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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 130, April 24, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 130, April 24, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



[Transcriber's note: Original spelling variations have not been
standardized. Characters with macrons have been marked in brackets with
an equal sign, as [=e] for a letter e with a macron on top. Underscores
have been used to indicate _italic_ fonts. A list of volumes and pages
in "Notes and Queries" has been added at the end.]



NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION

FOR

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. V.--No. 130. SATURDAY, APRIL 24. 1852.

Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition, 5_d._



CONTENTS.

                                                                Page


      NOTES:--

      The Tredescants and Elias Ashmole--concluded, by
      S. W. Singer                                               385

      Inedited Poetry, by W. Sparrow Simpson                     387

      Note on Virgil, by Rev. E. S. Taylor                       387

      MSS. of Dr. Whitby, and Petition of Inhabitants of
      Allington, Kent, by Rev. Richard Hooper                    388

      Bills for Printing and Binding "the King's Booke," by
      Joseph Burtt                                               389

      Sir Ralph Vernon, by W. Sneyd                              389

      The Fallacy of Traditions                                  390

      On the Derivation of "the Rack," by Samuel Hickson         390

      Minor Notes:--Book-keepers--The Substitution
      of the Letter "I" for "J" in the Names of "John,
      James, Jane," &c.--Daniel De Foe--English Surnames:
      Bolingbroke--Waistcoats worn by Women--"Thirty
      Days hath September," &c. (Antiquity of)                   391

      Folk Lore:--The Frog--An Oath in Court--St.
      Clement's and St. Thomas's Day                             393

      QUERIES:--

      Speaker Lenthall, by F. Kyffin Lenthall                    393

      Notte of Imbercourt, Surrey                                393

      Minor Queries:--Suffragan Bishops--Poison--Dr.
      Elizabeth Blackwell--Martha, Countess of Middleton--Lord
      Lieutenant and Sheriff--Vikingr Skotar--The
      Abbot of Croyland's Motto--Apple Sauce with
      Pork--Gipsies--Breezes from Gas Works--The
      Phrase "and tye"--Stonehenge, a Pastoral, by John
      Speed--"Buro · Berto · Beriora"--'Prentice Pillars--Archer
      Rolls: Master of Archery--Witchcraft:
      Mrs. Hicks and her Daughter--Antony Hungerford--Rev.
      William Dawson--"Up, Guards, and at them!"--St.
      Botolph--Rental of Arable Land in 1333, &c.                394

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Knollys Family--Emblematical
      Halfpenny--National Proverbs--Heraldic
      Query--Chantrey's Marble Children--Autobiography
      of Timour                                                  397

      REPLIES:--

      The Earl of Erroll                                         398

      General Wolfe                                              398

      James Wilson, M.D., by Professor De Morgan                 399

      Oliver Cromwell: the "Whale" and the "Storm" in
      1658, by A. Grayan                                         400

      Authenticated Instances of Longevity                       401

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Haberdascher--Cou-bache--Meaning
      of Groom--Grinning like a Cheshire Cat--Mallet's
      Death and Burial--Town-halls, &c.                          402

      MISCELLANEOUS:--

      Notes on Books, &c.                                        406

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               406

      Notices to Correspondents                                  406

      Advertisements                                             407



Notes.


THE TREDESCANTS AND ELIAS ASHMOLE.

(_Continued from_ p. 368.)

Whether it was Ashmole's influence, or that the equity of the case was
on his side, is uncertain; but the Court of Chancery decided in his
favour, and he was declared the proprietor of the Tredescantian Museum.
He obtained, without being able to produce any written document which
declared his right to the possession, all that the two Tredescants,
father and son, had with inexpressible trouble, and by means of many
voyages, brought together in their Museum and Botanic Garden.

The judgement of the Lord Chancellor[1] (Clarendon) was:

  "He, Ashmole, shall have and enjoy all and singular the bookes,
  coynes, medalls, stones, pictures, mechanicks, and antiquities,
  and all and every other the raryties and curiosities, of what sort
  or kind soever, whether naturall or artificiall, which were in
  John Tredescant's Closett, or in or about his house at South
  Lambeth the 16th December, 1659, and which were commonly deemed,
  taken, and reputed as belonging or appertaining to the said
  Closett, or Collection of Rarities, an abstract whereof was
  heretofore printed under the tytle of 'Museum Tredescantianum.'"

  [Footnote 1: "The means of exhibiting Lord Clarendon as an equity
  judge," says Mr. Lister, "and of estimating his efficiency, are
  very scanty. The political functions of the Lord Chancellor then
  preponderated over the judicial functions much more than at
  present." He had for twenty years ceased to practise at the bar,
  and the very different avocations of that long period may have
  tended to unfit him. It is said that he never made a decree
  without the assistance of two of the judges: this implies a
  consciousness of want of knowledge, but, as his biographer says,
  "does not prove that the precaution was required."]

Mrs. Tredescant was adjudged to have merely during her life a kind of
custody of, or guardianship over the collection, "subject to the Trust
for the Defendant during her life."

The Lord Chancellor further decreed that a commission should be named to
inquire whether everything was forthcoming which was named in the
_Catalogue_; in order that if anything was missing she should be
constrained to replace it, and give security that nothing should be lost
in future. The commissioners appointed to carry into effect the
Chancellor's decree were however two persons with whom Ashmole must have
been on terms of intimate friendship, namely, Sir Edward Bysh and Sir
William Dugdale, both Heralds like himself; and with the latter he at
length became most intimately connected by marrying his daughter. To
them was also added, in his official capacity, Sir William Glascock, a
Master in Chancery. Tredescant's widow, as may be imagined, did not very
quietly submit to this, as it seemed to her, unjust decree; but all her
endeavours at opposition were fruitless; she was constrained to yield;
and it seems probable that the depressing influence of this struggle
affected her so much as to cause her death. She was found drowned in the
pond in the garden cultivated by her husband and his father at South
Lambeth, on the 3rd of April, 1678.

Whatever may have been the legal or equitable right of Ashmole, upon
which the decree in Chancery was founded, it is impossible for a
generous mind to come to any other conclusion than that the course he
pursued was unworthy of him as a man of education, and of his wealth and
station; for it must be obvious from the will of Tredescant, that even
supposing he had willingly and wittingly made a deed of gift of his
treasures to Ashmole, and given him formal possession by handing over
the Queen Elizabeth's shilling, it is next to impossible to believe that
Ashmole did not know that he repented that act, and wished to connect
his own name with the bequest to the University. Dr. Hamel[2] is induced
to think that many of Tredescant's curiosities were never sent to
Oxford; that there had been a careful suppression of every written
document which might serve to connect the name of the Tredescants with
the collection; and that the relation of the voyage to Russia only
escaped because it bore no mark by which it could be recognised as
Tradescant's.

  [Footnote 2: Dr. Hamel sought in vain at the Ashmolean Museum for
  some of the articles which the elder Tredescant brought home from
  Russia; among others, for an article occurring at p. 46. of the
  _Tredescant Catalogue_, described as "The Duke of Muscovy's vest,
  wrought with gold upon the breast and arms," which he thinks may
  have belonged to the Wojewode of Archangel, Wassiljewitch Chilkow.
  He however found nothing but the head of a Sea-diver, the remains
  of a whole bird described by Tredescant as a "Gorara or Colymbus
  from Muscovy:" the body seems to have shared the same fate as that
  of the Dodo. Another remarkable article occurring in the Catalogue
  is pointed out by Dr. Hamel, viz. "Blood that rained in the Isle
  of Wight, attested by Sir Jo. Oglander." This article, had it been
  preserved, he thinks might have proved of great scientific
  importance, as it is possible that it may have been some of that
  meteoric red dust which is recorded in the _Chronicle of Bromton_
  as having fallen in the Isle of Wight in the year 1177. The words
  of the Chronicle are: "Anno 1177 die Dominica post Pentecostes
  sanguineus imber cecidit in insula de _Whit_, fere per duas hores
  integras, ita quod panni linei per sepes ad siccandum suspensi,
  rore illo sanguineo sic aspersi fuerant acsi in vaso aliquo pleno
  sanguine mersi essent." Sir John Oglander, whose attestation is
  mentioned, was the immediate descendant of Richard de Okelander,
  who came over with William the Conqueror. Tredescant most probably
  became known to him when gardener to the Duke of Buckingham, with
  whom Sir John was joint commissioner for levies in Hampshire.]

  "The more we examine the _Catalogue of the Museum
  Tredescantianum_," says Dr. Hamel, "the more we are astonished
  that it was possible for these _Gardeners_ (for such, we see, is
  the modest denomination the younger Tredescant assumes in his
  will) to get together so many and such various objects of
  curiosity, and to become the founders of the first collection of
  curiosities of Nature and Art in England."

Such men, and their endeavours to promote a love for, and to advance
natural science, deserved at least to have had their names perpetuated
with their collection; and whatever may be the merits of Ashmole as an
antiquary, notwithstanding I am one of the fraternity, I must confess
that although he has some claim to consideration for having augmented
the collection, the Tredescants rank far above him as benefactors of
mankind.

The mention, in the will of Robert and Thomas Tredescant, of
Walberswick, in the county of Suffolk, is, I think, decisive that the
elder Tredescant was an Englishman. In the relation of his voyage to
Russia he shows that he was familiar with the aspect of the two
adjoining counties of Essex and Norfolk. Dr. Hamel has directed his
inquiries toward the registry of the church at Walberswick, in which he
was aided by Mr. Ellis of Southwold; but unfortunately the existing
register commences a century too late, the first entry being of the year
1756. In Gardner's _Historical Account of Dunwich, Blithburg, and
Southwold_, 1754, there are notices of Walberswick, but the name of
Tredescant does not occur.

I have just learned that the late MR. TRADESCANT LAY claimed descent
from the Tredescants; and it seems probable that it was through the MRS.
LEA, to whom Ashmole paid the 100_l._ on account of Tredescant's
bequest. Ashmole may have written _Lea_ for _Lay_, or the name, as often
happens, may have assumed the latter form in the lapse of time.

It is remarkable that Mr. Tradescant Lay was the _Naturalist_ attached
to Beechey's expedition, and published _The Voyage of the Himmaleh_. He
went subsequently to China, on account of the missions, but afterwards
received an appointment under the government (probably that of
interpreter). In the year 1841 he put forth an interesting little work,
entitled _The Chinese as they are_; and he was at least worthy of the
descent he claimed.

I have only to add, that I have not seen the original will, or the
documentary evidence in the suit in Chancery. Desirous of losing no time
in this communication, which is not without interest at the present
moment, as it may influence the tribute about to be paid to the memory
of the Tredescants by the reparation of their monuments, I have relied
on Dr. Hamel's transcripts.

One is gratified to find that the merits of these humble and
unpretending lovers of science is at length appreciated, and that, while
some of the inhabitants of Lambeth, where they dwelt, are taking
effective measures to restore the monument erected to their memory by
the unfortunate Hester, a just tribute to their merits has been paid by
Dr. Hamel at St. Petersburg! On Ashmole's tombstone in Lambeth Church is
inscribed: "Mortem obiit 18 Maii, 1692, sed durante Musæo Ashmoleano
Oxonii nunquam moriturus." May not some similar record relate to
posterity that it was to the Tredescants we owe the foundation of the
first Museum of Curiosities of Nature and Art, as well as the first
Botanic Garden?

    S. W. SINGER.

  Manor Place, South Lambeth.


INEDITED POETRY.

I have now before me an interesting little volume containing "Elegiac
Verses" and other poetical effusions, composed by, and in the autograph
of, Anne Ellys, wife and widow of a Bishop of St. David's. Most of the
pieces are dated, the earliest in January, 1761, the latest February 15,
1763. The MS. is in small 4to. and contains fifteen pieces, eleven of
which relate to the death of her husband (which occurred, so far as I
can gather from the dates, on January 17th, 1761), and breathe a spirit
of deep affection and of fervent piety. So far as I am aware, the poems
have never been published; permit me to send you one of the pieces, as
it may be deemed worthy of a place in the museum of inedited poetry
already collected in your pages, and which I hope to see greatly
increased.

      "THOUGHTS ON A GARDEN.

      "The mind of man, like a luxuriant field,
      Will various products, in abundance, yield.
      If cultur'd well by skilful gardener's hand,
      What beauteous prospects overspread the land.
      What various flowers to the sight appear,
      To deck each season of the rolling year.
      Their od'rous scents the opening buds disclose,       }
      From the blew [sic] violet to the blushing rose,      }
      And each in its successive order blows.               }
      Each different fragrance yields a fresh delight,
      And various colours charm the ravish'd sight.
      Unnumber'd fruits as well as flowers arise,
      To please the taste, and to delight the eyes.
      The blooming peach tempts the beholder's hand,
      And curling vines in beauteous order stand;
      Their purple clusters to the sight disclose,
      While ruddy apples with vermillion glows [sic].
      Fancy and order makes the whole complete,
      Not costly elegance, yet exactly neat.
      Delightful scene, produce of care and pains,
      Late wild and dreary were these beauteous plains.
      And should they now again neglected be,      }
      How soon, alas, would the beholder see,      }
      Instead of order, wild deformity.            }
      Let this, my soul, incline thee to reflect,
      The fatal consequence of sad neglect.
      Thy mind like this sweet spot thou may'st improve,
      And make it worthy of its Maker's love.
      Observe thyself with nicest care, thy pain
      And present labour will be future gain.
      Let no ill weeds arise lest they destroy,
      The seeds of virtue which alone yield joy.
      Manure thy soul with every lovely grace,
      No more let sin thy heaven-born soul deface.
      Nor idle or inactive, let it be;
      By this example warn'd, observe and see
      How from the least neglect great dangers rise.
      Watch lest the nipping frost of sin surprise,
      Or gusts of passion with impetuous sway,
      Bear down thy good resolves, or then delay.
      As scorching suns destroy the new set tree,
      And burn the tender plant in infancy;
      So jealous of thy own improvements be,
      Lest they should fill thy mind with vanity,
      Check its too speedy growth, observe and see
      How the too early buds all blasted be.
      And as all human care and labour's vain,
      Without the vernal breeze and gentle rain;
      So when thy utmost care and skill is shown,
      Reflect it is not thou, but God alone
      Whose heavenly grace, distilling on thy soul,
      Must all the wild disorders there controul.
      Pray for the beams of his celestial light,
      To clear the errours of thy misty sight.
      So thy endeavours and God's grace conjoin'd,
      Will towards perfection lead the willing mind.

      "A. E."

This piece is the second in the collection, several of the other poems
are signed with the author's name at full length: the last piece appears
to be written under a presentiment of impending death; its heading is
somewhat curious:

  "February 15th [1763], past 2 in the morning. Going to bed very
  ill."

This leads me to inquire the date of her death. Should any further
extracts from the MS. be deemed desirable, allow me to assure you that
they are very much at your service.

    W. SPARROW SIMPSON.

  [From the epitaph on the tablet erected to the memory of Bishop
  Ellys in Gloucester Cathedral, we learn that "he married Anne, the
  eldest daughter of Sir Stephen Anderson of Eyworth, in the county
  of Bedford, Bart., whom he left, with only one daughter, to lament
  the common loss of one of the best of mankind." Kippis, in his
  _Biog. Britain._, adds, "The unfortunate marriage of Bishop
  Ellys's daughter, after his decease, and the subsequent
  derangement of her mind, would form a melancholy tale of domestic
  history."]


NOTE ON VIRGIL.

      "Ecce _levis_ summo de vertice visus Iüli
      Fundere lumen _apex_...."

      _Æn._ II. 682-3.

The common translations of _apex_ with its epithet _levis_ seem to me to
be strangely deficient in sense. I am anxious to submit an idea which
has occurred to me to the judgment of the riper scholars whose
well-known names are subscribed to so many valuable articles in "N. &
Q." The Delphin note defines _apex_ to be "summa pars pilei," the
conical termination of the bonnet worn by Iülus; and in this all other
comments on this passage (at least with which I am acquainted) seem to
agree. But in what sense can any part of a cap or bonnet be
_levis_--_light_, _flimsy_, _worthless_, or _capricious_? which I take
to be the only meanings of which _levis_ is capable. Surely Virgil would
not be guilty of so meaningless an epithet--of so palpable an instance
of school-boy _cram_? Now, from a passage in Euripides, _Phoen._
1270-4.,

      "... ἐμπύρους τ' ἀκμὰς
      ῥήξεις τ' ἐνώμων ὑγρότητ' ἐναντίαν,
      ἄκραν τε λαμπάδ', ἣ δυοῖν ὅρους ἔχει,
      νίκης τε σῆμα καὶ τὰ τῶν ἡσσωμένων."

it seems clear to me that Virgil meant, by _levis apex_, a _light,
flickering, lambent, pyramidal flame_, the omen of success in the
Πυρομαντεία.

The nature of the flame which consumed the sacrifice was one point which
the haruspices, both Greek and Roman, particularly observed in
endeavouring to ascertain the will of the gods; hence the expressions
ἔμπυρα σήματα, φλογωπὰ σήματα. See Valckenaer on this very
passage of the Phoenissæ.

    E. S. TAYLOR, B.A.

  Martham, Norfolk.


MSS. OF DR. WHITBY, AND PETITION OF INHABITANTS OF ALLINGTON, KENT.

Perhaps some of your numerous readers may be interested with the
following Note:--A few weeks since I met with at a stall a most
beautifully-written MS. commentary on the Second Epistle of St. Paul to
the Corinthians. The MS. was evidently of the close of the seventeenth,
or the first three or four years of the eighteenth century. I was much
struck with its learning. At the end were two sermons written in a
different hand. The commentary was scored and corrected by the same hand
the sermons were written in. These latter were full of most copious
extracts from the Greek and Latin Fathers. The handwriting was very
remarkable. I discovered that the commentary was that of Dr. Whitby,
though differing in several places from that published by him. By a
comparison with some of Dr. Whitby's letters in the British Museum
(especially Add. MSS. 4276., fol. 194.), two learned friends at once
identified the Doctor's handwriting, which is very peculiar in the
formation of some of the letters, and especially from having a
remarkable curve [Illustration: horizontal curved line]. The two
sermons, I believe, have never been published. Between the leaves of the
MS. I found an old letter, of which I send you a copy. The person to
whom it was addressed was Dr. Elias Sydall, subsequently, I believe,
Bishop of Gloucester, then chaplain to Archbishop Tenison. I know not
whether it has ever appeared in print before.

  "To the Pious and Revd Dr Sydall, Chaplain to his Grace the
  Archbp. of Canterbury.

  "The humble petition of the Inhabitants of the Parish of Allington
  in Kent.

  "Sr.

  "The sublime character his Grace did latelie bestow on a _brace_
  of his own Chaplains, that he feared not, not he, _to turn them
  loose against any two preachers in England_, has rais'd so high an
  opinion of your person in all men of sense and understanding, that
  you cannot wonder to see yourself courted by us as the reigning
  favourite at Lambeth; be pleas'd, therefore, when business of
  State or the care of the Church aford his Grace some minutes of
  leisure, to represent our deplorable case to Him: we are now as a
  flock without a Shepheard, and are inform'd by a threat'ning
  Emissary, who came latelie down only to scatter terror through our
  fields, that my Ld designs to thrust a young _looker_ amongst us,
  who, tho' fit to be an Amanuensis, should the dreadfull times of
  Pulton[3] return, yet knows not yet what doctrine He should give,
  nor what tithes He should receive. Good S'r, put his Lordship in
  mind that our Fathers had once here the great Erasmus, & that our
  living should not be the portion of Sucklings: His Grace's
  singular affection to the Church will encline him, we hope, to
  consider our case, and we entreat you to favor it with your
  gracious countenance; and your Petitioners will, as in duty bound,
  pray to God that he will be pleas'd to translate one of the
  Prebendaries to Heaven, to make room for you before it is too
  late.

  [Footnote 3: "The A.B. disputed in K. James' time against Pulton
  the Jesuite, who prov'd too hard for Him."]

      "Sam. Andrews, }
      John Stain,    } Churchwardens.

      "Will. Sokes.
      Hum. Terryl.
      Matt. Parker,
            x
        his mark.
      Tim. Pledget.
      Ch. Douhty.
      W. Rest.
      Will. Soper."

I transcribe the letter _verbatim et literatim_. There is no date; but
the writing is very old, evidently of the early part of the eighteenth
century. Perhaps some of your readers can throw light upon the subject
referred to. Does anybody know of more portions of Dr. Whitby's
commentary in MS.?

    RICHARD HOOPER.

  St. Stephen's, Westminster.


BILLS FOR PRINTING AND BINDING "THE KING'S BOOKE."

The following copy of an early printer's and binder's bill is from a
manuscript of the time of James I., to whose BASILICON DORON it most
probably refers. It is presented to "N. & Q." in the hope that some of
its correspondents (many of whom are so well versed in bibliographical
matters and the literary history of the period) will find some curious
particulars worthy their attention and illustration.

    JOSEPH BURTT.

      "Imprimis, For printinge of eight sheetes
      of ye King's Majesties Booke in lat.
      of Mr. Downes translation wch weare
      all destroyed 1000 copies of ech
      sheete at two sheetes a peny beinge
      the co[=m]on rate cometh to                    lb  16 13  4

      Item for reprinting five sheetes of ye
      King's Booke which weare altred,
      as namelie, B. twise, F. once, H.
      once, and G. in ye Apologie once,
      750 copies of each sheete, at the rate
      of two sheetes a penye co[=m]eth to            lb   7 10  7

      Item for 6 of the first partes of the
      King's Booke wch weare delivered to
      ye Bishop of Bath and Wells, Sir
      Henry Savill and others                        lb   0 12  0

      Item for the impression of the King's
      Booke in 4to., and my continuall
      attendance all the time it was in
      hand, and for so manie bookes as
      weare delivered to ye King's use,
      and my boatehyre sometimes six
      times in a day                                 lb  49 16 11

      _The Note of the Lesser Vollumes._

      Item, To the King's Majesty, 2 bookes
      gilt                                           lb   0  6  0

      Item, To Mr. Atie Scotsman, by order
      three dossen, gilt with fillets                lb   3 12  0

      Item, To the King's Majestie three
      dossen in fillets, gilt with silke strings     lb   3 12  0

      Item, To Mr. Barclay, 2 dossen and
      one, in Engl.                                  lb   1 12  0

      Item, To Sir James Murray, 3 dossen,
      gilt fillets                                   lb   3 12  0

      Item, To Sir Andrew Kith, 3 dossen,
      gilt fillets                                   lb   3 12  0

      Item, 6 of the Bishop of Lincoln's
      bookes, per Mr. John Amongly, gilt
      fillets strings                                lb   1  0  0

      Item, To the King's Majestie on dussen
      and a half of Mr. Barclay's
      bookes, gilt fillets                           lb   2 14  0

      Item for 2 dossen of Mr. Barclay's
      bookes per order from Mr. Kircham              lb   3 12  0
                                                    --------------
                                                     lb  98  4 10
                                                    --------------

      _Item more delivered to ye King's use per Mr. Kircham_:

      8 of the Kings bookes in 12o fillets          lb   0 16  0

      1 ---- in English,
      sticht                                         lb   0  2  0

      6 Bishop of Chychesters bookes 4to.
      fillets                                        lb   1  5  0
                                                    --------------
                                                     lb   2  3  0
                                                     lb  98  4 10
                                                    --------------
                                                     lb 100  7 10
                                                    --------------

      _The Binder's Note._

      Imprimis, For binding 6 of ye King's
      bookes plaine                                  lb   0  6  0

      Item for bindinge one in Turkie leather
      wth small tooles                               lb   1  0  0

      Item for bindinge 6 bookes in vellem
      fillets gilt                                   lb   0 12  0

      Item for bindinge of 12 bookes for
      Mr. Thomas Murray, whereof one
      in velvet                                      lb   1 10  0

      Item for bindinge of 3 dossen vellem
      fillets                                        lb   3 12  0

      Item for bindinge 31 in velvet, edged
      with gold lace, and lined wth tafity
      silk stringes                                  lb  20 13  4

      Item for bindinge 20 of the King's
      bookes in velvet, silke strings                lb  10  0  0

      Item for bindinge one in greene velvet
      in English and Latten for the Prince           lb   0 10  0

      Item for bindinge 4 of the lesser sort
      in Turky leather, with strings gilt            lb   1  0  0

      Item for 12 in vellem and leather with
      a fillet                                       lb   1 16  0
                                                    --------------
                                                     lb  40 19  4
                                                    --------------

      _For the Velvet._

      Imprimis, For 15 yards of crymson
      velvet at 32_s._ per yard co[=m]eth to         lb  24  0  0

      Item for 2 yards of purple velvet              lb   2  0  0

      Item for 3 eld and a half of Taffity
      at 15_s._ per ell co[=m]eth to                 lb   2 12  6

      Item for gold lace                             lb   3  6  8

      Item for greene velvet for the Prince's
      booke                                          lb   0 10  0
                                                    --------------
                                                     lb  32  9  2
                                                    --------------
                                                     lb 173 16  4"
                                                    --------------


SIR RALPH VERNON.

Much has been written in "N. & Q." respecting the "Old Countess of
Desmond," who is said to have died at the age of 140; but there is a
still more remarkable instance of longevity recorded in the pedigree of
the Vernon family, and which seems to be too well authenticated to admit
of doubt. Sir Ralph Vernon, of Shipbrooke (Lysonsi styles him _Baron_
of Shipbrooke, a barony founded by Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester), who was
born some time in the thirteenth century, died at the great age of 150!
and is said to have been succeeded by his descendant in the sixth
generation. He was called the "_Old_ Sir Ralph," or Sir R. "_the long
liver_." His first wife was a daughter of the Lord Dacre; and in 1325 he
made a settlement on the marriage of his grandson (or, as some pedigrees
represent, great-grandson,) Sir Ralph with the daughter of Richard
Damory, Chief Justice of Chester. This deed was the cause of future
litigation; and it is said that the papers respecting this law-suit
still exist, to prove the fact of the old knight's patriarchal age. I
would refer those who may be curious for further information on the
subject to Ormerod's _History of Cheshire_, where, in the pedigree of
"Vernon of Shipbrooke," they will find some account of "Old Sir Ralph."

       *       *       *       *       *

While on the subject of _longevity_, I may mention that in 1833, while
passing through Savoy on my way from Italy, I saw and conversed with an
old woman, who was then in her 119th year. It was at Lanslebourg, on the
Mont Cenis. Her name was Elizabeth Durieux, and the date of her birth
was the 17th of December, 1714, only four months after the death of
Queen Anne, and when Louis XIV. still occupied the throne of France. Her
age was well authenticated. In early life she had been in the service of
the then reigning family, and a small pension had been settled upon her,
which she had been receiving nearly a century; and, until within ten
years of the time when I saw her, she had been in the habit of
journeying on foot over the mountain annually to receive it. She had all
her faculties, with the exception of a slight degree of deafness; and
assured me that she could remember everything distinctly for one hundred
and twelve years! She was bony, large limbed, and appeared to have been
a tall strong woman formerly; excessively wrinkled, and very dirty. How
long she may have continued to live after I saw her in 1833, I know not.

    W. SNEYD.

  Denton.


THE FALLACY OF TRADITIONS.

Several communications to the "N. & Q." have already proved how little
reliance is to be placed upon the traditions repeated by vergers and
guides to wondering lionizers. A collection of other instances, where
the test of science and archæological investigation have exposed their
falsity, would be interesting and instructive. In spite of Sir Samuel
Meyrick's judicious arrangement of the armour in the tower, the
beef-eaters still persist in relating the old stories handed down. At
Warwick Castle the rib of the dun cow is ascertained to be a bone of a
fossil elephant, and Guy's porridge-pot a military cooking utensil of
the time of Charles I. St. Crispin's chair, carefully preserved in
Linlithgow Cathedral by insertion in the wall, is of mahogany,--an
American wood! The chair of Charles I. at Leicester bears a crown,
which, having been the fashionable ornament after the Restoration,
together with the form, betrays the date. Queen Eleanor's crosses, it
now appears, were not built by her affectionate husband, but by her own
direction and with her own money. The fire-place and other objects in
belted Will's bedroom at Naworth Castle, are manifestly of later date.
The curious bed treasured up near Leicester as that occupied by Richard
III., immediately before the battle of Bosworth, is in the style
commonly called Elizabethan. Queen Mary's bed at Holyrood is of the last
century; and her room at Hardwicke is in a house which was not erected
till after her death; the tapestry and furniture, however, may have been
removed from the old hall where she was imprisoned. The tower of
Caernarvon Castle, in which the first Prince of Wales is supposed to
have been born, is not of so early a period. In short, archæologists
seem to show that there is not only nothing _new_ under the sun, but
that there is also nothing _true_ under the sun. To assume "a
questionable shape," may I request some of your correspondents to add to
the list?

    C. T.


ON THE DERIVATION OF "THE RACK."

Some time ago I ventured to call the attention of your readers to what I
regarded as an oversight of the commentators on Shakspeare, in reference
to a certain passage of the _Tempest_ in which the word "rack" occurs.
It seemed to me that, with the exception of Malone, having overlooked
the construction of the passage, they had been misled by the authority
of Horne Tooke; for to every other part being conceded its due weight
and meaning, and assuming, with Horne Tooke, that Shakspeare understood
English at least as well as his commentators, I could not conceive it
possible that there could be a serious doubt as to the value of the word
in question. I have no wish, now, to say a word in addition upon this
point, firmly convinced as I am that the time will come when "(w)rack"
will be generally received by critics as it always has been by everybody
else, as the true reading; but I have a few observations to make on the
derivation of the word used by Shakspeare and others, with which it has
been so often identified, which I trust will be found worthy of a few
moments' consideration.

Horne Tooke is justly regarded as a very high authority, and certainly I
should be the last to deny how deeply philology is indebted to the
originality of his views; yet with the respect that I entertain for his
labours, I see no reason why my judgment should abdicate its place, even
though its conclusion should be that he was not always infallible. In
considering the meaning of "rack" in the _Tempest_, I treated the
question entirely as one of construction, and therefore allowed the
supposed derivation of the same word in other places from Recan, _to
reek_, to stand unexamined and unquestioned; but let us look now a
little more closely into the matter, and I think I shall be able to make
it appear that this conclusion is not altogether so unquestionable as
many may have supposed. That the application of the word may be more
clearly seen, I beg leave to quote a few passages:

      "That which is now a horse, even with a thought,
      The _rack_ dislimns, and makes it indistinct
      As water is in water."

      _Ant. & Cleo._ Act IV. Sc. 12.

      "Far swifter than the sailing _rack_ that gallops
      Upon the wings of angry winds."

      _Women Pleased_, Act IV. Sc. 1.

            "Shall I stray
      In the middle air, and stay
      The sailing _rack_?"

      _Faithful Shepherdess_, Act V. Sc. 1.

      "But as we often see, against some storm,
      A silence in the heavens, the _rack_ stand still."

      _Hamlet_, Act II. Sc. 2.

  "The winds in the upper regions which move the clouds above (which
  we call the _rack_)."

  Bacon, _Naturall Historie_.

Steevens, in reference to the last quotation, says, "I should explain
the word _rack_ somewhat differently, by calling it 'the last fleeting
vestige of the highest clouds, scarce perceptible on account of their
distance and tenuity.' What was anciently called 'the rack' is now
termed by sailors _the scud_." It is sufficiently obvious from the above
what is meant by the word; but I now come to put the question, What
authority had Horne Tooke for deriving it from Recan? It is, in fact,
nothing more than a guess, the less probable as the word represents only
an indirect result--not the clouds themselves, but a peculiar effect
produced upon the clouds by the action of the winds. In another passage
(in which I recognise the hand of Shakspeare) the formation of the
_rack_ is employed as an illustration; and in this instance "reek" would
hardly stand as a substitute for the verb used.

      "I might perceive his eye in her eye lost,
      His ear to drink her sweet tongue's utterance;
      And chasing passion, like inconstant clouds,--
      That, _rackt upon the carriage of the winds,
      Increase, and die_,--in his disturbed cheeks."

      _Edward III._, Act II. Sc. 1.

From this it would appear that the _rack_ is literally that which has
been _wrecked_, and that it should be derived from wrac, past part. of
wrikan, _to wreak_; in short, that _it is_ identical with the word in
the _Tempest_ in the general sense of _remains_; in the present case, in
its special application, meaning, as Steevens explains, "_the last
fleeting vestige_[4] of the highest clouds" previous to their final
disappearance. Had it ever been used with the general sense of _vapour_
or _exhalation_, or even generally for _a cloud_ or _the clouds_, the
case would be different; but in fact, no examples can be produced by
which it can be shown that such was ever its meaning; and in the absence
of proof it will be noted as not a little remarkable that, _not_ being
used to represent _the clouds_, which _already exist_ in the form of
vapour or exhalations, it is only employed when a word is required
descriptive of an effect of their _dispersion_.

  [Footnote 4: Indeed, the action of the winds is one and the same,
  whether upon clouds on the face of heaven, or upon bodies at sea;
  and the _wrack_ of one and the other, broken into fragments, for a
  fleeting space _remains behind_ to tell the tale.]

    SAMUEL HICKSON.


Minor Notes.

_Book-keepers._--There is a class of persons who fall under this
denomination, and to whom the following lines may give a useful hint.
Doubtless some of your correspondents, who are furnished with valuable
libraries and works of reference, have suffered materially from a
neglect of the rules herein laid down.

      _Lines for the beginning of a Book._

        1.
      "If thou art borrowed by a friend,
        Right welcome shall he be,
      To read, to study, not to lend,
        But to return to me.

        2.
      "Not that imparted knowledge doth
        Diminish learning's store;
      But books I find, if often lent,
        Return to me no more.

        3.
          "Read slowly, pause frequently,
          Think seriously, return duly,
      With the corners of the leaves not turned down."

    [+.]

_The Substitution of the Letter "I" for "J" in the Names of "John,
James, Jane," &c._--Will you permit me to ask the reason of the absurd,
and sometimes inconvenient, custom of substituting _I_ for _J_ in MS.
spelling of the names John, James, Jane, &c.? If it be correct in MS.,
why is it not equally correct in print? Let us, then, just see how the
names would read in print with such spelling: _Iohn_, _Iames_, _Iane_,
&c.! Besides, if it be correct to put _I_ for _J_ in John, it must, of
course, be equally correct to put _J_ for _I_ in _Isaac_, and to turn it
into _Jsaac_. Indeed, if you happen in a subscription list, or a letter,
or anything else intended for the press, to write in the MS. the letter
_I_ (which _rightly_ stands as the initial in _that_ case), as the
initial of some person named _Isaac_, it is ten to one but the
compositor substitutes _J_ in its place in print. I have found Sir _I._
Newton in my MS. thus metamorphosed into Sir _J._ Newton in print. I see
in "The Clergy List" more than one name which ought to be _I_, turned
into a _J_. Now, Sir, it is folly to pretend that _I_ and _J_ are
synonymous letters, or that they express the same meaning, unless we are
prepared to allow _Isaac_ to be spelt with a _J_ or _I_, according to
the writer's pleasure or caprice. May I, then, be permitted to ask
whether it is not high time for every one to _write_ _I_ when he _means_
_I_, and to _write_ _J_ when he _means_ _J_? If compositors would always
_print_ MSS. _as they are written in this particular_, the palpable
absurdity of putting _I_ for _J_ would, I am sure, soon be evident to
all, and soon shame people out of the fashion. What if _U_ and _V_ were
treated with as little ceremony as _I_ and _J_? So it once was. Thus T.
Rogers, in his work on the Thirty-nine Articles, A.D. 1586, will furnish
an example. In it we read: "Such is the estate principally of infants
elected _v_nto life, and sal_u_ation, and increasing in yeers." But this
old-fashioned mode of spelling has long become obsolete: may the
substitution of _I_ for _J_ soon become the same.

    C. D.

_Daniel de Foe._--A son of Daniel shines in Pope's _Dunciad_. Does the
following notice refer to a son of that son? It is extracted from an old
Wiltshire paper:

  "On the 2 Jan. 1771, two young men, John Clark and John Joseph De
  Foe, said to be a grandson to the celebrated author of the _True
  Born Englishman, &c._, were executed at Tyburn for robbing Mr.
  F----, the banker, of a watch and a trifling sum of money on the
  highway."

And the writer then proceeds to moralise on the inequality of that code
of laws, which could visit with death the author of a burglary committed
on another man, who, by the failure of his bank, had recently produced
an unexampled scene of distress, in the ruin of many families, and was
yet suffered to go scatheless.

My next notice, which is also extracted from a Wiltshire paper, is dated
1836.

  "In a street adjoining Hungerford Market, there is now living, 'to
  fortune and to fame unknown,' the great-grandson of the author of
  _Robinson Crusoe_. His trade is that of a carpenter, and he is
  much respected in the neighbourhood. His father, a namesake of
  this great progenitor, was for many years a creditable tradesman
  in the old Hungerford Market."

Has it ever been noticed by bibliographers that the _History of Robert
Drury_, which came out the year before _Robinson Crusoe_, may have had
an equal share with Alexander Selkirk's story in forming the basis of De
Foe's narrative?

    WILTONIENSIS.

_English Surnames: Bolingbroke_ (Vol. v., p. 326.).--During a visit to
Bolingbroke, a village in Lincolnshire, the birth-place of Henry IV.,
the rapidity of the little stream, so unusual in a county remarkable for
the sluggishness of its waters, suggested to me the probable origin of
the name, _bowling brook_; "bowling along," and "running at a bowling
pace," being not uncommon expressions. Here then, if we cannot meet with
"sermons in stones" amongst the few vestiges of the castle, and in the
church with its beautiful decorated windows, the heads of which are so
disgracefully blocked up with plaster, we may "find books in the running
brooks," and learn that "proud Bolingbroke" owed his appellation to this
insignificant babbling rivulet.

    C. T.

_Waistcoats worn by Women._--Now that we hear no more of Bloomerism, a
feeble attempt has been made to introduce a spurious scion of the
defunct nuisance, almost as masculine, and to the full as ugly. I have
but little fear of its gaining ground, having full confidence in the
good taste of our countrywomen: but it will be curious to see what our
ancestors of the seventeenth century thought of the wearers of the
aforesaid garment. Vide the Glossary to Beaumont and Fletcher's _Works_:

  "WAISTCOATEERS. Strumpets; a kind of waistcoat was peculiar to
  that class of females."

Verbum non amplius addam.

    W. J. BERNHARD SMITH.

  Temple.

_"Thirty Days hath September," &c. (Antiquity of)._--Professor De
Morgan, in his useful List of Works on Arithmetic, published in 1847,
enters one, under the date 1596, with the following title: "_The Pathway
to Knowledge_, written in Dutch, and translated into English by W. P.,
4to." To this he notes:

  "The translator gives the following verses, which are now well
  known. I suspect he is the author of them, having never seen them
  at an earlier date. Mr. Halliwell, who is more likely than myself
  to have found them if they existed very early, names no version of
  them earlier than 1635:--

      "'Thirtie daies hath September, Aprill, June and November,
      Febuarie eight and twentie alone, all the rest thirtie and one.'"

Now it seems to me noteworthy to be recorded in your pages, that these
lines, so familiar to us all from childhood, appear in a more complete
shape in Harrison's _Description of Britaine_ prefixed to the first
edition of Holinshed's _Chronicles of England, &c._, 1577, where at p.
119. the writer says:

  "Agayne touching the number of dayes in every moneth:

      "'_Junius, Aprilis, Septemq; Novemq; tricenos
      Un[=u] plus reliqui, Februy tenet octo vicenos,
      At si bissextus fuerit superadditur unus._'

      "'Thirty dayes hath November,
      Aprill, June and September,
      Twentie and eyght hath February alone,
      And all the rest thirty and one,
      But in the leape you must adde one.'"

    A. GRAYAN.


FOLK LORE.

_The Frog._--In the north of Lincolnshire the sore mouth with which
babies are often troubled is called _the frog_. And it is a common
practice with mothers to hold a real live frog by one of its hind legs,
and allow it to sprawl about within the mouth of a child so afflicted.
Is the same remarkable custom known elsewhere?

The disease is properly called _the thrush_, and bears some resemblance
to the disorder of the same name which affects _the frog_ of the horse's
foot. I wish someone would unravel this entanglement.

    W. S.

  North Lincolnshire.

_An Oath in Court_ (Vol. iv., pp. 151. 214).--Some time since, a woman
refused to be sworn because she was in the family way. In _The Times_ of
the 5th March, a woman at Chelmsford is represented as having said: "I
swear this positively on the condition I am in, being about to become a
mother?"

Can anybody explain these facts?

    A. C.

_St. Clement's and St. Thomas's Day._--I wish to inquire what is
supposed to be the origin of begging apples, &c., on St. Clement's Day,
and money (formerly wheat) on St. Thomas's? There is hardly any trace
left of the former saint's day in this neighbourhood (Worcestershire, on
the border of Staffordshire), but I have had convincing proof _to-day_
that St. Thomas is not forgotten, for we have had plenty of visitors,
_tomorrow_ being Sunday.

    T. GOLDSEER.

  Dec. 20. 1851.



Queries.


SPEAKER LENTHALL.

In a biographical notice (MS.) of Speaker Lenthall by the Rev. Mark
Noble, I find the following passage:

  "His (Lenthall's) ancestor is mentioned in the will of Sir Richard
  Williams _alias_ Cromwell. Sir Richard was the great-grandfather
  of Oliver Lord Protector. There was always a friendship between
  the family of Cromwell and that of Lenthall."

Can any one versed in Cromwellian lore kindly inform me if any such will
is in existence; and if so, what is its date? I should be glad to know
too if there is any further authority for the statement in the text,
that there was _always_ a friendship between the Cromwells and
Lenthalls, assuming such friendship to have subsisted anterior to the
days of the Commonwealth.

It is stated by Wood (_Athen. Oxon._, article LENTHALL), and repeated in
substance by Noble in his _Protectoral House of Cromwell_, that "two or
more" of the Speaker's son, Sir John Lenthall's speeches, "spoken in the
time of usurpation," are in print. Having hitherto failed in discovering
any trace of these speeches, I should greatly value any clue that may
direct me to them if still extant. On Noble's authority, when
unsupported, of course little reliance can be placed; but in any matter
of detail, or pure and simple fact, related by Wood, I have
considerable, though not altogether implicit, faith.

In a brief and singularly inaccurate memoir of Lenthall, in the _Lives
of the Speakers_, lately published by Churton, the following passage
occurs:

  "We omitted to state in reference to Mr. Lenthall's strenuous
  exertions in favour of the gallant Earl of Derby, that Mrs.
  Cromwell, in one of her letters to the Protector, urges him to
  endeavour to effect a reconciliation with the Speaker," &c. &c.

As no authority is cited, I should be glad to learn where the letters of
Mrs. Cromwell thus referred to are to be found. Are they in print or
MS.? If any of your readers should be able to enlighten me in respect of
all or any of the above Queries, and would kindly do so either through
the medium of the Notes, or to my address as below, I should be greatly
obliged.

    F. KYFFIN LENTHALL.

  36. Mount Street, Grosvenor Square.


NOTTE OF IMBERCOURT, SURREY.

I find that Robert Roper, Esq., of Heanor Hall, co. Derby, married ...
daughter of William Nott, Esq., of Imbercourt, co. Surrey, and had
issue, with other children, Rebecca; married first Sir William Villiers,
Bart., of Brooksby, co. Leicester, elder brother of George Villiers,
Duke of Buckingham; and secondly Capt. Francis Cave of Ingarsby Hall,
co. Leicester.

Can any one of your readers supply me with the Christian name of Robert
Roper's wife; and with the names of his other issue: also whether the
representation of this branch of the Roper family has devolved upon the
descendants of Rebecca Cave? I find in my mem. book a reference to
Dodsw. MSS. in _Bibl. Bodl._ 41. fol. 70., which I have no means of
consulting at present.

I find that William Notte, with Elizabeth his wife, his father-in-law
and mother-in-law, are buried at Thames Ditton, co. Surrey. Manning and
Bray's _Surrey_, vol. i. p. 463., contains the following passage:

  "On a stone, or brass plates, are the portraits of a man kneeling
  at a table, and of a woman: behind the man are three sons; behind
  the woman, three daughters all kneeling, and underneath:

  "'Here under lyeth the bodies of Robert Smythe, Gent., and
  Katheryn his wife, daughter to Sir Thomas Blount of Kinlett,
  Knyght, which Robert dyed the 3rd daye of Sept. 1539, and the sayd
  Katheryn dyed the x day of July, 1549.'

  "Below these, on the same stone, are also the portraits of a man
  with fourteen sons behind him; and a woman with five daughters,
  all kneeling; and underneath:

  "'Here under lyeth the bodies of William Notte, Esquyre, and
  Elizabeth his wife, daughter to the above-named Robert Smyth, and
  Katheryn his wyfe; whiche William dyed the 25th day of Nov. 1576,
  and the sayd Elizabeth dyed the xv day of May, 1587.'

  "Above are the arms, Notte, on a bend between 3 leopards heads one
  and two, 3 martlets; crest, an otter with a fish in his mouth in a
  tussock of reeds.'"

Can any one of your readers refer me to any notice or pedigree of this
family of Notte, who were lords of the manor of Imbercourt in the parish
of Thames Ditton?

Can any one tell me to what family this Robert Smythe belonged? Was he
one of the Smythes of Ostenhanger in Kent? Was his wife Katheryne too
the daughter of Sir Thomas Blount by the daughter of Sir Richard Crofts
of Eldersfield? The History of the Croke family does not notice her
existence. And, lastly, would some one on the spot kindly inform me,
whether the above-mentioned brasses are still extant, and in
sufficiently perfect condition to admit of a rubbing being taken of
them?

    TEWARS.


Minor Queries.

_Suffragan Bishops._--Can any of your readers favour me with information
in regard to any seals of suffragan bishops in England, besides that
which is engraved in the _Archæologia_, vol. vii.? Any references or
notices on the subject of suffragans would be thankfully received, which
may not be included in the observations collected by Dr. Pegge.

    ALBERT WAY.

_Poison._--I should feel much indebted to any of your correspondents who
will inform me what is the true etymon of this word--the strict meaning
of the term originally--and when first used in our language?

However trifling this Query may at first sight appear, yet I am very
anxious to ascertain whether, originally, the term was applied
exclusively or principally to deadly agents operating on the body
_through the skin_, or an external wound, and not through the stomach?

The Greek word Toxicon is rendered "_venenum_," quod barbarorum
_sagittæ_ eo illinebantur (Vide Diosc. Lib. VI. cap. XX.) Again, Iòs,
jaculum, sagitta. Item, _venenum_, quod serpentes et cætera animalia
venenata ejaculatur. Horace uses the words "_pus_ atque venenum," not to
express two different things, but merely to add force and point to his
satire; just as in like manner we read "crafts and subtleties" in the
Liturgy, or "a thief and a robber" in the Scripture.

Now, is it not probable that our word "poison" takes its origin from
this "pus?"

    CARBO.

_Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell._--In the _Critic_ of February 2, 1852, p. 78.,
there is an excellent letter, written by a lady, in defence of female
doctors. In this letter Elizabeth Blackwell, M.D., is mentioned with
great respect. It appears, from the _Critic_ of January 15, p. 45., that
Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell is an American lady, and graduated in some
American university, and that she was received with distinguished marks
of attention both in London and Paris, and especially at St.
Bartholomew's Hospital. Can any of your correspondents favour us with a
biography of this lady, and state in what university, and when she
graduated?

    SOB.

_Martha, Countess of Middleton._--In Worcester Cathedral is a marble
monument to the memory of "Martha[5], Countess of Middleton, who died
the 9th of February, 1705, aged 71."

Can any of your readers inform me who this lady was? I have been unable
to find her name in any of the pedigrees within any reach.

    J. B. WHITBORNE.

  [Footnote 5: The name is _Dorothy_ in Valentine Green's _History
  of Worcester_, vol. i. p. 149.--ED.]

_Lord Lieutenant and Sheriff._--The latter officer, the sheriff, claims
precedency over the Queen's representative, the lord lieutenant, in the
county, whilst in office. It seems contrary to all reason, but will any
of your legal friends state upon what authority such precedence is
maintained; and in what instances they know that, when present, the lord
lieutenant has ranked below the sheriff?

    L. I.

_Vikingr Skotar._--Mr. W. F. Skene, in his _Highlanders_, quotes _Ari
Froda_ or Arius Multiscius for the assertion, that the Hebrides were
occupied, on the departure of Harold Harfagr, "by Vikingr Skotar, a term
which is an exact translation of the appellation Gallgael" (vol. ii. p.
27.). That is true, on the assumption that _Vikingr_ is not Icelandic
for pirate, but only for Scandinavian pirate; which assumption I should
doubt.

But I wish to be informed in what edition of _Ari Froda_, and at what
page thereof, the words Vikingr Skotar may be found.

    A. N.

_The Abbot of Croyland's Motto._--Will you allow me to call MR. LOWER'S
attention to a passage in his _English Surnames_, vol. ii. p. 122., 3rd
edition, which he has passed over without comment, but which struck me
as requiring some editorial notice:

  "The motto of John Wells, last abbot of Croyland, engraved upon
  his chair, which is still extant, is:

      "'Benedicite Fontes, Domine.'
      "'Bless the Wells, O Lord!'"

Reading "Domin_o_" for "Domin_e_" would make the first line of this
inscription plain enough, as a quotation from the canticle "Benedicite,
omnia opera;" but what are we to think of the second line? Could not the
worthy abbot have given the pun upon his name in English, without using
those particular words, or placing them in such a position that they
actually _look_ as if they were intended as a translation, word for
word, of their Latin companions, in defiance of all the laws of grammar?

    C. FORBES.

  Temple.

_Apple Sauce with Pork._--Why and when was the custom of eating apple
sauce with pork first introduced?

    BONIFACE.

_Gipsies._--In Shinar, or the province of Babylon, are the mountains of
Singares, and the city and river of Singara. Have they anything to do
with the origin of Zingari, the Italian name for gipsies?

    L. M. M. R.

_Breezes from Gas Works._--Why do secretaries to provincial gas
companies call small pieces of coke _breezes_; and why do they by
letters offer to sell "_breezes_ at tenpence _per sack_?" My residence
is not far distant from the works of one of these _Æolian_ gas
companies; and when the wind is in the east, I inhale _breezes_ which my
senses tell me do not blow from "Araby the blest."

    X. Y. Z.

_The Phrase "and tye."_--The clerk in a parish in the north-west part of
Sussex frequently makes use of an expression which I cannot
understand,--nay more, he is unable to explain it himself! The
expression is used by several of the old men in the parish, though by
none of them so often as by the clerk. "Well, master, how are ye
to-day?" He answers, "Middling, thanky'e _and tye_." He brings these two
words in at the end of most sentences. If you ask him whether there are
many people in the church, he will say, "Fairish number _and tye_;" or,
"No, not many _and tye_."

Can any of your correspondents say if they have heard it elsewhere, or
tell the meaning of it?

    NEDLAM.

_Stonehenge, a Pastoral, by John Speed._--Is any MS. of this dramatic
pastoral known to exist? It was acted, according to Wood, before the
President and Fellows of St. John's College, Oxford, in 1635.

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

"_Buro--Berto--Beriora._"--A gold ring was found in France, in the
province of Artois, between thirty and forty years ago, bearing the
following inscription:

      "buro + berto + beriora."

The ring is of a proper size for a man's finger, is plain, and rounded
on the outside. The words are on the inner side, which is flat. They are
well engraved, and very distinct. The character is the black letter of
the fifteenth century. Perhaps, through the medium of "N. & Q.," a
satisfactory interpretation of the three words may be obtained, which
has been long sought in vain.

    A. F. A. W.

_'Prentice Pillars._--"Deaths by Fasting," and "Genevra's Chest," have
reminded me of another tradition, no doubt equally groundless. It is
said by the vergers that one of the circular windows in the transepts of
Lincoln Minster was designed by an apprentice; and that the master,
mortified at being surpassed, put an end to his own existence. There is
another "'prentice window" at Melrose: a similar anecdote is connected
with two pillars in Roslyn Chapel. And there may have been many more of
these clever apprentices and foolish architects, but can one case be
substantiated?

    C. T.

_Archer Rolls: Master of Archery._--In George Agar Hansard's _Book of
Archery_, 8vo. London, Longman and Orme, 1840, p. 151., it is stated
that "Her Gracious Majesty, Alexandrina Victoria" has her name inscribed
upon the _Archer Rolls_. Query, what are the Archer Rolls?

It is further said:

  "That illustrious lady, in imitation of the warrior race of
  monarchs from whom she springs, has given a proof of real British
  feeling, by the appointment of a Master of Archery among her
  household officers."

I confess I can find no authority upon which this assertion is founded.
I have looked into the Calendar of the time, and have consulted officers
of the present household upon the existence of the office, without
success.

I should be glad to ascertain the point, being engaged on a manuscript
concerning the practice of archery.

    TOXOPHILUS.

_Witchcraft: Mrs. Hicks and her Daughter._--In the _Quarterly_ for March
1852, in the article on "Sir Roger de Coverley," mention is made of
"Mrs. Hicks and her daughter," who were executed at Huntingdon in 1716
for "selling their souls to the devil, making their neighbour vomit
pins, and raising a storm by which a certain ship was _almost_ lost." I
would wish to know whether there is extant any account of this trial; I
do not mean of the _result_, but whether I can anywhere meet with any
account of the trial itself; of the judge before whom it was tried; the
evidence, especially as to the ship which was _almost_ lost; and whether
(what was observed upon in the answer of your correspondent H. B. C. to
some Queries about "Old Booty's Ghost") the time of the crime being
committed in Huntingdonshire, agrees with the position of the ship at
the moment.

    J. H. L.

  University Club.

_Antony Hungerford._--In 4 Henry V. (1417) Sir Hugh Burnell, a
descendant of Robert Burnell, Bishop of Bath and Wells, and Lord
Chancellor in the reign of Edward I., entered into articles of agreement
with Sir Walter Hungerford (through the King's mediation by letters) for
the marriage of Margery, one of Sir Hugh's grandchildren, to Edmund
Hungerford, son of Sir Walter. There was issue of this marriage, as I
find by a fine levied by Antony Hungerford in the 32nd of Henry VIII.;
but any further information respecting this family I am not able to meet
with. If any of your correspondents can assist me in my inquiries I
shall feel much obliged.

    W. H. HART.

  New Cross, Hatcham.

_Rev. William Dawson._--Can any of the readers of "N. & Q." favour me
with some particulars regarding the ancestry of the Rev. William Dawson,
minister of the Gospel at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, who was appointed
Professor of Hebrew and other Oriental languages in the University of
Edinburgh in 1732? He is supposed to have been descended from the Irish
family of Cremorne.

    E. N.

"_Up, Guards, and at them!_"--Is there authority for the "Up, Guards,
and at them!" traditionally put in the mouth of "the Duke" at Waterloo?
I have heard not.

    A. A. D.

P.S. Is not the battle itself a myth?

_St. Botolph._--I much wish some of the readers of "N. & Q." would refer
me to any authorities they may know of respecting St. Botolph?

Private hints directed "A. B., Mr. Morton's, Publisher, Boston," will be
most thankfully received.

    A. B.

_Rental of Arable Land in 1333._--In the year 1333, it appears from _The
Custom Book_, fol. 60., that the then Sheriff of Norfolk sent a copy of
the king's proclamation to the Bailiffs of Norwich, commanding them to
cause proclamation to be made in the city that "no man presume to take
more than 24_s._ for the best living ox fatted with grain, and if not
fatted with grain only 16_s._; the best fat cow 12_s._; the best fat
swine of two years old, only 4_s._; the best fat mutton unclipped,
20_d._; and if clipped, then 14_d._; a fat goose, 2_d._; two pullets,
1_d._; four pigeons, 1_d._; a good fat capon, 2_d._; a fat hen, 1_d._;
and twenty-four eggs, 1_d._" Can any of the readers of "N. & Q." inform
me what was the _then_ yearly (average) rental of an acre of arable
land, and the value per annum of an acre (average) of pasture? Also the
relative value of one shilling sterling, as compared with one shilling
at the present time?

    JOHN FAIRFAX FRANCKLIN.

  West Newton.

_Dress shows the Man._--Can any of your correspondents inform me in what
Greek author ἱμάτιον ἀνήρ, "the dress shows the man," is to be
found?

    W. S.

  Richmond, Surrey.

_Burnet (Gilbert)._--Can any of your readers help me to identify the
Gilbert Burnet, whose correspondence with Professor Francis Hutcheson on
the Foundation of Virtue was published, first in _The London Journal_,
and afterwards in a separate pamphlet, in 1735? Was he Gilbert son of
Bishop Burnet, or was he the vicar of Coggeshall, who abridged the
_Boyle Lectures_; or was he a third Gilbert Burnet, in addition to the
other two?

    TYRO.

  Dublin.

_Where was Cromwell buried?_--It has been the belief of many that the
burial at Westminster Abbey was a mock ceremony, that in case a change
in the ruling powers should take place, his remains were deposited in a
place of greater security, and that the spot selected for his grave was
the field of Naseby. The author of _The Compleat History of England_
speaks of a "Mr. Barkstead, the regicide's son," as being ready to
depose--

  "That the said Barkstead his father, being Lieutenant of the
  Tower, and a great confident of Cromwell's, did, among other such
  confidents, in the time of his illness, desire to know where he
  would be buried; to which the Protector answered, 'where he had
  obtained the greatest victory and glory, and as nigh the spot as
  could be guessed where the heat of the action was, viz. in the
  field at Naseby in com. Northampton.' That at midnight, soon after
  his death, the body (being first embalmed and wrapt in a leaden
  coffin) was in a hearse conveyed to the said field, Mr. Barkstead
  himself attending, by order of his father, close to the hearse.
  That being come to the field, they found about the midst of it a
  grave dug about nine feet deep, with the green-sod carefully laid
  on one side and the mould on the other, in which the coffin being
  put, the grave was instantly filled up, and the green-sod laid
  exactly flat upon it, care being taken that the surplus mould
  should be clean removed. That soon after the like care was taken
  that the ground should be ploughed up, and that it was sowed
  successively with corn."

The author further states that the deponent was about fifteen years old
at the time of Cromwell's death.

Some seven or eight years ago I visited the field of Naseby, and whilst
there I met by accident with the aged clergyman of Naseby. Our
conversation naturally referred to the historical incident that had
given so much interest to the spot; and finally we spoke of this very
subject. I remember his telling me that he had collected some very
important memoranda relative to this matter, I think he said, "which
proved the arrival of his remains at _Huntingdon_, on their road
_elsewhere_."

Has this subject been properly investigated? and has any research been
made which has led to a satisfactory decision of the question?

    A. B.

  Islington.


Minor Queries Answered.

_Knollys Family._--QUÆRENS would be glad to know whether any of the
Knollys family, claimants of the earldom of Banbury, married either an
_Etheridge_ or a _Blackwell_?

Also, especially, who were the wives of Major-General William Knollys,
calling himself eighth Earl of Banbury, and of his father, Thomas Woods
Knollys, calling himself seventh earl.

  [Thos. Woods Knollys, called Earl of Banbury (father of the last
  claimant to the Earldom of Banbury), married Mary, daughter of
  William Porter of Winchester, attorney-at-law; he died the 18th
  March, 1793; and she, 23rd March, 1798.

  Their eldest son, William Knollys, called in his father's lifetime
  Viscount Wallingford, and afterwards Earl of Banbury, married
  ----, daughter of Ebenezer Blackwell.]

_Emblematical Halfpenny._--I enclose a rude drawing of a halfpenny, and
should be glad to be favoured with a more detailed account of its
emblematical import than I at present possess. It is thus described in
Conder's _Provincial Coins_, Ipswich, 1798, p. 213.:

  "A square of daggers, the word 'fire' at each corner, a foot in
  the middle, under it the word 'honor;' over it 'France,' and the
  word 'throne' bottom upwards; on one side 'glory' defaced, on the
  other 'religion' divided. 'A Map of France,' 1794."

On reverse, in a radiation, "May Great Britain ever remain the reverse,"
encircled with an open wreath of oak. Engrailed.

    PETROPROMONTORIENSIS.

  [The types here described appear to explain themselves. That of
  the obverse is clearly emblematical of the then state of France,
  with France surrounded by fire and sword, honour trodden under
  foot, the throne overturned, religion shattered, and glory
  defaced; while the reverse expresses a very natural wish.]

_National Proverbs._--Will any of your correspondents refer me to any
collections of proverbs of different nations, or to writers who may have
given lists of those of any particular people, either ancient or modern?

    SIGMA.

  [To answer our correspondent fully would fill an entire Number of
  "N. & Q." We had thought of giving him a list of the best
  collections of the proverbs of different nations, as Le Roux de
  Lincy's _Livre des Proverbes Français_; Korte's _Die Sprichwörter
  und Sprichwörtlichen Redensarten der Deutschen_; but we shall be
  doing him better service by referring him to two books, in which
  we think he will find all the information of which he is in
  search; viz., 1. Nopitsch, _Literatur der Sprichwörter_; and 2.
  Duplessis, _Bibliographie Parémiologique. Etudes Bibliographiques
  et Litéraires sur les Ouvrages, Fragmens d'Ouvrages et Opuscules
  spécialement consacrés aux Proverbes dans toutes les langues_.]

_Heraldic Query._--An armiger had two wives, and issue by both: by the
first, sons; by the second, who was an _heiress_, daughters only. Have
the descendants of the second marriage right to quarter the ancestor's
arms, male issue of the first marriage still surviving? It would seem
that they have, as otherwise the arms of the heiress' family cannot be
transmitted to her posterity, nor the heraldic representation carried
on.

    G. A. C.

  [The daughter of armiger by his second wife would of course
  quarter her mother's arms with those of her father. In case of the
  daughter marrying and having issue, such issue, to show that the
  grandmother was an heiress, would, with their paternal crest,
  quarter those of the grandmother, placing the arms of armiger on a
  canton.]

_Chantrey's Marble Children._--I have just had placed before me a
memorandum to the effect that "there is at Leyden the perfect and
undoubted original of Chantrey's celebrated figures of the children at
Lichfield." The reference is to Poynder's _Literary Extracts_, Second
Series, p. 63. As I have not seen the book, and have no access to it,
will some correspondent of "N. & Q." inform me whether the foregoing
passage contains the whole of Poynder's statement; or otherwise afford
any information relative to its origin? I need scarcely add, that the
reputation of the great English sculptor is nowise involved in the issue
of the question.

    D.

  [We subjoin the whole of Mr. Poynder's article, which is signed
  "Miscellaneous:"--"There is at Leyden the perfect and undoubted
  original of Chantrey's celebrated figures of the children at
  Lichfield; and on a friend of the writer mentioning the
  circumstance to that artist, he did not deny the fact. The figures
  form the foreground of a celebrated painting in the Town-hall,
  commemorating the heroic conduct of a former defender of that
  city, when it was reduced by famine to the greatest extremities.
  On this occasion the citizens are represented as earnestly
  importuning the governor to surrender, and representing their
  deplorable condition from the effects of the siege. Many dying
  figures are introduced into the painting, and among them the
  children in question are seen locked in each other's arms,
  precisely as in the sculpture at Lichfield. The story proceeds to
  relate, that the commander declared he would never surrender the
  city; and added, that whether his fellow-citizens chose to hang
  him, or throw him into the dyke, he was determined never to open
  the gates to such a monster as the Duke of Alva. It is further
  stated, that the providential relief of the city by some troops of
  his own side rewarded his courage."]

_Autobiography of Timour._--In 1785, _Institutes, Political and
Military, of the Emperor Timour_ (incorrectly called Tamerlane), were
published at Calcutta, printed by Daniel Stuart. This work, which may
more properly be named autobiographical memoranda, written by Timour,
was composed by him originally in the Turkish language, and translated
by Abu Taulib Alhusseini into Persian, and by Major Davy into English,
to which Dr. Joseph White, of Oxford, added notes; and other matter was
affixed by a person whose name is not given. The rules for carrying to a
successful result great enterprises are profound and dignified, and the
enterprises extraordinary and interesting, though only given in outline.
This part ends with the capture of Bagdat (_d_?). I wish to know if
there exists an accredited translation from the original by Timour in
the Turkish, and of what more this extraordinary work consists; and if
any part, or all, has ever been printed in England, or in any European
language?

    ÆGROTUS.

  [In the year 1787, the late Professor Langlés of Paris published a
  French translation of the _Institutes_, under the title of
  _Instituts Politiques et Militaires de Tamerlane, proprement
  appellé Timour, écrits par lui-même en Mogol, et traduits en
  François sur la version Persane d'Abou Taleb al Hosseini, avec la
  Vie de ce Conquerant_, &c. And in 1830 another English translation
  was published by Major Charles Stewart, late Professor of Oriental
  Languages in Hon. E. I. Company's College, entitled, _The
  Mulfuz[=a]t Tim[=u]r, or Autobiographical Memoirs of the Moghul
  Emperor Tim[=u]r_. In the Preface to this edition our
  correspondent will find an interesting bibliographical account of
  the work and its various translations.]



Replies.


THE EARL OF ERROLL.

(Vol. v., p. 297.)

I am somewhat of opinion that your correspondent PETROPROMONTORIENSIS is
correct, about this nobleman being by _birth_ the first subject in
Scotland, only he has apparently omitted the word "hereditary" before
those of Great Constable of Scotland, or Lord High Constable of
Scotland. Indeed, some writers make him _by birth_, not only the first
subject in Scotland, but also in England. Dr. Anderson, the learned and
laborious editor of _The Bee_, at p. 306. of vol. v. of that
publication, in the article on James, Earl of Erroll, who died 3rd June,
1778, says:

  "As to rank, in his lordship's person were united the honours of
  Livingston, Kilmarnock, and Erroll. As hereditary High Constable
  of Scotland, Lord Erroll is _by birth_ the first subject in Great
  Britain, after the blood royal, and, as such, had a right to take
  place of every hereditary honour. The Lord Chancellor, and the
  Lord High Constable of England, do indeed take precedence of him,
  but these are only temporary honours which no man can lay claim to
  _by birth_; so that, _by birth_, Lord Erroll ranks, without a
  doubt, as the first subject of Great Britain, next after the
  Princes of the blood royal."

It would appear that the personal appearance of Earl James was in good
keeping with his high rank. He was accounted the handsomest man in
Britain, and at the coronation of George III. he attended in his robes,
and by accident neglected to take off his cap when the king entered. He
apologised for his negligence in the most respectful manner; but his
majesty, with great complacency, entreated him to be covered, as he
looked upon his presence at the solemnity as a very particular honour.

The Earl of Erroll's charter of appointment to this high office, is
dated at Cambuskenneth, 12th November, anno 1316; and is still preserved
in the charter room of the family seat, Slains Castle, Cruden,
Aberdeenshire. The youthful inheritor of this high office is the Right
Honourable William Harry, Earl of Erroll, Baron Hay of Slains, Baron
Kilmarnock of Kilmarnock, in the county of Ayr, Captain in the Rifle
Brigade, born in 1823, succeeded his father, seventeenth Earl, in 1846.

    INVERURIENSIS.


GENERAL WOLFE.

(Vol. iv., p. 438.; Vol. v., p. 185., &c.)

Although not affording answers to the Queries in Vol. iv., p. 438. _et
infra_, the following may not be uninteresting to your correspondent.
There is much concerning Wolfe in the _Historical Journal of Campaigns
in North America_, by Captain Knox, dedicated by permission to Sir
Jeffery Amherst, who commanded that part of the expedition against
Canada which, striking on the lower end of Lake Ontario, descended the
St. Lawrence to Montreal, whilst Wolfe, ascending the river, operated
against Quebec. Thus it appears that General and Sir Jeffery Amherst
were one and the same person. The frontispiece to the 1st vol. is a
portrait of General Amherst, that of vol. 2nd is a portrait of General
Wolfe; both so characteristic, that I should presume they are
likenesses, although no authority is given.

In 1828, I saw at Quebec the man who attended Wolfe as orderly-serjeant
on the day of his death; and what may be considered a curious
coincidence was, that he bore the same name as Wolfe's mother, viz.
Thompson. Mr. Thompson was a very respectable and much-respected old
man; and, I believe, was occasionally a guest at the Governor's table.
He had a son in the Commissariat department, who is no doubt in
possession of all his father knew concerning Wolfe.

According to Mr. Thompson, Wolfe always addressed his men "brother
soldiers;" and their pet-name for him was, "The little red-haired
corporal." Thompson was not the only remnant of Wolfe's army in 1828, as
appears by the following:--

   "General Orders, Head Quarters, Quebec, 7th Aug. 1828.

   "1. The Commander of the Forces is pleased to authorise the
   payment of a pension, at the rate of 1_s._ per diem from 25th May
   last, to Robert Simpson, a veteran, now ninety-six years of age,
   who fought on the plains of Abraham under Gen. Wolfe," &c. &c.

On the 12th Jan. 1829, died at Kingston, U. C., John Gray of
Argyleshire, N. B., aged ninety-six. He had served at Louisburg, Quebec,
&c. &c. under Sir Jeffery Amherst and General Wolfe.

    A. C. M.

  Exeter.

I send the following extracts from the newspapers respecting Wolfe,
scarcely knowing whether it may be worth while. Such as they are, they
are at your service:--

  "Hoc ultimum opus virtutis edens in victoria coesus."

  "To the highest military merit undoubtedly belongs the highest
  applause, but setting aside the froth of panegyrick--

  "Who formed the 20th regt. of foot, exemplary in the field of
  Minden, only by practising what was familiar to them?

  "Who at Rochefort offered to make a good landing, not asking how
  many were the French, but where are they?

  "Who, second then in command, was second to none in those
  laborious dangers which reduced Louisburgh?

  "Who wrote like Cæsar from before Quebec?

  "Who, like Epaminondas, died in victory?

  "Who never gave his country cause of complaint except by his
  death?

  "Who bequeathed Canada as a triumphant legacy?

  "Proclaim, 'twas WOLFE!"--_Newcastle Courant_, Oct. 27, 1759.

  "The late brave General Wolfe was to have been married on his
  return to England to a sister of Sir James Lowther, a young lady
  whose immense fortune is her least recommendation. She had shown
  so much uneasiness at the thoughts of his making his campaign in
  America, that nothing but the call of honour could have prevailed
  with him to accept of that command in the discharge of which he
  fell so gloriously."--_N. C. Journal_, 1759.

  "His mother is, we hear, so much afflicted for the loss of her son
  that 'tis feared she will never get the better of her disorders.
  The inhabitants in her neighbourhood sympathised with her so much
  that they did not make any public rejoicings, lest it should add
  to her grief. Even the mob of London discovered by their behaviour
  the night of the illuminations for the victory, what they felt for
  so brave a man.

      "_They_ mourn Quebec; for Wolfe _our_ sorrows flow;
      Victors and vanquish'd felt the twofold blow.
      To both perpetual let each loss remain;
      If Quebec be restored, Wolfe fell in vain."

      _Newcastle paper_, 1759.

    E. H. A.

You have lately published some inquiries relative to Wolfe's early
career. Is the following fact worth stating? Tradition points to an old
house, once an inn, at the back of the Town-hall at Devizes, where the
young officer resided while enlisting soldiers into his regiment.

    WILTONIENSIS.


JAMES WILSON, M.D.

(Vol. v., pp. 276. 329.)

This writer will be one instance of the use of such an organ of inquiry
as "N. & Q." MR. CORNEY'S reply to my Query reminds me of Wilson's
_History of Navigation_, with which I have long been acquainted: but I
had quite forgotten, or perhaps never remarked, that this Wilson was
_James_, and _M.D._ Baron Maseres reprinted the _History of Navigation_
in the fourth volume of the _Scriptores Logarithmici_: it is an
elaborate summary, of wide research, and puts the author's learning and
judgment beyond a doubt. Maseres, in his Preface, gives a mention of
Wilson, and, in addition to the facts now brought out, states, in his
own curiously explicit style, that Dr. Pemberton's _Epistola ad Amicum
J. W. de Cotesii inventis_, "was addressed to this Dr. James Wilson, who
was the person meant by the word _Amicum_, with the two letters _J. W._,
which were the initial letters of his name." I happen to possess Brook
Taylor's copy of this _Epistola_ (4to. 1722), and its Supplement (4to.
1723), in which Taylor has written, "E libris Br. Taylor, ex dono eximii
paris amicorum, autoris D. H. Pemberton atque editoris D. J. Wilson."
Thus it is established that the author of the dissertation on the
fluxional controversy appended to Robins's tracts, lived in friendship
with some of the most distinguished parties to that quarrel. It is also
established that he was fully conversant with the mathematics of the
day; for Pemberton's letter, called out by Wilson's own queries, could
have been read by none but a previous reader of Cotes and the highest
fluxionists. As to Wilson's age, he says (Robins's _Math. Tr._, vol. ii.
p. 299.) he was a fellow-student of Pemberton at Paris: the latter was
born in 1694, and the former was probably of nearly the same age. They
were close friends to the end of their lives, and Wilson published
Pemberton's _Course of Chemistry_, delivered at Gresham College, 8vo.
1771, according to Hutton and Watt. These last-named authorities both
attribute to Pemberton himself the dissertation on the fluxional
controversy in Robins's _Tracts_: but it certainly has Wilson's name to
it; or rather, it is said to be by the _publisher_ (which we now call
_editor_) of the volumes. It is very likely that Pemberton gave help:
assuredly he must have been consulted by his intimate friend on facts
the truth of which was within his own knowledge. Accordingly, the
following assertions, made by Wilson, are not to be lightly passed over:
first (which also Robins assumes again and again), that _Newton_ wrote
the anonymous account of the _Commercium Epistolicum_ (_Phil. Trans._,
No. 342.) usually attributed to Keill, which, in Latin, forms the
Preface to the second edition of that work. Secondly, that Newton wrote
the criticism on John Bernoulli's letter at the end of the second
edition. Thirdly, that Newton himself, and not Pemberton, omitted the
celebrated Scholium from the third edition of the _Principia_. Montucla,
in the second edition (1802, vol. iii. p. 108) of his _History of
Mathematics_, gives statements on these points from a private source, to
the effect that the notes of the original edition of the _Comm. Epist._
were Newton's, and that the informant had seen the matter which was
substituted for the Scholium, in Newton's handwriting, among the
proof-sheets preserved by Pemberton. If Wilson were the informant, which
may have been, for Montucla's first edition was published in 1758,
Montucla must have confounded the two editions of the _Comm. Epist._ If
not, it must have been some one who did not draw his account from the
dissertation, in which there is nothing about the proof-sheets.
Montucla, however, has lowered the credit of his informant by making him
assert that the second edition of the _Principia_ was managed by Cotes
and Bentley, without communication with Newton. This, which all the
world knows to be untrue of the book, is true of the prefatory parts;
and Wilson gives an account of Newton's dissatisfaction with those
parts. If Wilson were the informant, Montucla has again misunderstood
him.

    A. DE MORGAN.


OLIVER CROMWELL.--THE "WHALE" AND THE "STORM" IN 1658.

(Vol. iii., p. 207.)

B. B. may see, in the British Museum library, a tract of four leaves
only, the title of which I will transcribe:

  "London's Wonder. Being a most true and positive relation of the
  taking and killing of a great Whale neer to Greenwich; the said
  Whale being fifty-eight foot in length, twelve foot high, fourteen
  foot broad, and two foot between the eyes. At whose death was used
  Harping-irons, Spits, Swords, Guns, Bills, Axes, and Hatchets, and
  all kind of sharp Instruments to kill her: and at last two Anchors
  being struck fast into her body, she could not remoove them, but
  the blood gush'd out of her body, as the water does out of a pump.
  The report of which Whale hath caused many hundred of people both
  by land and water to go and see her: the said Whale being slaine
  hard by _Greenwich_ upon the third day of June this present yere
  1658, which is largely exprest in this following discourse.
  _London, printed for Francis Grove, neere the Sarazen's head on
  Snowhill, 1658._"

Surely after reading the above, your sceptical correspondent can no
longer hesitate to accept as a matter of veritable fact this story so
_very_ like a whale.

Evelyn, who lived near Greenwich, and was most probably one of the
wonder-struck spectators of the huge monster of the deep which had been
so rash as to visit our shores, notes in his _Diary_ under the
above-mentioned date--

  "A large whale was taken betwixt my land butting on the Thames and
  Greenwich, which drew an infinite concourse to see it by water,
  horse, coach, and on foote, from London and all parts. It appear'd
  first below Greenwich at low water, for at high water it would
  have destroyed all ye boates; but lying now in shallow water
  encompass'd with boates, after a long conflict it was kill'd with
  a harping yron, struck in ye head, out of which spouted blood and
  water by two tunnells, and after an horrid grone it ran quite on
  shore and died. Its length was 58 foote, height 16; black skin'd
  like coach leather, very small eyes, greate tail, onely 2 small
  finns, a picked snout, and a mouth so wide that divers men might
  have stood upright in it: no teeth, but suck'd the slime onely as
  thro' a grate of that bone which we call whale-bone; the throate
  yet so narrow as would not have admitted the least of fishes. The
  extreames of the cetaceous bones hang downewards from the upper
  jaw, and was hairy towards the ends and bottom within side: all of
  it prodigious, but in nothing more wonderfull then that an animal
  of so greate a bulk should be nourished onely by slime thro' those
  grates."

Having disposed of this matter, I shall now turn my attention to the
great storm that immediately preceded the death of that "arch rebell
Oliver Cromwell, cal'd Protector," which, be it remembered, took place
on Friday the 3rd of September, 1658.

      "Toss'd in a furious hurricane,
      Did Oliver give up his reign."

So saith the witty author of _Hudibras_; and to these lines his editor,
Grey, adds the note--

  "At Oliver's death was a most furious tempest, such as had not
  been known in the memory of man, or hardly ever recorded to have
  been in this nation. (See Echard's _History of England_, vol. ii.)
  Though most of our historians mention the hurricane at his death,
  yet few take notice of the storm in the northern counties on that
  day the House of Peers ordered the digging up his carcase with
  other regicides. (See _Mercurius Publicus_, No. 51. p. 816.)"

Cotemporaneous proof of the occurrence is afforded by S. Carrington in
prose, and by Edmund Waller in verse.

  "Nature itself," says Carrington, "did witness her grief some two
  or three days before by an extraordinary tempest and violent gust
  of weather, insomuch that it might have been supposed that herself
  had been ready to dissolve ... all which is so lively set forth by
  the quaintest wit of these times (E. Waller), who expresseth it
  more elegantly and copiously than my rough prose can possibly
  reach to."

      "_Upon the late Storm, and his Highness' Death ensuing
      the same._[6]

      "We must resign; Heaven his great soul doth claim
      In storms as loud as his immortal fame.
      His dying groans, his last breath shakes our isle,
      And trees uncut fall for his funeral pile;
      About his palace their broad roots were tost
      Into the air--so Romulus was lost.
      New Rome in such a tempest mist their King,
      And from obeying fell to worshipping.

             *       *       *       *       *

      "Nature herself took notice of his death,
      And sighing swell'd the sea with such a breath,
      That to remotest shores her billows rould,
      The approaching fate of their great Ruler told."

  [Footnote 6: Vide _Three Poems upon the Death of his late
  Highnesse Oliver, Lord Protector_, written by Waller, Dryden, and
  Sprat. 4to. London, 1659.]

The ensuing night, Carrington adds, was serene and peaceful. (See his
_Life of Cromwell_, 1659, p. 223.) Ludlow, in his Memoirs, also notices
the storm. On the afternoon of Monday, August 30, he set out for London.
He says:

  "On the Monday afternoon I set forward on my journey (from Essex);
  the morning proving so tempestuous that the horses were not able
  to draw against it; so that I could reach no further than Epping
  that night. By this means I arrived not at Westminster till
  Tuesday about noon."

    A. GRAYAN.


AUTHENTICATED INSTANCES OF LONGEVITY.

(Vol. v., pp. 178. 296.)

O. C. D. has avowed himself incredulous as to the reality of the
reported remarkable ages of the old Countess of Desmond, Jenkins, Parr,
&c., and he suggests that there should be unquestionable evidence of
such extraordinary deviations from the usual course of human life before
we credit them. I confess myself of the same way of thinking; and
perhaps my doubts have been strengthened from the circumstance, that,
although the longevity of members of the Society of Friends is well
known at the insurance offices, I do not recollect an instance of any
one attaining one hundred years in the United Kingdom. Upwards of ninety
is not uncommon, from eighty to ninety common; and more than one-third
of the whole deaths are from seventy upwards. There was a
well-authenticated instance of a "Friend" in Virginia, named William
Porter, who attained one hundred and seven years, who could hoe Indian
corn a year previous to his death; but it was considered a rare
occurrence in America.

As some of the readers of "N. & Q." may be curious in such matters, the
following is an accurate statement of the ages at the time of death of
members of the Society of Friends in the past two years. The extra
number of females arises from the greater number of males who leave the
society, or are excommunicated or emigrate. The average duration of life
in these two years appears about 52 years 6 months 4 days. The number of
members in the society in the United Kingdom is computed at 19,000 or
20,000. In America they are far more numerous.

      _Deaths in the Society of Friends in 1849-1850,
      1850-51._

                        Males.  Females.
      Under 5 Years       33       27
      From  5 to 10        5       13
       " 10-15             1        3
       " 15-20            11       11
       " 20-30            21       16
       " 30-40            16       24
       " 40-50            18       24
       " 50-60            31       38
       " 60-70            44       54
       " 70-80            64       84
       " 80-90            38       37
       " 90 upwards        4        7
                         ---      ---
                         286      338

    A MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY OF FRIENDS.

I noticed, within the last week, the following inscription on a
tombstone in Conway churchyard:

      "Also, Here Lieth the Body of
        Lowry Owens, the wife of
          William Vaughan, who
        died May the 1st, 1766,
              aged 192."

The round of the "9" was above the line; the figures were in their
natural places, and had evidently not been altered; but as the
inscription was remarkably clear for its age, the only explanation that
occurred to me was that it had been recut by some ignorant person, when
nearly defaced. Immediately above it was the following, referring, I
presume, to her husband:

      "Here Lyeth ye Body of
        William Vaughan, who
      Dyed ye 16 day of A Pril,
          1735, aged 72."

If so, and the age of Mrs. Vaughan be correct as stated, she must have
been nearly a hundred or so when married. Can any of your correspondents
living in the neighbourhood explain how the mistake arose?

    AGMOND.

  59. Catherine Street, Liverpool.


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Haberdascher.--Hurrer_ (Vol. v., p. 137.).--Precision is of great
importance in investigating the meaning of our ancient technical terms.

_Haberdascher_ was, I apprehend, the _generic_ name of dealers in small
wares. Hats and caps were formerley called _hures_ and _howves_ or
_houfes_; and when haberdashers dealt in such articles they were _pro
tanto hurrers_. But as early as the time of Edward I. there were traders
called hatters, who were not haberdashers; and at a later period, when
the term hurrer was obsolete, there were "haberdashers of hats." In the
reign of Edw. IV. a curious petition was presented to Parliament, which
is not unworthy of being put upon your Notes. It sets forth--

  "That whereas huers, bonnets, and cappes, as well single as
  double, were wont to be truly made, wrought, fulled, and thickked
  by the might and strength of men, that is to say, with hand and
  foot; and they that have so made, wrought, fulled, and thickked
  such huers, bonnets, and cappes, have well and honestly afore this
  gotten their living thereby, and thereupon kept apprentices,
  servants, and good household. It is so that there is a subtile
  mean found now of late, by reason of a Fullyng Mille, whereby more
  cappes may be fulled and thickked in one day than by the might and
  strength of four score men by hand and foot may be fulled and
  thickked in the same day: the which huers, bonnets, and cappes, so
  fulled and thickked by such mill, are bruised, broken, and
  deceivably wrought, and cannot by the mean of any mill be truly
  made."

The petitioners conclude by praying Parliament to impose heavy penalties
upon all who use the fulling mill, or who sell huers, hats, or bonnets
that have been "fulled or thickked" by means of any such mill. So early
did the antagonism between hand-labour and machinery prevail.

I doubt whether the more ancient name of _haberdasher_ were _milainer_.
There were _haberdashers_ at York in the time of Edward III., but no
_milliners_. In 1372 the _haberdashers_ of London were separated from
the _hurrers_, with whom they had been previously associated. I should
be glad to have a reference to the use of the term _milainer_, as
applied to traders of any sort prior to the reign of Edward III.

I should also be obliged to any of your correspondents who will tell me
what was the description of trade or business carried on by _uphalders_
in former times.

    Δ.

_Cou-bache_ (Vol. v., p. 131.).--In Halliwell's _Archaic Dictionary_ the
word _balk_ is interpreted, "a ridge of greensward left by the plough in
ploughing, or by design, between the different occupancies in a common
field." This is exactly the meaning of the word as it is commonly used
in Yorkshire at this day; but in a Yorkshire village with which I am
acquainted, we have the very phrase of the _Golden Legend_,
"_cou-bache_," (pronounced _skoo-bauk_, the prefix _s_ being a not
infrequent corruption), as the name of a wide grassy road between
thorn-hedges, upon the verbage of which the milch cows of the villages
are pastured. This seems to be just the sort of place described in the
legend as the scene of Kenelm's murder. I need not add, that it is not
unusual to find pure Anglo-Saxon words retained in the rural dialects of
Yorkshire.

    Δ.

_Meaning of Groom.--M. F. Barrière_ (Vol. v., p. 347.)--Having some
reason to doubt the high editorial authority attributed to M. Barrière
by J. R. (Cork), I would request your ingenious correspondent to favour
us with references to one or two (or more, if not too troublesome) of
the "_frequent cases_" in which the _Quarterly Review_ adopts M.
Barrière's statements.

The filthy _espièglerie_ related by that very suspicious authority St.
Simon, of the Duchess of Burgundy, already sufficiently _incredible_, is
rendered _impossible_ in J. R.'s version of "_administered to herself_."
St. Simon supposes no such legerdemain.

The _Groom of the Stole_ is the first lord of the King's bed-chamber;
under a Queen the equivalent office and title is _Mistress of the
Robes_.

    C.

_Grinning like a Cheshire Cat_ (Vol. ii., pp. 377, 412.).--In one of
your early Numbers I have seen some Queries respecting the phrase
"Grinning like a Cheshire Cat." I remember to have heard many years ago,
that it owes its origin to the unhappy attempts of a sign painter of
that county to represent a lion rampant, which was the crest of an
influential family, on the sign-boards of many of the inns. The
resemblance of these _lions_ to _cats_ caused them to be generally
called by the more ignoble name. A similar case is to be found in the
village of Charlton, between Pewsey and Devizes, Wiltshire. A
public-house by the roadside is commonly known by the name of _The Cat
at Charlton_. The sign of the house was originally a lion or tiger, or
some such animal, the crest of the family of, I believe, Sir Edward
Poore.

    H.

_Mallet's Death and Burial_ (Vol. v., p. 319.).--I am _now_ able to
answer a Query which I lately sent to you. David Mallet died in George
Street, Hanover Square, and was buried in the burial-ground of
Grosvenor Chapel, South Audley Street.

Can any of your readers tell me when and where Mrs. Mallet, his widow,
died? Who was T. C., the writer of a letter in the _Gentlemen's
Magazine_, vol. lxii. pt. 1. p. 100.

    F.

_Town-halls_ (Vol. v., p. 295.).--MR. J. H. PARKER, in his Query
respecting old town-halls, mentions the Town-hall of Weobly, in
Herefordshire, as an early example of timber-work. Similar examples
exist at Hereford, Ross, Ledbury, and Leominster, in the same country.
These buildings are all constructed upon the same plan, viz. a large
oblong room supported on wooden pillars; so that there is an open
covered space beneath, which is used for the purposes of a market. With
respect to the age of these buildings I can give no information; but
something might doubtless be determined, partly by records, and partly
by the internal evidence of the style of construction.

    L.

In reply to MR. J. H. PARKER'S Query about Town-halls, I beg to say that
in Leicester there are still standing a Guildhall (part of which is
undoubtedly of a date as early as the middle of the fourteenth century)
and a County Hall, called "The Castle," similar to the old building at
Oakham. The foundation-walls of the latter are parts of the original
fabric, and one of the windows is clearly of the Transition period.

    JAYTEE.

_Whiting's Watch_ (Vol. iii., p. 352.).--On reading this you may
exclaim, "Quæ regio in terris nostri non plena laboris." Before this
note reaches you, I may have been anticipated; but I will venture it, if
only to show that your delightful publication extends its charms even to
the "benighted."

I wish to inform C. O. S. M., in furtherance of his Query, that
Whiting's watch is included in Thorpe's (178. Piccadilly) _Catalogue_
for 1843, No. 689, and is there given as from the collection of the late
Duke of Sussex, who obtained it from the Rev. John Bowen.

    B. C.

  Madras, March 13.

_The Birthplace of St. Patrick_ (Vol. v., p. 344.) is fully discussed by
DR. ROCK at the end of a small work entitled _Did the Early Church in
Ireland acknowledge the Pope's Supremacy?_ Perhaps CEYREP may think his
question met by the authorities set forth in the above-named book.

    BRITO.

_Family of Grey_ (Vol. v., p. 298.).--I am much obliged by the answer to
part of my Query; but I should be very glad to know the _name_ of the
lady Thomas, second brother of the Marquis of Dorset, married, and who
was mother by him of Margaret, wife of John Astley[7], Master of the
Jewels to Queen Elizabeth.

  [Footnote 7: Query, not Ashley.]

    C. DE D.

_Edward Bagshaw_ (Vol. v., p. 298.).--W. B. inquires whether Sir Edward
Bagshaw, of Finglas, left other children besides two daughters; which
two he describes as married to Ryves and Burroughs respectively? and
whether Castle-Bagshaw, in the co. Cavan, took its name from this branch
of the family, with any other information concerning this Sir Edward?

I have looked into my Cavan MS. Collections, and I find from them that
Sir Edward Bagshaw had been, so far as I can at present see, an
adventurer of Cromwell's introduction, debentured on lands of Cavan,
viz. Callaghan, Tirgromley, Derrychill, Timhowragh, and seventeen other
denominations, which were thereupon erected into the manor of
Castlebagshaw, and whereon he built a castle: such I _suppose_ the
origin of the manor and castle. It is more certain, and indeed on proof
before me, that he had one daughter named Anne, and married before 1654
to _Thomas Richardson_, of Dublin, Esq., who, having paid 600_l._ to Sir
Edward, he, for that consideration, and for the marriage, granted all
the premises to Richardson in fee, who assigned them in 1661 to four
different persons. One of these assignees was Ambrose Bedell, a son of
the celebrated William Bedell, Bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh. Sir Edward
Bagshaw died about 1661, possibly just previous to this partition. His
latter days were I think passed at Finglas, in the description of which
locality, in my _History of the Co. Dublin_, I find this apposite notice
(p. 371.): "Under the communion table are flat tombstones of very
ancient date, _to the families of Bagshaw and Ryves_;" but their
position precluded my decyphering their evidence. Of the family of
Bagshaw I have in my Genealogical Collections various notices, as well
in this country as in Derbyshire and Staffordshire.

    JOHN D'ALTON.

  48. Sumner Hill, Dublin.

_White Livers_ (Vol. v., pp. 127. 212.).--Dissen interprets the
λευκαὶ φρένες  of Pindar (Part IV. 194.), pale with envy, envious; alii
aliter. Whatever be the exact meaning of this debated phrase, the idea
at the ground of it appears the same as that in the modern "white
liver." According to Homer, it will be remembered, φρένες ἦπαρ
ἔχουσιν. (_Od._ ix. 301.)

    A. A. D.

  [SIGMA refers our correspondent to Ryan's _Medical Jurisprudence_,
  and Elliotson's _Physiology_, for a medical explanation of the
  phrase--not quite suited to our pages.--ED.]

_Miniature of Cromwell_ (Vol. v., p. 189.).--Miniatures of Oliver
Cromwell do not appear to be very rare. At least, in addition to those
which have been noted in your columns, I may state that I picked up at
Stockholm, a few years ago, a very well-executed miniature of the
Regicide, which was in all probability brought to Sweden by his
ambassador Whitlock. The miniature is very small, is protected by a
thick glass, and is framed in an ornamented, richly gilt, copper frame.
It is, I think, painted in ivory, and is backed by a gilt copper plate,
on which is engraved, in characters apparently of the period, "_Ol,
Cromwáll_, Anno 1684." The accent over the _á_ renders it probable that
setting and inscription are foreign. The painting itself gives the
features of Cromwell very exactly, and represents him in plain armour,
with a plain falling collar round the neck, and long flowing hair.

    G. J. R. G.

_Sleck Stone, Meaning of_ (Vol. v., p. 140.).--I have just found a
passage in Burton's _Anatomy of Melancholy_ which proves that R. C. H.
was correct in the remarks he made on these words, viz. that they ought
to have been printed _sleek-stone_, and that they were the name of an
instrument used for _smoothing_ or _polishing_, and not for
_sharpening_:

  "The ebon stone which goldsmiths use to sleeken their gold with,
  born about or given to drink, hath the same properties, or not
  much unlike."--_Anat. of Mel._, Part ii. sec. iv. mem. 1. subs. 4.
  [Blake, one vol. 8vo. MDCCCXXXVI. P. 437.]

Lady Macbeth says:

                                    "Come on;
      Gentle my lord, sleek o'er your rugged looks;
      Be bright and jovial 'mong your guests to-night."

      _Macbeth_, Act III. Sc. 2.

    C. FORBES.

  Temple.

_Slick_ or _sleek stones_ are used by curriers to remove wrinkles and
other irregularities in, and to smoothen the surface of hides and skins,
after they have been converted into leather by the tanner. The stone
which is considered to be the best for this purpose is quarried in the
neighbourhood of Kendal.

The currier's _sleek stone_ is an oblong square plate, measuring six
inches in length by four inches in breadth, and half an inch in
thickness. One of the longer edges of the stone is fixed into a groove
in a wooden handle or stock, and hence it is also commonly called a
_stock stone_.

The leather being spread out upon a table, the stock is held in both
hands, and the opposite edge of the stone is pressed upon and rubbed
over the surface of the leather. In a subsequent part of the process of
currying the workman uses, in like manner, a _slicker_ or _sleeker_ made
of steel, and finishes his work with a glass _sleeker_.

    J. L. C.

_Tenor Bell of Margate_ (Vol. i., p. 92.; Vol. v., p. 319.).--The weight
of this "ponderous tenor bell" is not mentioned; but there does not seem
to be any particular "obscurity," whatever there may be of strangeness
in the alleged mode of its transit by water. By the terms "mill-cog" of
the poetaster is doubtless to be understood the _cog-wheel_ of the
miller, viz. that which more or less directly connects the motive agent
with the shaft carrying the stones. Persons who happen to have noticed
the large size and ponderous construction of the main cog-wheel in many
an ancient flourmill will easily imagine that if set afloat it would
carry a great weight; especially if prepared, as a missionary to the
Hudson's Bay territories told me a small cart-wheel was rigged to
transport him over the rivers, viz. by stretching a large skin over its
area. It was, in all likelihood, to some contrivance of this kind that
John de Dandelion and his dog have become so picturesquely and
permanently connected with the history of Margate in "traditionary
rhyme."

    D.

_Rhymes connected with Places_ (Vol. v., pp. 293. 374.).--The following
has been printed in the late John Dunkin's _History of Dartford_; but as
topographical works have but a limited circulation, and the above-named
author was fond of printing but few impressions of his works, I have
taken the liberty of forwarding the lines to you:

      "Sutton[8] for mutton,
        Kirby[9] for beef,
      South Darne[10] for gingerbread,
        Dartford[11] for a thief."

All four of the parishes are situate upon the river Darent, and adjoin.

  [Footnote 8: Sutton at Hone--fine pastures.]

  [Footnote 9: Horton Kirby, the same.]

  [Footnote 10: South Darenth, celebrated for its old church, and
  (probably when the lines were composed) for its baker.]

  [Footnote 11: Dartford: the bridewell of the district was formerly
  in this parish, in Lowfield Street.]

    Αλφρεδ.

_Burial, Law respecting_ (Vol. v., p. 320.).--Though not a lawyer, I
venture to express the opinion that, if preferred, burial may take place
in unconsecrated ground. The law exacts the registering of the death,
and inhibits a clergyman from officiating except within the consecrated
boundary. Indeed the burying-ground of dissenters is not consecrated
according to law, although it may have to be licensed. But, supposing a
person to have the fancy to lie "in some loved spot, far away from other
graves," there seems to be no legal difficulty. In the shrubbery of
Brush House, the residence of my friend and neighbour John Booth, Esq.,
M.D., there is a mausoleum over the remains of his uncle, from whom he
inherited the property.

  "Here," says Hunter, in his _History of Hallamshire_, "Mr. Booth
  spent the latter part of an active life in mathematical and
  philosophical studies; and, indulging a natural (?) and
  patriarchal desire, prepared his own sepulchre amidst the shades
  his own hand had formed, in which his remains are now reposing."

Was not Mrs. Van Butchell preserved many years after death in a glass
case by her husband?

    ALFRED GATTY.

_Lines on English History_ (Vol. iii., p. 168.).--The lines on English
History, beginning

  "William the Norman conquers England's State," &c.

were not from the pen of any Catholic gentleman of the name of Chaloner,
but were composed by a Protestant. Some of the lines were subsequently
altered by a Catholic lady, the late Mrs. Cholmely, of Brandsby Hall,
near York, and I believe the whole verses were printed at her private
expense. The line on Mary of England was, in the original, anything but
complimentary to the memory of that queen. Mrs. Cholmely's daughter, the
late Mrs. Charlton, of Hesleyside in Northumberland, had the verses
printed again at Newcastle, about twenty-five years ago. I have no doubt
that I could procure a copy for AN ENGLISH MOTHER.

    EDWARD CHARLTON.

  Newcastle-on-Tyne.

_Suicides buried in Cross Roads_ (Vol. iv., pp. 116. 212. 329.).--In the
fifth chapter of the most remarkable Saga of Thorfinn Karlsefne, we find
some curious customs to have been prevalent in Greenland relative to the
burial of the dead in unconsecrated ground. Thorstein Erikson, the
second husband of Gudrida, died of a sore sickness. Many of the
household had previously been carried off by the same malady, and the
ghost of each corpse joined its fellows in tormenting and terrifying the
survivors. The night after Thorstein's death, his corpse rose up in the
bed and called for Gudrid his wife. With reluctance and terror the widow
approached the body of her husband.--

  "Now when Gudrid arose and went to Thorstein, it seemed to her as
  though he wept. And he whispered some words to her which none
  could hear, but these other words he spoke in a loud voice, so
  that all were aware thereof. 'They that keep the truth shall be
  saved, but many here in Greenland hold badly to this command. For
  it is no Christian way as here is practised, since the universal
  faith was brought to Greenland, to lay a corpse in unblessed
  earth, and to sing but little over it. It had been the custom in
  Greenland, after Christianity was brought in, that the dead should
  be buried on the lands where they died, in unhallowed earth, _and
  that a stake should be set up over the breast of the dead_
  (_skyldi setja staur upp af brjosti hinum dauda_); and when the
  priest afterwards came, the stake was pulled up, and holy water
  was poured into the hole, and they sang over the body even though
  it was long after.' And Thornstein's body was carried to the
  church in Eriksfiord, and there it was sung over by the priests
  (_yfirsöngvar af Kennimönnum_.")

May not this custom, which prevailed in Greenland in the eleventh and
twelfth centuries, have been derived from the Scandinavian north, and
there have been applied to the suicide buried in the cross road? Was the
idea of burying these outcasts in such a place, the hopeful one of
placing them at least under the shadow as it were of the cross, though
they were denied a resting-place in consecrated ground. That the old
Northerns regarded suicide with horror, we know from the "Eyrbiggia
Saga," p. 530. of Mr. Blackwell's edition of Mallet's _Northern
Antiquities_.

    EDWARD CHARLTON.

  Newcastle-on-Tyne.

_Th' Man i' th' Almanack_ (Vol. v., p. 320.).--In old almanacks the sun
is represented by a man's face inclosed in a ring, from which externally
points or rays, indicating flames, appear to proceed. An Oldham recruit,
billeted at the sign of the Sun, in writing home to his friends,
described the sign as "_th' mon's face set a' round we skivers_.[12]"

  [Footnote 12: _Skivers_, skewers or pins.]

    ROBERT RAWLINSON.

_Olaus Magnus_ (Vol. iii., p. 370.).--I have before me an English
version of this most singular writer, by J. S., printed by J. Streater,
London, 1658, 1 vol. folio, pp. 342. The marvellous description of the
sea serpent by Olaus Magnus is well known, but during the controversy
recently raised as to the reappearance of this monster to the officers
of the Dædalus, the following testimony to its existence in later times
was perhaps overlooked. It is extracted from the notes of Frederick
Faber, the celebrated Iceland ornithologist, describing a zoological
expedition to the islands in the Cattegat, and published in Oken's
_Isis_ for 1829, p. 885.:

  "As I was returning in a boat from Endelave to Horsens, the old
  helmsman, observing that I took great interest in natural history,
  asked me if I had ever seen the sea serpent. On my replying in the
  negative, he told me that about two years ago, while he and his
  companion were fishing near Thunoe, they observed the head of a
  large creature lying quite on the surface of the water, and in
  close proximity to their boat. The head was like that of a seal,
  though they immediately perceived that it belonged to no animal of
  that kind. A gull flew towards the monster, and made a pounce upon
  him, when the huge creature raised its body at least three fathoms
  high into the air, and made a snap at the bird, which flew away in
  terror. They had time, before it disappeared, to notice that the
  monster had a red throat, and that its body was about twice the
  thickness of a boat's mast."

    EDWARD CHARLTON.

_The Word "Couch"_ (Vol. v., p. 298.).--The word is French: coucher par
écrit. Ménage says, _coucher_, in its common sense, is derived from
_collocare_ in Latin, of which he gives instances as early as Catullus;
he might have gone back to Terence. Hence, says he, "coucher bien par
écrit, pour dire écrire avec ordre:" and quotes Salmasius, to show that
coucher par écrit answered to _digerere_, in the sense of writing a
digest.

The sense is the same as our expression "lay down," "lay down the law,"
&c., but we do not confine that to writing.

    C. B.



Miscellaneous.


NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

It is always a boon to historical literature when a man of learning and
industry devotes himself to a monograph of any particular person or
period. When we saw, therefore, in the _Gentleman's Magazine_, the able
and interesting papers by Mr. Cunningham, on the history of one who,
whatever might have been her life, so died, that Tennison did not
hesitate to preach her funeral sermon, we felt sure that those papers
could never be allowed to remain the "sole property" of the readers and
admirers of our good friend Sylvanus Urban; and we have proved right in
our anticipation. _The Story of Nell Gwyn, and the Sayings of Charles
II., related and collected_ by Peter Cunningham, which has just been
issued, consists of a reprint of those papers, greatly enlarged and
increased in value by the information which has reached the author since
they appeared in their original form. We know of no volume of the same
extent calculated to give a more graphic or faithful picture of the
heartlessness and depravity of the age of profligacy in which his
heroine lived, an age which furnishes a striking proof how true it is
that individuals, communities, and even whole nations, will after a time
seek compensation for a state of gloomy and unchristian fanaticism in
one of unbridled licentiousness.

Mr. Cunningham has, in this handsomely illustrated volume, treated a
subject which required very nice handling with great tact; and his book
deserves to be placed on the shelves with Pepys and Evelyn, as a
necessary supplement to them. Can we give it higher praise? Its quaint
and characteristic binding is a clever fac-simile of the morocco binding
which Charles II. so loved.

We are indebted to the publishers of the _National Illustrated Library_
for a new memoir of the great founder of American independence. _The
Life of General Washington, First President of the United States,
written by himself; comprising his Memoirs and Correspondence, as
prepared by him for publication, including several Original Letters now
first printed_, edited by the Rev. C. W. Upham, forms two volumes, which
have been written or compiled on the principle, now we believe first
applied to Washington, of making the subject of the memoir, its far as
possible, his own biographer. This task Mr. Upham has executed with much
ability and excellent judgment; and we know of no work calculated to
give the general reader a better or more correct idea of the personal
character of one of whom the Americans boast, that he was "first in war,
first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen."

Some of our readers may be interested to know that the collection of
black-letter ballads, formerly in the Heber collection, and described in
the _Bibliotheca Heberiana_, vol. iv. pp. 28-33., was sold on Monday
last at the auction of Mr. Utterson's library at Messrs. Sotheby's.
After a rather brisk bidding, Mr. Halliwell became the purchaser at the
sum of 104_l._


BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

BROUGHAM'S MEN OF LETTERS. 2nd Series, royal 8vo., boards. Original
edition.

KNIGHT'S PICTORIAL SHAKSPEARE. Royal 8vo. Parts XLII, XLIII, XLIV, L,
and LI.

CONDER'S ANALYTICAL VIEW OF ALL RELIGIONS. 8vo.

NEWMAN'S (J. H.) PRESENT POSITION OF THE CATHOLICS IN ENGLAND.

HALLIWELL ON THE DIALECTS OF SOMERSETSHIRE.

SCLOPETARIA, OR REMARKS ON RIFLES, &c.

SOWERBY'S ENGLISH FUNGI. Vol. III.

SUPPLEMENT TO SOWERBY'S ENGLISH FUNGI.

EUROPEAN MAGAZINE. Vols. XXIII, XXIV, and XXV.

POETIC WREATH. Small 8vo. Newman.

GEMS FROM BRITISH POETS. 4 Vols. Tyas.

CALLIOPE, A SELECTION OF BALLADS LEGENDARY AND PATHETIC. Suttaby, 1808.

THE WORKS OF LORD BYRON. Vo's. VI, VII, and VIII. 12mo. Murray, 1823.

MALLETT'S POEMS. Bell's edition.

MALLETT'S PLAY OF ELVIRA. 1763.

JOANNIS LELANDI COLLECTANEA. Vol. V. 1774.

BISHOP PATRICK'S COMMENTARY ON THE BIBLE. The Volumes containing Joshua
and Judges. Small 4to.

KENT'S ANTHEMS. Vol. I. folio. Edited by Joseph Corfe.

THE MATHEMATICIAN. Vol. I. No. 1. 1844.

MACULLOCH'S HIGHLANDS AND ISLANDS OF SCOTLAND.

BACK'S VOYAGE OF THE TERROR, 8vo.

BACK'S OVERLAND JOURNEY IN THE ARCTIC REGIONS, 8vo.

L'HISTOIRE DE LA SAINCTE BIBLE, par ROYAUMONDE: à Paris, 1701.

JOHNSON's (DR. S.) WORKS, by MURPHY. Trade Edition of 1816, in 8vo. Vol
XII. only.

SCOTT'S CONTINUATION OF MILNER'S CHURCH HISTORY, Vol. II. Part II. 8vo.

WINKELMAN'S REFLECTIONS ON THE PAINTING OF THE GREEKS, translated by
Fuseli. London, 1765. 8vo.

ROYAL PROCLAMATIONS IN ENGLAND IN THE YEAR 1688, EXTENDING TO AND
INCLUDING THE YEAR 1707. London, folio.

TYRWITT'S SOLID REASONS FOR PHILOSOPHIZING. Winchester, 1652.

BENTLEY'S MISCELLANY. The first two Volumes. In Numbers preferred.

MARVELL'S WORKS. 3 Vols. 4to.

MARVELL'S (ANDREW) LIFE.

KINGSTON-ON-HULL, any work upon.

EDWIN AND EMMA. Taylor, 1776. 5_s._ will be given for a perfect copy.

JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. Vol. V. Part I.

---- Vols. VIII. and IX. in Numbers.

POPE'S WORKS, BY WARTON, 1797. Vol. IV.

ROSCOE'S NOVELIST'S LIBRARY.--Tristram Shandy. Vol. II.

LINGARD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 4to. edit. Vol. VII.

LEBEUF, TRAITE HISTORIQUE SUR LE CHANT ECCLESIASTIQUE.

  [Star symbol] Letters, stating particulars and lowest price,
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Notices to Correspondents.

REPLIES RECEIVED.--_Arkwright--Burning Fern--Dr. Fell--Mother
Damnable--Nuremberg Token--Arborei Foetus--Rhymes on Places--Death from
Fasting--He that runs may read--Elvan--Plague Stones--Hooping
Cough--Mrs. Greenhill--Gospel Trees--King of the Beggars--Absalom's
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three--London Street Folks--Cromwell's Skull--Wyned--Family of
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Finger--Can a Clergyman marry himself--Death of Pitt--Pedigree of the De
Clares--Exeter Controversy--and many others, which we are prevented from
acknowledging until next week._

W. W. E. T. _The Queries are in type, and shall have early insertion._

C. W. V. S.

      "Music has charms," &c.

_is from Congreve's_ Mourning Bride, _Act I. Sc. 1., as we stated in
our_ Notices to Correspondents _this day fortnight._

TEE BEE. _We have a note waiting for this Correspondent. Where shall it
be sent?_

C. M. J. _Will our Correspondent forward his Query respecting
Coleridge?_

WYCH. _If we do not adopt our Correspondent's friendly suggestion, he
may be assured there are good reasons for our not doing so; although we
cannot enter in a full explanation of them in this place._

S. E. _We have not yet had opportunity of making the examination
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JARLTZBERG. _We hope our Correspondent received the packet addressed to
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Q. _is thanked. His replies to Queries in_ Vols. I _and_ II. _shall have
immediate attention_.

H. C. D. _The Letter of Lord Nelson if inedited, would be very
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S. A. T., _who sends a Query respecting_ The Broad Arrow, _is referred
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is under discussion._

J. S. A. BURNING ALIVE. _Our Correspondent will find this painful
subject treated of at considerable length in our_ 3rd Vol., pp. 6. 50.
90. 165. 260.

MORAVIAN HYMNS. _We are requested to say that if our Correspondents_ P.
H. _and_ H. B. C. _will send their addresses to_ J. O., _Post Office,
Leadenhall Street, communications will be made to them respecting the
earlier edition of these Hymns._

W. H. P. _may procure the_ Archæological Journal, 5 vols., _and the_
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      VI. JOHN KNOX'S LITURGY.
      VII. MALLET DU PAN.
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      X. LORD DERBY'S MINISTRY AND PROTECTION.

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       42       3    8    2

  ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S. Actuary.

  Now ready, price 10_s._ 6_d._ Second Edition, with material
  additions, INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION; being a TREATISE
  on BENEFIT BUILDING SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of
  Land Investment, exemplified in the Cases of Freehold Land
  Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a Mathematical Appendix on
  Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A.,
  Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parliament
  Street, London.

CHEAP TEA and CHEAP COFFEE.--Although we sell black tea at 3_s._ per
lb., and good black tea at 3_s._ 4_d._, strong coffee at 10_d._, and
fine coffee at a 1_s._ per lb., we still say to all who study economy,
that the best is the cheapest, particularly when the best can be
obtained from us at the following prices:--The best congou tea, 3_s._
8_d._ per lb.; the best souchong tea, 4_s._ 4_d._; the best gunpowder
tea, 5_s._ 8_d._ per lb.; the best old mocha coffee, 1_s._ 4_d._ per
lb.; the best West India coffee, 1_s._ 4_d._ per lb. The fine, true,
ripe, rich, rare souchong tea is now only 4_s._ per lb.; and the pure,
rich, rare gunpowder, 5_s._ per lb. Tea or coffee to the value of 40_s._
sent carriage free to any part of England, by PHILLIPS and Co., Tea
Merchants, 8. King William Street, City.



Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher at No 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, April 24. 1852.



      [Transcriber's Note: List of volumes and content pages in "Notes
      and Queries", Vol. I.-V.]

      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  88 | July  5, 1851      |   1- 15 | PG # 37548 |
      | Vol. IV No.  89 | July 12, 1851      |  17- 31 | PG # 37568 |
      | Vol. IV No.  90 | July 19, 1851      |  33- 47 | PG # 37593 |
      | Vol. IV No.  91 | July 26, 1851      |  49- 79 | PG # 37778 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  92 | August  2, 1851    |  81- 94 | PG # 38324 |
      | Vol. IV No.  93 | August  9, 1851    |  97-112 | PG # 38337 |
      | Vol. IV No.  94 | August 16, 1851    | 113-127 | PG # 38350 |
      | Vol. IV No.  95 | August 23, 1851    | 129-144 | PG # 38386 |
      | Vol. IV No.  96 | August 30, 1851    | 145-167 | PG # 38405 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  97 | Sept.  6, 1851     | 169-183 | PG # 38433 |
      | Vol. IV No.  98 | Sept. 13, 1851     | 185-200 | PG # 38491 |
      | Vol. IV No.  99 | Sept. 20, 1851     | 201-216 | PG # 38574 |
      | Vol. IV No. 100 | Sept. 27, 1851     | 217-246 | PG # 38656 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 101 | Oct.  4, 1851      | 249-264 | PG # 38701 |
      | Vol. IV No. 102 | Oct. 11, 1851      | 265-287 | PG # 38773 |
      | Vol. IV No. 103 | Oct. 18, 1851      | 289-303 | PG # 38864 |
      | Vol. IV No. 104 | Oct. 25, 1851      | 305-333 | PG # 38926 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 105 | Nov.  1, 1851      | 337-358 | PG # 39076 |
      | Vol. IV No. 106 | Nov.  8, 1851      | 361-374 | PG # 39091 |
      | Vol. IV No. 107 | Nov. 15, 1851      | 377-396 | PG # 39135 |
      | Vol. IV No. 108 | Nov. 22, 1851      | 401-414 | PG # 39197 |
      | Vol. IV No. 109 | Nov. 29, 1851      | 417-430 | PG # 39233 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 110 | Dec.  6, 1851      | 433-460 | PG # 39338 |
      | Vol. IV No. 111 | Dec. 13, 1851      | 465-478 | PG # 39393 |
      | Vol. IV No. 112 | Dec. 20, 1851      | 481-494 | PG # 39438 |
      | Vol. IV No. 113 | Dec. 27, 1851      | 497-510 | PG # 39503 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. V.                                   |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         |  Pages  | PG # xxxxx |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. V  No. 114 | January  3, 1852   |   1- 18 | PG # 40171 |
      | Vol. V  No. 115 | January 10, 1852   |  25- 45 | PG # 40582 |
      | Vol. V  No. 116 | January 17, 1852   |  49- 70 | PG # 40642 |
      | Vol. V  No. 117 | January 24, 1852   |  73- 94 | PG # 40678 |
      | Vol. V  No. 118 | January 31, 1852   |  97-118 | PG # 40716 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. V  No. 119 | February  7, 1852  | 121-142 | PG # 40742 |
      | Vol. V  No. 120 | February 14, 1852  | 145-167 | PG # 40743 |
      | Vol. V  No. 121 | February 21, 1852  | 170-191 | PG # 40773 |
      | Vol. V  No. 122 | February 28, 1852  | 193-215 | PG # 40779 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. V  No. 123 | March  6, 1852     | 217-239 | PG # 40804 |
      | Vol. V  No. 124 | March 13, 1852     | 241-263 | PG # 40843 |
      | Vol. V  No. 125 | March 20, 1852     | 265-287 | PG # 40910 |
      | Vol. V  No. 126 | March 27, 1852     | 289-310 | PG # 40987 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. V  No. 127 | April  3, 1852     | 313-335 | PG # 41138 |
      | Vol. V  No. 128 | April 10, 1852     | 337-358 | PG # 41171 |
      | Vol. V  No. 129 | April 17, 1852     | 361-383 | PG # 41205 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]             | PG # 13536 |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850     | PG # 13571 |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851     | PG # 26770 |
      | INDEX TO THE FOURTH VOLUME. JULY-DEC., 1851    | PG # 40166 |
      +------------------------------------------------+------------+





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