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Title: How to Read Human Nature - Its Inner States and Outer Forms
Author: Atkinson, William Walker, 1862-1932
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "How to Read Human Nature - Its Inner States and Outer Forms" ***

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  L. N. FOWLER & CO.
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  London, E. C., England





  Chapter                               Page
       I. Inner State and Outer Form       9
      II. The Inner Phase: Character      29
     III. The Outer Form: Personality     38
      IV. The Temperaments                47
       V. The Mental Qualities            68
      VI. The Egoistic Qualities          76
     VII. The Motive Qualities            81
    VIII. The Vitative Qualities          89
      IX. The Emotive Qualities           93
       X. The Applicative Qualities      100
      XI. The Modificative Qualities     107
     XII. The Relative Qualities         114
    XIII. The Perceptive Qualities       122
     XIV. The Reflective Qualities       139
      XV. The Religio-Moral Qualities    148
     XVI. Faces                          156
    XVII. Chins and Mouths               169
   XVIII. Eyes, Ears, and Noses          177
     XIX. Miscellaneous Signs            186



"Human Nature" is a term most frequently used and yet but little
understood. The average person knows in a general way what he and others
mean when this term is employed, but very few are able to give an
off-hand definition of the term or to state what in their opinion
constitutes the real essence of the thought expressed by the familiar
phrase. We are of the opinion that the first step in the process of
correct understanding of any subject is that of acquaintance with its
principal terms, and, so, we shall begin our consideration of the
subject of Human Nature by an examination of the term used to express
the idea itself.

"Human," of course, means "of or pertaining to man or mankind."
Therefore, Human Nature means the _nature_ of man or mankind. "Nature,"
in this usage, means: "The natural disposition of mind of any person;
temper; personal character; individual constitution; the peculiar
mental characteristics and attributes which serve to distinguish one
person from another."

Thus we see that the essence of the _nature_ of men, or of a particular
human being, is the _mind_, the mental qualities, characteristics,
properties and attributes. Human Nature is then a phase of psychology
and subject to the laws, principles and methods of study, examination
and consideration of that particular branch of science.

But while the general subject of psychology includes the consideration
of the inner workings of the mind, the processes of thought, the nature
of feeling, and the operation of the will, the special subject of Human
Nature is concerned only with the question of character, disposition,
temperament, personal attributes, etc., of the individuals making up the
race of man. Psychology is general--Human Nature is particular.
Psychology is more or less abstract--Human Nature is concrete.
Psychology deals with laws, causes and principles--Human Nature deals
with effects, manifestations, and expressions.

Human Nature expresses itself in two general phases, i.e., (1) the
phase of Inner States; and (2) the phase of Outer Forms. These two
phases, however, are not separate or opposed to each other, but are
complementary aspects of the same thing. There is always an action and
reaction between the Inner State and the Outer Form--between the Inner
Feeling and the Outer Expression. If we know the particular Inner State
we may infer the appropriate Outer Form; and if we know the Outer Form
we may infer the Inner State.

That the Inner State affects the Outer Form is a fact generally
acknowledged by men, for it is in strict accordance with the general
experience of the race. We know that certain mental states will result
in imparting to the countenance certain lines and expressions
appropriate thereto; certain peculiarities of carriage and manner, voice
and demeanor. The facial characteristics, manner, walk, voice and
gestures of the miser will be recognized as entirely different from that
of the generous person; those of the coward differ materially from those
of the brave man; those of the vain are distinguished from those of the
modest. We know that certain mental attitudes will produce the
corresponding physical expressions of a smile, a frown, an open hand, a
clenched fist, an erect spine or bowed shoulders, respectively. We also
know that certain feelings will cause the eye to sparkle or grow dim,
the voice to become resonant and positive or to become husky and weak;
according to the nature of the feelings.

Prof. Wm. James says: "What kind of emotion of fear would be left if the
feeling neither of trembling lips nor of weakened limbs, neither of
goose-flesh nor of visceral stirrings, were present, it is quite
impossible for me to think. Can one fancy the state of rage and picture
no ebullition in the chest, no flushing of the face, no dilation of the
nostrils, no clenching of the teeth, no impulse to vigorous action, but
in their stead limp muscles, calm breathing, and a placid face?"

Prof. Halleck says: "All the emotions have well-defined muscular
expression. Darwin has written an excellent work entitled, _The
Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals_, to which students must
refer for a detailed account of such expression. A very few examples
must suffice here. In all the exhilarating emotions, the eyebrows, the
eyelids, the nostrils, and the angles of the mouth are raised. In the
depressing passions it is the reverse. This general statement conveys so
much truth, that a careful observer can read a large part of the history
of a human being written in the face. For this reason many phrenologists
have wisely turned physiognomists. Grief is expressed by raising the
inner ends of the eyebrows, drawing down the corners of the mouth, and
transversely wrinkling the middle part of the forehead. In Terra del
Fuego, a party of natives conveyed to Darwin the idea that a certain man
was low-spirited, by pulling down their cheeks in order to make their
faces long. Joy is expressed by drawing backward and upward the corners
of the mouth. The upper lip rises and draws the cheeks upward, forming
wrinkles under the eyes. The elevation of the upper lip and the nostrils
expresses contempt. A skillful observer can frequently tell if one
person admires another. In this case the eyebrows are raised, disclosing
a brightening eye and a relaxed expression; sometimes a gentle smile
plays about the mouth. Blushing is merely the physical expression of
certain emotions. We notice the expression of emotion more in the
countenance, because the effects are there more plainly visible; but the
muscles of the entire body, the vital organs, and the viscera, are also
vehicles of expression."

These things need but a mention in order to be recognized and admitted.
This is the _action_ of the Inner upon the Outer. There is, however, a
_reaction_ of the Outer upon the Inner, which while equally true is not
so generally recognized nor admitted, and we think it well to briefly
call your attention to the same, for the reason that this correspondence
between the Inner and the Outer--this _reaction_ as well as the
_action_--must be appreciated in order that the entire meaning and
content of the subject of Human Nature may be fully grasped.

That the _reaction_ of the Outer Form upon the Inner State may be
understood, we ask you to consider the following opinions of well-known
and accepted authorities of the New Psychology, regarding the
established fact that a _physical expression related to a mental state,
will, if voluntarily induced, tend to in turn induce the mental state
appropriate to it_. We have used these quotations in other books of this
series, but will insert them here in this place because they have a
direct bearing upon the particular subject before us, and because they
furnish direct and unquestioned authority for the statements just made
by us. We ask you to consider them carefully, for they express a most
important truth.

Prof. Halleck says: "By inducing an expression we can often cause its
allied emotion.... Actors have frequently testified to the fact that
emotion will arise if they go through the appropriate muscular
movements. In talking to a character on the stage, if they clench the
fist and frown, they often find themselves becoming really angry; if
they start with counterfeit laughter, they find themselves growing
cheerful. A German professor says that he cannot walk with a
schoolgirl's mincing step and air without feeling frivolous."

Prof. Wm. James says: "Whistling to keep up courage is no mere figure of
speech. On the other hand, sit all day in a moping posture, sigh, and
reply to everything with a dismal voice, and your melancholy lingers. If
we wish to conquer undesirable emotional tendencies in ourselves, we
must assiduously, and in the first instance coldbloodedly, go through
the _outward movements_ of those contrary dispositions which we wish to
cultivate. Smooth the brow, brighten the eye, contract the dorsal rather
than the ventral aspect of the frame, and speak in a major key, pass the
genial compliment, and your heart must indeed be frigid if it does not
gradually thaw."

Dr. Wood Hutchinson, says: "To what extent muscular contractions
condition emotions, as Prof. James has suggested, may be easily tested
by a quaint and simple little experiment upon a group of the smallest
voluntary muscles of the body, those that move the eyeball. Choose some
time when you are sitting quietly in your room, free from all disturbing
influences. Then stand up, and assuming an easy position, cast the eyes
upward and hold them in that position for thirty seconds. Instantly and
involuntarily you will be conscious of a tendency toward reverential,
devotional, contemplative ideas and thoughts. Then turn the eyes
sideways, glancing directly to the right or to the left, through
half-closed lids. Within thirty seconds images of suspicion, of
uneasiness, or of dislike will rise unbidden to the mind. Turn the eyes
on one side and slightly downward, and suggestions of jealousy or
coquetry will be apt to spring unbidden. Direct your gaze downward
toward the floor, and you are likely to go off into a fit of reverie or

Prof. Maudsley says: "The specific muscular action is not merely an
exponent of passion, but truly an essential part of it. If we try while
the features are fixed in the expression of one passion to call up in
the mind a different one, we shall find it impossible to do so."

We state the fact of the _reaction_ of the Outer upon the Inner, with
its supporting quotations from the authorities, not for the purpose of
instructing our readers in the art of training the emotions by means of
the physical, for while this subject is highly important, it forms no
part of the particular subject under our present consideration--but
that the student may realize the close relationship existing between the
Inner State and the Outer Form. These two elements or phases, in their
constant action and reaction, manifest the phenomena of Human Nature,
and a knowledge of each, and both give to us the key which will open for
us the door of the understanding of Human Nature.

Let us now call your attention to an illustration which embodies both
principles--that of the Inner and the Outer--and the action and reaction
between them, as given by that master of subtle ratiocination, Edgar
Allan Poe. Poe in his story "The Purloined Letter" tells of a boy at
school who attained great proficiency in the game of "even or odd" in
which one player strives to guess whether the marbles held in the hand
of his opponent are odd or even. The boy's plan was to gauge the
intelligence of his opponent regarding the matter of making changes, and
as Poe says: "this lay in mere observation and admeasurement of the
astuteness of his opponents." Poe describes the process as follows: "For
example, an arrant simpleton is his opponent, and, holding up his
closed hand, asks, 'are they even or odd?' Our schoolboy replies, 'odd,'
and loses; but upon the second trial he wins, for he then says to
himself, 'the simpleton had them even upon the first trial, and his
amount of cunning is just sufficient to make him have them odd upon the
second; I will therefore guess odd;'--he guesses and wins. Now, with a
simpleton a degree above the first, he would have reasoned thus: 'This
fellow finds that in the first instance I guessed odd, and, in the
second, he will propose to himself upon the first impulse, a simple
variation from even to odd, as did the first simpleton; but then a
second thought will suggest that this is too simple a variation, and
finally he will decide upon putting it even as before. I will therefore
guess even;' he guesses even and wins."

Poe continues by stating that this "is merely an identification of the
reasoner's intellect with that of his opponent. Upon inquiring of the
boy by what means he effected the _thorough_ identification in which his
success consisted, I received answer as follows: 'When I wish to find
out how wise, or how stupid, or how good, or how wicked is any one, or
what are his thoughts at the moment, _I fashion the expression of my
face, as accurately as possible in accordance with the expression of
his, and then wait to see what thoughts or sentiments arise in my mind
or heart, as if to match or correspond with the expression_.' This
response of the school boy lies at the bottom of all the spurious
profundity which has been attributed to Rochefoucauld, to La Bougive, to
Machiavelli, and to Campanella."

In this consideration of Human Nature we shall have much to say about
the Outer Form. But we must ask the reader to always remember that the
Outer Form is always the expression and manifestation of the Inner
State, be that Inner State latent and dormant within the depths of the
subconscious mentality, or else active and dynamic in conscious
expression. Just as Prof. James so strongly insists, we cannot imagine
an inner feeling or emotion without its corresponding outward physical
expression, so is it impossible to imagine the outward expressions
generally associated with a particular feeling or emotion without its
corresponding inner state. Whether or not one of these, the outer or
inner, is the _cause_ of the other--and if so, _which one_ is the cause
and which the effect--need not concern us here. In fact, it would seem
more reasonable to accept the theory that they are correlated and appear
simultaneously. Many careful thinkers have held that action and reaction
are practically the same thing--merely the opposite phases of the same
fact. If this be so, then indeed when we are studying the Outer Form of
Human Nature we are studying psychology just as much as when we are
studying the Inner States. Prof. Wm. James in his works upon psychology
insists upon the relevancy of the consideration of the outward
expressions of the inner feeling and emotion, as we have seen. The same
authority speaks even more emphatically upon this phase of the subject,
as follows:

"The feeling, in the coarser emotions, results from the bodily
expression.... My theory is that the bodily changes follow directly the
perception of the exciting fact, and that our feeling of the same
changes as they occur _is_ the emotion.... Particular perceptions
certainly do produce widespread bodily effects by a sort of immediate
physical influence, antecedent to the arousal of an emotion or emotional
idea.... Every one of the bodily changes, whatsoever it may be, is
_felt_, acutely or obscurely, the moment it occurs.... If we fancy some
strong emotion, and then try to abstract from our consciousness of it
all the feelings of its bodily symptoms, we have nothing left behind....
A disembodied human emotion is a sheer nonentity. I do not say that it
is a contradiction in the nature of things, or that pure spirits are
necessarily condemned to cold intellectual lives; but I say that for
_us_ emotion disassociated from all bodily feeling is inconceivable. The
more closely I scrutinize my states, the more persuaded I become that
whatever 'coarse' affections and passions I have are in very truth
constituted by, and made up of, those bodily changes which we ordinarily
call their expression or consequence.... But our emotions must always be
_inwardly_ what they are, whatever may be the physiological ground of
their apparition. If they are deep, pure, worthy, spiritual facts on any
conceivable theory of their physiological source, they remain no less
deep, pure, spiritual, and worthy of regard on this present sensational

Kay says: "Does the mind or spirit of man, whatever it may be, in its
actings in and through the body, leave a material impression or trace in
its structure of every conscious action it performs, which remains
permanently fixed, and forms a material record of all that it has done
in the body, to which it can afterward refer as to a book and recall to
mind, making it again, as it were, present to it?... We find nature
everywhere around us recording its movements and marking the changes it
has undergone in material forms,--in the crust of the earth, the
composition of the rocks, the structure of the trees, the conformation
of our bodies, and those spirits of ours, so closely connected with our
material bodies, that so far as we know, they can think no thought,
perform no action, without their presence and co-operation, may have
been so joined in order to preserve a material and lasting record of
all that they think and do."

Marsh says: "Every human movement, every organic act, every volition,
passion, or emotion, every intellectual process, is accompanied with
atomic disturbance." Picton says: "The soul never does one single action
by itself apart from some excitement of bodily tissue." Emerson says:
"The rolling rock leaves its scratches on the mountain; the river its
channel in the soil; the animal its bones in the stratum; the fern and
leaf their modest epitaph in the coal. The falling drop makes its
sculpture in the sand or stone.... The ground is all memoranda and
signatures, and every object covered over with hints which speak to the
intelligent. In nature this self-registration is incessant." Morell
says: "The mind depends for the manifestation of all its activities upon
a material organism." Bain says: "The organ of the mind is not the brain
by itself; it is the brain, nerve, muscles, organs of sense, viscera....
It is uncertain how far even thought, reminiscence, or the emotions of
the past and absent could be sustained without the more distant
communication between the brain and the rest of the body." And, thus, as
we consider the subject carefully we see that psychology is as much
concerned with the physical manifestations of the mental impulses and
states as with the metaphysical aspect of those states--as much with the
Outer Form as with the Inner State--for it is practically impossible to
permanently separate them.

As an illustration of the physical accompaniment or Outer Form, of the
psychical feeling or Inner State, the following quotation from Darwin's
"Origin of the Emotions," will well serve the purpose:

"Fear is often preceded by astonishment, and is so far akin to it that
both lead to the senses of sight and hearing being instantly aroused. In
both cases the eyes and mouth are widely opened and the eyebrows raised.
The frightened man at first stands like a statue, motionless and
breathless, or crouches down as if instinctively to escape observation.
The heart beats quickly and violently, so that it palpitates or knocks
against the ribs; but it is very doubtful if it then works more
efficiently than usual, so as to send a greater supply of blood to all
parts of the body; for the skin instantly becomes pale as during
incipient faintness. This paleness of the surface, however, is probably
in large part, or is exclusively, due to the vaso-motor centre being
affected in such a manner as to cause the contraction of the small
arteries of the skin. That the skin is much affected under the sense of
great fear, we see in the marvelous manner in which perspiration
immediately exudes from it. This exudation is all the more remarkable,
as the surface is then cold, and hence the term, a cold sweat; whereas
the sudorific glands are properly excited into action when the surface
is heated. The hairs also on the skin stand erect, and the superficial
muscles shiver. In connection with the disturbed action of the heart the
breathing is hurried. The salivary glands act imperfectly; the mouth
becomes dry and is often opened and shut. I have noticed that under
slight fear there is a strong tendency to yawn. One of the best marked
symptoms is the trembling of all the muscles of the body; and this is
often seen in the lips. From this cause, and from the dryness of the
mouth, the voice becomes husky or indistinct or may altogether fail....
As fear increases into an agony of terror, we behold, as under all
violent emotions, diversified results. The heart beats wildly or fails
to act and faintness ensues; there is a death-like pallor; the breathing
is labored; the wings of the nostrils are widely dilated; there is a
gasping and convulsive motion of the lips; a tremor of the hollow cheek,
a gulping and catching of the throat; the uncovered and protruding
eyeballs are fixed on the object of terror; or they may roll restlessly
from side to side. The pupils are said to be enormously dilated. All the
muscles of the body may become rigid or may be thrown into convulsive
movements. The hands are alternately clenched and opened, often with a
twitching movement. The arms may be protruded as if to avert some
dreadful danger, or may be thrown wildly over the head. The Rev. Mr.
Hagenauer has seen this latter action in a terrified Australian. In
other cases there is a sudden and uncontrolled tendency to headlong
flight; and so strong is this that the boldest soldiers may be seized
with a sudden panic."

In conclusion, let us say that just as the above striking description of
the master-scientist, Darwin, shows us that the particular emotion has
its outer manifestations--the particular Inner State its Outer Form--so
has the general _character_ of the person its outer manifestation, and
Outer Form. And, just as to the eye of the experienced observer at a
distance (even in the case of a photographic representation,
particularly in the case of a moving picture) may recognize the Inner
State from the Outer Form of the feeling or emotion, so may the
experienced character reader interpret the whole character of the person
from the Outer Form thereof. The two interpretations are based on
exactly the same general principles. The inner thought and feeling
manifest in the outer physical form. He who learns the alphabet of Outer
Form may read page after page of the book of Human Nature.



Do you know what "character" is? The word itself, in its derivation and
original usage, means: "a stamp, mark or sign, engraved or stamped." As
time passed the term was applied to the personal peculiarities of
individuals, and was defined as: "the personal qualities or attributes
of a person; the distinguishing traits of a person." Later the term was
extended to mean: "the part enacted by anyone in a play." In the common
usage of the term we seek to convey an idea in which each and all of the
above stated meanings are combined. A man's character is the result of
_impressions_ made upon his own mind, or those of the race. It is also
the sum of his personal qualities and attributes. It is also, in a
sense, the part he plays in the great drama of life.

Each man's character has its inner phase consisting of the accumulated
impressions of the past which seek to manifest in the present. And,
likewise, the character of each man manifests in an outer phase of
form, mark, and stamp of _personality_. There are no two characters
precisely alike. There is an infinite possibility of combination of the
elements that go to make up character. This is accordance with what
appears to be a universal law of nature, for there are no two blades of
grass exactly alike, nor two grains of sand bearing an exact resemblance
to each other. Nature seems to seek after and to manifest variety of
form and quality. But, still, just as we may classify all things,
animate and inanimate, into general classes and then into subordinate
ones--each genus and each species having its particular characteristics,
qualities and attributes, so we may, and do, classify human character
into general classes and then into particular subdivisions into which
each individual is found to fit. This fact makes it possible for us to
study Human Nature as a science.

The character of each individual is held to be the result of the
impressions made upon the plastic material of the mind, either in the
form of past impressions upon his ancestors or of past impressions
received by the individual. The past impressions reach him through the
channel of heredity, while the personal impressions come to him through
environment. But by heredity we do not mean the transmission of the
personal characteristics of one's parents or even grand-parents, but
something far deeper and broader. We believe that one inherits far less
of the qualities of one's parents than is generally believed. But, we
believe that much that goes to make up our character is derived from the
associated qualities and impressions of many generations of ancestors.
Inasmuch as each individual contains within him the transmitted
qualities of nearly every individual who lived several thousand years
ago, it may be said that each individual is an heir to the accumulated
impressions of the race, which however form in an infinite variety of
combinations, the result being that although the root of the race is the
same yet each individual differs in combination from each other
individual. As Luther Burbank has said: "Heredity means much, but what
is heredity? Not some hideous ancestral specter, forever crossing the
path of a human being. Heredity is simply the sum of all the effects of
all the environments of all past generations on the responsive
ever-moving life-forces."

The records of the past environment of the race are stored away in the
great region of the subconscious mentality, from whence they arise in
response to the call of some attractive object of thought or perception,
always, however, modified and restrained by the opposite
characteristics. As Prof. Elmer Gates has said: "At least ninety per
cent of our mental life is sub-conscious. If you will analyze your
mental operations you will find that conscious thinking is never a
continuous line of consciousness, but a series of conscious data with
great intervals of subconsciousness. We sit and try to solve a problem
and fail. We walk around, try again and fail. Suddenly an idea dawns
that leads to a solution of the problem. The sub-conscious processes
were at work. We do not volitionally create our own thinking. It takes
place in us. We are more or less passive recipients. We cannot change
the nature of a thought, or of a truth, but we can, as it were, guide
the ship by a moving of the helm."

But character is dependent upon race inheritance only for its raw
materials, which are then worked into shape by the influence of
environment and by the will of the individual. A man's environment is,
to some extent at least, dependent upon the will. A man may change his
environment, and by the use of his will he may overcome many inherited
tendencies. As Halleck well says: "Heredity is a powerful factor, for it
supplies raw material for the will to shape. Even the will cannot make
anything without material. Will acts through choice, and some kinds of
environment afford far more opportunities for choice than others.
Shakespeare found in London the germ of true theatrical taste, already
vivified by a long line of miracle plays, moralities and interludes. In
youth he connected himself with the theatre, and his will responded
powerfully to his environment. Some surroundings are rich in suggestion,
affording opportunity for choice, while others are poor. The will is
absolutely confined to a choice between alternatives. _Character then,
is a resultant of will power, heredity and environment._ The modern
tendency is to overestimate the effects of heredity and environment in
forming character; but, on the other hand, we must not underestimate
them. The child of a Hottentot put in Shakespeare's home, and afterward
sent away to London with him, would never have made a Shakespeare; for
heredity would not have given the will sufficient raw material to
fashion over into such a noble product. We may also suppose a case to
show the great power of environment. Had a band of gypsies stolen
Shakespeare at birth, carried him to Tartary, and left him among the
nomads, his environment would never have allowed him to produce such
plays as he placed upon the English stage."

Many persons are reluctant to admit the effect of heredity upon
character. They seem to regard heredity as the idea of a monster ruling
the individual with an iron hand, and with an emphasis upon undesirable
traits of character. Such people lose sight of the fact that at the best
heredity merely supplies us with the raw material of character rather
than the finished product, and that _there is much good in this raw
material_. We receive our inheritance of good as well as bad. Deprive a
man of the advantage of his heredity, and we place him back to the plane
of the savage, or perhaps still lower in the scale. Heredity is simply
the shoulders of the race affording us a place for our feet, in order
that we may rise higher than those who lived before. For _heredity_,
substitute _evolution_, and we may get a clearer idea of this element of

As for environment, it is folly to deny its influence. Take two young
persons of equal ability, similar tastes, and the same heredity, and
place them one in a small village, and the other in a great metropolis,
and keep them there until middle-age, and we will see the influence of
environment. The two may be equally happy and contented, and may possess
the same degree of book-education, but, nevertheless, their experiences
will have been so different that the character of the two individuals
must be different. In the same way, place the two young persons, one in
the Whitechapel district, and the other amidst the best surroundings
and example, and see the result. Remember, that in _environment_ is
included the influence of other persons. The effect of environment
arises from Suggestion, that great moulding and creative principle of
the mind. It is true that, "As a man thinketh, so is he," but a man's
thoughts depend materially upon the _associations_ of environment,
experience, and suggestion. As Ziehen says: "We cannot think as we will,
but we must think as just those associations which happen to be present

But, without going further into the question of the elements which go
toward forming character, let us take our position firmly upon the fact
that each individual is stamped with the impression of a special
character--a _character_ all his own. Each has his own character or part
to play in the great drama of life. The character of some seems fixed
and unchangeable, while that of others is seen to be in the process of
change. But in either case each and every man has his own character or
manifestation of Human Nature, in its inner and outer aspects. And each
individual, while in a sense forming a special class by himself,
nevertheless belongs to a larger class, which in turn is a part of a
still larger, and so on.

Instead of studying the philosophy or metaphysics of character, or even
its general psychology, let us in this particular volume devote our
attention to the elements which go to form the character of each and
every person, so that we may understand them when we meet them in
manifested form. And let us learn the Outer Form which accompany these
Inner States.

Upon the stage of Life move backward and forward many characters, each
having his or her own form, manner and appearance, which like those of
the characters upon the mimic stage, may be recognized if we will but
bestow a little care upon the subject. The Othellos, Hamlets, Shylocks,
Iagos, Richards, Lears, and the rest are to be found in everyday life.
The Micawbers, Chuzzlewits, Twists, and the rest are in as full evidence
on the streets and in the offices, as in the books. The person who is
able to read and interpret Human Nature is possessed of a knowledge far
more useful to him than that contained within the covers of musty books
upon impractical subjects.



Just as _character_ is the inner phase of Human Nature, so is
_personality_ its outer phase. To many the two terms are synonymous, but
analysis will show the shades of difference between them. A man's
_character_ is his inner self, while his _personality_ is the outward
indication of his self. The word, in this sense, is defined as: "That
which constitutes the personal traits of a person, as his manner,
conduct, habits, appearance, and other observable personal

The word is derived from the Latin word, _persona_, meaning, "a mask
used by play-actors," which in turn was derived from the two words
_per_, meaning "through," and _sono_, meaning, "to sound," or combined,
"to sound through." And the derivation of the term really gives us an
idea of its inner meaning, for the personality is really the mask worn
by the character, and _through which it sounds_, speaks, or manifests
itself, Jeremy Taylor once said: "No man can long put on _person_ and
act a part but his evil manners will peep through the corners of his
white robe." Archbishop Trench once said that the real meaning of the
phrase, "God is no respecter of _persons_" is that the Almighty cared
nothing for what _part_ in life a person plays, but _how_ he plays it.
The old-time play-actor was wont to assume a mask of the features of the
part he played, just as the modern actor "makes up" for the part and
walks, speaks and acts in accordance therewith. Whether or not the
individual be aware of the fact, Nature furnishes to each his mask of
personality--his _persona_--by which those who understand may recognize
the part he plays, or his character. In both the inner _character_, and
the outer _personality_, each individual struts the stage of life and
plays his part.

The mask or "make up," of personality, by which men may read each
other's character, is evolved and developed from the instinctive
physical expression accompanying thought, feeling and emotion. Just as
the frown accompanying the feeling of annoyance or anger will, if
repeated sufficiently often, become fixed upon the countenance of the
man, so will all of his general thoughts, feelings and emotions register
themselves in his manner, gait, tone of voice, carriage and facial
expression. Moreover, his inherited tendencies will show themselves in
the same way.

Professor Wm. James says, regarding the genesis of emotional reactions:
"How come the various objects which excite emotion to produce such
special and different bodily effects? This question was not asked till
quite recently, but already some interesting suggestions toward
answering it have been made. Some movements of expression can be
accounted for as weakened repetitions of movements which formerly (when
they were stronger) were of utility to the subject. Others are similarly
weakened repetitions of movements which under other conditions were
physiologically necessary concomitants of the useful movements. Of the
latter reactions, the respiratory disturbances in anger and fear might
be taken as examples--organic reminiscences, as it were, reverberations
in imagination of the blowings of the man making a series of combative
efforts, or the pantings of one in precipitate flight. Such at least is
a suggestion made by Mr. Spencer which has found approval."

Herbert Spencer says, on this subject: "To have in a slight degree such
psychical states as accompany the reception of wounds, and are
experienced during flight, is to be in a state of what we call fear. And
to have in a slight degree such psychical states as the processes of
catching, killing, and eating imply, is to have the desires to catch,
kill and eat. That the propensities to the acts are nothing else than
nascent excitations of the psychical state involved in the acts, is
proved by the natural language of the propensities. Fear, when strong,
expresses itself in cries, in efforts to escape in palpitations, in
tremblings; and these are just the manifestations that go along with an
actual suffering of the evil feared. The destructive passion is shown in
a general tension of the muscular system, in gnashing of teeth and
protrusion of the claws, in dilated eyes and nostrils in growls; and
these are weaker forms of the actions that accompany the killing of
prey. To such objective evidences every one can add subjective
evidences. Everyone can testify that the psychical state called fear
consists of mental representations of certain painful results; and that
the one called anger consists of mental representations of the actions
and impressions which would occur while inflicting some kind of pain."

Professor Wm. James adds the following to the discussion: "So slight a
symptom as the snarl or sneer, the one-sided uncovering of the upper
teeth, is accounted for by Darwin as a survival from the time when our
ancestors had large canines, and unfleshed him (as dogs do now) for
attack. Similarly the raising of the eyebrows in outward attention, the
opening of the mouth in astonishment, come, according to the same
author, from the utility of these movements in extreme cases. The
raising of the eyebrows goes with the opening of the eye for better
vision, the opening of the mouth with the intensest listening, and with
the rapid catching of the breath which precedes muscular effort. The
distension of the nostrils in anger is interpreted by Spencer as an
echo of the way in which our ancestors had to breathe when, during
combat, their 'mouth was filled up by a part of an antagonist's body
that had been seized.' The trembling of fear is supposed by Mantegazza
to be for the sake of warming the blood. The reddening of the face and
neck is called by Wundt a compensatory arrangement for relieving the
brain of the blood-pressure which the simultaneous excitement of the
heart brings with it. The effusion of tears is explained both by this
author and by Darwin to be a blood-withdrawing agency of a similar sort.
The contraction of the muscles around the eyes, of which the primitive
use is to protect those organs from being too much gorged with blood
during the screaming fits of infancy, survives in adult life in the
shape of the frown, which instantly comes over the brow when anything
difficult or displeasing presents itself either to thought or action."

Thus, it will be seen, the fact that all inward states manifest
themselves to some degree in outward physical expression, brings with it
the logical inference that particular mental states when habitually
manifested tend to fix in the physical organism the expression
associated with them. As "thoughts take form in action," so habitual
mental states tend to register traces of those actions. A piece of paper
folded in a certain way several times shows plainly the marks on the
folding. In the same manner the creases in our clothing, shoes and
gloves, show the marks of our personal physical form. A habitual mental
state of cheerfulness is accompanied by a frequent exercise of the
muscles expressing the physical signs of that feeling, and finally the
smile wrinkles are formed that all may read them. In the same way the
gloomy, pessimistic mental attitude produces the marks and wrinkles
showing the habit of frequent down-turning of the corners of our mouths.
A habitual mental attitude of suspicion will tend to impart the
appearance of the "suspicious peering" to our eyes. The mental attitude
of combativeness will likewise give us the traditional set jaw and
tightly compressed lips. The mental attitude of lack of self-respect
will show itself in our walk, and so, in the opposite manner with the
mental attitude of self-respect. People grow to walk, talk, carry
themselves, and "look like" their habitual mental attitude.

Dr. A. T. Schofield, says: "'He is a dull scholar,' it is said, 'who
cannot read a man's character even from a back view.' Round a statue of
the prince Consort in Edinburgh stand representative groups paying
homage to him. If you get a back view of any of these you can see
unconscious mind impressed on matter, and can tell at once the sailor or
soldier, peasant or scholar or workman. Look at the body and face of a
man when the mind is gone. Look at the body of a man who has lost his
self-respect. Look at the body of a thief, of a sot, of a miser. Compare
the faces and expressions of a philanthropist, of a beggar, of a
policeman, of a scholar, of a sailor, of a lawyer, of a doctor, of a
shop-walker, of a sandwich man, of a farmer, of a successful
manufacturer, of a nurse, of a refined girl, of a servant, of a barmaid,
of a nun, of a ballet dancer, of an art student, and answer to yourself
these two questions: First, are these different expressions of body and
face due essentially to _physical_ or _psychical_ causes? And, secondly,
do these psychical causes act on the facial and other muscles in
consciousness or out of consciousness. The only possible answers to
these two questions leave us with this fact, were no other proof
possible, that we each have within us an unconscious _psychical_ power
(here called the unconscious mind) which has sufficient force to act
upon the body and display psychical conceptions through physical media."

It is impossible for us (at least by any of the five senses) to peer
into the mental chamber of other men and there read the record of their
_character_, or to interpret the combination of Human Nature therein
moulded and formed. But nevertheless we are not balked in our desire,
for by learning to interpret the outward signs of personality we may
arrive with a wonderful degree of success at an understanding of the
character, mind, or Human Nature in others. From the seen Outer we may
deduce the unseen Inner. We may discern the shape of that which is
concealed, by observing the form of the covering which hides it from
sight. The body, like the fabled veil of the goddess, "conceals but to



The student of Human Nature soon discovers that among men, as among the
animals, there is to be observed a great variety of "quality," and
various classes of "temperament." Among cattle we notice great
differences of form which differences indicate certain qualities
inherent in the beast. Certain qualities are recognized by their outward
forms as being indicative of sturdiness, staying-qualities, strong
vitality, etc., which render their possessor valuable for draught oxen.
Other qualities indicate the value of another animal for meat producing.
Others, the production of large quantities of milk. Others, prolific
breeding. And, so on, each set of qualities being recognized by its
outward form and being taken into consideration by breeders. In the same
way, breeders recognize certain qualities in horses which they take
advantage of in breeding for the strength of draught horses; the speed
of thoroughbred runners and trotters; the docility and gentleness of
driving horses and saddle animals. The draught horse and the
thoroughbred runner or trotter may be easily distinguished by the eye of
the average person, while it requires the eye of the expert to
distinguish other points and signs of quality which prove the existence
of certain traits of temperament in the animal. The same is true in the
case of chickens and other fowls. Some types are adapted for laying,
others for meat purposes, others for gameness, etc. Not only the
physical qualities but also the temperamental traits of the beast or
bird are distinguished by the expert, and are taken advantage of in
breeding to develop and evolve the indicated trait or quality.

Nearly anyone may distinguish the temperamental difference between the
savage dog and the affectionate one--between the vicious horse and the
docile one. We know at once that certain dogs may be approached and
others kept at a distance--that certain horses are safe to ride or
drive, and that others are unsafe and dangerous. A visit to a horse and
cattle show, or a poultry and pigeon exhibition, will show even the
most skeptical person that Inner States manifest in Outer Form. And a
little further study and observation will show that what is true of
these lower animals is likewise true of the human being. Men, like
animals, may be intelligently and scientifically classified according to
the general "quality" or "temperament." While each individual is
different in a way from every other individual, nevertheless, each
individual belongs to a certain class and may be labelled accordingly. A
few outward signs will indicate his class, and we may confidently expect
that he will manifest the leading qualities of that particular class.


The first classification of the individuals of the human race is that of
_Quality_. Independent of the various temperaments, although in a way
related to them, we find the various degrees of Quality manifested by
different individuals. "Quality" may be defined as the "degree of
_fineness_." It is that which we call "class" in race-horses; "breed" in
other animals and often "blood" in men and women. Perhaps one may
understand the classification better if he will recall the differences
apparent between the mongrel cur and the highbred dog; the "scrub" horse
and the thoroughbred; the common cow and the carefully bred Alderney or
other choice variety; the ordinary barnyard fowl and the prize-winner at
the poultry show. It is an intangible but real and readily recognized
difference, which however is almost impossible to convey by words.

Men and women of the highest _Quality_ are essentially fine-grained,
possessed of fine feelings, refined natures, high tastes, and manifest
the signs of _true natural_ refinement and culture, which cannot be
successfully imitated by those who have acquired merely the artificial
manner and the outward polish. One may possess Quality in a high degree
and still be ignorant of the forms and little manners of so-called
"polite society," and yet will be recognized as one of "Nature's
noblemen," and as a "natural gentleman."

Descending the scale we find lessening degrees of the manifestation of
Quality, until, finally we reach the lowest degree of the scale, that
of _low_ Quality. In this lowest degree we find individuals showing all
the outward signs of being coarse-grained, vulgar, of low tastes, brutal
instincts, and manifesting the signs of lack of refinement and culture.
Persons of low Quality are found in all walks of life. Some of those
possessing wealth and education belong to this class, and are never able
to counterfeit the reality. Quality is a matter of "soul," and not of
wealth, education or material advantages. A greyhound and a hyena give
us animal symbols of Quality, high and low.

We meet many instances in which the individual is of too high Quality
for his environment, occupation or place in life. Such individuals
suffer keenly and are to be pitied. They incline toward high ideals and
are wounded and discouraged by the grossness which they see on all
sides. Those individuals of an average degree of Quality of course fit
into the usual environment far better than those above or below them in
the scale. We also meet individuals of low Quality in surroundings in
which they are out of place--we see many instances of "pigs in the
parlor." These individuals, however, find it much easier to descend to
their own level, than it is for the high Quality individuals to ascend
to theirs. The coarse man finds but little trouble in meeting with boon
companions whose tastes are harmonious to his. The person of extremely
high Quality may be said to have been born before his time, while those
of the lowest Quality are atavistic and born after their time. Remember,
always, that Quality is an attribute of "soul," and not of birth,
wealth, or even of education. We may find many "gentlemen" of humble
birth, small means and limited education; and also many "educated pigs"
of high lineage and full coffers.

The Outer Form of Quality is shown by the relative _fineness_ of general
structure, and by the general form, appearance, manner, motion, voice,
laughter, and more than all by that indescribable impression of
"fineness" and "distinction" which they produce upon observing persons
with whom they come in contact.

It must be remembered that Quality is a very different thing from
intellectuality or morality. A high Quality person may be immoral and
not specially intellectual, although there is almost always a _keenness_
of perception, and almost intuitive recognition, in these cases--the
immorality is generally lacking in coarseness, and is usually connected
with perversion of the æsthetic faculties. In the same way, the person
of low Quality often may be moral according to the code, but will be
coarse in the manifestation of that virtue, and may possess a certain
low cunning which with many persons passes for intellect and "brains."
In speaking of Quality, the words "fineness" and "coarseness" come
easily to the mind and tongue and are perhaps the terms most suggestive
of the two extremes of this attribute of the Man.


Next in the order of consideration we find what is called _Temperament_.
Temperament is defined as: "That individual peculiarity of organization
by which the manner of acting, feeling and thinking of each person is
permanently affected; disposition or constitution of the mind,
especially as regards the passions and affections."

Hippocrates, the ancient Greek philosopher-physician (B. C. 468-367)
held to the existence of four temperaments, which he attributed to
certain qualities of the blood and the several secretions of the body
such as the bile, etc. While his theory was rejected by later
investigators, his classification continued until very recently under
the name of (1) the Sanguine; (2) the Lymphatic or Phlegmatic; (3) the
Choleric or Bilious; and (4) the Melancholic temperaments, respectively.
As a matter of general information on the subject we herewith give the
old classification with the attributes of each class:

The _Sanguine_ temperament was held to be characterized by red or
light-brown hair, blue eyes, a fair or ruddy complexion, large arteries
and veins, a full and rapid pulse, slight perspiration, impatience of
heat, febrile tendency, and lively and cheerful temper, excitable
passions, a warm, ardent, impulsive disposition, and a liking for active

The _Lymphatic_, or _Phlegmatic_ temperament was held to be
characterized by light, sandy, or whitish hair, light grey eyes, pallid
complexion, skin almost devoid of hair, flabby tissues, much
perspiration, small blood-vessels, a feeble and slow pulse, want of
energy, lack of activity, deficient spirit and vividness;

The _Choleric_ or _Bilious_ temperament was held to be characterized by
black hair often curling, black or hazel eyes, and dark but ruddy
complexion, hairy skin, strong full pulse, firm muscles, great activity
and positiveness, strength of character, and an active brain.

The _Melancholic_ temperament was held to be characterized by black
hair, black or hazel eyes, a dark leaden complexion, pulse slow and
feeble, and a disposition toward study, poetry, literature, and

Some later authorities added a fifth temperament, called the _Nervous_
temperament, which was held to be characterized by a medium complexion,
large brain, small physical frame, fineness of organization, thin hair,
finely cut features, quick lively disposition, intellectual tastes and
tendencies, sensitive nature, high capacity for enjoyment and

The latest authorities, however, discarded the old classification and
adopted one more simple although fully as comprehensive. The new
classification recognizes _three_ classes of temperament, viz: (1) the
Vital; (2) the Motive; and (3) the Mental, the characteristics of which
are held to be as follows:

The _Vital_ temperament has its basis in the predominance of the
nutritive system, including the blood-vessels, lymphatics and the
glands. Its organs are the heart, lungs, stomach, liver, bowels, and the
entire internal vital system. It is characterized by a large, broad
frame; broad shoulders; deep chest; full round abdomen; round plump
limbs; short thick neck; comparatively small hands and feet; full face;
flushed and florid cheeks; and general "well fed" appearance. Those in
whom it is predominant are fond of out-of-door exercise, although not of
hard work; crave the "good things of life;" fond of sport, games and
play; love variety of entertainment and amusement; are affectionate;
love praise and flattery; prefer concrete rather than abstract subjects
of thought; look out for themselves; are selfish, but yet "good
fellows" when it does not cost too much physical discomfort to
themselves; usually enjoy good health, yet when ill are apt to be very
weak; tend to feverishness and apoplexy, etc.

Persons of the Vital temperament may have either fair or dark
complexion, but in either case the cheeks and face are apt to be ruddy
and flushed. Those of the dark type are apt to have greater power of
endurance, while those of the light type are apt to be more sprightly
and active. This temperament is particularly noticeable in women, a
large proportion of whom belong to its class. This temperament furnishes
the majority of the good companions, sociable friends and acquaintances,
and theatre goers. A leading phrenologist says of them that they
"incline to become agents, overseers, captains, hotel-keepers, butchers,
traders, speculators, politicians, public officers, aldermen,
contractors, etc., rather than anything requiring steady or hard work."
We have noticed that a large number of railroad engineers and policemen
are of this temperament.

The _Motive_ temperament has as its basis the predominance of the motive
or mechanical system, including the muscles, bones and ligaments--the
general system of active work and motion. Its organs are those of the
entire framework of the body, together with those muscles and ligaments,
large and small, general and special, which enable man to walk, move,
and work. It is characterized by strong constitution, physical power,
strong character, active feeling, and tendency toward work; large bones
and joints; hard muscles; angular and rugged figure; usually broad
shoulders and deep chest; comparatively small and flat abdomen; oblong
face; large jaw; high cheek-bones; strong large teeth; bushy coarse
hair; rugged features and prominent nose, ears, mouth, etc. Those in
whom it is predominant are fond of physical and mental work; are
tenacious and try to carry through what they undertake; resist fatigue;
are "good stayers;" are full of dogged persistence and resistance; and
are apt to manifest creative effort and work.

Persons of the Motive temperament may have either dark or light
complexion. The Scotch or Scandanavian people show this temperament
strongly, as also do a certain type of Americans. The world's active
workers come chiefly from this class. This temperament is far more
common among men than among women. The fighting nations who have in
different times swept over other countries display this temperament
strongly. This temperament, predominant, although associated with the
other temperaments has distinguished the "men who do things" in the
world's history. It's "raw-bone" and gawkiness has swept things before
it, and has built up great things in all times. Its individuals have a
burning desire to "take hold and pull," or to "get together and start
something." As the name implies, this temperament is the "moving force"
in mankind.

The _Mental_ temperament has its basis in the predominance of the
nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord. Its organs are the
brain, or brains; the spinal cord with its connecting nerves--in fact
the entire nervous system, including the "sympathetic" nervous system,
the various _plexi_, and the nervous substance found in various parts of
the body. It is characterized by a light build; slight frame;
comparatively large head; quick movements; sharp features; thin sharp
nose; thin lips; sharp and not very strong teeth; keen, penetrating eye;
high forehead and upper head; fondness for brain work; disinclination
for physical drudgery; sensitive nature; quick perception; rapid mental
action; developed intuition; fine and shapely features; expressive
countenance, expressive and striking voice, generally rather
"high-strung," vividness and intensity of emotion and feeling, etc.

Persons of this temperament are apt to be more or less "intense;" enjoy
and suffer keenly; are sensitive to reproach or criticism; are inclined
to be sedentary; take a pleasure in "thinking," and often burn their
candle of life at both ends, because of this tendency; and incline to
occupations in which their brains rather than their body is exercised.
They may be either of dark or of light complexion, and in either case
are apt to have bright, expressive eyes. The impression created by an
examination of their physical characteristics is that of _sharpness_.
The fox, weasel, greyhound, and similar animals illustrate this type.
Persons of this temperament are apt to be either _very_ good or _very_
bad. They run to extremes, and sometimes execute a quick "right about
face." When properly balanced, this temperament produces the world's
greatest thinkers along all lines of thought. When not properly balanced
it produces the abnormally gifted "genius," between whom and the
unbalanced person there is but a slender line of division; or the
eccentric person with his so-called "artistic temperament," the "crank"
with his hobbies and vagaries, and the brilliant degenerate who dazzles
yet horrifies the world.


The best authorities agree in the belief that the Balanced Temperament
is the most desirable. That is, the condition in which the three
temperaments balance each other perfectly, so that the weak points of
each are remedied by the strong points of the others, and the extremes
of each are neutralized and held in check by the influence of the
others. Prof. O. S. Fowler, the veteran phrenologist says upon this
point: "A well balanced organism, with all the temperaments large and in
about equal proportion, is by far the best and most favorable for both
enjoyment and efficiency; to general genius and real greatness; to
strength along with perfection of character; to consistency and power
throughout. The Motive large, with the Mental deficient, gives power
with sluggishness, so that the powers lie dormant; adding large Vital
gives great physical power and enjoyment, with too little of the Mental
and the moral, along with coarseness; while the Mental in excess creates
too much mind for body, too much exquisiteness and sentimentality for
the stamina, along with a green-house precocity most destructive of
life's powers and pleasures; whereas their equal balance gives abundance
of vital force, physical stamina, and mental power and susceptibility.
They may be compared to the several parts of a steamboat and its
appurtenances. The Vital is the steam-power; the Motive, the hulk or
framework; the Mental, the freight or passengers. Predominant Vital
generates more vital energy than can well be worked off, which causes
restlessness, excessive passion, and a pressure which endangers
outbursts and overt actions; predominant Motive gives too much frame or
hulk, moves slowly, and with weak Mental, is too light-freighted to
secure the great ends of life, predominant Mental overloads, and
endangers sinking; but all equally balanced and powerful, carry great
loads rapidly and well, and accomplish wonders. Such persons unite cool
judgments with intense and well-governed feelings; great force of
character and intellect with perfect consistency; scholarship with sound
common sense; far seeing sagacity with brilliancy; and have the highest
order of both physiology and mentality."

Professor Nelson Sizer, another high authority said: "In nature the
temperaments exist in combination, one being, however, the most
conspicuous. So rarely do we find examples of an even mixture or
balance, that it may be said that they who possess it are marvellous
exceptions in the current of human society. Such an even mixture would
indicate a most extraordinary heritage; it would be constitutional
perfection. But, once in a while, a person is met in whom there is a
close approach to this balance, and we are accustomed to speak of it as
a _balanced_ temperament, it being difficult to determine which element
is in predominance."


The experience of the older phrenologists, which is verified by the
investigations of the later authorities, was that in the majority of
persons _two_ of the temperaments are well developed, the third
remaining comparatively undeveloped. Of the two active temperaments,
_one_ is usually found to be predominant, although in many the two are
found to be almost equally developed. But even in the last mentioned
instance one of the two seems to have been more actively called forth by
the environment of the person, and may therefore be regarded as the
ruling temperament. Arising from this fact we find the several classes
of Mixed Temperament, known, respectively, as: the Vital-Motive; the
Motive-Vital; the Motive-Mental; the Mental-Motive; the Vital-Mental;
and the Mental-Vital. In these classes the name of the predominant, or
most active temperament appears first, the second name indicating the
temperament relatively undeveloped or inactive.

The _Vital-Motive_ and the _Motive-Vital_ temperaments give the
combination in which is manifested physical activity and strong
vitality. Those of these temperaments are adapted to out-of-door work,
such as farming, out-of-door trades, mechanics, soldiers and sailors,
and other occupations requiring strong vital power and muscular strength
and activity. The physical characteristics are the prominent bones and
strong muscles of the Motive, and well-rounded limbs and "stout" forms
of the Vital. When the Vital predominates, there is apt to be more
flesh; when the Motive predominates there is apt to be more ruggedness
and muscular development.

The _Motive-Mental_ and _Mental-Motive_ temperaments give the
combination in which is manifested the physical activity of the Motive
and the mental activity of the Motive and the mental activity of the
Mental--the physical and mental characteristics of the Vital being
absent. The Mental element relieves the Motive of some of its crudeness
and roughness, while the Motive relieves the Mental of its tendency to
get away from the practical side of things. The strong frame and muscles
are balanced by the brain-development. Those of this temperament make
good practical business men, physicians, lawyers, scientists, explorers,
and others who have to work and think at the same time. These people
often manifest great executive ability. When the Motive predominates,
the tendency is toward out-of-door occupations in which the brain is
used in connection with bodily activity. When the Mental predominates
there is a tendency toward in-door occupations in which active brain
work is required. These people have well-developed heads, together with
wiry, strong bodies. Some of the most successful men have come from this

The _Vital-Mental_ and _Mental-Vital_ temperaments give the combination
in which is manifested many attractive traits which render their
possessor agreeable, companionable, and at the same time bright and
intelligent. The Vital element gives a plumpness to the form, while the
Mental imparts a brightness to the mind. This is the temperament of many
attractive women. The Mental activity tends to counterbalance the Vital
tendency toward physical ease and comfort. These people make good
orators, after dinner speakers, and agreeable society men and women,
actors, artists, poets, and popular literary men. The respective
predominance of the Mental or the Vital, in this combination, gives to
this class somewhat of a variety, but a little observation will soon
enable one to recognize the individuals belonging to it. A certain
combination in this class produces the trait of "emotionality," or
superficial feeling and sympathy.

The student of Human Nature should pay much attention to Temperament and
the outward indications of each class and sub-class, for Temperament
gives us much of our best information regarding character and
disposition, in fact Character Reading depends materially upon the
interpretation of Temperament.



We now approach the subject of the several particular mental qualities,
and the groups thereof, both in the phase of their inner states and that
of their outer form. In the consideration of both of these phases we
must avail ourselves of the investigations and researches of the old
phrenologists who cleared a path for all who follow. Although many of
the phrenological theories are rejected by modern psychologists and
biologists, nevertheless their work established a firm foundation for
the science of the study of the brain and its functions. And to Gall and
his followers we are indebted for the discovery and teaching that the
activity and development of the several mental qualities or faculties
manifest in outer form in the shape of the skull.


The general principles of phrenology may be briefly stated as follows:

I. The Brain is the organ of the mind.

II. The mind is not a single entity or power, but has several faculties,
stronger or weaker, which determine the character of the individual.

III. That each faculty or propensity has a special organ in the brain.

IV. The size of the brain (the quality being equal) is the true measure
of power.

V. There are several groups of faculties, and each group is represented
by organs located in the same region of the brain.

VI. The relative size of each organ results from the activity of its
appropriate faculty.

VII. The size of the organ is indicated by the appearance and size of
the skull immediately over the region of the organ.

VIII. The Quality and Temperament of the organization determine the
degree of vigor, activity, and endurance of the mental powers.

Modern psychology and biology claim to have disproven many of the
phrenological contentions, while other lines of investigation have given
us other theories to account for the phenomena first noted by the
phrenologists. Some investigators of brain development and action hold
that while certain mental states manifest in outer form on portions of
the skull, the phenomenon is due to the action of the _cranial muscles_
rather than to the fact of the localization of special faculties--that
each mental state is associated with certain actions on the part of
certain cranial muscles which in turn exert a modifying effect upon the
shape and size of the skull.

As Erbes states it "the effect the scheme of cranial muscles have had
and still have upon the conformation of the skull, and, consequently,
had in determining the location of those areas and in giving brain and
mind a character approximately identical from end to end of the scale of
living things possessing the cerebro-spinal nervous system. In so far as
the neural matter is dependent upon the cranial muscles--aside from the
sensory stimuli--so far, likewise are the psychic manifestations,
through tongue or limb, modified by variations in those muscles that,
after their creative task is done, assume a vasomotor control over their
respective areas." The same writer also says: "The cerebral mass owes
its location and subsequent expansion, moreover, in a measure that mind
owes its character, primarily to the action of the muscles attached to
and lying upon its peripheral covering, the skull; these same muscles
thereafter, through exercising a cerebral vasomotor control, act in the
nature of keys for calling the evolved dependent brain areas into play,
singly and en masse."

Others have held that the development of certain areas of the surface of
the skull is due to peculiar neural or nervous, activities having their
seat in certain parts of the brain adjacent to their appropriate area of
the skull, but these theories fail to explain the nature of the relation
between the mind, brain and the "nerve centres" aforesaid.

These several authorities, and others, however, agree upon the fact that
certain areas of the brain are associated in some way with certain
mental states; and that these brain areas register their relative
activity upon the areas of the skull adjacent thereto; and that the
_activity_ and _power_ of each brain area, or faculty, is denoted by the
_size_ of the associated skull-area. Thus, the outward facts claimed by
phrenology are admitted, while their theories of cause are disputed.

In this book we shall rest content with these "outward facts" of
phrenology, and shall not concern ourselves with the various theories
which seek to explain them, preferring to leave that task for others. In
considering the subject of the Outer Form associated with the Inner
State of Human Nature, we shall merely claim that _mental states
manifest in outer form in the shape and size of the head; and that
certain areas of the skull are thus associated with certain mental
states, the size and shape of the former denoting the degree of activity
of the latter_.

The general scheme of classification of the various mental "faculties"
of the phrenologists, and the names given thereto by the old
phrenologists, have in the main been adhered to in this book. In a
number of cases, however, we have seen fit to re-arrange the groups in
accordance with the later ideas of the New Psychology, and have given to
some of the "faculties" names considered more appropriate to the later
classification, and understanding of the mental state. Moreover, in
order to avoid the phrenological theories attaching thereto, we have
decided not to use the terms, "faculties," "propensities," and
"sentiments," in referring to the several mental states; and shall
therefore use the term "_Qualities_" in the place thereof. The term
"quality," while denoting "the condition of being such or such; nature
relatively considered," does not carry with it the theory attached to
the phrenological term "faculty." But the _locality_ of the several
qualities of "faculties" has not been disturbed or changed--the _place_
where each quality _manifests in outer form_, as assigned in this book,
agrees with that assigned by the old phrenologists, time having served
to establish the truth of the same, rather than to disprove it.

The following is the classification and terminology adopted by us in
this book in the consideration of the Mental Qualities. (See Fig. 1.)

I. THE EGOISTIC QUALITIES: Self-Esteem; and Approbativeness.

II. THE MOTIVE QUALITIES: Combativeness; Destructiveness; Cunning;
Cautiousness; Acquisitiveness; and Constructiveness.

III. THE VITATIVE QUALITIES: Vitativeness; Alimentativeness; and

IV. THE EMOTIVE QUALITIES: Amativeness; Conjugality; Parental Love;
Sociability and Home-Love.

V. THE APPLICATIVE QUALITIES: Firmness; and Continuity.

VI. THE MODIFICATIVE QUALITIES: Ideality; Infinity; and Humor.

VII. THE RELATIVE QUALITIES: Human Nature; Suavity; Sympathy; and

VIII. THE PERCEPTIVE QUALITIES: Observation; Form; Size; Weight; Color;
Order; Calculation; Tune; Time; Locality; Eventuality; and Words.


X. THE RELIGIO-MORAL QUALITIES: Reverence; Mysticism; Optimism; and

In the following several chapters we shall consider each group, in turn,
together with the particular Qualities of each group. _It must be
remembered that the power of each Quality is modified by the influence
of the other Qualities. Therefore in judging the character of an
individual, each and every Quality must be taken into consideration._



The first group of Qualities is that known as the Egoistic Qualities,
which is composed of two particular Qualities, known, respectively, as
_Self-Esteem_; and _Approbativeness_. This group manifests outer form
immediately at the "crown" of the head, and on the sides directly
beneath or "side of" the crown. (See Fig. 2.) It is the seat of the
consciousness of Individuality and Personality, and the tendencies
arising directly therefrom.


SELF-ESTEEM. This Quality manifests in a strong sense of individual
power, self-respect, self-help, self-reliance, dignity, complacency,
pride of individuality, and independence. In excess it tends to produce
egotism, abnormal conceit, imperiousness, etc. Deficiency of it is apt
to produce lack of confidence in self, humility, self-depreciation, etc.
It gives to one the ambitious spirit, and the desire for executive
positions and places of authority. It resents assumption of authority
on the part of others, and chafes under restraint. It renders its
possessors dignified and desirous of the respectful recognition of
others. It manifests outer form on the middle line of the head, at the
"crown" (see group figure) just above Approbativeness, where it may be
perceived by reason of the enlargement of the "crown." When fully
developed, it tends to draw back the head, so that the latter is held
erect; whereas, when deficient it allows the head to droop forward in an
attitude lacking the appearance of pride.

APPROBATIVENESS. This Quality manifests in a strong desire for praise,
approval, flattery, recommendation, fame, notoriety, good name, personal
display, show and outward appearance. It is a form of pride different
from that of Self-Esteem, for it is a vanity arising from personal
things and outward appearances, whereas Self-Esteem gives a pride to the
inner self or ego. Those in whom it is well-developed pay great
attention to outward form, ceremony, etiquette, fashion, and social
recognition, and are always to be found on the popular side and "with
the crowd." They thrive upon praise, approval and notoriety, and shrink
under censure, disapproval or lack of notice. One with Self-Esteem can
be happy when alone, and in fact often defies public opinion and fashion
from very pride of self; while one with Approbativeness largely
developed lacks the pride to rise above approval and the opinion of
others, while possessing a strong sense of vanity when public favor is
bestowed. It manifests outer form at the upper-back part of the head,
just above Cautiousness and below Self-Esteem, (see group figure). When
largely developed it rises like two mounts on either side of
Self-Esteem, but when Self-Esteem is large and Approbativeness is small,
the latter appears as two sunken places on either side of Self-Esteem.

Self-Esteem values the _real self_ while Approbativeness values the
_appearances_ of personality. The one pursues the substance, the other
the shadows. Self-Esteem and Approbativeness are often confused in the
minds of the public. The true keynote of the first is Pride; of the
second, Vanity. The student should learn to carefully distinguish
between these two Qualities. Approbativeness may cause one to make a
monkey of himself in order to win notice, praise or laughter, while
Self-Esteem will never sacrifice self-respect and pride in order to win



The second group is known as the Selfish Qualities, and is composed of
the following particular Qualities: _Combativeness_; _Destructiveness_;
_Cunning_; _Cautiousness_; _Acquisitiveness_ and _Constructiveness_.
This group manifests in outer form extending along the sides of the
lower head from the back toward the temples. (See Fig. 3.)


COMBATIVENESS. This Quality manifests in a strong desire to oppose,
resist, combat, defy, defend. Those in whom it is developed enjoy a
"scrap," and, in the words of the familiar saying, would "rather fight
than eat." When combined with Vitativeness it manifests in the tendency
to fight hard for life. When combined with Acquisitiveness it manifests
in the tendency to fight for money or property. When combined with
Amativeness it manifests in the tendency to fight for mates. When
combined with the family-loving Qualities it manifests in a tendency to
fight for the family. In fact, its particular direction is indicated
by the development and combination of the other Qualities. It manifests
in outer form at the sides of the lower-back part of the head, a little
back of the top part of the ear (see group figure), giving, when
developed, enlargement of that part of the head--a "broad back-head."
The "broad-headed" animals, birds, and fish have this propensity well
developed, while the "narrow-heads" have it in but a small degree. It is
also indicated by the strong jaw, and by the mouth indicating a "strong

DESTRUCTIVENESS. This Quality, manifests in a strong desire to break
precedents, doing things in new ways, asserting authority,
extermination, severity, sternness, breaking down, crushing, "walking
over," etc. Its direction is largely governed by the other Qualities, as
for instance in combination with Acquisitiveness, it manifests in
breaking down opposition and precedents in business; while with large
conscientiousness it manifests in tearing down evil conditions, etc.,
and in doing the work of "reform." It generally is accompanied with
large Combativeness, as the two go hand-in-hand. It manifests outer
form directly above, and back of the top-part of the ear (see group

CUNNING. This Quality manifests in a strong desire to be cunning, sly,
close-mouthed, diplomatic, deceitful, and generally "foxy." It is best
illustrated by the example of the fox, which animal combines in itself
many of its qualities. The coyote also shows signs of having this
Quality well developed, as do birds of the crow and blackbird family,
and certain fishes. With strong Caution it renders one very secretive
and "close-mouthed." With strong Acquisitiveness it renders one sly and
tricky in business. With strong Approbativeness it renders one apt to
tell lying stories which magnify his importance and gratify his vanity.
With a vivid Imagination it inclines one to draw on that quality and lie
for the very love of romancing. It manifests outer form a little
distance above the top of the ear, immediately above Destructiveness,
and back of Acquisitiveness (see group figure).

CAUTIOUSNESS. This Quality manifests in a strong desire to avoid danger
or trouble; carefulness, prudence, watchfulness, anxiety,
self-protection, etc. In excess it is apt to render one fearful,
over-anxious, and even cowardly, but in combination with other Qualities
it tends to give to one a balance and to restrain him from rashness and
unnecessary risk. Its direction is also largely influenced by the
development of other Qualities. Thus with large Acquisitiveness it makes
one very cautious about money matters; with large family qualities it
renders one very careful about the family; with large Approbativeness it
renders one bashful, self conscious, and fearful of adverse criticism.
It manifests outer form toward the upper-back part of the head, directly
over Secretiveness (see group figure), and when developed is apparent by
the enlargement of the comparatively large area covered by it. An old
phrenological authority says of it: "This is the easiest found of all
the organs.... Starting at the middle of the back part of the ears, draw
a perpendicular line, when the head is erect, straight up to where the
head begins to slope back in forming the top, and Caution is located
just at the first turn."

ACQUISITIVENESS. This Quality manifests in a strong desire either to
acquire, or else to hold property, money, or general objects of
possession. In some cases it contents itself with merely "getting,"
while in others it also "holds on" to what is secured, the difference
arising from the combinations of the other Qualities. In itself, it may
be said to be merely the tendency toward "hoarding up," but the
combination with large Combativeness and Destructiveness enlarges its
scope and tends to make its possessor rapacious and grasping. It is the
instinct of the squirrel and the bee, and even the dog manifests it when
he buries a bone for future gnawing purposes. Those in whom it is
developed in connection with large Caution, manifest a strict economy
and even miserliness, while in others it expends itself in merely the
getting for the sake of the getting, the possessions often being
scattered prodigally afterward, the element of Approbativeness entering
largely into the latter action. It manifests outer form in the
lowest-middle section of the head, directly over Alimentiveness (see
group figure).

CONSTRUCTIVENESS. This Quality manifests in a strong desire to invent,
construct, build, create, put together, improve upon, add to, readjust,
etc. It manifests along three general lines, namely (1) Invention; (2)
Construction; and (3) Materialization, by which is meant the "making
real" of _ideals_ previously entertained--the "making come true" of the
dreams previously experienced--the _materialization_ of the ideas,
plans, and projects previously _visualized_. This Quality causes the
person to improve, alter, tinker with, build up, invent, and create
along the lines of his vocation or avocation. These people find it
difficult to refrain from tinkering with, altering, or "improving"
anything and everything with which they have to do. With large Logic,
Analysis, and Perceptives they manifest inventive ability; with large
Imitation they are fond of copying and constructing after models; with
large Ideality they work toward making their dreams come true. This
Quality is not confined to mechanical construction, as the old
phrenologists taught, but manifests itself in business literature, art,
and in fact in every vocation or occupation. With large Destructiveness,
it builds up new structures upon the ruins created by that Quality. In
persons of the Motive temperament it inclines toward mechanical
invention, creation and construction; while in persons of the Mental
temperament it manifests in creating and constructing ideas, thoughts,
theories, scientific classification, literary productions, etc., and in
persons of the Vital temperament it manifests in creating and improving
upon things calculated to appeal to persons of that class. It manifests
outer form in the lower and frontal part of the temples, backward and
upward from the outer corner of the eye-brow (see group figure). Prof.
O. S. Fowler says. "In broad-built and stocky persons it causes this
part of the temples to widen and bulge out, but in tall, long-headed
persons it _spreads_ out upon them, and hence shows to be less than it
really is." It is directly below Ideality and in front of



The third group is known as the Vitative Qualities, which is composed of
the three respective particular Qualities: _Vitativeness_;
_Alimentativeness_; and _Bibativeness_. This group manifests in outer
form directly back of, and in front of, the middle part of the ear. (See
Fig. 4.)

VITATIVENESS. This quality manifests in a strong desire to live;
resistance to disease and death; an intense clinging to life for the
mere fact of living, rather than for the sake of anything to be
accomplished by continued existence. It goes along with Combativeness,
and is especially noticeable in the "broad-headed" people and animals.
The cat tribe, hawks, turtles, sharks, venomous snakes, and others have
this propensity well developed, while it is deficient in the
"narrow-headed" animals, such as the rabbit, certain birds, certain
fish, and many harmless snakes. Those in whom it is developed "die
hard," while those in whom it is deficient die easily. This capacity
manifests in outer form in the area situated just back of the middle
part of the ear (see group figure).


ALIMENTIVENESS. This Quality manifests in a strong desire to gratify the
tastes for food, when large it inclines one toward gluttony, and tends
to make one "live to eat," instead of to "eat to live." Those in whom it
is largely developed eat heartily and like to see others doing the same;
while those in whom it is deficient care very little for the quality or
amount of their food and often actually resent the, to them,
"disgusting" sight of persons partaking of a hearty meal. It manifests
in outer form immediately in front of the upper part of the ear (see
group figure).

BIBATIVENESS. This Quality manifests in a strong desire to gratify the
appetite for drinks of various kinds. In its normal well-developed state
it manifests in a desire for water, milk and fluid foods, such as soups,
broths, etc., and other juicy things. Perverted it manifests in the
appetite for intoxicating liquors, tea and coffee, "soft drinks," and
the various decoctions of the modern soda-fountain. By some this
Quality is regarded as merely a phase of Alimentiveness, while others
consider it to be a separate Quality. It manifests in outer form
immediately in front of the locality of Alimentiveness, toward the eye.



The fourth group is that known as the Social Qualities, which group is
composed of the following particular Qualities: _Amativeness_;
_Conjugality_; _Parental Love_; _Sociability_ and _Home Love_. This
group manifests outer form at the lower-back portion of the head (see
Fig. 5), and shows itself by an enlargement of that region, causing the
head to "bulge" back of the ears. It may best be understood by an
examination of its several particular Qualities.


AMATIVENESS. This Quality manifests in a strong desire for sexual
indulgence and association with the opposite sex. Its purpose is, of
course, the reproduction of the race, but its abuse and perversion has
led man to many excesses and unnatural practices. It is a dynamic
propensity and its normal development is seemingly necessary in order to
produce the "life spirit," and vital activity mental and physical. Those
in whom it is deficient lack "spirit" and energy, while those in whom
it is developed to excess tend to lean toward excesses. When developed
normally it seems to add an attractiveness or "magnetism" to its
possessors; when deficient it renders the person "cold" non-magnetic and
unattractive; when over-developed and unrestrained it causes the person
to become disgusting and repulsive to the normal person; vulgar,
licentious and depraved. Its seat is in the cerebellum or "little
brain," and it manifests outer form by an enlarged "fullness" at the
nape of the neck, at the base of the skull (see group figure). It tends
to cause the head to lean backward and downward at the nape of the neck.
It also manifests by fullness of the lips, particularly in their
middles. The lips and position of the head of persons in whom this
quality is largely developed is indicative of the attitude and position
of kissing. Spurzheim says of it: "It is situated at the top of the
neck, and its size is proportionate to the space between the mastoid
process, immediately behind the ears, and the occipital spine, in the
middle of the hind head." It is noticeable that those in whom this
quality is fully or largely developed seem to have the power of
attracting or "charming" those of the opposite sex, while those who are
deficient in it lack this quality.

CONJUGALITY. This quality manifests in a strong desire for a "mate"--and
_one_ mate only. While Amativeness may cause one to seek the society of
many of the opposite sex, Conjugality will act only to cause one to seek
the _one_ life partner. Conjugality causes the desire to "mate for
life." It is something quite different from Amativeness, although of
course related to it. The location of its outer form, between
Amativeness and Friendship, gives the key to its quality--_love with
companionship_. Those in whom it is well developed are very close to
their mates and tend toward jealousy; they suffer intensely when the
relation is inharmonious or disturbed in any way, and are often
brokenhearted at disappointment in love or the death of the mate. Those
in whom it is deficient feel very little true companionship for their
mates, and with Amativeness large are apt to be promiscuous in their
manifestation of love or passion; if one love is interrupted or
interfered with they find little difficulty in shifting their
affections. Those in whom it is strong are "true unto death," while
those in whom it is weak are fickle, inconstant and lack loyalty. The
Quality manifests outer form on each side of the lower-back of the head,
just above Amativeness and just below Friendship, and on either side of
Parental Love--the location being especially indicative of its nature
(see group figure).

PARENTAL LOVE. This Quality manifests in a strong desire for and love of
children, particularly one's own. Those in whom it is very strong often
adopt children in addition to their own and love to caress children
wherever and whenever they may see them. It manifests outer form at the
lower-back part of the head on the middle-line of the head, above
Amativeness, and below Inhabitiveness (see group figure).

SOCIABILITY. This Quality manifests in a strong desire for
companionship, fellowship, friends, sympathy, society, associates, etc.
It is the "social sense." Those in whom it is strong feel happy only
when surrounded by associates, friends or boon companions. They incline
toward lodges, clubs and social gatherings. To be alone is to suffer, to
such people. Those in whom it is weak prefer to be alone, or at the best
with a few carefully chosen companions, and avoid promiscuous
friendships and social gatherings. It manifests outer form just above
Conjugality, and at the sides of Parental love and Inhabitiveness, and
directly back of Cautiousness and the upper-part of Combativeness (see
group figure).

HOME-LOVE. This Quality manifests in a strong love of familiar places,
particularly of one's home and near-by country, and from this springs
love of country and patriotism. Those in whom it is strong dislike to
travel, and are subject to home-sickness. Those in whom it is weak are
fond of travel, readily change their places of abode, and are apt to
become "roamers" if they indulge the Quality. When over large, it
inclines one toward narrowness, sectionalism and provincialism; when
small, it inclines one toward frequent moves, and changes of residence
and location. It manifests outer form at the back part of the head, on
the middle-line, directly above Parental Love and below Continuity (see
group figure). When it is large it tends to produce a ridge,
flat-iron-shape and pointing upward; when small, it presents a
depression sufficient to contain the ball of the finger. Its close
connection to Continuity, on the one hand, and Parental Love on the
other, is very suggestive.



The fifth group, known as the Applicative Qualities, is composed of two
particular Qualities, known, respectively, as _Firmness_ and
_Continuity_. This group manifests in outer form on the centre-line of
the head, just above and just below the "crown," at which latter point
Self-Esteem is situated (see Fig. 6).


FIRMNESS. This Quality manifests in a strong tendency toward stability,
tenacity, fixedness of purpose, and decision. When very highly developed
with the reasoning powers weak it often manifests as stubborness,
mulishness, obstinacy, etc. Those in whom it is largely developed
display firmness in decision, are "set in their ways," cannot be driven
by force or converted by argument when they have once formed an opinion
and taken a stand. The "indomitable will" arises from this Quality, in
fact this Quality might well be termed the "Will Quality," although it
manifests by that aspect of Will which shows itself as _fixedness_,
while its companion Quality, that of Continuity, manifests the phase of
Will known as "stick-to-it-iveness." Persons in whom Firmness is largely
developed make certain decisions and then abide by them. They may be
coaxed but never driven. Prof. O. S. Fowler, speaking of this Quality,
said: "No man ever succeeded without great will-power to hold on and
hold out in the teeth of opposing difficulties. I never knew a man
distinguished for anything, not even crimes, to lack it. It is an
indispensable prerequisite of greatness and goodness. Without it great
talents are of little avail, for they accomplish little; but with it
large, fair to middling capacities accomplish commendable results.
Success in life depends more on this than on any other single

This Quality manifests outer form on the centre-line of the back part of
the top head, just above Self-Esteem. The location may be ascertained by
holding the head erect, drawing an imaginary line upward from the
opening of the ears straight to the top of the head to the middle-line
or centre of the top of the head--the location is at this last-point.
It is usually quite prominent, and in many men unusually large. When
fully developed it gives a "tallness" to the head from the opening of
the ears to top of head. When it is weak, there is apt to be a flatness
or even a depression at the point of its location. It also manifests in
a "stiff upper lip," that is a firm upper lip, the latter often being
longer than ordinarily. A certain stiffness of the upper-lip is often
noticed when Firmness is habitually asserted, or in cases when the
Quality is temporarily called into play. The term "stiff upper lip" is
more than a mere figurative expression. Combe says of this Quality:
"When this organ predominates it gives a peculiar hardness to the
manner, a stiffness and uprightness to the gait, with a forcible and
emphatic tone to the voice."

CONTINUITY. This propensity manifests in a strong tendency to "stick-to"
a thing once begun, until it is finished; a disinclination for change; a
habit of patient work and thought; a desire to do but one thing at a
time; etc. It is difficult to interest these people in _new_
things--they hold fast to the _old_. They are naturally conservative and
are averse to "new-fangled" things. They are plodders and steady
workers, and run on like a clock when once wound up. They are apt to
possess the power of long and continued concentration upon anything
which attracts their attention, although it is difficult to attract
their attention to an entirely new thing. Prof. Sizer says: "Firmness
gives a stiff, determined fortitude, decision of character; it serves to
brace up the other faculties to the work in hand.... Firmness gives
determination and obstinacy of purpose, while _Continuity_ gives a
patient, perfecting, plodding application. Of two stone-cutters with
equal Firmness, they will be alike thorough and persevering, but if one
has large Continuity he prefers to use the drill in one place for hours,
while the other with small Continuity craves variety, and prefers to use
the chisel in cutting and dressing the entire surface of the stone."

Continuity in excess often manifests in "long-windedness," prosiness,
boredom, prolixity and tiresomeness. When it is weak there is
manifested a "flightiness," tendency to change, lack of concentration,
attraction of the new, a shifting of base, change of mind, and general
instability and lack of "stick-to-itiveness." This Quality manifests
outer form on the centre line of the top back of the head, just below
the crown (Self-Esteem) and just above Inhabitiveness (see group
figure). Reference to the group figure will show that it is peculiar in
shape, and forms a semi-circular arch over a part of the top-back head.
When fully developed that part of the head is simply evenly rounded with
swelling; when deficient it leaves a hollow, crescent shape, horns
downward. In America we find the majority of people are weak in
Continuity, while in certain other countries it is found largely
developed in the majority of cases. This fact gives to Americans a
benefit in certain directions and a weakness in others.

Both Firmness and Continuity are manifested almost entirely in
connection with the other Qualities, and are known almost altogether in
that way. In themselves they have almost abstract nature. In determining
character, they must be taken largely into consideration, because their
influence on the other Qualities is very great. In fact they may be said
to _determine_ the degree of _application_ of the other Qualities.



The sixth group is known as the Modificative Qualities (called by the
phrenologists "The Self-Perfecting Group"), which is composed of the
following particular Qualities. _Ideality_, _Infinity_ and _Humor_,
respectively. This group manifests outer form in the region of the
temples, and when large gives width to the sides of the fore part of the
head (See Figure 7).

IDEALITY. This Quality could well be called the "Artistic" quality of
the mind. It manifests in a strong desire for the beautiful, the ideal,
the elegant, the polished, the graceful, the refined. It is also closely
connected with the phase of mental activity called "Imagination." Those
in whom it is largely developed manifest the artistic taste and
temperament, the love of art, beauty and the ideal, the poetic spirit,
the love of the refined and choice--and a corresponding dislike for all
opposed to these tastes and qualities.


Spurzheim says of it: "A poetic turn of mind results from a peculiar
mode of feeling. Vividness, glow, exaltation, imagination, inspiration,
rapture, exaggeration, and warmth of expression are requisite for
poetry. Poets depict a fictitious and imaginary world. This faculty
gives glow to the other faculties; impresses the poetical and ideal;
aspires to imaginary perfection in every thing; creates enthusiasm in
friendship, virtue, painting, music, etc.; produces sentimentality, and
leads to delicacy and susceptibility. It often acts with Spirituality
(Mysticism), located adjoining it, in embellishing poetry with the
mysterious and supernatural. Practical exaltation varies with this

Combe says: "This faculty loves exquisiteness, perfection, and the
beau-ideal; gives inspiration to the poet; stimulates those faculties
which form ideas to create perfect scenes; inspires man with a ceaseless
love of improvement, and prompts him to form and realize splendid
conceptions; imparts an elevated strain to language, and shows a
splendor of eloquence and poetic feeling; and gives to conversation a
fascinating sprightliness and buoyancy--the opposite of dryness and

In addition to the above characteristics, which are largely due to the
co-operation of Mysticism, Infinity, and Reverence, there is another set
of manifestations which were largely overlooked by the older
phrenologists--the activity of the Imagination in connection with
Constructiveness. This combination of Constructiveness and Ideality is
found in the great scientists, inventors, great financiers, and others
whose plans for "building up" show that Ideality has been also very
active in the direction of picturing "what may be"--the _ideal_ which
Construction makes _real_. In much mental constructive work, there is
found the artistic element, which arises from Ideality. This Quality
manifests outer form in the upper and frontal portion of the temples,
just where the head begins to curve upward, and just in front of, or
under, the edges of the hair (see group figure). It is just above
Constructiveness, and just below Mysticism and Imitation, a position
which throws light on its several phases of manifestation above noted.

INFINITY. This Quality manifests in a strong realization of the grand,
the majestic, the vast, the illimitable, the infinite, the eternal, the
absolute, the omnipotent, the omnipresent, the omniscient. It is the
realizing sense of The Great. Those in whom it is large are impressed by
the sublime, the majestic, the grand, in nature or in thought and
conception. Niagara; the great work of the architect; the thunder-storm;
the giant redwood of California; the ocean; or the thoughts of Infinity,
alike appeal to the one in whom this Quality is large. If Reverence be
large, the trend of Infinity will be toward religious ideas--the
greatness of God. If the intellectual faculties be in the ascendency,
Infinity will lead to high conceptions of Space, Nature, the Infinite.
If Ideality be large, Infinity will incline toward the grand and great
in art. If Constructiveness be well developed, Infinity will impel to
the creation of great works, enterprises, buildings, schemes, or what
not. Infinity influences everything in the direction of largeness and
greatness. This Quality manifests in outer form on the side of the head,
about midway between forehead and back-head, and about midway between
"top and bottom" of that part of the head which contains the brain (see
group figure). It is back of Ideality, and in front of Cautiousness;
below Optimism and above Acquisitiveness, on the side of the head where
the upward curve begins.

HUMOR. This Quality manifests in a strong appreciation of the ludicrous,
humorous, ironical, facetious, and raillery. Spurzheim says: "Those who
write like Voltaire, Rabelais, Piron, Sterne, Rabener, Wieland, and all
who are fond of jest, raillery, ridicule, irony, and comical
conceptions, have the upper and outer parts of the forehead immediately
before Beauty (Ideality) of considerable size." Combe says: "I have
found in the manifestations of those whose Wit (Mirthfulness)
predominates over Causality (Logic) a striking love of the purely
ludicrous; their great delight being to heap absurd and incongruous
ideas together; extract laughter out of every object; and enjoy the
mirth their sallies created; and therefore agree with Spurzheim that the
sentiment of the ludicrous is its primitive function." Those in whom it
is very large are apt to be regarded as trifling and undignified, and
people often lack respect for them. Those in whom it is weak are apt to
be over-serious and dreary. A sense of humor is valuable in many ways,
among which is its influence in letting us see the silly side of much
pretentious nonsense which might otherwise deceive our reason and
judgment. Many a solemn and dignified fallacy or error can best be
attacked through a laugh and a realization of its absurdity. This
Quality manifests outer form on the upper and lateral part of the
forehead (see group figure). It is just before Ideality and just below
Imitation. When large it gives a square and prominent shape to this part
of the forehead.



The seventh group is known as the Relative Qualities, and is composed of
the following four particular Qualities: _Human Nature_; _Suavity_;
_Sympathy_; and _Imitation_; respectively. The designation "Relative" is
applied to this group, by reason of the fact that its activities are
concerned with the _relations_ between the individual and others of his
kind. The group manifests outer form in the front-upper part of the
head, beginning just above the line of the hair, from which it extends
backward toward the top-head. (See Fig. 8.)


HUMAN NATURE. This Quality manifests in a strong desire to read
character, discern human motives, interpret feelings and thoughts, and
to _know_ men and women thoroughly. Those in whom it is large seem to
read the mind, motives and character of those whom they meet, in an
almost intuitive manner--the ideas, feelings, thoughts, motives and
designs of others seem like an open book to them. They are natural
physiognomists, and understand Human Nature in both its inner states
and outer forms. This quality is largely developed in successful
salesmen, detectives, credit-men, politicians, and others whose success
depends largely upon the ability to read the character of those with
whom they come in contact. This Quality concerns itself with the entire
subject matter of this book, and is of the utmost importance to every
individual. It should be developed and trained.

Prof. O. S. Fowler explains its manifestations, and at the same time
directs one along the lines of its cultivation, as follows: "Scan
closely all the actions of men, in order to ascertain their motives and
mainsprings of action; look with a sharp eye at man, woman and child,
all you meet, as if you would read them through; note particularly the
expression of the eye, as if you would imbibe what it signifies; say to
yourself, what faculty prompted this expression and that action? drink
in the general looks, attitude, natural language and manifestations of
men, and yield yourself to the impressions naturally made on you; that
is, study human nature both as a philosophy and a sentiment."

This Quality manifests in outer form on the middle-line of the summit of
the forehead, just where the hair usually begins to appear, and from
thence slightly upward around the curve (see group figure). It is
directly above Analysis and is often mistaken for a continuation
thereof. Its nearness to that Quality indicates its relationship
thereto, the connection being very close; in fact, some authorities have
treated it as a particular phase of Analysis. It is directly in front of
and below Sympathy, which position is also suggestive, for we must first
_understand_ the feelings of others before we can sympathize with them.
It is between the two lobes of Suavity, which position is also
suggestive, for Suavity depends upon an understanding of the character
and feelings of others, in order that we may "fall in" with the same. In
the same way Imitation, which closely adjoins it, depends upon Human
Nature for its copying material. When largely developed this Quality
gives a peculiar fullness and height to the upper forehead.

SUAVITY. This Quality manifests in a strong desire to be _agreeable_,
_suave_, _pleasant_, _polite_ and _attractive_ to other people. Those
in whom it is large possess a charming personality; a "winning way;" are
interesting and agreeable; polite, and often fascinating. They always
say the right thing to the right person at the right time and right
place. They sugar-coat unpleasant truths, and are natural diplomats.
This is the Quality of Tact. These people are "all things to all men,"
and show every evidence of having "kissed the Blarney Stone," and of
understanding the manufacture and use of "soft soap."

With Human Nature large, they, as Prof. O. S. Fowler says "know just how
and when to take and hoodwink men; with Secretiveness (Cunning) large
and Conscientiousness small, are oily and palavering, and flatter
victims, and serpent-like salivate before swallowing." When the
adjoining Quality of Humor is large, they add humor and wit to their
other attractive qualities. This Quality, in normal development, is the
lubricant which makes the wheels of social and business intercourse run
smoothly. In excess it renders one "too smooth" and "oily;" while its
deficiency renders one boorish, unattractive and disagreeable. It
manifests in outer form in the upper-fore part of the head, about the
hair-line, and _on each side of Human Nature_. It is just below
Imitation, just above Logic, and touches the upper side of Mirthfulness
(see group figure). Together with Human Nature, when both are large, it
tends to give a squareness and fullness to the upper part of the
forehead, and a somewhat angular turn to the forehead at that point.

SYMPATHY. This Quality manifests in a strong feeling of kindness,
compassion, benevolence, sympathy, and desire to make and see others
happy. Its manifestation is always altruistic. When largely developed it
causes one to feel the pains of others, and to be unhappy at the sight,
thought or hearing of their pains and woes. When deficient or weak it
allows the person to be callous to the misfortunes of others. When
normally developed it causes one to radiate Kindness, Sympathy and
Compassion, but in excess it renders one miserable because of the
consciousness of the "world-pain," and often causes one to be the victim
of misplaced sympathy and confidence. It is unnecessary to state that
those in whom this propensity is strong are to be found serving their
fellow-men in charitable, philanthropic, and educational work. Some have
it in such excess that they will impoverish themselves and their
families in order to help perfect strangers or the race at large. It
manifests outer form on the fore part of the top head, on the
middle-line, commencing just about where the hair begins and running
back almost to the middle of the top-head. It is immediately in front of
Reverence. When large it tends to give the head a little forward tilt or
inclination, as if toward the person for whom sympathy is felt. In
listening to a story awakening sympathy, one naturally inclines the head
a little forward.

IMITATION. This Quality manifests itself in the strong tendency to
reproduce, copy, take pattern of, or mimic. It plays an important part
in the work of the artist and the actor. It enables one in whom it is
largely developed to enter into the ideas, plans and works of others; to
"catch their spirit;" and to reproduce their work or ideas. In
connection with Ideality it forms a large part of the artistic talent
in all lines of creative work. With large Constructiveness and Ideality,
it makes the inventor and the designer who build upon that which has
gone before that which is new and original. With Self-Esteem small and
Approbativeness large, this Quality will cause the person to "follow my
leader" and imitate others, rather than to assert his own originality
and creative power. This Quality is noticeable principally as a modifier
of the other faculties and propensities. It manifests outer form on the
upper sides of the forehead, toward the top of the head (see group
figure). It lies just below Sympathy, and above Ideality; before
Mysticism, and back of Suavity.



The eighth group is known as the Perceptive Qualities, composed of the
following particular Qualities, respectively: _Observation_; _Form_
_Size_; _Weight_; _Color_; _Order_; _Calculation_; _Tune_; _Time_;
_Locality_; _Eventuality_, and _Words_. This group manifests outer form
in the lower part of the forehead, in the region of the eye. (See Fig.
9.) When large this group often gives to the upper forehead the
appearance of "retreating" or sloping backward. Prof. O. S. Fowler says
of the appearance of those Qualities which manifest outer form _under_
the eyebrows: "The following rule for observing their size obviates the
objection sometimes urged that the eyebrows and their arches prevent the
correct diagnosis of these smaller organs crowded so thickly together.
The rule is: _The shape of the eyebrows_ reveals the size, absolute and
relative, of each, thus: When _all_ are large, the eyebrow is long and
arching; when all are deficient, it is short and straight; when some
are large and others small, it arches over the large ones, but passes
horizontally over those which are small. This rule is infallible." The
other Qualities of the group, according to Prof. Sizer, "is located
above the eyes, and ... constitute about one-third of the depth of the
forehead, beginning at the arch of the eye."


OBSERVATION. This Quality was given the name of "Individuality" by the
early phrenologists, but this term is considered misleading, owing to
the later usage of that term. It manifests in a strong desire to
observe, see, examine, inspect, and "know" the things of the objective
life. Those in whom it is largely developed feel the insatiable urge of
the inquisitive spirit; they desire to investigate everything coming
under their notice. Many little details in the objects or subjects in
which they are interested are noticed by them, while overlooked by the
majority of people.

Prof. Sizer says of it that it "gives a recognition of things and the
special points and facts of subjects; quickness of observation is an
important element in the acquisition of knowledge.... Those in whom it
is large are eager to see all that may be seen, and nothing escapes
their attention. It opens the door for the action of all the other
perceptive organs.... They are quick to notice everything that is
presented to the eye; and it goes farther, and enables us to recognize
that which we touch, or sounds we hear. The rattling strokes of a drum
are distinct noises, and each is an individuality."

Prof. O. S. Fowler, says: "It is adapted, and adapts men to the
divisibility of matter, or that natural attribute which allows it to be
subdivided indefinitely. Yet each division maintains a personal
existence. It thus puts man in relation and contact with a world full of
things for his inspection, as well as excites in him an insatiable
desire to examine everything. It is therefore the _looking_ faculty. Its
distinctive office is to observe things. It asks: 'What is this?' and
says, 'Show me that!'... Before we can know the uses, properties,
causes, etc., of things, we must first know that such things _exist_,
and of this Observation informs us."

This Quality is largely involved in the process of Attention. It usually
manifests in the form of _involuntary attention_, that is, attention to
interesting things. But, under the influence of the will, with Firmness
large, it manifests _voluntary attention_, or attention or study of
objects not interesting in themselves, but which it is important to
study and know. It is largely developed in children and undeveloped
adults in the phase of curiosity or desire to observe _new_ things. In
adults, of developed minds, it manifests as attention to things of
_material interest_ and important subjects or objects of study. This
Quality is the master of its associated Qualities in this group, and is
involved in all of their activities.

It manifests outer form in the middle of the lower part of the forehead,
between the inner ends of the eyebrows, and above the top of the
nose--"just above the root of the nose," in fact. Prof. O. S. Fowler
says: "When it is large, the eyebrows flex downward at their nasal ends,
and the lower part of the forehead projects. When it is deficient, the
eyebrows are straight at their inner ends, and come close together" (See
group figure).

FORM. This Quality manifests in a cognizance, appreciation, and
recollection of the _form and shape_ of objects observed. Those in whom
it is large most readily perceive, recognize and remember details of
form and shape, faces, etc. It manifests outer form between, and
slightly above, the eyes, on each side of Observation (see group
figure). When large it tends to push the eyes apart and outward. Sizer
says: "The width between the eyes is the indication of its
development.... When small the eyes are nearer together, which gives a
pinched expression to that part of the face; when the organ is large,
the eyes appear to be separated, pushing away from the root of the nose.
Distinguished artists have the eyes widely separated." Audobon said of
Bewick, an eminent English wood-engraver, "His eyes were placed farther
apart than those of any man I have ever seen."

SIZE. This Quality manifests in a cognizance, appreciation, and
recollection of the size and _magnitude_ of objects observed. Those in
whom it is large most readily perceive, recognize and remember the size,
dimensions, proportion, distance, height and depth, quantity, bulk of
things. It manifests outer form on each side of Observation, but a
little lower down (see group figure), in the angle formed by the root of
the nose and arch of the eyebrows. Prof. O. S. Fowler says: "In
proportion as it is large it causes the inner portion of the eyebrows to
project over the inner portions of the eyes, quite like the eaves of a
house, forming a shed over the inner portion of each eye."

WEIGHT. This Quality manifests in a cognizance, appreciation, and
recollection of _weight_, _balance and gravity_ of things. Those in
whom it is large most readily perceive, recognize, and remember the
weight of things; and also things out of balance or plumb. These people
seem to have the faculty of balancing themselves nicely, and keeping
their feet on a slippery surface, on a tight-rope, etc., and often walk
with a swinging, free motion, indicating a sense of balance and
security. This Quality manifests under the eyebrows, next to Size, about
a half inch from the upper part of the nose, rising somewhat above the
inner part of the eyeball and the bridge of the nose. Prof. O. S. Fowler
says: "Draw a perpendicular line from the centre of each eye up to the
eyebrow; Weight is _internally_, and Color _externally_ of this line
under the eyebrows."

COLOR. This Quality manifests in a cognizance, appreciation, and
recollection of the color, hue, shade, and tint of things. Those in whom
it is large most readily perceive, recognize and remember the colors,
shadings, blendings and combination of tints, and to compare, match and
harmonize colors instinctively. It manifests outer form under the
eyebrows, just back of Weight (see rule for finding, in last paragraph),
and occupies the space directly under the centre of the arch of the
eyebrows (see group figure). When largely developed it gives an upward
and forward arch to the eyebrows.

ORDER. This Quality manifests in a cognizance, appreciation, and
recollection of _order_, _method and arrangement_. Those in whom it is
large most readily perceive, recognize, and remember the order and
sequence in which objects appear or are arranged. They are very
methodical, precise, and pay attention to details of arrangement and
system. They "have a place for everything," and like to "keep
everything in its place." In business they are "strong on system,"
sometimes overdoing it. They are also fond of rules, laws, customs, and
codes, and adhere strictly thereto. They like everything pigeon-holed,
labelled, or else fenced in and off from every other thing. Are also
great disciplinarians. This Quality manifests outer form next to Color,
and beneath the junction of the bony ridges (on the sides of the head)
and the eyebrows, (see group figure). Prof. O. S. Fowler says: "When
very large it forms an arch, almost an angle, in the eyebrows at this
point, accompanied by its projection or hanging over.... When small, the
eyebrows at this point retire, and are straight and flat, wanting that
arched projection given by large Order." Combe says: "Its large
development produces a square appearance at the external angle of the
lower part of the forehead."

CALCULATION. This Quality manifests in a cognizance, appreciation, and
recollection of _number_, _figures_, _calculations_, _etc._ Those in
whom it is largely developed most readily perceive, recognize, and
remember anything concerned with the _number_ of things, or
calculations based thereon. They are natural arithmeticians and
mathematicians. Calculation comes easy to them, and in cases of high
development they may be said to "think mathematically." This Quality
manifests outer form next to Order, and under the outer ends of the
eyebrows (see group figure).

Prof. O. S. Fowler, says: "It elongates the ends of the eyebrows
laterally, and flexes them horizontally in proportion as it is
developed, yet when deficient the eyebrow is left short externally, does
not project beyond the eye, and terminates running _downwards_." Gall
says: "Its convolution is a continuation of the lowest convolution of
Tune, and is placed on the most external part of the orbital plate, in a
furrow running from before backwards. When it is very large it depresses
the external part of the plate, so that the superorbital arch is
irregular, except in its internal part; its external line representing a
straight line, which descends obliquely. Hence the external part of the
eyelid is depressed, and conceals the corresponding part of the eye."

TUNE. This Quality manifests in a cognizance, appreciation, and
recollection of _tune_, _music_, _harmony_, _melody_, etc. Those in whom
it is large most readily perceive, recognize, and remember all connected
with the subject of Music. It is the musical sense, taste and faculty.
Its characteristics are too well-known to require elaboration. It
manifests outer form in the lateral and lower part of the forehead,
above Order and Calculation, in front of Constructiveness, and back of
Time (see group figure). Prof. O. S. Fowler says: "When large it fills
out the lower, frontal portions of the temples.... Still, being located
in a kind of corner ... and the temporal muscle passing over it, its
position varies somewhat, which renders observation more difficult,
except in the heads of children, in whom it is generally larger than in

TIME. This Quality manifests in a cognizance, appreciation, and
recollection of _time_, _duration_, _rhythm_, _etc._ Those in whom it is
large most readily perceive, recognize, and remember all connected with
the flight of time, dates, duration, periodicity, chronology, etc.
Spurzheim says of it that it, "perceives the duration, simultaneousness,
and succession of phenomena." It may be called "the time sense" which is
so apparent in some persons, and so noticeable by reason of its absence
in others. It manifests outer form above Color and Weight, in front of
Tune, and back of Locality (see group figure).

LOCALITY. This Quality manifests in a cognizance, appreciation, and
recollection of _places_, _positions_, _locations_, _directions_, etc.
Those in whom it is large most readily perceive, recognize, and remember
places, directions, positions, land-marks, points-of-the compass, roads,
paths, streets, and other things having to do with _space_. Such persons
are never "lost" nor confused as to direction or locality; they have an
almost instinctive "sense of direction." It is the geographical or
traveller's sense. It is found large in the majority of travellers,
sailors, civil engineers, etc. Persons in whom it is large can find
themselves about a strange city without trouble, and will remember old
scenes, places, locations for years. Those in whom it is weak
frequently "get lost," or mixed up regarding place, position and

It manifests outer form over Size and Weight, or about three-quarters of
an inch above the inner half of the eyebrows, and runs upwards and
outwards (see group figure). It is said to have been immensely developed
and apparent in Capt. Cook, the eminent explorer, and the portraits of
Columbus and other great explorers and travellers show a distinct
enlargement of this locality. Gall, who discovered the location of this
Quality, took casts of the heads of noted explorers and travellers, and
others manifesting the "sense of place and direction," and upon
comparing them, "found in them all, in the region directly over the
eyes, two large prominences, which began just inside the root of the
nose, and ascended obliquely upwards and outwards as far as the middle
of the forehead." Dr. Caldwell states that, "Daniel Boone who was
perpetually going from one place to another, was the most celebrated
hunter and woodsman of his age, and possessed this organ in a degree of
development so bold and prominent that it deformed his face."

EVENTUALITY. This Quality manifests in a cognizance appreciation and
recollection of _facts_, _events_, _happenings_, _occurrences_, _news_,
_etc._ Those in whom it is large most readily perceive, recognize and
remember striking events, facts, doings, occurrences--in short, _news_.
Such persons have the "nose for news" which is so important to the
newspaper man, scientific investigator, researcher in any line, and
general investigator. It is the "historical faculty," and the
"journalistic sense," as well as an important part of the "scientific
instinct." These people make good witnesses, story tellers, and
entertainers. They know "what is going on," and are the people to go to
when one wishes to "hear the news," or to learn the past history of
anything or anybody.

This Quality manifests outer form in the centre of the forehead,
immediately above Observation, and in front of Locality (see group
figure). When large it tends to "fill out" the middle of the forehead.
Prof. O. S. Fowler says: "It sometimes seems deficient, because the
surrounding organs are large, whereas close inspection shows it to be
large. Steady the head with the left hand, and place the second finger
of the right in the very centre of the forehead, firmly on the head, and
then work the skin horizontally. If your finger caresses an up-and-down
ridge about the size of a pipe-stem, this faculty is vigorous, and has
been much used and strengthened by culture of late years. Where it is
not noticeably full, but has been taxed by business or literary
pursuits, or had a great many little things to do for years, it appears
deficient to the eye, but the rule just given for this perpendicular
pipe-stem ridge signifies great activity and vigor in it." (See group

WORDS. This Quality manifests in a cognizance, appreciation and
recollection of _words_, _terms_, _phrases_, _etc._, and their meanings.
Those in whom it is large most readily perceive, recognize and remember
the words, expressions, gestures and other modes of communication
between the minds of men, and are proficient not only in perceiving and
understanding them, but also in employing and using them. It is the
taste, power, and ability to receive verbal Impressions and to manifest
verbal Expression. It produces the orator, and the adept in the use of
words in writing. To those persons in whom it is largely developed,
words take on life and reality, and become living thought. In excess, it
produces verbosity, talkativeness, and "windiness" of expression. When
deficient, it renders one unable to properly express himself. It
manifests outer form above and partly behind the superorbital plates,
which form the roof of the sockets of the eyes, and when large tends to
press the eyes forward and downward. Its location was discovered by
Gall, who observed that those fluent in the use of words almost always
had _full and prominent eyes, and_ _prominent under eye-lids_. The
fullness of the eyes and lower eyelids, therefore, is its distinguishing

Professor O. S. Fowler says: "See how the eyes stand out beyond the
cheekbone--the best standard points from which to estimate its size,
because, though it may be large, yet the Perceptives may be still
larger, in which case the latter will project forward still farther even
beyond large Expression. (Words). Hence the fullness of the eyes should
not be compared with the eyebrows as much as _with the bone below them_,
which not being subject to kindred mutations, forms a correct measuring
point of observation." The pressure outward of the under eyelids, is a
good sign of the development of this Quality. It may be objected to that
Quality of Words is not, strictly speaking, a _Perceptive_, but when it
is realized that before words may be fluently used, they must be
_perceived_, _recognized_, _and remembered_, the reason for our
inclusion of this Quality in the Perceptive class may be understood.



The ninth group is known as the Reflective Qualities, which is composed
of the two following particular Qualities: _Analysis_ and _Logic,
respectively_. This group is accorded the highest place among the mental
Qualities, for Reason is ranked higher than Emotion, Feeling or
Sentiment. Its purpose is to philosophize, penetrate, investigate,
originate, pursue the processes of inductive and deductive reasoning,
analyze, synthesize, take apart, put together, combine, harmonize,
search for, discover, and to manifest all the processes of Rational
Thought, using the report of the Perceptives as "raw material." This
group manifests outer form in the upper part of the forehead,
immediately above the Reflective Qualities. (See Fig. 10.) When large it
gives to the upper part of the forehead that appearance of
_intellectuality_, which is so commonly recognized, and which has given
rise to the semi-slang phrase "high-brow" as applied to persons
manifesting intellect.


ANALYSIS. This Quality manifests in a strong desire to _analyze_,
_compare_, _classify_, _infer_, _discriminate_, _illustrate_, _etc._ It
gathers together the "raw material" of perception, and proceeds to
analyze and compare its particular parts, and then to group the parts
together in a new classification and synthesis. Those in whom it is
largely developed manifest the power of _comparison_ to a high degree,
discovering points of resemblance and difference almost intuitively.
They will plunge to the heart of a subject in a short time, and will be
able to extract the _essence_ of an object or subject with comparatively
little effort.

Spurzheim says of it: "The great law of this faculty seems to be to form
abstract ideas, generalizations, and harmony among the operations of the
other faculties.... It pre-supposes, however, the activity of the other
faculties, and cannot act upon them if they are inactive."

Professor Nelson Sizer says that it, "frequently discovers unexpected
resemblances among other things, and people who have it in a very active
condition are constantly surprising those in whom it is dull by their
novel illustrations. It is the source of the ability some writers
possess of using frequently metaphors and analogies.... While it
contributes to reason, it is not strictly so, _per se_.... It endeavors
to prove that one thing is of such and such a nature, because it
resembles another that is so and so; and because the majority of people
have it fairly developed, they are prone to convert an illustration into
an argument. It exercises a most important influence upon the mind in
the way of analytical capability; and one who has it largely developed
is quick in discovering and understanding differences, enigmatical
assertions and improper or inaccurate allusions; hence it is essential
to critical acumen."

Gall says, regarding its discovery: "I often conversed with a
philosopher endowed with great vivacity, who, when unable to prove his
point by logic, had recourse to a comparison, by which he often threw
his opponents off the track, which he could not do by arguments." It
tends to reason by analogy, and to make rapid and clever
generalizations. The majority of scientists have it largely developed,
as also do discoverers in all lines of investigation and research, and
as Gall says: "Its possessors seize and judge well of the relations of
things, etc., and are well fitted for business." It is attracted by
investigation and thought regarding concrete things, rather than by
abstract subjects. It is scientific, rather than philosophical.

As Prof. O. S. Fowler says, it: "illustrates with great cleverness and
facility from the known to the unknown, and discovers the deeper
analogies which pervade nature, and has an extraordinary power of
discovering new truths. It reasons clearly and correctly from
conclusions and scientific facts up to the laws which govern them;
discerns the known from the unknown; detects error by its incongruity
with facts; has an excellent talent for comparing, explaining,
expounding, criticising, exposing, etc.; employs similes and metaphors
well; puts this and that together, and draws correct inferences from

This Quality manifests in outer form in the middle of the upper part of
the forehead, along the middle-line, just below the hair, directly above
Eventuality, and between the two lobes of Logic (see group figure).
Prof. O. S. Fowler says of it: "It commences at the centre of the
forehead and runs upward nearly to the hair. When it projects beyond
surrounding organs it resembles a cone, its apex forming a ridge which
widens as it rises. Its ample development elevates the middle of the
upper portion of the forehead, and gives it an ascending form."

LOGIC. This Quality manifests in a strong desire to inquire into the
"Why?" of things--into Causes--into the "Wherefore?"; and to reason
therefrom to _effects_ and application of laws. Those in whom it is
large manifest the power of _logical reasoning_ to a high degree, and
abhor fallacies. This is the _philosophical_ faculty of mind. It
searches back of facts and phenomena for _causes_, _motives_ _and laws_,
and then reasons deductively from these. Combe says: "This faculty
prompts us on all occasions to ask, "Why is this so, and what is its
object?" It _demands reasons and proofs_ in the reasoning of its owner,
as well as from others."

Prof. Nelson Sizer says: "It gives ability to look deeply into subjects,
and to appreciate the logical sequences of arguments, hence it is large
in persons who indicate genius in metaphysics, political economy, and
all sciences of a profound character.... When prominent, and the
perceptive faculties are moderate, and Comparison (Analysis) is not
equally influential, it tends to speculative thinking. Men so
constituted are given to spinning improbable theories; their notions are
too abstract for ordinary minds, and they are looked upon as dull and
heavy weights in society. On the other hand when it (Logic) is
deficient, the individual is superficial and incapable of taking
comprehensive views of subjects; or forming judgments that will apply to
the affairs of life successfully."

Professor O. S. Fowler says that this Quality gives "the desire to know
the _why and wherefore_ of things, and to investigate their laws;
ability to reason from causes down to effects, and from effects up to
causes; the therefore and wherefore; ability to adapt ways and means to
ends, to plan, contrive, invent, create resources, apply power
advantageously, make heads save hands, kill two birds with one stone,
predict the results of given measures, etc."

This Quality manifests outer form in the sides of the upper part of the
forehead, one either side of Analysis and over Locality (see group
figure). When large it gives to the forehead a "high, bold, square"
form. With large Perceptives this Quality does not present so prominent
an appearance and so marked a comparison, but with the Perceptives small
it gives to the brow an "overhanging" appearance. With Analysis equally,
or nearly as strong, the fullness of course extends well across the
forehead; but with Analysis much smaller, Logic presents a bulging on
each side of the forehead; while with Analysis large and Logic small,
the latter gives the appearance of two depressions on each side of the

Spurzheim well says of the combination of Analysis and Logic (which he
terms "Comparison" and "Causality," respectively): "Causality and
Comparison combined constitute Reason. Without Causality (Logic) there
can be no argumentative reasoning; without Comparison (Analysis), no
comprehensive views, and no nice distinctions. Observation teaches
objects, and Eventuality facts, while Comparison (Analysis) points out
their identity, analogy, difference or harmony, whereas Causality
(Logic) seeks their causes, and all together discern general principles
and laws; draw conclusions, inductions and creations, and constitute a
truly philosophical understanding."



The tenth group is known as the Religio-Moral Qualities, and is composed
of the following particular Qualities: _Reverence_, _Mysticism_,
_Optimism_, and _Conscientiousness_, respectively. This group manifests
outer form at the front-top of the head, and on either side thereof (see
Fig. 11).


REVERENCE. This Quality manifests in a strong reverence, respect and awe
for and of higher beings, persons in authority, sacred things, religious
ideas, constituted authority, leaders, teachers, and heroes. It may be
symbolically expressed by the word, "Worship." Like that of Mysticism,
this Quality contains within its field the highest and the lowest. It
manifests the reverence and veneration for the highest conceptions of
Deity and Being; and also the fear and base servile worship of idols,
demoniac deities, devil-gods, etc. Likewise, it manifests in respect and
submission for the lawfully constituted authorities; and also for false
leaders and prophets, charlatans and imposters. In the same way it
causes a hero-worship for those who have performed meritorious tasks and
have wrought good for the race; but also for the unworthy persons whose
sensational deeds have brought them into the "limelight" of notoriety.
It manifests in all forms of the highest religion; and in the lowest
forms of devil-worship and low superstitious awe and fear, in the
richest religious experiences, and in the wildest fanaticism and
hallucinations. The direction of the manifestation is decided by the
relative development of the other propensities, particularly those of
the reasoning faculties.

This Quality manifests outer form on the middle-top of the head, along
the middle-line directly in front of Firmness, back of Sympathy, and
just above Mysticism and Optimism (see group figure). When largely
developed, it causes the middle of the top of the head to "bulge,"
particularly if Mysticism be also largely developed, the combination
usually being thus.

MYSTICISM. This Quality manifests in a strong attraction for the
supernatural, the marvellous, the unknown, the mysterious. When
perverted it leads to superstition, gross credulity, belief in
witchcraft; faith in signs, omens, and warnings, etc. When balanced by
certain other Qualities it leads one to the higher flights of religious
experience, faith, and consciousness of the "light within;" but when not
so balanced it leads one to credulity, superstition and religious,
occult, and mystical imposture.

"Psychic" phenomena are familiar to those in whom it is largely
developed in connection with certain other mental qualities;
clairvoyance, second-sight, spirit-vision and other peculiar experiences
being common to these people. The prophets, seers, and wonder-workers
belong to this class of "psychics." Poets possess this Quality in many
cases. The manifestations of this Quality include some of the very
highest and the very lowest of "spiritual" experiences and feelings.
This paradox is explained when we consider the influence of the other
Qualities, high and low, operating in connection with that of Mysticism.
In the garden of Mysticism grow the choicest flowers and the rankest and
most noxious weeds.

This Quality is located immediately in front of Optimism, and below on
either side of Reverence, on the front-upper part of the head (see group
figure). When developed it renders the front top-head broad and

OPTIMISM. This Quality manifests in a strong tendency to look on the
bright side of things, to expect the best, to anticipate the best.
Spurzheim says of it: "Hope is necessary to the happiness of man in
almost all situations and often gives more satisfaction than even
success. Those who are everlastingly scheming or building castles in the
air have it large. It believes possible whatever the other faculties
desire. It is not confined to this life, but inspires hopes of a future
state, and belief in the immortality of the soul. When too strong it
expects the unreasonable and impossible; but when too weak, with Caution
large, it produces low spirits, melancholy and despair."

This Quality when full produces optimists; when weak, pessimists; when
medium, the average person who swings between the two extremes partaking
of the nature of each. Those in whom it is developed to excess are apt
to see success in everything, and with a lively imagination translate
dreams into realities; of these persons it has been said: "show them an
egg, and the next minute the air is full of feathers." When this Quality
is weak the person is disposed to look for the worm in the apple, decay
at the heart of the rose, and for the skeleton beneath the form of
beauty. It has been said that "the optimist sees nothing but the body of
the doughnut; the pessimist, nothing but the hole."

This Propensity manifests outer form at the middle sides of the upper
head, in front of Conscientiousness, back of Spirituality (see group

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS. This Quality manifests in a strong tendency to act
according to truth, principle, duty, the accepted code of ethics,
conception of right, accepted religious teachings--in short to regulate
conduct according to the particular standard of "right and wrong"
accepted by the person. Those in whom it is large feel keenly their
personal responsibility, duty, and moral obligation. With Reverence
large, they model their standard of duty upon religious standards,
while with Reverence small, and Sociability large, they model their
standard upon social ethics, the Brotherhood of Man, and the "social
conscience." In fact the Quality itself gives rise to what is generally
called the "social conscience."

Combe says of this Propensity: "After more than thirty years experience
of the world in actual life, and in various countries, I cannot remember
an instance in which I have been permanently treated unjustly by one in
whom this organ and intellect were large. Momentary injustice, through
irritation or misrepresentation, may have been done; but after correct
information and time to become cool, I have found such persons ever
disposed to act on the dictates of Conscience; as well satisfied with
justice.... It leads to punctuality in keeping appointments so as not to
waste their time; to the ready payment of debts; will not send
collectors away unsatisfied except from inability to pay; are reserved
in making promises, but punctual in keeping them; and when favorably
combined, are consistent in conduct.... Its predominance makes a strict
disciplinarian and a rigid but just master; invests all actions with a
sense of duty; thereby sometimes rendering estimable persons

In normal manifestation this Quality renders its possessor a most worthy
and estimable individual; but when abnormally developed and not balanced
by judgment and the reasoning faculties, it produces persecutors and
religious and ethical tyrants, adhering to the letter of the law rather
than to its spirit. Conscience is generally esteemed, but careful
observers deplore the "ingrown conscience" and "blue-law spirit" of
those of large Conscientiousness, large Destructiveness, and small
Sympathy. Many so-called "reformers" belong to this last class. This
Quality manifests outer form on the side of the top part of the head,
just below and on either side of Firmness. It lies between Firmness and
Cautiousness, with Optimism just in front of it and Approbativeness just
back of it (see group figure).



Next to the shape of the head, the facial expression furnishes us with
the most marked indication of the outer form accompanying the inner
mental state. In fact, many authorities hold that the facial expression
affords the most easily read and most comprehensive index of character,
and that, therefore, Physiognomy possesses many points of superiority
over Phrenology. The truth seems to be that Physiognomy and Phrenology
are twin-sciences, and that the true student of Human Nature should
acquaint himself thoroughly with both.

Physiognomy is "the science and art of discovering or reading the temper
and other characteristic qualities of the mind by the features of the
face." The philosophy underlying the science of Physiognomy has been
stated at length in the first several chapters of this book, the essence
of which is that _mental states manifest in outward form_. The majority
of persons apply the principles of Physiognomy more or less
unconsciously in judging the characters of those with whom they come in
contact. Nearly every one scans closely the features of those whom they
meet for the first time, and form a general impression therefrom.
Children and domestic animals possess an instinctive knowledge of facial
expression and can often tell very accurately the general disposition
toward them possessed by various persons. Certain persons are generally
considered to "look stupid," while others have "a bright, intelligent
expression"; some look "tricky," while others "look honest" and

Professor Nelson Sizer says: "Though all human beings have the general
human form and features--though all have eyes, nose, mouth, chin, etc.,
yet each one has a different face and look from every other. And, more,
yet, the same person has a very different facial look at different
times, according as he is angry or friendly, etc. And always the same
look when in the same mood. Of course, then, something causes this
expression--especially, since all who are angry, friendly, etc., have
one general or similar expression; that is, one look expresses anger,
another affection, another devotion, another kindness, etc. And since
nature always works by means, she must needs have her physiognomical
tools. Nor are they under the control of the will, for they act
spontaneously. We cannot help, whether we will or no, laughing when
merry, even though in church, pouting when provoked, and expressing all
our mental operations, down even to the very innermost recesses of our
souls, in and by our countenances. And with more minuteness and
completeness than by words, especially when the expressions are intense
or peculiar."

Professor Drayton says, "Everything, from head to feet, of form, size,
and action, indicates in some degree, the character of the individual,
or state of mind, and feeling in exercise for the time being. The
arching or depressing of the eyebrows, the full opening or partial
closing of the eye, the pursing or pouting of the lips, the firm set
jaw, the elevated head, the lofty shoulders, the stiff attitude, the
dignified and stately step, or the reverse of this, will impress each
observer in respect to the changing moods which may exist in a given
individual.... Each of the mental organs has its natural language, as
shown in pantomine, which is exhibited by the gestures and motions of
the head, hands and body. Children and animals read the feelings of
their parents or masters by their motions and attitudes, which are often
more influential than words. The brain is the central source of motive
and mental power; every action has its root or seat of impulse in the
brain and its connections, and as the mind forms purposes, the will is
sent out to the extremities, and the external motions express the inward
thought and feeling. Habitual states of mind tend to produce habitual
forms and expressions of face and body; a person who suffers pain for
years, will have in the face an expression of the internal state; one
who has been nurtured in gladness, though the face may not be beautiful,
will wear the sunshine of joy; one who has had care and responsibility,
will come to show it in the face, in the walk, and in the voice, as one
who has been subjugated and kept subordinate will have the word
humiliation written in his features not only, but in all his movements
and attitudes."


The authorities in Physiognomy divide the faces of persons into three
general classes, viz: (1) The Round Face; (2) The Oblong Face; and (3)
The Pear-shaped Face.

[Illustration: FIG. 12 ROUND FACE]

In Fig. 12, we see the Round Face. This face is indicative of the Vital
Temperament. It is usually associated with broad shoulders, short neck,
full chest, and plumpness, with enlarged abdomen in middle life. These
people love ease and physical comforts, good eating and drinking, and
not too much hard mental or physical work. They are solicitous of the
comfort of their bodies, and generally "look out for No. 1" in this
respect. They are generally good-natured and sociable, and often jolly.

[Illustration: FIG. 13 OBLONG FACE]

In Fig. 13, we see the Oblong Face. This face is indicative of the
Motive Temperament. It is usually associated with a compact firm body,
which while well filled out can scarcely be called plump, certainly not
fleshy. These people are generally strong and active, persevering and
sparing neither themselves or others in the direction of work. They are
apt to have a very fair share of common sense; are _practical_; and are
generally _reliable_.

[Illustration: FIG. 14 PEAR-SHAPED FACE]

In Fig. 14, we see the Pear-shaped Face. This face is indicative of the
Mental Temperament. It is usually associated with a delicately formed
body, and finely proportioned physical shape; the shoulders often being
narrow, and the neck long. These people manifest the characteristics of
mental and nervous force, rather than of vital or motive energy. They
often have bright, expressive eyes, and show other signs of the artistic
or literary character. They are inclined to be sensitive and
impressionable, and to suffer and enjoy keenly.

In addition to the aforementioned general types, there are several
others which are modifications thereof, and which we shall now consider.

In Fig. 15, we see the Square Face. This face indicates a combination of
the Motive and Vital Temperaments, with the Religio-Moral Qualities
deficient and the Selfish-Qualities predominant. These people usually
have square, stocky bodies, strong and wiry, and are tenacious of life.
They are Materialistic to a degree, and cannot understand others who
differ temperamentally from them. Usually, they have Combativeness and
Destructiveness large; strong Perceptive Qualities; and but moderate
Conscientiousness. They look out for themselves, pushing others aside,
and not being disturbed by "the higher feelings." They are generally
stubborn; and their weak point is apt to be Amativeness.

[Illustration: FIG. 15 SQUARE FACE]

In Fig. 16, we see the Egg-shaped Face. This face indicates the Mental
Temperament with the Psychic Qualities largely in the ascendent. The
Selfish Qualities are weak, while the Qualities of Mysticism, Reverence
and Ideality are large. These people are generally known as "spiritual,"
and are often very "psychic." They are generally impractical and dwell
in an ideal world apart from the things of earth.

[Illustration: FIG. 16 EGG-SHAPED FACE]

In Fig. 17, we see the Inverted-Egg-shaped Face. This face indicates the
extreme form of the Vital Temperament, associated with an absence of the
active qualities which should accompany it. The Mental and Motive
Qualities are quite deficient, while the purely _Animal_ Qualities are
strong. The result is a _pig-like_ nature, content with wallowing in the
mud of the animal propensities and having a full swill-barrel. These
people are essentially lazy, gross, worthless, and animal-like. Note the
large lower-face (without the strong jaw), and the small upper head.
Note the broad nose, and general lazy expression.


In Figs. 18 and 19, respectively, we see the contrast between Broad and
Narrow Faces. The rule is that Broad Faces indicate fight,
destructiveness, and acquisitiveness--the Selfish Faculties, in fact;
while Narrow Faces indicate a lack of these qualities. The broad-headed
animals are the fighters, while the narrow-heads are the timid and
peaceful, as a rule. The same principle applies in the case of men. Look
over the charts of the Qualities, and see why this is.

[Illustration: FIG. 18 BROAD FACE]

The above mentioned several types or classes of faces have, of course,
innumerable variations and combinations, but a careful study of these
several types will give one the general key to all faces. It is well to
obtain a side view, as well as a full-face view, of the face one wishes
to study.

[Illustration: FIG. 19 NARROW FACE]

In studying faces, not only the general shape of the face must be
observed, but also the various features thereof, as for instance: the
chin; the mouth; the nose; the eyes; the ears; etc. These features form
the subject of the following chapters.



Physiognomists regard the chin as an important feature to be considered
in the study of faces as the outer form of character. The following are
the principal points of the "reading" of chins.

In Fig. 20 we see the first point to be observed in the study of chins.
The rule is to draw an imaginary perpendicular line from the point at
the root of the nose, between the two eyebrows. In the normal and
average type, the line touches the upper lip and chin. But we find the
normal condition in but comparatively few cases, the majority
manifesting a variation backward or forward. When the chin is found to
recede from the line, it is interpreted as an indication of weakness,
lack of stability and firmness, and a general vacillating and unstable
character. When the chin projects beyond the line, it is interpreted as
indicating firmness, stubborness, and a generally selfish nature, which
is considered "strong" by contrast with the "weak" receding chin. When
the projecting chin is _pointed_, it indicates that the strength is
manifested as grasping, miserliness, etc.; while if it is _square_, it
indicates Combativeness and Destructiveness as well as Acquisitiveness;
and if it is _very broad and square_, it indicates the domineering,
"bossy," tyrannical, self-willed character.

[Illustration: FIG. 20 CHIN STUDY]

The above points regarding the chin must always be taken into
consideration. The following points are based on the shape of the chin
when in _normal position_, that is when the perpendicular line descends
in a straight line from the root of the nose to the chin:

The _narrow-round chin_ indicates _idealistic feeling_ not manifesting
in decided action. These people have high desires, longings, and
aspiration, but lack the will to act upon the same.

The _narrow-square chin_ indicates the idealistic nature, _accompanied
by the will to act_ upon the same.

The _broad-round chin_ indicates _substantial feeling_, without the will
to manifest it in decided action. These people desire ordinary, plain,
practical things, but lack the initiative, will and nerve to overcome
obstacles to acquire them.

The _broad-square chin_ indicates that the feelings are plain, practical
and substantial, _with the will to back them up_.

From the above, it will be seen that _roundness_ indicates _feeling_;
and that _squareness_ denotes _will_; that narrowness denotes
_ideality_; while _broadness_ denotes _practical, substantial, plain_
desires and tastes.

The _dimpled or indented chin_ indicates the warm artistic temperament
with its accompanying desire for love of the opposite sex, desire for
affection, and alas! too often a fickleness and lack of loyalty and
fidelity in love affairs.


A _broad, firm jaw_ indicates strong Combativeness, Destructiveness and

A _narrow, loose jaw_ indicates the reverse of the qualities above

A _loose, drooping jaw and open mouth_ indicates timidity, weakness,
shyness, or despondency.

The _fighters_ in all walks of life manifest the strong, firm jaw. It is
the survival of the primitive "bite" in the animal or cave-man.


The Orientals have a proverb which runs as follows: "By a man's eyes,
know what he might have been, or may be; by his mouth, knew what he has
been, and is." The study of the mouth is one of the greatest interest,
and one which will richly repay one for his time and thought. It will be
noticed that there is a great difference between the mouth and lips of
an individual in childhood, in youth, and in middle-age, which fact
shows the truth of the Oriental proverb just quoted. The mouth indeed
shows what a man has been and is.

_Small mouths_ generally denote undeveloped, childish, or babyish
character, neither good nor bad.

_Large mouths_ denote matured character, good or bad. When firm, they
denote force and energy. When half-open, they denote dullness and
heaviness. When showing full protruding lips, they denote sensuality and
selfish passions and tastes. When very large and flexible, they denote
the "windy" person who is fond of talking and hearing the sound of his
own voice--when one says that another is "big-mouthed" he states a truth
which physiognomy bears out.

An _upward curve_ of the corners of the mouth, denotes a cheerful,
optimistic disposition and mental attitude. Likewise, a _downward curve_
denotes a despondent, pessimistic disposition and mental attitude. A
graceful bow-like curve, shows a well-balanced and "all around"

_Tightly closed lips_ indicate a firmness, and often a "closeness" of
disposition. _Loosely closed lips_ indicate a lack of firmness, and
often a spendthrift tendency. _Lips that touch lightly and protrude
slightly_ in a "kiss-like" shape, indicate vanity, love of praise and
flattery, and often a desire to be petted.

_Puffed-out lips_ indicate sloth, dullness, lack of energy and ambition,
general heaviness. _Coarse lips_ indicate lack of refinement, and often
grossness. _Particularly full lips_ indicate Amativeness and sometimes

_Slanting mouths_ indicate trickiness, "foxiness" and general
unreliability. _Crooked mouths_, or mouths greatly out of symmetry, are
held by many authorities to indicate lack of Conscientiousness, and
often criminal tendencies.

_Full, red, middle-lips_ indicate love of the opposite sex. _Thin, pale
middle-lips_ denote the opposite traits.

_A long upper-lip_ indicates Self-Esteem. _A short upper-lip_ denotes
deficient Self-Esteem, but often also a strong Approbativeness. (John D.
Rockefeller has an almost abnormally long upper lip.)

The affectionate faculties are believed to manifest in outer form in the
center of the lips, because of certain nerve centers at that place. A
fullness and enlargement there denotes strong affection, while
deficiency in the affectionate qualities manifest in the opposite

Will and self-control is shown by the relative firmness and "set" of the
lips and mouth.

Besides the above mentioned characteristics, the student will soon
perceive that there are certain "expressions" of the lips and mouth
which, although impossible of expression in words, nevertheless may be
almost instinctively recognized by the careful observer. Lips, like
eyes, tell their story plainly to the careful and practiced observer. It
is a safe rule to _avoid those whose mouths arouse an instinctive
distrust in your mind_. Watch closely the mouths of people speaking to
you, and you will receive many a plain signal of danger, and many an
assurance of safety. The eyes, while full of information, often deceive
those not fully versed in their secret code--but the mouth tells its
tale in plain, simple, understandable terms, signs and symbols.



It has been said that "the eyes are the windows of the soul," and indeed
they do express a _something_ that is not possible to any other part of
the face or body. When unrestrained the eye correctly portrays the
innermost feelings and emotions affecting and influencing us, and in
many cases we are able to get a clear and unobstructed view of the soul
behind the eyes by gazing into them. But, alas! it is possible to mask
the expression of the eyes, and to counterfeit emotions and feelings
which do not exist within the mind. Men and women trained in the arts of
dissimulation and concealment, may, and do, conceal their thoughts and
feelings which ordinarily would be reflected in their eyes; and many,
especially women, are able to counterfeit feelings which have no real
existence in their minds or souls. We have seen women bestowing upon the
unsuspecting "mere man," the most artless, ingenuous "baby stare," while
at the same time their minds were filled with craft and cunning. We
have seen others whose eyes portrayed the most absolute innocence and
truth, while their hearts were filled with selfish, base feelings, and
their minds with cunning schemes. The trained diplomat and skilled
gambler successfully mask their thoughts, and their eyes reflect nothing
of their secrets; and, upon occasion, they are able to throw into their
eyes any desired expression. The best authorities on Physiognomy hold
that the mouth is a much more reliable index of thought and character
than the eye--for the eye may lie, while the mouth betrays itself even
when attempting the counterfeit.

But, nevertheless, the eyes _do_ betray character, not by their
expression but by their shape and form. Habitual mental states reflect
in the outer form of the eyes, in spite of the care of their owners not
to let them tell the secret of the thought and feeling of the moment.
The story is told _not by the expression_ of the eye, but by the muscles
surrounding the eyes, the eye-lids, etc. In fact, the _eye-lids_ supply
the greater part of that which we call the "expression of the eye,"
their contractions and relaxations producing the effect.

_Secretiveness, cunning, and closeness_ are denoted by closely drawn
eye-lids, a furtive look often being imparted thereby. This position of
the eye-lids has been likened to an instinctive inclination to draw the
eye-lids together to hide the expression of the eye, but it probably
arises from the original trait of the animal to protect his eyes from
attack when engaging in a fight, or raid. As an instance of this, it
will be found that a feeling of cruelty, or desire to hurt another, will
manifest in a compression of the eye-lids, and a tightening of the upper
eyelid which assumes a straight form. _Frankness, truthfulness and
honesty_ are, in the same way, indicated by open, free looking eyes.
This expression may be counterfeited upon occasions, but the counterfeit
may be detected by observing the eyes when the owner is off guard.

The _fighting, destructive, motive feelings_ are indicated by _straight
lines_ of the lids. _Affection, benevolence, sympathy, and love_,
manifest in curving, drooping, full eye-lids, the absence of straight
lines being marked. _Amativeness and Alimentiveness_ show in very thick
eye-lids, giving a sensual gross expression to the eyes.
_Destructiveness_ manifests in a tightening of the upper lid, and a
bearing down upon the eyeball. _Approbativeness_ gives a peculiar
"coquettish" relaxation of the upper eye-lid, which is suggestive of the
desire to wink in a meaning manner. _Humor_ gives a peculiar contraction
to the eye-lids, and at the same time producing the little lines
radiating from each outer corner of the eye-lids--the "laughing
wrinkles." _Ideality, Optimism, and Mysticism_ impart an open expression
to the eyes. _Cautiousness_, when large, also gives to the eyes an open,
almost startled, surprised expression.

_Large, protruding eyes_ are held to be indicative of wordiness,
talkativeness, and lack of careful thought--the desire to talk for the
pleasure of hearing oneself talk.

In connection with the subject of the outer form manifesting in the
eyes, we would call your attention to the quotation from Prof. O. S.
Fowler, appearing in Lesson XIII, in which he speaks of certain of the
Perceptive Qualities which indicate in outer form in the region of the
eye, as follows: "The shape of the eyebrows reveals the size, absolute
and relative, of each, thus: When _all_ are large, the eyebrow is long
and arching; when all are deficient, it is long and straight; when some
are large and others small, it arches over the large ones, but passes
horizontally over those which are small. This rule is infallible." In
connection therewith, we suggest that the student re-read carefully
Chapter XIII, which deals with the Perceptive Qualities which manifest
outer form in the region of the eye.


Many physiognomists pass lightly over the subject of the ears as an
index of character, while others seem to specialize on this feature.

The _round ear_ is held to indicate the Vital Temperament. The _oblong
ear_, the Motive Temperament; and the _pear-shaped ear_ the Mental

_Quality_ is held to be indicated by the relative delicateness in the
moulding of the ear, a coarse, misshapen ear being held to indicate an
uncultivated nature; while a delicately moulded, shapely ear is held to
indicate culture and refinement.

A _long, narrow ear_ is held to indicate an ambitious, striving nature.
An ear _pointed at the tip_ (upper part) is held to be indicative of
selfishness and general "foxiness."


All physiognomists agree upon the importance of the nose as an index of
character. The majority of people recognize the sign of a large, strong
nose, on the one hand, and a small, weak nose on the other.

[Illustration: FIG. 21 A, ROMAN; B, GRECIAN; C, CHERUBIC]

In Fig. 21 we see the three general forms of the nose, the Roman;
Grecian and Cherubic; respectively. The _Roman nose_ is held to be
indicative of Self-Esteem, Combativeness, Destructiveness and
Acquisitiveness. The _Grecian nose_ is held to be indicative of
Ideality, Conscientiousness, Reverence and other "higher qualities." The
_Cherubic nose_ is held to be indicative of feminine qualities, social
attractiveness, and emotional qualities. There are of course innumerable
modifications and combinations of these three general classes.

[Illustration: FIG. 22 THREE TEMPERAMENTS]

In Fig. 22 we see the classification adopted by some authorities, who
divide the nose into three general parts, each of which is held to
indicate one of the three Temperaments, and the Qualities which are
related to each. Thus the hard bony part, including the bridge,
indicates the Motive; the tip and end, the Mental; and the "wings" on
each side of the nostrils, the Vital. There is much truth in this
classification, and a careful study of this illustration will aid the
student in his understanding of noses as an outer sign of character. In
fact, this illustration may be used as a basis for the whole subject of
the meaning of noses as outer signs of character.

Large nostrils indicate strong Vitativeness and physical well-being, and
often strong Emotive Qualities. Narrow, small, or tight nostrils
indicate weak Vitativeness and Vital Force. An authority says: "If the
nostrils are wide-apart, the man is merciful. If the nostrils are
wide-open, like those of a bull, resemblances to that animal prevail in
violent wrath and hard breathing."

The tip of the nose indicates the several mental qualities. The sharp
pointed tip indicates an inquisitive, prying, investigating nature--a
general "sharpness" so to speak. A blunt tip indicates a lack of
"sharpness" and inquisitiveness. The upturned tip, or "pug," indicates a
trifling, superficial, gossiping tendency. As a general rule the sharp
tip indicates thought, while the rounded tip indicates feeling.

The bony part of the nose, when prominent, indicates the strength of the
Motive Qualities, such as Combativeness, Destructiveness,
Acquisitiveness, Constructiveness, etc. It generally accompanies the
people who push forward and "do things" in spite of obstacles--it is the
nose of the great generals, and the majority of great financiers.



While the subject of hands may be thought to belong to the study of
Palmistry, with which we have no concern in this book, nevertheless we
think that we should include herein a brief reference to the several
classes of the hand as indicative of the outer form of mental states.
That the shape of the hand often reveals information regarding the
character of its owner is admitted by the best authorities on the
subject. Many persons who discard the theories of Palmistry still regard
the subject of the shape and meaning of hands as apart from that study,
and believe that an understanding of the indications of the several
classes of hands is important to the students of Human Nature.

There are seven general types of hands, viz: (1) The Spatulate; (2) the
Square; (3) the Artistic; (4) the Elementary; (5) the Mixed; (6) the
Philosophic; and (7) the Psychic. Following we give a brief recital of
the qualities held to be indicated by each.

[Illustration: FIG. 23 SPATULATE HAND]

In Fig. 23, we see the Spatulate Hand, the special peculiarities of
which are the straight, smooth fingers and the "splay" tips. This type
of hand is held to indicate an active, energetic nature, that is
satisfied only when it is employed and doing something useful. This hand
is eminently "practical," and its owner cares very little for art,
poetry, or literature.

[Illustration: FIG. 24 SQUARE HAND]

In Fig. 24, we see the Square Hand, the special peculiarities of which
are its general "squareness" of the palm, and generally of the
finger-tips. This also is a useful hand, and its owner is amenable to
authority, and makes a good employee or helper. It indicates a quiet,
peaceable disposition, and its owner is usually found to be careful,
orderly, and dependable--the sense of _order_ being especially strong.

[Illustration: FIG. 25 ARTISTIC HAND]

In Fig. 25, we see the Artistic Hand, the special peculiarities of which
are the suppleness and softness of the hand; its symmetrical form; and
its long, tapering fingers. Its owners are of the poetic and artistic
nature, with a taste for beautiful and refined things, artistic
environment, bright and witty speech, and "choice" things generally. The
Qualities of Ideality and Words are apt to be well developed in these
cases, and "the artistic temperament" is found in its full development

[Illustration: FIG. 26 ELEMENTARY HAND]

In Fig. 26, we see the Elementary Hand, the special peculiarities of
which are its short, thick fingers, and its thick heavy palm. Its owners
are "of the earth, earthy," and have but very little imagination and
fine taste.

[Illustration: FIG. 27 PHILOSOPHIC HAND]

In Fig. 27, we have the Philosophic Hand, the special peculiarities of
which are its large thumb, rounded finger-tips, and its projecting
joints. Its owners are thinkers, investigators, and reasoners along
practical lines, and are generally skeptical and inclined to demand
proof of anything and everything.

[Illustration: FIG. 28 PSYCHIC HAND]

In Fig. 28, we see the Psychic Hand, the special peculiarities of which
are the extreme slenderness of the entire hand, and the long thin,
pointed fingers. Its owners have Mysticism highly developed, and incline
toward the mysterious, supernatural, occult, and imaginative, and are
generally of an extremely nervous, sensitive nature.

Very few hands adhere strictly to any one of these several types, but
are more or less composite or "mixed." In such cases the characteristics
of each type mingle and blend, and must be interpreted accordingly. The
following peculiarities are also noted by the authorities:

THE THUMB. The thumb is divided into three parts, each indicating a
certain quality, as follows: (1) the top part or division, which
indicates Will; (2) the second or middle part, which indicates Logic;
(3) the "ball" or fat lower portion, which indicates Passion. The
comparative size of either of these parts indicates the strength of its
particular qualities.

THE FINGERS. Hard fingers indicate work, activity, and energy. Soft
fingers indicate love of ease, disinclination for work, laziness. Very
hard hands denote heaviness and general stupidity, also gross tastes and
undeveloped nature. Smooth fingers denote artistic tastes, etc.; while
knotted fingers denote philosophic thought and argument, orderliness
and taste for material facts and things. Short fingers denote quick
judgment and impatience of detail; while long fingers denote a love of
detail, elaboration and "fussiness." Spatulate fingers indicate
tidiness, usefulness, and a desire to be doing useful work.

THE PALM. Hardness of the palm, as of the fingers, denotes activity,
energy and work; while softness denotes love of ease, laziness, etc.
Wideness of the palm denotes generosity, broad-mindedness, etc.; while a
narrow palm denotes the reverse. Firm palms generally denote the Motive
Temperament; while soft, flabby palms denote the Vital temperament.


The study of the Walk as an index of character is favored by many
authorities. There are three general types of walks, viz (1) the long
stride, in regular time; (2) the short, quick, and somewhat jerky step;
(3) the short but regular step.

Those who walk with a long stride generally take a broad view of things,
but if their walk is also slow they are apt to lack energy and push.
The short, quick step denotes activity, but small ideas and often
pettiness. The combination of the long stride and the quick movement is
held to indicate both large ideas and activity. A draggy, shuffling walk
is held to indicate a careless, shiftless nature; and a springy movement
is indicative of mental activity. A mincing walk is held to denote
"finickiness," affectation, and general artificiality; while a careless
walk denotes a disregard for appearances and a general unconventional
nature. Those who walk in a straight line, direct to the object they
seek, are apt to move in the same way in other affairs of life; while
those who zig-zag from side to side display the same lack of directness
in business affairs and other activities of life. In the same way, one
who makes short-cuts across corners, etc., is held to have the same
tendency in active affairs.

Approbativeness shows itself in a strutting walk; while Self-Esteem
manifests in a dignified carriage. Deficient, Self-Esteem shows itself
in a cringing walk; while strong Reverence produces a respectful,
deferential carriage. Approbativeness causes a slight swagger, with a
defiant carriage of the head, while Combativeness manifests in a "get
out of my way" pushing walk, the head being slightly lowered as if to
"butt" a way through. Cunning manifests in a foxy, sly walk; while
Cautiousness shows in a timid, hesitating step; and Acquisitiveness in a
general carefulness and watchfulness as manifested in gait. A
combination of Cunning, Cautiousness and Acquisitiveness, which is quite
common, manifests in a light, stealthy step, giving the suggestion of
"tip-toeing," and in extreme cases may show even the "snaky" gliding
motion from side to side, in noiseless progression.

A little study and observation will convince anyone that the walk and
carriage of an individual correspond very closely to his general
character. And just as we may recognize one's mental characteristics
when reproduced in outer form in the walk; so may we deduce the
existence of mental characteristics in a stranger, from the outer form
of his walk and carriage. The study of walk and carriage is very
interesting, and will repay one for the time and trouble expended upon
it. One may practice by observing the walk of an individual whose
character is known, for the purpose of seeing the outer form of these
characteristics; and also by observing the walk of those whose
characters are unknown, and endeavoring to form an idea of their mental
states and characteristics by means of their peculiarities of gait and
carriage. One will be astonished at the proficiency attained in a short
time by a little practice along these lines.


The Voice is a great revealer of character. Prof. O. S. Fowler says:
"Whatever makes a noise, from the deafening roar of sea, cataract, and
whirlwind's mighty crash, through all forms of animal life, to the sweet
and gentle voice of woman, makes a sound which agrees perfectly with the
maker's character. Thus the terrific roar of the lion, and the soft
cooing of the dove, correspond exactly with their respective
dispositions; while the rough and powerful bellow of the bull, the
fierce yell of the tiger, the coarse, guttural moan of the hyena, the
swinish grunt, the sweet warblings of birds, in contrast with the
raven's croak and the owl's hoot, each correspond perfectly with their
respective characteristics. And this law holds equally true of man.
Hence human intonations are as superior to brutal as human character
exceeds animal. Accordingly, the peculiarities of all human beings are
expressed in their voices and mode of speaking. Coarse-grained and
powerful animal organizations have a coarse, harsh and grating voice,
while in exact proportion as persons become refined and elevated
mentally, will their tones of voice become correspondingly refined and

Prof. L. A. Vaught says: "Affectionate voices always come from the
backhead. Heavy, thunderous voices always come from the sidehead.
Egotistical voices come from the crown of the head. Kind, respectful and
straightforward voices come from the top-head."

A clear, distinct utterance is held to indicate clear, logical thought,
while indistinct, confused, slurring utterance is indicative of
careless, illogical and hasty thought processes. Sharp and shrill notes
denote nervous tension and lack of restraint, as witness the voice of
the shrew or the hysterical woman, or the high-strung nervous man.
Self-restraint is shown by calm, deep, forceful utterances. Slowness in
delivery denotes slow, deliberate mental processes, while quickness, and
"snappiness" in speech, denotes quick, active habits of thought. The
cheerful voice of the optimistic person, and the rasping whine of the
chronic pessimist, are well known. The voice of self-reliance, and the
voice of fear and lack of self-esteem, are easily recognized. The
strident, overconfident note of the boaster and vain-glorious person, is
easily distinguished from that of the modest, careful, reliable person.

All the several mental Qualities manifest in the voice, in tone, pitch
or feeling. The Emotive Qualities give the affectionate voice;
Self-Esteem gives the confident voice; Approbativeness gives the voice
of affectation and conceit; Combativeness gives the "let me alone" tone;
Destructiveness gives the "get out of my way" note; Cunning and
Acquisitiveness give the tone of deceit and flattery; and so on, through
the entire scale. In studying voices it will help you to ask "What
Quality or Qualities produce this voice?" in each case. Study the
voices of those whose characteristics you know, and then apply the
experience to others whose characteristics are unknown.


Laughter is full of the expression of character. One may often
accurately determine the character of a person whose face is not seen or
known. A hearty laugh is indicative of sympathy, companionship and
general sociability, as well as a well developed sense of humor. A
giggle is indicative of pettiness, trifling and general mental
light-weight. The repressed laugh shows self-control and often caution
and cunning, the tone denoting the difference. The vulgar "haw-haw"
denotes a correspondingly gross nature. The peculiar shrill, rasping,
parrot-like laugh of the courtesan is typical, and when ever heard
should act as a note of warning. It is difficult to state in words the
various qualities of the laugh, but each is distinctive and well
expresses the Quality causing it. It may be said that each and every
mental Quality has its corresponding note in the laugh, which note may
be learned and recognized by a little practice and actual observation.


The manner of shaking hands is indicative of the characteristics of the
individual. Handshakes may be divided into three general classes, viz,
(1) the hearty handshake, which indicates good-feeling, earnestness, and
interest; (2) the mechanical handshake, which denotes indifference, lack
of feeling, and lack of interest; and (3) the selfish handshake, which
denotes cunning, heartlessness, and desire and disposition to take
advantage of the other party. There is a "something" in the handshake
which is almost impossible to express in words, but which is recognized
instinctively by those having Human Nature well developed. It is more of
a "feeling" of certain Qualities manifested by the other person. A
little thought and attention paid to this subject will tend to develop
this recognition on the part of one deficient in it. One may, with a
little practice, learn to distinguish between the honest and the
dishonest; the moral and the immoral; the active and the passive; the
energetic and the slothful; the grasp of good-fellowship, and that of
superciliousness; the friendly and the antagonistic; the candid and the
deceitful; and all the other various kinds of handshakes. Mental states
manifest in outer form in handshakes as in many other physical actions
and appearances.

First study the several Qualities in their inner aspect, and then learn
to distinguish the various outer forms of each. From the inner proceed
to the outer, and having learned the way you will be able to retrace
your steps from the outer to the inner in the case of other persons. The
principle once grasped, the rest is all a matter of practice and


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