I saw the
ceremony of Pamfilio, the Pope's nephew, receiving a Cardinal's hat; this
was the first time I had seen his Holiness _in pontificalibus_. After the
Cardinals and Princes had met in the consistory, the ceremony was in the
Pope's chapel, where he was at the altar invested with most pompous
rites.

19th November, 1644. I visited St. Peter's, that most stupendous and
incomparable Basilica, far surpassing any now extant in the world, and
perhaps, Solomon's Temple excepted, any that was ever built. The
largeness of the piazza before the portico is worth observing, because it
affords a noble prospect of the church, not crowded up, as for the most
part is the case in other places where great churches are erected. In
this is a fountain, out of which gushes a river rather than a stream
which, ascending a good height, breaks upon a round emboss of marble into
millions of pearls that fall into the subjacent basins with great noise;
I esteem this one of the goodliest fountains I ever saw.

Next is the obelisk transported out of Egypt, and dedicated by Octavius
Augustus to Julius Cæsar, whose ashes it formerly bore on the summit;
but, being since overturned by the barbarians, was re-erected with vast
cost and a most stupendous invention by Domenico Fontana, architect to
Sextus V. The obelisk consists of one entire square stone without
hieroglyphics, in height seventy-two feet, but comprehending the base and
all it is 108 feet high, and rests on four lions of gilded copper, so as
you may see through the base of the obelisk and plinth of the pedestal.

Upon two faces of the obelisk is engraven

      DIVO CAES. DIVI
     IVLII F. AVGVSTO
    TI. CAES. DIVI AVG.
     F. AVGVS. SACRVM.

It now bears on the top a cross in which it is said that Sextus V.
inclosed some of the holy wood; and under it is to be read by good eyes:

        SANCTISSIMAE CRVCI
       SEXTVS V. PONT. MAX.
           CONSECRAVIT.
      E. PRIORE SEDE AVVLSVM
      ET CAESS. AVG. AC TIB.
    I. L. ABLATUM M.D.LXXXVI.

On the four faces of the base below:

           1. CHRISTVS VINCIT.
            CHRISTVS REGNAT.
            CHRISTVS IMPERAT.
          CHRISTVS AB OMNI MALO
          PLEBEM SVAM DEFENDAT.

         2. SEXTVS V. PONT. MAX.
    OBELISCVM VATICANVM DIIS GENTIVM
           IMPIO CVLTV DICATVM
          AD APOSTOLORVM LIMINA
        OPEROSO LABORE TRANSTVLIT
        AN. M.D.LXXXVI. PONT. II.

           3. ECCE CRVX DOMINI
              FVGITE PARTES
                ADVERSAE
               VINCIT LEO
             DE TRIBV IVDA.

         4. SEXTVS V. PONT. MAX.
             CRVCI INVICTAE
           OBELISCVM VATICANVM
         AB IMPIA SVPERSTITIONE
            EXPIATVM IVSTIVS
        ET FELICITVS CONSECRAVIT
       AN. M.D.L.XXXVI. PONT. II.

A little lower:

    DOMINICVS FONTANA EX PAGO MILIAGRI NOVOCOMENSIS
                   TRANSTVLIT ET EREXIT.

It is reported to have taken a year in erecting, to have cost 37,975
crowns, the labor of 907 men, and 75 horses: this being the first of the
four Egyptian obelisks set up at Rome, and one of the forty-two brought
to the city out of Egypt, set up in several places, but thrown down by
the Goths, Barbarians, and earthquakes. Some coaches stood before the
steps of the ascent, whereof one, belonging to Cardinal Medici, had all
the metal work of massy silver, viz, the bow behind and other places. The
coaches at Rome, as well as covered wagons also much in use, are
generally the richest and largest I ever saw. Before the _facciata_ of
the church is an ample pavement. The church was first begun by St.
Anacletus, when rather a chapel, on a foundation, as they give out, of
Constantine the Great, who, in honor of the Apostles, carried twelve
baskets full of sand to the work. After him, Julius II. took it in hand,
to which all his successors have contributed more or less.

The front is supposed to be the largest and best-studied piece of
architecture in the world; to this we went up by four steps of marble.
The first entrance is supported by huge pilasters; the _volto_ within is
the richest possible, and overlaid with gold. Between the five large
anti-ports are columns of enormous height and compass, with as many gates
of brass, the work and sculpture of Pollaivola, the Florentine, full of
cast figures and histories in a deep relievo. Over this runs a terrace of
like amplitude and ornament, where the Pope, at solemn times, bestows his
Benediction on the vulgar. On each side of this portico are two
_campaniles_, or towers, whereof there was but one perfected, of
admirable art. On the top of all, runs a balustrade which edges it quite
round, and upon this at equal distances are Christ and the twelve
Disciples of gigantic size and stature, yet below showing no greater than
the life. Entering the church, admirable is the breadth of the _volto_,
or roof, which is all carved with foliage and roses overlaid with gold in
nature of a deep basso-relievo, _à l'antique_. The nave, or body, is in
form of a cross, whereof the foot-part is the longest; and, at the
_internodium_ of the transept, rises the cupola, which being all of stone
and of prodigious height is more in compass than that of the Pantheon
(which was the largest among the old Romans, and is yet entire) or any
other known. The inside, or concave, is covered with most exquisite
Mosaic, representing the Celestial Hierarchy, by Giuseppe d'Arpino, full
of stars of gold; the convex, or outside, exposed to the air, is covered
with lead, with great ribs of metal double gilt (as are also the ten
other lesser cupolas, for no fewer adorn this glorious structure), which
gives a great and admirable splendor in all parts of the city. On the
summit of this is fixed a brazen globe gilt, capable of receiving
thirty-five persons. This I entered, and engraved my name among other
travelers. Lastly, is the Cross, the access to which is between the
leaden covering and the stone convex, or arch-work; a most truly
astonishing piece of art! On the battlements of the church, also all
overlaid with lead and marble, you would imagine yourself in a town, so
many are the cupolas, pinnacles, towers, juttings, and not a few houses
inhabited by men who dwell there, and have enough to do to look after the
vast reparations which continually employ them.

Having seen this, we descended into the body of the church, full of
collateral chapels and large oratories, most of them exceeding the size
of ordinary churches; but the principal are four incrusted with most
precious marbles and stones of various colors, adorned with an infinity
of statues, pictures, stately altars, and innumerable relics. The
altar-piece of St. Michael being of Mosaic, I could not pass without
particular note, as one of the best of that kind. The chapel of Gregory
XIII., where he is buried, is most splendid. Under the cupola, and in the
center of the church, stands the high altar, consecrated first by Clement
VIII., adorned by Paul V., and lately covered by Pope Urban VIII.; with
that stupendous canopy of Corinthian brass, which heretofore was brought
from the Pantheon; it consists of four wreathed columns, partly
channelled and encircled with vines, on which hang little _puti_ birds
and bees (the arms of the _Barberini_), sustaining a _baldacchino_ of the
same metal. The four columns weigh an hundred and ten thousand pounds,
all over richly gilt; this, with the pedestals, crown, and statues about
it, form a thing of that art, vastness, and magnificence, as is beyond
all that man's industry has produced of the kind; it is the work of
Bernini, a Florentine sculptor, architect, painter, and poet, who, a
little before my coming to the city, gave a public opera (for so they
call shows of that kind), wherein he painted the scenes, cut the statues,
invented the engines, composed the music, writ the comedy, and built the
theater. Opposite to either of these pillars, under those niches which,
with their columns, support the weighty cupola, are placed four exquisite
statues of Parian marble, to which are four altars; that of St. Veronica,
made by Fra. Mochi, has over it the reliquary, where they showed us the
miraculous _Sudarium_ indued with the picture of our Savior's face, with
this inscription: "_Salvatoris imaginem Veronicæ Sudario exceptam ut loci
majestas decentèr custodiret, Urbanus VIII. Pont. Max. Marmoreum signum
et Altare addidit, Conditorium extruxit et ornavit_."

Right against this is that of Longinus, of a Colossean magnitude, also by
Bernini, and over him the conservatory of the iron lance inserted in a
most precious crystal, with this epigraph: "_Longini Lanceam quam
Innocentius VIII. à Bajazete Turcarum Tyranno accepit, Urbanus VIII.
statuâ appositâ, et Sacello substructo, in exornatum Conditorium
transtulit_."

The third chapel has over the altar the statue of our countrywoman, St.
Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great; the work of Boggi, an
excellent sculptor; and here is preserved a great piece of the pretended
wood of the holy cross, which she is said to have first detected
miraculously in the Holy Land. It was placed here by the late Pope with
this inscription: "_Partem Crucis quam Helena Imperatrix è Calvario in
Urbem adduxit, Urbanus VIII. Pont. Max. è Sissorianâ Basilicâ desumptam,
additis arâ et statuâ, hìc in Vaticano collocavit_."

The fourth hath over the altar, and opposite to that of St. Veronica, the
statue of St. Andrew, the work of Fiamingo, admirable above all the
other; above is preserved the head of that Apostle, richly enchased. It
is said that this excellent sculptor died mad to see his statue placed in
a disadvantageous light by Bernini, the chief architect, who found
himself outdone by this artist. The inscription over it is this:

    "_St. Andreæ caput quod Pius II. ex Achaiâ in Vaticanum asportandum
    curavit, Urbanus VIII. novis hic ornamentis decoratum sacrisque
    statuæ ac Sacelli honoribus coli voluit._"

The relics showed and kept in this church are without number, as are also
the precious vessels of gold, silver, and gems, with the vests and
services to be seen in the Sacristy, which they showed us. Under the high
altar is an ample grot inlaid with _pietra-commessa_, wherein half of the
bodies of St. Peter and St. Paul are preserved; before hang divers great
lamps of the richest plate, burning continually. About this and
contiguous to the altar, runs a balustrade, in form of a theater, of
black marble. Toward the left, as you go out of the church by the
portico, a little beneath the high altar, is an old brass statue of St.
Peter sitting, under the soles of whose feet many devout persons rub
their heads, and touch their chaplets. This was formerly cast from a
statue of Jupiter Capitolinus. In another place, stands a column grated
about with iron, whereon they report that our Blessed Savior was often
wont to lean as he preached in the Temple. In the work of the reliquary
under the cupola there are eight wreathed columns brought from the Temple
of Solomon. In another chapel, they showed us the chair of St. Peter, or,
as they name it, the Apostolical Throne. But among all the chapels the
one most glorious has for an altar-piece a Madonna bearing a dead Christ
on her knees, in white marble, the work of Michael Angelo. At the upper
end of the Cathedral, are several stately monuments, especially that of
Urban VIII. Round the cupola, and in many other places in the church, are
confession seats, for all languages, Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Spanish,
Italian, French, English, Irish, Welsh, Sclavonian, Dutch, etc., as it is
written on their friezes in golden capitals, and there are still at
confessions some of all nations. Toward the lower end of the church, and
on the side of a vast pillar sustaining a weighty roof, is the
_depositum_ and statue of the Countess Matilda, a rare piece, with
basso-relievos about it of white marble, the work of Bernini. Here are
also those of Sextus IV. and Paulus III., etc. Among the exquisite pieces
in this sumptuous fabric is that of the ship with St. Peter held up from
sinking by our Savior; the emblems about it are the Mosaic of the famous
Giotto, who restored and made it perfect after it had been defaced by the
Barbarians. Nor is the pavement under the cupola to be passed over
without observation, which with the rest of the body and walls of the
whole church, are all inlaid with the richest of _pietra-commessa_, in
the most splendid colors of polished marbles, agates, serpentine,
porphyry, calcedon, etc., wholly incrusted to the very roof. Coming out
by the portico at which we entered, we were shown the Porta Santa, never
opened but at the year of jubilee. This glorious foundation hath
belonging to it thirty canons, thirty-six beneficiates, twenty-eight
clerks beneficed, with innumerable chaplains, etc., a Cardinal being
always archpriest; the present Cardinal was Francisco Barberini, who also
styled himself Protector of the English, to whom he was indeed very
courteous.

20th November, 1644. I went to visit that ancient See and Cathedral of
St. John di Laterano, and the holy places thereabout. This is a church of
extraordinary devotion, though, for outward form, not comparable to St.
Peter's, being of Gothic ordonnance. Before we went into the cathedral,
the Baptistery of St. John Baptist presented itself, being formerly part
of the Great Constantine's palace, and, as it is said, his chamber where
by St. Silvester he was made a Christian. It is of an octagonal shape,
having before the entrance eight fair pillars of rich porphyry, each of
one entire piece, their capitals of divers orders, supporting lesser
columns of white marble, and these supporting a noble cupola, the molding
whereof is excellently wrought. In the chapel which they affirm to have
been the lodging place of this Emperor, all women are prohibited from
entering, for the malice of Herodias who caused him to lose his head.
Here are deposited several sacred relics of St. James, Mary Magdalen, St.
Matthew, etc., and two goodly pictures. Another chapel, or oratory near
it, is called St. John the Evangelist, well adorned with marbles and
tables, especially those of Cavaliére Giuseppe, and of Tempesta, in
fresco. We went hence into another called St. Venantius, in which is a
tribunal all of Mosaic in figures of Popes. Here is also an altar of the
Madonna, much visited, and divers Sclavonish saints, companions of Pope
John IV. The portico of the church is built of materials brought from
Pontius Pilate's house in Jerusalem.

The next sight which attracted our attention, was a wonderful concourse
of people at their devotions before a place called _Scala Sancta_, to
which is built a noble front. Entering the portico, we saw those large
marble stairs, twenty-eight in number, which are never ascended but on
the knees, some lip-devotion being used on every step; on which you may
perceive divers red specks of blood under a grate, which they affirm to
have been drops of our Blessed Savior, at the time he was so barbarously
misused by Herod's soldiers; for these stairs are reported to have been
translated hither from his palace in Jerusalem. At the top of them is a
chapel, whereat they enter (but we could not be permitted) by gates of
marble, being the same our Savior passed when he went out of Herod's
house. This they name the _Sanctum Sanctorum_, and over it we read this
epigraph:

    _Non est in toto sanctior orbe locus._

Here, through a grate, we saw that picture of Christ painted (as they
say) by the hand of St. Luke, to the life. Descending again, we saw
before the church the obelisk, which is indeed most worthy of admiration.
It formerly lay in the Circo Maximo, and was erected here by Sextus V.,
in 1587, being 112 feet in height without the base or pedestal; at the
foot nine and a half one way, and eight the other. This pillar was first
brought from Thebes at the utmost confines of Egypt, to Alexandria, from
thence to Constantinople, thence to Rome, and is said by Ammianus
Marcellinus to have been dedicated to Rameses, King of Egypt. It was
transferred to this city by Constantine the son of the Great, and is full
of hieroglyphics, serpents, men, owls, falcons, oxen, instruments, etc.,
containing (as Father Kircher the Jesuit will shortly tell us in a book
which he is ready to publish) all the recondite and abstruse learning of
that people. The vessel, galley, or float, that brought it to Rome so
many hundred leagues, must needs have been of wonderful bigness and
strange fabric. The stone is one and entire, and (having been thrown
down) was erected by the famous Dom. Fontana, for that magnificent Pope,
Sextus V., as the rest were; it is now cracked in many places, but
solidly joined. The obelisk is thus inscribed at the several faciátas:

    _Fl. Constantinus Augustus, Constantini Augusti F. Obeliscum à
    patre suo motum diuq; Alexandriæ jacentem, trecentorum remigum
    impositum navi mirandæ vastitatis per mare Tyberimq; magnis molibus
    Romam convectum in Circo Max. ponendum S.P.Q.R.D.D._

On the second square:

    _Fl. Constantinus Max: Aug: Christianæ fidei Vindex & Assertor
    Obeliscum ab Ægyptio Rege impuro voto Soli dicatum, sedibus avulsum
    suis per Nilum transfer. Alexandriam, ut Novam Romam ab se tunc
    conditam eo decoraret monumento._

On the third:

    _Sextus V. Pontifex Max: Obeliscum hunc specie eximiâ temporum
    calamitate fractum, Circi Maximi ruinis humo, limoq; altè demersum,
    multâ impensâ extraxit, hunc in locum magno labore transtulit,
    formàq; pristinâ accuratè vestitum, Cruci invictissimæ dicavit anno
    M.D.LXXXVIII. Pont. IIII._

On the fourth:

    _Constantinus per Crucem Victor à Silvestro hìc Baptizatus Crucis
    gloriam propagavit._

Leaving this wonderful monument (before which is a stately public
fountain, with a statue of St. John in the middle of it), we visited His
Holiness's palace, being a little on the left hand, the design of
Fontana, architect to Sextus V. This I take to be one of the best
palaces in Rome; but not staying we entered the church of St. John di
Laterano, which is properly the Cathedral of the Roman See, as I learned
by these verses engraven upon the architrave of the portico:

    _Dogmate Papali datur, et simul Imperiali
    Quòd sim cunctarum mater caput Ecclesiar[)u]
    Hinc Salvatoris coelestia regna datoris
    Nomine Sanxerunt, cum cuncta peracta fuerunt;
    Sic vos ex toto conversi supplice voto
    Nostra quòd hæc ædes; tibi Christe sit inclyta sedes._

It is called Lateran, from a noble family formerly dwelling it seems
hereabouts, on Mons Cælius. The church is Gothic, and hath a stately
tribunal; the paintings are of Pietro Pisano. It was the first church
that was consecrated with the ceremonies now introduced, and where altars
of stone supplied those of wood heretofore in use, and made like large
chests for the easier removal in times of persecution; such an altar is
still the great one here preserved, as being that on which (they hold)
St. Peter celebrated mass at Rome; for which reason none but the Pope may
now presume to make that use of it. The pavement is of all sorts of
precious marbles, and so are the walls to a great height, over which it
is painted _á fresco_ with the life and acts of Constantine the Great, by
most excellent masters. The organs are rare, supported by four columns.
The _soffito_ is all richly gilded, and full of pictures. Opposite to the
porta is an altar of exquisite architecture, with a tabernacle on it all
of precious stones, the work of Targoni; on this is a _coena_ of plate,
the invention of Curtius Vanni, of exceeding value; the tables hanging
over it are of Giuseppe d'Arpino. About this are four excellent columns
transported out of Asia by the Emperor Titus, of brass, double gilt,
about twelve feet in height; the walls between them are incrusted with
marble and set with statues in niches, the vacuum reported to be filled
with holy earth, which St. Helena sent from Jerusalem to her son,
Constantine, who set these pillars where they now stand. At one side of
this is an oratory full of rare paintings and monuments, especially those
of the great Connestábile Colonna. Out of this we came into the
_sacristia_, full of good pictures of Albert and others. At the end of
the church is a flat stone supported by four pillars which they affirm
to have been the exact height of our Blessed Savior, and say they never
fitted any mortal man that tried it, but he was either taller or shorter;
two columns of the veil of the Temple which rent at his passion; the
stone on which they threw lots for his seamless vesture; and the pillar
on which the cock crowed, after Peter's denial; and, to omit no fine
thing, the just length of the Virgin Mary's foot as it seems her
shoemaker affirmed! Here is a sumptuous cross, beset with precious
stones, containing some of the VERY wood of the holy cross itself; with
many other things of this sort: also numerous most magnificent monuments,
especially those of St. Helena, of porphyry; Cardinal Farneze; Martin I.,
of copper; the pictures of Mary Magdalen, Martin V., Laurentius Valla,
etc., are of Gaetano; the Nunciata, designed by M. Angelo; and the great
crucifix of Sermoneta. In a chapel at one end of the porch is a statue of
Henry IV. of France, in brass, standing in a dark hole, and so has done
many years; perhaps from not believing him a thorough proselyte. The two
famous Oecumenical Councils were celebrated in this Church by Pope
Simachus, Martin I., Stephen, etc.

Leaving this venerable church (for in truth it has a certain majesty in
it), we passed through a fair and large hospital of good architecture,
having some inscriptions put up by Barberini, the late Pope's nephew. We
then went by St. Sylvia, where is a noble statue of St. Gregory P., begun
by M. Angelo; a St. Andrew, and the bath of St. Cecilia. In this church
are some rare paintings, especially that story on the wall of Guido Reni.
Thence to St. Giovanni e Paula, where the friars are reputed to be great
chemists. The choir, roof, and paintings in the _tribuna_ are excellent.

Descending the Mons Cælius, we came against the vestiges of the Palazzo
Maggiore, heretofore the Golden House of Nero; now nothing but a heap of
vast and confused ruins, to show what time and the vicissitude of human
things does change from the most glorious and magnificent to the most
deformed and confused. We next went into St. Sebastian's Church, which
has a handsome front: then we passed by the place where Romulus and Remus
were taken up by Faustulus, the Forum Romanum, and so by the edge of the
Mons Palatinus; where we saw the ruins of Pompey's house, and the Church
of St. Anacletus; and so into the Circus Maximus, heretofore capable of
containing a hundred and sixty thousand spectators, but now all one
entire heap of rubbish, part of it converted into a garden of pot herbs.
We concluded this evening with hearing the rare voices and music at the
Chiesa Nova.

21st November, 1644. I was carried to see a great virtuoso, Cavaliéro
Pozzo, who showed us a rare collection of all kind of antiquities, and a
choice library, over which are the effigies of most of our late men of
polite literature. He had a great collection of the antique
basso-relievos about Rome, which this curious man had caused to be
designed in several folios: many fine medals; the stone which Pliny calls
Enhydros; it had plainly in it the quantity of half a spoonful of water,
of a yellow pebble color, of the bigness of a walnut. A stone paler than
an amethyst, which yet he affirmed to be the true carbuncle, and harder
than a diamond; it was set in a ring, without foil, or anything at the
bottom, so as it was transparent, of a greenish yellow, more lustrous
than a diamond. He had very pretty things painted on crimson velvet,
designed in black, and shaded and heightened with white, set in frames;
also a number of choice designs and drawings.

Hence we walked to the Suburra and Ærarium Saturni, where yet remain some
ruins and an inscription. From thence to St. Pietro _in vinculis_, one of
the seven churches on the Esquiline, an old and much-frequented place of
great devotion for the relics there, especially the bodies of the seven
Maccabean brethren, which lie under the altar. On the wall is a St.
Sebastian, of mosaic, after the Greek manner: but what I chiefly regarded
was, that noble sepulchre of Pope Julius II., the work of M. Angelo; with
that never-sufficiently-to-be-admired statue of Moses, in white marble,
and those of Vita Contemplativa and Activa, by the same incomparable
hand. To this church belongs a monastery, in the court of whose cloisters
grow two tall and very stately palm trees. Behind these, we walked a turn
among the Baths of Titus, admiring the strange and prodigious receptacles
for water, which the vulgar call the Setti Sali, now all in heaps.

22d November, 1644. Was the solemn and greatest ceremony of all the State
Ecclesiastical, viz, the procession of the Pope (Innocent X.) to St. John
di Laterano, which, standing on the steps of Ara Celi, near the Capitol,
I saw pass in this manner:--First went a guard of Switzers to make way,
and divers of the avant guard of horse carrying lances. Next followed
those who carried the robes of the Cardinals, two and two; then the
Cardinal's mace bearers; the caudatari, on mules; the masters of their
horse; the Pope's barber, tailor, baker, gardener, and other domestic
officers, all on horseback, in rich liveries; the squires belonging to
the Guard; five men in rich liveries led five noble Neapolitan horses,
white as snow, covered to the ground with trappings richly embroidered;
which is a service paid by the King of Spain for the kingdoms of Naples
and Sicily, pretended feudatories to the Pope; three mules of exquisite
beauty and price, trapped in crimson velvet; next followed three rich
litters with mules, the litters empty; the master of the horse alone,
with his squires; five trumpeters; the _armerieri estra muros_; the
fiscal and consistorial advocates; _capellani_, _camerieri de honore_,
_cubiculari_ and chamberlains, called _secreti_.

Then followed four other _camerieri_ with four caps of the
dignity-pontifical, which were Cardinals' hats carried on staves; four
trumpets; after them a number of noble Romans and gentlemen of quality,
very rich, and followed by innumerable _staffiéri_ and pages; the
secretaries of the _chancellaria_, _abbreviatori-accoliti_ in their long
robes, and on mules; _auditori di rota_; the dean of the _rôti_ and
master of the sacred palace, on mules, with grave but rich footclothes,
and in flat episcopal hats; then went more of the Roman and other
nobility and courtiers, with divers pages in most rich liveries on
horseback; fourteen drums belonging to the Capitol; the marshals with
their staves; the two syndics; the conservators of the city, in robes of
crimson damask; the knight-gonfalonier and prior of the R. R., in velvet
toques; six of his Holiness's mace bearers; then the captain, or
governor, of the Castle of St. Angelo, upon a brave prancer; the governor
of the city; on both sides of these two long ranks of Switzers, the
masters of the ceremonies; the cross bearer on horseback, with two
priests at each hand on foot; pages, footmen, and guards, in abundance.
Then came the Pope himself, carried in a litter, or rather open chair, of
crimson velvet, richly embroidered, and borne by two stately mules; as he
went he held up two fingers, blessing the multitude who were on their
knees, or looking out of their windows and houses, with loud _vivas_ and
acclamations of felicity to their new Prince. This chair was followed by
the master of his chamber, cup bearer, secretary, and physician; then
came the Cardinal-Bishops, Cardinal-Priests, Cardinal-Deacons,
Patriarchs, Archbishops, and Bishops, all in their several and distinct
habits, some in red, others in green flat hats with tassels, all on
gallant mules richly trapped with velvet, and led by their servants in
great state and multitudes; after them, the apostolical protonotary,
auditor, treasurer, and referendaries; lastly, the trumpets of the rear
guard, two pages of arms in helmets with feathers, and carrying lances;
two captains; the pontifical standard of the Church; the two _alfieri_,
or cornets, of the Pope's light horse, who all followed in armor and
carrying lances; which, with innumerable rich coaches, litters, and
people, made up the procession. What they did at St. John di Laterano, I
could not see, by reason of the prodigious crowd; so I spent most of the
day in viewing the two triumphal arches which had been purposely erected
a few days before, and till now covered; the one by the Duke of Parma, in
the Foro Romano, the other by the Jews in the Capitol, with flattering
inscriptions. They were of excellent architecture, decorated with statues
and abundance of ornaments proper for the occasion, since they were but
temporary, and made up of boards, cloth, etc., painted and framed on the
sudden, but as to outward appearance, solid and very stately. The night
ended with fireworks. What I saw was that which was built before the
Spanish Ambassador's house, in the Piazza del Trinita, and another,
before that of the French. The first appeared to be a mighty rock,
bearing the Pope's Arms, a dragon, and divers figures, which being set on
fire by one who flung a rocket at it, kindled immediately, yet preserving
the figure both of the rock and statues a very long time; insomuch as it
was deemed ten thousand reports of squibs and crackers spent themselves
in order. That before the French Ambassador's Palace was a Diana drawn
in a chariot by her dogs, with abundance of other figures as large as the
life, which played with fire in the same manner. In the meantime, the
windows of the whole city were set with tapers put into lanterns, or
sconces, of several colored oiled paper, that the wind might not annoy
them; this rendered a most glorious show. Besides these, there were at
least twenty other fireworks of vast charge and rare art for their
invention before divers Ambassadors, Princes, and Cardinals' Palaces,
especially that on the Castle of St. Angelo, being a pyramid of lights,
of great height, fastened to the ropes and cables which support the
standard pole. The streets were this night as light as day, full of
bonfires, cannon roaring, music playing, fountains running wine, in all
excess of joy and triumph.

23d November, 1644. I went to the Jesuits' College again, the front
whereof gives place to few for its architecture, most of its ornaments
being of rich marble. It has within a noble portico and court, sustained
by stately columns, as is the corridor over the portico, at the sides of
which are the schools for arts and sciences, which are here taught as at
the University. Here I heard Father Athanasius Kircher upon a part of
Euclid, which he expounded. To this joins a glorious and ample church for
the students; a second is not fully finished; and there are two noble
libraries, where I was showed that famous wit and historian, Famianus
Strada. Hence we went to the house of Hippolito Vitellesco (afterward
bibliothecary of the Vatican library), who showed us one of the best
collections of statues in Rome, to which he frequently talks as if they
were living, pronouncing now and then orations, sentences, and verses,
sometimes kissing and embracing them. He has a head of Brutus scarred in
the face by order of the Senate for killing Julius; this is much
esteemed. Also a Minerva, and others of great value. This gentleman not
long since purchased land in the kingdom of Naples, in hope, by digging
the ground, to find more statues; which it seems so far succeeded, as to
be much more worth than the purchase. We spent the evening at the Chiesa
Nova, where was excellent music; but, before that began, the courteous
fathers led me into a nobly furnished library, contiguous to their most
beautiful convent.

28th November, 1644. I went to see the garden and house of the
Aldobrandini, now Cardinal Borghese's. This palace is, for architecture,
magnificence, pomp, and state, one of the most considerable about the
city. It has four fronts, and a noble piazza before it. Within the
courts, under arches supported by marble columns, are many excellent
statues. Ascending the stairs, there is a rare figure of Diana, of white
marble. The St. Sebastian and Hermaphrodite are of stupendous art. For
paintings, our Savior's Head, by Correggio; several pieces of Raphael,
some of which are small; some of Bassano Veronese; the Leda, and two
admirable Venuses, are of Titian's pencil; so is the Psyche and Cupid;
the head of St. John, borne by Herodias; two heads of Albert Durer, very
exquisite. We were shown here a fine cabinet and tables of Florence work
in stone. In the gardens are many fine fountains, the walls covered with
citron trees, which, being rarely spread, invest the stone work entirely;
and, toward the street, at a back gate, the port is so handsomely clothed
with ivy as much pleased me. About this palace are many noble antique
bassi-relievi: two especially are placed on the ground, representing
armor, and other military furniture of the Romans; beside these, stand
about the garden numerous rare statues, altars, and urns. Above all for
antiquity and curiosity (as being the only rarity of that nature now
known to remain) is that piece of old Roman painting representing the
Roman _Sponsalia_, or celebration of their marriage, judged to be 1,400
years old, yet are the colors very lively, and the design very entire,
though found deep in the ground. For this morsel of painting's sake only,
it is said the Borghesi purchased the house, because this being on a wall
in a kind of banqueting house in the garden, could not be removed, but
passes with the inheritance.

29th November, 1644. I a second time visited the Medicean Palace, being
near my lodging, the more exactly to have a view of the noble collections
that adorn it, especially the bassi-relievi and antique friezes inserted
about the stone work of the house. The Saturn, of metal, standing in the
portico, is a rare piece; so is the Jupiter and Apollo, in the hall. We
were now led into those rooms above we could not see before, full of
incomparable statues and antiquities; above all, and haply preferable to
any in the world, are the Two Wrestlers, for the inextricable mixture
with each other's arms and legs is stupendous. In the great chamber is
the Gladiator, whetting a knife; but the Venus is without parallel, being
the masterpiece of one whose name you see graven under it in old Greek
characters; nothing in sculpture ever approached this miracle of art. To
this add Marcius, Ganymede, a little Apollo playing on a pipe; some
relievi incrusted on the palace-walls; and an antique _vas_ of marble,
near six feet high. Among the pictures may be mentioned the Magdalen and
St. Peter, weeping. I pass over the cabinets and tables of _pietra
commessa_, being the proper invention of the Florentines. In one of the
chambers is a whimsical chair, which folded into so many varieties, as to
turn into a bed, a bolster, a table, or a couch. I had another walk in
the garden, where are two huge vases, or baths of stone.

I went further up the hill to the Pope's Palaces at Monte Cavallo, where
I now saw the garden more exactly, and found it to be one of the most
magnificent and pleasant in Rome. I am told the gardener is annually
allowed 2,000 _scudi_ for the keeping of it. Here I observed hedges of
myrtle above a man's height; others of laurel, oranges, nay, of ivy and
juniper; the close walks, and rustic grotto; a crypt, of which the laver,
or basin, is of one vast, entire, antique porphyry, and below this flows
a plentiful cascade; the steps of the grotto and the roofs being of rich
Mosaic. Here are hydraulic organs, a fish pond, and an ample bath. From
hence, we went to taste some rare Greco; and so home.

Being now pretty weary of continual walking, I kept within, for the most
part, till the 6th of December; and, during this time, I entertained one
Signor Alessandro, who gave me some lessons on the theorbo.

The next excursion was over the Tiber, which I crossed in a ferry-boat,
to see the Palazzo di Ghisi, standing in Transtevere, fairly built, but
famous only for the painting _á fresco_ on the _volto_ of the portico
toward the garden; the story is the Amours of Cupid and Psyche, by the
hand of the celebrated Raphael d'Urbino. Here you always see painters
designing and copying after it, being esteemed one of the rarest pieces
of that art in the world; and with great reason. I must not omit that
incomparable table of Galatea (as I remember), so carefully preserved in
the cupboard at one of the ends of this walk, to protect it from the air,
being a most lively painting. There are likewise excellent things of
Baldassare, and others.

Thence we went to the noble house of the Duke of Bracciano, fairly built,
with a stately court and fountain.

Next, we walked to St. Mary's Church, where was the _Taberna Meritoria_,
where the old Roman soldiers received their triumphal garland, which they
ever after wore. The high altar is very fair, adorned with columns of
porphyry: here is also some mosaic work about the choir, and the
Assumption is an esteemed piece. It is said that this church was the
first that was dedicated to the Virgin at Rome. In the opposite piazza is
a very sumptuous fountain.

12th December, 1644. I went again to St. Peter's to see the chapels,
churches, and grots under the whole church (like our St. Faith's under
Paul's), in which lie interred a multitude of Saints, Martyrs, and Popes;
among them our countryman, Adrian IV., (Nicholas Brekespere) in a chest
of porphyry; Sir J. Chrysostom; Petronella; the heads of St. James minor,
St. Luke, St. Sebastian, and our Thomas à Becket; a shoulder of St.
Christopher; an arm of Joseph of Arimathea; Longinus; besides 134 more
bishops, soldiers, princes, scholars, cardinals, kings, emperors, their
wives; too long to particularize.

Hence we walked into the cemetery, called Campo Santo, the earth
consisting of several ship-loads of mold, transported from Jerusalem,
which consumes a carcass in twenty-four hours. To this joins that rare
hospital, where once was Nero's circus; the next to this is the
Inquisition-house and prison, the inside whereof, I thank God, I was not
curious to see. To this joins His Holiness's Horseguards.

On Christmas-eve, I went not to bed, being desirous of seeing the many
extraordinary ceremonies performed then in their churches, at midnight
masses and sermons. I walked from church to church the whole night in
admiration at the multitude of scenes and pageantry which the friars had
with much industry and craft set out, to catch the devout women and
superstitious sort of people, who never parted without dropping some
money into a vessel set on purpose; but especially observable was the
puppetry in the Church of the Minerva, representing the Nativity. I
thence went and heard a sermon at the Apollinare; by which time it was
morning. On Christmas-day his Holiness sang mass, the artillery of St.
Angelo went off, and all this day was exposed the cradle of our Lord.

29th December, 1644. We were invited by the English Jesuits to dinner,
being their great feast of Thomas [à Becket] of Canterbury. We dined in
their common refectory, and afterward saw an Italian comedy acted by
their alumni before the Cardinals.

January, 1645. We saw pass the new officers of the people of Rome;
especially, for their noble habits were most conspicuous, the three
Consuls, now called Conservators, who take their places in the Capitol,
having been sworn the day before between the hands of the Pope. We ended
the day with the rare music at the Chiesa Nova.

6th January, 1645. Was the ceremony of our Savior's baptism in the Church
of St. Athanasius, and at Ara Celi was a great procession, del Bambino,
as they call it, where were all the magistrates, and a wonderful
concourse of people.

7th January, 1645. A sermon was preached to the Jews, at Ponte Sisto, who
are constrained to sit till the hour is done; but it is with so much
malice in their countenances, spitting, humming, coughing, and motion,
that it is almost impossible they should hear a word from the preacher. A
conversion is very rare.

14th January, 1645. The heads of St. Peter and St. Paul are exposed at
St. John Laterano.

15th January, 1645. The zitelle, or young wenches, which are to have
portions given them by the Pope, being poor, and to marry them, walked in
procession to St. Peter's, where the Veronica was shown.

I went to the Ghetto, where the Jews dwell as in a suburb by themselves;
being invited by a Jew of my acquaintance to see a circumcision. I passed
by the Piazza Judea, where their seraglio begins; for, being environed
with walls, they are locked up every night. In this place remains yet
part of a stately fabric, which my Jew told me had been a palace of
theirs for the ambassador of their nation, when their country was subject
to the Romans. Being led through the Synagogue into a private house, I
found a world of people in a chamber: by and by came an old man, who
prepared and laid in order divers instruments brought by a little child
of about seven years old in a box. These the man laid in a silver basin;
the knife was much like a short razor to shut into the half. Then they
burnt some incense in a censer, which perfumed the room all the while the
ceremony was performing. In the basin was a little cap made of white
paper like a capuchin's hood, not bigger than the finger: also a paper of
a red astringent powder, I suppose of bole; a small instrument of silver,
cleft in the middle at one end, to take up the prepuce withal; a fine
linen cloth wrapped up. These being all in order, the women brought the
infant swaddled, out of another chamber, and delivered it to the Rabbi,
who carried and presented it before an altar, or cupboard, dressed up, on
which lay the five Books of Moses, and the Commandments, a little
unrolled. Before this, with profound reverence, and mumbling a few words,
he waved the child to and fro awhile; then he delivered it to another
Rabbi, who sat all this time upon a table. While the ceremony was
performing, all the company fell singing a Hebrew hymn, in a barbarous
tone, waving themselves to and fro; a ceremony they observe in all their
devotions.--The Jews in Rome all wear yellow hats, live only upon brokage
and usury, very poor and despicable, beyond what they are in other
territories of Princes where they are permitted.

18th January, 1645. I went to see the Pope's Palace, the Vatican, where
he for the most part keeps his Court. It was first built by Pope
Symmachus, and since augmented to a vast pile of building by his
successors. That part of it added by Sextus V. is most magnificent. This
leads us into divers terraces arched _sub dio_, painted by Raphael with
the histories of the Bible, so esteemed, that artists come from all parts
of Europe to make their studies from these designs. The foliage and
grotesque about some of the compartments are admirable. In another room
are represented at large, maps and plots of most countries in the world,
in vast tables, with brief descriptions. The stairs which ascend out of
St. Peter's portico into the first hall, are rarely contrived for ease;
these lead into the hall of Gregory XIII., the walls whereof, half way to
the roof, are incrusted with most precious marbles of various colors and
works. So is also the pavement inlaid work; but what exceeds description
is, the _volta_, or roof itself, which is so exquisitely painted, that it
is almost impossible for the skillfullest eyes to discern whether it be
the work of the pencil upon a flat, or of a tool cut deep in stone. The
_Rota dentata_, in this admirable perspective, on the left hand as one
goes out, the _Setella_, etc., are things of art incomparable. Certainly
this is one of the most superb and royal apartments in the world, much
too beautiful for a guard of gigantic Switzers, who do nothing but drink
and play at cards in it. Going up these stairs is a painting of St.
Peter, walking on the sea toward our Savior.

Out of this I went into another hall, just before the chapel, called the
Sàla del Conclave, full of admirable paintings; among others is the
Assassination of Coligni, the great [Protestant] French Admiral, murdered
by the Duke of Guise, in the Parisian massacre at the nuptials of Henry
IV, with Queen Margaret; under it is written, "_Coligni et sociorum
cædes_:" on the other side, "_Rex Coligi necem probat_."

There is another very large picture, under which is inscribed:

    "_Alexander Papa III., Frederici Primi Imperatoris iram et impetum
    fugiens, abdidit se Venetijs; cognitum et à senatu perhonorificè
    susceptum, Othone Imperatoris filio navali prælio victo captoq;
    Fredericus, pace facta, supplex adorat; fidem et obedientiam
    pollicitus. Ita Pontifici sua dignitas Venet. Reip. beneficio
    restituta MCLXXVIII._"[24]

        [Footnote 24: Pope Alexander III., flying from the wrath and
        violence of the Emperor Frederick I., took shelter at Venice,
        where he was acknowledged, and most honorably received by the
        Senate. The Emperor's son, Otho, being conquered and taken in
        a naval battle, the Emperor, having made peace, became a
        suppliant to the Pope, promising fealty and obedience. Thus
        his dignity was restored to the Pontiff, by the aid of the
        Republic of Venice, MCLXXVIII.]

This inscription I the rather took notice of, because Urban VIII. had
caused it to be blotted out during the difference between him and that
State; but it was now restored and refreshed by his successor, to the
great honor of the Venetians. The Battle of Lepanto is another fair
piece here.

Now we came into the Pope's chapel, so much celebrated for the Last
Judgment painted by M. Angelo Buonarotti. It is a painting in fresco,
upon a dead wall at the upper end of the chapel, just over the high
altar, of a vast design and miraculous fancy, considering the multitude
of naked figures and variety of posture. The roof also is full of rare
work. Hence, we went into the _sacristia_ where were showed all the most
precious vestments, copes, and furniture of the chapel. One priestly
cope, with the whole suite, had been sent from one of our English Henrys,
and is shown for a great rarity. There were divers of the Pope's
pantoufles that are kissed on his foot, having rich jewels embroidered on
the instep, covered with crimson velvet; also his tiara, or triple crown,
divers miters, crosiers, etc., all bestudded with precious stones, gold,
and pearl, to a very great value; a very large cross, carved (as they
affirm) out of the holy wood itself; numerous utensils of crystal, gold,
agate, amber, and other costly materials for the altar.

We then went into those chambers painted with the Histories of the
burning of Rome, quenched by the procession of a Crucifix; the victory of
Constantine over Maxentius; St. Peter's delivery out of Prison; all by
Julio Romano, and are therefore called the Painters' Academy, because you
always find some young men or other designing from them: a civility which
is not refused in Italy, where any rare pieces of the old and best
masters are extant, and which is the occasion of breeding up many
excellent men in that profession.

The Sala Clementina's Suffito is painted by Cherubin Alberti, with an
ample landscape of Paul Bril's.

We were then conducted into a new gallery, whose sides were painted with
views of the most famous places, towns, and territories in Italy, rarely
done, and upon the roof the chief Acts of the Roman Church since St.
Peter's pretended See there. It is doubtless one of the most magnificent
galleries in Europe.--Out of this we came into the Consistory, a noble
room, the _volta_ painted in grotesque, as I remember. At the upper end,
is an elevated throne and a baldachin, or canopy of state, for his
Holiness, over it.

From thence, through a very long gallery (longer, I think, than the
French Kings at the Louvre), but only of bare walls, we were brought into
the Vatican Library. This passage was now full of poor people, to each of
whom, in his passage to St. Peter's, the Pope gave a _mezzo grosse_. I
believe they were in number near 1,500 or 2,000 persons.

This library is the most nobly built, furnished, and beautified of any in
the world; ample, stately, light, and cheerful, looking into a most
pleasant garden. The walls and roof are painted, not with antiques and
grotesques, like our Bodleian at Oxford, but emblems, figures, diagrams,
and the like learned inventions, found out by the wit and industry of
famous men, of which there are now whole volumes extant. There were
likewise the effigies of the most illustrious men of letters and fathers
of the church, with divers noble statues, in white marble, at the
entrance, viz, Hippolytus and Aristides. The General Councils are
painted on the side walls. As to the ranging of the books, they are all
shut up in presses of wainscot, and not exposed on shelves to the open
air, nor are the most precious mixed among the more ordinary, which are
showed to the curious only; such are those two Virgils written on
parchment, of more than a thousand years old; the like, a Terence; the
"Acts of the Apostles" in golden capital letters; Petrarch's "Epigrams,"
written with his own hand; also a Hebrew parchment, made up in the
ancient manner, from whence they were first called "_Volumina_", with the
Cornua; but what we English do much inquire after, the book which our
Henry VIII. writ against Luther.[25]

    [Footnote 25: This very book, by one of those curious chances that
    occasionally happen, found its way into England some forty years
    ago, and was seen by the Editor of the early edition of this
    "Diary." It may be worth remarking that wherever, in the course of
    it, the title of "Defender of the Faith" was subjoined to the name
    of Henry, the Pope had drawn his pen through the title. The name of
    the King occurred in his own handwriting both at the beginning and
    end; and on the binding were the Royal Arms. Its possessor had
    purchased it in Italy for a few shillings from an old bookstall.]

The largest room is 100 paces long; at the end is the gallery of printed
books; then the gallery of the Duke of Urban's library, in which are MSS.
of remarkable miniature, and divers Chinese, Mexican, Samaritan,
Abyssinian, and other oriental books.

In another wing of the edifice, 200 paces long, were all the books taken
from Heidelberg, of which the learned Gruter, and other great scholars,
had been keepers. These walls and _volte_ are painted with
representations of the machines invented by Domenico Fontana for erection
of the obelisks; and the true design of Mahomet's sepulchre at Mecca.

Out of this we went to see the Conclave, where, during a vacancy, the
Cardinals are shut up till they are agreed upon a new election; the whole
manner whereof was described to us.

Hence we went into the Pope's Armory, under the library. Over the door is
this inscription:

    "URBANUS VIII. LITTERIS ARMA, ARMA LITTERIS."

I hardly believe any prince in Europe is able to show a more completely
furnished library of Mars, for the quality and quantity, which is 40,000
complete for horse and foot, and neatly kept. Out of this we passed again
by the long gallery, and at the lower end of it down a very large pair of
stairs, round, without any steps as usually, but descending with an
evenness so ample and easy, that a horse-litter, or coach, may with ease
be drawn up; the sides of the vacuity are set with columns: those at
Amboise, on the Loire, in France, are something of this invention, but
nothing so spruce. By these, we descended into the Vatican gardens,
called Belvedere, where entering first into a kind of court, we were
showed those incomparable statues (so famed by Pliny and others) of
Laocoon with his three sons embraced by a huge serpent, all of one entire
Parian stone, very white and perfect, somewhat bigger than the life, the
work of those three celebrated sculptors, Agesandrus, Polydorus, and
Artemidorus, Rhodians; it was found among the ruins of Titus's baths, and
placed here. Pliny says this statue is to be esteemed before all pictures
and statues in the world; and I am of his opinion, for I never beheld
anything of art approach it. Here are also those two famous images of
Nilus with the children playing about him, and that of Tiber; Romulus and
Remus with the Wolf; the dying Cleopatra; the Venus and Cupid, rare
pieces; the Mercury; Cybel; Hercules; Apollo; Antinous: most of which
are, for defense against the weather, shut up in niches with wainscot
doors. We were likewise showed the relics of the Hadrian Moles, viz, the
Pine, a vast piece of metal which stood on the summit of that mausoleum;
also a peacock of copper, supposed to have been part of Scipio's
monument.

In the garden without this (which contains a vast circuit of ground) are
many stately fountains, especially two casting water into antique lavers,
brought from Titus's baths; some fair grots and water-works, that noble
cascade where the ship dances, with divers other pleasant inventions,
walks, terraces, meanders, fruit trees, and a most goodly prospect over
the greatest part of the city. One fountain under the gate I must not
omit, consisting of three jettos of water gushing out of the mouths or
proboscides of bees (the arms of the late Pope), because of the
inscription:

    "_Quid miraris Apem, quae mel de floribus haurit?
    Si tibi mellitam gutture fundit aquam._"

23d January, 1645. We went without the walls of the city to visit St.
Paul's, to which place it is said the Apostle bore his own head after
Nero had caused it to be cut off. The church was founded by the great
Constantine; the main roof is supported by 100 vast columns of marble,
and the Mosaic work of the great arch is wrought with a very ancient
story A^o 440; as is likewise that of the _facciata_. The gates are
brass, made at Constantinopole in 1070, as you may read by those Greek
verses engraven on them. The church is near 500 feet long and 258 in
breadth, and has five great aisles joined to it, on the basis of one of
whose columns is this odd title: "_Fl. Eugenius Asellus C. C. Præf. Urbis
V. S. I. reparavit_." Here they showed us that miraculous Crucifix which
they say spake to St. Bridget: and, just before the Ciborio, stand two
excellent statues. Here are buried part of the bodies of St. Paul and St.
Peter. The pavement is richly interwoven with precious Oriental marbles
about the high altar, where are also four excellent paintings, whereof
one, representing the stoning of St. Stephen, is by the hand of a
Bolognian lady, named Lavinia. The tabernacle on this altar is of
excellent architecture, and the pictures in the Chapel del Sacramento
are of Lanfranco. Divers other relics there be also in this venerable
church, as a part of St. Anna; the head of the Woman of Samaria; the
chain which bound St. Paul, and the _eculeus_ used in tormenting the
primitive Christians. The church stands in the Via Ositensis, about a
mile from the walls of the city, separated from many buildings near it
except the Trie Fontana, to which (leaving our coach) we walked, going
over the mountain or little rising, upon which story says a hundred
seventy and four thousand Christians had been martyred by Maximianus,
Dioclesian, and other bloody tyrants. On this stand St. Vincent's and St.
Anastasius; likewise the Church of St. Maria Scala del Cielo, in whose
Tribuna is a very fair Mosaic work. The Church of the Trie Fontana (as
they are called) is perfectly well built, though but small (whereas that
of St. Paul is but Gothic), having a noble cupola in the middle; in this
they show the pillar to which St. Paul was bound, when his head was cut
off, and from whence it made three prodigious leaps, where there
immediately broke out the three remaining fountains, which give
denomination to this church. The waters are reported to be medicinal:
over each is erected an altar and a chained ladle, for better tasting of
the waters. That most excellent picture of St. Peter's Crucifixion is of
Guido.

25th January, 1645. I went again to the Palazzo Farnese, to see some
certain statues and antiquities which, by reason of the Major-Domo not
being within, I could not formerly obtain. In the hall stands that
triumphant Colosse of one of the family, upon three figures, a modern,
but rare piece. About it stood some Gladiators; and, at the entrance into
one of the first chambers, are two cumbent figures of AGE and YOUTH,
brought hither from St. Peter's to make room for the Longinus under the
cupola. Here was the statue of a ram running at a man on horseback, a
most incomparable expression of Fury, cut in stone; and a table of
_pietra-commessa_, very curious. The next chamber was all painted _a
fresco_, by a rare hand, as was the carving in wood of the ceiling,
which, as I remember, was in cedar, as the Italian mode is, and not poor
plaster, as ours are; some of them most richly gilt. In a third room,
stood the famous Venus, and the child Hercules strangling a serpent, of
Corinthian brass, antique, on a very curious basso-relievo; the
sacrifice to Priapus; the Egyptian Isis, in the hard, black ophite stone,
taken out of the Pantheon, greatly celebrated by the antiquaries:
likewise two tables of brass, containing divers old Roman laws. At
another side of this chamber, was the statue of a wounded Amazon falling
from her horse, worthy the name of the excellent sculptor, whoever the
artist was. Near this was a bass-relievo of a Bacchanalia, with a most
curious Silenus. The fourth room was totally environed with statues;
especially observable was that so renowned piece of a Venus looking
backward over her shoulder, and divers other naked figures, by the old
Greek masters. Over the doors are two Venuses, one of them looking on her
face in a glass, by M. Angelo; the other is painted by Caracci. I never
saw finer faces, especially that under the mask, whose beauty and art are
not to be described by words. The next chamber is also full of statues;
most of them the heads of Philosophers, very antique. One of the Cæsars
and another of Hannibal cost 1,200 crowns. Now I had a second view of
that never-to-be-sufficiently-admired gallery, painted in deep relievo,
the work of ten years' study, for a trifling reward. In the wardrobe
above they showed us fine wrought plate, porcelain, mazers of beaten and
solid gold, set with diamonds, rubies, and emeralds; a treasure,
especially the workmanship considered, of inestimable value. This is all
the Duke of Parma's. Nothing seemed to be more curious and rare in its
kind than the complete service of the purest crystal, for the altar of
the chapel, the very bell, cover of a book, sprinkler, etc., were all of
the rock, incomparably sculptured, with the holy story in deep Levati;
thus was also wrought the crucifix, chalice, vases, flowerpots, the
largest and purest crystal that my eyes ever beheld. Truly I looked on
this as one of the greatest curiosities I had seen in Rome. In another
part were presses furnished with antique arms, German clocks, perpetual
motions, watches, and curiosities of Indian works. A very ancient picture
of Pope Eugenius; a St. Bernard; and a head of marble found long since,
supposed to be a true portrait of our Blessed Savior's face.

Hence, we went to see Dr. Gibbs, a famous poet and countryman of ours,
who had some intendency in an hospital built on the Via Triumphalis,
called Christ's Hospital, which he showed us. The Infirmatory, where the
sick lay, was paved with various colored marbles, and the walls hung with
noble pieces; the beds are very fair; in the middle is a stately cupola,
under which is an altar decked with divers marble statues, all in sight
of the sick, who may both see and hear mass, as they lie in their beds.
The organs are very fine, and frequently played on to recreate the people
in pain. To this joins an apartment destined for the orphans; and there
is a school: the children wear blue, like ours in London, at an hospital
of the same appellation. Here are forty nurses, who give suck to such
children as are accidentally found exposed and abandoned. In another
quarter, are children of a bigger growth, 450 in number, who are taught
letters. In another, 500 girls, under the tuition of divers religious
matrons, in a monastery, as it were, by itself. I was assured there were
at least 2,000 more maintained in other places. I think one apartment had
in it near 1,000 beds; these are in a very long room, having an inner
passage for those who attend, with as much care, sweetness, and
conveniency as can be imagined, the Italians being generally very neat.
Under the portico, the sick may walk out and take the air. Opposite to
this, are other chambers for such as are sick of maladies of a more rare
and difficult cure, and they have rooms apart. At the end of the long
corridor is an apothecary's shop, fair and very well stored; near which
are chambers for persons of better quality, who are yet necessitous.
Whatever the poor bring is, at their coming in, delivered to a treasurer,
who makes an inventory, and is accountable to them, or their
representatives if they die.

To this building joins the house of the commendator, who, with his
officers attending the sick, make up ninety persons; besides a convent
and an ample church for the friars and priests who daily attend. The
church is extremely neat, and the _sacristia_ is very rich. Indeed it is
altogether one of the most pious and worthy foundations I ever saw. Nor
is the benefit small which divers young physicians and chirurgeons reap
by the experience they learn here among the sick, to whom those students
have free access. Hence, we ascended a very steep hill, near the Port St.
Pancratio, to that stately fountain called Acqua Paula, being the
aqueduct which Augustus had brought to Rome, now re-edified by Paulus V.;
a rare piece of architecture, and which serves the city after a journey
of thirty-five miles, here pouring itself into divers ample lavers, out
of the mouths of swans and dragons, the arms of this Pope. Situate on a
very high mount, it makes a most glorious show to the city, especially
when the sun darts on the water as it gusheth out. The inscriptions on it
are:

    "_Paulus V. Romanus Pontifex Opt. Max. Aquæductus ab Augusto Cæsare
    extructos, ævi longinquâ vetustate collapsos, in ampliorem formam
    restituit anno salutis M.D.CIX. Pont. V._"

And toward the fields:

    "_Paulus V. Rom. Pontifex Optimus Maximus, priori ductu longissimi
    temporis injuriâ penè diruto, sublimiorem._"

       *       *       *       *       *

    [One or more leaves are here wanting in Evelyn's MS., descriptive of
    other parts of Rome, and of his leaving the city.]

Thence to Velletri, a town heretofore of the Volsci, where is a public
and fair statue of P. Urban VIII., in brass, and a stately fountain in
the street. Here we lay and drank excellent wine.

28th January, 1645. We dined at Sermonetta, descending all this morning
down a stony mountain, unpleasant, yet full of olive trees; and, anon,
pass a tower built on a rock, kept by a small guard against the banditti
who infest those parts, daily robbing and killing passengers, as my Lord
Banbury and his company found to their cost a little before. To this
guard we gave some money, and so were suffered to pass, which was still
on the Appian to the _Tres Tabernæ_ (whither the brethren came from Rome
to meet St. Paul, Acts, c. 28); the ruins whereof are yet very fair,
resembling the remainder of some considerable edifice, as may be judged
by the vast stones and fairness of the arched work. The country
environing this passage is hilly, but rich; on the right hand stretches
an ample plain, being the _Pomptini Campi_. We reposed this night at
Piperno, in the posthouse without the town; and here I was extremely
troubled with a sore hand, which now began to fester, from a mischance at
Rome, upon my base, unlucky, stiff-necked, trotting, carrion mule; which
are the most wretched beasts in the world. In this town was the poet
Virgil's Camilla born.

The day following, we were fain to hire a strong convoy of about thirty
firelocks, to guard us through the cork woods (much infested with the
banditti) as far as Fossa Nuova, where was the Forum Appii, and now
stands a church with a great monastery, the place where Thomas Aquinas
both studied and lies buried. Here we all alighted, and were most
courteously received by the Monks, who showed us many relics of their
learned Saint and at the high altar the print forsooth of the mule's hoof
which he caused to kneel before the Host. The church is old, built after
the Gothic manner; but the place is very agreeably melancholy. After
this, pursuing the same noble [Appian] way (which we had before left a
little), we found it to stretch from Capua to Rome itself, and afterward
as far as Brundusium. It was built by that famous Consul, twenty-five
feet broad, every twelve feet something ascending for the ease and firmer
footing of horse and man; both the sides are also a little raised for
those who travel on foot. The whole is paved with a kind of beach-stone,
and, as I said, ever and anon adorned with some old ruin, sepulchre, or
broken statue. In one of these monuments Pancirollus tells us that, in
the time of Paul III., there was found the body of a young lady, swimming
in a kind of bath of precious oil, or liquor, fresh and entire as if she
had been living, neither her face discolored, nor her hair disordered; at
her feet burnt a lamp, which suddenly expired at the opening of the
vault; having flamed, as was computed, now 1,500 years, by the conjecture
that she was Tulliola, the daughter of Cicero, whose body was thus found,
and as the inscription testified. We dined this day at Terracina,
heretofore the famous Anxur, which stands upon a very eminent promontory,
the Circean by name. While meat was preparing, I went up into the town,
and viewed the fair remainders of Jupiter's Temple, now converted into a
church, adorned with most stately columns; its architecture has been
excellent, as may be deduced from the goodly cornices, moldings, and huge
white marbles of which it is built. Before the portico stands a pillar
thus inscribed:

    "_Inclyta Gothorum Regis monumenta vetusta
          Anxuri hoc Oculos exposuere loco;_"

for, it seems, Theodoric drained their marches.

On another more ancient:

    "_Imp. Cæsar Divi Nervæ Filius Nerva Trojanus Aug. Germanicus
    Dacicus. Pontif. Max. Trib. Pop. xviii. Imp. vi. Cos. v. p. p.
    xviii. Silices suâ pecuniâ stravit._"

Meaning doubtless, some part of the Via Appia. Then:

    "_Tit. Upio. Aug. optato Pontano Procuratori et Præfect.
    Classis.--Ti. Julius. T. Fab. optatus, II. vir._"

[Sidenote: FONDI]

Here is likewise a Columna Milliaria, with something engraven on it, but
I could not stay to consider it. Coming down again, I went toward the
sea-side to contemplate that stupendous strange rock and promontory,
cleft by hand, I suppose, for the better passage. Within this is the
Circean Cave, which I went into a good way; it makes a dreadful noise, by
reason of the roaring and impetuous waves continually assaulting the
beach, and that in an unusual manner. At the top, at an excessive height,
stands an old and very great castle. We arrived this night at Fondi, a
most dangerous passage for robbing; and so we passed by Galba's villa,
and anon entered the kingdom of Naples, where, at the gate, this epigraph
saluted us: "_Hospes, hìc sunt fines Regni Neopolitani; si amicus
advenis, pacatè omnia invenies, et malis moribus pulsis, bonas leges_."
The Via Appia is here a noble prospect; having before considered how it
was carried through vast mountains of rocks for many miles, by most
stupendous labor: here it is infinitely pleasant, beset with sepulchres
and antiquities, full of sweet shrubs in the environing hedges. At Fondi,
we had oranges and citrons for nothing, the trees growing in every
corner, charged with fruit.

29th January, 1645. We descried Mount Cæcubus, famous for the generous
wine it heretofore produced, and so rode onward the Appian Way, beset
with myrtles, lentiscuses, bays, pomegranates, and whole groves of orange
trees, and most delicious shrubs, till we came to Formiana [Formiæ],
where they showed us Cicero's tomb, standing in an olive grove, now a
rude heap of stones without form or beauty; for here that incomparable
orator was murdered. I shall never forget how exceedingly I was
delighted with the sweetness of this passage, the sepulchre mixed among
all sorts of verdure; besides being now come within sight of the noble
city, Cajeta [Gaieta], which gives a surprising prospect along the
Tyrrhene Sea, in manner of a theater: and here we beheld that strangely
cleft rock, a frightful spectacle, which they say happened upon the
passion of our Blessed Savior; but the haste of our procaccio did not
suffer us to dwell so long on these objects and the many antiquities of
this town as we desired.

At Formi, we saw Cicero's grot; dining at Mola, and passing Sinuessa,
Garigliano (once the city Mintern), and beheld the ruins of that vast
amphitheater and aqueduct yet standing; the river Liris, which bounded
the old Latium, Falernus, or Mons Massacus, celebrated for its wine, now
named Garo; and this night we lodged at a little village called St.
Agatha, in the Falernian Fields, near to Aurunca and Sessa.

The next day, having passed [the river] Vulturnus, we come by the Torre
di Francolisi, where Hannibal, in danger from Fabius Maximus, escaped by
debauching his enemies; and so at last we entered the most pleasant
plains of Campania, now called Terra di Lavoro; in very truth, I think,
the most fertile spot that ever the sun shone upon. Here we saw the
slender ruins of the once mighty Capua, contending at once both with Rome
and Carthage, for splendor and empire, now nothing but a heap of rubbish,
except showing some vestige of its former magnificence in pieces of
temples, arches, theatres, columns, ports, vaults, colosses, etc.,
confounded together by the barbarous Goths and Longobards; there is,
however, a new city, nearer to the road by two miles, fairly raised out
of these heaps. The passage from this town to Naples (which is about ten
or twelve English post miles) is as straight as a line, of great breadth,
fuller of travelers than I remember any of our greatest and most
frequented roads near London; but, what is extremely pleasing, is the
great fertility of the fields, planted with fruit trees, whose boles are
serpented with excellent vines, and they so exuberant, that it is
commonly reported one vine will load five mules with its grapes. What
adds much to the pleasure of the sight is, that the vines, climbing to
the summit of the trees, reach in festoons and fruitages from one tree to
another, planted at exact distances, forming a more delightful picture
than painting can describe. Here grow rice, canes for sugar, olives,
pomegranates, mulberries, citrons, oranges, figs, and other sorts of rare
fruits. About the middle of the way is the town Aversa, whither came
three or four coaches to meet our lady travelers, of whom we now took
leave, having been very merry by the way with them and the capitáno,
their gallant.

[Sidenote: NAPLES]

31st January, 1645. About noon we entered the city of Naples, alighting
at the Three Kings, where we found the most plentiful fare all the time
we were in Naples. Provisions are wonderfully cheap; we seldom sat down
to fewer than eighteen or twenty dishes of exquisite meat and fruits.

The morrow after our arrival, in the afternoon, we hired a coach to carry
us about the town. First, we went to the castle of St. Elmo, built on a
very high rock, whence we had an entire prospect of the whole city, which
lies in shape of a theatre upon the sea-brink, with all the circumjacent
islands, as far as Capreæ, famous for the debauched recesses of Tiberius.
This fort is the bridle of the whole city, and was well stored and
garrisoned with native Spaniards. The strangeness of the precipice and
rareness of the prospect of so many magnificent and stately palaces,
churches, and monasteries, with the Arsenal, the Mole, and Mount Vesuvius
in the distance, all in full command of the eye, make it one of the
richest landscapes in the world.

Hence, we descended to another strong castle, called Il Castello Nuovo,
which protects the shore; but they would by no entreaty permit us to go
in; the outward defense seems to consist but in four towers, very high,
and an exceeding deep graff, with thick walls. Opposite to this is the
tower of St. Vincent, which is also very strong.

Then we went to the very noble palace of the Viceroy, partly old, and
part of a newer work; but we did not stay long here. Toward the evening,
we took the air upon the Mole, a street on the rampart, or bank, raised
in the sea for security of their galleys in port, built as that of Genoa.
Here I observed a rich fountain in the middle of the piazza, and adorned
with divers rare statues of copper, representing the Sirens, or Deities
of the Parthenope, spouting large streams of water into an ample shell,
all of cast metal, and of great cost. This stands at the entrance of the
Mole, where we met many of the nobility both on horseback and in their
coaches to take the fresco from the sea, as the manner is, it being in
the most advantageous quarter for good air, delight and prospect. Here we
saw divers goodly horses who handsomely become their riders, the
Neapolitan gentlemen. This Mole is about 500 paces in length, and paved
with a square hewn stone. From the Mole, we ascend to a church of great
antiquity, formerly sacred to Castor and Pollux, as the Greek letters
carved on the architrave and the busts of their two statues testify. It
is now converted into a stately oratory by the Theatines.

The Cathedral is a most magnificent pile, and except St. Peter's in Rome,
Naples exceeds all cities for stately churches and monasteries. We were
told that this day the blood of St. Januarius and his head should be
exposed, and so we found it, but obtained not to see the miracle of the
boiling of this blood. The next we went to see was St. Peter's, richly
adorned, the chapel especially, where that Apostle said mass, as is
testified on the wall.

After dinner we went to St. Dominic, where they showed us the crucifix
that is reported to have said these words to St. Thomas, "_Benè de me
scripsisti, Thoma_." Hence, to the Padri Olivetani, famous for the
monument of the learned Alexander-ab-Alexandro.

We proceeded, the next day, to visit the church of Santa Maria Maggiore,
where we spent much time in surveying the chapel of Joh. Jov. Pontanus,
and in it the several and excellent sentences and epitaphs on himself,
wife, children, and friends, full of rare wit, and worthy of recording,
as we find them in several writers. In the same chapel is shown an arm of
Titus Livius, with this epigraph. "_Titi Livij brachium quod Anton.
Panormita a Patavinis impetravit, Jo. Jovianus Pontanus multos post annos
hôc in loco ponendum curavit._"

Climbing a steep hill, we came to the monastery and Church of the
Carthusians, from whence is a most goodly prospect toward the sea and
city, the one full of galleys and ships, the other of stately palaces,
churches, monasteries, castles, gardens, delicious fields and meadows,
Mount Vesuvius smoking, the promontory of Minerva and Misenum, Capreæ,
Prochyta, Ischia, Pausilipum, Puteoli, and the rest, doubtless one of the
most divertissant and considerable vistas in the world. The church is
most elegantly built; the very pavements of the common cloister being all
laid with variously polished marbles, richly figured. They showed us a
massy cross of silver, much celebrated for the workmanship and carving,
and said to have been fourteen years in perfecting. The choir also is of
rare art; but above all to be admired, is the yet unfinished church of
the Jesuits, certainly, if accomplished, not to be equalled in Europe.
Hence, we passed by the Palazzo Caraffii, full of ancient and very noble
statues: also the palace of the Orsini. The next day, we did little but
visit some friends, English merchants, resident for their negotiation;
only this morning at the Viceroy's Cavalerizza I saw the noblest horses
that I had ever beheld, one of his sons riding the menage with that
address and dexterity as I had never seen anything approach it.

4th February, 1645. We were invited to the collection of exotic rarities
in the Museum of Ferdinando Imperati, a Neapolitan nobleman, and one of
the most observable palaces in the city, the repository of incomparable
rarities. Among the natural herbals most remarkable was the Byssus marina
and Pinna marina; the male and female chameleon; an Onocrotatus; an
extraordinary great crocodile; some of the Orcades Anates, held here for
a great rarity; likewise a salamander; the male and female Manucordiata,
the male having a hollow in the back, in which it is reported the female
both lays and hatches her eggs; the mandragoras, of both sexes; Papyrus,
made of several reeds, and some of silk; tables of the rinds of trees,
written with Japonic characters; another of the branches of palm; many
Indian fruits; a crystal that had a quantity of uncongealed water within
its cavity; a petrified fisher's net; divers sorts of tarantulas, being a
monstrous spider, with lark-like claws, and somewhat bigger.

5th February, 1645. This day we beheld the Vice-king's procession, which
was very splendid for the relics, banners, and music that accompanied
the Blessed Sacrament. The ceremony took up most of the morning.

6th February, 1645. We went by coach to take the air, and see the
diversions, or rather madness of the Carnival; the courtesans (who swarm
in this city to the number, as we are told, of 30,000, registered and
paying a tax to the State) flinging eggs of sweet water into our coach,
as we passed by the houses and windows. Indeed, the town is so pestered
with these cattle, that there needs no small mortification to preserve
from their enchantment, while they display all their natural and
artificial beauty, play, sing, feign compliment, and by a thousand
studied devices seek to inveigle foolish young men.

[Sidenote: VESUVIUS]

7th February, 1645. The next day, being Saturday, we went four miles out
of town on mules, to see that famous volcano, Mount Vesuvius. Here we
pass a fair fountain, called Labulla, which continually boils, supposed
to proceed from Vesuvius, and thence over a river and bridge, where on a
large upright stone, is engraven a notable inscription relative to the
memorable eruption in 1630.

Approaching the hill, as we were able with our mules, we alighted,
crawling up the rest of the proclivity with great difficulty, now with
our feet, now with our hands, not without many untoward slips which did
much bruise us on the various colored cinders, with which the whole
mountain is covered, some like pitch, others full of perfect brimstone,
others metallic, interspersed with innumerable pumices (of all which I
made a collection), we at the last gained the summit of an extensive
altitude. Turning our faces toward Naples, it presents one of the
goodliest prospects in the world; all the Baiæ, Cuma, Elysian Fields,
Capreæ, Ischia, Prochyta, Misenus, Puteoli, that goodly city, with a
great portion of the Tyrrhene Sea, offering themselves to your view at
once, and at so agreeable a distance, as nothing can be more delightful.
The mountain consists of a double top, the one pointed very sharp, and
commonly appearing above any clouds, the other blunt. Here, as we
approached, we met many large gaping clefts and chasms, out of which
issued such sulphurous blasts and smoke, that we dared not stand long
near them. Having gained the very summit, I laid myself down to look
over into that most frightful and terrible vorago, a stupendous pit of
near three miles in circuit, and half a mile in depth, by a perpendicular
hollow cliff (like that from the highest part of Dover Castle), with now
and then a craggy prominency jetting out. The area at the bottom is
plane, like an even floor, which seems to be made by the wind circling
the ashes by its eddy blasts. In the middle and centre is a hill, shaped
like a great brown loaf, appearing to consist of sulphurous matter,
continually vomiting a foggy exhalation, and ejecting huge stones with an
impetuous noise and roaring, like the report of many muskets discharging.
This horrid barathrum engaged our attention for some hours, both for the
strangeness of the spectacle, and the mention which the old histories
make of it, as one of the most stupendous curiosities in nature, and
which made the learned and inquisitive Pliny adventure his life to detect
the causes, and to lose it in too desperate an approach. It is likewise
famous for the stratagem of the rebel, Spartacus, who did so much
mischief to the State lurking among and protected by, these horrid
caverns, when it was more accessible and less dangerous than it is now;
but especially notorious it is for the last conflagration, when, in
_anno_ 1630, it burst out beyond what it had ever done in the memory of
history; throwing out huge stones and fiery pumices in such quantity, as
not only environed the whole mountain, but totally buried and overwhelmed
divers towns and their inhabitants, scattering the ashes more than a
hundred miles, and utterly devastating all those vineyards, where
formerly grew the most incomparable Greco; when, bursting through the
bowels of the earth, it absorbed the very sea, and, with its whirling
waters, drew in divers galleys and other vessels to their destruction, as
is faithfully recorded. We descended with more ease than we climbed up,
through a deep valley of pure ashes, which at the late eruption was a
flowing river of melted and burning brimstone, and so came to our mules
at the foot of the mountain.

On Sunday, we with our guide visited the so much celebrated Baia, and
natural rarities of the places adjacent. Here we entered the mountain
Pausilypus, at the left hand of which they showed us Virgil's sepulchre
erected on a steep rock, in form of a small rotunda or cupolated column,
but almost overgrown with bushes and wild bay trees. At the entrance is
this inscription:

                _Stanisi Cencovius.
                        1589
    Qui cineres? Tumuli hæc vestigia, conditur olim
        Ille hôc qui cecinit Pascua, Rura Duces.
                Can Ree MDLIII._[26]

        [Footnote 26: Such is the inscription, as copied by Evelyn;
        but as its sense is not very clear, and the Diary contains
        instances of incorrectness in transcribing, it may be desirable
        to subjoin the distich said (by Keysler in his "Travels," ii. 433)
        to be the only one in the whole mausoleum:

            "_Quæ cineris tumulo hæc vestigia? conditur olim
            Ille hoc qui cecinit pascua, rura, duces._"]

After we were advanced into this noble and altogether wonderful crypt,
consisting of a passage spacious enough for two coaches to go abreast,
cut through a rocky mountain near three quarters of a mile (by the
ancient Cimmerii as reported, but as others say by L. Cocceius, who
employed a hundred thousand men on it), we came to the midway, where
there is a well bored through the diameter of this vast mountain, which
admits the light into a pretty chapel, hewn out of the natural rock,
wherein hang divers lamps, perpetually burning. The way is paved under
foot; but it does not hinder the dust, which rises so excessively in this
much-frequented passage, that we were forced at midday to use a torch. At
length, we were delivered from the bowels of the earth into one of the
most delicious plains in the world: the oranges, lemons, pomegranates,
and other fruits, blushing yet on the perpetually green trees; for the
summer is here eternal, caused by the natural and adventitious heat of
the earth, warmed through the subterranean fires, as was shown us by our
guide, who alighted, and, cutting up a turf with his knife, and
delivering it to me, it was so hot, I was hardly able to hold it in my
hands. This mountain is exceedingly fruitful in vines, and exotics grow
readily.

[Sidenote: LAGO D'AGNANO]

We now came to a lake of about two miles in circumference, environed with
hills; the water of it is fresh and sweet on the surface, but salt at
bottom; some mineral salt conjectured to be the cause, and it is reported
of that profunditude in the middle that it is bottomless. The people
call it Lago d'Agnano, from the multitude of serpents which, involved
together about the spring, fall down from the cliffy hills into it. It
has no fish, nor will any live in it. We tried the old experiment on a
dog in the Grotto del Cane, or Charon's Cave; it is not above three or
four paces deep, and about the height of a man, nor very broad. Whatever
having life enters it, presently expires. Of this we made trial with two
dogs, one of which we bound to a short pole to guide him the more
directly into the further part of the den, where he was no sooner
entered, but--without the least noise, or so much as a struggle, except
that he panted for breath, lolling out his tongue, his eyes being
fixed:--we drew him out dead to all appearance; but immediately plunging
him into the adjoining lake, within less than half an hour he recovered,
and swimming to shore, ran away from us. We tried the same on another
dog, without the application of the water, and left him quite dead. The
experiment has been made on men, as on that poor creature whom Peter of
Toledo caused to go in; likewise on some Turkish slaves; two soldiers,
and other foolhardy persons, who all perished, and could never be
recovered by the water of the lake, as are dogs; for which many learned
reasons have been offered, as Simon Majolus in his book of the
Canicular-days has mentioned, colloq. 15. And certainly the most likely
is, the effect of those hot and dry vapors which ascend out of the earth,
and are condensed by the ambient cold, as appears by their converting
into crystalline drops on the top, while at the bottom it is so
excessively hot, that a torch being extinguished near it, and lifted a
little distance, was suddenly re-lighted.

Near to this cave are the natural stoves of St. Germain, of the nature of
sudatories, in certain chambers partitioned with stone for the sick to
sweat in, the vapors here being exceedingly hot, and of admirable success
in the gout, and other cold distempers of the nerves. Hence, we climed up
a hill, the very highway in several places even smoking with heat like a
furnace. The mountains were by the Greeks called Leucogæi, and the fields
Phlegræn. Hercules here vanquished the Giants, assisted with lightning.
We now came to the Court of Vulcan, consisting of a valley near a quarter
of a mile in breadth, the margin environed with steep cliffs, out of
whose sides and foot break forth fire and smoke in abundance, making a
noise like a tempest of water, and sometimes discharging in loud reports,
like so many guns. The heat of this place is wonderful, the earth itself
being almost unsufferable, and which the subterranean fires have made so
hollow, by having wasted the matter for so many years, that it sounds
like a drum to those who walk upon it; and the water thus struggling with
those fires bubbles and spouts aloft into the air. The mouths of these
spiracles are bestrewed with variously colored cinders, which rise with
the vapor, as do many colored stones, according to the quality of the
combustible matter, insomuch as it is no little adventure to approach
them. They are, however, daily frequented both by sick and well; the
former receiving the fumes, have been recovered of diseases esteemed
incurable. Here we found a great deal of sulphur made, which they refine
in certain houses near the place, casting it into canes, to a very great
value. Near this we were showed a hill of alum, where is one of the best
mineries, yielding a considerable revenue. Some flowers of brass are
found here; but I could not but smile at those who persuade themselves
that here are the gates of purgatory (for which it may be they have
erected, very near it, a convent, and named it St. Januarius), reporting
to have often heard screeches and horrible lamentations proceeding from
these caverns and volcanoes; with other legends of birds that are never
seen, save on Sundays, which cast themselves into the lake at night,
appearing no more all the week after.

We now approached the ruins of a very stately temple, or theater, of 172
feet in length, and about 80 in breadth, thrown down by an earthquake,
not long since; it was consecrated to Vulcan, and under the ground are
many strange meanders; from which it is named the LABYRINTH; this place
is so haunted with bats, that their perpetual fluttering endangered the
putting out our links.

[Sidenote: POZZOLO]

Hence, we passed again those boiling and smoking hills, till we came to
Pozzolo, formerly the famous Puteoli, the landing-place of St. Paul, when
he came into Italy, after the tempest described in the Acts of the
Apostles. Here we made a good dinner, and bought divers medals,
antiquities, and other curiosities, of the country people, who daily
find such things among the very old ruins of those places. This town was
formerly a Greek colony, built by the Samians, a seasonable commodious
port, and full of observable antiquities. We saw the ruins of Neptune's
Temple, to whom this place was sacred, and near it the stately palace and
gardens of Peter de Toledo, formerly mentioned. Afterward, we visited
that admirably built Temple of Augustus, seeming to have been hewn out of
an entire rock, though indeed consisting of several square stones. The
inscription remains thus: "_L. Calphurnius L. F. Templum Augusto cum
ornamentis D. D._;" and under it, "_L. Coccejus L. C. Postumi L. Auctus
Architectus_." It is now converted into a church, in which they showed us
huge bones, which they affirm to have been of some giant.

We went to see the ruins of the old haven, so compact with that
bituminous sand in which the materials are laid, as the like is hardly to
be found, though all this has not been sufficient to protect it from the
fatal concussions of several earthquakes (frequent here) which have
almost demolished it, thirteen vast piles of marble only remaining; a
stupendous work in the bosom of Neptune! To this joins the bridge of
Caligula, by which (having now embarked ourselves) we sailed to the
pleasant Baia, almost four miles in length, all which way that proud
Emperor would pass in triumph. Here we rowed along toward a villa of the
orator Cicero's, where we were shown the ruins of his Academy; and, at
the foot of a rock, his Baths, the waters reciprocating their tides with
the neighboring sea. Hard at hand, rises Mount Gaurus, being, as I
conceived, nothing save a heap of pumices, which here float in abundance
on the sea, exhausted of all inflammable matter by the fire, which
renders them light and porous, so as the beds of nitre, which lie deep
under them, having taken fire, do easily eject them. They dig much for
fancied treasure said to be concealed about this place. From hence, we
coasted near the ruins of Portus Julius, where we might see divers
stately palaces that had been swallowed up by the sea after earthquakes.
Coming to shore, we pass by the Lucrine Lake, so famous heretofore for
its delicious oysters, now producing few or none, being divided from the
sea by a bank of incredible labor, the supposed work of Hercules; it is
now half choked up with rubbish, and by part of the new mountain, which
rose partly out of it, and partly out of the sea, and that in the space
of one night and a day, to a very great altitude, on the 29th September,
1538, after many terrible earthquakes, which ruined divers places
thereabout, when at midnight the sea retiring near 200 paces, and yawning
on the sudden, it continued to vomit forth flames and fiery stones in
such quantity, as produced this whole mountain by their fall, making the
inhabitants of Pozzolo to leave their habitations, supposing the end of
the world had been come.

From the left part of this, we walked to the Lake Avernus of a round
form, and totally environed with mountains. This lake was feigned by the
poet for the gates of hell, by which Æneas made his descent, and where he
sacrificed to Pluto and the Manes. The waters are of a remarkably black
color; but I tasted of them without danger; hence, they feign that the
river Styx has its source. At one side, stand the handsome ruins of a
Temple dedicated to Apollo, or rather Pluto, but it is controverted.
Opposite to this, having new lighted our torches, we enter a vast cave,
in which having gone about two hundred paces, we pass a narrow entry
which leads us into a room of about ten paces long, proportionably broad
and high; the side walls and roof retain still the golden mosaic, though
now exceedingly decayed by time. Here is a short cell or rather niche,
cut out of the solid rock, somewhat resembling a couch, in which they
report that the Sibylla lay, and uttered her Oracles; but it is supposed
by most to have been a bath only. This subterranean grot leads quite
through to Cuma, but is in some places obstructed by the earth which has
sunk in, so as we were constrained back again, and to creep on our
bellies, before we came to the light. It is reported Nero had once
resolved to cut a channel for two great galleys that should have extended
to Ostia, 150 miles distant. The people now call it Licola.

From hence, we ascended to that most ancient city of Italy, the renowned
Cuma, built by the Grecians. It stands on a very eminent promontory, but
is now a heap of ruins. A little below, stands the Arco Felice,
heretofore part of Apollo's Temple, with the foundations of divers goodly
buildings; among whose heaps are frequently found statues and other
antiquities, by such as dig for them. Near this is the Lake Acherutia,
and Acheron. Returning to the shore, we came to the Bagni de Tritoli and
Diana, which are only long narrow passages cut through the main rock,
where the vapors ascend so hot, that entering with the body erect you
will even faint with excessive perspiration; but, stooping lower, as
sudden a cold surprises. These sudatories are much in request for many
infirmities. Now we entered the haven of the Bahiæ, where once stood that
famous town, so-called from the companion of Ulysses here buried; not
without great reason celebrated for one of the most delicious places that
the sun shines on, according to that of Horace:

    "_Nullus in Orbe locus Baiis prælucet amoenis._"

Though, as to the stately fabrics, there now remain little save the
ruins, whereof the most entire is that of Diana's Temple, and another of
Venus. Here were those famous poles of lampreys that would come to hand
when called by name, as Martial tells us. On the summit of the rock
stands a strong castle garrisoned to protect the shore from Turkish
pirates. It was once the retiring place of Julius Cæsar.

Passing by the shore again, we entered Bauli, observable from the
monstrous murder of Nero committed on his mother Agrippina. Her sepulchre
was yet shown us in the rock, which we entered, being covered with sundry
heads and figures of beasts. We saw there the roots of a tree turned into
stone, and are continually dropping.

[Sidenote: MISENUS]

Thus having viewed the foundations of the old Cimmeria, the palaces of
Marius, Pompey, Nero, Hortensius, and other villas and antiquities, we
proceeded toward the promontory of Misenus, renowned for the sepulchre of
Æneas's Trumpeter. It was once a great city, now hardly a ruin, said to
have been built from this place to the promontory of Minerva, fifty miles
distant, now discontinued and demolished by the frequent earthquakes.
Here was the villa of Caius Marius, where Tiberius Cæsar died; and here
runs the Aqueduct, thought to be dug by Nero, a stupendous passage,
heretofore nobly arched with marble, as the ruins testify. Hence, we
walked to those receptacles of water called _Piscina Mirabilis_, being a
vault of 500 feet long, and twenty-two in breadth, the roof propped up
with four ranks of square pillars, twelve in a row; the walls are brick,
plastered over with such a composition as for strength and politure
resembles white marble. 'Tis conceived to have been built by Nero, as a
conservatory for fresh water; as were also the Centi Camerelli, into
which we were next led. All these crypta being now almost sunk into the
earth, show yet their former amplitude and magnificence.

Returning toward the Baia, we again pass the Elysian Fields, so
celebrated by the poets, nor unworthily, for their situation and verdure,
being full of myrtles and sweet shrubs, and having a most delightful
prospect toward the Tyrrhene Sea. Upon the verge of these remain the
ruins of the Mercato di Saboto, formerly a Circus; over the arches stand
divers urns, full of Roman ashes.

Having well satisfied our curiosity among these antiquities, we retired
to our felucca, which rowed us back again toward Pozzolo, at the very
place of St. Paul's landing. Keeping along the shore, they showed us a
place where the sea water and sands did exceedingly boil. Thence, to the
island Nesis, once the fabulous Nymph; and thus we leave the Baia, so
renowned for the sweet retirements of the most opulent and voluptuous
Romans. They certainly were places of uncommon amenity, as their yet
tempting site, and other circumstances of natural curiosities, easily
invite me to believe, since there is not in the world so many stupendous
rarities to be met with, as in the circle of a few miles which environ
these blissful abodes.

[Sidenote: NAPLES]

8th February, 1645. Returned to Naples, we went to see the Arsenal, well
furnished with galleys and other vessels. The city is crowded with
inhabitants, gentlemen and merchants. The government is held of the Pope
by an annual tribute of 40,000 ducats and a white jennet; but the
Spaniard trusts more to the power of those his natural subjects there;
Apulia and Calabria yielding him near four millions of crowns yearly to
maintain it. The country is divided into thirteen Provinces, twenty
Archbishops, and one hundred and seven Bishops; the estates of the
nobility, in default of the male line, reverting to the King. Besides the
Vice-Roy, there is among the Chief Magistrates a High Constable,
Admiral, Chief Justice, Great Chamberlain, and Chancellor, with a
Secretary; these being prodigiously avaricious, do wonderfully enrich
themselves out of the miserable people's labor, silks, manna, sugar, oil,
wine, rice, sulphur, and alum; for with all these riches is this
delicious country blest. The manna falls at certain seasons on the
adjoining hills in form of a thick dew. The very winter here is a summer,
ever fruitful, so that in the middle of February we had melons, cherries,
apricots, and many other sorts of fruit.

The building of the city is for the size the most magnificent of any in
Europe, the streets exceeding large, well paved, having many vaults and
conveyances under them for the sulliage; which renders them very sweet
and clean, even in the midst of winter. To it belongeth more than 3,000
churches and monasteries, and these the best built and adorned of any in
Italy. They greatly affect the Spanish gravity in their habit; delight in
good horses; the streets are full of gallants on horseback, in coaches
and sedans, from hence brought first into England by Sir Sanders Duncomb.
The women are generally well featured, but excessively libidinous. The
country people so jovial and addicted to music, that the very husbandmen
almost universally play on the guitar, singing and composing songs in
praise of their sweethearts, and will commonly go to the field with their
fiddle; they are merry, witty, and genial; all which I much attribute to
the excellent quality of the air. They have a deadly hatred to the
French, so that some of our company were flouted at for wearing red
cloaks, as the mode then was.

This I made the _non ultra_ of my travels, sufficiently sated with
rolling up and down, and resolving within myself to be no longer an
_individuum vagum_, if ever I got home again; since, from the report of
divers experienced and curious persons, I had been assured there was
little more to be seen in the rest of the civil world, after Italy,
France, Flanders, and the Low Countries, but plain and prodigious
barbarism.

[Sidenote: ROME]

Thus, about the 7th of February,[27] we set out on our return to Rome by
the same way we came, not daring to adventure by sea, as some of our
company were inclined to do, for fear of Turkish pirates hovering on that
coast; nor made we any stay save at Albano, to view the celebrated place
and sepulchre of the famous duelists who decided the ancient quarrel
between their imperious neighbors with the loss of their lives. These
brothers, the Horatii and Curiatii, lie buried near the highway, under
two ancient pyramids of stone, now somewhat decayed and overgrown with
rubbish. We took the opportunity of tasting the wine here, which is
famous.

    [Footnote 27: Evelyn's dates in this portion of his Diary appear to
    require occasionally that qualification of "about."]

Being arrived at Rome on the 13th of February, we were again invited to
Signor Angeloni's study, where with greater leisure we surveyed the
rarities, as his cabinet and medals especially, esteemed one of the best
collections of them in Europe. He also showed us two antique lamps, one
of them dedicated to Pallas, the other _Laribus Sacru'_, as appeared by
their inscriptions; some old Roman rings and keys; the Egyptian Isis,
cast in iron; sundry rare basso-relievos; good pieces of paintings,
principally of Christ of Correggio, with this painter's own face
admirably done by himself; divers of both the Bassanos; a great number of
pieces by Titian, particularly the Triumphs; an infinity of natural
rarities, dried animals, Indian habits and weapons, shells, etc.; divers
very antique statues of brass; some lamps of so fine an earth that they
resembled cornelians, for transparency and color; hinges of Corinthian
brass, and one great nail of the same metal found in the ruins of Nero's
golden house.

In the afternoon, we ferried over to Transtevere, to the palace of Gichi,
to review the works of Raphael: and, returning by St. Angelo, we saw the
castle as far as was permitted, and on the other side considered those
admirable pilasters supposed to be of the foundation of the Pons
Sublicius, over which Horatius Cocles passed; here anchor three or four
water mills, invented by Belizarius: and thence had another sight of the
Farnesi's gardens, and of the terrace where is that admirable painting of
Raphael, being a Cupid playing with a Dolphin, wrought _á fresco_,
preserved in shutters of wainscot, as well it merits, being certainly one
of the most wonderful pieces of work in the world.

14th February, 1645. I went to Santa Cecilia, a church built and endowed
by Cardinal Sfrondæti, who has erected a stately altar near the body of
this martyr, not long before found in a vesture of silk girt about, a
veil on her head, and the bloody scars of three wounds on the neck; the
body is now in a silver chest, with her statue over it, in snow-white
marble. Other Saints lie here, decorated with splendid ornaments, lamps,
and incensories of great cost. A little farther, they show us the Bath of
St. Cecilia, to which joins a Convent of Friars, where is the picture of
the Flagellation by Vanni, and the columns of the portico, taken from the
Baths of Septimius Severus.

15th February, 1645. Mr. Henshaw and I walked by the Tiber, and visited
the Stola Tybertina (now St. Bartholomew's), formerly cut in the shape of
a ship, and wharfed with marble, in which a lofty obelisk represented the
mast. In the church of St. Bartholomew is the body of the Apostle. Here
are the ruins of the Temple of Æsculapius, now converted into a stately
hospital and a pretty convent. Opposite to it, is the convent and church
of St. John Calabita, where I saw nothing remarkable, save an old broken
altar. Here was the Temple of Fortuna Virilis. Hence, we went to a
cupola, now a church, formerly dedicated to the sun. Opposite to it,
Santa Maria Schola Græca, where formerly that tongue was taught; said to
be the second church dedicated in Rome to the Blessed Virgin; bearing
also the title of a Cardinalate. Behind this stands the great altar of
Hercules, much demolished. Near this, being at the foot of Mount
Aventine, are the Pope's salt houses. Ascending the hill, we came to St.
Sabina, an ancient fabric, formerly sacred to Diana; there, in a chapel,
is an admirable picture, the work of Livia Fontana, set about with
columns of alabaster, and in the middle of the church is a stone, cast,
as they report, by the Devil at St. Dominic, while he was at mass. Hence,
we traveled toward a heap of rubbish, called the Marmorata, on the bank
of the Tiber, a magazine of stones; and near which formerly stood a
triumphal arch, in honor of Horatius vanquishing the Tuscans. The ruins
of the bridge yet appear.

We were now got to Mons Testaceus, a heap of potsherds, almost 200 feet
high, thought to have been thrown there and amassed by the subjects of
the Commonwealth bringing their tribute in earthen vessels, others (more
probably) that it was a quarter of the town where potters lived; at the
summit Rome affords a noble prospect. Before it is a spacious green,
called the Hippodrome, where Olympic games were celebrated, and the
people mustered, as in our London Artillery-Ground. Going hence, to the
old wall of the city, we much admired the pyramid, or tomb, of Caius
Cestius, of white marble, one of the most ancient entire monuments,
inserted in the wall, with this inscription:

    "_C. Cestius L. F. Pob. Epulo (an order of priests) Pr. Tr. pl.
    VII. Vir. Epulonum._"

And a little beneath:

    "_Opus absolutum ex testamento diebus CCCXXX. arbitratu. Ponti P.
    F. Cla. Melæ Heredis et Pothi L._"

At the left hand, is the Port of St. Paul, once Tergemina, out of which
the three Horatii passed to encounter the Curiatii of Albano. Hence,
bending homeward by St. Saba, by Antoninus's baths (which we entered), is
the marble sepulchre of Vespasian. The thickness of the walls and the
stately ruins show the enormous magnitude of these baths. Passing by a
corner of the Circus Maximus, we viewed the place where stood the
Septizonium, demolished by Sextus V., for fear of its falling. Going by
Mons Coelius, we beheld the devotions of St. Maria in Naviculâ, so
named from a ship carved out in white marble standing on a pedestal
before it, supposed to be the vow of one escaped from shipwreck. It has a
glorious front to the street. Adjoining to this are the Hortii Mathæi,
which only of all the places about the city I omitted visiting, though I
was told inferior to no garden in Rome for statues, ancient monuments,
aviaries, fountains, groves, and especially a noble obelisk, and
maintained in beauty at an expense of 6,000 crowns yearly, which, if not
expended to keep up its beauty, forfeits the possession of a greater
revenue to another family: so curious are they in their villas and places
of pleasure, even to excess.

The next day, we went to the once famous Circus Caracalla, in the midst
of which there now lay prostrate one of the most stately and ancient
obelisks, full of Egyptian hieroglyphics. It was broken into four pieces,
when overthrown by the Barbarians, and would have been purchased and
transported into England by the magnificent Thomas Earl of Arundel,
could it have been well removed to the sea. This is since set together
and placed on the stupendous artificial rock made by Innocent X., and
serving for a fountain in Piazza Navona, the work of Bernini, the Pope's
architect. Near this is the sepulchre of Metellus, of massy stone, pretty
entire, now called Capo di Bovo. Hence, to a small oratory, named
"_Domine, quo vadis_"; where the tradition is, that our Blessed Savior
met St. Peter as he fled, and turned him back again.

St. Sebastian's was the next, a mean structure (the _facciáta_ excepted),
but is venerable, especially for the relics and grots, in which lie the
ashes of many holy men. Here is kept the pontifical chair sprinkled with
the blood of Pope Stephen, to which great devotion is paid; also a well
full of martyrs' bones, and the sepulchre of St. Sebastian, with one of
the arrows (used in shooting him). These are preserved by the Fulgentine
Monks, who have here their monastery, and who led us down into a grotto
which they affirmed went divers furlongs under ground; the sides, or
walls which we passed were filled with bones and dead bodies, laid (as it
were) on shelves, whereof some were shut up with broad stones and now and
then a cross, or a palm, cut in them. At the end of some of these
subterranean passages, were square rooms with altars in them, said to
have been the receptacles of primitive Christians, in the times of
persecution, nor seems it improbable.

17th February, 1645. I was invited, after dinner, to the Academy of the
Humorists, kept in a spacious hall belonging to Signor Mancini, where the
wits of the town meet on certain days to recite poems, and debate on
several subjects. The first that speaks is called the Lord, and stands in
an eminent place, and then the rest of the Virtuosi recite in order. By
these ingenious exercises, besides the learned discourses, is the purity
of the Italian tongue daily improved. The room is hung round with
devices, or emblems, with mottoes under them. There are several other
Academies of this nature, bearing like fantastical titles. In this of the
Humorists is the picture of Guarini, the famous author of the Pastor
Fido, once of this society. The chief part of the day we spent in hearing
the academic exercises.

18th February, 1645. We walked to St. Nicholas in Carcere; it has a fair
front, and within are parts of the bodies of St. Mark and Marcellino; on
the Tribuna is a painting of Gentileschi, and the altar of Caval;
Baglioni, with some other rare paintings. Coming round from hence we
passed by the Circus Flaminius, formerly very large, now totally in
ruins. In the afternoon, we visited the English Jesuits, with whose
Superior, P. Stafford, I was well acquainted; who received us
courteously. They call their church and college St. Thomasso de gli
Inglesi, and is a seminary. Among other trifles, they show the relics of
Becket, their reputed martyr. Of paintings there is one of Durante, and
many representing the sufferings of several of their society executed in
England, especially F. Campion.

In the Hospital of the Pelerini della S. Trinita, I had seen the feet of
many pilgrims washed by Princes, Cardinals, and noble Romans, and served
at table, as the ladies and noble women did to other poor creatures in
another room. It was told us that no less than 444,000 men had been thus
treated in the Jubilee of 1600, and 25,500 women, as appears by the
register, which brings store of money.

Returning homeward, I saw the palace of Cardinal Spada, where is a most
magnificent hall painted by Daniel de Volterra and Giulio Piacentino, who
made the fret in the little Court; but the rare perspectives are of
Bolognesi. Near this is the Mont Pieta, instituted as a bank for the
poor, who, if the sum be not great, may have money upon pawns. To this
joins St. Martino, to which belongs a Schola, or Corporation, that do
many works of charity. Hence we came through Campo di Fiori, or
herb-market, in the midst of which is a fountain casting out water of a
dolphin, in copper; and in this piazza is common execution done.

19th February, 1645. I went, this afternoon, to visit my Lord John
Somerset, brother to the Marquis of Worcester, who had his apartment in
Palazzo della Cancellaria, belonging to Cardinal Francesco Barberini, as
Vice-chancellor of the Church of Rome, and Protector of the English. The
building is of the famous architect, Bramante, of incrusted marble, with
four ranks of noble lights; the principal entrance is of Fontana's
design, and all marble; the portico within sustained by massy columns;
on the second peristyle above, the chambers are rarely painted by
Salviati and Vasari; and so ample is this palace, that six princes with
their families have been received in it at one time, without incommoding
each other.

20th February, 1645. I went, as was my usual custom, and spent an
afternoon in Piazza Navona, as well as to see what antiquities I could
purchase among the people who hold market there for medals, pictures, and
such curiosities, as to hear the mountebanks prate and distribute their
medicines. This was formerly the Circus, or Agonales, dedicated to sports
and pastimes, and is now the greatest market of the city, having three
most noble fountains, and the stately palaces of the Pamfilii, St.
Giacomo de Spagnoli belonging to that nation, to which add two convents
for friars and nuns, all Spanish. In this Church was erected a most
stately catafalco, or capellar ardente, for the death of the Queen of
Spain; the church was hung with black, and here I heard a Spanish sermon,
or funeral oration, and observed the statues, devices, and impresses hung
about the walls, the church and pyramid stuck with thousands of lights
and tapers, which made a glorious show. The statue of St. James is by
Sansovino; there are also some good pictures of Caracci. The _facciáta_,
too, is fair. Returning home, I passed by the stumps of old Pasquin, at
the corner of a street, called Strada Pontificia; here they still paste
up their drolling lampoons and scurrilous papers. This had formerly been
one of the best statues for workmanship and art in all the city, as the
remaining bust does still show.

21st February, 1645. I walked in the morning up the hill toward the
Capuchins, where was then Cardinal Unufrio (brother to the late Pope
Urban VIII.) of the same order. He built them a pretty church, full of
rare pictures, and there lies the body of St. Felix, that they say still
does miracles. The piece at the great altar is by Lanfranc. It is a lofty
edifice, with a beautiful avenue of trees, and in a good air. After
dinner, passing along the Strada del Corso, I observed the column of
Antoninus, passing under Arco Portugallo, which is but a relic,
heretofore erected in honor of Domitian, called now Portugallo, from a
Cardinal living near it. A little further on the right hand stands the
column in a small piazza, heretofore set up in honor of M. Aurelius
Antoninus, comprehending in a basso-relievo of white marble his hostile
acts against the Parthians, Armenians, Germans, etc; but it is now
somewhat decayed. On the summit has been placed the image of St. Paul, of
gilded copper. The pillar is said to be 161 feet high, ascended by 207
steps, receiving light by fifty-six apertures, without defacing the
sculpture.

At a little distance, are the relics of the Emperor's palace, the heads
of whose pillars show them to have been Corinthian.

Turning a little down, we came to another piazza, in which stands a
sumptuous vase of porphyry, and a fair fountain; but the grace of this
market, and indeed the admiration of the whole world, is the Pantheon,
now called S. Maria della Rotonda, formerly sacred to all the Gods, and
still remaining the most entire antiquity of the city. It was built by
Marcus Agrippa, as testifies the architrave of the portico, sustained by
thirteen pillars of Theban marble, six feet thick, and fifty-three in
height, of one entire stone. In this porch is an old inscription.

Entering the church, we admire the fabric, wholly covered with one
cupola, seemingly suspended in the air, and receiving light by a hole in
the middle only. The structure is near as high as broad, viz, 144 feet,
not counting the thickness of the walls, which is twenty-two more to the
top, all of white marble; and, till Urban VIII. converted part of the
metal into ordnance of war against the Duke of Parma, and part to make
the high altar in St. Peter's, it was all over covered with Corinthian
brass, ascending by forty degrees within the roof, or convex, of the
cupola, richly carved in octagons in the stone. There are niches in the
walls, in which stood heretofore the statues of Jupiter and the other
Gods and Goddesses; for here was that Venus which had hung in her ear the
other Union[28] that Cleopatra was about to dissolve and drink up, as
she had done its fellow. There are several of these niches, one above
another for the celestial, terrestrial, and subterranean deities; but the
place is now converted into a church dedicated to the Blessed Virgin and
all the Saints. The pavement is excellent, and the vast folding-gates, of
Corinthian brass. In a word, it is of all the Roman antiquities the most
worthy of notice. There lie interred in this Temple the famous Raphael di
Urbino, Perino del Vaga, F. Zuccharo, and other painters.

    [Footnote 28:

        And in the cup an UNION shall he throw,
        Richer than that which four successive kings
        In Denmark's crown have worn.
        --Shakespeare, "Hamlet," Act v. Sc. 2.

    Theobald says, an UNION is the finest sort of pearl, and has its
    place in all crowns and coronets. The Latin word for a single large
    pearl, it is hardly necessary to add, is _unio_.]

Returning home, we pass by Cardinal Cajetan's Palace, a noble piece of
architecture of Vincenzo Ammanatti, which is the grace of the whole
Corso.

22d February, 1645. I went to Trinitá del Monte, a monastery of French, a
noble church built by Louis XI. and Charles VIII., the chapels well
painted, especially that by Zaccara da Volterra, and the cloister with
the miracles of their St. Francis de Paulo, and the heads of the French
Kings. In the _pergolo_ above, the walls are wrought with excellent
perspective, especially the St. John; there are the Babylonish dials,
invented by Kircher, the Jesuit. This convent, so eminently situated on
Mons Pincius, has the entire prospect of Campus Martius, and has a fair
garden which joins to the Palazzo di Medici.

23d February, 1645. I went to hear a sermon at St. Giacomo degli
Incurabili, a fair church built by F. da Volterra, of good architecture,
and so is the hospital, where only desperate patients are brought. I
passed the evening at St. Maria del Popolo, heretofore Nero's sepulchre,
where his ashes lay many years in a marble chest. To this church joins
the monastery of St. Augustine, which has pretty gardens on Mons Pincius,
and in the church is the miraculous shrine of the Madonna which Pope Paul
III. brought barefooted to the place, supplicating for a victory over the
Turks in 1464. In a chapel of the Ghisi, are some rare paintings of
Raphael, and noble sculptures. Those two in the choir are by Sansovino,
and in the Chapel de Cerasii, a piece of Caravaggio. Here lie buried many
great scholars and artists, of which I took notice of this inscription:

    "_Hospes, disce novum mortis genus; improba felis,
      Dum trahitur, digitum mordet, et intereo._"

Opposite to the _facciátæ_ of the church is a superb obelisk full of
hieroglyphics, the same that Sennesertus, King of Egypt, dedicated to the
Sun; brought to Rome by Augustus, erected in the Circus Maximus, and
since placed here by Pope Sextus V. It is eighty-eight feet high, of one
entire stone, and placed with great art and engines by the famous
Domenico Fontana.

Hence, turning on the right out of the Porto del Popolo, we came to
Justinian's gardens, near the Muro Torto, so prominently built as
threatening every moment to fall, yet standing so for these thousand
years. Under this is the burying place for the common prostitutes, where
they are put into the ground, _sans ceremonie_.

24th February, 1645. We walked to St. Roche's and Martine's, near the
brink of the Tiber, a large hospital for both sexes. Hence, to the
Mausoleum Augusti, between the Tiber and the Via Flaminia, now much
ruined, which had formerly contended for its sumptuous architecture. It
was intended as a cemetery for the Roman Emperors, had twelve ports, and
was covered with a cupola of white marble, environed with stately trees
and innumerable statues, all of it now converted into a garden. We passed
the afternoon at the Sapienza, a very stately building full of good
marbles, especially the portico, of admirable architecture. These are
properly the University Schools, where lectures are read on Law,
Medicine, and Anatomy, and students perform their exercises.

Hence, we walked to the church of St. Andrea della Valle, near the former
Theater of Pompey, and the famous Piccolomini, but given to this church
and the Order, who are Theatins. The Barberini have in this place a
chapel, of curious incrusted marbles of several sorts, and rare
paintings. Under it is a place where St. Sebastian is said to have been
beaten with rods before he was shot with darts. The cupola is painted by
Lanfranc, an inestimable work, and the whole fabric and monastery
adjoining are admirable.

25th February, 1645. I was invited by a Dominican Friar, whom we usually
heard preach to a number of Jews, to be godfather to a converted Turk and
Jew. The ceremony was performed in the Church of Santa Maria sopra la
Minerva, near the Capitol. They were clad in white; then exorcised at
their entering the church with abundance of ceremonies, and, when led
into the choir, were baptized by a Bishop, _in pontificalibus_. The Turk
lived afterward in Rome, sold hot waters and would bring us presents when
he met us, kneeling and kissing the hems of our cloaks; but the Jew was
believed to be a counterfeit. This church, situated on a spacious rising,
was formerly consecrated to Minerva. It was well built and richly
adorned, and the body of St. Catherine di Sienna lies buried here. The
paintings of the chapel are by Marcello Venuti; the Madonna over the
altar is by Giovanni di Fiesole, called the Angelic Painter, who was of
the Order of these Monks. There are many charities dealt publicly here,
especially at the procession on the Annunciation, where I saw his
Holiness, with all the Cardinals, Prelates, etc., _in pontificalibus_;
dowries being given to 300 poor girls all clad in white. The Pope had his
tiara on his head, and was carried on men's shoulders in an open
armchair, blessing the people as he passed. The statue of Christ, at the
Columna, is esteemed one of the masterpieces of M. Angelo: innumerable
are the paintings by the best artists, and the organ is accounted one of
the sweetest in Rome. Cardinal Bembo is interred here. We returned by St.
Mark's, a stately church, with an excellent pavement, and a fine piece by
Perugino, of the Two Martyrs. Adjoining to this is a noble palace built
by the famous Bramante.

26th February, 1645. Ascending the hill, we came to the Forum Trajanum,
where his column stands yet entire, wrought with admirable basso-relievo
recording the Dacian war, the figures at the upper part appearing of the
same proportion with those below. It is ascended by 192 steps,
enlightened with 44 apertures, or windows, artificially disposed; in
height from the pedestal 140 feet.

It had once the ashes of Trajan and his statue, where now stands St.
Peter's of gilt brass, erected by Pope Sextus V. The sculpture of this
stupendous pillar is thought to be the work of Apollodorus; but what is
very observable is, the descent to the plinth of the pedestal, showing
how this ancient city lies now buried in her ruins; this monument being
at first set up on a rising ground. After dinner, we took the air in
Cardinal Bentivoglio's delicious gardens, now but newly deceased. He had
a fair palace built by several good masters on part of the ruins of
Constantine's Baths; well adorned with columns and paintings, especially
those of Guido Reni.

27th February, 1645. In the morning Mr. Henshaw and myself walked to the
Trophies of Marius, erected in honor of his victory over the Cimbrians,
but these now taken out of their niches are placed on the balusters of
the Capitol, so that their ancient station is now a ruin. Keeping on our
way, we came to St. Croce of Jerusalem, built by Constantine over the
demolition of the Temple of Venus and Cupid, which he threw down; and it
was here, they report, he deposited the wood of the true Cross, found by
his mother, Helena; in honor whereof this church was built, and in memory
of his victory over Maxentius when that holy sign appeared to him. The
edifice without is Gothic, but very glorious within, especially the roof,
and one tribuna (gallery) well painted. Here is a chapel dedicated to St.
Helena, the floor whereof is of earth brought from Jerusalem; the walls
are of fair mosaic, in which they suffer no women to enter, save once a
year. Under the high altar of the Church is buried St. Anastasius, in
Lydian marble, and Benedict VII.; and they show a number of relics,
exposed at our request; with a phial of our blessed Savior's blood; two
thorns of his crown; three chips of the real cross; one of the nails,
wanting a point; St. Thomas's doubting finger; and a fragment of the
title (put on the cross), being part of a thin board; some of Judas's
pieces of silver; and many more, if one had faith to believe it. To this
venerable church joins a Monastery, the gardens taking up the space of an
ancient amphitheatre.

Hence, we passed beyond the walls out at the Port of St. Laurence, to
that Saint's church, and where his ashes are enshrined. This was also
built by the same great Constantine, famous for the Coronation of Pietro
Altissiodorensis, Emperor of Constantinople, by Honorius II. It is said
the corpse of St. Stephen, the proto martyr, was deposited here by that
of St. Sebastian, which it had no sooner touched, but Sebastian gave it
place of its own accord. The Church has no less than seven privileged
altars, and excellent pictures. About the walls are painted this
martyr's sufferings; and, when they built them, the bones of divers
saints were translated to other churches. The front is Gothic. In our
return, we saw a small ruin of an aqueduct built by Quintus Marcius, the
prætor; and so passed through that incomparable straight street leading
to Santa Maria Maggiore, to our lodging, sufficiently tired.

We were taken up next morning in seeing the impertinences of the
Carnival, when all the world are as mad at Rome as at other places; but
the most remarkable were the three races of the Barbary horses, that run
in the Strada del Corso without riders, only having spurs so placed on
their backs, and hanging down by their sides, as by their motion to
stimulate them: then of mares, then of asses, of buffalos, naked men, old
and young, and boys, and abundance of idle ridiculous pastime. One thing
is remarkable, their acting comedies on a stage placed on a cart, or
_plaustrum_, where the scene, or tiring place, is made of boughs in a
rural manner, which they drive from street to street with a yoke or two
of oxen, after the ancient guise. The streets swarm with prostitutes,
buffoons, and all manner of rabble.

1st March, 1645. At the Greek Church, we saw the Eastern ceremonies
performed by a Bishop, etc., in that tongue. Here the unfortunate Duke
and Duchess of Bouillon received their ashes, it being the first day of
Lent. There was now as much trudging up and down of devotees, as the day
before of licentious people; all saints alike to appearance.

The gardens of Justinian, which we next visited, are very full of statues
and antiquities, especially urns; among which is that of Minutius Felix;
a terminus that formerly stood in the Appian way, and a huge colossé of
the Emperor Justinian. There is a delicate aviary on the hill; the whole
gardens furnished with rare collections, fresh, shady, and adorned with
noble fountains. Continuing our walk a mile farther, we came to Pons
Milvius, now Mela, where Constantine overthrew Maxentius, and saw the
miraculous sign of the cross, _In hoc signo vinces_. It was a sweet
morning, and the bushes were full of nightingales. Hence, to Aqua Claudia
again, an aqueduct finished by that Emperor at the expense of eight
millions. In the afternoon, to Farnese's gardens, near the Campo
Vaccino; and upon the Palatine Mount to survey the ruins of Juno's
Temple, in the Piscina, a piazza so-called near the famous bridge built
by Antoninus Pius, and re-edified by Pope Sextus IV.

The rest of this week, we went to the Vatican, to hear the sermons, at
St. Peter's, of the most famous preachers, who discourse on the same
subjects and text yearly, full of Italian eloquence and action. On our
Lady day, 25th March, we saw the Pope and Cardinals ride in pomp to the
Minerva, the great guns of the Castle of St. Angelo being fired, when he
gives portions to 500 _zitelle_ (young women), who kiss his feet in
procession, some destined to marry, some to be nuns;--the scholars of the
college celebrating the blessed Virgin with their compositions. The next
day, his Holiness was busied in blessing golden roses, to be sent to
several great Princes; the Procurator of the Carmelites preaching on our
Savior's feeding the multitude with five loaves, the ceremony ends. The
sacrament being this day exposed, and the relics of the Holy Cross, the
concourse about the streets is extraordinary. On Palm-Sunday, there was a
great procession, after a papal mass.

11th April, 1645. St. Veronica's handkerchief (with the impression of our
Savior's face) was exposed, and the next day the spear, with a world of
ceremony. On Holy Thursday, the Pope said mass, and afterward carried the
Host in procession about the chapel, with an infinity of tapers. This
finished, his Holiness was carried in his open chair on men's shoulders
to the place where, reading the Bull _In Coenâ Domini_, he both curses
and blesses all in a breath; then the guns are again fired. Hence, he
went to the Ducal hall of the Vatican, where he washed the feet of twelve
poor men, with almost the same ceremony as it is done at Whitehall; they
have clothes, a dinner, and alms, which he gives with his own hands, and
serves at their table; they have also gold and silver medals, but their
garments are of white woolen long robes, as we paint the Apostles. The
same ceremonies are done by the Conservators and other officers of state
at St. John di Lateran; and now the table on which they say our blessed
Lord celebrated his last supper is set out, and the heads of the
Apostles. In every famous church they are busy in dressing up their
pageantries to represent the Holy Sepulchre, of which we went to visit
divers.

On Good Friday, we went again to St. Peter's, where the handkerchief,
lance, and cross were all exposed, and worshiped together. All the
confession seats were filled with devout people, and at night was a
procession of several who most lamentably whipped themselves till the
blood stained their clothes, for some had shirts, others upon the bare
back, having visors and masks on their faces; at every three or four
steps dashing the knotted and raveled whip cord over their shoulders, as
hard as they could lay it on; while some of the religious orders and
fraternities sung in a dismal tone, the lights and crosses going before,
making all together a horrible and indeed heathenish pomp.

The next day, there was much ceremony at St. John di Laterano, so as the
whole week was spent in running from church to church, all the town in
busy devotion, great silence, and unimaginable superstition.

Easter day, I was awakened by the guns from St. Angelo: we went to St.
Peter's, where the Pope himself celebrated mass, showed the relics
before-named, and gave a public Benediction.

Monday, we went to hear music in the Chiesa Nova; and, though there were
abundance of ceremonies at the other great churches, and great exposure
of relics, yet being wearied with sights of this nature, and the season
of the year, summer, at Rome being very dangerous, by reason of the heat
minding us of returning northward, we spent the rest of our time in
visiting such places as we had not yet sufficiently seen. Only I do not
forget the Pope's benediction of the _Gonfalone_, or Standard, and giving
the hallowed palms; and, on May Day, the great procession of the
University and the muleteers at St. Anthony's, and their setting up a
foolish May pole in the Capitol, very ridiculous. We therefore now took
coach a little out of town, to visit the famous Roma Soterránea, being
much like what we had seen at St. Sebastians. Here, in a cornfield,
guided by two torches, we crept on our bellies into a little hole, about
twenty paces, which delivered us into a large entry that led us into
several streets, or alleys, a good depth in the bowels of the earth, a
strange and fearful passage for divers miles, as Bosio has measured and
described them in his book. We ever and anon came into pretty square
rooms, that seemed to be chapels with altars, and some adorned with very
ordinary ancient painting. Many skeletons and bodies are placed on the
sides one above the other in degrees like shelves, whereof some are shut
up with a coarse flat stone, having engraven on them _Pro Christo_, or a
cross and palms, which are supposed to have been martyrs. Here, in all
likelihood, were the meetings of the Primitive Christians during the
persecutions, as Pliny the Younger describes them. As I was prying about,
I found a glass phial, filled (as was conjectured) with dried blood, and
two lachrymatories. Many of the bodies, or rather bones (for there
appeared nothing else) lay so entire, as if placed by the art of the
chirurgeon, but being only touched fell all to dust. Thus, after
wandering two or three miles in this subterranean meander, we returned
almost blind when we came into the daylight, and even choked by the smoke
of the torches. It is said that a French bishop and his retinue
adventuring too far into these dens, their lights going out, were never
heard of more.

We were entertained at night with an English play at the Jesuits', where
we before had dined; and the next day at Prince Galicano's, who himself
composed the music to a magnificent opera, where were present Cardinal
Pamphilio, the Pope's nephew, the Governors of Rome, the cardinals, the
ambassadors, ladies, and a number of nobility and strangers. There had
been in the morning a joust and tournament of several young gentlemen on
a formal defy, to which we had been invited; the prizes being distributed
by the ladies, after the knight-errantry way. The lancers and swordsmen
running at tilt against the barriers, with a great deal of clatter, but
without any bloodshed, giving much diversion to the spectators, and was
new to us travelers.

The next day Mr. Henshaw and I spent the morning in attending the
entrance and cavalcade of Cardinal Medici, the ambassador from the Grand
Duke of Florence, by the Via Flaminia. After dinner, we went again to the
Villa Borghese, about a mile without the city; the garden is rather a
park, or a Paradise, contrived and planted with walks and shades of
myrtles, cypress, and other trees, and groves, with abundance of
fountains, statues, and bass-relievos, and several pretty murmuring
rivulets. Here they had hung large nets to catch woodcocks. There was
also a vivary, where, among other exotic fowls, was an ostrich; besides a
most capacious aviary; and, in another inclosed part, a herd of deer.
Before the palace (which might become the court of a great prince) stands
a noble fountain, of white marble, enriched with statues. The outer walls
of the house are encrusted with excellent antique bass-relievos, of the
same marble, incornished with festoons and niches set with statues from
the foundation to the roof. A stately portico joins the palace, full of
statues and columns of marble, urns, and other curiosities of sculpture.
In the first hall were the Twelve Cæsars, of antique marble, and the
whole apartments furnished with pictures of the most celebrated masters,
and two rare tables of porphyry, of great value. But of this already: for
I often visited this delicious place.

This night were glorious fire-works at the palace of Cardinal Medici
before the gate, and lights of several colors all about the windows
through the city, which they contrive by setting the candles in little
paper lanterns dyed with various colors, placing hundreds of them from
story to story; which renders a gallant show.

4th May, 1645. Having seen the entry of the ambassador of Lucca, I went
to the Vatican, where, by favor of our Cardinal Protector, Fran.
Barberini, I was admitted into the Consistory, heard the ambassador make
his oration in Latin to the Pope, sitting on an elevated state, or
throne, and changing two pontifical mitres; after which, I was presented
to kiss his toe, that is, his embroidered slipper, two Cardinals holding
up his vest and surplice; and then, being sufficiently blessed with his
thumb and two fingers for that day I returned home to dinner.

We went again to see the medals of Signor Gotefredi, which are absolutely
the best collection in Rome.

Passing the Ludovisia Villa, where the petrified human figure lies, found
on the snowy Alps; I measured the hydra, and found it not a foot long;
the three necks and fifteen heads seem to be but patched up with several
pieces of serpents' skins.

5th May, 1645. We took coach, and went fifteen miles out of the city to
Frascati, formerly Tusculum, a villa of Cardinal Aldobrandini, built for
a country house; but surpassing, in my opinion, the most delicious places
I ever beheld for its situation, elegance, plentiful water, groves,
ascents, and prospects. Just behind the palace (which is of excellent
architecture) in the centre of the inclosure, rises a high hill, or
mountain, all over clad with tall wood, and so formed by nature, as if it
had been cut out by art, from the summit whereof falls a cascade, seeming
rather a great river than a stream precipitating into a large theatre of
water, representing an exact and perfect rainbow, when the sun shines
out. Under this, is made an artificial grot, wherein are curious rocks,
hydraulic organs, and all sorts of singing birds, moving and chirping by
force of the water, with several other pageants and surprising
inventions. In the centre of one of these rooms, rises a copper ball that
continually dances about three feet above the pavement, by virtue of a
wind conveyed secretly to a hole beneath it; with many other devices to
wet the unwary spectators, so that one can hardly step without wetting to
the skin. In one of these theaters of water, is an Atlas spouting up the
stream to a very great height; and another monster makes a terrible
roaring with a horn; but, above all, the representation of a storm is
most natural, with such fury of rain, wind, and thunder, as one would
imagine oneself in some extreme tempest. The garden has excellent walks
and shady groves, abundance of rare fruit, oranges, lemons, etc., and the
goodly prospect of Rome, above all description, so as I do not wonder
that Cicero and others have celebrated this place with such encomiums.
The Palace is indeed built more like a cabinet than anything composed of
stone and mortar; it has in the middle a hall furnished with excellent
marbles and rare pictures, especially those of Gioseppino d'Arpino; the
movables are princely and rich. This was the last piece of architecture
finished by Giacomo della Porta, who built it for Pietro Cardinal
Aldobrandini, in the time of Clement VIII.[29]

    [Footnote 29: Cardinal Hippolito Aldobrandini was elected Pope in
    January, 1592, by the name of Clement VIII., and died in March,
    1605.]

We went hence to another house and garden not far distant, on the side of
a hill called Mondragone, finished by Cardinal Scipio Borghese, an ample
and kingly edifice. It has a very long gallery, and at the end a theatre
for pastimes, spacious courts, rare grots, vineyards, olive-grounds,
groves and solitudes. The air is so fresh and sweet, as few parts of
Italy exceed it; nor is it inferior to any palace in the city itself for
statues, pictures, and furniture; but, it growing late, we could not take
such particular notice of these things as they deserved.

[Sidenote: TIVOLI]

6th May, 1645. We rested ourselves; and next day, in a coach, took our
last farewell of visiting the circumjacent places, going to Tivoli, or
the old Tiburtum. At about six miles from Rome, we pass the Teverone, a
bridge built by Mammea, the mother of Severus, and so by divers ancient
sepulchres, among others that of Valerius Volusi; and near it past the
stinking sulphurous river over the Ponte Lucano, where we found a heap, or
turret, full of inscriptions, now called the Tomb of Plautius. Arrived at
Tivoli, we went first to see the palace d'Este, erected on a plain, but
where was formerly an hill. The palace is very ample and stately. In the
garden, on the right hand, are sixteen vast conchas of marble, jetting
out waters; in the midst of these stands a Janus quadrifrons, that cast
forth four girandolas, called from the resemblance (to a particular
exhibition in fireworks so named) the Fountana di Spéccho
(looking-glass). Near this is a place for tilting. Before the ascent of
the palace is the famous fountain of Leda, and not far from that, four
sweet and delicious gardens. Descending thence are two pyramids of water,
and in a grove of trees near it the fountains of Tethys, Esculapius,
Arethusa, Pandora, Pomona, and Flora; then the prancing Pegasus, Bacchus,
the Grot of Venus, the two Colosses of Melicerta and Sibylla Tiburtina,
all of exquisite marble, copper, and other suitable adornments. The
Cupids pouring out water are especially most rare, and the urns on which
are placed the ten nymphs. The grots are richly paved with
_pietra-commessa_, shells, coral, etc.

Toward Roma Triumphans, leads a long and spacious walk, full of
fountains, under which is historized the whole Ovidian Metamorphosis, in
rarely sculptured _mezzo relievo_. At the end of this, next the wall, is
the city of Rome as it was in its beauty, of small models, representing
that city, with its amphitheatres; naumachi, thermæ, temples, arches,
aqueducts, streets, and other magnificences, with a little stream running
through it for the Tiber, gushing out of an urn next to the statue of the
river. In another garden, is a noble aviary, the birds artificial, and
singing till an owl appears, on which they suddenly change their notes.
Near this is the fountain of dragons, casting out large streams of water
with great noise. In another grotto, called Grotto di Natura, is an
hydraulic organ; and below this are divers stews and fish ponds, in one
of which is the statue of Neptune in his chariot on a seahorse, in
another a Triton; and lastly, a garden of simples. There are besides in
the palace many rare statues and pictures, bedsteads richly inlaid, and
sundry other precious movables: the whole is said to have cost the best
part of a million.

Having gratified our curiosity with these artificial miracles, and dined,
we went to see the so famous natural precipice and cascade of the river
Anio, rushing down from the mountains of Tivoli with that fury that, what
with the mist it perpetually casts up by the breaking of the water
against the rocks, and what with the sun shining on it and forming a
natural Iris, and the prodigious depth of the gulf below, it is enough to
astonish one that looks on it. Upon the summit of this rock stands the
ruins and some pillars and cornices of the Temple of Sibylla Tyburtina,
or Albunea, a round fabric, still discovering some of its pristine
beauty. Here was a great deal of gunpowder drying in the sun, and a
little beneath, mills belonging to the Pope.

[Sidenote: ROME]

And now we returned to Rome. By the way, we were showed, at some
distance, the city Præneste, and the Hadrian villa, now only a heap of
ruins; and so came late to our lodging.

We now determined to desist from visiting any more curiosities, except
what should happen to come in our way, when my companion, Mr. Henshaw, or
myself should go to take the air: only I may not omit that one afternoon,
diverting ourselves in the Piazza Navona, a mountebank there to allure
curious strangers, taking off a ring from his finger, which seemed set
with a dull, dark stone a little swelling out, like what we call (though
untruly) a toadstone, and wetting his finger a little in his mouth, and
then touching it, it emitted a luculent flame as bright and large as a
small wax candle; then, blowing it out, repeated this several times. I
have much regretted that I did not purchase the receipt of him for making
that composition at what price soever; for though there is a process in
Jo. Baptista Porta and others how to do it, yet on several trials they
none of them have succeeded.

Among other observations I made in Rome are these: as to coins and
medals, ten _asses_ make the Roman _denarius_, five the _quinarius_, ten
_denarii_ an _aureus_; which accompt runs almost exactly with what is now
in use of _quatrini_, _baiocs_, _julios_, and _scudi_, each exceeding the
other in the proportion of ten. The _sestertius_ was a small silver coin,
marked H. S. or rather LL^s, valued two pounds and a half of silver, viz,
250 _denarii_, about twenty-five golden _ducati_. The stamp of the Roman
_denarius_ varied, having sometimes a Janus bifrons, the head of Roma
armed, or with a chariot and two horses, which were called _bigi_; if
with four, _quadrigi_: if with a Victoria, so named. The mark of the
_denarius_ was distinguished > | < thus, or X; the _quinarius_ of half
value, had, on one side, the head of Rome and V; the reverse, Castor and
Pollux on horseback, inscribed _Roma_, etc.

I observed that in the Greek church they made the sign of the cross from
the right hand to the left; contrary to the Latins and the schismatic
Greeks; gave the benediction with the first, second, and little finger
stretched out, retaining the third bent down, expressing a distance of
the third Person of the Holy Trinity from the first two.

[Illustration: _LORD WILLIAM RUSSELL TAKING LEAVE OF HIS CHILDREN, 1683_

_Photogravure after a painting by Bridges_]

For sculptors and architects, we found Bernini and Algardi were in the
greatest esteem; Fiamingo, as a statuary; who made the Andrea in St.
Peter's, and is said to have died mad because it was placed in an ill
light. Among the painters, Antonio de la Cornea, who has such an address
of counterfeiting the hands of the ancient masters so well as to make his
copies pass for originals; Pietro de Cortone, Monsieur Poussin, a
Frenchman, and innumerable more. Fioravanti, for armor, plate, dead life,
tapestry, etc. The chief masters of music, after Marc Antonio, the best
treble, is Cavalier Lauretto, an eunuch; the next Cardinal Bichi's
eunuch, Bianchi, tenor, and Nicholai, bass. The Jews in Rome wore
red hats, till the Cardinal of Lyons, being short-sighted, lately saluted
one of them, thinking him to be a Cardinal as he passed by his coach; on
which an order was made, that they should use only the yellow color.
There was now at Rome one Mrs. Ward, an English devotée, who much
solicited for an order of Jesuitesses.

At executions I saw one, a gentleman, hanged in his cloak and hat for
murder. They struck the malefactor with a club that first stunned him,
and then cut his throat. At Naples they use a frame, like ours at
Halifax.[30]

    [Footnote 30: A guillotine.]

It is reported that Rome has been once no less than fifty miles in
compass, now not thirteen, containing in it 3,000 churches and chapels,
monasteries, etc. It is divided into fourteen regions or wards; has seven
mountains, and as many campi or valleys; in these are fair parks, or
gardens, called villas, being only places of recess and pleasure, at some
distance from the streets, yet within the walls.

The bills of exchange I took up from my first entering Italy till I went
from Rome, amounting to but 616 _ducati di banco_, though I purchased
many books, pictures, and curiosities.

18th May, 1645. I intended to have seen Loretto, but, being disappointed
of moneys long expected, I was forced to return by the same way I came,
desiring, if possible, to be at Venice by the Ascension, and therefore I
diverted to take Leghorn in the way, as well to furnish me with credit by
a merchant there, as to take order for transporting such collections as I
had made at Rome. When on my way, turning about to behold this once and
yet glorious city, from an eminence, I did not, without some regret, give
it my last farewell.

Having taken leave of our friends at Rome, where I had sojourned now
about seven months, autumn, winter, and spring, I took coach, in company
with two courteous Italian gentlemen. In the afternoon, we arrived at a
house, or rather castle, belonging to the Duke of Parma, called
Caprarola, situate on the brow of a hill, that overlooks a little town,
or rather a natural and stupendous rock; witness those vast caves serving
now for cellarage, where we were entertained with most generous wine of
several sorts, being just under the foundation. The palace was built by
the famous architect, Vignola, at the cost of Cardinal Alex. Farnese, in
form of an octagon, the court in the middle being exactly round, so as
rather to resemble a fort, or castle; yet the chambers within are all of
them square, which makes the walls exceedingly thick. One of these rooms
is so artificially contrived, that from the two opposite angles may be
heard the least whisper; they say any perfect square does it. Most of the
paintings are by Zuccari. It has a stately entry, on which spouts an
artificial fountain within the porch. The hall, chapel, and a great
number of lodging chambers are remarkable; but most of all the pictures
and witty inventions of Hannibal Caracci; the Dead Christ is
incomparable. Behind are the gardens full of statues and noble fountains,
especially that of the Shepherds. After dinner, we took horse, and lay
that night at Monte Rossi, twenty miles from Rome.

19th May, 1645. We dined at Viterbo, and lay at St. Laurenzo. Next day,
at Radicofani, and slept at Turnera.

[Sidenote: SIENNA]

21st May, 1645. We dined at Sienna, where we could not pass admiring the
great church built entirely both within and without with white and black
marble in polished squares, by Macarino, showing so beautiful after a
shower has fallen. The floor within is of various colored marbles,
representing the story of both Testaments, admirably wrought. Here lies
Pius II. The bibliotéca is painted by P. Perrugino and Raphael. The life
of Æneas Sylvius is in FRESCO; in the middle are the Three Graces, in
antique marble, very curious, and the front of this building, though
Gothic, is yet very fine. Among other things, they show St. Catharine's
disciplining cell, the door whereof is half cut out into chips by the
pilgrims and devotees, being of deal wood.

Setting out hence for Pisa, we went again to see the Duomo in which the
Emperor Henry VII. lies buried, poisoned by a monk in the Eucharist. The
bending tower was built by Busqueto Delichio, a Grecian architect, and is
a stupendous piece of art. In the gallery of curiosities is a fair mummy;
the tail of a sea-horse; coral growing on a man's skull; a chariot
automaton; two pieces of rock crystal, in one of which is a drop of
water, in the other three or four small worms; two embalmed children;
divers petrifactions, etc. The garden of simples is well furnished, and
has in it the deadly yew, or _taxus_, of the ancients; which Dr.
Belluccio, the superintendent, affirms that his workmen cannot endure to
clip for above the space of half an hour at a time, from the pain of the
head which surprises them.

We went hence from Leghorn, by coach, where I took up ninety crowns for
the rest of my journey, with letters of credit for Venice, after I had
sufficiently complained of my defeat of correspondence at Rome.

The next day, I came to Lucca, a small but pretty territory and state of
itself. The city is neat and well fortified, with noble and pleasant
walks of trees on the works, where the gentry and ladies used to take the
air. It is situate on an ample plain by the river Serchio, yet the
country about it is hilly. The Senate-house is magnificent. The church of
St. Michael is a noble piece, as is also St. Fredian, more remarkable to
us for the corpse of St. Richard, an English king,[31] who died here on
his pilgrimage toward Rome. This epitaph is on his tomb:

    _Hic rex Richardus requiescit, sceptifer, almus;
    Rex Fuit Anglorum; regnum tenet iste Polorum.
    Regnum demisit; pro Christo cuncta reliquit.
    Ergo, Richardum nobis debit Anglia sanctum.
    Hic genitor Sanctæ Wulburgæ Virginis almæ
    Est Vrillebaldi sancti simul et Vinebaldi,
    Suffragium quorum nobis det regna Polorum._

    [Footnote 31: What particular Richard King of England this was, it
    is impossible to say; the tomb still exists, and has long been a
    _crux_ to antiquaries and travelers.]

Next this, we visited St. Croce, an excellent structure all of marble
both without and within, and so adorned as may vie with many of the
fairest even in Rome: witness the huge cross, valued at £15,000, above
all venerable for that sacred _volto_ which (as tradition goes) was
miraculously put on the image of Christ, and made by Nicodemus, while the
artist, finishing the rest of the body, was meditating what face to set
on it. The inhabitants are exceedingly civil to strangers, above all
places in Italy, and they speak the purest Italian. It is also cheap
living, which causes travelers to set up their rest here more than in
Florence, though a more celebrated city; besides, the ladies here are
very conversable, and the religious women not at all reserved; of these
we bought gloves and embroidered stomachers, generally worn by gentlemen
in these countries. The circuit of this state is but two easy days'
journey, and lies mixed with the Duke of Tuscany's but having Spain for a
protector (though the least bigoted of all Roman Catholics), and being
one of the fortified cities in Italy, it remains in peace. The whole
country abounds in excellent olives, etc.

[Sidenote: PISTORIA]

Going hence for Florence, we dined at Pistoria, where, besides one
church, there was little observable: only in the highway we crossed a
rivulet of salt water, though many miles from the sea. The country is
extremely pleasant, full of gardens, and the roads straight as a line for
the best part of that whole day, the hedges planted with trees at equal
distances, watered with clear and plentiful streams.

Rising early the next morning we arrived at Peggio Imperiale, being a
palace of the Great Duke, not far from the city, having omitted it in my
passage to Rome. The ascent to the house is by a stately gallery as it
were of tall and overgrown cypress trees for near half a mile. At the
entrance of these ranges, are placed statues of the Tiber and Arno, of
marble; those also of Virgil, Ovid, Petrarch, and Dante. The building is
sumptuous, and curiously furnished within with cabinets of
pietra-commessa in tables, pavements, etc., which is a magnificence, or
work, particularly affected at Florence. The pictures are, Adam and Eve
by Albert Durer, very excellent; as is that piece of carving in wood by
the same hand standing in a cupboard. Here is painted the whole Austrian
line; the Duke's mother, sister to the Emperor, the foundress of this
palace, than which there is none in Italy that I had seen more
magnificently adorned, or furnished.

[Sidenote: FLORENCE]

We could not omit in our passage to re-visit the same, and other
curiosities which we had neglected on our first being at Florence. We
went, therefore, to see the famous piece of Andrea del Sarto, in the
Annunciata. The story is, that the painter in a time of dearth borrowed a
sack of corn of the religious of that convent, and repayment being
demanded, he wrought it out in this picture, which represents Joseph
sitting on a sack of corn, and reading to the Blessed Virgin; a piece
infinitely valued. There fell down in the cloister an old man's face
painted on the wall in _fresco_, greatly esteemed, and broke into crumbs;
the Duke sent his best painters to make another instead of it, but none
of them would presume to touch a pencil where Andrea had wrought, like
another Apelles; but one of them was so industrious and patient, that,
picking up the fragments, he laid and fastened them so artificially
together, that the injury it had received was hardly discernible. Andrea
del Sarto lies buried in the same place. Here is also that picture of
Bartolomeo, who having spent his utmost skill in the face of the angel
Gabriel, and being troubled that he could not exceed it in the Virgin, he
began the body and to finish the clothes, and so left it, minding in the
morning to work on the face; but, when he came, no sooner had he drawn
away the cloth that was hung before it to preserve it from the dust, than
an admirable and ravishing face was found ready painted; at which miracle
all the city came in to worship. It is now kept in the Chapel of the
Salutation, a place so enriched by devotees, that none in Italy, save
Loretto, is said to exceed it. This picture is always covered with three
shutters, one of which is of massy silver; methinks it is very brown, the
forehead and cheeks whiter, as if it had been scraped. They report that
those who have the honor of seeing it never lose their sight--happy then
we! Belonging to this church is a world of plate, some whole statues of
it, and lamps innumerable, besides the costly vows hung up, some of gold,
and a cabinet of precious stones.

Visiting the Duke's repository again, we told at least forty ranks of
porphyry and other statues, and twenty-eight whole figures, many rare
paintings and relievos, two square columns with trophies. In one of the
galleries, twenty-four figures, and fifty antique heads; a Bacchus of M.
Angelo, and one of Bandinelli; a head of Bernini, and a most lovely
Cupid, of Parian marble; at the further end, two admirable women sitting,
and a man fighting with a centaur; three figures in little of Andrea; a
huge candlestick of amber; a table of Titian's painting, and another
representing God the Father sitting in the air on the Four Evangelists;
animals; divers smaller pieces of Raphael; a piece of pure virgin gold,
as big as an egg. In the third chamber of rarities is the square
cabinet, valued at 80,000 crowns, showing on every front, a variety of
curious work; one of birds and flowers, of _pietra-commessa_; one, a
descent from the cross, of M. Angelo; on the third, our Blessed Savior
and the Apostles, of amber; and, on the fourth, a crucifix of the same.
Between the pictures, two naked Venuses, by Titian; Adam and Eve, by
Durer; and several pieces of Portdenone, and del Frate. There is a globe
of six feet diameter. In the Armory, were an entire elk, a crocodile, and
among the harness, several targets and antique horse-arms, as that of
Charles V.; two set with turquoises, and other precious stones; a horse's
tail, of a wonderful length. Then, passing the Old Palace, which has a
very great hall for feasts and comedies, the roof rarely painted, and the
side walls with six very large pictures representing battles, the work of
Gio. Vassari. Here is a magazine full of plate; a harness of emeralds;
the furnitures of an altar four feet high, and six in length, of massy
gold; in the middle is placed the statue of Cosmo II., the bass-relievo
is of precious stones, his breeches covered with diamonds; the moldings
of this statue, and other ornaments, festoons, etc., are garnished with
jewels and great pearls, dedicated to St. Charles, with this inscription,
in rubies:

    "_Cosimus Secundus Dei gratiâ Magnus Dux Etruriæ ex voto._"

There is also a King on horseback, of massy gold, two feet high, and an
infinity of such like rarities. Looking at the Justice, in copper, set up
on a column by Cosmo, in 1555, after the victory over Sienna, we were
told that the Duke, asking a gentleman how he liked the piece, he
answered, that he liked it very well, but that it stood too high for poor
men to come at it.

Prince Leopold has, in this city, a very excellent collection of
paintings, especially a St. Catherine of P. Veronese; a Venus of marble,
veiled from the middle to the feet, esteemed to be of that Greek workman
who made the Venus at the Medici's Palace in Rome, altogether as good,
and better preserved, an inestimable statue, not long since found about
Bologna.

Signor Gaddi is a lettered person, and has divers rarities, statues, and
pictures of the best masters, and one bust of marble as much esteemed as
the most antique in Italy, and many curious manuscripts; his best
paintings are, a Virgin of del Sarto, mentioned by Vassari, a St. John,
by Raphael, and an _Ecce Homo_, by Titian.

The hall of the Academy de la Crusca is hung about with impresses and
devices painted, all of them relating to corn sifted from the bran; the
seats are made like breadbaskets and other rustic instruments used about
wheat, and the cushions of satin, like sacks.

We took our farewell of St. Laurence, more particularly noticing that
piece of the Resurrection, which consists of a prodigious number of naked
figures, the work of Pontormo. On the left hand is the Martyrdom of St.
Laurence, by Bronzino, rarely painted indeed. In a chapel is the tomb of
Pietro di Medici, and his brother John, of copper, excellently designed,
standing on two lions' feet, which end in foliage, the work of M. Angelo.
Over against this, are sepulchres of all the ducal family. The altar has
a statue of the Virgin giving suck, and two Apostles. Paulus Jovius has
the honor to be buried in the cloister. Behind the choir is the superb
chapel of Ferdinand I., consisting of eight faces, four plain, four a
little hollowed; in the other are to be the sepulchres, and a niche of
paragon, for the statue of the prince now living, all of copper gilt;
above, is a large table of porphyry, for an inscription for the Duke, in
letters of jasper. The whole chapel, walls, pavement, and roof, are full
of precious stones united with the moldings, which are also of gilded
copper, and so are the bases and capitals of the columns. The tabernacle,
with the whole altar, is inlaid with cornelians, lazuli, serpentine,
agates, onyxes, etc. On the other side are six very large columns of rock
crystal, eight figures of precious stones of several colors, inlaid in
natural figures, not inferior to the best paintings, among which are many
pearls, diamonds, amethysts, topazes, sumptuous and sparkling beyond
description. The windows without side are of white marble. The library is
the architecture of Raphael; before the port is a square vestibule of
excellent art, of all the orders, without confusion; the ascent to it
from the library is excellent. We numbered eighty-eight shelves, all MSS.
and bound in red, chained; in all about 3,500 volumes, as they told us.

The Arsenal has sufficient to arm 70,000 men, accurately preserved and
kept, with divers lusty pieces of ordnance, whereof one is for a ball of
300 pounds weight, and another for 160, which weighs 72,500 pounds.

When I was at Florence, the celebrated masters were: for
_pietra-commessa_ (a kind of mosaic, or inlaying, of various colored
marble, and other more precious stones), Dominico Benetti and Mazotti;
the best statuary, Vincentio Brochi. This statuary makes those small
figures in plaster and pasteboard, which so resemble copper that, till
one handles them, they cannot be distinguished, he has so rare an art of
bronzing them; I bought four of him. The best painter, Pietro Beretino di
Cortona.

This Duke has a daily tribute for every courtezan, or prostitute, allowed
to practice that infamous trade in his dominions, and so has his Holiness
the Pope, but not so much in value.

[Sidenote: BOLOGNA]

Taking leave of our two jolly companions, Signor Giovanni and his fellow,
we took horses for Bologna; and, by the way, alighted at a villa of the
Grand Duke's, called Pratolino. The house is a square of four pavilions,
with a fair platform about it, balustred with stone, situate in a large
meadow, ascending like an amphitheater, having at the bottom a huge rock,
with water running in a small channel, like a cascade; on the other side,
are the gardens. The whole place seems consecrated to pleasure and summer
retirement. The inside of the palace may compare with any in Italy for
furniture of tapestry, beds, etc., and the gardens are delicious, and
full of fountains. In the grove sits Pan feeding his flock, the water
making a melodious sound through his pipe; and a Hercules, whose club
yields a shower of water, which, falling into a great shell, has a naked
woman riding on the backs of dolphins. In another grotto is Vulcan and
his family, the walls richly composed of corals, shells, copper, and
marble figures, with the hunting of several beasts, moving by the force
of water. Here, having been well washed for our curiosity, we went down a
large walk, at the sides whereof several slender streams of water gush
out of pipes concealed underneath, that interchangeably fall into each
other's channels, making a lofty and perfect arch, so that a man on
horseback may ride under it, and not receive one drop of wet. This
canopy, or arch of water, I thought one of the most surprising
magnificences I had ever seen, and very refreshing in the heat of the
summer. At the end of this very long walk, stands a woman in white
marble, in posture of a laundress wringing water out of a piece of linen,
very naturally formed, into a vast laver, the work and invention of M.
Angelo Buonarotti. Hence, we ascended Mount Parnassus, where the Muses
played to us on hydraulic organs. Near this is a great aviary. All these
waters came from the rock in the garden, on which is the statue of a
giant representing the Apennines, at the foot of which stands this villa.
Last of all, we came to the labyrinth, in which a huge colosse of Jupiter
throws out a stream over the garden. This is fifty feet in height, having
in his body a square chamber, his eyes and mouth serving for windows and
door.

We took horse and supped that night at Il Ponte, passing a dreadful ridge
of the Apennines, in many places capped with snow, which covers them the
whole summer. We then descended into a luxurious and rich plain. The next
day we passed through Scarperia, mounting the hills again, where the
passage is so straight and precipitous toward the right hand, that we
climbed them with much care and danger; lodging at Firenzuolo, which is a
fort built among the rocks, and defending the confines of the Great
Duke's territories.

The next day we passed by the Pietramala, a burning mountain. At the
summit of this prodigious mass of hills, we had an unpleasant way to
Pianura, where we slept that night and were entertained with excellent
wine. Hence to Scargalasino, and to bed at Loiano. This plain begins
about six miles from Bologna.

Bologna belongs to the Pope, and is a famous University, situate in one
of the richest spots of Europe for all sorts of provisions. It is built
like a ship, whereof the Torre d'Asinelli may go for the mainmast. The
city is of no great strength, having a trifling wall about it, in circuit
near five miles, and two in length. This Torre d'Asinelli, ascended by
447 steps of a foot rise, seems exceedingly high, is very narrow, and the
more conspicuous from another tower called Garisendi, so artificially
built of brick (which increases the wonder) that it seems ready to fall.
It is not now so high as the other; but they say the upper part was
formerly taken down, for fear it should really fall, and do mischief.

Next, we went to see an imperfect church, called St. Petronius, showing
the intent of the founder, had he gone on. From this, our guide led us to
the schools, which indeed are very magnificent. Thence to St. Dominic's,
where that saint's body lies richly enshrined. The stalls, or seats, of
this goodly church have the history of the Bible inlaid with several
woods, very curiously done, the work of one Fr. Damiano di Bergamo, and a
friar of that order. Among other relics, they show the two books of
Esdras, written with his own hand. Here lie buried Jac. Andreas, and
divers other learned persons. To the church joins the convent, in the
quadrangle whereof are old cypresses, said to have been planted by their
saint.

Then we went to the palace of the Legate; a fair brick building, as are
most of the houses and buildings, full of excellent carving and moldings,
so as nothing in stone seems to be better finished or more ornamental;
witness those excellent columns to be seen in many of their churches,
convents, and public buildings; for the whole town is so cloistered, that
one may pass from house to house through the streets without being
exposed either to rain or sun.

Before the stately hall of this palace stands the statue of Paul IV. and
divers others; also the monument of the coronation of Charles V. The
piazza before it is the most stately in Italy, St. Mark's at Venice only
excepted. In the center of it is a fountain of Neptune, a noble figure in
copper. Here I saw a Persian walking about in a rich vest of cloth of
tissue, and several other ornaments, according to the fashion of his
country, which much pleased me; he was a young handsome person, of the
most stately mien.

I would fain have seen the library of St. Savior, famous for the number
of rare manuscripts; but could not, so we went to St. Francis, a glorious
pile, and exceedingly adorned within.

After dinner I inquired out a priest and Dr. Montalbano, to whom I
brought recommendations from Rome: this learned person invented, or found
out, the composition of the _lapis illuminabilis_, or phosphorus. He
showed me their property (for he had several), being to retain the light
of the sun for some competent time, by a kind of imbibition, by a
particular way of calcination. Some of these presented a blue color,
like the flame of brimstone, others like coals of a kitchen fire. The
rest of the afternoon was taken up in St. Michael in Bosco, built on a
steep hill on the edge of the city, for its fabric, pleasant shade and
groves, cellars, dormitory, and prospects, one of the most delicious
retirements I ever saw; art and nature contending which shall exceed; so
as till now I never envied the life of a friar. The whole town and
country to a vast extent are under command of their eyes, almost as far
as Venice itself. In this convent there are many excellent paintings of
Guido Reni; above all, the little cloister of eight faces, painted by
Caracci in _fresco_. The carvings in wood, in the sacristy, are
admirable, as is the inlaid work about the chapel, which even emulates
the best paintings; the work is so delicate and tender. The paintings of
the Savior are of Caracci and Leonardo, and there are excellent things of
Raphael which we could not see.

In the church of St. John is a fine piece of St. Cecilia, by Raphael. As
to other paintings, there is in the church of St. Gregory an excellent
picture of a Bishop giving the habit of St. Bernard to an armed soldier,
with several other figures in the piece, the work of Guerchino. Indeed,
this city is full of rare pieces, especially of Guido Domenico, and a
virgin named Isabella Sirani, now living, who has painted many excellent
pieces, and imitates Guido so well, that many skillful artists have been
deceived.

At the Mendicants are the Miracles of St. Eloy, by Reni, after the manner
of Caravaggio, but better; and here they showed us that famous piece of
Christ calling St. Matthew, by Annibal Caracci. The Marquis Magniani has
the whole frieze of his hall painted in _fresco_ by the same hand.

Many of the religious men nourish those lapdogs which the ladies are so
fond of, and which they here sell. They are a pigmy sort of spaniels,
whose noses they break when puppies; which, in my opinion, deforms them.

At the end of the turning in one of the wings of the dormitory of St.
Michael, I found a paper pasted near the window, containing the
dimensions of most of the famous churches in Italy compared with their
towers here, and the length of this gallery, a copy whereof I took.

  -------------------------+-------------+---------------+--------------
                           | Braccia[32] |    Piede      |  Canna
                           |             | di Bolognia|  | di Roma.
  -------------------------+-------------+---------------+--------------
                           |             |               |
  St. Pietro di Roma, longo|    284      |      473      |   84
  Cupalo del muro, alta    |    210      |      350      |   60
  Torre d'Asinello, alto   |  208-4/5    |      348      |   59 pr.^{mi} 6
  Dormitorio de St. Mich. a|             |               |
    Bologn. longo          |    254      |      423      |   72-1/2
  -------------------------+-----------+-----------------+--------------

      [Footnote 32: A measure of half an ell.]

From hence being brought to a subterranean territory of cellars, the
courteous friars made us taste a variety of excellent wines; and so we
departed to our inn.

The city is famous also for sausages; and here is sold great quantities
of Parmegiano cheese, with Botargo, Caviare, etc., which makes some of
their shops perfume the streets with no agreeable smell. We furnished
ourselves with wash balls, the best being made here, and being a
considerable commodity. This place has also been celebrated for lutes
made by the old masters, Mollen, Hans Frey, and Nicholas Sconvelt, which
were of extraordinary price; the workmen were chiefly Germans. The cattle
used for draught in this country (which is very rich and fertile,
especially in pasturage) are covered with housings of linen fringed at
the bottom, that dangle about them, preserving them from flies, which in
summer are very troublesome.

[Sidenote: FERRARA]

From this pleasant city, we proceeded toward Ferrara, carrying with us a
bulletino, or bill of health (customary in all these parts of Italy,
especially in the State of Venice) and so put ourselves into a boat that
was towed with horses, often interrupted by the sluices (inventions there
to raise the water for the use of mills, and to fill the artificial
canals) at each of which we stayed till passage was made. We went by the
Castle Bentivoglio, and, about night arrived at an ugly inn called _Mal
Albergo_, agreeable to its name, whence, after we had supped, we embarked
and passed that night through the Fens, where we were so pestered with
those flying glow-worms, called _Luccioli_, that one who had never heard
of them, would think the country full of sparks of fire. Beating some of
them down and applying them to a book, I could read in the dark by the
light they afforded.

Quitting our boat, we took coach, and by morning got to Ferrara, where,
before we could gain entrance, our guns and arms were taken from us of
custom, the lock being taken off before, as we were advised. The city is
in a low marshy country, and therefore well fortified. The houses and
streets have nothing of beauty, except the palace and church of St.
Benedict, where Ariosto lies buried, and there are some good statues, the
palazzo del Diamante, citadel, church of St. Dominico. The market-place
is very spacious, having in its centre the figure of Nicholao Oläo once
Duke of Ferrara, on horseback, in copper. It is, in a word, a dirty town,
and, though the streets be large they remain ill paved; yet it is a
University and now belongs to the Pope. Though there are not many fine
houses in the city, the inn where we lodged was a very noble palace,
having an Angel for its sign.

[Sidenote: VENICE]

We parted from hence about three in the afternoon, and went some of our
way on the canal, and then embarked on the Po; or Padus; by the poets
called Eridanus, where they feign Phæton to have fallen after his rash
attempt, and where Io was metamorphosed into a cow. There was in our
company, among others, a Polonian Bishop, who was exceeding civil to me
in this passage, and afterward did me many kindnesses at Venice. We
supped this night at a place called Corbua, near the ruins of the ancient
city, Adria, which gives name to the Gulf, or Sea. After three miles,
having passed thirty on the Po, we embarked in a stout vessel, and
through an artificial canal, very straight, we entered the Adige, which
carried us by break of day into the Adriatic, and so sailing prosperously
by Chioza (a town upon an island in this sea), and Palestina, we came
over against Malamocco (the chief port and anchorage where our English
merchantmen lie that trade to Venice) about seven at night, after we had
stayed at least two hours for permission to land, our bill of health
being delivered, according to custom. So soon as we came on shore, we
were conducted to the Dogana, where our portmanteaus were visited, and
then we got to our lodging, which was at honest Signor Paulo Rhodomante's
at the Black Eagle, near the Rialto, one of the best quarters of the
town. This journey from Rome to Venice cost me seven pistoles, and
thirteen julios.

June, 1645. The next morning, finding myself extremely weary and beaten
with my journey, I went to one of their bagnios, where you are treated
after the eastern manner, washing with hot and cold water, with oils, and
being rubbed with a kind of strigil of seal-skin, put on the operator's
hand like a glove. This bath did so open my pores, that it cost me one of
the greatest colds I ever had in my life, for want of necessary caution
in keeping myself warm for some time after; for, coming out, I
immediately began to visit the famous places of the city; and travelers
who come into Italy do nothing but run up and down to see sights, and
this city well deserved our admiration, being the most wonderfully placed
of any in the world, built on so many hundred islands, in the very sea,
and at good distance from the continent. It has no fresh water except
what is reserved in cistern from rain, and such as is daily brought from
_terra firma_ in boats, yet there was no want of it, and all sorts of
excellent provisions were very cheap.

It is said that when the Huns overran Italy, some mean fishermen and
others left the mainland, and fled for shelter to these despicable and
muddy islands, which, in process of time, by industry, are grown to the
greatness of one of the most considerable States, considered as a
Republic, and having now subsisted longer than any of the four ancient
Monarchies, flourishing in great state, wealth, and glory, by the
conquest of great territories in Italy, Dacia, Greece, Candia, Rhodes,
and Sclavonia, and at present challenging the empire of all the Adriatic
Sea, which they yearly espouse by casting a gold ring into it with great
pomp and ceremony, on Ascension-day; the desire of seeing this was one of
the reasons that hastened us from Rome.

The Doge, having heard mass in his robes of state (which are very
particular, after the eastern fashion), together with the Senate in their
gowns, embarked in their gloriously painted, carved, and gilded
Bucentora, environed and followed by innumerable galleys, gondolas, and
boats, filled with spectators, some dressed in masquerade, trumpets,
music, and cannons. Having rowed about a league into the Gulf, the Duke,
at the prow, casts a gold ring and cup into the sea, at which a loud
acclamation is echoed from the great guns of the Arsenal, and at the
Liddo. We then returned.

Two days after, taking a gondola, which is their water-coach (for land
ones, there are many old men in this city who never saw one, or rarely a
horse), we rode up and down the channels, which answer to our streets.
These vessels are built very long and narrow, having necks and tails of
steel, somewhat spreading at the beak like a fish's tail, and kept so
exceedingly polished as to give a great lustre; some are adorned with
carving, others lined with velvet (commonly black), with curtains and
tassels, and the seats like couches, to lie stretched on, while he who
rows, stands upright on the very edge of the boat, and, with one oar
bending forward as if he would fall into the sea, rows and turns with
incredible dexterity; thus passing from channel to channel, landing his
fare, or patron, at what house he pleases. The beaks of these vessels are
not unlike the ancient Roman rostrums.

The first public building I went to see was the Rialto, a bridge of one
arch over the grand canal, so large as to admit a galley to row under it,
built of good marble, and having on it, besides many pretty shops, three
ample and stately passages for people without any inconvenience, the two
outmost nobly balustered with the same stone; a piece of architecture
much to be admired. It was evening, and the canal where the Noblesse go
to take the air, as in our Hyde Park, was full of ladies and gentlemen.
There are many times dangerous stops, by reason of the multitude of
gondolas ready to sink one another; and indeed they affect to lean them
on one side, that one who is not accustomed to it, would be afraid of
over-setting. Here they were singing, playing on harpsichords, and other
music, and serenading their mistresses; in another place, racing, and
other pastimes on the water, it being now exceeding hot.

Next day, I went to their Exchange, a place like ours, frequented by
merchants, but nothing so magnificent; from thence, my guide led me to
the Fondigo di Todeschi, which is their magazine, and here many of the
merchants, especially Germans, have their lodging and diet, as in a
college. The outside of this stately fabric is painted by Giorgione da
Castelfranco, and Titian himself.

Hence, I passed through the Mercera, one of the most delicious streets in
the world for the sweetness of it, and is all the way on both sides
tapestried as it were with cloth of gold, rich damasks and other silks,
which the shops expose and hang before their houses from the first floor,
and with that variety that for near half the year spent chiefly in this
city, I hardly remember to have seen the same piece twice exposed; to
this add the perfumes, apothecaries' shops, and the innumerable cages of
nightingales which they keep, that entertain you with their melody from
shop to shop, so that shutting your eyes, you would imagine yourself in
the country, when indeed you are in the middle of the sea. It is almost
as silent as the middle of a field, there being neither rattling of
coaches nor trampling of horses. This street, paved with brick, and
exceedingly clean, brought us through an arch into the famous piazza of
St. Mark.

Over this porch stands that admirable clock, celebrated, next to that of
Strasburg, for its many movements; among which, about twelve and six,
which are their hours of Ave Maria, when all the town are on their knees,
come forth the three Kings led by a star, and passing by the image of
Christ in his Mother's arms, do their reverence, and enter into the clock
by another door. At the top of this turret, another automaton strikes the
quarters. An honest merchant told me that one day walking in the piazza,
he saw the fellow who kept the clock struck with this hammer so forcibly,
as he was stooping his head near the bell, to mend something amiss at the
instant of striking, that being stunned, he reeled over the battlements,
and broke his neck. The buildings in this piazza are all arched, on
pillars, paved within with black and white polished marble, even to the
shops, the rest of the fabric as stately as any in Europe, being not only
marble, but the architecture is of the famous Sansovini, who lies buried
in St. Jacomo, at the end of the piazza. The battlements of this noble
range of buildings, are railed with stone, and thick-set with excellent
statues, which add a great ornament. One of the sides is yet much more
Roman-like than the other which regards the sea, and where the church is
placed. The other range is plainly Gothic; and so we entered into St.
Mark's Church, before which stand two brass pedestals exquisitely cast
and figured, which bear as many tall masts painted red, on which, upon
great festivals, they hang flags and streamers. The church is also
Gothic; yet for the preciousness of the materials, being of several rich
marbles, abundance of porphyry, serpentine, etc., far exceeding any in
Rome, St. Peter's hardly excepted. I much admired the splendid history of
our blessed Savior, composed all of Mosaic over the _facciata_, below
which and over the four chief gates are cast four horses in copper as big
as the life, the same that formerly were transported from Rome by
Constantine to Byzantium, and thence by the Venetians hither.[33] They
are supported by eight porphyry columns, of very great size and value.
Being come into the church, you see nothing, and tread on nothing, but
what is precious. The floor is all inlaid with agates, lazulis,
chalcedons, jaspers, porphyries, and other rich marbles, admirable also
for the work; the walls sumptuously incrusted, and presenting to the
imagination the shapes of men, birds, houses, flowers, and a thousand
varieties. The roof is of most excellent Mosaic; but what most persons
admire is the new work of the emblematic tree at the other passage out of
the church. In the midst of this rich _volto_ rise five cupolas, the
middle very large and sustained by thirty-six marble columns, eight of
which are of precious marbles: under these cupolas is the high altar, on
which is a reliquary of several sorts of jewels, engraven with figures,
after the Greek manner, and set together with plates of pure gold. The
altar is covered with a canopy of ophite, on which is sculptured the
story of the Bible, and so on the pillars, which are of Parian marble,
that support it. Behind these, are four other columns of transparent and
true Oriental alabaster, brought hither out of the mines of Solomon's
Temple, as they report. There are many chapels and notable monuments of
illustrious persons, dukes, cardinals, etc., as Zeno, J. Soranzi, and
others: there is likewise a vast baptistry, of copper. Among other
venerable relics is a stone, on which they say our blessed Lord stood
preaching to those of Tyre and Sidon, and near the door is an image of
Christ, much adorned, esteeming it very sacred, for that a rude fellow
striking it they say, there gushed out a torrent of blood. In one of the
corners lies the body of St. Isidore, brought hither 500 years since from
the island of Chios. A little farther, they show the picture of St.
Dominic and Francis, affirmed to have been made by the Abbot Joachim
(many years before any of them were born). Going out of the church, they
showed us the stone where Alexander III. trod on the neck of the Emperor
Frederick Barbarossa, pronouncing that verse of the psalm, "_super
basiliscum_," etc. The doors of the church are of massy copper. There are
near 500 pillars in this building, most of them porphyry and serpentine,
and brought chiefly from Athens, and other parts of Greece, formerly in
their power. At the corner of the church, are inserted into the main wall
four figures, as big as life, cut in porphyry; which they say are the
images of four brothers who poisoned one another, by which means were
escheated to the Republic that vast treasury of relics now belonging to
the church. At the other entrance that looks toward the sea, stands in a
small chapel that statue of our Lady, made (as they affirm) of the same
stone, or rock, out of which Moses brought water to the murmuring
Israelites at Horeb, or Meriba.

    [Footnote 33: They were taken away by Bonaparte to Paris; but in
    1815, were sent back to Venice.]

After all that is said, this church is, in my opinion, much too dark and
dismal, and of heavy work; the fabric,--as is much of Venice, both for
buildings and other fashions and circumstances,--after the Greeks, their
next neighbors.

The next day, by favor of the French ambassador, I had admittance with
him to view the Reliquary, called here Tesoro di San Marco, which very
few, even of travelers, are admitted to see. It is a large chamber full
of presses. There are twelve breastplates or pieces of pure golden armor,
studded with precious stones, and as many crowns dedicated to St. Mark,
by so many noble Venetians, who had recovered their wives taken at sea by
the Saracens; many curious vases of agates; the cap, or coronet, of the
Dukes of Venice, one of which had a ruby set on it, esteemed worth
200,000 crowns; two unicorns' horns; numerous vases and dishes of agate,
set thick with precious stones and vast pearls; divers heads of Saints
enchased in gold; a small ampulla, or glass, with our Savior's blood; a
great morsel of the real cross; one of the nails; a thorn; a fragment of
the column to which our Lord was bound, when scourged; the standard or
ensign, of Constantine; a piece of St. Luke's arm; a rib of St. Stephen;
a finger of Mary Magdalen; numerous other things, which I could not
remember. But a priest, first vesting himself in his sacerdotals, with
the stole about his neck, showed us the gospel of St. Mark (their tutelar
patron) written by his own hand, and whose body they show buried in the
church, brought hither from Alexandria many years ago.

The Religious de li Servi have fine paintings of Paolo Veronese,
especially the Magdalen.

A French gentleman and myself went to the Courts of Justice, the Senate
House, and Ducal Palace. The first court near this church is almost
wholly built of several colored sorts of marble, like checkerwork on the
outside; this is sustained by vast pillars, not very shapely, but
observable for their capitals, and that out of thirty-three no two are
alike. Under this fabric is the cloister where merchants meet morning and
evening, as also the grave senators and gentlemen, to confer of state
affairs, in their gowns and caps, like so many philosophers; it is a very
noble and solemn spectacle. In another quadrangle, stood two square
columns of white marble, carved, which they said had been erected to hang
one of their Dukes on, who designed to make himself Sovereign. Going
through a stately arch, there were standing in niches divers statues of
great value, among which is the so celebrated Eve, esteemed worth its
weight in gold; it is just opposite to the stairs where are two
Colossuses of Mars and Neptune, by Sansovino. We went up into a Corridor
built with several Tribunals and Courts of Justice; and by a
well-contrived staircase were landed in the Senate hall, which appears to
be one of the most noble and spacious rooms in Europe, being seventy-six
paces long, and thirty-two in breadth. At the upper end, are the
Tribunals of the Doge, Council of Ten, and Assistants: in the body of the
hall, are lower ranks of seats, capable of containing 1,500 Senators; for
they consist of no fewer on grand debates. Over the Duke's throne are the
paintings of the Final Judgment, by Tintoret, esteemed among the best
pieces in Europe. On the roof are the famous Acts of the Republic,
painted by several excellent masters, especially Bassano; next them, are
the effigies of the several Dukes, with their Elogies. Then, we turned
into a great Court painted with the Battle of Lepanto, an excellent
piece; afterward, into the Chamber of the Council of Ten, painted by the
most celebrated masters. From hence, by the special favor of an
Illustrissimo, we were carried to see the private Armory of the Palace,
and so to the same court we first entered, nobly built of polished white
marble, part of which is the Duke's Court, _pro tempore_; there are two
wells adorned with excellent work in copper. This led us to the seaside,
where stand those columns of ophite stone in the entire piece, of a great
height, one bearing St. Mark's Lion, the other St. Theodorus: these
pillars were brought from Greece, and set up by Nicholas Baraterius, the
architect; between them public executions are performed.

Having fed our eyes with the noble prospect of the Island of St. George,
the galleys, gondolas, and other vessels passing to and fro, we walked
under the cloister on the other side of this goodly piazza, being a most
magnificent building, the design of Sansovino. Here we went into the
_Zecca_, or mint; at the entrance, stand two prodigious giants, or
Hercules, of white marble; we saw them melt, beat, and coin silver, gold,
and copper. We then went up into the Procuratory, and a library of
excellent MSS. and books belonging to it and the public. After this, we
climbed up the tower of St. Mark, which we might have done on horseback,
as it is said one of the French Kings did; there being no stairs, or
steps, but returns that take up an entire square on the arches forty
feet, broad enough for a coach. This steeple stands by itself, without
any church near it, and is rather a watch tower in the corner of the
great piazza, 230 feet in height, the foundation exceeding deep; on the
top, is an angel, that turns with the wind; and from hence is a prospect
down the Adriatic, as far as Istria and the Dalmatian side, with the
surprising sight of this miraculous city, lying in the bosom of the sea,
in the shape of a lute, the numberless islands tacked together by no
fewer than 450 bridges. At the foot of this tower, is a public tribunal
of excellent work, in white marble polished, adorned with several brass
statues and figures of stone and mezzo-relievo, the performance of some
rare artist.

It was now Ascension-week, and the great mart, or fair, of the whole year
was kept, everybody at liberty and jolly; the noblemen stalking with
their ladies on _choppines_. These are high-heeled shoes, particularly
affected by these proud dames, or, as some say, invented to keep them at
home, it being very difficult to walk with them; whence, one being asked
how he liked the Venetian dames, replied, they were "_mezzo carne, mezzo
legno_," half flesh, half wood, and he would have none of them. The truth
is, their garb is very odd, as seeming always in masquerade; their other
habits also totally different from all nations. They wear very long,
crisp hair, of several streaks and colors, which they make so by a wash,
disheveling it on the brims of a broad hat that has no crown, but a hole
to put out their heads by; they dry them in the sun, as one may see them
at their windows. In their tire, they set silk flowers and sparkling
stones, their petticoats coming from their very arm-pits, so that they
are near three quarters and a half apron; their sleeves are made
exceedingly wide, under which their shift-sleeves as wide, and commonly
tucked up to the shoulder, showing their naked arms, through false
sleeves of tiffany, girt with a bracelet or two, with knots of point
richly tagged about their shoulders and other places of their body, which
they usually cover with a kind of yellow veil of lawn, very transparent.
Thus attired, they set their hands on the heads of two matron-like
servants, or old women, to support them, who are mumbling their beads. It
is ridiculous to see how these ladies crawl in and out of their gondolas,
by reason of their _choppines_; and what dwarfs they appear, when taken
down from their wooden scaffolds; of these I saw near thirty together,
stalking half as high again as the rest of the world. For courtesans, or
the citizens, may not wear _choppines_, but cover their bodies and faces
with a veil of a certain glittering taffeta, or lustrée, out of which
they now and then dart a glance of their eye, the whole face being
otherwise entirely hid with it: nor may the common misses take this
habit; but go abroad barefaced. To the corner of these virgin-veils hang
broad but flat tassels of curious Point de Venice. The married women go
in black veils. The nobility wear the same color, but a fine cloth lined
with taffeta, in summer, with fur of the bellies of squirrels, in the
winter, which all put on at a certain day, girt with a girdle embossed
with silver, the vest not much different from what our Bachelors of Arts
wear in Oxford, and a hood of cloth, made like a sack, cast over their
left shoulder, and a round cloth black cap fringed with wool, which is
not so comely; they also wear their collar open, to show the diamond
button of the stock of their shirt. I have never seen pearls for color
and bigness comparable to what the ladies wear, most of the noble
families being very rich in jewels, especially pearls, which are always
left to the son, or brother who is destined to marry; which the eldest
seldom do. The Doge's vest is of crimson velvet, the Procurator's, etc.
of damask, very stately. Nor was I less surprised with the strange
variety of the several nations seen every day in the streets and piazzas;
Jews, Turks, Armenians, Persians, Moors, Greeks, Sclavonians, some with
their targets and bucklers, and all in their native fashions, negotiating
in this famous Emporium, which is always crowded with strangers.

This night, having with my Lord Bruce taken our places before we went to
the Opera, where comedies and other plays are represented in recitative
music, by the most excellent musicians, vocal and instrumental, with
variety of scenes painted and contrived with no less art of perspective,
and machines for flying in the air, and other wonderful notions; taken
together, it is one of the most magnificent and expensive diversions the
wit of man can invent. The history was, Hercules in Lydia; the scenes
changed thirteen times. The famous voices, Anna Rencia, a Roman, and
reputed the best treble of women; but there was an eunuch who, in my
opinion, surpassed her; also a Genoese that sung an incomparable bass.
This held us by the eyes and ears till two in the morning, when we went
to the Chetto de san Felice, to see the noblemen and their ladies at
basset, a game at cards which is much used; but they play not in public,
and all that have inclination to it are in masquerade, without speaking
one word, and so they come in, play, lose or gain, and go away as they
please. This time of license is only in carnival and this Ascension-week;
neither are their theatres open for that other magnificence, or for
ordinary comedians, save on these solemnities, they being a frugal and
wise people, and exact observers of all sumptuary laws.

There being at this time a ship bound for the Holy Land, I had resolved
to embark, intending to see Jerusalem, and other parts of Syria, Egypt
and Turkey; but after I had provided all necessaries, laid in snow to
cool our drink, bought some sheep, poultry, biscuit, spirits, and a
little cabinet of drugs in case of sickness, our vessel (whereof Captain
Powell was master), happened to be pressed for the service of the State,
to carry provisions to Candia, now newly attacked by the Turks; which
altogether frustrated my design, to my great mortification.

[Sidenote: PADUA]

On the ... of June, we went to Padua, to the fair of their St. Anthony,
in company of divers passengers. The first _terra firma_ we landed at was
Fusina, being only an inn where we changed our barge, and were then drawn
up by horses through the river Brenta, a straight channel as even as a
line for twenty miles, the country on both sides deliciously adorned with
country villas and gentlemen's retirements, gardens planted with oranges,
figs, and other fruit, belonging to the Venetians. At one of these villas
we went ashore to see a pretty contrived palace. Observable in this
passage was buying their water of those who farm the sluices; for this
artificial river is in some places so shallow, that reserves of water are
kept with sluices, which they open and shut with a most ingenious
invention, or engine, governed even by a child. Thus they keep up the
water, or let it go, till the next channel be either filled by the stop,
or abated to the level of the other; for which every boat pays a certain
duty. Thus, we stayed near half an hour and more, at three several
places, so as it was evening before we got to Padua. This is a very
ancient city, if the tradition of Antenor's, being the founder, be not a
fiction; but thus speaks the inscription over a stately gate:

    "_Hanc antiquissimam urbem literarum omnium asylum, cujus agrum
    fertilitatis Lumen Natura esse voluit, Antenor condidit, anno ante
    Christum natum M. Cxviii; Senatus autem Venetus his belli
    propugnaculis ornavit._"

The town stands on the river Padus, whence its name, and is generally
built like Bologna, on arches and on brick, so that one may walk all
around it, dry, and in the shade; which is very convenient in these hot
countries, and I think I was never sensible of so burning a heat as I
was this season, especially the next day, which was that of the fair,
filled with noble Venetians, by reason of a great and solemn procession
to their famous cathedral. Passing by St. Lorenzo, I met with this
subscription:

    "_Inclytus Antenor patriam vox nisa quietem
      Transtulit huc Henetum Dardanidumq; fuga,
    Expulit Euganeos, Patavinam condidit urbem,
      Quem tegit hic humili marmore cæsa domus._"

Under the tomb, was a cobbler at his work. Being now come to St. Antony's
(the street most of the way straight, well built, and outside excellently
painted in _fresco_), we surveyed the spacious piazza, in which is
erected a noble statue of copper of a man on horseback, in memory of one
Catta Malata, a renowned captain. The church, _à la Greca_, consists of
five handsome cupolas, leaded. At the left hand within is the tomb of St.
Antony and his altar, about which a mezzo-relievo of the miracles
ascribed to him is exquisitely wrought in white marble by the three
famous sculptors, Tullius Lombardus, Jacobus Sansovinus, and Hieronymus
Compagno. A little higher is the choir, walled parapet-fashion, with
sundry colored stone, half relievo, the work of Andrea Reccij. The altar
within is of the same metal, which, with the candlestick and bases, is,
in my opinion, as magnificent as any in Italy. The wainscot of the choir
is rarely inlaid and carved. Here are the sepulchres of many famous
persons, as of Rodolphus Fulgosi, etc.; and among the rest, one for an
exploit at sea, has a galley exquisitely carved thereon. The procession
bore the banners with all the treasure of the cloister, which was a very
fine sight.

Hence, walking over the Prato delle Valle, I went to see the convent of
St. Justina, than which I never beheld one more magnificent. The church
is an excellent piece of architecture, of Andrea Palladio, richly paved,
with a stately cupola that covers the high altar enshrining the ashes of
that saint. It is of _pietra-commessa_, consisting of flowers very
naturally done. The choir is inlaid with several sorts of wood
representing the holy history, finished with exceeding industry. At the
far end, is that rare painting of St. Justina's Martyrdom, by Paolo
Veronese; and a stone on which they told us divers primitive Christians
had been decapitated. In another place (to which leads a small cloister
well painted) is a dry well, covered with a brass-work grate, wherein are
the bones of divers martyrs. They show also the bones of St. Luke, in an
old alabaster coffin; three of the Holy Innocents; and the bodies of St.
Maximus and Prosdocimus.[34] The dormitory above is exceedingly
commodious and stately; but what most pleased me, was the old cloister so
well painted with the legendary saints, mingled with many ancient
inscriptions, and pieces of urns dug up, it seems, at the foundation of
the church. Thus, having spent the day in rambles, I returned the next
day to Venice.

    [Footnote 34: St. Peter's disciple, first Bishop of Padua.]

[Sidenote: VENICE]

The arsenal is thought to be one of the best furnished in the world. We
entered by a strong port, always guarded, and, ascending a spacious
gallery, saw arms of back, breast, and head, for many thousands; in
another were saddles; over them, ensigns taken from the Turks. Another
hall is for the meeting of the Senate; passing a graff, are the smiths'
forges, where they are continually employed on anchors and iron work.
Near it is a well of fresh water, which they impute to two rhinoceros's
horns which they say lie in it, and will preserve it from ever being
empoisoned. Then we came to where the carpenters were building their
magazines of oars, masts, etc., for an hundred galleys and ships, which
have all their apparel and furniture near them. Then the foundry, where
they cast ordnance; the forge is 450 paces long, and one of them has
thirteen furnaces. There is one cannon, weighing 16,573 pounds, cast
while Henry the Third dined, and put into a galley built, rigged, and
fitted for launching within that time. They have also arms for twelve
galeasses, which are vessels to row, of almost 150 feet long, and thirty
wide, not counting prow or poop, and contain twenty-eight banks of oars,
each seven men, and to carry 1,300 men, with three masts. In another, a
magazine for fifty galleys, and place for some hundreds more. Here stands
the Bucentaur, with a most ample deck, and so contrived that the slaves
are not seen, having on the poop a throne for the Doge to sit, when he
goes in triumph to espouse the Adriatic. Here is also a gallery of 200
yards long for cables, and above that a magazine of hemp. Opposite these,
are the saltpetre houses, and a large row of cells, or houses, to
protect their galleys from the weather. Over the gate, as we go out, is a
room full of great and small guns, some of which discharge six times at
once. Then, there is a court full of cannon, bullets, chains, grapples,
grenadoes, etc., and over that arms for 800,000 men, and by themselves
arms for 400, taken from some that were in a plot against the state;
together with weapons of offense and defense for sixty-two ships;
thirty-two pieces of ordnance, on carriages taken from the Turks, and one
prodigious mortar-piece. In a word, it is not to be reckoned up what this
large place contains of this sort. There were now twenty-three galleys,
and four galley-grossi, of 100 oars to a side. The whole arsenal is
walled about, and may be in compass about three miles, with twelve towers
for the watch, besides that the sea environs it. The workmen, who are
ordinarily 500, march out in military order, and every evening receive
their pay through a small hole in the gate where the governor lives.

The next day, I saw a wretch executed, who had murdered his master, for
which he had his head chopped off by an ax that slid down a frame of
timber, between the two tall columns in St. Mark's piazza, at the
sea-brink; the executioner striking on the ax with a beetle; and so the
head fell off the block.

Hence, by Gudala, we went to see Grimani's Palace, the portico whereof is
excellent work. Indeed, the world cannot show a city of more stately
buildings, considering the extent of it, all of square stone, and as
chargeable in their foundations as superstructure, being all built on
piles at an immense cost. We returned home by the church of St. Johanne
and Paulo, before which is, in copper, the statue of Bartolomeo Colone,
on horseback, double gilt, on a stately pedestal, the work of Andrea
Verrochio, a Florentine. This is a very fine church, and has in it many
rare altarpieces of the best masters, especially that on the left hand,
of the Two Friars slain, which is of Titian.

The day after, being Sunday, I went over to St. George's to the ceremony
of the schismatic Greeks, who are permitted to have their church, though
they are at defiance with Rome. They allow no carved images, but many
painted, especially the story of their patron and his dragon. Their rites
differ not much from the Latins, save that of communicating in both
species, and distribution of the holy bread. We afterward fell into a
dispute with a Candiot, concerning the procession of the Holy Ghost. The
church is a noble fabric.

The church of St. Zachary is a Greek building, by Leo IV., Emperor, and
has in it the bones of that prophet, with divers other saints. Near this,
we visited St. Luke's, famous for the tomb of Aretin.

Tuesday, we visited several other churches, as Santa Maria, newly
incrusted with marble on the outside, and adorned with porphyry, ophite,
and Spartan stone. Near the altar and under the organ, are sculptures,
that are said to be of the famous artist Praxiteles. To that of St. Paul
I went purposely, to see the tomb of Titian. Then to St. John the
Evangelist, where among other heroes, lies Andrea Baldarius, the inventor
of oars applied to great vessels for fighting.

We also saw St. Roche, the roof whereof is, with the school, or hall, of
that rich confraternity, admirably painted by Tintoretto, especially the
Crucifix in the _sacristia_. We saw also the church of St. Sebastian, and
Carmelites' monastery.

Next day, taking our gondola at St. Mark's, I passed to the island of St.
George Maggiore, where is a Convent of Benedictines, and a well-built
church of Andrea Palladio, the great architect. The pavement, cupola,
choir, and pictures, very rich and sumptuous. The cloister has a fine
garden to it, which is a rare thing at Venice, though this is an island a
little distant from the city; it has also an olive orchard, all environed
by the sea. The new cloister now building has a noble staircase paved
with white and black marble.

From hence, we visited St. Spirito, and St. Laurence, fair churches in
several islands; but most remarkable is that of the Padri Olivetani, in
St. Helen's island, for the rare paintings and carvings, with inlaid
work, etc.

[Sidenote: PADUA]

The next morning, we went again to Padua, where, on the following day, we
visited the market, which is plentifully furnished, and exceedingly
cheap. Here we saw the great hall, built in a spacious piazza, and one of
the most magnificent in Europe; its ascent is by steps a good height, of
a reddish marble polished, much used in these parts, and happily found
not far off; it is almost 200 paces long, and forty in breadth, all
covered with lead, without any support of columns. At the further end
stands the bust, in white marble, of Titus Livius, the historian. In this
town is the house wherein he was born, full of inscriptions, and pretty
fair.

Near to the monument of Speron Speroni, is painted on the ceiling the
celestial zodiac, and other astronomical figures; without side, there is
a corridor, in manner of a balcony, of the same stone; and at the entry
of each of the three gates is the head of some famous person, as Albert
Eremitano, Julio Paullo (lawyers), and Peter Aponius. In the piazza is
the Podesta's and Capitano Grande's Palace, well built; but above all,
the Monte Pietà, the front whereof is of most excellent architecture.
This is a foundation of which there is one in most of the cities in
Italy, where there is a continual bank of money to assist the poorer
sort, on any pawn, and at reasonable interest, together with magazines
for deposit of goods, till redeemed.

Hence, to the Schools of this flourishing and ancient University,
especially for the study of physic and anatomy. They are fairly built in
quadrangle, with cloisters beneath, and above with columns. Over the
great gate are the arms of the Venetian State, and under the lion of St.
Mark.

    _Sic ingredere, ut teipso quotidie doctior; sic egredere ut indies
    Patriæ Christianæq; Republicæ utilior evadas; ita demùm Gymnasium à
    te felicitèr se ornatum existimabit._

                              CIC.IX.

About the court walls, are carved in stone and painted the blazons of the
Consuls of all the nations, that from time to time have had that charge
and honor in the University, which at my being there was my worthy friend
Dr. Rogers, who here took that degree.

The Schools for the lectures of the several sciences are above, but none
of them comparable, or so much frequented, as the theater for anatomy,
which is excellently contrived both for the dissector and spectators. I
was this day invited to dinner, and in the afternoon (30th July) received
my _matricula_, being resolved to spend some months here at study,
especially physic and anatomy, of both which there were now the most
famous professors in Europe. My _matricula_ contained a clause, that I,
my goods, servants, and messengers, should be free from all tolls and
reprises, and that we might come, pass, return, buy, or sell, without any
toll, etc.

The next morning, I saw the garden of simples, rarely furnished with
plants, and gave order to the gardener to make me a collection of them
for an _hortus hyemalis_, by permission of the Cavalier Dr. Veslingius,
then Prefect and Botanic Professor as well as of Anatomy.

This morning, the Earl of Arundel,[35] now in this city, a famous
collector of paintings and antiquities, invited me to go with him to see
the garden of Mantua, where, as one enters, stands a huge _colosse_ of
Hercules. From hence to a place where was a room covered with a noble
cupola, built purposely for music; the fillings up, or cove, between the
walls, were of urns and earthen pots, for the better sounding; it was
also well painted. After dinner, we walked to the Palace of Foscari all'
Arena, there remaining yet some appearances of an ancient theater, though
serving now for a court only before the house. There were now kept in it
two eagles, a crane, a Mauritanian sheep, a stag, and sundry fowls, as in
a vivary.

    [Footnote 35: The celebrated Thomas, Earl of Arundel, part of whose
    collection was eventually procured for the University of Oxford by
    Evelyn, and is distinguished by the name _Marmora Arundeliana_.]

[Sidenote: VENICE]

Three days after, I returned to Venice, and passed over to Murano, famous
for the best glasses in the world, where having viewed their furnaces,
and seen their work, I made a collection of divers curiosities and
glasses, which I sent for England by long sea. It is the white flints
they have from Pavia, which they pound and sift exceedingly small, and
mix with ashes made of a seaweed brought out of Syria, and a white sand,
that causes this manufacture to excel. The town is a Podestaria by
itself, at some miles distant on the sea from Venice, and like it, built
on several small islands. In this place, are excellent oysters, small and
well tasted like our Colchester, and they were the first, as I remember,
that I ever could eat; for I had naturally an aversion to them.

At our return to Venice, we met several gondolas full of Venetian ladies,
who come thus far in fine weather to take the air, with music and other
refreshments. Besides that, Murano is itself a very nobly built town, and
has divers noblemen's palaces in it, and handsome gardens.

In coming back, we saw the islands of St. Christopher and St. Michael,
the last of which has a church enriched and incrusted with marbles and
other architectonic ornaments, which the monks very courteously showed
us. It was built and founded by Margaret Emiliana of Verona, a famous
courtesan, who purchased a great estate, and by this foundation hoped to
commute for her sins. We then rowed by the isles of St. Nicholas, whose
church, with the monuments of the Justinian family, entertained us
awhile; and then got home.

The next morning, Captain Powell, in whose ship I was to embark toward
Turkey, invited me on board, lying about ten miles from Venice, where we
had a dinner of English powdered beef and other good meat, with store of
wine and great guns, as the manner is. After dinner, the Captain
presented me with a stone he had lately brought from Grand Cairo, which
he took from the mummy-pits, full of hieroglyphics; I drew it on paper
with the true dimensions, and sent it in a letter to Mr. Henshaw to
communicate to Father Kircher, who was then setting forth his great work
"Obeliscus Pamphilius," where it is described, but without mentioning my
name. The stone was afterward brought for me into England, and landed at
Wapping, where, before I could hear of it, it was broken into several
fragments, and utterly defaced, to my no small disappointment.

The boatswain of the ship also gave me a hand and foot of a mummy, the
nails whereof had been overlaid with thin plates of gold, and the whole
body was perfect, when he brought it out of Egypt; but the avarice of the
ship's crew broke it to pieces, and divided the body among them. He
presented me also with two Egyptian idols, and some loaves of the bread
which the Coptics use in the Holy Sacrament, with other curiosities.

8th August, 1645. I had news from Padua of my election to be _Syndicus
Artistarum_, which caused me, after two days idling in a country villa
with the Consul of Venice, to hasten thither, that I might discharge
myself of that honor, because it was not only chargeable, but would have
hindered my progress, and they chose a Dutch gentleman in my place,
which did not well please my countrymen, who had labored not a little to
do me the greatest honor a stranger is capable of in that University.
Being freed from this impediment, and having taken leave of Dr. Janicius,
a Polonian, who was going as physician in the Venetian galleys to Candia,
I went again to Venice, and made a collection of several books and some
toys. Three days after, I returned to Padua, where I studied hard till
the arrival of Mr. Henshaw, Bramstone, and some other English gentlemen
whom I had left at Rome, and who made me go back to Venice, where I spent
some time in showing them what I had seen there.

26th September, 1645. My dear friend, and till now my constant
fellow-traveler, Mr. Thicknesse, being obliged to return to England upon
his particular concern, and who had served his Majesty in the wars, I
accompanied him part of his way, and, on the 28th, returned to Venice.

29th September, 1645. Michaelmas day, I went with my Lord Mowbray (eldest
son to the Earl of Arundel, and a most worthy person) to see the
collection of a noble Venetian, Signor Rugini. He has a stately palace,
richly furnished with statues and heads of Roman Emperors, all placed in
an ample room. In the next, was a cabinet of medals, both Latin and
Greek, with divers curious shells and two fair pearls in two of them;
but, above all, he abounded in things petrified, walnuts, eggs in which
the yoke rattled, a pear, a piece of beef with the bones in it, a whole
hedgehog, a plaice on a wooden trencher turned into stone and very
perfect, charcoal, a morsel of cork yet retaining its levity, sponges,
and a piece of taffety part rolled up, with innumerable more. In another
cabinet, supported by twelve pillars of oriental agate, and railed about
with crystal, he showed us several noble intáglios of agate, especially a
head of Tiberius, a woman in a bath with her dog, some rare cornelians,
onyxes, crystals, etc., in one of which was a drop of water not
congealed, but moving up and down, when shaken; above all, a diamond
which had a very fair ruby growing in it; divers pieces of amber, wherein
were several insects, in particular one cut like a heart that contained
in it a salamander without the least defect, and many pieces of mosaic.
The fabric of this cabinet was very ingenious, set thick with agates,
turquoises, and other precious stones, in the midst of which was an
antique of a dog in stone scratching his ear, very rarely cut, and
comparable to the greatest curiosity I had ever seen of that kind for the
accurateness of the work. The next chamber had a bedstead all inlaid with
agates, crystals, cornelians, lazuli, etc., esteemed worth 16,000 crowns,
but, for the most part, the bedsteads in Italy are of forged iron gilded,
since it is impossible to keep the wooden ones from the cimices.

[Sidenote: PADUA]

From hence, I returned to Padua, when that town was so infested with
soldiers, that many houses were broken open in the night, some murders
committed, and the nuns next our lodging disturbed, so as we were forced
to be on our guard with pistols and other firearms to defend our doors;
and indeed the students themselves take a barbarous liberty in the
evenings when they go to their strumpets, to stop all that pass by the
house where any of their companions in folly are with them. This custom
they call _chi vali_, so as the streets are very dangerous, when the
evenings grow dark; nor is it easy to reform this intolerable usage,
where there are so many strangers of several nations.

Using to drink my wine cooled with snow and ice, as the manner here is, I
was so afflicted with an angina and sore throat, that it had almost cost
me my life. After all the remedies Cavalier Veslingius, chief professor
here, could apply, old Salvatico (that famous physician) being called,
made me be cupped, and scarified in the back in four places; which began
to give me breath, and consequently life; for I was in the utmost danger;
but, God being merciful to me, I was after a fortnight abroad again,
when, changing my lodging, I went over against Pozzo Pinto; where I
bought for winter provision 3,000 weight of excellent grapes, and pressed
my own wine, which proved incomparable liquor.

This was on 10th of October. Soon after came to visit me from Venice Mr.
Henry Howard, grandchild to the Earl of Arundel, Mr. Bramstone, son to
the Lord Chief Justice, and Mr. Henshaw, with whom I went to another part
of the city to lodge near St. Catherine's over against the monastery of
nuns, where we hired the whole house, and lived very nobly. Here I
learned to play on the theorb, taught by Signor Dominico Bassano, who
had a daughter married to a doctor of laws, that played and sung to nine
several instruments, with that skill and address as few masters in Italy
exceeded her; she likewise composed divers excellent pieces: I had never
seen any play on the Naples viol before. She presented me afterward with
two recitativos of hers, both words and music.

31st October, 1645. Being my birthday, the nuns of St. Catherine's sent
me flowers of silkwork. We were very studious all this winter till
Christmas, when on Twelfth-day, we invited all the English and Scots in
town to a feast, which sunk our excellent wine considerably.

[Sidenote: VENICE]

1645-46. In January, Signor Molino was chosen Doge of Venice, but the
extreme snow that fell, and the cold, hindered my going to see the
solemnity, so as I stirred not from Padua till Shrovetide, when all the
world repair to Venice, to see the folly and madness of the Carnival; the
women, men, and persons of all conditions disguising themselves in
antique dresses, with extravagant music and a thousand gambols,
traversing the streets from house to house, all places being then
accessible and free to enter. Abroad, they fling eggs filled with sweet
water, but sometimes not over-sweet. They also have a barbarous custom of
hunting bulls about the streets and piazzas, which is very dangerous, the
passages being generally narrow. The youth of the several wards and
parishes contend in other masteries and pastimes, so that it is
impossible to recount the universal madness of this place during this
time of license. The great banks are set up for those who will play at
bassett; the comedians have liberty, and the operas are open; witty
pasquils are thrown about, and the mountebanks have their stages at every
corner. The diversions which chiefly took me up was three noble operas,
where were excellent voices and music, the most celebrated of which was
the famous Anna Rencia, whom we invited to a fish dinner after four days
in Lent, when they had given over at the theater. Accompanied with an
eunuch whom she brought with her, she entertained us with rare music,
both of them singing to a harpsichord. It growing late, a gentleman of
Venice came for her, to show her the galleys, now ready to sail for
Candia. This entertainment produced a second, given us by the English
consul of the merchants, inviting us to his house, where he had the
Genoese, the most celebrated bass in Italy, who was one of the late opera
band. This diversion held us so late at night, that, conveying a
gentlewoman who had supped with us to her gondola at the usual place of
landing, we were shot at by two carbines from another gondola, in which
were a noble Venetian and his courtesan unwilling to be disturbed, which
made us run in and fetch other weapons, not knowing what the matter was,
till we were informed of the danger we might incur by pursuing it
farther.

Three days after this, I took my leave of Venice, and went to Padua, to
be present at the famous anatomy lecture, celebrated here with
extraordinary apparatus, lasting almost a whole month. During this time,
I saw a woman, a child, and a man dissected with all the manual
operations of the chirurgeon on the human body. The one was performed by
Cavalier Veslingius and Dr. Jo. Athelsteninus Leonoenas, of whom I
purchased those rare tables of veins and nerves, and caused him to
prepare a third of the lungs, liver, and nervi _sexti par_: with the
gastric veins, which I sent into England, and afterward presented to the
Royal Society, being the first of that kind that had been seen there,
and, for aught I know, in the world, though afterward there were others.
When the anatomy lectures, which were in the mornings, were ended, I went
to see cures done in the hospitals; and certainly as there are the
greatest helps and the most skillful physicians, so there are the most
miserable and deplorable objects to exercise upon. Nor is there any, I
should think, so powerful an argument against the vice reigning in this
licentious country, as to be spectator of the misery these poor creatures
undergo. They are indeed very carefully attended, and with extraordinary
charity.

20th March, 1646. I returned to Venice, where I took leave of my friends.

22d March, 1646. I was invited to excellent English potted venison, at
Mr. Hobbson's, a worthy merchant.

23d March, 1646. I took my leave of the Patriarch and the Prince of
Wirtemberg, and Monsieur Grotius (son of the learned Hugo) now going as
commander to Candia; and, in the afternoon, received of Vandervoort, my
merchant, my bills of exchange of 300 ducats for my journey. He showed me
his rare collection of Italian books, esteemed very curious, and of good
value.

The next day, I was conducted to the Ghetto, where the Jews dwell
together in as a tribe or ward, where I was present at a marriage. The
bride was clad in white, sitting in a lofty chair, and covered with a
white veil; then two old Rabbis joined them together, one of them holding
a glass of wine in his hand, which, in the midst of the ceremony,
pretending to deliver to the woman, he let fall, the breaking whereof was
to signify the frailty of our nature, and that we must expect disasters
and crosses amid all enjoyments. This done we had a fine banquet, and
were brought into the bride-chamber, where the bed was dressed up with
flowers, and the counterpane strewn in works. At this ceremony, we saw
divers very beautiful Portuguese Jewesses, with whom we had some
conversation.

I went to the Spanish Ambassador with Bonifacio, his confessor, and
obtained his pass to serve me in the Spanish dominions; without which I
was not to travel, in this pompous form:

    "_Don Caspar de Teves y Guzman, Marques de la Fuente, Señor Le
    Lerena y Verazuza, Commendador de Colos, en la Orden de Sant Yago,
    Alcalde Mayor perpetuo y Escrivano Mayor de la Ciudad de Sevilla,
    Gentilhombre de la Camara de S. M. su Azimilero Mayor, de su
    Consejo, su Embaxador extraordinario a los Principes de Italia, y
    Alemania, y a esta serenissima Republica de Venetia, etc. Haviendo
    de partir de esta Ciudad para La Milan el Signior Cavallero Evelyn
    Ingles, con un Criado, mi han pedido Passa-porte para los Estates
    de su M. Le he mandado dar el presente, firmando de mi mano, y
    sellado con el sello de mis armas, por el qual encargo a todos los
    menestros de S. M. antes quien le presentase y a los que no lo son,
    supplico les dare passar libramente sin permitir que se le haya
    vexation alguna antes mandar le las favor para continuar su viage.
    Fecho en Venecia a 24 del mes de Marzo del an'o 1646._

    _Mar. de la Fuentes, etc._"

Having packed up my purchases of books, pictures, casts, treacle, etc.
(the making an extraordinary ceremony whereof I had been curious to
observe, for it is extremely pompous and worth seeing), I departed from
Venice, accompanied with Mr. Waller (the celebrated poet), now newly
gotten out of England, after the Parliament had extremely worried him for
attempting to put in execution the commission of Array, and for which the
rest of his colleagues were hanged by the rebels.

The next day, I took leave of my comrades at Padua, and receiving some
directions from Dr. Salvatico as to the care of my health, I prepared for
my journey toward Milan.

It was Easter-Monday that I was invited to breakfast at the Earl of
Arundel's. I took my leave of him in his bed, where I left that great and
excellent man in tears on some private discourse of crosses that had
befallen his illustrious family, particularly the undutifulness of his
grandson Philip turning Dominican Friar (since Cardinal of Norfolk), and
the misery of his country now embroiled in civil war. He caused his
gentleman to give me directions, all written with his own hand, what
curiosities I should inquire after in my journey; and, so enjoining me to
write sometimes to him, I departed. There stayed for me below, Mr. Henry
Howard (afterward Duke of Norfolk), Mr. J. Digby, son of Sir Kenelm
Digby, and other gentlemen, who conducted me to the coach.

The famous lapidaries of Venice for false stones and pastes, so as to
emulate the best diamonds, rubies, etc., were Marco Terrasso and Gilbert.

    An account of what Bills of Exchange I took up at Venice since my
    coming from Rome, till my departure from Padua:

        11th Aug., 1645      200
        7th Sept.            135
        1st Oct.             100
        15th Jan., 1646      100
        23d April            300
                             ---
                             835 Ducati di Banco.

In company, then, with Mr. Waller, one Captain Wray (son of Sir
Christopher, whose father had been in arms against his Majesty, and
therefore by no means welcome to us), with Mr. Abdy, a modest and learned
man, we got that night to Vicenza, passing by the Euganéan hills,
celebrated for the prospects and furniture of rare simples, which we
found growing about them. The ways were something deep, the whole country
flat and even as a bowling-green. The common fields lie square, and are
orderly planted with fruit trees, which the vines run and embrace, for
many miles, with delicious streams creeping along the ranges.

Vicenza is a city in the Marquisate of Treviso, yet appertaining to the
Venetians, full of gentlemen and splendid palaces, to which the famous
Palladio, born here, has exceedingly contributed, having been the
architect. Most conspicuous is the Hall of Justice; it has a tower of
excellent work; the lower pillars are of the first order; those in the
three upper corridors are Doric; under them, are shops in a spacious
piazza. The hall was built in imitation of that at Padua, but of a nobler
design, _à la moderne_. The next morning, we visited the theater, as
being of that kind the most perfect now standing, and built by Palladio,
in exact imitation of the ancient Romans, and capable of containing 5,000
spectators. The scene, which is all of stone, represents an imperial
city, the order Corinthian, decorated with statues. Over the Scenario is
inscribed: "_Virtuti ac Genio Olympior: Academia Theatrum hoc à
fundamentis erexit Palladio Architect: 1584_." The scene declines eleven
feet, the _soffito_ painted with clouds. To this there joins a spacious
hall for solemn days to ballot in, and a second for the Academics. In the
piazza is also the _podesta_, or governor's house, the _facciata_ being
of the Corinthian order, very noble. The piazza itself is so large as to
be capable of jousts and tournaments, the nobility of this city being
exceedingly addicted to this knight-errantry, and other martial
diversions. In this place are two pillars in imitation of those at St.
Mark's at Venice, bearing one of them a winged lion, the other the statue
of St. John the Baptist.

In a word, this sweet town has more well-built palaces than any of its
dimensions in all Italy, besides a number begun and not yet finished (but
of stately design) by reason of the domestic dissensions between them and
those of Brescia, fomented by the sage Venetians, lest by combining, they
might think of recovering their ancient liberty. For this reason, also,
are permitted those disorders and insolences committed at Padua among the
youth of these two territories. It is no dishonor in this country to be
some generations in finishing their palaces, that without exhausting
themselves by a vast expense at once, they may at last erect a sumptuous
pile. Count Oleine's Palace is near perfected in this manner. Count
Ulmarini is more famous for his gardens, being without the walls,
especially his _cedrario_, or conserve of oranges, eleven score of my
paces long, set in order and ranges, making a canopy all the way by their
intermixing branches for more than 200 of my single paces, and which
being full of fruit and blossoms, was a most delicious sight. In the
middle of this garden, was a cupola made of wire, supported by slender
pillars of brick, so closely covered with ivy, both without and within,
that nothing was to be perceived but green; between the arches there
dangled festoons of the same. Here is likewise a most inextricable
labyrinth.

I had in this town recommendation to a very civil and ingenious
apothecary, called Angelico, who had a pretty collection of paintings. I
would fain have visited a palace, called the Rotunda, which was a mile
out of town, belonging to Count Martio Capra; but one of our companions
hastening to be gone, and little minding anything save drinking and
folly, caused us to take coach sooner than we should have done.

A little from the town, we passed the Campo Martio, set out in imitation
of ancient Rome, wherein the nobles exercised their horses, and the
ladies make the Corso; it is entered by a stately triumphal arch, the
invention of Palladio.

[Sidenote: VERONA]

Being now set out for Verona, about midway we dined at Ostaria Nova, and
came late to our resting-place, which was the Cavaletto, just over the
monument of the Scalageri,[36] formerly princes of Verona, adorned with
many devices in stone of ladders, alluding to the name.

    [Footnote 36: Or della Scala.]

Early next morning, we went about the city, which is built on the gentle
declivity, and bottom of a hill, environed in part with some considerable
mountains and downs of fine grass, like some places in the south of
England, and, on the other side, having the rich plain where Caius Marius
overthrew the Cimbrians. The city is divided in the midst by the river
Adige, over which are divers stately bridges, and on its banks are many
goodly palaces, whereof one is well painted in _chiaro-oscuro_ on the
outside, as are divers in this dry climate of Italy.

The first thing that engaged our attention and wonder, too, was the
amphitheater, which is the most entire of ancient remains now extant. The
inhabitants call it the ARENA: it has two porticos, one within the other,
and is thirty-four rods long, twenty-two in breadth, with forty-two ranks
of stone benches, or seats, which reach to the top. The vastness of the
marble stones is stupendous. "_L. V. Flaminius, Consul. anno. urb. con.
liii._" This I esteem to be one of the noblest antiquities in Europe, it
is so vast and entire, having escaped the ruins of so many other public
buildings for above 1,400 years.

There are other arches, as that of the victory of Marius; temples,
aqueducts, etc., showing still considerable remains in several places of
the town, and how magnificent it has formerly been. It has three strong
castles and a large and noble wall. Indeed, the whole city is bravely
built, especially the Senate house, where we saw those celebrated statues
of Cornelius Nepos, Æmilius Marcus, Plinius, and Vitruvius, all having
honored Verona by their birth; and, of later date, Julius Cæsar Scaliger,
that prodigy of learning.

In the evening we saw the garden of Count Giusti's villa where are walks
cut out of the main rock, from whence we had a pleasant prospect of
Mantua and Parma, though at great distance. At the entrance of this
garden, grows the goodliest cypress, I fancy, in Europe, cut in a
pyramid; it is a prodigious tree both for breadth and height, entirely
covered, and thick to the base.

Dr. Cortone, a civilian, showed us, among other rarities, a St. Dorothea,
of Raphael. We could not see the rare drawings, especially of Parmensis,
belonging to Dr. Marcello, another advocate, on account of his absence.

Verona deserved all those elogies Scaliger has honored it with; for in my
opinion, the situation is the most delightful I ever saw, it is so
sweetly mixed with rising ground and valleys, so elegantly planted with
trees on which Bacchus seems riding as it were in triumph every autumn,
for the vines reach from tree to tree; here, of all places I have seen in
Italy, would I fix a residence. Well has that learned man given it the
name of the very eye of the world:

    "_Oscelle mundi, Sidus Itali coeli,
    Flos Urbium, flos cornicuumq' amoenum,
    Quot sunt, eruntve, quot fuere, Verona._"

The next morning we traveled over the downs where Marius fought and
fancied ourselves about Winchester, and the country toward Dorsetshire.
We dined at an inn called Cavalli Caschieri, near Peschiera, a very
strong fort of the Venetian Republic, and near the Lago di Garda, which
disembogues into that of Mantua, near forty miles in length, highly
spoken of by my Lord Arundel to me, as the most pleasant spot in Italy,
for which reason I observed it with the more diligence, alighting out of
the coach, and going up to a grove of cypresses growing about a
gentleman's country-house, from whence indeed it presents a most
surprising prospect. The hills and gentle risings about it produce
oranges, citrons, olives, figs, and other tempting fruits, and the waters
abound in excellent fish, especially trouts. In the middle of this lake
stands Sermonea, on an island; here Captain Wray bought a pretty nag of
the master of our inn where we dined, for eight pistoles, which his wife,
our hostess, was so unwilling to part with, that she did nothing but kiss
and weep and hang about the horse's neck, till the captain rode away.

[Sidenote: BRESCIA]

We came this evening to Brescia, which next morning we traversed,
according to our custom, in search of antiquities and new sights. Here, I
purchased of old Lazarino Cominazzo my fine carbine, which cost me nine
pistoles, this city being famous for these firearms, and that workman,
Jo. Bap. Franco, the best esteemed. The city consists most in artists,
every shop abounding in guns, swords, armorers, etc. Most of the workmen
come out of Germany. It stands in a fertile plain, yet the castle is
built on a hill. The streets abound in fair fountains. The Torre della
Pallada is of a noble Tuscan order, and the Senate house is inferior to
few. The piazza is but indifferent; some of the houses arched as at
Padua. The Cathedral was under repair. We would from hence have visited
Parma, Piacenza, Mantua, etc.; but the banditti and other dangerous
parties being abroad, committing many enormities, we were contented with
a Pisgah sight of them.

We dined next day, at Ursa Vecchia, and, after dinner, passed by an
exceeding strong fort of the Venetians, called Ursa Nova, on their
frontier. Then by the river Oglio, and so by Sonano, where we enter the
Spanish dominions, and that night arrived at Crema, which belongs to
Venice, and is well defended. The Podesta's Palace is finely built, and
so is the Duomo, or Cathedral, and the tower to it, with an ample piazza.

[Sidenote: MILAN]

Early next day, after four miles' riding, we entered into the State of
Milan, and passed by Lodi, a great city famous for cheese, little short
of the best Parmeggiano. We dined at Marignano, ten miles before coming
to Milan, where we met half a dozen suspicious cavaliers, who yet did us
no harm. Then, passing as through a continual garden, we went on with
exceeding pleasure; for it is the Paradise of Lombardy, the highways as
even and straight as a line, the fields to a vast extent planted with
fruit about the inclosures, vines to every tree at equal distances, and
watered with frequent streams. There was likewise much corn, and olives
in abundance. At approach of the city, some of our company, in dread of
the Inquisition (severer here than in all Spain), thought of throwing
away some Protestant books and papers. We arrived about three in the
afternoon, when the officers searched us thoroughly for prohibited goods;
but, finding we were only gentlemen travelers, dismissed us for a small
reward, and we went quietly to our inn, the THREE KINGS, where, for that
day, we refreshed ourselves, as we had need. The next morning, we
delivered our letters of recommendation to the learned and courteous
Ferrarius, a Doctor of the Ambrosian College, who conducted us to all the
remarkable places of the town, the first of which was the famous
Cathedral. We entered by a portico, so little inferior to that of Rome
that, when it is finished, it will be hard to say which is the fairest;
the materials are all of white and black marble, with columns of great
height, of Egyptian granite. The outside of the church is so full of
sculpture, that you may number 4,000 statues, all of white marble, among
which that of St. Bartholomew is esteemed a masterpiece. The church is
very spacious, almost as long as St. Peter's at Rome, but not so large.
About the choir, the sacred Story is finely sculptured, in snow-white
marble, nor know I where it is exceeded. About the body of the church
are the miracles of St. Charles Borromeo, and in the vault beneath is his
body before the high altar, grated, and inclosed, in one of the largest
crystals in Europe. To this also belongs a rich treasure. The cupola is
all of marble within and without, and even covered with great planks of
marble, in the Gothic design. The windows are most beautifully painted.
Here are two very fair and excellent organs. The fabric is erected in the
midst of a fair piazza, and in the center of the city.

Hence, we went to the Palace of the Archbishop, which is a quadrangle,
the architecture of Theobaldi, who designed much for Philip II. in the
Escurial, and has built much in Milan. Hence, into the Governor's Palace,
who was Constable of Castile. Tempted by the glorious tapestries and
pictures, I adventured so far alone, that peeping into a chamber where
the great man was under the barber's hands, he sent one of his negroes (a
slave) to know what I was. I made the best excuse I could, and that I was
only admiring the pictures, which he returning and telling his lord, I
heard the Governor reply that I was a spy; on which I retired with all
the speed I could, passed the guard of Swiss, got into the street, and in
a moment to my company, who were gone to the Jesuits' Church, which in
truth is a noble structure, the front especially, after the modern. After
dinner, we were conducted to St. Celso, a church of rare architecture,
built by Bramante; the carvings of the marble _facciata_ are by Annibal
Fontana, whom they esteem at Milan equal to the best of the ancients. In
a room joining to the church, is a marble Madonna, like a Colosse, of the
same sculptor's work, which they will not expose to the air. There are
two _sacristias_, in one of which is a fine Virgin, of Leonardo da Vinci;
in the other is one of Raphael d'Urbino, a piece which all the world
admires. The Sacristan showed us a world of rich plate, jewels, and
embroidered copes, which are kept in presses.

Next, we went to see the Great Hospital, a quadrangular cloister of a
vast compass, a truly royal fabric, with an annual endowment of 50,000
crowns of gold. There is in the middle of it a cross building for the
sick, and, just under it, an altar so placed as to be seen in all places
of the Infirmary.

There are divers colleges built in this quarter, richly provided for by
the same Borromeo and his nephew, the last Cardinal Frederico, some not
yet finished, but of excellent design.

In St. Eustorgio, they tell us, formerly lay the bodies of the three
Magi, since translated to Cologne in Germany; they, however, preserve the
tomb, which is a square stone, on which is engraven a star, and, under
it, "_Sepulchrum trium Magorum_."

Passing by St. Laurence, we saw sixteen columns of marble, and the ruins
of a Temple of Hercules, with this inscription yet standing:

    "_Imp. Cæsari L. Aurelio Vero Aug. Arminiaco Medio Parthico Maxi
    Tribi Pot. VII. Impi IIII. Cos. III. P. P. Divi Antonini Pij Divi
    Hadriani Nepoti Divi Trajani Parthici Pro-Nepoti Divi Nervæ
    Abnepoti Dec. Dec._"

We concluded this day's wandering at the Monastery of Madonna delle
Grazie, and in the refectory admired that celebrated _Coena Domini_ of
Leonardo da Vinci, which takes up the entire wall at the end, and is the
same that the great virtuoso, Francis I., of France, was so enamored of,
that he consulted to remove the whole wall by binding it about with ribs
of iron and timber, to convey it into France. It is indeed one of the
rarest paintings that was ever executed by Leonardo, who was long in the
service of that Prince, and so dear to him that the King, coming to visit
him in his old age and sickness, he expired in his arms. But this
incomparable piece is now exceedingly impaired.

Early next morning came the learned Dr. Ferrarius to visit us, and took
us in his coach to see the Ambrosian Library, where Cardinal Fred
Borromeo has expended so vast a sum on this building, and in furnishing
with curiosities, especially paintings and drawings of inestimable value
among painters. It is a school fit to make the ablest artists. There are
many rare things of Hans Breugel, and among them the Four Elements. In
this room, stands the glorious [boasting] inscription of Cavaliero
Galeazzo Arconati, valuing his gift to the library of several drawings by
Da Vinci; but these we could not see, the keeper of them being out of
town, and he always carrying the keys with him; but my Lord Marshal, who
had seen them, told me all but one book are small that a huge folio
contained 400 leaves full of scratches of Indians, etc. But whereas the
inscription pretends that our King Charles had offered £1,000 for
them,--the truth is, and my Lord himself told me, that it was he who
treated with Galeazzo for himself, in the name and by permission of the
King, and that the Duke of Feria, who was then Governor, should make the
bargain; but my Lord, having seen them since, did not think them of so
much worth.

In the great room, where is a goodly library, on the right hand of the
door, is a small wainscot closet, furnished with rare manuscripts. Two
original letters of the Grand Signor were shown us, sent to two Popes,
one of which was (as I remember) to Alexander VI. [Borgia], and the other
mentioning the head of the lance which pierced our Blessed Savior's side,
as a present to the Pope: I would feign have gotten a copy of them, but
could not; I hear, however, that they are since translated into Italian,
and that therein is a most honorable mention of Christ.

We revisited St. Ambrose's church. The high altar is supported by four
porphyry columns, and under it lie the remains of that holy man. Near it
they showed us a pit, or well (an obscure place it is), where they say
St. Ambrose baptized St. Augustine, and recited the _Te Deum_; for so
imports the inscription. The place is also famous for some Councils that
have been held here, and for the coronation of divers Italian Kings and
Emperors, receiving the iron crown from the Archbishop of this see.[37]
They show the History by Josephus, written on the bark of trees. The high
altar is wonderfully rich.

    [Footnote 37: Bonaparte afterward took it, and placed it on his own
    head.]

Milan is one of the most princely cities in Europe: it has no suburbs,
but is circled with a stately wall for ten miles, in the center of a
country that seems to flow with milk and honey. The air is excellent; the
fields fruitful to admiration, the market abounding with all sorts of
provisions. In the city are near 100 churches, 71 monasteries, and 40,000
inhabitants; it is of a circular figure, fortified with bastions, full of
sumptuous palaces and rare artists, especially for works in crystal,
which is here cheap, being found among the Alps. They have curious
straw-work among the nuns, even to admiration. It has a good river, and a
citadel at some small distance from the city, commanding it, of great
strength for its works and munitions of all kinds. It was built by
Galeatius II., and consists of four bastions, and works at the angles and
fronts; the graff is faced with brick to a very great depth; has two
strong towers as one enters, and within is another fort, and spacious
lodgings for the soldiers, and for exercising them. No accommodation for
strength is wanting, and all exactly uniform. They have here also all
sorts of work and tradesmen, a great magazine of arms and provisions. The
fosse is of spring water, with a mill for grinding corn, and the ramparts
vaulted underneath. Don Juan Vasques Coronada was now Governor; the
garrison Spaniards only.

There is nothing better worth seeing than the collection of Signor
Septalla, a canon of St. Ambrose, famous over Christendom for his
learning and virtues. Among other things, he showed us an Indian wood,
that has the perfect scent of civet; a flint, or pebble, that has a
quantity of water in it, which is plainly to be seen, it being clear as
agate; divers crystals that have water moving in them, some of them
having plants, leaves, and hog's bristles in them; much amber full of
insects, and divers things of woven amianthus.

Milan is a sweet place, and though the streets are narrow, they abound in
rich coaches, and are full of noblesse, who frequent the course every
night. Walking a turn in the portico before the dome, a cavaliero who
passed by, hearing some of us speaking English, looked a good while
earnestly on us, and by and by sending his servant, desiring we would
honor him the next day at dinner. We looked on this as an odd invitation,
he not speaking to us himself, but we returned his civility with thanks,
though not fully resolved what to do, or indeed what might be the meaning
of it in this jealous place; but on inquiry, it was told us he was a
Scots Colonel, who had an honorable command in the city, so that we
agreed to go. This afternoon, we were wholly taken up in seeing an opera
represented by some Neapolitans, performed all in excellent music with
rare scenes, in which there acted a celebrated beauty.

Next morning, we went to the Colonel's, who had sent his servant again to
conduct us to his house, which we found to be a noble palace, richly
furnished. There were other guests, all soldiers, one of them a
Scotchman, but we could not learn one of their names. At dinner, he
excused his rudeness that he had not himself spoken to us; telling us it
was his custom, when he heard of any English travelers (who but rarely
would be known to pass through that city for fear of the Inquisition), to
invite them to his house, where they might be free. We had a sumptuous
dinner; and the wine was so tempting, that after some healths had gone
about, and we had risen from the table, the Colonel led us into his hall,
where there hung up divers colors, saddles, bridles, pistols, and other
arms, being trophies which he had taken with his own hands from the
enemy; among them, he would needs bestow a pair of pistols on Captain
Wray, one of our fellow-travelers, and a good drinking gentleman, and on
me a Turkish bridle woven with silk and very curiously embossed, with
other silk trappings, to which hung a half moon finely wrought, which he
had taken from a bashaw whom he had slain. With this glorious spoil, I
rode the rest of my journey as far as Paris, and brought it afterward
into England. He then showed us a stable of brave horses, with his menage
and cavalerizzo. Some of the horses he caused to be brought out, which he
mounted, and performed all the motions of an excellent horseman. When
this was done, and he had alighted,--contrary to the advice of his groom
and page, who knew the nature of the beast, and that their master was a
little spirited with wine, he would have a fiery horse that had not yet
been managed and was very ungovernable, but was otherwise a very
beautiful creature; this he mounting, the horse, getting the reins in a
full _carriere_, rose so desperately that he fell quite back, crushing
the Colonel so forcibly against the wall of the menage, that though he
sat on him like a Centaur, yet recovering the jade on all fours again, he
desired to be taken down and so led in, where he cast himself on a
pallet; and, with infinite lamentations, after some time we took leave of
him, being now speechless. The next morning, going to visit him, we found
before the door the canopy which they usually carry over the host, and
some with lighted tapers; which made us suspect he was in a very sad
condition, and so indeed we found him, an Irish Friar standing by his
bedside as confessing him, or at least disguising a confession, and
other ceremonies used _in extremis_; for we afterward learned that the
gentleman was a Protestant, and had this Friar, his confidant; which was
a dangerous thing at Milan, had it been but suspected. At our entrance,
he sighed grievously, and held up his hands, but was not able to speak.
After vomiting some blood, he kindly took us all by the hand, and made
signs that he should see us no more, which made us take our leave of him
with extreme reluctancy and affliction for the accident. This sad
disaster made us consult about our departure as soon as we could, not
knowing how we might be inquired after, or engaged, the Inquisition being
so cruelly formidable and inevitable, on the least suspicion. The next
morning, therefore, discharging our lodgings, we agreed for a coach to
carry us to the foot of the Alps, not a little concerned for the death of
the Colonel, which we now heard of, and who had so courteously
entertained us.

The first day we got as far as Castellanza, by which runs a considerable
river into Lago Maggiore; here, at dinner, were two or three Jesuits, who
were very pragmatical and inquisitive, whom we declined conversation with
as decently as we could; so we pursued our journey through a most
fruitful plain, but the weather was wet and uncomfortable. At night, we
lay at Sesto.

The next morning, leaving our coach, we embarked in a boat to carry us
over the lake (being one of the largest in Europe), and whence we could
see the towering Alps, and among them the great San Bernardo, esteemed
the highest mountain in Europe, appearing to be some miles above the
clouds. Through this vast water, passes the river Ticinus, which
discharges itself into the Po, by which means Helvetia transports her
merchandizes into Italy, which we now begin to leave behind us.

Having now sailed about two leagues, we were hauled ashore at Arona, a
strong town belonging to the Duchy of Milan, where, being examined by the
Governor, and paying a small duty, we were dismissed. Opposite to this
fort, is Angiera, another small town, the passage very pleasant with the
prospect of the Alps covered with pine and fir trees, and above them
snow. We passed the pretty island Isabella, about the middle of the
lake, on which is a fair house built on a mount; indeed, the whole island
is a mount ascended by several terraces and walks all set above with
orange and citron trees.

[Sidenote: ISOLA]

The next we saw was Isola, and we left on our right hand the Isle of St.
Jovanni; and so sailing by another small town built also on an island, we
arrived at night at Margazzo, an obscure village at the end of the lake,
and at the very foot of the Alps, which now rise as it were suddenly
after some hundreds of miles of the most even country in the world, and
where there is hardly a stone to be found, as if Nature had here swept up
the rubbish of the earth in the Alps, to form and clear the plains of
Lombardy, which we had hitherto passed since our coming from Venice. In
this wretched place, I lay on a bed stuffed with leaves, which made such
a crackling and did so prick my skin through the tick, that I could not
sleep. The next morning, I was furnished with an ass, for we could not
get horses; instead of stirrups, we had ropes tied with a loop to put our
feet in, which supplied the place of other trappings. Thus, with my
gallant steed, bridled with my Turkish present, we passed through a
reasonably pleasant but very narrow valley, till we came to Duomo, where
we rested, and, having showed the Spanish pass, the Governor would press
another on us, that his secretary might get a crown. Here we exchanged
our asses for mules, sure-footed on the hills and precipices, being
accustomed to pass them. Hiring a guide, we were brought that night
through very steep, craggy, and dangerous passages to a village called
Vedra, being the last of the King of Spain's dominions in the Duchy of
Milan. We had a very infamous wretched lodging.

The next morning we mounted again through strange, horrid, and fearful
crags and tracts, abounding in pine trees, and only inhabited by bears,
wolves, and wild goats; nor could we anywhere see above a pistol shot
before us, the horizon being terminated with rocks and mountains, whose
tops, covered with snow, seemed to touch the skies, and in many places
pierced the clouds. Some of these vast mountains were but one entire
stone, between whose clefts now and then precipitated great cataracts of
melted snow, and other waters, which made a terrible roaring, echoing
from the rocks and cavities; and these waters in some places breaking in
the fall, wet us as if we had passed through a mist, so as we could
neither see nor hear one another, but, trusting to our honest mules, we
jogged on our way. The narrow bridges, in some places made only by
felling huge fir trees, and laying them athwart from mountain to
mountain, over cataracts of stupendous depth, are very dangerous, and so
are the passages and edges made by cutting away the main rock; others in
steps; and in some places we pass between mountains that have been broken
and fallen on one another; which is very terrible, and one had need of a
sure foot and steady head to climb some of these precipices, besides that
they are harbors for bears and wolves, who have sometimes assaulted
travelers. In these straits, we frequently alighted, now freezing in the
snow, and anon frying by the reverberation of the sun against the cliffs
as we descend lower, when we meet now and then a few miserable cottages
so built upon the declining of the rocks, as one would expect their
sliding down. Among these, inhabit a goodly sort of people, having
monstrous gullets, or wens of flesh, growing to their throats, some of
which I have seen as big as an hundred pound bag of silver hanging under
their chins; among the women especially, and that so ponderous, as that
to ease them, many wear linen cloth bound about their head, and coming
under the chin to support it; but _quis tumidum guttur miratur in
Alpibus?_ Their drinking so much snow water is thought to be the cause of
it; the men using more wine, are not so strumous as the women. The truth
is, they are a peculiar race of people, and many great water drinkers
here have not these prodigious tumors; it runs, as we say, in the blood,
and is a vice in the race, and renders them so ugly, shriveled and
deformed, by its drawing the skin of the face down, that nothing can be
more frightful; to this add a strange puffing dress, furs, and that
barbarous language, being a mixture of corrupt High German, French, and
Italian. The people are of great stature, extremely fierce and rude, yet
very honest and trusty.

[Sidenote: MOUNT SAMPION]

This night, through almost inaccessible heights, we came in prospect of
Mons Sempronius, now Mount Sampion, which has on its summit a few huts
and a chapel. Approaching this, Captain Wray's water spaniel (a huge
filthy cur that had followed him out of England) hunted a herd of goats
down the rocks into a river made by the melting of the snow. Arrived at
our cold harbor (though the house had a stove in every room) and supping
on cheese and milk with wretched wine, we went to bed in cupboards so
high from the floor, that we climbed them by a ladder; we were covered
with feathers, that is, we lay between two ticks stuffed with them, and
all little enough to keep one warm. The ceilings of the rooms are
strangely low for those tall people. The house was now (in September)
half covered with snow, nor is there a tree, or a bush, growing within
many miles.

From this uncomfortable place, we prepared to hasten away the next
morning; but, as we were getting on our mules, comes a huge young fellow
demanding money for a goat which he affirmed that Captain Wray's dog had
killed; expostulating the matter, and impatient of staying in the cold,
we set spurs and endeavored to ride away, when a multitude of people
being by this time gotten together about us (for it being Sunday morning
and attending for the priest to say mass), they stopped our mules, beat
us off our saddles, and, disarming us of our carbines, drew us into one
of the rooms of our lodging, and set a guard upon us. Thus we continued
prisoners till mass was ended, and then came half a score grim Swiss,
who, taking on them to be magistrates, sat down on the table, and
condemned us to pay a pistole for the goat, and ten more for attempting
to ride away, threatening that if we did not pay it speedily, they would
send us to prison, and keep us to a day of public justice, where, as they
perhaps would have exaggerated the crime, for they pretended we had
primed our carbines and would have shot some of them (as indeed the
Captain was about to do), we might have had our heads cut off, as we were
told afterward, for that among these rude people a very small misdemeanor
does often meet that sentence. Though the proceedings appeared highly
unjust, on consultation among ourselves we thought it safer to rid
ourselves out of their hands, and the trouble we were brought into; and
therefore we patiently laid down the money, and with fierce countenances
had our mules and arms delivered to us, and glad we were to escape as we
did. This was cold entertainment, but our journey after was colder, the
rest of the way having been (as they told us) covered with snow since the
Creation; no man remembered it to be without; and because, by the
frequent snowing, the tracks are continually filled up, we passed by
several tall masts set up to guide travelers, so as for many miles they
stand in ken of one another, like to our beacons. In some places, where
there is a cleft between two mountains, the snow fills it up, while the
bottom, being thawed, leaves as it were a frozen arch of snow, and that
so hard as to bear the greatest weight; for as it snows often, so it
perpetually freezes, of which I was so sensible that it flawed the very
skin of my face.

Beginning now to descend a little, Captain Wray's horse (that was our
sumpter and carried all our baggage) plunging through a bank of loose
snow, slid down a frightful precipice, which so incensed the choleric
cavalier, his master, that he was sending a brace of bullets into the
poor beast, lest our guide should recover him, and run away with his
burden; but, just as he was lifting up his carbine, we gave such a shout,
and so pelted the horse with snow-balls, as with all his might plunging
through the snow, he fell from another steep place into another bottom,
near a path we were to pass. It was yet a good while ere we got to him,
but at last we recovered the place, and, easing him of his charge, hauled
him out of the snow, where he had been certainly frozen in, if we had not
prevented it, before night. It was as we judged almost two miles that he
had slid and fallen, yet without any other harm than the benumbing of his
limbs for the present, but, with lusty rubbing and chafing he began to
move, and, after a little walking, performed his journey well enough. All
this way, affrighted with the disaster of this horse, we trudged on foot,
driving our mules before us; sometimes we fell, sometimes we slid,
through this ocean of snow, which after October is impassible. Toward
night, we came into a larger way, through vast woods of pines, which
clothe the middle parts of these rocks. Here, they were burning some to
make pitch and rosin, peeling the knotty branches, as we do to make
charcoal, reserving what melts from them, which hardens into pitch. We
passed several cascades of dissolved snow, that had made channels of
formidable depth in the crevices of the mountains, and with such a
fearful roaring as we could hear it for seven long miles. It is from
these sources that the Rhone and the Rhine, which pass through all France
and Germany, derive their originals. Late at night, we got to a town
called Briga, at the foot of the Alps, in the Valteline. Almost every
door had nailed on the outside and next the street a bear's, wolf's, or
fox's head, and divers of them, all three; a savage kind of sight, but,
as the Alps are full of the beasts, the people often kill them. The next
morning, we returned to our guide, and took fresh mules, and another to
conduct us to the Lake of Geneva, passing through as pleasant a country
as that we had just traveled was melancholy and troublesome. A strange
and sudden change it seemed; for the reverberation of the sunbeams from
the mountains and rocks that like walls range it on both sides, not above
two flight-shots in breadth, for a very great number of miles, renders
the passage excessively hot. Through such extremes we continued our
journey, that goodly river, the Rhone, gliding by us in a narrow and
quiet channel almost in the middle of this Canton, fertilizing the
country for grass and corn, which grow here in abundance.

[Sidenote: SION]

We arrived this night at Sion, a pretty town and city, a bishop's seat,
and the head of Valesia. There is a castle, and the bishop who resides in
it, has both civil and ecclesiastical jurisdiction. Our host, as the
custom of these Cantons is, was one of the chiefest of the town, and had
been a Colonel in France: he treated us with extreme civility, and was so
displeased at the usage we received at Mount Sampion, that he would needs
give us a letter to the Governor of the country, who resided at St.
Maurice, which was in our way to Geneva, to revenge the affront. This was
a true old blade, and had been a very curious virtuoso, as we found by a
handsome collection of books, medals, pictures, shells, and other
antiquities. He showed two heads and horns of the true capricorn, which
animal he told us was frequently killed among the mountains; one branch
of them was as much as I could well lift, and near as high as my head,
not much unlike the greater sort of goat's, save that they bent forward,
by help whereof they climb up and hang on inaccessible rocks, from whence
the inhabitants now and then shoot them. They speak prodigious things of
their leaping from crag to crag, and of their sure footing,
notwithstanding their being cloven-footed, unapt (one would think) to
take hold and walk so steadily on those horrible ridges as they do. The
Colonel would have given me one of these beams, but the want of a
convenience to carry it along with me, caused me to refuse his courtesy.
He told me that in the castle there were some Roman and Christian
antiquities, and he had some inscriptions in his own garden. He invited
us to his country-house, where he said he had better pictures, and other
rarities; but, our time being short, I could not persuade my companions
to stay and visit the places he would have had us see, nor the offer he
made to show us the hunting of the bear, wolf, and other wild beasts. The
next morning, having presented his daughter, a pretty well-fashioned
young woman, with a small ruby ring, we parted somewhat late from our
generous host.

Passing through the same pleasant valley between the horrid mountains on
either hand, like a gallery many miles in length, we got to Martigni,
where also we were well entertained. The houses in this country are all
built of fir boards, planed within, low, and seldom above one story. The
people very clownish and rusticly clad, after a very odd fashion, for the
most part in blue cloth, very whole and warm, with little variety of
distinction between the gentleman and common sort, by a law of their
country being exceedingly frugal. Add to this their great honesty and
fidelity, though exacting enough for what they part with: I saw not one
beggar. We paid the value of twenty shillings English, for a day's hire
of one horse. Every man goes with a sword by his side, the whole country
well disciplined, and indeed impregnable, which made the Romans have such
ill success against them; one lusty Swiss at their narrow passages is
sufficient to repel a legion. It is a frequent thing here for a young
tradesman, or farmer, to leave his wife and children for twelve or
fifteen years, and seek his fortune in the wars in Spain, France, Italy,
or Germany, and then return again to work. I look upon this country to be
the safest spot of all Europe, neither envied nor envying; nor are any of
them rich, nor poor; they live in great simplicity and tranquillity;
and, though of the fourteen Cantons half be Roman Catholics, the rest
reformed, yet they mutually agree, and are confederate with Geneva, and
are its only security against its potent neighbors, as they themselves
are from being attacked by the greater potentates, by the mutual jealousy
of their neighbors, as either of them would be overbalanced, should the
Swiss, who are wholly mercenary and auxiliaries, be subjected to France
or Spain.

[Sidenote: BEVERETTA]

[Sidenote: GENEVA]

We were now arrived at St. Maurice, a large handsome town and residence
of the President, where justice is done. To him we presented our letter
from Sion, and made known the ill usage we had received for killing a
wretched goat, which so incensed him, that he swore if we would stay he
would not only help us to recover our money again, but most severely
punish the whole rabble; but our desire of revenge had by this time
subsided, and glad we were to be gotten so near France, which we reckoned
as good as home. He courteously invited us to dine with him; but we
excused ourselves, and, returning to our inn, while we were eating
something before we took horse, the Governor had caused two pages to
bring us a present of two great vessels of covered plate full of
excellent wine, in which we drank his health, and rewarded the youths;
they were two vast bowls supported by two Swiss, handsomely wrought after
the German manner. This civility and that of our host at Sion, perfectly
reconciled us to the highlanders; and so, proceeding on our journey we
passed this afternoon through the gate which divides the Valais from the
Duchy of Savoy, into which we were now entering, and so, through Montei,
we arrived that evening at Beveretta. Being extremely weary and
complaining of my head, and finding little accommodation in the house, I
caused one of our hostess's daughters to be removed out of her bed and
went immediately into it while it was yet warm, being so heavy with pain
and drowsiness that I would not stay to have the sheets changed; but I
shortly after paid dearly for my impatience, falling sick of the smallpox
as soon as I came to Geneva, for by the smell of frankincense and the
tale the good woman told me of her daughter having had an ague, I
afterward concluded she had been newly recovered of the smallpox.
Notwithstanding this, I went with my company, the next day, hiring a bark
to carry us over the lake; and indeed, sick as I was, the weather was so
serene and bright, the water so calm, and air so temperate, that never
had travelers a sweeter passage. Thus, we sailed the whole length of the
lake, about thirty miles, the countries bordering on it (Savoy and Berne)
affording one of the most delightful prospects in the world, the Alps
covered with snow, though at a great distance, yet showing their aspiring
tops. Through this lake, the river Rhodanus passes with that velocity as
not to mingle with its exceeding deep waters, which are very clear, and
breed the most celebrated trout for largeness and goodness of any in
Europe. I have ordinarily seen one of three feet in length sold in the
market for a small price, and such we had in the lodging where we abode,
which was at the White Cross. All this while, I held up tolerably; and
the next morning having a letter for Signor John Diodati, the famous
Italian minister and translator of the Holy Bible into that language, I
went to his house, and had a great deal of discourse with that learned
person. He told me he had been in England, driven by tempest into Deal,
while sailing for Holland, that he had seen London, and was exceedingly
taken with the civilities he received. He so much approved of our
Church-government by Bishops, that he told me the French Protestants
would make no scruple to submit to it and all its pomp, had they a king
of the Reformed religion as we had. He exceedingly deplored the
difference now between his Majesty and the Parliament. After dinner, came
one Monsieur Saladine, with his little pupil, the Earl of Caernarvon, to
visit us, offering to carry us to the principal places of the town; but,
being now no more able to hold up my head, I was constrained to keep my
chamber, imagining that my very eyes would have dropped out; and this
night I felt such a stinging about me, that I could not sleep. In the
morning, I was very ill, but sending for a doctor, he persuaded me to be
bled. He was a very learned old man, and, as he said, he had been
physician to Gustavus the Great, King of Sweden, when he passed this way
into Italy, under the name of Monsieur Gars, the initial letters of
Gustavus Adolphus Rex Sueciæ, and of our famous Duke of Buckingham, on
his returning out of Italy. He afterward acknowledged that he should not
have bled me, had he suspected the smallpox, which broke out a day after.
He afterward purged me, and applied leeches, and God knows what this
would have produced, if the spots had not appeared, for he was thinking
of bleeding me again. They now kept me warm in bed for sixteen days,
tended by a vigilant Swiss matron, whose monstrous throat, when I
sometimes awakened out of unquiet slumbers, would affright me. After the
pimples were come forth, which were not many, I had much ease as to pain,
but infinitely afflicted with heat and noisomeness. By God's mercy, after
five weeks' keeping my chamber, I went abroad. Monsieur Saladine and his
lady sent me many refreshments. Monsieur Le Chat, my physician, to excuse
his letting me bleed, told me it was so burnt and vicious as it would
have proved the plague, or spotted fever, had he proceeded by any other
method. On my recovering sufficiently to go abroad, I dined at Monsieur
Saladine's, and in the afternoon went across the water on the side of the
lake, and took a lodging that stood exceedingly pleasant, about half a
mile from the city for the better airing; but I stayed only one night,
having no company there, save my pipe; so, the next day, I caused them to
row me about the lake as far as the great stone, which they call
NEPTUNE'S ROCK, on which they say sacrifice was anciently offered to him.
Thence, I landed at certain cherry gardens and pretty villas by the side
of the lake, and exceedingly pleasant. Returning, I visited their
conservatories of fish; in which were trouts of six and seven feet long,
AS THEY AFFIRMED.

The Rhone, which parts the city in the midst dips into a cavern
underground, about six miles from it, and afterward rises again, and runs
its open course, like our Mole, or Swallow, by Dorking, in Surrey. The
next morning (being Thursday) I heard Dr. Diodati preach in Italian, many
of that country, especially of Lucca, his native place, being inhabitants
of Geneva, and of the Reformed religion.

The town lying between Germany, France, and Italy, those three tongues
are familiarly spoken by the inhabitants. It is a strong, well-fortified
city, part of it built on a rising ground. The houses are not despicable,
but the high pent-houses (for I can hardly call them cloisters, being
all of wood), through which the people pass dry and in the shade, winter
and summer, exceedingly deform the fronts of the buildings. Here are
abundance of booksellers; but their books are of ill impressions; these,
with watches (of which store are made here), crystal, and excellent
screwed guns, are the staple commodities. All provisions are good and
cheap.

The town-house is fairly built of stone; the portico has four black
marble columns; and, on a table of the same, under the city arms, a
demi-eagle and cross, between cross-keys, is a motto, "POST TENEBRAS
LUX," and this inscription:

    _Quum anno 1535 profligatâ Romanâ Anti-Christi Tyrannide,
    abrogatisq; ejus superstitionibus, sacro-sancta Christi Religio hìc
    in suam puritatem, Ecclesiâ in meliorem ordinem singulari Dei
    beneficio repositâ, et simul pulsis fugatisq; hostibus, urbs ipsa
    in suam libertatem, non sine insigni miraculo, restituta fuerit;
    Senatus Populusq; Genevensis Monumentum hoc perpetuæ memoriæ causâ
    fieri atque hoc loco erigi curavit, quod suam erga Deum
    gratitudinem ad posteros testatum fuerit._

The territories about the town are not so large as many ordinary
gentlemen have about their country farms, for which cause they are in
continual watch, especially on the Savoy side; but, in case of any siege
the Swiss are at hand, as this inscription in the same place shows,
toward the street:

                              D.O.M.S.

    _Anno a verâ Religione divinitûs cum veteri Libertate Genevæ
    restitutâ, et quasi novo Jubilæo ineunte, plurimis vitatis domi et
    forsi insidiis et superatis tempestatibus, et cum Helvetiorum
    Primari Tigurini æquo jure in societatem perpetuam nobiscum
    venerint, et veteres fidissimi socii Bernenses prius vinculum novo
    adstrinxerint, S.P.Q.G. quod felix esse velit D.O.M. tanti,
    beneficii monumentum consecrârunt, anno temporis ultimi_
    CC[~C~].I[~C~].XXXIV.

In the Senate-house, were fourteen ancient urns, dug up as they were
removing earth in the fortifications.

A little out of the town is a spacious field, which they call Campus
Martius; and well it may be so termed, with better reason, than that at
Rome at present (which is no more a field, but all built into streets),
for here on every Sunday, after the evening devotions, this precise
people permit their youth to exercise arms, and shoot in guns, and in the
long and cross bows, in which they are exceedingly expert, reputed to be
as dexterous as any people in the world. To encourage this, they yearly
elect him who has won most prizes at the mark, to be their king, as the
king of the long-bow, gun, or cross-bow. He then wears that weapon in his
hat in gold, with a crown over it made fast to the hat like a brooch. In
this field, is a long house wherein their arms and furniture are kept in
several places very neatly. To this joins a hall, where, at certain
times, they meet and feast; in the glass windows are the arms and names
of their kings [of arms]. At the side of the field, is a very noble
Pall-Mall, but it turns with an elbow. There is also a bowling-place, a
tavern, and a trey-table, and here they ride their menaged horses. It is
also the usual place of public execution of those who suffer for any
capital crime, though committed in another country, by which law divers
fugitives have been put to death, who have fled hither to escape
punishment in their own country. Among other severe punishments here,
adultery is death. Having seen this field, and played a game at mall, I
supped with Mr. Saladine.

On Sunday, I heard Dr. Diodati preach in French, and after the French
mode, in a gown with a cape, and his hat on. The Church Government is
severely Presbyterian, after the discipline of Calvin and Beza, who set
it up, but nothing so rigid as either our Scots or English sectaries of
that denomination. In the afternoon, Monsieur Morice, a most learned
young person and excellent poet, chief Professor of the University,
preached at St. Peter's, a spacious Gothic fabric. This was heretofore a
cathedral and a reverend pile. It has four turrets, on one of which
stands a continual sentinel; in another cannons are mounted. The church
is very decent within; nor have they at all defaced the painted windows,
which are full of pictures of saints; nor the stalls, which are all
carved with the history of our Blessed Savior.

In the afternoon, I went to see the young townsmen exercise in Mars'
Field, where the prizes were pewter-plates and dishes; 'tis said that
some have gained competent estates by what they have thus won. Here I
first saw huge ballistæ, or cross-bows, shot in, being such as they
formerly used in wars, before great guns were known; they were placed in
frames, and had great screws to bend them, doing execution at an
incredible distance. They were most accurate at the long-bow and musket,
rarely missing the smallest mark. I was as busy with the carbine I
brought from Brescia as any of them. After every shot, I found them go
into a long house, and cleanse their guns, before they charged again.

On Monday, I was invited to a little garden without the works, where were
many rare tulips, anemones, and other choice flowers. The Rhone, running
athwart the town out of the Lake, makes half the city a suburb, which, in
imitation of Paris, they call St. Germain's Fauxbourg, and it has a
church of the same name. On two wooden bridges that cross the river are
several water-mills, and shops of trades, especially smiths and cutlers;
between the bridges is an island, in the midst of which is a very ancient
tower, said to have been built by Julius Cæsar. At the end of the other
bridge is the mint, and a fair sun-dial.

Passing again by the town-house, I saw a large crocodile hanging in
chains; and against the wall of one of the chambers, seven judges were
painted without hands, except one in the middle, who has but one hand; I
know not the story. The Arsenal is at the end of this building, well
furnished and kept.

After dinner Mr. Morice led us to the college, a fair structure; in the
lower part are the schools, which consist of nine classes; and a hall
above, where the students assemble; also a good library. They showed us a
very ancient Bible, of about 300 years old, in the vulgar French, and a
MS. in the old Monkish character: here have the Professors their
lodgings. I also went to the Hospital, which is very commodious; but the
Bishop's Palace is now a prison.

This town is not much celebrated for beautiful women, for, even at this
distance from the Alps, the gentlewomen have somewhat full throats; but
our Captain Wray (afterward Sir William, eldest son of that Sir
Christopher, who had both been in arms against his Majesty for the
Parliament) fell so mightily in love with one of Monsieur Saladine's
daughters that, with much persuasion, he could not be prevailed on to
think on his journey into France, the season now coming on extremely hot.

My sickness and abode here cost me forty-five pistoles of gold to my
host, and five to my honest doctor, who for six weeks' attendance and the
apothecary thought it so generous a reward that, at my taking leave, he
presented me with his advice for the regimen of my health, written with
his own hand in Latin. This regimen I much observed, and I bless God
passed the journey without inconvenience from sickness, but it was an
extraordinarily hot unpleasant season and journey, by reason of the
craggy ways.

5th July, 1646. We took, or rather purchased, a boat, for it could not be
brought back against the stream of the Rhone. We were two days going to
Lyons, passing many admirable prospects of rocks and cliffs, and near the
town down a very steep declivity of water for a full mile. From Lyons, we
proceeded the next morning, taking horse to Roanne, and lay that night at
Feurs. At Roanne we indulged ourselves with the best that all France
affords, for here the provisions are choice and plentiful, so as the
supper we had might have satisfied a prince. We lay in damask beds, and
were treated like emperors. The town is one of the neatest built in all
France, on the brink of the Loire; and here we agreed with an old fisher
to row us as far as Orleans. The first night we came as far as Nevers,
early enough to see the town, the Cathedral (St. Cyre), the Jesuits'
College, and the Castle, a palace of the Duke's, with the bridge to it
nobly built.

The next day we passed by La Charité, a pretty town, somewhat distant
from the river. Here I lost my faithful spaniel Piccioli, who had
followed me from Rome. It seems he had been taken up by some of the
Governor's pages, or footmen, without recovery; which was a great
displeasure to me, because the cur had many useful qualities.

[Sidenote: ORLEANS]

The next day we arrived at Orleans, taking our turns to row, of which I
reckon my share came to little less than twenty leagues. Sometimes, we
footed it through pleasant fields and meadows; sometimes, we shot at
fowls, and other birds; nothing came amiss: sometimes, we played at
cards, while others sung, or were composing verses; for we had the great
poet, Mr. Waller, in our company, and some other ingenious persons.

At Orleans we abode but one day; the next, leaving our mad Captain behind
us, I arrived at Paris, rejoiced that, after so many disasters and
accidents in a tedious peregrination, I was gotten so near home, and
here I resolved to rest myself before I went further.

It was now October, and the only time that in my whole life that I spent
most idly, tempted from my more profitable recesses; but I soon recovered
my better resolutions and fell to my study, learning the High Dutch and
Spanish tongues, and now and then refreshing my dancing, and such
exercises as I had long omitted, and which are not in much reputation
among the sober Italians.

28th January, 1647. I changed my lodging in the Place de Monsieur de
Metz, near the Abbey of St. Germains; and thence, on the 12th of
February, to another in Rue Columbier, where I had a very fair apartment,
which cost me four pistoles per month. The 18th, I frequented a course of
Chemistry, the famous Monsieur Le Febure operating upon most of the
nobler processes. March 3d, Monsieur Mercure began to teach me on the
lute, though to small perfection.

In May, I fell sick, and had very weak eyes; for which I was four times
let bleed.

22d May, 1647. My valet (Herbert) robbed me of clothes and plate, to the
value of three score pounds; but, through the diligence of Sir Richard
Browne, his Majesty's Resident at the Court of France, and with whose
lady and family I had contracted a great friendship (and particularly set
my affections on a daughter), I recovered most of them, obtaining of the
Judge, with no small difficulty, that the process against the thief
should not concern his life, being his first offense.

10th June, 1647. We concluded about my marriage, in order to which I went
to St. Germains, where his Majesty, then Prince of Wales, had his court,
to desire of Dr. Earle, then one of his chaplains (since Dean of
Westminster, Clerk of the Closet, and Bishop of Salisbury), that he would
accompany me to Paris, which he did; and, on Thursday, 27th of June,
1647, he married us in Sir Richard Browne's chapel, between the hours of
eleven and twelve, some few select friends being present. And this being
Corpus Christi feast, was solemnly observed in this country; the streets
were sumptuously hung with tapestry, and strewed with flowers.

10th September, 1647. Being called into England, to settle my affairs
after an absence of four years, I took leave of the Prince and Queen,
leaving my wife, yet very young, under the care of an excellent lady and
prudent mother.

4th October, 1647. I sealed and declared my will, and that morning went
from Paris, taking my journey through Rouen, Dieppe, Ville-dieu, and St.
Vallerie, where I stayed one day with Mr. Waller, with whom I had some
affairs, and for which cause I took this circle to Calais, where I
arrived on the 11th, and that night embarking in a packet boat, was by
one o'clock got safe to Dover; for which I heartily put up my thanks to
God who had conducted me safe to my own country, and been merciful to me
through so many aberrations. Hence, taking post, I arrived at London the
next day at evening, being the 2d of October, new style.

[Sidenote: WOTTON]

5th October, 1647. I came to Wotton, the place of my birth, to my
brother, and on the 10th to Hampton Court where I had the honor to kiss
his Majesty's hand, and give him an account of several things I had in
charge, he being now in the power of those execrable villains who not
long after murdered him. I lay at my cousin, Sergeant Hatton's at Thames
Ditton, whence, on the 13th, I went to London.

14th October, 1647. To Sayes Court, at Deptford, in Kent (since my
house), where I found Mr. Pretyman, my wife's uncle, who had charge of it
and the estate about it, during my father-in-law's residence in France.
On the 15th, I again occupied my own chambers in the Middle Temple.

9th November, 1647. My sister opened to me her marriage with Mr.
Glanville.

14th January, 1647-48. From London I went to Wotton to see my young
nephew; and thence to Baynards [in Ewhurst], to visit my brother Richard.

5th February, 1648. Saw a tragi-comedy acted in the cockpit, after there
had been none of these diversions for many years during the war.

28th February, 1648. I went with my noble friend, Sir William Ducy
(afterward Lord Downe), to Thistleworth, where we dined with Sir Clepesby
Crew, and afterward to see the rare miniatures of Peter Oliver, and
rounds of plaster, and then the curious flowers of Mr. Barill's garden,
who has some good medals and pictures. Sir Clepesby has fine Indian
hangings, and a very good chimney-piece of water colors, by Breughel,
which I bought for him.

26th April, 1648. There was a great uproar in London, that the rebel army
quartering at Whitehall, would plunder the City, on which there was
published a Proclamation for all to stand on their guard.

4th May, 1648. Came up the Essex petitioners for an agreement between his
Majesty and the rebels. The 16th, the Surrey men addressed the Parliament
for the same; of which some of them were slain and murdered by Cromwell's
guards, in the new palace yard. I now sold the impropriation of South
Malling, near Lewes, in Sussex, to Messrs. Kemp and Alcock, for £3,000.

30th May, 1648. There was a rising now in Kent, my Lord of Norwich being
at the head of them. Their first rendezvous was in Broome-field, next my
house at Sayes Court, whence they went to Maidstone, and so to
Colchester, where was that memorable siege.

27th June, 1648. I purchased the manor of Hurcott, in Worcestershire, of
my brother George, for £3,300.

1st July, 1648. I sate for my picture, in which there is a Death's head,
to Mr. Walker, that excellent painter.

10th July, 1648. News was brought me of my Lord Francis Villiers being
slain by the rebels near Kingston.

16th August, 1648. I went to Woodcote (in Epsom) to the wedding of my
brother, Richard, who married the daughter and coheir of Esquire Minn,
lately deceased; by which he had a great estate both in land and money on
the death of a brother. The coach in which the bride and bridegroom were,
was overturned in coming home; but no harm was done.

28th August, 1648. To London from Sayes Court, and saw the celebrated
follies of Bartholomew Fair.

16th September, 1648. Came my lately married brother, Richard, and his
wife, to visit me, when I showed them Greenwich, and her Majesty's
Palace, now possessed by the rebels.

28th September, 1648. I went to Albury, to visit the Countess of Arundel,
and returned to Wotton.

31st October, 1648. I went to see my manor of Preston Beckhelvyn, and the
Cliffhouse.

29th November, 1648. Myself, with Mr. Thomas Offley, and Lady Gerrard,
christened my niece Mary, eldest daughter of my brother, George Evelyn,
by my Lady Cotton, his second wife. I presented my niece a piece of plate
which cost me £18, and caused this inscription to be set on it--

                            IN MEMORIAM FACTI.

    ANNO CIC IX. XLIIX. CAL. DECEM. VIII. VIRGINUM CASTISS: XTIANORUM
    INNOCENTIS: NEPT: SUAVIS: MARIÆ. JOHAN. EVELYNUS AVUNCULUS ET
    SUSCEPTOR VASCULUM HOC CUM EPIGRAPHE L. M. Q. D.
             AVE MARIA GRATIÂ SIS PLENA; DOMINUS TECUM.

2d December, 1648. This day I sold my manor of Hurcott for £3,400 to one
Mr. Bridges.

13th December, 1648. The Parliament now sat up the whole night, and
endeavored to have concluded the Isle of Wight Treaty; but were surprised
by the rebel army; the members dispersed, and great confusion every where
in expectation of what would be next.

17th December, 1648. I heard an Italian sermon, in Mercers' Chapel, one
Dr. Middleton, an acquaintance of mine, preaching.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

18th December, 1648. I got privately into the council of the rebel army,
at Whitehall, where I heard horrid villanies.

This was a most exceedingly wet year, neither frost nor snow all the
winter for more than six days in all. Cattle died every where of a
murrain.

1st January, 1648-49. I had a lodging and some books at my
father-in-law's house, Sayes Court.

2d January, 1649. I went to see my old friend and fellow-traveler, Mr.
Henshaw, who had two rare pieces of Stenwyck's perspective.

17th January, 1649. To London. I heard the rebel, Peters, incite the
rebel powers met in the Painted Chamber, to destroy his Majesty; and saw
that archtraitor, Bradshaw, who not long after condemned him.

19th January, 1649. I returned home, passing an extraordinary danger of
being drowned by our wherries falling foul in the night on another vessel
then at anchor, shooting the bridge at three quarters' ebb, for which His
mercy God Almighty be praised.

21st January, 1649. Was published my translation of Liberty and
Servitude, for the preface of which I was severely threatened.

22d January, 1649. I went through a course of chemistry, at Sayes Court.
Now was the Thames frozen over, and horrid tempests of wind.

The villany of the rebels proceeding now so far as to try, condemn, and
murder our excellent King on the 30th of this month, struck me with such
horror, that I kept the day of his martyrdom a fast, and would not be
present at that execrable wickedness; receiving the sad account of it
from my brother George, and Mr. Owen, who came to visit me this
afternoon, and recounted all the circumstances.

1st February, 1649. Now were Duke Hamilton, the Earl of Norwich, Lord
Capell, etc., at their trial before the rebels' NEW COURT OF INJUSTICE.

15th February, 1649. I went to see the collection of one Trean, a rich
merchant, who had some good pictures, especially a rare perspective of
Stenwyck; from thence, to other virtuosos.

The painter, La Neve has an Andromeda, but I think it a copy after
Vandyke from Titian, for the original is in France. Webb, at the
Exchange, has some rare things in miniature, of Breughel's, also Putti,
in twelve squares, that were plundered from Sir James Palmer.

At Du Bois, we saw two tables of Putti, that were gotten, I know not how,
out of the Castle of St. Angelo, by old Petit, thought to be Titian's; he
had some good heads of Palma, and one of Stenwyck. Bellcar showed us an
excellent copy of his Majesty's Sleeping Venus and the Satyr, with other
figures; for now they had plundered, sold, and dispersed a world of rare
paintings of the King's, and his loyal subjects. After all, Sir William
Ducy showed me some excellent things in miniature, and in oil of
Holbein's; Sir Thomas More's head, and a whole-length figure of Edward
VI., which were certainly his Majesty's; also a picture of Queen
Elizabeth; the Lady Isabella Thynne; a rare painting of Rothenhamer,
being a Susanna; and a Magdalen, of Quintin, the blacksmith; also a Henry
VIII., of Holbein; and Francis I., rare indeed, but of whose hand I know
not.

16th February, 1649. Paris being now strictly besieged by the Prince de
Condé, my wife being shut up with her father and mother, I wrote a letter
of consolation to her: and, on the 22d, having recommended Obadiah
Walker, a learned and most ingenious person, to be tutor to, and travel
with, Mr. Hillyard's two sons, returned to Sayes Court.

25th February, 1649. Came to visit me Dr. Joyliffe, discoverer of the
lymphatic vessels, and an excellent anatomist.

26th February, 1649. Came to see me Captain George Evelyn, my kinsman,
the great traveler, and one who believed himself a better architect than
really he was; witness the portico in the Garden at Wotton; yet the great
room at Albury is somewhat better understood. He had a large mind, but
over-built everything.

27th February, 1649. Came out of France my wife's uncle (Paris still
besieged), being robbed at sea by the Dunkirk pirates: I lost, among
other goods, my wife's picture, painted by Monsieur Bourdon.

5th March, 1649. Now were the Lords murdered in the Palace Yard.

18th March, 1649. Mr. Owen, a sequestered and learned minister, preached
in my parlor, and gave us the blessed Sacrament, now wholly out of use in
the parish churches, on which the Presbyterians and fanatics had usurped.

21st March, 1649. I received letters from Paris from my wife, and from
Sir Richard [Browne], with whom I kept up a political correspondence,
with no small danger of being discovered.

25th March, 1649. I heard the Common Prayer (a rare thing in these days)
in St. Peter's, at Paul's Wharf, London; and, in the morning, the
Archbishop of Armagh, that pious person and learned man, Usher, in
Lincoln's-Inn Chapel.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

2d April, 1649. To London, and inventoried my movables that had hitherto
been dispersed for fear of plundering: wrote into France, touching my
sudden resolutions of coming over to them. On the 8th, again heard an
excellent discourse from Archbishop Usher, on Ephes. 4, v. 26-27.

My Italian collection being now arrived, came Moulins, the great
chirurgeon, to see and admire the Tables of Veins and Arteries, which I
purchased and caused to be drawn out of several human bodies at Padua.

11th April, 1649. Received news out of France that peace was concluded;
dined with Sir Joseph Evelyn, at Westminster; and on the 13th I saw a
private dissection at Moulins's house.

17th April, 1649. I fell dangerously ill of my head; was blistered and
let bleed behind the ears and forehead: on the 23d, began to have ease by
using the fumes of camomile on embers applied to my ears, after all the
physicians had done their best.

29th April, 1649. I saw in London a huge ox bred in Kent, 17 feet in
length, and much higher than I could reach.

12th May, 1649. I purchased the manor of Warley Magna, in Essex: in the
afternoon went to see Gildron's collections of paintings, where I found
Mr. Endymion Porter, of his late Majesty's bedchamber.

17th May, 1649. Went to Putney by water, in the barge with divers ladies,
to see the schools, or colleges, of the young gentlewomen.

19th May, 1649. To see a rare cabinet of one Delabarr, who had some good
paintings, especially a monk at his beads.

30th May, 1649. Unkingship was proclaimed, and his Majesty's statues
thrown down at St. Paul's Portico, and the Exchange.

7th June, 1649. I visited Sir Arthur Hopton[38] (brother to Sir Ralph,
Lord Hopton, that noble hero), who having been Ambassador extraordinary
in Spain, sojourned some time with my father-in-law at Paris, a most
excellent person. Also Signora Lucretia, a Greek lady, whom I knew in
Italy, now come over with her husband, an English gentleman. Also, the
Earl and Countess of Arundel, taking leave of them and other friends now
ready to depart for France. This night was a scuffle between some rebel
soldiers and gentlemen about the Temple.

    [Footnote 38: Sir Arthur Hopton was uncle, not brother, to Lord
    Hopton (so well known for his services to Charles in the course of
    the Civil War).]

June 10th, 1649. Preached the Archbishop of Armagh in Lincoln's-Inn, from
Romans 5, verse 13. I received the blessed Sacrament, preparatory to my
journey.

13th June, 1649. I dined with my worthy friend, Sir John Owen, newly
freed from sentence of death among the lords that suffered. With him was
one Carew, who played incomparably on the Welsh harp; afterward I treated
divers ladies of my relations, in Spring Garden.

This night was buried with great pomp, Dorislaus, slain at the Hague, the
villain who managed the trial against his sacred Majesty.

17th June, 1649. I got a pass from the rebel Bradshaw, then in great
power.

20th June, 1649. I went to Putney, and other places on the Thames, to
take prospects in crayon, to carry into France, where I thought to have
them engraved.

2d July, 1649. I went from Wotton to Godstone (the residence of Sir John
Evelyn), where was also Sir John Evelyn of Wilts., when I took leave of
both Sir Johns and their ladies. Mem. the prodigious memory of Sir John
of Wilts' daughter, since married to Mr. W. Pierrepont, and mother of the
present Earl of Kingston. I returned to Sayes Court this night.

4th July, 1649. Visited Lady Hatton, her lord sojourning at Paris with my
father-in-law.

9th July, 1649. Dined with Sir Walter Pye, and my good friend, Mr. Eaton,
afterward a judge, who corresponded with me in France.

11th July, 1649. Came to see me old Alexander Rosse, the divine historian
and poet; Mr. Henshaw, Mr. Scudamore, and other friends to take leave of
me.

[Sidenote: GRAVESEND]

12th July, 1649. It was about three in the afternoon, I took oars for
Gravesend, accompanied by my cousin, Stephens, and sister, Glanville, who
there supped with me and returned; whence I took post immediately to
Dover, where I arrived by nine in the morning; and, about eleven that
night, went on board a barque guarded by a pinnace of eight guns; this
being the first time the Packet-boat had obtained a convoy, having
several times before been pillaged. We had a good passage, though chased
for some hours by a pirate, but he dared not attack our frigate, and we
then chased him till he got under the protection of the castle at Calais.
It was a small privateer belonging to the Prince of Wales. I carried over
with me my servant, Richard Hoare, an incomparable writer of several
hands, whom I afterward preferred in the Prerogative Office, at the
return of his Majesty. Lady Catherine Scott, daughter of the Earl of
Norwich, followed us in a shallop, with Mr. Arthur Slingsby, who left
England _incognito_. At the entrance of the town, the Lieutenant
Governor, being on his horse with the guards, let us pass courteously. I
visited Sir Richard Lloyd, an English gentleman, and walked in the
church, where the ornament about the high altar of black marble is very
fine, and there is a good picture of the Assumption. The citadel seems to
be impregnable, and the whole country about it to be laid under water by
sluices for many miles.

16th July, 1649. We departed from Paris, in company with that very
pleasant lady, Lady Catherine Scott, and others. In all this journey we
were greatly apprehensive of parties, which caused us to alight often out
of our coach and walk separately on foot, with our guns on our shoulders,
in all suspected places.

[Sidenote: PARIS]

1st August, 1649. At three in the afternoon we came to St. Denis, saw the
rarities of the church and treasury; and so to Paris that evening.

The next day, came to welcome me at dinner the Lord High Treasurer
Cottington, Sir Edward Hyde, Chancellor, Sir Edward Nicholas, Secretary
of State, Sir George Carteret, Governor of Jersey, and Dr. Earle, having
now been absent from my wife above a year and a half.

18th August, 1649. I went to St. Germains, to kiss his Majesty's hand; in
the coach, which was my Lord Wilmot's, went Mrs. Barlow, the King's
mistress[39] and mother to the Duke of Monmouth, a brown, beautiful,
bold, but insipid creature.

    [Footnote 39: The lady here referred to was Lucy, daughter of
    Richard Walters, Esq., of Haverfordwest. She had two children by the
    King; James, subsequently so celebrated as the Duke of Monmouth, and
    Mary, whose lot was obscure in comparison with that of her brother,
    but of course infinitely happier. She married a Mr. William
    Sarsfield, of Ireland, and after his death, William Fanshawe, Esq.]

19th August, 1649. I went to salute the French King and the Queen
Dowager; and, on the 21st, returned in one of the Queen's coaches with my
Lord Germain, Duke of Buckingham, Lord Wentworth, and Mr. Croftes, since
Lord Croftes.

7th September, 1649. Went with my wife and dear Cousin to St. Germains,
and kissed the Queen-Mother's hand; dined with my Lord Keeper and Lord
Hatton. Divers of the great men of France came to see the King. The next
day, came the Prince of Condé. Returning to Paris, we went to see the
President Maison's palace, built castle-wise, of a milk-white fine
freestone; the house not vast, but well contrived, especially the
staircase, and the ornaments of Putti, about it. It is environed in a dry
moat, the offices under ground, the gardens very excellent with
extraordinary long walks, set with elms, and a noble prospect toward the
forest, and on the Seine toward Paris. Take it altogether, the meadows,
walks, river, forest, corn-ground, and vineyards, I hardly saw anything
in Italy to exceed it. The iron gates are very magnificent. He has pulled
down a whole village to make room for his pleasure about it.

12th September, 1649. Dr. Crighton, a Scotchman, and one of his Majesty's
chaplains, a learned Grecian who set out the Council of Florence,
preached.

13th September, 1649. The King invited the Prince of Condé to supper at
St. Cloud; there I kissed the Duke of York's hand in the tennis court,
where I saw a famous match between Monsieur Saumeurs and Colonel Cooke,
and so returned to Paris. It was noised about that I was knighted, a
dignity I often declined.

1st October, 1649. Went with my cousin Tuke (afterward Sir Samuel), to
see the fountains of St. Cloud and Ruel; and, after dinner, to talk with
the poor ignorant and superstitious anchorite at Mount Calvary, and so to
Paris.

2d October, 1649. Came Mr. William Coventry (afterward Sir William) and
the Duke's secretary, etc., to visit me.

5th October, 1649. Dined with Sir George Ratcliffe, the great favorite of
the late Earl of Stratford, formerly Lord Deputy of Ireland, decapitated.

7th October, 1649. To the Louvre, to visit the Countess of Moreton,
governess to Madame.

15th October, 1649. Came news of Drogheda being taken by the rebels, and
all put to the sword, which made us very sad, forerunning the loss of all
Ireland.

21st October, 1649. I went to hear Dr. d'Avinson's lecture in the
physical garden, and see his laboratory, he being Prefect of that
excellent garden, and Professor Botanicus.

30th October, 1649. I was at the funeral of one Mr. Downes, a sober
English gentleman. We accompanied his corpse to Charenton, where he was
interred in a cabbage-garden, yet with the office of our church, which
was said before in our chapel at Paris. Here I saw also where they buried
the great soldier, Gassion, who had a tomb built over him like a
fountain, the design and materials mean enough. I returned to Paris with
Sir Philip Musgrave, and Sir Marmaduke Langdale, since Lord
Langdale.--Memorandum. This was a very sickly and mortal autumn.

5th November, 1649. I received divers letters out of England, requiring
me to come over about settling some of my concerns.

7th November, 1649. Dr. George Morley (since Bishop of Winchester)
preached in our chapel on Matthew 4, verse 3.

18th November, 1649. I went with my father-in-law to see his audience at
the French Court, where next the Pope's Nuncio, he was introduced by the
master of ceremonies, and, after delivery of his credentials, as from our
King, since his father's murder, he was most graciously received by the
King of France and his mother, with whom he had a long audience. This was
in the Palais Cardinal.

After this, being presented to his Majesty and the Queen Regent I went to
see the house built by the late great Cardinal de Richelieu. The most
observable thing is the gallery, painted with the portraits of the most
illustrious persons and single actions in France, with innumerable
emblems between every table. In the middle of the gallery, is a neat
chapel, rarely paved in work and devices of several sorts of marble,
besides the altar-piece and two statues of white marble, one of St. John,
the other of the Virgin Mary, by Bernini. The rest of the apartments are
rarely gilded and carved, with some good modern paintings. In the
presence hang three huge branches of crystal. In the French King's
bedchamber, is an alcove like another chamber, set as it were in a
chamber like a movable box, with a rich embroidered bed. The fabric of
the palace is not magnificent, being but of two stories; but the garden
is so spacious as to contain a noble basin and fountain continually
playing, and there is a mall, with an elbow, or turning, to protract it.
So I left his Majesty on the terrace, busy in seeing a bull-baiting, and
returned home in Prince Edward's coach with Mr. Paul, the Prince
Elector's agent.

19th November, 1649. Visited Mr. Waller, where meeting Dr. Holden, an
English Sorbonne divine, we fell into some discourse about religion.

28th December, 1649. Going to wait on Mr. Waller, I viewed St. Stephen's
church; the building, though Gothic, is full of carving; within it is
beautiful, especially the choir and winding stairs. The glass is well
painted, and the tapestry hung up this day about the choir, representing
the conversion of Constantine, was exceedingly rich.

I went to that excellent engraver, Du Bosse, for his instruction about
some difficulties in perspective which were delivered in his book.

I concluded this year in health, for which I gave solemn thanks to
Almighty God.[40]

    [Footnote 40: This he does not fail to repeat at the end of every
    year, but it will not always be necessary here to insert it.]

29th December, 1649. I christened Sir Hugh Rilie's child with Sir George
Radcliffe in our chapel, the parents being so poor that they had provided
no gossips, so as several of us drawing lots it fell on me, the Dean of
Peterborough (Dr. Cousin) officiating: we named it Andrew, being on the
eve of that Apostle's day.

1st January, 1649-50. I began this Jubilee with the public office in our
chapel: dined at my Lady Herbert's, wife of Sir Edward Herbert, afterward
Lord Keeper.

18th January, 1650. This night was the Prince of Condé and his brother
carried prisoners to the Bois de Vincennes.

6th February, 1650. In the evening, came Signor Alessandro, one of the
Cardinal Mazarine's musicians, and a person of great name for his
knowledge in that art, to visit my wife, and sung before divers persons
of quality in my chamber.

1st March, 1650. I went to see the masquerados, which was very fantastic;
but nothing so quiet and solemn as I found it at Venice.

13th March, 1650. Saw a triumph in Monsieur del Camp's Academy, where
divers of the French and English noblesse, especially my Lord of Ossory,
and Richard, sons to the Marquis of Ormond (afterward Duke), did their
exercises on horseback in noble equipage, before a world of spectators
and great persons, men and ladies. It ended in a collation.

25th April, 1650. I went out of town to see Madrid, a palace so called,
built by Francis I. It is observable only for its open manner of
architecture, being much of terraces and galleries one over another to
the very roof; and for the materials, which are mostly of earth painted
like porcelain, or China-ware, whose colors appear very fresh, but is
very fragile. There are whole statues and relievos of this pottery,
chimney-pieces, and columns both within and without. Under the chapel is
a chimney in the midst of a room parted from the _Salle des Gardes_. The
house is fortified with a deep ditch, and has an admirable vista toward
the Bois de Boulogne and river.

30th April, 1650. I went to see the collection of the famous sculptor,
Steffano de la Bella, returning now into Italy, and bought some prints;
and likewise visited Perelle, the landscape graver.

3d May, 1650. At the hospital of La Charité I saw the operation of
cutting for the stone. A child of eight or nine years old underwent the
operation with most extraordinary patience, and expressing great joy when
he saw the stone was drawn. The use I made of it was, to give Almighty
God hearty thanks that I had not been subject to this deplorable
infirmity.

7th May, 1650. I went with Sir Richard Browne's lady and my wife,
together with the Earl of Chesterfield, Lord Ossory and his brother, to
Vamber, a place near the city famous for butter; when, coming homeward,
being on foot, a quarrel arose between Lord Ossory and a man in a garden,
who thrust Lord Ossory from the gate with uncivil language; on which our
young gallants struck the fellow on the pate, and bade him ask pardon,
which he did with much submission, and so we parted. But we were not gone
far before we heard a noise behind us, and saw people coming with guns,
swords, staves, and forks, and who followed, flinging stones; on which,
we turned, and were forced to engage, and with our swords, stones, and
the help of our servants (one of whom had a pistol) made our retreat for
near a quarter of a mile, when we took shelter in a house, where we were
besieged, and at length forced to submit to be prisoners. Lord Hatton,
with some others, were taken prisoners in the flight, and his lordship
was confined under three locks and as many doors in this rude fellow's
master's house, who pretended to be steward to Monsieur St. Germain, one
of the presidents of the Grand Chambre du Parlement, and a Canon of Nôtre
Dame. Several of us were much hurt. One of our lackeys escaping to Paris,
caused the bailiff of St. Germain to come with his guard and rescue us.
Immediately afterward, came Monsieur St. Germain himself, in great wrath,
on hearing that his housekeeper was assaulted; but when he saw the King's
officers, the gentlemen and noblemen, with his Majesty's Resident and
understood the occasion, he was ashamed of the accident, requesting the
fellow's pardon, and desiring the ladies to accept their submission and a
supper at his house. It was ten o'clock at night ere we got to Paris,
guarded by Prince Griffith (a Welsh hero going under that name, and well
known in England for his extravagancies), together with the scholars of
two academies, who came forth to assist and meet us on horseback, and
would fain have alarmed the town we received the affront from: which,
with much ado, we prevented.

12th May, 1650. Complaint being come to the Queen and Court of France of
the affront we had received, the President was ordered to ask pardon of
Sir R. Browne, his Majesty's Resident, and the fellow to make submission,
and be dismissed. There came along with him the President de Thou, son of
the great Thuanus [the historian], and so all was composed. But I have
often heard that gallant gentleman, my Lord Ossory, affirm solemnly that
in all the conflicts he was ever in at sea or on land (in the most
desperate of both which he had often been), he believed he was never in
so much danger as when these people rose against us. He used to call it
the _bataile de Vambre_, and remember it with a great deal of mirth as an
adventure, _en cavalier_.

24th May, 1650. We were invited by the Noble Academies to a running at
the ring where were many brave horses, gallants, and ladies, my Lord
Stanhope entertaining us with a collation.

12th June, 1650. Being Trinity Sunday, the Dean of Peterborough preached;
after which there was an ordination of two divines, Durell and Brevent
(the one was afterward Dean of Windsor, the other of Durham, both very
learned persons). The Bishop of Galloway officiated with great gravity,
after a pious and learned exhortation declaring the weight and dignity of
their function, especially now in a time of the poor Church of England's
affliction. He magnified the sublimity of the calling, from the object,
viz, the salvation of men's souls, and the glory of God; producing many
human instances of the transitoriness and vanity of all other dignity;
that of all the triumphs the Roman conquerors made, none was comparable
to that of our Blessed Savior's, when he led captivity captive, and gave
gifts to men, namely, that of the Holy Spirit, by which his faithful and
painful ministers triumphed over Satan as often as they reduced a sinner
from the error of his ways. He then proceeded to the ordination. They
were presented by the Dean in their surplices before the altar, the
Bishop sitting in a chair at one side; and so were made both Deacons and
Priests at the same time, in regard to the necessity of the times, there
being so few Bishops left in England, and consequently danger of a
failure of both functions. Lastly, they proceeded to the Communion. This
was all performed in Sir Richard Browne's chapel, at Paris.

13th June, 1650. I sate to the famous sculptor, Nanteuil, who was
afterward made a knight by the French King for his art. He engraved my
picture in copper. At a future time he presented me with my own picture,
done all with his pen; an extraordinary curiosity.

21st June, 1650. I went to see the Samaritan, or pump, at the end of the
Pont Neuf, which, though to appearance promising no great matter, is,
besides the machine, furnished with innumerable rarities both of art and
nature; especially the costly grotto, where are the fairest corals,
growing out of the very rock, that I have seen; also great pieces of
crystals, amethysts, gold in the mine, and other metals and marcasites,
with two great conchas, which the owner told us cost him 200 crowns at
Amsterdam. He showed us many landscapes and prospects, very rarely
painted in miniature, some with the pen and crayon; divers antiquities
and relievos of Rome; above all, that of the inside of the amphitheater
of Titus, incomparably drawn by Monsieur St. Clere himself; two boys and
three skeletons, molded by Fiamingo; a book of statues, with the pen
made for Henry IV., rarely executed, and by which one may discover many
errors in the _taille-douce_ of Perrier, who has added divers conceits of
his own that are not in the originals. He has likewise an infinite
collection of _taille-douces_, richly bound in morocco.

He led us into a stately chamber furnished to have entertained a prince,
with pictures of the greatest masters, especially a Venus of Perino del
Vaga; the Putti carved in the chimney-piece by the Fleming; the vases of
porcelain, and many designed by Raphael; some paintings of Poussin, and
Fioravanti; antiques in brass; the looking-glass and stands rarely
carved. In a word, all was great, choice, and magnificent, and not to be
passed by as I had often done, without the least suspicion that there
were such rare things to be seen in that place. At a future visit, he
showed a new grotto and a bathing place, hewn through the battlements of
the arches of Pont Neuf into a wide vault at the intercolumniation, so
that the coaches and horses thundered over our heads.

[Sidenote: CALAIS]

27th June, 1650. I made my will, and, taking leave of my wife and other
friends, took horse for England, paying the messenger eight pistoles for
me and my servant to Calais, setting out with seventeen in company
well-armed, some Portuguese, Swiss, and French, whereof six were captains
and officers. We came the first night to Beaumont; next day, to Beauvais,
and lay at Pois, and the next, without dining, reached Abbeville; next,
dined at Montreuil, and proceeding met a company on foot (being now
within the inroads of the parties which dangerously infest this day's
journey from St. Omers and the frontiers), which we drew very near to,
ready and resolute to charge through, and accordingly were ordered and
led by a captain of our train; but, as we were on the speed, they called
out, and proved to be Scotchmen, newly raised and landed, and few among
them armed. This night, we were well treated at Boulogne. The next day,
we marched in good order, the passage being now exceeding dangerous, and
got to Calais by a little after two. The sun so scorched my face, that it
made the skin peel off.

I dined with Mr. Booth, his Majesty's agent; and, about three in the
afternoon, embarked in the packet-boat; hearing there was a pirate then
also setting sail, we had security from molestation, and so with a fair
S. W. wind in seven hours we landed at Dover. The busy watchman would
have us to the mayor to be searched, but the gentleman being in bed, we
were dismissed.

Next day, being Sunday, they would not permit us to ride post, so that
afternoon our trunks were visited.

The next morning, by four, we set out for Canterbury, where I met with my
Lady Catherine Scott, whom that very day twelve months before I met at
sea going for France; she had been visiting Sir Thomas Peyton, not far
off, and would needs carry me in her coach to Gravesend. We dined at
Sittingbourne, came late to Gravesend, and so to Deptford, taking leave
of my lady about four the next morning.

5th July, 1650. I supped in the city with my Lady Catherine Scott, at one
Mr. Dubois, where was a gentlewoman called Everard, who was a very great
chemist.

Sunday 7th July, 1650. In the afternoon, having a mind to see what was
doing among the Rebels, then in full possession at Whitehall, I went
thither, and found one at exercise in the chapel, after their way;
thence, to St. James's, where another was preaching in the court abroad.

17th July, 1650. I went to London to obtain a pass,[41] intending but a
short stay in England.

    [Footnote 41: A copy of it is subjoined. "These are to will and
    require you to permit and suffer the bearer thereof, John Evelyn,
    Esq., to transport himself, two servants, and other necessaries,
    into any port of France without any your lets or molestations, of
    which you are not to fail, and for which this shall be your
    sufficient warrant. Given at the Council of State at Whitehall this
    25th of June, 1650.

      "Signed in the Name and by Order of the Council of State,
       appointed by authority of Parliament,
       JO. BRADSHAWE, President.

    "To all Customers, Comptrollers and Searchers, and all other
    officers of the Ports, or Customs."

    Subjoined to the signature, Evelyn has added in his own writing;
    "The hand of that villain who sentenced our Charles I. of B[lessed]
    M[emory."] Its endorsement, also in his writing, is, "The Pass from
    the Council of State, 1650."]

25th July, 1650. I went by Epsom to Wotton, saluting Sir Robert Cook and
my sister Glanville; the country was now much molested by soldiers, who
took away gentlemen's horses for the service of the state, as then
called.

4th August, 1650. I heard a sermon at the Rolls; and, in the afternoon,
wandered to divers churches, the pulpits full of novices and novelties.

6th August, 1650. To Mr. Walker's, a good painter, who showed me an
excellent copy of Titian.

12th August, 1650. Set out for Paris, taking post at Gravesend, and so
that night to Canterbury, where being surprised by the soldiers, and
having only an antiquated pass, with some fortunate dexterity I got clear
of them though not without extraordinary hazard, having before
counterfeited one with success, it being so difficult to procure one of
the rebels without entering into oaths, which I never would do. At Dover,
money to the searchers and officers was as authentic as the hand and seal
of Bradshawe himself, where I had not so much as my trunk opened.

[Sidenote: CALAIS]

13th August, 1650. At six in the evening, set sail for Calais; the wind
not favorable, I was very sea-sick, coming to an anchor about one
o'clock; about five in the morning, we had a long boat to carry us to
land, though at a good distance; this we willingly entered, because two
vessels were chasing us; but, being now almost at the harbor's mouth,
through inadvertency there broke in upon us two such heavy seas, as had
almost sunk the boat, I being near the middle up in water. Our steersman,
it seems, apprehensive of the danger, was preparing to leap into the sea
and trust to swimming, but seeing the vessel emerge, he put her into the
pier, and so, God be thanked! we got to Calais, though wet.

Here I waited for company, the passage toward Paris being still infested
with volunteers from the Spanish frontiers.

16th August, 1650. The Regiment of Picardy, consisting of about 1,400
horse and foot (among them was a captain whom I knew), being come to
town, I took horses for myself and servant, and marched under their
protection to Boulogne. It was a miserable spectacle to see how these
tattered soldiers pillaged the poor people of their sheep, poultry, corn,
cattle, and whatever came in their way; but they had such ill pay, that
they were ready themselves to starve.

As we passed St. Denis, the people were in uproar, the guards doubled,
and everybody running with their movables to Paris, on an alarm that the
enemy was within five leagues of them; so miserably exposed was even this
part of France at this time.

[Sidenote: PARIS]

The 30th, I got to Paris, after an absence of two months only.

1st September, 1650. My Lady Herbert invited me to dinner; Paris, and
indeed all France, being full of loyal fugitives.

Came Mr. Waller to see me, about a child of his which the Popish midwife
had baptized.

15th October, 1650. Sir Thomas Osborne (afterward Lord Treasurer) and
Lord Stanhope shot for a wager of five louis, to be spent on a treat;
they shot so exact that it was a drawn match.

1st November, 1650. Took leave of my Lord Stanhope, going on his journey
toward Italy; also visited my Lord Hatton, Comptroller of his Majesty's
Household, the Countess of Morton, Governess to the Lady Henrietta, and
Mrs. Gardner, one of the Queen's maids of honor.

6th November, 1650. Sir Thomas Osborne supping with us, his groom was set
upon in the street before our house, and received two wounds, but gave
the assassin nine, who was carried off to the Charité Hospital. Sir
Thomas went for England on the 8th, and carried divers letters for me to
my friends.

16th November, 1650. I went to Monsieur Visse's, the French King's
Secretary, to a concert of French music and voices, consisting of
twenty-four, two theorbos, and but one bass viol, being a rehearsal of
what was to be sung at vespers at St. Cecilia's, on her feast, she being
patroness of Musicians. News arrived of the death of the Princess of
Orange of the smallpox.

14th December, 1650. I went to visit Mr. Ratcliffe, in whose lodging was
an imposter that had liked to have imposed upon us a pretended secret of
multiplying gold; it is certain he had lived some time in Paris in
extraordinary splendor, but I found him to be an egregious cheat.

22d December, 1650. Came the learned Dr. Boet to visit me.

31st December, 1650. I gave God thanks for his mercy and protection the
past year, and made up my accounts, which came this year to 7,015 livres,
near £600 sterling.

1st January, 1650-51. I wrote to my brother at Wotton, about his garden
and fountains. After evening prayer, Mr. Wainsford called on me: he had
long been Consul at Aleppo, and told me many strange things of those
countries, the Arabs especially.

27th January, 1651. I had letters of the death of Mrs. Newton, my
grand-mother-in-law; she had a most tender care of me during my
childhood, and was a woman of extraordinary charity and piety.

29th January, 1651. Dr. Duncan preached on 8 Matt. v. 34, showing the
mischief of covetousness. My Lord Marquis of Ormonde and Inchiquin, come
newly out of Ireland, were this day at chapel.

9th February, 1651. Cardinal Mazarin was proscribed by Arrêt du
Parlement, and great commotions began in Paris.

23d February, 1651. I went to see the Bonnes Hommes, a convent that has a
fair cloister painted with the lives of hermits; a glorious altar now
erecting in the chapel; the garden on the rock with divers descents, with
a fine vineyard, and a delicate prospect toward the city.

24th February, 1651. I went to see a dromedary, a very monstrous beast,
much like the camel, but larger. There was also dancing on the rope; but,
above all, surprising to those who were ignorant of the address, was the
water-spouter, who, drinking only fountain-water, rendered out of his
mouth in several glasses all sorts of wine and sweet waters. For a piece
of money he discovered the secret to me. I waited on Friar Nicholas at
the convent at Chaillot, who, being an excellent chemist, showed me his
laboratory, and rare collection of spagyrical remedies. He was both
physician and apothecary of the convent, and, instead of the names of his
drugs, he painted his boxes and pots with the figure of the drug, or
simple, contained in them. He showed me as a rarity some [Transcriber's
note: special symbol for the planet Mercury] of antimony. He had cured
Monsieur Senatin of a desperate sickness, for which there was building a
monumental altar that was to cost £1,500.

11th March, 1651. I went to the Châtelet, or prison, where a malefactor
was to have the question, or torture, given to him, he refusing to
confess the robbery with which he was charged, which was thus: they first
bound his wrist with a strong rope, or small cable, and one end of it to
an iron ring made fast to the wall, about four feet from the floor, and
then his feet with another cable, fastened about five feet further than
his utmost length to another ring on the floor of the room. Thus
suspended, and yet lying but aslant, they slid a horse of wood under the
rope which bound his feet, which so exceedingly stiffened it, as severed
the fellow's joints in miserable sort, drawing him out at length in an
extraordinary manner, he having only a pair of linen drawers on his naked
body. Then, they questioned him of a robbery (the lieutenant being
present and a clerk that wrote), which not confessing, they put a higher
horse under the rope, to increase the torture and extension. In this
agony, confessing nothing, the executioner with a horn (just such as they
drench horses with) stuck the end of it into his mouth, and poured the
quantity of two buckets of water down his throat and over him, which so
prodigiously swelled him, as would have pitied and affrighted any one to
see it; for all this, he denied all that was charged to him. They then
let him down, and carried him before a warm fire to bring him to himself,
being now to all appearance dead with pain. What became of him, I know
not; but the gentleman whom he robbed constantly averred him to be the
man, and the fellow's suspicious pale looks, before he knew he should be
racked, betrayed some guilt; the lieutenant was also of that opinion, and
told us at first sight (for he was a lean, dry, black young man) he would
conquer the torture; and so it seems they could not hang him, but did use
in such cases, where the evidence is very presumptive, to send them to
the galleys, which is as bad as death.

There was another malefactor to succeed, but the spectacle was so
uncomfortable, that I was not able to stay the sight of another. It
represented yet to me the intolerable sufferings which our Blessed Savior
must needs undergo, when his body was hanging with all its weight upon
the nails on the cross.

20th March, 1651. I went this night with my wife to a ball at the Marquis
de Crevecoeur's, where were divers princes, dukes, and great persons;
but what appeared to me very mean was, that it began with a puppet-play.

6th May, 1651. I attended the ambassador to a masque at Court, where the
French King in person danced five entries, but being engaged in
discourse, and better entertained with one of the Queen-Regent's
secretaries, I soon left the entertainment.

11th May, 1651. To the Palace Cardinal, where the Master of the
Ceremonies placed me to see the royal masque, or opera. The first scene
represented a chariot of singers composed of the rarest voices that could
be procured, representing Cornaro[42] and Temperance; this was overthrown
by Bacchus and his revelers; the rest consisted of several entries and
pageants of excess, by all the elements. A masque representing fire was
admirable; then came a Venus out of the clouds. The conclusion was a
heaven, whither all ascended. But the glory of the masque was the great
persons performing in it, the French King, his brother the Duke of Anjou,
with all the grandees of the Court, the King performing to the admiration
of all. The music was twenty-nine violins, vested _à l'antique_, but the
habits of the masquers were stupendously rich and glorious.

    [Footnote 42: The famous Venetian writer on Temperance.]

23d May, 1651. I went to take leave of the ambassadors for Spain, which
were my Lord Treasurer Cottington and Sir Edward Hyde; and, as I
returned, I visited Mr. Morine's garden, and his other rarities,
especially corals, minerals, stones, and natural curiosities; crabs of
the Red Sea, the body no bigger than a small bird's egg, but flatter, and
the two legs, or claws, a foot in length. He had abundance of shells, at
least 1,000 sorts, which furnished a cabinet of great price; and had a
very curious collection of scarabees and insects, of which he was
compiling a natural history. He had also the pictures of his choice
flowers and plants in miniature. He told me there were 10,000 sorts of
tulips only. He had _taille-douces_ out of number; the head of the
rhinoceros bird, which was very extravagant, and one butterfly resembling
a perfect bird.

25th May, 1651. I went to visit Mr. Thomas White, a learned priest and
famous philosopher,[43] author of the book "De Mundo," with whose worthy
brother I was well acquainted at Rome. I was shown a cabinet of
Maroquin, or Turkey leather, so curiously inlaid with other leather, and
gilding, that the workman demanded for it 800 livres.

    [Footnote 43: A native of Essex, who was born in 1582, educated
    abroad, and, his family being Catholic, became a priest of that
    church, the sub-rector of the college at Douay. He advocated the
    Cartesian philosophy, and this brought him into an extensive
    correspondence with Hobbes and Descartes, in the course of which he
    Latinized his name into Thomas Albius, or De Albis. He died in
    1676.]

The Dean (of Peterborough) preached on the feast of Pentecost,
perstringing those of Geneva for their irreverence of the Blessed Virgin.

4th June, 1651. Trinity Sunday, I was absent from church in the afternoon
on a charitable affair for the Abbess of Bourcharvant, who but for me had
been abused by that chemist, Du Menie. Returning, I stepped into the
Grand Jesuits, who had this high day exposed their Cibarium, made all of
solid gold and imagery, a piece of infinite cost. Dr. Croydon, coming out
of Italy and from Padua, came to see me, on his return to England.

5th June, 1651. I accompanied my Lord Strafford, and some other noble
persons, to hear Madam Lavaran sing, which she did both in French and
Italian excellently well, but her voice was not strong.

7th June, 1651. Corpus Christi Day, there was a grand procession, all the
streets tapestried, several altars erected there, full of images, and
other rich furniture, especially that before the Court, of a rare design
and architecture. There were abundance of excellent pictures and great
vases of silver.

13th June, 1651. I went to see the collection of one Monsieur Poignant,
which for variety of agates, crystals, onyxes, porcelain, medals,
statues, relievos, paintings, _taille-douces_, and antiquities, might
compare with the Italian virtuosos.

21st June, 1651. I became acquainted with Sieur William Curtius, a very
learned and judicious person of the Palatinate. He had been a scholar to
Alstedius, the Encyclopedist, was well advanced in years, and now
Resident for his Majesty at Frankfort.

2d July, 1651. Came to see me the Earl of Strafford, Lord Ossory and his
brother, Sir John Southcott, Sir Edward Stawell, two of my Lord Spencer's
sons, and Dr. Stewart, Dean of St. Paul's, a learned and pious man, where
we entertained the time upon several subjects, especially the affairs of
England, and the lamentable condition of our Church. The Lord Gerrard
also called to see my collection of sieges and battles.

21st July, 1651. An extraordinary fast was celebrated in our Chapel, Dr.
Stewart, Dean of St. Paul's, preaching.

2d August, 1651. I went with my wife to Conflans, where were abundance of
ladies and others bathing in the river; the ladies had their tents spread
on the water for privacy.

29th August, 1651. Was kept as a solemn fast for the calamities of our
poor Church, now trampled on by the rebels. Mr. Waller, being at St.
Germains, desired me to send him a coach from Paris, to bring my wife's
goddaughter to Paris, to be buried by the Common Prayer.

6th September, 1651. I went with my wife to St. Germains, to condole with
Mr. Waller's loss. I carried with me and treated at dinner that excellent
and pious person the Dean of St. Paul's, Dr. Stewart, and Sir Lewis Dives
(half-brother to the Earl of Bristol), who entertained us with his
wonderful escape out of prison in Whitehall, the very evening before he
was to have been put to death, leaping down out of a jakes two stories
high into the Thames at high water, in the coldest of winter, and at
night; so as by swimming he got to a boat that attended for him, though
he was guarded by six musketeers. After this, he went about in women's
habit, and then in a small-coal-man's, traveling 200 miles on foot,
embarked for Scotland with some men he had raised, who coming on shore
were all surprised and imprisoned on the Marquis of Montrose's score; he
not knowing anything of their barbarous murder of that hero. This he told
us was his fifth escape, and none less miraculous; with this note, that
the charging through 1,000 men armed, or whatever danger could befall a
man, he believed could not more confound and distract a man's thoughts
than the execution of a premeditated escape, the passions of hope and
fear being so strong. This knight was indeed a valiant gentleman; but not
a little given to romance, when he spoke of himself. I returned to Paris
the same evening.

7th September, 1651. I went to visit Mr. Hobbes, the famous philosopher
of Malmesbury, with whom I had long acquaintance. From his window we saw
the whole equipage and glorious cavalcade of the young French Monarch,
Louis XIV., passing to Parliament, when first he took the kingly
government on him, now being in his 14th year, out of his minority and
the Queen Regent's pupilage. First came the captain of the King's Aids,
at the head of 50, richly liveried; next, the Queen-Mother's Light Horse,
100, the lieutenant being all over covered with embroidery and ribbons,
having before him four trumpets habited in black velvet, full of lace,
and casques of the same. Then, the King's Light Horse, 200, richly
habited, with four trumpets in blue velvet embroidered with gold, before
whom rode the Count d'Olonne coronet [cornet], whose belt was set with
pearl. Next went the grand Prévôt's company on foot, with the Prévôt on
horseback; after them, the Swiss in black velvet toques, led by two
gallant cavaliers habited in scarlet-colored satin, after their country
fashion, which is very fantastic; he had in his cap a _pennach_ of heron,
with a band of diamonds, and about him twelve little Swiss boys, with
halberds. Then, came the _Aide des Cérémonies_; next, the grandees of
court, governors of places and lieutenants-general of provinces,
magnificently habited and mounted; among whom I must not forget the
Chevalier Paul, famous for many sea-fights and signal exploits there,
because it is said he had never been an Academist, and yet governed a
very unruly horse, and besides his rich suit his Malta Cross was esteemed
at 10,000 crowns. These were headed by two trumpets, and the whole troop,
covered with gold, jewels, and rich caparisons, were followed by six
trumpets in blue velvet also, preceding as many heralds in blue velvet
_semée_ with fleurs-de-lis, caduces in their hands, and velvet caps on
their heads; behind them, came one of the masters of the ceremonies;
then, divers marshals and many of the nobility, exceeding splendid;
behind them Count d'Harcourt, grand Ecuyer, alone, carrying the King's
sword in a scarf, which he held up in a blue sheath studded with
fleurs-de-lis; his horse had for reins two scarfs of black taffeta.

Then came abundance of footmen and pages of the King, new-liveried with
white and red feathers; next, the _garde du corps_ and other officers;
and lastly, appeared the King himself on an Isabella barb, on which a
housing _semee_, with crosses of the Order of the Holy Ghost, and
fleurs-de-lis; the King himself, like a young Apollo, was in a suit so
covered with rich embroidery, that one could perceive nothing of the
stuff under it; he went almost the whole way with his hat in hand,
saluting the ladies and acclamators, who had filled the windows with
their beauty, and the air with _Vive le Roi_. He seemed a prince of a
grave yet sweet countenance. After the King, followed divers great
persons of the Court, exceeding splendid, also his esquires; masters of
horse, on foot; then the company of _Exempts des Gardes_, and six guards
of Scotch. Between their files were divers princes of the blood, dukes,
and lords; after all these, the Queen's guard of Swiss, pages, and
footmen; then, the Queen-Mother herself, in a rich coach, with Monsieur
the King's brother, the Duke of Orleans, and some other lords and ladies
of honor. About the coach, marched her _Exempts des Gardes_: then the
company of the King's _Gens d'armes_, well mounted, 150, with four
trumpets, and as many of the Queen's; lastly, an innumerable company of
coaches full of ladies and gallants. In this equipage, passed the monarch
to the Parliament, henceforth exercising his kingly government.

15th September, 1651. I accompanied Sir Richard Browne, my father-in-law,
to the French Court, when he had a favorable audience of the French King,
and the Queen, his mother; congratulating the one on his coming to the
exercise of his royal charge, and the other's prudent and happy
administration during her late regency, desiring both to preserve the
same amity for his master, our King, as they had hitherto done, which
they both promised, with many civil expressions and words of course upon
such occasions. We were accompanied both going and returning by the
Introductor of Ambassadors and Aid of Ceremonies. I also saw the audience
of Morosini, the Ambassador of Venice, and divers other Ministers of
State from German Princes, Savoy, etc. Afterward I took a walk in the
King's gardens, where I observed that the mall goes the whole square
there of next the wall, and bends with an angle so made as to glance the
wall; the angle is of stone. There is a basin at the end of the garden
fed by a noble fountain and high jetto. There were in it two or three
boats, in which the King now and then rows about. In another part is a
complete fort, made with bastions, graft, half-moons, ravelins, and
furnished with great guns cast on purpose to instruct the King in
fortification.

22d September, 1651. Arrived the news of the fatal battle at Worcester,
which exceedingly mortified our expectations.

28th September, 1651. I was shown a collection of books and prints made
for the Duke of York.

1st October, 1651. The Dean of Peterborough [Dr. Cosin] preached on Job
xiii., verse 15, encouraging our trust in God on all events and
extremities, and for establishing and comforting some ladies of great
quality, who were then to be discharged from our Queen-Mother's service
unless they would go over to the Romish Mass.

The Dean, dining this day at our house, told me the occasion of
publishing those Offices, which among the Puritans were wont to be called
COSIN'S COZENING DEVOTIONS, by way of derision. At the first coming of
the Queen into England, she and her French ladies were often upbraiding
our religion, that had neither appointed nor set forth any hours of
prayer, or breveries, by which ladies and courtiers, who have much spare
time, might edify and be in devotion, as they had. Our Protestant ladies,
scandalized it seems at this, moved the matter to the King; whereupon his
Majesty presently called Bishop White to him and asked his thoughts of
it, and whether there might not be found some forms of prayer proper on
such occasions, collected out of some already approved forms, that so the
court ladies and others (who spent much time in trifling) might at least
appear as devout, and be so too, as the new-come-over French ladies, who
took occasion to reproach our want of zeal and religion. On which, the
Bishop told his Majesty that it might be done easily, and was very
necessary; whereupon the King commanded him to employ some person of the
clergy to compile such a Work, and presently the Bishop naming Dr. Cosin,
the King enjoined him to charge the Doctor in his name to set about it
immediately. This the Dean told me he did; and three months after,
bringing the book to the King, he commanded the Bishop of London to read
it over, and make his report; this was so well liked, that (contrary to
former custom of doing it by a chaplain) he would needs give it an
_imprimatur_ under his own hand. Upon this there were at first only 200
copies printed; nor, said he, was there anything in the whole book of my
own composure, nor did I set any name as author to it, but those
necessary prefaces, etc., out of the Fathers, touching the times and
seasons of prayer; all the rest being entirely translated and collected
out of an OFFICE published by authority of Queen Elizabeth, anno 1560,
and our own Liturgy. This I rather mention to justify that industrious
and pious Dean, who had exceedingly suffered by it, as if he had done it
of his own head to introduce Popery, from which no man was more averse,
and one who in this time of temptation and apostacy held and confirmed
many to our Church.

29th October, 1651. Came news and letters to the Queen and Sir Richard
Browne (who was the first that had intelligence of it) of his Majesty's
miraculous escape after the fight at Worcester; which exceedingly
rejoiced us.

7th November, 1651. I visited Sir Kenelm Digby, with whom I had much
discourse on chemical matters. I showed him a particular way of
extracting oil of sulphur, and he gave me a certain powder with which he
affirmed that he had fixed [Transcriber's note: special symbol for the
planet Mercury] (mercury) before the late King. He advised me to try and
digest a little better, and gave me a water which he said was only rain
water of the autumnal equinox, exceedingly rectified, very volatile; it
had a taste of a strong vitriolic, and smelt like _aqua fortis_. He
intended it for a dissolvent of calx of gold; but the truth is, Sir
Kenelm was an arrant mountebank. Came news of the gallant Earl of Derby's
execution by the rebels.

14th November, 1651. Dr. Clare preached on Genesis xxviii., verses 20,
21, 22, upon Jacob's vow, which he appositely applied, it being the first
Sunday his Majesty came to chapel after his escape. I went, in the
afternoon, to visit the Earl of Norwich; he lay at the Lord of Aubigny's.

16th November, 1651. Visited Dean Stewart, who had been sick about two
days; when, going up to his lodging, I found him dead; which affected me
much, as besides his particular affection and love to me, he was of
incomparable parts and great learning, of exemplary life, and a very
great loss to the whole church. He was buried the next day with all our
church's ceremonies, many noble persons accompanying the corpse.

17th November, 1651. I went to congratulate the marriage of Mrs. Gardner,
maid of honor, lately married to that odd person, Sir Henry Wood: but
riches do many things.

To see Monsieur Febure's course of chemistry, where I found Sir Kenelm
Digby, and divers curious persons of learning and quality. It was his
first opening the course and preliminaries, in order to operations.

1st December, 1651. I now resolved to return to England.

3d December, 1651. Sir Lewis Dives dined with us, who relating some of
his adventures, showed me divers pieces of broad gold, which, being in
his pocket in a fight, preserved his life by receiving a musket bullet on
them, which deadened its violence, so that it went no further; but made
such a stroke on the gold as fixed the impressions upon one another,
battering and bending several of them; the bullet itself was flatted, and
retained on it the color of the gold. He assured us that of a hundred of
them, which it seems he then had in his pocket, not one escaped without
some blemish. He affirmed that his being protected by a Neapolitan
Prince, who connived at his bringing some horses into France, contrary to
the order of the Viceroy, by assistance of some banditti, was the
occasion of a difference between those great men, and consequently of the
late civil war in that kingdom, the Viceroy having killed the Prince
standing on his defense at his own castle. He told me that the second
time of the Scots coming into England, the King was six times their
number, and might easily have beaten them; but was betrayed, as were all
other his designs and counsels, by some, even of his bedchamber, meaning
M. Hamilton, who copied Montrose's letters from time to time when his
Majesty was asleep.

11th December, 1651. Came to visit me, Mr. Obadiah Walker, of University
College, with his two pupils, the sons of my worthy friend, Henry
Hyldiard, Esq., whom I had recommended to his care.

21st December, 1651. Came to visit my wife, Mrs. Lane,[44] the lady who
conveyed the King to the seaside at his escape from Worcester. Mr. John
Cosin, son of the Dean, debauched by the priests, wrote a letter to me
to mediate for him with his father. I prepared for my last journey, being
now resolved to leave France altogether.

    [Footnote 44: Sister of Colonel Lane, an English officer in the army
    of Charles II. dispersed at the battle of Worcester. She assisted
    the King in effecting his escape after that battle, his Majesty
    traveling with her disguised as her serving man, William Jackson.]

25th December, 1651. The King and Duke received the Sacrament first by
themselves, the Lords Byron and Wilmot holding the long towel all along
the altar.

26th December, 1651. Came news of the death of that rebel, Ireton.

31st December, 1651. Preached Dr. Wolley, after which was celebrated the
Holy Communion, which I received also, preparative of my journey, being
now resolved to leave France altogether, and to return God Almighty
thanks for His gracious protection of me this past year.

2d January, 1651-52. News of my sister Glanville's death in childbed,
which exceedingly affected me.

I went to one Mark Antonio, an incomparable artist in enameling. He
wrought by the lamp figures in boss, of a large size, even to the life,
so that nothing could be better molded. He told us stories of a Genoese
jeweler, who had the great ARCANUM, and had made projection before him
several times. He met him at Cyprus traveling into Egypt; in his return
from whence, he died at sea, and the secret with him, that else he had
promised to have left it to him; that all his effects were seized on, and
dissipated by the Greeks in the vessel, to an immense value. He also
affirmed, that being in a goldsmith's shop at Amsterdam, a person of very
low stature came in, and desired the goldsmith to melt him a pound of
lead; which done, he unscrewed the pommel of his sword, and taking out of
a little box a small quantity of powder, casting it into the crucible,
poured an ingot out, which when cold he took up, saying, "Sir, you will
be paid for your lead in the crucible," and so went out immediately. When
he was gone the goldsmith found four ounces of good gold in it; but could
never set eye again on the little man, though he sought all the city for
him. Antonio asserted this with great obtestation; nor know I what to
think of it, there are so many impostors and people who love to tell
strange stories, as this artist did, who had been a great rover, and
spoke ten different languages.

13th January, 1652. I took leave of Mr. Waller, who, having been
proscribed by the rebels, had obtained of them permission to return, was
going to England.

29th January, 1652. Abundance of my French and English friends and some
Germans came to take leave of me, and I set out in a coach for Calais, in
an exceedingly hard frost which had continued for some time. We got that
night to Beaumont; 30th, to Beauvais; 31st, we found the ways very deep
with snow, and it was exceedingly cold; dined at Pois; lay at Pernèe, a
miserable cottage of miserable people in a wood, wholly unfurnished, but
in a little time we had sorry beds and some provision, which they told me
they hid in the wood for fear of the frontier enemy, the garrisons near
them continually plundering what they had. They were often infested with
wolves. I cannot remember that I ever saw more miserable creatures.

1st February, 1652. I dined at Abbeville; 2d, dined at Montreuil, lay at
Boulogne; 3d, came to Calais, by eleven in the morning; I thought to have
embarked in the evening, but, for fear of pirates plying near the coast,
I dared not trust our small vessel, and stayed till Monday following,
when two or three lusty vessels were to depart.

I brought with me from Paris Mr. Christopher Wase, sometime before made
to resign his Fellowship in King's College, Cambridge, because he would
not take the Covenant. He had been a soldier in Flanders, and came
miserable to Paris. From his excellent learning, and some relation he had
to Sir R. Browne, I bore his charges into England, and clad and provided
for him, till he should find some better condition; and he was worthy of
it. There came with us also Captain Griffith, Mr. Tyrell, brother to Sir
Timothy Tyrell, of Shotover (near Oxford).

At Calais, I dined with my Lord Wentworth, and met with Mr. Heath, Sir
Richard Lloyd, Captain Paine, and divers of our banished friends, of whom
understanding that the Count de la Strade, Governor of Dunkirk, was in
the town, who had bought my wife's picture, taken by pirates at sea the
year before (my wife having sent it for me in England), as my Lord of
Norwich had informed me at Paris, I made my address to him, who frankly
told me that he had such a picture in his own bedchamber among other
ladies, and how he came by it; seeming well pleased that it was his
fortune to preserve it for me, and he generously promised to send it to
any friend I had at Dover; I mentioned a French merchant there and so
took my leave.

6th February, 1652. I embarked early in the packet boat, but put my goods
in a stouter vessel. It was calm, so that we got not to Dover till eight
at night. I took horse for Canterbury, and lay at Rochester; next day, to
Gravesend, took a pair of oars, and landed at Sayes Court, where I stayed
three days to refresh, and look after my packet and goods, sent by a
stouter vessel. I went to visit my cousin, Richard Fanshawe, and divers
other friends.

6th March, 1652. Saw the magnificent funeral of that arch-rebel, Ireton,
carried in pomp from Somerset House to Westminster, accompanied with
divers regiments of soldiers, horse and foot; then marched the mourners,
General Cromwell (his father-in-law), his mock-parliament-men, officers,
and forty poor men in gowns, three led horses in housings of black cloth,
two led in black velvet, and his charging horse, all covered over with
embroidery and gold, on crimson velvet; then the guidons, ensigns, four
heralds, carrying the arms of the State (as they called it), namely, the
red cross and Ireland, with the casque, wreath, sword, spurs, etc.; next,
a chariot canopied of black velvet, and six horses, in which was the
corpse; the pall held up by the mourners on foot; the mace and sword,
with other marks of his charge in Ireland (where he died of the plague),
carried before in black scarfs. Thus, in a grave pace, drums covered with
cloth, soldiers reversing their arms, they proceeded through the streets
in a very solemn manner. This Ireton was a stout rebel, and had been very
bloody to the King's party, witness his severity at Colchester, when in
cold blood he put to death those gallant gentlemen, Sir Charles Lucas and
Sir George Lisle. My cousin, R. Fanshawe, came to visit me, and informed
me of many considerable affairs. Sir Henry Herbert presented me with his
brother, my Lord Cherbury's book, "_De Veritate_."

[Sidenote: DEPTFORD]

9th March, 1652. I went to Deptford, where I made preparation for my
settlement, no more intending to go out of England, but endeavor a
settled life, either in this or some other place, there being now so
little appearance of any change for the better, all being entirely in
the rebels' hands; and this particular habitation and the estate
contiguous to it (belonging to my father-in-law, actually in his
Majesty's service) very much suffering for want of some friend to rescue
it out of the power of the usurpers, so as to preserve our interest, and
take some care of my other concerns, by the advice and endeavor of my
friends I was advised to reside in it, and compound with the soldiers.
This I was besides authorized by his Majesty to do, and encouraged with a
promise that what was in lease from the Crown, if ever it pleased God to
restore him, he would secure to us in fee farm. I had also addresses and
cyphers, to correspond with his Majesty and Ministers abroad: upon all
which inducements, I was persuaded to settle henceforth in England,
having now run about the world, most part out of my own country, near ten
years. I therefore now likewise meditated sending over for my wife, whom
as yet I had left at Paris.

14th March, 1652. I went to Lewisham, where I heard an honest sermon on
1 Cor. ii. 5-7, being the first Sunday I had been at church since my
return, it being now a rare thing to find a priest of the Church of
England in a parish pulpit, most of which were filled with Independents
and Fanatics.

15th March, 1652. I saw the "Diamond" and "Ruby" launched in the Dock at
Deptford, carrying forty-eight brass cannon each; Cromwell and his
grandees present, with great acclamations.

18th March, 1652. That worthy divine, Mr. Owen, of Eltham, a sequestered
person, came to visit me.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

19th March, 1652. Invited by Lady Gerrard, I went to London, where we had
a great supper; all the vessels, which were innumerable, were of
porcelain, she having the most ample and richest collection of that
curiosity in England.

22d March, 1652. I went with my brother Evelyn to Wotton, to give him
what directions I was able about his garden, which he was now desirous to
put into some form; but for which he was to remove a mountain overgrown
with huge trees and thicket, with a moat within ten yards of the house.
This my brother immediately attempted, and that without great cost, for
more than a hundred yards south, by digging down the mountain, and
flinging it into a rapid stream; it not only carried away the sand, etc.,
but filled up the moat, and leveled that noble area, where now the garden
and fountain is. The first occasion of my brother making this alteration
was my building the little retiring place between the great wood eastward
next the meadow, where, some time after my father's death, I made a
triangular pond, or little stew, with an artificial rock after my coming
out of Flanders.

29th March, 1652. I heard that excellent prelate, the primate of Ireland
(Jacobus Usher) preach in Lincoln's Inn, on Heb. iv. 16, encouraging of
penitent sinners.

5th April, 1652. My brother George brought to Sayes Court Cromwell's Act
of Oblivion to all that would submit to the Government.

13th April, 1652. News was brought me that Lady Cotton, my brother
George's wife was delivered of a son.

I was moved by a letter out of France to publish the letter which some
time since I sent to Dean Cosin's proselyted son; but I did not conceive
it convenient, for fear of displeasing her Majesty, the Queen.

15th April, 1652. I wrote to the Dean, touching my buying his library,
which was one of the choicest collections of any private person in
England.

The Count de Strade most generously and handsomely sent me the picture of
my wife from Dunkirk, in a large tin case without any charge. It is of
Mr. Bourdon, and is that which has the dog in it, and is to the knees,
but it has been somewhat spoiled by washing it ignorantly with soapsuds.

25th April, 1652. I went to visit Alderman Kendrick, a fanatic Lord
Mayor, who had married a relation of ours, where I met with a Captain who
had been thirteen times to the East Indies.

29th April, 1652. Was that celebrated eclipse of the sun, so much
threatened by the astrologers, and which had so exceedingly alarmed the
whole nation that hardly any one would work, nor stir out of their
houses. So ridiculously were they abused by knavish and ignorant
star-gazers.

We went this afternoon to see the Queen's house at Greenwich, now given
by the rebels to Bulstrode Whitelocke, one of their unhappy counselors,
and keeper of pretended liberties.

10th May, 1652. Passing by Smithfield, I saw a miserable creature
burning, who had murdered her husband. I went to see some workmanship of
that admirable artist, Reeves, famous for perspective, and turning
curiosities in ivory.

29th May, 1652. I went to give order about a coach to be made against my
wife's coming, being my first coach, the pattern whereof I brought out of
Paris.

30th May, 1652. I went to obtain of my Lord Devonshire that my nephew,
George, might be brought up with my young Lord, his son, to whom I was
recommending Mr. Wase. I also inspected the manner of camleting silk and
grograms at one Monsieur La Dorées in Moor-fields, and thence to Colonel
Morley, one of their Council of State, as then called, who had been my
schoolfellow, to request a pass for my wife's safe landing, and the goods
she was to bring with her out of France; which he courteously granted,
and did me many other kindnesses, that was a great matter in those days.

In the afternoon, at Charlton church, where I heard a Rabinical sermon.
Here is a fair monument in black marble of Sir Adam Newton, who built
that fair house near it for Prince Henry, and where my noble friend, Sir
Henry Newton, succeeded him.

3d June, 1652. I received a letter from Colonel Morley to the Magistrates
and Searchers at Rye, to assist my wife at her landing, and show her all
civility.

4th June, 1652. I set out to meet her now on her journey from Paris,
after she had obtained leave to come out of that city, which had now been
besieged some time by the Prince of Condé's army in the time of the
rebellion, and after she had been now near twelve years from her own
country, that is, since five years of age, at which time she went over. I
went to Rye to meet her, where was an embargo on occasion of the late
conflict with the Holland fleet, the two nations being now in war, and
which made sailing very unsafe.

On Whit Sunday, I went to the church (which is a very fair one), and
heard one of the canters, who dismissed the assembly rudely, and without
any blessing. Here I stayed till the 10th with no small impatience, when
I walked over to survey the ruins of Winchelsea, that ancient cinq-port,
which by the remains and ruins of ancient streets and public structures,
discovers it to have been formerly a considerable and large city. There
are to be seen vast caves and vaults, walls and towers, ruins of
monasteries and of a sumptuous church, in which are some handsome
monuments, especially of the Templars, buried just in the manner of those
in the Temple at London. This place being now all in rubbish, and a few
despicable hovels and cottages only standing, hath yet a Mayor. The sea,
which formerly rendered it a rich and commodious port, has now forsaken
it.

[Sidenote: TUNBRIDGE]

11th June, 1652. About four in the afternoon, being at bowls on the
green, we discovered a vessel which proved to be that in which my wife
was, and which got into the harbor about eight that evening, to my no
small joy. They had been three days at sea, and escaped the Dutch fleet,
through which they passed, taken for fishers, which was great good
fortune, there being seventeen bales of furniture and other rich plunder,
which I bless God came all safe to land, together with my wife, and my
Lady Browne, her mother, who accompanied her. My wife being discomposed
by having been so long at sea, we set not forth toward home till the
14th, when, hearing the smallpox was very rife in and about London, and
Lady Browne having a desire to drink Tunbridge waters, I carried them
thither, and stayed in a very sweet place, private and refreshing, and
took the waters myself till the 23d, when I went to prepare for their
reception, leaving them for the present in their little cottage by the
Wells.

The weather being hot, and having sent my man on before, I rode
negligently under favor of the shade, till, within three miles of
Bromley, at a place called the Procession Oak, two cutthroats started
out, and striking with long staves at the horse, and taking hold of the
reins, threw me down, took my sword, and hauled me into a deep thicket,
some quarter of a mile from the highway, where they might securely rob
me, as they soon did. What they got of money, was not considerable, but
they took two rings, the one an emerald with diamonds, the other an onyx,
and a pair of buckles set with rubies and diamonds, which were of value,
and after all bound my hands behind me, and my feet, having before
pulled off my boots; they then set me up against an oak, with most bloody
threats to cut my throat if I offered to cry out, or make any noise; for
they should be within hearing, I not being the person they looked for. I
told them that if they had not basely surprised me they should not have
had so easy a prize, and that it would teach me never to ride near a
hedge, since, had I been in the midway, they dared not have adventured on
me; at which they cocked their pistols, and told me they had long guns,
too, and were fourteen companions. I begged for my onyx, and told them it
being engraved with my arms would betray them; but nothing prevailed. My
horse's bridle they slipped, and searched the saddle, which they pulled
off, but let the horse graze, and then turning again bridled him and tied
him to a tree, yet so as he might graze, and thus left me bound. My horse
was perhaps not taken, because he was marked and cropped on both ears,
and well known on that road. Left in this manner, grievously was I
tormented with flies, ants, and the sun, nor was my anxiety little how I
should get loose in that solitary place, where I could neither hear nor
see any creature but my poor horse and a few sheep straggling in the
copse.

After near two hours attempting, I got my hands to turn palm to palm,
having been tied back to back, and then it was long before I could slip
the cord over my wrists to my thumb, which at last I did, and then soon
unbound my feet, and saddling my horse and roaming a while about, I at
last perceived dust to rise, and soon after heard the rattling of a cart,
toward which I made, and, by the help of two countrymen, I got back into
the highway. I rode to Colonel Blount's, a great justiciary of the times,
who sent out hue and cry immediately. The next morning, sore as my wrists
and arms were, I went to London, and got 500 tickets printed and
dispersed by an officer of Goldsmiths' Hall, and within two days had
tidings of all I had lost, except my sword, which had a silver hilt, and
some trifles. The rogues had pawned one of my rings for a trifle to a
goldsmith's servant, before the tickets came to the shop, by which means
they escaped; the other ring was bought by a victualer, who brought it
to a goldsmith, but he having seen the ticket seized the man. I afterward
discharged him on his protestation of innocence. Thus did God deliver me
from these villains, and not only so, but restored what they took, as
twice before he had graciously done, both at sea and land, I mean when I
had been robbed by pirates, and was in danger of a considerable loss at
Amsterdam; for which, and many, many signal preservations, I am extremely
obliged to give thanks to God my Savior.

25th June, 1652. After a drought of near four months, there fell so
violent a tempest of hail, rain, wind, thunder, and lightning, as no man
had seen the like in his age; the hail being in some places four or five
inches about, broke all glass about London, especially at Deptford, and
more at Greenwich.

29th June, 1652. I returned to Tunbridge, and again drank the water, till
10th of July.

We went to see the house of my Lord Clanrickarde at Summer hill, near
Tunbridge (now given to that villain, Bradshawe, who condemned the King).
'Tis situated on an eminent hill, with a park; but has nothing else
extraordinary.

4th July, 1652. I heard a sermon at Mr. Packer's chapel at Groomsbridge,
a pretty melancholy seat, well wooded and watered. In this house was one
of the French kings[45] kept prisoner. The chapel was built by Mr.
Packer's father, in remembrance of King Charles the First's safe return
out of Spain.

    [Footnote 45: The Duke of Orleans, taken at the battle of Agincourt,
    4 Hen. V., by Richard Waller, then owner of this place. See Hasted's
    "Kent," vol. i., p. 431.]

[Sidenote: PENSHURST]

9th July, 1652. We went to see Penshurst, the Earl of Leicester's, famous
once for its gardens and excellent fruit, and for the noble conversation
which was wont to meet there, celebrated by that illustrious person, Sir
Philip Sidney, who there composed divers of his pieces. It stands in a
park, is finely watered, and was now full of company, on the marriage of
my old fellow-collegiate, Mr. Robert Smith, who married my Lady Dorothy
Sidney, widow of the Earl of Sunderland.

One of the men who robbed me was taken; I was accordingly summoned to
appear against him; and, on the 12th, was in Westminster Hall, but not
being bound over, nor willing to hang the fellow, I did not appear,
coming only to save a friend's bail; but the bill being found, he was
turned over to the Old Bailey. In the meantime, I received a petition
from the prisoner, whose father I understood was an honest old farmer in
Kent. He was charged, with other crimes, and condemned, but reprieved. I
heard afterward that, had it not been for his companion, a younger man,
he would probably have killed me. He was afterward charged with some
other crime, but, refusing to plead, was pressed to death.

23d July, 1652. Came my old friend, Mr. Spencer, to visit me.

30th July, 1652. I took advice about purchasing Sir Richard's [Browne]
interest of those who had bought Sayes Court.

1st August, 1652. Came old Jerome Lennier, of Greenwich, a man skilled in
painting and music, and another rare musician, called Mell. I went to see
his collection of pictures, especially those of Julio Romano, which
surely had been the King's, and an Egyptian figure, etc. There were also
excellent things of Polydore, Guido, Raphael, and Tintoretto. Lennier had
been a domestic of Queen Elizabeth, and showed me her head, an intaglio
in a rare sardonyx, cut by a famous Italian, which he assured me was
exceedingly like her.

24th August, 1652. My first child, a son, was born precisely at one
o'clock.

2d September, 1652. Mr. Owen, the sequestered divine, of Eltham,
christened my son by the name of Richard.

22d September, 1652. I went to Woodcott, where Lady Browne was taken with
scarlet fever, and died. She was carried to Deptford, and interred in the
church near Sir Richard's relations with all decent ceremonies, and
according to the church-office, for which I obtained permission, after it
had not been used in that church for seven years. Thus ended an excellent
and virtuous lady, universally lamented, having been so obliging on all
occasions to those who continually frequented her house in Paris, which
was not only an hospital, but an asylum to all our persecuted and
afflicted countrymen, during eleven years' residence there in that
honorable situation.

25th September, 1652. I went to see Dr. Mason's house, so famous for the
prospect (for the house is a wretched one) and description of Barclay's
"_Icon Animarum_."[46]

    [Footnote 46: The book here referred to is in the British Museum,
    entitled "_Joannis Barclaii Icon Animarum_," and printed at London,
    1614, small 12mo. It is written in Latin, and dedicated to Louis
    XIII. of France, for what reason does not appear, the author
    speaking of himself as a subject of this country. It mentions the
    necessity of forming the minds of youth, as a skillful gardener
    forms his trees; the different dispositions of men, in different
    nations; English, Scotch, and Irish, etc. Chapter second contains a
    florid description of the beautiful scenery about Greenwich, but
    does not mention Dr. Mason, or his house.]

5th November, 1652. To London, to visit some friends, but the insolences
were so great in the streets that I could not return till the next day.

Dr. Scarborough was instant with me to give the Tables of Veins and
Arteries to the College of Physicians, pretending he would not only read
upon them, but celebrate my curiosity as being the first who caused them
to be completed in that manner, and with that cost; but I was not so
willing yet to part with them, as to lend them to the College during
their anatomical lectures; which I did accordingly.

22d November, 1652. I went to London, where was proposed to me the
promoting that great work (since accomplished by Dr. Walton, Bishop of
Chester), "_Biblia Polyglotta_," by Mr. Pierson, that most learned
divine.

25th December, 1652. Christmas day, no sermon anywhere, no church being
permitted to be open, so observed it at home. The next day, we went to
Lewisham, where an honest divine preached.

31st December, 1652. I adjusted all accompts, and rendered thanks to
Almighty God for his mercies to me the year past.

[Sidenote: SAYES COURT]

1st January, 1652-53. I set apart in preparation for the Blessed
Sacrament, which the next day Mr. Owen administered to me and all my
family in Sayes Court, preaching on John vi. 32, 33, showing the
exceeding benefits of our blessed Savior taking our nature upon him. He
had christened my son and churched my wife in our own house as before
noticed.

17th January, 1653. I began to set out the oval garden at Sayes Court,
which was before a rude orchard, and all the rest one entire field of
100 acres, without any hedge, except the hither holly hedge joining to
the bank of the mount walk. This was the beginning of all the succeeding
gardens, walks, groves, inclosures, and plantations there.

21st January, 1653. I went to London, and sealed some of the writings of
my purchase of Sayes Court.

30th January, 1653. At our own parish church, a stranger preached. There
was now and then an honest orthodox man got into the pulpit, and, though
the present incumbent was somewhat of the Independent, yet he ordinarily
preached sound doctrine, and was a peaceable man; which was an
extraordinary felicity in this age.

1st February, 1653. Old Alexander Rosse (author of "_Virgilius
Evangelizans_," and many other little books) presented me with his book
against Mr. Hobbes's "Leviathan."

19th February, 1653. I planted the orchard at Sayes Court; new moon, wind
west.

22d February, 1653. Was perfected the sealing, livery, and seisin of my
purchase of Sayes Court. My brother, George Glanville, Mr. Scudamore, Mr.
Offley, Co. William Glanville (son to Sergeant Glanville, sometime
Speaker of the House of Commons), Co. Stephens, and several of my friends
dining with me. I had bargained for £3,200, but I paid £3,500.

25th March, 1653. Came to see me that rare graver in _taille-douce_,
Monsieur Richett, he was sent by Cardinal Mazarine to make a collection
of pictures.

11th April, 1653. I went to take the air in Hyde Park, where every coach
was made to pay a shilling, and horse sixpence, by the sordid fellow who
had purchased it of the state, as they called it.

17th May, 1653. My servant Hoare, who wrote those exquisite several
hands, fell of a fit of an apoplexy, caused, as I suppose, by tampering
with mercury about an experiment in gold.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

29th May, 1653. I went to London, to take my last leave of my honest
friend, Mr. Barton, now dying; it was a great loss to me and to my
affairs. On the sixth of June, I attended his funeral.

8th June, 1653. Came my brother George, Captain Evelyn, the great
traveler, Mr. Muschamp, my cousin, Thomas Keightly, and a virtuoso,
fastastical Simons, who had the talent of embossing so to the life.

9th June, 1653. I went to visit my worthy neighbor, Sir Henry Newton [at
Charlton], and consider the prospect, which is doubtless for city, river,
ships, meadows, hill, woods, and all other amenities, one of the most
noble in the world; so as, had the house running water, it were a
princely seat. Mr. Henshaw and his brother-in-law came to visit me, and
he presented me with a seleniscope.

19th June, 1653. This day, I paid all my debts to a farthing; oh, blessed
day!

21st June, 1653. My Lady Gerrard, and one Esquire Knight, a very rich
gentleman, living in Northamptonshire, visited me.

23d June, 1653. Mr. Lombart, a famous graver, came to see my collections.

27th June, 1653. Monsieur Roupel sent me a small phial of his _aurum
potabile_, with a letter, showing the way of administering it, and the
stupendous cures it had done at Paris; but, ere it came to me, by what
accident I know not, it was all run out.

17th August, 1653. I went to visit Mr. Hyldiard, at his house at Horsley
(formerly the great Sir Walter Raleigh's[47]), where met me Mr. Oughtred,
the famous mathematician; he showed me a box, or golden case, of divers
rich and aromatic balsams, which a chemist, a scholar of his, had sent
him out of Germany.

    [Footnote 47: Evelyn is here in error: Mr. Hyldiard was of East
    Horsley, Sir Walter of West.]

21st August, 1653. I heard that good old man, Mr. Higham, the parson of
the parish of Wotton where I was born, and who had baptized me, preach
after his very plain way on Luke, comparing this troublesome world to the
sea, the ministers to the fishermen, and the saints to the fish.

22d August, 1653. We all went to Guildford, to rejoice at the famous inn,
the Red Lion, and to see the hospital, and the monument of Archbishop
Abbot, the founder, who lies buried in the chapel of his endowment.

28th September, 1653. At Greenwich preached that holy martyr, Dr. Hewer,
on Psalm xc. 11, magnifying the grace of God to penitents, and
threatening the extinction of his Gospel light for the prodigious
impiety of the age.

11th October, 1653. My son, John Stansfield, was born, being my second
child, and christened by the name of my mother's father, that name now
quite extinct, being of Cheshire. Christened by Mr. Owen, in my library,
at Sayes Court, where he afterward churched my wife, I always making use
of him on these occasions, because the parish minister dared not have
officiated according to the form and usage of the Church of England, to
which I always adhered.

25th October, 1653. Mr. Owen preached in my library at Sayes Court on
Luke xviii. 7, 8, an excellent discourse on the unjust judge, showing why
Almighty God would sometimes be compared by such similitudes. He
afterward administered to us all the Holy Sacrament.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

28th October, 1653. Went to London, to visit my Lady Gerrard, where I saw
that cursed woman called the Lady Norton, of whom it was reported that
she spit in our King's face as he went to the scaffold. Indeed, her talk
and discourse was like an impudent woman.

21st November, 1653. I went to London, to speak with Sir John Evelyn, my
kinsman, about the purchase of an estate of Mr. Lambard's at Westeram,
which afterward Sir John himself bought for his son-in-law, Leech.

4th December, 1653. Going this day to our church, I was surprised to see
a tradesman, a mechanic, step up; I was resolved yet to stay and see what
he would make of it. His text was from 2 Sam. xxiii. 20: "And Benaiah
went down also and slew a lion in the midst of a pit in the time of
snow"; the purport was, that no danger was to be thought difficult when
God called for shedding of blood, inferring that now the saints were
called to destroy temporal governments; with such feculent stuff; so
dangerous a crisis were things grown to.

25th December, 1653. Christmas day. No churches, or public assembly. I
was fain to pass the devotions of that Blessed day with my family at
home.

20th January, 1653-54. Come to see my old acquaintance and the most
incomparable player on the Irish harp, Mr. Clark,[48] after his travels.
He was an excellent musician, a discreet gentleman, born in Devonshire
(as I remember). Such music before or since did I never hear, that
instrument being neglected for its extraordinary difficulty; but, in my
judgment, far superior to the lute itself, or whatever speaks with
strings.

    [Footnote 48: See under the year 1688, November.]

25th January, 1654. Died my son, J. Stansfield, of convulsion fits;
buried at Deptford on the east corner of the church, near his mother's
great-grandfather, and other relatives.

8th February, 1654. Ash Wednesday. In contradiction to all custom and
decency, the usurper, Cromwell, feasted at the Lord Mayor's, riding in
triumph through the city.

14th February, 1654. I saw a tame lion play familiarly with a lamb; he
was a huge beast, and I thrust my hand into his mouth and found his
tongue rough like a cat's; a sheep also with six legs, which made use of
five of them to walk; a goose that had four legs, two crops, and as many
vents.

29th March, 1654. That excellent man, Mr. Owen, preached in my library on
Matt. xxviii. 6, a resurrection sermon, and after it we all received the
Holy Communion.

6th April, 1654. Came my Lord Herbert, Sir Kenelm Digby, Mr. Denham, and
other friends to see me.

15th April, 1654. I went to London to hear the famous Jeremy Taylor
(since Bishop of Down and Connor) at St. Gregory's (near St. Paul's) on
Matt. vi, 48, concerning evangelical perfection.

5th May, 1654. I bound my lackey, Thomas Headly, apprentice to a
carpenter, giving with him five pounds and new clothing; he thrived very
well, and became rich.

8th May, 1654. I went to Hackney, to see Lady Brook's garden, which was
one of the neatest and most celebrated in England, the house well
furnished, but a despicable building. Returning, visited one Mr. Tomb's
garden; it has large and noble walks, some modern statues, a vineyard,
planted in strawberry borders, staked at ten feet distances, the
banqueting-house of cedar, where the couch and seats were carved _à
l'antique_; some good pictures in the house, especially one of Vandyke's,
being a man in his shirt; also some of Stenwyck. I also called at Mr.
Ducie's, who has indeed a rare collection of the best masters, and one of
the largest stories of H. Holbein. I also saw Sir Thomas Fowler's
aviary, which is a poor business.

[Illustration: _OLIVER CROMWELL DICTATING TO JOHN MILTON_

_The letter to the Duke of Savoy to stop the persecution of the
Protestants of Piedmont, 1655. Photogravure from an engraving by Sartain
after Newenham_]

10th May, 1654. My Lady Gerrard treated us at Mulberry Garden, now the
only place of refreshment about the town for persons of the best quality
to be exceedingly cheated at; Cromwell and his partisans having shut up
and seized on Spring Garden, which, till now, had been the usual
rendezvous for the ladies and gallants at this season.

11th May, 1654. I now observed how the women began to paint themselves,
formerly a most ignominious thing, and used only by prostitutes.

14th May, 1654. There being no such thing as church anniversaries in the
parochial assemblies, I was forced to provide at home for Whit Sunday.

15th May, 1654. Came Sir Robert Stapylton, the translator of "Juvenal,"
to visit me.

8th June, 1654. My wife and I set out in a coach and four horses, in our
way to visit relations of hers in Wiltshire, and other parts, where we
resolved to spend some months. We dined at Windsor, saw the Castle and
Chapel of St. George, where they have laid our blessed Martyr, King
Charles, in the VAULT JUST BEFORE THE ALTAR. The church and workmanship
in stone is admirable. The Castle itself is large in circumference; but
the rooms melancholy, and of ancient magnificence. The keep, or mount,
hath, besides its incomparable prospect, a very profound well; and the
terrace toward Eton, with the park, meandering Thames, and sweet meadows,
yield one of the most delightful prospects. That night, we lay at
Reading. Saw my Lord Craven's house at Causam [Caversham], now in ruins,
his goodly woods felling by the Rebels.

9th June, 1654. Dined at Marlborough, which having been lately fired, was
now new built. At one end of this town, we saw my Lord Seymour's house,
but nothing observable save the Mount, to which we ascended by windings
for near half a mile. It seems to have been cast up by hand. We passed by
Colonel Popham's, a noble seat, park, and river. Thence, to Newbury, a
considerable town, and Donnington, famous for its battle, siege, and
castle, this last had been in the possession of old Geoffrey Chaucer.
Then to Aldermaston, a house of Sir Humphrey Forster's, built _à la
moderne_. Also, that exceedingly beautiful seat of my Lord Pembroke, on
the ascent of hill, flanked with wood, and regarding the river, and so,
at night, to Cadenham, the mansion of Edward Hungerford, Esq., uncle to
my wife, where we made some stay. The rest of the week we did nothing but
feast and make good cheer, to welcome my wife.

27th June, 1654. We all went to see Bath, where I bathed in the cross
bath. Among the rest of the idle diversions of the town, one musician was
famous for acting a changeling, which indeed he personated strangely.

The _facciáta_ of this cathedral is remarkable for its historical
carving. The King's Bath is esteemed the fairest in Europe. The town is
entirely built of stone, but the streets narrow, uneven and unpleasant.
Here, we trifled and bathed, and intervisited with the company who
frequent the place for health, till the 30th, and then went to Bristol, a
city emulating London, not for its large extent, but manner of building,
shops, bridge, traffic, exchange, market-place, etc. The governor showed
us the castle, of no great concernment. The city wholly mercantile, as
standing near the famous Severn, commodiously for Ireland, and the
Western world. Here I first saw the manner of refining sugar and casting
it into loaves, where we had a collection of eggs fried in the sugar
furnace, together with excellent Spanish wine. But, what appeared most
stupendous to me, was the rock of St. Vincent, a little distance from the
town, the precipice whereof is equal to anything of that nature I have
seen in the most confragose cataracts of the Alps, the river gliding
between them at an extraordinary depth. Here, we went searching for
diamonds, and to the Hot Wells, at its foot. There is also on the side of
this horrid Alp a very romantic seat: and so we returned to Bath in the
evening, and July 1st to Cadenham.

4th July, 1654. On a letter from my wife's uncle, Mr. Pretyman, I waited
back on her to London, passing by Hungerford, a town famous for its
trouts, and the next day arrived at Deptford, which was 60 miles, in the
extremity of heat.

[Sidenote: OXFORD]

6th July, 1654. I went early to London, and the following day met my wife
and company at Oxford, the eve of the Act.

8th July, 1654. Was spent in hearing several exercises in the schools;
and, after dinner, the Proctor opened the Act at St. Mary's (according to
custom), and the Prevaricators, their drollery. Then, the Doctors
disputed. We supped at Wadham College.

9th July, 1654. Dr. French preached at St. Mary's, on Matt. xii. 42,
advising the students the search after true wisdom, not to be had in the
books of philosophers, but in the Scriptures alone. In the afternoon, the
famous Independent, Dr. Owen, perstringing Episcopacy. He was now
Cromwell's Vice-Chancellor. We dined with Dr. Ward, Mathematical
Professor (since Bishop of Sarum), and at night supped in Baliol College
Hall, where I had once been student and fellow-commoner, and where they
made me extraordinarily welcome.

10th July, 1654. On Monday, I went again to the schools, to hear the
several faculties, and in the afternoon tarried out the whole Act in St.
Mary's, the long speeches of the Proctors, the Vice-Chancellor, the
several Professors, creation of Doctors, by the cap, ring, kiss, etc.,
those ancient ceremonies and institution being as yet not wholly
abolished. Dr. Kendal, now Inceptor among others, performing his Act
incomparably well, concluded it with an excellent oration, abating his
Presbyterian animosities, which he withheld, not even against that
learned and pious divine, Dr. Hammond. The Act was closed with the speech
of the Vice-Chancellor, there being but four in theology, and three in
medicine, which was thought a considerable matter, the times considered.
I dined at one Monsieur Fiat's, a student of Exeter College, and supped
at a magnificent entertainment of Wadham Hall, invited by my dear and
excellent friend, Dr. Wilkins, then Warden (after, Bishop of Chester).

11th July, 1654. Was the Latin sermon, which I could not be at, though
invited, being taken up at All Souls, where we had music, voices, and
theorbos, performed by some ingenious scholars. After dinner, I visited
that miracle of a youth, Mr. Christopher Wren, nephew to the Bishop of
Ely. Then Mr. Barlow (since Bishop of Lincoln), bibliothecarius of the
Bodleian Library, my most learned friend. He showed us the rarities of
that most famous place, manuscripts, medals, and other curiosities. Among
the MSS. an old English Bible, wherein the Eunuch mentioned to be
baptized by Philip, is called the Gelding: "and Philip and the Gelding
went down into the water," etc. The original Acts of the Council of Basil
900 years since, with the _bulla_, or leaden affix, which has a silken
cord passing through every parchment; a MS. of Venerable Bede of 800
years antiquity; the old Ritual _secundum usum Sarum_ exceeding
voluminous; then, among the nicer curiosities, the "Proverbs of Solomon,"
written in French by a lady, every chapter of a several character, or
hand, the most exquisite imaginable; an hieroglyphical table, or carta,
folded up like a map, I suppose it painted on asses' hide, extremely
rare; but, what is most illustrious, there were no less than 1,000 MSS.
in nineteen languages, especially Oriental, furnishing that new part of
the library built by Archbishop Laud, from a design of Sir Kenelm Digby
and the Earl of Pembroke. In the closet of the tower, they show some
Indian weapons, urns, lamps, etc., but the rarest is the whole Alcoran,
written on one large sheet of calico, made up in a priest's vesture, or
cope, after the Turkish and Arabic character, so exquisitely written, as
no printed letter comes near it; also, a roll of magical charms, divers
talismans, and some medals.

Then, I led my wife into the Convocation House, finely wainscoted; the
Divinity School, and Gothic carved roof; the Physic, or Anatomy School,
adorned with some rarities of natural things; but nothing extraordinary
save the skin of a jackal, a rarely-colored jackatoo, or prodigious large
parrot, two humming birds, not much bigger than our bumblebee, which
indeed I had not seen before, that I remember.

12th July, 1654. We went to St. John's, saw the library and the two
skeletons, which are finely cleansed and put together; observable is here
also the store of mathematical instruments, chiefly given by the late
Archbishop Laud, who built here a handsome quadrangle.

Thence we went to New College, where the chapel was in its ancient garb,
notwithstanding the scrupulosity of the times. Thence, to Christ's
Church, in whose library was shown us an Office of Henry VIII., the
writing, miniatures, and gilding whereof is equal, if not surpassing, any
curiosity I had seen of that kind; it was given by their founder,
Cardinal Wolsey. The glass windows of the cathedral (famous in my time)
I found much abused. The ample hall and column, that spreads its capital
to sustain the roof as one goes up the stairs, is very remarkable.

Next we walked to Magdalen College, where we saw the library and chapel,
which was likewise in pontifical order, the altar only I think turned
tablewise, and there was still the double organ, which abominations (as
now esteemed) were almost universally demolished; Mr. Gibbon, that famous
musician, giving us a taste of his skill and talents on that instrument.

Hence, to the Physic Garden, where the sensitive plant was shown us for a
great wonder. There grew canes, olive trees, rhubarb, but no
extraordinary curiosities, besides very good fruit, which, when the
ladies had tasted, we returned in our coach to our lodgings.

13th July, 1654. We all dined at that most obliging and
universally-curious Dr. Wilkins's, at Wadham College. He was the first
who showed me the transparent apiaries, which he had built like castles
and palaces, and so ordered them one upon another, as to take the honey
without destroying the bees. These were adorned with a variety of dials,
little statues, vanes, etc.; and, he was so abundantly civil, finding me
pleased with them, to present me with one of the hives which he had
empty, and which I afterward had in my garden at Sayes Court, where it
continued many years, and which his Majesty came on purpose to see and
contemplate with much satisfaction. He had also contrived a hollow
statue, which gave a voice and uttered words by a long, concealed pipe
that went to its mouth,[49] while one speaks through it at a good
distance. He had, above in his lodgings and gallery, variety of shadows,
dials, perspectives, and many other artificial, mathematical, and magical
curiosities, a waywiser, a thermometer, a monstrous magnet, conic, and
other sections, a balance on a demi-circle; most of them of his own, and
that prodigious young scholar Mr. Christopher Wren, who presented me with
a piece of white marble, which he had stained with a lively red, very
deep, as beautiful as if it had been natural.

    [Footnote 49: Such were the speaking figures long ago exhibited in
    Spring Gardens, and in Leicester Fields.]

Thus satisfied with the civilities of Oxford, we left it, dining at
Farringdon, a town which had been newly fired during the wars; and,
passing near the seat of Sir Walter Pye, we came to Cadenham.

16th July, 1654. We went to another uncle and relative of my wife's, Sir
John Glanville, a famous lawyer, formerly Speaker of the House of
Commons; his seat is at Broad Hinton, where he now lived but in the
gate-house, his very fair dwelling house having been burnt by his own
hands, to prevent the rebels making a garrison of it. Here, my cousin
William Glanville's eldest son showed me such a lock for a door, that for
its filing, and rare contrivances was a masterpiece, yet made by a
country blacksmith. But, we have seen watches made by another with as
much curiosity as the best of that profession can brag of; and, not many
years after, there was nothing more frequent than all sorts of ironwork
more exquisitely wrought and polished than in any part of Europe, so as a
door lock of a tolerable price was esteemed a curiosity even among
foreign princes.

Went back to Cadenham, and, on the 19th, to Sir Edward Baynton's at Spie
Park, a place capable of being made a noble seat; but the humorous old
knight has built a long single house of two low stories on the precipice
of an incomparable prospect, and landing on a bowling-green in the park.
The house is like a long barn, and has not a window on the prospect side.
After dinner, they went to bowls, and, in the meantime, our coachmen were
made so exceedingly drunk, that in returning home we escaped great
dangers. This, it seems, was by order of the knight, that all gentlemen's
servants be so treated; but the custom is barbarous, and much unbecoming
a knight still less a Christian.

[Sidenote: SALISBURY]

20th July, 1654. We proceeded to Salisbury; the cathedral I take to be
the most complete piece of Gothic work in Europe, taken in all its
uniformity. The pillars, reputed to be cast, are of stone manifestly cut
out of the quarry; most observable are those in the chapter house. There
are some remarkable monuments, particularly the ancient Bishops, founders
of the Church, Knights Templars, the Marquis of Hertford's, the cloisters
of the palace and garden, and the great mural dial.

In the afternoon we went to Wilton, a fine house of the Earl of Pembroke,
in which the most observable are the dining room in the modern-built
part toward the garden, richly gilded and painted with story, by De
Crete; also some other apartments, as that of hunting landscapes, by
Pierce; some magnificent chimney-pieces, after the best French manner; a
pair of artificial winding stairs of stone, and divers rare pictures. The
garden, heretofore esteemed the noblest in England, is a large handsome
plain, with a grotto and waterworks, which might be made much more
pleasant, were the river that passes through cleansed and raised; for all
is effected by a mere force. It has a flower garden, not inelegant. But,
after all, that which renders the seat delightful is, its being so near
the downs and noble plains about the country contiguous to it. The
stables are well ordered and yield a graceful front, by reason of the
walks of lime trees, with the court and fountain of the stables adorned
with the Cæsars' heads.

We returned this evening by the plain, and fourteen-mile race, where out
of my lord's hare warren we were entertained with a long course of a hare
for near two miles in sight. Near this, is a _pergola_, or stand, built
to view the sports; and so we came to Salisbury, and saw the most
considerable parts of the city. The market place, with most of the
streets, are watered by a quick current and pure stream running through
the middle of them, but are negligently kept, when with a small charge
they might be purged and rendered infinitely agreeable, and this made one
of the sweetest towns, but now the common buildings are despicable, and
the streets dirty.

22d July, 1654. We departed and dined at a farm of my Uncle Hungerford's,
called Darnford Magna, situated in a valley under the plain, most sweetly
watered, abounding in trouts caught by spear in the night, when they come
attracted by a light set in the stern of a boat.

After dinner, continuing our return, we passed over the goodly plain, or
rather sea of carpet, which I think for evenness, extent, verdure, and
innumerable flocks, to be one of the most delightful prospects in nature,
and reminded me of the pleasant lives of shepherds we read of in
romances.

Now we arrived at Stonehenge, indeed a stupendous monument, appearing at
a distance like a castle; how so many and huge pillars of stone should
have been brought together, some erect, others transverse on the tops of
them, in a circular area as rudely representing a cloister or heathen and
more natural temple, is wonderful. The stone is so exceedingly hard, that
all my strength with a hammer could not break a fragment; which hardness
I impute to their so long exposure. To number them exactly is very
difficult, they lie in such variety of postures and confusion, though
they seemed not to exceed 100; we counted only 95. As to their being
brought thither, there being no navigable river near, is by some admired;
but for the stone, there seems to be the same kind about 20 miles
distant, some of which appear above ground. About the same hills, are
divers mounts raised, conceived to be ancient intrenchments, or places of
burial, after bloody fights. We now went by Devizes, a reasonable large
town, and came late to Cadenham.

27th July, 1654. To the hunting of a sorel deer, and had excellent chase
for four or five hours, but the venison little worth.

29th July, 1654. I went to Langford to see my Cousin Stephens. I also saw
Dryfield, the house heretofore of Sir John Pretyman, grandfather to my
wife, and sold by her uncle; both the seat and house very honorable and
well built, much after the modern fashion.

31st July, 1654. Taking leave of Cadenham, where we had been long and
nobly entertained, we went a compass into Leicestershire, where dwelt
another relation of my wife's; for I indeed made these excursions to show
her the most considerable parts of her native country, who, from her
childhood, had lived altogether in France, as well as for my own
curiosity and information.

[Sidenote: GLOUCESTER]

About two miles before coming to Gloucester, we have a prospect from
woody hills into a most goodly vale and country. Gloucester is a handsome
city, considerable for the church and monuments. The minster is indeed a
noble fabric. The whispering gallery is rare, being through a passage of
twenty-five yards in a many-angled cloister, and was, I suppose, either
to show the skill of the architect, or some invention of a cunning
priest, who, standing unseen in a recess in the middle of the chapel,
might hear whatever was spoken at either end. This is above the choir, in
which lies buried King Stephen[50] under a monument of Irish oak, not ill
carved considering the age. The new library is a noble though a private
design. I was likewise pleased with the Severn gliding so sweetly by it.
The Duke's house, the castle works, are now almost quite dismantled; nor
yet without sad thoughts did I see the town, considering how fatal the
siege had been a few years before to our good King.

    [Footnote 50: King Stephen was buried at Faversham. The effigy
    Evelyn alluded to is that of Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy.]

1st August, 1654. We set out toward Worcester, by a way thickly planted
with cider fruit. We deviated to the Holy Wells, trickling out of a
valley through a steep declivity toward the foot of the great Malvern
Hills; they are said to heal many infirmities, as king's evil, leprosy,
sore eyes, etc. Ascending a great height above them to the trench
dividing England from South Wales, we had the prospect of all
Herefordshire, Radnor, Brecknoch, Monmouth, Worcester, Gloucester,
Shropshire, Warwick, Derbyshires, and many more. We could discern
Tewkesbury, King's road, toward Bristol, etc.; so as I esteem it one of
the goodliest vistas in England.

2d August, 1654. This evening we arrived at Worcester, the Judges of
Assize and Sheriff just entering as we did. Viewing the town the next
day, we found the Cathedral much ruined by the late wars, otherwise a
noble structure. The town is neatly paved and very clean, the goodly
river Severn running by it, and standing in a most fertile country.

3d August, 1654. We passed next through Warwick, and saw the castle, the
dwelling house of the Lord Brook, and the furniture noble. It is built on
an eminent rock which gives prospect into a most goodly green, a woody
and plentifully watered country; the river running so delightfully under
it, that it may pass for one of the most surprising seats one should meet
with. The gardens are prettily disposed; but might be much improved. Here
they showed us Sir Guy's great two-handed sword, staff, horse-arms, pot,
and other relics of that famous knight-errant. Warwick is a fair old
town, and hath one church full of ancient monuments.

Having viewed these, I went to visit my worthy friend, Sir H. Puckering,
at the Abbey, and though a melancholy old seat, yet in a rich soil.

Hence to Sir Guy's grot, where they say he did his penances, and died. It
is a squalid den made in the rock, crowned yet with venerable oaks and
looking on a goodly stream, so as, were it improved as it might be, it
were capable of being made a most romantic and pleasant place. Near this,
we were showed his chapel and gigantic statue hewn out of the solid rock,
out of which there are likewise divers other caves cut, and some very
capacious.

The next place to Coventry. The cross is remarkable for Gothic work and
rich gilding, comparable to any I had ever seen, except that of Cheapside
in London, now demolished. This city has many handsome churches, a
beautiful wall, a fair free school and library to it; the streets full of
great shops, clean and well paved. At going forth the gate, they show us
the bone, or rib, of a wild boar, said to have been killed by Sir Guy,
but which I take to be the chine of a whale.

[Sidenote: LEICESTER]

4th August, 1654. Hence, riding through a considerable part of
Leicestershire, an open, rich, but unpleasant country, we came late in
the evening to Horninghold, a seat of my wife's uncle.

7th August, 1654. Went to Uppingham, the shire town of Rutland, pretty
and well built of stone, which is a rarity in that part of England, where
most of the rural parishes are but of mud; and the people living as
wretchedly as in the most impoverished parts of France, which they much
resemble, being idle and sluttish. The country (especially
Leicestershire) much in common; the gentry free drinkers.

9th August, 1654. To the old and ragged city of Leicester, large and
pleasantly seated, but despicably built, the chimney flues like so many
smiths' forges; however, famous for the tomb of the tyrant, Richard III.,
which is now converted to a cistern, at which (I think) cattle drink.
Also, here in one of the churches lies buried the magnificent Cardinal
Wolsey. John of Gaunt has here also built a large but poor hospital, near
which a wretch has made him a house out of the ruins of a stately church.
Saw the ruins of an old Roman Temple, thought to be of Janus. Entertained
at a very fine collection of fruits, such as I did not expect to meet
with so far North, especially very good melons. We returned to my
uncle's.

14th August, 1654. I took a journey into the Northern parts, riding
through Oakham, a pretty town in Rutlandshire, famous for the tenure of
the Barons (Ferrers), who hold it by taking off a shoe from every
nobleman's horse that passes with his lord through the street, unless
redeemed with a certain piece of money. In token of this, are several
gilded shoes nailed up on the castle gate, which seems to have been large
and fair. Hence, we went by Brook, a very sweet seat and park of the old
Lady Camden's. Next, by Burleigh House, belonging to the Duke of
Buckingham, and worthily reckoned among the noblest seats in England,
situate on the brow of a hill, built _à la moderne_ near a park walled
in, and a fine wood at the descent.

Now we were come to Cottsmore, a pretty seat belonging to Mr. Heath, son
of the late Lord Chief Justice of that name. Here, after dinner, parting
with the company that conducted us thus far, I passed that evening by
Belvoir Castle, built on a round mount at the point of a long ridge of
hills, which affords a stately prospect, and is famous for its strenuous
resistance in the late civil war.

Went by Newark-on-Trent, a brave town and garrison. Next, by Wharton
House, belonging to the Lord Chaworth, a handsome seat; then by Home, a
noble place belonging to the Marquis of Dorchester, and passed the famous
river Trent, which divides the South from the North of England; and so
lay that night at Nottingham.

This whole town and county seems to be but one entire rock, as it were,
an exceedingly pleasant shire, full of gentry. Here, I observed divers to
live in the rocks and caves, much after the manner as about Tours, in
France. The church is well built on an eminence; there is a fair house of
the Lord Clare's, another of Pierrepont's; an ample market place; large
streets, full of crosses; the relics of an ancient castle, hollowed
beneath which are many caverns, especially that of the Scots' King, and
his work while there.

This place is remarkable for being the place where his Majesty first
erected his standard at the beginning of our late unhappy differences.
The prospects from this city toward the river and meadows are most
delightful.

15th August, 1654. We passed next through Sherwood Forest, accounted the
most extensive in England. Then, Paplewick, an incomparable vista with
the pretty castle near it. Thence, we saw Newstead Abbey, belonging to
the Lord Byron, situated much like Fontainebleau in France, capable of
being made a noble seat, accommodated as it is with brave woods and
streams; it has yet remaining the front of a glorious abbey church. Next,
by Mansfield town; then Welbeck, the house of the Marquis of Newcastle,
seated in a bottom in a park, and environed with woods, a noble yet
melancholy seat. The palace is a handsome and stately building. Next to
Worksop Abbey, almost demolished; the church has a double flat tower
entire, and a pretty gate. The manor belongs to the Earl of Arundel, and
has to it a fair house at the foot of a hill in a park that affords a
delicate prospect. Tickel, a town and castle, has a very noble prospect.
All these in Nottinghamshire.

16th August, 1654. We arrived at Doncaster, where we lay this night; it
is a large fair town, famous for great wax lights, and good stockings.

17th August, 1654. Passed through Pontefract; the castle famous for many
sieges both of late and ancient times, and the death of that unhappy King
murdered in it (Richard II.), was now demolishing by the Rebels; it
stands on a mount, and makes a goodly show at a distance. The Queen has a
house here, and there are many fair seats near it, especially Mr.
Pierrepont's, built at the foot of a hill out of the castle ruins. We all
alighted in the highway to drink at a crystal spring, which they call
Robin Hood's Well; near it, is a stone chair, and an iron ladle to drink
out of, chained to the seat. We rode to Tadcaster, at the side of which
we have prospect of the Archbishop's Palace (which is a noble seat), and
in sight of divers other gentlemen's fair houses. This tract is a goodly,
fertile, well-watered, and wooded country, abounding with pasture and
plenty of provisions.

[Sidenote: YORK]

To York, the second city of England, fairly walled, of a circular form,
watered by the brave river Ouse, bearing vessels of considerable burden
on it; over it is a stone bridge emulating that of London, and built on;
the middle arch is larger than any I have seen in England, with a wharf
of hewn stone, which makes the river appear very neat. But most
remarkable and worth seeing is St. Peter's Cathedral, which of all the
great churches in England had been best preserved from the fury of the
sacrilegious, by composition with the Rebels when they took the city,
during the many incursions of Scotch and others. It is a most entire
magnificent piece of Gothic architecture. The screen before the choir is
of stone carved with flowers, running work and statues of the old kings.
Many of the monuments are very ancient. Here, as a great rarity in these
days and at this time, they showed me a Bible and Common Prayer Book
covered with crimson velvet, and richly embossed with silver gilt; also a
service for the altar of gilt wrought plate, flagons, basin, ewer,
plates, chalices, patins, etc., with a gorgeous covering for the altar
and pulpit, carefully preserved in the vestry, in the hollow wall whereof
rises a plentiful spring of excellent water. I got up to the tower,
whence we had a prospect toward Durham, and could see Ripon, part of
Lancashire, the famous and fatal Marston Moor, the Spas of Knaresborough,
and all the environs of that admirable country. Sir ---- Ingoldsby has
here a large house, gardens, and tennis court; also the King's house and
church near the castle, which was modernly fortified with a palisade and
bastions. The streets are narrow and ill-paved, the shops like London.

18th August, 1654. We went to Beverley, a large town with two stately
churches, St. John's and St. Mary's, not much inferior to the best of our
cathedrals. Here a very old woman showed us the monuments, and, being
above 100 years of age, spoke the language of Queen Mary's days, in whose
time she was born; she was widow of a sexton who had belonged to the
church a hundred years.

Hence, we passed through a fenny but rich country to Hull, situated like
Calais, modernly and strongly fortified with three block-houses of brick
and earth. It has a good market place and harbor for ships. Famous also
(or rather infamous) is this town for Hotham's refusing entrance to his
Majesty. The water-house is worth seeing. And here ends the south of
Yorkshire.

[Sidenote: LINCOLN]

19th August, 1654. We pass the Humber, an arm of the sea of about two
leagues breadth. The weather was bad, but we crossed it in a good barge
to Barton, the first town in that part of Lincolnshire. All marsh ground
till we came to Brigg, famous for the plantations of licorice, and then
had brave pleasant riding to Lincoln, much resembling Salisbury Plain.
Lincoln is an old confused town, very long, uneven, steep, and ragged;
formerly full of good houses, especially churches and abbeys. The Minster
almost comparable to that of York itself, abounding with marble pillars,
and having a fair front (herein was interred Queen Eleanora, the loyal
and loving wife who sucked the poison out of her husband's wound); the
abbot founder, with rare carving in the stone; the great bell, or Tom, as
they call it. I went up the steeple, from whence is a goodly prospect all
over the country. The soldiers had lately knocked off most of the brasses
from the gravestones, so as few inscriptions were left; they told us that
these men went in with axes and hammers, and shut themselves in, till
they had rent and torn off some barge loads of metal, not sparing even
the monuments of the dead; so hellish an avarice possessed them: beside
which, they exceedingly ruined the city.

Here, I saw a tall woman six feet two inches high, comely, middle-aged,
and well-proportioned, who kept a very neat and clean alehouse, and got
most by people's coming to see her on account of her height.

20th August, 1654. From hence we had a most pleasant ride over a large
heath open like Salisbury Plain, to Grantham, a pretty town, so well
situated on the side of a bottom which is large and at a distance
environed with ascending grounds, that for pleasure I consider it
comparable to most inland places of England; famous is the steeple for
the exceeding height of the shaft, which is of stone.

About eighteen miles south, we pass by a noble seat, and see Boston at a
distance. Here, we came to a parish of which the parson had tithe ale.

Thence through Rutland, we brought night to Horninghold, from whence I
set out on this excursion.

22d August, 1654. I went a setting and hawking, where we had tolerable
sport.

25th August, 1654. To see Kirby, a very noble house of my Lord Hatton's,
in Northamptonshire, built _à la moderne_; the garden and stables
agreeable, but the avenue ungraceful, and the seat naked: returned that
evening.

27th August, 1654. Mr. Allington preached an excellent discourse from
Romans vi. 19. This was he who published those bold sermons of the
members warring against the mind, or the Jews crucifying Christ, applied
to the wicked regicides; for which he was ruined. We had no sermon in the
afternoon.

30th August, 1654. Taking leave of my friends, who had now feasted me
more than a month, I, with my wife, etc., set our faces toward home, and
got this evening to Peterborough, passing by a stately palace (Thorpe) of
St. John's (one deep in the blood of our good king), built out of the
ruins of the Bishop's palace and cloister. The church is exceeding fair,
full of monuments of great antiquity. Here lies Queen Catherine, the
unhappy wife of Henry VIII., and the no less unfortunate Mary, Queen of
Scots. On the steeple, we viewed the fens of Lincolnshire, now much
inclosed and drained with infinite expense, and by many sluices, cuts,
mounds, and ingenious mills, and the like inventions; at which the city
and country about it consisting of a poor and very lazy sort of people,
were much displeased.

Peterborough is a handsome town, and hath another well-built church.

31st August, 1654. Through part of Huntingdonshire, we passed that town,
fair and ancient, a river running by it. The country about it so abounds
in wheat that, when any King of England passes through it, they have a
custom to meet him with a hundred plows.

[Sidenote: CAMBRIDGE]

This evening, to Cambridge; and went first to St. John's College, well
built of brick, and library, which I think is the fairest of that
University. One Mr. Benlowes has given it all the ornaments of _pietra
commessa_,[51] whereof a table and one piece of perspective is very fine;
other trifles there also be of no great value, besides a vast old
song-book, or Service, and some fair manuscripts. There hangs in the
library the picture of John Williams, Archbishop of York, sometime Lord
Keeper, my kinsman, and their great benefactor.

    [Footnote 51: Marble, inlaid of various colors, representing
    flowers, birds, etc.]

Trinity College is said by some to be the fairest quadrangle of any
university in Europe; but in truth is far inferior to that of Christ
Church, in Oxford; the hall is ample and of stone, the fountain in the
quadrangle is graceful, the chapel and library fair. There they showed us
the prophetic manuscript of the famous Grebner, but the passage and
emblem which they would apply to our late King, is manifestly relating to
the Swedish; in truth, it seems to be a mere fantastic rhapsody, however
the title may bespeak strange revelations. There is an office in
manuscript with fine miniatures, and some other antiquities, given by the
Countess of Richmond, mother of Henry VIII., and the before-mentioned
Archbishop Williams, when Bishop of Lincoln. The library is pretty well
stored. The Greek Professor had me into another large quadrangle
cloistered and well built, and gave us a handsome collation in his own
chamber.

Thence to Caius, and afterward to King's College, where I found the
chapel altogether answered expectation, especially the roof, all of
stone, which for the flatness of its laying and carving may, I conceive,
vie with any in Christendom. The contignation of the roof (which I went
upon), weight, and artificial joining of the stones is admirable. The
lights are also very fair. In one aisle lies the famous Dr. Collins, so
celebrated for his fluency in the Latin tongue. From this roof we could
descry Ely, and the encampment of Sturbridge fair now beginning to set up
their tents and booths; also Royston, Newmarket, etc., houses belonging
to the King. The library is too narrow.

Clare-Hall is of a new and noble design, but not finished.

Peter-House, formerly under the government of my worthy friend, Dr.
Joseph Cosin, Dean of Peterborough; a pretty neat college, having a
delicate chapel. Next to Sidney, a fine college.

Catherine-Hall, though a mean structure, is yet famous for the learned
Bishop Andrews, once Master. Emanuel College, that zealous house, where
to the hall they have a parlor for the Fellows. The chapel is reformed,
_ab origine_, built north and south, and meanly erected, as is the
library.

Jesus-College, one of the best built, but in a melancholy situation. Next
to Christ-College, a very noble erection, especially the modern part,
built without the quadrangle toward the gardens, of exact architecture.

The Schools are very despicable, and Public Library but mean, though
somewhat improved by the wainscoting and books lately added by the Bishop
Bancroft's library and MSS. They showed us little of antiquity, only King
James's Works, being his own gift, and kept very reverently.

The market place is very ample, and remarkable for old Hobson, the
pleasant carrier's beneficence of a fountain.[52] But the whole town is
situate in a low, dirty, unpleasant place, the streets ill-paved, the air
thick and infected by the fens, nor are its churches, (of which St.
Mary's is the best) anything considerable in compare to Oxford.[53]

    [Footnote 52: A conduit it should rather be called.]

    [Footnote 53: The reader must remember that an Oxford man is
    speaking.]

From Cambridge, we went to Audley-End, and spent some time in seeing that
goodly place built by Howard, Earl of Suffolk, once Lord Treasurer. It is
a mixed fabric, between antique and modern, but observable for its being
completely finished, and without comparison is one of the stateliest
palaces in the kingdom. It consists of two courts, the first very large,
winged with cloisters. The front had a double entrance; the hall is fair,
but somewhat too small for so august a pile. The kitchen is very large,
as are the cellars, arched with stone, very neat and well disposed; these
offices are joined by a wing out of the way very handsomely. The gallery
is the most cheerful and I think one of the best in England; a fair
dining-room, and the rest of the lodgings answerable, with a pretty
chapel. The gardens are not in order, though well inclosed. It has also a
bowling-alley, a noble well-walled, wooded and watered park, full of fine
_collines_ and ponds: the river glides before the palace, to which is an
avenue of lime trees, but all this is much diminished by its being placed
in an obscure bottom. For the rest, is a perfectly uniform structure, and
shows without like a diadem, by the decorations of the cupolas and other
ornaments on the pavilions; instead of rails and balusters, there is a
border of capital letters, as was lately also on Suffolk-House, near
Charing-Cross, built by the same Lord Treasurer.

This house stands in the parish of Saffron Walden, famous for the
abundance of saffron there cultivated, and esteemed the best of any
foreign country.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

3d October, 1654. Having dined here, we passed through Bishop Stortford,
a pretty watered town, and so by London, late home to Sayes Court, after
a journey of 700 miles, but for the variety an agreeable refreshment
after my turmoil and building.

10th October, 1654. To my brother at Wotton, who had been sick.

14th October, 1654. I went to visit my noble friend Mr. Hyldiard, where I
met that learned gentleman, my Lord Aungier, and Dr. Stokes, one of his
Majesty's chaplains.

15th October, 1654. To Betchworth Castle, to Sir Ambrose Browne, and
other gentlemen of my sweet and native country.

24th October, 1654. The good old parson, Higham, preached at Wotton
Church: a plain preacher, but innocent and honest man.

23d November, 1654. I went to London, to visit my cousin Fanshawe, and
this day I saw one of the rarest collections of agates, onyxes, and
intaglios, that I had ever seen either at home or abroad, collected by a
conceited old hatmaker in Blackfriars, especially one agate vase,
heretofore the great Earl of Leicester's.

28th November, 1654. Came Lady Langham, a kinswoman of mine, to visit us;
also one Captain Cooke, esteemed the best singer, after the Italian
manner, of any in England; he entertained us with his voice and theorbo.

30th November, 1654. My birthday, being the 34th year of my age: blessing
God for his providence, I went to London to visit my brother.

3d December, 1654. Advent Sunday. There being no Office at the church but
extemporary prayers after the Presbyterian way, for now all forms were
prohibited, and most of the preachers were usurpers, I seldom went to
church upon solemn feasts; but, either went to London, where some of the
orthodox sequestered divines did privately use the Common Prayer,
administer sacraments, etc., or else I procured one to officiate in my
house; wherefore, on the 10th, Dr. Richard Owen, the sequestered minister
of Eltham, preached to my family in my library, and gave us the Holy
Communion.

25th December, 1654. Christmas day. No public offices in churches, but
penalties on observers, so as I was constrained to celebrate it at home.

1st January, 1654-55. Having with my family performed the public offices
of the day, and begged a blessing on the year I was now entering, I went
to keep the rest of Christmas at my brother's, R. Evelyn, at Woodcot.

19th January, 1655. My wife was brought to bed of another son, being my
third, but second living. Christened on the 26th by the name of John.

28th January, 1655. A stranger preached from Colossians iii. 2, inciting
our affections to the obtaining heavenly things. I understood afterward
that this man had been both chaplain and lieutenant to Admiral Penn,
using both swords; whether ordained or not I cannot say; into such times
were we fallen!

24th February, 1655. I was showed a table clock whose balance was only a
crystal ball, sliding on parallel wires, without being at all fixed, but
rolling from stage to stage till falling on a spring concealed from
sight, it was thrown up to the utmost channel again, made with an
imperceptible declivity, in this continual vicissitude of motion prettily
entertaining the eye every half minute, and the next half giving progress
to the hand that showed the hour, and giving notice by a small bell, so
as in 120 half minutes, or periods of the bullet's falling on the
ejaculatory spring, the clock part struck. This very extraordinary piece
(richly adorned) had been presented by some German prince to our late
king, and was now in the possession of the usurper; valued at £200.

2d March, 1655. Mr. Simpson, the King's jeweler, showed me a most rich
agate cup, of an escalop-shape, and having a figure of Cleopatra at the
scroll, her body, hair, mantle, and veil, of the several natural colors.
It was supported by a half Mark Antony, the colors rarely natural, and
the work truly antique, but I conceived they were of several pieces; had
they been all of one stone, it were invaluable.

18th March, 1655. Went to London, on purpose to hear that excellent
preacher, Dr. Jeremy Taylor, on Matt. xiv. 17, showing what were the
conditions of obtaining eternal life; also, concerning abatements for
unavoidable infirmities, how cast on the accounts of the cross. On the
31st, I made a visit to Dr. Jeremy Taylor, to confer with him about some
spiritual matters, using him thenceforward as my ghostly father. I
beseech God Almighty to make me ever mindful of, and thankful for, his
heavenly assistances!

2d April, 1655. This was the first week, that, my uncle Pretyman being
parted with his family from me, I began housekeeping, till now sojourning
with him in my own house.

9th April, 1655. I went to see the great ship newly built by the usurper,
Oliver, carrying ninety-six brass guns, and 1,000 tons burden. In the
prow was Oliver on horseback, trampling six nations under foot, a Scot,
Irishman, Dutchman, Frenchman, Spaniard, and English, as was easily made
out by their several habits. A Fame held a laurel over his insulting
head; the word, GOD WITH US.

15th April, 1655. I went to London with my family, to celebrate the feast
of Easter. Dr. Wild preached at St. Gregory's; the ruling Powers
conniving at the use of the Liturgy, etc., in the church alone. In the
afternoon, Mr. Pierson (since Bishop of Chester) preached at Eastcheap,
but was disturbed by an alarm of fire, which about this time was very
frequent in the city.

29th May, 1655. I sold Preston to Colonel Morley.

17th June, 1655. There was a collection for the persecuted churches and
Christians in Savoy, remnants of the ancient Albigenses.

3d July, 1655. I was shown a pretty Terella, described with all the
circles, and showing all the magnetic deviations.

14th July, 1655. Came Mr. Pratt, my old acquaintance at Rome, also Sir
Edward Hales, Sir Joseph Tufton, with Mr. Seymour.

1st August, 1655. I went to Dorking, to see Mr. Charles Howard's
amphitheater, garden, or solitary recess, being fifteen acres environed
by a hill. He showed us divers rare plants, caves, and an elaboratory.

[Sidenote: ALBURY]

10th August, 1655. To Albury, to visit Mr. Howard, who had begun to
build, and alter the gardens much. He showed me many rare pictures,
particularly the Moor on horseback; Erasmus, as big as the life, by
Holbein; a Madonna, in miniature, by Oliver; but, above all, the skull,
carved in wood, by Albert Durer, for which his father was offered £100;
also Albert's head, by himself, with divers rare agates, intaglios, and
other curiosities.

21st August, 1655. I went to Ryegate, to visit Mrs. Cary, at my Lady
Peterborough's, in an ancient monastery well in repair, but the park much
defaced; the house is nobly furnished. The chimney-piece in the great
chamber, carved in wood, was of Henry VIII., and was taken from a house
of his in Bletchingley. At Ryegate, was now the Archbishop of Armagh, the
learned James Usher, whom I went to visit. He received me exceeding
kindly. In discourse with him, he told me how great the loss of time was
to study much the Eastern languages; that, excepting Hebrew, there was
little fruit to be gathered of exceeding labor; that, besides some
mathematical books, the Arabic itself had little considerable; that the
best text was the Hebrew Bible; that the Septuagint was finished in
seventy days, but full of errors, about which he was then writing; that
St. Hierome's was to be valued next the Hebrew; also that the seventy
translated the Pentateuch only, the rest was finished by others; that the
Italians at present understood but little Greek, and Kircher was a
mountebank; that Mr. Selden's best book was his "Titles of Honor"; that
the church would be destroyed by sectaries, who would in all likelihood
bring in Popery. In conclusion he recommended to me the study of
philology, above all human studies; and so, with his blessing, I took my
leave of this excellent person, and returned to Wotton.

27th August, 1655. I went to Boxhill, to see those rare natural bowers,
cabinets, and shady walks in the box copses: hence we walked to
Mickleham, and saw Sir F. Stidolph's seat, environed with elm trees and
walnuts innumerable, and of which last he told us they received a
considerable revenue. Here are such goodly walks and hills shaded with
yew and box, as render the place extremely agreeable, it seeming from
these evergreens to be summer all the winter.

28th August, 1655. Came that renowned mathematician, Mr. Oughtred, to see
me, I sending my coach to bring him to Wotton, being now very aged. Among
other discourse, he told me he thought water to be the philosopher's
first matter, and that he was well persuaded of the possibility of their
elixir; he believed the sun to be a material fire, the moon a continent,
as appears by the late selenographers; he had strong apprehensions of
some extraordinary event to happen the following year, from the
calculation of coincidence with the diluvian period; and added that it
might possibly be to convert the Jews by our Savior's visible appearance,
or to judge the world; and therefore, his word was, "_Parate in
occursum_"; he said original sin was not met with in the Greek Fathers,
yet he believed the thing; this was from some discourse on Dr. Taylor's
late book, which I had lent him.

16th September, 1655. Preached at St. Gregory's one Darnel, on Psalm iv.
4, concerning the benefit of self-examination; more learning in SO SHORT
A TIME AS AN HOUR I have seldom heard.

17th September, 1655. Received £2,600 of Mr. Hurt, for the Manor of
Warley Magna, in Essex, purchased by me some time since. The taxes were
so intolerable that they ate up the rents, etc., surcharged as that
county had been above all others during our unnatural war.

19th September, 1655. Came to see me Sir Edward Hales, Mr. Ashmole, Mr.
Harlakenton, and Mr. Thornhill: and, the next day, I visited Sir Henry
Newton at Charlton, where I met the Earl of Winchelsea and Lady
Beauchamp, daughter to the Lord Capel.

On Sunday afternoon, I frequently staid at home to catechize and instruct
my family, those exercises universally ceasing in the parish churches, so
as people had no principles, and grew very ignorant of even the common
points of Christianity; all devotion being now placed in hearing sermons
and discourses of speculative and national things.

26th September, 1655. I went to see Colonel Blount's subterranean warren,
and drank of the wine of his vineyard, which was good for little.

30th September, 1655. Sir Nicholas Crisp came to treat with me about his
vast design of a mole to be made for ships in part of my grounds at Sayes
Court.

3d November, 1655. I had accidentally discourse with a Persian and a
Greek concerning the devastation of Poland by the late incursion of the
Swedes.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

27th November, 1655. To London about Sir Nicholas Crisp's designs.

I went to see York House and gardens, belonging to the former great
Buckingham, but now much ruined through neglect.

Thence, to visit honest and learned Mr. Hartlib, a public spirited and
ingenious person, who had propagated many useful things and arts. He told
me of the castles which they set for ornament on their stoves in Germany
(he himself being a Lithuanian, as I remember), which are furnished with
small ordnance of silver on the battlements, out of which they discharge
excellent perfumes about the rooms, charging them with a little powder to
set them on fire, and disperse the smoke: and in truth no more than need,
for their stoves are sufficiently nasty. He told me of an ink that would
give a dozen copies, moist sheets of paper being pressed on it; and
remain perfect; and a receipt how to take off any print without the least
injury to the original. This gentleman was master of innumerable
curiosities, and very communicative. I returned home that evening by
water; and was afflicted for it with a cold that had almost killed me.

This day, came forth the Protector's Edict, or Proclamation, prohibiting
all ministers of the Church of England from preaching or teaching any
schools, in which he imitated the apostate, Julian; with the decimation
of all the royal party's revenues throughout England.

14th December, 1655. I visited Mr. Hobbes, the famous philosopher of
Malmesbury, with whom I had been long acquainted in France.

Now were the Jews admitted.

25th December, 1655. There was no more notice taken of Christmas-day in
churches.

I went to London, where Dr. Wild preached the funeral sermon of
Preaching, this being the last day; after which Cromwell's proclamation
was to take place, that none of the Church of England should dare either
to preach, or administer Sacraments, teach schools, etc., on pain of
imprisonment, or exile. So this was the most mournful day that in my life
I had seen, or the Church of England herself, since the Reformation; to
the great rejoicing of both Papist and Presbyter.[54] So pathetic was
his discourse, that it drew many tears from the auditory. Myself, wife,
and some of our family, received the Communion, God make me thankful, who
hath hitherto provided for us the food of our souls as well as bodies!
The Lord Jesus pity our distressed Church, and bring back the captivity
of Zion!

    [Footnote 54: The text was 2 Cor. xiii 9. That, however persecution
    dealt with the Ministers of God's Word, they were still to pray for
    the flock, and wish their perfection, as it was the flock to pray
    for and assist their pastors, by the example of St. Paul.--EVELYN'S
    NOTE.]

5th January, 1655-56. Came to visit me my Lord Lisle, son to the Earl of
Leicester, with Sir Charles Ouseley, two of the Usurper's council; Mr.
John Hervey, and John Denham, the poet.

18th January, 1656. Went to Eltham on foot, being a great frost, but a
mist falling as I returned, gave me such a rheum as kept me within doors
near a whole month after.

5th February, 1656. Was shown me a pretty perspective and well
represented in a triangular box, the great Church of Haarlem in Holland,
to be seen through a small hole at one of the corners, and contrived into
a handsome cabinet. It was so rarely done, that all the artists and
painters in town flocked to see and admire it.

10th February, 1656. I heard Dr. Wilkins preach before the Lord Mayor in
St. Paul's, showing how obedience was preferable to sacrifice. He was a
most obliging person, who had married the Protector's sister, and took
great pains to preserve the Universities from the ignorant, sacrilegious
commanders and soldiers, who would fain have demolished all places and
persons that pretended to learning.

11th February, 1656. I ventured to go to Whitehall, where of many years I
had not been, and found it very glorious and well furnished, as far as I
could safely go, and was glad to find they had not much defaced that rare
piece of Henry VII., etc., done on the walls of the King's privy chamber.

14th February, 1656. I dined with Mr. Berkeley, son of Lord Berkeley, of
Berkeley Castle, where I renewed my acquaintance with my Lord Bruce, my
fellow-traveler in Italy.

19th February, 1656. Went with Dr. Wilkins to see Barlow, the famous
painter of fowls, beasts, and birds.

4th March, 1656. This night I was invited by Mr. Roger L'Estrange to hear
the incomparable Lubicer on the violin. His variety on a few notes and
plain ground, with that wonderful dexterity, was admirable. Though a
young man, yet so perfect and skillful, that there was nothing, however
cross and perplexed, brought to him by our artists, which he did not play
off at sight with ravishing sweetness and improvements, to the
astonishment of our best masters. In sum, he played on the single
instrument a full concert, so as the rest flung down their instruments,
acknowledging the victory. As to my own particular, I stand to this hour
amazed that God should give so great perfection to so young a person.
There were at that time as excellent in their profession as any were
thought to be in Europe, Paul Wheeler, Mr. Mell, and others, till this
prodigy appeared. I can no longer question the effects we read of in
David's harp to charm evil spirits, or what is said some particular notes
produced in the passions of Alexander, and that King of Denmark.

12th April, 1656. Mr. Berkeley and Mr. Robert Boyle (that excellent
person and great virtuoso), Dr. Taylor, and Dr. Wilkins, dined with me at
Sayes Court, when I presented Dr. Wilkins with my rare burning-glass. In
the afternoon, we all went to Colonel Blount's, to see his newly-invented
plows.

22d April, 1656. Came to see Mr. Henshaw and Sir William Paston's son,
since Earl of Yarmouth. Afterward, I went to see his Majesty's house at
Eltham, both palace and chapel in miserable ruins, the noble woods and
park destroyed by Rich, the rebel.

6th May, 1656. I brought Monsieur le Franc, a young French Sorbonnist, a
proselyte, to converse with Dr. Taylor; they fell to dispute on original
sin, in Latin, upon a book newly published by the Doctor, who was much
satisfied with the young man. Thence, to see Mr. Dugdale, our learned
antiquary and herald. Returning, I was shown the three vast volumes of
Father Kircher's, "_Obeliscus Pamphilius_" and "_Ægyptiacus_"; in the
second volume I found the hieroglyphic I first communicated and sent to
him at Rome by the hands of Mr. Henshaw, whom he mentions; I designed it
from the stone itself brought me to Venice from Cairo by Captain Powell.

7th May, 1656. I visited Dr. Taylor, and prevailed on him to propose
Monsieur le Franc to the Bishop that he might have Orders, I having
sometime before brought him to a full consent to the Church of England,
her doctrine and discipline, in which he had till of late made some
difficulty; so he was this day ordained both deacon and priest by the
Bishop of Meath. I paid the fees to his lordship, who was very poor and
in great want; to that necessity were our clergy reduced! In the
afternoon I met Alderman Robinson, to treat with Mr. Papillion about the
marriage of my cousin, George Tuke, with Mrs. Fontaine.

8th May, 1656. I went to visit Dr. Wilkins, at Whitehall, when I first
met with Sir P. Neal, famous for his optic glasses. Greatorix, the
mathematical instrument maker, showed me his excellent invention to
quench fire.

12th May, 1656. Was published my "Essay on Lucretius," with innumerable
errata by the negligence of Mr. Triplet, who undertook the correction of
the press in my absence. Little of the Epicurean philosophy was then
known among us.

28th May, 1656. I dined with Nieuport, the Holland Ambassador, who
received me with extraordinary courtesy. I found him a judicious, crafty,
and wise man. He gave me excellent cautions as to the danger of the
times, and the circumstances our nation was in. I remember the
observation he made upon the ill success of our former Parliaments, and
their private animosities, and little care of the public.

Came to visit me the old Marquis of Argyle (since executed), Lord
Lothian, and some other Scotch noblemen, all strangers to me. Note, the
Marquis took the turtle-doves in the aviary for owls.

The Earl of Southampton (since Treasurer) and Mr. Spencer, brother to the
Earl of Sunderland, came to see my garden.

7th July, 1656. I began my journey to see some parts of the northeast of
England; but the weather was so excessively hot and dusty, I shortened my
progress.

8th July, 1656. To Colchester, a fair town, but now wretchedly demolished
by the late siege, especially the suburbs, which were all burned, but
were then repairing. The town is built on a rising ground, having fair
meadows on one side, and a river with a strong ancient castle, said to
have been built by King Coilus, father of Helena, mother of Constantine
the Great, of whom I find no memory save at the pinnacle of one of their
wool-staple houses, where is a statue of Coilus, in wood, wretchedly
carved. The walls are exceedingly strong, deeply trenched, and filled
with earth. It has six gates, and some watchtowers, and some handsome
churches. But what was shown us as a kind of miracle, at the outside of
the Castle, the wall where Sir Charles Lucas and Sir George Lisle, those
valiant and noble persons who so bravely behaved themselves in the last
siege, were barbarously shot, murdered by Ireton in cold blood, after
surrendering on articles; having been disappointed of relief from the
Scotch army, which had been defeated with the King at Worcester. The
place was bare of grass for a large space, all the rest of it abounding
with herbage. For the rest, this is a ragged and factious town, now
swarming with sectaries. Their trading is in cloth with the Dutch, and
baize and says with Spain; it is the only place in England where these
stuffs are made unsophisticated. It is also famous for oysters and eringo
root, growing hereabout, and candied for sale.

Went to Dedham, a pretty country town, having a very fair church, finely
situated, the valley well watered. Here, I met with Dr. Stokes, a young
gentleman, but an excellent mathematician. This is a clothing town, as
most are in Essex, but lies in the unwholesome hundreds.

Hence to Ipswich, doubtless one of the sweetest, most pleasant,
well-built towns in England. It has twelve fair churches, many noble
houses, especially the Lord Devereux's; a brave quay, and commodious
harbor, being about seven miles from the main; an ample market place.
Here was born the great Cardinal Wolsey, who began a palace here, which
was not finished.

I had the curiosity to visit some Quakers here in prison; a new fanatic
sect, of dangerous principles, who show no respect to any man,
magistrate, or other, and seem a melancholy, proud sort of people, and
exceedingly ignorant. One of these was said to have fasted twenty days;
but another, endeavoring to do the like, perished on the 10th, when he
would have eaten, but could not.

10th July, 1656. I returned homeward, passing again through Colchester;
and, by the way, near the ancient town of Chelmsford, saw New Hall, built
in a park by Henry VII. and VIII., and given by Queen Elizabeth to the
Earl of Sussex, who sold it to the late great Duke of Buckingham, and
since seized on by Oliver Cromwell (pretended Protector). It is a fair
old house, built with brick, low, being only of two stories, as the
manner then was; the gate-house better; the court, large and pretty; the
staircase, of extraordinary wideness, with a piece representing Sir
Francis Drake's action in the year 1580, an excellent sea-piece; the
galleries are trifling; the hall is noble; the garden a fair plot, and
the whole seat well accommodated with water; but, above all, I admired
the fair avenue planted with stately lime trees, in four rows, for near a
mile in length. It has three descents, which is the only fault, and may
be reformed. There is another fair walk of the same at the mall and
wilderness, with a tennis-court, and pleasant terrace toward the park,
which was well stored with deer and ponds.

11th July, 1656. Came home by Greenwich ferry, where I saw Sir J.
Winter's project of charring sea-coal, to burn out the sulphur, and
render it sweet. He did it by burning the coals in such earthen pots as
the glass men melt their metal, so firing them without consuming them,
using a bar of iron in each crucible, or pot, which bar has a hook at one
end, that so the coals being melted in a furnace with other crude
sea-coals under them, may be drawn out of the pots sticking to the iron,
whence they are beaten off in great half-exhausted cinders, which being
rekindled, make a clear, pleasant chamber-fire, deprived of their sulphur
and arsenic malignity. What success it may have, time will discover.[55]

    [Footnote 55: Many years ago, Lord Dundonald revived the project,
    with the proposed improvement of extracting and saving the tar.
    Unfortunately he did not profit by it. The coal thus charred is sold
    as COKE, a very useful fuel for many purposes.]

[Sidenote: LONDON]

3d August, 1656. I went to London, to receive the Blessed Sacrament, the
first time the Church of England was reduced to a chamber and
conventicle; so sharp was the persecution. The parish churches were
filled with sectaries of all sorts, blasphemous and ignorant mechanics
usurping the pulpits everywhere. Dr. Wild preached in a private house in
Fleet Street, where we had a great meeting of zealous Christians, who
were generally much more devout and religious than in our greatest
prosperity. In the afternoon, I went to the French Church in the Savoy,
where I heard Monsieur d'Espagne catechize, and so returned to my house.

20th August, 1656. Was a confused election of Parliament called by the
Usurper.

7th September, 1656. I went to take leave of my excellent neighbor and
friend, Sir. H. Newton and lady, now going to dwell at Warwick; and Mr.
Needham, my dear and learned friend, came to visit me.

14th September, 1656. Now was old Sir Henry Vane[56] sent to Carisbrook
Castle, in Wight, for a foolish book he published; the pretended
Protector fortifying himself exceedingly, and sending many to prison.

    [Footnote 56: Evelyn means the younger Vane. This was "Vane, young
    in years, but in sage counsel old," the nobleness and independence
    of whose character, as well as his claims to the affection of
    posterity, are not ill expressed in the two facts recorded by
    Evelyn--his imprisonment by Cromwell, and his judicial murder by
    Charles II. The foolish book to which Evelyn refers was an able and
    fearless attack on Cromwell's government.]

2d October, 1656. Came to visit me my cousin, Stephens, and Mr. Pierce
(since head of Magdalen College, Oxford), a learned minister of Brington,
in Northamptonshire, and Captain Cooke, both excellent musicians.

2d November, 1656. There was now nothing practical preached, or that
pressed reformation of life, but high and speculative points and strains
that few understood, which left people very ignorant, and of no steady
principles, the source of all our sects and divisions, for there was much
envy and uncharity in the world; God of his mercy amend it! Now, indeed,
that I went at all to church, while these usurpers possessed the pulpits,
was that I might not be suspected for a Papist, and that, though the
minister was Presbyterianly affected, he yet was as I understood duly
ordained, and preached sound doctrine after their way, and besides was an
humble, harmless, and peaceable man.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

25th December, 1656. I went to London, to receive the Blessed Communion,
this holy festival at Dr. Wild's lodgings, where I rejoiced to find so
full an assembly of devout and sober Christians.

26th December, 1656. I invited some of my neighbors and tenants,
according to custom, and to preserve hospitality and charity.

28th December, 1656. A stranger preached on Luke xviii. 7, 8, on which he
made a confused discourse, with a great deal of Greek and ostentation of
learning, to but little purpose.

30th December, 1656. Dined with me Sir William Paston's son, Mr. Henshaw,
and Mr. Clayton.

31st December, 1656. I begged God's blessing and mercies for his goodness
to me the past year, and set my domestic affairs in order.

1st January, 1656-57. Having prayed with my family, and celebrated the
anniversary, I spent some time in imploring God's blessing the year I was
entered into.

7th January, 1657. Came Mr. Matthew Wren (since secretary to the Duke),
slain in the Dutch war, eldest son to the Bishop of Ely, now a prisoner
in the Tower; a most worthy and honored gentleman.

10th January, 1657. Came Dr. Joyliffe, that famous physician and
anatomist, first detector of the lymphatic veins; also the old Marquis of
Argyle, and another Scotch Earl.

5th February, 1657. Dined at the Holland Ambassador's; he told me the
East India Company of Holland had constantly a stock of £400,000 in
India, and forty-eight men-of-war there: he spoke of their exact and just
keeping their books and correspondence, so as no adventurer's stock could
possibly be lost, or defeated; that it was a vulgar error that the
Hollanders furnished their enemies with powder and ammunition for their
money, though engaged in a cruel war, but that they used to merchandise
indifferently, and were permitted to sell to the friends of their
enemies. He laughed at our Committee of Trade, as composed of men wholly
ignorant of it, and how they were the ruin of commerce, by gratifying
some for private ends.

10th February, 1657. I went to visit the governor of Havannah, a brave,
sober, valiant Spanish gentleman, taken by Captain Young, of Deptford,
when, after twenty years being in the Indies, and amassing great wealth,
his lady and whole family, except two sons, were burned, destroyed, and
taken within sight of Spain, his eldest son, daughter, and wife,
perishing with immense treasure. One son, of about seventeen years old,
with his brother of one year old, were the only ones saved. The young
gentleman, about seventeen, was a well-complexioned youth, not
olive-colored; he spoke Latin handsomely, was extremely well-bred, and
born in the Caraccas, 1,000 miles south of the equinoctial, near the
mountains of Potosi; he had never been in Europe before. The Governor was
an ancient gentleman of great courage, of the order of St. Jago, sorely
wounded in his arm, and his ribs broken; he lost for his own share
£100,000 sterling, which he seemed to bear with exceeding indifference,
and nothing dejected. After some discourse, I went with them to Arundel
House, where they dined. They were now going back into Spain, having
obtained their liberty from Cromwell. An example of human vicissitude!

[Sidenote: LONDON]

14th February, 1657. To London, where I found Mrs. Cary; next day came Mr.
Mordaunt (since Viscount Mordaunt), younger son to the Countess of
Peterborough, to see his mistress, bringing with him two of my Lord of
Dover's daughters: so, after dinner, they all departed.

5th March, 1657. Dr. Rand, a learned physician, dedicated to me his
version of Gassendi's "_Vita Peiriskii_."

25th March, 1657. Dr. Taylor showed me his MS. of "Cases of Conscience,"
or "_Ductor Dubitantium_," now fitted for the press.

The Protector Oliver, now affecting kingship, is petitioned to take the
title on him by all his newly-made sycophant lords, etc.; but dares not,
for fear of the fanatics, not thoroughly purged out of his rebel army.

21st April, 1657. Came Sir Thomas Hanmer, of Hanmer, in Wales, to see me.
I then waited on my Lord Hatton, with whom I dined: at my return, I
stepped into Bedlam, where I saw several poor, miserable creatures in
chains; one of them was mad with making verses. I also visited the
Charter House, formerly belonging to the Carthusians, now an old, neat,
fresh, solitary college for decayed gentlemen. It has a grove, bowling
green, garden, chapel, and a hall where they eat in common. I likewise
saw Christ Church and Hospital, a very good Gothic building; the hall,
school, and lodgings in great order for bringing up many hundreds of poor
children of both sexes; it is an exemplary charity. There is a large
picture at one end of the hall, representing the governors, founders, and
the institution.

25th April, 1657. I had a dangerous fall out of the coach in Covent
Garden, going to my brother's, but without harm; the Lord be praised!

1st May, 1657. Divers soldiers were quartered at my house; but I thank
God went away the next day toward Flanders.

5th May, 1657. I went with my cousin, George Tuke, to see Baynard, in
Surrey, a house of my brother Richard's, which he would have hired. This
is a very fair, noble residence, built in a park, and having one of the
goodliest avenues of oaks up to it that ever I saw: there is a pond of 60
acres near it; the windows of the chief rooms are of very fine painted
glass. The situation is excessively dirty and melancholy.

15th May, 1657. Lawrence, President of Oliver's Council, and some other
of his Court-Lords, came in the afternoon to see my garden and
plantations.

7th June, 1657. My fourth son was born, christened George (after my
grandfather); Dr. Jeremy Taylor officiated in the drawing-room.

18th June, 1657. At Greenwich I saw a sort of cat[57] brought from the
East Indies, shaped and snouted much like the Egyptian racoon, in the
body like a monkey, and so footed; the ears and tail like a cat, only the
tail much longer, and the skin variously ringed with black and white;
with the tail it wound up its body like a serpent, and so got up into
trees, and with it would wrap its whole body round. Its hair was woolly
like a lamb; it was exceedingly nimble, gentle, and purred as does the
cat.

    [Footnote 57: This was probably the animal called a Mocock
    (_maucaco_), since well known.]

16th July, 1657. On Dr. Jeremy Taylor's recommendation, I went to Eltham,
to help one Moody, a young man, to that living, by my interest with the
patron.

6th August, 1657. I went to see Colonel Blount, who showed me the
application of the waywiser[58] to a coach, exactly measuring the miles,
and showing them by an index as we went on. It had three circles, one
pointing to the number of rods, another to the miles, by 10 to 1,000,
with all the subdivisions of quarters; very pretty and useful.

    [Footnote 58: Beckmann, in his "History of Inventions," has written
    an account of the different instruments applied to carriages to
    measure the distance they pass over. He places the first
    introduction of the _adometer_ in England at about the end of the
    seventeenth century, instead of about the middle, and states it to
    have been the invention of an ingenious artist named Butterfield.]

10th August, 1657. Our vicar, from John xviii. 36, declaimed against the
folly of a sort of enthusiasts and desperate zealots, called the
FIFTH-MONARCHY-MEN, pretending to set up the kingdom of Christ with the
sword. To this pass was this age arrived when we had no King in Israel.

21st August, 1657. Fell a most prodigious rain in London, and the year
was very sickly in the country.

1st September, 1657. I visited Sir Edmund Bowyer, at his melancholy seat
at Camberwell. He has a very pretty grove of oaks, and hedges of yew in
his garden, and a handsome row of tall elms before his court.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

15th September, 1657. Going to London with some company, we stepped in to
see a famous rope-dancer, called THE TURK. I saw even to astonishment the
agility with which he performed. He walked barefooted, taking hold by his
toes only of a rope almost perpendicular, and without so much as touching
it with his hands; he danced blind-fold on the high rope, and with a boy
of twelve years old tied to one of his feet about twenty feet beneath
him, dangling as he danced, yet he moved as nimbly as if it had been but
a feather. Lastly, he stood on his head, on the top of a very high mast,
danced on a small rope that was very slack, and finally flew down the
perpendicular, on his breast, his head foremost, his legs and arms
extended, with divers other activities.--I saw the hairy woman, twenty
years old, whom I had before seen when a child. She was born at Augsburg,
in Germany. Her very eyebrows were combed upward, and all her _forehead_
as thick and even as grows on any woman's head, neatly dressed; a very
long lock of hair out of each ear; she had also a most prolix beard, and
_moustachios_, with long locks growing on the middle of her nose, like an
Iceland dog exactly, the color of a bright brown, fine as well-dressed
flax. She was now married, and told me she had one child that was not
hairy, nor were any of her parents, or relations. She was very well
shaped, and played well on the harpsichord.

17th September, 1657. To see Sir Robert Needham, at Lambeth, a relation
of mine; and thence to John Tradescant's museum, in which the chiefest
rarities were, in my opinion, the ancient Roman, Indian, and other
nations' armor, shields, and weapons; some habits of curiously-colored
and wrought feathers, one from the phoenix wing, as tradition goes.
Other innumerable things there were printed in his catalogue by Mr.
Ashmole, to whom after the death of the widow they are bequeathed, and by
him designed as a gift to Oxford.

19th October, 1657. I went to see divers gardens about London: returning,
I saw at Dr. Joyliffe's two Virginian rattlesnakes alive, exceeding a
yard in length, small heads, slender tails, but in the middle nearly the
size of my leg; when vexed, swiftly vibrating and shaking their tails, as
loud as a child's rattle; this, by the collision of certain gristly skins
curiously jointed, yet loose, and transparent as parchment, by which they
give warning; a providential caution for other creatures to avoid them.
The Doctor tried their biting on rats and mice, which they immediately
killed: but their vigor must needs be much exhausted here, in another
climate, and kept only in a barrel of bran.

22d October, 1657. To town, to visit the Holland Ambassador, with whom I
had now contracted much friendly correspondence, useful to the
intelligence I constantly gave his Majesty abroad.

26th November, 1657. I went to London, to a court of the East India
Company on its new union, in Merchant-Taylors' Hall, where was much
disorder by reason of the Anabaptists, who would have the adventurers
obliged only by an engagement, without swearing, that they still might
pursue their private trade; but it was carried against them. Wednesday
was fixed on for a general court for election of officers, after a sermon
and prayers for good success. The Stock resolved on was £800,000.

27th November, 1657. I took the oath at the East India House, subscribing
£500.

2d December, 1657. Dr. Raynolds (since Bishop of Norwich) preached before
the company at St. Andrew Under-shaft, on Nehemiah xiii. 31, showing, by
the example of Nehemiah, all the perfections of a trusty person in
public affairs, with many good precepts apposite to the occasion, ending
with a prayer for God's blessing on the company and the undertaking.

3d December, 1657. Mr. Gunning preached on John iii. 3, against the
Anabaptists, showing the effect and necessity of the sacrament of
baptism. This sect was now wonderfully spread.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

25th December, 1657. I went to London with my wife, to celebrate
Christmas-day, Mr. Gunning preaching in Exeter chapel, on Micah vii. 2.
Sermon ended, as he was giving us the Holy Sacrament, the chapel was
surrounded with soldiers, and all the communicants and assembly surprised
and kept prisoners by them, some in the house, others carried away. It
fell to my share to be confined to a room in the house, where yet I was
permitted to dine with the master of it, the Countess of Dorset, Lady
Hatton, and some others of quality who invited me. In the afternoon, came
Colonel Whalley, Goffe, and others, from Whitehall, to examine us one by
one; some they committed to the marshal, some to prison. When I came
before them, they took my name and abode, examined me why, contrary to
the ordinance made, that none should any longer observe the superstitious
time of the nativity (so esteemed by them), I durst offend, and
particularly be at common prayers, which they told me was but the mass in
English, and particularly pray for Charles Stuart; for which we had no
Scripture. I told them we did not pray for Charles Stuart, but for all
Christian kings, princes, and governors. They replied, in so doing we
prayed for the king of Spain, too, who was their enemy and a Papist, with
other frivolous and ensnaring questions, and much threatening; and,
finding no color to detain me, they dismissed me with much pity of my
ignorance. These were men of high flight and above ordinances, and spoke
spiteful things of our Lord's nativity. As we went up to receive the
Sacrament, the miscreants held their muskets against us, as if they would
have shot us at the altar; but yet suffering us to finish the office of
Communion, as perhaps not having instructions what to do, in case they
found us in that action. So I got home late the next day; blessed be God!

27th January, 1657-58. After six fits of a quartan ague, with which it
pleased God to visit him, died my dear son, Richard, to our
inexpressible grief and affliction, five years and three days old only,
but at that tender age a prodigy for wit and understanding; for beauty of
body, a very angel; for endowment of mind, of incredible and rare hopes.
To give only a little taste of them, and thereby glory to God, who "out
of the mouths of babes and infants does sometimes perfect his praises,"
he had learned all his catechism; at two years and a half old, he could
perfectly read any of the English, Latin, French, or Gothic letters,
pronouncing the first three languages exactly. He had, before the fifth
year, or in that year, not only skill to read most written hands, but to
decline all the nouns, conjugate the verbs regular, and most of the
irregular; learned out "Puerilis," got by heart almost the entire
vocabulary of Latin and French primitives and words, could make congruous
syntax, turn English into Latin, and _vice versâ_, construe and prove
what he read, and did the government and use of relatives, verbs,
substantives, ellipses, and many figures and tropes, and made a
considerable progress in Comenius's "_Janua_"; began himself to write
legibly, and had a strong passion for Greek. The number of verses he
could recite was prodigious, and what he remembered of the parts of
plays, which he would also act; and, when seeing a Plautus in one's hand,
he asked what book it was, and, being told it was comedy, and too
difficult for him, he wept for sorrow. Strange was his apt and ingenious
application of fables and morals; for he had read Æsop; he had a
wonderful disposition to mathematics, having by heart divers propositions
of Euclid that were read to him in play, and he would make lines and
demonstrate them. As to his piety, astonishing were his applications of
Scripture upon occasion, and his sense of God; he had learned all his
catechism early, and understood the historical part of the Bible and New
Testament to a wonder, how Christ came to redeem mankind, and how,
comprehending these necessaries himself, his godfathers were discharged
of their promise.

These and the like illuminations, far exceeding his age and experience,
considering the prettiness of his address and behavior, cannot but leave
impressions in me at the memory of him. When one told him how many days a
Quaker had fasted, he replied that was no wonder; for Christ had said
that man should not live by bread alone, but by the Word of God. He would
of himself select the most pathetic psalms, and chapters out of Job, to
read to his maid during his sickness, telling her, when she pitied him,
that all God's children must suffer affliction. He declaimed against the
vanities of the world, before he had seen any. Often he would desire
those who came to see him to pray by him, and a year before he fell sick,
to kneel and pray with him alone in some corner. How thankfully would he
receive admonition! how soon be reconciled! how indifferent, yet
continually cheerful! He would give grave advice to his brother, John,
bear with his impertinences, and say he was but a child. If he heard of
or saw any new thing, he was unquiet till he was told how it was made; he
brought to us all such difficulties as he found in books, to be
expounded. He had learned by heart divers sentences in Latin and Greek,
which, on occasion, he would produce even to wonder. He was all life, all
prettiness, far from morose, sullen, or childish in anything he said or
did. The last time he had been at church (which was at Greenwich), I
asked him, according to custom, what he remembered of the sermon; two
good things, Father, said he, _bonum gratiæ_ and _bonum gloriæ_, with a
just account of what the preacher said.

The day before he died, he called to me: and in a more serious manner
than usual, told me that for all I loved him so dearly I should give my
house, land, and all my fine things to his brother Jack, he should have
none of them; and, the next morning, when he found himself ill, and that
I persuaded him to keep his hands in bed, he demanded whether he might
pray to God with his hands unjoined; and a little after, while in great
agony, whether he should not offend God by using his holy name so often
calling for ease. What shall I say of his frequent pathetical
ejaculations uttered of himself: "Sweet Jesus, save me, deliver me,
pardon my sins, let thine angels receive me!" So early knowledge, so much
piety and perfection! But thus God, having dressed up a saint fit for
himself, would not longer permit him with us, unworthy of the future
fruits of this incomparable hopeful blossom. Such a Child I never saw:
for such a child I bless God, in whose bosom he is! May I and mine
become as this little child, who now follows the child Jesus that Lamb of
God in a white robe, whithersoever he goes; even so, Lord Jesus, _fiat
voluntas tua_! Thou gavest him to us, thou hast taken him from us,
blessed be the name of the Lord! That I had anything acceptable to thee
was from thy grace alone, seeing from me he had nothing but sin, but that
thou hast pardoned! blessed be my God for ever, Amen.

In my opinion, he was suffocated by the women and maids that attended
him, and covered him too hot with blankets as he lay in a cradle, near an
excessive hot fire in a close room. I suffered him to be opened, when
they found that he was what is vulgarly called liver-grown. I caused his
body to be coffined in lead, and deposited on the 30th at eight o'clock
that night in the church at Deptford, accompanied with divers of my
relations and neighbors, among whom I distributed rings with this motto:
"_Dominus abstulit_;" intending, God willing, to have him transported
with my own body to be interred in our dormitory in Wotton Church, in my
dear native county of Surrey, and to lay my bones and mingle my dust with
my fathers, if God be gracious to me, and make me as fit for him as this
blessed child was. The Lord Jesus sanctify this and all other my
afflictions, Amen.

Here ends the joy of my life, and for which I go even mourning to the
grave.

15th February, 1658. The afflicting hand of God being still upon us, it
pleased him also to take away from us this morning my youngest son,
George, now seven weeks languishing at nurse, breeding teeth, and ending
in a dropsy. God's holy will be done! He was buried in Deptford Church,
the 17th following.

25th February, 1658. Came Dr. Jeremy Taylor, and my brothers, with other
friends, to visit and condole with us.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

7th March, 1658. To London, to hear Dr. Taylor in a private house on Luke
xiii. 23, 24. After the sermon, followed the blessed Communion, of which
I participated. In the afternoon, Dr. Gunning, at Exeter House,
expounding part of the Creed.

This had been the severest winter that any man alive had known in
England. The crows' feet were frozen to their prey. Islands of ice
inclosed both fish and fowl frozen, and some persons in their boats.

15th May, 1658, was a public fast, to avert an epidemical sickness, very
mortal this spring.

20th May, 1658. I went to see a coach race in Hyde Park, and collationed
in Spring Garden.

23d May, 1658. Dr. Manton, the famous Presbyterian, preached at Covent
Garden, on Matthew vi. 10, showing what the kingdom of God was, how pray
for it, etc.

There was now a collection for persecuted and sequestered Ministers of
the Church of England, whereof divers are in prison. A sad day! The
Church now in dens and caves of the earth.

31st May, 1658. I went to visit my Lady Peterborough, whose son, Mr.
Mordaunt, prisoner in the Tower, was now on his trial, and acquitted but
by one voice; but that holy martyr, Dr. Hewer, was condemned to die
without law, jury, or justice, but by a mock Council of State, as they
called it. A dangerous, treacherous time!

2d June, 1658. An extraordinary storm of hail and rain, the season as
cold as winter, the wind northerly near six months.

3d June, 1658. A large whale was taken between my land abutting on the
Thames and Greenwich, which drew an infinite concourse to see it, by
water, horse, coach, and on foot, from London, and all parts. It appeared
first below Greenwich at low water, for at high water it would have
destroyed all the boats, but lying now in shallow water encompassed with
boats, after a long conflict, it was killed with a harping iron, struck
in the head, out of which spouted blood and water by two tunnels; and
after a horrid groan, it ran quite on shore, and died. Its length was
fifty-eight feet, height sixteen; black skinned, like coach leather; very
small eyes, great tail, only two small fins, a peaked snout and a mouth
so wide, that divers men might have stood upright in it; no teeth, but
sucked the slime only as through a grate of that bone which we call
whalebone; the throat yet so narrow, as would not have admitted the least
of fishes. The extremes of the cetaceous bones hang downward from the
upper jaw, and are hairy toward the ends and bottom within side: all of
it prodigious; but in nothing more wonderful than that an animal of so
great a bulk should be nourished only by slime through those grates.

8th June, 1658. That excellent preacher and holy man, Dr. Hewer, was
martyred for having intelligence with his Majesty, through the Lord
Marquis of Ormond.

9th June, 1658. I went to see the Earl of Northumberland's pictures,
whereof that of the Venetian Senators was one of the best of Titian's and
another of Andrea del Sarto, viz, a Madonna, Christ, St. John, and an Old
Woman; a St. Catherine of Da Vinci, with divers portraits of Vandyck; a
Nativity of Georgioni; the last of our blessed Kings (Charles I.), and
the Duke of York, by Lely, a Rosary by the famous Jesuits of Brussels,
and several more. This was in Suffolk House: the new front toward the
gardens is tolerable, were it not drowned by a too massy and clumsy pair
of stairs of stone, without any neat invention.

10th June, 1658. I went to see the Medical Garden at Westminster, well
stored with plants, under Morgan, a very skillful botanist.

26th June, 1658. To Eltham, to visit honest Mr. Owen.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

3d July, 1658. To London, and dined with Mr. Henshaw, Mr. Dorell, and Mr.
Ashmole, founder of the Oxford repository of rarities, with divers
doctors of physic and virtuosos.

15th July, 1658. Came to see my Lord Kilmurry and Lady, Sir Robert
Needham, Mr. Offley, and two daughters of my Lord Willoughby, of Parham.

3d August, 1658. Went to Sir John Evelyn at Godstone. The place is
excellent, but might be improved by turning some offices of the house,
and removing the garden. The house being a noble fabric, though not
comparable to what was first built by my uncle, who was master of all the
powder mills.

5th August, 1658. We went to Squirries to visit my Cousin Leech, daughter
to Sir John; a pretty, finely wooded, well watered seat, the stables
good, the house old, but convenient. 6th. Returned to Wotton.

10th August, 1658. I dined at Mr. Carew Raleigh's, at Horsley, son to the
famous Sir Walter.

14th August, 1658. We went to Durdans [at Epsom] to a challenged match at
bowls for £10, which we won.

18th August, 1658. To Sir Ambrose Browne, at Betchworth Castle, in that
tempestuous wind which threw down my greatest trees at Sayes Court, and
did so much mischief all over England. It continued the whole night;
and, till three in the afternoon of the next day, in the southwest, and
destroyed all our winter fruit.

3d September, 1658. Died that arch-rebel, Oliver Cromwell, called
Protector.

16th September, 1658. Was published my translation of St. Chrysostom on
"Education of Children," which I dedicated to both my brothers to comfort
them on the loss of their children.

21st September, 1658. My Lord Berkeley, of Berkeley Castle, invited me to
dinner.

26th September, 1658. Mr. King preached at Ashted, on Proverbs xv. 24; a
Quaker would have disputed with him. In the afternoon, we heard Dr.
Hacket (since Bishop of Litchfield) at Cheam, where the family of the
Lumleys lie buried.

27th September, 1658. To Beddington, that ancient seat of the Carews, a
fine old hall, but a scambling house, famous for the first orange garden
in England, being now overgrown trees, planted in the ground, and secured
in winter with a wooden tabernacle and stoves. This seat is rarely
watered, lying low, and environed with good pastures. The pomegranates
bear here. To the house is also added a fine park. Thence, to Carshalton,
excellently watered, and capable of being made a most delicious seat,
being on the sweet downs, and a champaign about it full planted with
walnut and cherry trees, which afford a considerable rent.

Riding over these downs, and discoursing with the shepherds, I found that
digging about the bottom near Sir Christopher Buckle's,[59] near
Banstead, divers medals have been found, both copper and silver, with
foundations of houses, urns, etc. Here, indeed, anciently stood a city of
the Romans. See Antonine's "Itineraries."

    [Footnote 59: Not far from the course of the Roman Road from
    Chichester, through Sussex, passing through Ockley, and Dorking
    churchyard. Considerable remains of a Roman building have since been
    found on Waltonheath, south of this house.]

29th September, 1658. I returned home, after a ten weeks' absence.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

2d October, 1658. I went to London, to receive the Holy Sacrament.

On the 3d, Dr. Wild preached in a private place on Isaiah i. 4, showing
the parallel between the sins of Israel and those of England. In the
afternoon, Mr. Hall (son to Joseph, Bishop of Norwich) on 1 Cor. vi. 2,
of the dignity of the Saints; a most excellent discourse.

4th October, 1658. I dined with the Holland ambassador, at Derby House:
returning, I diverted to see a very WHITE RAVEN, bred in Cumberland; also
a porcupine, of that kind that shoots its quills, of which see Claudian;
it was headed like a rat, the fore feet like a badger, the hind feet like
a bear.

19th October, 1658. I was summoned to London, by the commissioners for
new buildings; afterward, to the commission of sewers; but because there
was an oath to be taken of fidelity to the Government as now constituted
without a king, I got to be excused, and returned home.

22d October, 1658. Saw the superb funeral of the protector. He was
carried from Somerset House in a velvet bed of state, drawn by six
horses, housed with the same; the pall held by his new lords; Oliver
lying in effigy, in royal robes, and crowned with a crown, sceptre, and
globe, like a king. The pendants and guidons were carried by the officers
of the army; the imperial banners, achievements, etc., by the heralds in
their coats; a rich caparisoned horse, embroidered all over with gold; a
knight of honor, armed _cap-a-pie_, and, after all, his guards, soldiers,
and innumerable mourners. In this equipage, they proceeded to
Westminster: but it was the most joyful funeral I ever saw; for there
were none that cried but dogs, which the soldiers hooted away with a
barbarous noise, drinking and taking tobacco in the streets as they went.

I returned not home till the 17th of November.

I was summoned again to London by the commissioners for new foundations
to be erected within such a distance of London.

6th December, 1658. Now was published my "French Gardener," the first and
best of the kind that introduced the use of the olitory garden to any
purpose.

23d December, 1658. I went with my wife to keep Christmas at my cousin,
George Tuke's, at Cressing Temple, in Essex. Lay that night at Brentwood.

25th December, 1658. Here was no public service, but what we privately
used. I blessed God for his mercies the year past; and 1st of January,
begged a continuance of them. Thus, for three Sundays, by reason of the
incumbent's death, here was neither praying nor preaching, though there
was a chapel in the house.

17th January, 1659. Our old vicar preached, taking leave of the parish in
a pathetical speech, to go to a living in the city.

24th March, 1659. I went to London, to speak to the patron, Alderman
Cuttler, about presenting a fit pastor for our destitute parish church.

5th April, 1659. Came the Earl of Northampton and the famous painter, Mr.
Wright, to visit me.

10th April, 1659. One Mr. Littler, being now presented to the living of
our parish, preached on John vi. 55, a sermon preparatory to the Holy
Sacrament.

25th April, 1659. A wonderful and sudden change in the face of the
public; the new protector, Richard, slighted; several pretenders and
parties strive for the government: all anarchy and confusion; Lord have
mercy on us!

5th May, 1659. I went to visit my brother in London; and next day, to see
a new opera, after the Italian way, in recitative music and scenes, much
inferior to the Italian composure and magnificence; but it was prodigious
that in a time of such public consternation such a vanity should be kept
up, or permitted. I, being engaged with company, could not decently
resist the going to see it, though my heart smote me for it.

7th May, 1659. Came the Ambassador of Holland and his lady to visit me,
and stayed the whole afternoon.

12th May, 1659. I returned the visit, discoursing much of the
revolutions, etc.

19th May, 1659. Came to dine with me my Lord Galloway and his son, a
Scotch Lord and learned: also my brother and his lady, Lord Berkeley and
his lady, Mrs. Shirley, and the famous singer, Mrs. Knight,[60] and other
friends.

    [Footnote 60: Afterward one of Charles II.'s mistresses.]

23d May, 1659. I went to Rookwood, and dined with Sir William Hicks,
where was a great feast and much company. It is a melancholy old house,
environed with trees and rooks.

26th May, 1659. Came to see me my Lord George Berkeley, Sir William
Ducie, and Sir George Pott's son of Norfolk.

29th May, 1659. The nation was now in extreme confusion and unsettled,
between the Armies and the Sectaries, the poor Church of England
breathing as it were her last; so sad a face of things had overspread us.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

7th June, 1659. To London, to take leave of my brother, and see the
foundations now laying for a long street and buildings in Hatton Garden,
designed for a little town, lately an ample garden.

1st September, 1659. I communicated to Mr. Robert Boyle, son to the Earl
of Cork, my proposal for erecting a philosophic and mathematic college.

15th September, 1659. Came to see me Mr. Brereton,[61] a very learned
gentleman, son to my Lord Brereton, with his and divers other ladies.
Also, Henry Howard of Norfolk, since Duke of Norfolk.

    [Footnote 61: William, afterward third Lord Brereton; an
    accomplished and able man, who assisted Evelyn in establishing the
    Royal Society. He died in 1679.]

30th September, 1659. I went to visit Sir William Ducie and Colonel
Blount, where I met Sir Henry Blount, the famous traveler and water
drinker.

10th October, 1659. I came with my wife and family to London: took
lodgings at the Three Feathers, in Russell Street, Covent Garden, for the
winter, my son being very unwell.

11th October, 1659. Came to visit me Mr. William Coventry (since
secretary to the Duke), son to the Lord Keeper, a wise and witty
gentleman.

The Army now turned out the Parliament. We had now no government in the
nation: all in confusion; no magistrate either owned or pretended; but
the soldiers, and they not agreed. God Almighty have mercy on us, and
settle us!

17th October, 1659. I visited Mr. Howard, at Arundel House, who gave me a
fair onyx set in gold, and showed me his design of a palace there.

21st October, 1659. A private fast was kept by the Church of England
Protestants in town, to beg of God the removal of his judgments, with
devout prayers for his mercy to our calamitous Church.

7th November, 1659. Was published my bold "Apology for the King" in this
time of danger, when it was capital to speak or write in favor of him. It
was twice printed; so universally it took.

9th November, 1659. We observed our solemn Fast for the calamity of our
Church.

12th November, 1659. I went to see the several drugs for the confection
of treacle, dioscordium, and other electuaries, which an ingenious
apothecary had not only prepared and ranged on a large and very long
table, but covered every ingredient with a sheet of paper, on which was
very lively painted the thing in miniature, well to the life, were it
plant, flower, animal, or other exotic drug.

15th November, 1659. Dined with the Dutch Ambassador. He did in a manner
acknowledge that his nation mind only their own profit, do nothing out of
gratitude, but collaterally as it relates to their gain, or security; and
therefore the English were to look for nothing of assistance to the
banished King. This was to me no very grateful discourse, though an
ingenuous confession.

18th November, 1659. Mr. Gunning celebrated the wonted Fast, and preached
on Phil. ii. 12, 13.

24th November, 1659. Sir John Evelyn [of Godstone] invited us to the
forty-first wedding-day feast, where was much company of friends.

26th November, 1659. I was introduced into the acquaintance of divers
learned and worthy persons, Sir John Marsham, Mr. Dugdale, Mr. Stanley,
and others.

9th December, 1659. I supped with Mr. Gunning, it being our fast day, Dr.
Fearne, Mr. Thrisco, Mr. Chamberlain, Dr. Henchman, Dr. Wild, and other
devout and learned divines, firm confessors, and excellent persons. Note:
Most of them since made bishops.

10th December, 1659. I treated privately with Colonel Morley, then
Lieutenant of the Tower, and in great trust and power, concerning
delivering it to the King, and the bringing of him in, to the great
hazard of my life, but the Colonel had been my schoolfellow, and I knew
would not betray me.

12th December, 1659. I spent in public concerns for his Majesty, pursuing
the point to bring over Colonel Morley, and his brother-in-law, Fay,
Governor of Portsmouth.

18th December, 1659. Preached that famous divine, Dr. Sanderson (since
Bishop of Lincoln), now eighty years old, on Jer. xxx. 13, concerning the
evil of forsaking God.

29th December, 1659. Came my Lord Count Arundel, of Wardour, to visit me.
I went also to see my Lord Viscount Montague.

31st December, 1659. Settling my domestic affairs in order, blessed God
for his infinite mercies and preservations the past year.

ANNUS MIRABILIS, January 1st, 1659-60. Begging God's blessings for the
following year, I went to Exeter Chapel, when Mr. Gunning began the year
on Galatians iv. 3-7, showing the love of Christ in shedding his blood so
early for us.

12th January, 1660. Wrote to Colonel Morley again to declare for his
Majesty.

22d January, 1660. I went this afternoon to visit Colonel Morley. After
dinner I discoursed with him; but he was very jealous, and would not
believe that Monk came in to do the King any service; I told him that he
might do it without him, and have all the honor. He was still doubtful,
and would resolve on nothing yet, so I took leave.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

3d February, 1660. Kept the Fast. General Monk came now to London out of
Scotland; but no man knew what he would do or declare; yet he was met on
his way by the gentlemen of all the counties which he passed with
petitions that he would recall the old long-interrupted Parliament, and
settle the nation in some order, being at this time in most prodigious
confusion, and under no government, everybody expecting what would be
next and what he would do.

10th February, 1660. Now were the gates of the city broken down by
General Monk; which exceedingly exasperated the city, the soldiers
marching up and down as triumphing over it, and all the old army of the
fanatics put out of their posts and sent out of town.

11th February, 1660. A signal day. Monk, perceiving how infamous and
wretched a pack of knaves would have still usurped the supreme power, and
having intelligence that they intended to take away his commission,
repenting of what he had done to the city, and where he and his forces
were quartered, marches to Whitehall, dissipates that nest of robbers,
and convenes the old Parliament, the Rump Parliament (so called as
retaining some few rotten members of the other) being dissolved; and for
joy whereof were many thousands of rumps roasted publicly in the streets
at the bonfires this night, with ringing of bells, and universal jubilee.
This was the first good omen.

From 17th February to 5th April, I was detained in bed with a kind of
double tertian, the cruel effects of the spleen and other distempers, in
that extremity that my physicians, Drs. Wetherborn, Needham, and Claude,
were in great doubt of my recovery; but it pleased God to deliver me out
of this affliction, for which I render him hearty thanks: going to church
the 8th, and receiving the blessed eucharist.

During this sickness came divers of my relations and friends to visit me,
and it retarded my going into the country longer than I intended;
however, I wrote and printed a letter in defense of his Majesty,[62]
against a wicked forged paper, pretended to be sent from Brussels to
defame his Majesty's person and virtues and render him odious, now when
everybody was in hope and expectation of the General and Parliament
recalling him, and establishing the Government on its ancient and right
basis. The doing this toward the decline of my sickness, and sitting up
long in my bed, had caused a small relapse, out of which it yet pleased
God also to free me, so as by the 14th I was able to go into the country,
which I did to my sweet and native air at Wotton.

    [Footnote 62: With the title of "The Late News, or Message from
    Brussels Unmasked." This, and the pamphlet which gave rise to it,
    are reprinted in "Evelyn's Miscellaneous Writings."]

3d May, 1660. Came the most happy tidings of his Majesty's gracious
declaration and applications to the Parliament, General, and people, and
their dutiful acceptance and acknowledgment, after a most bloody and
unreasonable rebellion of near twenty years. Praised be forever the Lord
of Heaven, who only doeth wondrous things, because his mercy endureth
forever.

8th May, 1660. This day was his Majesty proclaimed in London, etc.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

9th May, 1660. I was desired and designed to accompany my Lord Berkeley
with the public address of the Parliament, General, etc., to the King,
and invite him to come over and assume his Kingly Government, he being
now at Breda; but I was yet so weak, I could not make that journey by
sea, which was not a little to my detriment, so I went to London to
excuse myself, returning the 10th, having yet received a gracious message
from his Majesty by Major Scot and Colonel Tuke.

24th May, 1660. Came to me Colonel Morley, about procuring his pardon,
now too late, seeing his error and neglect of the counsel I gave him, by
which, if he had taken it he had certainly done the great work with the
same ease that Monk did it, who was then in Scotland, and Morley in a
post to have done what he pleased, but his jealousy and fear kept him
from that blessing and honor. I addressed him to Lord Mordaunt, then in
great favor, for his pardon, which he obtained at the cost of £1,000, as
I heard. Oh, the sottish omission of this gentleman! what did I not
undergo of danger in this negotiation, to have brought him over to his
Majesty's interest, when it was entirely in his hands!

29th May, 1660. This day, his Majesty, Charles II. came to London, after
a sad and long exile and calamitous suffering both of the King and
Church, being seventeen years. This was also his birthday, and with a
triumph of above 20,000 horse and foot, brandishing their swords, and
shouting with inexpressible joy; the ways strewn with flowers, the bells
ringing, the streets hung with tapestry, fountains running with wine; the
Mayor, Aldermen, and all the companies, in their liveries, chains of
gold, and banners; Lords and Nobles, clad in cloth of silver, gold, and
velvet; the windows and balconies, all set with ladies; trumpets, music,
and myriads of people flocking, even so far as from Rochester, so as they
were seven hours in passing the city, even from two in the afternoon till
nine at night.

I stood in the Strand and beheld it, and blessed God. And all this was
done without one drop of blood shed, and by that very army which rebelled
against him: but it was the Lord's doing, for such a restoration was
never mentioned in any history, ancient or modern, since the return of
the Jews from their Babylonish captivity; nor so joyful a day and so
bright ever seen in this nation, this happening when to expect or effect
it was past all human policy.

4th June, 1660. I received letters of Sir Richard Browne's landing at
Dover, and also letters from the Queen, which I was to deliver at
Whitehall, not as yet presenting myself to his Majesty, by reason of the
infinite concourse of people. The eagerness of men, women, and children,
to see his Majesty, and kiss his hands, was so great, that he had scarce
leisure to eat for some days, coming as they did from all parts of the
nation; and the King being as willing to give them that satisfaction,
would have none kept out, but gave free access to all sorts of people.

Addressing myself to the Duke, I was carried to his Majesty, when very
few noblemen were with him, and kissed his hands, being very graciously
received. I then returned home, to meet Sir Richard Browne, who came not
till the 8th, after nineteen years exile, during all which time he kept
up in his chapel the Liturgy and Offices of the Church of England, to his
no small honor, and in a time when it was so low, and as many thought
utterly lost, that in various controversies both with Papists and
Sectaries, our divines used to argue for the visibility of the Church,
from his chapel and congregation.

I was all this week to and fro at court about business.

16th June, 1660. The French, Italian, and Dutch Ministers came to make
their address to his Majesty, one Monsieur Stoope pronouncing the
harangue with great eloquence.

18th June, 1660. I proposed the embassy to Constantinople for Mr.
Henshaw; but my Lord Winchelsea struck in.

Goods that had been pillaged from Whitehall during the Rebellion were now
daily brought in, and restored upon proclamation; as plate, hangings,
pictures, etc.

22d June, 1660. The Warwickshire gentlemen (as did all the shires and
chief towns in all the three nations) presented their congratulatory
address. It was carried by my Lord Northampton.

30th June, 1660. The Sussex gentlemen presented their address, to which
was my hand. I went with it, and kissed his Majesty's hand, who was
pleased to own me more particularly by calling me his old acquaintance,
and speaking very graciously to me.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

3d July, 1660. I went to Hyde Park, where was his Majesty, and abundance
of gallantry.

4th July, 1660. I heard Sir Samuel Tuke harangue to the House of Lords,
in behalf of the Roman Catholics, and his account of the transaction at
Colchester in murdering Lord Capel, and the rest of those brave men, that
suffered in cold blood, after articles of rendition.

5th July, 1660. I saw his Majesty go with as much pomp and splendor as
any earthly prince could do to the great city feast, the first they had
invited him to since his return; but the exceeding rain which fell all
that day much eclipsed its lustres. This was at Guildhall, and there was
also all the Parliament men, both Lords and Commons. The streets were
adorned with pageants, at immense cost.

6th July, 1660. His Majesty began first to TOUCH FOR THE EVIL! according
to custom, thus: his Majesty sitting under his state in the banqueting
house, the chirurgeons cause the sick to be brought, or led, up to the
throne, where they kneeling, the King strokes their faces, or cheeks with
both his hands at once, at which instant a chaplain in his formalities
says, "He put his hands upon them, and he healed them." This is said to
every one in particular. When they have all been touched, they come up
again in the same order, and the other chaplain kneeling, and having
angel gold[63] strung on white ribbon on his arm, delivers them one by
one to his Majesty, who puts them about the necks of the touched as they
pass, while the first chaplain repeats, "That is the true light who came
into the world." Then follows, an Epistle (as at first a Gospel) with the
Liturgy, prayers for the sick, with some alteration; lastly the blessing;
and then the Lord Chamberlain and the Comptroller of the Household bring
a basin, ewer, and towel, for his Majesty to wash.

    [Footnote 63: Pieces of money, so called from the figure of an angel
    on them.]

The King received a congratulatory address from the city of Cologne, in
Germany, where he had been some time in his exile; his Majesty saying
they were the best people in the world, the most kind and worthy to him
that he ever met with. I recommended Monsieur Messary to be Judge
Advocate in Jersey, by the Vice-Chamberlain's mediation with the Earl of
St. Albans; and saluted my excellent and worthy noble friend, my Lord
Ossory, son to the Marquis of Ormond, after many years' absence returned
home.

8th July, 1660. Mr. Henchman preached on Ephes. v. 5, concerning
Christian circumspection. From henceforth, was the Liturgy publicly used
in our churches, whence it had been for so many years banished.

15th July, 1660. Came Sir George Carteret and lady to visit us: he was
now Treasurer of the Navy.

28th July, 1660. I heard his Majesty's speech in the Lords' House, on
passing the Bills of Tonnage and Poundage; restoration of my Lord Ormond
to his estate in Ireland; concerning the commission of sewers, and
continuance of the excise. In the afternoon I saluted my old friend, the
Archbishop of Armagh, formerly of Londonderry (Dr. Bramhall). He
presented several Irish divines to be promoted as Bishops in that
kingdom, most of the Bishops in the three kingdoms being now almost worn
out, and the Sees vacant.

31st July, 1660. I went to visit Sir Philip Warwick, now secretary to the
Lord Treasurer, at his house in North Cray.

19th August, 1660. Our vicar read the Thirty-nine Articles to the
congregation, the national assemblies beginning now to settle, and
wanting instruction.

23d August, 1660. Came Duke Hamilton, Lord Lothian, and several Scottish
Lords, to see my garden.

25th August, 1660. Colonel Spencer, colonel of a regiment of horse in our
county of Kent, sent to me, and intreated that I would take a commission
for a troop of horse, and that I would nominate my lieutenant and
ensigns; I thanked him for the honor intended me; but would by no means
undertake the trouble.

4th September, 1660. I was invited to an ordination by the Bishop of
Bangor, in Henry VII.'s chapel, Westminster, and afterward saw the
audience of an Envoyée from the Duke of Anjou, sent to compliment his
Majesty's return.

5th September, 1660. Came to visit and dine with me the Envoyée of the
King of Poland, and Resident of the King of Denmark, etc.

7th September, 1660. I went to Chelsea to visit Mr. Boyle, and see his
pneumatic engine perform divers experiments. Thence, to Kensington, to
visit Mr. Henshaw, returning home that evening.

13th September, 1660. I saw in Southwark, at St. Margaret's fair, monkeys
and apes dance, and do other feats of activity on the high rope; they
were gallantly clad _á la monde_, went upright, saluted the company,
bowing and pulling off their hats; they saluted one another with as good
a grace as if instructed by a dancing master; they turned heels over head
with a basket having eggs in it, without breaking any; also, with lighted
candles in their hands, and on their heads, without extinguishing them,
and with vessels of water without spilling a drop. I also saw an Italian
wench dance, and perform all the tricks on the high rope to admiration;
all the Court went to see her. Likewise, here was a man who took up a
piece of iron cannon of about 400lb. weight with the hair of his head
only.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

17th September, 1660. Went to London, to see the splendid entry of the
Prince de Ligne, Ambassador extraordinary from Spain; he was general of
the Spanish King's horse in Flanders, and was accompanied with divers
great persons from thence, and an innumerable retinue. His train
consisted of seventeen coaches, with six horses of his own, besides a
great number of English, etc. Greater bravery had I never seen. He was
received in the Banqueting House, in exceeding state, all the great
officers of Court attending.

23d September, 1660. In the midst of all this joy and jubilee, the Duke
of Gloucester died of the smallpox, in the prime of youth, and a prince
of extraordinary hopes.

27th September, 1660. The King received the merchant's addresses in his
closet, giving them assurances of his persisting to keep Jamaica,
choosing Sir Edward Massey Governor. In the afternoon, the Danish
Ambassador's condolences were presented, on the death of the Duke of
Gloucester. This evening, I saw the Princess Royal, mother to the Prince
of Orange, now come out of Holland in a fatal period.

6th October, 1660. I paid the great tax of poll money, levied for
disbanding the army, till now kept up. I paid as an Esquire £10, and one
shilling for every servant in my house.

7th October, 1660. There dined with me a French count, with Sir George
Tuke, who came to take leave of me, being sent over to the Queen-Mother,
to break the marriage of the Duke with the daughter of Chancellor Hyde.
The Queen would fain have undone it; but it seems matters were
reconciled, on great offers of the Chancellor's to befriend the Queen,
who was much in debt, and was now to have the settlement of her affairs
go through his hands.

11th October, 1660. The regicides who sat on the life of our late King,
were brought to trial in the Old Bailey, before a commission of oyer and
terminer.

14th October, 1660. Axtall, Carew, Clement, Hacker, Hewson, and Peters,
were executed.

17th October, 1660. Scot, Scroop, Cook, and Jones, suffered for reward of
their iniquities at Charing Cross, in sight of the place where they put
to death their natural prince, and in the presence of the King his son,
whom they also sought to kill. I saw not their execution, but met their
quarters, mangled, and cut, and reeking, as they were brought from the
gallows in baskets on the hurdle. Oh, the miraculous providence of God!

28th October, 1660. His Majesty went to meet the Queen-Mother.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

29th October, 1660. Going to London, my Lord Mayor's show stopped me in
Cheapside; one of the pageants represented a great wood, with the royal
oak, and history of his Majesty's miraculous escape at Boscobel.

31st October, 1660. Arrived now to my fortieth year, I rendered to
Almighty God my due and hearty thanks.

1st November, 1660. I went with some of my relations to Court, to show
them his Majesty's cabinet and closet of rarities; the rare miniatures of
Peter Oliver, after Raphael, Titian, and other masters, which I
infinitely esteem; also, that large piece of the Duchess of Lennox, done
in enamel, by Petitot, and a vast number of agates, onyxes, and
intaglios, especially a medallion of Cæsar, as broad as my hand;
likewise, rare cabinets of pietra-commessa, a landscape of needlework,
formerly presented by the Dutch to King Charles I. Here I saw a vast book
of maps, in a volume near four yards large; a curious ship model; and,
among the clocks, one that showed the rising and setting of the sun in
the zodiac; the sun represented by a face and rays of gold, upon an azure
sky, observing the diurnal and annual motion, rising and setting behind a
landscape of hills,--the work of our famous Fromantil,--and several other
rarities.

3d October, 1660. Arrived the Queen-Mother in England, whence she had
been banished for almost twenty years; together with her illustrious
daughter, the Princess Henrietta, divers princes and noblemen,
accompanying them.

15th October, 1660. I kissed the Queen-Mother's hand.

20th October, 1660. I dined at the Clerk Comptroller's of the Green
Cloth, being the first day of the re-establishment of the Court diet, and
settling of his Majesty's household.

23d October, 1660. Being this day in the bedchamber of the Princess
Henrietta, where were many great beauties and noblemen, I saluted divers
of my old friends and acquaintances abroad; his Majesty carrying my wife
to salute the Queen and Princess, and then led her into his closet, and
with his own hands showed her divers curiosities.

25th October, 1660. Dr. Rainbow preached before the King, on Luke ii. 14,
of the glory to be given God for all his mercies, especially for
restoring the Church and government; now the service was performed with
music, voices, etc., as formerly.

27th November, 1660. Came down the Clerk Comptroller [of the Green Cloth]
by the Lord Steward's appointment, to survey the land at Sayes Court, on
which I had pretense, and to make his report.

6th December, 1660. I waited on my brother and sister Evelyn to Court.
Now were presented to his Majesty those two rare pieces of drollery, or
rather a Dutch Kitchen, painted by Dowe, so finely as hardly to be
distinguished from enamel. I was also shown divers rich jewels and
crystal vases; the rare head of Jo. Bellino, Titian's master; Christ in
the Garden, by Hannibal Caracci; two incomparable heads, by Holbein; the
Queen-Mother in a miniature, almost as big as the life; an exquisite
piece of carving; two unicorn's horns, etc. This in the closet.

13th December, 1660. I presented my son, John, to the Queen-Mother, who
kissed him, talked with and made extraordinary much of him.

14th December, 1660. I visited my Lady Chancellor, the Marchioness of
Ormond, and Countess of Guildford, all of whom we had known abroad in
exile.

18th December, 1660. I carried Mr. Spellman, a most ingenious gentleman,
grandchild to the learned Sir Henry, to my Lord Mordaunt, to whom I had
recommended him as secretary.

21st December, 1660. This day died the Princess of Orange, of the
smallpox, which entirely altered the face and gallantry of the whole
Court.

22d December, 1660. The marriage of the Chancellor's daughter being now
newly owned, I went to see her, she being Sir Richard Browne's intimate
acquaintance when she waited on the Princess of Orange; she was now at
her father's, at Worcester House, in the Strand. We all kissed her hand,
as did also my Lord Chamberlain (Manchester) and Countess of
Northumberland. This was a strange change--can it succeed well?--I spent
the evening at St. James's, whither the Princess Henrietta was retired
during the fatal sickness of her sister, the Princess of Orange, now come
over to salute the King her brother. The Princess gave my wife an
extraordinary compliment and gracious acceptance, for the "Character"[64]
she had presented her the day before, and which was afterward printed.

    [Footnote 64: "A Character of England," reprinted in Evelyn's
    "Miscellaneous Writings," pp. 141-67.]

25th December, 1660. Preached at the Abbey, Dr. Earle, Clerk of his
Majesty's Closet, and my dear friend, now Dean of Westminster, on Luke
ii. 13, 14, condoling the breach made in the public joy by the lamented
death of the Princess.

30th December, 1660. I dined at Court with Mr. Crane, Clerk of the Green
Cloth.

31st December, 1660. I gave God thanks for his many signal mercies to
myself, church, and nation, this wonderful year.

2d January, 1661. The Queen-Mother, with the Princess Henrietta, began
her journey to Portsmouth, in order to her return into France.

5th January, 1661. I visited my Lord Chancellor Clarendon, with whom I
had been well acquainted abroad.

6th January, 1661. Dr. Allestree preached at the Abbey, after which four
Bishops were consecrated, Hereford, Norwich, ...

This night was suppressed a bloody insurrection of some FIFTH-MONARCHY
ENTHUSIASTS. Some of them were examined at the Council the next day; but
could say nothing to extenuate their madness and unwarrantable zeal.

I was now chosen (and nominated by his Majesty for one of the Council),
by suffrage of the rest of the members, a Fellow of the Philosophic
Society now meeting at Gresham College, where was an assembly of divers
learned gentlemen. This being the first meeting since the King's return;
but it had been begun some years before at Oxford, and was continued with
interruption here in London during the Rebellion.

There was another rising of the fanatics, in which some were slain.

16th January, 1661. I went to the Philosophic Club, where was examined
the Torricellian experiment. I presented my Circle of Mechanical Trades,
and had recommended to me the publishing what I had written of
Chalcography.

25th January, 1661. After divers years since I had seen any play, I went
to see acted "The Scornful Lady," at a new theater in Lincoln's-Inn
Fields.

30th January, 1661. Was the first solemn fast and day of humiliation to
deplore the sins which had so long provoked God against this afflicted
church and people, ordered by Parliament to be annually celebrated to
expiate the guilt of the execrable murder of the late King.

This day (Oh, the stupendous and inscrutable judgments of God!) were the
carcasses of those arch-rebels, Cromwell, Bradshawe (the judge who
condemned his Majesty), and Ireton (son-in-law to the Usurper), dragged
out of their superb tombs in Westminster among the Kings, to Tyburn, and
hanged on the gallows there from nine in the morning till six at night,
and then buried under that fatal and ignominious monument in a deep pit;
thousands of people who had seen them in all their pride being
spectators. Look back at October 22, 1658,[65] and be astonished! and
fear God and honor the King; but meddle not with them who are given to
change!

    [Footnote 65: The entry in the "Diary" describing the Protector's
    funeral.]

6th February, 1661. To London, to our Society, where I gave notice of the
visit of the Danish Ambassador-Extraordinary, and was ordered to return
him their acceptance of that honor, and to invite him the next meeting
day.

10th February, 1661. Dr. Baldero preached at Ely-house, on Matthew vi.
33, of seeking early the kingdom of God; after sermon, the Bishop (Dr.
Wren) gave us the blessing, very pontifically.

13th February, 1661. I conducted the Danish Ambassador to our meeting at
Gresham College, where were shown him various experiments in vacuo, and
other curiosities.

21st February, 1661. Prince Rupert first showed me how to grave in _mezzo
tinto_.

26th February, 1661. I went to Lord Mordaunt's, at Parson's Green.

27th February, 1661. Ash Wednesday. Preached before the King the Bishop
of London (Dr. Sheldon) on Matthew xviii. 25, concerning charity and
forgiveness.

8th March, 1661. I went to my Lord Chancellor's, and delivered to him the
state of my concernment at Sayes Court.

9th March, 1661. I went with that excellent person and philosopher, Sir
Robert Murray, to visit Mr. Boyle at Chelsea, and saw divers effects of
the eolipile for weighing air.

13th March, 1661. I went to Lambeth, with Sir R. Browne's pretense to the
Wardenship of Merton College, Oxford, to which, as having been about
forty years before a student of that house, he was elected by the votes
of every Fellow except one; but the statutes of the house being so that,
unless every Fellow agree, the election devolves to the Visitor, who is
the Archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. Juxon), his Grace gave his nomination
to Sir T. Clayton, resident there, and the Physic Professor: for which I
was not at all displeased, because, though Sir Richard missed it by much
ingratitude and wrong of the Archbishop (Clayton being no Fellow), yet it
would have hindered Sir Richard from attending at Court to settle his
greater concerns, and so have prejudiced me, though he was much inclined
to have passed his time in a collegiate life, very unfit for him at that
time, for many reasons. So I took leave of his Grace, who was formerly
Lord Treasurer in the reign of Charles I.

This afternoon, Prince Rupert showed me, with his own hands, the new way
of graving, called _mezzo tinto_, which afterward, by his permission, I
published in my "History of Chalcography"; this set so many artists on
work, that they soon arrived to the perfection it is since come to,
emulating the tenderest miniatures.

Our Society now gave in my relation of the Peak of Teneriffe, in the
Great Canaries, to be added to more queries concerning divers natural
things reported of that island.

I returned home with my Cousin, Tuke, now going for France, as sent by
his Majesty to condole the death of that great Minister and politician,
Count Mazarine.

29th March, 1661. Dr. Heylin (author of the "Geography") preached at the
Abbey, on Cant. v. 25, concerning friendship and charity; he was, I
think, at this time quite dark, and so had been for some years.

31st March, 1661. This night, his Majesty promised to make my wife Lady
of the Jewels (a very honorable charge) to the future Queen (but which he
never performed).

1st April, 1661. I dined with that great mathematician and virtuoso,
Monsieur Zulichem, inventor of the pendule clock, and discoverer of the
phenomenon of Saturn's annulus: he was elected into our Society.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

19th April, 1661. To London, and saw the bathing and rest of the
ceremonies of the Knights of the Bath, preparatory to the coronation; it
was in the Painted Chamber, Westminster. I might have received this
honor; but declined it. The rest of the ceremony was in the chapel at
Whitehall, when their swords being laid on the altar, the Bishop
delivered them.

22d April, 1661. Was the splendid cavalcade of his Majesty from the Tower
of London to Whitehall, when I saw him in the Banqueting House create six
Earls, and as many Barons, viz:

Edward Lord Hyde, Lord Chancellor, Earl of Clarendon; supported by the
Earls of Northumberland and Sussex; the Earl of Bedford carried the cap
and coronet, the Earl of Warwick, the sword, the Earl of Newport, the
mantle.

  Next, was Capel, created Earl of Essex.
            Brudenell,             Cardigan;
            Valentia,              Anglesea;
            Greenvill,             Bath; and
            Howard, Earl of Carlisle.

The Barons were: Denzille Holles; Cornwallis; Booth; Townsend; Cooper;
Crew; who were led up by several Peers, with Garter and officers of arms
before them; when, after obedience on their several approaches to the
throne, their patents were presented by Garter King-at-Arms, which being
received by the Lord Chamberlain, and delivered to his Majesty, and by
him to the Secretary of State, were read, and then again delivered to his
Majesty, and by him to the several Lords created; they were then robed,
their coronets and collars put on by his Majesty, and they were placed in
rank on both sides of the state and throne; but the Barons put off their
caps and circles, and held them in their hands, the Earls keeping on
their coronets, as cousins to the King.

I spent the rest of the evening in seeing the several archtriumphals
built in the streets at several eminent places through which his Majesty
was next day to pass, some of which, though temporary, and to stand but
one year, were of good invention and architecture, with inscriptions.

23d April, 1661. Was the coronation of his Majesty Charles II. in the
Abbey-Church of Westminster; at all which ceremony I was present. The
King and his Nobility went to the Tower, I accompanying my Lord Viscount
Mordaunt part of the way; this was on Sunday, the 22d; but indeed his
Majesty went not till early this morning, and proceeded from thence to
Westminster in this order:

First went the Duke of York's Horse Guards. Messengers of the Chamber.
136 Esquires to the Knights of the Bath, each of whom had two, most
richly habited. The Knight Harbinger. Sergeant Porter. Sewers of the
Chamber. Quarter Waiters. Six Clerks of Chancery. Clerk of the Signet.
Clerk of the Privy Seal. Clerks of the Council, of the Parliament, and
of the Crown. Chaplains in ordinary having dignities, 10. King's
Advocates and Remembrancer. Council at Law. Masters of the Chancery.
Puisne Sergeants. King's Attorney and Solicitor. King's eldest Sergeant.
Secretaries of the French and Latin tongue. Gentlemen Ushers. Daily
Waiters, Sewers, Carvers, and Cupbearers in ordinary. Esquires of the
body, 4. Masters of standing offices, being no Counsellors, viz, of the
Tents, Revels, Ceremonies, Armory, Wardrobe, Ordnance, Requests.
Chamberlain of the Exchequer. Barons of the Exchequer. Judges. Lord
Chief-Baron. Lord Chief-Justice of the Common Pleas. Master of the Rolls.
Lord Chief-Justice of England. Trumpets. Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber.
Knights of the Bath, 68, in crimson robes, exceeding rich, and the
noblest show of the whole cavalcade, his Majesty excepted. Knight
Marshal. Treasurer of the Chamber. Master of the Jewels. Lords of the
Privy Council. Comptroller of the Household. Treasurer of the Household.
Trumpets. Sergeant Trumpet. Two Pursuivants at Arms. Barons. Two
Pursuivants at Arms. Viscounts. Two Heralds. Earls. Lord Chamberlain of
the Household. Two Heralds. Marquises. Dukes. Heralds Clarencieux and
Norroy. Lord Chancellor. Lord High Steward of England. Two persons
representing the Dukes of Normandy and Acquitaine, viz, Sir Richard
Fanshawe and Sir Herbert Price, in fantastic habits of the time.
Gentlemen Ushers. Garter. Lord Mayor of London. The Duke of York alone
(the rest by twos). Lord High Constable of England. Lord Great
Chamberlain of England. The sword borne by the Earl Marshal of England.
The KING, in royal robes and equipage. Afterward, followed equerries,
footmen, gentlemen pensioners. Master of the Horse, leading a horse
richly caparisoned. Vice-Chamberlain. Captain of the Pensioners. Captain
of the Guard. The Guard. The Horse Guard. The troop of Volunteers, with
many other officers and gentlemen.

This magnificent train on horseback, as rich as embroidery, velvet, cloth
of gold and silver, and jewels, could make them and their prancing
horses, proceeded through the streets strewed with flowers, houses hung
with rich tapestry, windows and balconies full of ladies; the London
militia lining the ways, and the several companies, with their banners
and loud music, ranked in their orders; the fountains running wine, bells
ringing, with speeches made at the several triumphal arches; at that of
the Temple Bar (near which I stood) the Lord Mayor was received by the
Bailiff of Westminster, who, in a scarlet robe, made a speech. Thence,
with joyful acclamations, his Majesty passed to Whitehall. Bonfires at
night.

The next day, being St. George's, he went by water to Westminster Abbey.
When his Majesty was entered, the Dean and Prebendaries brought all the
regalia, and delivered them to several noblemen to bear before the King,
who met them at the west door of the church, singing an anthem, to the
choir. Then, came the Peers, in their robes, and coronets in their hands,
till his Majesty was placed on a throne elevated before the altar.
Afterward, the Bishop of London (the Archbishop of Canterbury being sick)
went to every side of the throne to present the King to the people,
asking if they would have him for their King, and do him homage; at this,
they shouted four times "God save King Charles II!" Then, an anthem was
sung. His Majesty, attended by three Bishops, went up to the altar, and
he offered a pall and a pound of gold. Afterward, he sat down in another
chair during the sermon, which was preached by Dr. Morley, Bishop of
Worcester.

After sermon, the King took his oath before the altar to maintain the
religion, Magna Charta, and laws of the land. The hymn _Véni S. Sp._
followed, and then the Litany by two Bishops. Then the Archbishop of
Canterbury, present, but much indisposed and weak, said "Lift up your
hearts"; at which, the King rose up, and put off his robes and upper
garments, and was in a waistcoat so opened in divers places, that the
Archbishop might commodiously anoint him, first in the palms of his
hands, when an anthem was sung, and a prayer read; then, his breast and
between the shoulders, bending of both arms; and, lastly, on the crown of
the head, with apposite hymns and prayers at each anointing; this done,
the Dean closed and buttoned up the waistcoat. After which, was a coif
put on, and the cobbium, sindon or dalmatic, and over this a super-tunic
of cloth of gold, with buskins and sandals of the same, spurs, and the
sword; a prayer being first said over it by the Archbishop on the altar,
before it was girt on by the Lord Chamberlain. Then, the armill, mantle,
etc. Then, the Archbishop placed the crown imperial on the altar, prayed
over it, and set it on his Majesty's head, at which all the Peers put on
their coronets. Anthems, and rare music, with lutes, viols, trumpets,
organs, and voices, were then heard, and the Archbishop put a ring on his
Majesty's finger. The King next offered his sword on the altar, which
being redeemed, was drawn, and borne before him. Then, the Archbishop
delivered him the sceptre, with the dove in one hand, and, in the other,
the sceptre with the globe. The King kneeling, the Archbishop pronounced
the blessing. His Majesty then ascending again his royal throne, while
_Te Deum_ was singing, all the Peers did their homage, by every one
touching his crown. The Archbishop, and the rest of the Bishops, first
kissing the King; who received the Holy Sacrament, and so disrobed, yet
with the crown imperial on his head, and accompanied with all the
nobility in the former order, he went on foot upon blue cloth, which was
spread and reached from the west door of the Abbey to Westminster stairs,
when he took water in a triumphal barge to Whitehall where was
extraordinary feasting.

24th April, 1661. I presented his Majesty with his "Panegyric"[66] in the
Privy Chamber, which he was pleased to accept most graciously; I gave
copies to the Lord Chancellor, and most of the noblemen who came to me
for it. I dined at the Marquis of Ormond's where was a magnificent feast,
and many great persons.

    [Footnote 66: A poem which Evelyn had composed on his Majesty's
    Coronation; the 23d of April, 1661, being St. George's day.]

1st May, 1661. I went to Hyde Park to take the air, where was his Majesty
and an innumerable appearance of gallants and rich coaches, being now a
time of universal festivity and joy.

2d May, 1661. I had audience of my Lord Chancellor about my title to
Sayes Court.

3d May, 1661. I went to see the wonderful engine for weaving silk
stockings, said to have been the invention of an Oxford scholar forty
years since; and I returned by Fromantil's, the famous clockmaker, to see
some pendules, Monsieur Zulichem being with us.

This evening, I was with my Lord Brouncker, Sir Robert Murray, Sir
Patrick Neill, Monsieur Zulichem, and Bull (all of them of our Society,
and excellent mathematicians), to show his Majesty, who was present,
Saturn's annulus, as some thought, but as Zulichem affirmed with his
_balteus_ (as that learned gentleman had published), very near eclipsed
by the moon, near the Mons Porphyritis; also, Jupiter and satellites,
through his Majesty's great telescope, drawing thirty-five feet; on which
were divers discourses.

8th May, 1661. His Majesty rode in state, with his imperial crown on, and
all the peers in their robes, in great pomp to the Parliament now newly
chosen (the old one being dissolved); and, that evening, declared in
council his intention to marry the Infanta of Portugal.

9th May, 1661. At Sir Robert Murray's, where I met Dr. Wallis, Professor
of Geometry in Oxford, where was discourse of several mathematical
subjects.

11th May, 1661. My wife presented to his Majesty the Madonna she had
copied in miniature from P. Oliver's painting, after Raphael, which she
wrought with extraordinary pains and judgment. The King was infinitely
pleased with it, and caused it to be placed in his cabinet among his best
paintings.

13th May, 1661. I heard and saw such exercises at the election of
scholars at Westminster School to be sent to the University in Latin,
Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic, in themes and extemporary verses, as
wonderfully astonished me in such youths, with such readiness and wit,
some of them not above twelve or thirteen years of age. Pity it is, that
what they attain here so ripely, they either do not retain, or do not
improve more considerably when they come to be men, though many of them
do; and no less is to be blamed their odd pronouncing of Latin, so that
out of England none were able to understand, or endure it. The
examinants, or posers, were, Dr. Duport, Greek Professor at Cambridge;
Dr. Fell, Dean of Christ Church, Oxford; Dr. Pierson; Dr. Allestree, Dean
of Westminster, and any that would.

14th May, 1661. His Majesty was pleased to discourse with me concerning
several particulars relating to our Society, and the planet Saturn, etc.,
as he sat at supper in the withdrawing-room to his bedchamber.

16th May, 1661. I dined with Mr. Garmus, the Resident from Hamburg, who
continued his feast near nine whole hours, according to the custom of his
country, though there was no great excess of drinking, no man being
obliged to take more than he liked.

22d May, 1661. The Scotch Covenant was burnt by the common hangman in
divers places in London. Oh, prodigious change!

29th May, 1661. This was the first anniversary appointed by act of
Parliament to be observed as a day of general thanksgiving for the
miraculous restoration of his Majesty: our vicar preaching on Psalm
cxviii. 24, requiring us to be thankful and rejoice, as indeed we had
cause.

4th June, 1661. Came Sir Charles Harbord, his Majesty's surveyor, to take
an account of what grounds I challenged at Sayes Court.

27th June, 1661. I saw the Portugal ambassador at dinner with his Majesty
in state, where was excellent music.

2d July, 1661. I went to see the New Spring-Garden, at Lambeth, a
prettily contrived plantation.

[Sidenote: DEPTFORD]

19th July, 1661. We tried our Diving-Bell, or engine, in the water dock
at Deptford, in which our curator continued half an hour under water; it
was made of cast lead, let down with a strong cable.

3d August, 1661. Came my Lord Hatton, Comptroller of his Majesty's
household to visit me.

9th August, 1661. I tried several experiments on the sensitive plant and
_humilis_, which contracted with the least touch of the sun through a
burning glass, though it rises and opens only when it shines on it.

I first saw the famous Queen Pine brought from Barbadoes, and presented
to his Majesty; but the first that were ever seen in England were those
sent to Cromwell four years since.

I dined at Mr. Palmer's in Gray's Inn, whose curiosity excelled in clocks
and pendules, especially one that had innumerable motions, and played
nine or ten tunes on the bells very finely, some of them set in parts:
which was very harmonious. It was wound up but once in a quarter. He had
also good telescopes and mathematical instruments, choice pictures, and
other curiosities. Thence, we went to that famous mountebank, Jo.
Punteus.

Sir Kenelm Digby presented every one of us his "Discourse of the
Vegetation of Plants"; and Mr. Henshaw, his "History of Saltpeter and
Gunpowder." I assisted him to procure his place of French Secretary to
the King, which he purchased of Sir Henry De Vic.

I went to that famous physician, Sir Fr. Prujean, who showed me his
laboratory, his workhouse for turning, and other mechanics; also many
excellent pictures, especially the Magdalen of Caracci; and some
incomparable _paysages_ done in distemper; he played to me likewise on
the _polythore_, an instrument having something of the harp, lute, and
theorbo; by none known in England, nor described by any author, nor used,
but by this skillful and learned Doctor.

15th August, 1661. I went to Tunbridge-Wells, my wife being there for the
benefit of her health. Walking about the solitudes, I greatly admired the
extravagant turnings, insinuations, and growth of certain birch trees
among the rocks.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

13th September, 1661. I presented my "_Fumifugium_"[67] dedicated to his
Majesty, who was pleased that I should publish it by his special
commands, being much gratified with it.

    [Footnote 67: This pamphlet having become scarce, was in 1772
    reprinted in 4to, and is now incorporated in Evelyn's "Miscellaneous
    Writings."]

18th September, 1661. This day was read our petition to his Majesty for
his royal grant, authorizing our Society to meet as a corporation, with
several privileges.

An exceedingly sickly, wet autumn.

1st October, 1661. I sailed this morning with his Majesty in one of his
yachts (or pleasure boats), vessels not known among us till the Dutch
East India Company presented that curious piece to the King; being very
excellent sailing vessels. It was on a wager between his other new
pleasure boat, built frigate-like, and one of the Duke of York's; the
wager £100; the race from Greenwich to Gravesend and back. The King lost
it going, the wind being contrary, but saved stakes in returning. There
were divers noble persons and lords on board, his Majesty sometimes
steering himself. His barge and kitchen boat attended. I brake fast this
morning with the King at return in his smaller vessel, he being pleased
to take me and only four more, who were noblemen, with him; but dined in
his yacht, where we all ate together with his Majesty. In this passage he
was pleased to discourse to me about my book inveighing against the
nuisance of the smoke of London, and proposing expedients how, by
removing those particulars I mentioned, it might be reformed; commanding
me to prepare a Bill against the next session of Parliament, being, as he
said, resolved to have something done in it. Then he discoursed to me of
the improvement of gardens and buildings, now very rare in England
comparatively to other countries. He then commanded me to draw up the
matter of fact happening at the bloody encounter which then had newly
happened between the French and Spanish Ambassadors near the Tower,
contending for precedency, at the reception of the Swedish Ambassador;
giving me orders to consult Sir William Compton, Master of the Ordnance,
to inform me of what he knew of it, and with his favorite, Sir Charles
Berkeley, captain of the Duke's life guard, then present with his troop
and three foot companies; with some other reflections and instructions,
to be prepared with a declaration to take off the reports which went
about of his Majesty's partiality in the affairs, and of his officers'
and spectators' rudeness while the conflict lasted. So I came home that
night, and went next morning to London, where from the officers of the
Tower, Sir William Compton, Sir Charles Berkeley, and others who were
attending at this meeting of the Ambassadors three days before, having
collected what I could, I drew up a Narrative in vindication of his
Majesty, and the carriage of his officers and standers-by.

On Thursday his Majesty sent one of the pages of the back stairs for me
to wait on him with my papers, in his cabinet where was present only Sir
Henry Bennett (Privy-Purse), when beginning to read to his Majesty what I
had drawn up, by the time I had read half a page, came in Mr. Secretary
Morice with a large paper, desiring to speak with his Majesty, who told
him he was now very busy, and therefore ordered him to come again some
other time; the Secretary replied that what he had in his hand was of
extraordinary importance. So the King rose up, and, commanding me to
stay, went aside to a corner of the room with the Secretary; after a
while, the Secretary being dispatched, his Majesty returning to me at
the table, a letter was brought him from Madame out of France;[68] this
he read and then bid me proceed from where I left off. This I did till I
had ended all the narrative, to his Majesty's great satisfaction; and,
after I had inserted one or two more clauses, in which his Majesty
instructed me, commanded that it should that night be sent to the
posthouse, directed to the Lord Ambassador at Paris (the Earl of St.
Alban's), and then at leisure to prepare him a copy, which he would
publish. This I did, and immediately sent my papers to the Secretary of
State, with his Majesty's express command of dispatching them that night
for France. Before I went out of the King's closet, he called me back to
show me some ivory statues, and other curiosities that I had not seen
before.

    [Footnote 68: Henrietta Maria.]

3d October, 1661. Next evening, being in the withdrawing-room adjoining
the bedchamber, his Majesty espying me came to me from a great crowd of
noblemen standing near the fire, and asked me if I had done; and told me
he feared it might be a little too sharp, on second thoughts, for he had
that morning spoken with the French Ambassador, who it seems had
palliated the matter, and was very tame; and therefore directed me where
I should soften a period or two, before it was published (as afterward it
was). This night also he spoke to me to give him a sight of what was
sent, and to bring it to him in his bedchamber; which I did, and received
it again from him at dinner, next day. By Saturday, having finished it
with all his Majesty's notes, the King being gone abroad, I sent the
papers to Sir Henry Bennett (Privy-Purse and a great favorite), and
slipped home, being myself much indisposed and harassed with going about,
and sitting up to write.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

19th October, 1661. I went to London to visit my Lord of Bristol, having
been with Sir John Denham (his Majesty's surveyor) to consult with him
about the placing of his palace at Greenwich, which I would have had
built between the river and the Queen's house, so as a large square cut
should have let in the Thames like a bay; but Sir John was for setting it
on piles at the very brink of the water, which I did not assent to; and
so came away, knowing Sir John to be a better poet than architect,
though he had Mr. Webb (Inigo Jones's man) to assist him.

29th October, 1661. I saw the Lord Mayor pass in his water triumph to
Westminster, being the first solemnity of this nature after twenty years.

2d November, 1661. Came Sir Henry Bennett, since Lord Arlington, to visit
me, and to acquaint me that his Majesty would do me the honor to come and
see my garden; but, it being then late, it was deferred.

3d November, 1661. One Mr. Breton preached his probation sermon at our
parish church, and indeed made a most excellent discourse on John i. 29,
of God's free grace to penitents, so that I could not but recommend him
to the patron.

10th November, 1661. In the afternoon, preached at the Abbey Dr. Basire,
that great traveler, or rather French Apostle, who had been planting the
Church of England in divers parts of the Levant and Asia. He showed that
the Church of England was, for purity of doctrine, substance, decency,
and beauty, the most perfect under Heaven; that England was the very land
of Goshen.

11th November, 1661. I was so idle as to go to see a play called "Love
and Honor." Dined at Arundel House; and that evening discoursed with his
Majesty about shipping, in which he was exceedingly skillful.

15th November, 1661. I dined with the Duke of Ormond, who told me there
were no moles in Ireland, nor any rats till of late, and that in but one
county; but it was a mistake that spiders would not live there, only they
were not poisonous. Also, that they frequently took salmon with dogs.

16th November, 1661. I presented my translation of "Naudæus concerning
Libraries" to my Lord Chancellor; but it was miserably false printed.

17th November, 1661. Dr. Creighton, a Scot, author of the "Florentine
Council," and a most eloquent man and admirable Grecian, preached on
Cant. vi. 13, celebrating the return and restoration of the Church and
King.

20th November, 1661. At the Royal Society, Sir William Petty proposed
divers things for the improvement of shipping; a versatile keel that
should be on hinges and concerning sheathing ships with thin lead.

24th November, 1661. This night his Majesty fell into discourse with me
concerning bees, etc.

26th November, 1661. I saw "Hamlet, Prince of Denmark" played; but now
the old plays began to disgust this refined age, since his Majesty's
being so long abroad.

28th November, 1661. I dined at Chiffinch's house-warming, in St. James's
Park; he was his Majesty's closet-keeper, and had his new house full of
good pictures, etc. There dined with us Russell, Popish Bishop of Cape
Verd, who was sent out to negotiate his Majesty's match with the Infanta
of Portugal, after the Ambassador was returned.

29th November, 1661. I dined at the Countess of Peterborough's and went
that evening to Parson's Green with my Lord Mordaunt, with whom I stayed
that night.

1st December, 1661. I took leave of my Lord Peterborough, going now to
Tangier, which was to be delivered to the English on the match with
Portugal.

3d December, 1661. By universal suffrage of our philosophic assembly, an
order was made and registered that I should receive their public thanks
for the honorable mention I made of them by the name of Royal Society, in
my Epistle dedicatory to the Lord Chancellor, before my Traduction of
Naudæus. Too great an honor for a trifle.

4th December, 1661. I had much discourse with the Duke of York,
concerning strange cures he affirmed of a woman who swallowed a whole ear
of barley, which worked out at her side. I told him of the KNIFE
SWALLOWED[69] and the pins.

    [Footnote 69: This refers to the Dutchman, _ante_, 28th August,
    1641; and to an extraordinary case contained in a "Miraculous Cure
    of the Prussian Swallow Knife, etc., by Dan Lakin, P. C." quarto,
    London, 1642, with a woodcut representing the object of the cure and
    the size of the knife.]

I took leave of the Bishop of Cape Verd, now going in the fleet to bring
over our new Queen.

7th December, 1661. I dined at Arundel House, the day when the great
contest in Parliament was concerning the restoring the Duke of Norfolk;
however, it was carried for him. I also presented my little trifle of
Sumptuary Laws, entitled "Tyrannus" [or "The Mode"].

14th December, 1661. I saw otter hunting with the King, and killed one.

16th December, 1661. I saw a French comedy acted at Whitehall.

20th December, 1661. The Bishop of Gloucester preached at the Abbey at
the funeral of the Bishop of Hereford, brother to the Duke of Albemarle.
It was a decent solemnity. There was a silver miter, with episcopal
robes, borne by the herald before the hearse, which was followed by the
Duke his brother, and all the bishops, with divers noblemen.

23d December, 1661. I heard an Italian play and sing to the guitar with
extraordinary skill before the Duke.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

1st January, 1661-62. I went to London, invited to the solemn foolery of
the Prince de la Grange, at Lincoln's-Inn, where came the King, Duke,
etc. It began with a grand masque, and a formal pleading before the mock
Princes, Grandees, Nobles, and Knights of the Sun. He had his Lord
Chancellor, Chamberlain, Treasurer, and other Royal Officers, gloriously
clad and attended. It ended in a magnificent banquet. One Mr. Lort was
the young spark who maintained the pageantry.

6th January, 1662. This evening, according to custom, his Majesty opened
the revels of that night by throwing the dice himself in the privy
chamber, where was a table set on purpose, and lost his £100. (The year
before he won £1,500.) The ladies also played very deep. I came away when
the Duke of Ormond had won about £1,000, and left them still at passage,
cards, etc. At other tables, both there and at the groom-porter's,
observing the wicked folly and monstrous excess of passion among some
losers; sorry am I that such a wretched custom as play to that excess
should be countenanced in a Court, which ought to be an example of virtue
to the rest of the kingdom.

9th January, 1662. I saw acted "The Third Part of the Siege of Rhodes."
In this acted the fair and famous comedian called Roxalana from the part
she performed; and I think it was the last, she being taken to be the
Earl of Oxford's MISS (as at this time they began to call lewd women). It
was in recitative music.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

10th January, 1662. Being called into his Majesty's closet when Mr.
Cooper, the rare limner, was crayoning of the King's face and head, to
make the stamps for the new milled money now contriving, I had the honor
to hold the candle while it was doing, he choosing the night and
candlelight for the better finding out the shadows. During this, his
Majesty discoursed with me on several things relating to painting and
graving.

11th January, 1662. I dined at Arundel House, where I heard excellent
music performed by the ablest masters, both French and English, on
theorbos, viols, organs, and voices, as an exercise against the coming of
the Queen, purposely composed for her chapel. Afterward, my Lord Aubigny
(her Majesty's Almoner to be) showed us his elegant lodging, and his
wheel-chair for ease and motion, with divers other curiosities;
especially a kind of artificial glass, or porcelain, adorned with
relievos of paste, hard and beautiful. Lord Aubigny (brother to the Duke
of Lennox) was a person of good sense, but wholly abandoned to ease and
effeminacy.

I received of Sir Peter Ball, the Queen's attorney, a draft of an Act
against the nuisance of the smoke of London, to be reformed by removing
several trades which are the cause of it, and endanger the health of the
King and his people. It was to have been offered to the Parliament, as
his Majesty commanded.

12th January, 1662. At St. James's chapel preached, or rather harangued,
the famous orator, Monsieur Morus, in French. There were present the
King, Duke, French Ambassador, Lord Aubigny, Earl of Bristol, and a world
of Roman Catholics, drawn thither to hear this eloquent Protestant.

15th January, 1662. There was a general fast through the whole nation,
and now celebrated in London, to avert God's heavy judgments on this
land. Great rain had fallen without any frost, or seasonable cold, not
only in England, but in Sweden, and the most northern parts, being here
near as warm as at midsummer in some years.

This solemn fast was held for the House of Commons at St. Margaret's. Dr.
Reeves, Dean of Windsor, preached on Joshua vii. 12, showing how the
neglect of exacting justice on offenders (by which he insinuated such of
the old King's murderers as were yet reprieved and in the Tower) was a
main cause of God's punishing a land. He brought in that of the
Gibeonites, as well as Achan and others, concluding with an eulogy of the
Parliament for their loyalty in restoring the Bishops and Clergy, and
vindicating the Church from sacrilege.

16th January, 1662. Having notice of the Duke of York's intention to
visit my poor habitation and garden this day, I returned, when he was
pleased to do me that honor of his own accord, and to stay some time
viewing such things as I had to entertain his curiosity. Afterward he
caused me to dine with him at the Treasurer of the Navy's house, and to
sit with him covered at the same table. There were his Highness, the Duke
of Ormond, and several Lords. Then they viewed some of my grounds about a
project for a receptacle for ships to be moored in, which was laid aside
as a fancy of Sir Nicholas Crisp. After this, I accompanied the Duke to
an East India vessel that lay at Blackwall, where we had entertainment of
several curiosities. Among other spirituous drinks, as punch, etc., they
gave us Canary that had been carried to and brought from the Indies,
which was indeed incomparably good. I returned to London with his
Highness. This night was acted before his Majesty "The Widow," a lewd
play.

18th January, 1662. I came home to be private a little, not at all
affecting the life and hurry of Court.

24th January, 1662. His Majesty entertained me with his intentions of
building his Palace of Greenwich, and quite demolishing the old one; on
which I declared my thoughts.

25th January, 1662. I dined with the Trinity Company at their house, that
corporation being by charter fixed at Deptford.

3d February, 1662. I went to Chelsea, to see Sir Arthur Gorges' house.

11th February, 1662. I saw a comedy acted before the Duchess of York at
the Cockpit. The King was not at it.

17th February, 1662. I went with my Lord of Bristol to see his house at
Wimbledon, newly bought of the Queen-Mother, to help contrive the garden
after the modern. It is a delicious place for prospect and the thickets,
but the soil cold and weeping clay. Returned that evening with Sir Henry
Bennett.

This night was buried in Westminster Abbey the Queen of Bohemia, after
all her sorrows and afflictions being come to die in the arms of her
nephew, the King; also this night and the next day fell such a storm of
hail, thunder, and lightning, as never was seen the like in any man's
memory, especially the tempest of wind, being southwest, which subverted,
besides huge trees, many houses, innumerable chimneys (among others that
of my parlor at Sayes Court), and made such havoc at land and sea, that
several perished on both. Divers lamentable fires were also kindled at
this time; so exceedingly was God's hand against this ungrateful and
vicious nation and Court.

20th February, 1662. I returned home to repair my house, miserably
shattered by the late tempest.

24th March, 1662. I returned home with my whole family, which had been
most part of the winter, since October, at London, in lodgings near the
Abbey of Westminster.

6th April, 1662. Being of the Vestry, in the afternoon we ordered that
the communion-table should be set (as usual) altar-wise, with a decent
rail in front, as before the Rebellion.

17th April, 1662. The young Marquis of Argyle, whose turbulent father was
executed in Scotland, came to see my garden. He seemed a man of parts.

7th May, 1662. I waited on Prince Rupert to our Assembly where were tried
several experiments in Mr. Boyle's VACUUM. A man thrusting in his arm,
upon exhaustion of the air, had his flesh immediately swelled so as the
blood was near bursting the veins: he drawing it out, we found it all
speckled.

14th May, 1662. To London, being chosen one of the Commissioners for
reforming the buildings, ways, streets, and incumbrances, and regulating
the hackney coaches in the city of London, taking my oath before my Lord
Chancellor, and then went to his Majesty's Surveyor's office, in Scotland
Yard, about naming and establishing officers, adjourning till the 16th,
when I went to view how St. Martin's Lane might be made more passable
into the Strand. There were divers gentlemen of quality in this
commission.

25th May, 1662. I went this evening to London, in order to our journey
to Hampton Court, to see the Queen; who, having landed at Portsmouth, had
been married to the King a week before by the Bishop of London.

30th May, 1662. The Queen arrived with a train of Portuguese ladies in
their monstrous fardingales, or guard-infantes, their complexions
olivader[70] and sufficiently unagreeable. Her Majesty in the same habit,
her foretop long and turned aside very strangely. She was yet of the
handsomest countenance of all the rest, and, though low of stature,
prettily shaped, languishing and excellent eyes, her teeth wronging her
mouth by sticking a little too far out; for the rest, lovely enough.

    [Footnote 70: Of a dark olive complexion. It has been noticed in
    other accounts that Katharine of Braganza's Portuguese Ladies of
    Honor, who came over with her, were uncommonly ill-favored, and
    disagreeable in their appearance. See Faithorne's curious print of
    the Queen in the costume here described.]

31st May, 1662. I saw the Queen at dinner; the Judges came to compliment
her arrival, and, after them, the Duke of Ormond brought me to kiss her
hand.

2d June, 1662. The Lord Mayor and Aldermen made their addresses to the
Queen, presenting her £1,000 in gold. Now saw I her Portuguese ladies,
and the Guardadamas, or mother of her maids,[71] and the old knight, a
lock of whose hair quite covered the rest of his bald pate, bound on by a
thread, very oddly. I saw the rich gondola sent to his Majesty from the
State of Venice; but it was not comparable for swiftness to our common
wherries, though managed by Venetians.

    [Footnote 71: The Maids of Honor had a mother at least as early as
    the reign of Elizabeth. The office is supposed to have been
    abolished about the period of the Revolution of 1688.]

4th June, 1662. Went to visit the Earl of Bristol, at Wimbledon.

8th June, 1662. I saw her Majesty at supper privately in her bedchamber.

9th June, 1662. I heard the Queen's Portugal music, consisting of pipes,
harps, and very ill voices.

[Sidenote: HAMPTON COURT]

Hampton Court is as noble and uniform a pile, and as capacious as any
Gothic architecture can have made it. There is an incomparable furniture
in it, especially hangings designed by Raphael, very rich with gold; also
many rare pictures, especially the Cæsarean Triumphs of Andrea Mantegna,
formerly the Duke of Mantua's; of the tapestries, I believe the world can
show nothing nobler of the kind than the stories of Abraham and Tobit.
The gallery of horns is very particular for the vast beams of stags,
elks, antelopes, etc. The Queen's bed was an embroidery of silver on
crimson velvet, and cost £8,000, being a present made by the States of
Holland when his Majesty returned, and had formerly been given by them to
our King's sister, the Princess of Orange, and, being bought of her
again, was now presented to the King. The great looking-glass and toilet,
of beaten and massive gold, was given by the Queen-Mother. The Queen
brought over with her from Portugal such Indian cabinets as had never
before been seen here. The great hall is a most magnificent room. The
chapel roof excellently fretted and gilt. I was also curious to visit the
wardrobe and tents, and other furniture of state. The park, formerly a
flat and naked piece of ground, now planted with sweet rows of lime
trees; and the canal for water now near perfected; also the air-park. In
the garden is a rich and noble fountain, with Sirens, statues, etc., cast
in copper, by Fanelli; but no plenty of water. The cradle-work of horn
beam in the garden is, for the perplexed twining of the trees, very
observable. There is a parterre which they call Paradise, in which is a
pretty banqueting-house set over a cave, or cellar. All these gardens
might be exceedingly improved, as being too narrow for such a palace.

10th June, 1662. I returned to London, and presented my "History of
Chalcography" (dedicated to Mr. Boyle) to our Society.[72]

    [Footnote 72: See Evelyn's "Miscellaneous Writings."]

19 June, 1662. I went to Albury, to visit Mr. Henry Howard, soon after he
had procured the Dukedom to be restored. This gentleman had now
compounded a debt of £200,000, contracted by his grandfather. I was much
obliged to that great virtuoso, and to this young gentleman, with whom I
stayed a fortnight.

2d July, 1662. We hunted and killed a buck in the park, Mr. Howard
inviting most of the gentlemen of the country near him.

3d July, 1662. My wife met me at Woodcot, whither Mr. Howard accompanied
me to see my son John, who had been much brought up among Mr. Howard's
children at Arundel House, till, for fear of their perverting him in the
Catholic religion, I was forced to take him home.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

8th July, 1662. To London, to take leave of the Duke and Duchess of
Ormond, going then into Ireland with an extraordinary retinue.

13th July, 1662. Spent some time with the Lord Chancellor, where I had
discourse with my Lord Willoughby, Governor of Barbadoes, concerning
divers particulars of that colony.

28th July, 1662. His Majesty going to sea to meet the Queen-Mother, now
coming again for England, met with such ill weather as greatly endangered
him. I went to Greenwich, to wait on the Queen, now landed.

30th July, 1662. To London, where was a meeting about Charitable Uses,
and particularly to inquire how the city had disposed of the revenues of
Gresham College, and why the salaries of the professors there were no
better improved. I was on this commission, with divers Bishops and Lords
of the Council; but little was the progress we could make.

31st July, 1662. I sat with the Commissioners about reforming buildings
and streets of London, and we ordered the paving of the way from St.
James's North, which was a quagmire, and also of the Haymarket about
Piqudillo [Piccadilly], and agreed upon instructions to be printed and
published for the better keeping the streets clean.

1st August, 1662. Mr. H. Howard, his brothers Charles, Edward, Bernard,
Philip,[73] now the Queen's Almoner (all brothers of the Duke of Norfolk,
still in Italy), came with a great train, and dined with me; Mr. H.
Howard leaving with me his eldest and youngest sons, Henry and Thomas,
for three or four days, my son, John, having been sometime bred up in
their father's house.

    [Footnote 73: Since Cardinal at Rome. "Evelyn's Note."]

4th August, 1662. Came to see me the old Countess of Devonshire, with
that excellent and worthy person, my Lord her son, from Roehampton.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

5th August, 1662. To London, and next day to Hampton Court, about my
purchase, and took leave of Sir R. Fanshawe, now going Ambassador to
Portugal.

13th August, 1662. Our Charter being now passed under the broad Seal,
constituting us a corporation under the name of the Royal Society for the
improvement of natural knowledge by experiment, was this day read and was
all that was done this afternoon, being very large.

14th August, 1662. I sat on the commission for Charitable Uses, the Lord
Mayor and others of the Mercers' Company being summoned, to answer some
complaints of the Professors, grounded on a clause in the will of Sir
Thomas Gresham, the founder.

This afternoon, the Queen-Mother, with the Earl of St. Alban's and many
great ladies and persons, was pleased to honor my poor villa with her
presence, and to accept of a collation. She was exceedingly pleased, and
staid till very late in the evening.

15th August, 1662. Came my Lord Chancellor (the Earl of Clarendon) and
his lady, his purse and mace borne before him, to visit me. They were
likewise collationed with us, and were very merry. They had all been our
old acquaintance in exile, and indeed this great person had ever been my
friend. His son, Lord Cornbury, was here, too.

17th August, 1662. Being the Sunday when the Common Prayer Book, reformed
and ordered to be used for the future, was appointed to be read, and the
solemn League and Covenant to be abjured by all the incumbents of England
under penalty of losing their livings; our vicar read it this morning.

20th August, 1662. There were strong guards in the city this day,
apprehending some tumults, many of the Presbyterian ministers not
conforming. I dined with the Vice-Chamberlain, and then went to see the
Queen-Mother, who was pleased to give me many thanks for the
entertainment she received at my house, when she recounted to me many
observable stories of the sagacity of some dogs she formerly had.

21st August, 1662. I was admitted and then sworn one of the Council of
the Royal Society, being nominated in his Majesty's original grant to be
of this Council for the regulation of the Society, and making laws and
statutes conducible to its establishment and progress, for which we now
set apart every Wednesday morning till they were all finished. Lord
Viscount Brouncker (that excellent mathematician) was also by his
Majesty, our founder, nominated our first President. The King gave us the
arms of England to be borne in a canton in our arms, and sent us a mace
of silver gilt, of the same fashion and size as those carried before his
Majesty, to be borne before our president on meeting days. It was brought
by Sir Gilbert Talbot, master of his Majesty's jewel house.

22d August, 1662. I dined with my Lord Brouncker and Sir Robert Murray,
and then went to consult about a newly modeled ship at Lambeth, the
intention being to reduce that art to as certain a method as any other
part of architecture.

23d August, 1662. I was spectator of the most magnificent triumph that
ever floated on the Thames, considering the innumerable boats and
vessels, dressed and adorned with all imaginable pomp, but, above all,
the thrones, arches, pageants, and other representations, stately barges
of the Lord Mayor and companies, with various inventions, music, and
peals of ordnance both from the vessels and the shore, going to meet and
conduct the new Queen from Hampton Court to Whitehall, at the first time
of her coming to town. In my opinion, it far exceeded all the Venetian
Bucentoras, etc., on the Ascension, when they go to espouse the Adriatic.
His Majesty and the Queen came in an antique-shaped open vessel, covered
with a state, or canopy, of cloth of gold, made in form of a cupola,
supported with high Corinthian pillars, wreathed with flowers, festoons
and garlands. I was in our newly built vessel, sailing among them.

29th August, 1662. The Council and Fellows of the Royal Society went in a
body to Whitehall, to acknowledge his Majesty's royal grace in granting
our Charter, and vouchsafing to be himself our founder; when the
President made an eloquent speech, to which his Majesty gave a gracious
reply and we all kissed his hand. Next day we went in like manner with
our address to my Lord Chancellor, who had much promoted our patent: he
received us with extraordinary favor. In the evening I went to the
Queen-Mother's Court, and had much discourse with her.

1st September, 1662. Being invited by Lord Berkeley, I went to Durdans,
where dined his Majesty, the Queen, Duke, Duchess, Prince Rupert, Prince
Edward, and abundance of noblemen. I went, after dinner, to visit my
brother of Woodcot, my sister having been delivered of a son a little
before, but who had now been two days dead.

4th September, 1662. Commission for Charitable Uses, my Lord Mayor and
Aldermen being again summoned, and the improvements of Sir Thomas
Gresham's estate examined. There were present the Bishop of London, the
Lord Chief Justice, and the King's attorney.

6th September, 1662. Dined with me Sir Edward Walker, Garter
King-at-Arms, Mr. Slingsby, master of the Mint, and several others.

17th September, 1662. We now resolved that the Arms of the Society should
be a field argent, with a canton of the arms of England; the supporters
two talbots argent; crest, an eagle Or holding a shield with the like
arms of England, viz, three lions. The words "_Nullius in verbâ_." It was
presented to his Majesty for his approbation, and orders given to Garter
King-at-Arms to pass the diploma of their office for it.

20th September, 1662. I presented a petition to his Majesty about my own
concerns, and afterward accompanied him to Monsieur Febure his chemist
(and who had formerly been my master in Paris), to see his accurate
preparation for the composing Sir Walter Raleigh's rare cordial: he made
a learned discourse before his Majesty in French on each ingredient.

27th September, 1662. Came to visit me Sir George Saville, grandson to
the learned Sir Henry Saville, who published St. Chrysostom. Sir George
was a witty gentleman, if not a little too prompt and daring.

3d October, 1662. I was invited to the College of Physicians, where Dr.
Meret, a learned man and library-keeper, showed me the library, theater
for anatomy, and divers natural curiosities; the statue and epigram under
it of that renowned physician, Dr. Harvey, discoverer of the circulation
of the blood. There I saw Dr. Gilbert, Sir William Paddy's and other
pictures of men famous in their faculty.

Visited Mr. Wright, a Scotchman, who had lived long at Rome, and was
esteemed a good painter. The pictures of the Judges at Guildhall are of
his hand, and so are some pieces in Whitehall, as the roof in his
Majesty's old bedchamber, being Astræa, the St. Catherine, and a
chimney-piece in the Queen's privy chamber; but his best, in my opinion,
is Lacy, the famous Roscius or comedian, whom he has painted in three
dresses, as a gallant, a Presbyterian minister, and a Scotch highlander
in his plaid. It is in his Majesty's dining room at Windsor. He had at
his house an excellent collection, especially that small piece of
Correggio, Scotus of de la Marca, a design of Paulo; and, above all,
those ruins of Polydore, with some good agates and medals, especially a
Scipio, and a Cæsar's head of gold.

15th October, 1662. I this day delivered my "Discourse concerning Forest
Trees" to the Society, upon occasion of certain queries sent to us by the
Commissioners of his Majesty's Navy, being the first book that was
printed by order of the Society, and by their printer, since it was a
corporation.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

16th October, 1662. I saw "_Volpone_" acted at Court before their
Majesties.

21st October, 1662. To the Queen-Mother's Court, where her Majesty
related to us divers passages of her escapes during the Rebellion and
wars in England.

28th October, 1662. To Court in the evening where the Queen-Mother, the
Queen-Consort, and his Majesty being advertised of some disturbance,
forbore to go to the Lord Mayor's show and feast appointed next day, the
new Queen not having yet seen that triumph.

29th October, 1662. Was my Lord Mayor's show, with a number of sumptuous
pageants, speeches, and verses. I was standing in a house in Cheapside
against the place prepared for their Majesties. The Prince and heir of
Denmark was there, but not our King. There were also the maids of honor.
I went to Court this evening, and had much discourse with Dr. Basiers,
one of his Majesty's chaplains, the great traveler, who showed me the
syngraphs and original subscriptions of divers eastern patriarchs and
Asian churches to our confession.

4th November, 1662. I was invited to the wedding of the daughter of Sir
George Carteret (The Treasurer of the Navy and King's Vice-Chamberlain),
married to Sir Nicholas Slaning, Knight of the Bath, by the Bishop of
London, in the Savoy chapel; after which was an extraordinary feast.

5th November, 1662. The Council of the Royal Society met to amend the
Statutes, and dined together; afterward meeting at Gresham College, where
was a discourse suggested by me, concerning planting his Majesty's Forest
of Dean with oak, now so much exhausted of the choicest ship timber in
the world.

20th November, 1662. Dined with the Comptroller, Sir Hugh Pollard;
afterward saw "The Young Admiral" acted before the King.

21st November, 1662. Spent the evening at Court, Sir Kenelm Digby giving
me great thanks for my "Sylva."

[Sidenote: LONDON]

27th November, 1662. Went to London to see the entrance of the Russian
Ambassador, whom his Majesty ordered to be received with much state, the
Emperor not only having been kind to his Majesty in his distress, but
banishing all commerce with our nation during the Rebellion.

First, the city companies and trained bands were all in their stations:
his Majesty's army and guards in great order. His Excellency came in a
very rich coach, with some of his chief attendants; many of the rest on
horseback, clad in their vests, after the Eastern manner, rich furs,
caps, and carrying the presents, some carrying hawks, furs, teeth, bows,
etc. It was a very magnificent show.

I dined with the Master of the Mint, where was old Sir Ralph Freeman;[74]
passing my evening at the Queen-Mother's Court; at night, saw acted "The
Committee," a ridiculous play of Sir R. Howard, where the mimic, Lacy,
acted the Irish footman to admiration.

    [Footnote 74: Of Betchworth, in Surrey.]

30th November, 1662. St. Andrew's day. Invited by the Dean of Westminster
to his consecration dinner and ceremony, on his being made Bishop of
Worcester. Dr. Bolton preached in the Abbey Church; then followed the
consecration by the Bishops of London, Chichester, Winchester, Salisbury,
etc. After this, was one of the most plentiful and magnificent dinners
that in my life I ever saw; it cost near £600 as I was informed. Here
were the judges, nobility, clergy, and gentlemen innumerable, this Bishop
being universally beloved for his sweet and gentle disposition. He was
author of those Characters which go under the name of Blount. He
translated his late Majesty's "Icon" into Latin, was Clerk of his Closet,
Chaplain, Dean of Westminster, and yet a most humble, meek, and cheerful
man, an excellent scholar, and rare preacher. I had the honor to be loved
by him. He married me at Paris, during his Majesty's and the Church's
exile. When I took leave of him, he brought me to the cloisters in his
episcopal habit. I then went to prayers at Whitehall, where I passed that
evening.

1st December, 1662. Having seen the strange and wonderful dexterity of
the sliders on the new canal in St. James's Park, performed before their
Majesties by divers gentlemen and others with skates, after the manner of
the Hollanders, with what swiftness they pass, how suddenly they stop in
full career upon the ice; I went home by water, but not without exceeding
difficulty, the Thames being frozen, great flakes of ice encompassing our
boat.

17th December, 1662, I saw acted before the King "The Law against
Lovers."[75]

    [Footnote 75: By Sir William Davenant, a hotch-potch out of "Measure
    for Measure" and "Much Ado about Nothing."]

21st December, 1662. One of his Majesty's chaplains preached; after
which, instead of the ancient, grave, and solemn wind music accompanying
the organ, was introduced a concert of twenty-four violins between every
pause, after the French fantastical light way, better suiting a tavern,
or playhouse, than a church. This was the first time of change, and now
we no more heard the cornet which gave life to the organ; that instrument
quite left off in which the English were so skillful. I dined at Mr.
Povey's, where I talked with Cromer, a great musician.

23d December, 1662. I went with Sir George Tuke, to hear the comedians
con and repeat his new comedy, "The Adventures of Five Hours," a play
whose plot was taken out of the famous Spanish poet, Calderon.

27th December, 1662. I visited Sir Theophilus Biddulph.

29th December, 1662. Saw the audience of the Muscovy Ambassador, which
was with extraordinary state, his retinue being numerous, all clad in
vests of several colors, with buskins, after the Eastern manner! their
caps of fur; tunics, richly embroidered with gold and pearls, made a
glorious show. The King being seated under a canopy in the Banqueting
House, the Secretary of the Embassy went before the Ambassador in a grave
march, holding up his master's letters of credence in a crimson taffeta
scarf before his forehead. The Ambassador then delivered it with a
profound reverence to the King, who gave it to our Secretary of State: it
was written in a long and lofty style. Then came in the presents, borne
by 165 of his retinue, consisting of mantles and other large pieces lined
with sable, black fox, and ermine; Persian carpets, the ground cloth of
gold and velvet; hawks, such as they said never came the like; horses
said to be Persian; bows and arrows, etc. These borne by so long a train
rendered it very extraordinary. Wind music played all the while in the
galleries above. This finished, the Ambassador was conveyed by the master
of the ceremonies to York House, where he was treated with a banquet,
which cost £200, as I was assured.

7th January, 1663. At night I saw the ball, in which his Majesty danced
with several great ladies.

8th January, 1663. I went to see my kinsman, Sir George Tuke's, comedy
acted at the Duke's theater, which took so universally, that it was acted
for some weeks every day, and it was believed it would be worth to the
comedians £400 or £500. The plot was incomparable; but the language stiff
and formal.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

10th January, 1663. I saw a ball again at Court, danced by the King, the
Duke, and ladies, in great pomp.

21st January, 1663. Dined at Mr. Treasurer's, of the Household, Sir
Charles Berkeley's, where were the Earl of Oxford, Lord Bellassis, Lord
Gerard, Sir Andrew Scrope, Sir William Coventry, Dr. Fraser, Mr. Windham,
and others.

5th February, 1663. I saw "The Wild Gallant," a comedy;[76] and was at
the great ball at Court, where his Majesty, the Queen, etc., danced.

    [Footnote 76: By Dryden. It was unsuccessful on the first
    representation, but was subsequently altered to the form in which it
    now appears.]

6th February, 1663. Dined at my Lord Mayor's, Sir John Robinson,
Lieutenant of the Tower.

15th February, 1663. This night some villains broke into my house and
study below, and robbed me to the value of £60 in plate, money and
goods:--this being the third time I have been thus plundered.

26th March, 1663. I sat at the Commission of Sewers, where was a great
case pleaded by his Majesty's counsel; he having built a wall over a
water course, denied the jurisdiction of the Court. The verdict went for
the plaintiff.[77]

    [Footnote 77: That is against the King.]

30th April, 1663. Came his Majesty to honor my poor villa with his
presence, viewing the gardens, and even every room of the house, and was
pleased to take a small refreshment. There were with him the Duke of
Richmond, Earl of St. Alban's, Lord Lauderdale, and several persons of
quality.

14th May, 1663. Dined with my Lord Mordaunt, and thence went to Barnes,
to visit my excellent and ingenious friend, Abraham Cowley.

17th May, 1663. I saluted the old Bishop of Durham, Dr. Cosin, to whom I
had been kind, and assisted in his exile; but which he little remembered
in his greatness.

29th May, 1663. Dr. Creighton preached his extravagant sermon at St.
Margaret's, before the House of Commons.

30th May, 1663. This morning was passed my lease of Sayes Court from the
Crown, for the finishing of which I had been obliged to make such
frequent journeys to London. I returned this evening, having seen the
Russian Ambassador take leave of their Majesties with great solemnity.

2d July, 1663. I saw the great Masque at Court, and lay that night at
Arundel House.

4th July, 1663. I saw his Majesty's Guards, being of horse and foot
4,000, led by the General, the Duke of Albemarle, in extraordinary
equipage and gallantry, consisting of gentlemen of quality and veteran
soldiers, excellently clad, mounted, and ordered, drawn up in battalia
before their Majesties in Hyde Park, where the old Earl of Cleveland
trailed a pike, and led the right-hand file in a foot company, commanded
by the Lord Wentworth, his son; a worthy spectacle and example, being
both of them old and valiant soldiers. This was to show the French
Ambassador, Monsieur Comminges; there being a great assembly of coaches,
etc., in the park.

7th July, 1663. Dined at the Comptroller's; after dinner we met at the
Commission about the streets, and to regulate hackney coaches, also to
make up our accounts to pass the Exchequer.

16th July, 1663. A most extraordinary wet and cold season.

Sir George Carteret, Treasurer of the Navy, had now married his daughter,
Caroline, to Sir Thomas Scott, of Scott's Hall, in Kent. This gentleman
was thought to be the son of Prince Rupert.

2d August, 1663. This evening I accompanied Mr. Treasurer and
Vice-Chamberlain Carteret to his lately married son-in-law's, Sir Thomas
Scott, to Scott's Hall. We took barge as far as Gravesend, and thence by
post to Rochester, whence in coach and six horses to Scott's Hall; a
right noble seat, uniformly built, with a handsome gallery. It stands in
a park well stored, the land fat and good. We were exceedingly feasted by
the young knight, and in his pretty chapel heard an excellent sermon by
his chaplain. In the afternoon, preached the learned Sir Norton
Knatchbull (who has a noble seat hard by, and a plantation of stately fir
trees). In the churchyard of the parish church I measured an overgrown
yew tree, that was eighteen of my paces in compass, out of some branches
of which, torn off by the winds, were sawed divers goodly planks.

10th August, 1663. We returned by Sir Norton's, whose house is likewise
in a park. This gentleman is a worthy person, and learned critic,
especially in Greek and Hebrew. Passing by Chatham, we saw his Majesty's
Royal Navy, and dined at Commissioner Pett's,[78] master-builder there,
who showed me his study and models, with other curiosities belonging to
his art. He is esteemed for the most skillful shipbuilder in the world.
He hath a pretty garden and banqueting house, pots, statues, cypresses,
resembling some villas about Rome. After a great feast we rode post to
Gravesend, and, sending the coach to London, came by barge home that
night.

    [Footnote 78: A monument to him in Deptford Church bears a most
    pompous inscription: "_Qui fuit patriæ decus, patriæ suæ magnum
    munimentum_;" to the effect that he had not only restored our naval
    affairs, but he invented that excellent and new ornament of the Navy
    which we call Frigate, formidable to our enemies, to us most useful
    and safe: he was to be esteemed, indeed, by this invention, the Noah
    of his age, which, like another Ark, had snatched from shipwreck our
    rights and our dominion of the seas.]

[Sidenote: LONDON]

18th August, 1663. To London, to see my Lord Chancellor, where I had
discourse with my Lord Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of
Winchester, who enjoined me to write to Dr. Pierce, President of Magdalen
College, Oxford, about a letter sent him by Dr. Goffe, a Romish
Oratorian, concerning an answer to Dean Cressy's late book.

20th August, 1663. I dined at the Comptroller's [of the Household] with
the Earl of Oxford and Mr. Ashburnham; it was said it should be the last
of the public diets, or tables, at Court, it being determined to put down
the old hospitality, at which was great murmuring, considering his
Majesty's vast revenue and the plenty of the nation. Hence, I went to sit
in a Committee, to consider about the regulation of the Mint at the
Tower; in which some small progress was made.

27th August, 1663. Dined at Sir Philip Warwick's, Secretary to my Lord
Treasurer, who showed me the accounts and other private matters relating
to the revenue. Thence, to the Commissioners of the Mint, particularly
about coinage, and bringing his Majesty's rate from fifteen to ten
shillings for every pound weight of gold.

31st August, 1663. I was invited to the translation of Dr. Sheldon,
Bishop of London, from that see to Canterbury, the ceremony performed at
Lambeth. First, went his Grace's mace bearer, steward, treasurer,
comptroller, all in their gowns, and with white staves; next, the bishops
in their habits, eight in number; Dr. Sweate, Dean of the Arches, Dr.
Exton, Judge of the Admiralty, Sir William Merick, Judge of the
Prerogative Court, with divers advocates in scarlet. After divine service
in the chapel, performed with music extraordinary, Dr. French and Dr.
Stradling (his Grace's chaplains) said prayers. The Archbishop in a
private room looking into the chapel, the bishops, who were
commissioners, went up to a table placed before the altar, and sat round
it in chairs. Then Dr. Chaworth presented the commission under the broad
seal to the Bishop of Winchester, and it was read by Dr. Sweate. After
which, the Vicar-General went to the vestry, and brought his Grace into
the chapel, his other officers marching before. He being presented to the
Commissioners, was seated in a great armchair at one end of the table,
when the definitive sentence was read by the Bishop of Winchester, and
subscribed by all the bishops, and proclamation was three times made at
the chapel door, which was then set open for any to enter, and give their
exceptions; if any they had. This done, we all went to dinner in the
great hall to a mighty feast. There were present all the nobility in
town, the Lord Mayor of London, Sheriffs, Duke of Albemarle, etc. My Lord
Archbishop did in particular most civilly welcome me. So going to visit
my Lady Needham, who lived at Lambeth, I went over to London.

10th September, 1663. I dined with Mr. Treasurer of the Navy, where,
sitting by Mr. Secretary Morice, we had much discourse about books and
authors, he being a learned man, and had a good collection.

24th October, 1663. Mr. Edward Phillips came to be my son's preceptor:
this gentleman was nephew to Milton, who wrote against Salmasius's
"_Defensio_"; but was not at all infected with his principles, though
brought up by him.

5th November, 1663. Dr. South, my Lord Chancellor's chaplain, preached at
Westminster Abbey an excellent discourse concerning obedience to
magistrates, against the pontificians and sectaries. I afterward dined at
Sir Philip Warwick's, where was much company.

6th November, 1663. To Court, to get Sir John Evelyn, of Godstone, off
from being Sheriff of Surrey.

30th November, 1663. Was the first anniversary of our Society for the
choice of new officers, according to the tenor of our patent and
institution. It being St. Andrew's day, who was our patron, each fellow
wore a St. Andrew's cross of ribbon on the crown of his hat. After the
election we dined together, his Majesty sending us venison.

16th December, 1663. To our Society, where Mr. P. Balle, our treasurer at
the late election, presented the Society with an iron chest, having three
locks, and in it £100 as a gift.

18th December, 1663. Dined with the gentlemen of his Majesty's bedchamber
at Whitehall.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

2d January, 1663-64. To Barn Elms, to see Abraham Cowley after his
sickness; and returned that evening to London.

4th February, 1664. Dined at Sir Philip Warwick's; thence, to Court,
where I had discourse with the King about an invention of glass-grenades,
and several other subjects.

5th February, 1664. I saw "The Indian Queen" acted, a tragedy well
written,[79] so beautiful with rich scenes as the like had never been
seen here, or haply (except rarely) elsewhere on a mercenary theater.

    [Footnote 79: By Sir Robert Howard and Dryden.]

16th February, 1664. I presented my "Sylva" to the Society; and next day
to his Majesty, to whom it was dedicated; also to the Lord Treasurer and
the Lord Chancellor.

24th February, 1664. My Lord George Berkeley, of Durdans, and Sir Samuel
Tuke came to visit me. We went on board Sir William Petty's
double-bottomed vessel, and so to London.

26th February, 1664. Dined with my Lord Chancellor; and thence to Court,
where I had great thanks for my "Sylva," and long discourse with the King
of divers particulars.

2d March, 1664. Went to London to distribute some of my books among
friends.

4th March, 1664. Came to dine with me the Earl of Lauderdale, his
Majesty's great favorite, and Secretary of Scotland; the Earl of Teviot;
my Lord Viscount Brouncker, President of the Royal Society; Dr. Wilkins,
Dean of Ripon; Sir Robert Murray, and Mr. Hooke, Curator to the Society.

This spring I planted the Home field and West field about Sayes Court
with elms, being the same year that the elms were planted by his Majesty
in Greenwich Park.

9th March, 1664. I went to the Tower, to sit in commission about
regulating the Mint; and now it was that the fine new-milled coin, both
of white money and guineas, was established.

26th March, 1664. It pleased God to take away my son, Richard, now a
month old, yet without any sickness of danger perceivably, being to all
appearance a most likely child; we suspected much the nurse had overlain
him; to our extreme sorrow, being now again reduced to one: but God's
will be done.

29th March, 1664. After evening prayers, was my child buried near the
rest of his brothers--my very dear children.

27th April, 1664. Saw a facetious comedy, called "Love in a Tub"; and
supped at Mr. Secretary Bennett's.

3d May, 1664. Came the Earl of Kent, my kinsman, and his Lady, to visit
us.

5th May, 1664. Went with some company a journey of pleasure on the water,
in a barge, with music, and at Mortlake had a great banquet, returning
late. The occasion was, Sir Robert Carr now courting Mrs. Bennett, sister
to the Secretary of State.

6th May, 1664. Went to see Mr. Wright the painter's collection of rare
shells, etc.

8th June, 1664. To our Society, to which his Majesty had sent that
wonderful horn of the fish which struck a dangerous hole in the keel of a
ship in the India sea, which, being broken off with the violence of the
fish, and left in the timber, preserved it from foundering.

9th June, 1664. Sir Samuel Tuke[80] being this morning married to a lady,
kinswoman to my Lord Arundel of Wardour, by the Queen's Lord Almoner, L.
Aubigny in St. James's chapel, solemnized his wedding night at my house
with much company.

    [Footnote 80: A Roman Catholic.]

22d June, 1664. One Tomson, a Jesuit, showed me such a collection of
rarities, sent from the Jesuits of Japan and China to their Order at
Paris, as a present to be reserved in their repository, but brought to
London by the East India ships for them, as in my life I had not seen.
The chief things were, rhinoceros's horns; glorious vests, wrought and
embroidered on cloth of gold, but with such lively colors, that for
splendor and vividness we have nothing in Europe that approaches it; a
girdle studded with agates and rubies of great value and size; knives, of
so keen an edge as one could not touch them, nor was the metal of our
color, but more pale and livid; fans, like those our ladies use, but much
larger, and with long handles curiously carved and filled with Chinese
characters; a sort of paper very broad, thin, and fine, like abortive
parchment, and exquisitely polished, of an amber yellow, exceedingly
glorious and pretty to look on, and seeming to be like that which my
Lord Verulam describes in his "_Nova Atlantis_"; several other sorts of
paper, some written, others printed; prints of landscapes, their idols,
saints, pagods, of most ugly serpentine monstrous and hideous shapes, to
which they paid devotion; pictures of men and countries, rarely painted
on a sort of gummed calico, transparent as glass; flowers, trees, beasts,
birds, etc., excellently wrought in a kind of sleeve silk, very natural;
divers drugs that our druggists and physicians could make nothing of,
especially one which the Jesuit called _Lac Tigridis_: it looked like a
fungus, but was weighty like metal, yet was a concretion, or coagulation,
of some other matter; several book MSS.; a grammar of the language
written in Spanish; with innumerable other rarities.

1st July, 1664. Went to see Mr. Povey's elegant house in Lincoln's-Inn
Fields, where the perspective in his court, painted by Streeter, is
indeed excellent, with the vases in imitation of porphyry, and fountains;
the inlaying of his closet; above all, his pretty cellar and ranging of
his wine bottles.

7th July, 1664. To Court, where I subscribed to Sir Arthur Slingsby's
lottery, a desperate debt owing me long since in Paris.

14th July, 1664. I went to take leave of the two Mr. Howards, now going
to Paris, and brought them as far as Bromley; thence to Eltham, to see
Sir John Shaw's new house, now building; the place is pleasant, if not
too wet, but the house not well contrived; especially the roof and rooms
too low pitched, and the kitchen where the cellars should be; the
orangery and aviary handsome, and a very large plantation about it.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

19th July, 1664. To London, to see the event of the lottery which his
Majesty had permitted Sir Arthur Slingsby to set up for one day in the
Banqueting House, at Whitehall; I gaining only a trifle, as well as did
the King, Queen-Consort, and Queen-Mother, for near thirty lots; which
was thought to be contrived very unhandsomely by the master of it, who
was, in truth, a mere shark.

21st July, 1664. I dined with my Lord Treasurer at Southampton House,
where his Lordship used me with singular humanity. I went in the
afternoon to Chelsea, to wait on the Duke of Ormond, and returned to
London.

28th July, 1664. Came to see me Monsieur Zuylichen, Secretary to the
Prince of Orange, an excellent Latin poet, a rare lutinist, with Monsieur
Oudart.

3d August, 1664. To London; a concert of excellent musicians, especially
one Mr. Berkenshaw, that rare artist, who invented a mathematical way of
composure very extraordinary, true as to the exact rules of art, but
without much harmony.

8th August, 1664. Came the sad and unexpected news of the death of Lady
Cotton, wife to my brother George, a most excellent lady.

9th August, 1664. Went with my brother Richard to Wotton, to visit and
comfort my disconsolate brother; and on the 13th saw my friend, Mr.
Charles Howard, at Dipden, near Dorking.

16th August, 1664. I went to see Sir William Ducie's house at Charlton;
which he purchased of my excellent friend, Sir Henry Newton, now nobly
furnished.

22d August, 1664. I went from London to Wotton, to assist at the funeral
of my sister-in-law, the Lady Cotton, buried in our dormitory there, she
being put up in lead. Dr. Owen made a profitable and pathetic discourse,
concluding with an eulogy of that virtuous, pious, and deserving lady. It
was a very solemn funeral, with about fifty mourners. I came back next
day with my wife to London.

2d September, 1664. Came Constantine Huygens, Signor de Zuylichen, Sir
Robert Morris, Mr. Oudart, Mr. Carew, and other friends, to spend the day
with us.

5th October, 1664. To our Society. There was brought a newly-invented
instrument of music, being a harpsichord with gut-strings, sounding like
a concert of viols with an organ, made vocal by a wheel, and a zone of
parchment that rubbed horizontally against the strings.

6th October, 1664. I heard the anniversary oration in praise of Dr.
Harvey, in the Anatomy Theatre in the College of Physicians; after which
I was invited by Dr. Alston, the President, to a magnificent feast.

7th October, 1664. I dined at Sir Nicholas Strood's, one of the Masters
of Chancery, in Great St. Bartholomew's; passing the evening at
Whitehall, with the Queen, etc.

8th October, 1664. Sir William Curtius, his Majesty's Resident in
Germany, came to visit me; he was a wise and learned gentleman, and, as
he told me, scholar to Henry Alstedius, the Encyclopedist.

15th October, 1664. Dined at the Lord Chancellor's, where was the Duke of
Ormond, Earl of Cork, and Bishop of Winchester. After dinner, my Lord
Chancellor and his lady carried me in their coach to see their palace
(for he now lived at Worcester-House in the Strand), building at the
upper end of St. James's street, and to project the garden. In the
evening, I presented him with my book on Architecture,[81] as before I
had done to his Majesty and the Queen-Mother. His lordship caused me to
stay with him in his bedchamber, discoursing of several matters very
late, even till he was going into his bed.

    [Footnote 81: "Parallel between Ancient and Modern Architecture,
    originally written in French, by Roland Freart, Sieur de Chambray,"
    and translated by Evelyn. See his "Miscellaneous Writings."]

17th October, 1664. I went with my Lord Viscount Cornbury, to Cornbury,
in Oxfordshire, to assist him in the planting of the park, and bear him
company, with Mr. Belin and Mr. May, in a coach with six horses; dined at
Uxbridge, lay at Wycombe.

[Sidenote: OXFORD]

18th October, 1664. At Oxford. Went through Woodstock, where we beheld
the destruction of that royal seat and park by the late rebels, and
arrived that evening at Cornbury, a house lately built by the Earl of
Denbigh, in the middle of a sweet park, walled with a dry wall. The house
is of excellent freestone, abounding in that part, (a stone that is fine,
but never sweats, or casts any damp); it is of ample dimensions, has
goodly cellars, the paving of the hall admirable for its close laying. We
designed a handsome chapel that was yet wanting: as Mr. May had the
stables, which indeed are very fair, having set out the walks in the
parks and gardens. The lodge is a pretty solitude, and the ponds very
convenient; the park well stored.

20th October, 1664. Hence, to see the famous wells, natural and
artificial grots and fountains, called Bushell's Wells, at Enstone. This
Bushell had been Secretary to my Lord Verulam. It is an extraordinary
solitude. There he had two mummies; a grot where he lay in a hammock,
like an Indian. Hence, we went to Dichley, an ancient seat of the Lees,
now Sir Henry Lee's; it is a low ancient timber-house, with a pretty
bowling-green. My Lady gave us an extraordinary dinner. This gentleman's
mother was Countess of Rochester, who was also there, and Sir Walter St.
John. There were some pictures of their ancestors, not ill painted; the
great-grandfather had been Knight of the Garter; there was a picture of a
Pope, and our Savior's head. So we returned to Cornbury.

24th October, 1664. We dined at Sir Timothy Tyrill's at Shotover. This
gentleman married the daughter and heir of Dr. James Usher, Archbishop of
Armagh, that learned prelate. There is here in the grove a fountain of
the coldest water I ever felt, and very clear. His plantation of oaks and
other timber is very commendable. We went in the evening to Oxford, lay
at Dr. Hyde's, principal of Magdalen-Hall (related to the Lord
Chancellor), brother to the Lord Chief Justice and that Sir Henry Hyde,
who lost his head for his loyalty. We were handsomely entertained two
days. The Vice-Chancellor, who with Dr. Fell, Dean of Christ Church, the
learned Dr. Barlow, Warden of Queen's, and several heads of houses, came
to visit Lord Cornbury (his father being now Chancellor of the
University), and next day invited us all to dinner. I went to visit Mr.
Boyle (now here), whom I found with Dr. Wallis and Dr. Christopher Wren,
in the tower of the schools, with an inverted tube, or telescope,
observing the discus of the sun for the passing of Mercury that day
before it; but the latitude was so great that nothing appeared; so we
went to see the rarities in the library, where the keepers showed me my
name among the benefactors. They have a cabinet of some medals, and
pictures of the muscular parts of man's body. Thence, to the new theater,
now building at an exceeding and royal expense by the Lord Archbishop of
Canterbury [Sheldon], to keep the Acts in for the future, till now being
in St. Mary's Church. The foundation had been newly laid, and the whole
designed by that incomparable genius my worthy friend, Dr. Christopher
Wren, who showed me the model, not disdaining my advice in some
particulars. Thence, to see the picture on the wall over the altar of All
Souls, being the largest piece of fresco painting (or rather in imitation
of it, for it is in oil of turpentine) in England, not ill designed by
the hand of one Fuller; yet I fear it will not hold long. It seems too
full of nakeds for a chapel.

Thence, to New College, and the painting of Magdalen chapel, which is on
blue cloth in _chiar oscuro_, by one Greenborow, being a _Coena
Domini_, and a "Last Judgment" on the wall by Fuller, as in the other,
but somewhat varied.

Next to Wadham, and the Physic Garden, where were two large locust trees,
and as many platani (plane trees), and some rare plants under the culture
of old Bobart.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

26th October, 1664. We came back to Beaconsfield; next day to London,
where we dined at the Lord Chancellor's, with my Lord Bellasis.

27th October, 1664. Being casually in the privy gallery at Whitehall, his
Majesty gave me thanks before divers lords and noblemen for my book of
"Architecture," and again for my "_Sylva_" saying they were the best
designed and useful for the matter and subject, the best printed and
designed (meaning the _taille-douces_ of the Parallel of Architecture)
that he had seen. He then caused me to follow him alone to one of the
windows, and asked me if I had any paper about me unwritten, and a
crayon; I presented him with both, and then laying it on the
window-stool, he with his own hands designed to me the plot for the
future building of Whitehall, together with the rooms of state, and other
particulars. After this, he talked with me of several matters, asking my
advice, in which I find his Majesty had an extraordinary talent becoming
a magnificent prince.

The same day at Council, there being Commissioners to be made to take
care of such sick and wounded and prisoners of war, as might be expected
upon occasion of a succeeding war and action at sea, war being already
declared against the Hollanders, his Majesty was pleased to nominate me
to be one, with three other gentlemen, Parliament men, viz, Sir William
Doily, Knt. and Bart., Sir Thomas Clifford, and Bullein Rheymes, Esq.;
with a salary of £1,200 a year among us, besides extraordinaries for our
care and attention in time of station, each of us being appointed to a
particular district, mine falling out to be Kent and Sussex, with power
to constitute officers, physicians, chirurgeons, provost-marshals, and to
dispose of half of the hospitals through England. After the Council, we
kissed his Majesty's hand. At this Council I heard Mr. Solicitor Finch
plead most elegantly for the merchants trading to the Canaries, praying
for a new Charter.

29th October, 1664. Was the most magnificent triumph by water and land of
the Lord Mayor. I dined at Guildhall at the upper table, placed next to
Sir H. Bennett, Secretary of State, opposite to my Lord Chancellor and
the Duke of Buckingham, who sat between Monsieur Comminges, the French
Ambassador, Lord Treasurer, the Dukes of Ormond and Albemarle, Earl of
Manchester, Lord Chamberlain, and the rest of the great officers of
state. My Lord Mayor came twice up to us, first drinking in the golden
goblet his Majesty's health, then the French King's as a compliment to
the Ambassador; we returned my Lord Mayor's health, the trumpets and
drums sounding. The cheer was not to be imagined for the plenty and
rarity, with an infinite number of persons at the tables in that ample
hall. The feast was said to cost £1,000. I slipped away in the crowd, and
came home late.

31st October, 1664. I was this day 44 years of age; for which I returned
thanks to Almighty God, begging his merciful protection for the year to
come.

2d November, 1664. Her Majesty, the Queen-Mother, came across the gallery
in Whitehall to give me thanks for my book of "Architecture," which I had
presented to her, with a compliment that I did by no means deserve.

16th November, 1664. We chose our treasurer, clerks, and messengers, and
appointed our seal, which I ordered should be the good Samaritan, with
this motto, "_Fac similiter_." Painters' Hall was lent us to meet in. In
the great room were divers pictures, some reasonably good, that had been
given to the Company by several of the wardens and masters of the
Company.

23d November, 1664. Our statutes now finished, were read before a full
assembly of the Royal Society.

24th November, 1664. His Majesty was pleased to tell me what the
conference was with the Holland Ambassador, which, as after I found, was
the heads of the speech he made at the reconvention of the Parliament,
which now began.

2d December, 1664. We delivered the Privy Council's letters to the
Governors of St. Thomas's Hospital, in Southwark, that a moiety of the
house should be reserved for such sick and wounded as should from time to
time be sent from the fleet during the war. This being delivered at their
Court, the President and several Aldermen, Governors of that Hospital,
invited us to a great feast in Fishmongers' Hall.

[Sidenote: LONDON]

20th December, 1664. To London, our last sitting, taking order for our
personal visiting our several districts. I dined at Captain Cocke's (our
treasurer), with that most ingenious gentleman, Matthew Wren, son to the
Bishop of Ely, and Mr. Joseph Williamson, since Secretary of State.

22d December, 1664. I went to the launching of a new ship of two bottoms,
invented by Sir William Petty, on which were various opinions; his
Majesty being present, gave her the name of the "Experiment": so I
returned home, where I found Sir Humphry Winch, who spent the day with
me.

This year I planted the lower grove next the pond at Sayes Court. It was
now exceedingly cold, and a hard, long, frosty season, and the comet was
very visible.

28th December, 1664. Some of my poor neighbors dined with me, and others
of my tenants, according to my annual custom.

31st December, 1664. Set my affairs in order, gave God praise for His
mercies the past year, and prepared for the reception of the Holy
Sacrament, which I partook of the next day, after hearing our minister on
the 4th of Galatians, verses 4, 5, of the mystery of our Blessed Savior's
Incarnation.



Transcriber's Note


Page headers in the original text indicated the location of the author.
I have converted these to sidenotes. When the location did not change
over several pages, only one sidenote was used.

"[)u]" is used in the text to represent "u" with a breve above it.

"^" is used in the text to represent superscripts.

"[~C~]" is used to represent a backwards "C"

Footnotes have been moved below the paragraph to which they relate.

Inconsistencies have been retained in spelling, hyphenation,
punctuation, and grammar, except where indicated in the list
below:

  - Comma removed after "King" on Page xxii
  - Comma removed after "ARTIBUS" and word was moved to the start of
    following line on Page 17
  - "extrordinary" changed to "extraordinary" on Page 22
  - Period changed to comma after "considerable" on Page 50
  - Colon changed to semicolon after "good" on Page 57
  - "Cum-anno" changed to "Cum anno" on Page 60
  - "ceörcuit" changed to "coërcuit" on Page 60
  - Period added after "capital" on Page 66
  - Comma changed to a period added after "head" on Page 68
  - Comma added after "churches" on Page 70
  - Period added after "Paris" on Page 73
  - Period changed to a colon after after "vetustiss" on Page 98
  - "qu" changed to "qui" on Page 99
  - "suffiently" changed to "sufficiently" on Page 100
  - "theorboes" changed to "theorbos" on Page 107
  - "hicerigi" changed to "hic erigi" on Page 112
  - "d Arpino" changed to "d'Arpino" on Page 119
  - "Mosiac" changed to "Mosaic" on Page 123
  - "Sextns" changed to "Sextus" on Page 124
  - "S.P. Q.R.D.D." changed to "S.P.Q.R.D.D." on Page 124
  - "tune" changed to "tunc" on Page 124
  - "Mosiac" changed to "Mosaic" on Page 132
  - "viz." changed to "viz" on Page 138
  - Period added after "grosse" on Page 138
  - Semicolon added after "Cybel" on Page 140
  - "Scipio'o" changed to "Scipio's" on Page 140
  - "forman" changed to "formam" on Page 144
  - Quote added before "Inclyta" on Page 146
  - "cinceres" changed to "cineres" on Page 153
  - Colon changed to a semicolon after "brass" on Page 161
  - Round bracket added after "excepted" on Page 164
  - "Lanframe" changed to "Lanfranc" on Page 166
  - Comma changed to a period after "VIII" on Page 167
  - "sinking" changed to "stinking" on Page 178
  - "suphurous" changed to "sulphurous" on Page 178
  - Comma added after "Pegasus" on Page 178
  - "gread" changed to "great" on Page 179
  - Colon changed to semicolon after "mummy" on Page 182
  - Period changed to comma after "ordnance" on Page 187
  - Comma changed to a semicolon after "marble" on Page 200
  - Period added after "October" on Page 212
  - "thought" changed to "taught" on Page 213
  - Extra "to" removed on Page 214
  - Extra "of" removed on Page 217
  - "Poti" changed to "Pot."-- on Page 223
  - Comma added after "August" on Page 243
  - "father s" changed to "father's" on Page 251
  - "Cecilia's" changed to "Cecilia's" on Page 259
  - "Musician's" changed to "Musicians" on Page 259
  - Extra "the" removed on Page 264
  - "captan" changed to "captain" on Page 265
  - "taffet" changed to "taffeta" on Page 265
  - "Febur's" changed to "Febure's" on Page 269
  - "Cromwells" changed to "Cromwell's" on Page 274
  - "Condè's" changed to "Condé's" on Page 275
  - Period added after "1653" on Page 281
  - Period added after "1653" on Page 281
  - Duplicate "the" removed on Page 284
  - Comma changed to a period after "Mr" on Page 284
  - "delighful" changed to "delightful" on Page 285
  - "Pophams" changed to "Popham's" on Page 285
  - "June" changed to "July" on Page 287
  - "June" changed to "July" on Page 287
  - Comma added after "music" on Page 287
  - "MSS." changed to "MS." on Page 288
  - "meantine" changed to "meantime" on Page 290
  - Period added after "prospect" on Page 296
  - Comma added after "December" on Page 302
  - Comma changed to a period after "it" on Page 308
  - "indiffierently" changed to "indifferently" on Page 314
  - "January" changed to "February" on Page 314
  - "January" changed to "February" on Page 315
  - "deperate" changed to "desperate" on Page 317
  - Period added after "1657" on Page 317
  - Period added after "country" on Page 317
  - "commisioners" changed to "commissioners" on Page 326
  - Comma added after "November" on Page 328
  - "1650" changed to "1660" on Page 336
  - Period added after "Crisp" on Page 356
  - Comma changed to a period after "modern" on Page 356
  - Period added after "St" on Page 360
  - Extra "the" removed on Page 362
  - Comma changed to a period after "St" on Page 364
  - Period added after "Sylva" on Page 365
  - "October" changed to "November" on Page 366
  - Period added after "Worcester" on Page 366
  - Period added after "St" on Page 366
  - Comma changed to a period after "1664" on Page 376
  - "againt" changed to "against" on Page 378





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