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Title: The Butterfly Book - A Popular Guide to a Knowledge of the Butterflies of North America
Author: Holland, William Jacob
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Illustration Front cover]

THE BUTTERFLY BOOK

[Illustration PLATE I, Frontispiece. SPRING BUTTERFLIES. Pyrameis
Cardui, Linn., ♂ (The Painted Lady); 2. P. Huntera, Fabr., ♂ (Hunter's
Butterfly); 3. Grapta Interrogationis, Fabr., ♂ (The Question Sign); 4.
Colias Philodice, Godt., ♂; 5. Do., ♀ (The Clouded Sulphur); 6. Vanessa
Antiopa, Linn., ♀ (The Mourning Cloak). COPYRIGHTED BY W.J. HOLLAND,
1898]



  THE BUTTERFLY BOOK

  A POPULAR GUIDE TO A KNOWLEDGE
  OF THE BUTTERFLIES OF
  NORTH AMERICA

  BY

  W.J. HOLLAND, PH.D., D.D., LL.D.

  CHANCELLOR OF THE WESTERN UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA; DIRECTOR OF THE
  CARNEGIE MUSEUM, PITTSBURGH, PA.; FELLOW OF THE ZOÖLOGICAL AND
  ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETIES OF LONDON; MEMBER OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
  OF FRANCE, ETC., ETC.

  WITH 48 PLATES IN COLOR-PHOTOGRAPHY, REPRODUCTIONS
  OF BUTTERFLIES IN THE AUTHOR'S COLLECTION,
  AND MANY TEXT ILLUSTRATIONS PRESENTING
  MOST OF THE SPECIES FOUND IN THE UNITED STATES

  [Illustration]

  GARDEN CITY      NEW YORK
  DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY
  1922



  COPYRIGHT, 1898,
  BY W.J. HOLLAND.

  PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES
  AT
  THE COUNTRY LIFE PRESS, GARDEN CITY, N.Y.



  TO MY GOOD WIFE
  AND MY TWO BONNY BOYS,
  THE COMPANIONS OF MY LEISURE HOURS
  AND MY VACATION RAMBLES,
  I DEDICATE THIS BOOK,
  WITHOUT ASKING THEIR PERMISSION



PREFACE


At some time or other in the life of every healthy young person there
appears to be developed what has been styled "the collecting mania."
Whether this tendency is due to the natural acquisitiveness of the human
race, to an innate appreciation of the beautiful and the curious, or to
the development of an instinct such as is possessed by the bower-bird,
the magpie, and the crow, which have the curious habit of gathering
together and storing away trifles which are bright and attractive to the
eye, I leave to students of the mind to decide. The fact is patent that
there is no village without its youthful enthusiast whose collection of
postage-stamps is dear to his heart, and no town in which there are not
amateur geologists, archæologists, botanists, and zoölogists, who are
eagerly bent upon the formation of collections of such objects as
possess an attraction for them.

One of the commonest pursuits of boyhood is the formation of a
collection of insects. The career of almost every naturalist of renown
has been marked in its early stages by a propensity to collect these
lower, yet most interesting and instructive, forms of animal life. Among
the insects, because of their beauty, butterflies have always held a
foremost place in the regard of the amateur collector. For the lack,
however, of suitable instruction in the art of preserving specimens,
and, above all, by reason of the almost entire lack of a convenient and
well-illustrated manual, enabling the collector to identify, name, and
properly classify the collections which he is making, much of the labor
expended in this direction in the United States and Canada fails to
accomplish more than the furnishing of temporary recreation. It is
otherwise in Europe. Manuals, comprehensive in scope, and richly adorned
with illustrations of the leading insect forms of Great Britain and the
Continent, have been produced in great numbers in recent years in
England, France, and Germany. The result is that the youthful collector
enters the field in those countries in the possession of a vast
advantage over his less fortunate American fellow. It is to meet this
want on this side of the Atlantic that this volume has been written. Its
aim is to guide the amateur collector in right paths and to prepare him
by the intelligent accomplishment of his labors for the enjoyment of
still wider and more difficult researches in this and allied fields of
human knowledge. The work is confined to the fauna of the continent of
North America north of the Rio Grande of Texas. It is essentially
popular in its character. Those who seek a more technical treatment must
resort to the writings of others.

If I shall succeed in this book in creating a more wide-spread interest
in the world of insect life and thereby diverting attention in a measure
from the persecuted birds, which I love, but which are in many species
threatened with extinction by the too eager attentions which they are
receiving from young naturalists, who are going forth in increased
numbers with shot-gun in hand, I think I shall render a good service to
the country.

I flatter myself that I have possessed peculiar facilities for the
successful accomplishment of the undertaking I have proposed to myself,
because of the possession of what is admitted to be undoubtedly the
largest and most perfect collection of the butterflies of North America
in existence, containing the types of W.H. Edwards, and many of those
of other authors. I have also enjoyed access to all the other great
collections of this country and Europe, and have had at my elbow the
entire literature relating to the subject.

The successful development in recent months of the process of
reproducing in colors photographic representations of objects has been
to a certain degree the argument for the publication of this book at the
present time. A few years ago the preparation of such a work as this at
the low price at which it is sold would have been an utter
impossibility. "The Butterflies of North America," by W.H. Edwards,
published in three volumes, is sold at one hundred and fifty dollars,
and, as I know, is sold even at this price below the cost of
manufacture. "The Butterflies of New England," by Dr. S.H. Scudder, in
three volumes, is sold at seventy-five dollars, and likewise represents
at this price only a partial return to the learned author for the
money, labor, and time expended upon it. The present volume, while not
pretending to vie in any respect with the magnificence of the
illustrations contained in these beautiful and costly works,
nevertheless presents in recognizable form almost every species figured
in them, and in addition a multitude of others, many of which have never
before been delineated. So far as possible I have employed, in making
the illustrations, the original types from which the author of the
species drew his descriptions. This fact will no doubt add greatly to
the value of the work, as it will not only serve as a popular guide, but
have utility also for the scientific student.

I am under obligations to numerous friends and correspondents who have
aided me, and take the present opportunity to extend to them all my
hearty thanks for the generous manner in which they have assisted me in
my pleasant task. I should fail, however, to follow the instincts of a
grateful heart did I not render an especial acknowledgment to Mr. W.H.
Edwards, of Coalburg, West Virginia, and Dr. Samuel H. Scudder, of
Cambridge, Massachusetts. Justly esteemed as the two foremost
lepidopterists of America, it is my honor to claim them as personal
friends, whose kindness has much aided me in this labor of scientific
love which I have undertaken. For the kind permission given me by Dr.
Scudder to use various illustrations contained in the "Butterflies of
New England" and other works, I am profoundly grateful.

I am under obligations to Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons for permission
to use the cuts numbered 46-49, 51-56, 59, 61, 62, and 73, which are
taken from the work entitled "Taxidermy and Zoölogical Collecting," by
W.T. Hornaday, and to the authorities of the United States National
Museum and the heirs of the late Professor C.V. Riley for other
illustrations.

Should this book find the favor which I have reason to think it
deserves, I shall endeavor shortly to follow it by the preparation of a
similar work upon the moths of the United States and Canada.

  OFFICE OF THE CHANCELLOR, W.J.H.
  WESTERN UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA,
  August 16, 1898.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION


  CHAP.                                                  PAGE

  I. THE LIFE-HISTORY AND ANATOMY OF BUTTERFLIES         3-25

  _The Eggs of Butterflies. Caterpillars_: Structure,
  Form, Color, etc.; Moults; Food of Caterpillars; Duration of Larval
  State; Transformation. _The Pupa, or Chrysalis_: The Form of
  Chrysalids; Duration of Pupal Life; The Transformation from the
  Chrysalis to the Imago. _Anatomy of Butterflies_: The Head; The
  Thorax; The Abdomen; The Legs; The Wings; Internal Organs;
  Polymorphism and Dimorphism; Albinism and Melanism; Monstrosities;
  Mimicry. _The Distribution of Butterflies._

  II. THE CAPTURE, PREPARATION, AND PRESERVATION OF
      SPECIMENS                                          26-57

  _Collecting Apparatus_: Nets; Collecting-Jars; Field-Boxes; The Use
  of the Net; Baits; Beating. _The Breeding of Specimens_: How to Get
  the Eggs of Butterflies; Breeding-Cages; How to Find Caterpillars;
  Hibernating Caterpillars. _The Preservation of Specimens_: Papering
  Specimens; Mounting Butterflies; Relaxing Specimens; The Preparation
  and Preservation of Butterfly Eggs; The Preservation of Chrysalids;
  The Preservation of Caterpillars. _The Preservation and
  Arrangement of Collections_: Boxes; Cabinets and Drawers; Labeling;
  Arrangement of Specimens; Insect Pests; Greasy Specimens;
  Mould; Repairing Specimens; Packing and Forwarding Specimens;
  Pins; The Forceps.

  III. THE CLASSIFICATION OF BUTTERFLIES                 58-68

  The Place of Butterflies in the Animal Kingdom; The Principles of
  Scientific Arrangement; The Species; The Genus; The Family, etc.;
  Scientific Names; Synonyms; Popular Names.

  IV. BOOKS ABOUT NORTH AMERICAN BUTTERFLIES             69-74

  Early Writers; Later Writers; Periodicals.


  THE BOOK

                                                               PAGE
  THE BUTTERFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO.

  Family I. _Nymphalidae_, the Brush-footed Butterflies         77
    Subfamily _Euplaeinae_, the Milkweed Butterflies            80
    Subfamily _Ithomiinae_, the Long-winged Butterflies         85
    Subfamily _Heliconiinae_, the Heliconians                   91
    Subfamily _Nymphalinae_, the Nymphs                         93
    Subfamily _Satyrinae_, the Satyrs, Meadow-browns,
    and Arctics                                                 197
    Subfamily _Libytheinae_, the Snout-butterflies              226

  Family II. _Lemoniidae_                                       228
    Subfamily _Erycininae_, the Metal-marks                     228

  Family III. _Lycaenidae_                                      236
    Subfamily _Lycaeninae_, the Hair-streaks,
    the Blues, and the Coppers                                  236

  Family IV. _Papilionidae_, the Swallowtails and Allies        272
    Subfamily _Pierinae_, the Whites, the Sulphurs,
    the Orange-tips                                             272
    Subfamily _Papilioninae_, the Parnassians and Swallowtails  304

  Family V. _Hesperiidae_, the Skippers                         318
    Subfamily _Pyrrhopyginae_                                   319
    Subfamily _Hesperiinae_, the Hesperids                      320
    Subfamily _Pamphilinae_      339
    Subfamily _Megathyminae_, genus Megathymus                  367


  DIGRESSIONS AND QUOTATIONS

                                                                 PAGE
  Immortality (Sigourney)                                          57
  Hugo's "Flower to Butterfly" (Translated by Eugene Field)        74
  Superstitions (Frank Cowan)                                      90
  Luther's Saddest Experience (Yale Literary Magazine, 1852)      100
  A Race after a Butterfly                                        127
  Suspicious Conduct                                              136
  Collecting in Japan                                             149
  Faunal Regions                                                  161
  Widely Distributed Butterflies                                  171
  The Butterflies' Fad (Ella Wheeler Wilcox)                      186
  Fossil Insects                                                  195
  In the Face of the Cold                                         224
  Uncle Jotham's Boarder (Annie Trumbull Slosson)                 233
  Mimicry                                                         235
  The Utility of Entomology                                       256
  Size                                                            271
  Instinct                                                        280
  Red Rain (Frank Cowan)                                          299
  For a Design of a Butterfly Resting on a Skull (Mrs. Hemans)    303
  The Caterpillar and the Ant (Allan Ramsay)                      316
  Collections and Collectors                                      337
  Exchanges                                                       344



  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT


  FIG.                                                              PAGE
  1. Egg of Basilarchia disippus, magnified                          3
  2. Egg of Basilarchia disippus, natural size                       3
  3. Egg of Papilio turnus, enlarged                                 4
  4. Egg of Anosia plexippus, magnified                              4
  5. Egg of Anosia plexippus, natural size                           4
  6. Egg of Anthocharis genutia, magnified                           4
  7. Egg of Lycæna pseudargiolus, magnified                          4
  8. Egg of Melitæa phaëton, magnified                               4
  9. Micropyle of egg of Pieris oleracea, magnified                  5
  10. Eggs of Grapta comma, magnified                                5
  11. Eggs of Vanessa antiopa, magnified                             5
  12. Caterpillar of Papilio philenor                                6
  13. Head of caterpillar of Papilio asterias, magnified             6
  14. Head of caterpillar of Anosia plexippus, magnified             6
  15. Head of caterpillar of Anosia plexippus, side view, enlarged   7
  16. Caterpillar of Anosia plexippus, natural size                  7
  17. Fore leg of caterpillar of Vanessa antiopa, enlarged           7
  18. Anterior segments of caterpillar of A. plexippus               7
  19. Proleg of caterpillar of Vanessa antiopa, enlarged             7
  20. Caterpillar of Basilarchia disippus                            8
  21. Early stages of goatweed butterfly                             9
  22. Head of caterpillar of Papilio troilus                         9
  23. Caterpillar of milkweed butterfly changing into chrysalis     11
  24. Chrysalis of milkweed butterfly                               12
  25. Chrysalis of Papilio philenor                                 12
  26. Caterpillar and chrysalis of Pieris protodice                 12
  27. Chrysalis of Pieris oleracea                                  13
  28. Butterfly emerging from chrysalis                             13
  29. Head of milkweed butterfly, showing parts                     14
  30. Cross-section of sucking-tube of butterfly                    15
  31. Longitudinal section of the head of the milkweed butterfly    15
  32. Interior structure of head of milkweed butterfly              16
  33. Labial palpus of butterfly                                    16
  34. Legs of butterfly                                             17
  35. Parts of leg of butterfly                                     17
  36. Scales on wing of butterfly                                   18
  37. Androconia from wing of butterfly                             18
  38. Outline of wing of butterfly                                  20
  39. Arrangement of scales on the wing of a butterfly              20
  40. Figure of wing, showing names of veins                        21
  41. Internal anatomy of caterpillar of milkweed butterfly         22
  42. Internal anatomy of milkweed butterfly                        23
  43. Plan for folding net-ring                                     27
  44. Insect-net                                                    27
  45. Plan for making a cheap net                                   27
  46. Cyanide-jar                                                   29
  47. Paper cover for cyanide                                       29
  48. Method of pinching a butterfly                                30
  49. Cheap form of breeding-cage                                   35
  50. Breeding-cage                                                 36
  51. Butterfly in envelope                                         38
  52. Method of making envelopes                                    38
  53. Setting-board                                                 39
  54. Setting-block                                                 39
  55. Butterfly on setting-block                                    39
  56. Setting-needle                                                40
  57. Setting-board with moth upon it                               40
  58. Butterfly pinned on setting-board                             41
  59. Drying-box                                                    41
  60. Drying-box                                                    42
  61. Apparatus for inflating larvæ                                 45
  62. Tip of inflating-tube                                         46
  63. Drying-oven                                                   46
  64. Drying-oven                                                   47
  65. Detail drawing of book-box                                    48
  66. Detail drawing of box                                         48
  67. Detail drawing of box                                         49
  68. Insect-box                                                    49
  69. Detail drawing of drawer for cabinet                          51
  70. Detail drawing for paper bottom of box to take place of cork  52
  71. Manner of arranging specimens in cabinet or box               52
  72. Naphthaline cone                                              53
  73. Butterflies packed for shipment                               55
  74. Forceps                                                       56
  75. Forceps                                                       57
  76. Antennæ of butterfly                                          61
  77. Antennæ of moths                                              62
  78. Neuration of genus Anosia                                     81
  79. Swarm of milkweed butterflies, photographed at night          83
  80. Neuration of genus Mechanitis                                 86
  81. Neuration of genus Ceratinia                                  88
  82. Neuration of genus Dircenna                                   89
  83. Fore leg of female Dircenna klugi                             89
  84. Neuration of genus Heliconius                                 91
  85. Young caterpillar of Vanessa antiopa                          94
  86. Neuration of genus Colænis                                    95
  87. Neuration of genus Dione                                      96
  88. Neuration of genus Euptoieta                                  98
  89. Neuration of genus Argynnis                                  101
  90. Neuration of genus Brenthis                                  129
  91. Neuration of genus Melitæa                                   138
  92. Neuration of genus Phyciodes                                 151
  93. Neuration of genus Eresia                                    157
  94. Neuration of genus Synchloë                                  159
  95. Neuration of genus Grapta                                    163
  96. Neuration of genus Vanessa                                   167
  97. Neuration of genus Pyrameis                                  170
  98. Neuration of genus Junonia                                   172
  99. Neuration of genus Anartia                                   174
  100. Neuration of genus Hypanartia                               175
  101. Neuration of genus Eunica                                   176
  102. Neuration of genus Cystineura                               177
  103. Neuration of genus Callicore                                178
  104. Neuration of genus Timetes                                  179
  105. Neuration of genus Hypolimnas                               181
  106. Neuration of genus Basilarchia                              182
  107. Leaf cut away at end by the caterpillar of Basilarchia      183
  108. Hibernaculum of caterpillar of Basilarchia                  183
  109. Neuration of genus Adelpha                                  187
  110. Neuration of genus Chlorippe                                188
  111. Neuration of genus Pyrrhanæa                                192
  112. Neuration of genus Ageronia                                 193
  113. Neuration of genus Victorina                                195
  114. Neuration of genus Debis                                    199
  115. Neuration of genus Satyrodes                                200
  116. Neuration of genus Neonympha                                201
  117. Neuration of genus Coenonympha                              205
  118. Neuration of genus Erebia                                   208
  119. Neuration of genus Geirocheilus                             211
  120. Neuration of genus Neominois                                212
  121. Neuration of genus Satyrus                                  214
  122. Neuration of genus OEneis                                   219
  123. Caterpillars of OEneis macouni                              221
  124. Neuration of genus Libythea                                 226
  125. Neuration of base of hind wing of genus Lemonias            228
  126. Neuration of genus Lemonias                                 229
  127. Neuration of genus Calephelis                               232
  128. Neuration of genus Eumæus                                   237
  129. Neuration of Thecla edwardsi                                238
  130. Neuration of Thecla melinus                                 242
  131. Neuration of Thecla damon                                   246
  132. Neuration of Thecla niphon                                  249
  133. Neuration of Thecla titus                                   250
  134. Neuration of genus Feniseca                                 251
  135. Neuration of genus Chrysophanus                             252
  136. Neuration of Lycæna pseudargiolus                           267
  137. Neuration of Lycæna comyntas                                268
  138. Neuration of genus Dismorphia                               273
  139. Neuration of genus Neophasia                                274
  140. Neuration of genus Tachyris                                 276
  141. Neuration of genus Pieris                                   277
  142. Neuration of genus Nathalis                                 281
  143. Neuration of genus Euchloë                                  282
  144. Neuration of genus Catopsilia                               286
  145. Neuration of genus Kricogonia                               287
  146. Neuration of genus Meganostoma                              288
  147. Neuration of genus Colias                                   289
  148. Neuration of genus Terias                                   295
  149. Neuration of genus Parnassius                               305
  An Astronomer's Conception of an Entomologist                    317
  150. Head and antenna of genus Pyrrhopyge                        319
  151. Neuration of genus Pyrrhopyge                               319
  152. Neuration of genus Eudamus                                  321
  153. Antenna and neuration of genus Plestia                      322
  154. Neuration of genus Epargyreus                               323
  155. Neuration of genus Thorybes                                 324
  156. Neuration of genus Achalarus                                326
  157. Antenna and neuration of genus Hesperia                     327
  158. Neuration of genus Systasea                                 329
  159. Neuration of genus Pholisora                                330
  160. Neuration of genus Thanaos                                  332
  161. Neuration of genus Amblyscirtes                             340
  162. Neuration of genus Pamphila                                 342
  163. Neuration of genus Oarisma                                  343
  164. Neuration of genus Ancyloxypha                              345
  165. Neuration of genus Copæodes                                 346
  166. Neuration of genus Erynnis                                  347
  167. Neuration of genus Thymelicus                               351
  168. Neuration of genus Atalopedes                               352
  169. Neuration of genus Polites                                  353
  170. Neuration of genus Hylephila                                354
  171. Neuration of genus Prenes                                   355
  172. Neuration of genus Calpodes                                 355
  173. Neuration of genus Lerodea                                  356
  174. Neuration of genus Limochores                               357
  175. Neuration of genus Euphyes                                  360
  176. Neuration of genus Oligoria                                 361
  177. Neuration of genus Poanes                                   362
  178. Neuration of genus Phycanassa                               362
  179. Neuration of genus Atrytone                                 364
  180. Neuration of genus Lerema                                   366
  181. Megathymus yuccæ, ♀                                         367
  182. Larva of Megathymus yuccæ                                   368
  183. Chrysalis of Megathymus yuccæ                               368
  The Popular Conception of an Entomologist                        369



  LIST OF COLORED PLATES

  Produced by the color-photographic process of the Chicago Colortype
  Company, 1205 Roscoe Street, Chicago, Ill.


                                                                FACING
                                                                 PAGE

  I. Spring Butterflies                                 _Frontispiece_
  II. Caterpillars of Papilionidæ and Hesperiidæ                     6
  III. Caterpillars of Nymphalidæ                                   18
  IV. Chrysalids in Color and in Outline--Nymphalidæ                30
  V. Chrysalids in Color and in Outline--Nymphalidæ,
  Lycænidæ, Pierinæ                                                 44
  VI. Chrysalids in Color and in Outline--Papiloninæ
  and Hesperiidæ                                                    58
  VII. Anosia and Basilarchia                                       80
  VIII. Ithomiinæ, Heliconius, Dione, Colænis, and Euptoieta        88
  IX. Argynnis                                                     100
  X. Argynnis                                                      104
  XI. Argynnis                                                     108
  XII. Argynnis                                                    112
  XIII. Argynnis                                                   116
  XIV. Argynnis                                                    122
  XV. Brenthis                                                     130
  XVI. Melitæa                                                     138
  XVII. Melitæa, Phyciodes, Eresia                                 152
  XVIII. Argynnis, Brenthis, Melitæa, Phyciodes, Eresia,
  Synchloë, Debis, Geirocheilus                                    156
  XIX. Grapta, Vanessa                                             164
  XX. Grapta, Vanessa, Junonia, Anartia, Pyrameis                  168
  XXI. Timetes, Hypolimnas, Eunica, Callicore                      178
  XXII. Basilarchia, Adelpha                                       184
  XXIII. Chlorippe                                                 190
  XXIV. Pyrrhanæa, Ageronia, Synchloë, Cystineura, Hypanartia,
  Victorina                                                        196
  XXV. Satyrodes, Coenonympha, Neonympha, Neominois, Erebia        204
  XXVI. Satyrus                                                    214
  XXVII. OEneis                                                    220
  XXVIII. Libythea, Lemonias, Calephelis, Eumæus, Chrysophanus,
  Feniseca                                                         228
  XXIX. Chrysophanus, Thecla                                       236
  XXX. Thecla, Lycæna                                              246
  XXXI. Lycæna                                                     256
  XXXII. Lycæna, Thecla, Nathalis, Euchloë                         266
  XXXIII. Catopsilia, Pyrameis                                     272
  XXXIV. Euchloë, Neophasia, Pieris, Kricogonia                    280
  XXXV. Tachyris, Pieris, Colias                                   288
  XXXVI. Meganostoma, Colias                                       294
  XXXVII. Terias, Dismorphia                                       298
  XXXVIII. Papilio                                                 302
  XXXIX. Parnassius                                                306
  XL. Papilio                                                      310
  XLI. Papilio                                                     314
  XLII. Papilio                                                    316
  XLIII. Papilio, Colias, Pyrameis, Epargyreus                     318
  XLIV. Papilio                                                    323
  XLV. Papilio, Pholisora, Eudamus, Achalarus, Pyrrhopyge,
  Plestia, Calpodes, Thanao                                        330
  XLVI. Hesperiidæ                                                 338
  XLVII. Hesperiidæ                                                350
  XLVIII. Hesperiidæ and Colias eurytheme                          360



INTRODUCTION



INTRODUCTION



CHAPTER I

THE LIFE-HISTORY AND ANATOMY OF BUTTERFLIES

     "The study of butterflies,--creatures selected as the types of
     airiness and frivolity,--instead of being despised, will some day
     be valued as one of the most important branches of biological
     science."--BATES, _Naturalist on the Amazons_.


In studying any subject, it is always well, if possible, to commence at
the beginning; and in studying the life of animals, or of a group of
animals, we should endeavor to obtain a clear idea at the outset of the
manner in which they are developed. It is a familiar saying that "all
life is from an egg." This statement is scientifically true in wide
fields which come under the eye of the naturalist, and butterflies are
no exception to the rule.


THE EGGS OF BUTTERFLIES

[Illustration FIG. 1.--Egg of _Basilarchia disippus_, magnified 30
diameters (Riley).]

[Illustration FIG. 2.--Egg of _Basilarchia disippus_, natural size, at
the end of under surface of leaf (Riley).]

The eggs of butterflies consist of a membranous shell containing a fluid
mass composed of the germ of the future caterpillar and the liquid food
which is necessary for its maintenance and development until it escapes
from the shell. The forms of these eggs are various. Some are spherical,
others hemispherical, conical, and cylindrical. Some are barrel-shaped;
others have the shape of a cheese, and still others have the form of a
turban. Many of them are angled, some depressed at the ends. Their
surface is variously ornamented. Sometimes they are ribbed, the ribs
running from the center outwardly and downwardly along the sides like
the meridian lines upon a globe. Between these ribs there is frequently
found a fine network of raised lines variously arranged. Sometimes the
surface is covered with minute depressions, sometimes with a series of
minute elevations variously disposed. As there is great variety in the
form of the eggs, so also there is great variety in their color. Brown,
blue, green, red, and yellow eggs occur. Greenish or greenish-white are
common tints. The eggs are often ornamented with dots and lines of
darker color. Species which are related to one another show their
affinity even in the form of their eggs. At the upper end of the eggs of
insects there are one or more curious structures, known as micropyles
(little doors), through which the spermatozoa of the male find ingress
and they are fertilized. These can only be seen under a good microscope.

[Illustration FIG. 3.--Egg of _Papilio turnus_, greatly magnified.]

[Illustration FIG. 4.--Egg of _Anosia plexippus_, magnified 30
diameters (Riley).]

[Illustration FIG. 5.--Egg of _Anosia plexippus_, natural size, on
under side of leaf (Riley).]

[Illustration FIG. 6.--Egg of _Anthocharis genutia_, magnified 20
diameters.]

[Illustration FIG. 7.--Turban-shaped egg of _Lycæna pseudargiolus_,
greatly magnified.]

[Illustration FIG. 8.--Egg of _Melitæa phaëton_, greatly magnified.]

The eggs are laid upon the food-plant upon which the caterpillar, after
it is hatched, is destined to live, and the female reveals wonderful
instinct in selecting plants which are appropriate to the development of
the larva. As a rule, the larvæ are restricted in the range of their
food-plants to certain genera, or families of plants.

[Illustration FIG. 9.--Upper end of egg of _Pieris oleracea_, greatly
magnified, showing the micropyle.]

[Illustration FIG. 10.--Egg of _Grapta comma_, laid in string-like
clusters on the under side of leaf. (Magnified.)]

The eggs are deposited sometimes singly, sometimes in small clusters,
sometimes in a mass. Fertile eggs, a few days after they have been
deposited, frequently undergo a change of color, and it is often
possible with a magnifying-glass to see through the thin shell the form
of the minute caterpillar which is being developed within the egg.
Unfruitful eggs generally shrivel and dry up after the lapse of a short
time.

The period of time requisite for the development of the embryo in the
egg varies. Many butterflies are single-brooded; others produce two or
three generations during the summer in temperate climates, and even more
generations in subtropical or tropical climates. In such cases an
interval of only a few days, or weeks at the most, separates the time
when the egg was deposited and the time when the larva is hatched. When
the period of hatching, or emergence, has arrived, the little
caterpillar cuts its way forth from the egg through an opening made
either at the side or on the top. Many species have eggs which appear to
be provided with a lid, a portion of the shell being separated from the
remainder by a thin section, which, when the caterpillar has reached the
full limit allowed by the egg, breaks under the pressure of the
enlarging embryo within, one portion of the egg flying off, the
remainder adhering to the leaf or twig upon which it has been deposited.

[Illustration FIG. 11.--Eggs of _Vanessa antiopa_, laid in a mass on a
twig.]


CATERPILLARS

_Structure, Form, Color, etc._--The second stage in which the insects we
are studying exist is known as the larval stage. The insect is known as
a larva, or a caterpillar. In general caterpillars have long, worm-like
bodies. Frequently they are thickest about the middle, tapering before
and behind, flattened on the under side. While the cylindrical shape is
most common, there are some families in which the larvæ are short, oval,
or slug-shaped, sometimes curiously modified by ridges and prominences.
The body of the larvæ of lepidoptera consists normally of thirteen
rings, or segments, the first constituting the head.

[Illustration FIG. 12.--Caterpillar of _Papilio philenor_ (Riley).]

[Illustration FIG. 13.--Head of caterpillar of _Papilio asterias_,
front view, enlarged.]

[Illustration FIG. 14.--Head of caterpillar of _Anosia plexippus_,
lower side, magnified 10 diameters: _lb_, labrum, or upper lip; _md_,
mandibles; _mx_, maxilla, with two palpi; _lm_, labium, or lower lip,
with one pair of palpi; _s_, spinneret; _a_, antenna; _o_, ocelli.
(After Burgess.)]

The head is always conspicuous, composed of horny or chitinous material,
but varying exceedingly in form and size. It is very rarely small and
retracted. It is generally large, hemispherical, conical, or bilobed. In
some families it is ornamented by horn-like projections. On the lower
side are the mouth-parts, consisting of the upper lip, the mandibles,
the antennæ, or feelers, the under lip, the maxillæ, and two sets of
palpi, known as the maxillary and the labial palpi. In many genera the
labium, or under lip, is provided with a short, horny projection known
as the spinneret, through which the silk secreted by the caterpillar is
passed. On either side, just above the mandibles, are located the eyes,
or ocelli, which in the caterpillar are simple, round, shining
prominences, generally only to be clearly distinguished by the aid of a
magnifying-glass. These ocelli are frequently arranged in series on each
side. The palpi are organs of touch connected with the maxillæ and the
labium, or under lip, and are used in the process of feeding, and also
when the caterpillar is crawling about from place to place. The
larva appears to guide itself in great part by means of the palpi.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE II                                      |
  |                                                              |
  | Reproduced, with the kind permission of Dr. S.H. Scudder,    |
  | from "The Butterflies of New England," vol. iii, Plate 76.   |
  |                                                              |
  |                                                              |
  |                                                              |
  | CATERPILLARS OF PAPILIONIDÆ AND HESPERIIDÆ                   |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Colias eurytheme._                                       |
  | 2. _Callidryas eubule._                                      |
  | 3. _Terias lisa._                                            |
  | 4. _Callidryas eubule._                                      |
  | 5. _Euchloë genutia._                                        |
  | 6. _Terias nicippe._                                         |
  | 7. _Pieris protodice._                                       |
  | 8. _Pieris napi_, var. _oleracea_.                           |
  | 9. _Pieris napi_, var. _oleracea_.                           |
  | 10. _Colias philodice._                                      |
  | 11. _Pieris rapæ._                                           |
  | 12. _Pieris rapæ._                                           |
  | 13. _Papilio philenor._                                      |
  | 14. _Papilio ajax._                                          |
  | 15. _Papilio turnus._ Just before pupation.                  |
  | 16. _Papilio cresphontes._                                   |
  | 17. _Papilio asterias._ In second stage.                     |
  | 18. _Papilio troilus._                                       |
  | 19. _Papilio troilus._ In third stage; plain.                |
  | 20. _Papilio philenor._                                      |
  | 21. _Papilio philenor._ In third stage; dorsal view.         |
  | 22. _Papilio troilus._ In third stage; dorsal view.          |
  | 23. _Achalarus lycidas._ Dorsal view.                        |
  | 24. _Papilio asterias._ In fourth stage; dorsal view.        |
  | 25. _Thorybes pylades._                                      |
  | 26. _Papilio turnus._ Dorsal view.                           |
  | 27. _Papilio asterias._                                      |
  | 28. _Papilio turnus._                                        |
  | 29. _Thorybes pylades._                                      |
  | 30. _Epargyreus tityrus._                                    |
  | 31. _Epargyreus tityrus._                                    |
  | 32. _Thorybes bathyllus._                                    |
  | 33. _Epargyreus tityrus._                                    |
  | 34. _Eudamus proteus._                                       |
  | 35. _Epargyreus tityrus._ In third stage.                    |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE II.]                                     |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+

[Illustration FIG. 15.--Head of caterpillar of _Anosia plexippus_, side
view, showing ocelli.]

[Illustration FIG 16.--Caterpillar of _Anosia plexippus_, milkweed
butterfly (Riley).]

The body of the caterpillar is covered by a thin skin, which often lies
in wrinkled folds, admitting of great freedom of motion. The body is
composed, as we have seen, of rings, or segments, the first three of
which, back of the head, correspond to the thorax of the perfect insect,
and the last nine to the abdomen of the butterfly. On each ring, with
the exception of the second, the third, and the last, there is found on
either side a small oval opening known as a spiracle, through which the
creature breathes. As a rule, the spiracles of the first and eleventh
rings are larger in size than the others.

[Illustration FIG. 17.--Fore leg of caterpillar of _Vanessa antiopa_,
enlarged.]

[Illustration FIG. 18.--Anterior segments of caterpillar of milkweed
butterfly, showing thoracic or true legs (Riley).]

[Illustration FIG. 19.--Proleg of caterpillar of _Vanessa antiopa_,
enlarged.]

Every caterpillar has on each of the first three segments a pair of
legs, which are organs composed of three somewhat horny parts covered
and bound together with skin, and armed at their extremities by a sharp
claw (Fig. 17). These three pairs of feet in the caterpillar are always
known as the fore legs, and correspond to the six which are found in the
butterfly or the moth. In addition, in most cases, we find four pairs of
prolegs on the under side of the segments from the sixth to the ninth,
and another pair on the last segment, which latter pair are called the
anal prolegs. These organs, which are necessary to the life of the
caterpillar, do not reappear in the perfect insect, but are lost when
the transformation from the caterpillar to the chrysalis takes place.
There are various modifications of this scheme of foot-like appendages,
only the larger and more highly developed forms of lepidoptera having as
many pairs of prolegs as have been enumerated.

[Illustration FIG. 20.--Caterpillar of _Basilarchia disippus_, the
viceroy, natural size (Riley).]

The bodies of caterpillars are variously ornamented: many of them are
quite smooth; many are provided with horny projections, spines, and
eminences. The coloration of caterpillars is as remarkable in the
variety which it displays as is the ornamentation by means of the
prominences of which we have just spoken. As caterpillars, for the most
part, feed upon growing vegetation, multitudes of them are green in
color, being thus adapted to their surroundings and securing a measure
of protection. Many are brown, and exactly mimic the color of the twigs
and branches upon which they rest when not engaged in feeding. Not a few
are very gaily colored, but in almost every case this gay coloring is
found to bear some relation to the color of the objects upon which they
rest.

Caterpillars vary in their social habits. Some species are gregarious,
and are found in colonies. These frequently build for themselves
defenses, weaving webs of silk among the branches, in which they are in
part protected from their enemies and also from the inclemencies of the
weather. Most caterpillars are, however, solitary, and no community life
is maintained by the vast majority of species. Many species have the
habit of drawing together the edges of a leaf, in which way they form a
covering for themselves. The caterpillars of some butterflies are
wood-boring, and construct tunnels in the pith, or in the soft layers of
growing plants. In these cases, being protected and concealed from view,
the caterpillars are generally white in their coloration, resembling in
this respect the larvæ of wood-boring beetles. A most curious phenomenon
has within comparatively recent years been discovered in connection
with the larval stage of certain small butterflies belonging to the
family _Lycoenidoe_. The caterpillars are carnivorous, or rather
aphidivorous; they live upon aphids, or plant-lice, and scale-insects,
and cover themselves with the white exudations or mealy secretions of
the latter. This trait is characteristic of only one of our North
American species, the Harvester (_Feniseca tarquinius_).

[Illustration FIG. 21.--Early stages of the goatweed butterfly: _a_,
caterpillar; _b_, chrysalis; _c_, leaf drawn together at edges to form a
nest. (Natural size.) (Riley.)]

In addition to being protected from enemies by having colors which
enable them to elude observation, as has been already stated, some
caterpillars are provided with other means of defense. The caterpillars
of the swallowtail butterflies are provided with a bifurcate or forked
organ, generally yellow in color, which is protruded from an opening in
the skin back of the head, and which emits a powerful odor (Fig. 22).
This protrusive organ evidently exists only for purposes of defense, and
the secretion of the odor is analogous to the secretion of evil odors by
some of the vertebrate animals, as the skunk. The majority of
caterpillars, when attacked by insect or other enemies, defend
themselves by quickly hurling the anterior part of the body from side to
side.

[Illustration FIG. 22.--Head of caterpillar of _Papilio troilus_, with
scent-organs, or _osmateria_, protruded.]

_Moults._--Caterpillars in the process of growth and development from
time to time shed their skins. This process is called _moulting_.
Moulting takes place, as a rule, at regular intervals, though there are
exceptions to this rule. The young larva, having emerged from the egg,
grows for a number of days, until the epidermis, or true skin, has
become too small. It then ceases feeding, attaches itself firmly to some
point, and remains quiet for a time. During this period certain changes
are taking place, and then the skin splits along the middle line from
the head to the extremity of the last segment, and the caterpillar
crawls forth from the skin, which is left behind it, attached to the
leaf or branch to which it was fastened. The skin of the head sometimes
remains attached to the head of the caterpillar for a time after it has
moulted, and then falls off to the ground. Ordinarily not more than
five, and frequently only four, moults take place between hatching from
the egg and the change into the chrysalis. In cases where caterpillars
hibernate, or pass the winter in inaction, a long interval necessarily
elapses between moults. Some arctic species are known in which the
development from the egg to the perfect insect covers a period of two or
three years, long periods of hibernation under the arctic snows taking
place. The manner in which the caterpillar withdraws itself from its
exuviæ, or old skin, is highly interesting. Every little spine or rough
prominence is withdrawn from its covering, and the skin is left as a
perfect cast of the creature which has emerged from it, even the hairs
and spines attached to the skin being left behind and replaced by
others.

_The Food of the Caterpillar._--The vast majority of the caterpillars of
butterflies subsist upon vegetable food, the only exceptions being the
singular one already noted in which the larvæ feed upon scale-insects.
Some of the _Hesperiidæ_, a group in which the relationship between
butterflies and moths is shown, have larvæ which burrow in the roots and
stems of vegetation.

_Duration of the Larval State._--The duration of the larval state varies
greatly. In temperate climates the majority of species exist in the
caterpillar state for from two to three months, and where hibernation
takes place, for ten months. Many caterpillars which hibernate do so
immediately after emerging from the egg and before having made the first
moult. The great majority, however, hibernate after having passed one or
more moults. With the approach of spring they renew their feeding upon
the first reappearance of the foliage of their proper food-plant, or are
transformed into chrysalids and presently emerge as perfect insects. A
few species live gregariously during the period of hibernation,
constructing for themselves a shelter of leaves woven together with
strands of silk.

_Transformation._--The larval or caterpillar stage having been
completed, and full development having been attained, the caterpillar is
transformed into a pupa, or chrysalis. Of this, the third stage in the
life of the insect, we now shall speak at length.


THE PUPA, OR CHRYSALIS

The caterpillars of many butterflies attach themselves by a button of
silk to the under surface of a branch or stone, or other projecting
surface, and are transformed into chrysalids, which are naked, and which
hang perpendicularly from the surface to which they are attached. Other
caterpillars attach themselves to surfaces by means of a button of silk
which holds the anal extremity of the chrysalis, and have, in addition,
a girdle of silk which passes around the middle of the chrysalis,
holding it in place very much as a papoose is held on the back of an
Indian squaw by a strap passed over her shoulders.

[Illustration FIG. 23.--Caterpillar of _Anosia plexippus_, undergoing
change into chrysalis: _a_, caterpillar just before rending of the skin;
_b_, chrysalis just before the cremaster, or hook, at its end is
withdrawn; _c_, chrysalis holding itself in place by the folds of the
shed skin caught between the edges of the abdominal segments, while with
the cremaster, armed with microscopic hooks, it searches for the button
of silk from which it is to hang (Riley). (Compare Fig. 24, showing
final form of the chrysalis.)]

_The Form of Chrysalids._--The forms assumed by the insect in this stage
of its being vary very greatly, though there is a general resemblance
among the different families and subfamilies, so that it is easy for
one who has studied the matter to tell approximately to what family the
form belongs, even when it is not specifically known. Chrysalids are in
most cases obscure in coloring, though a few are quite brilliant, and,
as in the case of the common milkweed butterfly (_Anosia plexippus_),
ornamented with golden-hued spots. The chrysalids of the _Nymphalidæ_,
one of the largest groups of butterflies, are all suspended. The
chrysalids of the _Papilionidæ_, or swallowtail butterflies, are held in
place by girdles, and generally are bifurcate or cleft at the upper end
(Fig. 25), and are greenish or wood-brown in color.

[Illustration FIG. 24.--Chrysalis of _Anosia plexippus_, final form
(Riley).]

[Illustration FIG. 25.--Chrysalis of _Papilio philenor_: _a_, front
view; _b_, side view, showing manner in which it is held in place by the
girdle of silk (Riley).]

[Illustration FIG. 26.--_Pieris protodice: a_, caterpillar; _b_,
chrysalis (Riley).]

A study of the structure of all chrysalids shows that within them there
is contained the immature butterfly. The segments of the body are
ensheathed in the corresponding segments of the chrysalis, and soldered
over these segments are ensheathing plates of chitinous matter under
which are the wings of the butterfly, as well as all the other organs
necessary to its existence in the airy realm upon which it enters after
emergence from the chrysalis. The practised eye of the observer is soon
able to distinguish the location of the various parts of the butterfly
in the chrysalis, and when the time for escape draws near, it is in
many cases possible to discern through the thin, yet tough and hard,
outer walls of the chrysalis the spots and colors on the wings of the
insect.

[Illustration FIG. 27.--Chrysalis of _Pieris oleracea_ (Riley.)]

_Duration of Pupal Life._--Many butterflies remain in the chrysalis
stage only for a few weeks; others hibernate in this state, and in
temperate climates a great many butterflies pass the winter as
chrysalids. Where, as is sometimes the case, there are two or three
generations or broods of a species during the year, the life of one
brood is generally longer than that of the others, because this brood is
compelled to overwinter, or hibernate. There are a number of butterflies
known in temperate North America which have three broods: a spring
brood, emerging from chrysalids which have overwintered; an early summer
brood; and a fall brood. The chrysalids in the latter two cases
generally represent only a couple of weeks at most in the life of the
insect. In tropical and semi-tropical countries many species remain in
the chrysalis form during the dry season, and emerge at the beginning of
the rains, when vegetation is refreshed and new and tender growths occur
in the forests.

[Illustration FIG. 28.--Butterfly (_Papilio asterias_) just emerging
from chrysalis.]

_The Transformation from the Chrysalis to the Imago._--The perfectly
developed insect is known technically as the _imago_. When the time of
maturity in the chrysalis state has been reached, the coverings part in
such a way as to allow of the escape of the perfect insect, which, as it
comes forth, generally carries with it some suggestion of its
caterpillar state in the lengthened abdomen, which it with apparent
difficulty trails after it until it secures a hold upon some object from
which it may depend while a process of development (which lasts
generally a few hours) takes place preparatory to flight. The imago, as
it first emerges, is provided with small, flaccid wings, which, together
with all the organs of sense such as the antennæ, require for their
complete development the injection into them of the vital fluids which,
upon first emergence, are largely contained in the cavities of the
thorax and abdomen. Hanging pendant on a projecting twig, or clinging to
the side of a rock, the insect remains fanning its wings, while by the
strong process of circulation a rapid injection of the blood into the
wings and other organs takes place, accompanied by their expansion to
normal proportions, in which they gradually attain to more or less
rigidity. Hardly anything in the range of insect life is more
interesting than this rapid development of the butterfly after its first
emergence from the chrysalis. The body is robbed of its liquid contents
in a large degree; the abdomen is shortened up; the chitinous rings
which compose its external skeleton become set and hardened; the wings
are expanded, and then the moment arrives when, on airy pinions, the
creature that has lived a worm-like life for weeks and months, or which
has been apparently sleeping the sleep of death in its cerements, soars
aloft in the air, the companion of the sunlight and the breezes.


ANATOMY OF BUTTERFLIES

The body of the butterfly consists of three parts--the head, the thorax,
and the abdomen.

[Illustration FIG. 29.--Head of milkweed butterfly, stripped of scales
and greatly magnified (after Burgess): _v_, vertex; _f_, front; _cl_,
clypeus; _lb_, labrum, or upper lip; _md_, mandibles; _a_, antennæ;
_oc_, eyes; _tk_, spiral tongue, or proboscis.]

[Illustration FIG. 30.--Cross-section of the sucking-tube of the
milkweed butterfly, to show the way in which the halves unite to form a
central canal (_c_): _tr_, tracheæ, or air-tubes; _n_, nerves; _m_,
_m^3_, muscles of one side. (Magnified 125 diameters.) (Burgess.)]

[Illustration FIG. 31.--Longitudinal section of the head of the
milkweed butterfly: _cl_, clypeus; _mx_, left maxilla, the right being
removed; _mfl_, floor of mouth; _oe_, oesophagus, or gullet; _ov_,
mouth-valve; _sd_, salivary duct; _dm_ and _fm_, dorsal and frontal
muscles, which open the sac. (Magnified 20 diameters). (Burgess.)]

_The Head._--The head is globular, its breadth generally exceeding
its length. The top is called the _vertex_; the anterior portion,
corresponding in location to the human face, is called the _front_.
Upon the sides of the head are situated the large _compound eyes_,
between which are the _antennæ_, or "feelers," as they are sometimes
called. Above the mouth is a smooth horny plate, the _clypeus_. The
_labrum_, or upper lip, is quite small. On both sides of the mouth
are rudimentary _mandibles_, which are microscopic objects. The true
suctorial apparatus is formed by the _maxillæ_, which are produced in
the form of semi-cylindrical tubes, which, being brought together and
interlocking, form a complete tube, which is known as the
_proboscis_, and which, when not in use, is curled up spirally,
looking like a watch-spring. At the upper end of the proboscis, in
the head, is a bulb-like enlargement, in the walls of which are
inserted muscles which have their origin on the inner wall of the
head. When these muscles contract, the bulb-like cavity is enlarged,
a vacuum is produced, and the fluids in the cup of the flower flow
up the proboscis and into the bulb. The bulb is also surrounded by
muscles, which, when contracting, compress it. The external opening
of the tube has a flap, or valve, which, when the bulb is compressed,
closes and causes the fluid in it to flow backward into the gullet
and the stomach. The arrangement is mechanically not unlike that in a
bulb-syringe used by physicians. The process of feeding in the case
of the butterfly is a process of pumping honeyed water out of the
flowers into the stomach. The length of the proboscis varies; at its
base and on either side are placed what are known as the maxillary
palpi, which are very small. The lower lip, or _labium_, which is
also almost obsolete in the butterflies, has on either side two
organs known as the _labial palpi_, which consist of three joints. In
the butterflies the labial palpi are generally well developed, though
in some genera they are quite small. The antennæ of butterflies are
always provided at the extremity with a club-shaped enlargement, and
because of this clubbed form of the antennæ the entire group are
known as the _Rhopalocera_, the word being compounded from the Greek
word (ῥοπαλον), which means a _club_, and the word (_κερας_) which
means a _horn_.

[Illustration FIG. 32.--Interior view of head of milkweed butterfly:
_cl_, clypeus; _cor_, cornea of the eye; _oe_, oesophagus, or gullet;
_fm_, frontal muscle; _dm_, dorsal muscles; _lm_, lateral muscles; _pm_,
muscles moving the palpus (Burgess).]

[Illustration FIG. 33.--Labial palpus of _Colias_, magnified 10
diameters.]

It will be observed from what has been said that the head in these
creatures is to a large extent the seat of the organs of sense and
alimentation. What the function of the antennæ may be is somewhat
doubtful, the opinion of scientific men being divided. The latest
researches would indicate that these organs, which have been regarded as
the organs of smell and sometimes as the organs of hearing, have
probably a compound function, possibly enabling the creature to hear,
certainly to smell, but also, perhaps, being the seat of impressions
which are not strictly like any which we receive through our senses.

[Illustration FIG. 34.--_Colias philodice_: _a_, antenna; _p_,
extremity of palpus; _pl_, prothoracic leg; _ml_, mesothoracic leg;
_hl_, metathoracic or hind leg; _t_, proboscis.]

_Thorax._--The thorax is more or less oval in form, being somewhat
flattened upon its upper surface. It is composed of three parts, or
segments, closely united, which can only be distinguished from one
another by a careful dissection. The anterior segment is known as the
prothorax, the middle segment as the mesothorax, and the after segment
as the metathorax. The legs are attached in pairs to these three
subdivisions of the thorax, the anterior pair being therefore sometimes
spoken of as the prothoracic legs, the second pair as the mesothoracic
legs, and the latter pair as the metathoracic legs (Fig. 34). On either
side of the mesothorax are attached the anterior pair of wings, over
which, at their insertion into the body, are the _tegulæ_, or lappets;
on either side of the metathorax are the posterior pair of wings. It
will be seen from what has been said that the thorax bears the organs of
locomotion. The under side of the thorax is frequently spoken of by
writers, in describing butterflies, as the _pectus_, or breast.

_The Abdomen._--The abdomen is formed normally of nine segments, and in
most butterflies is shorter than the hind wings. On the last segment
there are various appendages, which are mainly sexual in their nature.

[Illustration FIG. 35.--Leg of butterfly: _c_, coxa; _tr_, trochanter;
_f_, femur; _t_, tibia; _tar_, tarsi.]

_The Legs._--Butterflies have six legs, arranged in three pairs, as we
have already seen. Each leg consists of five parts, the first of which,
nearest the body, is called the _coxa_, with which articulates a
ring-like piece known as the _trochanter_. To this is attached the
_femur_, and united with the femur, forming an angle with it, is the
_tibia_. To the tibia is attached the _tarsus_, or foot, the last
segment of which bears the claws, which are often very minute and blunt
in the butterflies, though in moths they are sometimes strongly hooked.
The tibiæ are often armed with spines. In some groups of butterflies the
anterior pair of legs is aborted, or dwarfed, either in one or both
sexes, a fact which is useful in determining the location of species in
their systematic order.

[Illustration FIG. 36.--Magnified representation of arrangement of the
scales on the wing of a butterfly.]

[Illustration FIG. 37.--Androconia from wings of male butterflies: _a_,
_Neonympha eurytus_; _b_, _Argynnis aphrodite_; _c_, _Pieris oleracea_.]

_The Wings._--The wings of butterflies consist of a framework of horny
tubes which are in reality double, the inner tube being filled with air,
the outer tube with blood, which circulates most freely during the time
that the insect is undergoing the process of development after emergence
from the chrysalis, as has been already described. After emergence the
circulation of the blood in the outer portion of the tubes is largely,
if not altogether, suspended. These horny tubes support a broad
membrane, which is clothed in most species upon both sides with
flattened scales which are attached to the membrane in such a way that
they overlap one another like the shingles on a roof. These scales are
very beautiful objects when examined under a microscope, and there is
considerable diversity in their form as well as in their colors. The
males of many species have peculiarly shaped scales arranged in tufts
and folds, which are called androconia, and are useful in
microscopically determining species (Fig. 37). The portion of the wings
which is nearest to the thorax at the point where they are attached to
the body is called the _base_; the middle third of the wing is known as
the _median_ or _discal area_, the outer third as the _limbal area_. The
anterior margin of the wings is called the _costal margin_; the outer
edge is known as the _external margin_, the inner edge as the _inner
margin_. The shape of the wings varies very much. The tip of the front
wing is called the apex, and this may be rounded, acute, falcate
(somewhat sickle-shaped), or square. The angle formed by the outer
margin of the front wing with the inner margin is commonly known as the
_outer angle_. The corresponding angle on the hind wing is known as the
_anal angle_, and the point which corresponds to the tip or apex of the
front wing is known as the _external angle_ (Fig. 38). A knowledge of
these terms is necessary in order to understand the technical
descriptions which are given by authors.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE III                                     |
  |                                                              |
  | Reproduced, with the kind permission of Dr. S.H. Scudder,    |
  | from "The Butterflies of New England," vol. iii, Plate 74.   |
  |                                                              |
  | CATERPILLARS OF NYMPHALIDÆ                                   |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _OEneis semidea._ Penultimate stage.                      |
  | 2. _OEneis semidea._                                         |
  | 3. _Neonympha eurytus._                                      |
  | 4. _OEneis semidea._                                         |
  | 5. _Anosia plexippus._                                       |
  | 6. _Neonympha eurytus._                                      |
  | 7. _OEneis semidea._ Just hatched.                           |
  | 8. _Neonympha phocion._                                      |
  | 9. _Satyrodes canthus._                                      |
  | 10. _Neonympha eurytus._                                     |
  | 11. _OEneis jutta._ Just hatched.                            |
  | 12. _Neonympha phocion._                                     |
  | 13. _Neonympha eurytus._ Penultimate                         |
  |     stage.                                                   |
  | 14. _Neonympha eurytus._ Plain and enlarged.                 |
  | 15. _OEneis semidea._                                        |
  | 16. _Debis portlandia._                                      |
  | 17. _Basilarchia astyanax._                                  |
  | 18. _Satyrus alope._                                         |
  | 19. _Basilarchia disippus._                                  |
  | 20. _Chlorippe clyton._                                      |
  | 21. _Basilarchia astyanax._                                  |
  | 22. _Basilarchia disippus._ Plain outline                    |
  |     to show the attitude sometimes                           |
  |     assumed.                                                 |
  | 23. _Grapta interrogationis._                                |
  | 24. _Basilarchia disippus._                                  |
  | 25. _Basilarchia astyanax._ Plain.                           |
  | 26. _Basilarchia arthemis._                                  |
  | 27. _Grapta interrogationis._                                |
  | 28. _Vanessa antiopa._                                       |
  | 29. _Junonia coenia._                                        |
  | 30. _Junonia coenia._                                        |
  | 31. _Grapta progne._                                         |
  | 32. _Grapta faunus._                                         |
  | 33. _Grapta satyrus._                                        |
  | 34. _Pyrameis huntera._                                      |
  | 35. _Pyrameis atalanta._                                     |
  | 36. _Vanessa milberti._                                      |
  | 37. _Pyrameis cardui._                                       |
  | 38. _Grapta comma._                                          |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE III.]                                    |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+

If a wing is examined with the naked eye, or even with a lens, a clear
conception of the structure of the veins can rarely be formed. Therefore
it is generally necessary to remove from the wings the scales which
cover them, or else bleach them. The scales may be removed mechanically
by rubbing them off. They may be made transparent by the use of chemical
agents. In the case of specimens which are so valuable as to forbid a
resort to these methods, a clear knowledge of the structure of the veins
may be formed by simply moistening them with pure benzine or chloroform,
which enables the structure of the veins to be seen for a few moments.
The evaporation of these fluids is rapid, and they produce no ill effect
upon the color and texture of the wings. In the case of common species,
or in the case of such as are abundantly represented in the possession
of the collector, and the practical destruction of one or two of which
is a matter of no moment, it is easy to use the first method. The wing
should be placed between two sheets of fine writing-paper which have
been moistened by the breath at the points where the wing is laid, and
then by lightly rubbing the finger-nail or a piece of ivory, bone, or
other hard substance over the upper piece of paper, a good many of the
scales may be removed. This process may be repeated until almost all of
them have been taken off. This method is efficient in the case of many
of the small species when they are still fresh; in the case of the
larger species the scales may be removed by means of a camel's-hair
pencil such as is used by painters. The chemical method of bleaching
wings is simple and inexpensive. For this purpose the wing should be
dipped in alcohol and then placed in a vessel containing a bleaching
solution of some sort. The best agent is a solution of chloride of lime.
After the color has been removed from the wing by the action of the
chloride it should be washed in a weak solution of hydrochloric acid. It
may then be cleansed in pure water and mounted upon a piece of glass, as
microscopic slides are mounted, and thus preserved. When thus bleached
the wing is capable of being minutely studied, and all points of its
anatomy are brought clearly into view.

[Illustration FIG. 38.--Outline of wing, giving names of parts.]

[Illustration FIG. 39.--Arrangement of scales on wing of butterfly.]

The veins in both the fore and hind wings of butterflies may be divided
into simple and compound veins. In the fore wing the simple veins are
the costal, the radial, and the submedian; in the hind wing, the costal,
the subcostal, the upper and lower radial, the submedian, and the
internal are simple. The costal vein in the hind wing is, however,
generally provided near the base with a short ascending branch which is
known as the precostal vein. In addition to these simple veins there are
in the fore wing two branching veins, one immediately following the
costal, known as the subcostal, and the other preceding the submedian,
known as the median vein. The branches of these compound veins are known
as nervules. The median vein always has three nervules. The nervules of
the subcostal veins branch upwardly and outwardly toward the costal
margin and the apex of the fore wing. There are always from four to five
subcostal nervules. In the hind wing the subcostal is simple. The median
vein in the hind wing has three nervules as in the fore wing. Between
the subcostal and the median veins, toward the base in both wings, is
inclosed the cell, which may be wholly or partially open at its outer
extremity, or closed. The veinlets which close the cell at its outward
extremity are known as the discocellular veins, of which there are
normally three. From the point of union of these discocellular veins go
forth the radial veins known respectively as the upper and lower
radials, though the upper radial in many genera is emitted from the
lower margin of the subcostal.

An understanding of these terms is, however, more readily derived from a
study of the figure in which the names of these parts are indicated
(Fig. 40).

[Illustration FIG. 40.--Wing of _Anosia plexippus_, showing the names
of the veins and nervules: _C_, _C_, costal veins; _SC_, subcostal vein;
_SC_1_, etc., subcostal nervules; _UR_, upper radial; _LR_, lower
radial; _M_, median veins; _M_1_, _M_2_, _M_3_, median nervules; _SM_,
submedian veins; _I_, internal veins; _PC_, precostal nervule; _UDC_,
_MDC_, _LDC_, upper, middle, and lower discocellulars.]

Butterflies generally hold their wings erect when they are at rest, with
their two upper surfaces in proximity, the under surfaces alone
displaying their colors to the eye. Only in a few genera of the larger
butterflies, and these tropical species, with which this book does not
deal, is there an exception to this rule, save in the case of the
_Hesperiidæ_, or "skippers," in which very frequently, while the
anterior wings are folded together, the posterior wings lie in a
horizontal position.

_Internal Organs._--Thus far we have considered only the external organs
of the butterfly. The internal organs have been made the subject of
close study and research by many writers, and a volume might be
prepared upon this subject. It will, however, suffice for us to call the
attention of the student to the principal facts.

[Illustration FIG. 41.--Longitudinal section through the larva of
_Anosia plexippus_, ♂, to show the internal anatomy (the Roman numerals
indicate the thoracic, the Arabic the abdominal segments): _b_, brain;
_sog_, suboesophageal ganglion; _nc_, nervous cord; _oe_, oesophagus;
_st_, stomach; _i_, intestine; _c_, colon; _sv_, spinning-vessel of one
side; _s_, spinneret; _mv_, Malpighian vessel, of which only the
portions lying on the stomach are shown, and not the multitudinous
convolutions on the intestine; _t_, testis; _dv_, dorsal vessel; the
salivary glands are not shown. (Magnified 3 diameters.) (Burgess.)]

The muscular system finds its principal development in the thorax, which
bears the organs of locomotion. The digestive system consists of the
proboscis, which has already been described, the gullet, or oesophagus,
and the stomach, over which is a large, bladder-like vessel called the
food-reservoir, a sort of crop preceding the true stomach, which is a
cylindrical tube; the intestine is a slender tube, varying in shape in
different genera, divided into the small intestine, the colon, and the
rectum. Butterflies breathe through spiracles, little oval openings on
the sides of the segments of the body, branching from which inwardly are
the tracheæ, or bronchial tubes. The heart, which is located in the same
relative position as the spine in vertebrate animals, is a tubular
structure. The nervous system lies on the lower or ventral side of the
body, its position being exactly the reverse of that which is found in
the higher animals. It consists of nervous cords and ganglia, or
nerve-knots, in the different segments. Those in the head are more
largely developed than elsewhere, forming a rudimentary brain, the
larger portion of which consists of two enormous optic nerves. The
student who is desirous of informing himself more thoroughly and
accurately as to the internal anatomy of these insects may consult with
profit some of the treatises which are mentioned in the list of works
dealing with the subject which is given elsewhere in this book.

[Illustration FIG. 42.--Longitudinal section through the imago of
Anosia plexippus, ♀, to show the internal anatomy: _t_, tongue; _p_,
palpus; _a_, antenna; _pr_, prothorax; _mes_, mesothorax; _met_,
metathorax; _ps_, pharyngeal sac; _b_, brain; _sog_, suboesophageal
ganglion; 1-2, blended first and second ganglia of the larva; 3-4,
blended third and fourth ganglia of the larva; _l_, _l_, _l_, the three
legs; _ac_, aortal chamber; _dv_, dorsal vessel; _oe_, oesophagus; res,
reservoir for air or food; _st_, stomach; _mv_, Malpighian vessels; _i_,
intestine; _c_, colon; _r_, rectum; _cp_, copulatory pouch; _o_,
oviduct; _ag_, accessory glands; _sp_, spermatheca; _ov_, ovaries (not
fully developed); _nc_, nervous cord. (Magnified 3 diameters.)
(Burgess.)]

_Polymorphism and Dimorphism._--Species of butterflies often show great
differences in the different broods which appear. The brood which
emerges in the springtime from the chrysalis, which has passed the
winter under the snows, may differ very strikingly from the insect which
appears in the second or summer brood; and the insects of the third or
fall brood may differ again from either the spring or the summer brood.
The careful student notes these differences. Such species are called
polymorphic, that is, appearing under different forms. Some species
reveal a singular difference between the sexes, and there may be two
forms of the same sex in the same species. This is most common in the
case of the female butterfly, and where there are two forms of the
female or the male such a species is said to have dimorphic females or
males. This phenomenon is revealed in the case of the well-known Turnus
Butterfly; in the colder regions of the continent the females are yellow
banded with black, like the males, but in more southern portions of the
continent black females are quite common, and these dark females were
once thought, before the truth was known, to constitute a separate
species.

_Albinism and Melanism._--Albinos, white or light-colored forms, are
quite common among butterflies, principally among the females. On the
other hand, melanism, or a tendency to the production of dark or even
black forms, reveals itself. Melanism is rather more common in the case
of the male sex than in the female sex. The collector and student will
always endeavor, if possible, to preserve these curious _aberrations_,
as they are called. We do not yet entirely understand what are the
causes which are at work to produce these changes in the color, and all
such aberrant specimens have interest for the scientific man.

_Monstrosities._--Curious malformations, producing monstrosities,
sometimes occur among insects, as in other animals, and such malformed
specimens should likewise be preserved when found. One form of
malformation which is not altogether uncommon consists in an apparent
confusion of sexes in specimens, the wings of a male insect being
attached to the body of a female, or half of an insect being male and
half female.

_Mimicry._--One of the most singular and interesting facts in the animal
kingdom is what has been styled mimicry. Certain colors and forms are
possessed by animals which adapt them to their surroundings in such wise
that they are in a greater or less degree secured from observation and
attack. Or they possess forms and colors which cause them to approximate
in appearance other creatures, which for some reason are feared or
disliked by animals which might prey upon them, and in consequence of
this resemblance enjoy partial or entire immunity. Some butterflies, for
instance, resemble dried leaves, and as they are seated upon the twigs
of trees they wholly elude the eye. This illustrates the first form of
mimicry. Other butterflies so closely approximate in form and color
species which birds and other insects will not attack, because of the
disagreeable juices which their bodies contain, that they are shunned by
their natural enemies, in spite of the fact that they belong to groups
of insects which are ordinarily greedily devoured by birds and other
animals. A good illustration of this fact is found in the case of the
Disippus Butterfly, which belongs to a group which is not specially
protected, but is often the prey of insect-eating creatures. This
butterfly has assumed almost the exact color and markings of the
milkweed butterfly, _Anosia plexippus_, which is distasteful to birds,
and hence enjoys peculiar freedom from the attacks of enemies. Because
this adaptation of one form to another evidently serves the purpose of
defense this phenomenon has been called "protective mimicry." The reader
who is curious to know more about the subject will do well to consult
the writings of Mr. Alfred Russel Wallace and Mr. Darwin, who have
written at length upon mimicry among butterflies. There is here a field
of most interesting inquiry for the student.

_The Distribution of Butterflies._--Butterflies are found everywhere
that plant life suited to the nourishment of the caterpillars is found.
There are some species which are arctic and are found in the brief
summer of the cold North and upon the lofty summits of high mountains
which have an arctic climate. Most of them are, however, children of the
sun, and chiefly abound in the temperate and tropical regions of the
earth. While the number of species which are found in the tropics vastly
exceeds the number of species found in the temperate zone, it is
apparently true that the number of specimens of certain species is far
more numerous in temperate regions than in the tropics. Very rarely in
tropical countries are great assemblages of butterflies to be seen, such
as may be found in the summer months in the United States, swarming
around damp places, or hovering over the fields of blooming clover or
weeds. In the whole vast region extending from the Rio Grande of Texas
to the arctic circle it is doubtful whether more than seven hundred
species of butterflies are found. On the continent of Europe there are
only about four hundred and fifty species. The number of species of
butterflies and the number of species of birds in the United States are
very nearly the same.



CHAPTER II

THE CAPTURE, PREPARATION, AND PRESERVATION OF SPECIMENS

  "What hand would crush the silken-wingèd fly,
    The youngest of inconstant April's minions,
  Because it cannot climb the purest sky,
    Where the swan sings, amid the sun's dominions?
  Not thine."

  SHELLEY.

  "Do not mash your specimens!"--THE PROFESSOR.


COLLECTING APPARATUS

[Illustration FIG. 43.--Plan for folding
net-ring: _c_, halves of ring detached; _b_, upper joint of the halves;
_a_, ring set; _d_, cap of ferrule; _f_, cap of ferrule, showing screw
in place; _e_, screw (Riley).]

_Nets._--In the capture of insects of all orders, and especially of
butterflies and moths, one of the most important instruments is the net.
German naturalists make use of what are known as shears (_Scheren_),
which are made like gigantic scissors, having at the end two large oval
rings upon which wire gauze or fine netting is stretched. With this
implement, which looks like an old-fashioned candle-snuffer of colossal
size, they succeed in collecting specimens without doing much injury.
Shears are, however, not much in vogue among the naturalists of other
countries. The favorite instrument for the ordinary collector is the
net. Nets may be made in various ways and of various materials. There
are a multitude of devices which have been invented for enabling the net
to be folded up so as to occupy but little space when not in use. The
simplest form of the net, which can be made almost anywhere, is
constructed as follows: A rod--preferably of bamboo, or some other
light, stiff material--is used as the handle, not more than five feet in
length. Attached to this at its upper end, a loop or ring made of metal,
or some moderately stiff yet flexible material, should be tied
securely. Upon this there should be sewed a bag of fine netting,
preferably tarletan. The bag should be quite long, not less than
eighteen inches deep; the ring should be not less than a foot in
diameter. Such a net can be made at a cost of but a few cents, and will
be, in most cases, as efficient as any of the more expensive nets which
are more carefully constructed. A good, cheap ring for a net may be made
by using the brass ferrule of a fishing-rod. The ferrule should be at
least three quarters of an inch in diameter. Into this insert the ends
of a metal ring made by bending brass, aluminium, or iron wire into the
proper form. When the ends have been inserted into the ferrule, melted
solder or lead may be poured into it, and the ends of the wire forming
the ring will be thus firmly secured in the ferrule. The ferrule can
then be inserted into its mate placed at the end of a bamboo rod. I have
commonly obtained for this purpose the last joint or butt of a
fishing-rod as the handle of a net. Such a handle can often be purchased
for a small sum from a dealer in fishing-rods. It can be made very
cheaply. Any kind of a stick, if not too heavy, will do. It is sometimes
convenient to have it in your power to lengthen the handle of your net
so as to reach objects that are at some elevation above the head, and
for this purpose I have had nets made with handles capable of being
lengthened by jointed extensions. In collecting in tropical countries,
among tall shrubbery and undergrowth, nets thus made, capable of having
their handles greatly lengthened, have often proved serviceable. One of
the most successful collectors I have ever had in my employment made his
net by simply bending a piece of bamboo into the form of the frame of an
Indian snow-shoe, to which he attached a handle about a foot and a half
in length, and to this he affixed a bag of netting. He was, however, a
Japanese, and possessed a singular dexterity in the capture of specimens
with this simple apparatus to which I myself never attained. When
tarletan cannot be had, ordinary mosquito-netting will do as the
material for the bag. It is, however, too coarse in the mesh for many
delicate and minute species. Very fine netting for the manufacture of
the bags is made in Switzerland, and can be obtained from reputable
dealers.

[Illustration FIG. 44.--_a_, net; _b_, ferrule to receive handle; _c_,
wire hoop to be fastened in the upper end of the ferrule (Riley).]

[Illustration FIG. 45.--_a_, ring of metal tied with wire at _a_; _b_,
ferrule; _c_, plug put in before pouring in solder (Riley).]

In order to protect and preserve the net, it is well to bind it with
some thin muslin at the point where it is joined to the ring. Nets are
sometimes made with a strip of muslin, about two inches wide, attached
to the entire circumference of the ring, and to this strip of muslin the
bag is sewed. For my part, I prefer gray or green as the color for a
net. White should be avoided, as experience shows that a white net will
often alarm an insect when a net of darker material will not cause it to
fly before the collector is ready to bring the net down over the spot
where it is settled.

_Collecting-Jars._--In killing insects various methods have been used.
In practice the most approved method is to employ a jar charged with
cyanide of potash or with carbonate of ammonia. For large moths and
butterflies cyanide of potash and carbonate of ammonia serve very well,
but it must be remembered that carbonate of ammonia bleaches insects
which are green in color. It is well, in my judgment, to use a drop or
two of chloroform in the jar charged with carbonate of ammonia, for the
collection of diurnal lepidoptera. By putting a few drops of chloroform
into the jar, the insect is anesthetized, and its struggles are made
quickly to cease. The principal objection to chloroform is the fact that
it induces rigidity of the thoracic muscles, which subsequently
sometimes interferes with handsome setting.

[Illustration FIG. 46.--Cyanide-jar prepared for use: _P_, perforated
cardboard; _Cy_, lumps of cyanide of potash.]

[Illustration FIG. 47.--Piece of paper punctured and slit for pasting
over the cyanide in the collecting-jar.]

In the preparation of the poisoning-jar it is well to use a jar which
has a ground-glass stopper, and the mouth of which is about three inches
in diameter. This will be large enough for most specimens. The one-pound
hydrate of chloral jars, provided with glass stoppers and sold by
Schering, make the neatest collecting-jars that are known to the writer.
I have found it well to have such jars partly covered with leather after
the fashion of a drinking-flask. An opening in the leather is left on
either side, permitting an inspection of the contents of the jar. The
leather protects from breakage. At the bottom of such a jar a few lumps
of cyanide of potash, about the size of a filbert, should be placed.
Over this may be laid a little cotton, to prevent the lumps from
rattling about loosely at the bottom of the jar. Over the cotton there
is pasted a sheet of strong white paper, perforated with a multitude of
holes. In securing the white paper over the cyanide, the writer has
resorted to a simple method which is explained in the annexed diagram. A
piece of paper is placed under the jar, and a circle the size of the
inside of the jar is traced upon it. Then a disk is cut out about three
quarters of an inch greater in diameter than the original circle (Fig.
47). The paper is punctured over the entire surface included within the
inner line, and then, with a scissors, little gashes are made from the
outer circumference inward, so as to permit of the folding up of the
edge of the disk. A little gum tragacanth is then applied to these
upturned edges; and it is inserted into the jar and pasted securely over
the cyanide by the upturned flaps. A jar thus charged will last for a
long time, if kept properly closed when not in use. Cyanide of potash
has a tendency to deliquesce, or melt down in the presence of moisture,
and in very humid climates or damp places, if the jar is not kept well
stoppered, the cyanide will quickly become semi-fluid, the paper will
become moist, and specimens placed in the jar will be injured or
completely ruined. It is well, however, to bear in mind the fact that
the fumes of hydrocyanic acid (prussic acid), which are active in
producing the death of the insect, will not be given off in sufficient
volume unless there is some small amount of moisture present in the jar;
and in a very dry climate the writer has found it sometimes necessary to
add a drop or two of water from time to time to the cyanide. The same
method which has been described for charging a jar with cyanide of
potash can be employed in charging it with carbonate of ammonia.

[Illustration FIG. 48.--Method of disabling a butterfly by pinching it
when in the net.]

_Field-Boxes._--In collecting butterflies it is often possible to kill,
or half kill, the specimens contained in the net by a smart pinch
administered to the insect by the thumb and the first finger, the
pressure being applied from without the net (Fig. 48). This mode of
procedure, however, unless the operator is careful, is apt to somewhat
damage the specimens. The writer prefers to hold the insect firmly
between the thumb and the first finger, and apply a drop or two of
chloroform from a vial which should be carried in the upper
left-hand vest-pocket. The application of the chloroform will cause the
insect to cease its struggles immediately, and it may then be placed in
the poisoning-jar, or it may be pinned into the field-box. The
field-box, which should be worn at the side, securely held in its place
by a strap going over the shoulder and by another strap around the
waist, may be provided with the poisoning apparatus or may be without
it. In the former case the box should be of tin, and should have
securely fastened in one corner some lumps of cyanide, tied in gauze.
The box should be very tight, so that when it is closed the fumes of the
cyanide may be retained. The bottom should be covered with cork, upon
which the specimens, as they are withdrawn from the poisoning-jar,
should be pinned. It is well to bear strictly in mind that it is a
mistake to continue to put one specimen after another into the
poisoning-jar until it is half filled or quite filled with specimens. In
walking about the field, if there are several insects in the jar at a
time, they are likely to become rubbed and their beauty partially
destroyed by being tossed about as the collector moves from place to
place; and a large insect placed in a jar in which there are one or two
smaller insects will in its death-struggles possibly injure the latter.
So, as fast as the insects are partially asphyxiated, or deprived of the
power of motion, they should be removed from the poisoning-jar to the
poisoning-box, where they are pinned in place and prevented from rubbing
one against the other. Some collectors prefer simply to stun the
insects, and then pin them into the field-box, where they are left, in
whole or in part, to recover their vitality, to be subsequently put to
death upon the return of the collector from the field. This mode of
procedure, while undoubtedly it yields in the hands of a skilful
operator the most beautiful specimens, appears to the writer to be
somewhat cruel, and he does not therefore approve of it.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE IV                                      |
  |                                                              |
  | Reproduced, with the kind permission of Dr. S.H. Scudder,    |
  | from "The Butterflies of New England," vol. iii, Plate 83.   |
  |                                                              |
  |                                                              |
  | CHRYSALIDS IN COLOR AND IN OUTLINE--NYMPHALIDÆ               |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Anosia plexippus._ Side view.                            |
  | 2. _Anosia plexippus._ In outline.                           |
  | 3. _Anosia plexippus._ Dorsal view.                          |
  | 4. _OEneis semidea._                                         |
  | 5. _OEneis semidea._ Dorsal view.                            |
  | 6. _Debis portlandia._                                       |
  | 7. _Satyrus nephele._                                        |
  | 8. _Satyrus nephele._ Dorsal view.                           |
  | 9. _Satyrodes canthus._ Side view.                           |
  | 10. _Neonympha phocion._ Side view.                          |
  | 11. _Neonympha phocion._ Side view.                          |
  | 12. _Basilarchia astyanax._ Side view.                       |
  | 13. _Basilarchia astyanax._ Side view.                       |
  | 14. _Basilarchia arthemis._ Side view.                       |
  | 15. _Chlorippe clyton._ Side view.                           |
  | 16. _Chlorippe clyton._ Side view.                           |
  | 17. _Chlorippe clyton._ Dorsal view.                         |
  | 18. _Basilarchia disippus._ Ventral view.                    |
  | 19. _Basilarchia disippus._ Side view.                       |
  | 20. _Basilarchia disippus._ Side view.                       |
  | 21. _Grapta interrogationis._ Dorsal view.                   |
  | 22. _Grapta interrogationis._ Side view.                     |
  | 23. _Basilarchia arthemis._ Dorsal view.                     |
  | 24. _Grapta interrogationis._ Outline of                     |
  |     mesothoracic tubercle from the side.                     |
  | 25. _Grapta interrogationis._                                |
  | 26. _Grapta interrogationis._ Outline of                     |
  |     head from in front.                                      |
  | 27. _Grapta comma._ Outline of head                          |
  |     from in front; enlarged.                                 |
  | 28. _Neonympha eurytus._ Side view.                          |
  | 29. _Grapta comma._ Outline of mesothoracic                  |
  |     tubercle from the side.                                  |
  | 30. _Grapta comma._ The same from                            |
  |     another specimen.                                        |
  | 31. _Grapta faunus._ Outline of head                         |
  |     from in front.                                           |
  | 32. _Grapta progne._ Outline of head                         |
  |     from in front.                                           |
  | 33. _Grapta faunus._ Side view.                              |
  | 34. _Grapta faunus._ Side view in outline.                   |
  | 35. _Grapta faunus._ Ventral view in                         |
  |     outline.                                                 |
  | 36. _Vanessa j-album._ Outline of mesothoracic               |
  |     tubercle from the side.                                  |
  | 37. _Grapta progne._ Side view.                              |
  | 38. _Grapta progne._ Side view.                              |
  | 39. _Grapta comma._ Side view.                               |
  | 40. _Grapta interrogationis._ Side view.                     |
  | 41. _Grapta satyrus._ Side view.                             |
  | 42. _Grapta satyrus._ Ventral view.                          |
  | 43. Vanessa milberti. Side view.                             |
  | 44. _Vanessa j-album._ Side view.                            |
  | 45. _Vanessa j-album._ Ventral view.                         |
  | 46. _Grapta comma._ Side view.                               |
  | 47. _Grapta comma._ Side view.                               |
  | 48. _Grapta comma._ Dorsal view.                             |
  | 49. _Vanessa milberti._ Side view.                           |
  | 50. _Vanessa milberti._ Dorsal view.                         |
  | 51. _Vanessa antiopa._ Side view.                            |
  | 52. _Pyrameis atalanta._ Side view.                          |
  | 53. _Pyrameis atalanta._ Dorsal view.                        |
  | 54. _Pyrameis huntera._ Side view.                           |
  | 55. _Pyrameis atalanta._ Side view.                          |
  | 56. _Junonia coenia._ Side view.                             |
  | 57. _Junonia coenia._ Dorsal view.                           |
  | 58. _Vanessa antiopa._ Side view.                            |
  | 59. _Vanessa antiopa._ Dorsal view.                          |
  | 60. _Pyrameis cardui._ Side view.                            |
  | 61. _Pyrameis cardui._ Side view.                            |
  | 62. _Pyrameis cardui._ Dorsal view.                          |
  | 63. _Pyrameis huntera._ Dorsal view.                         |
  | 64. _Pyrameis huntera._ Side view, with                      |
  |     nest woven before pupation.                              |
  | 65. _Junonia coenia._ Side view.                             |
  | 66. _Junonia coenia._ Side view.                             |
  | 67. _Junonia coenia._ Side view.                             |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE IV.]                                     |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+

_The Use of the Net._--In the use of the net the old saying is true that
"practice makes perfect." The bag of the net should be sufficiently long
to allow of its being completely closed when hanging from the ring on
either side. It is possible to sweep into the net an insect which is
fluttering through the air, and then by a turn of the hand to close the
bag and to capture the specimen. When the insect has alighted upon the
ground it is best to clap the net over it and then to raise the net with
one hand. Very many species have the habit of flying upward. This is
particularly true of the skippers, a group of very vigorous and
swift-flying butterflies. The writer prefers, if possible, to clap the
net over the specimens and then to allow them to rise, and, by inserting
the wide-mouthed collecting-jar below, to capture them without touching
them at all with the fingers. So far as possible the fingers should not
be allowed to come in contact with specimens, whether in or out of the
net, though some persons acquire an extremely delicate yet firm touch
which enables them to handle the wings of frail species without removing
any of the scales. Nothing is more unsightly in a collection than
specimens that have been caught and rubbed by the fingers.

_Baits._--Moths are frequently taken by the method of collecting known
as "sugaring." But it may also be employed for butterflies. For this
purpose a mixture of beer and cheap brown sugar may be used. If the beer
be stale drippings, so much the better. In fact, it is well, if the
collector intends to remain in one locality for some time, to make a
mixture of beer and sugar some hours or a day in advance of its
application. In semi-tropical countries a mixture of beer and sugar is
hardly as good as a mixture of molasses and water into which a few
tablespoonfuls of Jamaica rum have been put. A mixture thus prepared
seems to attract more effectually than the first prescription. Having
provided a pail with a quart or two of the mixture, the collector
resorts to the point where he proposes to carry on his work. With an
ordinary whitewash brush the mixture is applied to the trunks of trees,
stumps, fence-rails, and other objects. It is well to apply the mixture
to a series of trees and posts located on the side of a bit of woodland,
or along a path through forests, if comparatively open and not too
dense. The writer has rarely had success in sugaring in the depths of
forests. His greatest success has always been on paths and at the edge
of woods. Many beetles and other insects come to the tempting sweets,
and separate jars for capturing these should be carried in the pocket.
The collector never should attempt to kill beetles in the same jar into
which he is putting butterflies. The hard, horny bodies and spiny legs
of beetles will make sad havoc with the delicate wings of butterflies.

Many other baits besides this may be employed to attract insects. Some
writers recommend a bait prepared by boiling dried apples and mashing
them into a pulp, adding a little rum to the mixture, and applying this
to the bark of trees. In tropical countries bananas, especially rotten
bananas, seem to have a charm for insects. The cane-trash at sugar-mills
is very attractive. If possible, it is well to obtain a quantity of this
trash and scatter it along forest paths. Some insects have very peculiar
appetites and are attracted by things loathsome. The ordure of
carnivorous animals seems to have a special charm for some of the most
magnificently colored and the rarest of tropical butterflies. A friend
of mine in Africa, who collected for me for a number of years, used to
keep civet-cats, the ordure of which was collected and placed at
appropriate points in the forest paths; and he was richly rewarded by
obtaining many insects which were not obtained in any other way. Putrid
fish have a charm for other species, and dead snakes, when rankly high,
will attract still others. It may be observed that after the trees have
been treated for a succession of days or nights with the sweetening
mixture spoken of above, they become very productive. When collecting in
Japan I made it a rule to return in the morning to the spots that I had
sugared for moths the evening before, and I was always amply repaid by
finding multitudes of butterflies and even a good many day-flying moths
seated upon the mossy bark, feasting upon the remnants of the banquet I
had provided the evening before. There is no sport--I do not except that
of the angler--which is more fascinating than the sport derived by an
enthusiastic entomologist from the practice of "sugaring." It is well,
however, to know always where your path leads, and not to lay it out in
the dusk, as the writer once did when staying at a well-known summer
resort in Virginia. The path which he had chosen as the scene of
operations was unfortunately laid, all unknown to himself, just in the
rear of the poultry-house of a man who sold chickens to the hotel; and
when he saw the dark lantern mysteriously moving about, he concluded
that some one with designs upon his hens was hidden in the woods, and
opened fire with a seven-shooter, thus coming very near to terminating
abruptly the career of an ardent entomologist.

_Beating._--There are many species which are apparently not attracted by
baits such as we have spoken of in the preceding paragraph. The
collector, passing through the grove, searches diligently with his eye
and captures what he can see, but does not fail also with the end of his
net-handle to tap the trunks of trees and to shake the bushes, and as
the insects fly out, to note the point where they settle, and then make
them his prey. It is well in this work, as in all collecting, to proceed
somewhat leisurely, and to keep perfectly cool. The caricature sometimes
found in newspapers of the ardent lepidopterist running like a
"quarter-back" across a ten-acre lot in quest of some flying insect does
not represent the truly skilful collector, whose movements are more or
less stealthy and cautious.


THE BREEDING OF SPECIMENS

By breeding it is possible to obtain specimens in the most perfect
condition. Bred specimens which have not had an opportunity to fly are
always preferred on account of their freshness of color and perfection
of form. A great many species which apparently are exceedingly rare may
often be obtained in considerable numbers by the process of breeding,
the caterpillar being more readily found than the perfect insect.
Although the process of breeding involves a good deal of labor and care,
it affords a most delightful field for observation, and the returns are
frequently of the very greatest value.

_How to Get the Eggs of Butterflies._--The process of breeding may begin
with the egg. The skilful eye of the student will detect the eggs of
butterflies upon the leaves upon which they have been deposited. The
twig may be cut and placed in a vase, in water, and kept fresh until the
minute caterpillar emerges, and then from time to time it may be
transferred to fresh leaves of the same species of plant, and it will
continue to make its moults until at last it is transformed into a
chrysalis, and in due season the butterfly emerges. Eggs may frequently
be obtained in considerable numbers by confining the female under gauze,
with the appropriate food-plant. A knowledge of the food-plant may often
be obtained by watching the female and observing upon what plants she
deposits her eggs. The exceedingly beautiful researches of Mr. W.H.
Edwards were largely promoted by his skill in inducing females to
oviposit upon their food-plants. He did this generally by confining the
female with the food-plant in a barrel or nail-keg, the bottom of which
had been knocked out, and over the top of which he tied mosquito-netting.
The plant was placed under the keg. The insects thus confined may be
fed with a mixture of honey and water placed upon the leaves.

In collecting caterpillars it is well to have on hand a number of small
boxes in which to place them, and also a botany-box in which to bring
from the field a supply of their appropriate food.

The process of breeding may begin with the caterpillar. The collector,
having discovered the caterpillar feeding upon the branch of a certain
plant, provides the creature with a constant supply of the fresh foliage
of the same plant, until it finally pupates.

[Illustration FIG. 49.--Cheap form of breeding-cage: _G_, lid covered
with mosquito-netting; _E_, pan of earth; _B_, bottle for food-plant.]

_Breeding-Cages._--Various devices for breeding caterpillars and rearing
moths and butterflies are known. One of the most important of these
devices is the breeding-cage, which is sometimes called a vivarium. The
simplest form of the vivarium is often the best. In breeding some
species the best method is simply to pot a plant of the species upon
which the larva is known to feed, and to place the potted plant in a box
over which some mosquito-netting is tied. The writer frequently employs
for this purpose cylinders of glass over the top of which perforated
cardboard is placed. This method, however, can be resorted to only with
the more minute forms and with plants that do not attain great height.
Another form of vivarium is represented in the adjoining woodcut (Fig.
50). The writer has successfully employed, for breeding insects upon a
large scale, ordinary store boxes provided with a lid made by fastening
together four pieces of wood, making a frame large enough to cover the
top of the box, and covering it with gauze. The food-plant is kept fresh
in bottles or jars which are set into the boxes. Be careful, however,
after you have put the branches upon which the caterpillars are feeding
into the jars, to stuff something into the neck of the jar so as to
prevent the caterpillar from accidentally getting into the water and
drowning himself--a mishap which otherwise might occur. When breeding is
undertaken on a still larger scale, it may be well to set apart for this
purpose a room, preferably in an outbuilding, all the openings leading
from which should be carefully closed so as to prevent the escape of the
caterpillars.

[Illustration FIG. 50.--Breeding-cage: _a_, base, battened at _g_ to
prevent warping; _b_, removable body of cage, inclosing zinc pan, _f_,
_f_, containing jar for plant, _d_, and filled with five inches of soil,
_e_; _c_, removable top, covered with wire gauze. The doors and sides
are of glass (Riley).]

_How to Find Caterpillars._--Many species of caterpillars are not hard
to discover; they are more or less conspicuous objects, and strike the
eye. Some species conceal themselves by weaving together the leaves of
the plant on which they feed, or by bending a single leaf into a curved
receptacle in which they lie hidden. Others conceal themselves during
the daytime about the roots of trees or under bark or stones, only
emerging in the night-time to feed upon the foliage. The collector will
carefully search for these. The presence of caterpillars is generally
indicated by the ravages which they have committed upon the foliage. By
carefully scanning a branch the collector will observe that the leaves
have been more or less devoured. Generally underneath the tree will be
found the frass, or ejectamenta, of the caterpillar. The presence of the
ejectamenta and the evidence of the ravages committed by the larvæ upon
the foliage will give the collector a clue to the whereabouts of the
caterpillar. The writer has found it generally advantageous to search
for caterpillars that feed upon trees along the wide, sandy margins of
brooks and rivers. The frass is easily discovered upon the sand, and by
casting the eye upward into the foliage it is often easy to detect the
insect. The pavements in towns and cities which are bordered by trees
may also very well be scanned for evidence of the presence of
caterpillars. A favorite collecting-ground of the writer is one of the
large cemeteries of the city in which he lives, in which there are
numerous trees and a great quantity of shrubbery. Wood-boring species,
as a rule, are more difficult to obtain and rear than those that feed
upon the foliage.

_Hibernating Caterpillars._--While some difficulty attends the
preservation of chrysalids in the case of those species which pupate in
the fall and pass the winter in the chrysalis state under the ground,
far more difficulty attends the preservation of species which hibernate
in the caterpillar state. As a rule, it is found best to expose the
boxes containing these species in an ice-house or other cold place,
keeping them there until there is available an abundant supply of the
tender shoots of the plant upon which they are in the habit of feeding.
They may then be brought forth from cold storage and placed in proximity
to the food-plant, upon which they will proceed to feed.


THE PRESERVATION OF SPECIMENS

_Papering Specimens._--When time and opportunities do not suffice for
the proper preparation of butterflies for display in the permanent
collection, the collector may, in the case of the larger species,
conveniently place them in envelopes, with their wings folded (Fig. 51),
and they may then be stored in a box until such time as he is able to
relax the specimens and properly mount them. Thousands of insects are
thus annually collected. The small drug envelopes, or the larger
pay-roll envelopes, which may be bought in boxes by the thousand of any
stationer for a comparatively small sum, are preferable because of
their convenience. Many collectors, however, paper their specimens in
envelopes which they make of oblong bits of paper adapted to the size of
the insect. The process of making the envelope and of papering the
insect is accurately depicted in the accompanying cut (Fig. 52). The
writer finds it good in the case of small butterflies to place them in
boxes between layers of cheap plush or velvet. A small box, a few inches
long, may be provided, and at its bottom a layer of velvet is placed;
upon this a number of small butterflies are laid. Over them is placed a
layer of velvet, with its soft pile facing the same side of the velvet
at the bottom. On top of this another piece of velvet is laid, with its
pile upward, and other specimens are again deposited, and over this
another piece of velvet is laid, and so on. If the box is not filled
full at once, it is well to have enough pieces of velvet cut to fill it,
or else place cotton on top, so as to keep the layers of velvet from
moving or shaking about. A yard or two of plush or velvet will suffice
for the packing of a thousand specimens of small butterflies.

[Illustration FIG. 51.--Butterfly in envelope.]

[Illustration FIG. 52.--Method of folding paper for envelopes: first
fold on line _AB_; then on _AD_ and _CB_; then on _BF_ and _EA_.]

_Mounting Butterflies._--When the collector has time enough at his
disposal he should at once mount his specimens as they are intended to
be displayed in the collection. We shall now proceed to explain the
manner in which this is most advantageously accomplished. The insect
should first of all be pinned. The pin should be thrust perpendicularly
through the thorax, midway between the wings, and at a considerable
elevation upon the pin. It should then be placed upon the setting-board
or setting-block. Setting-boards or setting-blocks are pieces of wood
having a groove on the upper surface of sufficient depth to accommodate
the body of the insect and to permit the wings to be brought to the
level of the upper surface of the board (Fig. 53). They should also be
provided either with a cleft or a hole which will permit the pin to be
thrust down below the body of the insect for a considerable distance.
As a rule, the wings of all specimens should be mounted at a uniform
elevation of about seven eighths of an inch above the point of the pin.
This is known as the "continental method" of mounting, and is infinitely
preferable to the old-fashioned "English method," in which the insect
was pinned low down upon the pin, so that its wings touched the surface
of the box.

[Illustration FIG. 53.--Setting-board designed by the author. The wings
of the insect are held in place by strips of tracing-muslin, such as is
used by engineers. The grooves at the side serve to hold the board in
place in the drying-box. (See Fig. 59.)]

[Illustration FIG. 54.--Setting-block: _A_, holes to enable the pin to
reach to the cork; _C_, cork, filling groove on the bottom of the block;
_B_, slit to hold thread.]

[Illustration FIG. 55.--Setting-block with butterfly expanded upon it.]

Setting-blocks are most advantageously employed in setting small
species, especially the _Hesperiidæ_, the wings of which are refractory.
When the insect has been pinned upon the setting-board or setting-block,
the next step is to set the wings in the position which they are to
maintain when the specimen is thoroughly dry. This is accomplished by
means of what are known as "setting-needles" (Fig. 56). Setting-needles
may be easily made by simply sticking ordinary needles into wooden
matches from which the tips have been removed. In drawing the wings into
position, care should be taken to plant the setting-needle behind the
strong nervure on the costal margin of the wing; otherwise the wings are
liable to be torn and disfigured. The rule in setting lepidoptera is to
draw the anterior wing forward in such a manner that the posterior
margin of this wing is at right angles to the axis of the body, the axis
of the body being a line drawn through the head to the extremity of the
abdomen. The hind wing should then be moved forward, its anterior margin
lying under the opposing margin of the front wing. When the wings have
thus been adjusted into the position which they are to occupy, slips of
tracing-muslin or of paper should be drawn down over them and securely
pinned, the setting-needles being removed.

[Illustration FIG. 56.--Setting-needle.]

In pinning down the strips which are to hold the wings in place, be
careful to pin around the wing, but never, if possible, through it. When
the wings have been adjusted in the position in which they are to
remain, the antennæ, or feelers, should be attended to and drawn forward
on the same plane as the wings and secured in place. This may ordinarily
be done by setting pins in such a position as to hold them where they
are to stay. Then the body, if it has a tendency to sag down at the end
of the abdomen, should be raised. This may also be accomplished by means
of pins thrust beneath on either side. The figure on the next page shows
more clearly what is intended. When the insect has been set, the board
should be put aside in a place where it will not be molested or attacked
by pests, and the specimens upon it allowed to dry. A box with shelves
in it is often used for this purpose. This box should have a door at the
front covered with wire gauze, and the back should also be open, covered
with gauze, so as to allow a free circulation of air. A few balls of
naphthaline placed in it will tend to keep away mites and other pests.
The time during which the specimen should remain on the board until it
is dried varies with its size and the condition of the atmosphere. Most
butterflies and moths in dry weather will be sufficiently dried to
permit of their removal from the setting-boards in a week; but large,
stout-bodied moths may require as much as two weeks, or even more time,
before they are dry enough to be taken off the boards. The process of
drying may be hastened by placing the boards in an oven, but the
temperature of the oven must be quite low. If too much heat is applied,
great injury is sure to result. Only a careful and expert operator
should resort to the use of the oven, a temperature above 120°F. being
sure to work mischief.

[Illustration FIG. 57.--Setting-board with moth expanded upon it
(Riley).]

[Illustration FIG. 58.--Butterfly pinned on board, showing method of
holding up body and pinning down antennæ.]

[Illustration FIG. 59.--Drying-box: _a_, setting-board partly pulled
out; _b_, T-shaped strip working in groove on setting-board; _c_, front
door, sliding down by tongue, _d_, working in a groove at side in
front.]

_Relaxing Specimens._--When butterflies or moths have been put up in
papers or mounted on pins without having their wings expanded and set it
becomes necessary, before setting them, to relax them. This may be
accomplished in several ways. If the specimens have been pinned it is
best to place them on pieces of sheet-cork on a tray of sand which has
been thoroughly moistened and treated with a good dose of carbolic acid.
Over all a bell-glass is put. A tight tin box will serve the same
purpose, but a broad sheet of bibulous paper should always be put over
the box, under the lid, before closing it, and in such a way as to leave
the edges of the paper projecting around the edges of the lid. This is
done to absorb the moisture which might settle by condensation upon the
lid and drop upon the specimens. In a bell-glass the moisture generally
trickles down the sides. Earthenware crocks with closely fitting lids
are even better than tin boxes, but they must have paper put over them,
before closing, in the same way as is done when tin boxes are used. When
specimens have been preserved in papers or envelopes these should be
opened a little and laid upon damp, carbolized sand under a bell-glass
or in a closed receptacle of some kind. Papered specimens may also be
placed in their envelopes between clean towels, which have been
moistened in water to which a little carbolic acid has been added. The
towels should be wrung out quite dry before using them. The method of
placing between towels should never be used in the case of very small
and delicate species and those which are blue or green in color. Great
care must be exercised not to allow the insects to become soaked or
unduly wet. This ruins them. They should, however, be damp enough to
allow the wings and other organs to be freely moved. When the insects
have been relaxed they may be pinned and expanded on setting-boards like
freshly caught specimens. It is well in setting the wings of relaxed
specimens, after having thrust the pin through the body, to take a small
forceps and, seizing the wings just where they join the body, gently
move them so as to open them and make their movement easy before pinning
them upon the setting-board. The skilful manipulator in this way quickly
ascertains whether they have been sufficiently relaxed to admit of their
being readily set. If discovered to be too stiff and liable to break
they must be still further relaxed. Dried specimens which have been
relaxed and then mounted generally require only a short time to dry
again, and need rarely be kept more than twenty-four hours upon the
setting-boards.

[Illustration FIG. 60.--Drying-box (Riley).]

The process of setting insects upon setting-blocks is exactly the same
as when setting-boards are used, with the simple difference that,
instead of pinning strips of paper or tracing-muslin over the wings, the
wings are held in place by threads or very narrow tapes, which are wound
around the block. When the wings are not covered with a very deep and
velvety covering of scales the threads or tapes maybe used alone; but
when the wings are thus clothed it becomes necessary to put bits of
paper or cardboard over the wings before wrapping with the threads.
Unless this is done the marks of the threads will be left upon the
wings. Some little skill, which is easily acquired by practice, is
necessary in order to employ setting-blocks to advantage, but in the
case of small species and species which have refractory wings they are
much to be preferred to the boards.

_The Preparation and Preservation of Eggs._--The eggs of butterflies may
be preserved by simply putting them into tubes containing alcohol, or
they may be placed in vials containing dilute glycerine or a solution of
common salt. The vials should be kept tightly corked and should be
marked by a label written with a lead-pencil and placed within the
bottle, upon which the name of the species and the date of collection
should be noted, or a reference made to the collector's note-book.
Unless the eggs of insects are preserved in fluid they are apt in many
cases to dry up and become distorted, because, on account of their small
size, it is impossible to void them of their contents. The larvæ
escaping from eggs often void the shell very neatly, leaving, however, a
large orifice. Such remnants of shells may be preserved, as they often
are useful in showing some of the details of marking; but great
vigilance in securing them should be exercised, for almost all the larvæ
of butterflies have the curious habit of whetting their appetites for
future repasts by turning around and either wholly or partially
devouring the shell of the egg which they have quitted. Eggs are most
neatly mounted in the form of microscopic slides in glycerine jelly
contained in cells of appropriate depth and diameter. It is best, if
possible, to mount several specimens upon the same slide, showing the
side of the egg as well as the end. A cabinet filled with the eggs of
butterflies thus mounted is valuable and curious.

_The Preservation of Chrysalids._--Chrysalids may be deprived of their
vitality by simply immersing them in alcohol, or they may be killed by
means of chloroform, and they may then be fastened upon pins like the
imago, and arranged appropriately in the collection with the species.
Some chrysalids, however, lose their color when killed in this way, and
it is occasionally well to void them of their contents by making an
opening and carefully removing the parts that are contained within,
replacing with some material which will prevent the chrysalis from
shrinking and shriveling. This method of preserving need, however, be
resorted to only in exceptional cases. When a butterfly has escaped from
its chrysalis it frequently leaves the entire shell behind, with the
parts somewhat sundered, yet, nevertheless, furnishing a clear idea of
the structure of the chrysalis. If no other specimen of the chrysalis
can be obtained than these voided shells they should be preserved.

_The Preservation of Caterpillars._--The caterpillars of butterflies
when they first emerge from the egg, and before they make the first
moult, are, for the most part, extremely small, and are best preserved
as microscopic objects in cells filled with glycerine. After each
successive moult the larva increases rapidly in size. These various
stages in the development of the caterpillar should all be noted and
preserved, and it is customary to put up these collections in vials
filled with alcohol or a solution of formaline (which latter, by the by,
is preferable to alcohol), or to inflate them. The method of inflation
secures the best specimens.

In inflating larvæ the first step is carefully to remove the contents of
the larval skin. This may be done by making an incision with a stout pin
or a needle at the anal extremity, and then, between the folds of a soft
towel or cloth, pressing out the contents of the abdominal cavity. The
pressure should be first applied near the point where the pellicle has
been punctured, and should then be carried forward until the region of
the head is reached. Care must be exercised to apply only enough
pressure to expel the contents of the skin without disturbing the
tissues which lie nearest to the epidermis, in which the pigments are
located, and not to remove the hairs which are attached to the body.
Pressure sufficient to bruise the skin should never be applied. A little
practice soon imparts the required dexterity. The contents of the larval
skin having been removed, the next step is to inflate and dry the empty
skin. A compact statement of the method of performing this operation is
contained in Hornaday's "Taxidermy and Zoölogical Collecting," from
the pen of the writer, and I herewith reproduce it:

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE V                                       |
  |                                                              |
  | Reproduced, with the kind permission of Dr. S.H. Scudder,    |
  | from "The Butterflies of New England," vol. iii, Plate 84.   |
  |                                                              |
  | CHRYSALIDS IN COLOR AND IN OUTLINE--NYMPHALIDÆ, LYCÆNIDÆ,    |
  | PIERINÆ                                                      |
  |                                                              |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Argynnis cybele._ Side view.                             |
  | 2. _Argynnis cybele._ Dorsal view                            |
  | 3. _Argynnis cybele._ Side view.                             |
  | 4. _Argynnis idalia._ Side view.                             |
  | 5. _Argynnis aphrodite._ Side view.                          |
  | 6. _Argynnis atlantis._ Side view.                           |
  | 7. _Melitæa phaëton._ Side view.                             |
  | 8. _Euptoieta claudia._ Side view.                           |
  | 9. _Euptoieta claudia._ Side view.                           |
  | 10. _Brenthis bellona._ Side view.                           |
  | 11. _Brenthis bellona._ Side view.                           |
  | 12. _Brenthis myrina._ Side view.                            |
  | 13. _Brenthis myrina._ Side view.                            |
  | 14. _Brenthis myrina._ Dorsal view                           |
  | 15. _Melitæa phaëton._ Side view.                            |
  | 16. _Melitæa phaëton._ Dorsal view.                          |
  | 17. _Melitæa barrisi._ Side view.                            |
  | 18. _Melitæa barrisi._ Dorsal view.                          |
  | 19. _Phyciodes nycteis._ Side view.                          |
  | 20. _Phyciodes tharos._ Dorsal view.                         |
  | 21. _Phyciodes tharos._ Side view.                           |
  | 22. _Phyciodes tharos._ Side view.                           |
  | 23. _Libythea bachmani._ Side view.                          |
  | 24. _Libythea bachmani._ Side view.                          |
  | 25. _Thecla calanus._ Side view.                             |
  | 26. _Thecla irus._ Side view, enlarged.                      |
  | 27. _Thecla calanus._ Side view.                             |
  | 28. _Thecla liparops._ Side view.                            |
  | 29. _Thecla edwardsi._ Side view.                            |
  | 30. _Thecla damon._ Side view.                               |
  | 31. _Thecla damon._ Side view, enlarged.                     |
  | 32. _Thecla irus._ Dorsal view.                              |
  | 33. _Thecla irus._ Side view.                                |
  | 34. _Thecla irus._ Side view.                                |
  | 35. _Thecla acadica._ Side view.                             |
  | 36. _Lycæna pseudargiolus._ Side view.                       |
  | 37. _Thecla titus._ Side view.                               |
  | 38. _Thecla niphon._ Side view.                              |
  | 39. _Thecla melinus._ Side view. Copied                      |
  |     from Abbot's drawing in the British                      |
  |     Museum.                                                  |
  | 40. _Thecla niphon._ Side view. Copied                       |
  |     from Abbot's drawing in Dr. Boisduval's                  |
  |     library.                                                 |
  | 41. _Lycæna scudderi._ Side view, enlarged.                  |
  | 42. _Lycæna comyntas._ Side view. Copied                     |
  |     from Abbot's drawing in Dr. Boisduval's                  |
  |     library.                                                 |
  | 43. _Lycæna pseudargiolus._ Side view,                       |
  |     enlarged. Copied from Abbot's                            |
  |     drawing in Dr. Boisduval's library.                      |
  | 44. _Lycoena pseudargiolus._ Side view.                      |
  | 45. _Feniseca tarquinius._ Side view.                        |
  | 46. _Feniseca tarquinius._ Side view.                        |
  |     Copied from Abbot's drawing in                           |
  |     the British Museum.                                      |
  | 47. _Lycæna comyntas._ Side view, enlarged.                  |
  | 48. _Lycæna comyntas._ Side view.                            |
  | 49. _Chrysophanus bypophlæas._ Side view.                    |
  | 50. _Chrysophanus thoë._ Side view.                          |
  | 51. _Terias nicippe._ Side view.                             |
  | 52. _Terias nicippe._ Dorsal view.                           |
  | 53. _Colias eurytheme._ Side view.                           |
  | 54. _Colias philodice._ Dorsal view.                         |
  | 55. _Colias philodice._ Side view.                           |
  | 56. _Terias lisa._ Side view.                                |
  | 57. _Pieris napi_, var. _oleracea_. Side view.               |
  | 58. _Pieris rapæ._ Side view.                                |
  | 59. _Euchloë genutia._ Side view.                            |
  | 60. _Callidryas eubule._ Side view                           |
  | 61. _Callidryas eubule._ Side view.                          |
  | 62. _Callidryas eubule._ Dorsal view.                        |
  | 63. _Pieris napi_, var. _oleracea_. Side view.               |
  | 64. _Pieris rapæ_, var. oleracea. Dorsal view.               |
  | 65. _Pieris rapæ._ Dorsal view.                              |
  | 66. _Pieris protodice._ Dorsal view.                         |
  | 67. _Pieris protodice._ Side view.                           |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE V.]                                      |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+

[Illustration FIG. 61.--Apparatus for inflating larvæ: _B_,
foot-bellows; _K_, rubber tube; _C_, flask; _D_, anhydrous sulphuric
acid; _E_, overflow-flask; _F_, rubber tube from flask; _G_, standard
with cock to regulate flow of air; _H_, glass tube with larva upon it;
_I_, copper drying-plate; _J_, spirit-lamp.]

"The simplest method of inflating the skins of larvæ after the contents
have been withdrawn is to insert a straw or grass stem of appropriate
thickness into the opening through which the contents have been removed,
and then by the breath to inflate the specimen, while holding over the
chimney of an Argand lamp, the flame of which must be regulated so as
not to scorch or singe it. Care must be taken in the act of inflating
not to unduly distend the larval skin, thus producing a distortion, and
also to dry it thoroughly. Unless the latter precaution is observed a
subsequent shrinking and disfigurement will take place. The process of
inflating in the manner just described is somewhat laborious, and while
some of the finest specimens which the writer has ever seen were
prepared in this primitive manner, various expedients for lessening the
labor involved have been devised, some of which are to be highly
commended."

[Illustration FIG. 62.--Tip of inflating-tube, with armature for
holding larval skin.]

[Illustration FIG. 63.--Drying-oven: _A_, lamp; _B_, pin to hold door
open; _C_, door open; _D_, glass cover.]

"A comparatively inexpensive arrangement for inflating larvæ is a
modification of that described in the 'Entomologische Nachrichten'
(1879, vol. v, p. 7), devised by Mr. Fritz A. Wachtel (Fig. 61). It
consists of a foot-bellows such as is used by chemists in the
laboratory, or, better still, of a small cylinder such as is used for
holding gas in operating the oxyhydrogen lamp of a sciopticon. In the
latter case the compressed air should not have a pressure exceeding
twenty pounds to the square inch, and the cock regulating the flow from
the cylinder should be capable of very fine adjustment. By means of a
rubber tube the air is conveyed from the cylinder to a couple of flasks,
one of which contains concentrated sulphuric acid, and the other is
intended for the reception of any overflow of the hydrated sulphuric
acid which may occur. The object of passing the air through sulphuric
acid is to rob it, so far as possible, of its moisture. It is then
conveyed into a flask, which is heated upon a sand-bath, and thence by a
piece of flexible tubing to a tip mounted on a joint allowing vertical
and horizontal motion and secured by a standard to the working-table.
The flow of air through the tip is regulated by a cock. Upon the tip is
fastened a small rubber tube, into the free extremity of which is
inserted a fine-pointed glass tube. This is provided with an armature
consisting of two steel springs fastened upon opposite sides, and their
ends bent at right angles in such a way as to hold the larval skin
firmly to the extremity of the tube. The skin having been adjusted upon
the fine point of the tube, the bellows is put into operation, and the
skin is inflated. A drying apparatus is provided in several ways. A
copper plate mounted upon four legs, and heated by an alcohol-lamp
placed below, has been advocated by some. A better arrangement, used by
the writer, consists of a small oven heated by the flame of an
alcohol-lamp or by jets of natural gas, and provided with circular
openings of various sizes, into which the larval skin is introduced
(Fig. 63).

"A less commendable method of preserving larvæ is to place them in
alcohol. The larvæ should be tied up in sacks of light gauze netting,
and a label of tough paper, with the date and locality of capture, and
the name, if known, written with a lead-pencil, should be attached to
each such little sack. Do not use ink on labels to be immersed, but a
hard lead-pencil. Alcoholic specimens are liable to become shriveled and
discolored, and are not nearly as valuable as well-inflated and dried
skins."

[Illustration FIG. 64.--Drying-oven: _a_, sliding door; _b_, lid; _c_,
body of oven with glass sides; _d_, opening for inserting
inflating-tube; _e_, copper bottom; _f_, spirit-lamp; _g_, base
(Riley).]

"When the skins have been inflated they may be mounted readily by being
placed upon wires wrapped with green silk, or upon annealed aluminium
wire. The wires are bent and twisted together for a short distance and
then made to diverge. The diverging ends are pressed together, a little
shellac is placed upon their tips, and they are then inserted into the
opening at the anal extremity of the larval skin. Upon the release of
pressure they spread apart, and after the shellac has dried the skin is
firmly held by them. They may then be attached to pins by simply
twisting the free end of the wire about the pin, or they may be placed
upon artificial imitations of the leaves and twigs of their appropriate
food-plants."


THE PRESERVATION AND ARRANGEMENT OF COLLECTIONS

The secret of preserving collections of lepidoptera in beautiful
condition is to exclude light, moisture, and insect pests. Light
ultimately bleaches many species, moisture leads to mould and mildew,
and insect pests devour the specimens. The main thing is therefore to
have the receptacles in which the specimens are placed dark and as
nearly as possible hermetically sealed and kept in a dry place. In order
to accomplish this, various devices have been resorted to.

[Illustration FIG. 65.--Detail drawing of front of box, made to
resemble a book: _s_, _s_, sides, made of two pieces of wood glued
together across the grain; _t_, tongue; _g_, groove; _c_, cork; _p_,
paper covering the cork.]

[Illustration FIG. 66.--Detail drawing of front of box: _t_, top; _b_,
bottom; _e_, side; _f_, strip, nailed around inside as at _n_; _c_,
cork; _p_, paper lining.]

_Boxes._--Boxes for the preservation of specimens are made with a tongue
on the edges of the bottom fitting into a groove upon the lid, or they
may be made with inside pieces fastened around the inner edge of the
bottom and projecting so as to catch the lid. The accompanying outlines
show the method of joining different forms of boxes (Figs. 65-67). The
bottom of the box should be lined with some substance which will enable
the specimens to be pinned into it securely. For this purpose sheet-cork
about a quarter of an inch thick is to be preferred to all other
substances. Ground cork pressed into layers and covered with white
paper is manufactured for the purpose of lining boxes. Turf compressed
into sheets about half an inch thick and covered with paper is used by
many European collectors. Sheets of aloe-pith or of the wood of the
yucca, half an inch thick, are used, and the pith of corn-stalks (Indian
corn or maize) may also be employed, laid into the box and glued neatly
to the bottom. The corn-pith should be cut into pieces about half an
inch square and joined together neatly, covering it with thin white
paper after the surface has been made quite even and true. Cork is,
however, the best material, for, though more expensive than the other
things named, it has greater power to hold the pins, and unless these
are securely fixed and held in place great damage is sure to result. A
loose specimen in a box will work incalculable damage. Boxes should be
made of light, thoroughly seasoned wood, and should be very tight. They
are sometimes made so that specimens may be pinned both upon the top and
the bottom, but this is not to be commended. The depth of the box should
be sufficient to admit of the use of the longest insect-pin in use, and
a depth between top and bottom of two and a quarter inches is therefore
sufficient. Boxes are sometimes made with backs in imitation of books,
and a collection arranged in such boxes presents an attractive external
appearance. A very good box is made for the United States Department of
Agriculture and for the Carnegie Museum in Pittsburgh (Fig. 68). This
box is thirteen inches long, nine inches wide, and three inches thick
(external measurement). The depth between the bottom and the lid on the
inside is two and one eighth inches. The ends and sides are dovetailed;
the top and bottom are each made of two pieces of light stuff, about
one eighth of an inch thick, glued together in such a way that the
grain of the two pieces crosses at right angles, and all cracking and
warping are thus prevented. The lids are secured to the bottoms by brass
hooks fitting into eyelets. Such boxes provided with cork do not cost
more than fifty-five cents apiece when bought in quantities. Boxes may
be made of stout pasteboard about one eighth or three sixteenths of an
inch thick, with a rabbet-tongue on the inside. Such boxes are much used
in France and England, and when well and substantially made are most
excellent. They may be obtained for about thirty-five cents apiece lined
with compressed cork.

[Illustration FIG. 67.--Detail drawing of box, in which the tongue,
_z_, is made of strips of zinc let into a groove and fastened as at _n_;
_g_, groove to catch tongue; _s_, _s_, top and bottom; _c_, cork.]

[Illustration FIG. 68.--Insect-box for preservation of collections.]

_Cabinets and Drawers._--Large collections which are intended to be
frequently consulted are best preserved in cabinets fitted with
glass-covered drawers. A great deal of variety exists in the plans which
are adopted for the display of specimens in cabinets. Much depends upon
the taste and the financial ability of the collector. Large sums of
money may be expended upon cabinets, but the main thing is to secure the
specimens from dust, mould, and insect pests. The point to be observed
most carefully is so to arrange the drawers that they are, like the
boxes, practically air-tight. The writer employs as the standard size
for the drawers in his own collection and in the Carnegie Museum a
drawer which is twenty-two inches long, sixteen inches wide, and two
inches deep (inside measurement). The outside dimensions are: length,
twenty-three inches exclusive of face; breadth, seventeen inches;
height, two and three eighths inches. The covers are glazed with
double-strength glass. They are held upon the bottoms by a rabbet placed
inside of the bottom and nearly reaching the lower surface of the glass
on the cover when closed. The drawers are lined upon the bottom with
cork five sixteenths of an inch thick, and are papered on the bottom and
sides with good linen paper, which does not easily become discolored.
Each drawer is faced with cherry and has a knob. These drawers are
arranged in cabinets built in sections for convenience in handling. The
two lower sections each contain thirty drawers, the upper section nine.
The drawers are arranged in three perpendicular series and are made
interchangeable, so that any drawer will fit into any place in any one
of the cabinets. This is very necessary, as it admits of the easy
rearrangement of collections. On the sides of each drawer a pocket is
cut on the inner surface, which communicates through an opening in the
rabbet with the interior. The paper lining the inside is perforated over
this opening with a number of small holes. The pocket is kept filled
with naphthaline crystals, the fumes of which pass into the interior and
tend to keep away pests. The accompanying figure gives the details of
construction (Fig. 69). Such drawers can be made at a cost of about
$3.50 apiece, and the cost of a cabinet finished and supplied with them
is about $325, made of cherry, finished in imitation of mahogany.

[Illustration FIG. 69.--Detail drawing of drawer for cabinet: _e_, _e_,
ends; _b_, bottom; _c_, cork; _p_, _p_, paper strips in corners of lid
to exclude dust; _g_, _g_, glass of cover, held in place by top strips,
_s_, _s_; _m_, _m_, side pieces serving as rabbets on inside; _po_,
pocket in ends and sides, sawn out of the wood; _x_, opening through the
rabbet into this pocket; _y_, holes through the paper lining, _p^1_,
allowing fumes of naphthaline to enter interior of drawer; _f_, front;
_k_, knob; _o_, lunette cut in edge of the top piece to enable the lid
to be raised by inserting the fingers.]

Some persons prefer to have the bottoms as well as the tops of the
drawers in their cabinets made of glass. In such cases the specimens are
pinned upon narrow strips of wood covered with cork, securely fastened
across the inside of the drawers. This arrangement enables the under
side of specimens to be examined and compared with as much freedom as
the upper side, and without removing them from the drawers; but the
strips are liable at times to become loosened, and when this happens
great havoc is wrought among the specimens if the drawer is moved
carelessly. Besides, there is more danger of breakage.

Another way of providing a cheap and very sightly lining for the bottom
of an insect-box is illustrated in Fig. 70. A frame of wood like a
slate-frame is provided, and on both sides paper is stretched. To
stretch the paper it ought to be soaked in water before pasting to the
frame; then when it dries it is as tight and smooth as a drum-head.

The beginner who has not a long purse will do well to preserve his
collections in boxes such as have been described. They can be obtained
quite cheaply and are most excellent. Cabinets are more or less of a
luxury for the amateur, and are only a necessity in the case of great
collections which are constantly being consulted. The boxes may be
arranged upon shelves. Some of the largest and best collections in the
world are preserved in boxes, notably those of the United States
National Museum.

[Illustration FIG. 70.--_A_, _A_, side and bottom of box; _B_, frame
fitting into box; _C_, space which must be left between frame and bottom
of box; _P_, _P_, paper stretched on frame.]

_Labeling._--Each specimen should have on the pin below the specimen a
small label giving the date of capture, if known, and the locality.
Below this should be a label of larger size, giving its scientific name,
if ascertained, and the sex. Labels should be neat and uniform in size.
A good size for labels for large species is about one inch long and five
eighths of an inch wide. The labels should be written in a fine but
legible hand. Smaller labels may be used for smaller species. A
crow-quill pen and India ink are to be preferred in writing labels.

_Arrangement of Specimens._--Specimens are best arranged in rows. The
males should be pinned in first in the series, after them the females.
Varieties should follow the species. After these should be placed any
aberrations or monstrosities which the collector may possess. The name
of the genus should precede all the species contained in the collection,
and after each species the specific name should be placed =Fig. 71= shows
the manner of arrangement.

[Illustration FIG. 71.--Manner of arranging specimens in cabinet.]

_Insect Pests._--In order to preserve collections, great care must be
taken to exclude the various forms of insect pests, which are likely,
unless destroyed and kept from attacking the specimens, to ruin them
utterly in comparatively a short time. The pests which are most to be
feared are beetles belonging to the genera _Dermestes_ and _Anthrenus_.
In addition to these beetles, which commit their ravages in the larval
stage, moths and mites prey upon collections. Moths are very
infrequently, however, found in collections of insects, and in a long
experience the writer has known only one or two instances in which any
damage was inflicted upon specimens by the larvæ of moths. Mites are
much more to be dreaded.

[Illustration FIG. 72.--Naphthaline cone.]

In order to prevent the ravages of insects, all specimens, before
putting them away into the boxes or drawers of the cabinet in which they
are to be preserved, should be placed in a tight box in which
chloroform, or, better, carbon bisulphide, in a small pan is put, and
they should be left here for at least twenty-four hours, until it is
certain that all life is extinct. Then they should be transferred to the
tight boxes or drawers in which they are to be kept. The presence of
insect pests in a collection is generally first indicated by fine dust
under the specimen, this dust being the excrement of the larva which is
committing depredations upon the specimen. In case the presence of the
larva is detected, a liberal dose of chloroform should at once be
administered to the box or tray in which the specimen is contained. The
specimen itself ought to be removed, and may be dipped into benzine.
Naphthaline crystals or camphor is generally employed to keep out insect
pests from boxes. They are very useful to deter the entrance of pests,
but when they have once been introduced into a collection neither
naphthaline nor camphor will kill them. Naphthaline is prepared in the
form of cones attached to a pin, and these cones may be placed in one
corner of the box. They are made by Blake & Co. of Philadelphia, and are
in vogue among entomologists. However, a good substitute for the cones
may very easily be made by taking the ordinary moth-balls which are sold
everywhere. By heating a pin red-hot in the flame of an alcohol-lamp it
may be thrust into the moth-ball; as it enters it melts the naphthaline,
which immediately afterward cools and holds the pin securely fixed in
the moth-ball. In attaching these pins to moth-balls, hold the pin
securely in a forceps while heating it in the flame of the lamp, and
thrust the red-hot pin into the center of the ball. Naphthaline crystals
and camphor may be secured in the corner of the box by tying up a
quantity of them in a small piece of netting and pinning the little bag
thus made in the corner of the tray. By following these directions
insect pests may be kept out of collections. It is proper to observe
that while carbon bisulphide is more useful even than chloroform in
killing pests, and is also cheaper, it should be used with great care,
because when mixed with atmospheric air it is highly explosive, and its
use should never take place where there are lamps burning or where there
is fire. Besides, its odor is extremely unpleasant, unless it has been
washed in mercury.

_Greasy Specimens._--Specimens occasionally become greasy. When this
happens they may be cleansed by pinning them down on a piece of cork
secured to the bottom of a closed vessel, and gently filling it with
benzine, refined gasoline, or ether. After leaving them long enough to
remove all the grease they may be taken out of the bath and allowed to
dry in a place where there is no dust. This operation should not take
place near a lighted lamp or a fire.

_Mould._--When specimens have become mouldy or mildewed it is best to
burn them up if they can be spared. If not, after they have been
thoroughly dried remove the mould with a sable or camel's-hair pencil
which has been rubbed in carbolic acid (crystals liquefied by heat).
Mildew in a cabinet is hard to eradicate, and heat, even to burning, is
about the only cure, except the mild use of carbolic acid in the way
suggested.

_Repairing Specimens._--Torn and ragged specimens are to be preferred to
none at all. "The half of a loaf is better than no bread." Until the
torn specimen can be replaced by a better, it is always well to retain
it in a collection. But it is sometimes possible to repair torn
specimens in such a way as to make them more presentable. If an antenna,
for instance, has been broken off, it may be replaced neatly, so that
only a microscopic examination will disclose the fact that it was once
away from the place where it belonged. If a wing has been slit, the rent
may be mended so neatly that only a very careful observer can detect the
fact. If a piece has been torn out of a wing, it may be replaced by the
corresponding portion of the wing of another specimen of the same sex of
the same species in such a way as almost to defy detection. The prime
requisites for this work are patience, a steady hand, a good eye, a
great deal of "gumption," a few setting-needles, a jeweler's forceps,
and a little shellac dissolved in alcohol. The shellac used in replacing
a missing antenna should be of a thickish consistency; in repairing
wings it should be well thinned down with alcohol. In handling broken
antennæ it is best to use a fine sable pencil, which may be moistened
very lightly by applying it to the tip of the tongue. With this it is
possible to pick up a loose antenna and place it wherever it is desired.
Apply the shellac to the torn edges of a broken wing with great delicacy
of touch and in very small quantity. Avoid putting on the adhesive
material in "gobs and slathers." Repairing is a fine art, which is only
learned after some patient experimentation, and is only to be practised
when absolutely necessary. The habit of some dealers of patching up
broken specimens with parts taken from other species is highly to be
reprobated. Such specimens are more or less caricatures of the real
thing, and no truly scientific man will admit such scarecrows into his
collection, except under dire compulsion.

[Illustration FIG. 73.--Butterflies pinned into a box overlapping one
another, or "shingled."]

_Packing and Forwarding Specimens._--It often becomes necessary to
forward specimens from one place to another. If it is intended to ship
specimens which have been mounted upon pins they should be securely
pinned in a box lined with cork. A great many expanded specimens may be
pinned in a box by resorting to the method known as "shingling," which
is illustrated in Fig. 73. By causing the wings of specimens to overlap,
as is shown in the figure, a great many can be accommodated in a small
space. When the specimens have been packed the box should be securely
closed, its edges shut with paper, after some drops of chloroform have
been poured into the box, and then this box should be placed in an outer
box containing excelsior, hay, cotton, or loose shavings in sufficient
abundance to prevent the jarring of the inner box and consequent
breakage. Where specimens are forwarded in envelopes, having been
collected in the field, and are not pinned, the precaution of
surrounding them with packing such as has been described is not
necessary, but the box in which they are shipped should always be strong
enough to resist breakage. Things forwarded by mail or by express always
receive rough treatment, and the writer has lost many fine specimens
which have been forwarded to him because the shipper was careless in
packing.

_Pins._--In the preceding pages frequent reference has been made to
insect-pins. These are pins which are made longer and thinner than is
the case with ordinary pins, and are therefore adaptable to the special
use to which they are put. There are a number of makers whose pins have
come into vogue. What are known as Karlsbader and Kläger pins, made in
Germany, are the most widely used. They are made of ordinary pin-metal
in various sizes. The Karlsbader pins have very fine points, but, owing
to the fineness of the points and the softness of the metal, they are
very apt to buckle, or turn up at the points. The Kläger pins are not
exposed to the same objection, as the points are not quite so fine. The
best pins, however, which are now made are those which have recently
been introduced by Messrs. Kirby, Beard, & Co. of England. They are made
of soft steel, lacquered, possessing very great strength and
considerable flexibility. The finest-sized pin of this make has as much
strength as the largest pin of the other makes that have been mentioned,
and the writer has never known them to buckle at the tip, even when
pinned through the hardest insect tissues. While these pins are a little
more expensive than others, the writer does not fail to give them an
unqualified preference.

[Illustration FIG. 74.--Butterfly-forceps, half-size.]

_The Forceps._--An instrument which is almost indispensable to the
student of entomology is the forceps. There are many forms of forceps,
and it is not necessary to speak at length in reference to the various
shapes; but for the use of the student of butterflies the forceps made
by the firm of Blake & Co. of Philadelphia is to be preferred to all
others. The head of this firm is himself a famous entomologist, and he
has given us in the forceps which is illustrated in Fig. 74 an
instrument which comes as near perfection as the art of the maker of
instruments can produce. The small forceps represented in Fig. 75 is
very useful in pinning small specimens. In handling mounted specimens it
is well always to take hold of the pin below the specimen with the
forceps, and insert it into the cork by the pressure of the forceps. If
the attempt is made to pin down a specimen with the naked fingers
holding the pin by the head, the finger is apt to slip and the specimen
to be ruined.

[Illustration FIG. 75.--Insect-forceps.]


IMMORTALITY

  A butterfly basked on a baby's grave,
    Where a lily had chanced to grow:
  "Why art thou here with thy gaudy dye,
  When she of the blue and sparkling eye
    Must sleep in the churchyard low?"

  Then it lightly soared thro' the sunny air,
    And spoke from its shining track:
  "I was a worm till I won my wings,
  And she, whom thou mourn'st, like a seraph sings;
    Would'st thou call the blest one back?"

  SIGOURNEY.



CHAPTER III

THE CLASSIFICATION OF BUTTERFLIES

  "Winged flowers, or flying gems."

  MOORE.


At the base of all truly scientific knowledge lies the principle of
order. There have been some who have gone so far as to say that science
is merely the orderly arrangement of facts. While such a definition is
defective, it is nevertheless true that no real knowledge of any branch
of science is attained until its relationship to other branches of human
knowledge is learned, and until a classification of the facts of which
it treats has been made. When a science treats of things, it is
necessary that these things should become the subject of investigation,
until at last their relation to one another, and the whole class of
things to which they belong, has been discovered. Men who devote
themselves to the discovery of the relation of things and to their
orderly classification are known as systematists.

The great leader in this work was the immortal Linnæus, the "Father of
Natural History," as he has been called. Upon the foundation laid by him
in his work entitled "Systema Naturæ," or "The System of Nature," all
who have followed after him have labored, and the result has been the
rise of the great modern sciences of botany and zoölogy, which treat
respectively of the vegetable and animal kingdoms.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE VI                                      |
  |                                                              |
  | Reproduced with the kind permission of Dr. S.H. Scudder, from|
  | "The Butterflies of New England," vol. iii, Plate 85.        |
  |                                                              |
  | CHRYSALIDS IN COLOR AND IN OUTLINE--PAPILIONINÆ AND          |
  | HESPERIIDÆ                                                   |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Papilio turnus._                                         |
  | 2. _Papilio turnus._ Dorsal view.                            |
  | 3. _Papilio turnus._                                         |
  | 4. _Papilio turnus._                                         |
  | 5. _Papilio troilus._ Dorsal view.                           |
  | 6. _Papilio troilus._                                        |
  | 7. _Papilio troilus._                                        |
  | 8. _Papilio cresphontes._                                    |
  | 9. _Papilio cresphontes._ Dorsal view.                       |
  | 10. _Papilio cresphontes._                                   |
  | 11. _Papilio ajax._                                          |
  | 12. _Papilio ajax._ Dorsal view.                             |
  | 13. _Papilio asterias._                                      |
  | 14. _Papilio philenor._ Dorsal view.                         |
  | 15. _Papilio philenor._ Dorsal view.                         |
  | 16. _Papilio philenor._                                      |
  | 17. _Papilio philenor._                                      |
  | 18. _Papilio asterias._ Dorsal view.                         |
  | 19. _Papilio asterias._                                      |
  | 20. _Papilio philenor._                                      |
  | 21. _Achalarus lycidas._                                     |
  | 22. _Epargyreus tityrus._                                    |
  | 23. _Eudamus proteus._ From the original                     |
  |     by Abbot in the British Museum.                          |
  | 24. _Thorybes bathyllus._ From the original                  |
  |     by Abbot in the British Museum.                          |
  | 25. _Epargyreus tityrus._                                    |
  | 26. _Epargyreus tityrus._                                    |
  | 27. _Thanaos icelus._                                        |
  | 28. _Thorybes pylades._                                      |
  | 29. _Pholisora catullus._ From the original                  |
  |     by Abbot in the British Museum.                          |
  | 30. _Thanaos lucilius._                                      |
  | 31. _Thanaos lucilius._ Dorsal view.                         |
  | 32. _Thanaos lucilius._                                      |
  | 33. _Thanaos juvenalis._                                     |
  | 34. _Thanaos persius._                                       |
  | 35. _Hesperia montivaga._ From the original                  |
  |     by Abbot in the British Museum.                          |
  | 36. _Pholisora catullus._                                    |
  | 37. _Thanaos martialis._ From the original                   |
  |     by Abbot in the British Museum.                          |
  | 38. _Thanaos brizo._ From the original                       |
  |     by Abbot in Dr. Boisduval's library.                     |
  | 39. _Hylephila phyloeus._ From the original                  |
  |     by Abbot in Dr. Boisduval's library.                     |
  | 40. _Amblyscirtes vialis._                                   |
  | 41. _Pholisora catullus._                                    |
  | 42. _Thymelicus oetna._ From the original                    |
  |     by Abbot in Dr. Boisduval's library.                     |
  | 43. _Atalopedes huron._                                      |
  | 44. _Limochores taumas._                                     |
  | 45. _Amblyscirtes samoset._ After the original               |
  |     by Abbot in the British Museum.                          |
  | 46. _Lerema accius._ After the original by                   |
  |     Abbot in Boston Society of Natural History.              |
  | 47. _Atalopedes huron._                                      |
  | 48. _Calpodes ethlius._                                      |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE VI.]                                     |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+

_The Place of Butterflies in the Animal Kingdom._--The animal kingdom,
for purposes of classification, has been subdivided into various groups
known as subkingdoms. One of these subkingdoms contains those animals
which, being without vertebræ, or an internal skeleton, have an external
skeleton, composed of a series of horny rings, attached to which are
various organs. This subkingdom is known by naturalists under the
name of the _Arthropoda._ The word _Arthropoda_ is derived from the
Greek language and is compounded of two words, (_αρθρον_), meaning a
_joint_ and (_πους_), meaning a _foot_. The _Arthropoda_ seem at first
sight to be made up of jointed rings and feet; hence the name.

The subkingdom of the _Arthropoda_ is again subdivided into six classes.
These are the following:

Class I. The _Crustacea_ (Shrimps, Crabs, Water-fleas, etc.).

Class II. The _Podostomata_ (King-crabs, Trilobites [fossil], etc.).

Class III. The _Malacopoda_ (_Peripatus_, a curious genus of worm-like
creatures, found in the tropics, and allied to the Myriapods in some
important respects).

Class IV. The _Myriapoda_ (Centipedes, etc.).

Class V. The _Arachnida_ (Spiders, Mites, etc.).

Class VI. The _Insecta_ (Insects).

That branch of zoölogy which treats of insects is known as entomology.

The _Insecta_ have been variously subdivided by different scientific
writers, but the following subdivision has much in it to commend it, and
will suffice as an outline for the guidance of the advanced student.


CLASS VI. INSECTA (INSECTS PROPER)

HETEROMETABOLA

For the most part undergoing only a partial metamorphosis in the
development from the egg to the imago.

ORDERS

  1. _Thysanura._
       Suborders:
         _Collembola_ (Podura, Springtails).
         _Symphyla_ (Scolopendrella).
         _Cinura_ (Bristletails, etc.).

  2. _Dermatoptera_ (Earwigs).

  3. _Pseudoneuroptera._
       Suborders:
         _Mallophaga_ (Bird-lice).
         _Platyptera_ (Stone-flies, Termites, etc.).
         _Odonata_ (Dragon-flies, etc.).
         _Ephemerina_ (May-flies, etc.).

  4. _Neuroptera_ (Corydalis, Ant-lion, Caddis-flies, etc.).

  5. Orthoptera (Cockroach, Mantis, Mole-cricket, Grasshopper, Katydid,
       etc.).

  6. _Hemiptera._
      Suborders:
       _Parasita_ (Lice).
       _Sternorhyncha_ (Aphids, Mealy Bugs, etc.).
       _Homoptera_ (Cicada, Tree-hoppers, etc.).
       _Heteroptera_ (Ranatra, Belostoma, Water-spiders, Squash-bugs,
       Bedbugs, etc.).

  7. _Coleoptera._
      Suborders:
       _Cryptotetramera_ (Lady-birds, etc.).
       _Cryptopentamera_ (Leaf-beetles, Longhorns, Weevils, etc.).
       _Heteromera_ (Blister-beetles, Meal-beetles, etc.).
       _Pentamera_ (Fire-flies, Skipjacks, June-bugs, Dung-beetles,
       Stag-beetles,
           Rove-beetles, Tiger-beetles, etc.).

  METABOLA

  Undergoing for the most part a complete metamorphosis from egg, through
  larva and pupa, to imago.

  ORDERS

  8. _Aphaniptera_ (Fleas).

  9. _Diptera._
      Suborders:
       _Orthorhapha_ (Hessian Flies, Buffalo-gnats, Mosquitos,
       Crane-flies, Horse-flies).
       _Cyclorhapha_ (Syrphus, Bot-flies, Tsetse, House-flies, etc.).

  10. _Lepidoptera._
       Suborders:
        _Rhopalocera_ (Butterflies).
        _Heterocera_ (Moths).

  11. _Hymenoptera._
       Suborders:
        _Terebrantia_ (Saw-flies, Gall-wasps, Ichneumon-flies, etc.).
        _Aculeata_ (Ants, Cuckoo-flies, Digger-wasps, True Wasps, Bees).

It will be seen by glancing at the foregoing table that the
butterflies and moths are included as suborders in the tenth group of
the list, to which is applied the name _Lepidoptera_. This word, like
most other scientific words, is derived from the Greek, and is
compounded of the noun (_λεπις_), which signifies a _scale_, and the
noun (_πτερον_), which signifies a _wing_. The butterflies and moths
together constitute the order of scale-winged insects. The
appropriateness of this name will no doubt be at once recognized by
every reader, who, having perhaps unintentionally rubbed off some of
the minute scales which clothe the wings of a butterfly, has taken the
trouble to examine them under a microscope, or who has attentively
read what has been said upon this subject in the first chapter of
this book. By referring again to the classification which has been
given, it will be noted that the last four orders in the list agree in
that the creatures included within them undergo for the most part what
is known as a complete metamorphosis; that is to say, they pass
through four successive stages of development, existing first as eggs,
then as worm-like larvæ, or caterpillars, then as pupæ, and finally as
perfect, fully developed insects, gifted for the most part with the
power of flight, and capable of reproducing their kind. All of this
has been to some extent already elucidated in the first chapter of the
present volume, but it may be well to remind the reader of these facts
at this point.

[Illustration FIG. 76.--Antennæ of butterflies.]

A question which is frequently asked by those who are not familiar with
the subject relates to the manner in which it is possible to distinguish
between moths and butterflies. A partial answer can be made in the light
of the habits of the two classes of lepidoptera. Butterflies are diurnal
in their habits, flying between sunrise and dusk, and very rarely taking
the wing at night. This habit is so universal that these insects are
frequently called by entomologists "the diurnal lepidoptera," or are
simply spoken of as "diurnals." It is, however, true that many species
of moths are also diurnal in their habits, though the great majority of
them are nocturnal, or crepuscular, that is, flying at the dusk of the
evening, or in the twilight of the early morning. Upon the basis of mere
habit, then, we are able only to obtain a partial clue to the
distinction between the two suborders. A more definite distinction is
based upon structure, and specifically upon the structure of the
antennæ. Butterflies have long, thread-like antennæ, provided with a
swelling at the extremity, giving them a somewhat club-shaped appearance
(Fig. 76). This form of antennæ is very unusual among the moths, and
only occurs in a few rare genera, found in tropical countries, which
seem to represent connecting-links between the butterflies and the
moths. All the true moths which are found within the limits of the
United States and Canada have antennæ which are not club-shaped, but
are of various other forms. Some moths have thread-like antennæ tapering
to a fine point; others have feather-shaped antennæ; others still have
antennæ which are prismatic in form, and provided with a little hook, or
spur, at the end; and there are many modifications and variations of
these forms. The club-shaped form of the antennæ of butterflies has led
naturalists to call them _Rhopalocera_, as has been already explained in
speaking of this subject on page 17. Moths are called _Heterocera_. The
word _Heterocera_ is compounded of the Greek word (_πτερον_), meaning
_other_, and the Greek word (_κερας_), meaning a _horn_. They are
lepidoptera which have antennæ which are _other than club-shaped_.
Besides the distinctions which exist in the matter of the form of the
antennæ, there are distinctions in the veins of the wings, and in the
manner of carrying them when at rest or in flight, which are quite
characteristic of the two groups; but all of these things the attentive
student will quickly learn for himself by observation.

[Illustration FIG. 77.--Antennæ of moths.]

_Scientific Arrangement._--Having thus cast a passing glance at the
differences which exist between moths and butterflies, we take up the
question of the subdivision of the butterflies into natural groups.
Various systems of arranging butterflies have been suggested from time
to time by learned writers, and for a knowledge of these systems the
student may consult works which treat of them at length. It is
sufficient for beginners, for whom this book is principally written, to
observe that in modern science, for purposes of convenience, as well as
from regard for essential truth, all individuals are looked upon as
belonging to a _species_. A species includes all those individuals,
which have a common ancestry, and are so related in form and structure
as to be manifestly separable from all other similarly constituted
assemblages of individuals. For instance, all the large cats having a
tawny skin, and in the male a shaggy mane, constitute a species, which
we call the lion; the eagles in the eastern United States, which in
adult plumage have a snow-white head and neck and a white tail,
constitute a species, which we know as the "white-headed" or
"bald-headed" eagle. Species may then be grouped together, and those
which are manifestly closely related to one another are regarded as
forming a natural assemblage of species, to which we give the name of a
_genus_. For example, all the large cats, such as the lion, the tiger,
the puma, and the jaguar, are grouped together by naturalists, and form
a genus to which is given the Latin name _Felis_, meaning _cat_. The
name of the genus always comes before that of the species. Thus the
tiger is spoken of scientifically as _Felis tigris_. The genera which
are closely related to one another may again be assembled as
_subfamilies_; and the subfamilies may be united to form _families_. For
instance, all the various genera of cats form a family, which is known
as the _Felidæ_, or the Cat Family. A group of families constitutes a
_suborder_ or an _order_. The cats belong to the _Carnivora_, or order
of flesh-eating animals.

In zoölogy family names are formed with the termination _-idæ_, and
subfamily names with the termination _-inæ_.

Everything just said in regard to the classification of the higher
animals applies likewise to butterflies. Let us take as an illustration
the common milkweed butterfly. Linnæus for a fanciful reason gave this
insect the name _Plexippus_. This is its specific name, by which it is
distinguished from all other butterflies. It belongs to the genus
_Anosia_. The genus _Anosia_ is one of the genera which make up the
subfamily of the _Euploeinæ_. The _Euploeinæ_ belong to the great family
of the _Nymphalidæ_. The _Nymphalidæ_ are a part of the suborder of the
_Rhopalocera_, or true butterflies, one of the two great subdivisions of
the order _Lepidoptera_, belonging to the great class _Insecta_, the
highest class in the subkingdom of the _Arthropoda_. The matter may be
represented in a tabular form, in the reverse order from that which has
been given:

  Subkingdom, _Arthropoda_.
      Class, _Insecta_.
          Order, _Lepidoptera_.
              Suborder, _Rhopalocera_.
                  Family, _Nymphalidæ_.
                      Subfamily, _Euploeinæ_.
                          Genus, _Anosia_.
                              Species, _Plexippus_ (Milkweed Butterfly).

_Varieties._--A still further subdivision is in some cases recognized
as necessary. A species which has a wide range over an extensive
territory may vary in different parts of the territory within which it
is found. The butterflies of certain common European species are found
also in Japan and Corea, but, as a rule, they are much larger in the
latter countries than they are in Europe, and in some cases more
brightly colored. Naturalists have therefore distinguished the Asiatic
from the European form by giving the former what is known as a varietal
name. Similar differences occur among butterflies on the continent of
North America. The great yellow and black-barred swallowtail butterfly
known as _Papilio turnus_ occurs from Florida to Alaska. But the
specimens from Alaska are always much smaller than those from other
regions, and have a very dwarfed appearance. This dwarfed form
constitutes what is known as a local race, or variety, of the species.
The members of a species which occur upon an island frequently differ in
marked respects from specimens which occur upon the adjacent mainland.
By insulation and the process of through-breeding the creature has come
to acquire characteristics which separate it in a marked degree from the
closely allied continental form, and yet not sufficiently to justify us
in treating it as a distinct species. It represents what is known as an
insular race, or variety, and we give it therefore a varietal name.
Naturalists also distinguish between seasonal, dimorphic, melanic, and
albino forms. Names descriptive or designatory of these forms are
frequently applied to them. All of this will become plainer in the
course of the study of the succeeding pages, and in the effort to
classify specimens which the student will make.

_Sex._--The designation of the sex is important in the case of all
well-ordered collections of zoölogical specimens. As a measure of
convenience, the male is usually indicated by the sign of Mars, ♂, while
the female is indicated by the sign of Venus, ♀. The inscription,
"_Argynnis Diana_, ♂," therefore means that the specimen is a male of
_Argynnis Diana_, and the inscription, "_Argynnis Diana_, ♀," means that
the specimen is a female of the same species. These signs are invariably
employed by naturalists to mark the sexes.

_The Division of Butterflies into Families._--Without attempting to go
deeply into questions of classification at the present point, it will
be well for us to note the subdivisions which have been made into the
larger groups, known as families, and to show how butterflies belonging
to one or the other of these may be distinguished from one another.
There are five of these families represented within the territory of
which this book takes notice. These five families are the following:

  1. The NYMPHALIDÆ, or "Brush-footed Butterflies."
  2. The LEMONIIDÆ, or "Metal-marks."
  3. The LYCÆNIDÆ, or "Blues," "Coppers," and "Hair-streaks".
  4. The PAPILIONIDÆ, or the "Swallowtails" and their allies.
  5. The HESPERIIDÆ, or the "Skippers."

The NYMPHALIDÆ, the "Brush-footed Butterflies."

The butterflies of this family may be distinguished as a great class
from all other butterflies by the fact that in _both sexes the first, or
prothoracic, pair of legs is greatly dwarfed, useless for walking, and
therefore carried folded up against the breast_. From this peculiarity
they have also been called the "Four-footed Butterflies." This is the
largest of all the families of the butterflies, and has been subdivided
into many subfamilies. Some of the genera are composed of small species,
but most of the genera are made up of medium-sized or large species. The
family is geologically very ancient, and most of the fossil butterflies
which have been discovered belong to it. The caterpillars are in most of
the subfamilies provided with horny or fleshy projections. The
chrysalids always hang suspended by the tail.

The LEMONIIDÆ, the "Metal-marks."

This family is distinguished from others by the fact that _the males
have four ambulatory or walking feet, while the females have six such
feet. The antennæ are relatively longer than in the Lycænidæ._ The
butterflies belonging to this great group are mostly confined to the
tropics of the New World, and only a few genera and species are included
in the region covered by this volume. They are usually quite small, but
are colored in a bright and odd manner, spots and checkered markings
being very common. Many are extremely brilliant in their colors. _The
caterpillars are small and contracted. Some are said to have chrysalids
which are suspended; others have chrysalids girdled and attached at the
anal extremity, like the Lycænidæ. The butterflies in many genera have
the habit of alighting on the under side of leaves, with their wings
expanded._

The LYCÆNIDÆ, the "Gossamer-winged Butterflies."

This great family comprises the butterflies which are familiarly known
as the "hair-streaks," the "blues," and the "coppers." _The males have
four and the females six walking feet. The caterpillars are small,
short, and slug-shaped. The chrysalids are provided with a girdle, are
attached at the end of the abdomen, and lie closely appressed to the
surface upon which they have undergone transformation._ Blue is a very
common color in this family, which includes some of the gayest of the
small forms which are found in the butterfly world. _In alighting they
always carry their wings folded together and upright._

The PAPILIONIDÆ, the "Swallowtails" and their allies.

These butterflies _have six walking feet in both sexes. The caterpillars
are elongate, and in some genera provided with osmateria, or protrusive
organs secreting a powerful and disagreeable odor. The chrysalids are
elongate, attached at the anal extremity, and held in place by a girdle
of silk, but not closely appressed to the surface upon which they have
undergone transformation._

The HESPERIIDÆ, or the "Skippers."

They are generally _small in size, with stout bodies, very quick and
powerful in fight. They have six walking feet in both sexes. The tibiæ
of the hind feet, with few exceptions, have spurs. The caterpillars are
cylindrical, smooth, tapering forward and backward from the middle, and
generally having large globular heads. For the most part they undergo
transformation into chrysalids which have a girdle and an anal hook, or
cremaster, in a loose cocoon, composed of a few threads of silk_, and
thus approximate the moths in their habits. The genus _Megathymus_ has
the curious habit of burrowing in its larval stage in the underground
stems of the yucca.

To one or the other of these five families all the butterflies,
numbering about six hundred and fifty species, which are found from the
Rio Grande of Texas to the arctic circle, can be referred.

_Scientific Names._--From what has been said it is plain to the reader
that the student of this delightful branch of science is certain to be
called upon to use some rather long and, at first sight, uncouth words
in the pursuit of the subject. But experience, that best of teachers,
will soon enable him to master any little difficulties which may arise
from this source, and he will come finally to recognize how useful these
terms are in designating distinctions which exist, but which are often
wholly overlooked by the uneducated and unobservant. It is not, however,
necessary that the student should at the outset attempt to tax his
memory with all of the long scientific names which he encounters in this
and similar books. The late Dr. Horn of Philadelphia, who was justly
regarded, during the latter years of his life, as the most eminent
student of the _Coleoptera_, or beetles, of North America, once said to
the writer that he made it a religious duty not to try to remember all
the long scientific names belonging to the thousands of species in his
collection, but was content to have them attached to the pins holding
the specimens in his cabinets, where he could easily refer to them. The
student who is engaged in collecting and studying butterflies will very
soon come, almost without effort, to know their names, but it is not a
sin to forget them.

In writing about butterflies it is quite customary to abbreviate the
generic name by giving merely its initial. Thus in writing about the
milkweed butterfly, _Anosia plexippus_, the naturalist will designate it
as "_A. plexippus_." To the specific name he will also attach the name
of the man who gave this specific name to the insect. As Linnæus was the
first to name this insect, it is proper to add his name, when writing of
it, or to add an abbreviation of his name, as follows: "_A. plexippus_,
Linnæus," or "Linn." In speaking about butterflies it is quite common to
omit the generic name altogether and to use only the specific name. Thus
after returning in the evening from a collecting-trip, I might say, "I
was quite successful to-day. I took twenty _Aphrodites_, four _Myrinas_,
and two specimens of _Atlantis_." In this case there could be no
misunderstanding of my meaning. I took specimens of three species of the
genus _Argynnis--A. aphrodite_, _A. myrina_, and _A. atlantis_; but it
is quite enough to designate them by the specific names, without
reference to their generic classification.

_Synonyms._--It is a law among scientific men that the name first given
to an animal or plant shall be its name and shall have priority over all
other names. Now, it has happened not infrequently that an author, not
knowing that a species has been described already, has redescribed it
under another name. Such a name applied a second time to a species
already described is called a _synonym_, and may be published after the
true name. Sometimes species have had a dozen or more different names
applied to them by different writers, but all such names rank as
synonyms according to the law of priority.

_Popular Names._--Common English names for butterflies are much in vogue
in England and Scotland, and there is no reason why English names should
not be given to butterflies, as well as to birds and to plants. In the
following pages this has been done to a great extent. I have used the
names coined by Dr. S.H. Scudder and by others, so far as possible, and
have in other cases been forced myself to coin names which seemed to be
appropriate, in the hope that they may come ultimately to be widely
used. The trouble is that ordinary people do not take pains to observe
and note the distinctions which exist among the lower animals. The
vocabulary of the common farmer, or even of the ordinary professional
man, is bare of terms to point out correctly the different things which
come under the eye. All insects are "bugs" to the vulgar, and even the
airy butterfly, creature of grace and light, is put into the same
category with roaches and fleas. Apropos of the tendency to classify as
"bugs" all things which creep and are small, it may be worth while to
recall the story, which Frank Buckland tells in his "Log-book of a
Fisherman and Naturalist," of an adventure which he had, when a
school-boy, at the booking-office of the London, Chatham, and Dover
Railway Company in Dover. He had been for a short trip to Paris, and had
bought a monkey and a tortoise. Upon his return from sunny France, as he
was getting his ticket up to London, Jocko stuck his head out of the bag
in which his owner was carrying him. The ticket-agent looked down and
said, "You will pay half-fare for him." "How is that?" exclaimed young
Buckland. "Well, we charge half-fare for dogs." "But this is not a dog,"
replied the indignant lad; "this is a monkey." "Makes no difference,"
was the answer; "you must pay half-fare for him." Reluctantly the silver
was laid upon the counter. Then, thrusting his hands into the pocket of
his greatcoat, Buckland drew forth the tortoise, and, laying it down,
asked, "How much do you charge for this?" The ancient receiver of fares
furbished his spectacles, adjusted them to his nose, took a long look,
and replied, "We don't charge nothin' for them; them 's insects." It is
to be hoped that the reader of this book will in the end have a clearer
view of facts as to the classification of animals than was possessed by
the ticket-agent at Dover.



CHAPTER IV

BOOKS ABOUT NORTH AMERICAN BUTTERFLIES


_Early Writers._--The earliest descriptions of North American
butterflies are found in writings which are now almost unknown, except
to the close student of science. Linnæus described and named a number of
the commoner North American species, and some of them were figured by
Charles Clerck, his pupil, whose work entitled "Icones" was published at
Stockholm in the year 1759. Clerck's work is exceedingly rare, and the
writer believes that he has in his possession the only copy in North
America. Johann Christian Fabricius, a pupil of Linnæus, who was for
some time a professor in Kiel, and attached to the court of the King of
Denmark, published between the year 1775 and the year 1798 a number of
works upon the general subject of entomology, in which he gave
descriptions, very brief and unsatisfactory, of a number of North
American species. His descriptions were written, as were those of
Linnæus, in the Latin language. About the same time that Fabricius was
publishing his works, Peter Cramer, a Dutchman, was engaged in giving to
the world the four large quartos in which he endeavored to figure and
describe the butterflies and moths of Asia, Africa, and America.
Cramer's work was entitled "Papillons Exotiques," and contained
recognizable illustrations of quite a number of the North American
forms. The book, however, is rare and expensive to-day, but few copies
of it being accessible to American students.

Jacob Hübner, who was born at Augsburg in the year 1761, undertook the
publication, in the early part of the present century, of an elaborate
work upon the European butterflies and moths, parallel with which he
undertook a publication upon the butterflies and moths of foreign lands.
The title of his work is "Sammlung Exotischer Schmetterlinge." To this
work was added, as an appendix, partly by Hübner and partly by his
successor and co-laborer, Karl Geyer, another, entitled "Zuträge zur
Sammlung Exotischer Schmetterlinge." The two works together are
illustrated by six hundred and sixty-four colored plates. This great
publication contains some scattered figures of North American species. A
good copy sells for from three hundred and fifty to four hundred
dollars, or even more.

The first work which was devoted exclusively to an account of the
lepidoptera of North America was published in England by Sir James
Edward Smith, who was a botanist, and who gave to the world in two
volumes some of the plates which had been drawn by John Abbot, an
Englishman who lived for a number of years in Georgia. The work appeared
in two folio volumes, bearing the date 1797. It is entitled "The Natural
History of the Rarer Lepidopterous Insects of Georgia." It contains one
hundred and four plates, in which the insects are represented in their
various stages upon their appropriate food-plants. Smith and Abbot's
work contains original descriptions of only about half a dozen of the
North American butterflies, and figures a number of species which had
been already described by earlier authors. It is mainly devoted to the
moths. This work is now rare and commands a very high price.

The next important work upon the subject was published by Dr. J.A.
Boisduval of Paris, a celebrated entomologist, who was assisted by Major
John E. Leconte. The work appeared in the year 1833, and is entitled
"Histoire Générale et Monographie des Lepidoptères et des Chenilles de
l'Amérique Septentrionale." It contains seventy-eight colored plates,
each representing butterflies of North America, in many cases giving
figures of the larva and the chrysalis as well as of the perfect insect.
The plates were based very largely upon drawings made by John Abbot, and
represent ninety-three species, while in the text there are only
eighty-five species mentioned, some of which are not figured. What has
been said of all the preceding works is also true of this: it is very
rarely offered for sale, can only be found upon occasion, and commands a
high price.

In the year 1841 Dr. Thaddeus William Harris published "A Report on the
Insects of Massachusetts which are Injurious to Vegetation." This work,
which was originally brought out in pursuance of an order of the
legislature of Massachusetts, by the Commissioners of the Zoölogical and
Botanical Survey of the State, was republished in 1842, and was followed
by a third edition in 1852. The last edition, revised and improved by
Charles L. Flint, Secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of
Agriculture, appeared in 1862. This work contains a number of figures
and descriptions of the butterflies of New England, and, while now
somewhat obsolete, still contains a great deal of valuable information,
and is well worth being rescued by the student from the shelves of the
second-hand book-stalls in which it is now and then to be found. For the
New England student of entomology it remains to a greater or less extent
a classic.

In 1860 the Smithsonian Institution published a "Catalogue of the
Described Lepidoptera of North America," a compilation prepared by the
Rev. John G. Morris. This work, though very far from complete, contains
in a compact form much valuable information, largely extracted from the
writings of previous authors. It is not illustrated.

With the book prepared by Dr. Morris the first period in the development
of a literature relating to our subject may be said to close, and the
reader will observe that until the end of the sixth decade of this
century very little had been attempted in the way of systematically
naming, describing, and illustrating the riches of the insect fauna of
this continent. Almost all the work, with the exception of that done by
Harris, Leconte, and Morris, had been done by European authors.

_Later Writers._--At the close of the Civil War this country witnessed a
great intellectual awakening, and every department of science began to
find its zealous students. In the annals of entomology the year 1868 is
memorable because of the issue of the first part of the great work by
William H. Edwards, entitled "The Butterflies of North America." This
work has been within the last year (1897) brought to completion with the
publication of the third volume, and stands as a superb monument to the
scientific attainments and the inextinguishable industry of its learned
author. The three volumes are most superbly illustrated, and contain a
wealth of original drawings, representing all the stages in the
life-history of numerous species, which has never been surpassed.
Unfortunately, while including a large number of the species known to
inhabit North America, the book is nevertheless not what its title
would seem to imply, and is far from complete, several hundreds of
species not being represented in any way, either in the text or in the
illustrations. In spite of this fact it will remain to the American
student a classic, holding a place in the domain of entomology analogous
to that which is held in the science of ornithology by the "Birds of
America," by Audubon.

A work even more elaborate in its design and execution, contained in
three volumes, is "The Butterflies of New England," by Dr. Samuel
Hubbard Scudder, published in the year 1886. No more superbly
illustrated and exhaustive monograph on any scientific subject has ever
been published than this, and it must remain a lasting memorial of the
colossal industry and vast learning of the author, one of the most
eminent scientific men whom America has produced.

While the two great works which have been mentioned have illustrated to
the highest degree not only the learning of their authors, but the vast
advances which have been made in the art of illustration within the last
thirty years, they do not stand alone as representing the activity of
students in this field. A number of smaller, but useful, works have
appeared from time to time. Among these must be mentioned "The
Butterflies of the Eastern United States," by Professor G.H. French.
This book, which contains four hundred and two pages and ninety-three
figures in the text, was published in Philadelphia in 1886. It is an
admirable little work, with the help of which the student may learn much
in relation to the subject; but it greatly lacks in illustration,
without which all such publications are not attractive or thoroughly
useful to the student. In the same year appeared "The Butterflies of New
England," by C.J. Maynard, a quarto containing seventy-two pages of text
and eight colored plates, the latter very poor. In 1878 Herman Strecker
of Reading, Pennsylvania, published a book entitled "Butterflies and
Moths of North America," which is further entitled "A Complete
Synonymical Catalogue." It gives only the synonymy of some four hundred
and seventy species of butterflies, and has never been continued by the
author, as was apparently his intention. It makes no mention of the
moths, except upon the title-page. For the scientific student it has
much value, but is of no value to a beginner. The same author published
in parts a work illustrated by fifteen colored plates, entitled
"Lepidoptera-Rhopaloceres and Heteroceres--Indigenous and Exotic," which
came out from 1872 to 1879, and contains recognizable figures of many
North American species.

In 1891 there appeared in Boston, from the pen of C.J. Maynard, a work
entitled "A Manual of North American Butterflies." This is illustrated
by ten very poorly executed plates and a number of equally poorly
executed cuts in the text. The work is unfortunately characterized by a
number of serious defects which make its use difficult and
unsatisfactory for the correct determination of species and their
classification.

In 1893 Dr. Scudder published two books, both of them useful, though
brief, one of them entitled "The Life of a Butterfly," the other, "A
Brief Guide to the Commoner Butterflies of the Northern United States
and Canada." Both of these books were published in New York by Messrs.
Henry Holt & Co., and contain valuable information in relation to the
subject, being to a certain extent an advance upon another work
published in 1881 by the same author and firm, entitled "Butterflies."

_Periodical Literature._--The reader must not suppose that the only
literature relating to the subject that we are considering is to be
found in the volumes that have been mentioned. The original descriptions
and the life-histories of a large number of the species of the
butterflies of North America have originally appeared in the pages of
scientific periodicals and in the journals and proceedings of different
learned societies. Among the more important publications which are rich
in information in regard to our theme may be mentioned the publications
relating to entomology issued by the United States National Museum, the
United States Department of Agriculture, and by the various American
commonwealths, chief among the latter being Riley's "Missouri Reports."
Exceedingly valuable are many of the papers contained in the
"Transactions of the American Entomological Society," "Psyche," the
"Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society" (1872-85), "Papilio"
(1881-84), "Entomologica Americana" (1885-90), the "Journal of the New
York Entomological Society," the "Canadian Entomologist," and
"Entomological News." All of these journals are mines of original
information, and the student who proposes to master the subject
thoroughly will do well to obtain, if possible, complete sets of these
periodicals, as well as of a number of others which might be mentioned,
and to subscribe for such of them as are still being published.

There are a number of works upon general entomology, containing chapters
upon the diurnal lepidoptera, which may be consulted with profit. Among
the best of these are the following: "A Guide to the Study of Insects,"
by A.S. Packard, Jr., M.D. (Henry Holt & Co., New York, 1883, pp. 715,
8vo); "A Textbook of Entomology," by Alpheus S. Packard, M.D., etc. (The
Macmillan Company, New York, 1898, pp. 729, 8vo); "A Manual for the
Study of Insects," by John Henry Comstock (Comstock Publishing Company,
Ithaca, New York, 1895, pp. 701, 8vo).


HUGO'S "FLOWER TO BUTTERFLY"

  "Sweet, live with me, and let my love
    Be an enduring tether;
  Oh, wanton not from spot to spot,
    But let us dwell together.

  "You've come each morn to sip the sweets
    With which you found me dripping,
  Yet never knew it was not dew,
    But tears, that you were sipping.

  "You gambol over honey meads
    Where siren bees are humming;
  But mine the fate to watch and wait
    For my beloved's coming.

  "The sunshine that delights you now
    Shall fade to darkness gloomy;
  You should not fear if, biding here,
    You nestled closer to me.

  "So rest you, love, and be my love,
    That my enraptured blooming
  May fill your sight with tender light,
    Your wings with sweet perfuming.

  "Or, if you will not bide with me
    Upon this quiet heather,
  Oh, give me wing, thou beauteous thing,
    That we may soar together."

  EUGENE FIELD.



  THE BUTTERFLIES

  OF

  NORTH AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO



  "Lo, the bright train their radiant wings unfold!
  With silver fringed, and freckled o'er with gold:
  On the gay bosom of some fragrant flower
  They, idly fluttering, live their little hour;
  Their life all pleasure, and their task all play,
  All spring their age, and sunshine all their day."

  MRS. BARBAULD



ORDER LEPIDOPTERA SUBORDER RHOPALOCERA (BUTTERFLIES)



FAMILY I

NYMPHALIDÆ (THE BRUSH-FOOTED BUTTERFLIES)


The family of the Nymphalidæ is composed of butterflies which are of
medium and large size, though a few of the genera are made up of species
which are quite small. They may be distinguished from all other
butterflies by the fact that the first pair of legs in both sexes is
atrophied or greatly reduced in size, so that they cannot be used in
walking, but are carried folded up upon the breast. The fore feet,
except in the case of the female of the snout-butterflies (Libytheinæ),
are without tarsal claws, and hence the name "Brush-footed Butterflies"
has been applied to them. As the anterior pair of legs is apparently
useless, they have been called "The Four-footed Butterflies," which is
scientifically a misnomer.

_Egg._--The eggs of the Nymphalidæ, for the most part, are dome-shaped
or globular, and are marked with raised longitudinal lines extending
from the summit toward the base over the entire surface or over the
upper portion of the egg. Between these elevations are often found finer
and less elevated cross-lines. In a few genera the surface of the eggs
is covered with reticulation arranged in geometrical patterns (see Fig.
1).

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillars of the Nymphalidæ, as they emerge from
the egg, have heads the diameter of which is larger than that of the
body, and covered with a number of wart-like elevations from which
hairs arise. The body of the immature larva generally tapers from before
backward (see Plate III, Figs. 7 and 11). The mature larva is
cylindrical in form, sometimes, as in the Satyrinæ, thicker in the
middle. Often one or more of the segments are greatly swollen in whole
or in part. The larvæ are generally ornamented with fleshy projections
or branching spines.

_Chrysalids._--The chrysalids are for the most part angular, and often
have strongly marked projections. As a rule, they hang with the head
downward, having the cremaster, or anal hook, attached to a button of
silk woven to the under surface of a limb of a tree, a stone, or some
other projecting surface. A few boreal species construct loose coverings
of threads of silk at the roots of grasses, and here undergo their
transformations. The chrysalids are frequently ornamented with golden or
silvery spots.

This is the largest of all the families of butterflies, and it is also
the most widely distributed. It is represented by species which have
their abode in the cold regions of the far North and upon the lofty
summits of mountains, where summer reigns for but a few weeks during the
year; and it is enormously developed in equatorial lands, including here
some of the most gloriously colored species in the butterfly world. But
although these insects appear to have attained their most superb
development in the tropics, they are more numerous in the temperate
regions than other butterflies, and a certain fearlessness, and fondness
for the haunts of men, which seems to characterize some of them, has
brought them more under the eyes of observers. The literature of poetry
and prose which takes account of the life of the butterfly has mainly
dealt with forms belonging to this great assemblage of species.

In the classification of the brush-footed butterflies various
subdivisions have been suggested by learned authors, but the species
found in the United States and the countries lying northward upon the
continent may be all included in the following six groups, or
subfamilies:

  1. The _Euploeinoe_, the Euploeids.
  2. The _Ithomiinoe_, the Ithomiids.
  3. The _Heliconiinoe_, the Heliconians.
  4. The _Nymphalinoe_, the Nymphs.
  5. The _Satyrinoe_, the Satyrs.
  6. The _Libytheinoe_, the Snout-butterflies.
The insects belonging to these different subfamilies may be
distinguished by the help of the following analytical table, which is
based upon that of Professor Comstock, given in his "Manual for the
Study of Insects" (p. 396), which in turn is based upon that of Dr.
Scudder, in "The Butterflies of New England" (vol. i, p. 115).


  KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES OF THE NYMPHALIDÆ OF THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA

  I. With the veins of the fore wings not greatly swollen at the base.

  _A._ Antennæ naked.
  (_a_) Fore wings less than twice as long as broad--_Euploeinoe_.
  (_b_) Fore wings twice as long as broad and often translucent, the
   abdomen extending far beyond the inner margin of the hind
   wings--_Ithomiinoe_.

  _B._ Antennæ clothed with scales, at least above.
  (_a_) Fore wings at least twice as long as broad--_Heliconiinoe_.
  (_b_) Fore wings less than twice as long as broad.
  1. Palpi not as long as the thorax--_Nymphalinoe_.
  2. Palpi much longer than the thorax--_Libytheinoe_.

  II. With some of the veins of the fore wings greatly swollen at the
      base--_Satyrinoe_.

We now proceed to present the various genera and species of this family
which occur within the territorial limits of which this book treats. The
reader will do well to accompany the study of the descriptions, which
are at most mere sketches, by a careful examination of the figures in
the plates. In this way a very clear idea of the different species can
in most instances be obtained. But with the study of the book should
always go, if possible, the study of the living things themselves.
Knowledge of nature founded upon books is at best second-hand. To the
fields and the woods, then, net in hand! Splendid as may be the sight of
a great collection of butterflies from all parts of the world, their
wings

  "Gleaming with purple and gold,"

no vision is so exquisite and so inspiring as that which greets the true
aurelian as in shady dell or upon sun-lit upland, with the blue sky
above him and the flowers all around him, he pursues his pleasant,
self-imposed tasks, drinking in health at every step.



SUBFAMILY EUPLOEINÆ (THE MILKWEED BUTTERFLIES)

              "Lazily flying
  Over the flower-decked prairies, West;
  Basking in sunshine till daylight is dying,
  And resting all night on Asclepias' breast;
              Joyously dancing,
              Merrily prancing,
  Chasing his lady-love high in the air,
              Fluttering gaily,
              Frolicking daily,
  Free from anxiety, sorrow, and care!"

  C.V. RILEY.


_Butterfly._--Large butterflies; head large; the antennæ inserted on the
summit, stout, naked, that is to say, not covered with scales, the club
long and not broad; palpi stout; the thorax somewhat compressed, with
the top arched. The abdomen is moderately stout, bearing on the eighth
segment, on either side, in the case of the male, clasps which are quite
conspicuous. The fore wings are greatly produced at the apex and more or
less excavated about the middle of the outer border; the hind wings are
rounded and generally much smaller than the fore wings; the outer margin
is regular, without tails, and the inner margin is sometimes channeled
so as to enfold the abdomen. The fore legs are greatly atrophied in the
male, less so in the female; these atrophied legs are not provided with
claws, but on the other legs the claws are well developed.

_Egg._--The eggs are ovate conical, broadly flattened at the base and
slightly truncated at the top, with many longitudinal ribs and
transverse cross-ridges (see Fig. 4).

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE VII                                     |
  |                                                              |
  | ANOSIA AND BASILARCHIA                                       |
  |                                                              |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Anosia plexippus_, Linnæus, ♂.                           |
  | 2. _Anosia berenice_, Cramer, ♂.                             |
  | 3. _Anosia berenice_, var. _strigosa_, Bates,                |
  |     ♂.                                                       |
  | 4. _Basilarchia disippus_, Godart, ♂.                        |
  | 5. _Basilarchia hulsti_, Edwards, ♂.                         |
  |                                                              |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE VII.]                                    |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+

_Caterpillar._--On emerging from the chrysalis the head is not larger
than the body; the body has a few scattered hairs on each segment.
On reaching maturity the head is small, the body large, cylindrical,
without hair, and conspicuously banded with dark stripes upon a lighter
ground, and on some of the segments there are generally erect fleshy
processes of considerable length (see Fig. 16). The caterpillars feed
upon different species of the milkweed (_Asclepias_).

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is relatively short and thick, rounded, with
very few projections, tapers very rapidly over the posterior part of the
abdomen, and is suspended by a long cremaster from a button of silk (see
Fig. 24). The chrysalis is frequently ornamented with golden or silver
spots.

This subfamily reaches its largest development in the tropical regions
of Asia. Only one genus is represented in our fauna, the genus _Anosia_.


Genus ANOSIA, Hübner

_Butterfly._--Large-sized butterflies; fore wings long, greatly produced
at the apex, having a triangular outline, the outer margin approximately
as long as the inner margin; the costal border is regularly bowed; the
outer border is slightly excavated, the outer angle rounded; the hind
wings are well rounded, the costal border projecting just at the base,
the inner margin likewise projecting at the base and depressed so as to
form a channel clasping the abdomen. On the edge of the first median
nervule of the male, about its middle, there is a scent-pouch covered
with scales.

[Illustration FIG. 78.--Neuration of the genus _Anosia_.]

_Egg._--The egg is ovate conical, ribbed perpendicularly with many
raised cross-lines between the ridges. The eggs are pale green in color.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar is cylindrical, fleshy, transversely
wrinkled, and has on the second thoracic and eighth abdominal segment
pairs of very long and slender fleshy filaments; the body is ornamented
by dark bands upon a greenish-yellow ground-color; the filaments are
black.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is stout, cylindrical, rapidly tapering on
the abdomen, and is suspended from a button of silk by a long cremaster.
The color of the chrysalis is pale green, ornamented with golden spots.

The larvæ of the genus _Anosia_ feed for the most part upon the
varieties of milkweed (_Asclepias_), and they are therefore called
"milkweed butterflies." There are two species of the genus found in our
fauna, one, _Anosia plexippus_, Linnæus, which is distributed over the
entire continent as far north as southern Canada, and the other, _Anosia
berenice_, Cramer, which is confined to the extreme southwestern
portions of the United States, being found in Texas and Arizona.

(1) =Anosia plexippus=, Linnæus, Plate VII, Fig. 1, ♂ (The Monarch).

_Butterfly._--The upper surface of the wings of this butterfly is bright
reddish, with the borders and veins broadly black, with two rows of
white spots on the outer borders and two rows of pale spots of
moderately large size across the apex of the fore wings. The males have
the wings less broadly bordered with black than the females, and on the
first median nervule of the hind wings there is a black scent-pouch.

_Egg._--The egg is ovate conical, and is well represented in Fig. 4 in
the introductory chapter of this book.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar is bright yellow or greenish-yellow,
banded with shining black, and furnished with black fleshy thread-like
appendages before and behind. It likewise is well delineated in Fig. 16,
as well as in Plate III, Fig. 5.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is about an inch in length, pale green,
spotted with gold (see Fig. 24, and Plate IV, Figs. 1-3).

The butterfly is believed to be polygoneutic, that is to say, many
broods are produced annually; and it is believed by writers that with
the advent of cold weather these butterflies migrate to the South, the
chrysalids and caterpillars which may be undeveloped at the time of the
frosts are destroyed, and that when these insects reappear, as they do
every summer, they represent a wave of migration coming northward from
the warmer regions of the Gulf States. It is not believed that any of
them hibernate in any stage of their existence. This insect sometimes
appears in great swarms on the eastern and southern coasts of New Jersey
in late autumn. The swarms pressing southward are arrested by the
ocean. The writer has seen stunted trees on the New Jersey coast in the
middle of October, when the foliage has already fallen, so completely
covered with clinging masses of these butterflies as to present the
appearance of trees in full leaf (Fig. 79).

[Illustration FIG. 79.--Swarms of milkweed butterflies resting on a
tree. Photographed at night by Professor C.F. Nachtrieb. (From "Insect
Life," vol. v, p. 206, by special permission of the United States
Department of Agriculture.)]

This butterfly is a great migrant, and within quite recent years, with
Yankee instinct, has crossed the Pacific, probably on merchant vessels,
the chrysalids being possibly concealed in bales of hay, and has found
lodgment in Australia, where it has greatly multiplied in the warmer
parts of the Island Continent, and has thence spread northward and
westward, until in its migrations it has reached Java and Sumatra, and
long ago took possession of the Philippines. Moving eastward on the
lines of travel, it has established a more or less precarious foothold
for itself in southern England, as many as two or three dozen of these
butterflies having been taken in a single year in the United Kingdom. It
is well established at the Cape Verde Islands, and in a short time we
may expect to hear of it as having taken possession of the continent of
Africa, in which the family of plants upon which the caterpillars feed
is well represented.

(2) =Anosia berenice=, Cramer, Plate VII, Fig. 2, ♂ (The Queen).

This butterfly is smaller than the Monarch, and the ground-color of the
wings is a livid brown. The markings are somewhat similar to those in
_A. plexippus_, but the black borders of the hind wings are relatively
wider, and the light spots on the apex of the fore wings are whiter and
differently located, as may be learned from the figures given in Plate
VII.

There is a variety of this species, which has been called =Anosia
strigosa= by H.W. Bates (Plate VII, Fig. 3, ♂), which differs only in
that on the upper surface of the hind wings the veins as far as the
black outer margin are narrowly edged with grayish-white, giving them a
streaked appearance. This insect is found in Texas, Arizona, and
southern New Mexico.

All of the Euploeinæ are "protected" insects, being by nature provided
with secretions which are distasteful to birds and predaceous insects.
These acrid secretions are probably due to the character of the plants
upon which the caterpillars feed, for many of them eat plants which are
more or less rank, and some of them even poisonous to the higher orders
of animals. Enjoying on this account immunity from attack, they have
all, in the process of time, been mimicked by species in other genera
which have not the same immunity. This protective resemblance is well
illustrated in Plate VII. The three upper figures in the plate
represent, as we have seen, species of the genus _Anosia_; the two lower
figures represent two species of the genus _Basilarchia_. Fig. 4 is the
male of _B. disippus_, a very common species in the northern United
States, which mimicks the Monarch. Fig. 5 represents the same sex of _B.
hulstii_, a species which is found in Arizona, and there flies in
company with the Queen, and its variety, _A. strigosa_, which latter it
more nearly resembles.



SUBFAMILY ITHOMIINÆ (THE LONG-WINGS)

     "There be Insects with little hornes proaking out before their
     eyes, but weak and tender they be, and good for nothing; as the
     Butterflies."--PLINY, PHILEMON HOLLAND'S Translation.


_Butterfly._--This subfamily is composed for the most part of species of
moderate size, though a few are quite large. The fore wings are
invariably greatly lengthened and are generally at least twice as long
as broad. The hind wings are relatively small, rounded, and without
tails. The wings in many of the genera are transparent. The extremity of
the abdomen in both sexes extends far beyond the margin of the hind
wings, but in the female not so much as in the male. The antennæ are not
clothed with scales, and are very long and slender, with the club also
long and slender, gradually thickening to the tip, which is often
drooping. The fore legs are greatly atrophied in the males, the tibia
and tarsi in this sex being reduced to a minute knob-like appendage, but
being more strongly developed in the females.

The life-history of none of the species reputed to be found in our fauna
has been carefully worked out. The larvæ are smooth, covered in most
genera with longitudinal rows of conical prominences.

The chrysalids are said to show a likeness to those of the Euploeinæ,
being short, thick, and marked with golden spots. Some authors are
inclined to view this subfamily as merely constituting a section of the
Euploeinæ. The insects are, however, so widely unlike the true Euploeinæ
that it seems well to keep them separate in our system of
classification. In appearance they approach the Heliconians more nearly
than the Euploeids. Ithomiid butterflies swarm in the tropics of the New
World, and several hundreds of species are known to inhabit the hot
lands of Central and South America. But one genus is found in the Old
World, _Hamadryas_, confined to the Australian region. They are
protected like the Euploeids and the Heliconians. In flight they are
said to somewhat resemble the dragon-flies of the genus _Agrion_, their
narrow wings, greatly elongated bodies, and slow, flitting motion
recalling these insects, which are known by schoolboys as
"darning-needles."

Three genera are said to be represented in the extreme southwestern
portion of the United States. I myself have never received specimens of
any of them which indisputably came from localities within our limits,
and no such specimens are found in the great collection of Mr. W.H.
Edwards, which is now in my possession. A paratype of Reakirt's species,
_Mechanitis californica_, is contained in the collection of Theodore L.
Mead, which I also possess. Mr. Mead obtained it from Herman Strecker of
Reading, Pennsylvania. Reakirt gives Los Angeles as the locality from
which his type came; but whether he was right in this is open to
question, inasmuch, so far as is known, the species has not been found
in that neighborhood since described by Reakirt.


Genus MECHANITIS, Fabricius

_Butterfly._--Butterflies of moderate size, with the fore wings greatly
produced, the inner margin bowed out just beyond the base, and deeply
excavated between this projection and the inner angle. The lower
discocellular vein in the hind wings is apparently continuous with the
median vein, and the lower radial vein being parallel with the median
nervules, the median vein has in consequence the appearance of being
four-branched. The submedian vein of the fore wings is forked at the
base. The costal margin of the hind wings is clothed with tufted erect
hairs in the male sex. The fore legs of the male are greatly atrophied,
the tarsi and the tibia being fused and reduced to a small knob-like
appendage. The fore legs of the female are also greatly reduced, but the
tarsi and tibia are still recognizable as slender, thread-like organs.

[Illustration FIG. 80.--Neuration of the genus _Mechanitis_. The
letters refer to the names of the veins. (See Fig 40.)] The
caterpillars are smooth, cylindrical, ornamented with rows of short
fleshy projections.

The chrysalids are short and stout, suspended, and marked with golden
spots.

There are numerous species belonging to this genus, all natives of
tropical America. The only species said to be found within the limits of
the United States occurs, if at all, in southern California. It is,
however, probably only found in the lower peninsula of California, which
is Mexican territory. No examples from Upper California are known to the
writer.


(1) =Mechanitis californica=, Reakirt, Plate VIII, Fig. 2, ♂ (The
Californian Long-wing).

The original description given by Reakirt in the "Proceedings of the
Entomological Society of Philadelphia," vol. v, p. 223, is as follows:

"Expanse, 2.45-2.56 inches. Fore wing above, brownish-black; a basal
streak over the median nervure, and two rounded spots near the inner
angle, orange-tawny; of these the outer is the largest, sometimes the
inner is yellow, and sometimes both are nearly obsolete; a spot across
the cell near its termination, much narrower than in _M. isthmia_, and
in one example reduced to a mere dot on the median nervure; a more or
less interrupted belt across the wing from the costa to near the middle
of the outer margin, and an oblong subapical spot, yellow; in the
specimen just mentioned there is an additional yellow spot below the
medio-central veinlet.

"Beneath the same, suffused with orange-tawny at the base and the inner
angle, with a row of eight or nine submarginal white spots along the
outer margin.

"Hind wing above, orange-tawny, with a broad mesial band, entire, and a
narrow outer border, from the middle of the costa to the anal angle,
brownish-black.

"Beneath the same, a yellow spot on the root of the wing; a band runs
along the subcostal nervure from the base to the margin, where it is
somewhat dilated; immediately below its termination, a mark in the form
of an irregular figure 2, usually with the upper part inordinately
enlarged; between this and the base, on the central line of the band
above, three small subtriangular spots; all these markings
blackish-brown; a submarginal row of seven white spots on the outer
margin.

"Body brownish; wing-lappets and thorax spotted with tawny-orange;
antennæ yellowish, with the base dusky.

"_Hab._--Los Angeles, California."

The species is probably only a local race of the insect known to
naturalists as _M. polymnia_, Linnæus, as Reakirt himself admits. The
figure in the plate is from one of Reakirt's paratypes.


Genus CERATINIA, Fabricius

_Butterfly._--Butterflies of medium size, very closely related in
structure to the butterflies of the genus _Mechanitis_. The peculiarity
of this genus, by which it may be distinguished from others belonging to
this subfamily, is the fact that the _lower_ discocellular vein in the
hind wing of the male sex is strongly in angled, while in the genus
_Mechanitis_ it is the _middle_ discocellular vein of the hind wing
which is bent inwardly.

_Early Stages._--Unknown for the most part.

There are at least fifty species belonging to this genus found in the
tropical regions of America; only one is said to occur occasionally
within the limits of the region covered by this volume.

[Illustration FIG. 81.--Neuration of the genus _Ceratinia_. (For
explanation of lettering, see Fig. 40.)]

(1) =Ceratinia lycaste=, Fabricius, Plate VIII, Fig. 3, ♂ (Lycaste).

_Butterfly._--The butterfly is rather small, wings semi-transparent,
especially at the apex of the fore wings. The ground-color is pale
reddish-orange, with the border black. There are a few irregular black
spots on the discal area of the fore wings, and a row of minute white
spots on the outer border. There is a black band on the middle of the
hind wings, curved to correspond somewhat with the outline of the outer
border. The markings on the under side are paler. The variety _negreta_,
which is represented in the plate, has a small black spot at the end of
the cell of the hind wings, replacing the black band in the form common
upon the Isthmus of Panama.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE VIII                                    |
  |                                                              |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Dircenna klugi_, Hübner, ♂.                              |
  | 2. _Mechanitis californica_, Reakirt, ♂.                     |
  | 3. _Ceratinia lycaste_, Fabricius, ♂.                        |
  | 4. _Coloenis delila_, Fabricius, ♂.                          |
  | 5. _Heliconius charitonius_, Linnæus, ♂.                     |
  | 6. _Coloenis julia, Fabricius_, ♂.                           |
  | 7. _Dione vanillæ_, Linnæus, ♂.                              |
  | 8. _Euptoieta hegesia_, Cramer, ♂.                           |
  | 9. _Euptoieta claudia_, Cramer, ♂.                           |
  |                                                              |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE VIII.]                                   |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+


_Early Stages._--Unknown.

Reakirt says that this butterfly occurs about Los Angeles, in
California, and the statement has been repeated by numerous authors, who
have apparently based their assertions upon Reakirt's report. I have no
personal knowledge of the occurrence of the species within our borders.
It is very abundant, however, in the warmer parts of Mexico and Central
America, and it may possibly occur as a straggler within the United
States.


Genus DIRCENNA, Doubleday

_Butterfly._--Medium-sized butterflies, for the most part with quite
transparent wings. The most characteristic features of this genus,
separating it from its near allies, are the thread-like front feet of
the females, furnished with four-jointed tarsi (Fig. 83), the very hairy
palpi, and the wide cell of the hind wing, abruptly terminating about
the middle of the wing. Furthermore, in the male sex the hind wing is
strongly bowed out about the middle of the costal margin, and the costal
vein tends to coalesce with the subcostal about the middle.

[Illustration FIG. 83.--Fore leg of _Dircenna klugii_, ♀, greatly
magnified.]

_Early Stages._--Very little is as yet known about the early stages of
these insects, and what has been said of the characteristics of the
caterpillars and chrysalids of the subfamily of the Ithomiinæ must
suffice us here.

[Illustration FIG. 82.--Neuration of the genus _Dircenna_.]

This genus numbers a large array of species which are found in the
hottest parts of the tropics of the New World. They fairly swarm in
wooded paths amid the jungle of the Amazonian region, and no collection,
however small, is ever received from those parts without containing
specimens belonging to the group.

(1) =Dircenna klugii=, Hübner, Plate VIII, Fig. 1, ♂ (Klug's Dircenna).

_Butterfly._--Fore wings transparent gray, broken by clear,
transparent, colorless spots at the apex, on the outer borders, and on
the middle of the wing. The inner margin of the fore wing is black. The
hind wings are transparent yellowish, with a narrow black outer border
marked with small whitish spots. The body is black, with the thorax
spotted with white. Expanse, 2.75 inches.

The specimen figured in the plate is from Mexico. Whether the insect has
ever been taken within the limits of the United States is uncertain. It
is another of the species attributed to our fauna by Reakirt, but which
since his day has not been caught in the nets of any of the numerous
butterfly-hunters who have searched the region in which he said it
occurs. It may, however, be found upon the borders of Mexico, in the
hotter parts of which country it is not at all uncommon. The "gentle
reader" will kindly look for it when visiting Brownsville, Texas, and
southern California, and, when finding it, herald the fact to the
entomological world.

       *       *       *       *       *

SUPERSTITIONS

     "If a butterfly alights upon your head, it foretells good news from
     a distance. This superstition obtains in Pennsylvania and Maryland.

     "The first butterfly seen in the summer brings good luck to him who
     catches it. This notion prevails in New York.

     "In western Pennsylvania it is believed that if the chrysalids of
     butterflies be found suspended mostly on the under sides of rails,
     limbs, etc., as it were to protect them from rain, there will soon
     be much rain, or, as it is termed, a 'rainy spell'; but, on the
     contrary, if they are found on twigs and slender branches, that the
     weather will be dry and clear."--FRANK COWAN, _Curious History of
     Insects_, p. 229.



SUBFAMILY HELICONIINÆ (THE HELICONIANS)

                    "Men, like butterflies,
  Show not their mealy wings but to the summer."
  SHAKESPEARE, _Troilus and Cressida_, act iii, sc iii


Medium or large-sized butterflies, with the fore wings twice as long as
they are broad; the hind wings relatively small and rounded upon the
outer margin; without tails. The palpi are produced. The antennæ, which
are nearly as long as the body, are provided at the tip with a gradually
tapering club, thicker and stouter than in the Ithomiinæ, and are
clothed with scales on the upper surface. The fore legs are very feebly
developed in both sexes. The eggs are cylindrical, twice as high as
wide, tapering rather abruptly toward the apex, which is truncated; they
are ribbed longitudinally, with strongly developed cross-ridges, giving
the egg a somewhat pitted appearance. The caterpillar, when emerging
from the egg, has the head somewhat larger than the body; each segment
is clothed with hairs, which upon the first moult are replaced by
branching spines. The caterpillar, when it reaches maturity, is provided
with six branching spines on each segment. The chrysalis is very
peculiar in shape, and is strongly angulated and covered with curious
projections, which cause it to somewhat resemble a shriveled leaf.

[Illustration FIG. 84.--Neuration of the genus _Heliconius_.]

These butterflies are extremely numerous in the tropics of the New
World, and are there represented by a number of genera which are rich in
species. Most of them are very gaily colored, the prevalent tints being
black banded with yellow or crimson, sometimes marked with a brilliant
blue luster. They are evidently very strongly protected. Belt, in his
"Naturalist in Nicaragua," tells us that birds and other animals
observed by him invariably refused to eat these butterflies, although
they swarm in the forests; and he vainly endeavored to induce a monkey
which was very fond of insects to eat them, the creature revealing by
his grimaces that they were extremely distasteful to him. Mr. Wallace
believes their immunity from attack is owing to a "strong, pungent,
semi-aromatic, or medicinal odor, which seems to pervade all the juices
of their system."


Genus HELICONIUS, Latreille

The description of the subfamily applies to the genus sufficiently well
to obviate the necessity of a more particular description, as there is
but a single species in our fauna.

(1) =Heliconius charitonius=, Linnæus, Plate VIII, Fig. 5, ♂ (The
Yellow-barred Heliconian; The Zebra).

This insect is a deep black, the fore wings crossed by three bands of
yellow: one near the apex; another running from the middle of the costa
to the middle of the outer margin; a third running along the lower edge
of the cell, and bending at an obtuse angle from the point where the
first median nervule branches toward the outer angle, at its outer
extremity followed by a small yellow dot. The hind wings are crossed by
a somewhat broad band of yellow running from the inner margin near the
base toward the outer angle, which it does not reach, and by a
submarginal curved band of paler yellow spots, gradually diminishing in
size from the inner margin toward the outer angle. There are also a
number of small twinned whitish spots on the margin of the hind wing
near the anal angle. The body is black, marked with yellow spots and
lines; on the under side both wings are touched with crimson at their
base, and the hind wings have some pale pinkish markings near the outer
angle.

The caterpillar feeds upon the passion-flower. The chrysalis, which is
dark brown, has the power when disturbed of emitting a creaking sound as
it wriggles about, a property which is reported to be characteristic of
all the insects in the genus. This butterfly is found in the hotter
portions of the Gulf States, and is rather abundant in Florida, in the
region of the Indian River and on the head waters of the St. Johns. It
ranges southward all over the lowlands of Mexico, Central America, and
the Antilles.



SUBFAMILY NYMPHALINÆ (THE NYMPHS)

     "Entomology extends the limits of being in new directions, so that
     I walk in nature with a sense of greater space and freedom. It
     suggests, besides, that the universe is not rough-hewn, but perfect
     in its details. Nature will bear the closest inspection; she
     invites us to lay our eye level with the smallest leaf and take an
     insect view of its plane."--THOREAU.

     "My butterfly-net and pocket magnifying-glass are rare companions
     for a walk in the country."--WILLIAM HAMILTON GIBSON, _Sharp Eyes_,
     p. 117.


_Butterfly._--The butterflies of this subfamily are mainly of moderate
or large size, though some of the genera contain quite small species.
The antennæ are always more or less heavily clothed with scales, and are
usually as long as the abdomen, and in a few cases even longer. The club
is always well developed; it is usually long, but in some genera is
short and stout. The palpi are short and stout, densely clothed with
scales and hairs. The thorax is relatively stout, in some genera
exceedingly so. The fore wings are relatively broad, the length being to
the breadth in most cases in the ratio of 5 to 3, or 3 to 2, though in a
few mimetic forms these wings are greatly produced, and narrow,
patterning after the outline of the Heliconians and Ithomiids, which
they mimic. The fore wings are in most genera produced at the apex, and
more or less strongly excavated on the outer margin below the apex. The
discoidal cell is usually less than half the length of the wing from
base to tip. It is occasionally open, but is more generally closed at
its outer extremity by discocellular veins diminishing in thickness from
the upper to the lower outer angle of the cell. The costal nervure
usually terminates midway between the end of the cell and the tip. The
two inner subcostal nervules usually arise before the end of the cell;
the outer subcostal nervules invariably arise beyond the end of the
cell.

The hind wings are rounded or angulated, with the outer border
scalloped or tailed; the inner border always affords a channel for the
reception of the abdomen. The costal nervule invariably terminates at
the external angle of this wing. The discoidal cell is frequently open,
or simply closed by a slender veinlet, which it is not always easy to
detect; the anal vein is never lacking.

The fore legs are greatly reduced in the male, less so in the female.

_Egg._--The egg is either somewhat globular, or else barrel-shaped, with
the sides marked with net-like elevations, or vertically ribbed (see
Figs. 1, 8, 10).

_Caterpillar._--When first emerging from the egg the caterpillar is
generally furnished with long hairs rising singly from wart-like
elevations which are arranged either in longitudinal rows or in
geometric patterns (Fig. 85). As the caterpillars pass their successive
moults the hairs are transformed into branching spines or tubercles (see
Plate III, Figs. 28-38).

[Illustration FIG. 85.--Caterpillar of _Vanessa antiopa_, just hatched.
(Greatly magnified.) (After Scudder.)]

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis invariably hangs suspended from a button of
silk, and is frequently furnished, especially on the dorsal or upper
surface, with a number of prominences; the head is usually bifurcate, or
cleft (see Plate IV, Figs. 21, 39, etc.).

This is the largest of all the subfamilies of the butterflies, and is
widely distributed, including many of the most beautifully colored and
most vigorous species which are known. There are twenty-six genera
represented in our fauna, containing about one hundred and seventy
species.


Genus COLÆNIS, Doubleday

_Butterfly._--Butterflies of moderately large size, the fore wings
greatly produced and relatively narrow; the hind wings evenly rounded
and relatively small, of bright reddish-brown color, with darker
markings. The species are mimics, and in the elongation of their wings
reveal the influence of the Heliconians, protected species, which
abound in the regions in which the genus attains its greatest
development. The median vein in the upper wing is characterized by the
presence at the base of a minute, thorn-like, external projection; the
second subcostal nervule is emitted beyond the cell; the cell of the
hind wing is open.

The life-history of the two species found within our fauna has not as
yet been carefully worked out, and aside from a knowledge of the fact
that the caterpillars closely resemble in many respects the caterpillars
of the two succeeding genera, being provided with branching spines on
their bodies, we do not know as yet enough to give any complete account
of the early stages of these insects.

[Illustration FIG. 86.--Neuration of the genus _Coloenis_, slightly
less than natural size.]

(1) =Colænis julia=, Fabricius, Plate VIII, Fig. 6, ♂ (Julia).

The upper side is dark reddish-orange, the borders are black, a black
band extends from the costa at the end of the cell to the outer margin
on the line of the third median nervule; the costal area on the hind
wings is silver-gray; the wings on the under side are pale rusty-red,
mottled with a few darker spots, principally on the costa, at the end of
the cell, and at the apex of the primaries. There are a few crimson
marks at the base of the hind wings, and two light-colored lunules near
the inner angle of the hind wings. Expanse of wing, 3.50 inches.

This butterfly, which mimics the genus _Heliconius_ in the outline of
the wings, is very common in the tropics of America, and only appears as
an occasional visitant in southern Texas.

(2) =Colænis delila=, Fabricius, Plate VIII, Fig. 4, ♂ (Delila).

The Delila Butterfly very closely resembles Julia, and principally
differs in being paler in color and without the black band extending
from the costa to the outer margin of the primaries. This species has
nearly the same form and the same size as the preceding, and, like it,
is occasionally found in southern Texas. It is very common in Central
America and the West Indies. One of the earliest memories of my
childhood relates to a collection of Jamaican butterflies in which were
a number of specimens of this butterfly, which I have always much
admired.


Genus DIONE, Hübner

(Agraulis, _Boisd.-Lec._)

_Butterfly._--Head large, the antennæ moderately long, with the club
flattened; the tip of the abdomen does not extend beyond the inner
margin of the hind wings; the cell of the hind wings is open; the
primaries are elongated, nearly twice as long as broad, with the
exterior margin excavated; the secondaries at the outer margin
denticulate. The prevalent color of the upper side of the wings is
fulvous, adorned with black spots and lines, the under side of the wings
paler brown, in some of the species laved with pink and brilliantly
adorned with large silvery spots, as in the genus _Argynnis_.

_Egg._--Conoidal, truncated on top, with fourteen ribs running from the
apex to the base, between which are rows of elevated striæ, causing the
surface to appear to be covered with quadrangular pits.

_Larva._--The caterpillar is cylindrical in its mature stage, tapering a
little from the middle toward the head, which is somewhat smaller than
the body. The head and each segment of the body are adorned with
branching spines.

[Illustration FIG. 87.--Neuration of the genus _Dione_.]

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is suspended, and has on the dorsal surface
of the abdomen a number of small projections. At the point where the
abdominal and thoracic segments unite on the dorsal side there is a deep
depression, succeeded on the middle of the thorax by a rounded elevation
composed of the wing-cases. At the vertex of the chrysalis there is a
conical projection; on the ventral side the chrysalis is bowed
outwardly.

This genus is confined to the New World, and contains five species. It
is closely related to the genus _Coloenis_ on the one hand and to the
genus _Argynnis_ on the other. It is distinguished from _Coloenis_ by
the more robust structure of the palpi, which closely approximate in
form the palpi of the genus _Argynnis_. It is distinguished from the
species of the genus _Argynnis_ by the form of the wings and by the open
cell of the secondaries. The larva feeds upon the different species of
the genus _Passiflora_. I cannot at all agree with those who have
recently classed this butterfly with the Heliconians. In spite of
certain resemblances in the early stages between the insect we are
considering and the early stages of some of the Heliconians, and in
spite of the shape of the wings, which are remarkably elongated, there
are structural peculiarities enough to compel us to keep this insect in
the ranks of the Nymphalinæ, where it has been placed for sixty years by
very competent and critical observers. In a popular work like this it
manifestly is out of place to enter into a lengthy discussion of a
question of this character, but it seems proper to call attention to the
fact that in the judgment of the writer the location of this genus in
the preceding subfamily does violence to obvious anatomical facts.

(1) =Dione vanillæ=, Linnæus, Plate VIII, Fig. 7, ♂
    (The Gulf Fritillary).

_Butterfly._--The upper side is bright fulvous; the veins on the fore
wings are black, very heavy near the tip; there are four black spots on
the outer border, and three discal spots of the same color; there are
three irregular black spots toward the end of the cell, pupiled with
white; the hind wings have a black border inclosing rounded spots of the
ground-color; between the base and the outer margin there are three or
four black spots; the under side of the fore wings is light orange, the
markings of the upper side showing through upon the under side; the apex
of the front wing is brown, inclosing light silvery spots; the
secondaries are brown, with numerous elongated bright silver spots and
patches. The female does not differ from the male, except that she is
darker and the markings are heavier. Expanse, 2.50-3.25 inches.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar is cylindrical, with the head somewhat
smaller than the body, pale yellowish-brown in color, marked with
longitudinal dark-brown bands, of which the two upon the side are deeper
in color than the one upon the back, which latter is sometimes almost
entirely effaced; the base is slaty-black. There are orange spots about
the spiracles. There are six rows of black branching spines upon the
body, and two similar spines upon the head, these latter somewhat
recurved. The feet and legs are black. The caterpillar feeds upon the
various species of passion-flower which are found in the Southern
States.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is dark brown, marked with a few small pale
spots.

This species ranges from the latitude of southern Virginia southward to
Arizona and California. It is abundant also in the Antilles and Mexico.


Genus EUPTOIETA, Doubleday

_Butterfly._--Butterflies of medium size, having wings of a
yellowish-brown color, marked with black, the under side of the wings
devoid of silvery spots such as are found in the genera _Dione_ and
_Argynnis_. The palpi have the second joint strongly developed,
increasing in thickness from behind forward, and thickly covered with
long hair; the third joint is very small and pointed; the antennæ are
terminated by a conspicuous pear-shaped club. The cell of the fore wing
is closed by a very feeble lower discocellular vein, which unites with
the median vein at the origin of the second median nervule; the cell of
the hind wing is open, though occasionally there are traces of a feebly
developed lower discocellular vein on this wing. The outer margin of the
fore wing is slightly excavated below the apex; the outer margin of the
hind wing is somewhat strongly produced at the end of the third median
nervule.

[Illustration FIG. 88.--Neuration of the genus _Euptoieta_.]

_Egg._--Short, subconical, with from thirty to forty vertical ribs, pale
green in color.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar is cylindrical, with short branching
spines arranged in longitudinal rows upon the body, the spines on the
first segment being bent forward over the head. The head is somewhat
smaller in the mature stage than the body.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is suspended, marked upon its dorsal side
with a number of small angular eminences, with the head and the ventral
side evenly rounded.

The larva of these insects feeds upon the various species of
passion-flower. It is also said to feed upon violets. The butterflies
frequent open fields, and are sometimes exceedingly abundant in worn-out
lands in the Southern States.

There are two species of this genus, both of which are found within the
United States, and range southwardly over the greater portion of Central
and South America.

(1) =Euptoieta claudia=, Cramer, Plate VIII, Fig. 9, ♂ (The Variegated
Fritillary).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of both wings is dull ferruginous, darker
toward the base, crossed by an irregular black median line, which is
darker, broader, and more zigzag on the fore wing than on the hind wing.
This line is followed outwardly on both wings by a pair of more or less
wavy limbal lines, inclosing between them a series of round blackish
spots. The outer margin is black, with the fringes pale fulvous,
checkered with black at the end of each nervule. At the end of the cell
in the fore wing there are two black lines inclosing paler fulvous
spots, and both wings near the base have some curved black lines. On the
under side the fore wings are marked somewhat as on the upper side, but
paler in color, with a large apical patch of brownish-gray broken by a
transverse band of darker brown. The hind wings are dark brown, with the
markings of the upper side obscurely repeated; they are mottled with
gray and crossed by a broad central band of pale buff.

The species varies very much, according to locality, both in size and in
the depth of the markings. Expanse, 1.75-2.75 inches.

_Egg._--The egg is conoidal, relatively taller than the eggs of the
genus _Argynnis_, which closely resemble it. There is a depression at
the apex, surrounded by a serrated rim, formed by the ends of the
vertical ribs, of which there are about twenty, some longer and some
shorter, about half of them reaching from the apex to the base. Between
these vertical ribs there are a multitude of smaller cross-ridges.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar is cylindrical, reddish-yellow in color,
marked with two brown lateral bands and a series of white spots upon the
back. There are six rows of short branching spines upon the body, which
are black in color; the two uppermost of these spines on the first
segment are much elongated and are directed forward. The head is smaller
than the body in the mature caterpillar, and is black. On the under side
the caterpillar is pale or whitish; the legs are blackish-brown. It
feeds upon the passion-flower.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is pearly-white, marked with black spots and
longitudinal streaks.

This species has been taken as far north as Long Island and Connecticut,
though it is a very rare visitant in New England; it is quite common in
Virginia and thence southward, and occurs not infrequently in southern
Illinois and Indiana, ranging westward and southward over the entire
continent to the Isthmus of Panama, and thence extending over the South
American continent, wherever favorable conditions occur.

(2) =Euptoieta hegesia=, Cramer, Plate VIII, Fig. 8, ♂ (The Mexican
Fritillary).

The upper side is marked very much as in the preceding species, but all
the lines are finer and somewhat more regular, and the basal and discal
areas of the hind wings are without dark spots in most specimens. The
under side is less mottled and more uniformly dark rusty-brown than in
_E. claudia_. Expanse, about 2 inches.

The life-history of this species has not as yet been thoroughly worked
out, but there is every reason to believe that the insect in its early
stages very closely approaches the Variegated Fritillary. It is a
Southern form, and only occasionally is taken in Arizona and southern
California. It is common in Central and South America.


LUTHER'S SADDEST EXPERIENCE

  "Luther, he was persecuted,
  Excommunicated, hooted,
  Disappointed, egged, and booted;
  Yelled at by minutest boys,
  Waked up by nocturnal noise,
  Scratched and torn by fiendish cats,
  Highwayed by voracious rats.

  "Oft upon his locks so hoary
  Water fell from upper story;
  Oft a turnip or potato
  Struck upon his back or pate, Oh!
  And wherever he betook him,
  A papal bull was sure to hook him.

  "But the saddest of all
  I am forced to relate:
  Of a _diet of worms_
  He was forced to partake--
  Of a diet of worms
  For the Protestants' sake;
  Munching crawling caterpillars,
  Beetles mixed with moths and millers;
  Instead of butter, on his bread,
  A sauce of butterflies was spread.
  Was not this a horrid feast
  For a Christian and a priest?

  "Now, if you do not credit me,
  Consult D'Aubigné's history.
  You'll find what I have told you
  Most fearfully and sternly true."

  _Yale Literary Magazine_, 1852.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE IX                                      |
  |                                                              |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Argynnis diana_, Cramer, ♂.                              |
  | 2. _Argynnis diana_, Cramer, ♀.                              |
  | 3. _Argynnis cybele_, Fabricius, ♂.                          |
  | 4. _Argynnis cybele_, Fabricius, ♀.                          |
  | 5. _Argynnis leto_, Behr, ♂.                                 |
  | 6. _Argynnis leto_, Behr, ♀.                                 |
  |                                                              |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE IX.]                                     |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+



Genus ARGYNNIS, Fabricius

(The Fritillaries, the Silver-spots)

     "July is the gala-time of butterflies. Most of them have just left
     the chrysalis, and their wings are perfect and very fresh in color.
     All the sunny places are bright with them, yellow and red and white
     and brown, and great gorgeous fellows in rich velvet-like dresses
     of blue-black, orange, green, and maroon. Some of them have their
     wings scalloped, some fringed, and some plain; and they are
     ornamented with brilliant borders and fawn-colored spots and rows
     of silver crescents.... They circle about the flowers, fly across
     from field to field, and rise swiftly in the air; little ones and
     big ones, common ones and rare ones, but all bright and airy and
     joyous--a midsummer carnival of butterflies."--FRANK H. SWEET.

_Butterfly._--Butterflies of medium or large size, generally with the
upper surface of the wings reddish-fulvous, with well-defined black
markings consisting of waved transverse lines, and rounded discal and
sagittate black markings near the outer borders. On the under side of
the wings the design of the fore wings is generally somewhat
indistinctly repeated, and the hind wings are marked more or less
profusely with large silvery spots. In a few cases there is wide
dissimilarity in color between the male and the female sex; generally
the male sex is marked by the brighter red of the upper surface, and the
female by the broader black markings, the paler ground-color, and the
sometimes almost white lunules, which are arranged outwardly at the base
of the sagittate spots along the border.

[Illustration FIG. 89.--Neuration of the genus _Argynnis_.]

The eyes are naked; the palpi strongly developed, heavily clothed with
hair rising above the front, with the last joint very small and pointed.
The antennæ are moderately long, with a well-defined, flattened club.
The abdomen is shorter than the hind wings; the wings are more or less
denticulate. The subcostal vein is provided with five nervules, of which
the two innermost are invariably given forth before the end of the cell;
the third subcostal nervule always is nearer the fourth than the second.
The cell of the fore wing is closed by a fine lower discocellular vein,
which invariably joins the median vein beyond the origin of the second
nervule. The hind wing has a well-defined precostal nervule; the cell in
this wing is closed by a moderately thick lower discocellular vein,
which joins the median exactly at the origin of the second median
nervule. The fore feet of the males are slender, long, and finely
clothed with hair. The fore feet of the females are of the same size as
those of the males, but thin, covered with scales, and only on the inner
side of the tibiæ clothed with moderately long hair.

_Egg._--The eggs are conoidal, truncated, and inwardly depressed at the
apex, rounded at the base, and ornamented on the sides by parallel
raised ridges, not all of which reach the apex. Between these ridges
there are a number of small raised cross-ridges.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar is cylindrical, covered with spines, the
first segment always bearing a pair of spines somewhat longer than the
others. All of the species in North America, so far as their habits are
known, feed upon violets at night. During the daytime the caterpillars
lie concealed.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is angular, adorned with more or less
prominent projections. The head is bifid.

The genus _Argynnis_ is one of the largest genera of the brush-footed
butterflies. It is well represented in Europe and in the temperate
regions of Asia, some magnificent species being found in the Himalayas
and in China and Japan. It even extends to Australia, and recently two
species have been discovered in the vicinity of the great volcanic peak,
Kilima-Njaro, in Africa. But it has found its greatest development upon
the continent of North America. The species composing this genus are
among our most beautiful butterflies. Owing to the fact that there is a
great tendency in many of the forms closely to approximate one another,
the accurate distinction of many of the species has troubled
naturalists, and it is quite probable that some of the so-called species
will ultimately be discovered to be merely local races or varietal
forms. The species that are found in the eastern part of the United
States have been studied very carefully, and their life-history has been
worked out so thoroughly that little difficulty is found in accurately
determining them. The greatest perplexity occurs in connection with
those species which are found in the region of the Rocky Mountains.
While silvery spots are characteristic of the under side of most of the
fritillaries, in some species the silvery spots are not found; in
others they are more or less evanescent, occurring in the case of some
individuals, and being absent in the case of others.

(1) =Argynnis idalia=, Drury, Plate X, Fig. 3, ♀; Plate V, Fig. 4,
_chrysalis_ (The Regal Fritillary).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of the fore wings of the male is bright
fulvous, marked very much as in other species of the genus. The upper
side of the hind wings is black, glossed with blue, having a marginal
row of fulvous and a submarginal row of cream-colored spots. On the
under side the fore wings are fulvous, with a marginal row of silver
crescents, and some silvery spots on and near the costa. The hind wings
are dark olive-brown, marked with three rows of large irregular spots of
a dull greenish-silvery color. The female is at once distinguished from
the male by having the marginal row of spots on the hind wings
cream-colored, like the submarginal row, and by the presence of a
similar row of light spots on the fore wings. Expanse, 2.75-4.00 inches.

_Egg._--The egg in form is like those of other species of _Argynnis_.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar moults five times before attaining to
maturity. When fully developed it is 1.75 inches long, black, banded and
striped with ochreous and orange-red, and adorned with six rows of
fleshy spines surmounted by several black bristles. The spines composing
the two dorsal rows are white, tipped with black; those on the sides
black, tinted with orange at the point where they join the body. The
caterpillar feeds on violets, and is nocturnal in its habits.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is brown, mottled with yellow and tinted on
the wing-cases with pinkish. It is about an inch long, and in outline
does not depart from the other species of the genus.

This exceedingly beautiful insect ranges from Maine to Nebraska. It is
found in northern New Jersey, the mountainous parts of New York and
northern Pennsylvania, and is reported from Arkansas and Nebraska. It is
rather local, and frequents open spots on the borders of woodlands. At
times it is apparently common, and then for a succession of seasons is
scarce. It flies from the end of June to the beginning of September.

(2) =Argynnis diana=, Cramer, Plate IX, Fig. 1, ♂; Fig. 2, ♀ (Diana).

_Butterfly._--The male on the upper side has both wings deep rich brown,
bordered with fulvous, this border being more or less interrupted by
rays of brown along the nervules and two rows of circular brown spots,
larger on the fore wings than on the hind wings. The wings on the under
side are pale buff, deeply marked with black on the base and middle of
the fore wings, and clouded with grayish-fulvous on the inner two thirds
of the hind wings. A blue spot is located near the end of the cell in
the fore wings, and the hind wings are adorned by a marginal and
submarginal row of narrow silvery crescents and a few silvery spots
toward the base. The female on the upper side is a rich bluish-black,
with the outer border of the fore wings marked by three rows of
bluish-white quadrate spots, the outer row being the palest, and often
quite white. The hind wings are adorned by three more or less complete
rows of bright-blue spots, the inner row composed of large subquadrate
spots, each having a circular spot of black at its inner extremity. On
the under side the female has the ground-color slaty-brown, paler on the
hind wings than on the fore wings, which latter are richly marked with
blue and black spots. The silvery crescents found on the under side of
the hind wings of the male reappear on the under side of the female, and
are most conspicuous on the outer margins. Expanse, 3.25-4.00 inches.

_Egg._--The egg is pale greenish-white, and conformed in outline to
type.

_Caterpillar._--The larva is velvety-black, adorned with six rows of
fleshy spines armed with bristles. The spines are orange-red at the
base. The head is dull brown.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is dusky-brown, with lighter-colored short
projections on the dorsal side.

This splendid butterfly, which is the most magnificent species of the
genus, is confined to the southern portion of the Appalachian region,
occurring in the two Virginias and Carolinas, northern Georgia,
Tennessee, and Kentucky, and being occasionally found in the southern
portion of Ohio and Indiana, and in Missouri and Arkansas.

(3) =Argynnis nokomis=, Edwards, Plate X, Fig. 1, ♂; Fig. 2, ♀
    (Nokomis).

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE X                                       |
  |                                                              |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Argynnis nokomis_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  | 2. _Argynnis nokomis_, Edwards, ♀.                           |
  | 3. _Argynnis idalia_, Drury, ♀.                              |
  | 4  _Argynnis nevadensis_, Edwards, ♂,                        |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 5. _Argynnis montivaga_, Behr, ♂,                            |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 6. _Argynnis alcestis_, Edwards, ♂,                          |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 7. _Argynnis bremneri_, Edwards, ♂.                          |
  | 8. _Argynnis electa_, Edwards, ♂.                            |
  | 9. _Argynnis atlantis_, Edwards, ♂.                          |
  |                                                              |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE X.]                                      |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+

_Butterfly._--The male on the upper side is bright fulvous, with the
characteristic black markings of the genus. On the under side the
wings are pale greenish-yellow, with the fore wings laved with bright
pink at the base and on the inner margin. The spots of the upper side
reappear on the under side as spots of silver bordered narrowly with
black. The female has the ground-color of the upper side yellow, shaded
outwardly with fulvous. All the dark markings of the male sex reappear
in this sex, but are much broader, and tend to fuse and run into one
another, so as to leave the yellow ground-color as small subquadrate or
circular spots, and wholly to obliterate them at the base of the wings.
On the under side this sex is marked like the male, but with all the
markings broader. Expanse, 3.40-3.60 inches.

This species, the male of which resembles the male of _A. leto_, and the
female the same sex of _A. diana_, is as yet quite rare in collections.
It has been taken in Arizona and southern Utah. We have no knowledge of
the life-history of the species.

(4) =Argynnis nitocris=, Edwards, Plate XIII, Fig. 4, ♂, _under side_
(Nitocris).

_Butterfly._--The male is bright reddish-fulvous, marked like _A.
nokomis_. The under side of the fore wings is cinnamon-red, ochre-yellow
at the tip. The hind wings are deep rusty-red, with a broad
yellowish-red submarginal belt. The silver spots are as in _A. nokomis_.
The female on the upper side is blackish-brown, darker than _A.
nokomis_. The extradiscal spots in the transverse rows are pale yellow,
and the submarginal spots whitish. The under side of the fore wings is
bright red, with the tip yellow. The hind wings on this side are dark
brown, with a submarginal yellow belt. Expanse, 3.25-3.75 inches.

This species, like the preceding, is from Arizona, and nothing is known
of its egg, caterpillar, or chrysalis.

(5) =Argynnis leto=, Edwards, Plate IX, Fig. 5, ♂; Fig. 6, ♀ (Leto).

_Butterfly._--The male on the upper side is marked much as _A. nokomis_,
but the ground-color is duller red, and the basal area is much darker.
The under side of the fore wings is pale fulvous, upon which the
markings of the upper side reappear; but there are no marginal silver
crescents. Both wings on the under side are shaded with brown toward the
base; the hind wings are traversed by a submarginal band of light
straw-yellow. The female is marked as the male, but the ground-color is
pale straw-yellow, and all the darker markings are deep blackish-brown,
those at the base of both wings being broad and running into one
another, so that the inner half of the wings appears to be broadly
brownish-black. On the under side this sex is marked as the male, but
with the dark portions blacker and the lighter portions pale yellow.
Expanse, 2.50-3.25 inches.

The life-history of this insect remains to be worked out. It is one of
our most beautiful species, and occurs in California and Oregon.

(6) =Argynnis cybele=, Fabricius, Plate IX, Fig. 3, ♂; Fig. 4, ♀; Plate
XIII, Fig. 1, ♀, under side; Plate V, Figs. 1-3, _chrysalis_ (The Great
Spangled Fritillary).

_Butterfly._--The male is much like the male of _A. leto_, but the dark
markings of the upper surface are heavier, and the under sides of the
hind wings are more heavily silvered. The yellowish-buff submarginal
band on the under side of the hind wings is never obliterated by being
invaded by the darker ferruginous of the marginal and discal tracts of
the wing. The female has the ground-color of the wings paler than the
male, and both wings from the base to the angled median band on the
upper side are dark chocolate-brown. All the markings of the upper side
in this sex are heavier than in the male. On the under side the female
is like the male. Expanse, 3.00-4.00 inches.

_Egg._--Short, conoidal, ribbed like those of other species, and
honey-yellow.

_Caterpillar._--The larva in the mature state is black. The head is
blackish, shaded with chestnut behind. The body is ornamented with six
rows of shining black branching spines, generally marked with orange-red
at their base. The caterpillar, which is nocturnal, feeds on violets,
hibernating immediately after being hatched from the egg, and feeding to
maturity in the following spring.

_Chrysalis._-The chrysalis is dark brown, mottled with reddish-brown or
slaty-gray.

This species, which ranges over the Atlantic States and the valley of
the Mississippi as far as the plains of Nebraska, appears to be
single-brooded in the North and double-brooded in Virginia, the
Carolinas, and the Western States having the same geographical latitude.
A small variety of this species, called _A. carpenteri_ by Mr. W.H.
Edwards, is found in New Mexico upon the top of Taos Peak, and is
believed to be isolated here in a colony, as _OEneis semidea_ is
isolated upon the summit of Mount Washington. Specimens of _cybele_ much
like those of this New Mexican variety are found in eastern Maine and
Nova Scotia, and on the high mountains of North Carolina.

(7) =Argynnis aphrodite=, Fabricius, Plate XIV, Fig. 11, ♀, _under side_;
Plate V, Fig. 5, _chrysalis_ (Aphrodite).

_Butterfly._--This species closely resembles _cybele_, but is generally
smaller, and the yellow submarginal band on the hind wings is narrower
than in _cybele_, and often wholly wanting, the hind wings being broadly
brown, particularly in the female sex. The under side of the fore wings
at the base and on the inner margin is also brighter red.

The caterpillar, chrysalis, and egg of this species closely resemble
those of _cybele_. The caterpillar has, however, a velvety-black spot at
the base of each spine, the chrysalis has the tubercles on the back
shorter than in _cybele_, and the basal segments are party-colored, and
not uniformly colored as in _cybele_.

(8) =Argynnis cipris=, Edwards, Plate XII, Fig. 3, ♂; Fig. 4, ♀
    (The New Mexican Silver-spot).

_Butterfly._--This species, which belongs to the Aphrodite-group, may be
distinguished by the fact that the fore wings are relatively longer and
narrower than in _aphrodite_. The black markings on the upper side of
the wings in both sexes are narrower, the dusky clouding at the base of
the wings is less pronounced, and the ground-color is brighter
reddish-fulvous than in _aphrodite_. On the under side the fore wings
lack in the male the pinkish shade at the base and on the inner margin
which appears in _aphrodite_, and both the male and the female have the
inner two thirds of the hind wings deep cinnamon-red, with only a very
narrow buff submarginal band, deeply invaded on the side of the base by
rays of the deeper brown color of the inner portion of the wing.
Expanse, 2.75-3.15 inches. The insect flies from late June to the end of
August.

_Caterpillar, etc._--We know nothing of the larval stages of this
insect. The specimens contained in the Edwards collection came from
Colorado, Utah, and New Mexico, and these localities approximately
represent the range of the species.

(9) =Argynnis alcestis=, Edwards, Plate X, Fig. 6, ♂, _under side_ (The
Ruddy Silver-spot).

_Butterfly._--Very much like _aphrodite_, from which it may be most
easily distinguished by the fact that the hind wings are uniformly dark
cinnamon-brown, without any band of buff on the outer margin. Expanse,
2.50-3.00 inches. The insect flies from late June to the end of August.

_Egg._--Greenish, conoidal, with about eighteen vertical ribs.

_Caterpillar._--Head black, yellowish behind. The body velvety-black,
ornamented with black spines which are yellowish at their basal ends.
The caterpillar feeds on violets.

_Chrysalis._--Reddish-brown or gray, irregularly mottled and striped
with black, the abdominal segments slaty-gray, marked with black on the
edges where the short angular projections are located.

This butterfly is found in the Western States, extending from the
prairie lands of northwestern Ohio to Montana. It largely replaces
_aphrodite_ in these regions.

(10) =Argynnis nausicaä=, Edwards, Plate XI, Fig. 9, ♂ (The Arizona
Silver-spot).

_Butterfly._--The species is related to the foregoing, but is rather
smaller in size. The upper side of the wings is dusky reddish-brown,
with the characteristic markings of the genus. On the under side the
fore wings are pink, laved with buff at the tip. The hind wings on this
side are deep cinnamon-brown, mottled with buff on the inner two thirds;
a narrow but clearly defined submarginal band of bright yellowish-buff
surrounds them. The silvery spots are clearly marked. The female has the
black markings broader and more conspicuous than the male. Expanse,
2.25-2.50 inches.

This insect is quite common in the mountain valleys of Arizona, at an
elevation of from six to seven thousand feet above the level of the sea,
and flies in July and August. We have no knowledge of the early stages,
but it probably does not differ greatly in its larval state from the
allied species of the genus.

(11)=Argynnis atlantis=, Edwards, Plate X, Fig. 9, ♂; Plate V, Fig. 6,
_chrysalis_ (The Mountain Silver-spot).

_Butterfly._--This insect, which resembles _aphrodite_, is distinguished
from that species by its smaller size, its somewhat narrower wings, the
deeper brown color of the base of the wings on the upper side, and their
darker color on the under side. The submarginal band is pale yellow,
narrow, but distinct and always present. Expanse, 2.50 inches.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XI                                      |
  |                                                              |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Argynnis callippe_, Boisduval, ♂.                        |
  | 2. _Argynnis callippe_, Boisduval, ♀.                        |
  | 3. _Argynnis callippe_, Boisduval, ♂,                        |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 4. _Argynnis edwardsi_, Reakirt, ♂.                          |
  | 5. _Argynnis edwardsi_, Reakirt, ♀.                          |
  | 6. _Argynnis rhodope_, Edwards, ♀,                           |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 7. _Argynnis bischoffi_, Edwards, ♂.                         |
  | 8. _Argynnis cornelia_, Edwards, ♂.                          |
  | 9. _Argynnis nausicaä_, Edwards, ♂.                          |
  | 10. _Argynnis coronis_, Behr, ♂.                             |
  | 11. _Argynnis coronis_, Behr, ♀.                             |
  |                                                              |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XI.]                                     |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+


_Egg._--Conoidal, with twelve to fourteen ribs, honey-yellow. The
caterpillars are hatched in the fall, and hibernate without feeding
until the following spring.

_Caterpillar._--The head is dark blackish-brown. The body is
velvety-purple above, a little paler on the under side. The usual spines
occur on the body, and are black, grayish at the base. The larva feeds
on violets.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is light brown, speckled, except on the
abdominal segments, with black.

This species ranges from Maine to the mountains of western Pennsylvania,
and thence southward along the central ridges of the Alleghanies into
West Virginia. It is also found in Canada, and extends westward into the
region of the Rocky Mountains. It is especially common in the White
Mountains of New Hampshire and the Adirondacks.

(12) =Argynnis lais=, Edwards, Plate XIV, Fig. 12, ♂; Fig. 13, ♀ (The
Northwestern Silver-spot).

_Butterfly._--The male is bright reddish-fulvous on the upper side,
slightly obscured by fuscous at the base. The discal band of spots
common to both wings is broken and irregular, and the spots on the hind
wings are quite small. The fore wings on the under side are buff at the
tips and pale red at the base and on the inner margin, lighter at the
inner angle. The under side of the hind wings as far as the outer margin
of the discal row of silvery spots is dark brown, mottling a yellowish
ground. The submarginal band of the hind wings is pale yellow and
moderately broad. The female is marked much as the male, but the discal
band of spots on the upper side of the fore wings is confluent and
broader, the fringes whitish, and the spots included between the
sagittate marginal spots and the marginal lines paler than in the male
sex. Expanse, 2.00-2.20 inches.

_Caterpillar, etc._--The early stages are unknown.

This species is found in the territories of Alberta and Assiniboia, and
in British Columbia among the foot-hills and the lower slopes of the
mountain-ranges.

(13) =Argynnis oweni=, Edwards, Plate XII, Fig. 5, ♂; Fig. 6, ♀, _under
side_ (Owen's Silver-spot).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The wings on the upper side are dull reddish-fulvous,
not much obscured with brown on the base, the black markings moderately
heavy, the two marginal lines tending to flow together. The fore wings
on the under side are yellowish-buff from the base to the outer row of
spots, or in some specimens with the buff lightly laved with reddish;
the nerves reddish-brown. The subapical patch is dark brown, with a
small silvered spot; the five submarginal spots are small and obscurely
silvered. The hind wings are dark brown on the discal area and outer
margin, with a rather narrow grayish-buff submarginal band, strongly
invaded by projections of the dark brown of the discal area. The spots
of the outer discal row are generally well silvered; the inner spots
less so in most cases.

♀.--The female has the wings more or less mottled with yellowish outside
of the mesial band. The black markings are very heavy in this sex. On
the under side the spots are well silvered.

The dark markings on the upper side of the wings of the male are much
heavier than in _A. behrensi_. On the under side of the wings in both
sexes it may be distinguished from _behrensi_ by the fact that the
ground-color toward the base is mottled with yellow, and not solid brown
as in _behrensi_. Expanse, 2.25-2.40 inches.

This species abounds on Mount Shasta, in California, at an elevation of
seven to eight thousand feet above sea-level.

(14) =Argynnis cornelia=, Edwards. Plate XI, Fig. 8, ♂ (Miss Owen's
Fritillary).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The upper side of both wings is dark brown from the
base to the mesial band of spots, with the exception of the outer end of
the cell. The space beyond the band is reddish-fulvous; the dark
markings are not very heavy; the two marginal lines are fine, and
confluent at the ends of the nervules. The under side of the fore wings
is reddish-brown from the base to the outer margin on the inner half of
the wing; the outer spaces toward the apex are yellowish; the subapical
patch is reddish-brown, inclosing a small silvery spot; the outer margin
is reddish-brown, adorned with five small silvery spots toward the apex.
The hind wings on the under side are almost solid reddish-brown to the
clear yellow submarginal belt, only slightly mottled on the discal area
with buff. The spots are small and well silvered.

♀.--The female on the upper side is duller red, with the dark markings
heavier; the marginal spots on the fore wings are pale yellowish, and
the marginal lines are confluent on the upper half of these wings. The
wings on the under side in this sex are as in the male, but the
ground-color on the inner half of the wings is darker, and the spots are
more brilliantly silvered. Expanse, 2.30-2.50 inches.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This pretty species is found with _A. electa_ and _A. hesperis_ in
Colorado. It was originally described from specimens taken at Manitou
and Ouray, and named by Edwards in honor of a deceased daughter of
Professor Owen of the University of Wisconsin.

(15) =Argynnis electa=, Edwards, Plate X, Fig. 8, ♂ (Electa).

_Butterfly._--The male is dull reddish-fulvous on the upper side. The
black markings are narrow. The base of both wings is slightly obscured.
On the under side the fore wings are pale cinnamon-red, with the tip
dark cinnamon-red. The hind wings are broadly dark cinnamon-red, mottled
on the disk with a little buff. The submarginal band is buff, quite
narrow, and often invaded by the ground-color of the inner area. The
silvery spots are usually very well marked and distinct, though in a few
instances the silvery color is somewhat obscured. The female has the
black markings a little heavier than in the male; otherwise there is but
little difference between the sexes. Expanse, 2.00-2.25 inches.

_Caterpillar, etc._--The early stages are unknown.

This species has been confounded with _A. atlantis_, from which it is
wholly distinct, being much smaller in size, the fore wings relatively
broader, and the markings not so dark on the upper surface. It is found
in Colorado and Montana, among the mountains.

(16) =Argynnis columbia=, Henry Edwards, Plate XIV, Fig. 3, ♂ (The
Columbian Silver-spot).

_Butterfly._--The male has the upper side of the fore wings pale
reddish-fulvous. In the median band of both wings the spots do not flow
together, but are separate and moderately heavy. The under side of the
fore wings is pale fulvous, buff at the tip; spots silvered. The hind
wings on the under side are light rusty-red, but little mottled with
buff on the disk; the submarginal band is narrow, buff, and sometimes
almost wholly obscured by the darker ground-color. The spots, which are
small, are well silvered. The female is much lighter than the male,
and, as usual, the dark lines are heavier than in that sex. The spots of
the median band are bent and partly lanceolate, and the light spots of
the outer border are whitish. Expanse, 2.25-2.50 inches.

_Caterpillar, etc._--The early stages have not as yet been worked out.

This species, which is related to _electa_, may easily be distinguished
from it by the pale marginal series of light spots, in the male, between
the sagittate spots and the dark outer marginal lines, which latter are
confluent, forming a solid dark outer border to the wing, while in
_electa_ they are separated by a narrow band of light-brown spots. The
female is also much lighter and larger than in _electa_, as has been
pointed out. The types which came from the Caribou mining region of
British Columbia are in my possession, as are those of most of the other
North American species of the genus.

(17) =Argynnis hesperis=, Edwards, Plate XII, Fig. 1, ♂; Fig. 2, ♀
(Hesperis).

_Butterfly._--The male on the upper side of the wings is fulvous, shaded
with dark fuscous for a short distance from the base. The black spots of
the median band are rather broad, and seem to coalesce through dark
markings along the nervules. The under side of the fore wings is pale
ferruginous, tinged with a little buff at the tips, which, together with
the outer margin, are somewhat heavily clouded with dark ferruginous.
The under side of the hind wings is dark ferruginous, with a narrow buff
submarginal band, which in some specimens is almost lost. The female is
paler than the male in the ground-color of the upper side, the black
markings are heavier, the marginal lines fuse, as do also the sagittate
marginal markings, leaving the marginal spots between them, which are
quite light in color, deeply bordered on all sides by black. The under
side is like that of the male, but darker and richer in color. In
neither sex are the light spots marked with silver; they are opaque,
yellowish-white. Expanse, 2.25-2.40 inches.

_Caterpillar, etc._--The life-history remains to be learned.

This insect is not uncommon among the mountains of Colorado.

(18) =Argynnis hippolyta=, Edwards, Plate XII, Fig. 10, ♂ (Hippolyta).

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XII                                     |
  |                                                              |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Argynnis hesperis_, Edwards, ♂.                          |
  | 2. _Argynnis hesperis_, Edwards, ♀.                          |
  | 3. _Argynnis cypris_, Edwards, ♂.                            |
  | 4. _Argynnis cypris_, Edwards, ♀.                            |
  | 5. _Argynnis oweni_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 6. _Argynnis oweni_, Edwards, ♂,                             |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 7. _Argynnis eurynome_, Edwards, ♂.                          |
  | 8. _Argynnis rupestris_, Behr, ♂.                            |
  | 9. _Argynnis rupestris_, Behr, ♂,                            |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 10. _Argynnis hippolyta_, Edwards, ♂.                        |
  | 11. _Argynnis laura_, Edwards, ♂.                            |
  | 12. _Argynnis laura_, Edwards, ♀.                            |
  | 13. _Argynnis artonis_, Edwards, ♂,                          |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  |                                                              |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XII.]                                    |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+


_Butterfly._--The male is fulvous upon the upper side, all the dark
markings being heavy and black, and the basal areas of the wings clouded
with fuscous, this dark clouding on the hind wings reaching down and
nearly covering the inner angle. The fore wings on the under side are
buff, laved with pale red at the base, marked with ferruginous on the
outer margin and about the subapical spots. The submarginal and
subapical spots are silvered, especially the latter. The hind wings are
deep ferruginous, mottled with buff. The submarginal band is buff,
narrow, and dusted with more or less ferruginous. All the spots are well
silvered. The female has the basal area of the fore wings bright
pinkish-fulvous, and the belt of the secondaries almost lost in the deep
ground-color.

(19) =Argynnis bremneri=, Edwards, Plate X, Fig. 7, ♂ (Bremner's
Silver-spot).

_Butterfly._--The male on the upper side is bright fulvous. The black
markings, especially those about the middle of the wing, are heavy. Both
wings at the base are clouded with fuscous, the under side of the
primaries red toward the base, buff on the apical area; the subapical
and the upper marginal spots well silvered; the hind wings with the
inner two thirds more or less deeply ferruginous, a little mottled with
buff, very rarely encroached upon by the dark color of the inner area,
except occasionally near the anal angle. Expanse, ♂, 2.40 inches; ♀,
2.70 inches.

_Early Stages._--The early stages have not as yet been described.

This species is found in Oregon, Washington, Montana, and in the
southern portions of British Columbia and Vancouver's Island.

(20) =Argynnis zerene=, Boisduval, Plate XIV, Fig. 9, ♂, _under side_
(Zerene).

_Butterfly._--The male on the upper side is reddish-fulvous, with rather
heavy black markings, the mesial band of spots being confluent. The
under side of the fore wings is reddish, inclining to pink, with the
apex laved with buff. The hind wings have the ground-color
purplish-gray, mottled on the inner two thirds with ferruginous. The
spots are not silvered, but are a delicate gray color. The female is
colored like the male, but the red at the base of the fore wings in this
sex is much deeper, and the yellow at the apex of the primaries
contrasts much more strongly. The spots on the under side in the female
sex are frequently well silvered, though in many specimens they are
colored exactly as in the male sex. Expanse of wing, ♂, 2.17 inches; ♀,
2.50 inches.

_Early Stages._--The early stages of this species have not as yet been
ascertained.

This beautiful butterfly, which is somewhat inclined to variation, is
found in northern California, being quite common about Mount Shasta. It
is also found in Oregon and Nevada. One of the varietal forms was named
_Argynnis purpurescens_ by the late Henry Edwards, because of the
decided purplish tint which prevails on the under side of the
secondaries, extending over the entire surface of the hind wings and
covering likewise the apex of the fore wings. This purplish-brown is
very marked in specimens collected about the town of Soda Springs, in
northern California.

(21) =Argynnis monticola=, Behr, Plate XIII, Fig. 7, ♂, _under side_;
     Fig. 8, ♂; Plate XIV, Fig. 17, ♀ (Behr's Fritillary).

_Butterfly._--This species is very closely allied to the preceding in
some respects; the upper surface, however, of the wings in both sexes is
brighter than in _zerene_, and the dark markings stand forth more
clearly upon the lighter ground-color. The wings are not shaded with
fuscous toward the base as much as in _A. zerene._ While the markings on
the upper side are almost identical with those of Dr. Boisduval's
species, they are much brighter and clearer, giving the insects quite a
different aspect. On the under side the wings are colored as in
_zerene_, the primaries in the male being ferruginous, laved with a
little red toward the base, marked with purplish-gray toward the apex,
the light spots near the end of the cell on this wing being pale buff.
The hind wings are very uniformly purplish-gray, mottled with dark
brown, the spots very little, if at all, silvered in the male. In the
female the fore wings are bright red at the base, and the hind wings are
colored as in the male; but all the spots in both the fore wings and
hind wings are broadly and brightly silvered.

_Early Stages._--The early stages have not been ascertained, and there
remains something here for young entomologists to accomplish.

This species is quite common in the same localities as the last, and
some authors are inclined to regard it as being a mere variety, which is
a belief that can only be verified by careful breeding from the egg.

(22) =Argynnis rhodope=, Edwards, Plate XI, Fig. 6, ♀, _under side_
(Rhodope).

_Butterfly._--In the male sex the upper side is bright fulvous, with
both wings on the inner half heavily clouded with dark fuscous. The
black markings are very heavy and confluent. The outer border is solid
black, very slightly, if at all, interrupted by a narrow marginal brown
line, in this respect resembling _A. atlantis._ On the under side the
fore wings are dark ferruginous, on the outer margin rich dark brown.
Between the spots at the end of the cell and the nervules below the apex
are some clear, bright straw-yellow spots. The upper spots of the
marginal series are silvered. The hind wings are dark reddish-brown,
very slightly paler on the line of the marginal band. The spots are pale
straw-yellow, except those of the marginal series, which are distinctly
silvered. The female on the upper side is of a lighter and brighter red,
with the markings dark and heavy as in the male sex. On the under side
the markings in the female do not differ from those in the male, except
that the primaries on the inner half and at the base are bright
pinkish-red. Expanse, ♂, 2.20 inches; ♀, 2.40 inches.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This striking species has been heretofore only found in British
Columbia.

(23) =Argynnis behrensi=, Edwards, Plate XIV, Fig. 10, ♂, _under side,_
(Behrens' Fritillary).

_Butterfly._--The male on the upper side is dull fulvous, clouded with
fuscous at the base, the black markings much narrower and lighter than
in the preceding species. The primaries on the under side are pale
fulvous, clouded with dark brown at the apex. The subapical spots and
the upper spots of the marginal series on this wing are well silvered.
The hind wings on the under side are deep reddish-brown, with the
marginal band only faintly indicated. All the spots are distinctly well
silvered. The female does not differ materially from the male, except in
the larger size and the somewhat paler ground-color of the upper side of
the wings. On the under side the wings are exactly as in the male, with
the marginal band even less distinct than in that sex.

_Early Stages._--Not yet ascertained.

The type specimens upon which the foregoing description is founded came
from Mendocino, in California.

(24) =Argynnis halcyone,=, Edwards, Plate XIII, Fig. 5, ♂; Fig. 6, ♂,
_under side,_ (Halcyone).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The primaries are produced and relatively narrower than
in the preceding species, fulvous on the upper side, with the black
markings distinct, the mesial band of the secondaries confluent. The
fore wings on the under side are pale fulvous, reddish at the base, pale
buff at the end of the cell and on the costal margin before the apex.
The subapical spots and the pale spots of the marginal series are very
little silvered. The hind wings have the inner two thirds deep
reddish-brown, slightly mottled with buff. The marginal band is buff,
and all the spots are well silvered.

♀.--The female, which is considerably larger than the male, is marked
much as in that sex; but all the black markings are heavier, and on the
under side of the primaries the base and inner margin are laved with
red. The marginal band on the hind wings is not as distinct in this sex
as in the male, in many specimens being somewhat obscured by
olive-brown. Expanse, ♂, 2.50 inches; ♀, 2.90-3.10 inches.

_Early Stages._--Not known.

This species, which is still rare in collections, is found in southern
Colorado and the adjacent parts of Utah and Arizona.

(25) =Argynnis chitone=, Edwards, Plate XIV, Fig. 16, ♀ (Chitone).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The wings on the upper side are dull fulvous, greatly
obscured by brown at the base of the wings. The dark spots and markings
are not heavy. The fore wings on the under side are yellowish-fulvous at
the base and on the inner half of the wing; the apical patch and the
nervules on the apical area are heavy ferruginous; the marginal spots
are buff, with no silver. The hind wings on the under side are light
ferruginous, mottled with buff; the belt is broad, clear buff; the outer
margin is brown. All the spots are small and imperfectly silvered.

♀.--The female is nearly the same shade as the male, with the marginal
spots on the under side always silvered, the remainder without silver,
or only now and then with a few silvery scales. Expanse, 2.25-2.50
inches.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIII                                    |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Argynnis cybele_, Fabricius, ♀,                          |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 2. _Argynnis semiramis_, Edwards, ♂.                         |
  | 3. _Argynnis semiramis_, Edwards, ♀.                         |
  | 4. _Argynnis nitocris_, Edwards, ♂,                          |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 5. _Argynnis halcyone_, Edwards, ♂.                          |
  | 6. _Argynnis halcyone_, Edwards, ♀,                          |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 7. _Argynnis monticola_, Behr, ♂,                            |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 8. _Argynnis monticola_, Behr, ♂.                            |
  | 9. _Argynnis macaria_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  | 10. _Argynnis inornata_, Edwards, ♀,                         |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 11. _Argynnis liliana_, Henry Edwards, ♂.                    |
  | 12. _Argynnis atossa_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  | 13. _Argynnis egleis_, Boisduval, ♂.                         |
  | 14. _Argynnis egleis_, Boisduval, ♂,                         |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 15. _Argynnis egleis_, Boisduval, ♀.                         |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XIII.]                                   |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+


_Early Stages._--Not ascertained.

This species occurs in southern Utah and Arizona.

(26) =Argynnis platina,=, Skinner, Plate XVIII, Fig. 7, ♂ (Skinner's
Fritillary).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The original description of this species, contained in
the "Canadian Entomologist," vol. xxix, p. 154, is as follows:

"♂.--Expands two and a half inches. Upper side: Rather light tawny or
even light buff. Black markings dense and wide, with outer halves of
wings looking rather clear or open, with rows of round spots not very
large; marginal border light; bases of wings not much obscured. Under
side: Superiors have the two subapical silver spots and silver spots on
margin well defined; color of inner half of wing rosy. The silver spots
on the inferiors are large and well defined, and placed on a very light
greenish-gray ground. The intermediate buff band is well defined,
comparatively wide, and very light in color. ♀.--The ground-color on the
inferiors below is reddish-brown in the female."

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This species occurs in Utah and Idaho, and is possibly a varietal form
of _A. coronis_, specimens agreeing very nearly with the type figured in
the plate being contained in the Edwards collection under the name of
_A. coronis_.

(27) =Argynnis coronis=, Behr, Plate XI, Fig. 10, ♂; Fig. 11, ♀
     (Coronis).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The wings on the upper side are yellowish-brown, with
but little brown obscuring the base. The dark markings are not heavy,
but distinct. The fore wings on the under side are buff, with the basal
area orange-fulvous. The subapical and submarginal spots are more or
less imperfectly silvered. The hind wings are brown, mottled with
reddish. The discal area is buff, and the belt is pale yellowish-buff.
All the spots are large and well silvered on these wings.

♀.--The female is paler than the male, with the markings on the upper
side a little heavier. The wings on the under side are much as in the
male sex. Expanse, ♂, 2.10-2.50 inches; ♀, 2.50-3.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--The early stages remain to be ascertained.

This species ranges from southern California northward to the southern
part of British Columbia, and is found as far east as Utah.

(28) =Argynnis snyderi=, Skinner, Plate XVIII, Fig. 6, ♂ (Snyder's
Fritillary).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The wings on the upper side are light tawny, but little
obscured by fuscous at the base. The black markings are moderately heavy
and very sharply defined against the lighter ground-color. The outer
margin is distinctly but not heavily marked. On the under side of the
fore wings there are two subapical and five marginal silver spots. The
ground-color of the under side of the hind wings is grayish-green, with
a narrow pale-buff marginal belt. The spots are large and well silvered.

♀.--The female is much like the male, but on the hind wings the
ground-color from the base to the outer belt is brownish. Expanse, ♂,
3.00 inches; ♀, 3.30 inches.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This species, which is very closely allied to _A. coronis_, is found in
Utah.

(29) =Argynnis callippe=, Boisduval, Plate XI, Fig. 1, ♂; Fig. 2, ♀;
     Fig. 3, ♀, _under side_ (Callippe).

_Butterfly,_.--This species may easily be recognized by the general
obscuration of the basal area of the wings, the light-buff quadrate
spots on the discal area of the fore wings, and the clear oval spots of
the same color on the hind wings, as well as by the light triangular
marginal spots, all standing out distinctly on the darker ground. The
wings on the under side are quite pale buff, with the spots large and
well silvered. Expanse, 2.30-3.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

_Callippe_ is abundant in California.

(30) =Argynnis nevadensis=, Edwards, Plate X, Fig. 4, ♂, _under side_
(The Nevada Fritillary).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The ground-color is pale fulvous, but little obscured
with fuscous at the base. The outer margins are heavily bordered with
black. The dark markings of the discal area are not heavy. The fore
wings on the under side are pale buff, the spots well silvered; the hind
wings are greenish; the belt is narrow and clear, and the spots are
large and well silvered.

♀.--The female is much like the male, but larger and paler. The outer
margin of the fore wings in this sex is more heavily marked with black,
and the marginal spots are light buff in color. Expanse, ♂, 2.50-3.00
inches; ♀, 3.00-3.50 inches.

_Early Stages._--These remain to be discovered.

This species is found in the Rocky Mountains of Utah, Nevada, Montana,
and British America.

(31) =Argynnis meadi=, Edwards, Plate XIV, Fig. 1, ♂; Fig. 2, ♂, _under
side_ (Mead's Silver-spot).

_Butterfly._--This species is very closely allied to the preceding, of
which it may be an extreme variation, characterized by the darker color
of the fore wings on the upper side, the nervules being heavily bordered
with blackish, and the deeper, more solid green of the under side of the
wings. All the specimens I have seen are considerably smaller in size
than _A. nevadensis_.

_Early Stages._--Wholly unknown.

This species or variety is found from Utah northward to the province of
Alberta, in British America.

(32) =Argynnis edwardsi=, Reakirt, Plate XI, Fig. 4, ♂; Fig. 5, ♀
(Edwards' Fritillary).

_Butterfly._--This beautiful insect is closely related to the Nevada
Fritillary, from which it may be distinguished by the brighter color of
the upper side, the heavier black borders, especially in the female sex,
and the olive-brown color of the under side of the hind wings. The
olivaceous of these wings greatly encroaches upon the marginal belt.
Expanse, 3.00-3.25 inches.

_Early Stages._--These have been carefully and minutely described by
Edwards in the "Canadian Entomologist," vol. xx, p. 3. They are not
unlike those of _A. atlantis_ in many respects.

This species is not uncommon in Colorado and Montana.

(33) =Argynnis liliana=, Henry Edwards, Plate XIII, Fig. 11, ♂ (Liliana).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The wings on the upper side are reddish-fulvous. The
black markings and the spots are slight. The fore wings on the under
side are yellowish-buff; the base and the hind margin to below the cell,
brown, with buff on the median interspaces. The outer end of the cell is
yellowish-buff. The subapical patch is brown, adorned by two or three
well-silvered spots. The five upper marginal spots are well silvered.
The hind wings are brown, but little mottled with buff. The spots are
well silvered. The marginal belt is narrow, ochreous-brown.

♀.--The female is much paler than the male, and the marginal spots on
both wings are much lighter. On the under side the wings are as in the
male sex, with the basal area and the nervules of the fore wings red.
Expanse, ♂, 2.20 inches; ♀, 2.35 inches.

_Egg._--W.H. Edwards gives the following description: "Conoidal,
truncated, depressed at summit, marked vertically by twenty-two or
twenty-three ribs, which are as in other species of the genus; the
outline of this egg is much as in _eurynome_, the base being broad, the
top narrow, and the height not much more than the breadth; color
yellow."

_Caterpillar._--The same author has given us a description of the
caterpillar immediately after hatching; but as the young larvæ were lost
after being sent to Maine to be kept over winter we do not yet know the
full life-history.

The range of this species is northern California and Utah, so far as is
known at present.

(34) =Argynnis rupestris=, Behr, Plate XII, Fig. 8, ♂. Fig. 9, ♂,
_under side_ (The Cliff-dwelling Fritillary).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The upper side of the fore wings is deep
reddish-fulvous, with the black markings very heavy. The fore wings on
the under side are buff, shaded with red at the base and on the inner
margin. The spots are buff, without any silver. The hind wings are buff,
mottled with cinnamon-red, sometimes dark, sometimes lighter. The
marginal belt is narrow, buff, encroached upon by the darker color of
the median area at the ends of the oval spots. None of the spots is
silvered, except very lightly in exceptional cases.

♀.--The female is much like the male on the upper side, with the dark
markings much heavier, the ground-color somewhat paler, and the marginal
row of spots quite light. The wings on the under side are more brightly
tinted than in the male, and the marginal spots are more or less
silvered. Expanse, ♂, 2.00 inches; ♀, 2.20 inches.

_Early Stages._--Nothing is as yet known about the egg and larva.

This species is quite abundant at a considerable elevation upon Mount
Shasta, Mount Bradley, and in the Weber Mountains in Utah.

(35) =Argynnis laura=, Edwards, Plate XII, Fig. 11, ♂; Fig. 12, ♀
(Laura).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The upper side is deep reddish-fulvous, with both
wings somewhat obscured at the base by fuscous. The black markings on
the upper side of the wings are heavy; the outer margin is also heavily
banded with dark brown, the marginal lines being fulvous. The four spots
on the hind wings are lighter in color than the ground. The fore wings
on the under side are reddish-orange, with the apex and the hind margin
yellowish-buff. The apical and upper marginal spots are more or less
well silvered. The hind wings are pale yellow, the marginal belt very
broad and clear yellow. All the spots are large and well silvered.

♀.--The female is much paler than the male, but otherwise closely
resembles that sex. Expanse, ♂, 2.20 inches; ♀, 2.35 inches.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This species is found in northern California, Oregon, Washington, and
Nevada.

(36) =Argynnis macaria=, Edwards, Plate XIII, Fig. 9, ♂ (Macaria).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The upper side of the wings is yellowish-fulvous, the
black markings very light. The fore wings on the under side are
orange-red, at the apex yellowish-buff. The subapical upper marginal
spots are lightly silvered. The hind wings are yellowish-buff on the
outer third, mottled with brown on the basal and median areas. The
marginal belt is clear buff. The spots are large and well silvered.

♀.--The female is paler than the male. On the upper side of the hind
wings the second row of silver spots is indicated by spots much paler
than the ground. The black markings are lighter than in the male.
Expanse, ♂, 2.00 inches; ♀, 2.20 inches.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This species, which is somewhat like _A. coronis_, but smaller, and
brighter fulvous, is found in California, but is still quite rare in
collections.

(37) =Argynnis semiramis=, Edwards, Plate XIII, Fig. 2, ♂, _under side_;
Fig. 3, ♀ (Semiramis).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The wings are bright fulvous on the upper side, with
the black markings much as in _A. adiante_, slight on the fore wings and
even slighter on the hind wings. The under side of the fore wings is
cinnamon-red at the base and on the inner half of the wing, beyond this
buff. The apical patch and the outer margin are brown. The upper
marginal spots and two spots on the subapical patch are well silvered.
The hind wings are rusty-brown from the base to the second row of spots,
mottled with lighter brown. The marginal belt is clear brownish-buff.
All the spots are well silvered.

♀.--The female on the upper side is colored like the male, with the dark
markings somewhat heavier. On the under side the fore wings are laved
over almost their entire surface with red, the upper angle of the cell
alone being buff. The hind wings are in many specimens fawn-colored
throughout, except that the marginal band is paler. In a few specimens
the ground is darker and the band more distinct. All the spots are well
silvered. Expanse, ♂, 2.60 inches; ♀, 2.75-3.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--The life-history of this butterfly has not been
ascertained.

The species appears to be very common at San Bernardino, California, and
vicinity, and resembles _A. adiante_ on the upper side and _A. coronis_
upon the lower side.

(38) =Argynnis inornata=, Edwards, Plate XIII, Fig. 10, ♀, _under side_
(The Plain Fritillary).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--This species resembles _A. rupestris_ in its markings,
but is somewhat paler, the black margins are heavy and the black
markings on the disk comparatively light; the base of the wings is
obscured with fuscous. On the under side the fore wings are
cinnamon-brown, with the apical area buff. The hind wings are
reddish-brown, with the marginal band clear buff. All the spots are
buff, and completely devoid of silvery scales.

♀.--Paler than the male on the upper side. The fore wings on the under
side are orange-fulvous; the hind wings are pale greenish-brown, mottled
with buff. In some specimens a few silver scales are found on the
submarginal spots. Expanse, ♂, 2.50 inches; ♀, 2.70 inches.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This butterfly, which is as yet not very common in collections, is found
in California and Nevada.

(39) =Argynnis atossa=, Edwards, Plate XIII, Fig. 12, ♂ (Atossa).

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIV                                     |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Argynnis meadi_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 2. _Argynnis meadi_, Edwards, ♂,                             |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 3. _Argynnis Columbia_, Henry Edwards,                       |
  |     ♂.                                                       |
  | 4. _Argynnis adiante_, Boisduval,                            |
  | ♀.                                                           |
  | 5. _Argynnis clio_, Edwards, ♂.                              |
  | 6. _Argynnis clio_, Edwards, ♀.                              |
  | 7. _Argynnis clio_, Edwards, ♂,                              |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 8. _Argynnis opis_, Edwards, ♂,                              |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 9. _Argynnis zerene_, Boisduval, ♂,                          |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 10. _Argynnis behrensi_, Edwards, ♂.                         |
  | 11. _Argynnis aphrodite,_, Fabricius,                        |
  |     ♀, _under side_.                                         |
  | 12. _Argynnis lais_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 13. _Argynnis lais_, Edwards, ♀.                             |
  | 14. _Argynnis eurynome_, Edwards, ♀.                         |
  | 15. _Argynnis eurynome_, Edwards, ♂,                         |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 16. _Argynnis chitone_, Edwards, ♀.                          |
  | 17. _Argynnis monticola_, Behr, ♀.                           |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XIV.]                                    |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The upper side is bright yellowish-fulvous, with the
wings at the base slightly dusted with brown. The margins of both wings
are bordered by a single line, there being no trace of the outer
line usually found in other species of the genus. The dark markings of
the outer margin are almost entirely absent, and those of the discal and
basil areas very greatly reduced. On the under side both wings are very
pale, the spots entirely without silver, in some specimens even their
location being but faintly indicated. The fore wings at the base and on
the inner margin are laved with bright red.

♂.--The female resembles the male, except that the red on the under side
of the fore wings is in many specimens very bright and fiery. Expanse,
♂, 2.50 inches; ♀, 2.75-3.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--Entirely unknown.

This butterfly, which is still rare in collections, has been taken in
southern California. It may be an extreme variation of the next species,
_A. adiante_, Boisduval.

(40) =Argynnis adiante=, Boisduval, Plate XIV, Fig. 4, ♀ (Adiante).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The wings on the upper side are bright fulvous; the
black markings are slight. The fore wings on the under side are pale
buff, much lighter at the apex, laved with orange-red at the base. The
hind wings are pale buff, clouded with fawn color on the basal and
discal areas. All the spots which are generally silvered in other
species are in this species wholly devoid of silvery scales.

♀.--The female is like the male, but the black markings on the upper
side are heavier, and the basal area and inner half of the primaries are
laved with brighter and deeper red. Expanse, ♂, 2.30-2.40 inches; ♀,
2.30-2.60 inches.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This species is found in southern California, and is somewhat local in
its habits, hitherto having been taken only in the Santa Cruz Mountains.

(41) =Argynnis artonis=, Edwards, Plate XII, Fig. 13, ♂, _under side_
(Artonis).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--Closely resembling _A. eurynome_, Edwards, from which
species it may be at once distinguished by the entire absence of silvery
scales upon the under side of the wings, and also by the fact that the
silver spots on the under side of the hind wings are not compressed and
elongated as much as in _eurynome_, and by the further fact that all the
dark marginal markings of the under side are obliterated.

♀.--The female does not differ materially from the male, except that
the dark markings on the upper side are all much heavier, standing out
very distinctly upon the paler ground, and the marginal spots within the
lunules are very light in color and relatively large. On the under side
the fore wings are laved with red, very much as in the female of _A.
adiante._ Expanse, ♂, 1.75-2.00 inches; ♀, 2.00-2.15 inches.

_Early Stages._--These still remain to be ascertained.

This interesting butterfly, which seems to indicate a transition between
the butterflies of the Adiante-group and those of the Eurynome-group,
has been found in Colorado, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona.

(42) =Argynnis clio=, Edwards, Plate XIV, Fig. 5, ♂; Fig. 6, ♀; Fig. 7,
♂, _under side_ (Clio).

_Butterfly._--Closely resembling _A. eurynome_ and _A. artonis_. Like
_artonis_, the spots on the under side of the wing are without silver.
The female very closely resembles the female of _artonis_, and in fact I
am unable to distinguish the types of the females of the two species by
any marks which seem to be satisfactory. Expanse, ♂, 1.75 inch; ♀,
1.75-1.90 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This species, which is as yet comparatively rare in collections, is
found in Montana and the province of Alberta, in British America, at a
considerable elevation.

(43) =Argynnis opis=, Plate XIV, Fig. 8, ♂, _under side_ (Opis).

_Butterfly._--This species, which apparently belongs to the
Eurynome-group, appears by the location of its markings to be closely
related to _eurynome_, but on the upper side the wings of both the male
and female are more heavily obscured with fuscous at the base; the dark
markings are heavier than in _eurynome_, and in both sexes it is smaller
in size, being the smallest of all the species of the genus thus far
found in North America. The spots on the under side of the wings are
none of them silvered. Expanse, ♂, 1.50 inch; ♀, 1.60 inch.

_Early Stages._--Nothing is known of these.

The types came from Bald Mountain, in the Caribou mining district of
British Columbia.

(44) =Argynnis bischoffi=, Edwards, Plate XI, Fig. 7, ♂ (Bischoff's
Fritillary).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The fore wings on the upper side are bright
reddish-fulvous, the base of the primaries and the inner half of the
secondaries being heavily obscured by blackish, so as to conceal the
markings. Both wings have moderately heavy black marginal borders. The
other markings are as in _A. eurynome_. On the under side the fore wings
are buff, laved with reddish at the base. The hind wings are pale buff,
with the basal and discal areas mottled with green. The marginal belt is
clear buff. In some specimens the spots on the under side are not
silvered; in others they are well silvered.

♀.--The female on the upper side is very pale buff, slightly laved with
fulvous on the outer margin of both wings. All the markings are heavy;
the margins of both wings are solid black, the spots within the lunules
being pale and almost white. The fore wings at the base and the inner
half of the hind wings are almost solid black. On the under side the
wings are very much as in the male, and the same variation as to the
silvering of the spots is found. Expanse, ♂, 1.80 inch; ♀, 1.90 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The types of this genus came from Sitka, in Alaska. It may be an extreme
boreal variation of _A. eurynome_.

(45) =Argynnis eurynome=, Edwards, Plate XII, Fig. 7, ♂; Plate XIV, Fig.
14, ♀; Fig. 15, ♂, _under side_ (Eurynome).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The wings on the upper side are bright
yellowish-fulvous, but little obscured at the base. The outer margins
are edged by two fine lines which are occasionally confluent. The under
side of the fore wings is pale buff, laved with cinnamon-brown at the
base and along the nervules; the spots on the margin and in the apical
area are well silvered. The hind wings on the under side are buff, with
the basal and discal areas mottled with pale brown or pale olive-green.
The marginal belt is broad and clear buff; all the spots are well
silvered.

♀.--The female is like the male, but paler, with the dark markings,
especially those of the margin, heavier. The marginal spots inclosed by
the lunules are much paler than the ground-color, and in many specimens
almost white. On the under side the wings in this sex are like those of
the male, but the fore wings are more heavily laved with cinnamon-brown
at the base. Expanse, ♂, 1.70-2.00 inches; ♀, 2.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--Mr. Edwards, in "The Butterflies of North America,"
vol. ii, has given us a beautiful figure of the egg of this species. Of
the other stages we have no knowledge.

_A. eurynome_ is a very common butterfly in Colorado, Montana, and
British America, and is the representative of a considerable group, to
which the four preceding species belong, if, indeed, they are not local
races or climatic varieties of _eurynome_, a fact which can be
demonstrated only by the careful breeding of specimens from various
localities. There is a fine field here for study and experiment.

(46) =Argynnis montivaga=, Behr, Plate X, Fig. 5, ♂, _under side_
(Montivaga).

_Butterfly._--This species in both sexes very closely approximates the
foregoing. The main points of distinction consist in the somewhat darker
red of the upper side of the wings, the slightly heavier dark markings,
and the absence on the under side, especially of the hind wings, of the
olive-green shade which is characteristic of typical specimens of _A.
eurynome._ The mottling of the basal and median areas on this side is
reddish-brown. The spots are more or less silvered on the under side.
Expanse, ♂, 1.75 inch; ♀, 1.90 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This species is found in the Sierras of California and among the
mountains of Nevada.

(47) =Argynnis egleis=, Boisduval, Plate XIII, Fig. 13, ♂; Fig. 14, ♀,
_under side_; Fig. 15, ♀ (Egleis).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The ground-color of the wings on the upper side is deep
fulvous, with rather heavy black markings. The wings on the under side
are pale fulvous, mottled with buff on the subapical interspaces of the
fore wings. The basal and discal areas of the hind wings are mottled
with brown, which in many specimens is of a distinctly purplish shade.
In some specimens the inner half of the primaries is rather heavily
laved with red. The spots on the under side are either silvered or
without silver, in the latter case being pale buff.

♀.--The female is much like the male, but paler. The red on the under
side of the primaries is deeper, and the purplish-brown on the inner
surface of the secondaries is also darker. Expanse, ♂, 2.25 inches; ♀,
2.50 inches.

_Early Stages._--These remain to be ascertained.

This is a common species in California and Nevada. For many years it has
been placed in all catalogues at the end of the list of the species of
this genus, where I also leave it, though to my way of thinking its
proper location is near _A. rupestris_. It certainly reveals but small
affinity to the species of the Eurynome group.

Besides the species of _Argynnis_ enumerated in the foregoing pages and
delineated upon the plates, there are several others of more or less
doubtful validity credited to our fauna, and a number of varieties which
have received names. With all of these the more advanced student will
become familiar as he prosecutes his researches, but it is not necessary
to speak of them here.


A RACE AFTER A BUTTERFLY

There is much that is pleasing about "first things." I shall never
forget the first dollar I earned; the first trout I took with my fly;
the first muskalonge I gaffed beside my canoe on a still Canadian lake;
the first voyage I made across the Atlantic. So I shall never forget my
first capture of a female specimen of _Argynnis diana_.

My home in my boyhood was in North Carolina, in the village of Salem,
famous as one of the most successful of the settlements made by the
Moravian Brethren under the lead of the good Count Zinzendorf, and well
known throughout the Southern States as the seat of an excellent
seminary for young ladies. The Civil War broke out, and the hopes
cherished of sending me North to be educated were disappointed. I was
left to pursue my studies under a tutor, and to roam the neighborhood in
quest of insects, of which I gathered a large collection.

One day I spied upon a bed of verbenas a magnificent butterfly with
broad expanse of wing and large blue spots upon the secondaries. In
breathless haste I rushed into the house and got my net. To the joy of
my heart, when I returned to the spot, the beauty was still hovering
over the crimson blossoms. But, as I drew near with fell intent, it rose
and sailed away. Across the garden, over the fence, across the
churchyard, out into the street, with leisurely flight the coveted prize
sped its way, while I quickly followed, net in hand. Once upon the dusty
street, its flight was accelerated; my rapid walking was converted into
a run. Down past the church and--_horribile dictu!_--past the
boarding-school that pesky butterfly flew. I would rather have faced a
cannonade in those days than a bevy of boarding-school misses, but there
was no alternative. There were the dreaded females at the windows (for
it was Saturday, and vacation hour), and there was my butterfly.
Sweating, blushing, inwardly anathematizing my luck, I rushed past the
school, only to be overwhelmed with mortification by the rascally porter
of the institution, who was sweeping the pavement, and who bawled out
after me: "Oh, it's no use; you can't catch it! It's frightened; you're
so ugly!" And now it began to rise in its flight. It was plainly my last
chance, for it would in a moment be lost over the housetops. I made an
upward leap, and by a fortunate sweep of the net succeeded in capturing
my prize.

Many years later, after a long interval in which ornithology and botany
had engrossed my mind to the exclusion of entomology, my boyish love for
the butterflies was renewed, and I found out the name of the choice
thing I had captured on that hot July day on the streets of Salem, and
returned to North Carolina for the special purpose of collecting a
quantity of these superb insects. My quest was entirely successful,
though my specimens were not taken at Salem, but under the shadow of
Mount Mitchell, in the flower-spangled valleys which lie at its feet.


Genus BRENTHIS, Hübner

  "The garden is fragrant everywhere;
    In its lily-bugles the gold bee sups,
  And butterflies flutter on winglets fair
    Round the tremulous meadow buttercups."

  MUNKITTRICK.

_Butterfly._-Small or medium-sized butterflies, very closely
approximating in form and color the species of the genus _Argynnis_, in
which they are included by many writers. The principal structural
difference between the two genera is found in the fact that in the genus
_Brenthis_ only one of the subcostal nervules arises before or at the
end of the cell of the primaries, while in _Argynnis_ the two innermost
subcostal nervules thus arise. In _Brenthis_ the palpi are not as stout
as in _Argynnis_, and the short basal spur or branch of the median vein
of the front wings, which is characteristic of the latter genus, is
altogether lacking in _Brenthis_.

_Egg._--The eggs are subconical, almost twice as high as wide, truncated
at the top, and marked with thirteen or fourteen raised longitudinal
ridges connected by a multitude of smaller cross-ridges.

_Larva._--The caterpillars are not noticeably different in their general
appearance from those of the genus _Argynnis_, except that they are
smaller and generally not as dark in color as the larvæ of the latter
genus. They feed, like the caterpillars of _Argynnis_, upon violets.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is pendant, about six tenths of an inch
long, and armed with two rows of sharp conical tubercles on the back.

[Illustration FIG. 90.--Neuration of the genus _Brenthis_, enlarged.]

(1) =Brenthis myrina=, Cramer, Plate XV, Fig. 1, ♂; Fig. 2, ♂, _under
side_; Plate V, Figs. 12-14, _chrysalis_ (The Silver-bordered
Fritillary).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of the wings is fulvous; the black markings
are light, the borders heavy. The fore wings on the under side are
yellowish-fulvous, ferruginous at the tip, with the marginal spots
lightly silvered. The hind wings are ferruginous, mottled with buff. The
spots, which are small, are well silvered. Expanse, ♂, 1.40 inch; ♀,
1.70 inch.

_Egg._--The egg is conoidal, about one third higher than wide, marked by
sixteen or seventeen vertical ribs, between which are a number of
delicate cross-lines. It is pale greenish-yellow in color.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar has been carefully studied, and its
various stages are fully described in "The Butterflies of New England,"
by Dr. Scudder. In its final stage it is about seven eighths of an inch
long, dark olive-brown, marked with green, the segments being adorned
with fleshy tubercles armed with needle-shaped projections, the
tubercles on the side of the first thoracic segment being four times as
long as the others, cylindrical in form, and blunt at the upper end, the
spines projecting upward at an angle of forty-five degrees to the axis
of the tubercle.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is yellowish-brown, spotted with darker
brown spots, those of the thoracic and first and second abdominal
segments having the lustre of mother-of-pearl.

This very pretty little species has a wide range, extending from New
England to Montana, from Nova Scotia to Alaska, and southward along the
ridges of the Alleghanies into Virginia and the mountains of North
Carolina.

(2) =Brenthis triclaris=, Hübner, Plate XV, Fig. 3, ♂ (Hübner's
Fritillary).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The male above is bright fulvous, with the base of the
fore wings and the inner margin of the hind wings heavily obscured with
blackish scales. The usual dark markings are finer than in the preceding
species; the black marginal borders are not so heavy. The submarginal
spots are relatively large and distinct in most specimens, and uniform
in size. The light spots of the under side of the median band of the
hind wings show through from below on the upper side lighter than the
ground-color of the wings. On the under side the fore wings are fulvous,
tipped with ferruginous. The hind wings are broadly ferruginous, with a
couple of bright-yellow spots near the base and a curved band of yellow
spots crossing the median area. The outer margin about the middle is
marked with pale fulvous. The spots on the under side are none of them
silvered.

♀.--The female is much paler than the male in most cases, and the
marginal spots within the lunules are very pale, almost white. The
submarginal row of round black spots is relatively large and distinct,
quite uniform in size. On the under side the wings are much more
conspicuously marked on the secondaries than in the male sex, being
crossed by three conspicuous bands of irregularly shaped yellow spots,
one at the base and one on either side of the discal area. The
submarginal round spots of the upper side reappear on the under side as
small, slightly silvered, yellow spots. The marginal spots are bright
yellow, slightly glossed with silver. Expanse, ♂, 1.50 inch; ♀, 1.60
inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This extremely beautiful little species is found throughout arctic
America, is not uncommon in Labrador, and also occurs upon the loftier
summits of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado and elsewhere. It is, as most
species of the genus, essentially arctic in its habits.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XV                                      |
  |                                                              |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Brenthis myrina_, Cramer, ♂.                             |
  | 2. _Brenthis myrina_, Cramer, ♀,                             |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 3. _Brenthis triclaris_, Hübner, ♂.                          |
  | 4. _Brenthis chariclea_, Schneider, ♂.                       |
  | 5. _Brenthis boisduvali_, Duponchel, ♂.                      |
  | 6. _Brenthis boisduvali_, Duponchel,                         |
  |     ♀, _under side_.                                         |
  | 7. _Brenthis montinus_, Scudder, ♂.                          |
  | 8. _Brenthis montinus_, Scudder, ♀,                          |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 9. _Brenthis freija_, Thunberg, ♂.                           |
  | 10. _Brenthis freija_, Thunberg, ♀,                          |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 11. _Brenthis polaris_, Boisduval, ♂.                        |
  | 12. _Brenthis polaris_, Boisduval, ♂,                        |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 13. _Brenthis frigga_, Thunberg, ♂.                          |
  | 14. _Brenthis frigga_, Thunberg, ♀,                          |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 15. _Brenthis alberta,_, Edwards, ♂.                         |
  | 16. _Brenthis bellona_, Fabricius, ♂.                        |
  | 17. _Brenthis epithore_, Boisduval, ♂.                       |
  | 18. _Brenthis epithore_, Boisduval, ♂,                       |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XV.]                                     |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+

(3) =Brenthis helena=, Edwards, Plate XVIII, Fig. 16, ♂, _under side_;
Fig. 17, ♂ (Helena).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The wings on the upper side are fulvous, greatly
obscured by brown at the base of the fore wings and along the inner
margin of the hind wings. The usual black markings are light, and the
marginal border is also not so heavily marked as in _B. myrina_. The
fore wings on the under side are pale fulvous, laved with ferruginous at
the tip. The hind wings are brightly ferruginous, with small yellow
marginal spots, and paler spots inclining to buff on the costal border
and at the end of the cell, about the region of the median nervules.

♀.--The female is very much like the male on the upper side, but the
ground-color is paler. On the under side the wings are somewhat paler,
and all the spots and light markings, especially on the secondaries, are
far more conspicuous, being bright yellow, and standing out very
prominently upon the dark ferruginous ground. Expanse, 1.40 inch.

_Early Stages._--The early stages of this insect are not as yet known.

_Helena_ appears to be a common species in Colorado, Montana, and New
Mexico. It is subject to considerable variation, both in the intensity
of the coloring of the under side of the wings, and in the distinctness
of the maculation.

(4) =Brenthis montinus=, Scudder, Plate XV, Fig. 7, ♂; Fig. 8, ♀,
_under side_ (The White Mountain Fritillary).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The upper side is fulvous, closely resembling _B.
chariclea_, but the ground-color is darker. The under side of the hind
wings is deep ferruginous, mottled with white, the most conspicuous of
the white spots being a white bar occurring at the end of the cell, and
a small round white spot at the base of the wing. The hind wings have
also a marginal row of slightly silvered white spots.

♀.--The female is very much like the male, but the ground-color of the
upper side is paler. Expanse, ♂, 1.50 inch; ♀, 1.75 inch.

This interesting butterfly is found on the barren summits of Mount
Washington, New Hampshire. It represents the survival of the arctic
fauna on these desolate peaks, and, like the arctic flora of the spot
where it is found, is a souvenir of the ice-age, which once shrouded the
northeastern regions of the United States with glaciers.

(5) =Brenthis chariclea=, Schneider, Plate XV, Fig. 4, ♂ (Chariclea).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--Fulvous on the upper side, with heavy black markings,
both wings greatly obscured at the base by fuscous. On the under side
the fore wings are pale yellowish-fulvous, mottled with ferruginous at
the tip and on the outer margin. The hind wings on the under side are
dark purplish-ferruginous, mottled with yellow, crossed by a central row
of conspicuous yellow spots. The row of marginal spots and two or three
small spots at the base are white, slightly silvered.

♀.--The female differs from the male in having the markings of the upper
side darker and heavier, and the outer margins more heavily marked with
black, and having all the spots on the under side more distinctly
defined against the dark ground. Expanse, ♂, 1.50 inch; ♀, 1.75 inch.

_Early Stages._--Undescribed.

This species, like _B. freija_, is circumpolar, being found in Lapland,
Greenland, and throughout arctic America. It also occurs within the
limits of the United States, in the Yellowstone Park at considerable
elevations, and is not uncommon on the high mountains in British
Columbia, numerous specimens having been captured in recent years about
Banff and Laggan, in Alberta.

(6) =Brenthis boisduvali=, Duponchel, Plate XV, Fig. 5. ♂; Fig. 6, ♀,
_under side_ (Boisduval's Fritillary).

_Butterfly._--Somewhat closely resembling _B. chariclea_, but with the
markings much heavier on the outer margin, and the base of the wings
generally more deeply obscured with dark brown. The wings on the under
side in color and marking closely approximate those of _B. chariclea_,
and I have been unable to distinguish the specimens marked as
_boisduvali_, and contained in the Edwards collection, from the
specimens designated as _B. chariclea_ in the same collection, so far as
the color and maculation of the under sides of these specimens are
concerned. Expanse, ♂, 1.50 inch; ♀, 1.75 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This species, originally described from Labrador, is found throughout
boreal America and British Columbia.

(7) =Brenthis freija=, Thunberg, Plate XV, Fig. 9, ♂; Fig. 10, ♀,
_under side_ (The Lapland Fritillary).

_Butterfly._--The wings are pale fulvous, the fore wings at the base
and the hind wings on the inner half being deeply obscured with fuscous.
The markings are quite heavy. The fore wings on the under side are very
pale fulvous, yellowish at the tip, mottled with ferruginous. The hind
wings are ferruginous on the under side, mottled with yellow. The spots
are quite large, consisting of lines and dashes, and a marginal row of
small lunulate spots, pale yellow or white, slightly silvered. Expanse,
1.50 inch.

This butterfly is circumpolar, being found in Norway, Lapland, northern
Russia, and Siberia, through Alaska, British America, and Labrador,
occurring also upon the highest peaks of the Rocky Mountains as far
south as Colorado.

(8) =Brenthis polaris=, Boisduval, Plate XV, Fig. 11, ♂; Fig. 12, ♂,
_under side_ (The Polar Fritillary).

_Butterfly._--The upper side dull fulvous; the markings on the inner
half of the wings are confluent, and lost in the brownish vestiture
which obscures this portion of the wing. The outer median area is
defined by irregular zigzag spots which flow together. Beyond these the
submarginal row of small black spots stands out distinctly upon the
lighter ground-color of the wings. The outer margin is marked by black
spots at the end of the nervules, on the fore wings somewhat widely
separated, on the hind wings narrowly separated by the lighter
ground-color. On the under side the wings are fulvous, with a marginal
row of white checkerings on both wings. The hind wing is deeply mottled
with ferruginous, on which the lighter white markings stand forth very
conspicuously. Expanse, ♂, 1.50 inch.; ♀, 1.50-2.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This butterfly has been found in Labrador, Greenland, and other portions
of arctic America, as far north as latitude 81° 52´.

(9) =Brenthis frigga=, Thunberg, Plate XV, Fig. 13, ♂; Fig. 14, ♀,
_lower side_ (Frigga).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--On the upper side this butterfly somewhat closely
resembles _polaris_, but the markings are not so compact--more diffuse.
The fore wings at the base and the hind wings on the inner two thirds
are heavily obscured with brown. The outer margins are more heavily
shaded with blackish-brown than in _B. polaris_. On the under side the
wings are quite differently marked. The fore wings are fulvous, shaded
with brown at the tips, and marked with light yellow on the interspaces
beyond the end of the cell. The hind wings are dark ferruginous, shading
into purplish-gray on the outer margin, with a whitish quadrate spot on
the costa near the base, marked with two dark spots, and a bar of pale,
somewhat obscured spots, forming an irregular band across the middle of
the hind wings.

♀.--The female does not differ greatly from the male, except that the
spots on the under side of the hind wings stand forth more
conspicuously, being lighter in color and better defined. Expanse,
1.65-2.00 inches.

This pretty little butterfly occurs in Labrador, across the continent as
far west as northern Alaska, and is also occasionally taken upon the
alpine summits of the Rocky Mountains as far south as Colorado.

(10) =Brenthis bellona=, Fabricius, Plate XV, Fig. 16, ♂; Plate V, Fig.
10, _chrysalis, side view_; Fig. 11, _chrysalis, side view_ (Meadow
Fritillary).

_Butterfly._--Pale fulvous on the upper side, with the dark markings on
the inner half of the wing narrow, but more or less confluent. The dark
markings on the outer part of the wing are slighter. The fore wings are
a little angled on the outer margin below the apex. On the under side
the fore wings are pale fulvous, mottled with purple at the tip and on
the outer margin. The hind wings on this side are ferruginous, mottled
with purple. Expanse, 1.65-1.80 inch.

_Egg._--The egg of this species is similar in form, size, color, and
markings to the egg of _B. myrina_.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar also in its early stages closely
resembles _myrina_, but in its mature form it differs in not having the
spines on the second segment of the body lengthened as in that species.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis, which is represented in Plate V, is
bluish-gray in color, marked with dark spots. The life-history has been
given us by several authors.

This butterfly is very common in the whole of the northern United
States, as far south as the mountain-ranges of Virginia, and occurs
throughout Quebec, Ontario, and British America, as far west as the
foot-hills of the Rocky Mountains. It flies commonly with _B. myrina_,
the only other species of the genus found in the densely populated
portions of our territory, from which it may be at once distinguished
by the entire absence of the silvered markings which make _B. myrina_ so
bright and attractive.

(11) =Brenthis epithore=, Boisduval, Plate XV, Fig. 17, ♂; Fig. 18, ♂,
_under side_ (Epithore).

_Butterfly._--This species on the upper side is pale fulvous, with the
markings slighter than in _B. bellona_, and the inner half of the hind
wings much more heavily clouded with fuscous. On the under side the
wings are somewhat like those of _B. bellona_, but less purple and
mottled more distinctly with yellow. Expanse, ♂, 1.50 inch; ♀, 1.85
inch.

_Early Stages._--Undescribed.

This species appears to replace _B. bellona_, its close ally, in
California, Oregon, and the States eastward as far as parts of Colorado.

(12) =Brenthis alberta=, Edwards, Plate XV, Fig. 15, ♂ (Alberta).

_Butterfly._--This, the least attractive in appearance of the species
composing the genus, has pale wings with a "washed-out" appearance on
the upper side, almost all the dark markings being greatly reduced or
obliterated. On the under side the wings are even more obscurely marked
than on the upper side. The female is darker than the male, and
specimens have a greasy look. Expanse, ♂, 1.55 inch; ♀, 1.65-1.75 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown, except the egg and the young caterpillar,
which have been most beautifully figured by Edwards in vol. iii of "The
Butterflies of North America." The only locality from which specimens
have as yet been received by collectors is Laggan, in Alberta, where the
species apparently is not uncommon at lofty elevations above sea-level.

(13) =Brenthis astarte=, Doubleday and Hewitson, Plate XVIII, Fig. 14, ♂;
Fig. 15, ♀, _under side_ (Astarte).

_Butterfly._--This rare insect, the largest of the genus, may at once be
distinguished from all others by the very beautiful markings of the
under side of the hind wings, crossed by a band of irregular,
bright-yellow spots, which are narrowly edged with black, and beyond the
black bordered by red. Expanse, ♂, 2.00 inches; ♀, 2.15 inches.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The first description and figure of this insect were given by Doubleday
and Hewitson in their large and now very valuable work on "The Genera
of Diurnal Lepidoptera." They correctly attributed it to the Rocky
Mountains, but Kirby afterward gave Jamaica as its habitat, and this led
to its subsequent redescription by Edwards under the name _Victoria_. It
is a rare species still, having been received only from Laggan, Alberta,
where it was rediscovered by that most indefatigable collector and
observer, Mr. T.E. Bean. It frequents the highest summits of the lofty
mountains about this desolate locality. Mr. Bean says: "_Astarte_ seems
always on the lookout for an entomologist, whose advent is carefully
noted, and at any approach of such a monster nearer than about fifteen
feet, its wings rise to half-mast, vibrate there a doubtful instant, and
away goes the butterfly."

In addition to the thirteen species figured in our plates there are two
other species of the genus, _B. butleri_, Edwards, from Grinnell Land,
and _B. improba_, Butler, from near the arctic circle. It is not likely
that many of the readers of this book will encounter these insects in
their rambles, and if they should, they will be able to ascertain their
names quickly, by conferring with the author.


SUSPICIOUS CONDUCT

The entomologist must not expect to be always thoroughly understood. The
ways of scientific men sometimes appear strange, mysterious, bordering
even upon the insane, to those who are uninitiated. A celebrated
American naturalist relates that on one occasion, when chasing
butterflies through a meadow belonging to a farmer, the latter came out
and viewed him with manifest anxiety. But when the nature of the efforts
of the man of science had been finally explained, the farmer heaved a
sigh of relief, remarking, in Pennsylvania Dutch, that "he had surely
thought, when he first saw him, that he had just escaped from a lunatic
asylum." The writer, a number of years ago, after having despatched a
very comfortable lunch, sallied forth one afternoon, in quest of
insects, and in the course of his wanderings came upon a refuse-heap by
the roadside, opposite a substantial house, and on this heap discovered
an ancient ham, which was surrounded by a multitude of beetles of
various species known to be partial to decomposed, or semi-decomposed,
animal matter. He proceeded immediately to bottle a number of the
specimens. While engaged in so doing, the window of the house across
the way was thrown up, and an elderly female thrust her head out, and in
strident voice exclaimed: "Hey, there! What are you doin' with that ham?
I say, don't you know that that ham is spiled?" As he paid no attention
to her, she presently appeared at the door, came across the street, and
remarked: "See here, mister; that ham's spiled; Lucy and me throwed it
out, knowin' it was no good. If you want a good meal of wittles, come
into the house, and we will feed you, but for mercy's sake leave that
spiled ham alone." It took considerable effort to assure her that no
designs upon the ham were cherished, and she went away, evidently
completely mystified at the wild conduct of the well-dressed man who was
grubbing in the rubbish-pile.


Genus MELITÆA, Fabricius

(The Checker-spots)

  "The fresh young Flie,...
    ... joy'd to range abroad in fresh attire,
  Through the wide compass of the ayrie coast;
     And, with unwearied wings, each part t'inquire
  Of the wide rule of his renowned sire."

  SPENSER.

_Butterfly._--Small. The tibiæ and the tarsi of the mesothoracic and
metathoracic legs are more lightly armed with spines than in the genera
_Argynnis_ and _Brenthis_. The palpi are not swollen. They are clothed
with long hairs and have the third joint finely pointed. The antennæ are
about half as long as the costa of the fore wings, and are provided with
a short, heavy, excavated, or spoon-shaped club. The subcostal of the
fore wings is five-branched, the first nervule always arising before the
end of the cell, the second at the end or just beyond it. The cell of
the primaries is closed, of the secondaries open. The markings upon the
wings are altogether different from those in the two preceding genera,
and the spots on the under side of the wings are not silvered, as in the
genus _Brenthis_.

_Egg._--The egg is rounded at the base, subconical, truncated, and
depressed at the upper end and fluted by light raised ridges (see p. 4,
Fig. 8).

_Caterpillar._--The larvæ are cylindrical, armed in the mature form on
each segment with comparatively short spines thickly covered with
diverging hairs, or needle-shaped spines. They are known in some species
to be gregarious in their early stages, and then to separate before
maturity. They feed upon the _Scrophulariaceæ_, upon _Castileja_,
_Diplopappus_, and other plants.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is pendant, rounded at the head, provided
with more or less sharply pointed tubercles on the dorsal surface, and
generally white or some shade of light gray, blotched with brown or
black, and marked with reddish or orange spots on the dorsal side.

[Illustration FIG. 91.--Neuration of the genus _Melitæa_.]

This genus is very large and is distributed widely over all the colder
portions of the north temperate zone. There are many species found in
Europe, in Siberia, in China, and in the northern islands of Japan. On
the upper slopes of the Himalayas it is also represented by a few
species. In North America the genus is well represented, the most of the
species being found upon the mountain-slopes and in the valleys of the
Pacific coast region. Only two species occur in the Eastern States.

(1) =Melitæa phaëton=, Drury, Plate XVI, Fig. 1, ♂; Plate V, Figs. 15,
16, _chrysalis_ (The Baltimore).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The upper side is black, with a marginal row of red
spots, followed by three rows of pale-yellow spots on the fore wings and
two on the hind wings. Besides these there are some large red spots on
the cells of both wings, a large red spot about the middle of the costa
of the hind wing, and a few scattering yellow spots, forming an
incomplete fourth row on the fore wing and an incomplete third row on
the hind wing. On the under side all the spots of the upper side
reappear, but heavier and more distinct, and on the hind wings there are
two additional rows of yellow spots, and a number of irregular patches
of red and yellow at the base of both wings.

♀.--The female is much like the male. Expanse, ♂, 1.75-2.00 inches;
♀, 2.00-2.60 inches.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVI                                     |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Melitæa phaëton_, Drury, ♂.                              |
  | 2. _Melitæa chalcedon_, Doubleday and                        |
  |     Hewitson, ♂.                                             |
  | 3. _Melitæa macglashani_, Rivers, ♂.                         |
  | 4. _Melitæa augusta_, Edwards, ♂.                            |
  | 5. _Melitæa colon_, Edwards, ♂.                              |
  | 6. _Melitæa nubigena_, Behr, ♂.                              |
  | 7. _Melitæa baroni_, Henry Edwards, ♂.                       |
  | 8. _Melitæa editha,_, Boisduval, ♂.                          |
  | 9. _Melitæa nubigena_, var, _wheeleri_,                      |
  |     Henry Edwards, ♂.                                        |
  | 10. _Melitæa rubicunda_, Henry Edwards,                      |
  |     ♂.                                                       |
  | 11. _Melitæa acastus_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  | 12. _Melitæa acastus_, Edwards, ♂,                           |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 13. _Melitæa palla_, Boisduval, ♂.                           |
  | 14. _Melitæa palla_, Boisduval, ♂,                           |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 15. _Melitæa gabbi_, Behr, ♂.                                |
  | 16. _Melitæa taylori_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  | 17. _Melitæa fulvia_, Edwards, ♂.                            |
  | 18. _Melitæa dymas_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 19. _Melitæa perse_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 20. _Melitæa leanira_, Boisduval, ♂.                         |
  | 21. _Melitæa nympha_, Edwards, ♂.                            |
  | 22. _Melitæa arachne_, Edwards, ♀.                           |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XVI.]                                    |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+

_Egg._--The egg which is outlined upon p. 4, Fig. 8, is brownish-yellow
when first laid, then changes to crimson and becomes black just
before hatching. The eggs are laid by the female in large clusters on
the under side of the leaf of the food-plant.

_Caterpillar._--The life-history in all the stages will be found
minutely described by Edwards in "The Butterflies of North America,"
vol. ii, and by Scudder in "The Butterflies of New England," vol. i. The
mature larva is black, banded with orange-red, and beset with short,
bristly, black spines. Before and during hibernation, which takes place
after the third moult, the caterpillars are gregarious, and construct
for themselves a web in which they pass the winter. After the rigors of
winter are past, and the food-plant, which is commonly _Chelone glabra_,
begins to send up fresh shoots, they recover animation, scatter, and
fall to feeding again, and after the fifth moult reach maturity.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is pendant, formed generally at a
considerable distance from the spot where the caterpillar feeds, for the
larvæ wander off widely just before pupation. It is pearly-gray,
blotched with dark brown in stripes and spots, with some orange
markings.

This very beautiful butterfly is quite local, found in colonies in
swampy places where the food-plant grows, but in these spots sometimes
appearing in swarms. It occurs in the northern portions of the United
States and in Canada, extending as far north as the Lake of the Woods,
and as far south as West Virginia. It does not occur west of the Rocky
Mountains.

(2) =Melitæa chalcedon=, Doubleday and Hewitson, Plate XVI, Fig. 2, ♂
(Chalcedon).

_Butterfly._--The male and female are much alike. The wings are black,
spotted with red and ochreous-yellow. On the under side they are
brick-red, with the spots of the upper side repeated, and in addition at
the base a number of large and distinct yellow spots. Expanse, ♂,
1.75-2.00 inches; ♀, 2.50 inches.

_Early Stages._--For a knowledge of these the reader may consult
Edwards, "The Butterflies of North America," vol. i, and "Papilio," vol.
iv, p. 63; Wright, "Papilio," vol. iii, p. 123, and other authorities.
The egg is pale yellowish when first laid, pitted at the base, and
ribbed vertically above. The caterpillar is black, with the bristling
processes on the segments longer than in the preceding species. The
chrysalis is pale gray, blotched with brown. The food-plants are
_Mimulus_ and _Castileja_.

This very pretty species is apparently quite common in northern
California about Mount Shasta. It is subject to variation, and I possess
a dozen remarkable aberrations, in one of which the fore wings are solid
black without spots, and the hind wings marked by only one central band
of large yellow spots; another representing the opposite color extreme,
in which yellow has almost wholly replaced the black and red. The
majority of these aberrant forms are females. They are very striking.

(3) =Melitæa macglashani=, Rivers, Plate XVI, Fig. 3, ♂ (Macglashan's
Checker-spot).

_Butterfly._--Larger than the preceding species, with the red spots on
the outer margin bigger, the yellow spots generally larger and paler.
Expanse, ♂, 1.85-2.00 inches; ♀, 2.25-3.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This insect is represented in the Edwards collection by a considerable
series. They come from Truckee, California.

(4) =Melitæa colon=, Edwards, Plate XVI, Fig. 5, ♂ (Colon).

_Butterfly._--Of the same size and general appearance as _M. chalcedon_,
with which I believe it to be identical, the only possible satisfactory
mark of distinction which I am able to discover on comparing the types
with a long series of _chalcedon_ being the reduced size of the marginal
row of yellow spots on the upper side of the primaries, which in one of
the types figured in the plate are almost obsolete. They appear,
however, in other specimens labeled "Type." The learned author of the
species lays stress, in his original description, upon the shape of the
spots composing the band of spots second from the margin on the under
side of the hind wings; but I find that the same points he dwells upon
as diacritic of this species are apparent in many specimens of what
undoubtedly are _chalcedon_. Expanse, 1.75-2.50 inches.

_Early Stages._--These have not been recorded.

The types came from the region of the Columbia River, in Washington and
Oregon.

(5) =Melitæa anicia=, Doubleday and Hewitson, var. =beani=, Skinner, Plate
XVIII, Fig. 13, ♂ (Bean's Checker-spot).

_Butterfly._--_M. anicia_ is a well-known Californian species, smaller
than _M. chalcedon_, and with a great deal of red on the basal and
discal areas of both wings upon the upper side. An extremely small and
dark form of this species, found on the bleak, inhospitable
mountain-tops about Laggan, in Alberta, has been named by Dr. Skinner in
honor of Mr. Bean, its discoverer. The figure in our plate, which is
taken from Dr. Skinner's original type, sufficiently defines the
characteristics of the upper surface. Expanse, 1.50 inch.

_Early Stages._--The early stages of _M. anicia_ and its varietal forms
are quite unknown.

_M. anicia_ is found in Colorado, Montana, Washington, and British
America.

(6) =Melitæa nubigena=, Behr, Plate XVI, Fig. 6, ♂; var. =wheeleri=,
Edwards, Plate XVI, Fig. 9, ♂ (The Clouded Checker-spot).

_Butterfly._--Smaller than any of the foregoing species, and
characterized by the much redder ground-color of the upper side of the
wings, an extreme form being the variety _M. wheeleri_, in which the
black ground-color is greatly reduced and almost wholly obliterated on
parts of the primaries. There are other marks of distinction given in
the figures in the plate which will enable the student easily to
recognize this species, which is subject to much variation, especially
in the female sex. Expanse, 1.20-1.50 inch.

_Early Stages._--Mead, in the "Report upon the Lepidoptera of the
Wheeler Survey," has described the caterpillar and chrysalis.

The species is common in Nevada.

(7) =Melitæa augusta=, Edwards, Plate XVI, Fig. 4, ♂ (Augusta).

_Butterfly,_.--This is another species in which red predominates as the
color of the upper side, but it may at once be distinguished by the
broad, clear red band on the secondaries, on either side of which are
the marginal and outer median rows of yellow spots, and by the bands of
yellow spots on the primaries, which are not so well marked in _M.
nubigena_. Expanse, ♂, 1.50-1.75 inch; ♀, 1.75-2.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The habitat of this species is southern California.

(8) =Melitæa baroni=, Henry Edwards, Plate XVI, Fig 7, ♂ (Baron's
Checker-spot).

_Butterfly._--This species closely resembles _chalcedon_ upon the upper
side, but is smaller and much more heavily spotted with deep red on the
upper side toward the base and on the median area of the wings. The
bands of light spots on the under side are paler than in _chalcedon_,
being white or very pale yellow, narrow, and more regular. Expanse, ♂,
1.50-1.80 inch; ♀, 1.60-1.90 inch.

_Early Stages._--These are in part given by Edwards, "The Butterflies of
North America," vol. iii. The food-plant is _Castileja_. The young larvæ
have the same habit as those of _M. phaëton_ in the matter of spinning a
common web in which to hibernate.

The species is found in northern California.

(9) =Melitæa rubicunda=, Henry Edwards, Plate XVI, Fig. 10, ♂ (The Ruddy
Checker-spot).

_Butterfly._--Of the same size as _M. baroni_, from which it is most
easily distinguished, among other things, by the tendency of the outer
row of small yellow spots near the margin of the hind wings on the upper
side to become greatly reduced, and in a majority of specimens to be
altogether wanting, as in the specimen figured in our plate. Expanse, ♂,
1.50-1.60 inch; ♀, 1.80 inch.

_Early Stages._--For a knowledge of what is thus far known of these the
reader may consult the "Canadian Entomologist," vol. xvii, p. 155. The
caterpillar feeds on _Scrophularia_.

The range of this species is in northern California.

(10) =Melitæa taylori=, Plate XVI, Fig. 16, ♂ (Taylor's Checker-spot).

_Butterfly._--This insect resembles _M. baroni_, but is smaller, the red
spots on the wings are larger and more conspicuous, and the light bands
of pale spots more regular and paler in color, in many specimens being
quite white. It looks at first sight like a diminutive edition of
Baron's Checker-spot, and possibly is only a northern race of this
species. Expanse, ♂, 1.25-1.50 inch; ♀, 1.50-1.75 inch.

_Early Stages._--Mr. W.H. Danby of Victoria, B.C., informs us in the
"Canadian Entomologist," vol. xxi, p. 121, that the food-plant of this
species is the ribwort-plantain (_Plantago lanceolata_, Linn.).

It is found on Vancouver's Island.

(11) =Melitæa editha=, Boisduval, Plate XVI, Fig. 8, ♂ (Editha).

_Butterfly._--Characterized by the considerable enlargement and the
disposition in regular bands of the pale spots on the upper side of the
primaries, and by the tendency to a grayish cast in the darker markings
of the upper side, some specimens, especially females, being quite gray.
Expanse, ♂, 1.50 inch; ♀, 2.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--The food-plants, according to Henry Edwards, who
described the caterpillar and chrysalis in the "Canadian Entomologist,"
vol. v, p. 167, are _Erodium cicutarium_, clover, and violets.

The habitat of this species is southern California.

(12) =Melitæa acastus=, Edwards, Plate XVI, Fig. 11, ♂; Fig. 12, ♂,
_under side_ (Acastus).

_Butterfly._--With thinner and less robust wings than any of the species
of the genus hitherto mentioned. It is prevalently fulvous upon the
upper side, and on the under side of the hind wings heavily and somewhat
regularly banded with yellowish-white spots, possessing some pearly
luster. Expanse, ♂, 1.50 inch; ♀, 1.60 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

Common in Nevada, Utah, and Montana.

(13) =Melitæa palla=, Boisduval, Plate XVI, Fig. 13, ♂; Fig. 14, ♂,
_under side_ (The Northern Checker-spot).

_Butterfly._--On the upper side resembling the preceding species, but
with the median band of spots on the hind wings paler. On the under side
the markings are different, as is shown in the plate. Expanse, ♂, 1.50
inch; ♀, 1.75 inch.

_Early Stages._--The larva and chrysalis were described by Henry
Edwards, the actor naturalist, in the "Proceedings of the California
Academy of Sciences," vol. v, p. 167. The food-plant is _Castileja_.

The species ranges from California to Colorado, and northward into
British Columbia.

(14) =Melitæa whitneyi=, Behr, Plate XVII, Fig. 7, ♂; Fig. 8, ♂,
_under side_ (Whitney's Checker-spot).

_Butterfly._--The markings are much as in _M. palla_, the spots are
lighter fulvous and larger than in that species, the yellow bands on the
under side are more prominent, and the marginal spots have a silvery
luster which is lacking in _M. palla_. The female has the yellow of the
under side more prominent than is the case in the male sex. Expanse, ♂,
1.50 inch; ♀, 1.70 inch.

_Early Stages._--Altogether unknown.

Whitney's Checker-spot ranges from California into Nevada.

(15) =Melitæa hoffmanni=, Behr, Plate XVII, Fig. 13, ♂; Fig. 14, ♀,
_aberration_ (Hoffmann's Checker-spot).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--General style of marking much as in the two preceding
species, but with the basal area black, and the black markings toward
the outer margin not so heavy, giving it here a more fulvous appearance.
The median bands on both wings are broader and paler than in _M. palla._
The under side is much as in the last-mentioned species, but the yellow
markings are more prominent.

♀.--Much like the male. Expanse, ♂, 1.35 inch; ♀, 1.45 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This species, which is found in California and Nevada, is subject to
extreme variation, and I have placed upon the plate one out of many
beautiful and singular aberrations which I possess.

(16) =Melitæa gabbi=, Behr, Plate XVI, Fig. 15, ♂ (Gabb's Checker-spot).

_Butterfly._--In the style of its markings on the upper side it almost
completely resembles _M. acastus_, but the dark markings are slighter,
giving the wings a more fulvous appearance. On the under side the bands
are narrower, defined more sharply with black, and pearly, almost
silvery white, whereas in _acastus_ they are pale yellowish-white, and
not so lustrous. Expanse, ♂, 1.20 inch; ♀, 1.50 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The habitat of this species is southern California.

(17) =Melitæa harrisi=, Scudder, Plate XVII, Fig. 5, ♂; Fig. 6, ♀,
_under side_; Plate V, Figs. 17-18, _chrysalis_ (Harris' Checker-spot).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--Wings fulvous, black at the base and on the outer
margin, with five fulvous spots in the cell of the fore wing, two below
the cell; and three in the cell of the hind wing. The black border is
widest at the apex of the fore wing, and below this runs inwardly on the
veins. There are two white spots near the apex. At the anal angle on the
hind wing the border is somewhat divided so as to present the appearance
of two indistinct lines. On the under side the wings are fulvous, marked
with black bands and spots, and crossed by bands and crescents of pale
yellow, as is shown in the figure on the plate.

♀.--The female is much like the male. Expanse, ♂, 1.50 inch; ♀, 1.75
inch.

_Egg._--The eggs are lemon-yellow, in the form of a truncated cone,
with fifteen or sixteen vertical ribs, which are highest about the
middle.

_Caterpillar._--The matured caterpillar is reddish-fulvous, with a black
stripe on the back. Each segment is marked with one black ring before
and two black rings behind the sets of spiny tubercles with which the
segments are adorned. There are nine rows of spines, those above the
feet being quite small. The spines are black, tapering, and set with
diverging black hairs. The food-plants are aster and _Diplopappus
umbellatus_.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is pearly-gray or white, blotched with dark
brown or black.

This choice little butterfly ranges from Nova Scotia to Wisconsin,
extending as far south as northern Illinois, and northward to Ottawa.

(18) =Melitæa elada=, Hewitson, Plate XVII, Fig. 2, ♂ (Hewitson's
Checker-spot).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The wings on the upper side are black, crossed by
numerous bands of small fulvous spots, the one crossing the middle of
the median area being composed of the largest spots. The fore wings on
the under side are fulvous, shading outwardly into ferruginous. The
spots and bands of the upper side reappear upon the under side, but are
lighter, and the submarginal row of crescents is pale yellow and very
distinct, the spot between the second and third median nervules being
the largest, and the spot between the fourth and fifth subcostals being
only a little smaller. The under side of the hind wings is deep
ferruginous, crossed by bands of pearly pale-yellow spots, those of the
outer margin being the largest.

♀.--The female is much like the male, with the ground-color a little
paler. Expanse, ♂, .90 inch; ♀, 1.00-1.10 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This little species is found in western Texas, Arizona, and northern
Mexico.

(19) =Melitæa dymas=, Edwards, Plate XVI, Fig. 18, ♀ (Dymas).

_Butterfly._--This species is closely related in size and the style of
some of the markings to the foregoing species, but may be at once
distinguished by the lighter ground-color, which is pale fulvous, and
the totally different style of the marginal markings on the under side
of the wings. The female represented in the plate is a trifle paler
than the male. Expanse, ♂, .85 inch; ♀, 1.00 inch.

_Early Stages_--Unknown.

The habitat of this species is southwestern Texas.

(20) =Melitæa perse=, Edwards, Plate XVI, Fig. 19, ♂ (Perse).

_Butterfly._--This is nearly related to the two foregoing species, but
the ground-color is darker fulvous than in _dymas_, the markings are
slight as in that species, and the arrangement of the spots and bands on
the under side is similar. The marginal crescents on the under side of
the primaries are largest at the apex and rapidly diminish in size,
vanishing altogether about the middle of the wing. Expanse, ♂, 1.00
inch; ♀, 1.10 inch.

_Early Stages._--These remain to be discovered.

The only specimens so far found have come from Arizona.

(21) =Melitæa chara=, Edwards, Plate XVII, Fig. 3, ♂; Fig. 4, ♂,
_under side_ (Chara).

_Butterfly._--No lengthy description of this pretty little species is
required, as the plate, which gives both sides of the wings, shows their
peculiarities with sufficient accuracy to enable an exact determination
to be made. The whitish spot on the costa before the apex on the upper
side, and the chalky-white markings and spots on the under side, serve
at once to distinguish this form from its near allies. Expanse, ♂, 1.00
inch; ♀, 1.25 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

I have a large series of this species, all from Arizona, where it
appears to be common.

(22) =Melitæa leanira=, Boisduval, Plate XVI, Fig. 20, ♀ (Leanira).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--Ground-color brownish-black, fulvous on the costa, with
submarginal, median, and basal rows of yellow spots. Both the primaries
and secondaries have a marginal row of red spots, and the former have in
addition a submarginal row of such spots. The under side of the
primaries is reddish-fulvous, with the markings of the upper side
reproduced. The secondaries have a marginal row of yellow crescents,
then a black band inclosing yellow spots, then a median band of long
yellow crescents. The remainder of the wing to its insertion is black,
spotted with yellow.

♀.--Much like the male. Expanse, ♂, 1.50 inch; ♀, 1.75 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This pretty insect ranges from southern California and Arizona to
Nevada, Montana, and British America.

(23) =Melitæa wrighti=, Edwards, Plate XVII, Fig. 9, ♂; Fig. 10, ♀,
_under side,_ (Wright's Checker-spot).

_Butterfly._--Much like _M. leanira_, but with more fulvous upon the
upper side of the wings, and the under side yellow. The black bands on
the secondaries are reduced, and the dividing-lines between the spots
are confined to the nervules, which are narrowly black. This is probably
only a varietal form of the preceding species. I figure the types.
Expanse, ♂, 1.30 inch; ♀, 1.80 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

Habitat, southern California.

(24) =Melitæa alma=, Strecker, Plate XVII, Fig. 1, ♂ (Strecker's
Checker-spot).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The upper side of the wings is bright fulvous, with the
margins and veins black. There are three rows of transverse spots paler
than the ground-color. The fore wings on the under side are pale
fulvous, with pale-yellow spots and a submarginal and marginal row of
yellow spots separated by a narrow black line. The hind wings on this
side are yellow, with the veins and margins black, and a transverse
double band of black on the outer margin of the median area.

♀.--Much like the male, but larger, and redder on the upper side.
Expanse, ♂, 1.25 inch; ♀, 1.50 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The specimens I have came from the Death Valley. The species occurs in
southern Utah and Arizona.

(25) =Melitæa thekla=, Edwards, Plate XVII, Fig. 15, ♂, _under side_;
Fig. 16, ♂ (Thekla).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The upper side of the wings is fulvous, black toward
the base and on the outer margin. The primaries are adorned with a large
oval pale-fulvous spot at the end of the cell, a small one on the middle
of the upper side of the cell, and another small one below the cell, at
the origin of the first median nervule. The discal area is defined
outwardly by a very irregular fine black transverse line, beyond which
is a transverse band of pale-fulvous oblong spots, an incomplete series
of spots of the ground-color sharply defined upon the black outer
shade, followed by a row of irregular white submarginal spots. The
transverse bands of spots on the primaries are repeated upon the
secondaries, where they are more regular and the spots more even in
size. On the under side both wings are pale red, with the light spots of
the upper side reappearing as pale-yellow sharply defined spots. The
fringes are checkered black and white.

♀.--Much like the male, but larger. Expanse, ♂, 1.35-1.50 inch; ♀,
1.50-1.75 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This species is common in Texas. It is identical, as an examination of
the type shows, with _M. bolli_, Edwards, and the latter name as a
synonym falls into disuse.

(26) =Melitæa minuta=, Edwards, Plate XVII, Fig. 11, ♂, _under side_;
Fig. 12, ♂ (The Smaller Checker-spot).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--This species is fulvous on the upper side, rather
regularly banded with black lines. The veins are also black. The result
is that the wings appear to be more regularly checkered than in any
other species which is closely allied to this. The markings of the under
side are white edged with black, and are shown very well in the plate,
so that a lengthy description is unnecessary. Expanse, ♂, 1.25-1.35
inch; ♀, 1.50-1.60 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The specific name, _minuta_, is not altogether appropriate. There are
many smaller species of the genus. It is found rather commonly in
Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico.

(27) =Melitæa arachne=, Edwards, Plate XVI, Fig. 22, ♀ (Arachne).

_Butterfly._--I have given in the plate a figure of a female bearing
this name in the Edwards collection. It is remarkably pale on the upper
side. There is a large series of types and paratypes in the collection,
but all of them vary on the upper side of the wings in the intensity of
the fulvous ground-color and the width of the black markings. Underneath
they are absolutely like _M. minuta_. I think _M. arachne_ is without
much doubt a synonym for _M. minuta_. The species varies very greatly.
The types are from Colorado and western Texas. Expanse as in _M.
minuta_.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

(28) =Melitæa nympha=, Edwards, Plate XVI, Fig. 21, ♂ (Nympha).

_Butterfly._--This species differs from _M. minuta_ only in having the
black markings darker and the outer median bands of spots on the upper
side yellow. On the under side the pattern of the markings is exactly as
in _M. minuta_. It seems to me to be a dark, aberrant form of _M.
minuta_, but is very well marked, and constant in a large series of
specimens, so that we cannot be sure until some one breeds these
creatures from the egg. Expanse, the same as that of _M. minuta_.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

Habitat, Arizona.

In addition to the species of the genus _Melitæa_ illustrated in our
plates there are a few others which are credited to our fauna, some of
these correctly and some erroneously, and a number of so-called species
have been described which are not true species, but varieties or
aberrations.


COLLECTING IN JAPAN

I was tired of the Seiyo-ken, the only hotel at which foreigners could
be entertained without the discomfort of sleeping upon the floor. There
is a better hotel in Tokyo now. I had looked out for five days from my
window upon the stinking canal through which the tide ebbs and flows in
Tsukiji. I felt if I stayed longer in the lowlands that I would contract
malarial fever or some other uncomfortable ailment, and resolved to
betake myself to the mountains, the glorious mountains, which rise all
through the interior of the country, wrapped in verdure, their giant
summits capped with clouds, many of them the abode of volcanic thunder.
So I went by rail to the terminus of the road, got together the coolies
to pull and push my jinrikishas, and, accompanied by a troop of native
collectors, made my way up the Usui-toge, the pass over which travelers
going from western Japan into eastern Japan laboriously crept twelve
years ago.

What a sunset when we reached an elevation of three thousand feet above
the paddy-fields which stretch across the Kwanto to the Gulf of Yeddo!
What a furious thunder-storm came on just as night closed in! Then at
half-past nine the moon struggled out from behind the clouds, and we
pushed on up over the muddy roads, until at last a cold breath of night
air sweeping from the west began to fan our faces, and we realized that
we were at the top of the pass, and before us in the dim moonlight
loomed the huge form of Asama-yama, that furious volcano, which more
than once has laid the land waste for leagues around, and compared with
which Vesuvius is a pygmy. We slept on Japanese mats, and in the
morning, the drops glittering on every leaf, we started out to walk
through the fields to Oiwake, our baggage going forward, we intending to
loiter all day amid the charms of nature. Seven species of lilies
bloomed about us in the hedges and the fields; a hundred plants,
graceful and beautiful in blossom, scented the air with their aroma, and
everywhere were butterflies and bees. Above us hung in the sky a banner,
the great cloud which by day and by night issues from the crater of
Asama-yama. Five species of fritillaries flashed their silvery wings by
copse and stream; great black papilios soared across the meadows; blue
lycænas, bright chrysophani, and a dozen species of wood-nymphs gamboled
over the low herbage and among the grass. Torosan, my chief collector,
was in his element. "Dana-san" (_my lord_, or _my master_), "this kind
Yokohama no have got." "Dana-san, this kind me no catchee Tokyo side."
And so we wandered down the mountain-slope, taking species new alike to
American and Japanese, until the sun was sinking in the west. The
cloud-banner had grown crimson and purple in the sunset when we wandered
into the hospitable doorway of the wayside inn at Oiwake. There we made
our headquarters for the week, and thence we carried away a thousand
butterflies and moths and two thousand beetles as the guerdon of our
chase.


Genus PHYCIODES, Doubleday

(The Crescent-spots)

  "Flusheth the rise with her purple favor,
    Gloweth the cleft with her golden ring.
  'Twixt the two brown butterflies waver
    Lightly settle, and sleepily swing."

  JEAN INGELOW.

_Butterfly._--The butterflies composing this genus are generally quite
small. Their wings on the upper side are fulvous, or brown with black
margins, spots, and lines upon the upper side of the wings, and with the
under side of the wings reproducing the spots of the upper side in
paler tints. Of the spots of the under side of the wings one of the most
characteristic is the pale crescent situated on the outer margin of the
hind wings, between the ends of the second and third median nervules.
This spot is frequently pearly-white or silvered. Structurally the
butterflies of this genus may be distinguished from the preceding genus
by the enlarged second joint of the palpi and the very fine, extremely
pointed third joint. In the neuration of the wings and in their habits
these butterflies closely approximate _Melitæa_.

[Illustration FIG. 92.--Neuration of the genus _Phyciodes_.]

_Eggs._--The eggs are always higher than broad, with the surface at the
base more or less pitted, giving them a thimble-like appearance. On the
upper end in some species they have a few short, vertical ridges,
radiating from the micropyle.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar is cylindrical, marked with pale
longitudinal stripes upon a darker ground, and adorned with tubercles
arranged in regular rows. These tubercles are generally much shorter
than in the genus _Melitæa_. The caterpillars do not, so far as is
known, weave webs at any time.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is pendant, with the head slightly bifid.
The dorsal region of the abdomen is provided with slight tubercles. The
color is generally some shade of pale gray, blotched with black or dark
brown.

This genus finds its principal development in South and Central America,
which are very rich in species, some of them mimicking in a most
marvelous manner the butterflies of the protected genus _Heliconius_ and
its allies. The species found in the United States and Canada are for
the most part not very gaily colored insects, chaste shades of brown, or
yellow, and black predominating.

(1) =Phyciodes nycteis=, Doubleday and Hewitson, Plate XVII, Fig. 28, ♂,
_under side_; Fig. 29, ♂; Fig. 30, ♀; Plate V, Fig. 19, _chrysalis_
(Nycteis).

_Butterfly._--On the upper side very closely resembling _Melitæa_
harrisi, for which it may easily be mistaken upon the wing. The under
side of the hind wings is very different, and may at once be
distinguished by the lighter color of the base of the wing, and the
pale, silvery crescent on the outer margin. Expanse, ♂ 1.25-1.65 inch;
♀, 1.65-2.00 inches.

_Egg._--The egg is half as high again as broad, marked with sixteen or
seventeen vertical ribs above, and pitted about the middle by hexagonal
cells. It is pale green in color.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar undergoes four moults after hatching. In
the mature stage it is velvety-black, with a dull orange stripe along
the back, and purplish streaks on the sides. The body is studded with
whitish spots, each giving rise to a delicate black hair, and is further
beset with rather short, black, hairy spines.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is pearly-gray, blotched with dark brown.

The life-history of this species has been carefully worked out, and all
the details may be found described in the most minute manner by Edwards
and by Scudder.

The insect ranges from Maine to North Carolina, and thence westward to
the foot-hills of the Rocky Mountains.

(2) =Phyciodes ismeria=, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XVII, Fig. 24, ♂;
Fig. 25, ♂, _under side_ (Ismeria).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--Easily distinguished from all other allied species by
the double row of small light spots on the dark margin of the fore wings
on the upper side, and by the silvery, narrow, and greatly bent line of
bright silvery spots crossing the middle of the hind wings on the under
side.

♀.--The female is like the male, but larger and paler and all the spots
on the upper side are pale fulvous, and not as distinctly white on the
outer margin as in the male sex. Expanse, ♂, 1.15-1.35 inch; ♀,
1.35-2.00 inches.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar, according to Boisduval and Leconte, is
yellowish, with blackish spines and three longitudinal blackish stripes.
The head, the thoracic legs, and the under side are black; the other
legs are yellow.

_Chrysalis._--According to the same authors, the chrysalis is pale gray,
with paler light spots and nearly white dorsal tubercles.

This insect ranges over a wide territory from Canada to the Southern and
Western States east of the Rocky Mountains.

(3) =Phyciodes vesta=, Edwards, Plate XVII, Fig. 17, ♂; Fig. 18, ♀;
Fig. 19, ♀, _under side_ (Vesta).

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVII                                    |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Melitæa alma_, Strecker, ♂.                              |
  | 2. _Melitæa elada_, Hewitson, ♂.                             |
  | 3. _Melitæa chara_, Edwards, ♂.                              |
  | 4. _Melitæa chara_, Edwards, ♂,                              |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 5. _Melitæa harrisi_, Scudder, ♂.                            |
  | 6. _Melitæa harrisi_, Scudder, ♀,                            |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 7. _Melitæa whitneyi_, Behr, ♂.                              |
  | 8. _Melitæa whitneyi_, Behr, ♂,                              |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 9. _Melitæa wrighti_, Edwards, ♂.                            |
  | 10. _Melitæa wrighti_, Edwards, ♀,                           |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 11. _Melitæa minuta_, Edwards, ♂,                            |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 12. _Melitæa minuta_, Edwards, ♂.                            |
  | 13. _Melitæa hoffmanni_, Behr, ♂.                            |
  | 14. _Melitæa hoffmanni_, Behr, ♀,                            |
  |     _aberration_.                                            |
  | 15. _Melitæa thekla_, Edwards, ♂                             |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 16. _Melitæa thekla_, Edwards, ♂.                            |
  | 17. _Phyciodes vesta_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  | 18. _Phyciodes vesta_, Edwards, ♀.                           |
  | 19. _Phyciodes vesta_, Edwards, ♀,                           |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 20. _Phyciodes picta_, Edwards, ♀,                           |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 21. _Phyciodes picta_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  | 22. _Phyciodes phaon_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  | 23. _Phyciodes phaon_, Edwards, ♀,                           |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 24. _Phyciodes ismeria_, Boisduval and                       |
  |     Leconte, ♂.                                              |
  | 25. _Phyciodes ismeria_, Boisduval and                       |
  |     Leconte, ♂, _under side_.                                |
  | 26. _Phyciodes montana_, Behr, ♀,                            |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 27. _Phyciodes montana_, Behr, ♂.                            |
  | 28. _Phyciodes nycteis_, Doubleday and                       |
  |     Hewitson, ♂, _under side_.                               |
  | 29. _Phyciodes nycteis_, Doubleday and                       |
  |     Hewitson, ♂.                                             |
  | 30. _Phyciodes nycteis_, Doubleday and                       |
  |     Hewitson, ♀.                                             |
  | 31. _Phyciodes orseis_, Edwards, ♂.                          |
  | 32. _Phyciodes camillus_, Edwards, ♂.                        |
  | 33. _Phyciodes camillus_, Edwards, ♀.                        |
  | 34. _Phyciodes camillus_, Edwards, ♂,                        |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 35. _Phyciodes batesi_, Reakirt, ♂.                          |
  | 36. _Phyciodes batesi_, Reakirt, ♂,                          |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 37. _Phyciodes pratensis_, Behr, ♂.                          |
  | 38. _Phyciodes pratensis_, Behr, ♂,                          |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 39. _Eresia punctata_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  | 40. _Phyciodes mylitta_, Edwards, ♂,                         |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 41. _Phyciodes mylitta_, Edwards, ♂.                         |
  | 42. _Eresia frisia_, Poey, ♂.                                |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XVII.]                                   |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+


_Butterfly_, ♂.--On the upper side it closely resembles the winter form
_marcia_ of _Phyciodes tharos_, Drury; but the black markings are more
evenly distributed. The under side is a pale yellowish-fulvous, and the
black markings are slight.

♀.--The female is like the male, but paler. Expanse, ♂, 1.15 inch; ♀,
1.25 inch.

_Early Stages._--The chrysalis has been described by Edwards in the
"Canadian Entomologist," vol. xi, p. 129. This is all we know of the
early life of the insect.

It is found in Texas and Mexico.

(4) =Phyciodes phaon=, Edwards, Plate XVII, Fig. 22, ♂; Fig. 23. ♀,
_under side_ (Phaon).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The ground-color of the male is paler on the upper side
than in _Phyciodes tharos_, and the black markings are much heavier. The
median band on the fore wings is yellowish. The wings on the under side
are yellow, shaded with fulvous on the primaries, on which the dark
markings are heavy.

♀.--Like the male. Expanse, ♂, .90 inch; ♀, 1.25 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This insect inhabits the Gulf States, and has been occasionally taken in
Kansas.

(5) =Phyciodes tharos=, Drury, Plate XVIII, Fig. 1, ♂; Fig. 2, ♀; var.
=marcia=, Edwards, Plate XVIII, Fig. 3, ♂; Fig. 4, ♀; Plate V, Figs.
20-22, _chrysalis_ (The Pearl Crescent).

_Butterfly._--This very common and well-known little insect scarcely
needs to be described. The upper side is bright fulvous, with heavy
black borders; all the other dark markings are slight. The wings on the
under side are paler, with the dark markings of the upper side showing
through, and there are additional markings of brown on the hind wings.
Expanse, ♂, 1.25 inch; ♀, 1.65 inch.

_Early Stages._--The early stages of this insect have been worked out
with the most extreme care by Mr. Edwards, and the reader who is curious
to know about them should consult "The Butterflies of North America."
Dr. Scudder also has minutely and laboriously described the early stages
in "The Butterflies of New England." The egg is light greenish-yellow.
The caterpillar, which feeds upon various species of aster and allied
_Compositæ_, is dark brown after the third moult, its back dotted with
yellow, adorned with short, black, bristly spines, which are yellow at
the base. The chrysalis is grayish-white, mottled with dark spots and
lines.

This species is one of many dimorphic species, the winter form _marcia_,
which emerges in spring, having the under side brighter, and the light
markings more conspicuous on that side than in the summer form, which
has been called _morpheus_. Concerning all of this, and the way in which
cold affects the color of butterflies, the reader will do well to
consult the splendid pages of Edwards and of Scudder.

The pretty little Pearl Crescent ranges from southern Labrador to
Florida; in fact, all over North America north of Texas and south of the
region of Hudson Bay, except the Pacific coast of California.

(6) =Phyciodes batesi=, Reakirt, Plate XVII, Fig. 35, ♂; Fig. 36, ♀,
_under side_ (Bates' Crescent-spot).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--On the upper side much like _P. tharos_, with the black
markings very heavy. The under side of the hind wings is uniformly pale
fulvous or yellow, with a row of faint submarginal brown spots.

♀.--Like the male. Expanse, ♂, 1.25 inch; ♀, 1.50-1.65 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This species ranges from New York to Virginia, and westward to Ohio.

(7) =Phyciodes pratensis=, Behr, Plate XVII, Fig. 37, ♂; Fig. 38, ♀,
_under side_ (The Meadow Crescent-spot).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The butterfly resembles the preceding species on the
upper side, but the ground-color is much paler and the black markings
are not so heavy. The under side of the wings is pale fulvous, spotted
with yellow.

♀.--The female has the black markings of the upper side heavier than the
male, and all the spots pale yellow. The markings on the under side are
heavier than in the male sex. Expanse, ♂, 1.15 inch; ♀, 1.40 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The range of this species is the Pacific coast from Oregon to Arizona.

(8) =Phyciodes orseis=, Edwards, Plate XVII, Fig. 31, ♂ (Orseis).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The dark markings on the upper side are much heavier
than in either of the two preceding species, and the fulvous spots are
smaller, the marginal crescents more regular and distinct. The markings
on the under side are also much heavier than in _P. batesi_ or _P.
pratensis._

♀.--The female is like the male, but all the dark markings are heavier
and the pale markings lighter. Expanse, ♂, 1.35 inch; ♀, 1.60 inch.

_Early Stages._--These remain to be described.

_Phyciodes orseis_ ranges from Washington Territory in the north to
Mexico in the south.

(9) =Phyciodes camillus=, Edwards, Plate XVII, Fig. 32, ♂; Fig. 33, ♀;
Fig. 34, ♂, _under side_ (The Camillus Crescent).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The male is more like _P. pratensis_, but the light
spots on the primaries are paler, on the secondaries brighter, fulvous.
The dark markings on the under side are less pronounced than in
_pratensis_.

♀.--The female is much like the male. Expanse, ♂, 1.30 inch; ♀, 1.50
inch.

_Early Stages._--These are wholly unknown.

The species is reported from British Columbia, Colorado, Montana,
Kansas, and Texas.

(10) =Phyciodes mylitta=, Edwards, Plate XVII, Fig. 40, ♂, _under side_;
Fig. 41, ♂ (The Mylitta Crescent).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--Broadly bright fulvous on the upper side, with the dark
markings slight; on the under side closely resembling _P. tharos_, var.
_marcia_, Edwards.

♀.--The female is like the male, but paler. Expanse, ♂, 1.15 inch; ♀,
1.25-1.50 inch.

_Early Stages._--These have been described by Mr. Harrison G. Dyar in
the "Canadian Entomologist," vol. xxiii, p. 203. The eggs are laid in
clusters upon the thistle (_Carduus_). The caterpillar in its final
stage after the fourth moult is black, yellowish below, with a faint
twinned yellow dorsal line and faint lines of the same color on the
sides. The spines, which are arranged in six rows, are black; those of
segments four, five, and six, yellow. The chrysalis is dull wood-brown.

This species has a wide range in the region of the Rocky Mountains,
extending from Washington to Arizona, and eastward to Colorado.

(11) =Phyciodes barnesi=, Skinner, Plate XVIII, Fig. 5, ♂ (Barnes'
Crescent-spot).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--Very like the following species, with the light
fulvous of the upper side of the wings more widely extended, causing the
dark markings to be greatly restricted. The figure in the plate is, in
this species as in most others, that of the type, and I am under
obligations to Dr. Skinner for kind permission to have the use of the
specimen. Expanse, 1.75 inch.

The type came from Colorado Springs.

(12) =Phyciodes montana=, Behr, Plate XVII, Fig. 26, ♀, _under side_;
Fig. 27, ♀ (The Mountain Crescent-spot).

_Butterfly._--Upon the upper side the wings are marked much as in _P.
camillus_, but are prevalently bright fulvous, with the dark markings
quite slight in most specimens. On the under side the wings are pale
yellowish-fulvous. The female usually has the secondaries crossed by a
broad median band of very pale spots. Expanse, ♂, 1.25 inch; ♀, 1.50
inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The habitat of this species is the Sierras of California and Nevada.

(13) =Phyciodes picta=, Edwards, Plate XVII, Fig. 20, ♀, _under side_;
Fig. 21, ♂ (The Painted Crescent-spot).

_Butterfly._--The butterfly in both sexes somewhat closely resembles _P.
phaon_ on the upper side. On the under side the fore wings are red on
the median area, with the base, the costa, the apex, and the outer
margin pale yellow; the black markings very prominent. The hind wings on
the under side are nearly immaculate yellow. Expanse, ♂, .80-1.10 inch;
♀, 1.10-1.25 inch.

_Early Stages._--These may be found described with minute exactness by
Mr. W.H. Edwards in the pages of the "Canadian Entomologist," vol. xvi,
pp. 163-167. The egg is yellowish-green. The caterpillar moults five
times. When mature it is about six tenths of an inch long, armed with
seven principal rows of short spines, which appear to vary in color in
the spring and fall broods, being light brown in the June brood and
greenish-yellow in the October brood. The prevalent color of the
caterpillar is some shade of yellowish-or greenish-brown, mottled with
lighter and darker tints. The chrysalis is yellowish-brown. The
food-plants of the caterpillar are various species of aster.

This species is found as far north as Nebraska, and is abundant in
Colorado and New Mexico, ranging southward through Arizona into Mexico.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVIII                                   |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Phyciodes tharos_, Drury, ♂.                             |
  | 2. _Phyciodes tharos_, Drury, ♀.                             |
  | 3. _Phyciodes tharos_, var. _marcia_,                        |
  |     Edwards, ♂.                                              |
  | 4. _Phyciodes tharos_, var. _marcia_,                        |
  |     Edwards, ♀.                                              |
  | 5. _Phyciodes barnesi_, Skinner, ♂.                          |
  | 6. _Argynnis snyderi_, Skinner, ♂.                           |
  | 7. _Argynnis platina_, Skinner, ♂.                           |
  | 8. _Eresia texana_, Edwards, ♀.                              |
  | 9. _Eresia texana_, Edwards, ♂,                              |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 10. _Synchloë janais_, Drury, ♂.                             |
  | 11. _Synchloë lacinia_, Hubner, ♂.                           |
  | 12. _Eresia ianthe_, Fabricius, ♂.                           |
  | 13. _Melitæa anicia_, var. _beani_,                          |
  |     Skinner, ♂.                                              |
  | 14. _Brenthis astarte_, Doubleday and                        |
  |     Hewitson, ♂.                                             |
  | 15. _Brenthis astarte_, Doubleday and                        |
  |     Hewitson, ♂, _under side_.                               |
  | 16. _Brenthis helena_, Edwards, ♂,                           |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 17. _Brenthis helena_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  | 18. _Debis creola_, Skinner, ♂.                              |
  | 19. _Debis creola_, Skinner, ♀.                              |
  | 20. _Debis portlandia_, Fabricius, ♂.                        |
  | 21. _Geirocheilus tritonia_, Edwards, ♂.                     |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XVIII.]                                  |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+


Genus ERESIA, Doubleday

_Butterfly._--Small butterflies, closely resembling the species of the
genus _Phyciodes_ in the neuration of the wings, and only differing from
them in the outline of the outer margin of the primaries, which are more
or less excavated about the middle. In the style of the markings they
differ somewhat widely from the butterflies of the genus _Phyciodes_,
notably in the absence of the crescents on the margins of the wings. The
wings on the upper side are generally some shade of deep brown or black,
marked with spots and bands of white or fulvous, the median band on the
hind wings being generally more or less conspicuous. In the pattern of
their markings they illustrate a transition from the genus _Phyciodes_
to the genus _Synchloë._

[Illustration FIG. 93.--Neuration of the genus _Eresia_, slightly
enlarged.]

_Egg._--Hitherto undescribed.

_Caterpillar._--Cylindrical, with seven rows of spines, one dorsal, and
three lateral on each side; the spines are short, blunt, and armed with
short bristles. The head is subcordate, with the vertices rounded. It
moults four times.

_Chrysalis._--Cylindrical, abdomen stout, head-case short, beveled,
nearly square at top, the vertices pyramidal. There are three rows of
small tubercles on the dorsal side of the abdomen.

The caterpillars so far as known feed upon various _Compositæ_, as
_Diclippa_ and _Actinomeris_.

The genus, which is somewhat doubtfully separable from _Phyciodes_, and
probably possesses only subgeneric value, is well represented in Central
and South America. But three species are found in the faunal region of
which this book treats.

(1) =Eresia frisia=, Poey, Plate XVII, Fig. 42, ♂ (Frisia).

_Butterfly._--Upper side reddish-fulvous, clouded with fuscous at the
base. On the basal area are waved black lines, separate on the hind
wings, more or less blended on the fore wings. The outer border is
broadly black. Between this border and the basal third the wing is
crossed by irregular black bands, the spaces between which are paler
fulvous than the base and the hind wings, those near the outer margin
being whitish. These bands are continued broadly across the hind wings.
The wings on the under side are fulvous, mottled with dark brown and
white, and spotted with conspicuous white spots. The male and the female
closely resemble each other. Expanse, 1.40 inch.

The early stages are wholly unknown.

The only locality within the limits of the United States in which this
insect has been found is Key West, in Florida. It is abundant in the
Antilles, Mexico, Central and South America.

(2) =Eresia texana=, Edwards, Plate XVIII, Fig. 8, ♀; Fig. 9, ♂, _under
side_ (The Texan Eresia).

_Butterfly._--Black on the upper side of the wings, shading into
reddish-brown on the basal area. The fore wings are spotted on the
median and limbal areas with white, and the hind wings are adorned by a
conspicuous median band of small white spots. On the under side the fore
wings are fulvous at the base, broadly dark brown beyond the middle. The
light spots of the upper side reappear on the lower side. The hind wings
on the under side are marbled wood-brown on the basal area and the inner
margin, darker brown externally. The white macular band of the upper
side reappears on this side, but less distinct than above. Expanse, ♂,
1.25-1.50 inch; ♀, 1.60-1.75 inch.

_Early Stages._--For the only account of the life-history of this
species the reader is referred to the "Canadian Entomologist," vol. xi,
p. 127, where the indefatigable Edwards gives us an interesting account
of his original observations.

This insect ranges from Texas into Mexico. It has been confounded by
some with a closely allied insect, =Eresia ianthe=, Fabricius, and to show
the difference we have given in Plate XVIII, Fig. 12, a representation
of that species, by means of which the reader will be enabled to mark
the difference on the upper surfaces of the two species.

(3) =Eresia punctata=, Edwards, Plate XVII, Fig. 39, ♂ (The Dotted
Eresia).

_Butterfly._--A lengthy description of this little species is scarcely
necessary, as the figure in the plate will suffice for its accurate
determination. Nothing is known of its early stages. Expanse, 1.10 inch.
It is found in New Mexico, Texas, Arizona, and Mexico. It has been
recently declared to be identical with _E. tulcis_, Bates, an opinion I
am not quite prepared to accept, but which, if correct, will force us,
according to the law of priority, to substitute the name given by Bates
for that given by Edwards.


Genus SYNCHLOË, Boisduval (The Patched Butterflies)

_Butterfly._--Medium-sized or small butterflies, rather gaily colored,
although the species found in the United States are not very brilliant.
They may be distinguished structurally from the butterflies of the two
preceding genera not only by their larger size and the spindle-formed
third article of the palpi, which in the genera _Eresia_ and _Phyciodes_
is thin and pointed like a needle, but also by the fact that the lower
discocellular vein of the fore wings is generally quite straight and not
bowed or angled as in the before-mentioned genera.

[Illustration FIG. 94.--Neuration of the genus _Synchloë_, enlarged.]

_Egg._--Similar in appearance to the eggs of the genus _Phyciodes_:
obovoid, truncated, and slightly depressed at top, rounded at the
bottom; the lower three fifths with shallow depressions; the upper part
with about twenty-four light blunt-edged ribs. The eggs are laid in
clusters upon the leaves of _Helianthus_.

_Caterpillar._--Varying in color, generally black or some shade of red
or brown, covered with spines which are arranged as in the genus
_Melitæa_ and are thickly beset with diverging bristles. The caterpillar
moults four times.

_Chrysalis._--Shaped as in the genus _Melitæa_, light in color, blotched
with dark brown or black spots and lines.

The genus is well represented in Central and South America. Some of the
species are polymorphic, many varieties being produced from a single
batch of eggs. The result has been considerable confusion in the
specific nomenclature.

(1) =Synchloë janais=, Drury, Plate XVIII, Fig. 10, ♂ (The
Crimson-patch).

_Butterfly._--Fore wings black above, spotted with white; hind wings
black above, marked in the center with a broad band of crimson. On the
under side the markings of the upper side of the fore wings are
reproduced. The hind wings on the under side are black at the base and
on the outer third; immediately at the base is a yellow bar; across the
middle is a broad yellow band laved outwardly by red, upon which are
numerous black spots. There is a marginal row of yellow spots and an
inner row of smaller white spots on the limbal area. Expanse, 2.50-3.00
inches.

_Early Stages._--What is known of these is contained in articles
published by Mr. William Schaus, "Papilio," vol. iii, p. 188; and by
Henry Edwards, "Entomologica Americana," vol. iii, p. 161, to which the
reader may refer.

The habitat of the species is Texas, Mexico, and Central America. The
insect is very variable in the markings both of the upper and under
sides, and several so-called species are only varietal forms of this.

(2) =Synchloë lacinia=, Hübner, Plate XVIII, Fig. 11, ♂; form
=crocale=, Edwards, Plate XXIV, Fig. 8, ♂, _under side_; Fig. 9, ♂
(Lacinia).

_Butterfly._--This is a protean species, a dozen or more well-marked
varietal forms being produced, many of them from a single batch of eggs.
The wings on the upper side are black; both primaries and secondaries
are crossed about the middle by a band of spots, generally broken on the
primaries and continuous on the secondaries. These spots in the typical
form _lacinia_ are fulvous, and the bands are broad. In the form
_crocale_ the spots are white, the bands narrow. A great variety of
intergrading forms are known and are represented in the author's
collection, most of them bred specimens reared from the egg. On the
under side the fore wings are marked as on the upper side. The hind
wings on the under side are black, with a marginal row of spots, a
transverse straight median band, a short basal band, and a costal
edging, all bright straw-yellow; in addition there is a submarginal row
of small white spots and a crimson patch of variable size at the anal
angle. Expanse, ♂, 1.50-2.00 inches; ♀, 1.75-2.75 inches.

_Early Stages._--These are described fully by Edwards in the "Canadian
Entomologist," vol. xxv, p. 286.

_Lacinia_ ranges from Texas and New Mexico to Bolivia.


FAUNAL REGIONS

That branch of zoölogical science which treats of the geographical
distribution of animals is known as zoögeography. None of the zoölogical
sciences has contributed more to a knowledge of the facts with which
zoögeography deals than the science of entomology.

Various divisions of the surface of the earth, based upon the character
of the living beings which inhabit them, have been suggested. At the
present time, however, it is agreed that in a general way five major
subdivisions are sufficient for the purposes of the science, and we
therefore recognize five faunal regions, namely, the _Palæarctic_, which
includes the temperate regions of the eastern hemisphere; the
_Indo-Malayan_, covering the tropics of Asia and the islands lying south
of that great continent, including Australia; the _Ethiopian_, covering
the continent of Africa south of the lands bordering on the
Mediterranean, and extending northward into the southern part of Arabia;
the _Neotropical_, covering the continent of South America and the
islands of the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico; and, finally, the
_Nearctic_, covering the temperate and polar regions of North America.
The butterflies with which this volume deals are mostly nearctic
species, only a few species representing the neotropical region being
found as stragglers into the extreme southern portion of the United
States.

These five faunal regions are characterized by the presence of certain
groups of insects which are more or less peculiar to them. In the
Palæarctic Region, for instance, we find a very great development of the
_Satyrinæ_, of the genera _Argynnis_, _Melitæa_, and _Lycæna_, and of
the genus _Colias_. The genus _Papilio_ is but poorly represented, there
being only three species found on the entire continent of Europe, and
comparatively few in Asia north of the Himalayan mountain-ranges.

As soon as we pass from the boundaries of the Palæarctic Region into
India there is discovered a great number of species of the genus
_Papilio_. The _Euploeinæ_, of various genera, swarm, and splendid
creatures, magnificent in color, present themselves, replacing among the
_Nymphalinæ_ the small and obscurely colored forms which are found among
the mountains of Europe and on the great Asiatic steppes. In the
Indo-Malayan Region one of the most gorgeous of the papilionine genera
is known as _Ornithoptera_. These great "bird-wing" butterflies are most
brilliant in color in the male, and in the female attain an expanse of
wing reaching in some species eight and even nine inches, so that it
would be impossible to represent them in their natural dimensions upon a
page such as that which is before the reader. One of these giants of the
butterfly family, named _Victoria_ after her Majesty the Queen of
England, is found in the Solomon Islands, and is probably the largest of
all known butterflies. One specimen, belonging to the author, has an
expanse of wing exceeding nine inches. Among the strangest of recent
discoveries is _Ornithoptera paradisea_, which is found in New Guinea.
The male has the hind wings produced in the form of a very delicate and
slender tail; the upper surfaces of the wing are broadly marked with
shining green and lustrous orange upon a velvety-black ground. The
female is black with white spots, slightly marked with yellow, being
obscure in color, as is for the most part characteristic of this sex
among butterflies, as well as other animals.

The Ethiopian Region is rich in beautiful butterflies of the genus
_Callosune_, which are white or yellow, having the tips of the anterior
wings marked with crimson or purple. There are many scores of species of
these which are found on the grassy park-like lands of southeastern
Africa, and they range northward through Abyssinia into Arabia, and a
few species even invade the hot lands of the Indian peninsula. In the
great forests of the Congo and in fact throughout tropical Africa, the
genus _Acræa_, composed of beautiful insects with long, narrow wings
like the genus _Heliconius_, but for the most part yellow, rich brown,
and red, spotted with black, abound. And here, too, are found some of
the noblest species belonging to the great genus _Papilio_, among them
that most singular and, until recently, rarest of the genus, _Papilio
antimachus_ of Drury, one specimen of which, among a dozen or more in
the author's possession, has wings which exceed in expanse even those of
_Ornithoptera victoria_, though this butterfly, which seems to mimic the
genus _Acræa_, has comparatively narrow wings, and they, therefore, do
not cover so large an area as is covered in the case of the genus
_Ornithoptera_.

In the Neotropical Region we are confronted by swarms of butterflies
belonging to the _Ithomiinæ_, the _Heliconiinæ_, and the _Acræinæ_, all
of which are known to be protected species, and which are mimicked by
other species among the butterflies and moths of the region which they
frequent. A naturalist familiar with the characteristics of the
butterfly fauna of South America can at a glance determine whether a
collection placed before him is from that country or not, merely by his
knowledge of the peculiar coloration which is characteristic of the
lepidoptera of the region. The most brilliant butterflies of the
neotropical fauna are the _Morphos_, glorious insects, the under side of
their wings marked with eye-like spots, the upper side resplendent in
varying tints of iridescent blue.

In the Nearctic Region there is a remarkable development of the genera
_Argynnis_, _Melitæa_, and _Phyciodes_. There are also a great many
species of the _Satyrinæ_ and of the _Hesperiidæ_, or "skippers." The
genus _Colias_ is also well represented. The Nearctic Region extends
southwardly into northern Mexico, at high elevations, and is even
continued along the chain of the Andes, and there are species which are
found in the vicinity of San Francisco which occur in Chili and
Patagonia. In fact, when we get to the southern extremity both of Africa
and of South America we find certain genera characteristic of the north
temperate zone, or closely allied to them, well represented.


Genus GRAPTA, Kirby

(The Angle-Wings)

_Butterfly._--Medium-sized or small, characterized by the more or less
deeply excavated inner and outer margins of the fore wings, the
tail-like projection of the hind wings at the extremity of the third
median nervule, the closed cell of the same wings, and the thick
squamation of the palpi on the under side, while on the sides and tops
of the palpi there are but few scales. They are tawny on the upper side,
spotted and bordered with black; on the under side mimicking the bark of
trees and dead leaves, often with a c-shaped silvery spot on the hind
wings. The insects hibernate in the butterfly form in hollow trees and
other hiding-places.

[Illustration FIG. 95.--Neuration of the genus _Grapta_.]

_Egg._--The eggs are taller than broad, tapering upward from the base.
The summit is broad and flat. The sides are marked by a few equidistant
narrow longitudinal ribs, which increase in height to the top. A few
delicate cross-lines are interwoven between these ribs. They are laid in
clusters or in short string-like series (see p. 5, Fig. 10).

_Caterpillar._--The head is somewhat quadrate in outline, the body
cylindrical, adorned with rows of branching spines (see Plate III, Figs.
23, 27, 31-33, 38).

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalids have the head more or less bifid. There is
a prominent thoracic tubercle, and a double row of dorsal tubercles on
the abdomen. Viewed from the back they are more or less excavated on the
sides of the thorax. In color they are generally some shade of
wood-brown or greenish.

The caterpillars feed for the most part upon the _Urticaceæ_, plants of
the nettle tribe, such as the stinging-nettle, the elm, and the
hop-vine, though the azalea and wild currants furnish the food of some
species.

The genus is confined mainly to the north temperate zone.

(1) =Grapta interrogationis=, Fabricius, Plate I, Fig. 3, ♂, _under
side_; form =fabricii=, Edwards, Plate XIX, Fig. 1, ♂; form umbrosa,
Lintner, Plate XIX, Fig. 2, ♀; Plate III, Fig. 23, _larva_, from a
blown specimen; Fig. 27, _larva_, copied from a drawing by Abbot; Plate
IV, Figs. 21, 22, 24-26, 40, _chrysalis_ (The Question-sign).

_Butterfly._--Easily distinguished by its large size, being the largest
species of the genus in our fauna. The fore wings are decidedly falcate,
or sickle-shaped, bright fulvous on the upper side, spotted and bordered
with dark brown and edged with pale blue. On the under side they are
mottled brown, shaded with pale purplish, and have a silvery mark shaped
like a semicolon on the hind wings. The dimorphic variety _umbrosa_,
Lintner, has the upper side of the hind wings almost entirely black,
except at the base. Expanse, 2.50 inches.

_Early Stages._--These have been frequently described, and the reader
who wishes to know all about the minute details of the life-history will
do well to consult the pages of Edwards and Scudder, who have written
voluminously upon the subject. The food-plants are the elm, the
hop-vine, and various species of nettles.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIX                                     |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Grapta interrogationis_, Fabricius,                      |
  |     var. _fabricii_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 2. _Grapta interrogations_, Fabricius,                       |
  |     var. _umbrosa_, Lintner, ♀.                              |
  | 3. _Grapta comma_, Harris, var. _dryas_,                     |
  |     Edwards, ♂.                                              |
  | 4. _Grapta comma_, Harris, var. _harrisi_,                   |
  |     Edwards, ♂.                                              |
  | 5. _Grapta silenas_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 6. _Grapta silenus_, Edwards, ♂,                             |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 7. _Grapta hylas_, Edwards, ♂.                               |
  | 8. _Grapta hylas_, Edwards, ♂,                               |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 9. _Vanessa j-album_, Boisduval and                          |
  |     Leconte, ♀.                                              |
  | 10. _Grapta gracilis_, Grote and                             |
  |     Robinson, ♂.                                             |
  | 11. _Grapta gracilis_, Grote and Robinson,                   |
  |     ♀, _under side_.                                         |
  | 12. _Grapta faunus_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 13. _Grapta faunus_, Edwards, ♂,                             |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 14. _Grapta satyrus_, Edwards, var.                          |
  |     _marsyas_, Edwards, ♂.                                   |
  | 15. _Grapta satyrus_, Edwards, var.                          |
  |     _marsyas_, Edwards, ♂, _under side_.                     |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XIX.]                                    |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+

This is one of our commonest butterflies. It is double-brooded in the
Middle States. It hibernates in the imago form. When the first warm
winds of spring begin to blow, it may be found at the sap-pans in the
sugar-camps, sipping the sweets which drip from the wounded trunks of
the maples. It ranges all over the United States, except the Pacific
coast, and is common throughout Canada and Nova Scotia.

(2) =Grapta comma=, Harris, form =dryas=, Plate XIX, Fig. 3, ♂; form
=harrisi=, Edwards, Fig. 4, ♂; Plate III, Fig. 38, _larva_; Plate IV,
Figs. 27, 29, 30, 39, 46-48, _chrysalis_ (The Comma Butterfly).

_Butterfly._--Dimorphic, in the form _dryas_ with the hind wings heavily
suffused with black, in the form _harrisi_ predominantly fulvous.
Expanse, 1.75-2.00 inches.

The caterpillars feed upon the _Urticaceæ_, and are very common upon the
nettle. They vary greatly in color, some being almost snow-white. This
species is found throughout Canada and the adjacent provinces, and
ranges south to the Carolinas and Texas and over the Northwestern
States.

(3) =Grapta satyrus=, Edwards, Plate XX, Fig. 1, ♀; Fig. 2, ♀, _under
side_; form =marsyas=, Edwards, Plate XIX, Fig. 14, ♂; Fig. 15, ♂,
_under side_; Plate III, Fig. 33, _larva_; Plate IV, Figs. 41, 42,
_chrysalis_ (The Satyr).

_Butterfly._--The species is so accurately depicted in the plates that a
description is hardly necessary. The form _marsyas_ is smaller,
brighter, and with the dark spots on the upper side of the hind wings
reduced in size. Expanse, 1.75-2.00 inches.

The food-plant of the caterpillar is the nettle. It occurs occasionally
in Ontario, and thence ranges west, being not uncommon from Colorado to
California and Oregon.

(4) =Grapta hylas=, Edwards, Plate XIX, Fig. 7, ♂; Fig. 8, ♂, _under
side_ (The Colorado Angle-wing).

_Butterfly._--The butterfly closely resembles _G. silenus_ on the upper
side, but may easily be distinguished by the uniform pale purplish-gray
of the lower side of the wings. Expanse, 2.00 inches.

The early stages are unknown. The insect has thus far been found only in
Colorado, but no doubt occurs in other States of the Rocky Mountain
region.

(5) =Grapta faunus=, Edwards, Plate XIX, Fig. 12, ♂; Fig. 13, ♂, _under
side_; Plate III, Fig. 32, _larva_; Plate IV, Figs. 31, 33-35,
_chrysalis_ (The Faun).

_Butterfly._--This species is readily recognized by the deep
indentations of the hind wings, the heavy black border, and the dark
tints of the under side mottled with paler shades. Expanse, 2.00-2.15
inches.

The caterpillar feeds on willows. It is found from New England to the
Carolinas, and thence westward to the Pacific.

(6) =Grapta zephyrus=, Edwards, Plate XX, Fig. 5, ♂; Fig. 6, ♂, _under
side_ (The Zephyr).

_Butterfly._--Fulvous, marked with yellowish toward the outer margins,
the dark markings upon which are not as heavy as in the other species of
the genus. On the under side the wings are paler than is the case in
other species, reddish-brown, marbled with darker brown lines and
frecklings. Expanse, 1.75-2.00 inches.

The caterpillar, which feeds upon _Azalea occidentalis_, is described
and figured by Edwards in "The Butterflies of North America," vol. i.
_Zephyrus_ is found throughout the region of the Rocky Mountains, from
Colorado to California, and from Oregon to New Mexico.

(7) =Grapta gracilis=, Grote and Robinson, Plate XIX, Fig. 10, ♂; Fig.
11, ♀, _under side_ (The Graceful Angle-wing).

_Butterfly._--A small species, rather heavily marked with dark brown or
blackish on the upper side. The wings on the under side are very dark,
crossed about the middle by a pale-gray or white band shading off toward
the outer margins. This light band serves as a means of easily
identifying the species. Expanse, 1.75 inch.

The early stages are unknown.

The species has been found on the White Mountains in New Hampshire, in
Maine, Canada, and British America, as far west as Alaska.

(8) =Grapta silenus=, Edwards, Plate XIX, Fig. 5, ♂; Fig. 6, ♀, _under
side_ (Silenus).

_Butterfly._--Larger than _gracilis_, and the wings more deeply excised,
as in _faunus_. On the under side the wings are very dark, with lighter
irrorations, especially on the fore wings. Expanse, 2.00-2.30 inches.

The early stages have never been studied. This species appears to be
found only in Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia.

(9) =Grapta progne=, Cramer, Plate XX, Fig. 3, ♂; Fig. 4, ♂, _under
side_; Plate III, Fig. 31, _larva_; Plate IV, Figs. 32, 37, 38,
_chrysalis_ (Progne).

_Butterfly._--A rather small species, with light-fulvous fore wings,
shading into yellow toward the outer margins; the dark markings slight,
but deep in color. The secondaries are heavily bordered with black on
the outer margin. On the under side the wings are very dark, variegated
with paler shades, somewhat as in _G. gracilis_. Expanse, 1.85-2.00
inches.

The early stages have been quite fully described by various authors, and
the reader may consult "The Butterflies of New England," vol. i, pp.
266-268, for a full account. The caterpillar feeds on the elm, but more
commonly on various species of the _Grossulaceæ_, or currant tribe, wild
or domesticated. It ranges from Siberia to Nova Scotia, and southward as
far as Pennsylvania.

There are several other species of _Grapta_ found in our fauna, which
are not delineated in this book; but they are rare species, of which
little is as yet known. The types are in the collection of the writer,
and if the reader finds any species which he cannot identify by means of
this book the author will be pleased to help him to the full extent of
his ability.


Genus VANESSA, Fabricius

(The Tortoise-shells)

[Illustration FIG. 96.--Neuration of the genus _Vanessa_.]

_Butterfly._--Medium-sized insects, the wings on the upper side
generally some shade of black or brown, marked with red, yellow, or
orange. The head is moderately large, the eyes hairy, the palpi more or
less heavily scaled, the prothoracic legs feeble and hairy. The lower
discocellular vein of the fore wings, when present, unites with the
third median nervule, not at its origin, but beyond on the curve. The
cell of the primaries may or may not be closed. The cell of the
secondaries is open. The fore wings have the outer margin more or less
deeply excavated between the extremities of the upper radial and the
first median, at which points the wings are rather strongly produced.
The hind wings have the outer margin denticulate, strongly produced at
the extremity of the third median nervule.

_Egg._--Short, ovoid, broad at the base, tapering toward the summit,
which is broad and adorned with a few narrow, quite high longitudinal
ridges, increasing in height toward the apex. Between these ribs are a
few delicate cross-lines. They are generally laid in large clusters upon
twigs of the food-plant.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar moults four times. In the mature form it
is cylindrical, the segments adorned with long, branching spines
arranged in longitudinal rows; the spines much longer, and branching
rather than beset with bristles, as in the genus _Grapta_. It lives upon
elms, willows, and poplars.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis in general appearance is not unlike the
chrysalis of _Grapta_.

The genus is mainly restricted to the north temperate zone and the
mountain regions of tropical lands adjacent thereto. The insects
hibernate in the imago form, and are among the first butterflies to take
wing in the springtime.

(1) =Vanessa j-album=, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XIX, Fig. 9, ♀ (The
Compton Tortoise).

_Butterfly._--No description is required, as the figure in the plate
will enable it to be immediately recognized. On the under side of the
wings it resembles in color the species of the genus _Grapta_, from
which the straight edge of the inner margin of the primaries at once
distinguishes it. It is a very close ally of the European _V.
vau-album_. Expanse, 2.60-2.75 inches.

The caterpillar feeds upon various species of willow. It is a Northern
form, being found in Pennsylvania upon the summits of the Alleghanies,
and thence north to Labrador on the east and Alaska on the west. It is
always a rather scarce insect.

(2) =Vanessa californica=, Boisduval, Plate XX, Fig. 11, ♂ (The
California Tortoise-shell).

_Butterfly._--On the upper side deep fulvous, mottled with yellow,
spotted and bordered with black. On the under side dark brown; pale on
the outer half of the primaries, the entire surface marked with dark
lines and fine striæ. Expanse, 2.00-2.25 inches.

_Early Stages._--The larva and chrysalis have been described by Henry
Edwards in the "Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences," vol.
v, p. 171. The caterpillar feeds upon _Ceanothus thyrsiflorus_.

This insect is a close ally of the European _V. xanthomelas_. It ranges
from Colorado to California and as far north as Oregon.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XX                                      |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Grapta satyrus_, Edwards, ♀.                             |
  | 2. _Grapta satyrus_, Edwards, ♀,                             |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 3. _Grapta progne_, Cramer, ♂.                               |
  | 4. _Grapta progne_, Cramer, ♂,                               |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 5. _Grapta zephyrus_, Edwards, ♂.                            |
  | 6. _Grapta zephyrus_, Edwards, ♂,                            |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 7. _Junonia coenia_, Hübner, ♀.                              |
  | 8. _Junonia lavinia_, Cramer, ♂.                             |
  | 9. _Junonia genoveva_, Cramer, ♂.                            |
  | 10. _Vanessa milberti_, Godart, ♂.                           |
  | 11. _Vanessa californica_, Boisduval,                        |
  |     ♂.                                                       |
  | 12. _Pyrameis caryæ_, Hübner, ♂.                             |
  | 13. _Anartia jatrophæ_, Linnæus, ♂.                          |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XX.]                                     |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+

(3) =Vanessa milberti=, Godart, Plate XX, Fig. 10, ♂; Plate III, Fig. 36,
_larva_; Plate IV, Figs. 43, 49, 50, _chrysalis_ (Milbert's
Tortoise-shell).

_Butterfly._--Easily distinguished by the broad yellow submarginal band
on both wings, shaded outwardly by red. It is nearly related to the
European _V. urticæ_. Expanse, 1.75 inch.

The life-history has been worked out and described by numerous writers.
The caterpillars feed upon the nettle (_Urtica_).

This pretty little fly ranges from the mountains of West Virginia
northward to Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, thence westward to the
Pacific.

(4) =Vanessa antiopa=, Linnæus, Plate I, Fig. 6, ♀; Plate III, Fig. 28,
_larva_; Plate IV, Figs. 51, 58, 59, _chrysalis_ (The Mourning-cloak;
The Camberwell Beauty).

_Butterfly._--This familiar insect needs no description. It is well
known to every boy in the north temperate zone. It is one of the
commonest as well as one of the most beautiful species of the tribe. A
rare aberration in which the yellow border invades the wing nearly to
the middle, obliterating the blue spots, is sometimes found. The author
has a fine example of this "freak."

The eggs are laid in clusters upon the twigs of the food-plant in spring
(see p. 5, Fig. 11). There are at least two broods in the Northern
States. The caterpillars feed on willows, elms, and various species of
the genus _Populus_.


Genus PYRAMEIS, Doubleday

_Butterfly._--The wings in their neuration approach closely to the
preceding genus, but are not angulate, and the ornamentation of the
under side tends to become ocellate, or marked by eye-like spots, and in
many of the species is ocellate.

_Egg._--The egg is broadly ovoid, being much like the egg of the genus
_Vanessa_.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar in its mature form is covered with
spines, but these are not relatively as large as in _Vanessa_, and are
not as distinctly branching.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis approaches in outline the chrysalis of the
preceding genus, and is only differentiated by minor structural
peculiarities.

The genus includes only a few species, but some of them have a wide
range, _Pyrameis cardui_ being almost cosmopolitan, and having a wider
distribution than any other known butterfly.

(1) =Pyrameis atalanta=, Linnæus, Plate XLIII, Fig. 4, ♂; Plate III,
Fig. 35, _larva_; Plate IV, Figs. 52, 53, 55, _chrysalis_ (The Red
Admiral).

This familiar butterfly, which is found throughout North America,
Europe, northern Asia, and Africa, needs no description beyond what is
furnished in the plates. Expanse, 2.00 inches. The food-plants are
_Humulus_, _Boehmeria_, and _Urtica_.

[Illustration FIG. 97.--Neuration of the genus _Pyrameis_.]

(2) =Pyrameis huntera=, Plate I, Fig. 2, ♂; Plate XXXIII, Fig. 6, ♂,
_under side_; Plate III, Fig. 34, _larva_; Plate IV, Figs. 54, 63, 64,
_chrysalis_ (Hunter's Butterfly).

_Butterfly._--Marked much like the following species, but easily
distinguished at a glance by the two large eye-like spots on the under
side of the hind wings. Expanse, 2.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--These have been frequently described, and are in part
well depicted in Plates III and IV. The food-plants are cudweed
(_Gnaphalium_) and _Antennaria_.

Hunter's Butterfly ranges from Nova Scotia to Mexico and Central America
east of the Sierras.

(3) =Pyrameis cardui=, Linnæus, Plate I, Fig. 1, ♂; Plate III, Fig. 37,
_larva_; Plate IV, Figs. 60-62, _chrysalis_ (The Painted Lady; The
Thistle-butterfly).

_Butterfly._--This is undoubtedly the most widely distributed of all
known butterflies, being found in almost all parts of the temperate
regions of the earth and in many tropical lands in both hemispheres. It
is easily distinguished from the preceding species by the more numerous
and much smaller eye-like spots on the under side of the hind wings.
Expanse, 2.00-2.25 inches.

_Early Stages._--These have been again and again described at great
length and with minute particularity by a score of authors. The
food-plants of the caterpillar are thistles (_Carduus_), _Urtica_,
_Cnicus_, and _Althæa_.

(4) =Pyrameis caryæ=, Hübner, Plate XX, Fig. 12, ♂ (The West Coast
Lady).

_Butterfly._--This species is easily distinguished from _P. cardui_,
its nearest ally, by the absence of the roseate tint peculiar to that
species, the tawnier ground-color of the upper surfaces, and the
complete black band which crosses the middle of the cell of the
primaries. Expanse, 2.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--These have not all been thoroughly described, but we
have an account of the larva and chrysalis from the pen of Henry
Edwards, in the "Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences,"
vol. v, p. 329. The food-plant of the caterpillar is _Lavatera
assurgentiflora_. This species ranges from Vancouver's Island to
Argentina, and is found as far east as Utah.


WIDELY DISTRIBUTED BUTTERFLIES

The primal curse declared that the earth, because of man's sin, should
bring forth thorns and thistles, and thistles are almost everywhere.
Wherever thistles grow, there is found the thistle-butterfly, or the
"Painted Lady," as English collectors are in the habit of calling it,
_Pyrameis cardui_. All over Europe, all over North America, in
Africa,--save in the dense jungles of the Congo,--throughout South
America, in far-off Australia, and in many of the islands of the sea
this beautiful butterfly is found. At some times it is scarce, and then
again there are seasons when it fairly swarms, every thistle-top having
one of the gaily colored creatures seated upon its head, and among the
thorny environment of the leaves being found the web which the
caterpillar weaves. Another butterfly which bids fair ultimately to take
possession of the earth is our own _Anosia plexippus_, the wanderings of
which have already been alluded to.

Many species are found in the arctic regions both of the Old World and
the New. Obscure forms are these, and lowly in their organization,
survivors of the ice-age, hovering on the borderline of eternal frost,
and pointing to the long-distant time when the great land-masses about
the northern pole were knit together, as geologists teach us.

One of the curious phenomena in the distribution of butterflies is the
fact that in Florida we find _Hypolimnas misippus_, a species which is
exceedingly common in Africa and in the Indo-Malayan subregion. Another
curious phenomenon of a like character is the presence in the Canary
Islands of a _Pyrameis_, which appears to be only a subvariety of the
well-known _Pyrameis indica_, which is common in India, southern China,
and Japan. Away off in southeastern Africa, upon the peaks and
foot-hills which surround the huge volcanic masses of Kilima-Njaro,
Kenia, and Ruwenzori, was discovered by the martyred Bishop Hannington a
beautiful species of _Argynnis_, representing a genus nowhere else found
upon the continent of Africa south of Mediterranean lands. Strange
isolation this for a butterfly claiming kin to the fritillaries that sip
the sweets from clover-blossoms in the Bernese Oberland, in the valleys
of Thibet, and on the prairies of the United States.


Genus JUNONIA, Hübner

(Peacock Butterflies)

_Butterfly._--Medium-sized butterflies, with eye-like spots upon the
upper wings. Their neuration is very much like that of the butterflies
belonging to the genus _Pyrameis_, to which they are closely allied. The
eyes are naked, the fore feet are scantily clothed with hair, and the
lower discocellular vein of the fore wing, when present, does not
terminate on the arch of the third median nervule before its origin, as
in the genus _Vanessa_, but immediately at the origin of the third
median nervule.

[Illustration FIG. 98.--Neuration of the genus _Junonia_.]

_Egg._--Broader than high, the top flattened, marked by ten vertical
ribs, very narrow, but not very high. Between the ribs are a few
delicate cross-lines.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar is cylindrical, the segments being
adorned with rows of branching spines and longitudinally striped.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is arched on the dorsal surface and marked
by two rows of dorsal tubercles, concave on the ventral side. The head
is slightly bifid, with the vertices rounded.

There are eighteen or more species which belong to this genus, of which
some are neotropical, but the greater number are found in the tropical
regions of the Old World. Three forms occur within the limits of the
United States, which have by some authors been reckoned as distinct
species, and by others are regarded merely as varietal forms.

(1) =Junonia coenia=, Hübner, Plate XX, Fig. 7, ♀; Plate III, Figs. 29,
30, _larva_; Plate IV, Figs. 56, 57, 65-67, _chrysalis_ (The Buckeye).

_Butterfly._--The figure in the plate is far better than any verbal
description. On the under side the eye-like spots of the upper side are
reproduced, but are much smaller, especially on the hind wings. There is
much variety in the ground-color of the wings on the under side. Some
specimens are reddish-gray, and some are quite heavily and solidly
pinkish-red on the secondaries. Expanse, 2.00-2.25 inches.

_Egg._--The egg is dark green.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar is dark in color, longitudinally
striped, and adorned with branching spines, two of which are on the head
and point forward.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is generally pale wood-brown, strongly
arched on the dorsal and concave on the ventral side. It always hangs at
less than a right angle to the surface from which it depends.

This is a very common butterfly in the Southern States, ranging
northward as far as New England, westward to the Pacific, and southward
to Colombia. The caterpillar feeds on various species of plantain
(_Plantago_), also _Gerardia_ and _Antirrhinum_. When I was a lad in
western North Carolina these insects fairly swarmed one summer;
thousands of the caterpillars could be found in worn-out fields, feeding
on the narrow-leaved plantain, and every fence-rail had one or more of
their chrysalids hanging from the under side. I have never seen such
multitudes of this species since then. The butterflies are quite
pugnacious, and will fight with other passing butterflies, dashing forth
upon them, and chasing them away.

(2) =Junonia lavinia=, Cramer, Plate XX, Fig. 8, ♂ (Lavinia).

_Butterfly._--This species may be distinguished by the more rounded apex
and the more deeply excavated outer margin of the fore wings, and also
by the decided elongation of the outer margin of the hind wings at the
end of the submedian vein. The wings are paler on the upper side than in
the preceding species, and the eye-like spots much smaller. Expanse,
2.00 inches.

The early stages are not accurately known. The insect is common in the
Antilles and South America, but is only now and then taken in the
extreme southern parts of Texas.

(3) =Junonia genoveva=, Cramer, Plate XX, Fig. 9, ♂ (Genoveva).

_Butterfly._--Much darker above than either of the two preceding
species. The transverse subapical band is pale yellow, almost white; the
ocelli of the wings are more as in _lavinia_ than in _coenia_. Expanse,
about 2.00 inches.

This form, if found at all in our fauna, is confined to the extreme
South. I have seen and possess some specimens reputed to have come from
Texas. The specimen figured in the plate was taken in Jamaica, where
this form is prevalent.


Genus ANARTIA, Doubleday

_Butterfly._--The head is small; the eyes are round and prominent; the
tongue is long; the antennæ are relatively long, having the club short,
compressed, and pointed. The palpi have the second joint thick, the
third joint gradually tapering and lightly clothed with scales. The fore
wings are rounded at the apex, and have the outer and inner margins
somewhat excavated. The outer margin of the hind wings is sinuous,
produced at the end of the third median nervule. The cell of the hind
wing is open. The subcostal nervules in the fore wing are remarkable
because of the tendency of the first and second to fuse with the costal
vein. The prothoracic feet of the male are small and weak; of the
female, stronger.

[Illustration FIG. 99.--Neuration of the genus _Anartia_.]

_Early Stages._--These, so far as is known to the writer, await
description.

There are four species belonging to this genus, only one of which is
found within the limits of the United States. The others are found in
Central and South America.

(1) =Anartia jatrophæ=, Linnæus, Plate XX, Fig. 13, ♂ (The White
Peacock).

_Butterfly._--There can be no mistake made in the identification of this
species if the figure we give is consulted. The male and female are much
alike. Expanse, 1.75-2.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--So far as is known to me, these have never been
described. The butterfly is common throughout the tropics of the New
World, and is occasionally found in southern Texas and Florida.


Genus HYPANARTIA, Hübner

(The Banded Reds)

_Butterfly._--The palpi of medium size, well clothed with scales; the
second joint moderately thick; the third very little thinner, blunt at
the tip. The antennæ have a distinct, short, well-rounded club. The fore
wings have the first two subcostal nervules arising before the end of
the cell, close to each other. The third subcostal arises midway between
the end of the cell and the origin of the fourth subcostal. The cell of
the fore wing is closed by a stout lower discocellular vein which is
more or less continuous with the third median nervule. The hind wing has
the cell open or only partially closed.

[Illustration FIG. 100.--Neuration of the genus _Hypanartia_.]

_Early Stages._--But little is known of the early stages of this genus.

The species reckoned as belonging to _Hypanartia_ number less than a
dozen, most of which are found in tropical America, but, singularly
enough, two species occur in tropical and southern Africa, and another
has been described from Madagascar.

(1) =Hypanartia lethe=, Fabricius, Plate XXIV, Fig. 10, ♂ (Lethe).

This very handsome insect, which is quite common in tropical America, is
another straggler into our fauna, being occasionally found in southern
Texas. But little is known of its early life-history. Expanse, 2.00
inches.


Genus EUNICA, Hübner

(The Violet-wings)

_Butterfly._--The head is narrow, hairy; the eyes prominent. The antennæ
are long and slender, having a greatly enlarged club marked with two
grooves. The palpi have the third joint in the case of the female longer
than in the case of the male. They are relatively short, thickly clothed
with hairs and scales lying closely appressed to the surface. The fore
wing has the costal and median vein enlarged and swollen at the base.
The subcostal has five nervules, the first two of which arise before the
end of the cell, the third midway between the end of the cell and the
fourth nervule. The upper discocellular vein is wanting; the middle
discocellular vein is bent inwardly; the lower discocellular vein is
somewhat weak and joins the median vein exactly at the origin of the
second median nervule. The cell of the hind wing is lightly closed.

_Early Stages._--Very little is known of the early stages of this genus.

[Illustration FIG. 101.--Neuration of the genus _Eunica_.]

The butterflies are characterized by the dark-brown or black
ground-color of the upper side, generally glossed with rich blue or
purple. On the under side the markings are exceedingly variable and in
most cases very beautiful. The genus is characteristic of the
neotropical fauna, and there are over sixty species which have been
described. The males are said by Bates, to whom we are indebted for most
of our knowledge of these insects, to have the habit of congregating
about noon and in the early afternoon in moist places by the banks of
streams, returning toward nightfall to the haunts of the females. In
this respect they resemble club-men, who at the same hours are generally
to be found congregating where there is something to drink. Only two
species are found in our region, and are confined to the hottest parts
of Texas and Florida, ranging thence southward over the Antilles and
Central America as far as Bolivia.

(1) =Eunica monima=, Cramer, Plate XXI, Fig. 7, ♂; Fig. 8, ♀ (The Dingy
Purple-wing).

_Butterfly._--This obscure little butterfly represents in Florida and
Texas the great genus to which it belongs, and gives but a feeble idea
of the splendid character of its congeners, among which are some
exceedingly beautiful insects. Nothing is known of its life-history. It
is common in the Antilles and Mexico.

Another species of the genus, _Eunica tatila_, has recently been
reported from the extreme southern portion of Florida.


Genus CYSTINEURA, Boisduval

  "And here and yonder a flaky butterfly
  Was doubting in the air."

  MCDONALD.

_Butterfly._--Small butterflies, with elongated fore wings, the hind
wings with the outer margin rounded, slightly crenulate. The head is
small; the palpi are very delicate and thin, scantily clothed with
scales. The costal vein of the fore wing is much swollen near the base.
The subcostal vein of this wing sends forth two branches before the end
of the cell. The upper discocellular vein is lacking; the middle
discocellular is short and bent inwardly; the lower discocellular is
almost obliterated, and reaches the median vein at the origin of the
second median nervule. In the hind wing the cell is open, and the two
radial veins spring from the same point.

[Illustration FIG. 102.--Neuration of the genus _Cystineura_.]

_Early Stages._--Very little is as yet definitely ascertained as to
these.

But one species is found within the limits covered by this work. Seven
species have been described, all of them inhabiting Central or South
America.

(1) =Cystineura amymone=, Ménétries, Plate XXIV, Fig. 7, ♂ (Amymone).

_Butterfly._--The fore wings are white on the upper side, dusted with
gray at the base, on the costa, the apex, and the outer margin. The hind
wings are gray on the basal area, pale yellowish-brown on the limbal
area, with a narrow fuscous margin. On the under side the markings of
the upper side reappear, the gray tints being replaced by yellow. The
hind wings are yellowish, with a white transverse band near the base and
an incomplete series of white spots on the limbal area. Expanse, 1.50
inch.

The early stages await description. The insect is found about
Brownsville, Texas, and throughout Mexico and Central America.


Genus CALLICORE, Hübner

(The Leopard-spots)

_Butterfly._--Small-sized butterflies, with the upper side of the wings
dark in color, marked with bands of shining metallic blue or
silvery-green, the under side of the wings generally more or less
brilliantly colored, carmine upon the primaries and silvery-white upon
the secondaries, with the apex of the primaries marked with black
transverse bands and the body of the secondaries traversed by curiously
arranged bands of deep black, these bands inclosing about the middle of
the wing circular or pear-shaped spots. All of the subcostal nervules in
this genus arise beyond the end of the cell. The costal and the median
veins are swollen near the base. The cell in both the fore and hind
wings is open.

[Illustration FIG. 103.--Neuration of the genus _Callicore_.]

_Early Stages._--Very little is known of these.

This genus numbers about thirty species, almost all of which are found
in South America, only one being known to inhabit the United States,
being found in the extreme southern portion of Florida, and there only
rarely.

(1) =Callicore clymena=, Hübner, Plate XXI, Fig. 5, ♂; Fig. 6, ♂,
_under side_ (The Leopard-spot).

_Butterfly._--The wings on the upper side are black, the primaries
crossed by an oblique iridescent bluish-green band, and the secondaries
marked by a similarly colored marginal band. On the under side the
primaries are crimson from the base to the outer third, which is white,
margined with black, and crossed by an outer narrow black band and an
inner broad black band. The secondaries on this side are white, marked
about the middle by two large coalescing black spots, and nearer the
costa a large pear-shaped spot, both ringed about with black lines.
Beyond these black rings are two black bands conformed to the outline of
the inner and outer margins of the wing, and, in addition, a fine black
marginal line. The costa is edged with crimson. Expanse, 1.75 inch.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXI                                     |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Timetes coresia_, Godart, ♂.                             |
  | 2. _Timetes coresia_, Godart, ♂,                             |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 3. _Timetes petreus_, Cramer, ♂.                             |
  | 4. _Timetes chiron_, Fabricius, ♂.                           |
  | 5. _Callicore clymena_, Cramer, ♂.                           |
  | 6. _Callicore clymena_, Cramer, ♂,                           |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 7. _Eunica monima_, Cramer, ♂.                               |
  | 8. _Eunica monima_, Cramer, ♀.                               |
  | 9. _Hypolimnas misippus_, Linnæus, ♂.                        |
  | 10. _Hypolimnas misippus_, Linnæus, ♀.                       |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XXI.]                                    |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+


_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The Leopard-spot is found occasionally in Florida, but quite commonly in
the Antilles, Mexico, and Central America.


Genus TIMETES, Boisduval

(The Dagger-wings)

_Butterfly._--The palpi are moderately long, thickly clothed with
scales, the last joint elongated and pointed. The antennæ have a
well-developed club. The fore wings and the hind wings have the cell
open. In the fore wing the subcostal vein, which has five branches,
emits the first nervule well before the end of the cell, the second a
little beyond it, and the third and fourth near together, before the
apex of the wing. The third median nervule of the hind wing is greatly
produced and forms the support of the long tail which adorns this wing.
Between the end of the submedian vein and the first median nervule is
another lobe-like prolongation of the outer margin of the wing. The
butterflies are characterized for the most part by dark upper surfaces,
with light under surfaces marked with broad bands and lines of varying
intensity of color. They are easily distinguished from the butterflies
of all other genera of the Nymphalidæ by the remarkable tail-like
appendage of the hind wing, giving them somewhat the appearance of
miniature Papilionidæ.

[Illustration FIG. 104.--Neuration of the genus _Timetes_.]

_Early Stages._--Nothing of note has been recorded of their early stages
which may be accepted as reliable, and there is an opportunity here for
study and research.

There are about twenty-five species belonging to the genus, all found
within the tropical regions of America. Four species are occasionally
taken in the extreme southern portions of Florida and Texas. They are
all, however, very common in the Antilles, Mexico, and more southern
lands.

(1) =Timetes coresia=, Godart, Plate XXI, Fig. 1, ♂; Fig. 2, ♂, _under
side_ (The Waiter).

_Butterfly._--Easily recognized by means of our figures, which show that
this creature deserves the trivial name I have bestowed upon it. In its
dark coat and white vest it gracefully attends the feasts of Flora.
Expanse, 2.50 inches.

So far as I am aware, nothing reliable has been recorded as to the early
stages of this insect. It is occasionally found in Texas.

(2) =Timetes petreus=, Cramer, Plate XXI, Fig. 3, ♂ (The Ruddy
Dagger-wing).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of the wings is accurately delineated in
the plate. On the under side the wings are pale, with the dark bands of
the upper side reproduced. Expanse, 2.60 inches. It occurs in southern
Florida and Texas, and elsewhere in tropical America.

(3) =Timetes chiron=, Fabricius, Plate XXI, Fig. 4, ♂ (The Many-banded
Dagger-wing).

_Butterfly._--Easily recognized by means of the figure in the plate.
Like the preceding species, this is occasionally found in Texas. It is
very common in Mexico, South America, and the Antilles.


Genus HYPOLIMNAS, Hübner

(The Tropic Queens)

_Butterfly._--Eyes naked. The palpi are produced, rising above the head,
heavily scaled. The antennæ have a well-developed, finely pointed club.
The fore wings have stout costal and median veins. The subcostal throws
out five nervules, the first two before the end of the cell, the third
midway between the end of the cell and the outer border; the fourth and
the fifth diverge from each other midway between the third and the outer
border, and both terminate below the apex. The upper discocellular vein
is wanting; the middle discocellular vein is bent inwardly; the lower
discocellular is very weak, and, in some species, wanting. The cell of
the hind wing is lightly closed.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar is cylindrical, thickest toward the
middle. The head is adorned with two erect rugose spines; the segments
have dorsal rows of branching spines, and three lateral rows on either
side of the shorter spines. It feeds on various species of malvaceous
plants and also on the common portulaca.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is thick, with the head obtusely pointed;
the abdominal segments adorned with a double row of tubercles. The
thorax is convex.

This genus, which includes a large number of species, reaches its
fullest development in the tropics of the Old World, and includes some
of the most beautiful, as well as the most singular, forms, which mimic
the protected species of the Euploeinæ, or milkweed butterflies, of the
Indo-Malayan and Ethiopian regions. In some way one of the most widely
spread of these species, which is found throughout the tropics of Asia
and Africa, has obtained lodgment upon the soil of the New World, and is
occasionally found in Florida, where it is by no means common. It may be
that it was introduced from Africa in the time of the slave-trade,
having been accidentally brought over by ship. That this is not
impossible is shown by the fact that the writer has, on several
occasions, obtained in the city of Pittsburgh specimens of rare and
beautiful tropical insects which emerged from chrysalids that were found
attached to bunches of bananas brought from Honduras.

[Illustration FIG. 105.--Neuration of the genus _Hypolimnas_.]

(1) =Hypolimnas misippus=, Linnæus, Plate XXI, Fig. 9, ♂; Fig. 10, ♀
(The Mimic).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--On the upper side the wings are velvety-black, with two
conspicuous white spots on the fore wing, and a larger one on the middle
of the hind wing, the margins of these spots reflecting iridescent
purple. On the under side the wings are white, intricately marked with
black lines, and black and reddish-ochraceous spots and shades.

♀.--The female mimics two or three forms of an Oriental milkweed
butterfly, the pattern of the upper side of the wings conforming to that
of the variety of the protected species which is most common in the
region where the insect is found. The species mimicked is _Danais
chrysippus_, of which at least three varietal forms or local races are
known. The American butterfly conforms in the female sex to the typical
_D. chrysippus_, to which it presents upon the upper side a startling
likeness. On the under side it is marked much as the male. Expanse, ♂,
2.50 inches; ♀, 3.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--What has been said as to the early stages in the
description of the genus must suffice for the species. But little is as
yet accurately known upon the subject.

The range of _H. misippus_ is southern Florida, the Antilles, and the
northern parts of South America. It is not common on this side of the
Atlantic, but very common in Africa, tropical Asia, and the islands
south as far as northern Australia.


Genus BASILARCHIA, Scudder

(The White Admirals)

_Butterfly._--Head large; the eyes are large, naked; the antennæ are
moderately long, with a distinct club; the palpi are compact, stout,
produced, densely scaled. The fore wings are subtriangular, the apex
well rounded, the lower two thirds of the outer margin slightly
excavated. The first two subcostal nervules arise before the end of the
cell. The hind wings are rounded, crenulate.

_Egg._--Nearly spherical, with the surface pitted with large hexagonal
cells (see p. 3, Fig. 1).

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar in its mature state is cylindrical,
somewhat thicker before than behind, with the second segment adorned
with two prominent rugose club-shaped tubercles. The fifth segment, and
the ninth and tenth segments also, are ornamented with dorsal
prominences (see p. 8, Fig. 20).

[Illustration FIG. 106.--Neuration of the genus _Basilarchia_.]

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is suspended by a stout cremaster; the
abdominal segments are rounded. On the middle of the dorsum is a
prominent projecting boss. The thorax is rounded. The head is rounded or
slightly bifid.

The caterpillars feed upon the leaves of various species of oak, birch,
willow, and linden. The eggs are laid upon the extreme tip of the
leaves, and the infant caterpillar, feeding upon the leaf in immediate
proximity to the point where it has been hatched, attaches bits of
bitten leaf by strands of silk to the midrib, thus stiffening its perch
and preventing its curling as the rib dries. Out of bits of leaves thus
detached it constructs a packet of material, which it moves forward
along the midrib until it has completed its second moult. By this time
winter begins to come on, and it cuts away for itself the material of
the leaf on either side of the rib, from the tip toward the base, glues
the rib of the leaf to the stem by means of silk, draws together the
edges of the remaining portions of the leaf, and constructs a tube-like
hibernaculum, or winter quarters, exactly fitting the body, in which it
passes the winter.

[Illustration FIG. 107.--Leaf cut away at end by caterpillar of
_Basilarchia_ (Riley).]

[Illustration FIG. 108.--Hibernaculum, or winter quarters, of larva of
_Basilarchia_.]

There are a number of species of the genus found in the United States,
the habits of which have been carefully studied, and they are among our
most interesting butterflies, several species being mimics of protected
species.

(1) =Basilarchia astyanax=, Fabricius, Plate XXII, Fig. 1, ♂; Plate III,
Figs. 17, 21, 25, larva; Plate IV, Figs. 12, 13, _chrysalis_ (The
Red-spotted Purple).

_Butterfly._--This common but most beautiful species is sufficiently
characterized by the plate so far as the upper surface is concerned. On
the under side the wings are brownish, banded with black on the margins;
the lunules are on this side as above, but the inner band of spots is
red. There are two red spots at the base of the fore wings, and four at
the base of the hind wings. The palpi are white below, and the abdomen
is marked with a lateral white line on each side. Expanse, 3.00-3.25
inches.

_Egg._--The egg, which resembles somewhat closely that of _B. disippus_
(see p. 3, Fig. 1), is yellowish-green, gradually turning dark brown as
the time for the emergence of the caterpillar approaches.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar is so well delineated in Plate III,
Fig. 17, as to obviate the necessity for a lengthy verbal description.

_Chrysalis._--What has been said of the caterpillar is also true of the
chrysalis (see Plate IV).

The larva feeds upon the willow, cherry, apple, linden (_Tilia_),
huckleberry, currant, and other allied shrubs and trees. The butterfly
is somewhat variable, and a number of varietal forms have been
described. It ranges generally over the United States and southern
Canada as far as the Rocky Mountain ranges in the West, and is even said
to occur at high elevations in Mexico.

(2) =Basilarchia arthemis=, Drury, Plate XXII, Fig. 4, ♂, form =lamina=,
Fabricius; Fig. 5, ♂, form =proserpina=, Edwards, Plate III, Fig. 26,
_larva_; Plate IV, Figs. 14, 23, _chrysalis_ (The Banded Purple).

_Butterfly._--Easily distinguished in the form _lamina_ from _astyanax_,
which in other respects it somewhat closely resembles, by the broad
white bands crossing both the fore wings and the hind wings, and
followed on the secondaries by a submarginal row of red spots shading
inwardly into blue. In the form _proserpina_ there is a tendency on the
part of the white bands to become obsolete, and in some specimens they
do entirely disappear. The likeness to _astyanax_ in such cases is
striking, and the main point by which the forms may then be
discriminated is the persistence of the red spots on the upper side of
the secondaries; but even these frequently are obsolete. Expanse, 2.50
inches.

_Egg._--The egg is grayish-green, with "kite-shaped" cells.

_Caterpillar._--Greenish-or olive-brown, blotched with white in its
mature form, which is well represented in Plate III. It feeds upon the
willow, the hawthorn (_Cratægus_), and probably other plants.

_Chrysalis._--The figure in Plate IV is sufficiently exact to obviate
the necessity for further description.

This beautiful insect ranges through northern New England and New York,
Quebec, Ontario, and the watershed of the Great Lakes, spreading
southward at suitable elevations into Pennsylvania. I have taken it
about Cresson, Pennsylvania, at an elevation of twenty-five hundred feet
above sea-level. It is not uncommon about Meadville, Pennsylvania. The
species appears to be, like all the others of the genus, somewhat
unstable and plastic, or else hybridization is very frequent in this
genus. Probably all the species have arisen from a common stock.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXII                                    |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Basilarchia astyanax_, Fabricius, ♂.                     |
  | 2. _Heterochroa californica_, Butler, ♀.                     |
  | 3. _Basilarchia lorquini_, Boisduval, ♂.                     |
  | 4. _Basilarchia arthemis_, Drury, ♂.                         |
  | 5. _Basilarchia arthemis_, Drury, var.                       |
  |     _proserpina_, Edwards, ♂.                                |
  | 6. _Basilarchia weidemeyeri_, Edwards, ♂.                    |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XXII.]                                   |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+


(3) =Basilarchia weidemeyeri=, Edwards, Plate XXII, Fig. 6, ♂
(Weidemeyer's Admiral).

_Butterfly._--Superficially like _arthemis_, but easily distinguished by
the absence of the lunulate marginal bands of blue on the margins of the
hind wings and by the presence of a submarginal series of white spots on
both wings. Expanse, 3.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--These have been described by W.H. Edwards in the
"Canadian Entomologist," vol. xxiv, p. 107, and show great likeness to
the following species, _B. disippus_. The caterpillar feeds upon
cottonwood (_Populus_).

The insect is found on the Pacific slope and eastward to Montana,
Nebraska, and New Mexico.

(4) =Basilarchia disippus=, Godart, Plate VII, Fig. 4, ♂; Plate III,
Figs. 19, 22, 24, _larva_; Plate IV, Figs. 18-20, _chrysalis_ (The
Viceroy).

_Butterfly._--This species mimics _Anosia plexippus_ in a remarkable
manner, as may be seen by referring to Plate VII. An aberration in which
the mesial dark transverse band on the secondaries has disappeared was
named _pseudodorippus_ by Dr. Strecker. The type is in the Mead
collection, now belonging to the writer. Expanse, 2.50-2.75 inches.

_Early Stages._--These have all been carefully studied by numerous
writers. The egg is depicted on p. 3, Fig. 1. The caterpillar is shown
on p. 8, as well as in Plate III.

The species ranges everywhere from southern Canada and British America
into the Gulf States.

(5) =Basilarchia hulsti=, Edwards, Plate VII, Fig. 5, ♂ (Hulst's
Admiral).

_Butterfly._--This form is apparently a mimic of _Anosia berenice_. The
ground-color of the wings is not so bright as in _B. disippus_, and the
mesial band of the secondaries on the upper side is relieved by a series
of small whitish spots, one on each interspace. The perfect insect can
easily be distinguished by its markings. Expanse, 2.50-2.60 inches. Thus
far it is only known from Utah and Arizona. The early stages have not
been described.

(6) =Basilarchia lorquini=, Boisduval, Plate XXII, Fig. 3, ♂ (Lorquin's
Admiral).

_Butterfly._--Easily distinguished from all the other species of the
genus by the yellowish-white bar near the end of the cell of the fore
wings and the reddish color of the apex and upper margin of the same
wings. Expanse, 2.25-2.75 inches.

_Early Stages._--These have been partially described by Henry Edwards,
and minutely worked out by Dr. Dyar, for whose description the reader
may consult the "Canadian Entomologist," vol. xxiii, p. 172. The
food-plant of the caterpillar is _Populus_, willows, and the
choke-cherry (_Prunus demissa_).

Besides the forms figured in our plates there is a species in Florida
named _floridensis_ by Strecker, and subsequently _eros_ by Edwards,
which is generally larger and much darker than _B. disippus_, which it
otherwise closely approximates.


THE BUTTERFLIES' FAD

  "I happened one night in my travels
    To stray into Butterfly Vale,
  Where my wondering eyes beheld butterflies
   _With wings that were wide as a sail_.
  They lived in such houses of grandeur,
    Their days were successions of joys,
  And the very last fad these butterflies had
   _Was making collections of boys_.

  "There were boys of all sizes and ages
    _Pinned up on their walls_. When I said
  'Twas a terrible sight to see boys in that plight,
    I was answered: '_Oh, well, they are dead.
  We catch them alive, but we kill them
    With ether_--a very nice way:
  Just look at this fellow--his hair is so yellow,
    And his eyes such a beautiful gray.

  "'Then there is a droll little darky,
    As black as the clay at our feet;
  He sets off that blond that is pinned just beyond
    In a way most artistic and neat.
  And now let me show you the latest,--
    A specimen really select,
  A boy with a head that is carroty-red
    And a face that is funnily specked.

  "'We cannot decide where to place him;
    Those spots bar him out of each class;
  We think him a treasure to study at leisure
    And analyze under a glass.'
  I seemed to grow cold as I listened
    To the words that these butterflies spoke;
  With fear overcome, I was speechless and dumb,
    And then with a start--I awoke!"

  ELLA WHEELER WILCOX.


Genus ADELPHA, Hübner

(The Sisters)

_Butterfly._--This genus is very closely allied to the preceding, and is
the South American representative of _Basilarchia_. The only difference
which is noticeable structurally is in the fact that the eyes are hairy,
the palpi not so densely clothed with scales. The prothoracic legs of
the males are smaller than in _Basilarchia_. The cell of the primaries
is very slightly closed by the lower discocellular vein, which reaches
the median a little beyond the origin of the second median nervule. The
outer margin of the fore wing is rarely excavated, as in _Basilarchia_,
and the lower extremity of the hind wing near the anal angle is
generally more produced than in the last-mentioned genus.

_Early Stages._--The life-history of the genus has not been carefully
worked out, but an account has been published recently of the
caterpillar of the only species found within our fauna, which shows
that, while in general resembling the caterpillars of the genus
_Basilarchia_, the segments are adorned with more branching spines and
with short fleshy tubercles, giving rise to small clusters of hairs.

[Illustration FIG. 109.--Neuration of the genus _Adelpha_.]

The chrysalids are of peculiar form, with bifid heads and broad
wing-cases. They are generally brown in color, with metallic spots. The
only species in our fauna is confined to southern California, Arizona,
and Mexico.

(1) =Adelpha californica=, Butler, Plate XXII, Fig. 2, ♀ (The Californian
Sister).

_Butterfly._--Easily recognized by the large subtriangular patch of
orange-red at the apex of the primaries. In its habits and manner of
flight it closely resembles the species of the genus _Basilarchia_.
Expanse, 2.50-3.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--So far as is known to the writer, these have not been
described, except partially by Henry Edwards in the "Proceedings of the
California Academy of Sciences," vol. v, p. 171. The caterpillar feeds
upon oaks.

The insect is found in California, Nevada, Arizona, and Mexico.


Genus CHLORIPPE, Boisduval

(The Hackberry Butterflies)

_Butterfly._--Small butterflies, generally some shade of fulvous, marked
with eye-like spots on the posterior margin of the secondaries, and
occasionally upon the outer margin of the primaries, the fore wings as
well as the hind wings being in addition more or less strongly spotted
and banded with black. The eyes are naked; the antennæ are straight,
provided with a stout, oval club; the palpi are porrect, the second
joint heavily clothed with hairs, the third joint short, likewise
covered with scales. The costal vein of the fore wing is stout. The
first subcostal vein alone arises before the end of the cell. The cell
is open in both wings.

_Egg._--The eggs, which are deposited in clusters, are nearly globular,
the summit broad and convex. The egg is ornamented by from eighteen to
twenty rather broad vertical ribs, having no great elevation, between
which are numerous faint and delicate cross-lines.

[Illustration FIG. 110.--Neuration of the genus _Clorippe_, ♂.]

_Caterpillar._--The head is subquadrate, with the summit crowned by a
pair of diverging stout coronal spines which have upon them a number of
radiating spinules. Back of the head, on the sides, is a frill of curved
spines. The body is cylindrical, thickest at the middle, tapering
forward and backward from this point. The anal prolegs are widely
divergent and elongated, as in many genera of the _Satyrinoe_.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is compressed laterally and keeled on the
dorsal side, concave on the ventral side, the head distinctly bifid. The
cremaster is very remarkable, presenting the appearance of a flattened
disk, the sides studded with hooks, by means of which the chrysalis is
attached to the surface, from which it depends in such a manner that the
ventral surface is parallel to the plane of support.

The caterpillars feed upon the _Celtis_, or hackberry.

There are a number of species, mainly confined to the southwestern
portion of the United States, though some of them range southward into
Mexico. Two only are known in the Middle States. The species are
double-brooded in the more northern parts of the country, and the
caterpillars produced from eggs laid by the second brood hibernate.

(1) =Chlorippe celtis=, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XXIII, Fig. 3, ♂;
Fig. 4, ♀; Fig. 11, ♂, _under side_ (The Hackberry Butterfly).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The primaries at the base and the secondaries except at
the outer angle pale olive-brown, the rest of the wings black. The dark
apical tract of the primaries is marked by two irregular, somewhat
broken bands of white spots. There is a red-ringed eye-spot between the
first and second median nervules, near the margin of the fore wing, and
there are six such spots on each hind wing. On the under side the
ground-color is grayish-purple; the spots and markings of the upper side
reappear on this side.

♀.--The female has the wings, as is always the case in this genus, much
broader and not so pointed at the apex of the primaries as in the male
sex, and the color is much paler. Expanse, ♂, 1.80 inch; ♀, 2.10
inches.

_Early Stages._--These are beautifully described and delineated by
Edwards in "The Butterflies of North America," vol. ii. The caterpillar
feeds on the hackberry (_Celtis occidentalis_).

This species is found generally from southern Pennsylvania, Ohio,
Indiana, and Illinois to the Gulf of Mexico. It is not, so far as is
known, found on the Pacific coast.

(2) =Chlorippe antonia=, Edwards, Plate XXIII, Fig. 12, ♂ (Antonia).

_Butterfly._--Bright yellowish-fulvous on the upper side. Easily
distinguished from _celtis_ by the two eye-spots near the margin of the
primaries. Expanse, 1.75-2.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

_Antonia_ is found in Texas.

(3) =Chlorippe montis=, Edwards, Plate XXII, Fig. 7, ♂; Fig. 8, ♀ (The
Mountain Emperor).

_Butterfly._--Very closely allied to _C. antonia_ in the style and
location of the markings, but tinted with pale ashen-gray on the upper
side of the wings, and not yellowish-fulvous as in the last-named
species. Expanse, ♂, 1.75 inch; ♀, 2.15 inches.

The early stages are unknown.

_Montis_ occurs in Arizona and Colorado, and by some writers is regarded
as a varietal form of _antonia_, in which opinion they may be correct.

(4) =Chlorippe leilia=, Edwards, Plate XXIII, Fig. 11, ♂ (Leilia).

_Butterfly._--Like _antonia_, this species has two extra-median
eye-spots on the primaries, and thus may be distinguished from _celtis_.
From _antonia_ it may be separated by its larger size and the deeper
reddish-brown color of the upper surfaces. Expanse, 2.10-2.50 inches.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

So far we have received this butterfly only from Arizona.

(5) =Chlorippe alicia=, Plate XXIII, Fig. 9, ♂; Fig. 10, ♀ (Alicia).

_Butterfly._--Very bright fawn at the base of the wings, shading into
pale buff outwardly. There is but one eye-spot on the primaries. The six
eye-spots on the secondaries are black and very conspicuous. The
marginal bands are darker and heavier than in any other species of the
genus. Expanse, ♂, 2.00 inches; ♀, 2.50 inches.

The early stages are only partially known.

_Alicia_ ranges through the Gulf States from Florida to Texas.

(6) =Chlorippe clyton=, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XXIII, Fig. 5, ♂;
Fig. 6, ♀; Plate III, Fig. 20, _larva_; Plate IV, Figs. 15-17,
_chrysalis_ (The Tawny Emperor).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The fore wings without an extra-median eye-spot, and
the secondaries broadly obscured with dark brown or blackish, especially
on the outer borders, so that the eye-spots are scarcely, if at all,
visible.

♀.--Much larger and paler in color than the male, the eye-spots on the
secondaries conspicuous. Expanse, ♂, 2.00 inches; ♀, 2.50-2.65 inches.

_Early Stages._--The life-history has been carefully worked out, and
the reader who wishes to know all about it should consult the writings
of Edwards and Scudder.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIII                                   |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Chlorippe flora_, Edwards, ♂.                            |
  | 2. _Chlorippe flora_, Edwards, ♀.                            |
  | 3. _Chlorippe celtis_, Boisd.-Lec., ♂.                       |
  | 4. _Chlorippe celtis_, Boisd.-Lec., ♀.                       |
  | 5. _Chlorippe clyton_, Boisd.-Lec., ♂.                       |
  | 6. _Chlorippe clyton_, Boisd.-Lec., ♀.                       |
  | 7. _Chlorippe montis_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  | 8. _Chlorippe montis_, Edwards, ♀.                           |
  | 9. _Chlorippe alicia_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  | 10. _Chlorippe alicia_, Edwards, ♀.                          |
  | 11. _Chlorippe leilia_, Edwards, ♂.                          |
  | 12. _Chlorippe antonia_, Edwards, ♂.                         |
  | 13. _Chlorippe celtis_, Boisd.-Lec., ♂,                      |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XXIII.]                                  |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+

This species is occasionally found in New England, and ranges thence
westward to Michigan, and southward to the Gulf States. It is quite
common in the valley of the Ohio.

(7) =Chlorippe flora=, Edwards, Plate XXIII, Fig. 1, ♂; Fig. 2, ♀
(Flora).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The ground-color is bright reddish-fulvous on the upper
side. The usual markings occur, but there is no eye-spot, or ocellus, on
the primaries. The hind wings are not heavily obscured with dark brown,
as in _clyton_, and the six ocelli stand forth conspicuously upon the
reddish ground. The hind wings are more strongly angulated than in any
other species. The borders are quite solidly black.

♀.--The female is much larger than the male, and looks like a very pale
female of _clyton_. Expanse, ♂, 1.75 inch; ♀, 2.35 inches.

_Early Stages._--The life-history has been described by Edwards in the
"Canadian Entomologist," vol. xiii, p. 81. The habits of the insect in
its early stages and the appearance of the larva and chrysalis do not
differ widely from those of _C. clyton_, its nearest ally.

_Flora_ is found in Florida and on the borders of the Gulf to Texas.


Genus PYRRHANÆA, Schatz

(The Leaf-wings)

_Butterfly._--Medium-sized butterflies, on the upper side of the wings
for the most part red or fulvous, on the under side of the wings
obscurely mottled on the secondaries and the costal and apical tracts of
the primaries in such a manner as to cause them to appear on this side
like rusty and faded leaves. Structurally they are characterized by the
somewhat falcate shape of the primaries and the strongly produced outer
margin of the secondaries about the termination of the third median
nervule. The first and second subcostal nervules coalesce with one
another and with the costal vein. The costal margin of the fore wing at
the base is strongly angulated, and the posterior margin of the
primaries is straight. The cell of the secondaries is very feebly
closed.

_Egg._--Spherical, flattened at the base and somewhat depressed at the
apex, with a few parallel horizontal series of raised points about the
summit.

_Caterpillar._--Head somewhat globular in appearance; the anterior
portion of the first thoracic segment of the body is much smaller in
diameter than the head; the body is cylindrical, tapering to a point.

_Chrysalis._--Short, stout, with transverse ridges above the wings on
the middle of the abdomen, keeled on the sides. The cremaster is small
and furnished with a globular tip, the face of which is on the same
plane as the ventral surface of the body, causing the chrysalis to hang
somewhat obliquely from the surface which supports it.

This is a large genus of mostly tropical species, possessed of rather
singular habits. The caterpillars in the early stages of their existence
have much the same habits as the caterpillars of the genus
_Basilarchia_, which have been already described. After passing the
third moult they construct for themselves nests by weaving the edges of
a leaf together, and thus conceal themselves from sight, emerging in the
dusk to feed upon the food-plant. They live upon the _Euphorbiaceæ_, the
_Lauraceæ_, and the _Piperaceæ_. The insects are double-brooded in the
cooler regions of the North, and are probably many-brooded in the
tropics.

[Illustration FIG. 111.--Neuration of the genus _Pyrrhanæa_.]

(1) =Pyrrhanæa andria=, Scudder, Plate XXIV, Fig. 1, ♀ (The Goatweed
Butterfly).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--Solidly bright red above, the outer margins narrowly
dusky on the borders. On the under side the wings are gray, dusted with
brown scales, causing them to resemble the surface of a dried leaf.

♀.--The female has the upper side paler and marked by pale fulvous
bands, as shown in the plate. Expanse, ♂, 2.50 inches; ♀, 3.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--In Fig. 21, on p. 9, is a good representation of the
mature caterpillar, the nest which it constructs for itself, and the
chrysalis. A full account of the life-history may be found in the "Fifth
Missouri Report" from the pen of the late C.V. Riley. The caterpillar
feeds on _Croton capitatum_.

The insect ranges from Illinois and Nebraska to Texas.

(2) =Pyrrhanæa morrisoni=, Edwards, Plate XXIV, Fig. 2, ♀ (Morrison's
Goatweed Butterfly).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--Much like _P. andria_, but more brilliantly and
lustrously red on the upper side, and marked with paler macular bands
like the female.

♀.--Differing from the female of _P. andria_ in the more macular, or
spotted, arrangement of the light bands on the wings, as is well shown
in the plate. Expanse, 2.25-2.50 inches.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This species occurs in Arizona and Mexico.

(3) =Pyrrhanæa portia=, Fabricius, Plate XXIV, Fig. 3, ♂ (Portia).

_Butterfly._--Splendid purplish-red on the upper side. On the under side
the fore wings are laved with bright yellow on the basal and inner
marginal tracts, and the secondaries are dark brown, irrorated with
blackish scales arranged in spots and striæ. Expanse, 2.75-3.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

_Portia_ occurs in the extreme southern part of Florida and in the
Antilles.


Genus AGERONIA, Hübner

(The Calicoes)

[Illustration FIG. 112.--Neuration of the genus _Ageronia_.]

_Butterfly._--The antennæ moderately long, delicate, terminated in a
gradually thickened club. The eyes are naked; the palpi are compressed,
only slightly porrect, not densely covered with scales. The neuration is
alike in both sexes, the costal and the median veins greatly thickened
toward the base. The first and second subcostals arise from before the
end of the cell; the fourth and fifth subcostals arise from a common
stem emitted from the third subcostal beyond the end of the cell. The
cells in both the fore and hind wings are closed. The butterflies are of
medium or large size, curiously marked with checkered spots, blue and
white, with broad paler shades on the under side of the secondaries.
They are rapid fliers and are said to alight on the trunks of trees with
their wings expanded and their heads down. When flying they emit a
clicking sound with their wings.

_Early Stages._--Very little is known of these.

The chrysalids are slender and have two ear-like tubercles on the head.

This genus is, strictly speaking, neotropical. About twenty-five species
have been described from Central and South America, some of them being
exceedingly beautiful and rich in color. The two species credited to our
fauna are reported as being occasionally found in Texas. I have
specimens of one of the species which certainly came from Texas. I
cannot be so sure of the other.

(1) =Ageronia feronia=, Linnæus, Plate XXIV, Fig. 4, ♂ (The
White-skirted Calico).

_Butterfly._--Easily distinguished from the only other species of the
genus found in our fauna by the white ground-color of the under side of
the hind wings. Expanse, 2.50 inches.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This remarkable insect is said to be occasionally found in Texas.

(2) =Ageronia fornax=, Hübner, Plate XXIV, Fig. 5, ♂, _under side_ (The
Orange-skirted Calico).

_Butterfly._--Closely resembling the preceding species on the upper
side, but at once distinguished by the orange-yellow ground-color of the
under side of the hind wing. Expanse, 2.60 inches.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

Like its congener, _A. fornax_ is reported only from the hotter parts of
Texas.


Genus VICTORINA, Blanchard

(The Malachites)

_Butterfly._--Large butterflies, curiously and conspicuously marked with
light-greenish spots upon a darker ground; wings upon the under side
marbled with brown about the spots and having a satiny luster. The third
median nervule of the fore wing is very strongly bowed upward. The cells
of both wings are open. The hind wing is tailed at the end of the third
median nervule. The two first subcostals arise before the end of the
cell; the fourth and fifth spring from a common stem which is emitted
from the third beyond the end of the cell, as the cut shows.

_Early Stages._--We know nothing of these.

This genus, in which are reckoned five species, all found in the tropics
of the New World, is represented by but a single species in our fauna,
which occurs in southwestern Texas and in Florida. It is very common in
the West Indies and Central America.

[Illustration FIG. 113.--Neuration of the genus _Victorina_.]

(1) =Victorina steneles=, Linnæus, Plate XXIV, Fig. 6, ♂ (The Pearly
Malachite).

This splendid insect is occasionally found in southern Florida and the
extreme southern part of Texas. It is common throughout tropical
America. Nothing has ever been written upon its early stages.


FOSSIL INSECTS

Investigations within comparatively recent times have led to the
discovery of a host of fossil insects. A few localities in Europe and in
North America are rich in such remains, and the number of species that
have been described amounts to several thousands. Strangely enough, some
of these fossil insects are very closely allied in form to species that
are living at the present time, showing the extreme antiquity of many of
our genera. One of the comparatively recent discoveries has been the
fossil remains of a butterfly which Dr. Scudder, who has described it,
declares to be very near to the African _Libythea labdaca_, which
differs in certain minor anatomical respects from the American Libytheas
which are figured in this work; and Dr. Scudder has therefore proposed a
new generic name, _Dichora_, meaning "an inhabitant of two lands," which
he applies to the African species because related to the extinct
American butterfly. The strange discoveries, which have been made by
palæontologists as to the huge character of many of the mammals, birds,
and reptiles which at one time tenanted the globe, are paralleled by
recent discoveries made in insect-bearing strata in France. M. Charles
Brongniart of the Paris Museum is preparing an account of the collection
which he has made at Commentry, and among the creatures which he
proposes to figure is an insect which is regarded by Brongniart as one
of the forerunners of our dragon-flies, which had an expanse of wing of
two feet, a veritable giant in the insect world.

Of fossil butterflies there have thus far been discovered sixteen
species. Of these, six belong to the subfamily of the _Nymphalidæ_, and
five of the six were found in the fossiliferous strata of Florissant,
Colorado. Two species belong to the subfamily _Satyrinæ_, both occurring
in deposits found in southern France, and representing genera more
nearly allied to those now found in India and America than to the
_Satyrinæ_ existing at the present time in Europe. One of the fossils to
which reference has already been made belongs to the subfamily of the
_Libytheinæ_. The remainder represent the subfamilies of the _Pierinæ_,
the _Papilioninæ_, and the family _Hesperiidæ_.

It is remarkable that the butterflies which have been found in a fossil
state show a very close affinity to genera existing at the present time,
for the most part, in the warmer regions of the earth. Though ages have
elapsed since their remains were embedded in the mud which became
transformed into stone, the processes of life have not wrought any
marked structural changes in the centuries which have fled. This fixity
of type is certainly remarkable in creatures so lowly in their
organization.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIV                                    |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Pyrrhanæa andria_, Scudder, ♀.                           |
  | 2. _Pyrrhanæa morrisoni_, Edwards, ♀.                        |
  | 3. _Pyrrhanæa portia_, Fabricius, ♂.                         |
  | 4. _Ageronia feronia_, Linnæus, ♂.                           |
  | 5. _Ageronia fornax_, Hübner, ♂,                             |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 6. _Victorina steneles_, Linnæus, ♂.                         |
  | 7. _Cystineura amymone_, Ménétries, ♂.                       |
  | 8. _Synchloë crocale_, Edwards, ♂,                           |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 9. _Synchloë crocale_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  | 10. _Eurema lethe_, Fabricius, ♂.                            |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XXIV.]                                   |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+



SUBFAMILY SATYRINÆ (THE SATYRS)

  "Aught unsavory or unclean
  Hath my insect never seen;
  But violets and bilberry bells,
  Maple-sap and daffodils,
  Grass with green flag half-mast high,
  Succory to match the sky,
  Columbine with horn of honey,
  Scented fern and agrimony,
  Clover, catch-fly, adder's-tongue
  And brier-roses dwelt among."

  EMERSON.


The butterflies belonging to this subfamily are, for the most part, of
medium size, and are generally obscure in color, being of some shade of
brown or gray, though a few species within our territory are brightly
colored. Gaily colored species belonging to this subfamily are more
numerous in the tropics of both hemispheres. The wings are very
generally ornamented, especially upon the under side, by eye-like spots,
dark, pupiled in the center with a point of lighter color, and ringed
around with one or more light circles. They are possessed of a weak
flight, flitting and dancing about among herbage, and often hiding among
the weeds and grasses. Most of them are forest-loving insects, though a
few inhabit the cold and bleak summits of mountains and grassy patches
near the margins of streams in the far North, while some are found on
the treeless prairies of the West. In the warmer regions of the Gulf
States a few species are found which have the habit of flitting about
the grass of the roadsides and in open spaces about houses. The veins of
the fore wings are generally greatly swollen at the base, enabling them
thus to be quickly distinguished from all other butterflies of this
family.

The eggs, so far as we have knowledge of them, are subspherical,
somewhat higher than broad, generally ribbed along the sides,
particularly near the apex, and rounded at the base, which is generally
broader than the apex.

The caterpillars at the time of emergence from the egg have the head
considerably larger than the remainder of the body; but when they have
reached maturity they are cylindrical, tapering a little from the middle
to either end. They are bifurcated at the anal extremity, a character
which enables them to be distinguished at a glance from the larvæ of all
other American butterflies except those of the genus _Chlorippe_. They
are mostly pale green or light brown in color, ornamented with stripes
along the sides. They feed upon grasses and sedges, lying in concealment
during the daytime, and emerging at dusk to take their nourishment.

The chrysalids are rather stout in form, but little angulated, and
without any marked prominences or projections. They are green or brown
in color. Most of them are pendant, but a few forms pupate at the roots
of grasses or under stones lying upon the ground.

The butterflies of this subfamily have been arranged, so far as they are
represented in the faunal region of which this book treats, in nine
genera, which include about sixty species. It is quite possible that a
number of species still remain to be discovered and described, though it
is also true that some of the so-called species are likely to prove in
the end little more than local races or varieties.


Genus DEBIS, Westwood

(The Eyed Nymphs)

  "The wild bee and the butterfly
    Are bright and happy things to see,
  Living beneath a summer sky."

  ELIZA COOK.

_Butterfly._--Characterized by the stout but not greatly swollen costal
vein of the fore wing, by the rather short costal vein of the hind wing,
which terminates before quite reaching the outer angle, by the great
length of the lower discocellular vein of the fore wing, and by the
prolongation of the outer margin of the hind wing at the end of the
third median nervule. The outer margin of the fore wing is either
rounded or slightly excavated. The palpi are long and narrow, thickly
clothed with hairs below; the antennæ are moderately long, gradually
thickening toward the tip, without a well-marked club; the fore legs in
both sexes greatly atrophied.

[Illustration FIG. 114.--Neuration of the genus _Debis_. (After
Scudder.)]

_Egg._--Flattened spheroidal, broadly truncated at the base, the surface
smooth.

_Caterpillar._--Body long, slender, tapering from the middle; the head
cleft, each half being produced upward as a conical horn; the anal
segment provided with a pair of horns similar to those of the head,
produced longitudinally backward.

_Chrysalis._--Strongly convex dorsally, concave ventrally, with a stout
tubercular eminence on the thorax, without any other projecting
tubercles or eminences; light green in color.

This genus is large, and is well represented in Asia and the
Indo-Malayan region. I cannot see any good ground for generically
separating the two species found in North America from their congeners
of Asiatic countries, as has been done by some writers.

(1) =Debis portlandia=, Plate XVIII, Fig. 20, ♂; Plate III, Fig. 16,
_larva_; Plate IV, Fig. 6, _chrysalis_ (The Pearly Eye).

_Butterfly._--The butterfly, the male of which is well depicted as to
its upper side on the plate, does not differ greatly in the sexes. The
hind wings on the under side are marked with a series of beautiful
ocelli. In the North the insect is single-brooded; in the region of West
Virginia and southward it is double-brooded. Expanse, 1.75-2.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--The illustrations give a good idea of the mature larva
and the chrysalis. The caterpillar, like most of the _Satyrinæ_, feeds
upon grasses.

The range of this pretty insect is extensive, it being found from Maine
to the Gulf of Mexico, and westward to the Rocky Mountains.

(2) =Debis creola=, Skinner, Plate XVIII, Fig. 18, ♂; Fig. 19, ♀ (The
Creole).

_Butterfly._--Easily distinguished from the preceding species by the
elongated patches of dark raised scales upon the fore wings, situated
on the interspaces between the median nervules. The female has more
yellow upon the upper side of the fore wings than _D. portlandia_.
Expanse, 2.25 inches.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

_Creola_ ranges from Florida to Mexico along the Gulf.


Genus SATYRODES, Scudder

(The Grass-nymphs)

_Butterfly._--The head is moderately large; the eyes are not prominent,
hairy; the antennæ are about half as long as the costa of the fore wing,
not distinctly clubbed, gradually thickening toward the extremity. The
palpi are slender, compressed, hairy below, with the last joint rather
short and pointed. The fore and hind wings are evenly rounded on the
outer margin. The costal vein of the fore wing is thickened, but not
greatly swollen. The first and second subcostals are emitted well before
the end of the cell, the third beyond it, and the fourth and fifth from
a common stem, both terminating below the apex. The upper discocellular
vein is wanting, and the upper radial, therefore, springs from the upper
angle of the cell of the fore wing.

[Illustration FIG. 115.--Neuration of the genus _Satyrodes_. (After
Scudder.)]

_Egg._--Flattened spheroidal, broader than high, flat at the base and
rounded above.

_Caterpillar._--The head is full, the summit of either half produced
upward and forward into a slender, conical horn. The body is nearly
cylindrical, tapering backward, the last segment furnished with two
pointed, backward projections, resembling the horns of the head.

_Chrysalis._--Relatively longer and more slender than in the preceding
genus, with the thoracic prominence more acute and the head more sharply
pointed.

This genus was erected to receive the single species which, until the
present time, is its sole representative.

(1) =Satyrodes canthus=, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XXV, Fig. 1, ♂;
Plate III, Fig. 9, _larva_; Plate IV, Fig. 9, _chrysalis_ (The Common
Grass-nymph).

_Butterfly._--It always haunts meadows and hides among the tufts of tall
grasses growing in moist places. It is rather common in New England and
the Northern States generally. It is found in Canada and is reported
from the cool upper mountain valleys in the Carolinas. It has a weak,
jerking flight, and is easily taken when found. Expanse, 1.65-1.90 inch.

_Early Stages._--These have been well described by various writers. The
caterpillar feeds upon grasses.


Genus NEONYMPHA, Westwood

(The Spangled Nymphs)

  "Oh! the bonny, bonny dell, whaur the primroses won,
  Luikin' oot o' their leaves like wee sons o' the sun;
  Whaur the wild roses hing like flickers o' flame,
  And fa' at the touch wi' a dainty shame;
  Whaur the bee swings ower the white-clovery sod,
  And the butterfly flits like a stray thoucht o' God."

  MACDONALD.

_Butterfly._--Eyes hairy. The costal and median veins of the fore wings
are much swollen at the base. The palpi are thin, compressed, thickly
clothed below with long hairs. The antennæ are comparatively short,
gradually thickening toward the outer extremity, and without a
well-defined club. Both the fore wing and the hind wing have the outer
margin evenly rounded.

[Illustration FIG. 116.--Neuration of the genus _Neonympha_. (After
Scudder.)]

_Egg._--Globular, flattened at the base, marked with irregular polygonal
cells.

_Caterpillar._--The head is large, rounded, the two halves produced
conically and studded with little conical papillæ. The last segment of
the body is bifurcate.

_Chrysalis._--Relatively long, strongly produced at the vertex; elevated
on the thorax into a blunt tubercular prominence; green in color.

This genus, which has by some writers been sunk into the genus
_Euptychia_, Hübner, is quite extensive. Nearly two hundred species are
included in _Euptychia_, which is enormously developed in the tropical
regions of the New World. Seven species of _Neonympha_ are found within
the region of which this book treats.

(1) =Neonympha gemma=, Hübner, Plate XXV, Fig. 2, ♂, _under side_ (The
Gemmed Brown).

_Butterfly._--Upon the upper side the wings are pale mouse-gray, with a
couple of twinned black spots on the outer margin of the hind wings. On
the under side the wings are reddish-gray, marked with irregular
ferruginous lines. Near the outer margin of the hind wings is a row of
silvered spots, the spots corresponding in location to the dark marginal
spots being expanded into a violet patch marked in the middle by a
twinned black spot centered with silver. Expanse, 1.25-1.35 inch.

_Early Stages._--These have been beautifully described and figured by
Edwards in the third volume of "The Butterflies of North America."

The egg is somewhat globular, rather higher than wide, flattened at the
base, and marked with numerous shallow reticulated depressions. The
caterpillar of the spring brood is pale green, of the fall brood pale
brown, marked respectively with numerous longitudinal stripes of darker
green or brown. It has two long, elevated, horn-like projections upon
the head, and on the anal segment two similar projections pointing
straight backward. The chrysalis is small, green, or brown, strongly
bifid at the head. The caterpillar feeds on grasses.

The insect ranges from West Virginia to Mexico.

(2) =Neonympha henshawi=, Edwards, Plate XXV, Fig. 8, ♂ (Henshaw's
Brown).

_Butterfly._--Much like _N. gemma_, but considerably larger and
decidedly reddish upon the upper side of the wings. Expanse, 1.65 inch.

_Early Stages._--Mr. Edwards has figured the egg, which is different in
shape from that of the preceding species, being broader than high,
subglobular, flattened broadly at the base, green in color, and almost
devoid of sculpturings upon its surface. Of the other stages we know
nothing.

Henshaw's Butterfly ranges through southern Colorado into Mexico.

(3) =Neonympha phocion=, Fabricius, Plate XXV, Fig. 7, ♂, _under side_;
Plate III, Fig. 8, _larva_; Plate IV, Figs. 10 and 11 (The Georgian
Satyr).

_Butterfly._--The upper side is immaculate gray; beneath pale, with two
ferruginous transverse lines. Between these lines is a ferruginous line
on each wing, rudely describing a circle. In the circle on the fore wing
are three or four eye-spots with a blue pupil and a yellow iris; in the
circle on the hind wing are six eye-spots which are oblong and have the
pupil oval. Expanse, 1.25 inch.

_Early Stages._--These have been fully described, and are not unlike
those of other species of the genus. The caterpillar feeds on grasses.

The insect ranges from New Jersey to the Gulf of Mexico as far west as
Texas.

(4) =Neonympha eurytus=, Fabricius, Plate XXV, Fig. 4, ♂; Plate III,
Figs. 3, 6, 10, 13, 14, _larva_; Plate IV, Fig. 28, _chrysalis_ (The
Little Wood-satyr).

_Butterfly._--Easily distinguished from other species in our fauna by
the presence of two more or less perfectly developed ocelli on the upper
side of the fore wing and also of the hind wing. Expanse, 1.75 inch.

_Early Stages._--This is a rather common butterfly, the larval stages of
which have been fully described by various authors. The egg is even
taller in proportion to its breadth than that of _N. gemma_, which it
otherwise closely resembles in outline and sculpturing. The caterpillar
is pale brown, conformed in general form to that of other species of the
genus, but somewhat stouter. It feeds on grasses. The chrysalis is pale
brown, mottled with darker brown.

The insect ranges through Canada and the United States to Nebraska,
Kansas, and Texas.

(5) =Neonympha mitchelli=, French, Plate XXV, Fig. 6, ♂, _under side_
(Mitchell's Satyr).

_Butterfly._--Easily distinguished from the other species of the genus
by the eye-spots on the under side of the wings, four on each of the
primaries and six on each of the secondaries, arranged in a straight
series on the outer third, well removed from the margin. These spots are
black, ringed about with yellow and pupiled with blue.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The species is local, and thus far is recorded only from northern New
Jersey, near Lake Hopatcong, and the State of Michigan. No doubt it
occurs elsewhere, but has been overlooked by collectors.

(6) =Neonympha sosybius=, Fabricius, Plate XXV, Fig. 5, ♂, _under side_
(The Carolinian Satyr).

_Butterfly._--The upper surface is immaculate dark mouse-gray. On the
under side the wings are paler, with three transverse undulatory lines,
one defining the basal, the other the median area, and one just within
the margin. Between the last two are rows of ocelli. The spots in these
rows are obscure, except the first on the primaries and the second and
last two on the secondaries, which are black, ringed about with yellow
and pupiled with blue.

The female is like the male, but a trifle larger.

_Early Stages._--These have been described by Edwards, French, and
Scudder, and do not differ strikingly from those of other species.

The species ranges from the latitude of New Jersey southward, throughout
the southern half of the Mississippi Valley to Mexico and Central
America.

(7) =Neonympha rubricata=, Edwards, Plate XXV, Fig. 3, ♂ (The Red Satyr).

_Butterfly._--Easily distinguished by its much redder color from all its
congeners, among which it has its closest ally in _N. eurytus_. It has
an eye-spot near the apex of the fore wing, and one near the anal angle
of the hind wing. The basal area of the primaries beneath is bright
reddish; the secondaries on this side are gray, crossed by two
transverse lines as in the preceding species, and a double submarginal
line. On the fore wings the double submarginal line is repeated, and in
addition there is another line which runs upward from just before the
inner angle to the costa, at about one third of its length from the
apex. The eye-spots of the upper side reappear below, and in addition
there is another near the outer angle of the secondaries, and a few
silvery well-defined ocelli between the two on the secondaries.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The Red Satyr is found in Texas, Arizona, Mexico, and Central America.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXV                                     |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Satyrodes canthus_, Boisd.-Lec.,                         |
  |     ♂.                                                       |
  | 2. _Neonympha gemma_, Hübner, ♂,                             |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 3. _Neonympha rubricata_, Edwards, ♂.                        |
  | 4. _Neonympha eurytus_, Fabricius, ♂.                        |
  | 5. _Neonympha sosybius_, Fabricius, ♂,                       |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 6. _Neonympha mitchelli_, French, ♂,                         |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 7. _Neonympha phocion_, Fabricius, ♂,                        |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 8. _Neonympha henshawi_, Edwards, ♂.                         |
  | 9. _Coenonympha california_, Dbl.-Hew.,                      |
  |     var. _galactinus_, Boisd., ♂.                            |
  | 10. _Coenonympha california_, Dbl.-Hew.,                     |
  |     var. _eryngii_, Henry Edwards, ♂.                        |
  | 11. _Coenonympha ochracea_, Edwards, ♂.                      |
  | 12. _Coenonympha ochracea_, Edwards, ♂,                      |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 13. _Coenonympha inornata_, Edwards, ♂,                      |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 14. _Coenonympha california_, Dbl.-Hew.,                     |
  |     ♀.                                                       |
  | 15. _Neominois ridingsii_, Edwards, ♂.                       |
  | 16. _Neominois dionysius_, Scudder, ♂.                       |
  | 17. _Erebia magdalena_, Strecker, ♂.                         |
  | 18. _Erebia sofia_, Strecker, _ethela_,                      |
  |     Edwards, ♀.                                              |
  | 19. _Erebia discoidalis_, Kirby, ♂.                          |
  | 20. _Erebia tyndarus_, var. _callias_,                       |
  |     Edwards, ♂.                                              |
  | 21. _Coenonympha ampelos_, Edwards, ♂,                       |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 22. _Coenonympha kodiak_, Edwards, ♀.                        |
  | 23. _Erebia disa_, var. _mancinus_,                          |
  |     Dbl.-Hew., ♂.                                            |
  | 24. _Coenonympha haydeni_, Edwards, ♂.                       |
  | 25. _Coenonympha elko_, Edwards, ♀,                          |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 26. _Coenonympha elko_, Edwards, ♂.                          |
  | 27. _Coenonympha pamphiloides_, Reakirt,                     |
  |     ♀.                                                       |
  | 28. _Erebia epipsodea_, Butler, ♂.                           |
  | 29. _Coenonympha inornata_, Edwards, ♂.                      |
  | 30. _Coenonympha ampelos_, Edwards, ♂.                       |
  | 31. _Coenonympha pamphiloides_, Reakirt,                     |
  |     ♂.                                                       |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XXV.]                                    |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+



Genus COENONYMPHA, Westwood

(The Ringlets)

     "There is a differency between a grub and a butterfly; yet your
     butterfly was a grub."--SHAKESPEARE.

_Butterfly._--Small butterflies. The costal, median, and submedian veins
are all strongly swollen. The palpi are very heavily clothed with hairs,
the last joint quite long and porrect. The antennæ are short, delicate,
gradually but distinctly clubbed. The eyes are naked. Both wings on the
outer margin are evenly rounded.

_Egg._--The egg is conical, truncated, flat on the top, rounded at the
base, with the sides marked with numerous low, narrow ribs, between
which are slight cross-lines, especially toward the apex.

_Caterpillar._--The head is globular; the body is cylindrical, tapering
gradually backward, furnished in the last segment with two small
horizontal cone-shaped projections.

[Illustration FIG. 117.--Neuration of the genus _Coenonympha_.]

_Chrysalis._--Ventrally straight, dorsally convex, strongly produced in
a rounded, somewhat keeled eminence over the thorax; pointed at the end.
Generally green or light drab in color, with dark markings on the sides
of the wing-cases.

This genus is distributed throughout the temperate regions both of the
Old and the New World, and includes in our fauna a number of forms, the
most of which are peculiar to the Pacific coast.

(1) =Coenonympha california=, Doubleday and Hewitson, Plate XXV, Fig.
14, ♀; form =galactinus=, Boisduval, Plate XXV, Fig. 9, ♂; form
=eryngii=, Henry Edwards, Plate XXV, Fig. 10, ♂ (The California
Ringlet).

_Butterfly._--This little species is to be distinguished from its near
allies by its white color. The form _galactinus_ is the winter form; the
form _california_ the summer form. The former is characterized by the
darker color of the hind wings on the under side and the more prominent
development of the marginal ocelli. The form _eryngii_ is simply a
yellower form, with less dark shading on the under side.

_Early Stages._--These have been most carefully and beautifully worked
out by Edwards, and the reader, for a full knowledge of them, may
consult the splendid plate in "The Butterflies of North America," vol.
iii.

The species ranges from Vancouver's Island southward on the Pacific
coast and eastward into Nevada.

(2) =Coenonympha elko=, Edwards, Plate XXV, Fig. 25, ♀, _under side_;
Fig. 26, ♂ (The Elko Ringlet).

_Butterfly._--Yellow on both sides of the wings, the lower side paler
than the upper, and the basal area lightly clouded with fuscous.

_Early Stages._--Undescribed.

This species is found in Nevada and Washington.

(3) =Coenonympha inornata=, Edwards, Plate XXV, Fig. 13, ♂, _under side_;
Fig. 29, ♂ (The Plain Ringlet).

_Butterfly._--The wings on the upper side are ochreous-brown, lighter on
the disk. The costal margin of the fore wings and the outer margin of
both fore and hind wings are gray. The ocellus at the apex of the fore
wings on the under side is faintly visible on the upper side. On the
under side the fore wings are colored as on the upper side as far as the
termination of the discal area, which is marked by a narrow transverse
band of pale yellow, followed by a conspicuous ocellus. The hind wings
are gray, darkest toward the base, behind the irregular whitish
transverse band which crosses the outer portion of the disk.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The species occurs in Montana, Minnesota, British America, and
Newfoundland. Newfoundland specimens, of which I possess a large series,
are distinctly darker in color than those taken in the Northwest. Some
recent writers are inclined to regard this as a variety of the European
_C. typhon_. I am persuaded that they are mistaken.

(4) =Coenonympha ochracea=, Edwards, Plate XXV, Fig. 11, ♂; Fig. 12, ♂,
_under side_ (The Ochre Ringlet).

_Butterfly._--Glossy ochreous, yellow above, with no markings but those
which show through from below. On the under side the wings are marked
precisely as in the preceding species, except that there are two or
three small rays on the secondaries near the base, one on the cell and
one on either side of it, of the same tint as the discal transverse
band, and in some specimens there is a series of incomplete marginal
ocelli on the hind wings.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

_Ochracea_ ranges from British Columbia to Arizona, as far east as
Kansas.

(5) =Coenonympha ampelos=, Edwards, Plate XXV, Fig. 21, ♂, _under side_;
Fig. 30, ♂ (The Ringless Ringlet).

_Butterfly._--Distinguished from its allies by the total absence of
ocelli on both wings, above and below. Otherwise the species is very
near _ochracea_.

_Early Stages._--These have been described with minute accuracy by
Edwards in the "Canadian Entomologist," vol. xix, p. 41.

_Ampelos_ occurs from Nevada and Montana westward to Vancouver's Island.

(6) =Coenonympha kodiak=, Edwards, Plate XXV, Fig. 22, ♀ (The Alaskan
Ringlet).

_Butterfly._--Much darker both on the upper and under sides than _C.
california_, which in many other respects it resembles. The figure in
the plate is that of the type. It is as yet rare in collections.

_Early Stages._--Nothing is known of these. It is found in Alaska.

(7) =Coenonympha pamphiloides=, Reakirt, Plate XXV, Fig. 27, ♀, _under
side_; Fig. 31, ♂ (The Utah Ringlet).

_Butterfly._--Rather larger than the other species of the genus found in
North America. Easily distinguished by the marginal row of ocelli on the
secondaries, which are always present, though often "blind," that is to
say, without a distinct dark pupil. The author of the species named it
from a supposed likeness to the European _C. pamphilus_. The resemblance
is only superficial. _C. pamphilus_ is a much smaller insect and much
more plainly marked, judging from the large series of specimens I have
received from various European localities. _Pamphilus_ has no eye-spots
on the hind wings. They are a conspicuous feature of _pamphiloides_,
more so than in any other North American species except _C. haydeni_.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

Habitat, Utah and California.

(8) =Coenonympha haydeni=, Plate XXV, Fig. 24, ♂, _under side_ (Hayden's
Ringlet).

_Butterfly._--Dark immaculate mouse-gray on the upper side. On the
under side the wings are pale hoary gray, with the hind wings adorned by
a marginal series of small ocelli, black, ringed about with yellow and
pupiled with pale blue.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

Hayden's Ringlet is found in Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, and Colorado.


Genus EREBIA, Dalman

(The Alpines)

  "Then we gather, as we travel,
  Bits of moss and dirty gravel,
    And we chip off little specimens of stone;
  And we carry home as prizes
  Funny bugs of handy sizes,
    Just to give the day a scientific tone."

  CHARLES EDWARD CARRYL.

_Butterfly._--Medium-sized or small butterflies, dark in color, wings
marked on the under side with eye-like spots; the antennæ short, with a
gradually thickened club. The eyes are naked. The costal vein of the
fore wing is generally strongly swollen at the base. The subcostal vein
is five-branched; the first two nervules generally emitted before the
end of the cell; the third nearer the fourth than the end of the cell;
the fourth and fifth nervules spring from a common stem, the fourth
terminating immediately on the apex. The lower radial is frequently
projected inwardly into the cell from the point where it intersects the
union of the middle and lower discocellular veins. The outer margins of
both wings are evenly rounded.

[Illustration FIG. 118.--Neuration of the genus _Erebia_, enlarged.]

_Egg._--Subconical, flattened at the base and at the top, the sides
marked by numerous raised vertical ridges, which occasionally branch or
intersect each other.

_Caterpillar._--The head is globular, the body cylindrical, tapering
gradually backward from the head, the last segment slightly bifurcate.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is formed about the roots of grass and on
the surface of the ground, either lying loosely there or surrounded by a
few strands of silk. The chrysalis is convex, both ventrally and
dorsally, humped on the thorax, produced at the head; all the
projections well rounded. The chrysalids are generally some shade of
light brown or ashen-gray, with darker stripes and spots. This genus is
arctic, and only found in the cooler regions of the North or upon
elevated mountain summits. A few species range downward to lower levels
in more temperate climates, but these are exceptional cases.

(1) =Erebia discoidalis=, Kirby, Plate XXV, Fig. 19, ♂ (The Red-streaked
Alpine).

_Butterfly._--Easily distinguished by the plain black wings, relieved by
a reddish-brown shade on the disk of the primaries on the upper side.

_Early Stages._--Hitherto undescribed.

This species is found in the far North. My specimens came from the
shores of Hudson Bay.

(2) =Erebia disa=, var. =mancinus=, Doubleday and Hewitson, Plate XXV, Fig.
23, ♂ (The Alaskan Alpine).

_Butterfly._--The wings are dark brown on the upper side. On the outer
third below the apex are three or four black ocelli, broadly ringed with
red and pupiled with white. The upper ocellus is generally bipupiled,
that is to say, the black spot is twinned, and there are two small light
spots in it. On the under side the fore wings are as on the upper side.
The hind wings are broadly sown with gray scales, giving them a hoary
appearance. The base is more or less gray, and there is a broad,
regularly curved mesial band of dark gray, which in some specimens is
very distinct, in others more or less obsolete. The female does not
differ from the male, except that the ocelli on the fore wings are
larger and more conspicuous.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This species is found in Alaska and on the mountains of British
Columbia.

(3) =Erebia callias=, Edwards, Plate XXV, Fig. 20, ♂ (The Colorado
Alpine).

_Butterfly._--Pale brown on the upper side, with a more or less
indistinctly defined broad transverse band of reddish on the outer third
of the fore wings. At the apical end of this band are two black ocelli,
pupiled with white. The fore wings on the under side are reddish, with
the costa and outer margin grayish. The ocelli on this side are as on
the upper side. The hind wings are gray, dusted with brown scales and
crossed by narrow, irregular, dark-brown subbasal, median, and
submarginal lines.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This species is not uncommon on the high mountains of Colorado and New
Mexico. It is regarded as a variety of the European _E. tyndarus_,
Esper, by many. All the specimens of _tyndarus_ in my collection, and
there are many, lack the ocelli on the fore wing, or they are very
feebly indicated on the under side. Otherwise the two forms agree pretty
closely.

(4) =Erebia epipsodea=, Plate XXV, Fig. 28, ♂ (The Common Alpine).

_Butterfly._--The wings are dark brown on the upper side, with four or
five black ocelli, pupiled with white and broadly surrounded by red near
the outer margin of the fore wings, and with three or four similar
ocelli located on the upper side of the hind wings. The spots on the
upper side reappear on the under side, and in addition the hind wings
are covered by a broad curved median blackish band.

_Early Stages._--These have been carefully described by Edwards in "The
Butterflies of North America," vol. iii, and by H.H. Lyman in the
"Canadian Entomologist," vol. xxviii, p. 274. The caterpillar feeds on
grasses.

The species ranges from New Mexico (at high elevations) northward to
Alaska. It is common on the mountains of British Columbia.

(5) =Erebia sofia= Strecker (=ethela=, Edwards), Plate XXV, Fig. 18, ♀
(Sofia).

_Butterfly._--Dark brown on the upper side, with an even submarginal
band of red spots on the primaries, and five similar spots on the
secondaries, the last two of the latter somewhat distant from each other
and from the first three, which are nearer the outer angle. On the under
side the primaries are reddish, with the submarginal band as on the
upper side, but paler. On the secondaries, which are a little paler
below than above, the spots of the upper side are repeated, but they are
yellowish-white, standing forth conspicuously upon the darker
ground-color.

_Early Stages._--Hitherto undescribed.

_Sofia_ has been found at Fort Churchill in British America, in the
Yellowstone National Park, and in a few localities in Colorado. It is
still rare in collections. The figure in the plate is that of the female
type of Edwards' _ethela_, _ethela_ being a synonym for _sofia_.

(6) =Erebia magdalena=, Strecker, Plate XXV, Fig. 17, ♂ (Magdalena).

_Butterfly._--Uniformly dark blackish-brown on both sides of the wings,
with no spots or markings.

_Early Stages._--These have been partially described and figured by
Edwards.

This species has thus far been found only in Colorado at an elevation of
from ten to twelve thousand feet above sea-level.

There are two or three other species of this obscure genus, but they are
rare boreal insects, of which little is as yet known.


Genus GEIROCHEILUS, Butler

_Butterfly._--Medium-sized butterflies, dark in color, with light
eye-like spots on the primaries and brown borders on the secondaries.
The antennæ are short, with a gradually tapering club; the palpi are
long, slender, compressed, well clothed with scales on the lower
surface. The costa of the fore wings is strongly arched, the outer
margin evenly rounded, the outer margin of the hind wings regularly
scalloped. The costal vein of the primaries is somewhat thickly swollen
at the base.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

[Illustration FIG. 119.--Neuration of the genus _Geirocheilus_.]

(1) =Geirocheilus tritonia=, Edwards, Plate XVIII, Fig. 21, ♂ (Tritonia).

_Butterfly._--The wings of the upper side are dark brown, with a
submarginal row of white-centered ocelli below the apex of the
primaries. The secondaries are marked with a submarginal band of red. On
the under side the fore wings are as on the upper side. The hind wings
have the submarginal band purplish-red, irrorated with whitish and
dark-brown scales, on the inner edge relieved by a number of imperfectly
developed ocelli, which are partially ringed about on the side of the
base by pale yellow.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

_Tritonia_ occurs in southern Arizona and northern Mexico.


Genus NEOMINOIS, Scudder

_Butterfly._--Medium-sized, with the costa and inner margin of the fore
wing straight, the outer margin of the same wing evenly rounded. The
hind wings have the outer margin evenly rounded, and the costal margin
quite strongly produced, or bent at an angle, just above the origin of
the costal vein. The inner margin is straight. The costal vein of the
fore wing is slightly swollen. The costal margin at the extremity of the
second costal nervule is slightly bent inward; the upper discocellular
vein is wanting; the lower radial vein is emitted from the lower
discocellular a little below the point at which it unites with the
middle discocellular. The middle discocellular of the hind wing appears
as an inward continuation of the lower radial for some distance, when it
bends upward suddenly to the origin of the upper radial. The head is
small; the antennæ are short, with a thin, gradually developed club; the
palpi are slender, compressed, well clothed with long hairs below.

[Illustration FIG. 120.--Neuration of the genus _Neominois_, enlarged.]

_Egg._--The egg is somewhat barrel-shaped, broader at the base than at
the top, with the summit rounded. The sides are ornamented with fourteen
or fifteen vertical raised ridges, which are quite broad, and sometimes
fork or run into each other. On the sides these ridges seem to be
regularly excised at their bases, and between them on the surface are
many horizontal raised cross-lines, giving the depressed surface the
appearance of being filled with shallow cells.

_Caterpillar._--The mature caterpillar has the head globular, the body
cylindrical, gradually tapering backward, and provided with two very
short conical anal horns.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is formed under the surface of the earth; it
is rounded, somewhat carinate, or keel-shaped, where the wing-cases
unite on the ventral side. The head is rounded, the thorax strongly
arched, the dorsal side of the abdomen very convex. On either side of
the head are small clusters of fine processes shaped somewhat like an
Indian club, the thickened part studded with little spur-like
projections. These can only be seen under the microscope.

But two species of the genus are known within our faunal limits.

(1) =Neominois ridingsi=, Edwards, Plate XXV, Fig. 15, ♂ (Ridings'
Satyr).

_Butterfly._--The upper side is well depicted in the plate. The under
side is paler than the upper side, and the basal and median areas of
both wings are profusely mottled with narrow pale-brown striæ, the
secondaries crossed by a darker mesial band, the outer margin of which
is sharply indented. Expanse, 1.50 inch.

_Early Stages._--These have been beautifully ascertained, described, and
figured by Edwards in the third volume of "The Butterflies of North
America." The egg, larva, and chrysalis agree with the generic
description already given, which is based upon the researches of
Edwards.

It is found in the Mountain States of the Pacific coast.

(2) =Neominois dionysius=, Scudder, Plate XXV, Fig. 16, ♂ (Scudder's
Satyr).

_Butterfly._--Distinguished from the preceding species by the larger and
paler submarginal markings on the upper side of the wings and the pale
color of the basal tract in both wings. On the under side the median
band of the secondaries is narrower and more irregularly curved than in
_ridingsi_, with the dentations of the outer margin more sharply
produced. Expanse, 1.90 inch.

_Early Stages._--Nothing has been written on the early stages, but no
doubt they agree closely with those of the other species.

It is found in Utah, Colorado, and Arizona.

  "Hast thou heard the butterflies,
  What they say betwixt their wings?"

  TENNYSON, _Adeline_.


Genus SATYRUS, Westwood

(The Wood-nymphs)

  "Fluttering, like some vain, painted butterfly,
  From glade to glade along the forest path."

  ARNOLD, _Light of Asia_.

_Butterfly._--Butterflies of medium size, their wings marked with
eye-like spots, or ocelli. Upon the upper surface they are generally
obscurely colored of some shade of gray or brown, occasionally marked
with bands of yellow. On the under side the wings are generally
beautifully striated and spotted, with the eye-like spots more
prominent. The costal vein at the base is greatly swollen; the median
and submedian veins less so. The first and second subcostal nervules
arise very near the end of the cell, slightly before it. The outer
margin of the fore wing is evenly rounded; the outer margin of the hind
wing somewhat scalloped; the head small, the eyes of moderate size,
full, naked; the antennæ gradually thickening to a broadly rounded club,
which is slightly depressed; the palpi slender, compressed, profusely
clothed beneath with long hairs. The fore legs are very small.

[Illustration FIG. 121.--Neuration of the genus _Satyrus_. (After
Scudder.)]

_Egg._--Short, barrel-shaped, greatly diminishing in size on the upper
half; truncated at the summit; the sides furnished with a large number
of vertical ribs, not very high, with numerous delicate cross-lines
between them. At the summit the ribs are connected by a waved, raised
elevation.

_Caterpillar._--Head globular; body cylindrical, tapering from the
middle forward and backward; provided with short and slender diverging
anal horns.

_Chrysalis._--Shaped very much as in the genus _Debis_, from which it is
hardly distinguishable. Generally green in color.

This genus includes numerous species which are more or less subject to
varietal modifications. In the following pages I have treated as species
a number of forms which by some writers are reckoned as mere varieties.
Whether the view of those who regard these forms in the light of
varieties is correct is not perfectly plain to me, and we cannot be
sure until more extensive experiments in breeding have been carried out.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVI                                    |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Satyrus alope_, Fabricius, ♂.                            |
  | 2. _Satyrus alope_, Fabricius, ♀.                            |
  | 3. _Satyrus nephele_, Kirby, ♂.                              |
  | 4. _Satyrus nephele_, Kirby, ♀,                              |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 5. _Satyrus ariane_, Boisduval, ♂.                           |
  | 6. _Satyrus ariane_, Boisduval, ♀,                           |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 7. _Satyrus oetus_, Boisduval, ♂.                            |
  | 8. _Satyrus oetus_, Boisduval, ♂,                            |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 9. _Satyrus olympus_, Edwards, ♂.                            |
  | 10. _Satyrus olympus_, Edwards, ♀,                           |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 11. _Satyrus charon_, Edwards, ♂.                            |
  | 12. _Satyrus charon_, Edwards, ♀.                            |
  | 13. _Satyrus meadi_, Edwards, ♀.                             |
  | 14. _Satyrus meadi_, Edwards, ♂,                             |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 15. _Satyrus baroni_, Edwards, ♂.                            |
  | 16. _Satyrus baroni_, Edwards, ♂,                            |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 17. _Satyrus gabbi_, Edwards, ♀,                             |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 18. _Satyrus pegala_, Fabricius, ♀,                          |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 19. _Satyrus paulus_, Edwards, ♂,                            |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 20. _Satyrus sthenele_, Boisduval, ♂,                        |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XXVI.]                                   |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+


(1) =Satyrus pegala=, Fabricius, Plate XXVI, Fig. 18, ♀, _under side_
(The Southern Wood-nymph).

_Butterfly._--The largest species of the genus in our fauna, easily
recognized by the broad yellow submarginal band on the primaries, marked
with a single eye-spot in the male and two eye-spots in the female. The
plate gives a correct idea of the under side of the wings. Expanse, 2.75
inches.

_Early Stages._--These have only been partially ascertained. The
caterpillar, like all others of the genus, feeds on grasses.

This insect is found in the Gulf States and as far north as New Jersey,
and is probably only a large Southern form of the next species.

(2) =Satyrus alope=, Fabricius, Plate XXVI, Fig. 1, ♂; Fig. 2, ♀; Plate
III, Fig. 18, _larva_ (The Common Wood-nymph).

_Butterfly._--Closely resembling the preceding species, but only two
thirds of its size. The figures in our plate give a correct idea of its
appearance. The number of the ocelli is not constant, and occasionally
specimens occur in which they are almost wanting. Several varietal forms
have been described: _S. maritima_, from Long Island and Martha's
Vineyard, in which the wings are smaller, the band inclined to
orange-yellow, and the upper side of the wings is darker than in the
typical form; and _S. texana_, from the extreme South, in which the
ground-color of the wings is paler brown, the yellow band ochreous, and
the spots on the under side of the hind wings larger than in the other
forms.

(_a_) =Satyrus alope=, form =nephele=, Kirby, Plate XXVI, Fig. 3, ♂;
Fig. 4, ♀, _under side_; Plate IV, Figs. 7, 8, _chrysalis_ (The Clouded
Wood-nymph).

This varietal form of _S. alope_, long held to be a species, but now
known to be a dimorphic variety, is characterized by the partial or
entire suppression of the yellow band on the primaries and the tendency
of the eye-spots to become obsolete. It is the Northern form of the
species, and is found in Canada, New England, and on the continent
generally, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, north of the latitude of
central New York and southward on the mountain masses of the Appalachian
ranges.

(_b_) =Satyrus alope=, form =olympus=, Edwards, Plate XXVI, Fig. 9, ♂;
Fig. 10, ♀, _under side_ (Olympus).

This form of _S. alope_ is common in the region west of the Mississippi.
The males are a trifle darker and the females a shade paler than in the
form _nephele_, which they closely approximate, and from which it would
almost be impossible to separate them without a knowledge of the country
whence they come.

(_c_) =Satyrus alope=, form =ariane=, Boisduval, Plate XXVI, Fig. 5, ♂;
Fig. 6, ♀, _under side_ (Ariane).

In _ariane_ we have a decidedly dwarfed form, in which the males and the
females are quite dark. The ocelli, though small, are persistent, well
defined, rarely showing a tendency to disappear completely. This form is
found in British America, Oregon, and the northwestern portion of the
United States.

(_d_) =Satyrus baroni=, Plate XXVI, Fig. 15, ♂; Fig. 16, ♂, _under
side_ (Baron's Satyr).

This is another form, dark on the upper side and reddish below, in which
the ocelli on the under side show a tendency to become obsolete, and in
some specimens are wholly wanting.

There are other varietal forms, one of which, named _boöpis_ by Behr, is
commonly found on the Pacific coast in northern California, Oregon, and
Washington, and the ocelli, while prominent on the upper side of the
wings, are almost obsolete below.

_Early Stages._--The early stages of _S. alope_ (typical form) and its
variety _nephele_ have been well described by several authors. The
caterpillar feeds on grasses. There is, however, a fine field for the
entomologist to work out the causes of the rather remarkable variation
to which the species is subject.

(3) =Satyrus gabbi=, Edwards, Plate XXVI, Fig. 17, ♀, _under side_
(Gabb's Satyr).

_Butterfly._--The male is dark reddish-brown, the female pale fawn. The
ocelli in both sexes are very well developed on both sides of the wings.
The anal series on the secondaries consists of three spots, of which the
one in the middle is always large. Expanse, 2.25 inches.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

Gabb's Satyr is found in Oregon and Utah.

(4) =Satyrus meadi=, Plate XXVI, Fig. 13, ♀; Fig. 14, ♂, _under side_
(Mead's Satyr).

_Butterfly._--This well-marked species is comparatively small, and may
easily be distinguished from all others by the bright red on the limbal
area above and on the middle area of the primaries below. Expanse,
1.60-1.75 inch.

_Early Stages._--These have been described and figured by Edwards in
"The Butterflies of North America," vol. iii. The caterpillar is green,
marked by paler stripes and lozenge-shaped spots of pale green on the
side. The chrysalis is pale green. The egg is pale saffron. The
caterpillars feed on grass.

Mead's Satyr ranges through Colorado, Montana, Utah, and Arizona.

(5) =Satyrus paulus=, Edwards, Plate XXVI, Fig. 19, ♂, _under side_ (The
Small Wood-nymph).

_Butterfly._--A little smaller than _S. nephele_, dark brown above in
both sexes, the fore wings always with two pupilate ocelli, one near the
apex, the other near the inner angle, most conspicuously developed in
the female. The secondaries have one or two spots of the same kind near
the anal angle. On the under side the wings are pale reddish-brown,
abundantly marked by transverse striæ. The primaries are marked with
gray at the apex and on the outer margin, and have a submarginal and
submedian transverse ferruginous line, between which the ocelli are
located. The secondaries are crossed by a broad darker median band
defined inwardly and outwardly by narrow dark lines. The outer third is
pale gray, mottled with darker spots and lines, and traversed by a dark
ferruginous submarginal line. Expanse, 1.75-2.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

_Paulus_ occurs in California and Nevada. It has been regarded as a
variety of _sthenele_ by some writers; but I am convinced of its
distinctness, though there is considerable resemblance.

(6) =Satyrus charon=, Edwards, Plate XXVI, Fig. 11, ♂; Fig. 12, ♀ (The
Dark Wood-nymph).

_Butterfly._--The male is dark in color; the female is paler. There are
two eye-spots on the fore wings in the usual location, indistinct on the
upper, distinct on the lower side of the wings. The under sides of the
wings are variable. In the type they are dark; in other specimens they
are paler. They may or may not have ocelli on the secondaries. The form
with obsolescent ocelli has been named _silvestris_ by Edwards. Both the
fore and hind wings are abundantly and evenly marked by little striæ,
and crossed on either side of the median area by obscure, irregular,
transverse dark lines, either one or both of which may be wanting in
some specimens. Expanse, 1.50-1.75 inch.

_Early Stages._--These have been described and beautifully figured by
Edwards in the third volume of his great work, to which the reader may
refer. The caterpillar is green, cylindrical, tapering before and
behind, marked with longitudinal pale-yellow lines. The chrysalis is
green or black, striped with narrow white lines. The egg is somewhat
firkin-shaped, flat at the top and base, vertically ribbed, and
honey-yellow. The larva feeds on grasses.

_Charon_ is found in the Northwest, ranging from British Columbia as far
as New Mexico.

(7) =Satyrus oetus=, Boisduval, Plate XXVI, Fig. 7, ♂; Fig. 8, ♂,
_under side_ (Boisduval's Satyr).

_Butterfly._--Larger than _charon_, paler on the upper side, especially
in the female sex, in which the outer third of the primaries is
reddish-fawn. On the under side the secondaries of the male are without
ocelli, or at most faint traces of ocelli appear. In the female the
ocelli near the anal angle of the secondaries are usually well
developed. Expanse, 1.60-2.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--These await description.

The species is found in northern California.

(8) =Satyrus sthenele=, Boisduval, Plate XXVI, Fig. 20, ♂, _under side_
(The Least Wood-nymph).

_Butterfly._--Quite small, superficially resembling _charon_. The female
is paler and the ocelli are larger and more distinct than in _charon_.
The distinguishing mark of this species is the irregular, dark,
twice-strangulated band of the secondaries, bordered on both sides
externally by whitish shades. This is shown in our figure. Expanse,
1.40-1.50 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The species is Californian.


Genus OENEIS, Hübner

(=Chionobas=, _Boisd._)

(The Arctics)

                                        "To reside
  In thrilling region of thick-ribbed ice."

  SHAKESPEARE.

_Butterfly._--The antennæ are short; the eyes of moderate size; the
front full, protuberant; the palpi slender; the fore wings somewhat
produced at the tip, with the outer margins rounded and the hind
margins very slightly, if at all, sinuated. The nervules of the fore
wings are slightly dilated toward the base; the hind wings are
elongated, oval, with the outer margins evenly rounded. The color of
these butterflies is some shade of brown; the outer margin is generally
lighter than the base of the wing, and is marked with black spots,
sometimes pupiled with white. The wings are generally marbled and
mottled on the underside, and sometimes crossed on the middle of the
hind wings by a broad band of darker color. The fringes are brown,
checkered with white.

[Illustration FIG. 122.--Neuration of the genus _OEneis_, enlarged.]

_Egg._--The egg is ovate-spherical, higher than broad, marked on the
side from the apex to the base with raised sculptured ridges. These eggs
are deposited, so far as we have been able to learn, on dried grass and
the stems of plants in proximity to the growing plants upon which the
young caterpillars are destined to feed.

_Caterpillar._--The head of the caterpillar when it emerges from the egg
is somewhat larger than the rest of the body, but as it passes
successive moults and attains maturity the relative thickness of the
body increases, and the adult larva tapers a little from about the
middle in either direction. The larvæ are pale green or brown, marked by
darker stripes upon the back and on the sides, the markings on the sides
being in most species more conspicuous than those on the back. The
species all feed on grasses.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalids are stout, very slightly angulated, and are
formed, so far as we know, unattached, under stones and at the roots of
grasses. When pupating, the caterpillar often makes for itself a slight
depression or cell in the soil, in which a few threads of silk have been
deposited, though not enough to justify us in calling the structure a
cocoon.

This genus is composed of butterflies which are mainly arctic in their
habitat, or dwell upon the summits of lofty mountains, where the summer
is but brief. Only a few species are found at comparatively low
elevations, and these in British America, or the parts of the United
States immediately contiguous to the Canadian line. The most widely
known of all the species up to this time is the White Mountain
Butterfly, _OEneis semidea_, Say, a colony of which has existed probably
ever since the glacial period upon the loftiest summit of Mount
Washington, in New Hampshire. A number of species are found in the
region of the Rocky Mountains. One species, _OEneis jutta_, Hübner,
occurs in Maine, Nova Scotia, and parts adjacent. There are in all about
a score of species of this genus recognized by authors as occurring in
our fauna. In spite of the fact that these insects are boreal or arctic
in their habits, Mr. W.H. Edwards has with marvelous skill and patience
succeeded in obtaining the eggs and rearing at his home in Coalburg,
West Virginia, a number of species. We are indebted to him for more of
our knowledge of the generic characteristics of these insects, in their
early stages, than had been ascertained hitherto during a century of
investigation. His work is one of the beautiful triumphs of that
enduring zeal which is a supreme quality in the naturalist. In their
early stages all of the species show a close likeness to one another.

(1) =OEneis gigas=, Butler, Plate XXVII, Fig. 1, ♂; Fig. 2, ♀ (The
Greater Arctic).

_Butterfly._--This, one of the largest species in the genus, occurs on
Vancouver's Island. The butterfly hides among the dark mosses and upon
the trunks of prostrate trees. The males are vigilant and inquisitive,
and dart out suddenly when alarmed, or attracted by passing insects. The
females have a slower and more leisurely flight and are more readily
taken. Expanse, 2.00-2.25 inches.

_Early Stages._--Edwards has figured the egg and the caterpillar in its
first three stages, but the remaining life-history of the species awaits
investigation.

(2) =OEneis iduna=, Edwards, Plate XXVII, Fig. 4, ♂ (The Iduna
Butterfly).

_Butterfly._--This insect, which even exceeds _OE. gigas_ in size, is
found on the Coast Range in northern California. It is decidedly lighter
on the outer third of the wings than the preceding species, the male
being prevalently a pale yellowish-brown, with the basal and median
areas of the fore wing dark brown. On the under side the wings are
somewhat lighter than in the preceding species, and the transverse
lines are more distinctly marked. Expanse, 2.00-2.30 inches.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVII                                   |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _OEneis gigas_, Butler, ♂.                                |
  | 2. _OEneis gigas_, Butler, ♀.                                |
  | 3. _OEneis macouni_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 4. _OEneis iduna_, Edwards, ♂.                               |
  | 5. _OEneis jutta_, Hübner, ♀.                                |
  | 6. _OEneis taygete_, Hübner, ♂.                              |
  | 7. _OEneis brucei_, Edwards, ♂.                              |
  | 8. _OEneis varuna_, Edwards, ♂.                              |
  | 9. _OEneis ivallda_, Mead, ♂.                                |
  | 10. _OEneis chryxus_, Dbl.-Hew., ♂.                          |
  | 11. _OEneis semidea_, Say, ♂.                                |
  | 12. _OEneis uhleri_, Reakirt, ♂.                             |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XXVII.]                                  |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+

_Early Stages._--These have been most beautifully delineated by Edwards
in the third volume of "The Butterflies of North America."

(3) =OEneis macouni=, Edwards, Plate XXVII, Fig. 3, ♂ (Macoun's Arctic).

[Illustration FIG. 123.--Caterpillars of _OEneis macouni_ (Riley).]

_Butterfly._--This species is closely allied to the two foregoing, but
may be distinguished by the broad median band of dark brown traversing
the under side of the hind wings, as well as by other peculiarities of
marking. It lacks the bar of raised scales which is found in the male
sex about the lower part of the cell of the fore wing in most of the
species of the genus. It has been found thus far only on the north shore
of Lake Superior and at the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains in the
territory of Alberta. Expanse, 2.00-2.25 inches.

_Early Stages._--For a knowledge of these in all their minute details
the reader is again referred to the pages of the indefatigable Edwards.

(4) =OEneis chryxus=, Westwood, Plate XXVII, Fig. 10, ♂ (The Chryxus
Butterfly).

_Butterfly._--This species is widely distributed, being found in
Colorado, British Columbia, and the vicinity of Hudson Bay. It is
distinguished from other species by the darker brown color, which covers
the basal and median areas of both the fore and hind wings, leaving a
broad band of lighter brown on the outer margin. On the under side the
wings are beautifully mottled with white and dark brown. _OEneis
calais_, Scudder, is probably only a form of _chryxus_, which is
somewhat lighter in color on the base of the wings. Expanse, 1.60-1.75
inch.

_Early Stages._--The life-history is fully recorded in the pages of
Edwards.

(5) =OEneis ivallda=, Mead, Plate XXVII, Fig. 9, ♂ (Mead's Arctic).

_Butterfly._--This species is easily distinguished from all others by
the peculiar pale ashen-brown of the upper side of the wings. It is not
a common species, and is apparently restricted to the mountains of
Nevada, principally about Lake Tahoe, though it probably occurs
elsewhere. Expanse, 1.90-2.10 inches.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

(6) =OEneis varuna=, Edwards, Plate XXVII, Fig. 8, ♂ (The Varuna
Butterfly).

_Butterfly._--This species is much smaller than any of those which have
thus far been mentioned. It is found in the prairie lands of Montana,
North Dakota, and the parts of Canada adjacent. It is not uncommon about
Calgary. It is light in color on the upper side of the wings, and on the
under side it is mottled with brown, strongly marked with blackish
blotches or shades. Expanse, 1.50-1.60 inch.

_Early Stages._--These await description.

(7) =OEneis uhleri=, Reakirt, Plate XXVII, Fig. 12, ♂ (Uhler's Arctic).

_Butterfly._--This species is found in Colorado. It is redder on the
upper side than _varuna_, and the females are generally very richly
ornamented with eye-spots on the outer borders of both the fore and hind
wings. Expanse, 1.45-1.55 inch.

_Early Stages._--These have been most thoroughly described and
beautifully delineated by Edwards.

(8) =OEneis jutta=, Hübner, Plate XXVII, Fig. 5, ♀ (The Nova Scotian).

_Butterfly._--This beautiful species, which is also found in Europe, is
not uncommon in the State of Maine as far south as Bangor, and occurs
also in Nova Scotia, and ranges thence westward to Ottawa and the Hudson
Bay country. It is one of the more conspicuous species of the genus, the
eye-like spots upon the wings having a very striking appearance.
Expanse, 1.80-2.10 inches.

_Early Stages._--For a thorough knowledge of these the reader may
consult the pages of Scudder and Edwards.

(9) =OEneis semidea=, Say, Plate XXVII, Fig. 11, ♂; Plate III, Figs. 1,
2, 4, 7, 15, _larva_; Plate IV, Figs. 4, 5, _chrysalis_ (The White
Mountain Butterfly).

_Butterfly._--This species has thin wings, and is much darker in color
than any of the species which have thus far been mentioned. It is
restricted in its habitat to the summit of Mount Washington, in New
Hampshire, and only reappears on the high mountains of Colorado and in
Labrador. Its life-history has been very carefully worked out. It is to
be hoped that entomologists and tourists resorting to Mount Washington
will not suffer it to disappear by reason of too wholesale a capture of
the specimens, which hover about the barren rocks on which the race has
existed since the great continental ice-sheet melted away and vanished
from the face of New England. Expanse, 1.75 inch.

_Early Stages._--The curious reader is again referred for a knowledge of
these to the pages of Scudder and Edwards. They are similar to those of
other species, and the generic description which has been given must
suffice for all in this work.

(10) =OEneis brucei=, Edwards, Plate XXVII, Fig. 7, ♂ (Bruce's Arctic).

_Butterfly._--Though somewhat closely related to the last species,
Bruce's Arctic may at once be distinguished from it by the broad dark
band on the under side of the secondaries and the great translucency of
the wings, which permits a label to be read through them. It is found in
Colorado and in British Columbia at an elevation of from twelve to
thirteen thousand feet above sea-level. Expanse, 1.75 inch.

_Early Stages._--All we know of these is contained in the pages of
Edwards' great work.

(11) =OEneis taygete=, Hübner, Plate XXVII, Fig. 6, ♂ (The Labrador
Arctic).

_Butterfly._--Much like _OE. brucei_, but the wings are not so
translucent as in that species, and the broad mesial band on the under
side of the hind wings is differently shaped, being more strongly
directed outward just below the costa. The figure in the plate is from a
specimen taken at Nain, in Labrador. Expanse, 1.75 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

There are eight or nine other species of _OEneis_ in our fauna, but they
are all arctic, and most of them very rare. Those we have described and
figured will give a good idea of the genus.


IN THE FACE OF THE COLD

When the full moon hangs high overhead, the snow creaks underfoot, the
north wind roars with furious blast, and the trees of the forests crack
in the frost with a report like that of cannon, then, hanging in its
little nest on the bare branches of the wind-tossed trees, the tiny
caterpillar of the Viceroy keeps the spark of life where men freeze and
die. Nothing in the realm of nature is more wonderful than the manner in
which some of the most minute animal forms resist cold. The genera
_Erebia_ and _OEneis_, and many species of the genus _Brenthis_, are, as
we have already learned, inhabitants of the arctic regions or of lofty
Alpine summits, the climate of which is arctic. Their caterpillars often
hibernate in a temperature of from forty to fifty, and even seventy,
degrees below zero, Fahrenheit.

It has been alleged that caterpillars freeze in the winter and thaw out
in the spring, at that time regaining their vitality. Thus far the
writer is unable to ascertain that any experiments or observations have
positively decided for or against this view. A number of recorded cases
in which caterpillars are positively stated to have been frozen and to
have afterward been found to be full of vitality when thawed are open to
question.

The most circumstantial account is that by Commander James Ross, R.N.,
F.R.S., quoted by Curtis in the Entomological Appendix to the
"Narrative" of Sir John Ross's second voyage to the arctic regions. The
specimens upon which the observations were made were the caterpillars of
_Laria rossi_, a moth which is found abundantly in the arctic regions of
North America. I quote from the account: "About thirty of the
caterpillars were put into a box in the middle of September, and after
being exposed to the severe winter temperature of the next three months,
they were brought into a warm cabin, where, in less than two hours,
every one of them returned to life, and continued for a whole day
walking about; they were again exposed to the air at a temperature of
about forty degrees below zero, and became immediately hard-frozen; in
this state they remained a week, and on being brought again into the
cabin, only twenty-three came to life; these were, at the end of four
hours, put out once more into the air and again hard-frozen; after
another week they were again brought in, when only eleven were restored
to life; a fourth time they were exposed to the winter temperature, and
only two returned to life on being again brought into the cabin; these
two survived the winter, and in May an imperfect _Laria_ was produced
from one, and six flies from the other."

The foregoing account seems to verify more thoroughly the stories that
have been told than anything else I have been able to discover within
the limits of entomological literature, but does not conclude argument.
It would be interesting in these days, when methods of artificial
freezing have been so highly perfected, to undertake a series of
experiments to prove or disprove, as the case may be, the view which has
been held since the time of the ancients. There is here a field for nice
investigation on the part of some reader of this book. In making the
experiment it probably would be well to select the larvæ of species
which are known to hibernate during the winter and to be capable of
withstanding a great degree of cold.

The effect of cold suddenly applied to the chrysalids of butterflies at
the moment of pupation is often to produce remarkable changes in the
markings. The spots upon the wings of butterflies emerging from
chrysalids thus treated are frequently rendered more or less indistinct
and blurred. The dark markings are intensified in color and enlarged;
the pale markings are also in some cases ascertained to experience
enlargement. Many of the strange and really beautiful aberrations known
to collectors have no doubt been produced by the action of frost which
has occurred at the season when the larva was pupating. The species
believed by the writer to be most prolific in aberrations are species
which pupate early in the spring from caterpillars which have hibernated
or which pupate late in the autumn. Some are species found at
considerable altitudes above sea-level, where late frosts and early
frosts are apt to occur. A number of very beautiful experiments upon the
effect of cold upon the color of butterflies have been made in recent
years, and some very curious phenomena have been observed. The writer
has in his collection a considerable number of strikingly aberrant
specimens which emerged from chrysalids treated to a sudden artificial
lowering of the temperature at the critical period of pupation.



SUBFAMILY LIBYTHEINÆ (THE SNOUT-BUTTERFLIES)

  "What more felicitie can fall to creature
    Than to enjoy delight with libertie,
  And to be Lord of all the workes of Nature,
    To raigne in th' aire from th' earth to highest skie,
  To feed on flowres and weeds of glorious feature,
    To take whatever thing doth please the eie?"

  SPENSER.


_Butterfly._--The butterflies of this family are very readily
distinguished from all others by their long projecting palpi, and by the
fact that the males have four feet adapted to walking, while the females
have six, in which respect they approach the Erycinidæ.

Only one genus is represented in our faunal region, the genus
_Libythea_.


Genus LIBYTHEA, Fabricius

(The Snout-butterflies)

[Illustration FIG. 124.--Neuration of the genus _Libythea_.]

_Butterfly._--Rather small in size, with the eyes moderately large; the
antennæ with a distinct club at the end; the palpi with the last joint
extremely long and heavily clothed with hair. The wings have the outer
margin strongly excised between the first median nervule and the lower
radial vein. Between the upper and lower radial veins the wing is
strongly produced outwardly; the inner margin is bowed out toward the
base before the inner angle. The costa of the hind wing is bent upward
at the base and excised before the outer angle; the wing is produced at
the ends of the subcostal vein, the third median nervule, and the
extremity of the submedian vein. There is also a slight projection at
the extremity of the first median nervule. Of these projections the one
at the extremity of the third median nervule is the most pronounced.
The cell of the primaries and of the secondaries is lightly closed.

_Egg._--The egg is ovoid, nearly twice as high as wide, with narrow
vertical ridges on the sides, every other ridge much higher than its
mate and increasing in height toward the vertex, where they abruptly
terminate, their extremities ranging around the small depressed
micropyle. Between these ridges are minute cross-lines.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar has the head small, the anterior
segments greatly swollen and overarching the head. The remainder of the
body is cylindrical.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is of a somewhat singular shape, the abdomen
conical, the head sharply pointed, a raised ridge running from the
extremity of the head to the middle of the first abdominal segment on
either side, and between these ridges is the slightly projecting
thoracic tubercle. On the ventral side the outline is nearly straight.

The caterpillar feeds upon _Celtis occidentalis_. Three species are
reckoned as belonging to our fauna. It is, however, doubtful whether
these species are in reality such, and there is reason to believe that
the three are merely varietal forms or races, no structural difference
being apparent in any of them, and the only differences consisting in
the ground-color of the wings.

(1) =Libythea bachmanni=, Kirtland, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 1, ♂; Fig. 2, ♂,
_under side_; Plate V, Figs. 23, 24, _chrysalis_ (The Snout-butterfly).

_Butterfly._--Easily distinguished from the following species by the
redder color of the light spots on the upper side of the wings. Expanse,
1.75 inch.

_Early Stages._--The generic description must suffice for these. They
have been frequently described.

The butterfly ranges from New England and Ontario southward and westward
over the whole country as far as New Mexico and Arizona.

(2) =Libythea carinenta=, Cramer, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 3, ♂ (The Southern
Snout-butterfly).

_Butterfly._--Much like the preceding species, but readily distinguished
from it by the paler yellowish-fulvous light markings of the upper side
of the wings. Expanse, 1.75 inch.

_Early Stages._--These have not been carefully described as yet.

_L. carinenta_ ranges from New Mexico into South America.



FAMILY II. LEMONIIDÆ

SUBFAMILY ERYCININÆ (THE METAL-MARKS)

  "I wonder what it is that baby dreams.
    Do memories haunt him of some glad place
  Butterfly-haunted, halcyon with flowers,
  Where once, before he found this earth of ours,
    He walked with glory filling his sweet face?"

  EDGAR FAWCETT.


_Butterfly._--Small, the males having four ambulatory feet, the females
six, in which respect they resemble the Libytheinæ, from which they may
readily be distinguished by the small palpi. There is great variety in
the shape and neuration of the wings. The genera of this subfamily have
the precostal vein on the extreme inner margin of the wing; in some
genera free at its end, and projecting so as to form a short frenulum,
as in many genera of the moths. In addition the costal vein sends up a
branch at the point from which the precostal is usually emitted. This
apparent doubling of the precostal is found in no other group of
butterflies, and is a strong diacritical mark by which they may be
recognized. They are said to carry their wings expanded when at rest,
and frequently alight on the under surface of leaves, in this respect
somewhat approaching in their habit the pyralid moths. Many of the
species are most gorgeously colored; but those which are found within
our region are for the most part not gaily marked. They may be
distinguished from the Lycænidæ not only by the peculiar neuration and
manner of carrying the wings, but by the relatively longer and more
slender antennæ.

[Illustration FIG. 125.--Neuration of base of hind wing of the genus
_Lemonias_: _PC_, precostal vein; _PC'_, second precostal vein.]

_Early Stages._--Comparatively little is known of these, though in
certain respects the larvæ and the chrysalis show a relationship to
the Lycænidæ, with which some writers have in fact grouped them, but
erroneously, as the writer believes.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVIII                                  |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Libythea bachmanni_, Kirtland, ♂.                        |
  | 2. _Libythea bachmanni_, Kirtland, ♂,                        |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 3. _Libythea carinenta_, Cramer, ♂.                          |
  | 4. _Lemonias cythera_, Edwards, ♀,                           |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 5. _Lemonias cythera_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  | 6. _Lemonias virgulti_, Behr, ♂.                             |
  | 7. _Lemonias mormo_, Felder, ♂,                              |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 8. _Lemonias nais_, Edwards, ♂.                              |
  | 9. _Lemonias nais_, Edwards, ♀.                              |
  | 10. _Lemonias duryi_, Edwards, ♀.                            |
  | 11. _Lemonias palmeri_, Edwards, ♂.                          |
  | 12. _Calephelis borealis_, Grote and Robinson,               |
  |     ♂, _under side_.                                         |
  | 13. _Calephelis borealis_, Grote and Robinson,               |
  |     ♂.                                                       |
  | 14. _Calephelis nemesis_, Edwards, ♂.                        |
  | 15. _Calephelis australis_, Edwards, ♂.                      |
  | 16. _Calephelis coenius_, Linnæus, ♂.                        |
  | 17. _Lemonias zela_, Butler, ♂.                              |
  | 18. _Lemonias zela_, Butler, ♀.                              |
  | 19. _Lemonias cleis_, Edwards, ♂.                            |
  | 20. _Lemonias cleis_, Edwards, ♀.                            |
  | 21. _Feniseca tarquinius_, Fabricius, ♂.                     |
  | 22. _Eumoeus atala_, Poey, ♂,                                |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 23. _Chrysophanus virginiensis_, Edwards, ♂.                 |
  | 24. _Chrysophanus virginiensis_, Edwards, ♀.                 |
  | 25. _Chrysophanus hypophloeus_, Boisduval, ♂.                |
  | 26. _Chrysophanus editha_, Mead, ♂.                          |
  | 27. _Chrysophanus editha_, Mead, ♀.                          |
  | 28. _Chrysophanus epixanthe_,                                |
  |     Boisd.-Lec., ♂.                                          |
  | 29. _Chrysophanus xanthoides_, Boisduval, ♂.                 |
  | 30. _Chrysophanus xanthoides_,                               |
  |     Boisduval, ♀.                                            |
  | 31. _Chrysophanus thoë_, Boisd.-Lec., ♂.                     |
  | 32. _Chrysophanus thoë_, Boisd.-Lec., ♀.                     |
  | 33. _Chrysophanus helloides_, Boisduval, ♂.                  |
  | 34. _Chrysophanus helloides_,                                |
  |     Boisduval, ♀.                                            |
  | 35. _Chrysophanus gorgon_, Boisduval, ♂.                     |
  | 36. _Chrysophanus gorgon_, Boisduval, ♀.                     |
  | 37. _Chrysophanus mariposa_, Reakirt, ♂.                     |
  | 38. _Chrysophanus mariposa_, Reakirt, ♀.                     |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XXVIII.]                                 |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+

Almost all of the species are American, and the family attains its
highest development in the tropical regions of South America.


Genus LEMONIAS, Westwood

_Butterfly._--Small, brightly colored, the sexes often differing greatly
in appearance from each other. The eyes are naked. The palpi are
produced, porrect; the last joint is short, thin, pointed, and
depressed. The antennæ are moderately long, provided with a gradually
thickening, inconspicuous club. The upper discocellular vein is wanting
in the fore wing. The middle and lower discocellulars are of equal
length. The hind wing has the end of the cell obliquely terminated by
the middle and lower discocellular veins. The apex of the fore wing is
somewhat pointed, the outward margin straight. The outward margin of the
hind wing is evenly rounded.

[Illustration FIG. 126.--Neuration of the genus _Lemonias_.]

_Egg._--Flattened, turban-shaped, with a small, depressed, circular
micropyle, the whole surface covered with minute hexagonal
reticulations.

_Caterpillar._--Short, flattened, tapering posteriorly; the segments
arched; provided with tufts of hair ranged in longitudinal series, the
hairs on the sides and at the anal extremity being long, bent outward
and downward.

_Chrysalis._--Short, suspended at the anal extremity, and held in
position by a silk girdle, but not closely appressed to the surface upon
which pupation has taken place; thickly covered with short, projecting
hair.

The citadel of this genus is found about the head waters of the Amazon,
where there are many species. Thence the genus spreads northward and
southward, being represented in the limits of our fauna by only a few
species, which are found on the extreme southern borders of the United
States.

(1) =Lemonias mormo=, Felder, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 7, ♂, _under side_ (The
Mormon).

_Butterfly._--The wings on the upper side are dark ashen-gray, with the
primaries from the base to the limbal area, and inwardly as far as the
bottom of the cell and the first median nervule, red. The wings are
profusely marked with white spots variously disposed. The under side is
accurately depicted in our plate. Expanse, 1.10 inch.

_Early Stages._--These have not been studied.

The Mormon is found in Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, and California.

(2) =Lemonias duryi=, Edwards, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 10, ♀ (Dury's
Metal-mark).

_Butterfly._--The only specimen as yet known is the type figured in our
plate. I doubt whether it is entitled to specific rank, and am inclined
to believe it to be a form of the succeeding species in which red has
replaced the greater part of the gray on the upper side of both wings.
Expanse, 1.25 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The specimen came from New Mexico.

(3) =Lemonias cythera=, Edwards, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 4, ♀, _under side_;
Fig. 5, ♂ (Cythera).

_Butterfly._--Distinguished from _L. mormo_ by the red submarginal band
on the secondaries on the upper side, the greater prevalence of red on
the primaries, and by the tendency of the spots on the under side of the
secondaries, just after the costa, to fuse and form an elongate
pearly-white ray. The submarginal spots on the lower side of the fore
wings are smaller than in _mormo_. The sexes do not differ except in
size. Expanse, 1.00-1.30 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

_Cythera_ is found in Arizona and Mexico.

(4) =Lemonias virgulti=, Behr, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 6, ♂ (Behr's
Metal-mark).

_Butterfly._--Much like the preceding species on the upper side of the
wings, but darker. The hind wings on the under side are much darker than
in _L. cythera_, and the pearly-white spots relatively smaller, standing
out very distinctly on this darker ground. Expanse, .90-1.10 inch.

_Early Stages._--Undescribed.

_Virgulti_ is common in southern California and Mexico.

(5) =Lemonias nais=, Edwards, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 8, ♂; Fig. 9, ♀
(Nais).

_Butterfly._--The ground-color of the upper side is bright red, clouded
with fuscous on the base of the hind wings and bordered with the same
color. There is a small precostal white spot on the primaries near the
apex. The wings are profusely marked with small black spots arranged in
transverse series and bands. The fringes are checkered with white. On
the under side the wings are pale reddish, mottled with buff on the
secondaries. The black spots and markings of the upper side reappear on
the under side and stand out boldly on the lighter ground-color.
Expanse, 1.00-1.25 inch.

_Early Stages._--These are beautifully delineated in "The Butterflies of
North America," vol. ii. The egg is pale green, turban-shaped, covered
with hexagonal reticulations. The caterpillar is rather stout and short,
the first segment projecting over the head. The body is somewhat
flattened and tapering behind, covered with tufts of hairs projecting
outward and downward on all sides, only the two rows of short tufts on
the back sending their hairs upward. The color is mouse-gray, striped
longitudinally on the back with yellowish-white, the tufts more or less
ringed about at their base with circles of the same color. The chrysalis
is blackish-brown, attached at the anal end, held in place by a girdle,
but not closely appressed to the surface on which pupation has taken
place, and thickly studded with small projecting hairs. The larva lives
on the wild plum.

_Nais_ occurs from Colorado to Mexico east of the Rocky Mountains.

(6) =Lemonias palmeri=, Edwards, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 11, ♂ (Palmer's
Metal-mark).

_Butterfly._--Smaller than any of the preceding species. The
ground-color of the wings is mouse-gray, spotted with white; on the
under side the wings are whitish-gray, laved with pale red at the base
of the fore wings. The white spots of the upper side reappear on the
under side. Expanse, .75-.95 inch.

_Early Stages._--These are, so far as they have been worked out by
Edwards, quite similar in many respects to those of the preceding
species.

The range of the species is from Utah southward to Mexico.

(7) =Lemonias zela=, Butler, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 17, ♂; Fig. 18, ♀
(Zela).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of both sexes is delineated in the plate.
On the under side the wings are pale red, marked with a few black spots,
representing on the under side the markings of the upper side. Of these,
the spots of the median and submarginal bands are most conspicuous.
Expanse, 1.00-1.35 inch.

(_a_) =Lemonias zela=, Butler, var. =cleis=, Edwards, Plate XXVIII, Fig.
19, ♂; Fig. 20, ♀ (Cleis).

The pale variety, _cleis_, is sufficiently well represented in our plate
to need no description. On the under side it is like _L. zela_.

The species occurs in Arizona and Mexico.


Genus CALEPHELIS, Grote and Robinson

[Illustration FIG. 127.--Neuration of the genus _Calephelis_.]

_Butterfly._--Very small, brown or reddish in color, with metallic spots
upon the wings. Head small; eyes naked; antennæ relatively long,
slender, with a bluntly rounded club. Palpi very short; the third joint
small, pointed. The accompanying cut shows the neuration.

_Early Stages._--Entirely unknown.

(1) =Calephelis cænius=, Linnæus, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 16, ♂ (The Little
Metal-mark).

_Butterfly._--Very small, reddish-brown on the upper side, brighter red
on the under side. On both the upper and under sides the wings are
profusely spotted with small steely-blue metallic markings, arranged in
more or less regular transverse series, especially on the outer margin.
Expanse, .75 inch.

_Early Stages._--The life-history is unknown.

_Cænius_ is common in Florida, and ranges thence northward to Virginia
and westward to Texas.

(2) =Calephelis borealis=, Grote and Robinson, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 12, ♂,
_under side_; Fig. 13, ♂ (The Northern Metal-mark).

_Butterfly._--Fully twice as large as the preceding species. The wings
on the upper side are sooty-brown, spotted with black, and marked by a
marginal and submarginal series of small metallic spots. On the under
side the wings are light red, spotted with a multitude of small black
spots arranged in regular series. The two rows of metallic spots near
the margins are repeated more distinctly on this side. Expanse, 1.15
inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This rare insect has been taken from New York to Virginia, and as far
west as Michigan and Illinois. The only specimen I have ever seen in
life I took at the White Sulphur Springs in West Virginia. It settled on
the under side of a twig of black birch, with expanded wings, just over
my head, and by a lucky stroke of the net I swept it in.

(3) =Calephelis australis=, Edwards, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 14, ♂ (The
Southern Metal-mark).

_Butterfly._--The wings in the male sex are more pointed at the apex
than in the preceding species, and in both sexes are smaller in expanse.
The color of the upper side of the wings is dusky, on the under side
pale yellowish-red. On both sides the wings are obscurely marked with
dark spots arranged in transverse series. The marginal and submarginal
metallic bands of spots are as in the preceding species. Expanse, 1.00
inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

_Australis_ ranges from Texas and Arizona into Mexico.

(4) =Calephelis nemesis=, Edwards, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 15, ♂ (The Dusky
Metal-mark).

_Butterfly._--Very small,--as small as _coenius_,--but with the fore
wings at the apex decidedly pointed in the male sex. The wings are
dusky-brown above, lighter obscure reddish below. Both the primaries and
the secondaries on the upper side are crossed by a dark median band,
broader on the primaries at the costa. The metallic markings are quite
small and indistinct. Expanse, .85 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

_Nemesis_ occurs in Arizona and southern California.


UNCLE JOTHAM'S BOARDER

  "I've kep' summer boarders for years, and allowed
    I knowed all the sorts that there be;
  But there come an old feller this season along,
    That turned out a beater for me.
  Whatever that feller was arter, I vow
    I hain't got the slightest idee.

  "He had an old bait-net of thin, rotten stuff
    That a minner could bite his way through;
  But he never went fishin'--at least, in the way
    That fishermen gen'ally do;
  But he carried that bait-net wherever he went;
    The handle was j'inted in two.

  "And the bottles and boxes that chap fetched along!
    Why, a doctor would never want more;
  If they held pills and physic, he'd got full enough
    To fit out a medicine-store.
  And he'd got heaps of pins, dreffle lengthy and slim,
    Allers droppin' about on the floor.

  "Well, true as I live, that old feller just spent
    His hull days in loafin' about
  And pickin' up hoppers and roaches and flies--
    Not to use for his bait to ketch trout,
  But to kill and stick pins in and squint at and all.
    He was crazy 's a coot, th' ain't no doubt.

  "He'd see a poor miller a-flyin' along,--
    The commonest, every-day kind,--
  And he'd waddle on arter it, fat as he was,
    And foller up softly behind,
  Till he'd flop that-air bait-net right over its head,
    And I'd laugh till nigh out of my mind.

  "Why, he'd lay on the ground for an hour at a stretch
    And scratch in the dirt like a hen;
  He'd scrape all the bark off the bushes and trees,
    And turn the stones over; and then
  He'd peek under logs, or he'd pry into holes.
    I'm glad there ain't no more sech men.

  "My wife see a box in his bedroom, one day,
    Jest swarmin' with live caterpillars;
  He fed 'em on leaves off of all kinds of trees--
    The ellums and birches and willers;
  And he'd got piles of boxes, chock-full to the top
    With crickets and bees and moth-millers.

  "I asked him, one time, what his business might be.
    Of course, I fust made some apology.
  He tried to explain, but such awful big words!
    Sorto' forren, outlandish, and collegey.
  'S near's I can tell, 'stead of enterin' a trade,
    He was tryin' to jest enter _mology_.

  "And Hannah, my wife, says she's heerd o' sech things;
    She guesses his brain warn't so meller.
  There's a thing they call Nat'ral Histerry, she says,
    And, whatever the folks there may tell her,
  Till it's settled she's wrong she'll jest hold that-air man
    Was a Nat'ral Histerrical feller."

  ANNIE TRUMBULL SLOSSON.


MIMICRY

Protective mimicry as it occurs in animals may be the simulation in form
or color, or both, of natural objects, or it may be the simulation of
the form and color of another animal, which for some reason enjoys
immunity from the attacks of species which ordinarily prey upon its
kind. Of course this mimicry is unconscious and is the result of a slow
process of development which has, no doubt, gone on for ages.

Remarkable instances of mimicry, in which things are simulated, are
found in the insect world. The "walking-sticks," as they are called,
creatures which resemble the twigs of trees; the "leaf-insects," in
which the foliage of plants is apparently reproduced in animate forms;
the "leaf-butterfly" of India, in which the form and the color and even
the venation of leaves are reproduced, are illustrations of mimicry
which are familiar to all who have given any attention to the subject.

Repulsive objects are frequently mimicked. A spider has been lately
described from the Indo-Malayan region, which, as it rests upon the
leaves, exactly resembles a patch of bird-lime. The resemblance is so
exact as to deceive the most sagacious, and the discovery of the
creature was due to the fact that the naturalist who happened to see it
observed, to his surprise, that what he was positive was a mass of
ordure was actually in motion. A similar case of mimicry is observable
among some of the small acontiid moths of North America. One of these is
pure white, with the tips of the fore wings dark greenish-brown. It sits
on the upper side of leaves, with its fore wings folded over, or rolled
about the hind wings, and in this attitude it so nearly approximates in
appearance the ordure of a sparrow as to have often deceived me when
collecting.



FAMILY III. LYCÆNIDÆ

(THE BLUES, THE COPPERS, THE HAIR-STREAKS)

SUBFAMILY LYCÆNINÆ

  "Mark, while he moves amid the sunny beam,
  O'er his soft wings the varying lusters gleam.
  Launched into air, on purple plumes he soars,
  Gay nature's face with wanton glance explores;
  Proud of his varying beauties, wings his way,
  And spoils the fairest flowers, himself more fair than they."

  _Quoted as from Haworth by Scudder._


_Butterfly._--Small, in both sexes having all feet adapted to walking.
There is exceeding diversity of form in the various genera composing
this family. Many of the genera are characterized by the brilliant blue
on the upper side of the wings; in other genera shades of coppery-red
predominate. The hair-streaks frequently have the hind wings adorned
with one or more slender, elongated tails. In Africa and in Asia there
are numerous genera which strongly mimic protected insects belonging to
the Acræinæ.

_Egg._--The eggs are for the most part flattened or turban-shaped,
curiously and beautifully adorned with ridges, minute eminences, and
reticulations. Some of them under the microscope strongly resemble the
shells of "sea-biscuits" with the rays removed (see p. 4, Fig. 7).

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillars are for the most part slug-shaped,
flattened. They are vegetable feeders, save the larvæ of two or three
genera, which are aphidivorous, feeding upon mealy bugs or plant-lice.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalids are short, compressed, attached at the anal
extremity, with a girdle or cincture about the middle, closely fastened
to the surface upon which pupation takes place.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIX                                    |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Chrysophanus arota_, Boisduval, ♂.                       |
  | 2. _Chrysophanus arota_, Boisduval, ♀.                       |
  | 3. _Chrysophanus sirius_, Edwards, ♂.                        |
  | 4. _Chrysophanus sirius_, Edwards, ♀.                        |
  | 5. _Chrysophanus rubidus_, Behr, ♂.                          |
  | 6. _Chrysophanus rubidus_, Behr, ♀.                          |
  | 7. _Chrysophanus snowi_, Edwards, ♂.                         |
  | 8. _Chrysophanus snowi_, Edwards, ♀.                         |
  | 9. _Thecla halesus_, Cramer, ♂.                              |
  | 10. _Thecla m-album_, Boisd.-Lec., ♂.                        |
  | 11. _Thecla crysalus_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  | 12. _Thecla grunus_, Boisduval, ♂.                           |
  | 13. _Thecla autolycus_, Edwards, ♀.                          |
  | 14. _Thecla alcestis_, Edwards, ♀.                           |
  | 15. _Thecla acadica_, Edwards, ♂.                            |
  | 16. _Thecla acadica_, Edwards, ♀.                            |
  | 17. _Thecla itys_, Edwards, ♀.                               |
  | 18. _Thecla cecrops_, Hübner, ♀,                             |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 19. _Thecla wittfeldi_, Edwards, ♀.                          |
  | 20. _Thecla wittfeldi_, Edwards, ♂,                          |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 21. _Thecla spinetorum_, Boisduval, ♀.                       |
  | 22. _Thecla favonius_, Smith and Abbot, ♂.                   |
  | 23. _Thecla læta_, Edwards, ♂.                               |
  | 24. _Thecla læta_, Edwards, ♂,                               |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 25. _Thecla adenostomatis_, Henry Edwards, ♂.                |
  | 26. _Thecla calanus_, Hübner, ♂.                             |
  | 27. _Thecla edwardsi_, Saunders, ♀.                          |
  | 28. _Thecla liparops_, Boisd.-Lec., ♀.                       |
  | 29. _Thecla damon_, Cramer, var. _discoidalis_,              |
  |     Skinner, ♂.                                              |
  | 30. _Thecla tacita_, Henry Edwards, ♂.                       |
  | 31. _Thecla melinus_, Hübner, form _humuli_,                 |
  |     Harris, ♂.                                               |
  | 32. _Thecla damon_, Cramer, ♂,                               |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 33. _Thecla sæpium_, Boisduval, ♂.                           |
  | 34. _Thecla sæpium_, Boisduval, ♂,                           |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 35. _Thecla ines_, Edwards, ♂.                               |
  | 36. _Thecla chalcis_, Behr, ♂.                               |
  | 37. _Thecla chalcis_, Behr, ♀,                               |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 38. _Thecla acis_, Drury, ♂, _under side_.                   |
  | 39. _Thecla simæthis_, Drury, ♂,                             |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XXIX.]                                   |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+



Genus EUMÆUS, Hübner

_Butterfly._--Medium size or small; dark in color, with the under side
and the borders of the upper sides beautifully adorned with spots having
a metallic luster. The palpi are divergent, longer in the female than in
the male. The antennæ are stout, rather short, with a gradually
thickened club. The eyes are naked. The veins on the fore wing are
stout. The accompanying cut gives a clear idea of the neuration.

_Early Stages._--Nothing is known of these.

Three species are reckoned as belonging to the genus, two of them being
found sparingly in the extreme southern limits of our fauna.

(1) =Eumæus atala=, Poey, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 22, ♂, _under side_
(Atala).

[Illustration FIG. 128.--Neuration of the genus _Eumæus_.]

_Butterfly._--Easily distinguished by the figure in the plate from all
other species except its congener _E. minyas_, Hübner, which can be
readily separated from it by its larger size. Expanse, 1.65-1.75 inch.

_Early Stages._--These await description.

_Atala_ is found in Florida and Cuba. _Minyas_ occurs in southwestern
Texas, and thence southward to Brazil.


Genus THECLA, Fabricius

(The Hair-streaks)

  "These be the pretty genii of the flow'rs,
  Daintily fed with honey and pure dew."

  HOOD.

_Butterfly._--Small or medium-sized; on the upper side often colored
brilliantly with iridescent blue or green, sometimes dark brown or
reddish; on the under side marked with lines and spots variously
disposed, sometimes obscure in color, very frequently most brilliantly
colored.

Various subdivisions based upon the neuration of the wings have been
made in the genus in recent years, and these subdivisions are entitled
to be accepted by those who are engaged in a comparative study of the
species belonging to this great group. Inasmuch, however, as most
American writers have heretofore classified all of these insects under
the genus _Thecla_, the author has decided not to deviate from familiar
usage, and will therefore not attempt to effect a subdivision according
to the views of recent writers, which he nevertheless approves as
scientifically accurate.

_Egg._--Considerable diversity exists in the form of the eggs of the
various species included under this genus as treated in this book, but
all of them may be said to be turban-shaped, more or less depressed at
the upper extremity, with their surfaces beautifully adorned with minute
projections arranged in geometric patterns.

[Illustration FIG. 129.--Neuration of _Thecla edwardsi_. (After
Scudder.) Typical neuration of the genus.]

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillars are slug-shaped, their heads minute,
the body abruptly tapering at the anal extremity. They feed upon the
tender leaves of the ends of branches, some of them upon the leaves of
flowers of various species.

_Chrysalis._--What has been said concerning the chrysalids of the family
applies likewise to the chrysalids of this and the succeeding genera.
They lie closely appressed to the surface upon which they are formed,
and are held in place by an attachment at the anal extremity, as well as
by a slight girdle of silk about the middle. In color they are generally
some shade of brown.

(1) =Thecla grunus=, Boisduval, Plate XXIX, Fig. 12, ♂ (Boisduval's
Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--The wings are brown on the upper side, lighter on the
disk; in some specimens, more frequently of the female sex, bright
orange-tawny. On the under side the wings are pale tawny, with
transverse marginal and submarginal series of small dark spots on both
wings. Two or three of the marginal spots near the anal angle are black,
each crowned with a metallic-green crescent. Expanse, 1.10-1.20 inch.

_Early Stages._--These have, in part, been described by Dyar, "Canadian
Entomologist," vol. xxv, p. 94. The caterpillar is short, flattened, the
segments arched, the body tapering backward, bluish-green, covered with
little dark warty prominences bearing tufts of hairs, obscurely striped
longitudinally with broken, pale lines, and having a diamond-shaped
shield back of the head. The chrysalis is thick and conformed to the
generic type of structure. The color is pale green, striped and dotted
with pale yellow on the abdomen. The caterpillar feeds in the Yosemite
Valley upon the young leaves of the live-oak (_Quercus chrysolepis_).

The insect is found in California and Nevada.

(2) =Thecla crysalus=, Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 11, ♂ (The Colorado
Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--The wings on the upper side are royal purple, broadly
margined with black. On the fore wings a broad oblique black band runs
from the middle of the costa to the middle of the outer margin. At the
inner angles of both wings are conspicuous orange spots. On the under
side the wings are fawn, marked with white lines edged with brown. The
orange spots reappear on this side, but at the anal angle of the hind
wings are transformed to red eye-spots, pupiled with black and margined
with metallic green. The hind wings are tailed. Expanse, 1.50 inch.

The variety =citima=, Henry Edwards, differs in being without the orange
spots and having the ground-color of the under side ashen-gray.
Specimens connecting the typical with the varietal form are in my
possession.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

Found in southern Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and southern California.

(3) =Thecla halesus=, Cramer, Plate XXIX, Fig. 9, ♂ (The Great Purple
Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--The hind wings have a long tail, and are lobed at the anal
angle. The wings are fuscous, iridescent bluish-green at the base. The
body is bluish-green above. On the under side the thorax is black,
spotted with white, the abdomen bright orange-red. The wings on the
under side are evenly warm sepia, spotted with crimson at their bases,
glossed with a ray of metallic green on the fore wings in the male sex,
and in both sexes splendidly adorned at the anal angle by series of
metallic-green and iridescent blue and red spots. Expanse, 1.35-1.50
inch.

_Early Stages._--All we know of them is derived from the drawings of
Abbot, published by Boisduval and Leconte, and this is but little. The
caterpillar is said by Abbot to feed on various oaks.

It is very common in Central America and Mexico; is not scarce in the
hot parts of the Gulf States; and is even reported as having been
captured in southern Illinois. It also occurs in Arizona and southern
California.

(4) =Thecla m-album=, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XXIX, Fig. 10, ♂ (The
White-M Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--Smaller than the preceding species; on the upper side
somewhat like it; but the iridescent color at the base of the wings is
blue, and not so green as in _halesus_. On the under side the wings are
quite differently marked. The fore wing is crossed by a submarginal and
a median line of white, shaded with brown, the median line most
distinct. This line is continued upon the hind wings, and near the anal
angle is zigzagged, so as to present the appearance of an inverted M.
Near the outer angle of the M-spot is a rounded crimson patch. The anal
angle is deep black, glossed with iridescent blue. Expanse, 1.35-1.45
inch.

_Early Stages._--All we know of this pretty species is based upon the
account and drawings of Abbot made in the last century. We need better
information. According to Abbot, the caterpillar feeds on _astragalus_
and different oaks.

This species has been taken as far north as Jersey City and Wisconsin,
and ranges southward as far as Venezuela. Its citadel is found in the
live-oak hummocks of the Gulf States and the oak forests on the
highlands of Mexico and more southern countries.

(5) =Thecla martialis=, Herrich-Schäffer, Plate XXX, Fig. 18, ♀, _under
side_ (The Martial Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--The insect figured in the plate, which may easily be
recognized by its under side, has been determined by Dr. Skinner to be
the above species. My specimens coming from the Edwards collection are
labeled _Thecla acis_, ♀. They were taken at Key West. A comparison with
the under side of _T. acis_ (see Plate XXIX, Fig. 38) will reveal the
great difference. Expanse, 1.00 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

Habitat, southern Florida and Cuba.

(6) =Thecla favonius=, Abbot and Smith, Plate XXIX, Fig. 22, ♂ (The
Southern Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--The wings are dusky-brown above, with a small pale oval
sex-mark in the male near the upper edge of the cell in the primaries.
On either side of the second median nervule, near the outer margin of
both wings, are bright orange-red patches, most conspicuous in the
female. The hind wings near the anal angle are blackish, margined with a
fine white line. On the under side the wings are marked much as in
_m-album_, but in the region of the median nervules, midway between
their origin and termination, is a rather broad transverse carmine
streak, edged inwardly with dark lines. This is largest and most
conspicuous in the female sex. Expanse, 1.00-1.15 inch.

_Early Stages._--These have been described, in part, by Abbot and Smith
and Packard. The caterpillar feeds on oaks.

_Favonius_ is found in the Gulf States, and as far north as South
Carolina.

(7) =Thecla wittfeldi=, Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 19, ♀; Fig. 20, ♂,
_under side_ (Wittfeld's Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--The figures in the plate give a correct idea of both the
upper and under sides of this insect. It is much darker in ground-color
than any of its congeners. Expanse, 1.25-1.35 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The types which are in my possession came from the Indian River district
in Florida.

(8) =Thecla autolycus=, Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 13, ♀ (The Texas
Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--On the upper side resembling _favonius_, but with the
orange-red spots on the wings much broader, ranging from the lower
radial vein to the submedian in the fore wings. The carmine spots on the
under side of the wings are not arranged across the median nervules, as
in _favonius_, but are in the vicinity of the anal angle, crowning the
black crescents near the inner end of the outer margin. Expanse,
1.15-1.30 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This species is found in Texas, and is also said to have been found in
Missouri and Kansas.

(9) =Thecla alcestis=, Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 14, ♀ (Alcestis).

_Butterfly._--Uniformly slaty-gray on the upper side of the wings, with
the usual oval sex-mark on the fore wing of the male, and a few bluish
scales near the anal angle. The ground-color of the wings on the under
side is as above, but somewhat paler. A white bar closes the cell of
both wings. Both wings are crossed by white lines, much as in
_m-album_. The anal angle is marked with black, followed outwardly by a
broad patch of iridescent greenish-blue scales. Between the end of the
submarginal vein and the first median nervule is a black spot surmounted
with carmine, edged inwardly with black; three or four carmine crescents
similarly edged, but rapidly diminishing in size, extend as a transverse
submarginal band toward the costa. Expanse, 1.25 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

_Alcestis_ is found in Texas and Arizona.

(10) =Thecla melinus=, Hübner, Plate XXIX, Fig. 31, ♂; Plate XXXII, Fig.
20, ♂; Plate V, Fig. 39, _chrysalis_ (The Common Hair-streak).

[Illustration FIG. 130.--Neuration of _Thecla melinus_. (After
Scudder.) Typical of subgenus _Uranotes_.]

_Butterfly._--Much confusion has arisen from the fact that this insect
has received a number of names and has also been confounded with others.
Fig. 31 in Plate XXIX represents the insect labeled _humuli_, Harris, in
the Edwards collection; Fig. 20 in Plate XXXII represents the insect
labeled _melinus_, Hübner. There is a very large series of both in the
collection, but a minute comparison fails to reveal any specific
difference. _Humuli_ of Harris is the same as _melinus_ of Hübner; and
recent authors, I think, are right in sinking the name given by Harris
as a synonym. This common little butterfly may easily be recognized by
its plain slaty upper surface, adorned by a large black spot, crowned
with crimson between the origin of the two tails of the secondaries.
Expanse, 1.10-1.20 inch.

_Early Stages._--These are in part well known. The caterpillar feeds on
the hop-vine. _Melinus_ is found all over temperate North America, and
ranges southward into Mexico and Central America at suitable elevations.

(11) =Thecla acadica=, Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 15, ♂; Plate V, Fig. 35,
_chrysalis_ (The Acadian Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--The male is pale slaty-gray above, with some ill-defined
orange spots near the anal angle, the usual oval sex-mark on the fore
wing. The female is like the male above; but the orange spots at the
anal angle of the hind wings are broader, and in some specimens similar
spots appear on the fore wings near the inner angle. On the under side
in both sexes the wings are pale wood-brown, adorned by a black bar at
the end of the cells, submarginal and median bands of small black spots
surrounded with white, and on the secondaries by a submarginal series of
red crescents diminishing in size from the anal angle toward the outer
angle. Near the anal angle are two black spots separated by a broad
patch of bluish-green scales. Expanse, 1.15-1.25 inch.

_Early Stages._--For a knowledge of what is known of these the reader
may consult the pages of Scudder and Edwards. The caterpillar feeds upon
willows.

It is found all over the Northern States, ranging from Quebec to
Vancouver's Island. It seems to be very common on Mount Hood, from which
I have a large series of specimens.

(12) =Thecla itys=, Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 17, ♀ (Itys).

_Butterfly._--The only specimen of this species known to me is figured
in the plate. It is the type. Of its early stages nothing is known. It
was taken in Arizona. Expanse, 1.25 inch.

(13) =Thecla edwardsi=, Plate XXIX, Fig. 27, ♀ _under side_; Plate V,
Fig. 29, _chrysalis_ (Edwards' Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--Dark plumbeous-brown on the upper side, with a pale
sex-mark on the fore wing of the male. On the under side the wings are
paler and a trifle warmer brown, with their outer halves marked with
numerous fine white broken lines arranged in pairs, with the space
between them darker than the ground-color of the wing. The usual black
spots, green scales, and red crescents are found near the anal angle on
the under side.

_Early Stages._--For all that is known of these the reader will do well
to consult the pages of Scudder. The caterpillar feeds on oaks.

The species ranges from Quebec westward to Colorado and Nebraska, being
found commonly in New England.

(14) =Thecla calanus=, Hübner, Plate XXIX, Fig. 26, ♀; Plate V, Figs.
25, 27, _chrysalis_ (The Banded Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--On the upper side resembling the preceding species very
closely, but a trifle darker, and warmer brown. On the under side the
wings are marked by fine white lines on the outer half, which are not
broken, as in _edwardsi_, but form continuous bands. Expanse, 1.15 inch.

_Early Stages._--The caterpillar feeds on oaks. The life-history is
described with minute exactness by Scudder in "The Butterflies of New
England," vol. ii, p. 888.

This insect has a wide range, being found from the province of Quebec to
Texas and Colorado. It is common in western Pennsylvania.

(15) =Thecla liparops=, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XXIX, Fig. 28, ♀,
_under side_; Plate V, Fig. 28, _chrysalis_ (The Striped Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--Dark brown on the upper side, grayish below. The lines are
arranged much as in _T. edwardsi_, but are farther apart, often very
narrow, scarcely defining the dark bands between them. The spots at the
anal angle are obscure and blackish. Expanse, 1.15 inch.

_Early Stages._--Much like those of the allied species. Scudder, in "The
Butterflies of New England," gives a full account of them. The
caterpillar feeds on a variety of plants--oaks, willows, the wild plum,
and other rosaceous plants, as well as on the _Ericaceæ_.

It ranges through the northern Atlantic States and Quebec to Colorado
and Montana, but is local in its habits, and nowhere common.

(16) =Thecla chalcis=, Behr, Plate XXIX, Fig. 36, ♂; Fig. 37, ♀, _under
side_ (The Bronzed Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--On the upper side uniformly brown. On the under side dark,
with a narrow submarginal and an irregular median transverse band, and a
pale short bar closing the cell on both wings; a black spot at the anal
angle of the secondaries, preceded by a few bluish-green scales.
Expanse, 1.00-1.10 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

Habitat, California and Utah.

(17) =Thecla sæpium=, Boisduval, Plate XXIX, Fig. 33, ♂; Fig. 34, ♀
(The Hedge-row Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--Almost identically like the preceding species, except that
the wings on the upper side are a trifle redder, on the under side
paler; the lines on the under side of the wings are narrowly defined
externally by white, and the anal spots are better developed and defined
on the hind wings. Expanse, 1.20 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This species is found throughout the Pacific States, and I am inclined
to believe it identical with _chalcis_. If this should be proved to be
true the latter name will sink as a synonym.

(18) =Thecla adenostomatis=, Henry Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 25, ♂ (The
Gray Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--Mouse-gray on the upper side, with a few white lines on
the outer margin near the anal angle; hoary-gray on the under side,
darker on the median and basal areas. The limbal area is defined
inwardly by a fine white line, is paler than the rest of the wing, and
on the secondaries is marked by a full, regularly curved submarginal
series of small dark lunules. Expanse, 1.30 inch.

_Early Stages._--Undescribed.

Habitat, California.

(19) =Thecla spinetorum=, Boisduval, Plate XXIX, Fig. 21, ♀ (The Thicket
Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--Dark blackish on the upper side, with both wings at the
base shot with bluish-green. On the under side the wings are pale
reddish-brown, marked much as in the following species, but the lines
and spots are broader, more distinct, and conspicuous. Expanse, 1.15
inch.

_Early Stages._--This species is reported, so far, from Colorado,
California, and Washington.

(20) =Thecla nelsoni=, Boisduval, Plate XXX, Fig. 8, ♀, _under side_;
Fig. 13, ♀ (Nelson's Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--Bright fulvous on the upper side, with the costa, the
outer margins, the base, and the veins of both fore and hind wings
fuscous. On the under side the wings are paler red, with an incomplete
narrow white line shaded with deep red just beyond the median area, and
not reaching the inner margin. This line is repeated on the hind wing as
an irregularly curved median line. Between it and the outer margin on
this wing are a few dark lunules near the anal angle. Expanse, 1.00
inch.

_Early Stages._--I cannot discover any account of these.

The species has been found in California and Colorado.

(21) =Thecla blenina=, Hewitson, Plate XXX, Fig. 9, ♂, _under side_
(Hewitson's Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--Brown on the upper side, in some specimens bright fulvous
bordered with brown. On the under side the wings are pale red, shot with
pea-green on the secondaries and at the base of the primaries. The
markings of the under side are much as in the preceding species, but the
line on the hind wing dividing the discal from the limbal area is
broader and very white, and the spots between it and the margin more
conspicuous. Expanse, 1.12 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

It is reported from Arizona and southern California. It has been named
siva by Edwards, and the figure is from his type so labeled.

(22) =Thecla damon=, Cramer, Plate XXIX, Fig. 32, ♂, _under side_; var.
=discoidalis=, Skinner, Plate XXIX, Fig. 29, ♂; Plate V, Figs. 30, 31,
_chrysalis_ (The Olive Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--On the upper side bright fulvous, with the costa, the
outer margins, and the veins of both wings blackish, darkest at the
apex. On the under side the wings are greenish, crossed on the fore wing
by a straight, incomplete white line, and on the hind wing by a similar
irregular line. Both of these lines are margined internally by brown.
There are a couple of short white lines on the hind wing near the base,
and the usual crescentic spots and markings on the outer border and at
the anal angle. Expanse, .90-1.00 inch.

[Illustration FIG. 131.--Neuration of _Thecla damon_, enlarged. Type of
subgenus _Mitura_, Scudder.]

_Early Stages._--These have been described by several authors. The
caterpillar feeds on the red cedar (_Juniperus virginiana_, Linnæus). It
is double-brooded in the North and triple-brooded in the South.

_Damon_ ranges from Ontario to Texas over the entire eastern half of the
United States.

(23) =Thecla simæthis=, Drury, Plate XXIX, Fig. 39, ♂, _under side_
(Simæthis).

_Butterfly._--Resembling the preceding species, but the white band on
the secondaries is straight, and the outer margins are heavily marked
with brown. Expanse, .85-1.00 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This species occurs in Texas, Mexico, and southward.

(24) =Thecla acis=, Drury, Plate XXIX, Fig. 38, ♀, _under side_ (Drury's
Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of the wings is dark brown. The under side
is shown in the plate. Expanse, .90 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This very pretty species is found in the extreme southern portions of
Florida and the Antilles.

(25) =Thecla cecrops=, Hübner, Plate XXX, Fig. 7, ♂; Plate XXIX, Fig.
18, ♀, _under side_ (Cecrops).

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXX                                     |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Thecla dumetorum_, Boisduval, ♂.                         |
  | 2. _Thecla dumetorum_, Boisduval, ♂,                         |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 3. _Thecla affinis_, Edwards, ♀,                             |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 4. _Thecla behri_, Edwards, ♂.                               |
  | 5. _Thecla behri_, Edwards, ♂,                               |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 6. _Thecla clytie_, Edwards, ♀.                              |
  | 7. _Thecla cecrops_, Hübner, ♂.                              |
  | 8. _Thecla nelsoni_, Boisduval, ♀,                           |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 9. _Thecla blenina_, Hewitson, ♂,                            |
  |     _under side_. (The figure is that of the                 |
  |     type of _T. siva_, Edwards.)                             |
  | 10. _Thecla titus_, Fabricius, ♂.                            |
  | 11. _Thecla niphon_, Hübner, ♀.                              |
  | 12. _Thecla irus_, Godart, ♂.                                |
  | 13. _Thecla nelsoni_, Boisduval, ♀.                          |
  | 14. _Thecla titus_, Fabricius, ♂,                            |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 15. _Thecla augustus_, Kirby, ♀.                             |
  | 16. _Lycoena fuliginosa_, Edwards, ♂,                        |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 17. _Thecla eryphon_, Boisduval, ♀,                          |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 18. _Thecla martialis_, ♀,                                   |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 19. _Lycoena pseudargiolus_, Boisd.-Lec.,                    |
  |     var. _marginata_, Edwards, ♂, _under side_.              |
  | 20. _Lycoena pseudargiolus_, Boisd.-Lec.,                    |
  |     var. _lucia_, Kirby, ♂, _under side_.                    |
  | 21. _Thecla henrici_, Grote and Robinson, ♀.                 |
  | 22. _Thecla niphon_, Hübner, ♀,                              |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 23. _Lycoena couperi_, Grote, ♂.                             |
  | 24. _Lycoena fulla_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 25. _Lycoena fulla_, Edwards, ♀.                             |
  | 26. _Lycoena clara_, Henry Edwards, ♀.                       |
  | 27. _Lycoena marina_, Reakirt, ♀,                            |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 28. _Lycoena doedalus_, Behr, ♀,                             |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 29. _Lycoena icarioides_, Boisduval, ♂,                      |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 30. _Lycoena enoptes_, Boisduval, ♀,                         |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 31. _Lycoena glaucon_, Edwards, ♀,                           |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 32. _Lycoena pseudargiolus_, Boisd.-Lec., ♂,                 |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 33. _Lycoena isola_, Reakirt, ♂,                             |
  |     _under side_. (The figure is that of the type of         |
  |     _L. aloe_, Edwards.)                                     |
  | 34. _Lycoena couperi_, Grote, ♂,                             |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 35. _Lycoena antiacis_, Boisduval, ♂,                        |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 36. _Lycoena antiacis_, Boisduval, ♂.                        |
  | 37. _Lycoena pheres_, Boisduval, ♂.                          |
  | 38. _Lycoena isola_, Reakirt, ♀.                             |
  | 39. _Lycoena glaucon_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  | 40. _Lycoena aster_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 41. _Lycoena antiacis_, Boisduval, ♀.                        |
  | 42. _Lycoena pheres_, Boisduval, ♀,                          |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 43. _Lycoena xerxes_, Boisduval, ♂,                          |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 44. _Lycoena sagittigera_, Felder, ♀,                        |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 45. _Lycoena ammon_, Lucas, ♀,                               |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 46. _Lycoena aster_, Edwards, ♀.                             |
  | 47. _Lycoena aster_, Edwards, ♂,                             |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 48. _Lycoena scudderi_, Edwards, ♂.                          |
  | 49. _Lycoena scudderi_, Edwards, ♀.                          |
  | 50. _Lycoena lygdamas_, Doubleday, ♀,                        |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 51. _Lycoena enoptes_, Boisduval, ♂.                         |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XXX.]                                    |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+


_Butterfly._--Dark brown, glossed at the base of the wings and on the
inner margin of the secondaries with blue. The under side is well
delineated in the plate. Expanse, 1.00 inch.

_Early Stages._--These await description.

_Cecrops_ is common in the Southern States, and has been taken as far
north as West Virginia, Kentucky, and southern Indiana.

(26) =Thecla clytie=, Edwards, Plate XXX, Fig. 6, ♀ (Clytie).

_Butterfly._--Blue above, with the apical two thirds of the fore wings
black. The wings on the under side are white, with the usual marginal
and transverse markings quite small and faint. Expanse, .90 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

Habitat, Texas and Arizona.

(27) =Thecla ines=, Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 35, ♂ (Ines).

_Butterfly._--Much like the preceding species, but smaller, with the
secondaries marked with blackish on the costa. On the under side the
wings are slaty-gray, with numerous fine lines and a broad median dark
shade on the hind wings, running from the costa to the middle of the
wing. Expanse, .75 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

_Ines_ is found in Arizona.

(28) =Thecla behri=, Edwards, Plate XXX, Fig. 4, ♂; Fig. 5, ♂, _under
side_ (Behr's Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--Both sides are well displayed in the plate, and therefore
need no particular description. Expanse, 1.10 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This species is found in northern California and Oregon, and eastward to
Colorado.

(29) =Thecla augustus=, Kirby, Plate XXX, Fig. 15, ♀ (The Brown Elfin).

_Butterfly._--Brown on the upper side; paler on the under side. The fore
wings are marked by a straight incomplete median band, and the hind
wings by an irregularly curved median band or line. Back of these lines
toward the base both wings are darker brown. Expanse, .90 inch.

_Early Stages._--These are not well known. Henry Edwards describes the
caterpillar as "carmine-red, covered with very short hair, each segment
involute above, with deep double foveæ." The chrysalis is described by
the same observer as being "pitchy-brown, covered with very short
bristly hair, the wing-cases paler." The food-plant is unknown.

This species is boreal in its haunts, and is found in New England and
northward and westward into the British possessions.

(30) =Thecla irus=, Godart, Plate XXX, Fig. 12, ♂; Plate V, Figs. 32-34,
_chrysalis_ (The Hoary Elfin).

_Butterfly._--Grayish-brown on the upper side. The wings on the under
side are of the same color, paler on the outer margins, and darker
toward the base. The species is subject to considerable variation. The
variety _arsace_, Boisduval, has the hind wings marked with reddish near
the anal angle, and the outer margin below marked with hoary-purple. The
usual small crescentic spots appear on the outer margin of the hind
wings, or they may be absent. Expanse, 1.10 inch.

_Early Stages._--An epitome of all that is known is to be found in "The
Butterflies of New England." The caterpillar feeds on young plums just
after the leaves of the blossom have dropped away.

The species is rather rare, but has been found from the Atlantic to the
Pacific in the latitude of New England.

(31) =Thecla henrici=, Grote and Robinson, Plate XXX, Fig. 21, ♀ (Henry's
Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--Much like the preceding species on the upper side, but
with the outer half of the wings broadly reddish-brown. The secondaries
on the under side are broadly blackish-brown on the basal half, with the
outer margin paler. The division between the dark and light shades is
irregular and very sharply defined, often indicated by a more or less
perfect irregularly curved median white line. Expanse, 1.00-1.10 inch.

_Early Stages._--These have been described by Edwards in the "American
Naturalist," vol. xvi, p. 123. The habits of the larva are identical
with those of the preceding species.

It occurs from Maine to West Virginia, but is rare.

(32) =Thecla eryphon=, Boisduval, Plate XXX, Fig. 17, ♀, _under side_
(Eryphon).

_Butterfly._--Closely resembling the following species both on the upper
and under side of the wings, but easily distinguished by the fact that,
on the under side of the fore wings, the inner of the two dark bands on
the outer third of the wing is not sharply angulated below the third
median nervule, as in _T. niphon_, but is more even, and in general
parallel with the submarginal line. Expanse, 1.15 inch.

_Early Stages._--These have not been described.

_Eryphon_ replaces the Eastern _T. niphon_ on the Pacific coast.

(33) =Thecla niphon=, Hübner, Plate XXX, Fig. 11, ♀; Fig. 22, ♀,
_under side_; Plate V, Figs. 38, 40, _chrysalis_ (The Banded Elfin).

_Butterfly._--Reddish-brown on the upper side. The under side is
accurately depicted in the plate. Expanse, 1.10 inch.

_Early Stages._--These have been elaborately described by Scudder in his
great work. The caterpillars feed upon pine.

The Banded Elfin is found from Nova Scotia to Colorado, in the Northern
States, where its food-plant occurs, but is never abundant.

[Illustration FIG. 132.--Neuration of _Thecla niphon_, enlarged.
Typical of subgenus _Incisalia_, Minot.]

(34) =Thecla affinis=, Edwards, Plate XXX, Fig. 3, ♀, _under side_ (The
Green-winged Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--On the upper side closely resembling the following
species. On the under side the wings are uniformly bright green.
Expanse, 1.00 inch.

_Early Stages._--These await description.

The types came from Utah. I also have specimens from California.

(35) =Thecla dumetorum=, Boisduval, Plate XXX, Fig. 1, ♂; Fig. 2, ♂,
_under side_ (The Green White-spotted Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--Dark fawn-color above, sometimes tinged externally with
reddish. On the under side both wings are green, the primaries having a
short straight band of white spots on the outer third, and the
secondaries a small white spot on the costa beyond the middle, and two
or three conspicuous white spots near the anal angle. Expanse, 1.10
inch.

_Early Stages._--The eggs are laid on the unopened flower-heads of
_Hosackia argophylla_. This is all we know of the life-history.

The species ranges from Oregon and California eastward as far as
Colorado.

(36) =Thecla læta=, Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 23, ♂; Fig. 24, ♂,
_under side_ (The Early Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--The wings brown, glossed with bright blue above; on the
under side pale fawn, with a band of pale-red spots on both wings about
the middle, and a few similar spots on the outer and inner margins of
the hind wings. Expanse, .75 inch.

_Early Stages._--Only the egg, described and figured by Scudder, is
known.

It ranges from Quebec to southern New Jersey, and westward to West
Virginia, and has been taken on Mount Graham, in Arizona. It appears in
early spring. It is still rare in collections.

(37) =Thecla titus=, Fabricius, Plate XXX, Fig. 10, ♂; Fig. 14, ♂,
_under side_; Plate V, Fig. 37, _chrysalis_ (The Coral Hair-streak).

_Butterfly._--Uniformly gray-brown on the upper side. Some specimens of
the female have a few red spots at the anal angle of the hind wing. On
the under side the wings are colored as on the upper side; but the hind
wings have a conspicuous submarginal band of coral-red spots on their
outer third. Expanse, 1.30 inch.

_Early Stages._--These have been well described by several authors. The
fullest account is given by Scudder. The caterpillar feeds on the leaves
of the wild cherry and the wild plum.

The insect occurs from the Atlantic to the Pacific, from Maine to
Georgia. It is not very common.

There are some ten or more other species of this genus found in our
fauna, but the species figured in our plates will suffice to give a good
idea of the genus.

[Illustration FIG. 133.--Neuration of _Thecla titus_, enlarged. Typical
of subgenus _Strymon_, Hübner.]


Genus FENISECA, Grote

(The Harvesters)

  "Upon his painted wings, the butterfly
  Roam'd, a gay blossom of the sunny sky."

  WILLIS G. CLARK.

_Butterfly._--Small, bright orange-yellow, on the upper side spotted
with black, on the under side more or less mottled and shaded with gray
and brown, the markings of the upper side reappearing. The cut shows the
neuration, which need not be minutely described.

_Egg._--Subglobular, much wider than high, its surface smooth, marked
with a multitude of very fine and indistinct raised ridges, giving it
the appearance of being covered by very delicate polygonal cells.

_Caterpillar._--In its mature stage the caterpillar is short,
slug-shaped, covered with a multitude of bristling hairs, upon which it
gathers the white exudations or scales of the mealy bugs upon which it
feeds.

[Illustration FIG. 134.--Neuration of the genus _Feniseca_, enlarged.]

_Chrysalis._--Small, brown in color; when viewed dorsally showing a
remarkable and striking likeness to the face of a monkey, a singular
phenomenon which also appears even more strikingly in chrysalids of the
allied genus _Spalgis_, which is found in Africa and Asia.

But one species of the genus is known.

(1) =Feniseca tarquinius=, Fabricius, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 21, ♂; Plate V,
Figs. 45, 46, _chrysalis_ (The Harvester).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of the wings is well depicted in the plate.
There is considerable variation, however, in the size of the black
markings upon the upper surface, and I have specimens in which they
almost entirely disappear. On the under side the wings are paler; the
spots of the upper side reappear, and, in addition, the hind wings are
mottled profusely with small pale-brown spots. Expanse, 1.30 inch.

_Early Stages._--What has been said of these in the description of the
genus will suffice for the species.

This curious little insect, which finds its nearest allies in Asia and
Africa, ranges all over the Atlantic States from Nova Scotia to the
Carolinas, and throughout the valley of the Mississippi.


Genus CHRYSOPHANUS, Doubleday

(The Coppers)

  "Atoms of color thou hast called to life
  (We name them butterflies) float lazily
  On clover swings, their drop of honey made
  By thee, dear queen, already for their need."

  MARY BUTTS.

_Butterfly._--Small butterflies, with the upper side of the wings some
shade of coppery-red or orange, frequently glossed with purple. On the
under side the wings are marked with a multitude of small spots and
lines. The neuration of the wing is delineated in the figure herewith
given, and needs no further description.

_Egg._--The eggs are hemispherical, flattened on the base, the upper
surface deeply pitted with polygonal or somewhat circular depressions.

[Illustration FIG. 135.--Neuration of _Chrysophanus thoë_, enlarged.
Typical of the genus.]

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillars, so far as known, are decidedly
slug-shaped, thickest in the middle, tapering forward and backward, and
having a very small head.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalids are small, rounded at either end, and held
in place by a girdle of silk a little forward of the middle.

This genus is found in the temperate regions of both the New and the Old
World, and also in South Africa.

(1) =Chrysophanus arota=, Boisduval, Plate XXIX, Fig. 1, ♂; Fig. 2, ♀
(Arota).

_Butterfly._--The plate gives a good idea of the upper side of the wings
in both sexes. On the under side the fore wings are pale gray in the
male and pale red in the female, with the outer margin lavender. The
spots of the upper side reappear on the disk. The hind wings on the
under side are purplish-gray on the inner two thirds and paler gray on
the outer third, with many black spots on the disk, margined with white.
Expanse, 1.10-1.25 inch.

_Early Stages._--These have been partially described by Dyar in the
"Canadian Entomologist," vol. xxiii, p. 204. The caterpillar feeds on
the wild gooseberry (_Ribes_).

_Arota_ is a Californian species.

(2) =Chrysophanus virginiensis=, Edwards, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 23, ♂; Fig.
24, ♀ (The Nevada Copper).

_Butterfly._--Allied to the preceding species, but easily distinguished
by the submarginal white bands of crescent-shaped spots on the under
side. These are particularly distinct on the hind wings. Expanse,
1.25-1.30 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

_Virginiensis_, so named because the first specimens came from Virginia
City, ranges in California, Nevada, and Colorado.

(3) =Chrysophanus xanthoides=, Boisduval, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 29, ♂; Fig.
30, ♀ (The Great Copper).

_Butterfly._--The student will easily recognize it by its larger size,
it being the largest species of the genus in North America, and by its
creamy-white under surface, spotted with distinct small black spots, in
large part reproducing the spots of the upper side. Expanse, 1.50-1.65
inch.

(4) =Chrysophanus editha=, Mead, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 26, ♂; Fig. 27, ♀
(Editha).

_Butterfly._--This is a much smaller species than the last, which it
somewhat resembles on the upper side. On the under side it is wholly
unlike _xanthoides_, the wings being pale pearly-gray, pale ochreous on
the outer margins, the spots of the fore wings black and of the hind
wings ochreous, narrowly margined with white or fine black lines.
Expanse, 1.10-1.25 inch.

_Early Stages._--Entirely unknown.

This species is found in Nevada.

(5) =Chrysophanus gorgon=, Boisduval, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 35, ♂; Fig. 36,
♀ (Gorgon).

_Butterfly._--Somewhat like the preceding species, but with the fore
wings of the male redder on the upper side, and of the female more
broadly mottled with pale red, the spots in some specimens inclining to
buff. The under side of the wings is white, marked with the usual series
of black spots. The secondaries have a marginal series of elongated
pale-red spots, tipped at either end with black. Expanse, 1.25-1.30
inch.

_Early Stages._--We as yet know nothing of these.

_Gorgon_ is found in California and Nevada.

(6) =Chrysophanus thoë=, Boisduval, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 31, ♂; Fig. 32,
♀; Plate V, Fig. 50, _chrysalis_ (The Bronze Copper).

_Butterfly._--The plate makes a description of the upper side of the
wings unnecessary. On the under side the fore wing in both sexes is
bright tawny-red, pale gray at the apex; the hind wings are bluish-gray,
with a broad band of carmine on the outer margin. Both wings are
profusely adorned with small black spots. Expanse, 1.30-1.40 inch.

_Early Stages._--These are only partially known. The caterpillar feeds
on _Rumex_.

It is not uncommon in northern Indiana, Illinois, and Pennsylvania, and
ranges from Maine to Kansas and Colorado.

(7) =Chrysophanus mariposa=, Reakirt, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 37, ♂; Fig. 38,
♀ (Reakirt's Copper).

_Butterfly._--Small, with a broad dusky band on the hind wing of the
male and on the fore wing of the female. The male is purplish-red above,
the female bright red, with the usual spots. On the under side the
ground-color of the fore wings is pale red, of the hind wings clear
ashen-gray, with the characteristic markings of the genus. Expanse, 1.10
inch.

_Early Stages._--Undescribed.

The insect ranges from British Columbia into northern California,
Montana, and Colorado.

(8) =Chrysophanus helloides=, Boisduval, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 33, ♂; Fig.
34, ♀ (The Purplish Copper).

_Butterfly._--The male has the fore wings broadly shot with iridescent
purple. The female is well delineated in the plate. On the under side
the fore wings are pale red, the hind wings reddish-gray, with a
marginal row of brick-red crescents. The usual black spots are found on
both wings. Expanse, 1.15-1.30 inch.

_Early Stages._--We know next to nothing of these.

The Purplish Copper is found in the Northwestern States from northern
Illinois and Iowa to Vancouver's Island.

(9) =Chrysophanus epixanthe=, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XXVIII, Fig.
28, ♂ (The Least Copper).

_Butterfly._--The smallest species of the genus in North America. On the
upper side the wings of the male are dark fuscous, shot with purple, and
having a few red spots near the anal angle of the secondaries. The
female on the upper side is pale gray, and more profusely marked with
black spots. On the under side the wings are light gray, bluish at the
base, and marked with the usual spots. Expanse, .85-.95 inch.

_Early Stages._--Little is known of these.

This is a Northern species, ranging from Newfoundland, where it is
common, to British Columbia, never south of the latitude of New England.

(10) =Chrysophanus hypophlæas=, Boisduval, Plate XXVIII, Fig. 25, ♂;
Plate V, Fig. 49, _chrysalis_ (The American Copper).

_Butterfly._--This is one of the commonest butterflies in the United
States. The figure in the plate will serve to recall it to the mind of
every reader. It is abundant everywhere except in the Gulf States, and
ranges as far north as Manitoba and the Hudson Bay region. Expanse, 1.00
inch.

_Early Stages._--These have often been described. The caterpillar, which
is small and slug-shaped, feeds upon the common sorrel (_Rumex
acetosella_).

(11) =Chrysophanus snowi=, Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 7, ♂; Fig. 8, ♀
(Snow's Copper).

_Butterfly._--This is a medium-sized species, easily recognized by the
even, rather wide black border on both wings on the upper side, and the
dirty-gray color of the hind wings on the under side. Expanse, 1.15-1.25
inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

Snow's Copper, which is named in honor of the amiable Chancellor of the
University of Kansas, occurs in Colorado at high elevations, and is
reported from Alberta and British Columbia.

(12) =Chrysophanus rubidus=, Behr, Plate XXIX, Fig. 5, ♂; Fig. 6, ♀
(The Ruddy Copper).

_Butterfly._--This is a rather large species. The male on the upper side
is prevalently pale, lustrous red, with a narrow black marginal band and
uniformly conspicuous white fringes. The upper side of the female is
accurately depicted in the plate. On the under side the wings are
shining white, the secondaries immaculate. Expanse, 1.30-1.50 inch.

_Early Stages._--These are altogether unknown.

This exceedingly beautiful species is found in Oregon, Nevada, and
Montana.

(13) =Chrysophanus sirius=, Edwards, Plate XXIX, Fig. 3, ♂; Fig. 4, ♀
(Sirius).

_Butterfly._--The male closely resembles the preceding species on the
upper side, but is brighter red, especially along the nervules of the
fore wings. The female on the upper side is dusky. On the under side the
wings are whitish or pale gray, but the hind wings are not without
spots, as in the preceding species, and carry the characteristic
markings of the genus. Expanse, 1.20-1.30 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The species has been found from Fort McCleod, in British America, as far
south as Arizona, among the North American Cordilleras.


THE UTILITY OF ENTOMOLOGY

All the forces of nature are interdependent. Many plants would not bear
seeds or fruit were it not for the activity of insects, which cause the
pollen to be deposited upon the pistil and the seed-vessel to be
fertilized. Attempts were made many years ago to grow clover in
Australia, but the clover did not make seed. All the seed required for
planting had to be imported at much expense from Europe. It was finally
ascertained that the reason why the clover failed to make seed was
because throughout Australia there were no bumblebees. Bumblebees were
introduced, and now clover grows luxuriantly in Australia, making seed
abundantly; and Australian meats, carried in the cold-storage rooms of
great ocean steamers, are used to feed the people of Manila, Hong-Kong,
Yokohama, and even London.

A few years ago the orange-groves in southern California became infested
with a scale-insect, which threatened to ruin them and to bring
orange-growing in that part of the land to an unprofitable end. The
matter received the careful attention of the chief entomologist of the
United States Department of Agriculture, the lamented Professor C.V.
Riley. In the course of the studies which he and his associates
prosecuted, it was ascertained that the same scale-insect which was
ruining the orange-groves of California is found in the orange-groves of
Queensland, but that in Queensland this insect did comparatively small
injury to the trees. Investigation disclosed the fact that in Queensland
the scale-insect was kept down by the ravages of a parasitic insect
which preyed upon it. This parasite, by order of the chief entomologist,
was immediately imported, in considerable numbers, into southern
California, and let loose among the orange-groves. The result has been
most beneficial.

These are two illustrations, from among hundreds which might be cited,
of the very practical value of entomological knowledge.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXI                                    |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Lycæna pseudargiolus_, Boisd.-Lec.,                      |
  |     var. _lucia_, Kirby, ♂.                                  |
  | 2. _Lycæna pseudargiolus_, Boisd.-Lec.,                      |
  |     var. _marginata_, Edwards, ♂.                            |
  | 3. _Lycæna pseudargiolus_, Boisd.-Lec.,                      |
  |     var. _marginata_, Edwards, ♀.                            |
  | 4. _Lycæna pseudargiolus_, Boisd.-Lec.,                      |
  |     var. _nigra_, Edwards, ♂.                                |
  | 5. _Lycæna pseudargiolus_, Boisd.-Lec.,                      |
  |     var. _violacea_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 6. _Lycæna pseudargiolus_, Boisd.-Lec.,                      |
  | ♂.                                                           |
  | 7. _Lycæna pseudargiolus_, Boisd.-Lec.,                      |
  | ♀.                                                           |
  | 8. _Lycæna pseudargiolus_, Boisd.-Lec.,                      |
  |     var. _neglecta_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 9. _Lycæna pseudargiolus_, Boisd.-Lec.,                      |
  |     var. _neglecta_, Edwards, ♀.                             |
  | 10. _Lycæna pseudargiolus_, Boisd.-Lec.,                     |
  |     var. _piasus_, Boisduval, ♂.                             |
  | 11. _Lycæna dædalus_, Behr, ♂.                               |
  | 12. _Lycæna dædalus_, Behr, ♀.                               |
  | 13. _Lycæna heteronea_, Boisduval, ♂.                        |
  | 14. _Lycæna heteronea_, Boisduval, ♀.                        |
  | 15. _Lycæna sæpiolus_, Boisduval, ♂.                         |
  | 16. _Lycæna sæpiolus_, Boisduval, ♀.                         |
  | 17. _Lycæna lygdamas_, Doubleday, ♂.                         |
  | 18. _Lycæna lygdamas_, Doubleday, ♀.                         |
  | 19. _Lycæna sagittigera_, Felder, ♂.                         |
  | 20. _Lycæna sagittigera_, Felder, ♀.                         |
  | 21. _Lycæna sonorensis_, Felder, ♂.                          |
  | 22. _Lycæna sonorensis_, Felder, ♀.                          |
  | 23. _Lycæna shasta_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 24. _Lycæna shasta_, Edwards, ♀.                             |
  | 25. _Lycæna melissa_, Edwards, ♂.                            |
  | 26. _Lycæna melissa_, Edwards, ♀.                            |
  | 27. _Lycæna acmon_, Dbl.-Hew., ♂.                            |
  | 28. _Lycæna acmon_, Dbl.-Hew., ♀.                            |
  | 29. _Lycæna comyntas_, Godart, ♂.                            |
  | 30. _Lycæna comyntas_, Godart, ♀.                            |
  | 31. _Lycæna ammon_, Lucas, ♀.                               |
  | 32. _Lycæna marina_, Reakirt, ♀.                            |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XXXI.]                                   |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+

The annual loss suffered by agricultural communities through ignorance
of entomological facts is very great. Every plant has its insect enemy,
or, more correctly, its insect lover, which feeds upon it, delights in
its luxuriance, but makes short work, it may be of leaves, it may be of
flowers, it may be of fruit. It has been estimated that every known
species of plant has five or six species of insects which habitually
feed upon it. Where the plant is one that is valuable to man and is
grown for his use, the horticulturist or the farmer finds himself
confronted, presently, by the ravages of these creatures, and unless he
has correct information as to the best manner in which to combat them,
he is likely to suffer losses of a serious character. We all have read
of the havoc wrought by the Kansas locust, or grasshopper, and of the
ruin brought about by insects of the same class in Asia and in Africa.
We all have heard of the Hessian fly, of the weevil, and of the
army-worm. The legislature of Massachusetts has in recent years been
spending hundreds of thousands of dollars in the attempt to exterminate
the gipsy-moth. The caterpillar of the cabbage-butterfly ruins every
year material enough to supply sauer-kraut to half of the people. The
codling-moth, the little pinkish caterpillar of which worms its way
through apples, is estimated to destroy five millions of dollars' worth
of apples every year within the limits of the United States. And what
shall we say of the potato-bug, that prettily striped beetle, which,
starting from the far West, has taken possession of the potato-fields of
the continent, and for the extermination of which there is annually
spent, by the agricultural communities of the United States, several
millions of dollars in labor and in poisons?

A few facts like these serve to show that the study of entomology is not
a study which deserves to be placed in the category of useless pursuits.
Viewed merely from a utilitarian standpoint, this study is one of the
most important, far outranking, in its actual value to communities, the
study of many branches of zoölogical science which some people affect to
regard as of a higher order.

The legislature of Pennsylvania acted wisely in passing a law which
demands that in every high school established within the State there
shall be at least one teacher capable of giving instruction in botany
and in entomology. The importance of entomology, while not perceived by
the masses as yet, has been recognized by almost all the legislatures of
the States; and not only the general government of the United States,
but the governments of the individual commonwealths, are at the present
time employing a number of carefully trained men, whose business is to
ascertain the facts and instruct the people as to the best manner in
which to ward off the attacks of the insect swarms, which are respecters
neither of size nor beauty in the vegetable world, attacking alike the
majestic oak and the lowliest mosses.


Genus LYCÆNA, Fabricius

(The Blues)

                        "Bright butterflies
  Fluttered their vans, azure and green and gold."

  SIR EDWIN ARNOLD.

_Butterfly._--Generally small, for the most part blue on the upper side
of the wings, white or gray on the under side, variously marked with
spots and lines.

What has been said in reference to the subdivision of the genus _Thecla_
may be repeated in regard to the genus which we are considering. It has
been in recent years subdivided by writers who have given close
attention to the matter, and these subdivisions are entirely defensible
from a scientific standpoint. Nevertheless, owing to the close
resemblance which prevails throughout the group, in this book, which is
intended for popular use, the author has deemed it best not to separate
the species, as to do so presupposes a minute anatomical knowledge,
which the general reader is not likely to possess.

_Egg._--The eggs are for the most part flattened, turban-shaped (see p.
4, Fig. 7).

_Caterpillar._--Slug-shaped, as in the preceding genera, feeding upon
the petals and bracts of flowers, or upon delicate terminal leaves.

_Chrysalis._--Closely resembling the chrysalids of the preceding genera.

This genus is very widely distributed in the temperate regions of both
hemispheres. Many of the species are inhabitants of the cold North or
high mountain summits, while others are found in the tropics.

(1) =Lycæna fuliginosa=, Edwards, Plate XXX, Fig. 16, ♂, _under side_
(The Sooty Gossamer-wing).

_Butterfly._--Dark gray on the upper side in both sexes. On the under
side the figure in the plate gives a correct representation of the color
and markings. Expanse, 1.10 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The species occurs in northern California, Utah, Nevada, Oregon, and
Washington.

(2) =Lycæna heteronea=, Boisduval, Plate XXXI, Fig. 13, ♂; Fig. 14, ♀;
Plate XXXII, Fig. 19, ♀, _under side_ (The Varied Blue).

_Butterfly._--On the upper side the male is blue, the female brown. On
the under side the wings are white, with faint pale-brown spots on the
hind wings and distinct black spots on the fore wings, more numerous
than in _L. lycea_, which it closely resembles on the under side. It is
the largest species of the genus, and the female reminds us by its
markings on the upper side of the females of _Chrysophanus_. Expanse,
1.25-1.40 inch.

_Early Stages._--These await description.

_Heteronea_ ranges from Colorado to California, at suitable elevations
among the mountains.

(3) =Lycæna clara=, Henry Edwards, Plate XXX, Fig. 26, ♀ (The Bright
Blue).

_Butterfly._--The figure in the plate is that of the type of the female,
the only specimen in my collection. Expanse, 1.15 inch.

_Early Stages._--These are entirely unknown.

The type came from southern California.

(4) =Lycæna lycea=, Edwards, Plate XXXII, Fig. 18, ♂, _under side_
(Lycea).

_Butterfly._--The perfect insect is very nearly as large as _L.
heteronea_. The male is lilac-blue on the upper side, with the margins
dusky. The black spots of the under side do not show through on the
upper side, as in _L. heteronea_. The female is dusky, with the wings
shot with blue at their bases, more especially on the fore wing. There
are no black spots on the upper side of the wings in this sex, as in _L.
heteronea_. On the under side the wings are whitish. The spots on this
side are well delineated in our figure in Plate XXXII. Expanse, 1.30
inch.

_Early Stages._--These await description.

The butterfly is found in the region of the Rocky Mountains, from New
Mexico to Montana.

(5) =Lycæna fulla,= Edwards, Plate XXX, Fig. 24, ♂; Fig. 25, ♀
(Fulla).

_Butterfly._--Smaller than the preceding species. The upper side of the
male is not lilac-blue, but ultramarine. The female is almost
indistinguishable on the upper side from the female of _L. lycea_. On
the under side the wings are pale stone-gray, with a black spot at the
end of the cell of the primaries and a large white spot at the end of
the cell of the secondaries. The other spots, which are always ringed
about with white, are located much as in _L. icarioides_ (see Plate XXX,
Fig. 29). Expanse, 1.15-1.20 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

_Fulla_ occurs in northern California, Oregon, Washington, and British
Columbia.

(6) =Lycæna icarioides=, Boisduval (=mintha=, Edwards), Plate XXX, Fig. 29,
♂, _under side_ (Boisduval's Blue).

_Butterfly._--The insect on the upper side closely resembles the
preceding species in both sexes. On the under side it may be at once
distinguished from the following species by the absence on the margin of
the hind wings of the fine black terminal line, and by having only one,
not two rows of submarginal black spots. There are other marked and
striking differences, and the merging of _L. dædalus_, Behr, with this
species, which has been advocated by some recent writers, is no doubt
due to their lack of sufficient and accurately identified material.
Expanse, 1.35 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This species, which is not common, is found in southern California.

(7) =Lycæna dædalus=, Behr, Plate XXXI, Fig. 11, ♂; Fig. 12, ♀; Plate
XXX, Fig. 28, ♀, _under side_ (Behr's Blue).

_Butterfly._--The wings of the male on the upper side are deep lustrous
blue, with darker borders and white fringes. The wings of the female are
brown, margined with reddish. The name oechaja was applied to this sex
by Dr. Behr, before it was known to be the female of his _L. doedalus_.
Expanse, 1.12 inch.

_Early Stages._--These have not yet been studied.

_Dædalus_ is common in southern California.

(8) =Lycæna sæpiolus=, Boisduval, Plate XXXI, Fig. 15, ♂; Fig. 16, ♀
(The Greenish Blue).

_Butterfly._--The male on the upper side has the wings blue, shot in
certain lights with brilliant green. The female on the same side is
dusky, with greenish-blue scales at the bases of the wings, and often
with reddish markings on the outer margin of the hind wings. On the
under side the wings are gray or pale wood-brown, with greenish-blue at
their base and a profusion of small black spots margined with white. Now
and then the black spots are lost, the white margins spreading inwardly
and usurping the place of the black. Expanse, .95-1.10 inch.

_Early Stages._--These await further study.

The species ranges from British Columbia to Colorado.

(9) =Lycæna pheres=, Boisduval, Plate XXX, Fig. 37, ♂; Fig. 42, ♀,
_under side_ (Pheres).

_Butterfly._--The male is pale shining blue above, with dusky borders.
The female is dusky, with a little blue at the base of the wings on the
same side. Below, the spots on the fore wings are strongly defined; on
the hind wings they are white on a pale stone-gray ground. Expanse, 1.20
inch.

_Early Stages._--We know no more of these than we do of those of the
preceding species.

_Pheres_ has nearly the same range as _soepiolus._

(10) =Lycæna xerxes=, Boisduval, Plate XXX, Fig. 43, ♂, _under side_
(Xerxes).

_Butterfly._--The wings in both sexes are dusky above, shot with blue,
more widely in the male than in the female. On the under side the wings
are dark stone-color, with all the spots on both wings white, very
rarely slightly pupiled with blackish. Expanse, 1.25 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The species is found in central California.

(11) =Lycæna antiacis=, Boisduval, Plate XXX, Fig. 35, ♂, _under side_;
Fig. 36, ♂; Fig. 41, ♀ (The Eyed Blue).

_Butterfly._--On the upper side the male is pale lilac-blue, the female
dusky, heavily marked with blue at the base of the wings. On the under
side the wings are deep, warm stone-gray. There is a single quite
regular band of large-sized black spots on the fore wing beyond the
middle, and a triply festooned curved band of similar spots on the hind
wing. These spots are all margined with white. Expanse, 1.15-1.25 inch.

_Early Stages._--These await description.

The insect is found in California.

(12) =Lycæna couperi=, Grote, Plate XXX, Fig. 34, ♂, _under side_
(Couper's Blue).

_Butterfly._--The wings of the male above are pale shining blue, with a
narrow black border; of the female darker blue, broadly margined
externally with dusky. On the under side the wings are dark
brownish-gray, with the spots arranged much as in _L. antiacis_, but
with those of the hind wings generally white, and without a dark pupil.
The series on the fore wing is usually distinctly pupiled with black.
Expanse, 1.25 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The species is found in Newfoundland, Labrador, Anticosti, and westward
and northward. It is a boreal form.

(13) =Lycæna lygdamas=, Doubleday, Plate XXXI, Fig. 17, ♂; Fig. 18, ♀;
Plate XXX, Fig. 50, ♀, _under side_ (The Silvery Blue).

_Butterfly._--The male has the upper side of the wings pale
silvery-blue, narrowly edged with black; the wings of the female on the
upper side are darker blue, dusky on the borders, with a dark spot at
the end of the cell of the primaries. On the under side the wings are
pale chocolate-brown, with a submarginal band of black spots, margined
with white, on both wings, as well as a spot at the end of the cells,
and one or two on the costa of the secondaries. Expanse, .85-1.10 inch.

_Early Stages._--These are yet to be ascertained.

The insect is reported from Michigan to Georgia.

(14) =Lycæna sagittigera=, Felder, Plate XXXI, Fig. 19, ♂; Fig. 20, ♀;
Plate XXX, Fig. 44, ♀, _under side_ (The Arrow-head Blue).

_Butterfly._--The wings in both sexes are variable pale blue, dusky on
the margins, with white fringes checkered with dusky at the ends of the
veins. On the under side the wings are dark gray, profusely spotted, the
most characteristic markings being a white ray in the cell of the hind
wings, a broad submarginal band of white arrow-shaped markings on both
wings, with a black spot at the tip of each sagittate maculation and a
dark triangular shade between the barbs. These markings are not shown as
they should be in Plate XXX, Fig. 44. They are only faintly indicated.
Expanse, 1.25-1.30 inch.

_Early Stages._--These await description.

This butterfly ranges from Oregon to Mexico, and eastward as far as
Colorado on the mountains.

(15) =Lycæna speciosa=, Henry Edwards, Plate XXXII, Fig. 1 ♂; Fig. 2,
♀, _under side_ (The Small Blue).

_Butterfly._--Quite small; the male pale blue above, edged with dusky;
the female dusky, with the inner two thirds shot with blue. The
maculation of the under side is as represented in the plate. Expanse,
.80 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

Habitat, southern California.

(16) =Lycæna sonorensis=, Felder, Plate XXXI, Fig. 21, ♂; Fig. 22, ♀
(The Sonora Blue).

_Butterfly._--Easily distinguished from all other species of the genus
by the red spots in the region of the median nervules on the upper side.
Expanse, .87 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This lovely little insect is found rather abundantly in southern
California and northern Mexico.

(17) =Lycæna podarce=, Felder, Plate XXXII, Fig. 15, ♂; Fig. 16, ♀
(The Gray Blue).

_Butterfly._--The male is grayish-blue above, with dusky margins,
lighter on the disk of both the fore and hind wings. There are a few
dark marginal crescents on the hind wings. On the under side the wings
are very pale, profusely spotted, the spot at the end of the cell of the
secondaries being large and whitish, without a pupil, the rest being
black ringed about with white. The female is dark brown above, the fore
wings having a black spot ringed about with yellowish at the end of the
cell. Expanse, 1.05 inch.

_Early Stages._--These have never been described.

The species is thus far known from California, Nevada, and Colorado. It
is alpine in its habits.

(18) =Lycæna aquilo=, Boisduval, Plate XXXII, Fig. 9, ♂; Fig. 10, ♂,
_under side_ (The Labrador Blue).

_Butterfly._--The male is dusky bluish-gray on the upper side; the
female somewhat darker. It is easily distinguished from other species by
the dark-brown shades on the under side of the secondaries. Expanse, .80
inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

It is found in Labrador and arctic America.

(19) =Lycæna rustica=, Edwards, Plate XXXII, Fig. 17, ♂, _under side_
(The Rustic Blue).

_Butterfly._--Much like the preceding species, but a third larger, and
brighter blue on the upper side of the wings of the male. On the under
side the disposition of the spots and markings is precisely as in _L.
aquilo_, but on the secondaries the dark spots and shades are all
replaced by white on a pale-gray ground. Expanse, .90-1.00 inch.

_Early Stages._--We are in complete ignorance as to these.

The butterfly is found in British America and on the Western
Cordilleras.

(20) =Lycæna enoptes=, Boisduval, Plate XXX, Fig. 30, ♀, _under side_;
Fig. 51, ♂ (The Dotted Blue).

_Butterfly._--The wings on the upper side are purplish-blue,--pale in
the male, darker in the female,--bordered with dusky, more heavily in
the female than in the male. The fringes are white, checkered with dusky
at the ends of the veins. The female sometimes has the hind wings marked
on the upper side with red marginal spots on the inner half of the
border. On the under side the wings are pale bluish-gray, marked with a
profusion of small black spots, those on the outer margin arranged in
two parallel lines, between which, on the hind wings, are red spots.
Expanse, 1.00 inch.

_Early Stages._--Awaiting description.

_Enoptes_ ranges from Washington to Arizona.

(21) =Lycæna glaucon=, Edwards, Plate XXX, Fig. 31, ♀, _under side_;
Fig. 39, ♂ (The Colorado Blue).

_Butterfly._--Purplish-blue, closely resembling the preceding species,
but having the black margin of the wings broader than in _L. enoptes_,
with the dark crescents of the marginal series on the under side showing
through as darker spots in the margins of the hind wings. The female has
a band of orange spots on the margins of the secondaries. The two
marginal rows of spots on the lower side of the wings are arranged and
colored as in the preceding species. Expanse, 1.00 inch.

_Early Stages._--Of these we must again confess ignorance.

_Glaucon_ ranges from Washington into California, and eastward to
Colorado, where it is quite common in the mountain valleys.

(22) =Lycæna battoides=, Behr, Plate XXXII, Fig. 11, ♂ (Behr's Blue).

_Butterfly._--On the upper side paler blue than the preceding species,
with the hind margin tinged with reddish, shining through from below,
and small crescentic dark spots. On the under side the wings are
smoky-gray, with all the black spots, which are arranged as in the
preceding species, greatly enlarged and quadrate, and a broad
submarginal border of orange on the hind wings. The female is like the
male, but with more orange on the upper side of the hind wings.

_Early Stages._--But little is, as yet, known of these.

The insect ranges from California and Arizona to Colorado.

(23) =Lycæna shasta=, Edwards, Plate XXXI, Fig. 23, ♂; Fig. 24, ♀ (The
Shasta Blue).

_Butterfly._--The figures in the plate give a fairly good idea of the
upper side of this species in both sexes, though the male is not quite
so dark a blue as represented. On the under side the wings have the
usual black spots, on a dirty-gray ground, and, in addition, on the hind
wings there are a number of small marginal spots surmounted by
metallic-colored bluish-green scales, somewhat like those found in some
species of the genus _Thecla_. Expanse, 1.00 inch.

_Early Stages._--So far as I know, these have never been described.

My specimens are all from Montana and Nevada. It is also reported from
northern California, Oregon, and Kansas, though I question the latter
locality.

(24) =Lycæna melissa=, Edwards, Plate XXXI, Fig. 25, ♂; Fig. 26, ♀
(The Orange-margined Blue).

_Butterfly._--The male on the upper side is pale blue, with a narrow
black marginal line and white fringes. The female is brown or
lilac-gray, with a series of orange-red crescents on the margins of both
wings. On the under side the wings are stone-gray, with the usual spots,
and on the secondaries the orange-colored marginal spots are oblong,
tipped inwardly with black and outwardly by a series of metallic-green
maculations. Expanse, .90-1.15 inch.

_Early Stages._--We know very little about these.

It is found from Kansas to Arizona, and northward to Montana.

(25) =Lycæna scudderi=, Edwards, Plate XXX, Fig. 48, ♂; Fig. 49, ♀;
Plate V, Fig. 41, _chrysalis_ (Scudder's Blue).

_Butterfly._--The commonest Eastern representative of the group to which
the preceding four or five and the following three species belong. On
the upper side the male cannot be distinguished from _L. melissa_; the
female is darker and has only a few orange crescents on the outer margin
of the hind wing. On the under side the wings are shining white, the
spots are much reduced in size, the large orange spots found in _L.
melissa_ are replaced by quite small yellowish or ochreous spots, and
the patches of metallic scales defining them externally are very minute.
Expanse, 1.00-1.10 inch.

_Early Stages._--These are accurately described by Dr. Scudder in his
great work, "The Butterflies of New England," and by others. The
caterpillar feeds upon the lupine, and probably other leguminous plants.

It is widely distributed through the basin of the St. Lawrence, the
region of the Great Lakes, and northward as far as British Columbia,
being also found on the Catskill Mountains. I have found it very common
at times about Saratoga, New York.

(26) =Lycæna acmon=, Doubleday and Hewitson, Plate XXXI, Fig. 27, ♂;
Fig. 28, ♀ (Acmon).

_Butterfly._--The plate gives a good representation of the male and the
female of this pretty species, which may at a glance be distinguished
from all its allies by the broad orange-red band on the hind wings,
marked by small black spots. On the under side it is marked much as _L.
melissa_. Expanse, .90-1.10 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

It is found from Arizona to Washington and Montana.

(27) =Lycæna aster=, Plate XXX, Fig. 40, ♂; Fig. 46, ♀; Fig. 47, ♂,
_under side_ (The Aster Blue).

_Butterfly._--On the under side this species is very like _enoptes_ and
other allied species. The male looks like a dwarfed specimen of _L.
scudderi_. The female is dull bluish-gray above, with black spots on the
outer margins of the wing, most distinct on the secondaries, and,
instead of a band of orange spots before them, a diffuse band of blue
spots, paler than the surrounding parts of the wing. Expanse, .95-1.00
inch.

_Early Stages._--These furnish a field for investigation.

The insect is reported thus far only from Newfoundland, from which
locality I obtained, through the purchase of the Mead collection, a
large and interesting series.

(28) =Lycæna annetta=, Mead, Plate XXXII, Fig. 13, ♂; Fig. 14, ♀
(Annetta).

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXII                                   |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Lycæna speciosa_, Henry Edwards, ♂.                      |
  | 2. _Lycæna speciosa_, Henry Edwards, ♀,                      |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 3. _Lycæna hanno_, Stoll, ♂, _under side_.                   |
  | 4. _Lycæna isophthalma_, Herrich-Schäffer, ♂.                |
  | 5. _Lycæna exilis_, Boisduval, ♂.                            |
  | 6. _Lycæna theonus_, Lucas, ♀.                               |
  | 7. _Lycæna amyntula_, Boisduval, ♂.                          |
  | 8. _Lycæna amyntula_, Boisduval, ♀.                          |
  | 9. _Lycæna aquilo_, Boisduval, ♂.                            |
  | 10. _Lycæna aquilo_, Boisduval, ♂,                           |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 11. _Lycæna battoides_, Behr, ♂.                             |
  | 12. _Lycæna comyntas_, Godart, ♂,                            |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 13. _Lycæna annetta_, Mead, ♂.                               |
  | 14. _Lycæna annetta_, Mead, ♀.                               |
  | 15. _Lycæna podarce_, Felder, ♂.                             |
  | 16. _Lycæna podarce_, Felder, ♀.                             |
  | 17. _Lycæna rustica_, Edwards, ♂,                            |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 18. _Lycæna lycea_, Edwards, ♂,                              |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 19. _Lycæna beteronea_, Boisduval, ♀,                        |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 20. _Thecla melinus_, Hübner, ♂.                             |
  | 21. _Nathalis iole_, Boisduval, ♂.                           |
  | 22. _Nathalis iole_, Boisduval, ♀.                           |
  | 23. _Euchloë creusa_, Dbl.-Hew., ♂.                          |
  | 24. _Euchloë ausonides_, Boisduval, ♂.                       |
  | 25. _Euchloë ausonides_, Boisduval, ♀.                       |
  | 26. _Euchloë cethura_, Felder, ♂.                            |
  | 27. _Euchloë cethura_, Felder, ♀.                            |
  | 28. _Euchloë sara_, Boisduval, ♂.                            |
  | 29. _Euchloë sara_, Boisduval, ♀.                            |
  | 30. _Euchloë lanceolata_, Boisduval, ♂.                      |
  | 31. _Euchloë sara_, Boisduval, var. _reakirti_,              |
  |     Edwards, ♂.                                              |
  | 32. _Euchloë sara_, Boisduval, var. _reakirti_,              |
  |     Edwards, ♀.                                              |
  | 33. _Euchloë pima_, Edwards, ♂.                              |
  | 34. _Euchloë sara_, Boisduval, var. _julia_,                 |
  |     Edwards, ♂.                                              |
  | 35. _Euchloë sara_, Boisduval, var. _stella_,                |
  |     Edwards, ♂.                                              |
  | 36. _Euchloë sara_, Boisduval, var. _stella_,                |
  |     Edwards, ♀.                                              |
  | 37. _Euchloë genutia_, Fabricius, ♂.                         |
  | 38. _Euchloë genutia_, Fabricius, ♀.                         |
  | 39. _Euchloë olympia_, Edwards, var. _rosa_,                 |
  |     Edwards, ♂, _under side_.                                |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XXXII.]                                  |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+


_Butterfly._--The male closely resembles the male of _L. melissa_ on
the upper side. The female is paler than the male, which is unusual in
this genus, and has a "washed-out" appearance. On the under side the
markings are very like those found in _L. scudderi_. Expanse, 1.15 inch.

_Early Stages._--Entirely unknown.

The types which I possess came from Utah.

(29) =Lycæna pseudargiolus=, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XXXI, Fig. 6,
♂; Fig. 7, ♀; Plate XXX, Fig. 32, ♂, _under side_; Plate V, Figs. 36,
43, 44, _chrysalis_ (The Common Blue).

_Butterfly._--This common but most interesting insect has been made the
subject of most exhaustive and elaborate study by Mr. W.H. Edwards, and
the result has been to show that it is highly subject to variation. It
illustrates the phenomena of polymorphism most beautifully. The
foregoing references to the plate cite the figures of the typical summer
form. In addition to this form the following forms have received names:

(_a_) Winter form =lucia=, Kirby, Plate XXXI, Fig. 1, ♂; Plate XXX, Fig.
20, ♂, _under side_. This appears in New England in the early spring
from overwintering chrysalids, and is characterized by the brown patch
on the middle of the hind wing on the under side.

(_b_) Winter form =marginata=, Edwards, Plate XXXI, Fig. 2, ♂; Fig. 3,
♀; Plate XXX, Fig. 19, ♂, _under side_. This appears at the same time
as the preceding form. The specimens figured in the plate were taken in
Manitoba. This form is characterized by the dark margins of the wings
on the under side.

(_c_) Winter form =violacea=, Edwards, Plate XXXI, Fig. 5, ♂. This is the
common winter form. The spots below are distinct, but never fused or
melted together, as in the two preceding forms.

(_d_) Form =nigra=, Edwards, Plate XXXI, Fig. 4, ♂. The wings on the
under side are as in _violacea_, but are black above. It is found in
West Virginia and occurs also in Colorado.

(_e_) Summer form =neglecta=, Edwards, Plate XXXI, Fig. 8, ♂; Fig. 9,
♀. This is smaller than the typical form _pseudargiolus_, also has the
dark spots on the under side of the wings more distinct, and the hind
wings, especially in the female, paler.

[Illustration FIG. 136.--Neuration of _Lycæna pseudargiolus_, enlarged.
Typical of subgenus _Cyaniris_, Dalman.]

(_f_) Southern form =piasus=, Plate XXXI, Fig. 10, ♂. This form, which is
uniformly darker blue on the upper side than the others, is found in
Arizona.

There are still other forms which have been named and described.

_Early Stages._--These have been traced through all stages with minutest
care. The egg is delineated in this book on p. 4, Fig. 7. The
caterpillar is slug-shaped, and feeds on the tender leaves and petals of
a great variety of plants.

The range of the species is immense. It extends from Alaska to Florida,
and from Anticosti to Arizona.

(30) =Lycæna amyntula=, Boisduval, Plate XXXII, Fig. 7, ♂; Fig. 8, ♀
(The Western Tailed Blue).

_Butterfly._--Closely resembling _L. comyntas_, of which it may be only
a slightly modified Western form. Until the test of breeding has been
applied we cannot be sure of this. The figures in the plate give a very
good representation of the upper side of the wings of this species.

_Early Stages._--But little has been found out concerning these.

It ranges from the eastern foot-hills of the Rocky Mountains to the
Pacific in British America and the northern tier of Western States.

(31) =Lycæna comyntas=, Godart, Plate XXXI, Fig. 29, ♂; Fig. 30, ♀;
Plate XXXII, Fig. 12, ♂, _under side_; Plate V, Figs. 42, 47, 48,
_chrysalis_ (The Eastern Tailed Blue).

_Butterfly._--The blue of the upper side of the male in the plate is too
dark; but the female and the under side of the wings are accurately
delineated. The species is generally tailed, but specimens without tails
occur. Expanse, 1.00-1.10 inch.

_Early Stages._--These are well known and have been fully described. The
caterpillar feeds on leguminous plants.

This delicate little species ranges from the valley of the Saskatchewan
to Costa Rica, and from the Atlantic to the foot-hills of the Western
Cordilleras. It is common in the Middle and Western States, flitting
about roadsides and weedy forest paths.

[Illustration FIG. 137.--Neuration of _Lycæna comyntas_, enlarged.
Typical of the subgenus _Everes_, Hübner.]

(32) =Lycæna isola=, Reakirt, Plate XXX, Fig. 33, ♀, _under side_; Fig.
38, ♀ (Reakirt's Blue).

_Butterfly._--The male on the upper side is pale lilac-blue, with the
outer borders and the ends of the veins narrowly dusky. The female is
brownish-gray on the upper side, with the wings at their base glossed
with blue. In both sexes there is a rather conspicuous black spot on the
margin of the hind wings between the first and second median nervules.
The under side is accurately depicted in our plate, to which the student
may refer. Expanse, 1.00 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The species occurs in Texas, Arizona, and Mexico.

(33) =Lycæna hanno=, Stoll, Plate XXXII, Fig. 3, ♂, _under side_ (The
Florida Blue).

_Butterfly._--Larger than the preceding species, on the upper side
resembling _L. isola_; but the blue of the male is not lilac, but bright
purplish, and the female is much darker. On the under side a striking
distinction is found in the absence on the fore wing of the postmedian
band of large dark spots so conspicuous in _L. isola_. Expanse, .85
inch.

_Early Stages._--We have no information as to these.

The insect occurs in Florida and throughout the Antilles and Central
America.

(34) =Lycæna isophthalma=, Herrich-Schäffer, Plate XXXII, Fig. 4, ♂
(The Dwarf Blue).

_Butterfly._--Light brown on the upper side in both sexes, with the
outer margin of the hind wings set with a row of dark spots, which on
the under side are defined by circlets of metallic scales. The under
side is pale brown, profusely marked by light spots and short bands.
Expanse, .75 inch.

_Early Stages._--Up to this time we have learned very little concerning
them.

The species occurs in the Gulf States and the Antilles.

(35) =Lycæna exilis=, Boisduval, Plate XXXII, Fig. 5, ♂ (The Pygmy
Blue).

_Butterfly._--On the upper side this, which is the smallest of North
American butterflies, very closely resembles the foregoing species, but
may be instantly distinguished by the white spot at the inner angle of
the fore wing and the white fringes of the same wing near the apex. The
hind wings on the under side are set with a marginal series of dark
spots ringed about with metallic scales. Expanse, .65 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The Pygmy is found in the Gulf States and throughout tropical America.

(36) =Lycæna ammon=, Lucas, Plate XXXI, Fig. 31, ♀; Plate XXX, Fig. 45,
♀, _under side_ (The Indian River Blue).

_Butterfly._--The male is brilliant lilac-blue on the upper side; the
female shining violet-blue, with very dark and wide black borders on the
fore wings and one or two conspicuous black eye-spots near the anal
angle of the hind wings, each surmounted by a carmine crescent. The
figure in Plate XXX gives a correct representation of the under side.
Expanse, .95-1.10 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This beautiful little insect is not uncommon in southern Florida, and
also occurs in the Antilles and tropical America.

(37) =Lycæna marina=, Reakirt, Plate XXXI, Fig. 32, ♀; Plate XXX, Fig.
27, ♀, _under side_ (The Marine Blue).

_Butterfly._--The male, on the upper side, is pale dusky-lilac, the dark
bands of the lower side appearing faintly on the upper side. The female
is dark brown on the upper side, with the wings at the base shot with
bright lilac-blue; the dark bands on the disk in this sex are prominent,
especially on the fore wings. The under side of the wings is accurately
depicted in Plate XXX and therefore requires no description. Expanse,
1.10 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

_Marina_ is found in Texas, Arizona, southern California, and southward.

(38) =Lycæna theonus=, Lucas, Plate XXXII, Fig. 6, ♀ (The West Indian
Blue).

_Butterfly._--The male is shining lavender-blue, this color glossing the
dark outer borders of the wings; the female is white, with the outer
costal borders heavily blackish, the primaries shot with shining
sky-blue toward the base. On the under side the wings are crossed by
dark bands of spots, arranged much as in _L. marina_, but darker. The
hind wings, near the anal angle, have conspicuous eye-spots both above
and below. Expanse, .80 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This lovely insect is found in the Gulf States and all over the hot
lands of the New World.


SIZE

Size, like wealth, is only relative. The farmer who owns a hundred acres
appears rich to the laborer whom he employs to cut his wheat; but many a
millionaire spends in one month as much as would purchase two such
farms. The earth seems great to us, and the sun still greater; but
doubtless there are suns the diameter of which is equal to the distance
from the earth to the sun, in which both earth and sun would be
swallowed up as mere drops in an ocean of fire. In the animal kingdom
there are vast disparities in size, and these disparities are revealed
in the lower as well as in the higher classes. In the class of mammals
we find tiny mice and great elephants; in the insect world we find
beetles which are microscopic in size, and, not distantly related to
them, beetles as large as a clenched fist. The disparity between a
field-mouse and a sulphur-bottomed whale is no greater than the
disparity in size which exists between the smallest and the largest of
the beetle tribe. And so it is with the lepidoptera. It would take
several thousands of the Pygmy Blue, _Lycæna exilis_, to equal in weight
one of the great bird-wing butterflies of the Australian tropics. The
greatest disparity in size in the order of the lepidoptera is not,
however, shown in the butterflies, but among the moths. There are moths
the wings of which do not cover more than three sixteenths of an inch in
expanse, and there are moths with great bulky bodies and wings spreading
from eight to nine inches. It would require ten thousand of the former
to equal in weight one of the latter, and the disproportion in size is
as great as that which exists between a shrew and a hippopotamus, or
between a minnow and a basking-shark.

It is said that, taking the sulphur-bottomed whale as the representative
of the most colossal development of flesh and blood now existing on land
or in the sea, and then with the microscope reaching down into the realm
of protozoan life, the common blow-fly will be ascertained to occupy the
middle point on the descending scale. Man is, therefore, not only
mentally, but even physically, a great creature, though he stands
sometimes amazed at what he regards as the huge proportions of other
creatures belonging to the vertebrates.



FAMILY IV

PAPILIONIDÆ (THE SWALLOWTAILS AND ALLIES)


The butterflies of this family in both sexes are provided with six
ambulatory feet. The caterpillars are elongate, and in the genera
_Papilio_ and _Ornithoptera_ have osmateria, or protrusive scent-organs,
used for purposes of defense.

The chrysalids in all the genera are more or less elongate, attached at
the anal extremity, and held in place by a girdle of silk, but they
never lie appressed to the surface upon which pupation takes place, as
is true in the _Erycinidæ_ and _Lycænidæ_.


SUBFAMILY PIERINÆ (THE SULPHURS AND WHITES)

  "Fly, white butterflies, out to sea,
  Frail pale wings for the winds to try;
  Small white wings that we scarce can see Fly.
  Here and there may a chance-caught eye
  Note, in a score of you, twain or three
  Brighter or darker of tinge or dye;
  Some fly light as a laugh of glee,
  Some fly soft as a long, low sigh:
  All to the haven where each would be,--Fly."

  SWINBURNE.

_Butterfly._--For the most part medium-sized or small butterflies, white
or yellow in color, with dark marginal markings. In many genera the
subcostal vein of the fore wing has five, or even in some cases six
nervules, and the upper radial is lacking in this wing.

_Early Stages._--The eggs are spindle-shaped, marked with vertical
ridges and cross-lines. The caterpillars are cylindrical, relatively
long, generally green in color, longitudinally striped with darker or
paler lines. The chrysalids are generally more or less pointed at the
head, with the wing-cases in many of the genera greatly developed on the
ventral side, forming a deep, keel-shaped projection upon this surface.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXIII                                  |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Catopsilia agarithe_, Boisduval, ♂.                      |
  | 2. _Catopsilia eubule_, Linnæus, ♂.                          |
  | 3. _Catopsilia eubule_, Linnæus, ♂,                          |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 4. _Catopsilia philea_, Linnæus, ♂.                          |
  | 5. _Colias eurytheme_, Boisduval, ♂,                         |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 6. _Pyrameis huntera_, Fabricius, ♂,                         |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XXXIII.]                                 |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+

This subfamily is very large, and is enormously developed in the tropics
of both hemispheres. Some of the genera are very widely distributed in
temperate regions, especially the genera _Pieris_ and _Colias_.


Genus DISMORPHIA, Hübner

     "I saw him run after a gilded butterfly; and when he caught it, he
     let it go again; and after it again; and over and over he comes,
     and up again; catched it again." SHAKESPEARE, _Coriolanus_.

_Butterfly._--The butterflies are medium sized, varying much in the form
of wing, in some species greatly resembling other _Pierinæ_ in outline,
but more frequently resembling the Ithomiid and Heliconiid butterflies,
which they mimic. Some of them represent transitional forms between the
type commonly represented in the genus _Pieris_ and the forms found in
the two above-mentioned protected groups. The eyes are not prominent.
The palpi are quite small. The basal joint is long, the middle joint
oval, and the third joint small, oval, or slightly club-shaped. The
antennæ are long, thin, terminating in a gradually enlarged
spindle-shaped club; the fore wings being sometimes oval, more
frequently elongated, twice, or even three times, as long as broad,
especially in the male sex; the apex pointed, falcate, or rounded. The
cell is long and narrow. The first subcostal vein varies as to location,
rising either before or after the end of the cell, and, in numerous
cases, coalescing with the costal vein, as is shown in the cut.

_Early Stages._--Of the early stages of these interesting insects we
have no satisfactory knowledge.

[Illustration FIG. 138.--Neuration of the genus _Dismorphia_.]

The species of the genus belong exclusively to the tropical regions of
the New World. There are about a hundred species which have already been
named and described, and undoubtedly there are many more which remain to
be discovered. These insects can always be distinguished from the
protected genera which they mimic by the possession of six
well-developed ambulatory feet in both sexes, the protected genera being
possessed of only four feet adapted to walking.

(1) =Dismorphia melite=, Linnæus, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 17, ♂; Fig. 18, ♀
(The Mime).

_Butterfly._--The figures in the plate make a description of the upper
side unnecessary. On the under side the wings of the male are shining
white, except the costa, which is evenly dull ochreous from the base to
the apex. The hind wings are ochreous, mottled with pale brown. The
female, on the under side, has the fore wings very pale yellow, with the
black spots of the upper side reproduced; the hind wings are deeper
yellow, mottled with pale-brown spots and crossed by a moderately broad
transverse pale-brown band of the same color.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The species is credited to our fauna on the authority of Reakirt. It is
abundant in Mexico. It mimics certain forms of _Ithomiinæ_.


Genus NEOPHASIA, Behr

  "It was an hour of universal joy.
  The lark was up and at the gate of heaven,
  Singing, as sure to enter when he came;
  The butterfly was basking in my path,
  His radiant wings unfolded."

  ROGERS.

_Butterfly._--Medium sized, white in color, more nearly related in the
structure of its wings to the European genus _Aporia_ than to any other
of the American pieridine genera. The upper radial is lacking, and the
subcostal is provided with five branches, the first emitted well before
the end of the cell; the second likewise emitted before the end of the
cell and terminating at the apex; the third, fourth, and fifth rising
from a common stalk at the outer upper angle of the cell.

[Illustration FIG. 139.--Neuration of the genus _Neophasia_.]

_Early Stages._--The egg is flask-shaped, fluted on the sides, recalling
the shape of the "pearl-top" lamp-chimney. The caterpillar, in its
mature form, is about an inch long. The body is cylindrical, terminating
in two short anal tails. The color is dark green, with a broad white
band on each side, and a narrow band of white on the back. The feet are
black, and the prolegs greenish-yellow. The chrysalis is dark green,
striped with white, resembling the chrysalids of the genus _Colias_,
but somewhat more slender. The caterpillar feeds upon conifers. But one
species is known.

(1) =Neophasia menapia=, Felder, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 7, ♂ (The Pine White).

_Butterfly._--The insect on the under side sometimes has the outer
margin of the secondaries marked with spots of bright pinkish-red,
resembling in this style of coloration certain species of the genus
_Delias_ of the Indo-Malayan fauna.

_Early Stages._--These have been thoroughly described by Edwards in his
third volume. The caterpillar infests the pine-trees and firs of the
northern Pacific States. The larva lets itself down by a silken thread,
often a hundred feet in length, and pupates on the ferns and shrubbery
at the foot of the trees. It sometimes works great damage to the pine
woods.


Genus TACHYRIS, Wallace

  "The virtuoso thus, at noon,
  Broiling beneath a July sun,
  The gilded butterfly pursues
  O'er hedge and ditch, through gaps and mews;
  And, after many a vain essay
  To captivate the tempting prey,
  Gives him at length the lucky pat,
  And has him safe beneath his hat;
  Then lifts it gently from the ground;
  But, ah! 't is lost as soon as found.
  Culprit his liberty regains,
  Flits out of sight, and mocks his pains."

  COWPER.

This genus, which includes about seventy species, may be distinguished
from all other genera belonging to the _Pierinæ_ by the two stiff
brush-like clusters of hairs which are found in the male sex attached to
the abdominal clasps. All of the species belonging to the genus are
found in the Old World, with exception of the species described in this
book, which has a wide range throughout the tropical and subtropical
regions of the New World. The peculiarities of neuration are well shown
in the accompanying cut, in which the hind wing has been somewhat unduly
magnified in proportion to the fore wing.

_Early Stages._--The life-history of our species has not been thoroughly
studied, but we have ascertained enough of the early stages of various
species found in the tropics of the Old World to know that there is a
very close relationship between this genus and that which follows in our
classification.

(1) =Tachyris ilaire=, Godart, Plate XXXV, Fig. 4, ♂; Fig. 5, ♀ (The
Florida White).

_Butterfly._--The hind wings of the male on the under side, which is not
shown in the plate, are very pale saffron. The under side of the wings
in the female is pearly-white, marked with bright orange-yellow at the
base of the primaries. A melanic form of the female sometimes occurs in
which the wings are almost wholly dull blackish on both sides.

_Early Stages._--We know, as yet, but little of these.

The insect is universally abundant in the tropics of America, and occurs
in southern Florida.

[Illustration FIG. 140.--Neuration of the genus _Tachyris_. Hind wing
relatively enlarged.]


Genus PIERIS, Schrank

(The Whites)

  "And there, like a dream in a swoon, I swear
    I saw Pan lying,--his limbs in the dew
  And the shade, and his face in the dazzle and glare
  Of the glad sunshine; while everywhere,
    Over, across, and around him blew
  Filmy dragon-flies hither and there,
    And little white butterflies, two and two.
        In eddies of odorous air."

  JAMES WHITCOMB RILEY.

_Butterfly._--Medium-sized butterflies, white in color, marked in many
species on both the upper and under sides with dark brown. The antennæ
are distinctly clubbed, moderate in length. The palpi are short,
delicate, compressed, with the terminal joint quite short and pointed.
The subcostal vein of the primaries has four branches, the first
subcostal arising before the end of the cell, the second at its upper
outer angle, and the third and fourth from a common stem emitted at the
same point. The outer margin of the primaries is straight, the outer
margin of the secondaries more or less evenly rounded.

_Egg._--The egg is spindle-shaped, with vertical raised ridges.

_Caterpillar._--Elongate, the head hemispherical, very slightly, if at
all, larger in diameter than the body. The caterpillars feed upon
cruciferous plants.

_Chrysalis._--Attached by the anal extremity, and held in place by a
silk girdle; slightly concave on the ventral side; convex on the dorsal
side, with a distinct or pointed hump-like projection on the thorax. At
the point where the thoracic and abdominal segments unite in some
species there is in addition a distinct keel-shaped eminence, and at the
head the chrysalis is furnished with a short conical projection.

[Illustration FIG. 141.--Neuration of the genus _Pieris_.]

(1) =Pieris monuste=, Linnæus, Plate XXXV, Fig. 1, ♂; Fig. 2, ♀ (The
Great Southern White).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of the wings, depicted in the plate,
requires no comment. On the under side the black marginal markings of
the primaries reappear as pale-brown markings. The hind wing is pale
yellow or grayish-saffron, crossed by an ill-defined pale-brown
transverse band of spots, and has the veins marked with pale brown, and
interspersed between them pale-brown rays on the interspaces.

_Early Stages._--What we know of these is derived principally from Abbot
through Boisduval, and there is opportunity here for investigation.

The species has a wide range through tropical America, and is not
uncommon in the Gulf States.

(2) =Pieris beckeri=, Edwards, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 8, ♂; Fig. 9, ♀
(Becker's White).

_Butterfly._--This species, through the green markings of the under side
of the hind wings, concentrated in broad blotches on the disk, recalls
somewhat the species of the genus _Euchloë_, and by these markings it
may easily be discriminated from all other allied species.

_Early Stages._--These have been in part described by Edwards in the
second volume of "The Butterflies of North America."

The species ranges from Oregon to central California, and eastward to
Colorado.

(3) =Pieris occidentalis=, Reakirt, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 13, ♂ (The Western
White).

_Butterfly._--Not unlike the preceding species on the upper side, but
easily distinguished by the markings of the under side of the wings,
which are not concentrated in blotches, but extend as broad longitudinal
rays on either side of the veins from the base to the outer margin.

_Early Stages._--These require further investigation. We do not, as yet,
know much about them.

The species has a wide range in the mountain States of the West, where
it replaces the Eastern _P. protodice_.

(4) =Pieris protodice=, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 10, ♂;
Fig. 11, ♀; Plate II, Fig. 7, _larva_; Plate V, Figs. 66, 67,
_chrysalis_ (see also p. 12, Fig. 26) (The Common White).

_Butterfly._--Allied to the foregoing species, especially to _P.
occidentalis_; but it may always be quickly distinguished by the pure,
immaculate white color of the hind wings of the male on the under side,
and by the fact that in the female the hind wings are more lightly
marked along the veins by gray-green.

Winter form =vernalis=, Edwards, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 18, ♂. What has been
said of the typical or summer form does not hold true of this winter
form, which emerges from chrysalids which have withstood the cold from
autumn until spring. The butterflies emerging from these are generally
dwarfed in size, and in the males have the dark spots on the upper side
of the wings almost obsolete or greatly reduced, and the dark markings
along the veins on the under side well developed, as in _P.
occidentalis_. The females, on the contrary, show little reduction in
the size and intensity of any of the spots, but rather a deepening of
color, except in occasional instances.

_Early Stages._--The life-history of this insect has often been
described. The caterpillar feeds upon cruciferous plants, like many of
its congeners.

It ranges from the Atlantic to the Rocky Mountains, from Canada to the
Gulf States.

(5) =Pieris sisymbri=, Boisduval, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 12, ♂ (The California
White).

_Butterfly._--Smaller in size than the preceding species, with the
veins of the fore wing black, contrasting sharply with the white
ground-color. All the spots are smaller and more regular, especially
those on the outer margin of the fore wing, giving the edge an evenly
checkered appearance. On the under side the hind wings have the veins
somewhat widely bordered with gray, interrupted about the middle of the
wing by the divergence of the lines on either side of the veins in such
a way as to produce the effect of a series of arrow-points with their
barbs directed toward the base. The female is like the male, with the
markings a little heavier. A yellow varietal form is sometimes found.

_Early Stages._--The life-history is given and illustrated by Edwards in
his second volume. The caterpillar, which is green, banded with black,
feeds upon the _Cruciferæ_.

(6) =Pieris napi=, Esper, Plate II, Figs. 8, 9, _larva_; Plate V, Figs.
57, 63, 64, _chrysalis_ (The Mustard White).

_Butterfly._--This is a Protean species, of which there exist many
forms, the result of climatic and local influences. Even the larva and
chrysalis show in different regions slight microscopic differences, for
the influences which affect the imago are operative also in the early
stages of development. The typical form which is found in Europe is
rarely found in North America, though I have specimens from the northern
parts of the Pacific coast region which are absolutely indistinguishable
from European specimens in color and markings. I give a few of the
well-marked forms or varieties found in North America to which names
have been given.

(_a_) Winter form =oleracea-hiemalis=, Harris, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 16, ♂
(see also p. 5, Fig. 9, and p. 13, Fig. 27). The wings are white above
in both sexes. Below the fore wings are tipped with pale yellow, and the
entire hind wing is yellow. The veins at the apex of the fore wings and
on the hind wings are margined with dusky.

(_b_) Aberrant form =virginiensis=, Edwards, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 14, ♂. The
wings are white above, slightly tipped at the apex of the fore wings
with blackish. Below the wings are white, faintly, but broadly, margined
with pale dusky.

(_c_) Form =pallida=, Scudder, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 15, ♀. In this form the
wings are white above and below, with a small black spot on the fore
wing of the female above, and hardly any trace of dark shading along the
veins on the under side.

(_d_) Alpine or arctic form =bryoniæ=, Ochsenheimer, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 17,
♀. In this form, which is found in Alaska, Siberia, and the Alps of
Europe, the veins above and below are strongly bordered with blackish,
and the ground-color of the hind wings and the apex of the fore wings on
the under side are distinctly bright yellow.

(_e_) Newfoundland variety =acadica=, Edwards, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 19, ♀.
This form is larger than the others, and in markings intermediate
between _pallida_ and _bryoniæ_. The under side in both sexes and the
upper side in the female are distinctly yellowish.

_Early Stages._--These are well known and have often been described, but
some of the varietal forms need further study.

The species ranges from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from Alaska to
the northern limits of the Gulf States.

(7) =Pieris rapæ=, Linnæus, Plate XXXV, Fig. 3, ♀; Plate II, Figs. 11,
12, _larva_; Plate V, Figs. 58, 65, _chrysalis_ (The Cabbage-butterfly).

_Butterfly._--This common species, which is a recent importation from
Europe, scarcely needs any description. It is familiar to everyone. The
story of its introduction and the way in which it has spread over the
continent has been well told by Dr. Scudder in the second volume of "The
Butterflies of New England," p. 1175. The insect reached Quebec about
1860. How it came no man knows; perhaps in a lot of cabbages imported
from abroad; maybe a fertile female was brought over as a stowaway. At
all events, it came. Estimates show that a single female of this species
might be the progenitor in a few generations of millions. In 1863 the
butterfly was already common about Quebec, and was spreading rapidly. By
the year 1881 it had spread over the eastern half of the continent, the
advancing line of colonization reaching from Hudson Bay to southern
Texas. In 1886 it reached Denver, as in 1884 it had reached the head
waters of the Missouri, and it now possesses the cabbage-fields from the
Atlantic to the Pacific, to the incalculable damage of all who provide
the raw material for sauer-kraut. The injury annually done by the
caterpillar is estimated to amount to hundreds of thousands of dollars.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXIV                                   |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Euchloë cethura_, Felder, var.                           |
  |     _morrisoni_, Edwards, ♂.                                 |
  | 2. _Euchloë creusa_, Dbl.-Hew., ♀,                           |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 3. _Euchloë ausonides_, Boisduval, ♂,                        |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 4. _Euchloë sara_, Boisduval, var. _flora_,                  |
  |     Wright, ♂.                                               |
  | 5. _Euchloë sara_, Boisduval, var. _flora_,                  |
  |     Wright, ♀.                                               |
  | 6. _Euchloë sara_, Boisduval, var. _julia_,                  |
  |     Edwards, ♀, _under side_.                                |
  | 7. _Neophasia menapia_, Felder, ♂.                           |
  | 8. _Pieris beckeri_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 9. _Pieris beckeri_, Edwards, ♀.                             |
  | 10. _Pieris protodice_, Boisd.-Lec., ♂.                      |
  | 11. _Pieris protodice_, Boisd.-Lec., ♀.                      |
  | 12. _Pieris sisymbri_, Boisduval, ♂.                         |
  | 13. _Pieris occidentalis_, Reakirt, ♂.                       |
  | 14. _Pieris virginiensis_, Edwards, ♂.                       |
  | 15. _Pieris napi_, Esper, var. _pallida_,                    |
  |     Scudder, ♀.                                              |
  | 16. _Pieris napi_, Esper, var. _oleracea-hiemalis_,          |
  |     Harris, ♂.                                               |
  | 17. _Pieris napi_, Esper, var. _bryoniæ_,                    |
  |     Ochsenheimer, ♀.                                         |
  | 18. _Pieris protodice_, Boisd.-Lec., var.                    |
  |     _vernalis_,                                              |
  |     Edwards, ♂.                                              |
  | 19. _Pieris napi_, Esper, var. _acadica_,                    |
  |     Edwards, ♀.                                              |
  | 20. _Kricogonia lyside_, Godart, ♂.                          |
  | 21. _Kricogonia lyside_, Godart, ♀.                          |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XXXIV.]                                  |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+


INSTINCT

Two city fathers were standing in the market-place beside a pile of
cabbages. A naturalist, who was their friend, came by. As he approached,
a cabbage-butterfly, fluttering about the place lit on the straw hat
of one of the dignitaries. The naturalist, accosting him, said: "Friend,
do you know what rests upon your head?" "No," said he. "A butterfly."
"Well," said he, "that brings good luck." "Yes," replied the naturalist;
"and the insect reveals to me the wonderful instinct with which nature
has provided it." "How is that?" quoth the city father. "It is a
cabbage-butterfly that rests upon your head."


Genus NATHALIS, Boisduval

  "The butterflies, gay triflers
  Who in the sunlight sport."

  HEINE.

_Butterfly._--The butterfly is very small, yellow, margined with black.
The upper radial vein in the fore wing is wanting. The subcostal has
four nervules, the third and fourth rising from a common stalk emitted
from the upper outer corner of the cell, the first and second from
before the end of the cell. The precostal vein on the hind wing is
reduced to a small swelling beyond the base. The palpi are slender; the
third joint long and curved; the second joint oval; the third fine,
spindle-shaped, and pointed. The antennæ are rather short, with a
somewhat thick and abruptly developed club.

[Illustration FIG. 142.--Neuration of the genus _Nathalis_, enlarged.]

_Early Stages._--Very little is known of these.

Three species belong to this genus, which is confined to the subtropical
regions of the New World, one species only invading the region of which
this volume treats.

(1) =Nathalis iole=, Boisduval, Plate XXXII, Fig. 21, ♂; Fig. 22, ♀
(The Dwarf Yellow).

_Butterfly._--This little species, which cannot be mistaken, and which
requires no description, as the plate conveys more information
concerning it than could be given in mere words, ranges from southern
Illinois and Missouri to Arizona and southern California. Its
life-history has not yet been described. Expanse, 1.00-1.25 inch.

The identification of this species with _N. felicia_, Poey, which is
found in Cuba, is doubtfully correct. The two species are very closely
allied, but, nevertheless, distinct from each other.


Genus EUCHLOË, Hübner

(=Anthocharis= _of authors_)

(The Orange-tips)

  "When daffodils begin to peer,
    With, heigh! the doxy over the dale,
  Why, then comes in the sweet o' the year;
    For the red blood reigns in the winter's pale."

  SHAKESPEARE.

_Butterfly._--Small butterflies, white in color, with the apical region
of the primaries dark brown, marked with spots and bands of
yellowish-orange or crimson. On the under side the wings are generally
more or less profusely mottled with green spots and striæ.

[Illustration FIG. 143.--Neuration of the genus _Euchloë_].

_Egg._--Spindle-shaped (see p. 4, Fig. 6), laterally marked with raised
vertical ridges, between which are finer cross-lines.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar, in its mature stage, is relatively
long, with the head small.

_Chrysalis._--With the head relatively enormously projecting; wing-cases
compressed, and uniting to form a conspicuous keel-shaped projection,
the highest point of which lies at the juncture of the two ends of the
silk girdle where they are attached to the supporting surface.

There are numerous species of this genus, and all are exceedingly
pretty.

(1) =Euchloë sara=, Boisduval, Plate XXXII, Fig. 28, ♂; Fig. 29, ♀
(Sara).

_Butterfly._--The wings on the upper side in both sexes are shown in the
figures above cited. On the under side the hind wings are marked with
dark irregular patches of greenish-brown scales loosely scattered over
the surface, and having a "mossy" appearance.

There are several forms which are regarded by recent writers as
varieties and may probably be such. Of these we give the following:

(_a_) Variety =reakirti=, Edwards, Plate XXXII, Fig. 31, ♂; Fig. 32, ♀
(Reakirt's Orange-tip) =flora=, Wright, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 4, ♂; Fig. 5,
♀. This form hardly differs at all from the form _sara_, except in
being smaller, and having the margins of the hind wings marked with dark
spots at the ends of the veins.

(_b_) Variety =Stella=, Edwards, Plate XXXII, Fig. 35, ♂; Fig. 36, ♀
(Stella). The females of this form are prevalently yellowish on the
upper side of the wings; otherwise they are marked exactly as the
preceding variety.

(_c_) Variety =julia=, Edwards, Plate XXXII, Fig. 34, ♂; Plate XXXIV,
Fig. 6, ♀, _under side_ (Julia). The only distinction in this form is
the fact that the black bar dividing the red apical patch from the white
on the remainder of the wing is broken, or tends to diminution at its
middle.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The species, in all its forms, belongs to the mountain States of the
Pacific coast. _Flora_, Wright, is regarded by Beutenmüller, who has
given us the latest revision of the genus, as identical with _sara_. It
comes nearer the variety _reakirti_ than any other form, as will be seen
by an examination of the plates which give figures of the types.
Expanse, 1.25-1.75 inch.

(2) =Euchloë ausonides=, Boisduval, Plate XXXII, Fig. 24, ♂; Fig. 25,
♀; Plate XXXIV, Fig. 3, ♂, _under side_ (Ausonides).

_Butterfly._--On the under side the fore wings are greenish; the hind
wings are marked with three irregular green bands, the outer one forking
into six or seven branches toward the outer and inner margins. Expanse,
1.65-1.90 inch.

_Early Stages._--The larva and chrysalis are described by Edwards in
"The Butterflies of North America," vol. ii. The caterpillar is pale
whitish-green, with dark-green longitudinal stripes on the side and
back. It feeds on cruciferous plants.

_Ausonides_ ranges from Arizona to Alaska, and eastward to Colorado.

(3) =Euchloë creusa=, Doubleday and Hewitson, Plate XXXII, Fig. 23, ♂;
Plate XXXIV, Fig. 2, ♀, _under side_ (Creusa).

_Butterfly._--Similar to the preceding species, but smaller, the white
more lustrous on the under side, and the green markings on the under
side of the wings heavier. Expanse, 1.20-1.40 inch.

_Early Stages._--We know very little of these.

The species is reported from California, Colorado, and Alberta. I
possess a singular varietal form or aberration from Arizona, in which
the black spot on the upper side of the primaries fills the outer half
of the cell.

(4) =Euchloë rosa=, Edwards, Plate XXXII, Fig. 39, ♂, _under side_
(Rosa).

_Butterfly._--Pure white, without any red at the tip of the primaries.
The transapical black band is broken in the middle, and a black bar
closes the cell. The under side is well represented in the plate.
Expanse, 1.35-1.40 inch.

_Early Stages._--Entirely unknown.

The species is found in Texas.

(5) =Euchloë cethura=, Felder, Plate XXXII, Fig. 26, ♂; Fig. 27, ♀;
form =morrisoni=, Edwards, Plate XXXIV, Fig. 1, ♂ (Cethura).

_Butterfly._--This delicate little insect, for the identification of
which the plates will abundantly serve, has been regarded as existing in
two varietal forms, one of which has been named after the indefatigable
collector Morrison, whose death is still lamented by the elder
generation of American entomologists. The varietal form is characterized
by the heavier green markings of the under side of the wings. Expanse,
1.25-1.40 inch.

(6) =Euchloë pima=, Edwards, Plate XXXII, Fig. 33, ♂ (The Pima
Orange-tip).

_Butterfly._--This beautiful and well-marked species, the most brilliant
of the genus, is yellow on the upper side in both sexes. The red of the
upper side appears on the lower side. The hind wings are heavily marked
with solid green bands. Expanse, 1.50 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The only specimens thus far known have come from Arizona.

(7) =Euchloë genutia=, Fabricius, Plate XXXII, Fig. 37, ♂; Fig. 38, ♀;
Plate II, Fig. 5, _larva_; Plate V, Fig. 59, _chrysalis_; Fig. 6, p. 4,
_egg_ (The Falcate Orange-tip).

_Butterfly._--This species is readily recognized by the decidedly
falcate tip of the fore wings. The first brood appears in early spring.
It is single-brooded in the Northern States, but is double-brooded in
the western portions of North Carolina, where I have taken it quite
abundantly late in the autumn. Expanse, 1.30-1.50 inch.

_Early Stages._--The life-history is well known. The caterpillar feeds
on _Sisymbrium_, _Arabis_, _Cardamine_, and other cruciferous plants.

It ranges from New England to Texas, but is not found, so far as is
known, in the regions of the Rocky Mountains and on the Pacific coast.

(8) =Euchloë lanceolata=, Boisduval, Plate XXXII, Fig. 30, ♂
(Boisduval's Marble).

_Butterfly._--The figure gives a correct idea of the upper surface of
the male. The female on the upper side is marked with light-black spots
on the outer margin near the apex. On the under side in both sexes the
apex of the primaries and the entire surface of the secondaries, except
a small spot on the costa, are profusely sprinkled with small brown
scales. The veins of the hind wing are brown. Expanse, 1.65-1.95 inch.

_Early Stages._--The caterpillar, which feeds upon _Turritis_, is green,
shaded on the sides with pale blue, striped laterally with white, and
covered with transverse rows of minute black points, each bearing a
short black bristle. We know nothing of the other stages.

The species ranges from northern California to Alaska.


Genus CATOPSILIA, Hübner

(The Great Sulphurs)

  "A golden butterfly, upon whose wings
  There must be surely character'd strange things,

         *       *       *       *       *

  Onward it flew, ... then high it soar'd,
  And downward suddenly began to dip,
  As if, athirst with so much toil, 't would sip
  The crystal spout-head; so it did, with touch
  Most delicate, as though afraid to smutch
  Even with mealy gold the waters clear."

  KEATS, _Endymion_.

_Butterfly._--Large butterflies, brilliant lemon-yellow or
orange-yellow, marked with a few darker spots and with a narrow band of
brown, especially in the female sex, on the outer margin of the
primaries. They are very quick and vigorous in flight, more so than is
the case in any of the preceding genera.

_Egg._--The eggs are spindle-shaped, flat at the base, and acutely
pointed, with a few longitudinal ribs and a multitude of delicate
cross-lines.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar is relatively long, with the head
small; the segments somewhat moniliform, resembling beads strung
together, the surface covered with a multitude of minute papillæ ranged
in transverse rows.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is strongly concave on the dorsal side, with
the head greatly produced as a long, pointed, conical projection; the
wing-cases are compressed and form a very wide, keel-shaped projection
on the ventral side. This peculiar formation of the wing-cases reaches
its greatest development in this genus.

The butterflies of this genus are mainly tropical. Four or five species,
however, are found in the warmer parts of the United States, and one of
them ranges north as far as northern New Jersey, and has been
occasionally taken even in northern Illinois.

[Illustration FIG. 144.--Neuration of the genus _Catopsilia_.]

(1) =Catopsilia eubule=, Linnæus, Plate XXXIII, Fig. 2, ♂; Fig. 3, ♂,
_under side_; Plate II, Figs. 2, 4, _larva_; Plate V, Figs. 60-62,
_chrysalis_ (The Cloudless Sulphur).

_Butterfly._--This splendid and vigorous butterfly is found from New
England and Wisconsin to Patagonia, being very abundant in the tropics,
where it congregates in great swarms upon moist places by the side of
streams. It haunts in great numbers the orange-groves of the South, and
is very fond of flowers. It is rare on the northern limits of its range,
though quite common on the coast of New Jersey. Expanse, 2.50 inches.
The caterpillar feeds on leguminous plants, but especially upon the
different species of _Cassia_.

(2) =Catopsilia philea=, Linnæus, Plate XXXIII, Fig. 4, ♂ (The
Red-barred Sulphur).

_Butterfly._--This is another noble species of this fine genus, which
includes some of the showiest insects of the subfamily. It may be
readily recognized by the bar of deep orange crossing the cell of the
primaries, and by the orange tint on the outer margin of the hind wings.
Expanse, 3.00-3.50 inches.

_Early Stages._--But little is as yet known of these. The larva feeds on
the same kinds of plants as the larva of _C. eubule_. It occurs in
Texas, and is said to have also been found in Illinois as a straggler.
It is abundant in Mexico, Central America, and southward.

(3) =Catopsilia agarithe=, Boisduval, Plate XXXIII, Fig. 1, ♂ (The Large
Orange Sulphur).

_Butterfly._--About the same size as _C. eubule_, but deep orange on
both sides of the wings. The wings of the female are bordered somewhat
heavily with brown, and are duller in color than those of the male.
Expanse, 2.50-2.75 inches.

_Early Stages._--The caterpillar, which resembles that of _eubule_,
feeds upon various species of _Cassia_. The chrysalis is also much like
that of =eubule=. We need, however, fuller information than that which we
possess, drawn, for the most part, from the pages of authors who wrote
in the last century.

The species occurs in the hot parts of the Gulf States, and is common
throughout tropical America.


Genus KRICOGONIA, Reakirt

_Butterfly._--Medium sized, bright yellow on the upper and lower sides,
with some dark markings, especially in the male. The primaries in the
male are generally quite strongly falcate.

[Illustration FIG. 145.--Neuration of the genus _Kricogonia_.]

_Early Stages._--Nothing has, as yet, been satisfactorily ascertained in
relation to these.

The genus is not large, and is confined to the tropical regions of the
New World, being represented in our fauna in the vicinity of the city of
Brownsville, in Texas.

(1) =Kricogonia lyside=, Godart (form =terissa=, Lucas), Plate XXXIV, Fig.
20, ♂; Fig. 21, ♀ (Lyside).

_Butterfly._--This insect, which may easily be distinguished from all
its allies by its peculiar markings, is found in Florida and Texas, and
is widely spread over the Antilles and tropical America. We know nothing
of its life-history. A number of closely allied forms, reckoned as
species, are known from the Antilles and Central America. They are so
closely related to each other that it is believed that they are possibly
only varieties or local races. We cannot, however, be sure of this until
the test of breeding has been applied. Expanse, 1.90-2.10 inches.


Genus MEGANOSTOMA, Reakirt

(The Dog-face Butterflies)

  "Let me smell the wild white rose,
  Smell the woodbine and the may;
  Mark, upon a sunny day,
  Sated from their blossoms rise,
  Honey-bees and butterflies."

  JEAN INGELOW.

_Butterfly._--Closely resembling those of the following genus, _Colias_,
from which they may be readily distinguished by the more acutely pointed
apex of the fore wings and by the remarkable coloration of these wings
in the male sex, the dark outer borders being disposed upon the lighter
ground-color so as to present the appearance of a rude outline of the
head of a dog, whence these butterflies have sometimes been called the
"dog-face butterflies."

[Illustration FIG. 146.--Neuration of the genus _Meganostoma_.]

_Egg._--Fusiform, strongly pointed at the apex, broader at the base, the
sides marked with a few delicate ridges, between which are numerous
cross-lines.

_Caterpillar._--Elongate, cylindrical, the head relatively small,
striped on either side by a whitish lateral line, each segment having a
transverse darker line. They feed upon leguminous plants.

_Chrysalis._--Pointed at the head, convex on the abdominal segments on
the dorsal side, with a decided hump on the thorax. The wing-covers
unite to form a moderately deep carinate, or keel-shaped, projection on
the ventral side, not, however, nearly as large as in the genus
_Catopsilia_.

But two species of the genus are found within our fauna, one widely
distributed throughout the Southern and Southwestern States, the other
confined to the Pacific coast.

(1) =Meganostoma eurydice=, Boisduval, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 1, ♂; Fig. 2,
♀ (The Californian Dog-face).

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXV                                    |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Pieris monuste_, Linnæus, ♂.                             |
  | 2. _Pieris monuste_, Linnæus, ♀.                             |
  | 3. _Pieris rapæ_, Linnæus, ♀.                                |
  | 4. _Tachyris ilaire_, Godart, ♂.                             |
  | 5. _Tachyris ilaire_, Godart, ♀.                             |
  | 6. _Colias alexandra_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  | 7. _Colias alexandra_, Edwards, ♀.                           |
  | 8. _Colias scudderi_, Reakirt, ♂.                            |
  | 9. _Colias scudderi_, Reakirt, ♀.                            |
  | 10. _Colias interior_, Scudder, ♂.                           |
  | 11. _Colias interior_, Scudder, ♀.                           |
  | 12. _Colias chrysomelas_, Henry                              |
  |     Edwards, ♂.                                              |
  | 13. _Colias chrysomelas_, Henry                              |
  |     Edwards, ♀.                                              |
  | 14. _Colias pelidne_, Boisduval, ♂.                          |
  | 15. _Colias eriphyle_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XXXV.]                                   |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+


_Butterfly._--The splendid purplish iridescence of the fore wings of the
male is only faintly indicated in the plate. This beautiful insect
is peculiar to the Pacific coast, and there is a wide difference in
appearance between the sexes. Expanse, 1.80-2.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--The caterpillar feeds upon _Amorpha californica_. The
life-history has been accurately described, and the various stages
depicted, by Edwards.

(2) =Meganostoma cæsonia=, Stoll, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 3, ♂; Fig. 4, ♀
(The Southern Dog-face).

_Butterfly._--The sexes are much alike in this species, which ranges
widely over the Southern States, and is found even in southern Illinois
and sometimes still farther north. Expanse, 2.25 inches.

_Early Stages._--These have been fully described by various authors,
most carefully by Edwards.


Genus COLIAS, Fabricius

(The Sulphurs)

  "Above the arching jimson-weeds flare twos
    And twos of sallow-yellow butterflies,
  Like blooms of lorn primroses blowing loose
    When autumn winds arise."

  JAMES WHITCOMB RILEY

_Butterfly._--Medium-sized butterflies, yellow or orange in color, with
black borders upon the wings. In many species this border is heavier in
the female than in the male.

[Illustration FIG. 147.--Neuration of the genus _Colias_.]

_Egg._--The egg is spindle-shaped, thickest at the middle, tapering at
the apex and at the base, generally attached by an enlarged disk-like
expansion to the point on which it is laid. The upper extremity is
rounded; the sides are marked by small vertical ridges, between which
are delicate cross-lines.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillars strongly resemble in appearance those
of the preceding genus, from which, superficially, they cannot be
distinguished by any anatomical peculiarities. They feed upon
_Leguminosæ_, and especially upon clover (_Trifolium_).

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalids do not generally differ in appearance from
the chrysalids of the genus _Meganostoma_, though the wing-cases do not
form as high a keel-shaped projection from the ventral side as in that
genus.

This genus is very extensive, being represented throughout the temperate
regions of both hemispheres, and also occurring in the cooler portions
of South America, especially along the ranges of the Andes. One species
is found in temperate South Africa. The brightly colored butterflies,
which are sometimes found congregating in immense numbers in moist
places, are familiar objects, and swarm upon the clover-fields and by
the roadside in the summer months throughout the United States.

(1) =Colias meadi=, Edwards, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 5, ♂; Fig. 6, ♀ (Mead's
Sulphur).

_Butterfly._--The wings on the upper side are orange, greenish on the
under side. The discal spot on the lower side is centered with green.
Expanse, 1.75 inch.

_Early Stages._--The life-history has been written by Edwards, and may
be found in the pages of the "Canadian Entomologist," vol. xxi, p. 41.
The larva feeds on clover.

The species is alpine in its habits, and is found in Colorado from nine
to twelve thousand feet above sea-level.

(2) =Colias elis=, Strecker, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 13, ♂; Fig. 14, ♀
(Strecker's Sulphur).

_Butterfly._--This species is discriminated from the preceding
principally by the narrower black margins on the wings of the male and
the more abundant yellow maculation of the borders in the female.
Expanse, 1.55-1.90 inch.

_Early Stages._--Closely resembling those of the preceding species, of
which it may be only a varietal form.

The habitat of the species is on the lofty peaks of the Western
Cordilleras.

(3) =Colias eurytheme=, Boisduval, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 18, ♀; Plate
XXXIII, Fig. 5, ♂, _under side_; Plate II, Fig. 1, _larva_; Plate V,
Fig. 53, _chrysalis_ (Eurytheme).

_Butterfly._--This species has been made in recent years the
subject of exhaustive study, and has been discovered to be strongly
polymorphic--that is to say, liable to great variation. Not only does
albinism assert itself in the production of white forms, but there are
many seasonal and climatic forms. We are not yet through with our
studies, and there is doubtless much more to be ascertained. The figures
cited above represent the typical form of the species. We have given,
in addition to these, the following forms:

(_a_) Winter form =ariadne=, Edwards, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 7, ♂; Fig. 8,
♀. This form, emerging from chrysalids which have overwintered, is like
the type in having the fore wings tinged with orange. Expanse, 1.75
inch.

(_b_) Winter form =keewaydin=, Edwards, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 9, ♂; Fig. 10,
♀. This is a larger form, more deeply flushed with orange, though not
quite as deeply as shown in the plate. Expanse, 1.85 inch.

(_c_) Summer form =eriphyle=, Edwards, Plate XXXV, Fig. 15, ♂; Plate
XLIII, Fig. 3, ♂, _under side_. This summer form differs from typical
_C. eurytheme_ in being yellow and not laved with orange. Expanse, 2.00
inches.

_Early Stages._--The caterpillar feeds on clover, as do most of the
species of the genus.

The range of _eurytheme_ is very wide. It extends from the Atlantic to
the Pacific, and from Canada to the far South, though rare in the lower
parts of Florida and Texas in the hot lands.

(4) =Colias philodice=, Godart, Plate I (Frontispiece), Fig. 4, ♂; Fig.
5, ♀; Plate II, Fig. 10, _larva_; Plate V, Figs. 54, 55, _chrysalis_
(The Common Sulphur).

_Butterfly._--We are all familiar with this species, the "puddle
butterfly" of our childhood, which sits in swarms on moist places by the
wayside, and makes the clover-fields gay with the flash of yellow wings
in summer. There are many aberrational forms, albinos and negroes, white
forms and dark forms, dwarfed forms and large forms, but in the main the
species is remarkably constant, and seasonal forms and distinctly local
races do not abound as in the case of the preceding species. Expanse, ♂,
1.25-1.80 inch; ♀, 1.60-2.25 inches.

_Early Stages._--The food-plant is clover. The eggs are pale yellow,
changing, after being laid, to crimson. The caterpillar is slender,
green, striped longitudinally with paler green. The chrysalis is pale
green.

The species ranges from New England to Florida, and westward to the
Rocky Mountains.

(5) =Colias chrysomelas=, Henry Edwards, Plate XXXV, Fig. 12, ♂; Fig. 13,
♀ (The Gold-and-black Sulphur).

_Butterfly._--Larger than _C. philodice_. The male on the upper side
is bright lemon-yellow, with broad black margins on both wings. The
female is paler, with the black margin of the hind wing lacking or very
faintly indicated, and the margin of the fore wing much broken up by
yellow spots. On the under side the wings of the male are dusky-orange,
pale yellow on the disk of the primaries; the wings of the female on
this side are pale yellow. Expanse, ♂, 2.00-2.10 inches; ♀, 2.25-2.30
inches.

_Early Stages._--Undescribed.

The home of this species is on the Coast Range of northern California.

(6) =Colias alexandra=, Edwards, Plate XXXV, Fig. 6, ♂; Fig. 7, ♀ (The
Alexandra Sulphur).

_Butterfly._--Larger than _C. philodice_. The male is pale
canary-yellow, with much narrower black borders than the preceding
species. The female is pale yellow or white, without black borders, or,
at most, faint traces of them at the apex of the primaries. On the under
side the wings are silvery-gray, yellow only at the base and on the
inner margin of the primaries. The discal spot on the hind wings is
white. Expanse, ♂, 1.85 inch; ♀, 2.10-2.30 inches.

_Early Stages._--The caterpillar is uniformly yellowish-green, with a
white band on each side, broken with orange-red dashes running through
it. The chrysalis, which resembles that of _C. philodice_ in form, is
yellowish-green, darkest on the dorsal side, and adorned with three
small red dots on the ventral side of the abdomen near the wing-cases.
The caterpillar eats _Astragalus_, _Thermopsis_, and white clover.
Expanse, ♂, 1.90-2.15 inches; ♀, 2.00-2.30 inches.

The species is found in Colorado and the mountain regions to the north
and west of that State.

(7) =Colias interior=, Scudder, Plate XXXV, Fig. 10, ♂; Fig. 11, ♀ (The
Pink-edged Sulphur).

_Butterfly._--The male on the upper side closely resembles _C.
philodice_, but is smaller, the fringes of the wings rose-colored. The
female is pale yellow above, more frequently white, with the tips of the
fore wings lightly marked with blackish. On the under side the fore
wings at the apex and the entire surface of the hind wings are rusty
orange-yellow. The discal spot on the hind wings is silvery, bordered
with rosy-red. Expanse, ♂, 1.30-1.75 inch; ♀, 1.60-2.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--Little is as yet known of these.

The species was first found by Professor Louis Agassiz on the north
shore of Lake Superior. It ranges through a rather narrow belt of
country, through Quebec, Ontario, and westward to the Rocky Mountains
north of the valley of the St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes.

(8) =Colias scudderi=, Reakirt, Plate XXXV, Fig. 8, ♂; Fig. 9, ♀
(Scudder's Sulphur).

_Butterfly._--The male on the upper side is colored like _C. philodice_,
but the black borders are much wider. The fringes are rosy. The female
is generally white,--very rarely slightly yellow,--with very pale dark
borders, or often without any trace of black on the outer margin of the
wings. On the under side the apex of the fore wings and the entire
surface of the hind wings are greenish-gray. The discal spot of the
secondaries is well silvered and margined with pale red. Expanse,
1.80-2.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--We know but little of these, except that the
caterpillar feeds on the leaves of the huckleberry and the willow.

Scudder's Sulphur is found in Colorado, Utah, Montana, and British
Columbia.

(9) _Colias pelidne_, Boisduval, Plate XXXV, Fig. 14, ♂; Plate XXXVI,
Fig. 15, ♂; Fig. 16, ♀ (The Labrador Sulphur).

_Butterfly._--The male on the upper side is pale yellow, with a greenish
tinge on the hind wings; the black borders are narrow; the fringes are
pink. The female on the upper side is white, with very little or no
black on the outer borders, the black marking being confined to the apex
of the fore wings. On the under side the wings are much as in _C.
interior_, and it is possible that the two forms are varieties of one
and the same species. Expanse, 1.60-1.85 inch.

_Early Stages._--Little is known of these.

_Pelidne_ is rather abundant in Labrador at the proper season, and
ranges thence westward and northward in boreal America.

(10) =Colias nastes=, Boisduval, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 11, ♂; Fig. 12, ♀
(The Arctic Sulphur).

_Butterfly._--Easily recognized in both sexes by the pale-greenish tint
of the wings and the tendency of the outer border of the fore wings of
the male to become divided, like those of the female, by a band of pale
spots. Expanse, 1.50-1.65 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This is an arctic species, which is found in Labrador, Greenland, the
far North in British America and Alaska, and on the summits of the Rocky
Mountains in British Columbia.

(11) =Colias behri=, Edwards, Plate XXXVI, Fig. 17, ♂ (Behr's Sulphur).

_Butterfly._--This very rare little species may be easily recognized by
the dark-greenish tint of the upper side of the wings and the light spot
on the upper side of the hind wings. The female has the outer borders
dusky like the male, the dusky shade running inward on the lines of the
veins and nervules. Expanse, 1.50 inch.

_Early Stages._--We know little of these.

The insect has hitherto been taken only at considerable elevations among
the Western Sierras, and the peaks and lofty meadows about the Yosemite
Valley have been until recently the classic locality for the species.

There are a number of other species of the genus _Colias_, and numerous
varieties which have been named and described from the western and
northwestern portions of our region; but it requires almost as much
skill to distinguish them as is required to discriminate between the
different species of willows, asters, and goldenrods, among plants, and
we do not think it worth while to burden the student with an account of
these, and of the controversies which are being waged about them. If any
reader of this book becomes entangled in perplexities concerning the
species of _Colias_, the writer will be glad to try to aid him to
correct conclusions by personal conference or correspondence.


Genus TERIAS, Swainson

(The Small Sulphurs)

  "Hurt no living thing:
  Ladybird, nor butterfly,
  Nor moth with dusty wing,
  Nor cricket chirping cheerily,
  Nor grasshopper so light of leap,
  Nor dancing gnat, nor beetle fat,
  Nor harmless worms that creep."

  CHRISTINA ROSSETTI.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXVI                                   |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Meganostoma eurydice_, Boisduval, ♂.                     |
  | 2. _Meganostoma eurydice_, Boisduval, ♀.                     |
  | 3. _Meganostoma cæsonia_, Stoll, ♂.                          |
  | 4. _Meganostoma cæsonia_, Stoll, ♀.                          |
  | 5. _Colias meadi_, Edwards, ♂.                               |
  | 6. _Colias meadi_, Edwards, ♀.                               |
  | 7. _Colias ariadne_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 8. _Colias ariadne_, Edwards, ♀.                             |
  | 9. _Colias keewaydin_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  | 10. _Colias keewaydin_, Edwards, ♀.                          |
  | 11. _Colias nastes_, Boisduval, ♂.                           |
  | 12. _Colias nastes_, Boisduval, ♀.                           |
  | 13. _Colias elis_, Strecker, ♂.                              |
  | 14. _Colias elis_, Strecker, ♀.                              |
  | 15. _Colias pelidne_, Boisduval (_labradorensis_,            |
  |     Scudder), ♂.                                             |
  | 16. _Colias pelidne_, Boisduval (_labradorensis_,            |
  |     Scudder), ♀.                                             |
  | 17. _Colias behri_, Edwards, ♂.                              |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XXXVI.]                                  |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+


_Butterfly._--Small butterflies, bright orange or yellow, margined with
black. They are more delicate in structure and have thinner wings than
most of the genera belonging to the subfamily of the _Pierinæ_. The
outer margin of the wings is generally straight or slightly rounded,
though in a few species the apex is somewhat acuminate. The outer margin
of the hind wings is generally rounded, though in a few species it is
acuminate.

[Illustration FIG. 148.--Neuration of the genus _Terias_.]

_Egg._--Strongly spindle-shaped, pointed and rounded at the base and at
the apex, much swollen at the middle, its sides marked by numerous broad
but slightly raised vertical ridges.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillars are small, relatively long,
cylindrical, with the head quite small, the thoracic segments somewhat
larger than the others, giving the anterior portion of the body a
slightly humped appearance. They feed upon leguminous plants.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is compressed laterally, with the head
pointed and the wing-cases forming a deep, keel-shaped projection on the
ventral side, more pronounced than in any other genus except
_Catopsilia_.

There are an immense number of species belonging to this genus scattered
through the tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. Many
of the species are dimorphic or polymorphic, and much confusion has
arisen, especially in relation to the Oriental species, on account of
the great tendency to the production of seasonal varieties, many of
which are strikingly different from one another.

(1) =Terias gundlachia=, Poey, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 1, ♂ (Gundlach's
Sulphur).

_Butterfly._--This species is easily recognized by the orange-yellow
tint of the upper side of the wings and the sharply pointed hind wings.
Expanse, 1.80 inch.

_Early Stages._--We know nothing of these.

The species is found in Texas, Arizona, Mexico, and Cuba.

(2) =Terias proterpia=, Fabricius, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 2, ♂ (_Proterpia_).

_Butterfly._--Even deeper orange than the preceding species. The hind
wings are, however, less pointed; the veins and nervules are black at
their ends, and the costal margin of the fore wings is evenly bordered
with black, which does not run down on the outer margin as in _T.
gundlachia_. Expanse, 1.50-1.75 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

_Proterpia_ is found in Texas, Arizona, and Mexico.

(3) =Terias nicippe=, Cramer, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 3, ♂; Fig. 4, ♀; Fig.
5, var. =flava=, ♂; Fig. 6, ♀, _under side_; Plate II, Fig. 6, _larva_;
Plate V, Figs. 51, 52, _chrysalis_ (Nicippe).

_Butterfly._--The plate gives so full a presentation of this common
species as to make a lengthy description unnecessary. It is subject to
considerable variation. I have specimens of many varying shades of
orange and yellow, and a few albino females. The orange form depicted in
Plate XXXVII, Figs. 3 and 4, is typical. The form _flava_ is not
uncommon. Expanse, 1.50-2.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--These are not as well known as they should be in view
of the excessive abundance of the insect in long-settled parts of the
country. The caterpillar feeds upon _Cassia_ in preference to all other
plants, but will eat other leguminosæ.

_Nicippe_ is very rare in New England, but is common south of latitude
40° as far as the Rocky Mountains, and ranges over Cuba, Mexico, and
Guatemala, into Venezuela and even Brazil. It fairly swarms at times in
the Carolinas, Tennessee, Kentucky, and southern Indiana and Illinois. I
have encountered clouds of it on the wing near Jeffersonville, Indiana,
and thence north along the lines of the Pennsylvania Railroad as far as
Seymour. It is not common in western Pennsylvania, but in former years
was taken rather frequently about Pittsburgh.

(4) =Terias mexicana=, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 7, ♂; Fig. 8, ♀, _under side_
(The Mexican Yellow).

_Butterfly._--Easily distinguished from all other species in our fauna
by the pointed hind wings, margined on the outer border with black, and
by the heavy black border of the fore wings, deeply excised inwardly,
recalling the fore wing of the species of the genus _Meganostoma_.
Expanse, ♂, 1.75 inch; ♀, 1.85 inch.

_Early Stages._--We do not, as yet, know much about these.

_T. mexicana_ is very common in Arizona, and occurs also in Texas. It is
abundant in Mexico.

(5) =Terias damaris=, Felder, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 9, ♂; Fig. 10, ♂,
_under side_ (Damaris).

_Butterfly._--Allied to the preceding species, but readily distinguished
from it by the less deeply excised outer border of the fore wing, by the
fact that the black outer margin of the secondaries extends inwardly
beyond the angulated point of the wing, and by the different color and
style of the markings of the lower side. Expanse, 1.35-1.65 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

_Damaris_ occurs in Arizona, and thence ranges south into Venezuela.

(6) =Terias westwoodi.= Boisduval, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 11, ♂ (Westwood's
Yellow).

_Butterfly._--Pale yellow or orange-yellow, with a narrow black border
on the fore wings, beginning on the costa beyond the middle, and not
quite reaching the inner angle. On the under side the wings are pale
yellow, immaculate, or at the apex of the fore wing and the outer angle
of the hind wing broadly marked with very pale reddish-brown. Expanse,
1.75-2.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

Westwood's Yellow occurs in Texas and Arizona, but is not common. It is
abundant farther south.

(7) =Terias lisa=, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 13, ♂; Plate
II, Fig. 3, _larva_; Plate V, Fig. 56, _chrysalis_ (The Little Sulphur).

_Butterfly._--Allied to the three following species, from which it may
at once be distinguished by the absence of the black bar on the inner
margin of the fore wings and by the profusely mottled surface of the
under side of the hind wings. It is subject to considerable variation,
albino females and melanic males being sometimes found, as well as
dwarfed specimens of very small size. Expanse, 1.25-1.60 inch.

_Early Stages._--These have not been thoroughly studied and described,
in spite of the fact that the insect is very common in many easily
accessible localities. The caterpillar feeds on _Cassia_ and on clover.

_T. lisa_ ranges from New England south and west as far as the
foot-hills of the Rocky Mountains, and into Mexico and Honduras. It is
found in the Antilles and Bermuda. An interesting account of the
appearance of a vast swarm of these butterflies in the Bermudas is given
by Jones in "Psyche," vol. i, p. 121:

"Early in the morning of the first day of October last year (1874),
several persons living on the north side of the main island perceived,
as they thought, a cloud coming over from the northwest, which drew
nearer and nearer to the shore, on reaching which it divided into two
parts, one of which went eastward, and the other westward, gradually
falling upon the land. They were not long in ascertaining that what they
had taken for a cloud was an immense concourse of small yellow
butterflies (_Terias lisa_, Boisduval), which flitted about all the open
grassy patches and cultivated grounds in a lazy manner, as if fatigued
after their long voyage over the deep. Fishermen out near the reefs,
some few miles to the north of the island, very early that morning,
stated that numbers of these insects fell upon their boats, literally
covering them. They did not stay long upon the islands, however, only a
few days, but during that time thousands must have fallen victims to the
vigorous appetite of the bluebird (_Sialia sialis_, Baird) and blackbird
(_Mimus carolinensis_, Gray), which were continually preying upon them."

As the nearest point of land is Cape Hatteras, about six hundred miles
distant, it is seen that, weak and feeble as this little creature
appears, it must possess, when aided by favoring winds, great power of
sustained flight.

(8) =Terias elathea=, Cramer, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 12, ♂ (Elathea).

_Butterfly._--Distinguished from its near ally, _T. delia_, by the fact
that the ground-color of the hind wings is white. The female in this, as
in the allied species, is without the black bar on the inner margin of
the primaries. Expanse, 1.25-1.40 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

_Elathea_ is found in Florida, Mexico, and the Antilles.

(9) =Terias delia=, Cramer, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 14, ♂ (Delia).

_Butterfly._--Almost exactly like the preceding species, but having the
upper side of the hind wings yellow. On the under side the fore wing at
the tip and the entire hind wing are red. Expanse, 1.25-1.50 inch.

_Early Stages._--But little is known of them. The caterpillar feeds on
_Cassia_.

_Delia_ occurs commonly in the Gulf States.

(10) =Terias jucunda=, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XXXVII, Fig. 15, ♂;
Fig. 16, ♂, _under side_ (The Fairy Yellow).

_Butterfly._--Distinguished from the preceding species by the dark
marginal band surrounding the hind wing and the pale under surface.
Expanse, 1.60-1.75 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This little species is found in the Gulf States.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXVII                                  |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Terias gundlachia_, Poey, ♂.                             |
  | 2. _Terias proterpia_, Fabricius, ♂.                         |
  | 3. _Terias nicippe_, Cramer, ♂.                              |
  | 4. _Terias nicippe_, Cramer, ♀.                              |
  | 5. _Terias nicippe_, Cramer, var. _flava_,                   |
  |     Strecker, ♂.                                             |
  | 6. _Terias nicippe_, Cramer, ♀,                              |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 7. _Terias mexicana_, Boisduval, ♂.                          |
  | 8. _Terias mexicana_, Boisduval, ♂,                          |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 9. _Terias damaris_, Felder, ♂.                              |
  | 10. _Terias damaris_, Felder, ♂,                             |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 11. _Terias westwoodi_, Boisduval, ♂.                        |
  | 12. _Terias elathea_, Cramer, ♂.                             |
  | 13. _Terias lisa_, Boisd.-Lec., ♂.                           |
  | 14. _Terias delia_, Cramer, ♂.                               |
  | 15. _Terias jucunda_, Boisd.-Lec., ♂.                        |
  | 16. _Terias jucunda_, Boisd.-Lec., ♂,                        |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 17. _Dismorphia melite_, Linnæus, ♂.                         |
  | 18. _Dismorphia melite_, Linnæus, ♀.                         |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XXXVII.]                                 |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+



RED RAIN

"The lepidopterous insects in general, soon after they emerge from the
pupa state, and commonly during their first flight, discharge some drops
of a red-colored fluid, more or less intense in different species,
which, in some instances, where their numbers have been considerable,
have produced the appearance of a 'shower of blood,' as this natural
phenomenon is sometimes called.

"Showers of blood have been recorded by historians and poets as
preternatural--have been considered in the light of prodigies, and
regarded, where they have happened, as fearful prognostics of impending
evil.

"There are two passages in Homer, which, however poetical, are
applicable to a rain of this kind; and among the prodigies which took
place after the death of the great dictator, Ovid particularly mentions
a shower of blood:

  "'Sæpe faces visæ mediis ardere sub astris,
  Sæpe inter nimbos guttæ cecidere cruentæ.'

  "('With threatening signs the lowering skies were fill'd,
  And sanguine drops from murky clouds distilled.')

"Among the numerous prodigies reported by Livy to have happened in the
year 214 B.C., it is instanced that at Mantua a stagnating piece of
water, caused by the overflowing of the river Mincius, appeared as of
blood; and in the cattle-market at Rome a shower of blood fell in the
Istrian Street. After mentioning several other remarkable phenomena that
happened during that year, Livy concludes by saying that these prodigies
were expiated, conformably to the answers of the aruspices, by victims
of the greater kinds, and supplication was ordered to be performed to
all the deities who had shrines at Rome. Again, it is stated by Livy
that many alarming prodigies were seen at Rome in the year 181 B.C., and
others reported from abroad; among which was a shower of blood which
fell in the courts of the temples of Vulcan and Concord. After
mentioning that the image of Juno Sospita shed tears, and that a
pestilence broke out in the country, this writer adds that these
prodigies, and the mortality which prevailed, alarmed the Senate so
much that they ordered the consuls to sacrifice to such gods as their
judgment should direct victims of the larger kinds, and that the
decemvirs should consult their books. Pursuant to their direction, a
supplication for one day was proclaimed to be performed at every shrine
in Rome; and they advised, besides, and the Senate voted, and the consul
proclaimed, that there should be a supplication and public worship for
three days throughout all Italy. In the year 169 B.C., Livy also
mentions that a shower of blood fell in the middle of the day. The
decemvirs were again called upon to consult their books, and again were
sacrifices offered to the deities. The account, also, of Livy, of the
bloody sweat on some of the statues of the gods, must be referred to the
same phenomenon, as the predilection of those ages to marvel, says
Thomas Browne, and the want of accurate investigation in the cases
recorded, as well as the rare occurrence of these atmospherical
depositions in our own times, inclines us to include them among the
blood-red drops deposited by insects.

"In Stow's 'Annales of England' we have two accounts of showers of
blood, and from an edition printed in London in 1592, we make our
quotations: 'Rivallus, sonne of Cunedagius, succeeded his father, in
whose time (in the year 766 B.C.) it rained bloud three dayes: after
which tempest ensued a great multitude of venemous flies, which slew
much people, and then a great mortalitie throughout this lande, caused
almost desolation of the same.' The second account is as follows: 'In
the time of Brithricus (A.D. 786) it rayned blood, which falling on
men's clothes, appeared like crosses.'

"Hollingshed, Grafton, and Fabyan have also recorded these instances in
their respective chronicles of England.

"A remarkable instance of bloody rain is introduced into the very
interesting Icelandic ghost-story of Thorgunna. It appears that in the
year of our Lord 1009 a woman called Thorgunna came from the Hebrides to
Iceland, where she stayed at the house of Thorodd; and during the hay
season a shower of blood fell, but only, singularly, on that portion of
the hay she had not piled up as her share, which so appalled her that
she betook herself to her bed, and soon afterward died. She left, to
finish the story, a remarkable will, which, from not being executed, was
the cause of several violent deaths, the appearance of ghosts, and,
finally, a legal action of ejectment against the ghosts, which, it need
hardly be said, drove them effectually away.

"In 1017 a shower of blood fell in Aquitaine; and Sleidan relates that
in the year 1553 a vast multitude of butterflies swarmed through a great
part of Germany, and sprinkled plants, leaves, buildings, clothes, and
men with bloody drops, as if it had rained blood. We learn also from
Bateman's 'Doome' that these 'drops of bloude upon hearbes and trees' in
1553 were deemed among the forewarnings of the deaths of Charles and
Philip, dukes of Brunswick.

"In Frankfort, in the year 1296, among other prodigies, some spots of
blood led to a massacre of the Jews, in which ten thousand of these
unhappy descendants of Abraham lost their lives.

"In the beginning of July, 1608, an extensive shower of blood took place
at Aix, in France, which threw the people of that place into the utmost
consternation, and, which is a much more important fact, led to the
first satisfactory and philosophical explanation of this phenomenon, but
too late, alas! to save the Jews of Frankfort. This explanation was
given by M. Peiresc, a celebrated philosopher of that place, and is thus
referred to by his biographer, Gassendi: 'Nothing in the whole year 1608
did more please him than that he observed and philosophized about, the
_bloody rain_, which was commonly reported to have fallen about the
beginning of July; great drops thereof were plainly to be seen, both in
the city itself, upon the walls of the churchyard of the church, which
is near the city wall, and upon the city walls themselves; also upon the
walls of villages, hamlets, and towns, for some miles round about; for
in the first place, he went himself to see those wherewith the stones
were coloured, and did what he could to come to speak with those
husbandmen, who, beyond Lambesk, were reported to have been affrighted
at the falling of said rain, that they left their work, and ran as fast
as their legs could carry them into the adjacent houses. Whereupon, he
found that it was a fable that was reported, touching those husbandmen.
Nor was he pleased that naturalists should refer this kind of rain to
vapours drawn up out of red earth aloft in the air, which congealing
afterwards into liquor, fall down in this form; because such vapours as
are drawne aloft by heat, ascend without colour, as we may know by the
alone example of red roses, out of which the vapours that arise by heat
are congealed into transparent water. He was less pleased with the
common people, and some divines, who judged that it was the work of the
devils and witches who had killed innocent young children; for this he
counted a mere conjecture, possibly also injurious to the goodness and
providence of God.

"'In the meanwhile an accident happened, out of which he conceived he
had collected the true cause thereof. For, some months before, he shut
up in a box a certain palmer-worm which he had found, rare for its
bigness and form; which, when he had forgotten, he heard a buzzing in
the box, and when he opened it, found the palmer-worm, having cast its
coat, to be turned into a beautiful Butterfly, which presently flew
away, leaving in the bottom of the box a red drop as broad as an
ordinary sous or shilling; and because this happened about the beginning
of the same month and about the same time an incredible multitude of
Butterflies were observed flying in the air, he was therefore of opinion
that such kind of Butterflies resting on the walls had there shed such
like drops, and of the same bigness. Whereupon, he went the second time,
and found, by experience, that those drops were not to be found on the
housetops, nor upon the round sides of the stones which stuck out, as it
would have happened, if blood had fallen from the sky, but rather where
the stones were somewhat hollowed, and in holes, where such small
creatures might shroud and nestle themselves. Moreover, the walls which
were so spotted, were not in the middle of towns, but they were such as
bordered upon the fields, nor were they on the highest parts, but only
so moderately high as Butterflies are commonly wont to fly.

"'Thus, therefore, he interpreted that which Gregory of Tours relates
touching a bloody rain seen at Paris in divers places, in the days of
Childebert, and on a certain house in the territory of Senlis; also that
which is storied, touching raining of blood about the end of June, in
the days of King Robert; so that the blood which fell upon flesh,
garments or stones could not be washed out, but that which fell on wood
might; for it was the same season of Butterflies, and experience hath
taught us, that no water will wash these spots out of the stones, while
they are fresh and new. When he had said these and such like things to
various, a great company of auditors being present, it was agreed that
they should go together and search out the matter, and as they went
up and down, here and there, through the fields, they found many drops
upon stones and rocks; but they were only on the hollow and under parts
of the stones, but not upon those which lay most open to the skies.'"

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXVIII                                 |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Papilio zolicaon_, Boisduval, ♂.                         |
  | 2. _Papilio daunus_, Boisduval, ♂.                           |
  | 3. _Papilio pilumnus_, Boisduval, ♂.                         |
  |                                                              |
  | (The figures in this plate are reduced, being only two       |
  | thirds of the natural size.)                                 |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XXXVIII.]                                |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+

"This memorable shower of blood was produced by the _Vanessa urticæ_ or
_V. polychloros_, most probably, since these species of butterflies are
said to have been uncommonly plentiful at the time when, and in the
particular district where, the phenomenon was observed."

  FRANK COWAN, _Curious History of Insects_.


FOR A DESIGN OF A BUTTERFLY RESTING ON A SKULL

      "Creature of air and light,
  Emblem of that which may not fade or die,
      Wilt thou not speed thy flight,
  To chase the south wind through the glowing sky?
      What lures thee thus to stay,
      With Silence and Decay,
  Fix'd on the wreck of cold Mortality?

      "The thoughts once chamber'd there
  Have gather'd up their treasures, and are gone--
      Will the dust tell us where
  They that have burst the prison-house are flown?
      Rise, nursling of the day,
      If thou wouldst trace their way--
  Earth hath no voice to make the secret known.

      "Who seeks the vanish'd bird
  By the forsaken nest and broken shell?--
      Far thence he sings unheard,
  Yet free and joyous in the woods to dwell.
      Thou of the sunshine born,
      Take the bright wings of morn!
  Thy hope calls heavenward from yon ruin'd cell."

  MRS. HEMAN.


SUBFAMILY PAPILIONINÆ

_Butterfly._--Generally large, and often with the hind wings adorned by
tail-like projections. The most characteristic structural feature of the
group is the absence of the internal vein of the hind wings. The
submedian vein occupies the position usually held in other subfamilies
by the internal.

_Early Stages._--In that portion of the group which includes the genus
_Parnassius_ and its allies, the caterpillars are not, so far as is
known, provided with scent-organs, and pupation takes place upon the
ground, or among loosely scattered leaves, which are interwoven, at the
time of pupation, with a few strands of silk. The genus _Papilio_ and
its allies have large, fleshy, more or less cylindrical caterpillars,
possessed of osmateria, or offensive scent-organs, and a general
resemblance runs through the chrysalids of all species, which are
attached by a button of silk at the anal extremity and supported in the
middle by a silk girdle.


Genus PARNASSIUS, Latreille

(The Parnassians)

  "Some to the sun their insect wings unfold,
  Waft on the breeze, or sink in clouds of gold;
  Transparent forms, too fine for mortal sight,
  Their fluid bodies half dissolv'd in light."

  POPE.

_Butterfly._--Of medium size, with more or less diaphanous wings,
generally white or yellow in color, marked with black spots and round
pink or yellow spots, margined with black. The head is relatively small,
thickly clothed with hairs. The antennæ are short and straight, having a
gradually thickened club. The palpi are very thin, straight, and clothed
with long hairs. The wings are generally translucent on the margin,
with a rounded apex. The upper radial is lacking. The subcostal is
five-branched, the third, fourth, and fifth nervules being emitted from
a common stalk which springs from the upper outer angle of the cell. The
first subcostal nervule rises well before the end of the cell; the
second from the same point from which the stalk which bears the other
three nervules springs. The cell of the hind wing is evenly rounded at
its outer extremity. The inner margin of the hind wing is more or less
excavated.

_Early Stages._--The egg is turban-shaped, flattened, profusely covered
with small elevations, giving it a shagreened appearance. The
caterpillars have very small heads. They are flattened, having a
somewhat leech-like appearance; they are black or dark brown in color,
marked with numerous light spots. The chrysalis is short, rounded at the
head, and pupation takes place on the surface of the ground, among
leaves and litter, a few loose threads of silk being spun about the spot
in which transformation occurs.

The butterflies of this genus are classified with the _Papilioninæ_,
because of the fact that the internal vein of the hind wings is always
wanting, a characteristic of all papilionine genera.

[Illustration FIG. 149.--Neuration of the genus _Parnassius_.]

(1) =Parnassius clodius=, Ménétries, Plate XXXIX, Figs. 7, 9, ♂; Figs.
8, 10, ♀ (Clodius).

_Butterfly._--The species may be distinguished from the following by the
uniformly larger size and the more translucent outer margins of the fore
wings in the male. Expanse, ♂, 2.50-2.75 inches; ♀, 2.50-3.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--These await study. The egg and young larva were
described by W.H. Edwards in the "Canadian Entomologist," vol. xi, p.
142, but we have no account of the later stages. The caterpillar feeds
on _Sedum_ and _Saxifraga_.

_Clodius_ is found upon the mountains of California in spring and early
summer. It is, like all its congeners, an alpine or boreal species.

(2) =Parnassius smintheus=, Doubleday and Hewitson, Plate XXXIX, Fig. 3,
♂; Fig. 4, ♀; var. =behri=, Edwards, Fig. 1, ♂; Fig. 2, ♀; var.
=hermodur=, Henry Edwards, Fig. 6, ♀; _mate of hermodur_, Fig. 5, ♂
(Smintheus).

_Butterfly._--This very beautiful insect is greatly subject to
variation, and the plate shows a few of the more striking forms, of
which the dark female, named _hermodur_ by the late Henry Edwards, is
one of the most beautiful. Expanse, ♂, 2.00-2.50 inches; ♀, 2.25-3.00
inches.

_Smintheus_ is found at proper elevations upon the mountains from
Colorado to California, and from New Mexico to Montana. The life-history
is most exquisitely delineated by Edwards in "The Butterflies of North
America," vol. iii.

The caterpillar feeds on _Sedum_ and _Saxifraga_.


Genus PAPILIO, Linnæus

(The Swallowtails)

  "The butterfly the ancient Grecians made
  The soul's fair emblem, and its only name--
  But of the soul, escaped the slavish trade
  Of mortal life! For in this earthly frame
  Ours is the reptile's lot--much toil, much blame,--
  Manifold motions making little speed,
  And to deform and kill the things whereon we feed."

  COLERIDGE.

_Butterfly._--Generally large, frequently with the hind wings tailed. A
figure of the neuration characteristic of this genus is given on p. 20,
Fig. 38. From this it will be seen that the internal vein of the hind
wing is lacking, the submedian vein occupying the space which is
commonly occupied by the internal vein. The median vein of the fore wing
is connected with the submedian by a short vein, from the point of union
of which with the submedian there proceeds a short internal vein in this
wing. There is great diversity of form in the wings of this genus, some
species even mimicking the species of the _Euploeinæ_ and _Heliconiidæ_
very closely, and being entirely without tails. In all cases, however,
in spite of obvious diversities in color and in form, there is
substantial anatomical agreement in the structure of the wings; and the
caterpillars and chrysalids reveal very strongly marked affinities
throughout the whole vast assemblage of species, which at the present
time includes about five hundred distinct forms.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXIX                                   |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Parnassius smintheus_, Dbl.-Hew.,                        |
  |     var. _behri_, Edwards, ♂.                                |
  | 2. _Parnassius smintheus_, Dbl.-Hew.,                        |
  |     var. _behri_, Edwards, ♀.                                |
  | 3. _Parnassius smintheus_, Dbl.-Hew., ♂.                     |
  | 4. _Parnassius smintheus_, Dbl.-Hew., ♀.                     |
  | 5. _Parnassius smintheus_, Dbl.-Hew., ♂,                     |
  |     mate of ♀ _hermodur_.                                    |
  | 6. _Parnassius smintheus_, Dbl.-Hew.,                        |
  |     var. _hermodur_, ♀, Henry Edwards.                       |
  | 7. _Parnassius clodius_, Ménétries, ♂                        |
  |     (_baldur_, Edwards).                                     |
  | 8. _Parnassius clodius_, Ménétries, ♀                        |
  |     (_baldur_, Edwards).                                     |
  | 9. _Parnassius clodius_, Ménétries, ♂.                       |
  | 10. _Parnassius clodius_, Ménétries, ♀.                      |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XXXIX.]                                  |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+


_Early Stages._--The eggs are somewhat globular, flattened at the base,
and smooth. The caterpillars are cylindrical, smooth, fleshy, thicker in
the anterior portion of the body than in the posterior portion, and are
always provided with osmateria, or protrusive scent-organs, which, when
the larva is alarmed, are thrust forth, and emit a musky odor, not
highly disagreeable to the human nostrils, but evidently intended to
deter other creatures from attacking them. The chrysalids are always
attached by a button of silk at the anal extremity, and held in place by
a girdle of silk about the middle. The chrysalids are, however, never
closely appressed to the surface upon which pupation takes place.

There are about twenty-seven species of this genus found within the
limits of boreal America. Our fauna is therefore much richer in these
magnificently colored and showy butterflies than is the fauna of all
Europe, in which but three species are known from the Dardanelles to the
North Cape and Gibraltar. The genus is wonderfully developed in the
tropics both of the New and the Old World, and has always been a
favorite with collectors, containing many of the largest as well as the
handsomest insects of the order.

(1) =Papilio ajax=, Linnæus, Plate II, Fig. 14, _larva_; Plate VI, Figs.
11, 12, _chrysalis_ (Ajax).

_Butterfly._--This insect, which is one of the most beautiful in our
fauna, has been the subject of attentive study in recent years, and is
now known to be seasonally polymorphic. We have given in Plate XLIV
figures of several of the forms.

(_a_) Winter form =walshi=; Edwards, Plate XLIV, Fig. 4, ♂. In this form,
which emerges from chrysalids which have been exposed to the cold of the
winter, the black bands of the wings are narrower and a trifle paler
than in the other forms, the tails of the hind wing tipped with white,
and the crimson spot on the inner margin near the anal angle forming a
conspicuous bent bar. A variety of this form, with a more or less
distinct crimson line parallel to the inner margin on the upper side of
the hind wing, has been named _Papilio ajax_, var. _abbotti_, by
Edwards.

Another winter form, for which I propose the name =floridensis=, is
represented in Plate XLIV, Fig. 2, by a male specimen. It is
characterized by the great breadth and intensity of the black bands on
the upper side of the wings, which are quite as broad as in the summer
form _marcellus_. I find this form prevalent in the spring of the year
on the St. Johns River, in Florida. Expanse, 2.50-2.75 inches.

(_b_) Winter form =telamonides=, Felder, Plate XLIV, Fig. 1, ♂. In this
form the tails of the hind wings are somewhat longer than in _walshi_,
and are not simply tipped, but bordered on either side for half their
length with white, and the red spots near the anal angle do not coalesce
to form a crimson bar, but are separate. The black transverse bands on
the upper side are wider than in _walshi_. Expanse, 2.75-3.00 inches.

(_c_) Summer form =marcellus=, Boisduval, Plate XLIV, Fig. 3, ♂. In this
form, which represents the second generation emerging in the summer and
fall from chrysalids produced from eggs of _walshi_, _floridensis_, and
_telamonides_, the tails of the hind wings are greatly lengthened, being
fully twice as long as in _walshi_, the black bands are greatly widened,
and there is but a single small spot of crimson (sometimes none) above
the anal angle of the secondaries. Expanse, 3.00-3.25 inches.

_Early Stages._--These are well known. The caterpillar feeds on the
leaves of the papaw (_Asimina triloba_), and wherever this plant is
found the butterfly is generally common.

_Ajax_ ranges from southern New England, where it is very rare, west and
south over the entire country to the foot-hills of the Rocky Mountains.
It is very common in the lower Appalachian region, and in southern Ohio,
Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee is especially abundant.

(2) =Papilio eurymedon=, Boisduval, Plate XLIV, Fig. 5, ♂ (Eurymedon).

_Butterfly._--This beautiful insect belongs to the same group as the
four succeeding species. In the style of the markings it recalls _P.
turnus_, but the ground-color is always pale whitish-yellow or white,
the tails of the hind wings are more slender, and the white marginal
spots on the under side of the fore wings are fused together, forming a
continuous band. There are other differences, but these, with the help
of the plate, will suffice for the ready identification of the species.
Expanse, 3.50-4.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--The caterpillar resembles that of _P. turnus_, but may
be distinguished by its paler color and the much smaller spots composing
the longitudinal series on the back and sides, and by the different
color of the head. It feeds upon a variety of plants, and is especially
partial to _Rhamnus californicus_.

The species ranges from Mexico to Alaska, and eastward as far as
Colorado. It is abundant in the valleys of the Coast Range, and I have
found it very common in the cañon of the Fraser River, in British
Columbia, in the month of June.

(3) =Papilio rutulus=, Boisduval, Plate XLV, Fig. 1, ♂ (Rutulus).

_Butterfly._--The insect very closely resembles the following species in
color and markings, but the female is never dimorphic as in _P. turnus_,
and the marginal spots on the under side of the fore wings run together,
forming a continuous band, as in _eurymedon_, and are not separate as in
_P. turnus_. By these marks it may always be distinguished. Expanse, ♂,
3.50-4.00 inches; ♀, 3.75-4.25 inches.

_Early Stages._--These have been described with accuracy by W.H. Edwards
in the second volume of his great work. The caterpillar differs from
that of _P. turnus_ in many minute particulars. It feeds on alder and
willow. It is the representative on the Pacific coast of its Eastern
congener, the common Tiger Swallowtail.

(4) =Papilio turnus=, Linnæus, Plate XLIII, Fig. 1, ♂; Fig. 2, dimorphic
form =glaucus=, Linnæus, ♀; Plate II, Figs. 15, 26, 28, _larva_; Plate
VI, Figs. 1-4, _chrysalis_ (The Tiger Swallowtail).

_Butterfly._--The "lordly Turnus" is one of the most beautiful insects
of the Carolinian fauna. The plate shows the figures about one third
smaller than in life, but they are sufficient for the immediate
identification of the species. The species is dimorphic in the female
sex in the southern portions of the territory which it occupies. The
black form of the female was regarded for a long while as a distinct
species, until by the test of breeding it was ascertained that some eggs
laid by yellow females produced black females, and that, conversely,
eggs laid by black females often produced yellow females. In Canada and
northward and westward in northern latitudes the dark dimorphic female
does not occur. A small yellow dwarfed form is common about Sitka,
whence I have obtained numerous specimens. Expanse, ♂, 3.00-4.00 inches;
♀, 3.50-5.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--The egg is outlined on p. 4, Fig. 3. It is green or
bluish-green, quite smooth, with a few reddish spots in some specimens.
The caterpillar feeds on a great variety of plants, but has a peculiar
preference for the leaves of various species of wild cherry (_Cerasus_).
The chrysalis is accurately portrayed in Plate VI, Figs. 1-4.

The metropolis of this species seems to be the wooded forests of the
Appalachian ranges at comparatively low levels. It abounds in
southwestern Pennsylvania, the Virginias, the Carolinas, Kentucky, and
Tennessee. I have often found as many as a dozen of these magnificent
butterflies congregated on a moist spot on the banks of the Monongahela.
At Berkeley Springs, in West Virginia, I counted, one summer day, forty
specimens hovering over the weeds and flowers in a small deserted field.
The movements of the butterfly on the wing are bold and rapid. Its
flight is dashing. Now aloft to the tops of the highest trees, now down
in the shadows of the undergrowth, hither and thither it goes, often
settling for a moment on some attractive flower, or staying its flight
to quench its thirst on the sandy edge of a brook, and then away again
over the fields and into the forests. In New England it is not very
abundant, and in the Gulf States, while numerous, is still less common
than about the head waters of the Ohio.

(5) =Papilio daunus=, Boisduval, Plate XXXVIII, Fig. 2, ♂ (Daunus).

_Butterfly._--This magnificent species, which is even larger than
_turnus_ (the figures in the plate are greatly reduced), resembles the
preceding species in color and markings, but may at once be
distinguished by the two tails on the hind wing and the projection of
the lobe at the anal angle of this wing. It is found among the eastern
valleys of the Rocky Mountain ranges, and descends into Mexico. In
Arizona it is quite common. Expanse, 4.00-5.25 inches.

_Early Stages._--These have not yet been thoroughly studied, but what we
know of them shows that the species is allied very closely to its
immediate congeners, and the caterpillar feeds upon the same plants,
principally _Rosaceæ_.

(6) =Papilio pilumnus=, Boisduval, Plate XXXVIII, Fig. 3, ♂ (Pilumnus).

_Butterfly._--Resembling the preceding species, but smaller, having
the bands and black margins of the wings decidedly broader, and the lobe
of the anal angle of the hind wing so much lengthened as to give the
wing the appearance of being furnished with three tails. Expanse,
3.80-4.30 inches.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XL                                      |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Papilio asterias_, Cramer, ♂.                            |
  | 2. _Papilio bairdi_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 3. _Papilio hollandi_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  | 4. _Papilio brucei_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 5. _Papilio brevicauda_, Saunders, ♀.                        |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XL.]                                     |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+


_Early Stages._--All we know of these is derived from the brief account
given by Schaus in "Papilio," vol. iv, p. 100. Mr. Schaus says that the
larva "feeds on laurel."

The insect is Mexican, and only occasionally occurs in Arizona.

(7) =Papilio thoas=, Linnæus, Plate XLII, Fig. 4, ♂ (Thoas).

_Butterfly._--This species is readily distinguished from its near ally,
_P. cresphontes_, by the greater and more uniform breadth of the median
band of yellow spots traversing both the fore and the hind wing, and by
the almost total absence of the curved submarginal series of spots on
the primaries. There are other points of difference, but these are so
marked as to make the determination of the species easy.

_Early Stages._--These have never been fully described, but we know that
the caterpillar feeds upon the leaves of the lemon, the orange, and
other plants of the citrus group.

_P. thoas_ is not common within the limits of the United States, where
it is generally replaced by the following species; but it occasionally
occurs in the hot lands of the extreme southern portion of Texas.

(8) =Papilio cresphontes=, Cramer, Plate XLII, Fig. 3, ♂; Plate II, Fig.
16, _larva_; Plate VI, Figs. 8-10, _chrysalis_ (The Giant Swallowtail).

_Butterfly._--The principal points of difference between this and the
preceding species, its closest ally, have already been pointed out, and
are brought into view upon the plate.

_Early Stages._--These are quite well known. The caterpillar feeds upon
_Ptelea_, _Xanthoxylon_, and various species of _Citrus_. It is very
common in the orange-groves of Florida, where the people call the
caterpillar the "orange-puppy," and complain at times of the ravages
perpetrated by it upon their trees. It appears to have been gradually
spreading northward, and in quite recent years has appeared at points in
the Northern States where before it had never been observed. It has been
recently taken in Ontario. It has become rather abundant in the vicinity
of the city of Pittsburgh, where no observer had seen it prior to the
year 1894. It is one of the largest and most showy species of the genus
found within our faunal limits.

(9) =Papilio aliaska=, Scudder, Plate XLI, Fig. 1, ♂ (The Alaskan
Swallowtail).

_Butterfly._--This interesting form of the species, known to
entomologists as _Papilio machaon_, Linnæus, and to every English
school-boy as "the Swallowtail," represents a colonization from the
Asiatic mainland of this insect, which is the sole representative of the
genus on English soil. It differs from the English butterfly by having
more yellow on the upper side of the wings, and by having the tails of
the secondaries much shorter.

_Early Stages._--Undoubtedly these are very much like those of the forms
found in Europe and Asia, and the caterpillar must be sought upon
umbelliferous plants.

Thus far this insect has been received only from Alaska, and is still
rare in collections.

(10) =Papilio zolicaon=, Boisduval, Plate XXXVIII, Fig. 1, ♂ (Zolicaon).

_Butterfly._--This species is somewhat nearly related to the preceding,
but may at once be distinguished from it by the broader black borders of
the wings, the deeper black on the upper side, and the longer tails of
the secondaries. The figure given in the plate is only two thirds of the
natural size.

_Early Stages._--These have been fully described by Edwards, and are
shown to be much like those of _P. asterias_. The caterpillar, like that
of the last-mentioned species, feeds upon the _Umbelliferæ_.

_Zolicaon_ ranges southward from Vancouver's Island to Arizona, and
eastward to Colorado. It is more abundant in the valleys and foot-hills
than on the sierras.

(11) =Papilio nitra=, Edwards, Plate XLI, Fig. 2, ♂ (Nitra).

_Butterfly._--This insect, which is still very rare in collections, is
very nearly related to the preceding species, it having, no doubt, with
the succeeding species, sprung from the same original stock as
_zolicaon_ and _aliaska_.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The insect occurs in Montana and the portions of British America
adjacent on the north.

(12) =Papilio indra=, Reakirt, Plate XLI, Fig. 3, ♀ (Indra).

_Butterfly._--Easily distinguished by the short tails of the
secondaries, and the narrow bands of yellow spots on the wings closely
resembling those found in the same location on the wings of _P.
asterias_, ♂. Expanse, 2.50-2.75 inches.

_Early Stages._--These still await description.

_Indra_ occurs on the mountains of Colorado, Nevada, and California.

(13) =Papilio brevicauda=, Saunders, Plate XL, Fig. 5, ♀ (The
Newfoundland Swallowtail).

_Butterfly._--There are two varieties of this species--one with
bright-yellow spots, one with the spots more or less deeply marked with
orange-yellow on the upper sides of the wing. The latter variety is
represented in the plate. The form with the yellow spots is common on
the island of Anticosti; the other occurs quite abundantly in
Newfoundland. Expanse, 2.75-3.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--Both the caterpillar and the chrysalis show a very
strong likeness to those of _P. asterias_. The larva feeds on
umbelliferous plants.

The range of the species is confined to the extreme northeastern part of
our faunal territory.

(14) =Papilio bairdi=, Edwards, Plate XL, Fig. 2, ♂ (Baird's Butterfly).

_Butterfly._--This form, the male of which is represented in the plate,
is the Western representative of _P. asterias_, and is characterized in
general by the fact that the size is larger than that of _asterias_, and
the postmedian band of yellow spots is broader. The female is generally
darker and larger than that sex in _asterias_. Expanse, 3.25-3.50
inches.

_Early Stages._--Not unlike those of _P. asterias_. The caterpillar
feeds upon _Umbelliferæ_.

The seat of this species or form is Arizona, whence it ranges northward.

(15) =Papilio brucei=, Edwards, Plate XL, Fig. 4, ♂ (Bruce's Butterfly).

_Butterfly._--This species, which is thought to be the result of a union
between _P. oregonia_ and _P. bairdi_, is found in Colorado. _Oregonia_
is, unfortunately, not represented in our plates. It flies in Oregon and
Washington, where _P. bairdi_ is not found. In Colorado and adjacent
regions meeting with the form _bairdi_, which ranges northward from
Arizona, hybridization has occurred, and we have a fixed form breeding
either toward _bairdi_ or _oregonia_. To this form, characterized by
more yellow on the bands of the wings than in _P. bairdi_, and less than
in _oregonia_, Mr. Edwards has applied the name _P. brucei_, in honor of
Mr. Bruce of Lockport, New York, who has done much to elucidate the
problems connected with the species. Expanse, 3.25-3.60 inches.

_Early Stages._--These have been fully described by Edwards. They are
much like those of _asterias_, and the food-plants belong to the same
class.

Bruce's Butterfly is found quite abundantly in Colorado.

(16) =Papilio hollandi=, Edwards, Plate XL, Fig. 3, ♂ (Holland's
Butterfly).

_Butterfly._--This species or form, which belongs to the Asterias-group,
in the breadth of the yellow spots on the upper side of the wings holds
a place intermediate between _P. bairdi_ and _P. zolicaon_, between
which it has been suggested that it may be a hybrid, which has become
fixed, and therefore a species. It is characterized by the fact that the
abdomen is always striped laterally with yellow or is wholly yellow.
Expanse, 3.25-3.50 inches.

_Early Stages._--We know as yet but little of these.

The insect occurs in Arizona and northward to Colorado.

(17) =Papilio asterias=, Fabricius, Plate XL, Fig. 1, ♂; Plate II, Figs.
17, 24, 27, _larva_; Plate VI, Figs. 13, 18, 19, _chrysalis_ (The Common
Eastern Swallowtail).

_Butterfly._--The male is well represented in the plate. The female
lacks the bright-yellow band of postmedian spots on the primaries, or
they are but faintly indicated. The species is subject to considerable
variation in size and the intensity of the markings. A very remarkable
aberration in which the yellow spots cover almost the entire outer half
of the wings has been found on several occasions, and was named _Papilio
calverleyi_ by Grote. The female of this form from the type in the
author's collection is represented in Plate XLI, Fig. 6. Expanse,
2.75-3.25 inches.

_Early Stages._--The caterpillar feeds on the _Umbelliferæ_, and is
common on parsley and parsnips in gardens. In the South I have found
that it had a special liking for fennel, and a few plants in the
kitchen-garden always yielded me in my boyhood an abundant supply of the
larvæ.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLI                                     |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Papilio machaon_, Linnæus, var.                          |
  |     _aliaska_, Scudder, ♂.                                   |
  | 2. _Papilio nitra_, Edwards, ♂.                              |
  | 3. _Papilio indra_, Reakirt, ♀.                              |
  | 4. _Papilio polydamas_, Linnæus, ♂.                          |
  | 5. _Papilio troilus_, Linnæus, ♂.                            |
  | 6. _Papilio asterias_, Cramer, var.                          |
  |     _calverleyi_, Grote, ♀.                                  |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XLI.]                                    |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+

_P. asterias_ ranges all over the Atlantic States and the valley of the
Mississippi.

(18) =Papilio troilus=, Linnæus, Plate XLI, Fig. 5, ♂; Plate II, Figs.
18, 19, 22, _larva_; Plate VI, Figs. 5-7, _chrysalis_ (The Spice-bush
Swallowtail).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of the male is accurately depicted in the
plate. The female has less bluish-green on the upper side of the hind
wings. Expanse, 3.75-4.25 inches.

_Early Stages._--The caterpillar lives upon the leaves of the common
spicewood and sassafras, and draws the edges of a leaf together, thus
forming a nest in which it lies hidden.

The insect is found throughout the Atlantic States and in the
Mississippi Valley.

(19) =Papilio palamedes=, Drury, Plate XLII, Fig. 1, ♀ (Palamedes).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of the wings is very accurately depicted in
the figure just cited. On the under side the predominant tint is bright
yellow. Expanse, 3.50-4.25 inches.

_Early Stages._--These are described by Scudder in the third volume of
his work on "The Butterflies of New England." The caterpillar feeds on
_Magnolia glauca_, and on plants belonging to the order _Lauraceæ_.

The insect ranges from southern Virginia, near the coast, to the extreme
southern end of Florida, and westward to southern Missouri and eastern
Texas.

(20) =Papilio philenor=, Linnæus, Plate XLII, Fig. 2, ♂; Plate II, Figs.
13, 20, 21, _larva_; Plate VI, Figs. 14, 17, 20, _chrysalis_ (The
Pipe-vine Swallowtail).

_Butterfly._--The figures in the plates obviate the necessity for
describing this familiar but most beautiful insect, the glossy
blue-green of which flashes all summer long in the sunlight about the
verandas over which the _Aristolochia_ spreads the shade of its great
cordate leaves. Expanse, 3.75-4.25 inches.

_Early Stages._--The caterpillar feeds upon the leaves of _Aristolochia
sipho_ (the Dutchman's-pipe) and _Aristolochia serpentaria_, which
abound in the forest lands of the Appalachian region.

_Philenor_ is always abundant during the summer months in the Middle
Atlantic States, and ranges from Massachusetts to Arizona, into southern
California and southward into Mexico. It is double-brooded in western
Pennsylvania, and the writer has found females ovipositing as late as
October. The caterpillars are familiar objects about houses on which the
_Aristolochia_ is grown as an ornamental vine.

(21) =Papilio polydamas=, Linnæus, Plate XLI, Fig. 4, ♂ (Polydamas).

_Butterfly._--Easily distinguished by the absence of tails on the hind
margin of the secondaries. The butterfly recalls the preceding species
by the color of the wings on the upper side. On the under side the fore
wings are marked as on the upper side; the hind wings have a marginal
row of large red spots. Expanse, 3.00-3.50 inches.

_Early Stages._--The caterpillar is dark brown, and in many points
resembles that of _P. philenor_ in outline, but the segments are spotted
with ocellate yellow and red spots. It feeds on various species of
_Aristolochia_. The chrysalis resembles that of _P. philenor_.

This lovely insect represents in the United States a great group of
butterflies closely allied to it, which are natives of the tropics of
the New World. It occurs in southern Florida and Texas, and thence
ranges southward over Cuba, Mexico, and Central America.


THE CATERPILLAR AND THE ANT

  "A pensy Ant, right trig and clean,
  Came ae day whidding o'er the green,
  Where, to advance her pride, she saw
  A Caterpillar, moving slaw.
  'Good ev'n t' ye, Mistress Ant,' said he;
  'How's a' at hame? I'm blyth to s' ye.'
  The saucy Ant view'd him wi' scorn,
  Nor wad civilities return;
  But gecking up her head, quoth she,
  'Poor animal! I pity thee;
  Wha scarce can claim to be a creature,
  But some experiment o' Nature,
  Whase silly shape displeased her eye,
  And thus unfinish'd was flung bye.
  For me, I'm made wi' better grace,
  Wi' active limbs and lively face;
  And cleverly can move wi' ease
  Frae place to place where'er I please;

  Can foot a minuet or jig,
  And snoov't like ony whirly-gig;
  Which gars my jo aft grip my hand,
  Till his heart pitty-pattys, and--
  But laigh my qualities I bring,
  To stand up clashing wi' a thing,
  A creeping thing the like o' thee.
  Not worthy o' a farewell t' ye.'
  The airy Ant syne turned awa,
  And left him wi' a proud gaffa.
  The Caterpillar was struck dumb,
  And never answered her a mum:
  The humble reptile fand some pain,
  Thus to be banter'd wi' disdain.
    But tent neist time the Ant came by,
  The worm was grown a Butterfly;
  Transparent were his wings and fair,
  Which bare him flight'ring through the air.
  Upon a flower he stapt his flight,
  And thinking on his former slight,
  Thus to the Ant himself addrest:
  'Pray, Madam, will ye please to rest?
  And notice what I now advise:
  Inferiors ne'er too much despise,
  For fortune may gie sic a turn,
  To raise aboon ye what ye scorn:
  For instance, now I spread my wing
  In air, while you're a creeping thing.'"

  ALLAN RAMSAY.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLII                                    |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Papilio palamedes_, Drury, ♀.                            |
  | 2. _Papilio philenor_, Linnæus, ♂.                           |
  | 3. _Papilio cresphontes_, Cramer, ♂.                         |
  | 4. _Papilio thoas, Linnæus_, ♂.                              |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XLII.]                                   |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+

[Illustration]



FAMILY V

HESPERIIDÆ (THE SKIPPERS)

  "Bedouins of the pathless air."--H.H.


_Butterfly._--The butterflies belonging to this family are generally
quite small, with stout bodies, the thorax strongly developed in order
to accommodate the muscles of flight. They are exceedingly rapid in
their movements. Both sexes possess six feet adapted to walking, and the
tibiæ of the hind feet, with few exceptions, have spurs. The lower
radial vein of the hind wing in many of the genera is lacking, or is
merely indicated by a fold in the wing. There is great variety in the
form as well as in the coloration of the wings.

_Egg._--The eggs, so far as we are acquainted with them, may be said to
be, almost without exception, more or less hemispherical, with the flat
section of the hemisphere serving as the base. They are sometimes
smooth, but not infrequently ornamented with raised longitudinal ridges
and cross-lines, the ornamentation in some cases being very beautiful
and curious.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillars are cylindrical, smooth, tapering
forward and backward from the middle, and generally possess large
globular heads. They commonly undergo transformation into chrysalids
which have an anal hook, or cremaster, in a loose cocoon woven of a few
strands of silk.

This family, the study of which presents more difficulties than are
presented by any other family of butterflies, is not very well developed
in the Palæarctic Region, but finds its most enormous development in the
Nearctic and Neotropical Regions. It is also very strongly developed in
the Indo-Malayan and Ethiopian Regions. There are, at the present time,
in the neighborhood of two thousand species belonging to this family
which have been named and described.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLIII                                   |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Papilio turnus_, Linnæus, ♂.                             |
  | 2. _Papilio turnus_, Linnæus, dimorphic                      |
  |     ♀, _glaucus_, Linnæus.                                   |
  | 3. _Colias eriphyle_, Edwards, =                             |
  |     _Colias hageni_, Edwards, ♂, _under side_.               |
  | 4. _Pyrameis atalanta_, Linnæus, ♂.                          |
  | 5. _Epargyreus tityrus_, Fabricius, ♂.                       |
  |                                                              |
  | (The figures in this plate are reduced, being only           |
  | three fourths of the natural size.)                          |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XLIII.]                                  |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+



SUBFAMILY PYRRHOPYGINÆ

  "Seeing only what is fair,
  Sipping only what is sweet."

  EMERSON.


This subfamily is composed of closely related genera which are found
only in the New World. They may be easily recognized by the large blunt
club of the antennæ. The cell of the fore wing is always very long,
being two thirds the length of the costa; the lower radial vein usually
rises from the end of the cell, a little above the third median nervule,
and at a considerable remove from the upper radial. They are said when
at rest to extend all their wings horizontally.

But one genus belonging to this subfamily is represented within the
limits of the United States.


Genus PYRRHOPYGE, Hübner

_Butterfly._--The neuration is as represented in the cut, and need not,
therefore, be described at length. The club of the antennæ is thickened,
usually bluntly pointed and bent into a hook.

[Illustration FIG. 150.--Head and antenna of _Pyrrhopyge_, magnified 2
diameters.]

[Illustration FIG. 151.--Neuration of the genus _Pyrrhopyge_.]

(1) =Pyrrhopyge araxes=, Hewitson, Plate XLV, Fig. 9, ♂ (Araxes).

_Butterfly._--Easily recognized from the figure in the plate. The hind
wings are prevalently yellow on the under side. It is wholly unlike any
other species found within the faunal limits with which this book deals.
The wings expand about two inches. We have no knowledge whatever of the
life-history of the insect. It occurs in southern Texas occasionally,
but is quite common in Mexico and more southern countries.



SUBFAMILY HESPERIINÆ (THE HESPERIDS)

  "Twine ye in an airy round,
    Brush the dew and print the lea;
  Skip and gambol, hop and bound."

  DRAKE, _The Culprit Fay_.


This subfamily falls into two groups:

_Group A._--In this group the cell of the fore wing is always more than
two thirds the length of the costa; the lower radial vein lies
approximately equidistant between the third median nervule and the upper
radial. The hind wing is frequently produced at the extremity of the
submedian vein into a long tail or tooth-like projection. The fore wing
is usually furnished in the male sex with a costal fold, but is never
marked with a discal stigma, or bunch of raised scales. The antennæ
always terminate in a fine point and are usually bent into a hook. The
butterflies when at rest, for the most part, hold their wings erect,
though some of them hold them extended horizontally.

_Group B._--In this group the cell of the fore wing is less than two
thirds the length of the costa, and the lower radial is always emitted
from the end of the cell near the upper angle, much nearer to the upper
radial than to the third median. The hind wings are often somewhat lobed
at the anal angle, but never produced as in the first group. The antennæ
are very seldom hooked.


Genus EUDAMUS, Swainson

_Butterfly._--The antennæ terminate in a fine point bent into a hook at
the thickest part of the club. The cell of the fore wing is very long.
The discocellulars are inwardly oblique and on the same straight line,
the upper discocellulars being reduced to a mere point. The lower radial
is equidistant between the upper radial and the third median nervule.
The hind wing is without the lower radial and is always produced into a
long tail.

_Egg._--The egg is more nearly globular than is true in most of the
genera, but is strongly flattened at the base and is marked with a
number of transverse longitudinal ridges, somewhat widely separated,
between which are finer cross-lines. The micropyle at the summit is
deeply depressed.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar is cylindrical, tapering rapidly from
the middle forward and backward. The head is much larger than the neck
and is distinctly bilobed.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is provided with a somewhat hooked
cremaster, is rounded at the head, humped over the thorax, and marked on
the dorsal side of the abdominal segments with a few small conical
projections. The chrysalis is formed between leaves loosely drawn
together with a few strands of silk.

This genus is confined to the tropics of the New World, and is
represented in the extreme southern portions of the United States by the
species figured in our plate--_E. proteus_.

(1) =Eudamus proteus=, Linnæus, Plate XLV, Fig. 6, ♀; Plate II, Fig. 34,
_larva_; Plate VI, Fig. 23, _chrysalis_ (The Long-tailed Skipper).

[Illustration FIG. 152.--Neuration of the genus _Eudamus_.]

_Butterfly._--The upper side of the wings is brown, glossed with green
at the base of both wings. The spots on the primaries of both sexes are
alike, and are well represented in the plate. On the under side the
wings are pale brown; the primaries are marked as on the upper side; the
secondaries have the anal portion and the tail dark brown; in addition
they are crossed by a short dark band at the end of the cell, and
another similar but longer postmedian band, which does not quite reach
the costa and loses itself below in the dark shade which covers the anal
portion of the wing. About the middle of the costa of the hind wings are
two small subquadrate black spots. Expanse, 1.60-1.75 inch.

_Early Stages._--The plates give us representations based upon Abbot's
drawings of the mature caterpillar and the chrysalis. The student who
desires to know more may consult the pages of Scudder's "Butterflies of
New England." The caterpillar feeds upon leguminous plants, especially
upon the _Wistaria_ and various species of _Clitoria_ (Butterfly-pea).
It makes a rude nest for itself by drawing two of the leaves together
with strands of silk.

The species is tropical and is found all over the tropics and
subtropical regions of the New World, but ranges northward along the
Atlantic sea-coast, being occasionally found as far north as New York
City, where it has been taken in Central Park.


Genus PLESTIA, Mabille

_Butterfly._--The club of the antennæ is flattened, sickle-shaped,
terminating in a fine point. The male has a costal fold upon the fore
wing. The lower radial is nearer to the upper radial than to the third
median nervule. The hind wing is produced into a short tail. The fifth
vein is wanting.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This genus is peculiar to Mexico and Central America. But one species is
found within our limits, and is confined to Arizona.

(1) =Plestia dorus=, Edwards, Plate XLV, Fig. 11, ♂ (The Short-tailed
Arizona Skipper).

[Illustration FIG. 153.--Genus _Plestia_. Antenna, magnified 2
diameters. Neuration.]

_Butterfly._--The upper side is accurately depicted in the plate. On the
under side the wings are hoary. The spots of the upper side reappear,
the lower spots of the primaries being partially lost in the broad
honey-yellow tint which covers the inner margin of that wing. The
secondaries are crossed by obscure dark-brown basal, median, and
postmedian bands, portions of which are annular, or composed of
ring-like spots. The anal angle is clouded with dark brown. Expanse,
1.50-1.60 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The species has been taken in considerable numbers in Arizona, and
ranges thence southward into Mexico.


Genus EPARGYREUS, Hübner

_Butterfly._--The antennæ have the club stout, gradually thickened,
tapering to a fine point, and abruptly bent into a hook.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLIV                                    |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Papilio ajax_, Linnæus, var.                             |
  |     _telamonides_, Felder, ♂.                                |
  | 2. _Papilio ajax_, Linnæus, var.                             |
  |     _floridensis_, Holland, ♂ (This is the dark              |
  |     form found in Florida in the early spring.)              |
  | 3. _Papilio ajax_, Linnæus, var.                             |
  |     _marcellus_, Boisduval, ♂.                               |
  | 4. _Papilio ajax_, Linnæus, var.                             |
  |     _walshi_, ♂.                                             |
  | 5. _Papilio eurymedon_, Boisduval, ♂.                        |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XLIV.]                                   |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+

The palpi are profusely covered with thick scales, in which the third
joint is almost entirely concealed. The fore wing of the male is
furnished with a costal fold; the hind wing is prominently toothed at
the extremity of the submedian vein.

_Egg._--The egg is elevated, hemispherical; that is to say, it is
flattened at the base, rounded above, its height being almost equal to
the width. It is marked by about ten narrow, greatly elevated
longitudinal ridges, which sometimes fork below the summit, and between
which are a multitude of fine cross-lines. The micropyle is greatly
depressed.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar closely resembles the caterpillar of the
genus _Eudamus_, but the head is not as strongly bilobed.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis likewise resembles the chrysalis of the
genus _Eudamus_; the cremaster, however, is not as strongly hooked as in
that genus.

[Illustration FIG. 154.--Neuration of the genus _Epargyreus_.]

(1) =Epargyreus tityrus=, Fabricius, Plate XLIII, Fig. 5, ♂; Plate II,
Figs. 30, 31, 33, _larva_; Plate VI, Figs. 22, 25, 26, _chrysalis_ (The
Silver-spotted Skipper).

_Butterfly._-This very common and beautiful insect may easily be
recognized from the figure in the plate. The broad, irregular silvery
spot on the under side of the hind wings distinguishes it at a glance
from all other related species in our fauna. Expanse, 1.75-2.00 inches.

_Early Stages._-These have been accurately described by several authors,
and a very full account of them is contained in "The Butterflies of New
England." The caterpillar feeds upon leguminous plants, and is
especially common upon the _Wistaria_, which is grown about verandas,
and on the common locust (_Robinia pseudacacia_). The caterpillar makes
a nest for itself in the same manner as _Eudamus proteus_. Pupation
generally takes place among fallen leaves or rubbish at the foot of the
trees upon which the caterpillar has fed.

This butterfly has a wide range, extending to the Gulf, south of a line
passing from Quebec to Vancouver, and ranging still farther south as far
as the Isthmus of Panama. It is single-brooded in the North, and double-
or triple-brooded in the South.


Genus THORYBES, Scudder

(The Dusky-wings)

_Butterfly._--The club of the antennæ is not very heavy, hooked, the
hooked portion about as long as the rest of the club. The palpi are
directed forward, with the second joint heavily scaled, and the third
joint very small. The fore wing may be with or without the costal fold
in the male sex. The cut gives a correct idea of the neuration. The hind
wing is evenly rounded on the outer margin, sometimes slightly angled at
the extremity of the submedian vein.

[Illustration FIG. 155.--Neuration of the genus _Thorybes_.]

_Egg._--The egg is subglobular, somewhat flattened at the base and on
top, marked with numerous fine and not much elevated longitudinal
ridges. The micropyle covers the upper surface of the egg and is not
depressed.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar somewhat resembles that of the genus
_Epargvreus_, but is relatively shorter, the head proportionately larger
and more globular. The neck is greatly strangulated.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is somewhat curved in outline, with a
strongly hooked cremaster and a prominent projection on the back of the
thoracic region.

(1) =Thorybes pylades=, Scudder, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 6, ♀; Plate II, Figs.
25, 29, _larva_; Plate VI, Fig. 28, _chrysalis_ (The Northern
Dusky-wing).

_Butterfly._--The upper side is represented correctly in Plate XLVIII.
On the under side the wings are dark brown, shading into hoary-gray on
the outer margins. The hind wings are crossed by irregular basal,
median, and postmedian brown bands of darker spots, shaded with deeper
brown internally. The translucent spots of the upper side reappear on
the lower side of the fore wings. Expanse, 1.60 inch.

_Early Stages._--These are elaborately described in the pages of Dr.
Scudder's great work. The caterpillar feeds on clover, _Lespedeza_, and
_Desmodium_.

This insect is found throughout the United States and Canada, but is not
as yet reported from the central masses of the Rocky Mountain region.
It probably, however, occurs there also in suitable locations. It is
very common in New England.

(2) =Thorybes bathyllus=, Smith and Abbot, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 5, ♀; Plate
II, Fig. 32, _larva_; Plate VI, Fig. 24, _chrysalis_ (The Southern
Dusky-wing).

_Butterfly._--Easily distinguished from the preceding species by the
much larger size of the translucent spots on the fore wings. Expanse,
1.40-1.50 inch.

_Early Stages._--The habits of the larva are very similar to those of
the preceding species, and the caterpillar feeds on herbaceous
leguminosæ.

It ranges from the Connecticut Valley, where it is rare, southward along
the coast and through the Mississippi Valley as far south and west as
Texas.

(3) =Thorybes æmilia=, Skinner, Plate XLVI, Fig. 39, ♂ (Mrs. Owen's
Dusky-wing).

_Butterfly._--This little species, which may readily be identified by
the figure of the type given in the plate, is as yet quite rare in
collections. We know nothing of the early stages. The types were taken
at Fort Klamath, in Oregon. Dr. Skinner named it in honor of the
estimable wife of Professor Owen of the University of Wisconsin, the
discoverer of the species. Expanse, 1.20 inch.

(4) =Thorybes epigena=, Butler, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 13, ♂ (Butler's
Dusky-wing).

_Butterfly._--Readily distinguished by its large size, the conspicuous
white fringes of the hind wings on the upper side, and the broad white
marginal band of these wings on the under side. Expanse, 2.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This insect is common in Arizona and Mexico.


Genus ACHALARUS, Scudder

_Butterfly._--The antennæ and palpi are as in the preceding genus. The
neuration is represented in the cut. The hind wing is slightly lobed at
the anal angle; the fore wing may or may not be provided with a costal
fold.

(1) =Achalarus lycidas=, Smith and Abbot, Plate XLV, Fig. 10, ♀, _under
side_; Plate II, Fig. 23, _larva_; Plate VI, Fig. 21, chrysalis (The
Hoary-edge).

_Butterfly._--The general appearance of the upper side of the wings
strongly recalls _E. tityrus_, but the hoary edge of the secondaries and
the absence of the broad median silvery spot found in _tityrus_ at once
serve to discriminate the two forms. Expanse, 1.65-1.95 inch.

_Early Stages._--What is known of them may be ascertained by consulting
the pages of "The Butterflies of New England." The caterpillar is found
on the leaves of _Desmodium_ (Beggar's-lice).

The insect is rare in southern New England, and ranges thence southward
and westward to Texas, being scarce in the Mississippi Valley north of
Kentucky, and apparently not ranging west of Missouri.

[Illustration FIG. 156.--Neuration of the genus _Achalarus_.]

(2) =Achalarus cellus=, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XLV, Fig. 12, ♂ (The
Golden-banded Skipper).

_Butterfly._--The figure in the plate will enable the instant
identification of this beautiful species, which, on the under side, has
the hind wings banded much as in _E. proteus_. Expanse, 2.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--What little we know of these is based mainly upon the
observations of Abbot, and there is an opportunity here for some young
naturalist to render a good service to science by rearing the insect
through all stages from the egg. The habits of the larva are not greatly
different from those of allied species.

_A. cellus_ is found in the Virginias, and thence southward and westward
to Arizona and Mexico. It is common in the Carolinas.


Genus HESPERIA, Fabricius

_Butterfly._--The antennæ are relatively short; the club is stout and
blunt at the tip. The palpi are bent upward, with the third joint buried
in the scales covering the second joint. The hind wing is usually evenly
rounded. In all the American species the male is provided with a costal
fold. The neuration is represented in the cut.

_Egg._--Hemispherical, ribbed.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar is much like those which have been
previously described, but is relatively much smaller.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis has a somewhat blunt and not very distinctly
developed cremaster.

(1) =Hesperia domicella=, Erichson, Plate XLVII, Fig. 19, ♂ (Erichson's
Skipper).

_Butterfly._--Allied to the following species, from which it is easily
discriminated by the broad, solid white bands on both the fore and the
hind wings. Expanse, 1.25 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

_H. domicella_ is found in Arizona, Mexico, and southward.

[Illustration FIG. 157.--Genus _Hesperia_. Neuration. Antenna,
magnified 3 diameters.]

(2) =Hesperia montivaga=, Reakirt, Plate XLVII, Fig. 18, ♂; Plate VI,
Fig. 35, _chrysalis_ (The Checkered Skipper).

_Butterfly._--The upper side is correctly delineated in the plate. The
under side of the fore wings is much paler than the upper side, but with
all the spots and markings of that side reproduced. The hind wings are
creamy-white, crossed by median, postmedian, and marginal irregular
bands of ochreous, somewhat annular spots. There is a triangular black
spot at the anal angle of the secondaries. Expanse, 1.15 inch.

_Early Stages._--We know little of these. The caterpillar probably feeds
on malvaceous plants, as do most of the species of the genus.

The insect ranges from the Middle States to Arizona, and westward to the
Rocky Mountains.

(3) =Hesperia centaureæ=, Rambur, Plate XLVII, Fig. 13, ♂ (The Grizzled
Skipper).

_Butterfly._--The upper side may easily be recognized by the help of the
figure in the plate. On the under side the wings are darker than in the
preceding species; the spots of the primaries reappear on this side, the
submarginal curved row of spots coalescing to form a narrow white band,
the white spot at the end of the cell flowing around the dark spot,
which it only partly incloses on the upper side, and forming an eye-like
spot. The hind wings are brown, scaled with green, and crossed by basal,
median, and marginal bands of quadrate spots. The fringes are whitish,
checkered with gray. Expanse, 1.15 inch.

_Early Stages._--These await description.

This species, which originally was believed to be confined to
Scandinavia and Lapland in Europe, and to eastern Labrador in this
country, is now known to have a wide range in North America, extending
from Labrador to the Carolinas on the Appalachian ranges, and occurring
on the Rocky Mountains from British Columbia to southern Colorado.

(4) =Hesperia cæspitalis=, Boisduval, Plate XLVII, Fig. 14, ♀ (The
Two-banded Skipper).

_Butterfly._--On the upper side strongly resembling the preceding
species, but the inner row of white spots on the hind wings is more
complete. On the under side the fore wings are black, crossed by a
double row of white spots, as on the upper side, these spots standing
out conspicuously on the dark ground. The hind wings on the under side
are more or less ferruginous, with the white spots more or less
conspicuous. The fringes are checkered white and gray. Expanse, 1.00
inch.

_Early Stages._--But little is known concerning these.

The species occurs in California, Oregon, and Nevada.

(5) =Hesperia xanthus=, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 15, ♂ (The Xanthus
Skipper).

_Butterfly._--Resembling the preceding species, but easily distinguished
by the larger size of all the spots on the upper side of the wing and
the paler under side, the secondaries being marked somewhat as in _H.
montivaga_. Expanse, 1.00 inch.

_Early Stages._--Hitherto undescribed.

The species has thus far been received only from southern Colorado, but
undoubtedly will be found elsewhere in that portion of the land.

(6) =Hesperia scriptura=, Boisduval, Plate XLVII, Fig. 12, ♀ (The Small
Checkered Skipper).

_Butterfly._--Quite small. The hind wings on the upper side are almost
entirely dark gray, the only white mark being a spot or two at the end
of the cell. The fore wings are marked on this side as in the two
foregoing species. On the under side the fore wings are blackish toward
the base, with the costa, the apex, and the outer margin narrowly
whitish. The hind wings below are pale, with an incomplete median band
of white spots and broad white fringes, which are not checkered with
darker color as in the preceding species. Expanse, .85 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The habitat of this species is southern Colorado, New Mexico, and
Arizona.

(7) =Hesperia nessus=, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 17, ♂ (Nessus).

_Butterfly._--This singularly marked little species, which probably
might be separated from this genus on account of the slender and
prolonged palpi, and no doubt would be by some of the hair-splitting
makers of genera, I am content to leave where it has been placed by
recent writers. It can be readily recognized by the figure in the plate,
as there is nothing else like it in our fauna. Expanse, .80 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

_Nessus_ occurs in Texas and Arizona.

There are a few other species of this genus found within the limits of
the United States, but enough have been represented to give a clear
conception of the characteristics of the group, which is widely
distributed throughout the world.


Genus SYSTASEA, Butler

_Butterfly._--The palpi are porrect, the third joint projecting forward,
the second joint densely scaled below. The antennæ are slender, the club
moderately stout, somewhat bluntly pointed, bent, not hooked. The hind
wings are somewhat crenulate, and deeply excised opposite the end of the
cell. The fifth vein is lacking. In the fore wing the lower radial
arises from a point nearer the upper radial than the third median
nervule. The fore wings are crossed about the middle by translucent
spots or bands.

_Early Stages._--The early stages are unknown.

[Illustration FIG. 158.--Neuration of the genus _Systasea_.]

(1) =Systasea zampa=, Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 1, ♂ (Zampa).

_Butterfly._--The wings on the upper side are ochreous, mottled and
clouded with dark brown. The primaries are marked about the middle and
before the apex by translucent transverse linear spots. In addition
there are a number of pale opaque spots on the primaries. The
secondaries are traversed by a pale submarginal whitish line. The under
side of the wings is pale, with the light markings of the upper side
indistinctly separated. Expanse, 1.10-1.25 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This interesting little species occurs in Arizona and northern Mexico.


Genus PHOLISORA, Scudder

_Butterfly._--The palpi are porrect, the second joint loosely scaled,
the third joint slender and conspicuous. The antennæ have the club
gradually thickened, the tip blunt. The fore wing is relatively narrow,
provided with a costal fold in the case of the male. The cut gives a
correct idea of the neuration.

[Illustration FIG. 159.--Neuration of the genus _Pholisora_.]

_Egg._--The egg is curiously formed, much flattened at the base, marked
on the side with longitudinal ridges and cross-lines, these ridges
developing alternately at their apical extremities into thickened, more
or less rugose elevations, the ridges pointing inwardly and surrounding
the deeply depressed micropyle.

_Caterpillar._--Slender, with the head broad, rounded; the body stout,
thickest in the middle, tapering toward either end, and somewhat
flattened below.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is slender, very slightly convex on the
ventral side, somewhat concave on the dorsal side behind the thorax. The
wing-cases are relatively smaller than in the preceding genera.

(1) =Pholisora catullus=, Fabricius, Plate XLV, Fig. 4, ♂; Plate VI,
Figs. 29, 36, 41, _chrysalis_ (The Sooty-wing).

_Butterfly._--Black on both sides of the wings, with a faint marginal
series and a conspicuous submarginal series of light spots on the
primaries in the male sex on the upper side, and, in addition to these,
in the female sex, a faint marginal series on the secondaries. On the
under side only the upper spots of the submarginal series of the
primaries reappear. Expanse, .80-1.15 inch.

_Early Stages._--The caterpillar feeds on "lamb's-quarter" (_Chenopodium
album_) and the _Amarantaceæ_. It forms a case for itself by folding the
leaf along the midrib and stitching the edges together with a few
threads of silk. It lies concealed during the day and feeds at night. A
minute account of all its peculiarities is given by Scudder in "The
Butterflies of New England," vol. ii, p. 1519.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLV                                     |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Papilio rutulus_, Boisduval, ♂.                          |
  | 2. _Pholisora alpheus_, Edwards, ♂.                          |
  | 3. _Calpodes ethlius_, Cramer, ♀.                            |
  | 4. _Pholisora catullus_, Fabricius, ♂.                       |
  | 5. _Thanaos afranius_, Lintner, ♂.                           |
  | 6. _Eudamus proteus_, Linnæus, ♀.                            |
  | 7. _Thanaos brizo_, Boisd.-Lec., ♀.                          |
  | 8. _Thanaos clitus_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 9. _Pyrrhopyge araxes_, Hewitson, ♂.                         |
  | 10. _Achalarus lycidas_, Smith and Abbot,                    |
  | ♀, _under side_.                                             |
  | 11. _Plestia dorus_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 12. _Achalarus cellus_, Boisd.-Lec., ♂.                      |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XLV.]                                    |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+

The insect ranges over the whole of temperate North America.

(2) =Pholisora hayhursti=, Edwards, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 16, ♀ (Hayhurst's
Skipper).

_Butterfly._--Easily distinguished from the preceding species by the
somewhat crenulate shape of the outer margin of the hind wings, the
white color of the under side of the abdomen, and the different
arrangement of the white spots on the fore wings, as well as by the dark
bands which cross both the fore and the hind wings on the upper side.
Expanse, .90-1.15 inch.

_Early Stages._--Our information as to these is incomplete.

The species ranges from the latitude of southern Pennsylvania westward
and southward to the Gulf, as far as the Rocky Mountains.

(3) =Pholisora libya=, Scudder, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 14, ♂ (The Mohave
Sooty-wing).

_Butterfly._--Easily distinguished from the two preceding species by the
white fringes of the wings and by the markings of the under side. The
primaries on the lower side are dark, tipped at the apex with light
gray, and in the female having the costa and the outer margin broadly
edged with light gray. The hind wings are pale gray of varying shades,
marked with a number of large circular white spots on the disk and a
marginal series of small white spots. Expanse, ♂, .80-1.25 inch; ♀,
1.15-1.40 inch.

_Early Stages._--These await full description.

This species is found from Nevada to Arizona, and is apparently very
common in the Mohave Desert.

(4) =Pholisora alpheus=, Edwards, Plate XLV, Fig. 2, ♂ (Alpheus).

_Butterfly._--This little species is nearer _P. hayhursti_ than any of
the others we have described, but may at once be recognized and
discriminated by the checkered margins and white tip of the fore wing
and the linear shape of the spots composing the submarginal and median
bands on the upper side of this wing. The hind wings on the under side
are marked with a number of light spots arranged in marginal and median
bands.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

_Alpheus_ occurs in Nevada, Arizona, and New Mexico.

There are four other species of the genus found in our fauna.


Genus THANAOS, Boisduval

(The Dusky-wings)

_Butterfly._--The antennæ have a moderately large club, curved, bluntly
pointed. The palpi are porrect, the third joint almost concealed in the
dense hairy vestiture of the second joint. The neuration of the wings is
represented in the cut. The fore wing in the case of the male always has
a costal fold. The butterflies comprised in this genus are all, without
exception, dark in color, in a few species having bright spots upon the
hind wings.

The genus reaches its largest development in North America. The
discrimination of the various species is somewhat difficult.

[Illustration FIG. 160.--Neuration of the genus _Thanaos_.]

_Egg._--The egg is somewhat like the egg in the genus _Achalarus_, but
the micropyle at the upper end of the egg is relatively larger and not
as deeply depressed below the surface. The sides are ornamented, as in
_Achalarus_, by raised vertical ridges, between which are numerous
cross-ridges; in a few cases the vertical ridges are beaded, or marked
by a series of minute globose prominences, upon the edge.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillars are cylindrical, tapering from the
middle forward and backward, marked with lateral and dorsal stripes,
with the neck less strangulated than in the preceding genera.

_Chrysalis._--Not greatly differing in outline from the chrysalis of the
preceding genera, in most species having the outline of the dorsum
straight on the abdominal segments, with the thoracic segments forming a
slight hump or elevation; convex on the ventral side, the cremaster
being usually well developed.

(1) =Thanaos brizo=, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XLV, Fig. 7, ♀; Plate
VI, Fig. 38, _chrysalis_ (The Sleepy Dusky-wing).

_Butterfly._--The band of postmedian spots on the fore wing is composed
of annular dark markings, is regular, crosses the wing from the costa to
the hind margin, and is reproduced on the under side as a series of
pale-yellowish spots more or less distinct. The hind wings have a double
series of faint yellow spots; these as well as the marginal spots of the
primaries are very distinct on the under side. Expanse, 1.25-1.60 inch.

_Early Stages._--The caterpillar feeds on oaks, _Galactia_, and possibly
_Baptisia_. The life-history has been only partially ascertained, in
spite of the fact that the insect has a wide range and is not uncommon.

_Brizo_ occurs from the Atlantic to the Pacific, ranging from the
latitude of New England to that of Arizona.

(2) =Thanaos icelus=, Lintner, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 17, ♂; Plate VI, Fig.
27, _chrysalis_ (The Dreamy Dusky-wing).

_Butterfly._--Prevalently smaller in size than the preceding species.
The under side of the wings is paler than the upper side, and the outer
third of both the primaries and secondaries is marked with a profusion
of small indistinct yellow spots, which do not form well-defined bands
as in the preceding species. On the upper side of the fore wing the
median area is generally marked by a broad band of pale gray, but this
is not invariably the case. Expanse, 1.00-1.20 inch.

_Early Stages._--These have been described by Scudder. The caterpillar
feeds on a variety of plants, as the aspen, oaks, and witch-hazel.

_Icelus_ ranges across the continent from Nova Scotia to Oregon, and
south to Florida and Arizona.

(3) =Thanaos somnus=, Lintner, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 2, ♂ (The Dark
Dusky-wing).

_Butterfly._--A little larger than the preceding species, especially in
the female sex. The male is generally quite dark, the banding of the
fore wing on the upper side obscured. The hind wings have a row of light
marginal and submarginal spots, more distinct on the under side than on
the upper. The female generally is light gray on the upper side of the
wings, with broad median and submarginal bands of dark brown, tending to
fuse or coalesce at a point near the origin of the first median nervule.
Expanse, ♂, 1.25 inch; ♀, 1.50 inch.

_Early Stages._--But little is known of these.

All of the specimens I have ever seen came from southern Florida.

(4) =Thanaos lucilius=, Lintner, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 10, ♂; Plate VI,
Figs. 30-32, _chrysalis_ (Lucilius' Dusky-wing).

_Butterfly._--This species may be distinguished from _T. pacuvius_, a
near ally, by the more mottled surface of the secondaries, which in
_pacuvius_ are almost solidly black; and from _T. martialis_, another
close ally, by the absence of the purplish-gray cast peculiar to both
sides of the wings of the latter species, and the less regular
arrangement of the bands of spots on the upper side of the fore wings.
The plate does not show these delicate but constant marks of difference
as well as might be desired. Expanse, 1.20-1.40 inch.

_Early Stages._--Dr. Scudder has fully described these. The caterpillar
feeds on the columbine (_Aquilegia canadensis_).

_Lucilius_ ranges from New England to Georgia, is common in western
Pennsylvania and West Virginia, and extends westward at least as far as
the Rocky Mountains.

(5) =Thanaos persius=, Scudder, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 1, ♂; Plate VI, Fig.
34, _chrysalis_ (Persius' Dusky-wing).

_Butterfly._--This is a very variable species, some specimens being
light and others dark in color. There is scarcely any positive clue to
the specific identity of the insect except that which is derived from
the study of the genital armature of the male, which is a microscopic
research capable of being performed only by an expert in such matters.
The student may be pardoned if, in attempting to classify the species of
this genus, and the present species in particular, he should grow weary,
and quote a few biblical expressions relating to Beelzebub, the "god of
flies." Expanse, 1.20-1.45 inch.

_Early Stages._--The caterpillar feeds on willows. Scudder has with
patient care described its life-history.

The insect ranges from New England southward, and inland across the
continent to the Pacific.

(6) =Thanaos afranius=, Lintner, Plate XLV, Fig. 5, ♂ (Afranius'
Dusky-wing).

_Butterfly._--Closely related to the preceding species. The hind wings
on the upper side in the male sex are almost solid black, the fringes
paler. On the under side there is a double row of light spots along the
margin of the hind wing in both sexes. The female is generally paler in
color on the upper side than the male.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

All the specimens I have seen come from Arizona, where the thing is
apparently common.

(7) =Thanaos martialis=, Scudder, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 4, ♂; Plate VI, Fig.
37, _chrysalis_ (Martial's Dusky-wing).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of the wings is paler than in most species,
and has a distinctly purplish-gray cast. The fore wings are crossed by
irregular bands of dark spots. The hind wings on the outer half are
profusely mottled with small pale spots. All the light spots are
repeated on the under side of both wings, and are more distinct on this
side than on the upper. Expanse, 1.25-1.40 inch.

_Early Stages._--These are partly known. The caterpillar feeds on
_Indigofera_ and _Amarantus_.

The species ranges from Massachusetts to Georgia, and westward to
Missouri and New Mexico.

(8) =Thanaos juvenalis=, Fabricius, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 11, ♀; Plate VI,
Fig. 33, _chrysalis_ (Juvenal's Dusky-wing).

_Butterfly._--Larger than the preceding species. The wings have a number
of translucent spots arranged as a transverse series beyond the middle
of the wing. They are far more distinct and larger in the female than in
the male. The under side of the wings is paler than the upper side, and
profusely but indistinctly marked with light spots. Expanse, 1.35-1.60
inch.

_Early Stages._--For a full knowledge of these the reader may consult
the pages of "The Butterflies of New England." The caterpillar feeds on
oaks and leguminous plants of various species.

This insect ranges from Quebec to Florida, and westward as far as
Arizona, where it appears to be common.

(9) =Thanaos petronius=, Lintner, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 7, ♂ (Petronius'
Dusky-wing).

_Butterfly._--Allied in size to the preceding species, but the
translucent spots of the transverse band are not, as in that species,
continued toward the inner margin, but terminate at the first median
nervule. The outer third of the primaries is pale, the inner two thirds
very dark. The under side of the wings of the male is uniformly dusky,
slightly, if at all, marked with lighter spots. The under side of the
wings of the female is less distinctly marked with light spots than is
the case in allied species. Expanse, 1.50-1.75 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The species has thus far been found only in Florida.

(10) =Thanaos horatius=, Scudder, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 15, ♂ (Horace's
Dusky-wing).

_Butterfly._--Smaller than _T. juvenalis_, which it resembles in the
long transverse series of translucent spots. It is, however, paler on
the upper side of the wings, and more profusely mottled on the hind wing
both above and below, though there is considerable variation in this
regard. Expanse, 1.65 inch.

_Early Stages._--The caterpillar probably feeds on the _Leguminosæ._ We
know very little about the life-history of the species.

The butterfly ranges from Massachusetts to Texas.

(11) =Thanaos nævius=, Lintner, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 3, ♀ (Nævius'
Dusky-wing).

_Butterfly._--This insect is closely allied to _T. petronius_, but the
translucent spots on the fore wing are smaller, and there is generally a
light spot near the costa before the three subapical translucent spots.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The habitat of this species is the region of the Indian River, in
Florida.

(12) =Thanaos pacuvius=, Lintner, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 9, ♀ (Pacuvius'
Dusky-wing).

_Butterfly._--Small, with the fore wings on the upper side rather
regularly banded with dark brown upon a lighter ground. The hind wings
are almost solid black above, with the fringes toward the anal angle
pure white. Expanse, 1.15-1.30 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This species occurs in Colorado, Mexico, and Arizona.

(13) =Thanaos clitus=, Edwards, Plate XLV, Fig. 8, ♀ (Clitus).

_Butterfly._--Larger than the preceding species. The hind wings are
solidly deep black, fringed broadly with pure white. The fore wings of
the male are dark, of the female lighter. Expanse, 1.60-1.75 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The habitat of this species is Arizona and New Mexico.

(14) =Thanaos funeralis=, Lintner, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 12, ♂ (The Funereal
Dusky-wing).

_Butterfly._--Closely allied to the preceding species, of which it may
be only a smaller varietal form. Expanse, 1.35 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

_Funeralis_ occurs in western Texas and Arizona.

The genus _Thanaos_ is one of the most difficult genera to work out in
the present state of our knowledge of the subject. The species are not
only obscurely marked, but they vary in the most extraordinary manner.
Except by a microscopic examination of the genital armature, which can
be carried on only when the student possesses considerable anatomical
knowledge and an abundance of material, there is no way of reaching a
satisfactory determination in many cases.


COLLECTIONS AND COLLECTORS

In almost every community there is to be found some one who is
interested in insects, and who has formed a collection. The commonest
form of a collection is exceedingly primitive and unscientific, in which
a few local species are pinned together in a glass-covered box or
receptacle, which is then framed and hung upon the wall. Almost every
village bar-room contains some such monstrous assemblage of insects,
skewered on pins, in more or less frightful attitudes. As evidencing an
innate interest in the beauties of natural objects, these things are
interesting, but show a want of information which, as has been already
pointed out, is largely due to a lack of literature relating to the
subject in this country. In many of the schools of the land small
collections, arranged more scientifically, have been made, and some of
the collections contained in the high schools of our larger towns and
cities are creditable to the zeal of teachers and of pupils. There is no
reason why every school of importance should not, in the lapse of time,
secure large and accurately named collections, not only of the insects,
but of the other animals, as well as the plants and minerals of the
region in which it is located. Every high school should have a room set
apart for the use of those students who are interested in the study of
natural history, and they ought to be encouraged to bring together
collections which should be properly arranged and preserved. The expense
is not great, and the practical value of the training which such studies
impart to the minds of young people is inestimable.

The great systematic collections in entomology in the United States are
for the most part in the hands of the museums and universities of the
country. The entomological collections of the United States government
at Washington are large and rich in interesting material. The
collections possessed by Harvard College and the Boston Society of
Natural History are extensive; so are also the collections of the
American Museum of Natural History, the Academy of Natural Sciences in
Philadelphia, and those of the Carnegie Museum in Pittsburgh. The
collection in the latter institution is altogether the largest and most
perfect collection of the butterflies of North America in existence, and
covers also very largely the butterflies of the world, there being about
twelve thousand species of butterflies represented, including
representatives of all known genera.

The formation of great collections has always had a charm for those who
have possessed the knowledge, the time, and the means to form them; and
the ranks of those who are engaged in the study of butterflies include
many of the most famous naturalists, among them not a few of noble rank.
One of the most enthusiastic collectors in Europe at the present time is
the Grand Duke Nicholas of Russia. The Nestor among German collectors is
Dr. Staudinger of Dresden. In France M. Charles Oberthür of Rennes is
the possessor of the largest and most perfect collection on French soil.
In England there are a number of magnificent collections, aside from the
great collection contained in the British Natural History Museum. These
are in the possession of Lord Walsingham, the Hon. Walter Rothschild,
Mr. F.D. Godman, Mr. Herbert Druce, Mr. H.J. Elwes, and others, all of
whom hold high rank in the domain of scientific research.

There are many men who make the collecting of natural-history specimens
a business. They are among the most intrepid and indefatigable explorers
of the present time. The late Henry W. Bates and Mr. Alfred Russel
Wallace were in early life leaders in this work, and we are indebted to
their researches for a knowledge of thousands of species. Two of the
most successful collectors who have followed in their footsteps are Mr.
Herbert H. Smith and Mr. William Doherty, both of them Americans; Mr.
Smith one of the most enthusiastic and successful explorers in South and
Central America, Mr. Doherty the most diligent explorer of the
Indo-Malayan Region. The story of the travels and adventures of these
two men is a tale full of romantic interest, which, alas! has been by
neither of them fully told.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLVI                                    |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Systasea zampa_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 2. _Erynnis manitoba_, Scudder, ♂.                           |
  | 3. _Erynnis manitoba_, Scudder, ♀.                           |
  | 4. _Atalopedes huron_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  | 5. _Atalopedes huron_, Edwards, ♀.                           |
  | 6. _Atrytone vitellius_, Smith and Abbot, ♂.                 |
  | 7. _Atrytone melane_, Edwards, ♂.                            |
  | 8. _Atrytone melane_, Edwards, ♀.                            |
  | 9. _Lerema hianna_, Scudder, ♂.                              |
  | 10. _Lerema hianna_, Scudder, ♀.                             |
  | 11. _Erynnis ottoë_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 12. _Erynnis ottoë_, Edwards, ♀.                             |
  | 13. _Erynnis sassacus_, Harris, ♂.                           |
  | 14. _Phycanassa viator_, Edwards, ♂.                         |
  | 15. _Phycanassa viator_, Edwards, ♀.                         |
  | 16. _Limochores pontiac_, Edwards, ♂.                        |
  | 17. _Limochores pontiac_, Edwards, ♀.                        |
  | 18. _Hylephila phylæus_, Drury, ♂.                           |
  | 19. _Hylephila phylæus_, Drury, ♀.                           |
  | 20. _Atrytone byssus_, Edwards, ♀.                           |
  | 21. _Limochores palatka_, Edwards, ♂.                        |
  | 22. _Thymelicus mystic_, Scudder, ♂.                         |
  | 23. _Thymelicus mystic_, Scudder, ♀.                         |
  | 24. _Atrytone delaware_, Edwards, ♂.                         |
  | 25. _Atrytone delaware_, Edwards, ♀.                         |
  | 26. _Erynnis morrisoni_, Edwards, ♂.                         |
  | 27. _Erynnis morrisoni_, Edwards, ♀.                         |
  | 28. _Thymelicus ætna_, Boisduval, ♂.                         |
  | 29. _Thymelicus ætna_, Boisduval, ♀.                         |
  | 30. _Limochores manataaqua_, Scudder, ♀.                     |
  | 31. _Euphyes metacomet_, Harris, ♂.                          |
  | 32. _Euphyes verna_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 33. _Lerodea eufala_, Edwards, ♀.                            |
  | 34. _Prenes ocola_, Edwards, ♂.                              |
  | 35. _Oligoria maculata_, Edwards, ♂.                         |
  | 36. _Lerema carolina_, Skinner, ♂.                           |
  | 37. _Phycanassa aaroni_, Skinner, ♂.                         |
  | 38. _Phycanassa howardi_, Skinner, ♂.                        |
  | 39. _Thorybes æmilia_, Skinner, ♂.                           |
  | 40. _Limochores yehl_, Skinner, ♂.                           |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XLVI.]                                   |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+



SUBFAMILY PAMPHILINÆ

  "Into the sunshine,
    Full of light,
  Leaping and flashing
    From morn till night."

  RUSSELL.

The _Pamphilinæ_ found in our fauna fall into two groups.

_Group A._--The antennæ are not greatly hooked and generally sharply
pointed; the palpi have the third joint short and inconspicuous; the
cell of the fore wing is always less than two thirds the length of the
costa; the lower radial is somewhat nearer to the third median nervule
than to the upper radial. The hind wing is often lobed. The lower radial
in the hind wing is generally lacking. The male never has a costal fold
on the fore wings, and but rarely is provided with a discal stigma.

But three genera belonging to this section of this subfamily are found
in our fauna, namely, the genera _Amblyscirtes_, _Pamphila_, and
_Oarisma_.

_Group B._--The antennæ are sometimes curved, but never hooked, the
palpi having the third joint minute, sometimes horizontally porrected.
The cell of the fore wing is less than two thirds the length of the
costa. The lower radial arises much nearer to the third median nervule
than to the upper radial. The hind wing is elongated, but never tailed.
The male is never provided on the fore wing with a costal fold, but is
in many genera furnished with a discal stigma on the fore wing. When in
a state of rest the majority of the species elevate their fore wings and
depress their hind wings, an attitude which is peculiar to the insects
of this group.


Genus AMBLYSCIRTES, Scudder

_Butterfly._--The antennæ are short, with a moderately thick club,
crooked at the end; the third joint of the palpi is bluntly conical,
short, and erect. The costa of the fore wing is straight, slightly
curved inwardly before the apex. The neuration is represented in the
cut.

_Egg._--Hemispherical.

_Caterpillar._--Not differing materially in its characteristics from the
caterpillars of other hesperid genera.

_Chrysalis._--Somewhat slender, with the dorsal and ventral outlines
straighter than in any of the preceding genera, and the dorsum very
slightly elevated in the region of the thoracic segments.

[Illustration FIG. 161.--Neuration of the genus _Amblyscirtes_.]

(1) =Amblyscirtes vialis=, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 5, ♂; Plate VI,
Fig. 40, _chrysalis_ (The Roadside Skipper).

_Butterfly._--This little species, an exceptionally bright example of
which is represented in the plate, may be known by the dark color of the
upper surface, almost uniformly brown, with a few subapical light spots
at the costa. In the specimen that is figured these light spots are
continued across the wing as a curved band, but this is not usual. The
wings on the under side in both sexes are very much as on the upper
side, save that both wings on the outer third are lightly laved with
gray. Expanse, 1.00 inch.

_Early Stages._--These have been described with minute accuracy by Dr.
Scudder.

The Roadside Skipper ranges from Montreal to Florida, and westward as
far as Nevada and Texas. It is not a common species in the valley of the
Mississippi; it seems to be far more common in southern New England and
in Colorado. At all events, I have obtained more specimens from these
localities than from any others.

(2) =Amblyscirtes samoset=, Scudder, Plate XLVII, Fig. 6, ♂; Plate VI,
Fig. 45, _chrysalis_ (Pepper-and-salt Skipper).

_Butterfly._--This little species on the upper side has the ground-color
as in the preceding species; the fringes on both wings are pale gray.
There are three small subapical spots on the fore wing, three somewhat
larger spots, one on either side of the second median nervule and the
third near the inner margin, and two very minute spots at the end of the
cell. On the under side the wings are pale gray, the white spots of the
upper side of the fore wing reappearing. The hind wing is in addition
marked by a semicircular median band of white spots, a small spot at the
end of the cell, and another conspicuous white spot about the middle of
the costa. Expanse, 1.00-1.10 inch.

_Early Stages._--The caterpillar apparently feeds upon grasses. We know
as yet very little of the life-history of the insect.

It is found in Maine, New Hampshire, along the summits of the
Appalachian mountain-ranges as far south as West Virginia, and is
reported to be common in Wisconsin and Michigan.

(3) =Amblyscirtes ænus=, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 7, ♀ (The Bronze
Skipper).

_Butterfly._--This obscure little species has the upper side of the
wings somewhat tawny. The markings, which are similar to those in _A.
samoset_, are not white, but yellow. The wings on the under side are
darker than in _samoset._ The spots of the fore wing are the same, but
the spots on the under side of the hind wing are different, and form a
zigzag postmedian transverse band, with a single small spot at the end
of the cell, and another of the same size beyond the middle of the
costa. Expanse, 1.00-1.20 inch.

_Early Stages._--These are unknown.

The species occurs in western Texas and Arizona.

(4) =Amblyscirtes simius=, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 8, ♂ (Simius).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of the male is correctly figured in the
plate. The wings on the under side are quite pale; the spots of the fore
wing reappear on the under side, and the fore wing is blackish at the
base; the hind wing has the angle at the base broadly white, with a
broad white blotch at the end of the cell, and a semicircular curved
band of obscure spots traversing the middle of the wing. Expanse, ♂, .90
inch; ♀, 1.20 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The species was originally described from Colorado.

(5) =Amblyscirtes textor=, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 16, ♂, _under side_
(The Woven-winged Skipper).

_Butterfly._--This little species, the under side of which is accurately
delineated in the plate, needs no description to characterize it, as its
peculiar markings serve at once to distinguish it from all other
species. Expanse, 1.25-1.45 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This little insect ranges from North Carolina southward to Florida,
Louisiana, and Texas.


Genus PAMPHILA, Fabricius

_Butterfly._--The antennæ are very short, less than half the length of
the costa. The club is stout, elongate, and blunt at its extremity; the
palpi are porrect, densely clothed with scales, concealing the third
joint, which is minute, slender, and bluntly conical. The body is long,
slender, and somewhat produced beyond the hind margin of the
secondaries. The neuration of the wings is represented in the cut.

_Egg._--Hemispherical, vertically ribbed, the interspaces uniformly
marked with little pitted depressions.

_Caterpillar._--The body is cylindrical, slender, tapering forward and
backward; the neck less strangulated than in many of the genera. The
body is somewhat hairy; the spiracles on the sides open from minute
subconical elevations.

_Chrysalis._--Not materially differing in outline and structure from the
chrysalids of other genera which have already been described.

Only a single species belonging to the genus is found in North America.

[Illustration FIG. 162.--Neuration of the genus _Pamphila_.]

(1) =Pamphila mandan=, Edwards, Plate XLXII, Fig. 1, ♂ (The Arctic
Skipper).

_Butterfly._--No description of this interesting little insect is
necessary, as the figure in the plate will enable the student at once to
distinguish it. It is wholly unlike any other species. Expanse, 1.10
inch.

_Early Stages._--These have been described by Dr. Scudder and Mr.
Fletcher. The caterpillar feeds on grasses.

The insect ranges from southern Labrador as far south as the White
Mountains and the Adirondacks, thence westward, following a line north
of the Great Lakes to Vancouver's Island and Alaska. It ranges southward
along the summits of the Western Cordilleras as far as northern
California.


=Genus OARISMA, Scudder=

_Butterfly._--Closely related to the preceding genus. The antennæ are
very short; the club is long, cylindrical, bluntly rounded at the apex,
not curved. The palpi are stout, the apical joint very slender,
elongated, and porrect. The head is broad; the body is long and slender,
projecting somewhat beyond the posterior margin of the secondaries. The
neuration of the wings is represented in the cut.

_Early Stages._--So far as known to me the life-history of no butterfly
of this genus has yet been ascertained.

[Illustration FIG. 163.--Neuration of the genus _Oarisma._]

(1) =Oarisma garita=, Reakirt, Plate XLVII, Fig. 3, ♂ (Garita).

_Butterfly._--This obscure little insect is light fulvous on the upper
side, with the costa of the hind wing somewhat broadly marked with
leaden gray; on the under side the fore wings are brighter fulvous, with
the inner margin laved with dark gray. The hind wings are paler fulvous,
inclining to gray, with the inner margin brighter fulvous. Expanse,
.75-1.00 inch.

_Early Stages._--We know little of these. The species is found in
southern Colorado, ranging thence westward and southward to Arizona.

(2) =Oarisma powesheik=, Parker, Plate XLVII, Fig. 4, ♂ (Powesheik).

_Butterfly._--This species may be distinguished from its ally _garita_
by its larger size, the darker color of the upper side of the wings, and
the red markings on the costa of the fore wings. On the under side the
fore wings are black, edged on the costa and outer margin for a short
distance below the apex with light fulvous. The hind wings are dusky,
with the veins and nervules white, standing forth conspicuously upon the
darker ground-color. Expanse, 1.00-1.25 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

_Powesheik_ occurs in Wisconsin, and ranges thence westward to Nebraska,
northward to Dakota, and southward as far as Colorado.


EXCHANGES

One of the best ways of adding to a collection is by the method known as
exchanging. A collector in one part of the country may find species
which are rare, or altogether unknown, in another part of the country.
By a system of exchanges with other collectors he is able to supply the
gaps which may exist in his collection. No one, however, cares to effect
exchanges with collectors who are careless or slovenly in the
preparation of their specimens, or inaccurate in naming them. A
collector who contemplates making an exchange should, as the first step,
prepare double lists, in one of which he gives the names and the number
of specimens of either sex of the butterflies which he is able to offer
in exchange; in the other he sets forth the things which he desires to
obtain. The first list is said to be a list of "offerta"; the second is
a list of "desiderata." As an illustration of the manner in which such
lists may be conveniently arranged, I give the following:

  OFFERTA

  Papilio turnus,         ♂ 3; ♀ 4.
  Dimorphic var. glaucus,    ♀ 6.
  Colias alexandra,         ♂ 4; ♀ 6.

  DESIDERATA

  Papilio nitra,             ♀.
  Papilio brevicauda, orange-spotted var.

The collector who receives these lists of offerta and desiderata will be
able to decide what his correspondent has which he desires, and what
there may be in his own collection which the correspondent wishes that
he can offer in exchange; and the process of exchange is thus
immediately facilitated.

Persons who exchange insects with others should always be extremely
careful as to the manner of packing the specimens, and the directions
given in the introductory portion of this book should be very carefully
followed. Too much care cannot be taken in preventing damage to
specimens in transit.


Genus ANCYLOXYPHA, Felder

_Butterfly._--Very small, the antennæ very short, the club straight,
bluntly pointed. The palpi have the third joint long, slender, and
suberect. The neuration of the wings is shown in the cut. The abdomen is
slender, extending beyond the hind margin of the secondaries. The fore
wings are without a discal stigma.

_Egg._--Hemispherical, marked with lozenge-shaped cells; yellow when
laid, later marked with orange-red patches.

_Caterpillar._--The entire life-history has not yet been ascertained.
The caterpillars live upon marsh grasses; they construct for themselves
a nest by drawing together the edges of a blade of grass with bands of
silk. In form they do not differ from other hesperid larvæ.

_Chrysalis._--Not as yet accurately known.

[Illustration FIG. 164.--Neuration of the genus _Ancyloxypha_.]

(1) =Ancyloxypha numitor=, Fabricius, Plate XLVII, Fig. 2, ♂ (Numitor).

_Butterfly._--The upper side is correctly delineated in the plate. On
the under side the fore wings are black, margined on the costa and on
the outer margin with reddish-fulvous. The hind wings are pale fulvous.
Expanse, .75-.95 inch.

_Early Stages._--What has been said in reference to these in connection
with the description of the genus must suffice for the species.

This pretty little insect is widely distributed, and abounds among
grasses about watercourses. It ranges from the province of Quebec to
eastern Florida, thence westward across the Mississippi Valley as far as
the Rocky Mountains.


Genus COPÆODES, Speyer

_Butterfly._--The antennæ are very short; the club is thick, straight,
rounded at the tip; the palpi are as in the preceding genus. The
neuration of the wings is represented in the cut. The abdomen is
slender, extending beyond the hind margin of the secondaries. The male
is provided in most species with a linear stigma.

_Early Stages._--These have not as yet been described.

(1) =Copæodes procris=, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 9, ♂ (Procris).

_Butterfly._--The plate gives an excellent idea of the upper side of
this diminutive species. On the under side the wings are colored as on
the upper side, save that the fore wings at the base near the inner
margin are blackish, and that the hind wings are a trifle paler than on
the upper side. The sexes do not differ in color. Expanse, .75-1.00
inch.

This pretty little butterfly is a Southern species, is found plentifully
in Texas and Arizona, and occurs also very commonly in southern
California.

[Illustration FIG. 165.--Neuration of the genus _Copæodes_.]

(2) =Copæodes wrighti=, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 10, ♂ (Wright's
Skipper).

_Butterfly._--This species may be easily distinguished from the
preceding by the dark fringes of both the fore and the hind wing and by
the different arrangement of the discal stigma on the fore wing. On the
under side it is colored very much as _procris_. Expanse, .75-1.10 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The species is found in the Mohave Desert and southern California.

(3) =Copæodes myrtis=, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 11, ♂ (Myrtis).

_Butterfly._--This diminutive little species may be readily recognized
by the plate. The fore wings are somewhat broadly margined with dusky at
the apex and along the outer margin; the hind wings on the costa are
broadly and on the outer edge narrowly margined with dusky. On the under
side the fore wings are blackish at the base. Expanse, .75 inch.

The only specimens of this butterfly that I have ever seen came from
Arizona. The type is figured in the plate.


Genus ERYNNIS, Schrank

_Butterfly._--The antennæ are short, less than half the length of the
costa; the club is robust, with a very minute terminal crook; the palpi
have the third joint minute, suberect, and bluntly conical. There is a
discal stigma on the fore wing of the male.

_Egg._--Somewhat spherical.

_Caterpillar._--Feeds upon grasses, and is stouter in form than most
hesperid larvæ, and sluggish in proportion to its stoutness. It does not
make a nest, but conceals itself between the leaves of grass at the
point where they unite with the stem, and is not very difficult to
discover.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is elongated, cylindrical. Our knowledge of
this stage is not very accurate as yet.

[Illustration FIG. 166.--Neuration of the genus _Erynnis_, enlarged.]

(1) =Erynnis manitoba=, Scudder, Plate XLVI, Fig. 2, ♂; Fig. 3, ♀ (The
Canadian Skipper).

_Butterfly_, ♂.--The upper side of the wings is depicted in the plate.
On the under side the wings are paler, the fore wings fulvous on the
cell, pale gray at the apex and on the outer margin. There is a black
shade at the base of the primaries, and a black streak corresponding in
location to the discal stigma on the upper side. The hind wings are pale
ferruginous, except a broad streak along the inner margin, which is
whitish. All the light spots of the upper side of both wings reappear on
the under side, but are more distinctly defined, and are pearly-white in
color.

♀.--The female, on the under side of the fore wing, has the black discal
streak replaced by a broad ferruginous shade. The hind wings are darker,
and the light spots stand forth more conspicuously upon the darker
ground. Expanse, ♂, 1.25 inch; ♀, 1.30 inch.

_Early Stages._--These remain to be ascertained.

The Canadian Skipper is found across the entire continent north of a
line roughly approximating the boundary between the United States and
the Dominion of Canada. Along the Western Cordilleras it descends into
the United States, as far south as Colorado and northern California.

(2) =Erynnis morrisoni=, Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 26, ♂; Fig. 27, ♀
(Morrison's Skipper).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of the wings in both sexes is sufficiently
well delineated in the plate to obviate the necessity for description.
On the under side the fore wings are pale fulvous, black at the base and
ferruginous at the tip, the ferruginous shade interrupted by the
subapical pale spots, which on this side of the wing are pearly-white.
The hind wings are deep ferruginous, obscured on the inner margin by
long pale-brown hairs. From the base to the end of the cell there is a
broad silvery-white ray. Beyond the cell the curved postmedian band of
fulvous spots which appears above reappears as a band of pearly-white,
which stands forth conspicuously on the dark ground. Expanse, ♂, 1.20
inch; ♀, 1.20-1.35 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The species ranges from southern Colorado to Arizona.

(3) =Erynnis sassacus=, Harris, Plate XLVI, Fig. 13, ♂ (The Indian
Skipper).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of the male is as shown in the plate. The
female is larger, the fulvous ground-color paler, the outer marginal
shades darker, and the discal stigma is replaced by a dark-brown shade.
On the under side in both sexes the wings are pale fulvous, with the
spots of the upper side feebly reproduced as faint lighter spots. The
fore wings in both sexes are black at the base. Expanse, ♂, 1.10-1.25
inch; ♀, 1.25-1.35 inch.

_Early Stages._--The caterpillar, which is plumper than most hesperid
larvæ, feeds on grasses.

The insect ranges from New England to Georgia, and westward to Colorado.

(4) =Erynnis ottoë=, Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 11, ♂; Fig. 12, ♀
(Ottoë).

_Butterfly._--Considerably larger than the preceding species. The wings
of the male on the upper side are pale fulvous, narrowly bordered with
black. The discal stigma is dark and prominent. The female has the wings
on the upper side more broadly but more faintly margined with dusky. The
wings of both sexes on the under side are uniformly pale fulvous or
buff, marked with dark brown or blackish at the base of the fore wings.
Expanse, ♂, 1.35 inch; ♀, 1.45-1.50 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The habitat of this species is Kansas and Nebraska.

(5) =Erynnis metea=, Scudder, Plate XLVII, Fig. 33, ♂; Fig. 34, ♀ (The
Cobweb Skipper).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of the wings is fairly well represented in
the plate, the male being a little too red, and the wings at the base
and the discal stigma not being dark enough. On the under side the wings
are brown, darker than on the upper side. The pale markings of the upper
side are all repeated below as distinct pearly-white spots, and in
addition on the hind wings near the base there is a curved band of
similar white spots. Expanse, ♂, 1.20 inch; ♀, 1.25-1.30 inch.

_Early Stages._--We know as yet but little of these.

The species occurs in New England, New York, and westward to Wisconsin.

(6) =Erynnis uncas=, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 27, ♂; Fig. 28, ♀
(Uncas).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of the wings of both sexes is well
represented in the plate. On the under side in both sexes the wings are
beautifully marked with conspicuous pearly-white spots on a
greenish-gray ground. The spots are defined inwardly and outwardly by
dark olive shades and spots. Expanse, ♂, 1.30 inch; ♀, 1.55 inch.

_Early Stages._--We know nothing of these.

The insect ranges from Pennsylvania to Colorado and Montana.

(7) =Erynnis attalus=, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 23, ♂ (Attalus).

_Butterfly._--The male is fairly well depicted in the plate, but the
light spots are too red. The female is larger and darker. On the under
side the wings are dusky, with the light spots reproduced in faint gray.
Expanse, ♂, 1.25 inch; ♀, 1.45 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The species occurs very rarely in New England, is found from New Jersey
to Florida and Texas, and ranges westward to Wisconsin and Iowa.

(8) =Erynnis sylvanoides=, Boisduval, Plate XLVII, Fig. 44, ♂ (The
Woodland Skipper).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of the male is well shown in the plate. The
female on the upper side has less fulvous, the wings being prevalently
fuscous, and the red color reduced to a spot at the end of the cell.
There is a median band of fulvous spots on both wings. On the under side
in both sexes the wings are quite pale gray, with the costa near the
base and the cell of the primaries reddish. The primaries at the base
near the inner margin are black. The spots of the upper side reappear,
but are pale and faint. Expanse, 1.25-1.35 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The species ranges along the Pacific coast from British Columbia to
California, and eastward to Colorado.

(9) =Erynnis leonardus=, Harris, Plate XLVII, Fig. 35, ♂; Fig. 36, ♀
(Leonard's Skipper).

_Butterfly._--Stouter and larger than the preceding species, and
notably darker in coloring. The upper side of the wings is shown in the
plate. On the under side the wings are dark brick-red. The primaries are
blackish on the outer half, interrupted by the spots of the median
series, which on the under side are large, distinct, and shade from pale
fulvous to white toward the inner margin. The secondaries have a round
pale spot at the end of the cell, and a curved median band of similar
spots, corresponding in location to those on the upper side. Expanse, ♂,
1.25 inch; ♀, 1.35 inch.

_Early Stages._--These are only imperfectly known. The caterpillar feeds
on grasses.

The butterfly, which haunts flowers and may easily be captured upon
them, ranges from New England and Ontario southward to Florida, and
westward to Iowa and Kansas.

(10) =Erynnis snowi=, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 29, ♂; Fig. 30, ♀
(Snow's Skipper).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of the wings of both sexes is well
represented in the plate. On the under side the wings are uniformly
reddish-brown, with the primaries black at the base, and the median
spots enlarged near the inner margin and whitish, as in the preceding
species. The light spots of the upper side reappear below as pale spots,
which are well defined on the dark ground-color. Expanse, 1.25-1.40
inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The species ranges from southern Colorado to Arizona.


Genus THYMELICUS, Hübner

_Butterfly._--The antennæ are short, less than half the length of the
costa; the club is stout and short, somewhat crooked just at the end.
The third joint of the palpi is conical, almost concealed in the thick
vestiture of the second joint. The neuration is given in the cut.

_Egg._--The egg is hemispherical, with the surface marked by irregular
angular cells formed by slightly raised lines.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillars feed on grasses. They are long and
slender, thicker behind than before, covered with short hair. They are
generally dark in color, and not green as are the caterpillars in most
of the hesperid genera.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLVII                                   |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Pamphila mandan_, Edwards, ♂.                            |
  | 2. _Ancyloxypha numitor_, Fabricius, ♂.                      |
  | 3. _Oarisma garita_, Reakirt, ♂.                             |
  | 4. _Oarisma poweshiek_, Parker, ♂.                           |
  | 5. _Amblyscirtes vialis_, Edwards, ♂.                        |
  | 6. _Amblyscirtes samoset_, Scudder, ♂.                       |
  | 7. _Amblyscirtes ænus_, Edwards, ♀.                          |
  | 8. _Amblyscirtes simius_, Edwards, ♂.                        |
  | 9. _Copæodes procris_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  | 10. _Copæodes wrighti_, Edwards, ♂.                          |
  | 11. _Copæodes myrtis_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  | 12. _Hesperia scriptura_, Boisduval, ♀.                      |
  | 13. _Hesperia centaureæ_, Rambur, ♂.                         |
  | 14. _Hesperia cæspitalis_, Boisduval, ♀.                     |
  | 15. _Hesperia xanthus_, Edwards, ♂.                          |
  | 16. _Amblyscirtes textor_, Edwards, ♂,                       |
  |     _under side_.                                            |
  | 17. _Hesperia nessus_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  | 18. _Hesperia montivaga_, Reakirt, ♂.                        |
  | 19. _Hesperia domicella_, Erichson, ♂.                       |
  | 20. _Limochores taumas_, Fabricius, ♂.                       |
  | 21. _Poanes massasoit_, Scudder, ♂.                          |
  | 22. _Poanes massasoit_, Scudder, ♀.                          |
  | 23. _Erynnis attalus_, Edwards, ♂.                           |
  | 24. _Polites peckius_, Kirby, ♂.                             |
  | 25. _Polites peckius_, Kirby, ♀.                             |
  | 26. _Polites mardon_, Edwards, ♂.                            |
  | 27. _Erynnis uncas_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 28. _Erynnis uncas_, Edwards, ♀.                             |
  | 29. _Erynnis snowi_, Edwards, ♂.                             |
  | 30. _Erynnis snowi_, Edwards, ♀.                             |
  | 31. _Atrytone taxiles_, Edwards, ♂.                          |
  | 32. _Atrytone taxiles_, Edwards, ♀.                          |
  | 33. _Erynnis metea_, Scudder, ♂.                             |
  | 34. _Erynnis metea_, Scudder, ♀.                             |
  | 35. _Erynnis leonardus_, Harris, ♂.                          |
  | 36. _Erynnis leonardus_, Harris, ♀.                          |
  | 37. _Atrytone zabulon_, Boisd.-Lec., ♂.                      |
  | 38. _Atrytone zabulon_, Boisd.-Lec., ♀.                      |
  | 39. _Atrytone pocahontas_, Scudder, ♀.                       |
  | 40. _Thymelicus brettus_, Boisd.-Lec., ♂.                    |
  | 41. _Thymelicus brettus_, Boisd.-Lec., ♀.                    |
  | 42. _Polites sabuleti_, Edwards, ♂.                          |
  | 43. _Polites sabuleti_, Edwards, ♀.                          |
  | 44. _Erynnis sylvanoides_, Boisduval, ♂.                     |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XLVII.]                                  |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+

_Chrysalis._--I can discover no account of any observations made upon
the chrysalids of this genus.

(1) =Thymelicus brettus=, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XLVII, Fig. 40, ♂;
Fig. 41, ♀ (The Whirlabout).

_Butterfly._--The male on the upper side resembles _Hylephila phylæus_,
but may be distinguished by the broader and darker spots on the under
side of the wings. The costal and outer margins of the secondaries are
also generally more broadly bordered with fuscous than in _phylæus_, a
fact not shown in the specimen figured in the plate. The female is quite
different from the female of _phylæus_, as will be seen by a comparison
of the figures of the two sexes. Expanse, ♂, 1.15 inch; ♀, 1.25 inch.

_Early Stages._--These are only partially known. The caterpillar feeds
on grasses.

[Illustration FIG. 167.--Neuration of the genus _Thymelicus_,
enlarged.]

The insect is very rare in the North, a few specimens having been taken
in New England and Wisconsin. It is found commonly in the Carolinas, and
thence southward to the Gulf, and is abundant in the Antilles, Mexico,
and Central America.

(2) =Thymelicus ætna=, Boisduval, Plate XLVI, Fig. 28, ♂; Fig. 29, ♀;
Plate VI, Fig. 42, _chrysalis_ (The Volcanic Skipper).

_Butterfly._--Both sexes are well represented on the upper side in the
plate. On the under side the wings are paler, with the light spots of
the upper side repeated. Expanse, ♂, 1.00 inch; ♀, 1.25 inch.

_Early Stages._--What we know of these is well stated in the pages of
Dr. Scudder's great work. The caterpillar usually feeds on grasses.

The species ranges from New England, Ontario, and Wisconsin on the north
to the Gulf, and as far west as Iowa and Texas.

(3) =Thymelicus mystic=, Scudder, Plate XLVI, Fig. 22, ♂; Fig. 23, ♀
(The Long-dash).

_Butterfly._--No description of the upper side is needed, the figures in
the plate being sufficient to enable identification. On the under side
the primaries are fulvous on the costa at the base. The remainder of the
primaries and the secondaries are dark ferruginous, with the light spots
of the upper side all repeated greatly enlarged, pale, and standing out
boldly upon the dark ground-color. The hind wings are pale brown on the
inner margin. Expanse, ♂, 1.10 inch; ♀, 1.25 inch.

_Early Stages._--These have been elaborately described by Scudder. The
caterpillar feeds on grasses, making a tubular nest for itself among the
leaves.

The insect ranges through southern Canada and New England to
Pennsylvania, and westward to Wisconsin.


Genus ATALOPEDES, Scudder

_Butterfly._--Antennæ short, less than half the length of the costa;
club short, stout, crooked just at the end; the palpi as in the
preceding genus. The cut shows the neuration. The only mark of
distinction between this genus and the two genera that follow is found
in the shape of the discal stigma on the wing of the male, which is
described as follows by Dr. Scudder: "Discal stigma in male consisting
of, first, a longitudinal streak at base of middle median interspace, of
shining black, recurved rods; second, of a semilunar field of dead-black
erect rods in the lowest median interspace, overhung above by long,
curving scales; followed below by a short, small striga of shining black
scales, and outside by a large field of erect, loosely compacted
scales."

[Illustration FIG. 168.--Neuration of the genus _Atalopedes_,
enlarged.]

_Egg._--Hemispherical, covered with a network of delicate raised lines
describing small polygons over the surface; minutely punctate.

_Caterpillar._--Cylindrical, tapering backward and forward; head large;
the neck less constricted than in the genus _Eudamus_ or in the genus
_Thanaos_; dark in color.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is slender, cylindrical, a little humped
upon the thorax, with the tongue-sheath free and projecting to the end
of the fifth abdominal segment.

(1) =Atalopedes huron=, Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 4, ♂; Fig. 5, ♀;
Plate VI, Figs. 43, 47, _chrysalis_ (The Sachem).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of the wings in both sexes is well
represented in the plate. On the under side the wings are paler, with
the light spots of the upper side faintly repeated. Expanse, ♂, 1.15
inch; ♀, 1.35 inch.

_Early Stages._--These are described in full with painstaking accuracy
by Scudder in "The Butterflies of New England." The caterpillar feeds on
grasses.

The species ranges from southern New York to Florida, thence westward
and southward into Mexico.


Genus POLITES, Scudder

_Butterfly._--The antennæ and the palpi are as in the preceding genus;
the neuration of the wings is also very much the same. This is another
genus founded by Dr. Scudder upon the shape of the discal stigma in the
wing of the male. His description of this feature is as follows: "Discal
stigma of male consisting of an interrupted, gently arcuate or sinuate
streak of dead-black retrorse scales or rods, edged below, especially in
the middle, by a border of similar, but dust-colored, erect rods, and
followed beneath by an inconspicuous large area of loosely compacted,
erect, dusky scales."

_Egg._--Approximately hemispherical, the height, however, being greater
than in the egg of the preceding genus; reticulated, the lines forming
hexagonal figures upon the surface.

_Caterpillar, etc._--Of the stages beyond the egg we know as yet
comparatively little. The caterpillar feeds on grasses.

[Illustration FIG. 169.--Neuration of the genus _Polites_, enlarged.]

(1) =Polites peckius=, Kirby, Plate XLVII, Fig. 24, ♂; Fig. 25, ♀
(Peck's Skipper).

_Butterfly._--This little species, the upper side of which in both sexes
is correctly shown in the plate, has the under side of the wings dark
brown, with the light spots of the upper side greatly enlarged,
especially upon the disks of the wings, fused, and pale yellow, thus
contrasting strongly with the rest of the wings. Expanse, ♂, 1.00 inch;
♀, 1.25 inch.

_Early Stages._--These are not thoroughly known as yet. The larva feeds
on grasses.

Peck's Skipper ranges from Canada southward to Virginia, and west to
Kansas and Iowa.

(2) =Polites mardon=, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 26, ♂ (The Oregon
Skipper).

_Butterfly._--On the under side the wings are pale gray, with the light
spots of the primaries and a curved median band of spots on the
secondaries whitish. Expanse, ♂, 1.10 inch; ♀, 1.20 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The only specimens I have, including the types, were taken in Oregon and
Washington.

(3) =Polites sabuleti=, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 42, ♂; Fig. 43, ♀
(The Sand-hill Skipper).

_Butterfly._--Small, the male on the upper side looking like a
diminutive and darkly bordered _phylæus_. On the under side the wings
are paler than on the upper side; the still paler spots of the discal
areas are defined outwardly and inwardly by elongated dark spots.
Expanse, 1.00-1.10 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The habitat of this species is California.


Genus HYLEPHILA, Billberg

_Butterfly._--The antennæ are very short, scarcely one third the length
of the costa of the fore wing; the club is robust and short, with a very
minute crook at the end; the palpi are as in the two preceding genera.
The neuration of the wings is represented in the cut.

_Early Stages._--As yet but partially known.

The larva feeds on grasses, and the mature form has been figured by
Abbot, a copy of whose drawing is given by Dr. Scudder in Plate 77 of
"The Butterflies of New England."

[Illustration FIG. 170.--Neuration of the genus _Hylephila_, enlarged.]

(1) =Hylephila phylæus=, Drury, Plate XLVI, Fig. 18, ♂; Fig. 19, ♀;
Plate VI, Fig. 39, _chrysalis_ (The Fiery Skipper).

_Butterfly._--The upper side is correctly shown in the plate. On the
under side the wings are pale yellow, with a few small, round spots on
the margin and disk of the hind wings, a black patch at the base, large
black marginal spots, and a central, interrupted, longitudinal black
streak on the disk of the primaries. Expanse, 1.15-1.25 inch.

The insect ranges from Connecticut to Patagonia, over all the most
habitable parts of the New World. I have taken it frequently in southern
Indiana, where I often have collected in recent years.


Genus PRENES, Scudder

_Butterfly._--The antennæ are short, not half the length of the costa.
The head is broad, and the antennæ are inserted widely apart. The club
is moderate, terminating in a fine point which is bent back at right
angles, forming a distinct crook. The abdomen is long and slender, but
does not project beyond the hind margin of the secondaries. The fore
wings are pointed at the apex and are relatively longer and narrower
than in the preceding genus. The neuration is illustrated in the cut.

_Early Stages._--These have not yet been studied.

[Illustration FIG. 171.--Neuration of the genus _Prenes_, enlarged.]

(1) =Prenes ocola=, Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 34, ♂ (The Ocola Skipper).

_Butterfly._--Accurately depicted in the plate. The under side is like
the upper side, but a shade paler. The under side of the abdomen is
whitish. Expanse, 1.45-1.60 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This is a Southern species, found commonly in the Gulf States, and
ranging northward to Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, and Indiana.


Genus CALPODES, Hübner

[Illustration FIG. 172.--Neuration of the genus _Calpodes_, enlarged.]

_Butterfly._--Rather large, stout; head broad; antennæ as in the
preceding genus, but stouter. The neuration, considerably enlarged, is
accurately delineated in the cut.

_Egg._--Hemispherical, ornamented with irregular, more or less
pentagonal cells.

_Caterpillar._--Cylindrical, slender, tapering forward and backward from
the ninth segment, rapidly diminishing in size posteriorly; the head
relatively small, the neck not much strangulated; spiracles surrounded
by radiating blackish bristles.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is relatively slender, gently convex both on
the ventral and dorsal aspects, with a curved delicate frontal tubercle.
The tongue-case is long and projects for a considerable distance beyond
the somewhat short cremaster.

(1) =Calpodes ethlius=, Cramer, Plate XLV, Fig. 3, ♀; Plate VI, Fig. 48,
_chrysalis_ (The Brazilian Skipper).

_Butterfly._--There can be no mistaking this robust and thick-bodied
species. The wings on the under side are dull olive, blackish at the
base of the primaries, with all the spots of the upper side repeated.
Expanse, 2.00-2.15 inches.

_Early Stages._--The caterpillar feeds on the leaves of the canna.

It is common in the Gulf States, and ranges north to South Carolina. A
stray specimen was once taken at West Farms, New York. Southward it
ranges everywhere through the Antilles to Argentina, in South America.


Genus LERODEA, Scudder

_Butterfly._--The antennæ are about half as long as the costa; the club
is robust, slightly elongated, with a distinct crook at the extremity;
the palpi have the third joint erect, minute, and bluntly conical. The
neuration is represented in the cut.

_Early Stages._--These are not known.

[Illustration FIG. 173.--Neuration of the genus _Lerodea_, enlarged.]

(1) =Lerodea eufala=, Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 33, ♀ (Eufala).

_Butterfly._--The plate shows the upper side of the female. The male is
not different, except that the fore wings are a little more pointed at
the apex. The under side is like the upper side, but a shade paler. The
lower side of the abdomen is whitish. When seen on the wing the creature
looks like a small _Prenes ocola_. Expanse, 1.10-1.20 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

This butterfly is found in the Gulf States.


Genus LIMOCHORES, Scudder

_Butterfly._--The antennæ are about half as long as the costa; the club
is robust, elongate, with a very short terminal crook; the palpi have
the third joint erect, short, bluntly conical. The male has a linear
discal stigma on the upper side of the fore wing, as shown in the cut.

_Egg._--Hemispherical, somewhat flattened on the top, the surface broken
up by delicate raised lines into pentagonal cells.

_Caterpillar._--Largest on the fourth and fifth abdominal segments,
tapering to either end. The larvæ feed on grasses, and construct a
tube-like nest of delicate films of silk between the blades.

_Chrysalis._--Comparatively slender, strongly convex on the thoracic
segments and on the dorsal side of the last segments of the abdomen. On
the ventral side the chrysalis is nearly straight. The cremaster, which
is short, is bent upward at an oblique angle with the line of the
ventral surface.

[Illustration FIG. 174.--Neuration of the genus _Limochores_,
enlarged.]

(1) =Limochores taumas=, Fabricius, Plate XLVII, Fig. 20, ♂; Plate VI,
Fig. 44, _chrysalis_ (The Fawny-edged Skipper).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of the male is excellently portrayed in the
plate. The female is without the tawny edge on the fore wing, the entire
wing being olivaceous, with three small subapical spots and a median row
of four spots beyond the end of the cell, increasing in size toward the
inner margin. On the under side in both sexes the wings are uniformly
dull olivaceous, with the spots of the upper side repeated. The costa of
the male is edged with red on this side, as well as on the upper side.
Expanse, ♂, 1.00 inch; ♀, 1.20 inch.

_Early Stages._--The reader who wishes to know about them may consult
the pages of "The Butterflies of New England." The caterpillar feeds on
grasses.

The insect ranges from Canada to the Gulf, and westward to Texas,
Colorado, and Montana.

(2) =Limochores manataaqua=, Scudder, Plate XLVI, Fig. 30, ♀ (The
Cross-line Skipper).

_Butterfly._--The male on the upper side is dusky-olive, with a black
discal streak below the cell, which is slightly touched with reddish,
becoming deeper and clearer red on the costa at the base. The wings on
the under side are more or less pale gray, with a transverse series of
pale spots on the primaries, and a very faint curved discal series of
similar spots on the secondaries. The female, the upper side of which is
well shown in the plate, is marked below much like the male. Expanse,
1.10-1.20 inch.

_Early Stages._--These have been described by Scudder.

The insect occurs in New England and Canada, and ranges westward to
Nebraska.

(3) =Limochores pontiac=, Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 16, ♂; Fig. 17, ♀
(Pontiac).

_Butterfly._--This fine insect is so well represented in the plate as to
require but little description. The wings are pale red, clouded with
dusky on the under side, the spots of the upper side being indistinctly
repeated. Expanse, ♂, 1.15 inch; ♀, 1.25 inch.

_Early Stages._--Little is known of these.

The insect ranges from Massachusetts to Iowa and Nebraska, and seems to
have its metropolis about the southern end of Lake Michigan.

(4) =Limochores palatka=, Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 21, ♂ (The Palatka
Skipper).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of the male needs no description. The
female closely resembles the female of _L. byssus_, which is shown in
the plate at Fig. 20, but differs from the female of that species in
having the median spots on the primaries much reduced in size, the band
of spots being greatly interrupted beyond the end of the cell. On the
hind wing the female has the entire surface of the secondaries inside of
the broad outer band fulvous, as shown in the figure of the male, and
not simply marked by a transverse narrow band of spots. On the under
side the fore wings are bright fulvous, clouded with black at the base
and near the outer angle. The hind wings are uniformly dull
reddish-brown. This species has been identified by Dr. Scudder with a
species named _dion_ by Edwards, but which is a very different thing.
Expanse, ♂, 1.50-1.65 inch; ♀, 1.90-2.00 inches.

_Early Stages._--We know nothing of these.

The insect is confined to Florida, all the specimens which I have seen
coming from the region of the Indian River.

(5) =Limochores byssus=, Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 20, ♀ (Byssus).

_Butterfly._--Allied to the preceding species. The discal stigma of the
male upon the fore wings is much longer than in _L. palatka_. The outer
margin of the secondaries is not as sharply defined as in that species,
but shades insensibly into the lighter greenish-fulvous of the basal
part of the wing. The female on the upper side is distinguished from the
female of the preceding species by the restriction of the discal band of
spots on the hind wing to a few small light-colored spaces beyond the
end of the cell, and by the regular continuation of the band of yellow
spots across the primaries from the subapical spots to the submedian
nervule near the middle of the inner margin. On the under side the
primaries and the secondaries are very bright, clear orange-red, with
the base and inner margin of the primaries brightly laved with blackish.
The median series of spots in the male are very faintly indicated on the
fore wings, but are more strongly indicated on those of the female.
Expanse, ♂, 1.45 inch; ♀, 1.65 inch.

_Early Stages._--We know little of these.

The insect is found in Florida.

(6) =Limochores yehl=, Skinner, Plate XLVI, Fig. 40, ♂ (Skinner's
Skipper).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of the male is shown in the plate. On the
under side the wings are lighter, the secondaries uniformly pale
cinnamon-brown, marked with a semicircle of four yellowish round spots,
with a small spot on the cell toward the base. Expanse, 1.25-1.35 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The species has been taken in Florida, and is as yet not common in
collections. The figure is that of the type.


Genus EUPHYES, Scudder

_Butterfly._--The antennæ have the club stout, elongate, furnished with
a short crook at the end; the palpi are densely scaled; the third joint
is slender, bluntly conical, projecting beyond the vestiture of the
second joint. The neuration is shown in the cut.

_Egg._--Hemispherical.

_Caterpillar._--The head small, body cylindrical, tapering forward and
backward from the middle, the body profusely covered with minute
tapering hairs arising from small, wart-like protuberances.

_Chrysalis._--Thus far undescribed.

[Illustration FIG. 175.--Neuration of the genus _Euphyes_, enlarged.]

(1) =Euphyes verna=, Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 32, ♀ (The Little
Glass-wing).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of the male is correctly delineated in the
plate. On the under side the wings are paler, inclining to purplish-red.
The spots of the upper side are repeated, but in addition about the
middle of the hind wings there is a semicircle of pale spots. Expanse,
♂, 1.15 inch; ♀, 1.35 inch.

_Early Stages._--We do not know much of these; what little we do know
may be found recorded in the pages of "The Butterflies of New England."
The caterpillar feeds on grasses.

It ranges from southern New England to Virginia, westward to Kansas, and
northward to the province of Alberta. It is quite common in Ohio,
Indiana, and Illinois.

(2) =Euphyes metacomet=, Harris, Plate XLVI, Fig. 31, ♂ (The Dun
Skipper).

_Butterfly._--The male is dark in color on the upper side, and on the
under side the wings are a shade lighter, the lower side of the abdomen
being generally paler. The female has some faint traces of translucent
apical spots near the costa, and two minute translucent spots on either
side of the second median nervule near its origin. On the under side the
spots of the upper side reappear. There is a faint trace of a semicircle
of pale spots about the middle of the hind wing. The female specimens
vary on the under side from pale brown to a distinctly purplish-brown.
Expanse, ♂, 1.15 inch; ♀, 1.30 inch.

_Early stages._--Next to nothing is known of these.

It ranges from Quebec to the Carolinas, and westward to Texas, New
Mexico, and the British possessions east of the Rocky Mountains, as far
north as the latitude of the northern shores of Lake Superior.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                              |
  | EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLVIII                                  |
  |                                                              |
  | 1. _Thanaos persius_, Scudder, ♂.                            |
  | 2. _Thanaos somnus_, Lintner, ♂.                             |
  | 3. _Thanaos nævius_, Lintner, ♀.                             |
  | 4. _Thanaos martialis_, Scudder, ♂.                          |
  | 5. _Thorybes bathyllus_, Smith and Abbot,                    |
  |     ♀.                                                       |
  | 6. _Thorybes pylades_, Scudder, ♀.                           |
  | 7. _Thanaos petronius_, Lintner, ♂.                          |
  | 8. _Lerema accius_, Smith and Abbot, ♂.                      |
  | 9. _Thanaos pacuvius_, Lintner, ♀.                           |
  | 10. _Thanaos lucilius_, Lintner, ♂.                          |
  | 11. _Thanaos juvenalis_, Fabricius, ♀.                       |
  | 12. _Thanaos funeralis_, Lintner, ♂.                         |
  | 13. _Thorybes epigena_, Butler, ♂.                           |
  | 14. _Pholisora libya_, Scudder, ♂.                           |
  | 15. _Thanaos horatius_, Scudder, ♂.                          |
  | 16. _Pholisora hayhursti_, Edwards, ♀.                       |
  | 17. _Thanaos icelus_, Lintner, ♂.                            |
  | 18. _Colias eurytheme_, Boisduval, ♀,                        |
  |     _albino_.                                                |
  |                                                              |
  | [Illustration PLATE XLVIII.]                                 |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------+



Genus OLIGORIA, Scudder

_Butterfly._--The antennæ are as in the preceding genus; the palpi have
the third joint minute and almost entirely concealed in the thick
vestiture of the second joint. The neuration is represented in the cut.

_Early Stages._--We know very little of these, and there is here a field
for investigation.

[Illustration FIG. 176.--Neuration of the genus _Oligoria_, enlarged.]

(1) =Oligoria maculata=, Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 35, ♂ (The Twin-spot).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of the male is as shown in the plate. The
female closely resembles the male, but the spots on the fore wing are
larger. On the under side the wings are brown, almost as dark as on the
upper side. The primaries are whitish near the outer angle. The spots of
the upper side of the primaries are reproduced on the lower side. The
hind wings have three conspicuous pearly-white spots about the middle,
two located one on either side of the second median nervule, and one
removed from these, located between the upper radial and the subcostal
nervule. Expanse, ♂, 1.40 inch; ♀, 1.50 inch.

_Early Stages._--But little is known of these.

This is a Southern species, found abundantly in Florida, and ranging
northward into Georgia and the Carolinas. A specimen is reported to have
been taken near Albany, New York, and diligent collecting may show that
it has a far more northern range than has heretofore been supposed.


Genus POANES, Scudder

_Butterfly._--The antennæ are short; the club is stout, bent, acuminate
at the tip. The third joint of the palpi is slender, cylindrical, short.
The neuration of the genus is shown in the cut.

_Early Stages._--Nothing is known of these, and they await
investigation.

(1) =Poanes massasoit=, Scudder, Plate XLVII, Fig. 21, ♂; Fig. 22, ♀
(The Mulberry-wing).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of the wings in both sexes is correctly
shown in the plate. On the under side the fore wings are black, with the
costa and the outer margin bordered with reddish, with three small
subapical light spots and two or three median spots. On the under side
the hind wings are bright yellow, bordered on the costa and on the outer
margin for part of their distance with reddish-brown. The female on the
under side is more obscurely marked than the male, and the hind wings
are more or less gray in many specimens, lacking the bright yellow which
appears upon the wings of the male. There is considerable variation on
the under side of the wings. Expanse, ♂, 1.15 inch; ♀, 1.20 inch.

[Illustration FIG. 177.--Neuration of the genus _Poanes_, enlarged.]

_Early Stages._--Not known.

The species ranges from New England westward as far as Nebraska, and its
range does not appear to extend south of Pennsylvania, though it has
been reported from Colorado, and even from northern Texas, in the West.


Genus PHYCANASSA, Scudder

_Butterfly._--Antennæ short; club straight, with a small crook at the
end. The palpi are as in the preceding genus, but a trifle longer. The
neuration is shown in the cut, and is very much like that of the
preceding genus.

_Early Stages._--These are wholly unknown.

[Illustration FIG. 178.--Neuration of the genus _Phycanassa_,
enlarged.]

(1) =Phycanassa viator=, Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 14, ♂; Fig. 15, ♀
(The Broad-winged Skipper).

_Butterfly._--Accurately delineated in the plate. On the under side the
wings are as on the upper side, but paler, and the secondaries are
traversed from the base to the middle of the outer margin by a pale
light-colored longitudinal ray, which is more or less obscured in some
specimens, especially of the female. The light spots of the upper side
appear indistinctly on the under side. Expanse, ♂, 1.45 inch; ♀, 1.60
inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

It is not uncommon in the Gulf States, and has been found as far north
as New Jersey, northern Illinois, and Wisconsin.

(2) =Phycanassa howardi=, Skinner, Plate XLVI, Fig. 38, ♂ (Howard's
Skipper).

_Butterfly._--The figure in the plate gives the upper side of the male,
in which the discal streak is composed of light-colored scales of the
same tint as the rest of the wing, in this respect resembling the allied
_P. aaroni_. The under side of the wings is described by Dr. Skinner as
follows: "Superiors with tawny central area and border same as upper
side. There is a large triangular spot extending into the wing from the
base. The tawny color above this spot is of a darker hue than that below
and outside of it. Inferiors very light brown, generally with four or
five very faint tawny spots in the central area." Expanse, ♂, 1.50 inch;
♀, 1.60 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The home of this species is Florida.

(3) =Phycanassa aaroni=, Skinner, Plate XLVI, Fig. 37, ♂ (Aaron's
Skipper).

_Butterfly._--This small species, the male of which is figured in the
plate, may be easily recognized from the figure there given. On the
under side the fore wings are black at the base; the middle area of the
wing is tawny, paler than on the upper side, and bordered as above, but
the border below is cinnamon-brown and not fuscous. The hind wings on
the under side are uniformly light cinnamon-brown, without any spots.
The female is like the male, but larger, the colors somewhat lighter and
the markings not so well defined. Expanse, ♂, 1.00 inch; ♀, 1.25 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The specimens thus far contained in collections have all been taken
about Cape May, in New Jersey, in the salt-marshes.


Genus ATRYTONE, Scudder

_Butterfly._--The antennæ have a stout club, somewhat elongate, and
furnished with a short crook at the end. The palpi are very much as in
the preceding genus. The neuration is shown in the cut. There is no
discal stigma on the fore wing of the male.

_Egg._--The egg is hemispherical, somewhat broadly flattened at the
apex, covered with small cells, the inner surface of which is marked
with minute punctulations.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar feeds upon common grasses, making a
loose nest of silk for itself at the point where the leaf joins the
stem. The head is small; the body is cylindrical, thick, tapering
abruptly at either end.

_Chrysalis._--Covered with delicate hair; the tongue-case free.

[Illustration FIG. 179.--Neuration of the genus _Atrytone_, enlarged.]

(1) =Atrytone vitellius=, Smith and Abbot, Plate XLVI, Fig. 6, ♂ (The
Iowa Skipper).

_Butterfly._--The male on the upper side is as shown in the plate. The
female on the upper side has the hind wings almost entirely fuscous,
very slightly yellowish about the middle of the disk. The fore wings
have the inner and outer margins more broadly bordered with fuscous than
the male, and through the middle of the cell there runs a dark ray. On
the under side the wings are bright pale yellow, with the inner margin
of the primaries clouded with brown. Expanse, ♂, 1.25 inch; ♀, 1.45
inch.

_Early Stages._--Very little is known of these.

The species ranges through the Gulf States, and northward in the valley
of the Mississippi as far as Nebraska and Iowa. It seems to be quite
common in Nebraska, and probably has a wider distribution than is
reported.

(2) =Atrytone zabulon=, Boisduval and Leconte, Plate XLVII, Fig. 37, ♂;
Fig. 38, ♀ (The Hobomok Skipper).

_Butterfly._--The upper side of both sexes is shown in the plate. The
color on the disk of the wings is, however, a little too red. On the
under side the wings are bright yellow, with the bases and the outer
margin bordered with dark brown. Expanse, ♂, 1.25 inch; ♀, 1.50 inch.

_Early Stages._--The caterpillar feeds upon grasses. The life-history
has been described with minute accuracy by Dr. Scudder.

The species ranges from New England to Georgia, and westward to the
Great Plains. It is very common in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and the
valley of the Ohio.

Dimorphic var. =pocahontas=, Scudder, Plate XLVII, Fig. 39, ♀. This is a
melanic, or black, female variety of _zabulon_, which is not uncommon.
It is remarkable because of the white spots on the primaries and the
dark color of the under side of the wings.

(3) =Atrytone taxiles=, Edwards, Plate XLVII, Fig. 31, ♂; Fig. 32, ♀
(Taxiles).

_Butterfly._--The fore wings on the under side of the male are bright
yellow, black at the base, slightly clouded on the outer margin with
pale brown. The hind wings on the under side in this sex are still paler
yellow, margined externally with pale brown, and crossed near the base
and on the disk by irregular bands of pale brown. In the female sex the
fore wings on the under side are fulvous, marked much as in the male,
but darker, especially toward the apex, where the subapical spots and
two small pale spots beyond the end of the cell near the outer margin
interrupt the brown color. The hind wings on the under side are pale
ferruginous, crossed by bands of lighter spots, and mottled with darker
brown. Expanse, ♂, 1.45 inch; ♀, 1.50 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The range of this species is from Colorado and Nevada to Arizona.

(4) =Atrytone delaware=, Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 24, ♂; Fig. 25, ♀
(The Delaware Skipper).

_Butterfly._--No description of the upper side of the wings is
necessary. On the under side the wings are bright orange-red, clouded
with black at the base and on the outer angle of the fore wings.
Expanse, ♂, 1.25-1.35 inch; ♀, 1.35-1.50 inch.

_Early Stages._--Very little is known of these.

The butterfly is found from southern New England and northern New York
as far south as Florida and Texas, ranging west to the Yellowstone and
southern Colorado.

(5) =Atrytone melane=, Edwards, Plate XLVI, Fig. 7, ♂; Fig. 8, ♀ (The
Umber Skipper).

_Butterfly._--The male on the upper side somewhat resembles _A.
zabulon_, var. _pocahontas_; the female likewise closely resembles
specimens of this variety. The wings on the under side are ferruginous,
clouded with blackish toward the base of the inner angle, the light
spots of the upper side being repeated. The hind wings on the under side
are reddish, with a broad irregular curved median band of pale-yellow
spots. In the female the band of spots is far more obscure. Expanse, ♂,
1.30 inch; ♀, 1.50 inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

The insect is found in southern California.


Genus LEREMA, Scudder

_Butterfly._--The antennæ are as in the preceding genus; the palpi have
the third joint erect, short, conical. The neuration is represented in
the cut. The male has a linear glandular streak on the upper side of the
fore wing.

_Egg._--Hemispherical, covered with more or less regularly pentagonal
cells.

_Caterpillar._--The caterpillar feeds upon grasses. The body is slender,
tapering forward and backward; the head is small.

_Chrysalis._--The chrysalis is slender, smooth, with a tapering conical
projection at the head, and the tongue-case long and free, reaching
almost to the end of the abdomen.

[Illustration FIG. 180.--Neuration of the genus _Lerema_, enlarged.]

(1) =Lerema accius=, Smith and Abbot, Plate XLVIII, Fig. 8, ♂; Plate VI,
Fig. 46, _chrysalis_ (Accius).

_Butterfly._--The male on the upper side is dark blackish-brown, with
three small subapical spots, and one small spot below these, near the
origin of the third median nervule. The female is exactly like the male,
except that it has two spots, the larger one being placed below the
small spot corresponding to the one on the fore wing of the male. The
wings on the under side are dark fuscous, somewhat clouded with darker
brown, the spots of the upper side reappearing on the under side.
Expanse, ♂, 1.40 inch; ♀, 1.50 inch.

_Early Stages._--Very little has been written upon the early stages.

The butterfly ranges from southern Connecticut to Florida, thence
westward to Texas, and along the Gulf coast in Mexico.

(2) =Lerema hianna=, Scudder, Plate XLVI, Fig. 9, ♂; Fig. 10, ♀ (The
Dusted Skipper).

_Butterfly._--The upper side is accurately represented in the plate. The
wings on the lower side are as on the upper side, a trifle paler and
somewhat grayer on the outer margin. Expanse, ♂, 1.15 inch; ♀, 1.25
inch.

_Early Stages._--Unknown.

It ranges through southern New England, westward to Wisconsin, Iowa, and
Nebraska, in a comparatively narrow strip of country.

(3) =Lerema carolina=, Skinner, Plate XLVI, Fig. 36, ♂ (The Carolina
Skipper).

_Butterfly._--On the upper side the butterfly is as represented in the
plate. The spots are repeated on the under side of the fore wing, but
less distinctly defined. The costa is edged with brownish-yellow. The
hind wings on the under side are yellow, spotted with small dark-brown
dots. Expanse, ♂, 1.00 inch. The female is unknown.

_Early Stages._--Wholly unknown.

This species has thus far been found only in North Carolina, and is
still extremely rare in collections. The figure in the plate represents
the type. I have seen other specimens. I place it provisionally in the
genus _Lerema_, though it undoubtedly does not belong here, and probably
may represent a new genus. Lacking material for dissection, I content
myself with this reference.


Genus MEGATHYMUS, Riley

[Illustration FIG. 181.--_Megathymus yuccæ_, ♀.]

This genus comprises butterflies having very stout bodies, broad wings,
strongly clubbed antennæ, very minute palpi. The caterpillars are
wood-boring in their habits, living in the pith and underground roots of
different species of _Yucca_. The life-history of the species
represented in the cuts has been well described by the late Professor
C.V. Riley, and the student who is curious to know more about this
remarkable insect will do well to consult the "Eighth Annual Report of
the State Entomologist of Missouri" (p. 169), or the "Transactions of
the St. Louis Academy of Science" (vol. iii, p. 323), in which, with
great learning, the author has patiently set forth what is known in
reference to the insect.

[Illustration FIG. 182.--_Megathymus yuccæ_: _a_, egg, magnified; _b_,
egg from which larva has escaped; _bb_, _bbb_, unhatched eggs, natural
size; _c_, newly hatched larva, magnified; _cc_, larva, natural size;
_d_, head, enlarged to show the mouth-parts; _e_, maxillary palpi; _f_,
antenna; _g_, labial palpi; _h_, spinneret.]

The genus _Megathymus_ is referred by some writers to the _Castniidæ_, a
genus of day-flying moths, which seem to connect the moths with the
butterflies; but the consideration of the anatomical structure of this
insect makes such a reference impossible. The genus properly represents
a subfamily of the _Hesperiidæ_, which might be named the _Megathyminæ_.
The species represented in our cuts is _Megathymus yuccæ_, Boisduval and
Leconte. There are a number of other species of _Megathymus_ that are
found in our Southern States, principally in Texas and Arizona. They are
interesting insects, the life-history of which is, however, in many
cases obscure, as yet.

[Illustration FIG. 183.--Chrysalis of _Megathymus yuccæ_.]


Conclusion

We here bring to a conclusion our survey of the butterflies of North
America. There are, in addition to the species that have been described
and figured in the plates, about one hundred and twenty-five other
species, principally _Hesperiidæ_, which have not been mentioned. The
field of exploration has not by any means been exhausted, and there is
no doubt that in the lapse of time a number of other species will be
discovered to inhabit our faunal limits.

The writer of these pages would deem it a great privilege to aid those
who are interested in the subject in naming and identifying any material
which they may not be able to name and identify by the help of this
book. In laying down his pen, at the end of what has been to him a
pleasurable task, he again renews the hope that what he has written may
tend to stimulate a deeper and more intelligent interest in the wonders
of creative wisdom, and takes occasion to remind the reader that it is
true, as was said by Fabricius, that nature is most to be admired in
those works which are least--"_Natura maxime miranda in minimis._"

[Illustration]



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTE TO THE SECOND EDITION


The first edition of this book having been nearly exhausted in less than
a month after publication, the author has not yet had opportunity to
avail himself of the criticisms of scientific friends who are presumably
looking for sins of omission and commission, of which it is sincerely
hoped they will acquaint him when discovered. Thus far all criticisms
have been of an approbatory character, and have only expressed pleasure.

The writer is indebted to Mr. Harrison G. Dyar, the Honorary Curator of
the Department of Entomology in the United States National Museum, for
reminding him of the fact, which he had carelessly overlooked, that the
larva and chrysalis of _Eumæus atala_ (see p. 237) have been fully
described by Scudder, "Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural
History," vol. ii., p. 413, and by Schwartz, "Insect Life," vol. i., p.
39. The caterpillar is found abundantly upon the "coontie" (_Zamia
integrifolia_, Willdenow), and the insect, according to Schwartz, fairly
swarms in the pine-woods between the shores of Biscayne Bay and the
Everglades.



INDEX


  aaroni, Phycanassa, 363

  Abbot, John, 70

  abbotti, Papilio, 307

  abdomen, 7, 17

  aberrations, 24

  acadica, Thecla, 242;
    Pieris, 280

  acastus, Melitæa, 143

  accius, Lerema, 366

  Achalarus, genus, 325;
    cellus, 326;
    lycidas, 325

  acis, Thecla, 240, 246

  acmon, Lycæna, 266

  Acræa, genus, 162

  Acræinæ, subfamily, 162

  Actinomeris, 157

  Adelpha, genus, 187;
    californica, 187

  adenostomatis, Thecla, 245

  adiante, Argynnis, 123

  Admiral, The Red, 170

  Admirals, The White, 182;
    Hulst's, 185;
    Lorquin's, 185

  æmilia, Thorybes, 325

  ænus, Amblyscirtes, 341

  ætna, Thymelicus, 351

  affinis, Thecla, 249

  afranius, Thanaos, 334

  agarithe, Catopsilia, 287

  Ageronia, genus, 193;
    feronia, 194;
    fornax, 194

  Agraulis, genus, 96

  Agrion, genus of dragon-flies, 86

  ajax, Papilio, 307

  alberta, Brenthis, 135

  albinism, 24

  albinos, 64

  alcestis, Argynnis, 107;
    Thecla, 241

  alexandra, Colias, 292

  aliaska, Papilio, 312

  alicia, Chlorippe, 190

  alma, Melitæa, 147

  alope, Satyrus, 215

  alpheus, Pholisora, 331

  Alpines, The, 208;
    Alaskan, 209;
    Colorado, 209;
    Common, 210;
    Red-streaked, 209

  Althæa, 170

  Amarantaceæ, 330

  Amarantus, 335

  Amblyscirtes, genus, 339;
    ænus, 341;
    samoset, 340;
    simius, 341;
    textor, 341;
    vialis, 340

  American Entomological Society, 73

  ammon, Lycæna, 270

  Amorpha californica, 289

  ampelos, Coenonympha, 207

  amymone, Cystineura, 177

  amyntula, Lycæna, 268

  anal angle of wing, 19

  Anartia, genus, 174;
    jatrophæ, 174

  Anatomy of Butterflies, 14-25

  Ancyloxypha, genus, 344;
    numitor, 345

  andria, Pyrrhanæa, 9, 192

  androconia, 18, 19

  Angle-wings, The, 163;
    Colorado, 165;
    Graceful, 166

  anicia, Melitæa, 140

  Animal Kingdom, The Place of Butterflies in the, 58

  annetta, Lycæna, 266

  Anosia, genus, 81;
    berenice, 82, 84;
    plexippus, 4, 6, 7, 11, 12, 14, 15, 63, 82, 171;
    strigosa, 84

  antennæ of caterpillar, 6;
    of butterfly, 14, 16, 23, 61

  Antennaria, 170

  Anthocharis, genus, 282

  Anthrenus, a museum pest, 53

  antiacis, Lycæna, 261

  antiopa, Vanessa, 5, 7, 94, 169

  Antirrhinum, 173

  antonia, Chlorippe, 189

  aortal chamber, 23

  aphrodite, Argynnis, 107

  apparatus, collecting, 26;
    for breeding butterflies, 34;
    for mounting butterflies, 39;
    for inflating caterpillars, 45;
    for preserving specimens, 48;
    pins, 56;
    forceps, 56

  Aquilegia canadensis, 334

  aquilo, Lycæna, 263

  Arabis, 284

  arachne, Melitæa, 148

  Arachnida, 59

  arctic butterflies, 171

  Arctics, The, 218;
    Bruce's, 223;
    Greater, 220;
    Labrador, 223;
    Macoun's, 221;
    Mead's, 222;
    Uhler's, 222

  Argynnis, genus, 96, 99, 101, 161, 172;
    adiante, 123;
    alcestis, 107;
    aphrodite, 18, 107;
    artonis, 123;
    atlantis, 108;
    atossa, 122;
    behrensi, 115;
    bischoffi, 124;
    bremneri, 113;
    callippe, 118;
    carpenteri, 106;
    chitone, 116;
    cipris, 107;
    clio, 124;
    columbia, 111;
    cornelia, 110;
    coronis, 117;
    cybele, 106;
    diana, 103;
    edwardsi, 119;
    egleis, 126;
    electa, 111;
    eurynome, 125;
    halcyone, 116;
    hesperis, 112;
    hippolyta, 112;
    idalia, 103;
    inornata, 122;
    lais, 109;
    laura, 120;
    leto, 105;
    liliana, 119;
    macaria, 121;
    meadi, 119;
    monticola, 114;
    montivaga, 126;
    nausicaä, 108;
    nevadensis, 118;
    nitocris, 105;
    nokomis, 104;
    opis, 124;
    oweni, 109;
    platina, 117;
    purpurescens, 114;
    rhodope, 115;
    rupestris, 120;
    semiramis, 121;
    snyderi, 118;
    zerene, 113

  ariadne, Colias, 29

  ariane, Satyrus, 216

  Aristolochia, 315, 316

  army-worm, 257

  Arnold, Sir Edwin, quotations from, 214, 258

  arota, Chrysophanus, 252

  arrangement, of specimens, 52;
    of species, 62

  arsace, Thecla, 248

  arthemis, Basilarchia, 184

  Arthropoda, definition of, 59;
    subdivisions of, 59

  artonis, Argynnis, 123

  Asama-yama, volcano, 150

  Asclepias, 81

  Asimina triloba, 308

  astarte, Brenthis, 135

  aster, Lycæna, 266

  asterias, Papilio, 314

  Astragalus, 240

  astyanax, Basilarchia, 184

  atala, Eumæus, 237, 370

  atalanta, Pyrameis, 170

  Atalopedes, genus, 352;
    huron, 352

  atlantis, Argynnis, 108

  atossa, Argynnis, 122

  Atrytone, genus, 363;
    delaware, 365;
    melane, 365;
    pocahontas, 364;
    taxiles, 365;
    vitellius, 364;
    zabulon, 364

  attalus, Erynnis, 349

  augusta, Melitæa, 141

  augustus, Thecla, 247

  ausonides, Euchloë, 283

  australis, Calephelis, 233

  autolycus, Thecla, 241

  Azalea occidentalis, 166


  bachmanni, Libythea, 227

  bairdi, Papilio, 313

  baits for butterflies, 32

  Banded Reds, The, 175

  Baptisia, 333

  Barbauld, Mrs., quotation from, 76

  barnesi, Phyciodes, 155

  baroni, Melitæa, 141;
    Satyrus, 216

  base of wing, 19

  Basilarchia, genus, 182;
    arthemis, 184;
    astyanax, 183;
    disippus, 3, 8, 84, 185;
    eros, 186;
    floridensis, 186;
    hulsti, 84, 185;
    lorquini, 185;
    proserpina, 184;
    pseudodorippus, 185;
    weidemeyeri, 185

  Bates, H.W., on study of butterflies, 3;
    as a collector, 338

  batesi, Phyciodes, 154

  bathyllus, Thorybes, 325

  battoides, Lycæna, 264

  beani, Melitæa, 140

  beating for lepidoptera, 33

  beckeri, Pieris, 277

  Beelzebub, the "god of flies," 334

  behrensi, Argynnis, 115

  behri, Colias, 294;
    Parnassius, 306;
    Thecla, 247

  bellona, Brenthis, 134

  Belt, "Naturalist in Nicaragua," 91

  berenice, Anosia, 84

  bischoffi, Argynnis, 124

  Blake & Co., forceps, 56

  bleaching wings of butterflies, 20

  blenina, Thecla, 245

  blow-fly, holding middle place in scale of animal existence, 271

  Blues, The, 236, 258;
    Arrow-head, 262;
    Aster, 266;
    Behr's, 260, 264;
    Boisduval's, 260;
    Bright, 259;
    Colorado, 264;
    Common, 267;
    Couper's, 261;
    Dotted, 264;
    Dwarf, 269;
    Eastern tailed, 268;
    Eyed, 261;
    Florida, 269;
    Gray, 263;
    Greenish, 260;
    Indian River, 270;
    Labrador, 263;
    Marine, 270;
    Orange-margined, 265;
    Pygmy, 269, 271;
    Reakirt's, 268;
    Rustic, 263;
    Scudder's, 265;
    Shasta, 265;
    Silvery, 262;
    Small, 262;
    Sonora, 263;
    Varied, 259;
    Western tailed, 268;
    West Indian, 270

  Boehmeria, 170

  Boisduval, Dr. J.A., 70

  Boisduval and Leconte, "Histoire
  Générale et Monographie des Lepidoptères
  et des Chenilles de l'Amérique Septentrionale," 70

  boisduvali, Brenthis, 132

  Boisduval's Marble, 285

  bolli, Melitæa, 147

  Books about North American Butterflies, 69

  boöpis, Satyrus, 216

  borealis, Calephelis, 232

  boxes for preserving collections, 48

  brain, 22, 23

  breeding butterflies, 34-37

  breeding-cages, 35, 36

  bremneri, Argynnis, 113

  Brenthis, genus, 128, 224;
    alberta, 135;
    astarte, 135;
    bellona, 134;
    boisduvali, 132;
    chariclea, 132;
    epithore, 135;
    freija, 132;
    frigga, 133;
    helena, 131;
    montinus, 131;
    myrina, 129;
    polaris, 133;
    triclaris, 130

  brettus, Thymelicus, 351

  brevicauda, Papilio, 313

  British Museum, 338

  brizo, Thanaos, 332

  bronchial tubes, 22

  Brongniart, M. Charles, 196

  Brooklyn Entomological Society, 73

  Brown, The Gemmed, 202;
    Henshaw's, 202

  brucei, OEneis, 223;
    Papilio, 313

  Brush-footed Butterflies. See Nymphalidæ

  bryoniæ, Pieris, 279

  Buckeye, The, 173

  Buckland, Frank, story of, 68

  "Bulletin Brooklyn Entomological Society," 73

  bumblebees in Australia, 256

  Butterflies' Fad, The, 186

  "Butterflies and Moths of North America," Strecker, 72

  "Butterflies of New England, The," by S.H. Scudder, 72;
    by C.J. Maynard, 72

  "Butterflies of North America," by W.H. Edwards, 71

  Butterflies, Widely Distributed, 171

  Butterfly, Baird's, 313;
    Bruce's, 313;
    Chryxus, 221;
    Holland's, 314;
    Iduna, 220;
    Varuna, 222;
    White Mountain, 222

  Butts, Mary, quotation from, 251

  byssus, Limochores, 358


  cabinets, 50

  cænius, Calephelis, 232

  cæsonia, Meganostoma, 289

  cæspitalis, Hesperia, 328

  Calais, OEneis, 221

  calanus, Thecla, 243

  Calephelis, genus, 232;
    australis, 233;
    borealis, 232;
    cænius, 232;
    nemesis, 233

  Calicoes, The, 193;
    Orange-skirted, 194;
    White-skirted, 194

  California, Coenonympha, 205

  californica, Adelpha, 187;
    Mechanitis, 87;
    Vanessa, 168

  callias, Erebia, 209

  Callicore, genus, 178;
    clymena, 178

  callippe, Argynnis, 118

  Callosune, genus, 162

  Calpodes, genus, 355;
    ethlius, 356

  calverleyi, Papilio, 314

  Camberwell Beauty, The, 169

  camillus, Phyciodes, 155

  canthus, Satyrodes, 200

  Cardamine, 284

  cardui, Pyrameis, 170, 171

  Carduus, 170

  carinenta, Libythea, 227

  Carnegie Museum, The, 49, 50, 338

  carolina, Lerema, 367

  carpenteri, Argynnis, 106

  Carryl, Charles Edward, quotation from, 208

  caryæ, Pyrameis, 170

  Cassia, 286

  Castniidæ, family, 368

  Caterpillar and the Ant, The, 316

  caterpillars, structure, form, color, etc., 5-11;
    social habits, 8;
    nests, 8;
    wood-boring, 8;
    moulting, 9;
    manner of defense, 9;
    protected by color, 8;
    duration of life of, 10;
    preservation of, 44-48;
    carnivorous, 9.
      See Feniseca

  Catopsilia, genus, 285;
    agarithe, 287;
    eubule, 286;
    philea, 286

  catullus, Pholisora, 330

  Ceanothus thyrsiflorus, 168

  cecrops, Thecla, 246

  cellus, Achalarus, 326

  celtis, Chlorippe, 189

  Celtis, genus of plants, 188

  centaureæ, Hesperia, 327

  Cerasus (Wild Cherry), 310

  Ceratinia, genus, 88;
    lycaste, 88;
    var. negreta, 88

  cethura, Euchloë, 284

  chalcedon, Melitæa, 139

  chalcis, Thecla, 244

  chara, Melitæa, 146

  chariclea, Brenthis, 132

  charitonius, Heliconius, 92

  charon, Satyrus, 217

  Chenopodium album, 330

  Chicken-thief, a supposed, 33

  Chionobas, genus, 218

  chiron, Timetes, 180

  chitone, Argynnis, 116

  Chlorippe, genus, 188;
    alicia, 190;
    antonia, 189;
    celtis, 189;
    clyton, 190;
    flora, 191;
    leilia, 190;
    montis, 190

  chrysalis, form of, 11;
    color, 12;
    duration of life of, 13;
    preservation of, 43

  chrysippus, Danais, 182

  chrysomelas, Colias, 291

  Chrysophanus, genus, 251;
    arota, 252;
    editha, 253;
    epixanthe, 254;
    gorgon, 253;
    helloides, 254;
    hypophlæas, 254;
    mariposa, 254;
    rubidus, 255;
    sirius, 255;
    snowi, 255;
    thoë, 253;
    virginiensis, 252;
    xanthoides, 253

  cipris, Argynnis, 107

  citima, Thecla, 239

  Citrus, 311

  clara, Lycæna, 259

  Clark, Willis G., quotation from, 250

  Classification of Butterflies, 58

  claudia, Euptoieta, 99

  cleis, Lemonias, 232

  Clerck, Charles, 69;
    "Icones," 69

  clio, Argynnis, 124

  Clitoria, 322

  clitus, Thanaos, 336

  clodius, Parnassius, 305

  club-men, 176

  clymena, Callicore, 178

  clypeus, 14, 15

  clytie, Thecla, 247

  clyton, Chlorippe, 190

  Cnicus, 170

  Codling-moth, 257

  coenia, Junonia, 173

  Coenonympha, genus, 205;
    ampelos, 207;
    California, 205;
    elko, 206;
    eryngii, 250;
    galactinus, 205;
    haydeni, 207;
    inornata, 206;
    kodiak, 207;
    ochracea, 206;
    pamphiloides, 207;
    pamphilus, 207;
    typhon, 206

  Colænis, genus, 94;
    delila, 95;
    julia, 95

  Cold, In the Face of the, 224;
    effects of, on butterflies, 225

  Coleridge, S.T., quotation from, 306

  Colias, genus, 161, 163, 289;
    alexandra, 292;
    ariadne, 291;
    behri, 294;
    chrysomelas, 291;
    elis, 290;
    eriphyle, 291;
    eurytheme, 290;
    interior, 292;
    keewaydin, 291;
    meadi, 290;
    nastes, 293;
    pelidne, 293;
    philodice, 17, 291;
    scudderi, 293

  collecting apparatus, 26-34

  collecting-jars, 28-30

  Collections and Collectors, 337

  colon, Melitæa, 140

  colon, The, 22

  color, of eggs of butterflies, 4;
    of caterpillars, 8

  Columbia, Argynnis, 111

  comma, Grapta, 165

  Comstock, John Henry, "A Manual for the Study of Insects," 74

  comyntas, Lycæna, 268

  Cook, Eliza, quotation from, 198

  Copæodes, genus, 345;
    myrtis, 346;
    procris, 345;
    wrighti, 346

  Coppers, The, 236, 251;
    American, 254;
    Bronze, 253;
    Great, 253;
    Least, 254;
    Nevada, 252;
    Purplish, 254;
    Reakirt's, 254;
    Ruddy, 255;
    Snow's, 255

  coresia, Timetes, 180

  cornelia, Argynnis, 110

  coronis, Argynnis, 117

  costal margin of wing, 19

  costal vein, 20, 21

  couperi, Lycæna, 261

  Cowan, Frank, quotations from, 90, 299

  Cowper, quotation from, 275

  coxa, 17, 18

  Cramer, Peter, 69;
    "Papillons Exotiques," 69

  cremaster, 11

  creola, Debis, 199

  Creole, The, 199

  Crescent-spots, The, 150;
    Pearl, 153

  cresphontes, Papilio, 311

  creusa, Euchloë, 283

  Crimson-patch, The, 159

  crocale, Synchloë, 160

  Crustacea, 59

  crysalus, Thecla, 239

  cybele, Argynnis, 106

  Cystineura, genus, 177;
    amymone, 177

  cythera, Lemonias, 230


  dædalus, Lycæna, 260

  Dagger-wings, The, 179;
    Many-banded, 180;
    Ruddy, 180

  damaris, Terias, 296

  damon, Thecla, 246

  Danais chrysippus, 182

  "darning-needles," 86

  daunus, Papilio, 310

  Debis, genus, 198;
    creola, 199;
    portlandia, 199

  delaware, Atrytone, 365

  delia, Terias, 298

  delila, Colænis, 95

  Dermestes, a museum pest, 53

  diana, Argynnis, 103, 127

  Dichora, genus, 195

  Diclippa, 157

  dimorphism, 23

  Dione, genus, 96;
    vanillæ, 97

  dionysius, Neominois, 213

  Dircenna, genus, 89;
    klugi, 89

  disa, Erebia, 209

  discal area of wing, 19

  discocellular veins, 21

  discoidalis, Erebia, 209;
    Thecla, 246

  disippus, Basilarchia, 3, 8, 84, 185

  Dismorphia, genus, 273;
    melite, 274

  Distribution of Butterflies, 25

  Dog-face Butterflies, 288;
    Californian, 288;
    Southern, 289

  Doherty, William, 338

  domicella, Hesperia, 327

  dorsal vessel, 22

  dorus, Plestia, 322

  Drake, Joseph Rodman, quotation from, 320

  Druce, Herbert, 338

  dryas, Grapta, 165

  drying-boxes, 42

  drying-ovens, 46, 47

  dumetorum, Thecla, 249

  duryi, Lemonias, 230

  Dusky-wings, The, 324, 332;
    Afranius', 334;
    Butler's, 325;
    Dark, 333;
    Dreamy, 333;
    Funereal, 336;
    Horace's, 336;
    Juvenal's, 335;
    Lucilius', 333;
    Martial's, 335;
    Nævius', 336;
    Northern, 324;
    Mrs. Owen's, 325;
    Pacuvius', 336;
    Persius', 334;
    Petronius', 335;
    Sleepy, 332;
    Southern, 325

  Dyar, Harrison G., 186

  dymas, Melitæa, 145


  eagle, white-headed, 63

  editha, Chrysophanus, 253;
    Melitæa, 142

  Edwards, W.H., Author of "Butterflies of North America," vi, 71;
    types of butterflies named by, vi

  edwardsi, Argynnis, 119;
    Thecla, 243

  eggs of butterflies, 3-5;
    how to secure, 34;
    preparation and preservation of, 43

  egleis, Argynnis, 126

  elada, Melitæa, 145

  elathea, Terias, 298

  electa, Argynnis, 111

  Elfin, Banded, 249;
    Brown, 247;
    Hoary, 248

  elis, Colias, 290

  elko, Coenonympha, 206

  Elwes, Henry J., 338

  Emerson, Ralph Waldo, quotations from, 197, 319

  Emperor, The Mountain, 190;
    The Tawny, 190

  enoptes, Lycæna, 264

  "Entomologica Americana," 73

  "Entomologist, The Canadian," 73

  entomology, definition of, 59;
    in high schools, 257

  envelopes for butterflies, 37

  Epargyreus, genus, 322;
    tityrus, 323

  epigena, Thorybes, 325

  epipsodea, Erebia, 210

  epithore, Brenthis, 135

  epixanthe, Chrysophanus, 254

  Erebia, genus, 208, 224;
    callias, 209;
    disa, 209;
    discoidalis, 209;
    epipsodea, 210;
    ethela, 210;
    magdalena, 211;
    mancinus, 209;
    sofia, 210;
    tyndarus, 210

  Eresia, genus, 157;
    frisia, 157;
    ianthe, 158;
    punctata, 158;
    texana, 158;
    tulcis, 158

  Ericaceæ, 244

  eriphyle, Colias, 291

  eros, Basilarchia, 186

  Erycininæ, subfamily, 228

  eryngii, Coenonympha, 205

  Erynnis, genus, 346;
    attalus, 349;
    leonardus, 349;
    manitoba, 347;
    metea, 348;
    morrisoni, 347;
    ottoë, 348;
    sassacus, 348;
    snowi, 350;
    sylvanoides, 349;
    uncas, 349

  eryphon, Thecla, 248

  ethela, Erebia, 210

  Ethiopian Faunal Region, 161

  ethlius, Calpodes, 356

  eubule, Catopsilia, 286

  Euchloë, genus, 282;
    ausonides, 283;
    cethura, 284;
    creusa, 283;
    flora, 282;
    genutia, 4, 284;
    julia, 283;
    lanceolata, 285;
    morrisoni, 284;
    pima, 284;
    reakirti, 282;
    rosa, 284;
    sara, 282;
    Stella, 283

  Eudamus, genus, 320;
    proteus, 321

  eufala, Lerodea, 356

  Eumæus, genus, 237;
    atala, 237, 370;
    minyas, 237

  Eunica, genus, 175;
    monima, 176;
    tatila, 176

  Euphorbiaceæ, 192

  Euphyes, genus, 359;
    metacomet, 360;
    verna, 360

  Euploeinæ, subfamily, 78, 80;
    protected insects, 84;
    Indo-Malayan, 161

  Euptoieta, genus, 98;
    claudia, 99;
    hegesia, 100

  eurydice, Meganostoma, 288

  eurymedon, Papilio, 308

  eurynome, Argynnis, 125

  eurytheme, Colias, 290

  eurytus, Neonympha, 203

  Exchanges, 344

  exilis, Lycæna, 269

  external angle of wing, 19

  external margin of wing, 19

  eyes, of caterpillars, 6;
    of butterflies, 14, 16


  fabricii, Grapta, 164

  Fabricius, Johann Christian, 69

  Fad, The Butterflies', 186

  Families of Butterflies, 64

  Family names, 63

  Faun, The, 165

  Faunal Regions, 161

  faunus, Grapta, 165

  favonius, Thecla, 240

  Fawcett, Edgar, quotation from, 228

  felicia, Nathalis, 281

  femur, 17, 18

  Feniseca, genus, 250;
    tarquinius, 9, 251

  feronia, Ageronia, 194

  Field, Eugene, quotation from, 74

  field-boxes, 30

  flava, Terias, 296

  Flint, Charles L., edition of Harris' Report, 71

  flora, Chlorippe, 191;
    Euchloë, 282

  floridensis, Basilarchia, 186;
    Papilio, 307

  food of caterpillars, 10

  food-plants, Selection of, by female butterfly, 5

  Food-reservoir, 22

  forceps, 56

  fornax, Ageronia, 194

  Fossil Insects, 195

  freija, Brenthis, 132

  French, Professor G.H., 72

  frigga, Brenthis, 133

  frisia, Eresia, 157

  Fritillary, The Variegated, 99;
    Mexican, 100;
    Regal, 103;
    Great Spangled, 106;
    Miss Owen's, 110;
    Behr's, 114;
    Behrens', 115;
    Skinner's, 117;
    Snyder's, 118;
    Edwards', 119;
    Cliff-dwelling, 120;
    Plain, 122;
    Bischoff's, 124;
    Silver-bordered, 129;
    Hübner's, 130;
    White Mountain, 131;
    Boisduval's, 132;
    Lapland, 132;
    Polar, 133;
    Meadow, 134

  front, definition of, 14

  fuliginosa, Lycæna, 258

  fulla, Lycæna, 259

  funeralis, Thanaos, 336


  gabbi, Melitæa, 144;
    Satyrus, 216

  Galactia, 333

  galactinus, Coenonympha, 205

  ganglia, 22, 23

  garita, Oarisma, 343

  Geirocheilus, genus, 211;
    tritonia, 211

  gemma, Neonympha, 202

  genoveva, Junonia, 174

  genus, definition of, 63

  genutia, Euchloë, 284

  Gerardia, 173

  Geyer, Karl, 70

  Gibson, William Hamilton, quotation from, 93

  gigas, OEneis, 220

  Glass-wing, The Little, 360

  glaucon, Lycæna, 264

  glaucus, Papilio, 309

  Gnaphalium, 170

  Goatweed Butterfly, The, 192;
    Morrison's 193

  Godman, F.D., 338

  gorgon, Chrysophanus, 253

  Gossamer-wing, The Sooty, 258

  gracilis, Grapta, 166

  Grapta, genus, 163;
    comma, 5, 165;
    dryas, 165;
    fabricii, 164;
    faunus, 165;
    gracilis, 166;
    harrisi, 165;
    hylas, 165;
    interrogationis, 164;
    marsyas, 165;
    progne, 166;
    satyrus, 165;
    silenus, 166;
    umbrosa, 164;
    zephyrus, 166

  greasy specimens, 54

  Grossulaceæ, 167

  grunus, Thecla, 238

  gundlachia, Terias, 295


  Hackberry Butterflies, 188, 189

  Hair-streaks, The, 236, 237;
    Acadian, 242;
    Banded, 243;
    Behr's, 247;
    Boisduval's, 238;
    Bronzed, 244;
    Colorado, 239;
    Common, 242;
    Coral, 250;
    Drury's, 246;
    Early, 249;
    Edwards', 243;
    Gray, 245;
    Great Purple, 239;
    Green-winged, 249;
    Green White-spotted, 249;
    Hedge-row, 244;
    Henry's, 248;
    Hewitson's, 245;
    Martial, 240;
    Nelson's, 245;
    Olive, 246;
    Southern, 240;
    Striped, 244;
    Texas, 241;
    Thicket, 245;
    White-M, 240;
    Wittfeld's, 241

  halcyone, Argynnis, 116

  halesus, Thecla, 239

  Hamadryas, genus, 85

  Hannington, Bishop, 172

  hanno, Lycæna, 269

  Harris, Dr. T.W., 70;
    "Report on the Insects of
    Massachusetts which are Injurious
    to Vegetation," 71

  harrisi, Grapta, 165;
    Melitæa, 144

  Harvester, The, 251

  Haworth, quotation from, 236

  haydeni, Coenonympha, 207

  hayhursti, Pholisora, 331

  head, of butterfly, 14;
    of caterpillar, 6

  heart, 22, 23

  hegesia, Euptoieta, 100

  Heine, quotation from, 281

  helena, Brenthis, 131

  Heliconiinæ, subfamily, 78, 91, 162

  Heliconius, genus, 92, 162;
    charitonius, 92

  helloides, Chrysophanus, 254

  Hemans, Mrs. Felicia, quotation from, 303

  henrici, Thecla, 248

  henshawi, Neonympha, 202

  hermodur, Parnassius, 306

  Hesperia, genus, 326;
    cæspitalis, 328;
    centaureæ, 327;
    domicella, 327;
    montivaga, 327;
    nessus, 329;
    scriptura, 328;
    xanthus, 328

  Hesperiidæ, family, 21, 66, 318;
    fossil, 196

  Hesperiinæ, subfamily, 320

  hesperis, Argynnis, 112

  Heterocera, 62

  Heterometabola, 59

  heteronea, Lycæna, 259

  hianna, Lerema, 366

  hibernaculum of Basilarchia, 183

  hibernation of caterpillars, 10, 37

  hippolyta, Argynnis, 112

  Hoary-edge, The, 326

  hoffmanni, Melitæa, 143

  Holland, Philemon, quotation from translation of Livy, 85

  hollandi, Papilio, 314

  Hood, Thomas, quotation from, 237

  horatius, Thanaos, 336

  Hornaday, W.T., vii

  Hosackia argophylla, 249

  howardi, Phycanassa, 363

  Hübner, Jacob, 69;
    works of, 70

  Hugo's "Flower to Butterfly," 74

  hulsti, Basilarchia, 84, 185

  humuli, Thecla, 242

  Humulus, 170

  huntera, Pyrameis, 170

  Hunter's Butterfly, 170

  huron, Atalopedes, 352

  hylas, Grapta, 165

  Hylephila, genus, 354;
    phylæus, 354

  Hypanartia, genus, 175;
    lethe, 175

  Hypolimnas, genus, 180;
    misippus, 171, 181

  hypophlæas, Chrysophanus, 254


  ianthe, Eresia, 158

  icarioides, Lycæna, 260

  icelus, Thanaos, 333

  idalia, Argynnis, 103

  iduna, OEneis, 220

  ilaire, Tachyris, 276

  imago, the, 13

  Immortality, 57

  Indigofera, 335

  Indo-Malayan Faunal Region, 161

  indra, Papilio, 312

  ines, Thecla, 247

  inflating larvæ, 44

  Ingelow, Jean, quotation from, 150, 188

  inner margin of wing, 19

  inornata, Argynnis, 122;
    Coenonympha, 206

  Insect pests, 53

  Insecta, 59

  Insects, Fossil, 194

  Instinct, 280

  interior, Colias, 292

  interrogationis, Grapta, 164

  intestine, 22, 23

  iole, Nathalis, 281

  irus, Thecla, 248

  ismeria, Phyciodes, 152

  isola, Lycæna, 268

  isophthalma, Lycæna, 269

  isthmia, Mechanitis, 87

  Ithomiinæ, subfamily, 78, 85, 162

  itys, Thecla, 243

  ivalida, OEneis, 222


  Jackson, Helen Hunt (H.H.), quotation from, 318

  j-album, Vanessa, 168

  janais, Synchloë, 159

  Japan, Collecting in, 149

  jatrophæ, Anartia, 174

  jucunda, Terias, 298

  julia, Colænis, 95;
    Euchloë, 283

  Juniperus virginiana, 246

  Junonia, genus, 172;
    coenia, 173;
    genoveva, 174;
    lavinia, 173

  jutta, OEneis, 222

  juvenalis, Thanaos, 335


  Kansas grasshopper, 257

  Karlsbader pins, 56

  keewaydin, Colias, 291

  Kenia, Mount, 172

  Key to Subfamilies of Nymphalidæ, 79

  Kilima-njaro, 172

  Kirby, Beard, & Co.'s pins, 56

  klugi, Dircenna, 89

  kodiak, Coenonympha, 207

  Kricogonia, genus, 287;
    lyside, 287;
    terissa, 287


  labels, 52

  labial palpi. See Palpi

  labium, of caterpillar, 6;
    of butterfly, 16

  labrum, of caterpillar, 6;
    of butterfly, 14

  lacinia, Synchloë, 159

  Lady, The Painted, 170, 171;
    The West Coast, 170

  læta, Thecla, 249

  lais, Argynnis, 109

  Lamb's-quarter, 330

  lanceolata, Euchloë, 285

  lappets, 17

  Laria, genus of moths, 224;
    rossi, 224

  larva. See Caterpillar

  laura, Argynnis, 120

  Lauraceæ, 192

  Lavatera assurgentiflora, 171

  lavinia, Junonia, 173

  Leaf-wings, The, 191

  leanira, Melitæa, 146

  Leconte, Major John E., 70

  legs, of caterpillars, 7;
    of butterflies, 17

  leilia, Chlorippe, 190

  Lemonias, genus, 229;
    cleis, 232;
    cythera, 230;
    duryi, 230;
    mormo, 229;
    nais, 230;
    palmeri, 231;
    virgulti, 230;
    zela, 231

  Lemoniidæ, 65, 228

  leonardus, Erynnis, 349

  Leopard-spots, The, 178

  Lepidoptera, 60;
    diurnal, 61

  Lerema, genus, 366;
    accius, 366;
    carolina, 367;
    hianna, 366

  Lerodea, genus, 356;
    eufala, 356

  Lespedeza, 324

  lethe, Hypanartia, 175

  leto, 105

  libya, Pholisora, 331

  Libythea, genus, 226;
    bachmanni, 227;
    carinenta, 227;
    labdaca, 195

  Libytheinæ, subfamily, 78, 226;
    fossil, 196

  liliana, Argynnis, 119

  limbal area of wing, 19

  Limochores, genus, 357;
    byssus, 358;
    manataaqua, 357;
    palatka, 358;
    pontiac, 358;
    taumas, 357;
    yehl, 359

  Linnæus, 58, 69

  liparops, Thecla, 244

  lisa, Terias, 297

  Literature relating to North American butterflies, 69

  Long-dash, The, 351

  lorquini, Basilarchia, 185

  lower discocellular vein, 21

  lower radial vein, 20, 21

  lucia, Lycæna, 267

  lucilius, Thanaos, 333

  Luther's Saddest Experience, 100

  Lycæna, genus, 258;
    acmon, 266;
    ammon, 270;
    amyntula, 268;
    annetta, 266;
    antiacis, 261;
    aquilo, 263;
    aster, 266;
    battoides, 264;
    clara, 259;
    comyntas, 268;
    couperi, 261;
    dædalus, 260;
    enoptes, 264;
    exilis, 269;
    fuliginosa, 258;
    fulla, 259;
    glaucon, 264;
    hanno, 269;
    heteronea, 359;
    icarioides, 260;
    isola, 268;
    isophthalma, 269;
    lucia, 267;
    lycea, 259;
    lygdamas, 262;
    marginata, 267;
    marina, 270;
    melissa, 265;
    mintha, 260;
    neglecta, 267;
    nigra, 267;
    pheres, 261;
    piasus, 268;
    podarce, 263;
    pseudargiolus, 4, 267;
    rustica, 263;
    sæpiolus, 260;
    sagittigera, 262;
    scudderi, 265;
    shasta, 265;
    sonorensis, 263;
    speciosa, 262;
    theonus, 270;
    violacea, 267;
    xerxes, 261

  Lycænidæ, 66, 161, 236

  lycaste, Ceratinia, 88

  lycea, Lycæna, 259

  lycidas, Achalarus, 325

  lygdamas, Lycæna, 262

  lyside, Kricogonia, 287


  macaria, Argynnis, 121

  MacDonald, George, quotation from, 201

  macglashani, Melitæa, 140

  machaon, Papilio, 312

  macouni, OEneis, 221

  maculata, Oligoria, 361

  magdalena, Erebia, 211

  Malachites, The, 194;
    The Pearly, 195

  Malacopoda, 59

  m-album, Thecla, 240

  Malpighian vessel, 22, 23

  manataaqua, Limochores, 357

  mancinus, Erebia, 209

  mandan, Pamphila, 342

  mandibles of caterpillar, 6

  manitoba, Erynnis, 347

  Many-banded Dagger-wing, The, 180

  marcellus, Papilio, 308

  marcia, Phyciodes, 153

  mardon, Polites, 354

  marginata, Lycæna, 267

  marina, Lycæna, 270

  mariposa, Chrysophanus, 254

  maritima, Satyrus, 215

  marsyas, Grapta, 165

  martialis, Thecla, 240;
    Thanaos, 335

  massasoit, Poanes, 361

  Maxillæ, of caterpillars, 6;
    of butterflies, 14

  Maynard, C.J., 72, 73

  McDonald, quotation from, 177

  meadi, Argynnis, 119;
    Satyrus, 216;
    Colias, 290

  Mechanitis, genus, 86;
    californica, 87;
    isthmia, 87;
    polymnia, 88

  median area of wing, 19

  median nervules, 21

  median vein, 20, 21

  Meganostoma, genus, 288;
    cæsonia, 289;
    eurydice, 288

  Megathyminæ, subfamily, 368

  Megathymus, genus, 367;
    yuccæ, 368

  melane, Atrytone, 365

  melanism, 24

  melinus, Thecla, 242

  melissa, Lycæna, 265

  Melitæa, genus, 137, 161, 163;
    acastus, 143;
    alma, 147;
    anicia, 140;
    arachne, 148;
    augusta, 141;
    baroni, 141;
    beani, 140;
    bolli, 147;
    chalcedon, 139;
    chara, 146;
    colon, 140;
    dymas, 145;
    editha, 142;
    elada, 145;
    gabbi, 144;
    harrisi, 144;
    hoffmanni, 143;
    leanira, 146;
    macglashani, 140;
    minuta, 148;
    nubigena, 141;
    nympha, 148;
    palla, 143;
    perse, 146;
    phaëton, 4, 138;
    rubicunda, 142;
    taylori, 142;
    thekla, 147;
    wheeleri, 141;
    whitneyi, 143;
    wrighti, 147

  melite, Dismorphia, 274

  menapia, Neophasia, 275

  mesothorax, 17, 23

  Metabola, 60

  metacomet, Euphyes, 360

  Metal-marks, The, 228

  Metal-marks, The, 230;
    Behr's, 230;
    Dury's, 230;
    Dusky, 233;
    Little, 232;
    Northern, 232;
    Palmer's, 231;
    Southern, 233

  metathorax, 17, 23

  metea, Erynnis, 348

  mexicana, Terias, 296

  micropyle, 4

  middle discocellular vein, 21

  milberti, Vanessa, 169

  mildew, 54

  Milkweed Butterfly. See Anosia

  Mime, The, 274

  Mimic, The, 181

  Mimicry, 24, 235

  mintha, Lycæna, 260

  minuta, Melitæa, 148

  minyas, Eumæus, 237

  misippus, Hypolimnas, 171, 181

  "Missouri Reports," The, by C.V. Riley, 73

  Monarch, The, 82

  monima, Eunica, 176

  Monkey, story about, 68;
    butterflies distasteful to, 92

  monstrosities, 24

  montana, Phyciodes, 156

  monticola, Argynnis, 114

  montinus, Brenthis, 131

  montis, Chlorippe, 190

  montivaga, Argynnis, 126;
    Hesperia, 327

  monuste, Pieris, 277

  Moore, Thomas, quotation from, 58

  Moravian Brethren, 127

  mormo, Lemonias, 229

  Mormon, The, 229

  morpheus, Phyciodes, 154

  Morris, Rev. John G., "Catalogue
  of the Described Lepidoptera of
  North America," 71

  morrisoni, Erynnis, 347;
    Euchloë, 284;
    Pyrrhanæa, 193

  moths, how to distinguish, from butterflies, 62

  mould on specimens, 54

  moulting of caterpillars, 9

  mounting butterflies, 38;
    English method, 39;
    continental method, 39;
    on setting-boards, 40;
    on setting-blocks, 42

  Mount Washington, N.H., 220

  Mourning-cloak, The, 169

  Mulberry-wing, The, 361

  Munkittrick, quotation from, 128

  muscles of head of butterfly, 15, 16

  mylitta, Phyciodes, 155

  Myriapoda, 59

  myrina, Brenthis, 129

  myrtis, Copæodes, 346

  mystic, Thymelicus, 351


  nævius, Thanaos, 336

  nais, Lemonias, 230

  names, family, 63;
    generic, 63;
    specific, 63;
    scientific, 66;
    popular, 68;
    use of, 67

  Naphthaline as a preventative of infection, 53

  Naphthaline cones, 53

  napi, Pieris, 279

  nastes, Colias, 293

  Nathalis, genus, 281;
    iole, 281;
    felicia, 281

  nausicaä, Argynnis, 108

  Nearctic Faunal Region, 161, 163

  neglecta, Lycæna, 267

  negreta, Ceratinia, 88

  nelsoni, Thecla, 245

  nemesis, Calephelis, 233

  Neominois, genus, 212;
    dionysius, 213;
    ridingsi, 213

  Neonympha, genus, 201;
    eurytus, 18, 203;
    gemma, 202;
    henshawi, 202;
    mitchelli, 203;
    phocion, 202;
    rubricata, 204;
    sosybius, 204

  Neophasia, genus, 274

  Neotropical Faunal Region, 161, 162

  nephele, Satyrus, 215

  nervous system of lepidoptera, 22, 23

  nervules, 21

  nessus, Hesperia, 329

  nets, 26-28;
    the use of, 31

  nevadensis, Argynnis, 118

  "News, The Entomological," 73

  "New York Entomological Society, Journal of the," 73

  Nicholas, Grand Duke, 338

  nicippe, Terias, 296

  nigra, Lycæna, 267

  niphon, Thecla, 249

  nitocris, Argynnis, 105

  nitra, Papilio, 312

  nokomis, Argynnis, 104

  Nova Scotian, The, 222

  nubigena, Melitæa, 141

  number of species of butterflies in the United States, 25

  numitor, Ancyloxypha, 345

  nycteis, Phyciodes, 151

  nympha, Melitæa, 148

  Nymphalidæ, 65, 77;
    subfamilies of, 78;
    fossil, 196

  Nymphalinæ, subfamily, 78, 93;
    eggs of, 94;
    Indo-Malayan, 161

  Nymphs, The (see Nymphalinæ);
    Eyed, 198;
    Common Grass, 200;
    Spangled, 201


  Oarisma, genus, 343;
    garita, 343;
    powesheik, 343

  Oberland, Bernese, 172

  Oberthür, M. Charles, 338

  occidentalis, Pieris, 278

  ochracea, Coenonympha, 206

  ocola, Prenes, 355

  OEneis, genus, 218, 224;
    brucei, 223;
    calais, 221;
    chryxus, 221;
    gigas, 220;
    iduna, 220;
    ivalida, 222;
    jutta, 222;
    macouni, 221;
    semidea, 222;
    taygete, 223;
    uhleri, 222;
    varuna, 222

  oesophagus, of butterfly, 15, 16, 23;
    of caterpillar, 22

  oetus, Satyrus, 218

  oleracea-hiemalis, Pieris, 279

  Oligoria, genus, 361;
    maculata, 361

  olympus, Satyrus, 215

  opis, Argynnis, 124

  Orange-tips, The, 282;
    Falcate, 284;
    Pima, 284;
    Reakirt's, 282

  oregonia, Papilio, 314

  Ornithoptera, genus, 162, 272;
    paradisea, 162;
    victoria, 162

  orseis, Phyciodes, 154

  osmateria, 9

  ottoë, Erynnis, 348

  outer angle of wing, 19

  oviduct, 23

  oweni, Argynnis, 109


  Packard, A.S., "Guide to the Study of Insects," 74;
    "A Text-book of Entomology," 74

  packing specimens, 55

  pacuvius, Thanaos, 336

  Palæarctic Faunal Region, 161

  palamedes, Papilio, 315

  palatka, Limochores, 358

  palla, Melitæa, 143

  pallida, Pieris, 297

  palmeri, Lemonias, 231

  palpi, of caterpillars, 6;
    of butterflies, 16, 23

  Pamphila, genus, 342;
    mandan, 342

  Pamphilinæ, subfamily, 339

  pamphiloides, Coenonympha, 207

  pamphilus, Coenonympha, 207

  papering specimens, 37

  Papilio, genus, 161, 162, 272, 306;
    abbotti, 307;
    ajax, 307;
    aliaska, 312;
    antimachus, 162;
    asterias, 6, 13, 314;
    bairdi, 313;
    brevicauda, 313;
    brucei, 313;
    calverleyi, 314;
    cresphontes, 311;
    daunus, 310;
    eurymedon, 308;
    floridensis, 307;
    glaucus, 309;
    hollandi, 314;
    indra, 312;
    machaon, 312;
    marcellus, 308;
    nitra, 312;
    oregonia, 314;
    palamedes, 315;
    philenor, 6, 12, 315;
    pilumnus, 310;
    polydamas, 316;
    rutulus, 309;
    telamonides, 308;
    thoas, 311;
    troilus, 9, 315;
    turnus, 3, 23, 309;
    walshi, 307;
    zolicaon, 312

  "Papilio," journal devoted to entomology, 73

  Papilionidæ, 66, 272

  Papilioninæ, subfamily, 304;
    fossil, 196

  paradisea, Ornithoptera, 162

  Parnassians, The, 304

  Parnassius, genus, 304;
    behri, 306;
    clodius, 305;
    hermodur, 306;
    smintheus, 306

  Passiflora, 96

  passion-flower, 92, 97, 98, 99

  Patched Butterflies, The, 159

  paulus, Satyrus, 217

  Peacock Butterflies, 172

  Peacock, The White, 174

  Pearly-eye, The, 199

  peckius, Polites, 353

  pectus, 17

  pegala, Satyrus, 215

  pelidne, Colias, 293

  Periodical literature of entomology, 73

  perse, Melitæa, 146

  persius, Thanaos, 334

  petronius, Thanaos, 335

  phaëton, Melitæa, 138

  phaon, Phyciodes, 153

  pheres, Lycæna, 261

  philea, Catopsilia, 286

  philenor, Papilio, 315

  philodice, Colias, 291

  phocion, Neonympha, 202

  Pholisora, genus, 330;
    alpheus, 331;
    catullus, 330;
    hayhursti, 331;
    libya, 331

  Phycanassa, genus, 362;
    aaroni, 363;
    howardi, 363;
    viator, 362

  Phyciodes, genus, 150;
    barnesi, 155;
    batesi, 154;
    camillus, 155;
    ismeria, 152;
    marcia, 153;
    montana, 156;
    morpheus, 154;
    mylitta, 155;
    nycteis, 151;
    orseis, 154;
    phaon, 153;
    picta, 156;
    pratensis, 154;
    tharos, 153;
    vesta, 152

  phylæus, Hylephila, 354

  piasus, Lycæna, 268

  picta, Phyciodes, 156

  Pierinæ, subfamily, 272;
    fossil, 196

  Pieris, genus, 276;
    acadica, 280;
    beckeri, 277;
    bryoniæ, 279;
    monuste, 277;
    napi, 279;
    occidentalis, 278;
    oleracea, 5, 13, 18;
    oleracea-hiemalis, 279;
    pallida, 279;
    protodice, 12, 278;
    rapæ, 280;
    sisymbri, 278;
    vernalis, 278;
    virginiensis, 279

  pilumnus, Papilio, 310

  pima, Euchloë, 284

  pins, 56

  Piperaceæ, 192

  Plantago, 173

  platina, Argynnis, 117

  Plestia, genus, 322;
    dorus, 322

  plexippus, Anosia, 82

  Pliny, quotation from, 85

  Poanes, genus, 361;
    massasoit, 361

  pocahontas, Atrytone, 364

  podarce, Lycæna, 263

  Podostomata, 59

  polaris, Brenthis, 133

  Polites, genus, 353;
    mardon, 354;
    peckius, 353;
    sabuleti, 354

  polydamas, Papilio, 316

  polymnia, Mechanitis, 88

  polymorphism, 23

  pontiac, Limochores, 358

  Pope, Alexander, quotation from, 304

  Populus, 169

  portia, Pyrrhanæa, 193

  portlandia, Debis, 199

  potato-bug, 257

  powesheik, Oarisma, 343

  pratensis, Phyciodes, 154

  precostal veins of Erycininæ, 228

  Prenes, genus, 355;
    ocola, 355

  proboscis of butterflies, 14-16, 23

  procris, Copæodes, 345

  progne, Grapta, 166

  prolegs, of caterpillars, 7;
    anal, 8

  proserpina, Basilarchia, 184

  protective mimicry, 25

  proterpia, Terias, 295

  proteus, Eudamus, 321

  prothorax, 17, 23

  protodice, Pieris, 278

  pseudargiolus, Lycæna, 267

  pseudodorippus, Basilarchia, 185

  "Psyche," journal devoted to entomology, 73

  Ptelea, 311

  punctata, Eresia, 158

  pupa. See Chrysalis

  Purple, The Banded, 184;
    The Red-spotted, 183

  purpurescens, Argynnis, 114

  pylades, Thorybes, 324

  Pyrameis, genus, 169;
    atalanta, 170;
    cardui, 170, 171;
    caryæ, 170;
    huntera, 170;
    indica, 172

  Pyrrhanæa, genus, 191;
    andria, 9, 192
    morrisoni, 193;
    portia, 193

  Pyrrhopyge, genus, 319;
    araxes, 319

  Pyrrhopyginæ, subfamily, 319


  Queen, The, 84

  Queens, The Tropic, 180

  Quercus, chrysolepis, 239

  Question-sign, The, 164


  Race after a Butterfly, 127

  Ramsay, Allan, quotation from, 316

  rapæ, Pieris, 280

  Reakirt, 87-90

  reakirti, Euchloë, 282

  rectum, 22, 23

  Red Rain, 299

  Reds, The Banded, 175

  Regions, Faunal, 161

  relaxing specimens, 41

  Repairing broken specimens, 55

  Rhamnus californicus, 309

  rhodope, Argynnis, 115

  Rhopalocera, origin of term, 16;
    suborder of lepidoptera, 60, 62

  Ribes, 252

  ridingsi, Neominois, 213

  Riley, James Whitcomb, quotation from, 276

  Riley, Professor C.V., vii, 73, 80, 256

  Ringlets, The, 205;
    Alaskan, 207;
    Californian, 205;
    Elko, 206;
    Hayden's, 207;
    Ochre, 206;
    Plain, 206;
    Ringless, 207;
    Utah, 207

  Robinia pseudacacia, 323

  Rogers, quotation from, 294

  rosa, Euchloë, 284

  Ross, Commander James, 224

  Rossetti, Christina, quotation from, 294

  rossi, Laria, 224

  Rothschild, Hon. Walter, 338

  rubicunda, Melitæa, 142

  rubidus, Chrysophanus, 255

  rubricata, Neonympha, 204

  Ruddy Dagger-wing, The, 180

  Rumex, 253

  rupestris, Argynnis, 120

  Russell, quotation from, 339

  rustica, Lycæna, 263

  rutulus, Papilio, 309


  sabuleti, Polites, 354

  Sachem, The, 352

  sæpiolus, Lycæna, 260

  sæpium, Thecla, 244

  sagittigera, Lycæna, 262

  samoset, Amblyscirtes, 340

  sara, Euchloë, 282

  sassacus, Erynnis, 348

  sassafras, 315

  Satyr, The, 165

  Satyrinæ, subfamily, 78, 197;
    fossil, 196

  Satyrs, The: Baron's, 216;
    Boisduval's, 218;
    Carolinian, 204;
    Gabb's, 216;
    Georgian, 202;
    Little Wood-, 203;
    Mead's, 216;
    Mitchell's, 203;
    Red, 204;
    Ridings', 213;
    Scudder's, 213

  Satyrodes, genus, 200;
    canthus, 200

  Satyrus, genus, 214;
    alope, 215;
    ariane, 216;
    baroni, 216;
    boöpis, 216;
    charon, 217;
    gabbi, 216;
    maritima, 215;
    meadi, 216;
    nephele, 215;
    oetus, 218;
    olympus, 215;
    paulus, 217;
    pegala, 215;
    sthenele, 218;
    texana, 215

  satyrus, Grapta, 165

  sauer-kraut, 257

  Saxifraga, 306

  scales of wings, 18;
    how to remove, 19;
    arrangement on wing, 20

  scale-insects, injurious to orange-trees, 256

  Schaus, William, 160

  scriptura, Hesperia, 328

  Scudder, Dr. S.H., author of
  "The Butterflies of New England," vi, vii. 72, 73

  Scudderi, Lycæna, 265;
    Colias, 293

  Sedum, 306

  segments constituting external skeleton of caterpillar, 6

  semidea, OEneis, 222

  semiramis, Argynnis, 121

  setting-blocks, 39

  setting-boards, 39

  setting-needles, 40

  sex, 64

  sex-signs, 64

  Shakespeare, quotations from, 91, 205, 218, 273

  shasta, Lycæna, 265

  shellac, 55

  Shelley, quotation from, 26

  "Shingling" butterflies when packing for shipment, 55

  Sigourney, Mrs., quotation from, 57

  silenus, Grapta, 166

  Silver-spot, Arizona, 108;
    Bremner's, 113;
    Columbian, 111;
    Mead's, 119;
    Mountain, 108;
    New Mexican, 107;
    Nevada, 118;
    Northwestern, 109;
    Owen's, 119

  simæthis, Thecla, 246

  simius, Amblyscirtes, 341

  sirius, Chrysophanus, 255

  Sisters, The, 187;
    Californian, 187

  sisymbri, Pieris, 278

  Sisymbrium, 284

  siva, Thecla, 246

  size, 271

  Skinner, Dr. Henry, 325, 363

  Skippers, The, 318;
    Aaron's, 363;
    Arctic, 342;
    Brazilian, 356;
    Broad-winged, 362;
    Bronze, 341;
    Canadian, 347;
    Carolina, 367;
    Checkered, 327;
    Cobweb, 348;
    Cross-line, 357;
    Delaware, 365;
    Dun, 360;
    Dusted, 366;
    Erichson's, 327;
    Fiery, 354;
    Golden-banded, 326;
    Grizzled, 327;
    Hayhurst's, 331;
    Hobomok, 364;
    Howard's, 363;
    Indian, 348;
    Iowa, 364;
    Leonard's, 349;
    Long-tailed, 321;
    Morrison's, 347;
    Ocola, 355;
    Oregon, 354;
    Palatka, 358;
    Peck's, 353;
    Pepper-and-salt, 340;
    Roadside, 340;
    Sand-hill, 354;
    Short-tailed, 322;
    Silver-spotted, 323;
    Skinner's, 359;
    Small-checkered, 328;
    Snow's, 350;
    Tawny-edged, 357;
    Two-banded, 328;
    Umber, 365;
    Volcanic, 351;
    Woodland, 340;
    Wovenwinged, 341;
    Wright's, 346;
    Xanthus, 328

  Slosson, Mrs. Annie Trumbull, quotation from, 233

  Small Sulphurs, 294;
    Gundlach's, 295

  smintheus, Parnassius, 306

  Smith, Herbert H., 338

  Smith, Sir James Edward, 70

  Smith and Abbot,
  "The Natural History of the
  Rarer Lepidopterous Insects of Georgia," 70

  Snout-butterflies, 226, 227;
    Southern, 227

  Snow, Chancellor F.H., 255

  snowi, Chrysophanus, 255;
    Erynnis, 350

  snyderi, Argynnis, 118

  sofia, Erebia, 210

  somnus, Thanaos, 333

  sonorensis, Lycæna, 263

  Sooty-wing, The, 330;
    Mohave, 331

  sosybius, Neonympha, 204

  species, definition of, 62

  speciosa, Lycæna, 262

  Spenser, Edmund, Quotation from, 226

  spermatheca, 23

  spicewood, 315

  spinetorum, Thecla, 245

  spinneret, 6, 22

  spinning-vessel, 22

  Staudinger, Dr. Otto, 338

  stella, Euchloë, 283

  steneles, Victorina, 195

  sthenele, Satyrus, 218

  stomach, 22, 23

  Strecker, Herman, 72

  strigosa, Anosia, 84

  subcostal nervules, 21

  subcostal vein, 20, 21

  subfamily names, 63

  submedian vein, 20, 21

  suboesophageal ganglion, 22, 23

  "sugaring," 32

  Sulphurs, The, 272, 289;
    Alexandra, 292;
    Arctic, 293;
    Behr's, 294;
    Cloudless, 286;
    Common, 291;
    Gold-and-black, 291;
    Great, 285;
    Labrador, 293;
    Large Orange, 287;
    Little, 297;
    Mead's, 290;
    Pink-edged, 292;
    Red-barred, 286;
    Scudder's, 293;
    Strecker's, 290

  Superstitions, 90

  Suspicious Conduct, 136

  Swallowtails, The, 272, 306;
    Alaskan, 312;
    Common Eastern, 314;
    Giant, 311;
    Newfoundland, 313;
    Pipe-vine, 315;
    Spice-bush, 315;
    Tiger, 309

  Swinburne, quotation from, 272

  sylvanoides, Erynnis, 349

  Synchloë, genus, 159;
    crocale, 160;
    janais, 159;
    lacinia, 159

  Systasea, genus, 329;
    zampa, 329


  Tachyris, genus, 275;
    ilaire, 276

  tacita, Thecla, Plate XXIX, Fig. 30

  tarquinius, Feniseca, 251

  tarsi, 17, 18

  tatila, Eunica, 176

  taumas, Limochores, 357

  taxiles, Atrytone, 365

  taygete, OEneis, 223

  taylori, Melitæa, 142

  tegulæ, 17

  telamonides, Papilio, 308

  Tennyson, quotation from, 213

  Terias, genus, 294;
    damaris, 296;
    delia, 298;
    elathea, 298;
    flava, 296;
    gundlachia, 295;
    jucunda, 298;
    lisa, 297;
    mexicana, 296;
    nicippe, 296;
    proterpia, 295;
    westwoodi, 297

  terissa, Kricogonia, 287

  testis, 22

  texana, Eresia, 158;
    Satyrus, 215

  textor, Amblyscirtes, 341

  Thanaos, genus, 332;
    afranius, 334;
    brizo, 332;
    clitus, 336;
    funeralis, 336;
    horatius, 336;
    icelus, 333;
    juvenalis, 335;
    lucilius, 333;
    martialis 335;
    nævius, 336;
    pacuvius, 336;
    persius, 334;
    petronius, 335;
    somnus, 333

  tharos, Phyciodes, 153

  Thecla, genus, 237;
    acadica, 242;
    acis, 240, 246;
    adenostomatis, 245;
    affinis, 249;
    alcestis, 241;
    arsace, 248;
    augustus, 247;
    autolycus, 241;
    behri, 247;
    blenina, 245;
    calanus, 243;
    cecrops, 246;
    chalcis, 244;
    citima, 239;
    clytie, 247;
    crysalus, 239;
    damon, 246;
    discoidalis, 246;
    dumetorum, 249;
    edwardsi, 243;
    eryphon, 248;
    favonius, 240;
    grunus, 238;
    halesus, 239;
    henrici, 248;
    humuli, 242;
    ines, 247;
    irus, 248;
    itys, 243;
    læta, 249;
    liparops, 244;
    m-album, 240;
    martialis, 240;
    melinus, 242;
    nelsoni, 245;
    niphon, 249;
    sæpium, 244;
    simætnis, 246;
    siva, 246;
    spinetorum, 245;
    tacita, Plate XXIX, Fig. 30;
    titus, 250;
    wittfeldi, 241

  thekla, Melitæa, 147

  theonus, Lycæna, 270

  Thibet, 172

  thoas, Papilio, 311

  thoë, Chrysophanus, 253

  thorax, 7, 14, 17, 22, 23

  Thoreau, Quotation from, 93

  Thorybes, genus, 324;
    æmilia, 325;
    bathyllus, 325;
    epigena, 325;
    pylades, 324

  Thymelicus, genus, 350;
    ætna, 351;
    brettus, 351;
    mystic, 351

  tibia, 17, 18

  tiger, 63

  Timetes, genus, 179;
    chiron, 180;
    coresia, 180;
    petreus, 180

  tip for inflating tube, 46

  titus, Thecla, 250

  tityrus, Epargyreus, 323

  Tokyo, 149

  Tongue. See Proboscis

  Tortoise, The Compton, 168

  Tortoise-shells, The, 167;
    the California, 168;
    Milbert's, 169

  tracheæ, 15, 22

  "Transactions of the American Entomological Society," 73

  transformations, egg to caterpillar, 5;
    caterpillar to chrysalis, 11;
    chrysalis to butterfly, 13

  triclaris, Brenthis, 130

  tritonia, Geirocheilus, 211

  trochanter, 17, 18

  troilus, Papilio, 315

  tulcis, Eresia, 158

  turnus, Papilio, 309

  Turritis, 285

  Twin-spot, The, 361

  tyndarus, Erebia, 210

  types of butterflies named by W.H. Edwards, vi;
    used in preparation of this book, vii

  typhon, Coenonympha, 206


  uhleri, OEneis, 222

  Umbelliferæ, 312, 313, 314

  umbrosa, Grapta, 164

  uncas, Erynnis, 349

  Uncle Jotham's Boarder, 233

  United States Department of Agriculture, 49, 73

  United States National Museum, 73

  upper discocellular vein, 21

  upper radial vein, 20, 21

  Urtica, 164, 169

  urtica, Vanessa, 169

  Urticaceæ, 164, 165

  Utility of Entomology, The, 256


  Vanessa, genus, 167;
    antiopa, 5, 7, 94, 169;
    californica, 168;
    j-album, 168;
    milberti, 169;
    urticæ, 169;
    vau-album, 168;
    xanthomelas, 168

  vanillæ, Dione, 97

  varieties, 64;
    insular, 64

  varuna, OEneis, 222

  vau-album, Vanessa, 168

  veins of wings, 20, 21

  verna, Euphyes, 360

  vernalis, Pieris, 278

  Vertex, definition of, 14

  vesta, Phyciodes, 152

  vialis, Amblyscirtes, 340

  viator, Phycanassa, 362

  Viceroy, The, 185

  victoria, Ornithoptera, 163

  Victorina, genus, 194;
    steneles, 195

  violacea, Lycæna, 267

  violets, 98, 102

  Violet-wings, The, 175;
    The Dingy, 176

  virginiensis, Chrysophanus, 252;
    Pieris, 279

  virgulti, Lemonias, 230

  vitellius, Atrytone, 364


  Wallace, Alfred Russel, 92, 338

  walshi, Papilio, 307

  Walsingham, Lord, 338

  weidemeyeri, Basilarchia, 185

  westwoodi, Terias, 297

  wheeleri, Melitæa, 141

  Whirlabout, The,351

  White Admirals, The, 182

  White Peacock, The, 174

  Whites, The, 272;
    Becker's, 277;
    Cabbage, 280;
    California, 278;
    Common, 278;
    Florida, 276;
    Great Southern, 277;
    Mustard, 279;
    Pine, 275;
    Western, 278

  whitneyi, Melitæa, 143

  Wilcox, Ella Wheeler, quotation from, 186

  wings of butterflies, 18, 21

  winter quarters of Basilarchia, 183

  Wistaria, 322

  wittfeldi, Thecla, 241

  Wood-nymphs, The, 214;
    Clouded, 215;
    Common, 215;
    Dark, 217;
    Least, 218;
    Small, 217;
    Southern, 215

  wrighti, Melitæa, 147;
    Copæodes, 346

  writers, early, upon butterflies of North America, 69;
    later, 71


  xanthoides, Chrysophanus, 253

  xanthomelas, Vanessa, 168

  xanthus, Hesperia, 328

  xerxes, Lycæna, 261


  "Yale Literary Magazine," 100

  yehl, Limochores, 359

  Yellow, The Dwarf, 281;
    The Fairy, 298
    The Mexican, 296;
    Westwood's, 297

  yuccæ, Megathymus, 368


  zabulon, Atrytone, 364

  zampa, Systasea, 329

  Zebra, The. See Charitonius

  zela, Lemonias, 231

  zephyrus, Grapta, 166

  zerene, Argynnis, 113

  zolicaon, Papilio, 312

       *       *       *       *       *

  Transcriber's Notes

  Obvious punctuation and spelling errors repaired.

  Italic text is denoted by _underscore_ and bold text
  by =equal signs=.

  The carat "^" character is used to denote a superscript.

  Inconsistent hyphenation has been repaired.

  The oe and ae ligatures in the text has been left as it appears in
  the original book.

  In ambiguous cases, the text has been left as it appears in the
  original book.





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