Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Pistol and Revolver Shooting
Author: Himmelwright, A. L. A.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Pistol and Revolver Shooting" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



PISTOL AND REVOLVER SHOOTING



  Pistol and Revolver Shooting


  BY A. L. A. HIMMELWRIGHT


  _Illustrated_


  OUTING HANDBOOKS

  _Number 34_


  NEW YORK
  OUTING PUBLISHING COMPANY
  MCMXVI



COPYRIGHT, 1904, BY The Macmillan Co.

COPYRIGHT, 1908, BY A. L. A. Himmelwright

COPYRIGHT, 1915, BY OUTING PUBLISHING COMPANY

All rights reserved

Fully Revised



PREFACE


Interest in pistol and revolver shooting has increased very rapidly in
recent years and particularly since smokeless powder has been introduced.

The revolver and the magazine pistol now constitute part of the regular
equipment of army and navy officers and cavalry troops. Regulations
governing practice shooting with these arms have been issued and adopted
by both branches of the service and by the National Guard of the various
States. In the National Rifle Association and in the various State rifle
associations that have recently been organized, pistol and revolver
shooting has an important place, and the matches provided are largely
patronized. In the numerous civilian shooting clubs scattered throughout
the country pistol and revolver shooting has become extremely popular, and
in many cases the majority of the members practice more frequently with
the smaller arms than with the rifle.

Practice with the pistol and revolver affords training in sighting, steady
holding, and pulling the trigger, which are the essential features of
rifle shooting also. On account of this relation, and the fact that skill
with these arms can be instantly utilized in rifle shooting, the
development of marksmanship with the pistol and revolver assumes national
importance.

While numerous standard works have been written on the subject of rifle
shooting, there is comparatively little information available on pistol
and revolver shooting. The object of this volume is to supply practical
information on this subject. The author has attempted to treat the subject
in a clear and concise manner, keeping the size of the volume as small as
practicable and so as to be conveniently carried in the pocket. Particular
pains have been taken to give sound advice and elementary instruction to
beginners.

The author extends his grateful acknowledgments to Baron Speck von
Sternburg, Messrsr. J. B. Crabtree, John T. Humphrey, William E. Carlin,
Chas. S. Axtell, Walter Winans, Walter G. Hudson, Ed. Taylor, J. E.
Silliman, M. Hays, and the various arms and ammunition manufacturers
referred to herein, for valuable assistance, suggestions, information and
_data_ in preparing this volume.

A. L. A. HIMMELWRIGHT.

_Stockholm, N. J._



CONTENTS


  CHAPTER                                     PAGE

     I. INTRODUCTORY AND HISTORICAL             13

    II. ARMS                                    17

   III. AMMUNITION                              37

    IV. SIGHTS                                  62

     V. SHOOTING POSITION                       67

    VI. TARGET-SHOOTING                         70

   VII. TARGETS                                 86

  VIII. TARGET PRACTICE                         94

    IX. REVOLVER PRACTICE FOR THE POLICE        99

     X. PISTOL SHOOTING FOR LADIES             107

    XI. CLUBS AND RANGES                       111

   XII. HINTS TO BEGINNERS                     122

  XIII. RELOADING AMMUNITION                   147

        APPENDIX                               167



ILLUSTRATIONS


  Smith & Wesson .38-Caliber Revolver}
  Colt Army Special Revolver         }              FACING PAGE 22
  Smith & Wesson .44-Caliber Revolver}

  Colt New Service Revolver            }
  Smith & Wesson Russian Model Revolver}               "    "   24
  Colt Single Action Revolver          }

  Webley & Scott “W. S.” Model Revolver}
  Webley & Fosbury Automatic Revolver  }               "    "   26
  Colt Automatic Pistol                }

  Parabellum or “Luger” Automatic Pistol}
  Webley & Scott Automatic Pistol       }              "    "   28
  Mauser Automatic Pistol               }

  Smith & Wesson Pistol      }
  Remington Pistol           }                         "    "   30
  Stevens Pistol, Gould Model}

  Adolph Weber Pistol          }
  Gastinne-Renette Pistol      }                       "    "   32
  Colt Automatic Target Pistol }
  Colt Police Positive Revolver}

  Smith & Wesson Hand Ejector Revolver     }
  Smith & Wesson Double Action Perfected   }
  Revolver                                 }           "    "   34
  Smith & Wesson Safety Hammerless Revolver}
  Smith & Wesson Pocket Revolver           }

  Colt Police Positive Target Revolver}
  Stevens Diamond Model Pistol        }                "    "   36
  Colt Automatic Pocket Pistol        }

  Colt Automatic Pocket Pistol          }
  Savage Automatic Pocket Pistol        }              "    "   38
  Smith & Wesson Automatic Pocket Pistol}

  Military Sights                                          PAGE 62

  Paine Sights   }                                  FACING PAGE 63
  Patridge Sights}

  Lyman Sights               }                         "    "   64
  The Wespi Searchlight Sight}

  Walter Winans, C. S. Axtell, Thomas
  Anderton                                             "    "   68

  John A. Dietz, E. E. Patridge, Sergt. W.
  E. Petty                                             "    "   72

  J. E. Gorman, R. H. Sayre, A. P. Lane                "    "   76

  J. H. Snook, George Armstrong, P. J.
  Dolfen                                               "    "   78

  Standard American Target                                 PAGE 87

  U. S. R. A. Combination Target                            "   88

  The International Union Target                            "   89

  Target L. (U. S. Army)                                    "   91

  Combination Set: Revolver, Pistol, Utensils,
  and Case                                                  "  109

  Details of Alternating Targets, Pit, etc., for
  50-yard Range                                             "  114

  Details of Booths at Firing Line, “Trolleys,”
  and Butts for Gallery Ranges                              "  117

  Shooting Gallery of the Crescent Athletic
  Club, Brooklyn, N. Y.                            FACING PAGE 120

  Correct Manner of Holding the Revolver               "    "  124

  Correct Position of the Sights in Aiming at
  the Target                                              PAGE 128

  Showing the Travel of the Line of the Sights
  About the Bullseye in Aiming                              "  130

  Moulding Bullets                                          "  151



PISTOL AND REVOLVER SHOOTING



CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTORY AND HISTORICAL


Pistol shooting has been practiced ever since “grained” gunpowder came
into general use. It is only recently, however, that it has developed into
a popular pastime and has been recognized as a legitimate sport.[1]

The useful and practical qualities of the pistol and revolver have been
developed almost wholly during the last half-century. Before this period
the small arms designed to be fired with one hand were crude and
inaccurate, and were intended to be used only at short range as weapons of
defense. The single-barreled muzzle-loading pistol has, nevertheless, been
part of the army and navy officer’s equipment since the sixteenth century.
These pistols were of large caliber, smooth-bored, heavy, and unwieldy.
The load was a spherical bullet and a large charge of powder. Enough
accuracy was obtained to hit a man at 15 to 20 paces, which was deemed
sufficient. The usefulness of these arms in action was limited to the
firing of a single shot, and then using them as missiles or clubs.

The pistol in early days was considered a gentleman’s arm--a luxury. It
was the arm generally selected for duelling when that code was in vogue,
the contestants standing 10 to 20 paces apart and firing at the word of
command.

The development of the pistol has been contemporaneous and closely
identified with that of the rifle. With the grooving or rifling of the
barrel, the accuracy was greatly improved and the arm adapted to conical
bullets. Although numerous attempts were made to devise a multishot arm
with flint, wheel, and match locks, it was not until the percussion cap
was invented that a practicable arm of this character was produced. This
was a “revolver” invented by Colonel Colt of Hartford, Conn., in 1835, and
consisted of a single barrel with a revolving cylinder at the breech
containing the charges, the mechanism being such that the cocking of the
piece after each discharge revolved the cylinder sufficiently to bring a
loaded chamber in line with the barrel.

The greatest advance in the development of firearms was the introduction
of the system of breech-loading, employing ammunition in the form of
cartridges. This principle rendered the operation of loading much simpler
and quicker, and vastly improved the efficiency and general utility of the
arms.[2]

The present popularity of pistol and revolver shooting is due, no doubt,
to recent improvements in the arms and ammunition. The arms are now
marvels of fine workmanship, easy to manipulate, durable, and extremely
accurate. With the introduction of smokeless powders, the smoke, fouling,
and noise have been reduced to a minimum. The effect of these improvements
has been, not only to increase the efficiency of the arms, but also the
pleasure of shooting them.

As a sport, pistol shooting has much to commend it. It is a healthful
exercise, being practiced out-of-doors in the open air. There are no
undesirable concomitants, such as gambling, coarseness, and rough and
dangerous play. In order to excel, regular and temperate habits of life
must be formed and maintained. It renders the senses more alert and trains
them to act in unison and in harmony. But, above all, skill in shooting is
a useful accomplishment.

Anyone possessing ordinary health and good sight may, by practice, become
a good pistol shot. Persons who are richly endowed by nature with those
physical qualities which specially fit them for expert shooting will, of
course, master the art sooner than those less favored; but it has been
conclusively shown that excellence is more a question of training and
practice than of natural gift. Some of the most brilliant shooting has
been done by persons possessing a decidedly nervous temperament; but those
of phlegmatic temperament will generally make more uniform and reliable
marksmen.

It is much more difficult to shoot well with the pistol or revolver than
with the rifle. The latter, having a stock to rest against the shoulder
and steady one end of the piece, has a decided advantage in quick aiming
and in pulling the trigger. The former, without a stock and being held in
one hand with the arm extended so as to be free from the body, is without
any anchor or support whatever, and is free to move in all directions.
Consequently the least jar, jerk in pulling the trigger, puff of wind, or
unsteadiness of the hand greatly disturbs the aim. Intelligent practice
will, however, overcome these difficulties and disadvantages to such a
degree that an expert shot with a pistol or revolver under favorable
conditions can equal a fair shot with a rifle at the target up to 200
yards. When the novice essays to shoot the pistol or revolver, the results
are generally disappointing and discouraging; but rapid progress
invariably rewards the efforts of those who persevere, and when once
thoroughly interested in this style of shooting, there comes a fascination
for it that frequently endures throughout a lifetime.



CHAPTER II

ARMS


The term “pistol” is frequently applied indiscriminately to the
single-shot pistol and the revolver. A marked distinction between these
arms has gradually been developed.

The pistol is now recognized as a single-shot arm, adapted for a light
charge and designed to secure extreme accuracy. Its use is limited almost
exclusively to target and exhibition shooting.

The modern revolver is an arm with a revolving cylinder holding five or
six cartridges, which are at the instant command of the shooter before it
is necessary to reload. It is designed for heavy charges, and is a
practical and formidable weapon. Revolvers are made in great variety, and
adapted for various purposes, such as military service, target shooting,
pocket weapons, etc. The best grades of pistols and revolvers may be had
at a reasonable price. The cheap grades with which the market is at all
times flooded should be avoided. They are incapable of doing good work,
and frequently are positively dangerous, on account of being made of
inferior materials.

The magazine or automatic pistol is the latest type of hand firearm. It is
a multishot pistol in which the mechanism is operated automatically by the
recoil. Pulling the trigger is the only manual operation necessary to fire
successive shots until the supply of cartridges in the magazine (usually
six to ten) is exhausted. The first models were introduced about 1898.
These had many defects and objections, such as failure to function
regularly, danger in manipulation due to insufficient safety devices, poor
balance, unsightly lines, etc. Nevertheless the advantages of this type of
arm over the revolver for military purposes in effective range, rapidity
of fire, accuracy, interchangeability, etc., were soon recognized and
manufacturers were encouraged to improve and perfect them.

Practically all the mechanical defects referred to have been corrected,
the balance and the lines improved, and safety devices introduced so that
these arms are now well adapted for military use and are rapidly
superseding the revolver as service weapons in the United States army and
navy. A synopsis of the severe tests leading to the adoption of a magazine
pistol by the War Department of the United States government may be found
in the Appendix.

_Military Arms._--The revolver and the magazine pistol are used for
military service. To fulfill the requirements these arms must be strong,
very durable, and withstand a great amount of hard usage without becoming
disabled. The effectiveness, or “stopping power,” is of prime importance.
The caliber should be large, the bullet should have a blunt point, and the
powder charge should be sufficiently powerful to give a penetration of at
least six inches in pine. There was a tendency some years ago to reduce
the caliber of military revolvers. While this resulted in increased
velocity and penetration, and reduced the weight of the ammunition, it did
not improve the stopping power of the arms.

The ineffectiveness of the .38-caliber service revolver charge was
frequently complained of by the officers and men serving in the Philippine
Islands. This was due to the light powder charge and the conoidal shaped
point of the bullet. To remedy this weakness .45-caliber revolvers were
issued for the Philippine service, and a new .45-caliber cartridge
designed to which magazine pistol manufacturers were invited to adapt an
arm. Unfortunately this new cartridge, which is now the service
ammunition, has also a conoidal pointed bullet, is not well proportioned,
and consequently develops only a part of its stopping power possibilities.

The sights must in all cases be very substantial, and solidly fixed to the
frame or barrel. The trigger pull varies from 4 to 8 pounds, the barrel
from 4 to 7½ inches in length, and the weight from 2 to 2¾ pounds.
Ammunition loaded with smokeless powder is now invariably used for
military service.

The service revolvers still in use in the United States army and navy are
the Smith & Wesson and Colt, both .38 caliber, and taking the same
ammunition. They have passed the prescribed series of tests as established
by the United States government,[3] and as improved and perfected
represent, without doubt, the highest development of the military
revolver.

These arms, shown in Figs. 1 and 2, have solid frames, and the actions are
almost identical, the cylinder swinging out to the left, on a hinge, when
released by a catch. The shells may then be extracted simultaneously by
pushing back the extractor rod. The Smith & Wesson has an additional
hinge-locking device in front of the cylinder. The Colt has an automatic
safety lock between the hammer and the frame, permitting discharge only
when the trigger is pulled. Apart from these features there is very little
difference between these arms.

The Smith & Wesson .44-caliber Military Revolver is the latest model of
the large caliber revolvers. Its action and general lines are the same as
the .38-caliber military, but it is a larger, heavier, and more powerful
weapon.

Other excellent military revolvers are the Colt New Service and the Smith
& Wesson Russian model, usually in .45 caliber and .44 caliber,
respectively. The ammunition for these arms was formerly loaded with black
powder; but smokeless cartridges have been adapted to them, which give
slightly increased velocity and the same accuracy. (See Fig. 4, facing p.
24.)

The Smith & Wesson Russian model has a hinge “tip-up” action, with an
automatic ejecting device. The action is operated by raising a catch in
front of the hammer. It is easy to manipulate and, on account of the
accessibility of the breech, the barrel can be readily inspected and
cleaned. This arm is single action. (See Fig. 5, facing p. 24.)

[Illustration: Fig. 1.--SMITH & WESSON 38 cal. MILITARY REVOLVER Six
shots; 6½ inch barrel; weight, 1 lb., 15 oz.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2.--COLT ARMY SPECIAL REVOLVER Six shots; 6 inch
barrel; weight, 2 lbs. 3 oz., .38 cal.]

[Illustration: Fig 3.--SMITH & WESSON .44 cal. MILITARY REVOLVER. Six
shots; 6½ inch barrel; weight 2 lbs. 6½ oz.]

The action of the Colt New Service is similar to that of the .38-caliber
revolver shown in Fig. 2, with a solid frame. It is double action.

The Colt Officer’s Model is identical in every respect with the Army
Special except that it is fitted with adjustable target sights and may be
had with lengths of barrel up to 7½ inches.

The foregoing arms, with good ammunition, are capable of making groups of
ten shots on a 3-inch circle at 50 yards.

The Colt single action Army is the most popular belt or holster weapon
among ranchmen, cowboys, prospectors, and others. It has a solid frame,
simple mechanism, and is exceedingly durable and reliable. The arm is
operated by opening a gate on the right-hand side, back of the cylinder.
The cartridges are inserted in the cylinder through the gate, the cylinder
being revolved by hand until the respective chambers come opposite the
gate. In the same manner the shells are ejected by pushing the extractor
rod back into each of the chambers. (See Fig. 6, facing p. 24.)

The Smith & Wesson Schofield Model, .45 caliber, was formerly a United
States service weapon. The ammunition for this arm, while less powerful
than the .45 Colt, was admirably adapted for military service, and had
much less recoil.

The Webley & Scott W. S. Model revolver is an English arm of much merit.
The caliber is .455. It has a hinge “tip-up” action, with an automatic
extractor very similar to the Smith & Wesson. (See Fig. 7, facing p. 26.)

The service weapon adopted by the Joint War Office and Admiralty Committee
for the British army and navy is the Webley & Scott “Mark IV,” or “Service
Model,” revolver. This model is almost identical with the W. S. Model,
except that the barrel is 4 inches long and the weight is 2 lbs. 3 oz. On
account of the short barrel, the accuracy of this weapon does not equal
that of the W. S. Model.

Another English arm is the “Webley-Fosbury” automatic revolver. The recoil
revolving the cylinder and cocking the hammer, it can be fired as rapidly
as the automatic pistols. It is chambered for the .455 service cartridge
loaded with 5½ grains of cordite. This arm has been introduced since
1900. (See Fig. 8, facing p. 26.)

Among the leading magazine or automatic pistols used for military service
are the Colt, Luger, Webley & Scott, Savage, Mauser, Knoble, Bergmann,
White-Merrill, Steyr, Mannlicher, Mors and Bayard. Most of these arms were
tested by the United States government[4] previous to the adoption of the
Colt as the service weapon of the U. S. Army and Navy. (See Fig. 9, facing
p. 26.)

The Luger has been adopted as the service weapon by Germany, Switzerland,
Portugal, Bulgaria, Holland, and Brazil. (See Fig. 10, facing p. 28.)

The Webley-Scott (.455 caliber) was adopted as the service arm by the
British navy in 1911, and the .32-caliber (weight 1 lb. 2 oz.) is now the
adopted arm of the London City and Metropolitan police forces. (See Fig.
11, facing p. 28.)

In most of these weapons, including the Colt, Webley & Scott, Luger, and
Steyr pistols, the cartridges are inserted in magazines which feed them
into the breech through the handle. In the Mauser pistol the cartridges
are supplied through clips from the top and forced into a magazine located
in front of the trigger. (See Fig. 12, facing p. 28.)

The magazine pistols can be fired at the rate of about five shots per
second. These arms equal the best military revolvers in accuracy.

Many persons believe that the magazine pistol will soon supersede the
revolver for general use. While this may be the case eventually, it is not
likely to occur within the next few years. The magazine pistol is more
complicated, and consequently more difficult to learn to shoot with and
care for, than the revolver. On account of the special problems to be
solved in the mechanism, many of them balance poorly and the trigger pull
is almost invariably long and creeping. The novice will also find it
difficult to avoid flinching in shooting these arms, on account of the
recoil mechanism, louder report, etc. The line of sight being considerably
higher than the grip, if they are not held perfectly plumb, or in the same
position at each shot, the shooting is liable to be irregular. The cost is
more than that of a good revolver. Until these undesirable features can be
remedied or eliminated, the revolver will probably remain a popular arm.

_Target Arms._--For target purposes the greatest possible accuracy is
desirable. To obtain this, many features essential in a military arm are
sacrificed. Delicate adjustable sights are employed, the trigger pull is
reduced, the length of the barrel is increased, the charge reduced, etc.

[Illustration: Fig. 4.--COLT NEW SERVICE REVOLVER Six shots; 5½ inch
barrel; weight, 2 lbs., 8 oz.; .45 cal.]

[Illustration: Fig. 5.--SMITH & WESSON RUSSIAN MODEL REVOLVER Six shots;
6½ inch barrel; weight, 39¼ oz.; .44 cal.]

[Illustration: Fig. 6.--COLT SINGLE ACTION REVOLVER Six shots; 5½ inch
barrel; weight, 2 lbs. 6 oz.; .45 cal.]

[Illustration: Fig. 7.--WEBLEY & SCOTT “W. S.” MODEL REVOLVER Six shots;
7½ inch barrel; weight, 2 lbs., 7 oz.; .455 cal.]

[Illustration: Fig. 8.--WEBLEY & FOSBURY AUTOMATIC REVOLVER. Six shots; 6
inch barrel; weight, 2 lbs., 10 oz.; .455 cal.]

[Illustration: Fig. 9.--COLT AUTOMATIC PISTOL. Seven shots; 5 inch barrel;
weight, 2 lbs. 7 oz.; .45 cal.]

The most accurate arms available at the present time are the single-shot
pistols manufactured by Smith & Wesson, Springfield, Mass., The J. Stevens
Arms & Tool Co., Chicopee Falls, Mass.; Fred Adolph, Genoa, N. Y. These
pistols are furnished in calibers from .22 rim-fire to .38 central-fire.
The barrels are generally 10 inches in length and the trigger pull 2
pounds. In the latest approved form these pistols are of .22 caliber
specially bored and chambered for the rim-fire, .22 caliber long rifle
cartridge. This is a light, clean, pleasant shooting charge, and may be
fired many times with very little fatigue. Pistol shooting with arms of
this caliber is rapidly becoming a popular pastime for ladies as well as
gentlemen.

The Smith & Wesson pistol has a tip-up action and an automatic extractor.
It is made of the best materials and with the greatest care. The fitting
and workmanship are superior to that of any other machine-made pistol. The
action is similar to that of the Russian Model revolver. (See Fig. 13,
facing p. 30.)

The Stevens pistols were formerly furnished in three models and for many
years they have enjoyed merited popularity for target shooting among the
leading marksmen. This pistol is now supplied only in the No. 35 or
“Offhand Target Model,” which like the earlier models has a tip-up action
and an automatic extractor. A small knob on the left side is pressed to
release the barrel and operate the action. (See Fig. 14, facing p. 30.)

The Remington pistol has an exceedingly strong action, and is the only
machine-made pistol with an action adapted for regulation .44, .45, and
.50 caliber cartridges. It has a large handle and a heavy barrel. The
action is operated when the hammer is at full-cock by throwing back the
breech-block with the thumb, simultaneously ejecting the empty shell.
Unfortunately the manufacture of these weapons has recently been
discontinued. (See Fig. 15, facing p. 30.)

The Adolph-Weber pistol designed by M. Casimir Weber, of Zurich,
Switzerland, is a high grade hand-made arm that can be supplied by Mr.
Fred Adolph in accordance with any specifications that the marksman may
desire. Fig. 16 illustrates it conforming to the rules and regulations of
the U. S. Revolver Association. It has a strong, durable, tip-up action
resembling in principle that of the Stevens, and when closed the barrel is
securely locked in position by a cross bolt, actuated by a button on the
left side. (See Fig. 16, facing p. 32.)

[Illustration: Fig. 10.--THE PARABELLUM OR “LUGER” AUTOMATIC PISTOL Eight
shots; 4⅝ inch barrel; weight, 1 lb., 13.4 oz.; .30 cal.]

[Illustration: Fig. 11.--WEBLEY & SCOTT AUTOMATIC PISTOL Eight shots; 5
inch barrel; weight, 2 lbs., 7½ oz.; .455 cal.]

[Illustration: Fig. 12.--MAUSER AUTOMATIC PISTOL Ten shots; 5½ inch
barrel; weight, 2 lbs., 7½ oz.; .30 cal.]

The Adolph-Martini is a weapon _de luxe_ that has been produced in the
same manner as the Adolph-Weber, in which the action of the Martini rifle
has been employed. It has double set triggers and is highly ornate.

The Adolph “H. V.” is a .22 caliber pistol adapted for a special high
velocity cartridge developing a muzzle velocity of 2,000 ft. per second
and an energy of 623 foot-pounds.

With good ammunition all these pistols are capable of placing ten shots
within a 2-inch circle at 50 yards.

A very accurate pistol for gallery and short-range shooting is made by M.
Gastinne-Renette of Paris and used in his gallery in that city. These are
muzzle-loading and are very tedious and inconvenient to manipulate. For
this reason they have not become popular. A few of these arms have been
made up as breech-loaders, with a tip-up action similar to the Stevens,
but operated by a side lever under the hammer and chambered for the .44
Russian cartridge. In this form with gallery charges the pistol has given
very good results. (See Fig. 17, facing p. 32.)

The revolver is not quite as accurate as the pistol, on account of the
necessity of having the cylinder detached from the barrel. If the pin on
which the cylinder revolves is not at right angles with the end of the
cylinder, there will be more space between the cylinder and the breech
end of the barrel in some positions of the cylinder than in others. The
result will be varying amounts of gas escaping from the different chambers
of the cylinder, and consequently irregular shooting. The accuracy of the
revolver depends largely, too, upon the degree of perfection in which all
the chambers of the cylinder align with the bore of the barrel at the
instant of discharge. When the chambers do not align perfectly, the bullet
enters the barrel eccentrically and a portion of it is shaved off. This is
fatal to accuracy, especially when smokeless powder is used. Imperfect
alignment of chamber and barrel is also a frequent cause of the “leading”
of the barrel. Some very ingenious mechanical expedients are used in the
best revolvers to reduce to a minimum the wear of those parts which
operate and hold the cylinder in position.

The revolvers generally used for target shooting are the military arms
already described, with longer barrels, chambered for special cartridges,
fitted with target sights, special handles, and other modifications to
suit the whims and tastes of individuals.

Some of these modifications are distinctly advantageous. One of the most
recent fads is to skeletonize the hammer by boring away as much metal
as possible and to increase the tension of the main spring. The combined
effect is almost instant response to the trigger pull.

[Illustration: Fig. 13.--SMITH & WESSON PISTOL Ten-inch barrel; weight, 1
lb., 8¾ oz., .22 cal.]

[Illustration: Fig. 14--STEVENS PISTOL, GOULD MODEL Ten-inch barrel;
weight, 1 lb., 10 oz.; .22 cal.]

[Illustration: Fig. 15.--REMINGTON PISTOL Ten-inch barrel, weight, 2 lbs.,
8 oz.; .44 cal.]

The best and most experienced shots are careful to keep the modifications
of all their arms within the rules and regulations of the various national
organizations,[5] in order that they may be used in the annual
competitions and other important events. These organizations control the
pistol and revolver shooting, and conduct annual competitions. “Freak”
arms which do not comply with the rules are not allowed in the
competitions, are seldom practical, and have little or no value other than
for experimental purposes. Target arms are generally used for trick and
exhibition shooting.[6]

_Pocket Arms._--The most extensive use of the revolver as a pocket weapon
is for police service. Special arms are manufactured to meet the
requirements. These weapons are generally similar to the military
revolvers, but smaller in size and adapted for lighter charges. All
projections, such as sights, hammer, etc., must be eliminated or minimized
so as not to catch in drawing the arm from the pocket or holster. The
barrels are usually from 3 to 5 inches in length, the trigger pull 4
pounds and the caliber .22 to .38. The larger calibers are much preferable
for the general purposes of an arm of this character. The difference in
weight is slight, while the power and effectiveness of the large calibers
is important and a great advantage.

The pocket arms shown in Figs. 18 and 19 are practically reduced sizes of
the military arms shown in Figs. 1 and 2. They have solid frames and
actions identical with those of the military arms. The Smith & Wesson is
made only in .32 caliber but the Colt may be had in .32 or .38. Both are
double action.

The Colt Police Special is similar in model to Fig. 18 but is slightly
larger and heavier and can be had chambered for the powerful .38 caliber
Special, or the .32 caliber Winchester cartridges.

The Smith & Wesson Double Action, Perfected, is an improved model of this
popular pocket weapon, having a double locking action. (See Fig. 20,
facing p. 34.)

[Illustration: Fig. 16--ADOLPH WEBER PISTOL Ten-inch barrel; weight, 2
lbs. 2 oz.; .22 cal.]

[Illustration: Fig. 17--GASTINNE-RENETTE PISTOL 10-3/16 inch barrel;
weight, 2 lbs. 6 oz.; .44 cal.]

[Illustration: Fig. 17a--COLT AUTOMATIC TARGET PISTOL Ten shots; 6½
inch barrel; weight, 28 oz.; .22 cal.]

[Illustration: Fig. 18--COLT POLICE POSITIVE REVOLVER Six shots; 4 inch
barrel; weight, 1 lb., 4 oz.; .32 cal.]

One of the most popular pocket revolvers is the Smith & Wesson Safety
Hammerless. This arm has a safety latch in the back of the handle, so
designed that unless the piece is properly held it is impossible to
operate it. It has many valuable and desirable features to commend it as a
practical pocket weapon and for home protection. The standard length of
barrel is 4 inches. This arm is also furnished in .32 caliber. (See Fig.
21, facing p. 34.)

With 4-inch barrels, the foregoing pocket weapons are capable of shooting
regularly within a 2-inch circle at 20 yards.

A heavier and correspondingly more powerful Pocket revolver is the Colt
“Double Action” revolver. This arm is chambered for the Colt .41 caliber
short and long cartridges. It has a solid frame, and is operated exactly
like the Colt Single Action Army Model (Fig 6). It is compact, strong,
durable, and accurate.

For many years there was no high grade .22 caliber revolver on the market.
Within the last few years two excellent arms in this caliber have been
produced. The Smith & Wesson is supplied chambered only for the S. & W.
long cartridges, but in two lengths of barrels; 3 inches with fixed sights
and 6 inches with target sights. The Colt is furnished only in one length
of barrel, 6 inches, but chambered for any of the rim-fire cartridges,
and the .32 caliber short and long Colt, central-fire cartridges. These
arms with 6-inch barrels are extremely accurate, pleasant to shoot on
account of the light recoil and the ammunition is inexpensive. They are
well adapted for target shooting for ladies and excellent for small game
shooting. (See Figs. 22 and 23.)

A very handy little arm to carry in the pocket on hunting and fishing
trips is the Stevens Diamond Model single-shot pistol. It is light in
weight, very accurate, and low in cost. (See Fig. 24, facing p. 36.)

All these .22 caliber arms can be depended on to kill grouse, ducks,
rabbits, and other small game. The hollow-pointed bullet ammunition should
be used, or the regular cartridge, with the front of the bullet cut off
square, so as to leave a flat point. This will increase the killing effect
of the bullet considerably.

Magazine pistols of smaller size than the military arms have in recent
years become popular as pocket weapons. Such types as have safety devices
to prevent discharge when the arm is not properly held for firing, are
well adapted for this purpose.

The Colt Pocket Models are made in .38 caliber and .32 caliber as shown in
Fig. 25, and in .25 caliber as illustrated in Fig. 26 (facing pp. 36
and 38.)

[Illustration: Fig. 19--SMITH & WESSON HAND EJECTOR REVOLVER Six shots;
4½ inch barrel; weight, 18½ oz.; .32 cal.]

[Illustration: Fig. 20.--SMITH & WESSON DOUBLE ACTION PERFECTED REVOLVER
Five shots; 4 inch barrel; weight, 17¼ oz.; .38 cal.]

[Illustration: Fig. 21.--SMITH & WESSON SAFETY HAMMERLESS REVOLVER Five
shots; 4 inch barrel; weight, 1 lb., 1¼ oz.; .38 cal.]

[Illustration: Fig. 22.--SMITH & WESSON POCKET REVOLVER Seven shots; 3½
inch barrel; weight, 10 oz.; .22 cal.]

The Savage Pocket Model is made in .38 and .32 caliber using the same
cartridge as the Colt. It has an automatic indicator showing when the arm
is loaded. A recent improvement in this arm is a spur cocking lever which
permits cocking with the thumb of the hand holding the weapon. (See Fig.
27, facing p. 38.)

The Smith & Wesson automatic is furnished only in .35 caliber. It has a
wood stock backed by steel plates. The automatic safety in this arm is
located in front of the trigger guard and is operated by the second
finger. (See Fig. 28, facing p. 38.)

As in the case of pocket revolvers, the larger calibers of the pocket
automatic pistols will be found to have better stopping power and as
practical weapons for use in case of emergency are to be preferred to the
smaller calibers.

Persons who have very limited use for a weapon as for home protection and
occasional pocket use, especially when they do not expect to practice
shooting with it regularly will find a suitable revolver much more
serviceable, safer, and generally more satisfactory than a magazine
pistol. The latter on account of its more complicated and concealed
mechanism is liable to be left in an unserviceable condition for safety in
the home (unloaded, magazines misplaced, etc.) and when needed,
unfamiliarity with its manipulation not only causes delay in getting it in
action but also is a fruitful source of accident. For the purpose referred
to in this paragraph a .38 caliber Smith & Wesson Safety Hammerless, a .38
or .32 caliber Colt Police Positive, or a .32 caliber Smith & Wesson Hand
Ejector with a 4-inch barrel and a 4-pound trigger pull in each case is
recommended. Owners of such weapons for home or personal protection should
practice with them occasionally, firing at least 20 or 25 shots. A good
range for such practice is 20 to 30 feet. After using the arm it should in
all cases be carefully cleaned and oiled as described under “Cleaning and
Care of Arms.”

[Illustration: Fig. 23--COLT POLICE POSITIVE TARGET REVOLVER Seven shots;
6 inch barrel; weight, 1 lb., 6 oz.; .22 and .32 cal.]

[Illustration: Fig. 24.--STEVENS DIAMOND MODEL PISTOL Six inch barrel;
weight, 8¾ oz.; .22 cal.]

[Illustration: Fig. 25.--COLT AUTOMATIC POCKET PISTOL Eight shots; 3¾
inch barrel; weight, 1 lb., 7 oz.; .32 and .38 cal.]



CHAPTER III

AMMUNITION


The degree of perfection that has been attained in the manufacture of
ammunition is remarkable. Generally speaking, the smaller the charge the
more difficult it is to make it accurate. Notwithstanding this, we have in
the .22 caliber ammunition a tiny cartridge the accuracy of which falls
little short of marvellous.

Until 1907 black powder ammunition was used almost exclusively for pistol
and revolver shooting. In central-fire ammunition smokeless powders are
now invariably used, especially in military shooting, where the regulation
full charge is required. In the .22 caliber pistols, the fouling of the
black powder is not a very serious matter, and it is not uncommon to shoot
fifty or a hundred rounds without the necessity of cleaning. In the larger
calibers, however, the fouling is frequently so excessive that it affects
the accuracy after the fifth shot. The incessant cleaning that is
necessary in order to get good results with black powder ammunition was a
great drawback, and detracted much from the pleasure of revolver shooting.
Fortunately this objection is now entirely eliminated by the use of
smokeless powders.

Nearly all the cartridges referred to in this chapter were originally
designed for black powder. The various manufacturers now supply them
loaded with smokeless powder at a very slight advance in price. The
cartridges are loaded so as to give approximately the same velocity as the
former black powder charges but the new charges are rarely the exact
equivalent of the old ones.

The accuracy and uniformity with the smokeless powder was not at first
equal to that of the black, but with a better knowledge of the action and
behavior of the smokeless powders, these difficulties have been overcome
and the smokeless ammunition now gives not only superior accuracy and
reliability, but also causes much less fouling and smoke and has a lighter
report. In “gallery” ammunition light conical bullets have entirely
superseded spherical bullets and smokeless powder is almost invariably
used.

To obtain the best results, the proportions of any charge must be adapted
to the caliber, length of barrel, and weight of the arm in which it is
to be used. These proportions are generally determined by experiment.

[Illustration: Fig 26 COLT AUTOMATIC POCKET PISTOL Seven shots; 2 inch
barrel; weight, 13 oz.: 25 cal.]

[Illustration: Fig. 27--SAVAGE AUTOMATIC POCKET PISTOL Ten shots; 4¼
inch barrel; weight, 1 lb. 5 oz.; .32 and .38 cal.]

[Illustration: Fig. 28.--SMITH & WESSON AUTOMATIC POCKET PISTOL Eight
shots; 3½ inch barrel; weight, 1 lb., 7¾ oz.; .35 cal.]

The accuracy of the cartridge depends largely upon the uniformity
exercised in the operations of loading, the fit of the bullet, its shape,
and the reliability and uniformity of the powder. The primer must be of
uniform strength also, especially in reduced charges. In ammunition for
military service the shells are crimped on the bullets to hold them in
place. This does not increase the accuracy in black powder ammunition, but
it is necessary and advantageous in all smokeless ammunition including
gallery charges, in order to confine the powder and produce uniform
results.

The following is a digest of the principal pistol and revolver cartridges
in use at the present time.

_Rim-fire Cartridges._--These are primed with a fulminate of mercury
mixture around the outer edge of the rim, or base of the shell, and are
generally loaded with Lesmok, semi-smokeless, or black powder.

[Illustration: Figure 29.]

The smallest and lightest charged ammunition in general use is the .22
caliber. In this caliber the “C. B.” or Conical Ball Cap loaded with
black powder is the smallest practicable cartridge. The charge is 1½
grains of powder and a lubricated conical bullet weighing 29 grains.

[Illustration: Figure 30.]

An excellent cartridge in this caliber is the .22 short, (Fig. 30). This
cartridge fouls very little and is almost equal in accuracy to the .22
“long rifle” up to 50 yards. On account of its lighter report it is
preferred by many for gallery shooting.

[Illustration: Figure 31.]

The .22 caliber “long rifle” cartridge is more extensively used for pistol
shooting than any other. It is the most accurate of the .22-caliber
cartridges, being well proportioned, the bullet well lubricated, and the
shell uncrimped. In addition to this, the ammunition is inexpensive and
has very clean shooting qualities. It is, therefore, particularly well
adapted for pistol shooting. This cartridge, fired from a 10-inch barrel,
will shoot regularly inside of a 2-inch circle, at 50 yards, and inside a
5-inch circle at 100 yards.

The .22-caliber Long Rifle “Armory” and the .22-caliber Smith & Wesson
Long are special makes of the long rifle cartridge that are furnished with
a crimped shell, preventing the bullet from becoming dislodged and thus
adapting this popular cartridge for use in revolvers of this caliber.

In all of the foregoing cartridges only the surface of the bullet outside
the shell is lubricated. Exposed in this way, the lubricant is easily
rubbed off, or melted if allowed to stand in the sunlight on a warm day.
Great care should be taken to prevent this, as, without lubrication, the
bullets will lead the barrel and cause inaccurate shooting.

[Illustration: Figure 32.]

The .22-caliber Winchester is a cartridge with inside lubrication. It is
more powerful than the .22 long rifle, and gives good results in the
pistol. The bullet has a flat point, making it suitable for game shooting,
and the lubrication being within the shell, these cartridges may be
carried loose in the pocket.

All of the .22 caliber cartridges can be had with hollow-pointed bullets,
which are to be preferred for game shooting. They are also furnished
loaded with smokeless powder. When this powder was first used in
.22-caliber ammunition the results were far from satisfactory, but as now
manufactured the smokeless ammunition approximates very closely in
uniformity and accuracy to that loaded with black powder.

There still remains, however, considerable difficulty with the rim-fire
smokeless cartridges on account of their liability to rust the inside of
the barrel.[7] The novice is therefore cautioned not to use this
ammunition until the difficulty of rusting is overcome.

The .25-cal. Stevens is a much more powerful cartridge than any of the
preceding, and gives excellent results in the pistol. It is selected by
those who wish a more powerful rim-fire cartridge than is furnished in .22
caliber.

[Illustration: Figure 33.]

Rim-fire cartridges in larger caliber than .25 are used for derringers
(large-bore, single-shot pocket pistols now seldom used) and inferior
grades of revolvers. These cartridges sometimes lack uniformity in caliber
when made by different manufacturers, are frequently defective, and
discharge occasionally in closing the action of the arm in which they are
loaded. They consequently lack the safety, reliability, and accuracy of
the corresponding calibers in central-fire ammunition. Rim-fire cartridges
cannot be reloaded.

_Central-fire Cartridges._--This type of cartridge has a brass or copper
primer fitted with a skeleton anvil of brass and charged with a small
quantity of priming composition containing a sensitive explosive for
igniting the powder charge. The primer fits water-tight in a socket in the
center of the base of the shell. After being discharged, the primer can be
renewed and the shell reloaded.

In all the central-fire cartridges the lubrication of the bullet is
inside of the shell, rendering the ammunition much more serviceable and
less liable to be damaged.

Mantled bullets designated as “metal pointed” and “full metal patched” can
be supplied by the ammunition manufacturers for all the central-fire
cartridges at a cost of one dollar per thousand more than the regular lead
bullets. The mantled bullets do not deform as readily in handling,
shipping, etc., and give slightly increased penetration in soft woods,
animal tissue, etc., as compared with the plain lead bullet with the same
powder charge.

[Illustration: Figure 34.]

[Illustration: Figure 35.]

The .32-caliber S. & W. cartridge is adapted to the Smith & Wesson, Colt,
or other pocket revolvers. Occasionally single-shot pistols are chambered
for this cartridge. It is fairly accurate at ranges up to 50 yds. A
gallery charge is furnished in this shell consisting of 4 grains of black
powder and a spherical or “round” bullet weighing 47 grains.

The .32-cal. S. & W. Long is more accurate and powerful than the preceding
cartridge. It gives excellent results in both the pistol and revolver.
The gallery charge is the same as that of the .32 S. & W.

The .32-caliber Colt New Police is also an accurate cartridge, and was
designed specially for the Colt New Police revolver. The flat point adds
to its effectiveness. A good gallery charge in this shell consists of a
powder charge of 1½ grains of Bullseye and the regular bullet.

[Illustration: Figure 36.]

The .32-44 S. & W. and the .38-44 S. & W. were special black powder
cartridges designed for the S. & W. Russian Model revolver bored for these
calibers. The shells were uncrimped and the bullets seated inside of the
shells flush with the mouth. A large variety of special bullets of varying
weights were designed for these cartridges and much experimentation was
done with them. The .38-44 Caliber was originally designed for and largely
used by Chevalier Ira A. Paine, the noted pistol shot in his exhibitions.

While these cartridges proved very accurate and were popular when black
powder was in general use they are entirely unsuited for smokeless
powders and consequently are now seldom used.

The .38 S. & W. is adapted to the Smith & Wesson, Colt, and other pocket
revolvers. It is much more powerful than the .32 S. & W., and is
consequently more practical and better adapted for a pocket revolver
charge. When shot from a 4-inch barrel, groups of ten shots can be made in
a 2-inch circle at 20 yards and in a 6-inch circle at 50 yards.

A good gallery or reduced load in this shell is Ideal Bullet No. 358242,
36072, or 360302 with 2 grains of Bullseye powder.

[Illustration: Figure 37.]

[Illustration: Figure 38.]

The .38 Colt New Police is almost identical with the .38 S. & W., the only
difference being a slightly heavier bullet with a flat point.

[Illustration: Figure 39.]

The .38 Long Colt is adapted to the Colt and S. & W. Military revolvers.
It was the regulation charge of the service weapon of the U. S. Army until
1911. Under service conditions the cartridge was found to have
insufficient power, was inaccurate and on account of the deterioration of
the powder with which some of the ammunition was loaded it proved most
unsatisfactory, especially in the Philippine war.

[Illustration: Figure 40.]

The .38 Smith & Wesson Special cartridge is more powerful than the .38
Long Colt and is exceedingly accurate. From a 6-inch barrel six shots may
be placed within a 5-inch circle at 100 yards. Numerous gallery and
mid-range charges with special bullets have been designed for this
cartridge. It is now the most popular of all the revolver cartridges for
target practice. Some of the special bullets are illustrated herewith, the
numbers being those used in the “Ideal Handbook”:

[Illustration:

  358242     360345     36072
  125 gr.    115 gr.    110 gr.]

[Illustration: Figure 41.

  360302     360271     360363
  112 gr.    150 gr.    70 gr.]

A powder charge of 2¼ to 2½ grains of Bullseye will give good
results with any of these bullets. Bullets No. 360345, 360302 and 360271
cut full-size bullet holes in the targets.

The following are some of the special charges supplied by the
manufacturers in this shell:

  ================================================================
  Name          |Manufacturer|Weight in|Powder  |Wt. in |  Type
                |            |  Grains |Charge  |Bullets| Bullet
  --------------|------------|---------|--------|-------|---------
  Gallery       |U. M. C. Co.|   5.2   |Black   |   70  |Spherical
  Target        |U. M. C. Co.|   2.6   |Bullseye|  130  |R. N.
  Colt Special  |U. M. C. Co.|   3.4   |Bullseye|  160  |F. N.
  Sharp Shoulder|U. M. C. Co.|   2.1   |Bullseye|  122  |F. Head
  Mid Range     |Winchester  |   2.0   |Bullseye|  104  |R. N.
  Gallery       |Winchester  |   8.5   |C. P. W.|   70  |R. N.
  ----------------------------------------------------------------

The .44-caliber Smith & Wesson Russian[8] was the most popular revolver
cartridge for target shooting before smokeless powder was introduced.
Since smokeless charges have been adapted to it many expert shots prefer
this cartridge in the gallery contests as the large bullet hole is a
decided advantage over the smaller calibers at ranges of 20 yards and
under. Nearly all the great records in revolver shooting in the past have
been made with this cartridge and many important matches have been won
with it. A great deal of experimental work has also been done with it, and
many reduced charges have been evolved. The Ideal Manufacturing Company
can furnish moulds for bullets of the shapes and weights shown in Fig. 43.

[Illustration: Figure 42.]

[Illustration: Figure 43.

  429336     429251     U.M.C.     U.M.C.     429106
  255 gr.    256 gr.    110 gr.    130 gr.    175 gr.

  429348     429106     429239     429215     429220
  176 gr.    160 gr.    125 gr.    205 gr.    175 gr.]

Bullets No. 429336, 429348, and 429220 cut clean, full-size holes in the
target. The weight of the powder charge and bullets in grains and the
accuracy of the various loads fired from 6½-inch barrel are about as
follows:

  ===============================================================
  Bullseye |Bullet|Diameter of Circle Enclosing Group of 10 Shots
   Powder  |      |
  ---------|------|----------------------------------------------
           |      | 20 yds. | 30 yds. | 50 yds. |100 yds.|200 yd.
     4.1   | 256  |1 in.    |1½ in.   |1½ in.   |6 in.   |15 in.
     2.3   | 110  |1 in.    |2 in.    |         |        |
     2.7   | 130  |1¼ in.   |2½ in.   |         |        |
     3.0   | 160  |         |2 in.    |3     in.|        |
     2.8   | 176  |1½ in.   |         |         |        |
     3.0   | 175  |         |2½ in.   |         |        |
     2.7   | 125  |1¼ in.   |2½ in.   |         |        |
     3.2   | 205  |         |2 in.    |3     in.|7 in.   |
     2.6   | 175  |1¼ in.   |         |3¼ in.   |        |
  ---------------------------------------------------------------

These various loads adapt this shell to almost any conceivable requirement
in revolver shooting.

[Illustration: Figure 44.]

The .44 S. & W. Special is the latest and most powerful of the .44-caliber
cartridges. It equals the .44 S. & W. Russian in accuracy and is the best
proportioned of the heavy revolver cartridges. The reduced and gallery
loads of the .44 S. & W. Russian will give equally good results in this
shell.

[Illustration: Figure 45.]

The .45 Colt Army is the most powerful of all the revolver cartridges. It
was formerly the United States army service ammunition. The charge was so
heavy, and the recoil so excessive that it was almost impossible to shoot
it without flinching. The smokeless powder charge of 5 grains of Bullseye
makes it much more practical and very similar to the .44 S. & W. Special
cartridge. Both of these are exceedingly powerful and accurate and
suitable for military service.

[Illustration: Figure 46.]

[Illustration: Figure 47.]

The caliber of the service ammunition for the revolver of the British army
is .455. This is a very accurate cartridge, but not as powerful as the
corresponding military cartridges used in this country. A special
cylindrical bullet with a deep convex hollow point is furnished in the
same shell and is known as the “man stopper.”

This form of bullet is used in the English .450 and .38 caliber cartridges
also.

The .450 Welby is another English cartridge that is accurate, and pleasant
to shoot. It is used largely at Bisley in the annual revolver competitions
of the National Rifle Association of Great Britain.

In order to avoid excessive fouling with black powders a self-lubricating
bullet has been invented and introduced by Smith & Wesson, which can be
furnished in all calibers above .32. The bullet has a hollow core open in
the rear. Lubricant is filled into the core, after which it is closed with
a lead plunger. Four small ducts communicate from the forward end of the
core to the exterior of the bullet just ahead of its bearing on the
barrel. At the moment of discharge the plunger is driven forward, forcing
the lubricant through the ducts into the barrel ahead of the bullet.

This bullet has given excellent results and will be found decidedly
advantageous when black powder is used. With it a hundred or more shots
may be fired with black powder without causing sufficient fouling to
impair the accuracy.

Revolvers are sometimes chambered for the .44-40-200, the .38-40-180, and
the .32-20-115 rifle cartridges. These charges in black powder load are
not as accurate as the corresponding revolver cartridges in these
calibers, but can be relied on to shoot inside a 5-inch circle at 50
yards. These cartridges are desirable for revolvers only when it is an
advantage to use the same ammunition in the rifle and revolver, or in
certain localities where only a few varieties of ammunition are to be had.
The large powder charge makes the recoil of the first two cartridges named
rather unpleasant. The .32-20-115 is the most accurate of these
cartridges, and gives the best results in the pistol or revolver. All
these cartridges having flat-pointed bullets are well adapted for game
shooting. None of these rifle cartridges loaded with smokeless powder will
give good results in revolvers because the brand of powder generally used
in rifle ammunition requires a long barrel to consume the charge. Fired
from a short barrel only part of the charge will be consumed and the rest
will be expelled unburned, thus reducing the velocity and power of the
charge and sometimes increasing the recoil. It is of course entirely
practicable to adapt a charge of bullseye or similar smokeless powder to
these shells which would make them much more satisfactory. Another
disadvantage of using the rifle cartridge in revolvers is the possibility
of inexperienced persons using the new high velocity rifle ammunition,
which would prove not only most unsatisfactory but extremely dangerous in
revolvers. There are no reduced or gallery loads supplied in these shells.

[Illustration: Figure 48.]

[Illustration: Figure 49.]

[Illustration: Figure 50.]

[Illustration: Figure 51.]

[Illustration: Figure 52.]

[Illustration: Figure 53.]

_Automatic Pistol Cartridges._--With the introduction of the magazine
pistol special smokeless cartridges have been devised that are rimless and
have a crease around the base of the shell by which they may be held and
manipulated by the mechanism. These cartridges are exceedingly
clean-shooting. Several hundred rounds may be fired without causing more
fouling than is apparent after the first few shots. This ammunition is
furnished loaded with “full-mantled” and “soft-nosed” bullets; the latter,
having the lead exposed at the point will mushroom on striking animal
tissue and are sometimes referred to as “dum dum” bullets and are intended
for hunting purposes.

[Illustration: Figure 54.]

[Illustration: Figure 55.]

[Illustration: Figure 56.]

[Illustration: Figure 57.]

The mantled or metal cased bullet has undoubted advantages in rifle
ammunition, in which low trajectory and extreme long range are
_desiderata_ that can be obtained only by high velocities. In ammunition
for magazine pistols and revolvers, however, the prime object is to
deliver the most effective blow possible at comparatively short range.

The velocities attainable in large calibers within the permissible weight
of an automatic pistol are comparatively low. The deformation of any
bullet on striking animal tissue is in direct proportion to its velocity.
It is, therefore, extremely doubtful that a metal cased bullet will ever
prove as effective and satisfactory in “stopping power” and for military
service, either in the automatic pistol or the revolver, as the large
caliber lead bullet.

The .25 cal. is the smallest of the American made automatic pistol
ammunition and is adapted for the Colt and other magazine pistols. It is
an accurate cartridge but the short length of barrel of the Colt weapon
makes it impossible to do accurate work with it.

Figures 49 and 50 are the well known Luger and Mauser cartridges adapted
to the pistols of that name. They are powerful charges, accurate and clean
shooting. These were among the first cartridges developed for automatic
pistols and are still extensively used.

The .32 Automatic Colt is adapted to Colt and other magazine pistols of
this caliber. It is an accurate, pleasant shooting cartridge with very
little recoil and excellent work can be done with it at the target.

The .35 S. & W. Automatic is adapted to the Smith & Wesson magazine
pistol. It is a very accurate cartridge, has no unpleasant recoil and like
the preceding is well adapted for target shooting.

Figure 53 is the .380 Automatic Colt cartridge designed to meet the
demand for a light charge in this caliber. It is adapted to the Colt and
other magazine pistols.

The .38 Automatic Colt is the best proportioned and most powerful of all
automatic pistol cartridges. It has a slightly flattened point and is
extremely accurate. When fired from regulation arms this ammunition is
capable of placing ten shots inside a 3-inch circle at 50 yards and inside
a 7-inch circle at 100 yards.

This was the ammunition of the first Colt automatic pistol introduced in
the United States.

Figures 55 and 56 are two cartridges adapted to the .45 Automatic Colt
pistol. Figure 56 is the new service charge of the U. S. Army. They are
exactly alike except that the service charge has a 230 gr. bullet (30 gr.
heavier than the other). The service charge when fired from the regulation
service arm is capable of placing 10 shots in a 3½-inch circle at 50
yards and an 8-inch circle at 100 yards.

A flat or blunt pointed bullet of about 185 gr. and a ten per cent.
heavier powder charge would improve the effectiveness and stopping power
of this cartridge wonderfully without materially affecting the recoil or
the accuracy.

Figure 57 is the service charge of the regulation magazine pistol (Webley
& Scott) of the British Army. It is an accurate cartridge but it lacks
sufficient power to fulfill the exacting requirements of present-day
military service.

Light or gallery charges in magazine pistol shells are impracticable on
account of not having sufficient recoil to operate the automatic
mechanism. Slightly reduced loads with lead bullets may be used in some of
the arms but seldom with satisfactory results. Reduced loads can be used
in most of the weapons if the mechanisms are hand operated for each shot.

The following ballistical table gives the charges, muzzle velocities,
etc., of the principal factory-loaded, smokeless pistol and revolver
cartridges. The factories aim to keep the muzzle velocities uniform for
each cartridge. To produce this result with the various brands of
smokeless powder, all of which differ more or less in strength, the weight
of the powder charge necessarily varies for the different brands of
powder. Even when purchased in large quantities, different blends and
packages of the same brand of powder occasionally vary somewhat in
strength. For these reasons it is impossible to designate the exact weight
or volume of any brand of powder which will in all cases produce the
muzzle velocities in the table, and the charges given must therefore be
considered as approximate only.


BALLISTICAL TABLE

  KEY:
    a. = BULLET: Exact diameter in inches
    b. = BULLET: Weight in grains
    c. = BULLET: Round or flat nosed
    d. = Length of bbl. in arm tested
    e. = Muzzle velocity (50 ft. from muzzle)
    f. = Energy--foot lbs.: Wv{2} ÷ 2g
    g. = Penetration (inches in white pine)

  ========================================================================
                   |Weight in Grains|            |    |      |     |
    NAME OF        |   and Brand    |   BULLET   |    |      |     |
    CARTRIDGE      |   of Powder    |------------|----|------|-----|------
                   | (Approx. only) |  a. | b.|c.| d. |  e.  |  f. | g.
  -----------------|----------------|-----|---|--|----|------|-----|------
   _Rim Fire_:     |                |     |   |  |    |      |     |
   .22 Short       |  1.6 Lesmok    |.223 | 30|RN| 6  | 789  | 41.5| 3
   .22 Long        |  2.1    "      |.223 | 35|RN| 6  | 770  | 46.2| 3½
   .22 L. Rifle    |  3.4    "      |.223 | 40|RN| 6  | 765  | 51.8| 4
   .22 W. R. F.    |  3.5    "      |.2275| 45|FN| 6  | 811  | 65.8| 4
   _Central Fire_: |                |     |   |  |    |      |     |
   .25 Auto Colt   |  1.1 Bullseye  |.251 | 50|RN| 2  | 733  | 59.7| 3
  7.63 m.m. Mauser |  5.5    "      |.3105| 86|RN| 5½ |1397  |373  |11
  7.65 m.m. Luger  |  4.1    "      |.3095| 93|RN| 4⅝ |1173.5|284.3|10
  9    m.m. Luger  |  4.6    "      |.3555|125|FN| 4  |1039.2|299.8|10
   .32 W. C. F.    | 10.0 Sharp-    |     |   |  |    |      |     |
                   |      shooter   |.3125|115|FN| 5½ | 954  |232.4| 5
   .32 Auto Colt   |  2.5 Bullseye  |.3125| 74|RN| 3¾ | 938  |144.8| 5
   .32 S. & W.     |  1.5    "      |.315 | 85|RN| 4  | 606.7| 69.5| 3
   .32 S. & W.     |  1.5    "      |.315 | 85|RN|10  | 902  |159  | 4
   .32 Lg. Colt    |  2.0    "      |.313 | 90|RN| 4  | 641.4| 82.2| 3½
   .32 Sht. Colt   |  1.4    "      |.315 | 80|RN| 4  | 657.2| 78.7| 3½
   .32 S. & W. Long|  2.0    "      |.315 | 98|RN| 4  | 706.9|108.6| 4
   .32 Colt N. P.  |  2.5    "      |.314 | 98|FN| 4  | 706.3|108.6| 4
   .35 S. & W. Auto|  1.9    "      |.3195| 76|RN| 3½ | 809  |110.5| 4
   .38 S. & W.     |  2.4    "      |.359 |145|RN| 5  | 579.3|108.2| 4½
   .38 Auto Colt   |  4.6    "      |.359 |130|RN| 6  |1175  |398.0|10
   .38 Colt N. P.  |  2.4    "      |.359 |150|FN| 4  | 579.6|111.7| 4
   .38 Sht. Colt   |  2.5    "      |.375 |130|RN| 6  | 608  |107  | 4
   .38 Long Colt   |  3.0    "      |.358 |148|RN| 6  | 786  |203  | 4½
   .38 Long D. A.  |  3.4 Gray      |     |   |  |    |      |     |
                   |      Walsrode  |.358 |150|RN| 6  | 771.6|198.3| 6
   .38 S. & W. Spl.|  3.4 Bullseye  |.358 |158|RN| 6  | 856.7|257.5| 7
   .38 Colt Spl.   |  3.4    "      |.358 |158|FN| 6  | 857.6|258  | 7
   .38 S. & W.     |                |     |   |  |    |      |     |
       Spl. Gal.   |  8.5 C.P.W.[9] |.358 | 70|RN| 6  |1300  |263  | 5
   .38 S. & W. Spl.|                |     |   |  |    |      |     |
       Mid Range   |  2.1 Bullseye  |.358 |123|RN| 6  | 655  | 99  | 3
   .38 W. C. F.    | 15.  Sharp-    |     |   |  |    |      |     |
                   |      shooter   |.400 |180|FN| 5  | 983  |386.5| 6
   .380 Auto Colt  |  2.6 Bullseye  |.357 | 95|RN| 3¾ | 887  |166  | 5½
   .41 Sht. Colt   |  2.5    "      |.406 |160|RN| 6  | 707  |177  | 4
   .41 Long Colt   |  3.3    "      |.387 |200|RN| 6  | 705.6|221.2| 5
   .44 S. & W.     |                |     |   |  |    |      |     |
       Russ.       |  4.1    "      |.431 |246|RN| 6  | 706  |272  | 6½
   .44 S. & W.     |                |     |   |  |    |      |     |
       Russ. Gall. |  2.5    "      |.431 |115|RN| 6  | 685  |118  | 3
   .44 S. & W. Spl.|  5.1    "      |.431 |246|RN| 5  | 755  |311.5| 7
   .44 W. C. F.    | 16.5 Sharp-    |     |   |  |    |      |     |
                   |      shooter   |.426 |200|FN| 7½ | 918.8|375  | 6
   .45 Auto Colt   |  4.7 Bullseye  |.4505|200|RN| 5  | 910.2|368  | 8
   .45 Auto Colt   |                |     |   |  |    |      |     |
       (Govt.)     |  4.7    "      |.4505|230|RN| 5  | 809  |335  | 6
   .45 Colt D. A.  |  5.0    "      |.455 |255|RN| 5  | 770.6|336.3| 5
   .455 Colt       |  4.5    "      |.458 |265|RN| 5  | 756.6|336.5| 5
   .455 Webley Auto|  7.0 Cordite   |.455 |220|RN| 5  | 750  |280.6| 4½
   .455 British    |                |     |   |  |    |      |     |
        Service    |  5.5    "      |.455 |265|RN| 7½ | 700  |288  | 4¼
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------



CHAPTER IV

SIGHTS


The purpose of sights is to assist in aiming the piece. The national
organizations allow only “open” sights in pistol and revolver shooting.
“Peep” or “aperture” sights are barred. The rear sight usually consists of
a notch shaped like a V or a U, the notch being as wide on top as at any
part. The front sight is a piece of thin metal set on edge. Sometimes the
latter has a special shape or section resembling a pinhead when looking at
it from the breech, as in aiming.

[Illustration: Figure 58.

  Side View.    End View.    Side View.    End View.

Front Sights.

  Rear Sight.    Appearance when aiming.

Military Sights.]

Military sights usually consist of a plain groove in the top of the frame
for the rear sight and a tapering front sight fixed to the barrel near the
muzzle.

[Illustration: Figure 59.

  Rear Sight.    Side View.    End View.    Appearance
                                            when aiming.
                                    Front Sight.

“Paine” Sights.]

Target sights are made in endless variety to suit individual ideas. The
sights most generally used for target shooting are the “Paine” sights,
named after Chevalier Ira A. Paine, who invented and was the first to use
them. The rear sight is a flat bar with a semi-circular notch, and the
front sight is a “bead” sight; that is, a sight that resembles a pinhead
when aiming.

[Illustration: Figure 60.

  Rear Sight.    Side View.    End View.    Appearance
                                            when aiming.
                                    Front Sight.

Patridge Sights.]

Another sight that many of the best shots are using is the “Patridge”
sight, developed by Mr. E. E. Patridge of Boston, Mass. The rear sight has
a wide rectangular notch; the front sight is plain, with a square top, as
shown.

Fig. 61 represents the “Lyman” sights as adapted to Smith & Wesson
revolvers. The distinctive features of these sights are the ivory bead of
the front sight and the horizontal ivory line in the rear sight. These
sights are well adapted for hunting and shooting at objects with a dark
background.

These sights have been referred to in the order in which they are most
used. It is generally necessary for individuals to try various sights
before they are able to select intelligently. In target arms
different-shaped sights may be used in the same base or fitting, so that
it is a comparatively easy matter to try any or all of these sights on the
same arm.

The notch of the rear sight should have a bevelled edge concave toward the
front. This will secure sharpness of outline in any light. The front sight
should also be distinct and is found to be more satisfactory when the side
toward the eye is a surface at right angles to the line of sight.

[Illustration: Fig. 61.--Lyman Sights]

[Illustration: Fig. 62.--THE WESPI SEARCHLIGHT SIGHT A-Battery; B-Mercury
switch; C-Electric bulb; D-E-Lenses.]

[Illustration: Fig. 63.--The Wespi Searchlight Mounted on a Pocket
Revolver.]

For years means have been sought to make successful shooting at night
possible. White and phosphorescent paints have been applied to the sights
and to the top of the barrel but all such methods have proved more or less
unsatisfactory even in dim light and in total darkness the target or other
object cannot be seen. A recently invented device that overcomes all these
difficulties and makes shooting at night practicable is the “Wespi”
searchlight sight.[10]

This sight is a tube about 6 inches long and ¾ inches in diameter
containing a miniature electric searchlight which projects a dark spot in
the center of the illuminated field. When properly mounted on the piece
the black spot indicates where the bullet will strike. This sight can be
readily attached to any pistol or revolver. As offered on the market at
the present time it is adapted for short range work up to, say, 60 feet.
The illustrations show a section through the sight tube, and the sight
attached to a revolver. The weight is six ounces. (See 61 and 62 facing p.
64.)

This sight embodies the principles of the telescopic sight and can
undoubtedly be modified to increase its illuminating power and adapted so
as to project well-defined dark lines similar to cross wires, on a
target; or the dark spot decreased in size to about 3 or 4 inches in
diameter at 60 feet. So modified this would be a practical sight for
target shooting and would be a boon to many of the older marksmen whose
sight is failing and who find it more and more difficult to shoot in
artificial light with the ordinary sights.

Such a sight would also possess many advantages for beginners as the
moving spot on the target would indicate the unsteadiness of the holding
and impress upon the marksman the importance of holding the spot in the
right position at the instant of discharge. A further improvement would be
to substitute for the dark spot, a spot of intensely bright light. This
would be equally as effective as the dark spot and would greatly increase
the range at which the sight could be used, adapting it to game shooting
at night. It is hoped that the manufacturers will develop a sight as
suggested for target and game shooting.



CHAPTER V

SHOOTING POSITION


The position in pistol and revolver shooting is very important. In firing
a long series of shots, a man with an easy, natural position will suffer
much less fatigue, and will have a decided advantage over another whose
position is straining and uncomfortable. Formerly the approved position
was to stand with the right side toward the target. This required the head
to be turned ninety degrees from its natural position, and was very
uncomfortable. Undoubtedly this position is a relic of duelling days, when
it might have been argued that a smaller mark was offered to the
antagonist.

The positions adopted by the leading shots vary considerably. Most of them
face a trifle to the left of the target, with the right foot 6 or 8 inches
ahead of the left, and pointing directly toward the target, the weight of
the body supported equally by both legs and perfectly balanced. Others
shoot with the feet close together; some with one or both eyes open, and
with the arm partly or fully extended. The question of position depends
largely upon the physique and comfort of the individual.

Mr. Winans’ position is an exceedingly strong one. His poise is very good,
and he stands firmly on both feet. The left arm falls straight down along
the left side of the body. This affords rigidity when desired, and imparts
action to the figure.

Mr. Axtell has a stanch, natural position. Like Mr. Winans, he shoots with
the right arm fully extended, and he holds the weapon in the correct and
most approved manner.

The position of Mr. Anderton is excellent. He enjoys perfect health, and
has his large muscular development well under control. His position is
strong, natural, and comfortable.

Mr. Dietz’s position is entirely different from any of those preceding. It
is tenseless and flexible permitting him to shoot long series of shots
without fatigue.

The positions of Mr. Patridge and Sergeant Petty are characteristic and
typical of persons of entirely different physique.

Mr. Gorman and Dr. Sayre are men of similar physique. Their positions
which resemble each other closely are firm, easy and natural.

[Illustration: Fig. 64.--Walter Winans]

[Illustration: Fig. 65.--C. S. Axtell]

[Illustration: Fig. 66.--Thomas Anderton]

Mr. Lane’s position is natural and interestingly unconventional. He has
perfect poise and shoots without apparent fatigue.

Dr. Snook has a well poised and deliberate position. He shoots with his
arm not fully extended and with the feet close together.

The positions of Mr. Armstrong and Mr. Dolfen are very similar. They are
men of entirely different stature but almost identical in physique. Their
positions are firm and business-like. Both shoot with the arm fully
extended.

    NOTE.--For photographs showing shooting positions of individuals
    referred to in this chapter, see illustrations facing pp. 68, 72, 76,
    and 78.



CHAPTER VI

TARGET-SHOOTING


In the development of firearms and ammunition, target-shooting has always
occupied an important place. It is regularly and systematically practised
in the army and navy, in order to maintain and improve the proficiency of
the men as marksmen. Target-shooting, with many different styles of
firearms, under prescribed rules and regulations, has also become
extremely popular with civilians.

Target-shooting was indulged in extensively with the rifle before it
became popular with the pistol and revolver. The shorter barrel, and the
greater difficulty in acquiring skill with the latter weapons, were
doubtless responsible for the mistaken idea, long prevalent, that these
arms were extremely inaccurate. When, however, a few individuals developed
sufficient skill to obtain fine shooting, their performances were
considered phenomenal. Among the first to obtain a high order of skill
with the muzzle-loading pistol in the United States was Captain John
Travers of Missouri. He was well known as an expert pistol shot as early
as 1860. In that year Captain Travers shot an interesting individual match
in St. Louis at a distance of 100 feet. Fifteen china plates, nine inches
in diameter, were used as targets. Captain Travers broke 11 out of 15,
while his opponent broke but 9.

In 1865 Colonel William F. Cody, (Buffalo Bill) and Captain William P.
Schaaf of St. Louis became prominent as pistol shots. The latter
subsequently joined Captain Travers in a three years’ tour of the United
States, giving exhibitions in nearly all the large cities.

About 1880 Ira Anson Paine, a native of Massachusetts, attracted attention
by his fine marksmanship with the pistol. In 1881 he went abroad, and for
a number of years he traveled over the principal countries of Europe,
giving public exhibitions of his skill with the pistol and revolver. While
in Portugal in 1882 he was knighted by the King in the presence of a
notable assemblage, and made a chevalier of an ancient military order. In
his exhibitions Chevalier Paine used a Stevens Lord Model pistol and a
Smith & Wesson revolver. His skill with these arms was so far in advance
of his contemporaries that he was popularly supposed to accomplish many of
his feats by trickery.

Target-shooting with the pistol and revolver, as a sport, may be said to
have originated at the annual meeting of the National Rifle Association at
Creedmoor in 1886. During that meeting a revolver match was scheduled to
be shot at 25 yards on the 200-yard Standard American Rifle Target. It was
a reëntry match, with the three best scores of five shots each of any
contestant to count. In this match three scores of 48 out of 50 were made,
the highest individual aggregate of three scores being 143 out of a
possible 150.

The same year a similar match was announced at the fall meeting of the
Massachusetts Rifle Association at Walnut Hill. Chevalier Paine was a
competitor in this match, and made 50--49--49==148 in six entries. The
next best three scores equalled 142.

These matches proved so interesting and successful that target-shooting
with the pistol and revolver became instantly popular all over the
country. It was soon found that the arms possessed remarkable accuracy,
and as the skill of the shooters improved the distance was increased to 50
yards retaining the same target.

[Illustration: Fig. 67.--John A. Dietz]

[Illustration: Fig. 68.--E. E. Patridge]

[Illustration: Fig. 69.--Sergt. W. E. Petty]

Mr. A. C. Gould, editor of _The Rifle_, and _Shooting and Fishing_, was
the first one to recognize the possibilities of the pistol and revolver,
and became greatly interested in the performances with these arms. He
assisted and encouraged the shooters, witnessed their work, and made
careful and elaborate records of all the important scores that were made
in the United States from 1886 to 1900.[11] It was at his suggestion that
Chevalier Paine essayed to fire the first 100-shot score at 50 yards on
the Standard American Target, scoring 791 points. This shooting was done
with a finely sighted .44-caliber Smith & Wesson Russian Model Revolver,
regulation full charge ammunition, and a 2½-pound trigger pull. A keen
rivalry for the 100-shot record soon sprang up, resulting as follows:

  Oct. 15, 1886, Chevalier Ira Paine at Walnut Hill    791
  March 7, 1887, Chevalier Ira Paine "    "     "      841
  Nov.  4, 1887, F. E. Bennett       "    "     "      857
  Nov. 14, 1887, F. E. Bennett       "    "     "      877
  Dec.  5, 1887, F. E. Bennett       "    "     "      886
  Dec. 17, 1887, Chevalier Ira Paine "    "     "      888
  Dec. 22, 1887, Chevalier Ira Paine "    "     "      904
  Dec. 23, 1887, W. W. Bennett       "    "     "      914

This rivalry led to a long newspaper controversy, and culminated in the
famous Paine-Bennett revolver match. The conditions were as follows:
Stakes $1000.00; 100 shots per day for six consecutive days; Smith &
Wesson Russian Model Revolvers, .44 caliber; factory-loaded full charge
ammunition; trigger pull, 3 pounds; Standard American Target with 8-inch
bull’s-eye; distance, 50 yards. On the fifth day of the match, and while 9
points in the lead, Chevalier Paine entered a protest and withdrew. Mr. F.
E. Bennett continued shooting, as stipulated in the match, scoring 5093
points for the total of the six days. The protest was referred to the
National Rifle Association, which decided in favor of Mr. Bennett,
awarding him the match and the championship of America.

In practising for this match Mr. F. E. Bennett, under the same conditions,
made a score of 915. This record was not excelled until June 1, 1901, when
C. S. Richmond of Savannah, Georgia, scored 918 points under substantially
the same conditions.

During the summer of 1890, Mr. William E. Carlin, assisted by Mr. Hubert
Reynolds, made a very elaborate series of tests with the revolver and
various kinds of ammunition, to ascertain the possibilities of the arms,
the accuracy of the ammunition, the effect of fouling, etc. About 10,000
rounds were fired, Mr. Carlin used a butt-stock attachment, telescopic
sight, and sand bag rest; and Mr. Reynolds verified Mr. Carlin’s results
from a machine rest. All the shooting was done with black powder charges
in Smith & Wesson revolvers.

The best groups were made with the .32-44 S. & W. Revolving rifle
cartridge; a number of the 10-shot groups at 50 yards, measuring 1¼
inches to 1½ inches in diameter. Tests were also made at ranges of 100
and 200 yards. At 100 yards, groups of 10 shots were obtained with the
.32-44, and the .44 caliber S. & W. Russian, varying from 3 inches to 4
inches in diameter. At 200 yards, the .44 S. & W. Russian gave the best
results; a number of groups of 10 shots being obtained measuring 8 inches
to 12 inches in diameter. These tests were considered most remarkable at
that time, as such accuracy was not expected of barrels of only 6 inches
and 8 inches in length.

Prior to these tests, the possibilities of the pistol and revolver were
judged solely by the shooting of a few expert shots, which of course
included the personal dispersion error of the individuals. These tests
furnished the first definite information as to the real capabilities of
the revolver, and had a far-reaching and salutary influence on pistol and
revolver shooting. They demonstrated to the marksmen and the manufacturers
of the arms that fine shooting approximating to that of the rifle was
possible with the revolver, by developing the necessary skill in shooting
and perfecting the ammunition.

A very interesting revolver match for a trophy offered by Mr. Walter
Winans took place in 1892. Mr. Winans is a noted American revolver shot,
residing in England, and the trophy--an American cowboy executed admirably
in bronze--was modeled by him. The match was conducted by _Forest and
Stream_. The trophy was won, after a spirited competition, by Doctor Louis
Bell. Under the conditions of the match, the winner was to defend his
title two years before the trophy became his property. The trophy was won
successively by George E. Jantzer and Sergeant W. E. Petty. Sergeant Petty
defended the trophy successfully for two years, and now holds it
permanently.

A record, or “best on record,” is the highest recognized score of any
given number of shots fired under certain standard conditions, and with an
arm complying with certain established rules. The records of pistol and
revolver shooting in the United States were carefully established and
compiled by _Shooting and Fishing_ until the year 1903.

[Illustration: Fig. 70.--J. E. Gorman]

[Illustration: Fig. 71.--R. H. Sayre]

[Illustration: Fig. 72.--A. F. Lane]

The record performances with the single-shot pistol, on the Standard
American Target, at 50 yards, are as follows:

100 SHOTS--

  Sept. 22, 1888, F. E. Bennett,  Walnut Hill,  Mass.      906
  Nov.  10, 1888, F. E. Bennett      "    "       "        934
  Sept. 10, 1890, F. E. Bennett      "    "       "        936
  Feb.  25, 1900, J. E. Gorman,   San Francisco, Cal.      939
  May   26, 1901, J. E. Gorman     "      "       "        942
  March  1, 1902, E. E. Patridge, Walnut Hill,  Mass.      942

50 SHOTS--

  Nov.  10, 1888, F. E. Bennett,  Walnut Hill,  Mass.      470
  Feb.  11, 1900, J. E. Gorman,   San Francisco, Cal.      471
  May   20, 1901, J. E. Gorman     "      "       "        474
  Dec.   7, 1901, T. Anderton,    Walnut Hill,  Mass.      476
  April  4, 1903, T. Anderton        "    "       "        480

Under the stimulating influence and encouragement of _Shooting and
Fishing_, pistol and revolver shooting became a popular pastime and by
1900 numerous clubs had been organized throughout the country.
Unfortunately, the marksmen of each locality made their own rules and
adopted independent standards as to targets, weapons, etc. This resulted
in endless confusion and dissatisfaction when matches between clubs were
attempted. Rumors of a challenge from the revolver marksmen of France for
an international contest were also rife at this time. There was,
therefore, an urgent need for a national organization to exercise general
jurisdiction over the sport; formulate uniform rules, regulations, and
standards, and to receive and act upon challenges.

A number of revolver enthusiasts met in Conlin’s shooting gallery, New
York City, in February, 1900, and issued a call to the revolver shots of
the country, inviting them to join in forming a national revolver
association at a meeting called at Conlin’s gallery, March 5, 1900.
Replies were received from thirteen states and thirty-five gentlemen
responded in person to the invitation. The United States Revolver
Association[12] was organized at that meeting.

This association, with the support and coöperation of all the leading
shots of the country, immediately assumed national jurisdiction,
formulated rules to govern pistol and revolver shooting, and inaugurated
the annual championship matches. These are shot simultaneously in
different parts of the United States, thus giving everybody an opportunity
to enter the competitions.

The influence of the association on pistol and revolver shooting has been
very beneficial. It has established uniformity in arms, rules, etc.,
and has encouraged and conducted many friendly matches between clubs, thus
bringing the shots in different parts of the country in closer touch with
each other.

[Illustration: Fig. 73.--J. H. Snook]

[Illustration: Fig. 74.--George Armstrong]

[Illustration: Fig. 75.--P. J. Dolfen]

The most important activity of the association in recent years has been
the inauguration of the Indoor League Matches. Clubs in all parts of the
United States enter into an agreement to shoot a match with each club in
the League during the winter season. Medal prizes are awarded by the
association according to the percentages of matches won to matches shot,
similar to baseball leagues. The League has become exceedingly popular and
twenty to thirty clubs participate in the contest annually. The League
agreement varies somewhat from year to year. The 1914 agreement will be
found in the Appendix.

_International Matches._--The U. S. Revolver Association also negotiates
and conducts all the international matches. The first of these matches was
between France and the United States and took place on June 16, 1900. This
match attracted world-wide attention, and was won by the United States.
The conditions of the match were as follows; Ten men on a side; the
Americans to shoot at Greenville, N. J., and the Frenchmen in Paris.
Results to be cabled. Each side to appoint an umpire to witness the
shooting of the opposing side. Each man to shoot 30 shots on the French
target at 16 meters and 30 shots on the Standard American target at 50
yards.

Following are the complete scores of the members of both teams on the two
targets:

FRENCH TEAM--

                                  On          On
                                French      American     Grand
                                Target       Target      Total

  M. Dutfoy                       244          253        497
  Comte de Chabannes              240          250        490
  M. M. Faure                     241          248        489
  Paul Gastinne                   238          251        489
  Comte Clary                     247          241        488
  Capt. Chauchat                  243          241        484
  Com. Dilschneider               236          242        478
  P. Moreau                       239          236        475
  M. Trinité                      233          239        472
  M. Labbé                        226          240        466
                                 ----         ----       ----
  Totals                         2387         2441       4828

AMERICAN TEAM--

                                  On          On
                                French      American     Grand
                                Target       Target      Total

  J. A. Dietz                      263          260       523
  W. E. Petty                      259          252       511
  R. H. Sayre                      253          251       504
  B. F. Wilder                     239          263       502
  G. W. Waterhouse                 253          246       499
  L. R. Piercy                     244          241       485
  W. G. Hudson                     222          250       472
  J. B. Crabtree                   225          244       469
  W. A. Smith                      224          240       464
  A. L. A. Himmelwright            228          232       460
                                  ----         ----      ----
  Totals                          2410         2479      4889

  Americans led by                  23           38        61

The first match did not satisfy the revolver experts of France, who
claimed that the French team was not national in its character, that
instead of representing the whole of France it represented Paris alone.
About June, 1902, it was suggested that a second international contest be
held, and the French gentlemen began at once to gather material for a
representative team. The army, the navy, and the revolver and pistol clubs
of France united in their efforts to organize as strong a team as
possible.

The conditions of the second match were the subject of considerable
negotiation by correspondence and as finally agreed upon were as follows:

Fifteen men on a side. Each man to shoot 60 shots in 10 strings of 6 shots
each on the Standard American Target at 50 yards. Each side to appoint two
umpires to witness the shooting of their opponents. Results to be cabled.

The American marksmen assembled at the Walnut Hill range of the
Massachusetts Rifle Association, near Boston, devoting three days to
preliminary practice shooting and selecting the team. It was originally
agreed upon that the match was to take place on June 30, 1903, and the
American team shot their scores on that day. Owing to delays in
transportation, the targets intended for the French team did not reach
them promptly and their side of the match was shot several days later.
The members constituting the teams and their respective scores are as
follows:

FRENCH TEAM

  Comte de Castelbajac, Libourne                     547
  Commandant Py, Saint Omer                          542
  M. Dutfoy, Marseilles                              541
  Captain Moreaux, Rennes                            529
  M. Moline-Paget, Dieppe                            526
  Captain Chauchat, Versailles                       524
  M. Keller-Dorian, Lyons                            522
  M. Feugray, Paris                                  509
  M. Despassio, Lyons                                503
  M. Lecocq, Paris                                   502
  M. Caurette, Ham                                   502
  M. Louvier, Paris                                  496
  M. Balme, Paris                                    469
  Adjutant Paroche, Rennes                           466
  M. Sartori, Paris                                  462
                                                    ----
      Team total                                         7,640

AMERICAN TEAM

  O. I. Olson, Duluth, Minn.                               554
  B. F. Wilder, New York, N. Y.                            543
  R. S. Hale, Boston, Mass.                                540
  J. A. Dietz, Jr., New York, N. Y.                        534
  W. A. Smith, Springfield, Mass.                          532
  C. S. Axtell, Springfield, Mass.                         530
  Louis Bell, Boston, Mass.                                527
  T. Anderton, Boston, Mass.                               523
  J. B. Crabtree, Springfield, Mass.                       519
  I. R. Calkins, Springfield, Mass.                        519
  E. E. Patridge, Boston, Mass.                            517
  R. H. Sayre, New York, N. Y. (Score shot in Paris)       515
  J. T. Humphrey, Boston, Mass.                            513
  W. S. Amory, 2d, Boston, Mass.                           512
  C. L. Bouvé, Boston, Mass.                               511
                                                         -----
      Team total                                         7,889

      Americans led by                                     249

A careful analysis of the scores shows that the Americans shot much more
evenly than the Frenchmen, and that the skill of the three high men on
both teams was approximately equal.

The next international match participated in by the revolver shots of the
United States was the Olympic Games Match at London, England on July 10
and 11, 1908. Preliminary and elimination trials were conducted under the
auspices of the United States Revolver Association resulting in the
selection of the following team: I. R. Calkins, Springfield, Mass.; C. S.
Axtell, Springfield, Mass.; J. A. Dietz, New York, N. Y.; and J. E.
Gorman, San Francisco, Cal.; R. H. Sayre, New York, N. Y., Captain. The
conditions of the match were as follows:

Any revolver or pistol with open sights; any ammunition; trigger pull
unrestricted; distance, 50 yards; international target, 10 ring, 2 inches
in diameter, rest of target divided by concentric rings one inch apart,
bull’s-eye containing 10, 9, 8, and 7 rings; 60 shots in strings of 6
shots; 2 sighting shots allowed; position standing, right or left hand
with arm extended; maximum number of entries from any country in
individual contests, 12; maximum number of entries from any country in
team contest, 1; teams to consist of four men each.

A time limit of four minutes for each string of five shots was
established, and all other conditions of the matches were governed by the
rules of the National Rifle Association of Great Britain.

The result of the match was as follows:

  1st--United States:
         J. E. Gorman       501
         I. R. Calkins      473
         John A. Dietz      472
         C. S. Axtell       468
                           ---- 1914

  2d--Belgium                   1863
  3d--United Kingdom            1817
  4th--France                   1750
  5th--Sweden                   1732
  6th--Holland                  1637
  7th--Greece                   1576

The next Olympic Contest was held at Stockholm, Sweden, in 1912. The
American team consisted of A. P. Lane, New York, N. Y.; H. E. Sears,
Boston, Mass.; P. J. Dolfen, Springfield, Mass.; and John A. Dietz, New
York, N. Y.; R. H. Sayre, New York, N. Y., Captain.

The match was shot on July 2nd, under practically the same conditions as
the former Olympic Match and resulted as follows:

  1st--United States:
         A. P. Lane         509
         H. E. Sears        474
         P. J. Dolfen       467
         J. A. Dietz        466
                           ---- 1916

  2d--Sweden                    1849
  3d--United Kingdom            1804
  4th--Russia                   1801
  5th--Greece                   1731

In the individual match which was shot on July 1st under the same
conditions, and participated in by over fifty competitors of the different
nations, Mr. Lane and Mr. Dolfen won first and second places with scores
of 499 and 474 respectively. Mr. Sears won 7th place with a score of 459,
and Mr. Dietz 9th place with a score of 454.



CHAPTER VII

TARGETS


A target is a mark or object of suitable form and color designed to be
fired at. It usually consists of a frame covered with canvas or paper,
presenting a white surface with a prominent spot or bull’s-eye in the
center. Concentric circles or “rings,” around the center divide the target
into zones which are assigned values, decreasing from the center outward.
On a regularly equipped range the targets are movable frames, so arranged
that they may be raised to the firing position and then lowered into a
pit, where the marker can safely examine the target, mark the shot
accurately, and cover the shot-hole with a paster. The sum of the values
of a limited series of consecutive shots, as 5, 7, 10, 20, 50, etc.,
constitutes a score.

[Illustration: Fig. 76--Standard American Target

Diameter of Rings

  10 ring     3.39 inches }
   9   "      5.54   "    } Bullseye
   8   "      8.00   "    }
   7   "     11.00   "
   6   "     14.80   "
   5   "     19.68   "
   4   "     26.83   "]

The official target of the United States Revolver Association, which is
used in the annual championship matches and for record shooting, is the
Standard American Target. This target is used by practically all the
shooting clubs and organizations in the United States. For 50-yard
shooting the bull’s-eye is 8 inches in diameter and contains the 8, 9, and
10 rings. This target is well suited for target practice at this range. It
has been used extensively since 1886. Ten shots, with one hundred for the
possible, usually constitute a score.

[Illustration: Fig. 77--The U. S. R. A. Combination Target. (Standard
American rings in heavy lines and International in light lines.)]

This target as supplied by the United States Revolver Association for use
in all the outdoor championships shows also the rings of the International
Union target (in light lines) and is known as the “Combination” target.
The International target rings do not interfere in any way with the
shooting or the scoring by Standard American count, and they have the
distinct advantage that the marksman may easily determine, for purposes of
comparison, what any score is by International count.

[Illustration: Fig. 78--The International Union Target. Diameter of 10
ring==5 Centimeters==1.9568 Ins. Other rings==2½ Centimeters, about
0.984 In. Diameter of 1 ring==50 Centimeters==about 19¾ In.]

The International Union Target is used in the Olympic Games Matches, and
has been adopted by nearly all the European and South American countries
for pistol and revolver contests at 50 meters. It is without doubt the
best target for the purpose in general use. The ten-ring represents
approximately the average dispersion of the most accurate revolvers and
pistols and with the concentric rings a uniform distance apart, the score
has a proper relation to the dispersion of the shots. The size of the
target, about 19¾ inches in diameter, is also well determined. The
target could be improved by increasing the size of the bull’s-eye so as to
include the 6 ring. This would make sighting on it less straining and
would improve the scores. The target so modified would be better adapted
for the United States Revolver Association Matches than the one now used.

Target L is the Regulation Pistol Target used in the prescribed target
practice of the War Department. It is used also in the National Pistol
Match.

For gallery shooting at 20 yards the Standard American Target is reduced
so that the bull’s-eye is 2-72/100 inches in diameter, and for 10-yard
shooting 1 inch in diameter.

[Illustration: Fig. 79--Target L. (U. S. Army.) Diameter of Bull’s-eye
Counting 10==5 Ins. Concentric Rings Around It, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, and 4, are
1¾ Ins. Apart. Diameter of 4 ring==26 Ins. Diameter of 3 ring==46 Ins.
Rest of Target, 4ft. x 6ft. Counts 2.]

An arm of large caliber has a decided advantage over one of small caliber
in short-range shooting, on account of the larger hole made by the
bullet, and, for this reason the large calibers are preferred for gallery
shooting. For distances less than 25 yards not more than five shots should
be fired on a paper or cardboard target. In case a close group is made,
the scoring will be much easier and more accurate than when ten shots are
fired at a single target.

The best grades of target arms are capable of making “possibles” or
perfect scores on the Standard American Target, using regulation
ammunition. To make high scores is therefore simply a question of skill on
the part of the shooter.

A great many other targets designed principally for rifle-shooting have
been recommended at different times by well-known and scientific marksmen.
Some of these targets possess much merit and have become popular in
certain localities. It is unquestionably a mistake to introduce new
targets in this manner as long as satisfactory targets are in general use,
and on which all the important matches and records have been shot. The
merit of a score on a new target cannot be judged by those unfamiliar with
it, and frequently a highly meritorious score fails to receive the
recognition it deserves on account of having been shot on a comparatively
unknown target.

In selecting a target for longer ranges than 50 yards it is always
preferable to have the bull’s-eye sufficiently large so as to be seen with
ease and comfort when sighting. Small bull’s-eyes strain and tire the eyes
and have no advantage whatever.

In England and France the targets generally have smaller bull’s-eyes than
here. At Bisley, the shooting is principally at a distance of 20 yards on
a bull’s-eye 2 inches in diameter. At 50 yards the bull’s-eye is 4 inches
in diameter. The English targets have no circles of count within the
bull’s-eye. The regulation targets of the United Shooting Societies of
France have bull’s-eyes 5 and 6 centimeters in diameter for the pistol and
revolver, respectively, at 20 meters, and 20 centimeters in diameter for
50-meter shooting. All these targets have two or more circles of count
within the bull’s-eye.



CHAPTER VIII

TARGET PRACTICE


In order to become familiar with the arms and develop skill in shooting,
careful and systematic practice is necessary. This can be most
conveniently and intelligently obtained in target-shooting. At a properly
equipped range, each shot is “spotted”[13] as fired, so that the shooter
can tell instantly where each shot strikes. This is a great aid and
advantage, as it enables the shooter to note the effect of changes in
light, wind, slight displacements in sights, etc., and modify his work
accordingly. The usual distance is 50 yards in the outdoor matches and 20
yards in the indoor contests.

Very good shooting has been done at 100 yards, and even at 200 yards, but
such long-range shooting is rarely attempted except by the very best
shots. The whole target being so small at that distance, a shot need not
be very wild to miss the target. Such an occurrence is very unsatisfactory
and disconcerting even to a fairly skillful shot. There is, moreover,
nothing to be gained by extremely long-range work. The pistol and revolver
are not designed for it, and there is much more pleasure and satisfaction
at the shorter ranges.

It is customary and desirable to practise at the target under conditions
governing the annual championship matches. This accustoms one to those
conditions, and is a decided advantage if one expects to enter the
competitions. It is also excellent training for record shooting. In target
practice with military arms, regulation full-charge ammunition should be
used in all cases, especially when practising rapid-fire shooting. With
target weapons, reduced charges are frequently used, and the shooting is
generally slow and deliberate.

Target practice is required in all the branches of the military and naval
service of the United States. This practice varies somewhat from year to
year both in character and amount. The recent adoption of the magazine
pistol as the service weapon by the War Department has resulted in a
number of changes in the regulation target practice, the conditions and
details of which are fully explained in the “Small Arms Firing Manual” for
1914.

The Manual also details a prescribed course of target practice for the
Organized Militia, which includes the National Guard of the various
states. This is adapted principally to the revolver, as the National Guard
has not yet been armed with the regulation automatic pistol. As fast as
the latter is issued, the organized militia will adopt the target practice
prescribed for the army with the regulation weapon.

The revolver until 1915 was the service weapon of the United States Navy,
but it has now been superseded by the automatic pistol (Colt, Government
Model, .45 cal.). The 1917 firing regulations are novel and drastic, in
some respects are much more elastic than those formerly in effect, and are
very practical. They are published in a pamphlet of 62 pages.

A digest of all the foregoing target practice will be found in the
Appendix.

_Matches and Competitions._--Various matches and competitions have been
established under the auspices of the recognized shooting organizations
which not only give an opportunity of testing the skill of individuals and
teams but also, by the scores made in successive years under the same
conditions, indicate the improvement and advance in the sport. Most of
these matches or competitions are annual events. The International Matches
at the Olympic Games take place every four years.

The conditions of the annual championship matches of the United States
Revolver Association are excellent and the experience of fourteen years
since they have been instituted proves that they are well adapted to
stimulate interest in the sport, improvement in the arms and ammunition
and develop a high order of marksmanship. The matches are conducted
simultaneously in many places throughout the United States under the
supervision of authorized representatives and under as nearly identical
conditions as possible.

In connection with these matches re-entry matches under the same
conditions are provided which furnish preliminary practice for competitors
who wish to enter the championship events. The League contest which is
conducted by this association affords excellent practice indoors, and
enables the marksmen to keep In good form during the winter months.

The “National Pistol Match” is an annual event conducted by the National
Rifle Association of America. It is specially interesting and instructive
as it affords an opportunity for civilians to compete in the same contest
with the best shots in the Army, Navy and National Guard.

The conditions, prizes, and complete details of all these annual matches
will be found in the Appendix.

From time to time special contests are arranged such as the Pan American
Matches held at Camp Perry, Ohio, in 1913, the International Shooting
Festival to be held at San Francisco in 1915 during the Panama Fair, etc.
The matches of such special meetings often vary in their conditions.
Special prizes are provided for the occasion.



CHAPTER IX

REVOLVER PRACTICE FOR THE POLICE


The revolver is a part of the regular equipment of the police force of
nearly every city in this country. Unfortunately the general lack of any
regulations for the care of and the practice with these arms largely
nullifies their usefulness. Even in the large cities, members of the
police force frequently admit that they have not used or cleaned their
arms for six months or more. An inspection of the arms under such
conditions not infrequently reveals the fact that center-fire arms are
loaded with rim-fire ammunition, and _vice-versa_. The mechanism is often
so badly rusted that the cylinder will not revolve and the barrel so
corroded as to seriously impair its accuracy. When occasion requires the
use of the arms under such conditions, accidents almost invariably result,
either to the policemen who attempt to fire the arms, or to the innocent
bystanders and property.

The records of every large municipality show that large sums are annually
disbursed in litigation and to individuals who have suffered either
personal wounds or property damage from accidents of this character.

By adopting suitable arms, and regulations governing practice shooting
with them, it is entirely practicable and comparatively easy to train a
large police force to become good marksmen. The possibility of accidents
is thus reduced to a minimum and the efficiency of the men increased to a
maximum. The moral effect of a high order of marksmanship of an entire
police force, when generally known, cannot be overestimated. Practice and
skill in the use of the revolver embodies the essential elements of rifle
shooting, so that in case of riot, insurrection, or war, a large police
force could be made quickly available for duty with very little additional
instruction, by arming them with rifles.

A practical plan to develop such results is as follows: The services of a
competent person to teach the men must first be secured. This man should
be an experienced and skillful marksman with the revolver and be qualified
to maintain proper discipline and teach the subject in all its details. A
suitable range must next be provided. Two men from each precinct selected
for their fitness to become instructors should then be detailed to take a
prescribed course of training and practice under the teacher referred to.
Each of these men should devote not less than four hours a week to this
course. In four months’ time these men should be qualified to undertake
the work of training and instructing others under the inspection and
supervision of the original teacher. After providing sufficient range
facilities, squads of men from each precinct should then be detailed for
practice and instruction under their own instructors, devoting at least
two hours per man per week to this work. At least one and one-half hours
of this time should be devoted to actual practice shooting. After
sufficient skill has been developed, teams of the different precincts
should shoot matches with each other, which will keep up a friendly
rivalry and promote interest in their work.

By adopting such a plan it is possible, within a year from its inception,
to convert an entire police force into perfectly safe and reliable shots
of good ability; _i. e._, such ability as would enable all of them to hit
an object the size of a man every time at 50 paces. The mistake is
sometimes made of requiring the men to practice during off-duty time; this
has never proved successful.

After the first year, or after a sufficient degree of skill has been
developed, the efficiency of the men can be preserved and maintained by
devoting an hour every two weeks to regulation practice. There is little
doubt but that the cost of the time and ammunition devoted to such a
course of training would be more than offset by the elimination of a large
portion of the accidents, litigation, etc., that result under the present
conditions.

Much of the efficiency that it is possible to attain depends upon the
character of the regulation arm that may be adopted for police service.
Such an arm should be of large caliber and sufficient power to fulfil the
requirements. When carried in the pocket the perspiration of the body
causes rust, and a nickel finish will therefore generally be more
serviceable than any other. The sights, hammers and other projections
should be of suitable form, and as referred to in the text under “Pocket
Arms.” In order to secure suitable accuracy, the barrel should be 4 inches
in length and the trigger pull 4 pounds. A first-class weapon for police
service is the .38-caliber Smith & Wesson safety hammerless, the
.38-caliber or .32-caliber Colt Police Positive or the .32 caliber Smith &
Wesson hand ejector revolver. The .38-caliber Smith & Wesson safety
hammerless is particularly well adapted for police service, the safety
feature making accidental discharge almost impossible, and being also a
decided advantage in case the weapon should fall into the hands of an
unskilled antagonist.

In all cases a regulation arm and ammunition should be adopted so as to
secure uniformity and involve the purchase of only one line of supplies
and ammunition.

The following course of instruction and regulations for practice shooting
are recommended:


_Revolver Practice_

_Regulations._--All members of the Department are obliged to practice
shooting with the regulation arm, at least two hours in each calendar
month. The captain of each precinct will designate the time and place for
instruction and practice for each individual under his jurisdiction.

Every member of the department will be expected to qualify in one of the
three classes: Marksman, Sharpshooter, or Expert, and will be rated
accordingly. Decorations of suitable design will be awarded to those
qualifying; the decoration to be worn directly under the shield. Ratings
in any year will be determined by the average scores made by each
individual in the three months prior to January first of that year, on
which date decorations will be awarded annually. A member failing to
qualify in any class shall be rated a Beginner, and if holding a
decoration awarded the preceding year shall surrender same.

All practice shooting shall be in the prescribed order in each class as
given below. Entries unlimited. Each individual must qualify at each stage
before he can be advanced to the next stage. All shooting to be done under
the following:

    _General Conditions._ The position shall be standing, free from any
    support, the weapon being held in one hand with the arm extended so as
    to be free from the body. Target, standard American 200-yd. rifle
    target with 8-in. bullseye, outside dimensions 28½ in. by 28½
    in. Ammunition shall be the regulation full charge, factory loaded,
    brought to the firing point in the original package. Arms shall not be
    loaded except at the firing point, when the competitor is ready to
    shoot his score. All scores to be 10 shots, fired in two strings of 5
    shots each. Slow fire to be timed after the first shot of each string.
    Rapid fire to be timed as follows: The competitor standing at the
    firing point with the arm loaded, not cocked, and the barrel pointing
    downward in a direction not less than 45 degrees from the target, when
    ready to begin each string shall say, “Ready.” The scorer, watch in
    hand, when the second hand reaches an even 10-second point on the
    dial, will give the command “Fire,” _after which_ the competitor
    raises and cocks his weapon and begins his string. Just as the time
    limit for each string expires the scorer shall announce, “Time.” If a
    shot is fired after the time limit has elapsed, the shot of highest
    count shall be deducted from the string. In case of misfire,
    accidental discharge, or defective ammunition, it shall be scored as a
    shot and if the bullet does not strike the target it shall be scored
    zero. Ties and all other details not covered by these conditions to be
    decided by and to comply with the Rules and Regulations of the U. S.
    Revolver Association.

    MARKSMAN COURSE

    _Slow Fire_:--10 shots at 10 yds. One minute for each string of five
    shots. Possible, 100; qualifying score, 90.

    _Rapid Fire_:--10 shots at 10 yds. 30 seconds for each string of five
    shots. Possible, 100; qualifying score, 80

    SHARPSHOOTER COURSE

    _Slow Fire_:--10 shots at 20 yds. One minute for each string of five
    shots. Possible, 100; qualifying score, 90.

    _Rapid Fire_:--10 shots at 20 yds. 30 seconds for each string of five
    shots. Possible, 100; qualifying score, 80.

    EXPERT COURSE

    _Slow Fire_:--10 shots at 20 yds. 30 seconds for each string of five
    shots. Possible, 100; qualifying score, 90.

    _Rapid Fire_:--10 shots at 20 yds. 15 seconds for each string of five
    shots. Possible, 100; qualifying score, 80.

Inasmuch as regular instruction and practice in revolver shooting has been
instituted in only a few of the larger cities of this country, the police
of other cities in the absence of such training, or its equivalent, have
so little knowledge as to the proper use and care of the revolver that the
arm adds little or nothing to their efficiency. To assist such policemen
individually who have the ambition to increase their efficiency by their
own initiative, the following practical suggestions and general rules will
prove helpful:

    GENERAL RULES AND INSTRUCTIONS

    Never point a revolver in any direction where it would do harm if it
    went off accidentally. _Always observe this rule_ whether the arm is
    loaded or not.

    In carrying the loaded revolver on the person see that the hammer
    rests between two cartridges. (Or if of the rebounding hammer type
    have one chamber of the cylinder empty and opposite the hammer.)

    When necessary to use the revolver on vicious dogs, etc., such animals
    should be driven into a rear yard or alley where there is soft ground
    to stop the bullets. Never shoot on the sidewalk or a paved street
    where it can be avoided, on account of the liability of the bullet
    glancing off and doing serious damage. Similarly when firing to
    attract attention, shoot into soft ground or a heavy timber, when
    practicable, instead of into the air.

    Never attempt to shoot while running. Stop for a moment and take
    deliberate aim. The shots will then be effective.

    Thoroughly clean and oil the revolver as soon after using it as
    practicable. If carried on the person regularly it should be
    overhauled and re-oiled inside the barrel and cylinder as well as
    outside, once a week, to keep it in good condition.

    In case regular practice shooting is not provided when on duty,
    practice target shooting when off duty, firing at least 50 shots once
    a month and following the prescribed course as given in this chapter
    as near as possible.



CHAPTER X

PISTOL SHOOTING FOR LADIES


The great majority of ladies have some inherent dread of all varieties of
firearms. This is no doubt largely due to the senseless and irresistible
desire of inexperienced persons to indulge in a mock-heroic display and
flourish of such arms when in the presence of ladies. All useless
demonstration and ostentation with fire arms serves only to distinguish
those who are unfamiliar with their proper manipulation and use. Persons
handling arms in this manner should be avoided, or promptly compelled to
desist. Many of the accidents of the “I did not know it was loaded” order
occur in this manner.

There is nothing occult or mysteriously dangerous about fire arms, but
their potential power must never be forgotten in handling them. As a
weapon of defense the revolver places the weakest and most diminutive
person skilled in its use, on an equality with the most powerful
antagonist. Ladies who travel extensively and visit semi-civilized
countries, especially the wives and daughters of men in the diplomatic
service and of the army and navy officers assigned to foreign stations,
should be thoroughly familiar with fire arms and skilled in their use.

The necessity of knowing how to shoot, like knowing how to swim, may occur
but once in a woman’s lifetime, but when occasion does require either, it
is generally under circumstances involving peril to life, and for that
reason both are advantageous and valuable accomplishments. Every woman
should, therefore, be sufficiently familiar with fire arms to know how to
handle them safely, and, in emergency, to use them with intelligence.
While skill in the use of the pistol and revolver is a useful
accomplishment, the practice of shooting with these arms will prove
exceedingly interesting. Target practice with the .22-caliber pistol is
particularly well suited for ladies, and those who have the opportunity to
indulge in it have invariably found it an enjoyable and fascinating
pastime. There is every reason, too, to believe that ladies would excel
and develop a higher order of skill in pistol shooting than gentlemen,
because they are generally more temperate and possess a more delicate
nervous system.

A number of civilian shooting clubs have successful ladies’ auxiliary
clubs. There are at the present time a large number of ladies who are
skillful markswomen with the pistol and revolver.

[Illustration: Figure 80. Combination Set.--Smith & Wesson .38-Cal.
Revolver, .22-Cal. Pistol, Utensils, etc., in Case.]

Any of the target pistols referred to in the text under the subject of
Arms (except the Remington pistol, which is a very heavy piece) are
suitable for ladies’ use. A very serviceable and handsome combination is
furnished by Smith & Wesson, which consists of their regular target
pistol with a 10-inch barrel and an interchangeable .38-caliber revolver
barrel and cylinder, fitting to the same stock. These are furnished in a
special case with cleaning rods, etc., making a complete and attractive
set. The .22-caliber Smith & Wesson Hand Ejector with a 6-inch barrel and
.22-caliber Colt Police Positive Target revolvers are also well adapted
for ladies’ use.

It is well to begin practice with a .22-caliber pistol, as this is a light
and very pleasant charge to shoot, and the tendency to “flinch” is reduced
to a minimum. After a fair degree of skill has been developed with the
.22-caliber pistol reduced charges with a revolver may be tried and from
this stage the practice shooting can progress to the regulation full
charges. It is desirable that ladies should have a little practice with
the revolver with full charged ammunition, so as to be able to manipulate
it with sufficient confidence and skill in case of necessity.



CHAPTER XI

CLUBS AND RANGES[14]


Whenever three or more persons in any locality are interested in rifle or
revolver shooting, a club can generally be organized and additional
members secured. If the business affairs are properly and conservatively
managed, much pleasure will result for the members at a nominal cost.
Approximate ideas of the cost of constructing and maintaining ranges and
indoor “galleries” can generally be obtained by communicating with the
officers of existing clubs. In preparing the Constitution and By-Laws,
that of the United States Revolver Association will be an excellent
guide.[15] The secretary-treasurer of that association will be able to
give valuable assistance to new clubs.

The first requisite of a shooting club is a suitable range. A 50-yard
range adapted to pistol and revolver practice can be constructed at a
comparatively small expense. At the firing point a room or house should be
provided with booths at least three feet wide with openings facing the
targets. A substantial butt must be supplied behind the targets to stop
the bullets, including the wildest shots. This should be an earthen
embankment, or may be a natural uninhabited hill with a steep slope toward
the range. The range should be measured and laid out by an engineer, or
other competent person using a steel tape. A pit at least 8½ feet deep
should be dug for the safe accommodation of the markers, and provided with
a safely shielded side entrance. The uprights and other target framing
should set against the back side of this pit. The width of the pit from
the framing toward the firing point should be 5 feet, and the length
should be made about 3½ feet for each set of alternating targets. The
alternating target frames to which the targets are to be attached may be
of wood with heavy canvas stretched over them. The frames should be at
least 30 inches square and should be so arranged that they can easily be
moved up and down between the vertical posts in grooves or slides, like
“double-hung” window sash, and so as to balance each other by means of
cords running over pulleys located in the posts at about the height of the
bottom of the target when in its highest position, the cords being
attached to the lower corners of the frames.

They should be so adjusted that when one target is at the top and in
position to be fired at, the other is at the bottom of the pit. Over each
set of alternating targets and attached to a cross piece at the top of the
uprights should be placed large numbers from 3 to 10 inclusive, for
marking each target. A roof or shelter should be erected so as to shade
the target and keep out the rain. Suitable timbers or steel plates should
be provided to protect the slides or grooves between the targets from
damage by wild shots. Steel plates are sometimes placed a short distance
behind the targets, slanting forward at the top, to positively stop the
majority of the bullets, but these must be far enough behind the targets
or inclined sufficiently so that the spatter of lead will not injure the
men in the pit. If possible, have the targets so located that they are due
north of the firing point.

[Illustration: Figure 81. Details of Alternating Targets, Pit, etc., for
50-Yard Range.]

Such a range is operated as follows: A marker is sent into the pit for
each target to be operated; paper targets having been pasted to the
canvas on the frames a sufficient length of time previously so as to be
dry. The marker pulls down one of the targets which raises the other into
the firing position. As soon as the shot is fired, the marker, using a
10-foot rod with an iron disc 2½ inches in diameter fastened on the end
as a pointer “spots” the shot by placing the disc over the bullet hole,
and then pointing to one of the numbers over the target corresponding to
the value of the shot. The disc on the pointer should have one side
painted white so that it can be easily distinguished when covering shots
in the bull’s-eye.

The scorer at the firing point then scores the shot as indicated by the
marker. The marker then raises the target at the bottom of the pit in
position for the next shot, which brings the first target down into the
pit where the marker covers the bullet hole with a paster. This operation
is repeated for each shot.

Where a score of ten consecutive shots is to be made on each paper target
without covering the bullet holes with pasters, as in the United States
Revolver Association Matches, the target is fastened to the frame with
double pointed carpet tacks and left in the firing position until the ten
shot score is completed, each shot being “spotted,” marked, and scored as
fired. When the score is completed, another paper target having been
placed on the alternating frame in the pit, the latter is raised promptly
ready for the next score.

In large cities it is often necessary to provide a suitable range for
target shooting indoors and by artificial light. Such a range is
designated a “gallery.” The standard range is 20 yards for the revolver
and pistol, and 25 yards for the rifle. The arrangement at the firing
point is practically the same as in the case of the 50-yard ranges, the
booths being at least 3 feet wide. On account of the small size of the
target and the short distance, it is feasible to move the target back and
forth, from the firing point to the butt by “trolleys” operated by a hand
wheel, the latter being located generally at the left hand side in the
booth at the firing point. The “trolley” carriage consists of a heavy
steel spring clamp holding a cardboard target (about 9 inches square) at
the top edge of the target, the carriage being supported by a No. 8 or
10-gauge wire stretched from the firing point to the butt, at a level of
about 2 feet above the line of fire. The supporting wires are attached to
the wood-work at the firing point by means of eye-bolts, which also
regulate the tension of the wires. The trolleys are operated back and
forth by an endless braided cord passing around angles over pulleys
screwed to the wood-work of the booth, and around the hand wheel. A steel
plate with the lower part inclined away from the firing point 20 or 30
degrees is placed about 12 inches back of the targets to stop the bullets
and prevent them from gouging out the wall or wood-work behind. By
deflecting the plates as described, the spatter of lead is directed
downward, and thus prevents damage to the wood-work around the targets. A
suitable background behind the targets may be provided by white or light
gray paint, or by a suitable fabric.

[Illustration: Figure 82. Details of Booths at Firing Line, “Trolleys,”
and Butt for Gallery Ranges.]

If the splatter of the bullets mars the targets, a shield of 1-inch boards
can be erected and maintained between the target and the steel plate.

The lighting may be accomplished by a line of gas jets or electric lights
about 2 feet in front of the targets and at the same distance either above
or below them. At least two jets should be used to light each target,
otherwise the flicker of the gas jets makes the light unsatisfactory. The
reflectors should be of tin or other metal, polished or painted white.
Glass is too fragile for this purpose. Heavy timbers or steel plates must
be provided to protect the lights and piping from wild shots. A telescope
is mounted in each booth to enable the marksman to see the location of
shots in the bull’s-eye.

When floor space is limited the rifle ranges can sometimes be located over
the revolver ranges, or the latter, if the range is in a cellar, may be
depressed by constructing a pit of a suitable depth at the firing point.
The booths for rifle shooting and the operation of the targets are
practically the same as already described.

It is best to complete all the work at the target end of the range first.
After the location of the targets is definitely fixed the position of the
firing line can be determined by making the distance from the target to
the firing point two inches in excess of 20 yards or 50 yards as the case
may be. The slight excess distance does not affect the shooting
appreciably, but it is important in order to avoid any possibility of
having scores disqualified in case the range should be questioned and
later be checked or verified and found “short.” It is desirable whenever
possible to have the ranges of the standard lengths especially if matches
with other clubs are contemplated.

The table for cleaning arms, and for tools, should never be placed near
the booths, but on the opposite side of the room, to avoid congestion at
the firing line.

The floor on which the contestants stand at the firing line must be firm
and solid, so as not to vibrate or move when others walk about in close
proximity. A concrete floor covered with a carpet or rug of firm texture
is excellent.

In indoor shooting smokeless powder and reduced charges are always to be
preferred. When artificial ventilation is provided, some shooting may be
done with black powder ammunition, but the range soon fills with smoke,
rendering the targets indistinct and the atmosphere unpleasant. Gallery
practice is very valuable, as it enables one to preserve good form in the
winter months, in localities where it is too cold to shoot with comfort
and pleasure out-of-doors.

The following simple rules should be printed and posted in conspicuous
places in every shooting range or gallery:

    RULES

    Arms shall be unloaded until the contestant is at the firing point.

    Loaded arms shall be handled with the muzzle pointing toward the
    targets.

    Automatic arms shall be used only under the personal direction of the
    Shooting Master.

    Contestants are requested to use the greatest care in handling arms at
    all times.

    The authority of the Shooting Master in charge shall be absolute.

    The rules of the United States Revolver Association shall govern all
    match shooting.

    The above rules must be strictly observed and will be enforced.

[Illustration: Fig. 83. Shooting Gallery of the Crescent Athletic Club,
Brooklyn, N. Y.]

The Walnut Hill Range of the Massachusetts Rifle Association is one of the
best 50-yard revolver ranges in the country. A well-equipped gallery of
up-to-date design is that of the Crescent Athletic Club, Brooklyn, N. Y.



CHAPTER XII

HINTS TO BEGINNERS[16]


_Selection of Arms._--There is no single arm that can be used
advantageously for all classes of shooting. It is therefore necessary in
the first place to decide for what purpose the arm is to be used. A
careful perusal of the text under “Arms” and “Ammunition,” will be of
assistance in reaching a decision. The next step is the selection of the
arm. As already stated, the cheap, unreliable, and unsafe arms are to be
carefully avoided. It is preferable to buy a second-hand arm of a
reputable manufacturer, if in good condition, than a new one of inferior
make. Second-hand arms frequently have defects that cannot be detected by
the novice, and, if obliged to buy a second-hand arm, it is advisable to
ask some expert shot to assist in making the selection. The price of the
best grades of pistols and revolvers is, fortunately, within the reach of
almost every one, and, if at all possible, new arms should be purchased.

In any case, whether a new or a second-hand arm is to be chosen, it is
well to examine and handle all the different models of the best makers.
The fit and feel of the arm are very important. Select an arm that feels
comfortable, and which, when properly held, fits the hand so that the
first joint of the trigger finger just touches the trigger when that part
of the finger is bent at right angles to the barrel.

The correct manner of holding the pistol or revolver is shown in Fig. 84
and illustrates how the hand should fit the arm. Note particularly the
position of the trigger finger and the thumb. The trigger finger in this
position acts directly backward in pressing the trigger, and the thumb
assists materially in steadying the piece. If the piece is too large for
the hand, the trigger finger will be more or less extended, and will pull
side-wise to a greater or less degree, and thus increase the difficulty of
fine shooting. Fig 84a illustrates the approved position of the thumb when
the locking catch interferes with the extended thumb. The fit of the arm
is much more important, and has a vastly greater effect upon the results
than fine distinctions between the merits of the different arms. Any of
those named are excellent and are capable of shooting much more accurately
than they can possibly be held by the most expert shots. A man with a
large hand will probably find the Remington pistol or the Colt New Service
revolver best suited for him; another with a hand of medium size will find
the S. & W. pistol or the S. & W. Russian Model revolver most desirable;
while another still, with a small hand, may prefer the Stevens pistol or
the .38-caliber military revolver, either the S. & W. or the Colt.

If an arm is wanted for steady use, select the plain blue finish, and wood
handles; elaborate engraving and gold, silver, copper, or nickel finished
arms are handsome and pleasing, but, if much used, become burnt and
discolored where the powder gases escape, and soon become unsightly. A
blued finish is also to be preferred when shooting in the sunlight. Most
arms as offered on the market have hard rubber handles. These become
smooth and slippery when the hand perspires, and are not as desirable as
wood handles. A few expert shots prefer pearl handles.

[Illustration: Fig. 84.--Correct Manner of Holding the Revolver with Thumb
Extended]

[Illustration: Fig. 84 a.--Showing Thumb when Locking Catch Interferes
with Extended Position]

The trigger pull should have the smallest possible travel and be smooth
and positive. The smaller the travel of the hammer and the more rapid
its action, the quicker will be the discharge after pulling the trigger.
If the trigger does not pull smooth and “sweet,” or becomes “creepy” from
wear, it should be corrected by a skilled gunsmith. While the rules allow
a trigger pull of 2 pounds for the pistol and 2½ pounds for the target
revolver, many expert shots prefer to have their arm pull from ½ to 1
pound more. The rules also allow 7½ and 8 inch barrels for the
revolver. Many of the experienced shots prefer to have their revolvers
balance near the trigger, and are of the opinion that the extra length of
barrel above 6½ inches does not offset the disadvantage of poorer
balance. In the pistol, however, the length of the barrel is invariably 10
inches. Accuracy in aiming is lost very rapidly as the distance between
the sights is reduced below 7½ inches.

For target shooting, the .22-caliber pistols will be found admirably
suited for beginners. The charge being light, there is less liability to
“flinch,” a fault easily and most invariably acquired when the novice
begins shooting with a heavy charge. The practice in aiming and pulling
the trigger with these arms is excellent training and a first-rate and
valuable preliminary to the more difficult and practical work with the
revolver.

The double-action feature in a revolver is of very little practical value.
Owing to the varying amount of resistance to the trigger in operating the
mechanism, the aim is disturbed more than if the hammer is cocked with the
thumb. Even in rapid-fire shooting better results are obtained with a
double-action arm if used as a single action. It is also more difficult to
make the trigger pull smooth and short in double-action mechanisms.

_Manipulation._--Most of the accidents with firearms are caused by
carelessness and ignorance in manipulating them. The revolver and pistol,
being much smaller, are more dangerous to handle than the rifle or
shotgun. An experienced pistol shot can easily be singled out by the
extreme care and unostentation with which he handles his arms.

On picking up an arm, or if one is handed to you, open the action at once
and make sure it is not loaded. _Always_ do this, even if it is your own
arm and you are quite sure it was not loaded when you last put it away;
some one, without any idea of danger, may have loaded it in your absence.
Cultivate and practise the habit of always holding the arm, whether
loaded or unloaded, so that it points in a direction where it would do no
harm if it were to go off unexpectedly.

By observing these simple rules, serious accidents will be impossible. No
one should be allowed to handle firearms in a shooting club or participate
in any of the public matches until these rules have been thoroughly
mastered.

_Position and Aiming._--If you know of a club or shooting organization to
which one or more first-rate pistol and revolver shots belong, it is well
to join it, if possible. Much more rapid progress can be made by
observation and by following the suggestions of experienced shots than if
one is obliged to solve the various problems without such assistance or
advice. In order to familiarize yourself with your arm, it is well to
practise aiming and pulling the trigger before any actual shooting is
attempted. By inserting an empty shell for the hammer to strike upon, the
piece may be aimed and “snapped” without injury.

The position you adopt is very important. Stand firmly on both feet, with
the body perfectly balanced and turned at such an angle as is most
comfortable when the arm is extended toward the target in aiming. Let the
left arm assume any position that may be comfortable and natural. Select
a small black spot with an extensive white background to sight at. A small
black paster on a window-pane with the sky for a background, is excellent
for this purpose. When the aiming is correct, that is, when the sights are
properly aligned, their position with reference to the spot or bull’s-eye
should be as shown in Fig. 85. The top of the front sight should just make
contact with the lower edge of the bull’s-eye corresponding to the
position of VI o’clock. It has been found by experience that it is less
fatiguing to lower the arm, fully extended, holding the piece, to the
target than to raise it up to the target.

[Illustration: Fig. 85--Correct Position of the Sights in Aiming at the
Target.]

_Firing._--With the pistol or revolver in the right hand cock the hammer
with the thumb, making sure that the trigger finger is free from the
trigger and resting against the forward inner surface of the trigger
guard. In cocking the piece have the barrel pointing upward. Then extend
the arm upward and forward, so that when you assume your firing position
the piece will point about twenty degrees above the bull’s-eye. With your
eyes fixed on the bull’s-eye at VI o’clock inhale enough air to fill the
lungs comfortably and lower the piece gradually until the line of the
sights comes a short distance below the bull’s-eye. Now, holding your
breath and steadying the piece as well as you possibly can, bring the line
of sights into the position shown in Fig. 85. At the same time gradually
increase the pressure on the trigger directly backward, so that when the
sights are pointing at the bull’s-eye the hammer will fall.

Be careful not to pull the trigger with a jerk, but ease it off with a
gentle squeeze, so as not disturb the aim. Accustom yourself not to close
the eye when the hammer falls, but note carefully where the line of the
sights actually points at the instant that the hammer falls. You will, no
doubt, find it almost impossible to pull the trigger at the moment the
sights are just right. The hammer will fall when the line of sights may
point a little too high or too low, or to one side or the other of the
bull’s-eye; but patient practice will correct this, and in time you will
be able to let off the arm at the right moment.

[Illustration: Fig. 86--Showing the Travel of the Line of the Sights About
the Bull’s-eye in Aiming]

The pulling of the trigger is a very delicate operation; it is, in fact,
the most important detail to master--the secret of pistol and revolver
shooting. If the trigger is pulled suddenly, in the usual way, at the
instant when the sights appear to be properly aligned, the aim is so
seriously disturbed that a wild shot will result. To avoid this, the
pressure on the trigger must always be steadily applied, and while the
sights are in line with the bull’s-eye. It is, of course, impossible to
hold the arm absolutely still, and aim steadily at one point while the
pressure is being applied to the trigger; but, in aiming, the unsteadiness
of the shooter will cause the line of the sights to point above the
bull’s-eye, then below it, to one side of it, and then to the other, back
and forth and around it, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 86. Each
time that the line of the sights passes over the bull’s-eye the smallest
possible increment of additional pressure is successively applied to the
trigger until the piece is finally discharged at one of the moments that
the sights are in correct alignment. Long and regular practice alone will
give the necessary training of the senses and muscles to act in sufficient
harmony to enable one to pull the trigger in this way at the right moment
for a long series of shots. A “fine sympathy” must be established between
the hand, the eye, and the brain, rendering them capable of instant
coöperation.

After obtaining a fair idea of aiming, etc., watch carefully when the
hammer falls, and note if it jars the piece and disturbs the aim. If not,
you are holding the arm properly. If the aim is disturbed, you must grip
the arm tighter or more loosely, or move your hand up or down on the
handle, or otherwise change your method of holding the piece until your
“hold” is such that you can snap the hammer and the aim remain
undisturbed. This aiming and snapping drill is largely practised by expert
shots indoors, when they do not have the opportunity to practise
regularly out-of-doors.

_Target Practice._--If your first actual shooting is done at the range of
a club, it is best to ask one of the members to coach you until you get
accustomed to the rules, etc. A target will be assigned to you, and you
will repair to the firing point and load your arm. It is well to let your
coach fire the first shot or two, to see if your piece is sighted
approximately right. If so, you are ready to begin shooting. If the sights
appear to be as in Fig. 85 at the moment of discharge, then the bullet
should hit the center of the bull’s-eye. If, after several shots, you are
convinced that the bullet does not strike where it should, the arm is not
properly sighted for you.

In adjusting the sights you will find it an advantage to remember a very
simple rule: To correct the rear sight, move it in the same direction as
you would the shots on the target to correct them, or move the front sight
in the opposite direction. Most target arms have the front sight
non-adjustable, and the rear sight adjustable for both windage and
elevation. A few arms have interchangeable or adjustable front sights for
elevation. Move the sights a little at a time, according to the foregoing
rules, until they are properly aligned. A few ten-shot scores should then
be fired for record. As you become accustomed to the range, rules, etc.,
you will feel more at ease. This will inspire confidence, and your
shooting will improve correspondingly.

Do not have your sights too fine. Fine sights are much more straining on
the eyes, and have no advantage over moderately coarse sights. The rear
sights as generally furnished are purposely made with very small notches,
so as to enable individuals to make them any desired size.

It is well to have the trigger pull at least ¼ of a pound greater than
the minimum allowed by the rules. If much used, the pull sometimes wears
lighter; and if there is little or no margin, you run the risk of having
your arm disqualified when you wish to enter an important match.

Never use other ammunition in your arm than that for which it is
chambered. A number of accidents and much difficulty have resulted from
wrong ammunition. In the same caliber the actual diameter of the bullets
frequently varies considerably, and a few shots, even if they should not
prove dangerous, may lead the barrel, and thus cause much delay and
annoyance. When a barrel is “leaded” from any cause it will become
inaccurate. In such cases, particles of lead usually adhere to the inside
of the barrel at or near the breech. A brass wire brush, of suitable size
to fit the barrel, will generally remove it. When this fails, carefully
remove all oil, cork up the opposite end of the barrel and fill it with
mercury, letting the latter remain in the barrel until the lead is
removed.

Occasionally the powder is accidentally omitted in loading a cartridge.
When the primer explodes, the bullet may be driven partly through the
barrel and remain in it. When this happens, whether from this cause or any
other, always be careful to push the bullet out of the barrel before
firing another shot. If the bullet is not removed, and another shot is
fired, the barrel will be bulged and ruined. This may occur with a light
gallery charge.

When shooting the .22-caliber long rifle cartridge, there will be an
occasional misfire. In withdrawing the cartridge the bullet will stick in
the barrel and the powder spill into the action. To prevent this, hold the
barrel vertically, with the muzzle up, and withdraw the shell carefully.
Then remove the bullet in the barrel with a cleaning rod; or extract the
bullet from a new cartridge, inserting the shell filled with powder into
the chamber back of the bullet and fire it in the usual manner.

Do not use BB caps in any pistol that you value. They are loaded with a
composition of fulminate of mercury in combination with other substances
that cause rusting and the bullets have no lubrication. These caps will
ruin a barrel in a very short time. The .22-caliber conical ball caps are
loaded with black powder, and the bullets are lubricated, making this a
much better cartridge; but it is best to adhere to the regular .22
ammunition for which the arm is chambered.

Never under any circumstances shoot at objects on the heads or in the
hands of persons. There is always a possibility of something going wrong,
and such risk to human life is unjustifiable, no matter how skilful you
may be.

It is necessary to exercise extreme care in practising with the pocket
revolver. Some persons delight in practising quick drawing from the pocket
and firing one or more shots. This is dangerous work for the novice to
attempt. Most of the pocket weapons are double action. If the finger is on
the trigger and the arm catches in the pocket when drawing, a premature
discharge is likely to result, which is always unpleasant and sometimes
disastrous. Practice in drawing the revolver from the pocket or holster
should always be begun with the arm unloaded. Only after a fair degree of
skill is acquired should actual shooting be attempted. For quick drawing
from the pocket the only double-action revolvers that are fairly safe to
handle are the S. & W. Safety Hammerless, and the Colt “Double Action,”
which has a safety notch for the hammer to rest on.

Drawing a revolver from a holster is easier and much less dangerous than
drawing it from the pocket. Larger and more practical arms are generally
carried in holsters, and such arms should be single action in all cases.
In practising with a holster weapon, fasten the holster on the belt, and
anchor the belt so that the holster will always be at the same relative
position. The holster should be cut out so that the forefinger can be
placed on the trigger in drawing. Always carry a loaded revolver with the
hammer resting on an empty chamber or between two cartridges.

In the woods, or in localities where such shooting would not be likely to
do any harm, it is good practice to shoot at a block of wood drifting down
in the current of a swift-flowing stream, at a block of wood or a tin can
swinging like a pendulum, from horseback at stationary and moving
objects, and from a moving boat at similar objects. Such practice is
largely indulged in by cowboys, ranchmen, and others in the western part
of the United States. The shooting is generally rapid-fire work with heavy
charges at short range, and is to be commended as being extremely
practical.

Many of the published reports of wonderful shooting are gross
exaggerations. The prowess of the so-called “Gun Men” of New York and
other large cities is greatly over-estimated. These criminals do not
practice shooting with the fire arms they use but operate by stealth and
intrigue which makes them dangerous. They are, in fact, very poor
marksmen, few of them being able to hit an object the size of a man more
than 15 or 20 feet away.

In shooting a long series of shots with black powder ammunition, when the
rules allow it, the barrel should be cleaned and examined every six or ten
shots, depending upon the clean-shooting qualities of the ammunition used.
It is well to examine the shells, also, and note if the primers have been
struck in the center. If not, then some of the mechanism is out of line,
and the parts likely to have caused the trouble must be cleaned.

After securing good, reliable arms, stick to them. Much time and progress
is frequently lost by buying and trying different arms, ammunition, etc.
If in any of your shooting, you should get results that are peculiar and
unsatisfactory, make it your business to find out the cause of the
difficulty, and remedy it as soon as possible.

“Blazing away” a large quantity of ammunition carelessly and recklessly is
absolutely valueless as practice, and is a waste of time. Give your whole
attention to your work, and try your very best to place every shot in the
center of the bull’s-eye.

It is very important to keep a full, detailed record of all your shooting,
for comparison, study, etc. A suitable book should be provided for this
purpose. Do not fall into the habit of preserving only a few of the best
scores; but make it a rule to keep a record of _every shot_, and figure
out the average of each day’s work. The more painstaking and systematic
you are, the more rapid will be your progress. By careful, intelligent
work, it is possible to become a fair shot in three or four months, and a
first-rate shot in a year.

_Matches and Competitions._--After a number of good shots have been
developed in any club, there is generally a desire to measure skill with
the members of another club. This leads to friendly matches, which are
usually very enjoyable and instructive. Shooting in a match places a man
under a certain strain which affects individuals quite differently; some
become nervous and shoot poorly when the best work is expected of them,
while others are braced up by the occasion and shoot more brilliantly than
under ordinary conditions.

Before competing in any match be sure to _thoroughly familiarize yourself
with all the conditions_. This will prevent mistakes that frequently
disqualify competitors and lead to disagreeable controversies. Avoid
getting into any arguments or disputes with range officers, or officials
in charge of the matches, and particularly while the matches are in
progress. The range officers are invariably extremely busy and it is
unjust to the other competitors to usurp more of their time than is your
proper portion. They are generally intelligent men who have been selected
because of their fitness for the positions they hold, and their decisions
and rulings should be accepted as final. If for good cause you should wish
to protest against any decision or ruling of an officer in charge, do it
in a quiet and gentlemanly way, and whether the rules require it or not,
such protest should be made in writing.

Beginners, as well as those who keep up their practice shooting, should
enter the annual championships of the U. S. Revolver Association each
year. These events are conducted by the Association in different parts of
the country simultaneously, under as nearly identical conditions as
possible. By this arrangement, long and expensive journeys to one place of
meeting are avoided, and all those interested in the sport can participate
without serious inconvenience.

Competing in these events is extremely advantageous and beneficial. It
enables the beginner not only to note his improvement from year to year,
but affords training and experience in shooting under real match
conditions, and will correct any misinterpretation of the rules. The more
experienced shot, by entering these contests is enabled to compare his
skill with that of the leading marksmen of the country, and accurately
determine his position among them from year to year.

Persons wishing to compete in the annual championships should practice
regularly throughout the year under the conditions of the matches; firing
the full number of shots and _within the specified time limits_ in all
cases.

The National Pistol Match and the National Rifle Association matches are
generally held at some selected state or government range, and at a
certain specified time. All the contestants are, therefore, shooting on
the same ground and approximately under the same conditions. All these
matches are shot in the open; i. e. without shelter or protection from the
wind. When shooting under these conditions in the glaring sunlight, it is
a decided advantage to wear suitable, colored large-lensed spectacles to
temper the light and rest the eyes. The sights and top surfaces of the
barrel should be smoked or blackened to prevent the reflection of light.
This may be accomplished by burning a small piece of gum camphor, which
makes an excellent smoke for this purpose, or by painting with “sight
black.” A wide brimmed hat will also add to the shooter’s comfort in the
bright sunlight. Nailed or rubber soles for the boots or shoes are to be
preferred because they do not wear slippery.

In squadded competitions the weather conditions must be accepted as they
are at the time of the shooting. In re-entry and individual matches the
time of the shooting is sometimes optional with the competitor. When this
is the case it is a decided advantage to select a time when the
conditions of light, wind, etc., are most favorable. On normal clear days,
the early forenoon, or just before sunset, are generally the most
favorable for suitable light. The wind generally slacks up to a certain
degree also just before sundown. Immediately after a shower the conditions
are sometimes excellent.

The position of the target with reference to the sun must also be taken
into consideration. It is generally best to shoot directly toward or
directly away from the sun. Rapid-fire shooting in a gusty wind is perhaps
more difficult than under any other conditions. When the wind is steady
one can brace up against it and do fair shooting, but when it is unsteady
there will invariably be some wild shots. In deliberate untimed shooting
one can wait for a lull and get the shots in during such brief intervals.

In practising rapid-fire shooting, great care is necessary in order to
prevent accidents, especially in the case of the automatic pistols, which
remain cocked and ready to pull the trigger after each shot. In shooting
within a time limit, practise to use the entire period and endeavor to do
the best possible work, getting in the last shot just before the end of
the period.

In team matches always follow the instructions and suggestions of your
team captain implicitly. Coöperate with him to the limit of your ability
in developing the best and most consistent work of each member of the
team. Always remember that the high _average_ shooting of a team wins more
matches than the brilliant shooting of an individual.

In training for matches be abstemious and maintain good physical
condition. If your liver is torpid it must be stimulated. Do not tire
yourself with too much practice shooting. One or two hours practice daily
is generally ample.

_Cleaning and Care of Arms._--To maintain the highest efficiency in an
arm, it is necessary to keep it in perfect order. The working parts must
be kept clean and oiled, and the barrel should receive special attention
and care. The residue of some powders is less injurious than that of
others, but the arm should in all cases be cleaned and oiled immediately
after it has been used. The cleaning should be thorough. Heavy cotton
flannel is excellent for this purpose. It should be perfectly dry. Much of
the fouling will rub off without moisture, but if moisture is necessary to
soften the fouling in places, use thin oil. Never use water, ordinary
kerosene, or similar fluids. For certain kinds of smokeless powders,
cleaning fluids have been prepared that give good results. Be careful to
use the special fluid that is adapted to the particular powder used, as
the wrong fluid may not accomplish the desired results.

A good cleaning fluid for many of the Nitro Powders, such as “Bullseye,”
“R. S. Q.,” “Walsrode” etc., is Dr. Hudson’s nitro solvent formula, as
follows:

  Astral oil (or Kerosene free from acid)    2 fluid ounces
  Sperm oil                                  1 fluid ounce
  Acetone                                    1 fluid ounce
  Turpentine                                 1 fluid ounce

    NOTE.--To make sure that the kerosene or Astral oil is free from acid,
    it can be shaken up with some washing soda, which will neutralize any
    free acid that may have been present.

To clubs, or those who wish to make up a cleaning fluid in quantities, the
above will prove very effective and inexpensive.

For cleaning the inside of the barrel a wooden rod is best. It should have
a knob on the end of such size that one or two thicknesses of the cotton
flannel around it will fit the bore snug and tight. Square patches of
suitable size may then be cut in quantities and used as required. Clean
from the breech end of the barrel whenever possible. The slightest burr or
injury at the muzzle will spoil the accuracy of an otherwise good barrel.
Particular care should be exercised, especially if a steel rod with a slot
is used, to prevent the wad from “jamming” in the barrel. Continue
cleaning the inside of the barrel until tight-fitting patches, when
withdrawn, show no discoloration, and the barrel is warm from the friction
of the cleaning. Then saturate a fresh patch with good oil and pass it
through the barrel several times, making sure that the entire surface of
the grooves has been thoroughly coated with oil. After the cylinder and
other parts are cleaned, they should also be oiled.

A good oil for cleaning is “Three in One”; for preventing rust, use
Winchester Gun Grease or refined sperm oil. Plenty of oil should be kept
on the circle of teeth in which the pawl engages in revolving the
cylinder. If smokeless ammunition is used, the oil should be removed from
the interior of the barrel and the chambers of the cylinder, a day or two
after the first cleaning, and fresh oil applied.

In warm weather, when the air is humid, arms rust very quickly. If they
are not kept in an air-tight compartment, they should be inspected, and,
if necessary, re-oiled every few days. Under favorable conditions, a
thorough cleaning and oiling will preserve the arm in good condition for a
month.

If it is desired to store the arms, or protect them for long periods of
time, the interior surfaces of the frame, and all the mechanism, should
be carefully cleaned and oiled, and then the entire space within the frame
filled solid with non-liquid grease, like the Winchester “gun grease.”
After cleaning the barrel and cylinder, the bore and chambers in the
cylinder should be filled solid with the grease. This treatment excludes
the air, and absolutely prevents oxidation. The exterior should be oiled,
and then coated heavily with “gun grease.” Place the arm in a dry woollen
cloth, or flannel cover, and wrap it up in a double thickness of new
manila paper of the weight of ordinary writing paper. Repeat this,
wrapping twice more, each wrapping independent of the other. Then lay the
arm in a dry place, where the temperature will always be uniform, and not
so warm as to melt the grease. An arm protected in this way will remain in
good condition for a period of two years.

Another method of protecting weapons from rust is to immerse them in oil.
The wood or rubber stocks should be removed and the arms suspended from a
rack in a large glass jar with a ground glass cover to prevent the
evaporation of the oil. This is a very quick and effective method and is
much more convenient than the preceding plan. The best quality of refined
sperm oil should be used.



CHAPTER XIII

RELOADING AMMUNITION


The factory-loaded ammunition for pistols is so excellent that little is
to be gained by hand loading. It is sometimes desirable, however, to use
special loads that are not furnished by the factories, and such ammunition
must be loaded by hand. Then, too, many persons prefer to reload
ammunition for economical reasons. In order to do this successfully,
considerable experience and skill are necessary. The first attempts at
reloading are invariably unsatisfactory and disappointing, and sometimes
result disastrously. Extreme care and close attention to details are
absolutely essential, especially if smokeless powders are used. It is much
the safest and best plan for those who are unfamiliar with reloading to
observe and study the methods used by skilled persons, and, if possible,
have their first work supervised by an experienced person.

_Primers._--The primers are made of copper and brass and are adapted for
either black or smokeless powders. The primers for pistol and revolver
cartridges are made more sensitive than for rifle cartridges. If, by
mistake, rifle-cartridge primers are used, there are likely to be many
misfires. The original pasteboard boxes in which the cartridges or shells
are purchased invariably have labels designating the kind of primer that
should be used in reloading them.

The quality of the primers affects the results to a much greater degree
than most persons imagine, especially in reduced or gallery charges. In
handling or in transportation the priming composition is sometimes
loosened, dropping out of some of the primers and leaving them
considerably weaker than the rest. On opening a new box, empty it
carefully, and if any appreciable quantity of loose priming is found, the
primers should not be used for ammunition intended for fine shooting.

_Shells._--The shells are generally made of brass with a solid head
containing a pocket for a primer. There is considerable variation in the
thickness of the metal from which shells are made by the various
manufacturers. Since the outside dimensions must be the same in order to
fit the chamber, it follows that the inside diameter of the shells will
vary. When the shell is to be crimped a slight difference in the size is
unimportant, but for fine target work using black powder, it is preferable
not to crimp the shell. In the latter case the bullet must fit
sufficiently tight so that it will not be dislodged by the recoil of the
arm.

The size of the bore, when adapted to the same cartridge, varies a trifle,
also, with different manufacturers. With the slight difference in the size
of the shells it is therefore generally possible to select a make of shell
the size of which will be just right to hold snugly in position by
friction a bullet that exactly fits the bore of the arm. These refinements
in the fit of the bullet and shell are important in securing good results
with reduced loads.

In pistol and revolver shooting, the shells may be reloaded many times
with smokeless powders. The small charge and the consequent reduced
pressure do not seem to render the shells brittle and unsuitable for
reloading, as is the case with the shells of many of the high-pressure
rifle cartridges.

_Bullets._--In the large ammunition factories the bullets are made by the
swaging process, with heavy machinery. They are, in consequence, very
uniform in density and size. They are packed in boxes of twenty-five and
fifty and are lubricated ready for use. While very few persons are able to
mould bullets as good as those factory-made, when bullets of a particular
shape, weight, or temper are desired, they must be moulded.

The Ideal Manufacturing Company’s dipper and melting pot[17] are useful
for this purpose. The best quality of lead in bars or pigs should be used.
If the bullets are to be hardened, “block tin,” which may be had at any
hardware store is alloyed with the lead. Weigh the proper quantity of each
metal to give the desired proportions. Melt the lead in the pot over a
steady fire and then add the tin. At this stage add a small quantity of
tallow or beeswax to the molten metal (about the size of a .45-caliber
round bullet) and stir briskly with the dipper. This will flux the mixture
and make it flow better. After both are melted immerse the dipper and
allow it to acquire the temperature of the melted lead. Then fill the
dipper and, with the nozzle horizontal, raise it two or three inches above
the surface of the lead in the pot. With the mould in the other hand,
turn it sidewise and bring the pouring hole of the mould to the nozzle of
the dipper. Then, with the mould and dipper in contact, tilt or turn both
in this position until the dipper is over the mould and the nozzle
vertical as shown.

[Illustration: Fig. 87.--Moulding Bullets.]

The weight or pressure of the lead in the dipper is thus utilized to force
the lead into and completely fill the corners of the mould. It will be
necessary to mould forty or fifty bullets before the mould acquires the
proper temperature and casts first-class bullets. All imperfect bullets
should be thrown back into the melting-pot. Experience has shown that the
best results are obtained when the lead and mould are at such temperature
that two or three seconds elapse before the lead solidifies in the pouring
hole after the nozzle has been removed from it. Do not allow the lead to
get red-hot, as it oxidizes very rapidly and more dross forms on its
surface at that temperature. The dross should be skimmed off frequently
and not allowed to collect in the dipper. A new mould will not cast
perfect bullets until the surfaces in contact with the lead are free from
oil and have become oxidized, assuming a deep blue color.

Provide a soft surface for the bullets to fall upon after releasing them
from the mould, as they are easily deformed while hot. The sliding top or
“cut-off” should be operated by pressing down the lever end on a board or
table, or striking the lever with a small wooden mallet. The mould is then
opened, and the bullet drops out. If the bullet sticks in the mould,
strike the empty half of the mould on the outside, directing the blow
toward the bullet. This will jar the bullet out of the mould without
difficulty. Never strike the mould with a hammer or any hard substance,
and never attempt to pry a bullet out of the mould or touch the interior
surface with an iron implement, tool, or anything that will mar it. The
least indentation of the sharp edges of the mould will cause the bullets
to stick and make them imperfect. After using the mould, oil the exterior
and the surfaces of the joint while warm, wrap in a dry cloth, and keep in
a dry place where it will not rust. It is a good plan to leave the last
bullet (with the neck cut off) in the mould until used again.

The fit of the bullets is very important. Nearly all the bullets for
revolver cartridges were originally designed to be used with black powder.
Many of them were slightly under size and have concave bases which upset
sufficiently, on the ignition of the regulation powder charge, to fill the
grooves of the barrel. Reduced charges of black powder, and smokeless
powders, even in full charges, seldom upset the bases of these bullets,
and the powder gas escapes around the sides of the bullet, which is known
as “gas cutting.” This is fatal to accuracy. For smokeless powders and
reduced loads the concave cavity at the base of the bullet must be large
enough to reduce the thickness of the outer rim of the bullet and weaken
it so it will be expanded sufficiently by the powder to fill the grooves
of the barrel; or the diameter of the bullet should be increased so as to
produce the same effect.

A simple test to determine the fit of the bullet is to force it into a
clean barrel, and then hold the barrel in the direction of a window or
bright light. If light can be seen in any of the grooves around the
bullet, it is too small for smokeless powder. The remedy is to have the
bullet mould reamed out and enlarged so the bullets will be the proper
size.

To determine the actual diameter of the bore of a pistol or revolver, oil
the inside of the barrel liberally and then force a bullet into it a
couple of inches. With a short wooden cleaning rod, hold the bullet in
that position while you drive against it with another rod from the
opposite direction, swaging it so as to fill the barrel. This must be done
gently and carefully so as not to strain or injure the barrel. The bullet
is then driven out and carefully measured with a micrometer gauge.

Many who mould their own bullets prefer to order the mould to cast the
bullets the exact size to fit the barrel; while others prefer to have the
mould cast the bullet one or two thousandths of an inch too large, and
then pass them through a sizing tool, reducing them to the correct size.
The latter method insures absolute uniformity.

For smokeless powders the bullets are generally cast a little harder than
for black powder, the proportions being from 30 to 1, to 20 to 1, of lead
and tin, respectively. To secure good results, the bullets should not
vary more than 1/200 in weight.

The next operation after moulding the bullets is to lubricate them. A good
lubricant may be prepared by melting together 1½ lbs. of Japan wax, 1
lb. of mutton tallow, and 1 lb. of vaseline. The bullets should be set in
a shallow pan, bases down, and with a small space separating them. The
lubricant can then be poured around them until it rises high enough to
fill the top cannelure. After cooling, the bullets are cut out of the
lubricant by forcing them into the mouth of a specially prepared shell
with the top or head cut off. Each bullet is picked up in this way and
then pushed out with a round rod. Any lubricant on the base of the bullet
should be removed with a cloth before loading. An excellent machine for
lubricating bullets is made by the Ideal Manufacturing Company. The
machine sizes and lubricates the bullet at one operation. It is rapid,
clean, and performs the work perfectly.

_Powders._--American powder manufacturers have no uniform practice in
regard to designating the different grades of powder, sizes of grains,
etc. The powders that give the best results under certain conditions must
therefore be classified. The following black powders are best suited for
ammunition in which the charge is ten to twenty grains:

American Powder Mills Rifle Cartridge No. 4.

Hazard Powder Company’s “Kentucky Rifle F F G.”

E. I. Dupont de Nemours & Company’s “Dupont Rifle F F G.”

Laflin & Rand Powder Company’s “Orange Rifle Extra F F G.”

King Powder Company’s “Semi-smokeless F F G.”

When the charge is less than ten grains in weight, one size finer grain of
the above powders should be used; and for charges heavier than twenty
grains, one size coarser grain will give the best results.

Lesmok powder, now so extensively used for .22-caliber rim fire
ammunition, is a combination of black powder with high-grade gun-cotton.

For reduced or gallery charges, the high-grade quick-burning shotgun
powders are sometimes used, such as “Hazard’s Electric,” “Dupont’s Diamond
Grain,” etc. These powders should not be used in full charges, and if
compressed in the shell will give very irregular shooting.

Smokeless powder differs from black not only in composition but also in
the phenomena that attend combustion. Special conditions are therefore
created which have an important bearing on the results. Smokeless powders
are divided into two general classes, designated as “bulk” and “dense,”
the former having approximately the same strength as an equal bulk of
black powder, while the same quantity by bulk of the latter may have from
five to ten times the strength of black powder.

The bulk powders may be used very much the same as black powder, except
that they should never be compressed. No air space is required between the
powder and the bullet. Dupont’s Smokeless Rifle Powder No. 2 and Hazard’s
Smokeless Rifle Powder No. 2 are good examples of the bulk powders.
Dupont’s R. S. Q. is a bulk powder that has recently been introduced. It
gives fair results in pistol and revolver ammunition in full charges, but
is not as well adapted for reduced or gallery loads. It requires an air
space for the best results.

The dense powders, such as Bullseye, Du Pont Pistol No. 3, Walsrode, and
others, on account of their concentrated form, must be manipulated with
great care and precision. The same quantity by bulk as black powder of any
of these would in many cases cause disaster. Special shells with an
annular crease, which only admits the bullet a certain distance into the
mouth of the shell, and providing an air space, should in all cases be
used with these powders.

Nearly all varieties of smokeless powders require a certain amount of
confinement in order to secure complete combustion, and do not give good
results unless the shell is crimped securely to the bullet.

A table giving the proper charges is supplied by all the manufacturers of
smokeless powders, suitable for revolver and pistol shooting. These
charges should in no case be increased. If it is desired to adapt a
smokeless charge to a special bullet, which gives good results with black
powder, the approximate equivalent in smokeless powder can easily be
calculated from the powder company’s table of charges. If the calculated
charge does not give good results, compare the penetration of the
smokeless charge with the black powder charge, and modify the former until
it gives approximately the same penetration as the latter. If this does
not correct the difficulty, the fit of the bullet should be investigated,
and possibly it may have to be increased in size slightly and hardened
before the best results will be obtained.

No attempt should be made to secure higher velocities or greater
penetration with the ordinary lead bullet than is obtained with black
powder. Such results can only be produced with hard alloy or jacketed
bullets, special rifling, etc., and in arms designed to withstand the
severe conditions incident to such augmented effects. Excessive charges in
regulation arms, besides being extremely dangerous, are likely to cause
the bullet to strip the rifling and lead the barrel.

The most recent activity in the matter of smokeless powders is the series
of experiments with the U. S. Government pyro-cellulose formula. The
powders are cut to such dimensions as will fit them for both pistol and
rifle cartridges. This powder has the advantage of causing much less
erosion than the nitro-glycerine powders and for that reason will probably
appeal to the ammunition manufacturers and consumers, to such an extent as
to secure its adoption, if the experiments now in progress prove to be
satisfactory from a ballistic standpoint.

_Reloading._--Suitable tools for reloading are furnished by the Ideal
Manufacturing Company, Smith & Wesson, and the Winchester Repeating Arms
Company. These usually consist of one or more combination tools, with
which the various operations may be performed with rapidity and
precision.

In reloading ammunition the one thing to be borne in mind above all else
is _uniformity_. No matter how excellent may be the quality of the powder,
or how perfect the bullets, if there is any variation in quantity, size,
etc., the results will surely be irregular and disappointing. The bullets
should be of the same diameter and weight, the mouth of the shells of
uniform size, the powder accurately measured, and all the details in the
operation of loading each shell should be as nearly identical as it is
possible to make them.

Shells that have been loaded with black powder will corrode very rapidly
if not properly and promptly cared for. The primer should be extracted
from the shells as soon as practicable after firing. The shells should
then be immersed in hot soap-suds and stirred around briskly until
thoroughly washed. If it is desired to brighten them or to remove
corrosion, add one tablespoonful of sulphuric acid to each quart of suds.
Rinse the shells in two clean boiling waters by agitating them as before,
and then dry them by exposure to sunlight or mild heat. Intense heat will
draw the temper of the shells and ruin them.

If the shells were originally crimped they will have to be opened with the
tool so as to admit the bullet without shaving off or abrading its
surface. The Ideal Manufacturing Company can furnish a special plug,
screwed to the tool, by which the primer may be extracted and the mouth of
the shell opened in one operation, the tool automatically releasing the
shell from the plug, thus making the operation of opening the mouth of the
shell rapid and easy. In the case of smokeless powders the cleaning of the
shells is not so important, but is desirable, as some of the powders leave
a sticky residue which interferes more or less with the reloading process.

After the shells have been cleaned and dried the new primers may be placed
in position. In doing this be sure to seat them firmly on the bottom of
the pocket and below the surface of the head of the shell. This will
prevent misfires and premature explosions.

The measuring of the powder charge is the most important detail in
reloading ammunition. There are several devices to measure powder that are
convenient and fairly accurate. Those furnished by the Ideal Manufacturing
Company, designated as No. 5 or No. 6, and those made by H. M. Pope are
the best.[18]

The usual method is to measure the powder with a charge cup that is
supplied with the reloading tools. A quantity of the powder should be
poured from the can into a small box and the charge cup dipped into it and
filled. With a thin lead-pencil tap the cup lightly two or three times on
the side to settle the powder uniformly. If the powder settles below the
top of the cup dip the cup into the powder again and fill it, being
careful not to tilt the cup so as to disturb the powder already in it.
Strike off the powder in the cup with the pencil and pour it into the
shell. By measuring the powder in this way and verifying it by weighing
each charge in a delicate balance, a high degree of skill may be acquired
in a short time. Ordinary revolver charges should not vary more than
one-tenth of a grain in weight.

The charge cup method is preferred by many in measuring smokeless powders,
as some varieties, being coarse grained and light in weight, are liable to
form large voids. Such voids are invariably corrected when the charge cup
is tapped and the powder settles.

After the desired quantity of shells has been primed and charged with
powder, the bullets, properly lubricated, are started into the shells by
hand and then one by one the cartridges are placed in the reloading tool,
which seats the bullet and crimps the shell.

In reduced black powder charges, when the bullet is seated below the mouth
of the shell, the tool should be adjusted so as not to crimp the shell.

In loading cartridges in which the shells are not crimped on the bullets,
it is very important that both the shells and the bullets should be
absolutely uniform in size, so that the fit, and consequently the
friction, of the bullets in the shell will be the same in all cases. By
reloading some of the shells oftener than others or with different
charges, the expansion of the shells will vary and the bullets will fit
more or less tightly. Such ammunition when fired will vary in elevation.
It is well to begin with new shells using the same load in them and
reloading them the same number of times. Even with the same charge and
under apparently identical conditions a few of the shells will expand
differently. This variation will, however, be readily discovered in
seating the bullets with the tool. Cartridges in which the bullets seat
with greater or less effort than the average should be carefully separated
from the rest and not used when fine shooting is required.

In reloading ammunition with spherical or “round” bullets the neck of the
bullet should be up, opposite the powder side. In this position the neck
is always in sight, and any turning of the bullet so as to bring the neck
on the side and in contact with the barrel will be apparent and can be
corrected. All round bullets should be at least 1/1000 of an inch larger
in diameter than the bottom of the grooves of the barrel. This causes them
to deform slightly on the circle of contact with the barrel, and creates a
narrow cylindrical surface around the bullet, securing a better bearing
and greatly increasing the accuracy. It also insures the tight fitting of
the bullet in the shell, preventing it from being displaced by the recoil.
If round bullets fit loosely, or if there is the slightest imperfection in
the bullet where it comes in contact with the shell or the barrel,
“gas-cutting” will result and hot lubricant is liable to pass by the
bullet into the powder charge. In either case the accuracy is impaired.

When round bullets are used, the lubricant must be applied after they have
been seated. This can best be done with a small brush. The brush is dipped
into melted lubricant and then passed around the bullet where it is in
contact with the shell. Too much lubricant is undesirable. At least
three-quarters of the surface of the bullet should project above the
lubricant. By keeping the lubricant at a constant temperature, the
quantity adhering to the brush will be approximately the same and the
results uniform.

In reduced loads, when black powder or “bulk” smokeless powder is used,
the bullets may be seated so as to just touch the powder charge; never so
as to compress it. When “dense” smokeless powder is used, a suitable air
space must always be provided. This is necessary both when round or
conical bullets are used.

With all forms of conical bullets and when using either “dense” or “bulk”
smokeless powder, in full or reduced charges, better results are
invariably obtained by seating the bullets in the regulation position and
crimping the shells moderately and uniformly on the middle of the front
band of the bullet.

Ammunition for automatic pistols may also be reloaded by hand, but there
is much less economy than in reloading other ammunition. When the full
charge is used, a metal-cased bullet is required which must be purchased
from the manufacturers. Reduced loads with lead bullets will operate in
some of the pistols only. An overcharge of powder for a lead bullet will
lead the barrel and is liable to cause difficulty with the mechanism, and
accidents. Only experienced persons familiar with the operations of
loading the rimless shells and whether or not the arms will operate with
the charges they propose to use, should attempt reloading this
ammunition.



APPENDIX I

THE UNITED STATES REVOLVER ASSOCIATION


This Association was founded on March 5, 1900, and incorporated in
January, 1904. It is the recognized national organization of the revolver
and pistol marksmen of the United States of America.

Its objects are: to foster and develop revolver and pistol shooting; to
establish and preserve records; to classify arms; and to encourage and
conduct friendly matches between members and clubs in this country, as
well as with the marksmen of other countries.

The officers of the Association, excepting the secretary, serve without
pay. There is no initiation fee. The annual dues are only $1.00. The
membership, scattered from Maine to the Philippines, Alaska to the Canal
Zone, includes all the well-known shots of the country.

The Association has conducted five international revolver matches, all of
which were won by the United States. It selects the members of and is
responsible for the United States teams in the Olympic and all other
international matches. It has established the Annual Outdoor and Indoor
Championship Matches, the U. S. R. A. Indoor League and provided suitable
trophies and medals. It has formulated uniform rules and regulations
governing pistol and revolver shooting. In the record books of the
Association are inscribed and preserved all the scores in the Annual
Championship Contests, the individual and team league series, the scores
of contestants, shooting for rating medals and the “best on record”
performances, together with details concerning the arms and ammunition
used. The Association also publishes the _U. S. R. A. Bulletin_, a monthly
devoted to all subjects of interest to the members, the subscription for
which is included in the annual dues.

The Association is financially self-supporting. It has an increasing
surplus in the treasury, which is devoted to the purchase of new trophies
for additional matches.

All who are interested in pistol and revolver shooting, and who are in
sympathy with the aims and purposes of the Association, are cordially
invited to join it. Forms of application for membership and other
information will be supplied by the Secretary-Treasurer on request.

The officers of the Association for 1915 are as follows:

  President: Col. W. H. WHIGAM, Chicago, Ill.
  1st Vice-President: Capt. R. H. SAYRE, New York, N. Y.
  2nd Vice-President: C. C. CROSSMAN, St. Louis, Mo.
  3rd Vice-President: C. W. LINDER, San Francisco, Cal.
  4th Vice-President: Dr. R. J. MULLIKIN, Baltimore, Md.
  5th Vice-President: Dr. H. E. SEARS, Boston, Mass.
  Secretary-Treasurer: J. B. CRABTREE, Yalesville, Conn.


CONSTITUTION

ARTICLE I--_Name_

The name of this organization shall be the United States Revolver
Association.

ARTICLE II--_Object_

The object of this association shall be the encouragement of revolver and
pistol shooting.

ARTICLE III--_Membership_

The membership shall consist of three classes: Members, Honorary Members,
Associate Members.

Any reputable citizen of the United States is eligible for membership.

Any reputable person interested in revolver and pistol shooting is
eligible for Honorary or Associate membership.

Members and Associate members may be admitted by vote of the executive
committee and by paying the regular dues. Honorary members may be elected
at a regular meeting of the association and shall be exempt from dues.

Honorary and Associate members shall be entitled to all the privileges of
the association, except the right to vote.

[See Art. VII for Life membership.]

ARTICLE IV--_Officers_

The officers of this association shall be a president, five
vice-presidents and a secretary-treasurer, who shall constitute the
executive committee. They shall be elected by a majority vote by ballot at
the annual meeting of the association, and hold office for one year or
until their successors are elected.

ARTICLE V--_Duties of Officers_

The president shall preside at all meetings of the association and may
call meetings of the association at any time, one week’s notice by mail
being given of such meeting by the secretary-treasurer. The approval of
the president shall be necessary on all bills before they are paid. The
vice-presidents in the order of their seniority shall perform the duties
of the president in his absence and shall have responsible charge, subject
to the executive committee, of the affairs of the association in their
respective localities. The secretary-treasurer shall keep the minutes of
all meetings and take charge of the correspondence of the association. He
shall receive all dues and pay all bills approved by the president, and
keep account of all the funds of the association. The executive committee
shall have charge of the affairs of the association, shall elect members,
appoint State governors to act as local representatives of the
association, and shall have power to accept, decline, or issue challenges
by a majority vote. Any member of the executive committee unable to be
present at any meeting may vote by mail.

ARTICLE VI--_Vacancies in Office_

In case a vacancy should occur in any office, the remaining members of the
executive committee shall have power to fill the vacancy until the next
annual meeting.

ARTICLE VII--_Dues_

Section 1. The annual dues shall be one dollar, and shall be payable on
election to membership and thereafter on the 1st of January in every year.

Section 2. Members in arrears for dues for a period of more than two years
shall be suspended, but may reinstate themselves in full standing by
paying their arrears in dues. Members may not resign from the association
when in arrears for dues.

Section 3. The secretary-treasurer shall notify each member in arrears
before placing his name on the suspended list.

Section 4. Any member of this association in good standing may become a
Life Member by vote of the executive committee and by paying into the
treasury $25, such funds to be used by the association for the purchase of
trophies.

ARTICLE VIII--_Annual Meeting_

There shall be an annual meeting on the third Monday of January in each
year, at which meeting the election of officers and members of the
executive committee shall take place. Members not able to attend this
meeting may send their ballots by mail to the secretary-treasurer, who
shall deposit each ballot in the name of the absent member, and they shall
be counted as if the member were present. Only members not in arrears for
dues shall be entitled to vote. If there should be more than two
candidates for any office, the candidate receiving the least number of
votes shall be retired at each ballot until an election results. In case
of a tie the presiding officer shall have the deciding vote.

ARTICLE IX--_Quorum_

Ten members shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business.


ANNUAL CHAMPIONSHIP MATCHES

OUTDOOR MATCHES

MATCH A--REVOLVER CHAMPIONSHIP.--Open to everybody; distance, 50 yards;
50 shots in strings of ten shots on five Standard American targets, 8-inch
bull’s-eye, 10-ring 3.36 inches; arm, any revolver within the rules;
ammunition, any; the score must be completed in one hour or less from the
time of firing the first shot; entrance fee, $5; to members not in arrears
for dues, $3; no re-entries.

NATIONAL PRIZES: _First_, the championship silver cup (value, $200), to be
held by the winner until the next annual competition; inscribed on the
cup, in raised ornamental letters, is, “This Cup Represents the Revolver
Championship of the United States of America”; the name of the winner, the
year and the score are also engraved on the cup each year; to the winner
is also awarded a gold medal (value, $25), with the same inscription on
the reverse side as appears on the cup.

_Second_, a gold and silver medal, with inscription on the reverse side.

_Third_, a silver medal, with inscription on the reverse side.

_Fourth_, a silver and bronze medal, with inscription on the reverse side.

_Fifth_, a bronze medal, with inscription on the reverse side.

A bronze honor medal of the same design is also awarded to every
competitor, not a prize winner, making a score of 425 or better.

STATE PRIZES.--For more than three entries in any State the association
awards three prizes emblematic of State honors: _First prize_, a silver
and gold medal; _second prize_, a silver medal; _third prize_, a bronze
medal. For three entries, only the first two prizes are awarded.

Winners and Scores

  1900 A. L. A. Himmelwright      422
  1901 John A. Dietz              419
  1902 Thomas Anderton            438
  1903 J. E. Gorman               454
  1904 Dr. I. R. Calkins          451
  1905 John A. Dietz              455
  1906 John A. Dietz              444
  1907 John A. Dietz              445
  1908 R. H. Sayre                462
  1909 Dr. I. R. Calkins          455
  1910 Dr. John R. Hicks          458
  1911 George Armstrong           467
  1912 A. M. Poindexter           467
  1913 A. P. Lane                 467
  1914 A. P. Lane                 458

MATCH B--PISTOL CHAMPIONSHIP.--Open to everybody; distance, 50 yards; 50
shots on five targets as in Match A; arm, any pistol within the rules;
ammunition, any; the score must be completed in one hour or less from the
time of firing the first shot; entrance fee, $5; to members not in arrears
for dues, $3; no re-entries.

NATIONAL PRIZES: _First_, the championship silver cup (value, $175), to be
held by the winner until the next annual competition; inscribed on the
cup, in raised ornamental letters, is, “This Cup Represents the Pistol
Championship of the United States of America”; the name of the winner, the
year and the score are also engraved on the cup each year; to the winner
is also awarded a gold medal (value, $25), with the same inscription on
the reverse side as appears on the cup.

_Second_, a silver and gold medal, with inscription on the reverse side.

_Third_, a silver medal, with inscription on the reverse side.

_Fourth_, a bronze and silver medal, with inscription on the reverse side.

_Fifth_, a bronze medal, with inscription on the reverse side.

A bronze honor medal of the same design is also awarded to every
competitor, not a prize winner, making a score of 435 or better.

STATE PRIZES.--The same as in Match A.

Winners and Scores

  1900 J. B. Crabtree             427
  1901 Thomas Anderton            453
  1902 Thomas Anderton            463
  1903 Thomas Anderton            457
  1904 E. H. Kessler              464
  1905 John A. Dietz              465
  1906 John A. Dietz              448
  1907 P. Hanford                 455
  1908 J. E. Gorman               468
  1909 Dr. I. R. Calkins          464
  1910 John A. Dietz              462
  1911 Parmly Hanford             466
  1912 L. P. Castaldini           461
  1913 Dr. I. R. Calkins          469
  1914 George Armstrong           476

MATCH C--MILITARY CHAMPIONSHIP.--Open to everybody; distance, 50 yards; 75
shots in strings of five shots on fifteen targets as in Match A; each
string must be shot within the time limit of 15 seconds, taking time from
the command, Fire; misfires and shots lost on account of the arm becoming
disabled while firing any string will be scored zero; if a shot is fired
after the time limit has elapsed, the shot of highest count will be
deducted from the score; no cleaning allowed; arm, any military revolver,
or any military magazine pistol within the rules; ammunition, the full
charge service cartridge, or equivalent factory loaded ammunition approved
by the executive committee, brought to the firing point in unbroken
packages; the score must be completed on the same day; no sighting shots
will be allowed after beginning the score; entrance fee, $5; to members
not in arrears for dues, $3; no re-entries.

NATIONAL PRIZES: _First_, the championship silver trophy (an elaborate
silver bowl, value $450), to be held by the winner until the next annual
competition; the trophy bears the inscription, “The Military Revolver
Championship of the United States of America”; the name of the winner, the
year, and the score are also engraved on the trophy each year; to the
winner is also awarded a gold medal (value, $25), with the same
inscription on the reverse side as appears on the trophy.

_Second_, a silver and gold medal, with inscription on the reverse side.

_Third_, a silver medal, with inscription on the reverse side.

_Fourth_, a bronze and silver medal, with inscription on the reverse side.

_Fifth_, a bronze medal, with inscription on the reverse side.

A bronze honor medal of the same design is also awarded to every
competitor, not a prize winner, making a score of 500 or better.

STATE PRIZES.--The same as in Match A.

Winners and Scores

  1900 R. H. Sayre             300[19]
  1901 R. H. Sayre             325[19]
  1902 R. H. Sayre             579
  1903 R. H. Sayre             565
  1904 Thomas Anderton         585
  1905 Thos. LeBoutillier      504
  1906 R. H. Sayre             583
  1907 R. H. Sayre             536
  1908 C. F. G. Armstrong      568
  1909 Col. W. H. Whigam       580
  1910 Col. W. H. Whigam       591
  1911 A. P. Lane              605
  1912 Dr. J. H. Snook         621
  1913 Dr. J. H. Snook         625
  1914 C. M. McCutchen         627

MATCH D--MILITARY RECORD MATCH.--Open to everybody; distance, 50 yards;
five consecutive strings of five shots under the same conditions as Match
C; entrance fee, $2; to members not in arrears for dues, $1; entries
unlimited.

NATIONAL PRIZES: _First_, a gold trophy, a laurel wreath surrounding a
scroll, mounted on an ebony shield; (value, $150); between the scroll and
the wreath is a ribbon on which, in raised letters, is, “The United States
Revolver Association”; at the top of the scroll is engraved, “Military
Record Match.” The name of the winner, the year, and the score for each
year are engraved on the scroll below; this trophy is held by the winner
until the next annual competition, and is to become the property of the
competitor winning it three times.

_Second_, a silver medal, with inscription on the reverse side.

_Third_, a bronze medal, with inscription on the reverse side.

A bronze honor medal of the same design is also awarded to every
competitor, not a prize winner, making a score of 175 or better.

This match was instituted in 1902. Being a re-entry match, it affords good
practice under the same conditions as Match C.

No State prizes are awarded in this match.

Winners and Scores

  1902 Thomas Anderton        206
  1903 Thomas Anderton        202
  1904 Thomas Anderton        206
  1905 Thos. LeBoutillier     178
  1906 Thos. LeBoutillier     192
  1907 Thos. LeBoutillier     191
  1908 C. F. G. Armstrong     194
  1909 C. F. G. Armstrong     204
  1910 Samuel Peterson        215
  1911 A. P. Lane             208
  1912 Dr. J. H. Snook        212
  1913 C. M. McCutchen        217
  1914 Dr. J. H. Snook        221

MATCH E--MILITARY REVOLVER TEAM MATCH.--Open to one team of four men from
any regularly organized Rifle or Revolver Club, the police force of any
city, or any Regiment, Battalion, or separate organization from any of the
organized Military or Naval forces of any civilized country.

Distance, 50 yards; five consecutive strings of 5 shots each under the
same conditions as Match C; arm, any military revolver or magazine pistol
within the rules; ammunition, full charge factory loaded, brought to the
firing point in unbroken packages; entrance fee, $15; to affiliated clubs,
$10; no re-entries.

PRIZES: _First_, the Winans Trophy (a “Broncho Buster” in bronze, mounted
on an elaborate red porphyry marble base; value, $500). The name of the
winning club or organization, the year and the score, will be engraved on
the base. The trophy to be held by the winning organization until the next
annual competition. A silver and gold medal will also be awarded to each
member of the winning team, with inscription on the reverse side.

_Second_, a silver medal to each member of the team, with inscription on
the reverse side.

_Third_, a bronze and silver medal to each member of the team, with an
inscription on the reverse side.

_Fourth_, a bronze medal to each member of the team, with an inscription
on the reverse side.

This match was instituted in October, 1908, when Mr. Walter Winans (Life
member) presented the association with an appropriate trophy.

Winners and Scores

  1909 Squadron “A,” N. G. N. Y.      698
  1910 1st Cavalry Ill. N. G.         708
  1911 1st Cavalry Ill. N. G.         725
  1912 Denver Rev. Club               774
  1913 Denver Rev. Club               776
  1914 Denver Rev. Club               799

MATCH F--POCKET REVOLVER CHAMPIONSHIP.--Open to everybody; 25 shots at 50
yards in strings of 5 shots on five targets, as in Match A; each string to
be fired within 30 seconds after the command, “Fire.” Arm, any pocket
revolver of .32 or larger caliber or any pocket magazine pistol of .25 to
.38 caliber inclusive, weighing less than 1¾ pounds within the rules;
cleaning not allowed; ammunition, the same as Match C. Entrance fee, $4;
to members not in arrears for dues, $2; no re-entries.

NATIONAL PRIZES: _First_, a gold medal, with inscription on the reverse
side.

_Second_, a silver and gold medal, with inscription on the reverse side.

_Third_, a silver medal, with inscription on the reverse side.

_Fourth_, a bronze and silver medal, with inscription on the reverse
side.

_Fifth_, a bronze medal, with inscription on the reverse side.

A bronze honor medal will also be awarded to any competitor not a prize
winner making a score of 175 or better.

STATE PRIZES.--For five or more entries the following prizes will be
awarded: 1st prize, a gold and silver medal; 2nd prize, a silver medal;
3rd prize, a bronze medal.

Winners and Scores

  1909 C. W. Klett             203
  1910 C. E. Orr               202
  1911 A. P. Lane              211
  1912 Dr. O. A. Burgeson      208
  1913 Col. W. H. Whigam       210
  1914 Dr. J. H. Snook         214

GRAND AGGREGATE MEDALS

In addition to the regular matches the association awards Grand Aggregate
Medals to the contestants making the highest aggregate scores in
Championship Matches A, B, C, and F, as follows:

_First_, a gold medal, with inscription on the reverse side.

_Second_, a silver medal, with inscription on the reverse side.

_Third_, a bronze medal, with inscription on the reverse side.

The grand aggregate will be computed by adding the total scores of the
Matches A, B, and F, and one-fifth of the total score in Match C.

The grand aggregate medals are considered the highest honors in the gift
of the association.

Winners and Scores

  1909 C. Dominic          1187.8
  1910 A. P. Lane          1215.8
  1911 A. P. Lane          1236.
  1912 Parmly Hanford      1228.
  1913 A. P. Lane          1261.
  1914 A. P. Lane          1242.

INDOOR MATCHES

REVOLVER CHAMPIONSHIP.--Open to everybody; distance, 20 yards; light must
be artificial; 50 shots on ten Standard American targets, bull’s-eye 2.72
inches and 10-ring 1.12 inches in diameter, respectively; arm, any
revolver within the rules; ammunition, any. The score must be completed in
one hour or less from the time of firing the first shot. Entrance fee, $5;
to members not in arrears for dues, $3; no re-entries.

NATIONAL PRIZES: _First_, a silver cup (value, $40), bearing the names and
scores of the winners, to be held until the next annual competition, the
cup to become the property of the person winning it three times.

_Second_, a gold and silver medal, with inscription on the reverse side.

_Third_, a silver medal, with inscription on the reverse side.

_Fourth_, a silver and bronze medal, with inscription on the reverse side.

_Fifth_, a bronze medal, with inscription on the reverse side.

A bronze honor medal will also be awarded to any competitor, not a prize
winner, making a score of 425 or better.

STATE PRIZES.--The same as in Match A of the Outdoor Matches.

Winners and Scores

  1901 W. E. Petty              439
  1902 W. E. Petty              439
  1903 W. H. Luckett            437
  1904 Sidney E. Sears          478
  1905 Sidney E. Sears          461
  1906 Sidney E. Sears          451
  1907 Wm. G. Krieg             454
  1908 R. H. Sayre              454
  1909 R. H. Sayre              455
  1910 Oscar I. Olson           461
  1911 C. C. Crossman           455
  1912 Dr. J. R. Hicks          457
  1913 P. J. Dolfin             469
  1914 Dr. W. E. Quicksall      457

PISTOL CHAMPIONSHIP.--Open to everybody; distance, 20 yards; light must be
artificial; 50 shots on ten Standard American targets; bull’s-eye 2.72
inches and 10-ring 1.12 inches in diameter, respectively; arm, any pistol
within the rules; ammunition, any. The score must be completed in one hour
or less from the time of firing the first shot. Entrance fee, $5; to
members not in arrears for dues, $3; no re-entries.

NATIONAL AND STATE PRIZES: The same as in the indoor Revolver
Championship, except that honor medals are awarded for scores of 435 or
better.

Winners and Scores

  1901 R. H. Sayre           433
  1902 R. H. Sayre           448
  1903 Thomas Anderton       460
  1904 E. H. Kessler         450
  1905 R. H. Sayre           451
  1906 John A. Dietz         447
  1907 John A. Dietz         455
  1908 R. P. Prentys         455
  1909 Frank Fromm           456
  1910 R. H. Sayre           454
  1911 George Armstrong      473
  1912 A. P. Lane            469
  1913 Dr. C. H. Wilson      465
  1914 Dr. J. H. Snook       468

POCKET REVOLVER CHAMPIONSHIP.--Open to everybody; 25 shots at 20 yards in
strings of five shots on five Standard American targets; each string to be
fired within 30 seconds after the command, “Fire.” Arm, any pocket
revolver of .32 caliber or larger, within the rules. Magazine pistols not
allowed. Ammunition, full charge, factory loaded, brought to the firing
point in unbroken packages. Entrance fee, $4; to members not in arrears
for dues, $2.

PRIZES.--The same as in Match F of the Outdoor Matches.

Winners and Scores

  1909 Wm. G. Krieg           190
  1910 Dr. M. R. Moore        202
  1911 Col. W. H. Whigam      195
  1912 John A. Dietz          205
  1913 Hans Roedder           206
  1914 Dr. J. H. Snook        213

MATCH G NOVICE LIMITED RE-ENTRY MATCH.--Open to all amateurs who have
never won an important prize in pistol or revolver contests. (Winners of
prizes in National contests and first and second prizes in State contests,
all expert shots, etc., are barred.) Twenty-five shots at 20 yards in five
strings on five Standard American targets. Time, 30 minutes to complete
the score after firing the first shot. Arm, any revolver or any pistol
within the rules. Ammunition, any. Entrance fee, first entry, $3; to
members not in arrears for dues, $2. There may be four re-entries at $1
each, but the score for the last re-entry only to count.

NATIONAL AND STATE PRIZES:--The same as in Match F of the Outdoor Matches.

Winners and Scores

  1913 R. S. Everett      231
  1914 Robert Mills       229


RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE CHAMPIONSHIP MATCHES OF THE U. S. R.
A.

1. _General Conditions._--Competitors must make themselves acquainted with
the rules and regulations of the association, as the plea of ignorance
will receive no consideration. The rulings and decisions of the executive
committee are final in all cases. These rules are for general application,
but will not apply in cases where the special conditions of any match
conflict with them.

2. _Classification of Arms._--(a) Any Revolver. A revolver of any caliber.
Maximum length of barrel, including cylinder, 10 inches. Minimum trigger
pull, 2½ pounds. Sights may be adjustable but they must be strictly
open, in front of the hammer and not over 10 inches apart.

(b) Any pistol. A pistol of any caliber. Maximum length of barrel, 10
inches. Minimum trigger pull, 2 pounds. Sights may be adjustable but they
must be strictly open, in front of the hammer and not over 10 inches
apart.

(c) Military revolver or pistol. A revolver, or a magazine pistol, that
has been adopted by any civilized government for the armament of its army
or navy. Maximum weight, 2¾ pounds. Maximum length of barrel, 7½
inches. Minimum trigger pull, 4 pounds. Fixed open sights. Rear sights of
magazine pistols may be adjustable for elevation only.

(d) Pocket revolver. A revolver having a maximum weight of 2 pounds.
Maximum length of barrel, 4 inches; Minimum trigger pull, 4 pounds. Sights
and model must be such as not to hinder quick drawing of the weapon from
the pocket or holster.

3. _Loading, Firing, Timing, and Cleaning._--In all revolver and pistol
matches the weapon must not be loaded until the competitor has taken his
position at the firing point. The barrel must always be kept vertical or
pointed towards the target. After the target is in position and a match or
record score has been begun, in case of an accidental discharge or of
defective ammunition, if the bullet comes out of the barrel it will be
scored a shot. The timing in matches C, D, E, and F will be as follows:
The competitor standing at the firing point with the arm loaded, not
cocked, and the barrel pointing in a direction not less than 45 degrees
from the target, will signify to the scorer when he is ready to begin each
string. The scorer, stop watch in hand, will then give the command,
“Fire,” _after which_ the competitor may cock and aim his weapon and shoot
his string. At the expiration of the time limit the scorer will announce
“Time.” Misfires will be scored zero, only in Matches C, D, E, and F.
Competitors may clean weapons in Matches A and B, and in the corresponding
Indoor Championships, but no time allowance will be given for time spent
in this way. All competitors will be required to finish their scores
within the time limits specified, except in cases of accident, when the
time may be extended at the discretion of the executive committee. Blowing
through the barrel, to moisten it, will be considered cleaning.

In revolver matches the arm must not be used as a single loader or loaded
so as to use a limited number of chambers in the cylinder. The cylinder
must be charged with the full number of rounds for which it is chambered,
and these must be shot consecutively. If scores are shot in ten shot
strings, the cylinder shall be charged first with six rounds and then with
four rounds. If the cylinder only contains five chambers, then the
ten-shot strings may be shot in two strings of five each. In Matches C, D,
E, and F and indoor or gallery events, the arm shall in all cases be
charged with five rounds.

4. _Position._--The position shall be standing, free from any support, the
pistol or revolver being held in one hand, with arm extended, so as to be
free from the body.

5. _Arms._--Any revolver or pistol which in the opinion of the executive
committee complies with the conditions specified in the various matches
will be allowed to compete in those events. Revolvers or magazine pistols
that have been adopted by any government for the armament of its army or
navy, or such as in the opinion of the executive committee are suitable
for military service, will be allowed in Matches C, D, and E. Among the
arms which may be used in these matches are the .38-caliber Smith & Wesson
or Colt Military; .44 Smith & Wesson, Military or Russian model; .38, .44
or .45 Colt New Service; .45 Smith & Wesson Scofield; .44 or .45 Colt,
Single Action Army, Webley & Scott Mark IV, and the following magazine or
automatic pistols: Colt, Webley & Scott, Luger, Borchardt, Mannlicher,
Mauser, Mors.

6. _Sights._--In open sights, the notch of the rear sight must be as wide
on top as at any part. Aperture or peep sights or any covered or shaded
sights will not be allowed. The use of a notch for the front sight will
not be permitted. Sights may be smoked or blackened if desired. Sights on
military arms, if modified to suit individuals, must remain strictly open,
strong and substantial, and suitable for military use.

7. _Trigger-Pull._--The trigger-pull as specified in the various events
shall be determined by a test weight equal to the minimum pull applied at
a point three-eighths of an inch from the end of the trigger and at right
angles to the pin through the trigger.

8. _Ammunition._--In Matches C, D, E, and F, and in the medal competition,
where full charge ammunition is required, it may be the product of any
reputable manufacturer. It must in all cases be brought to the firing
point in unbroken boxes, with the label of the manufacturer intact.

9. _Targets._--The 200-yard Standard American rifle target No. 1
(containing the 4-ring), with an 8-inch bull’s-eye and showing in light
lines the rings of the International Union target, shall be used in all
matches at 50 yards. The scores will be counted on the Standard American
target. The diameters of the rings of the Standard American target are as
follows: 10-ring equals 3.36 inches; 9-ring equals 5.54 inches; 8-ring
equals 8 inches; 7-ring equals 11 inches; 6-ring equals 14.8 inches;
5-ring equals 19.68 inches; 4-ring equals 26 inches; rest of target 28
inches by 28 inches counts 3. The same target reduced so that the
bull’s-eye or 8-ring is 2.72 inches in diameter and the 10-ring 1.12
inches in diameter, including the 4-ring 8.84 inches in diameter and the
rest of the target 9½ inches by 9½ inches, counting 3, shall be used
for all matches at 20 yards.

10. _Marking and Scoring._--In all matches new paper targets shall be
furnished for each competitor. Not more than ten shots are to be fired on
any target at 50 yards, and not more than five shots on any target in
Matches C, D, E, and F, and for all shooting at 20 yards; the shot holes
in all cases to remain uncovered and left as shot. Bullets touching,
striking, or within a line on the target are to be scored the count of
that line. The eye alone shall determine whether a bullet touches or not.

11. _Ties._--Ties shall be decided as follows: (1) By the score at the
longest distance; (2) by the score at the next longest distance; (3) by
the fewest number of shots of lowest count; (4) by firing five shots each
under the same conditions as the match and these rules in regard to ties,
until decided.

12. _Supervision._--The shooting in all the U. S. R. A. events must take
place in the presence of at least two witnesses familiar with the rules,
one of whom must be an authorized U. S. R. A. officer. This officer shall
certify that each contestant has complied with all the U. S. R. A.
regulations as to distance, weapon, time, ammunition, etc., noting same on
the blank spaces provided on the score cards, and both witnesses shall
sign the targets and said score cards in duplicate for each contestant.

13. _Protests._--Any person who believes that an injustice has been done,
or who dissents from the decision of any authorized executive officer of
the association, may enter a protest on depositing $1 with said officer.
Such protest must be in writing, in duplicate, and must be made within 24
hours after the incident on which it is based. One copy to be handed to
the executive officer of the club or organization conducting the matches
and the other copy to be mailed to the secretary-treasurer of the U. S. R.
A. All protests will be investigated and passed upon by the executive
committee, and, if sustained, the protest fee will be returned; otherwise
it will be forfeited.

14. _Records._--The shooting for records shall, when practicable, be done
on the grounds or in a gallery of a regularly organized shooting
association, military organization or club, and in the presence of at
least two witnesses familiar with the U. S. R. A. rules, one of whom shall
be an officer of the U. S. R. A. New targets of regulation size shall be
used. The foregoing rules and regulations and the conditions governing the
championship matches of the U. S. R. A. must in all cases be observed and
followed. The record score shall begin with the first shot after the
shooter has announced his intention to shoot for record; only the first
ten shots will apply to the 10-shot record; the first twenty shots to the
20-shot record, and so on to 50 or 100 shots, as the shooter may elect.
Such scores (multiples of 5 or 10 shots) for record must in all cases be
completed within the same proportional time limit as is specified for the
corresponding championship match; thus, in Match A, for example, the first
10 shots within 12 minutes, the first 20 shots within 24 minutes, etc.
After finishing the record score, the targets shall be identified and
signed by the witnesses as above designated. The witnesses shall also
prepare and sign a certificate of prescribed form, which, with the
detailed score and all targets, shall be forwarded to the U. S. R. A.,
addressed to the secretary-treasurer. If all the conditions, rules and
regulations have been complied with, the scoring correct, and if the score
is higher than or equal to any previously made under the same conditions,
it will be declared a new record. The score will then be entered as such
in the record book of the association, and the shooter formally notified
to that effect.


METHODS AND CUSTOMS TO BE FOLLOWED IN CONDUCTING THE ANNUAL COMPETITIONS
OF THE U. S. R. A.

The conditions under which local clubs may be authorized to conduct
Championship Matches of the U. S. R. A. are as follows:

There must be not less than six members of the association residing within
twenty-five miles of the proposed place of holding the contest and there
must be not less than three entries in Championship Matches A, B, or C, or
five entries in Match F. In matches offering National and State prizes the
same entrance fee includes eligibility to both honors.

On the application of six or more members in good standing under the
prescribed conditions, a U. S. R. A. official designated as the “governor”
is appointed by the Association’s executive committee and vested with the
authority to supervise all Association shooting. The appointee is usually
a member nominated by the local members. Besides supervising all the U. S.
R. A. contests, the governor is the official representative of the
Association in his locality, and has the custody of all supplies and the
distribution of prizes, medals, etc. By this arrangement the U. S. R. A.
members in all sections of the country obtain the same privileges and
benefits and equal opportunity to enter the matches and competitions.

The U. S. R. A. will furnish numbered and certified targets and score
cards, and will provide the prizes for the U. S. R. A. Championship and
re-entry events; the club or organization to pay the expressage both ways
on targets and all other supplies, to furnish the shooting facilities and
conduct the contests free of expense to the association and turn over to
the secretary-treasurer all the entrance fees for the U. S. R. A. events.
This plan has in all cases given satisfactory results, because the
practice shooting of the contestants in the local re-entry matches usually
affords sufficient revenue to pay the expenses of the tournament.

When a competitor wishes to shoot in any of the events, he should exhibit
his latest membership card (if a member) to the officers in charge, and
after paying the entrance fee, a regular ticket or duplicate score card
(furnished by the United States Revolver Association) is filled out and
issued to him, which is his receipt for the entrance fee. His score need
not necessarily be shot immediately after issuing the ticket. Competitors
have the option of shooting in the order in which they pay for their
entries. Tickets not used are forfeited: no entrance fees shall be
refunded.

The requisite number of targets are issued when the competitor wishes to
shoot his score. These must be numbered consecutively, they must have the
competitor’s name and the number of his score card written on them for
identification, and must be shot in their numerical order.

The targets are usually tacked at the corners on alternating frames
covered with canvas, over which heavy paper is pasted. Each target is left
in position until the required number of shots have been fired at it, each
shot being spotted and marked as fired [no pasters to be used]. When a
string has been finished the target is lowered and the alternating target
raised in position. After the score is completed the targets are brought
to the firing point and delivered to the range officer.

When a competitor wishes to shoot his score, his arm must be inspected and
passed by the officer in charge, who must see that it conforms with the
rules and requirements of the event in which it is entered. Competitors
who wish to enter in any of the events are urged to have their arms
examined by the executive officer or committee in charge of the matches as
soon as possible, so that in case there should be any exceptions made to
the sights, the trigger-pull, or any other details, there will be an
opportunity to have these exceptions corrected so as to comply with the
requirements when the official test and inspection is made before shooting
the score.

In Matches C, D, E, and F the scorer should have a reliable stop watch, so
that the timing will be accurate. It is well, whenever possible, to have
two men time the competitor, so as to have an additional check. A new
target must be furnished for each string of five shots at each range.
According to the rules, if a competitor starts to shoot a string of any
score and his arm becomes disabled from any cause, those shots which reach
the target within the time limit after the command, “Fire,” will be
counted as the complete score for the five shots. In the case of a
disabled arm, the officer or committee in charge may allow the competitor
to complete the remaining strings of his score with another arm. Shots on
the paper target outside of the 4-ring count 3; shots missing the paper
target count zero. After completing the score, when the duplicate score
cards are filled out, the contestant takes the duplicate and the range
officer retains the original record.

All unused targets and score cards are also to be forwarded to the
secretary-treasurer, with a complete detailed account of entrance fees,
supplies, etc.

In the Medal Competition only those targets that actually count for medals
are to be witnessed, certified and forwarded to the secretary-treasurer
for verification and record.

In order that the conditions may be uniform and eliminate as much as
possible the special conditions in regard to wind, etc., that may exist at
the different places where the matches may be held, the shooters should be
protected at the firing point by a shelter. This may be either the regular
shooting house of the club, or, if the shooting is done in the open, by a
suitable tent or temporary frame structure having an opening in the
direction of the target; the other three sides being inclosed. The
building or tent should be large enough to accommodate also the officer or
committee in charge of the match, so that the shooter may be at all times
in sight of the officer in charge of the range at the time the score is
made. A table of suitable size should be provided near the firing point
for holding ammunition and for the convenience of the competitor to clean
his arm in those events where cleaning is allowed. The firing point should
be plainly marked and so located as to be at least two feet from any
timbers, guards, ropes, tables, etc.


INSTRUCTIONS TO U. S. R. A. OFFICERS IN CHARGE OF THE CHAMPIONSHIP
CONTESTS

Supplies consisting of numbered and certified targets, score cards, record
blanks, a copy of the rules and regulations, etc., will be furnished by
the secretary-treasurer on the requisition of the local U. S. R. A.
representative. Such supplies shall be used only in the matches, and all
used and unused supplies shall be returned to the secretary-treasurer at
the close of the contests. The target and supply account of the club must
balance.

A governor or other officer of the U. S. R. A. will be appointed in each
locality where the matches are to be held to act as range officer,
represent the association, and have charge of the contests. This governor
or officer shall _personally measure the range to verify the distance_
and see that all the conditions of the matches are strictly complied
with. He will also see that at least one other person familiar with the
rules is present to witness all the shooting and he shall certify to the
correctness of each score and the conditions, by signing the score card
when the score is completed, and all the targets of each competitor shall
be signed by both witnesses.

The other duties in detail of the governor or officer in charge of the
matches are as follows: When a competitor expresses his intention of
entering a match, a score card is made out in his name and delivered to
him on the payment of the higher entrance fee (unless the competitor
exhibits a membership card bearing the date of the current year, in which
case he is entitled to the lower entrance fee). These score cards are to
be issued in numerical order, and when more than one contestant wishes to
shoot at the same time, the man holding the score card first issued is
entitled to the preference of position and time. When the contestant is
ready to shoot, he hands his score card to the governor or other officer
of the association, who thereupon issues the required targets numbered
consecutively, with the name of the competitor and the number of his score
card written on each target for identification. The arm of the competitor
is then inspected to make sure that it complies with the rules and
regulations. The sights must be carefully inspected and the trigger-pull
tested by weighing in _just before the score is begun_.

The records for which blanks are provided on the score card with reference
to the arm, ammunition, etc., must all be filled in. The competitor’s
first target may then be placed in position. As soon as the contestant
begins his score, the time is taken from the firing of the first shot in
Matches A and B and in the Corresponding Indoor Championships, and the
entire score must be completed within one hour from this time. Scores in
Match G must be completed within 30 minutes after firing the first shot.
In Matches C, D, E, and F the time is taken from the command “Fire,” and
the five shots must be fired within the specified time limit in each case
and a record is made of the actual elapsed time of each string which must
be written on the corresponding targets later when they are brought to the
firing point. The announcing of intermediate times or seconds is not
allowed.

Ten shots are to be fired at each target in Matches A and B, and five
shots at each target in Matches C, D, E, F, and G, and in all the Indoor
Matches. After the score is completed, the separate targets are scored in
regular order as shot and the value of the shots as filled in the score
card are checked from the targets, _making corrections from the targets,
if mistakes have been made by the markers_. After filling in and signing
the score cards, the duplicate is handed to the competitor and the
original preserved for record. The targets are then signed by the governor
and preserved until the expiration of the period during which the matches
are held, when all targets, original score cards, and all other supplies,
used and unused, are to be sent to the United States Revolver Association,
addressed to the secretary-treasurer.

It is recommended that all scores after being shot, verified, etc., be
wrapped in paper in separate packages, marked with the competitor’s name,
and that no one be permitted to handle and examine these targets after
they have been scored and certified to.


THE U. S. R. A. LEAGUE

The League is an alliance or compact between the clubs participating, the
details and conditions of which vary slightly from year to year, being
embodied in a signed contract.

Any locality having six or more paid-up members in the Association may
apply for the appointment of an official U. S. R. A. representative and by
accepting the conditions and signing the contract, enter a team.


U. S. R. A. LEAGUE AGREEMENT FOR 1914-15.

_Entrance Fees._--Each club with paid-up affiliation in the U. S. R. A.
shall pay an entrance fee of $10, others $15; this to cover cost of prizes
only.

_Expense._--The association shall furnish all targets to the clubs and
shall pay the transportation from the association to the clubs and pay for
all necessary telegrams to or from the secretary-treasurer, and an
accurate account of these charges to be kept by the secretary and the
amount to be charged back to the clubs, each club paying an equal amount.
This is not to exceed $10.

Secretaries of the clubs where shooting nights and distance will permit
are to use the mail, others the telegraph in the cheapest form. Results of
the week MUST reach the secretary by noon of the next Monday after the
shoot. The press has no use for stale news. Clubs shall pay a fine of $1
for each failure to report on time; the fines to go into the club fund for
expenses.

Targets are to be sent to the various clubs prepaid. Only clubs which
guarantee to stay through the series will be allowed to enter.

_Shooting Night._--Clubs may shoot on one or two evenings of the week most
convenient for them, but it must be the same evenings each week all
through the match, unless a change be authorized by the
secretary-treasurer. Any club may be allowed at the discretion of the
executive committee to divide their shooters into two divisions and have
two shooting nights a week. The membership of the divisions must be kept
distinct, that is, a man may not change from one division to another and
each division must have its regular shooting night. Matches not shot
according to the above may be forfeited.

_Teams_ to consist of five men, but each club may at its option shoot in
any match from five to ten men and pick the scores of the highest five.
_Qualifications_, _paid-up membership in the U. S. R. A._ and good
standing in the local club. _A man may shoot on the team of but one club._
The scores of members in arrears for dues may be forfeited.

_Conditions._--Revolvers and pistols will be allowed on equal terms, but
both must comply with the U. S. R. A. rules. Five strings of five shots
each will be required for each man. Target, Standard American. Distance,
twenty yards. Each individual score to be completed within twenty-five
minutes from the time of firing the first shot.

_Scoring._--Official scoring to be done by the secretary-treasurer. In
close matches, where the count of doubtful shots will determine the
winner, at least two of the members of the executive committee shall be
called upon to assist the secretary in scoring these shots.

_Supervision._--Members of the executive committee and U. S. R. A.
governors shall supervise matches within their jurisdiction, and certify
that all U. S. R. A. conditions have been fulfilled. _Any score not so
certified may be protested_, by any competitor and at the discretion of a
majority of the executive committee may be thrown out.

Individual and club ties to be shot off.

_Protests_ from the decision of any U. S. R. A. official may be made in
writing to the secretary-treasurer, if mailed within 48 hours after the
decision has been brought to the attention of the person or persons
feeling aggrieved. Each person concerned in making the protest must
forward $1, which will be returned if the protest is sustained, otherwise
forfeited to the association treasury.

_In General._--The series to begin as quickly as arrangements can be made.
Matches to be shot weekly.

Targets will be furnished marked for identification, and must be used only
for the match assigned and for no other purpose. For obvious reasons match
targets must be jealously guarded and their individual identity carefully
preserved. Clubs may purchase from the U. S. R. A. similar targets for
practice purposes.

Scores on mixed targets may be forfeited.

Clubs will be classified in groups of four matches to begin the week of
..........

Entries to close ..........

_Fraud._--Any person found guilty by the executive committee of the U. S.
R. A. of cheating, evading or attempting to evade the regulations
governing these contests, shall be debarred from all U. S. R. A. contests
until reinstated by a vote of the members at an annual meeting of this
association.

We hereby agree to all the above conditions and make application to enter
a team in the U. S. R. A. League. Our preferred shooting day of the week
is ..........

Signed: ..........

Date: ..........

Witnesses:


RECORDS

The following records have been made under the United States Revolver
Association rules since their adoption:

REVOLVER, 50 YARDS

_50 Shots_:

  April 26, 1903--J. E. Gorman, San Francisco, Cal.         458
  Sept. 7, 1904--Dr. I. R. Calkins, Springfield, Mass.      465
  June 6, 1911--J. E. Gorman, San Francisco, Cal.           467
  Nov. 26, 1911--John A. Dietz, New York, N. Y.
                            8 8 9  9 10 10 10 10 10 10--94
                            9 9 9  9 10 10 10 10 10 10--96
                            8 8 9  9 10 10 10 10 10 10--94
                            9 9 9  9  9 10 10 10 10 10--95
                            8 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10--96
                                                        --  475

_30 Shots_:

  April 26, 1903--J. E. Gorman, San Francisco, Cal.         273
  Sept. 7, 1904--Dr. I. R. Calkins, Springfield Mass.       284
  Nov. 26, 1911--John A. Dietz, New York, N. Y.             284

_20 Shots_:

  April 26, 1903--J. E. Gorman, San Francisco, Cal.         185
  Sept. 7, 1904--Dr. I. R. Calkins, Springfield, Mass.      188
  Nov. 26, 1911--John A. Dietz, New York, N. Y.             190
  Oct. 3, 1913--A. P. Lane, New York, N. Y.                 191

_10 Shots_:

  April 26, 1903--J. E. Gorman, San Francisco, Cal.          94
  Oct. 3, 1913--A. P. Lane, New York, N. Y.                  96

REVOLVER, 20 YARDS

_50 Shots_:

  March, 1902--W. E. Petty, New York, N. Y.                 439
  June 11, 1903--Dr. W. H. Luckett, New York, N. Y.         464
  March 4, 1904--S. E. Sears, St. Louis, Mo.
                                          95 96 96 95 96--  478

_30 Shots_:

  March, 1902--W. E. Petty, New York, N. Y.                 271
  June 11, 1903--Dr. W. H. Luckett, New York, N. Y.         275
  March 4, 1904--S. E. Sears, St. Louis, Mo.                287

_20 Shots_:

  March, 1902--W. E. Petty, New York, N. Y.                 177
  March, 1903--Dr. W. H. Luckett, New York, N. Y.           178
  June 11, 1903--Dr. W. H. Luckett, New York, N. Y.         184
  March 4, 1904--S. E. Sears, St. Louis, Mo.                191

_10 Shots_:

  March, 1903--Dr. W. H. Luckett, New York, N. Y.            93
  March 4, 1904--S. E. Sears, St. Louis, Mo.                 96
  June 11, 1904--J. B. Crabtree, Springfield, Mass.          98
  Nov. 15, 1907--C. C. Crossman, St. Louis, Mo.             100

MILITARY REVOLVER, RAPID FIRE, 50 YARDS

_75 Shots_; in strings of 5 shots in 15 seconds:

  Sept., 1902--Lieut. R. H. Sayre, Sea Girt, N. J.          579
  Sept. 16, 1904--Thomas Anderton, Creedmoor, N. Y.         585
  Sept., 1910--Col. W. H. Whigam, Chicago, Ill.             591
  Sept., 1911--A. P. Lane, Sea Girt, N. J.                  605
  Sept., 1912--Dr. J. H. Snook, Columbus, O.                621
  Sept., 1913--Dr. J. H. Snook, Columbus, O.                625
  Sept., 1914--C. M. McCutcheon, Denver, Col.
                                         9  9 8 8 7--41
                                        10  9 9 9 8--45
                                        10 10 8 8 7--43
                                        10 10 9 8 8--45
                                         9  9 9 8 6--41
                                                   --  215

                                         9  9 9 8 8--34[20]
                                         9  8 8 8 7--40
                                        10 10 9 8 7--44
                                        10  9 8 8 7--42
                                        10 10 9 9 8--46
                                                   --  206

                                        10  9 8 8 6--41
                                        10  9 8 9 6--42
                                        10  9 8 6 6--39
                                        10 10 9 8 7--44
                                         9  9 8 8 6--40
                                                   --  206
                                                       ---
           Grand Total                                      627

_25 Shots_; in strings of 5 shots in 15 seconds:

  Sept., 1902--Thomas Anderton, Sea Girt, N. J.             206
  Sept., 1910--Samuel Peterson                              215
  Sept., 1913--C. M. McCutchen, Denver Col.                 217
  Sept., 1914--Dr. J. H. Snook, Columbus, O.
                                          10 10  9 8 8--45
                                          10 10 10 9 7--46
                                          10  9  9 8 7--43
                                          10  9  9 9 7--44
                                          10  9  9 8 7--43
                                                        --  221

POCKET REVOLVER, 50 YARDS

_25 Shots_; in strings of 5 shots in 30 seconds.

  Sept. 1909--C. W. Klett, San Francisco, Cal.              203
  Sept. 1911--A. P. Lane, New York, N. Y.                   211
  Sept. 1914--Dr. J. H. Snook, Columbus, O.
                                           10 10 9 8 6--43
                                           10 10 9 9 7--45
                                           10  9 7 7 5--38
                                           10  9 9 8 8--44
                                           10 10 9 8 7--44
                                                        --  214

20 YARDS (INDOORS)

  March, 1909--W. G. Kreig, Chicago, Ill.                   190
  March, 1921--Dr. M. R. Morse, St. Louis, Mo.              202
  March, 1912--John A. Dietz, New York, N. Y.               205
  March, 1913--Hans Roedder, New York, N. Y.                206
  March, 1914--Dr. J. H. Snook, Columbus, O.                213

PISTOL, 50 YARDS

_50 Shots_:

  April 4, 1903--Thomas Anderton, Walnut Hill, Mass.
                         10 10 10  9 10 10 10 10 10 10--99
                          9  9 10 10 10  9 10  9  9  9--94
                          9 10 10  9  9  9 10 10 10 10--96
                         10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10  9--99
                          8  9  9  8 10  9 10 10  9 10--92
                                                        --  480

_30 Shots_:

  March 21, 1903--E. E. Patridge, Walnut Hill, Mass.        287
  April 4, 1903--Thomas Anderton, Walnut Hill, Mass.        289
  Feb. 1, 1914--F. J. Dreher, Denver, Col.                  291

_20 Shots_:

  March 21, 1903--E. E. Patridge, Walnut Hill, Mass.        192
  April 4, 1903--Thomas Anderton, Walnut Hill, Mass.         193
  Feb. 1, 1914--F. J. Dreher, Denver, Col.                  196

_10 Shots_:

  March 21, 1903--E. E. Patridge, Walnut Hill, Mass.         96
  April 4, 1903--Thomas Anderton, Walnut Hill, Mass.         99
  Feb. 1, 1914--F. J. Dreher, Denver, Col.                  100

PISTOL, 20 YARDS

_50 Shots_:

  March 2, 1902--Lieut. R. H. Sayre, New York, N. Y.        448
  March, 1903--Thomas Anderton, Boston, Mass.               460
  March 25, 1908--L. R. Hatch, Portland, Me.                462
  Dec. 1, 1909--J. E. Gorman, San Francisco, Cal.           471
  March, 1911--George Armstrong, Seattle, Wash.             473
  Jan. 25, 1912--George Armstrong, Portland, Ore.           478
  March 4, 1912--George Armstrong, Portland, Ore.
                         10  9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10--99
                         10 10 10  9 10  9 10  9 10 10--97
                         10 10 10 10  9  9 10 10  8 10--96
                         10 10 10  9 10 10  9 10 10  9--97
                          9  9 10  9 10  8  9 10 10  8--92
                                                        --  481

_30 Shots_:

  March, 1902--Lieut. R. H. Sayre, New York, N. Y.          260
  March, 1903--Thomas Anderton, Boston, Mass.               276
  March 20, 1908--Lieut. R. H. Sayre, New York, N. Y.       278
  March 25, 1908--L. R. Hatch, Portland, Me.                279
  Dec. 1, 1909--J. E. Gorman, San Francisco, Cal.           283
  March, 1911--George Armstrong, Seattle, Wash.             284
  Jan. 11, 1912--George Armstrong, Portland, Ore.           287
  March 4, 1912--George Armstrong, Portland, Ore.           292

_20 Shots_:

  March, 1902--Lieut. R. H. Sayre, New York, N. Y.          173
  March, 1903--Thomas Anderton, Boston, Mass                189
  Dec. 1, 1909--J. E. Gorman, San Francisco, Cal.           192
  Jan. 11, 1912--George Armstrong, Portland, Ore.           193
  March 4, 1912--George Armstrong, Portland, Ore.           196

_10 Shots_:

  March, 1903--Thomas Anderton, Boston, Mass.                92
  March 24, 1906--John A. Dietz, New York, N. Y.             93
  March 24, 1906--J. B. Crabtree, Springfield, Mass.         95
  May 18, 1908--F. L. Hayden, Portland, Me.                  97
  May 20, 1910--A. M. Poindexter, Red Bank, N. J.           100
  April 16, 1914--Dr. D. Atkinson, West View, Pa.           100



APPENDIX II

NATIONAL PISTOL MATCH


This match is an annual contest, authorized by the National Board for the
Promotion of Rifle Practice and is conducted under the auspices of the
National Rifle Association of America. In alternate years the match is
held at a National shooting tournament, at a State or Federal range having
sufficient facilities. These National shooting tournaments have been held
at Camp Perry, Ohio, and Sea Girt, New Jersey. At these tournaments, in
addition to the National Pistol Matches, there are a number of other
pistol and revolver matches with extensive prize lists.

Every other year the National Pistol Match is conducted in connection with
the National Divisional Matches, which in 1914 were held at Sea Girt, New
Jersey; Jacksonville, Florida; Sparta, Wisconsin; Fort Reily, Kansas; and
Portland, Oregon.

The following are the conditions of this match:

(a) Open to the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, cadets United States Military
Academy, midshipmen United States Naval Academy, the Organized Militia,
the Naval Militia, members of the National Rifle Association of America
and affiliated clubs, members of the United States Revolver Association,
universities, colleges, and military schools and colleges.

(b) Distances and classes of fire:

SLOW FIRE (30 SECONDS PER SHOT)

                             Yards
  2 scores (7 shots each)      50
  2 scores (7 shots each)      75

RAPID FIRE, (30 SECONDS PER SCORE)

  2 scores (7 shots each)      25
  2 scores (7 shots each)      50

RAPID FIRE (15 SECONDS PER SCORE)

  2 scores (7 shots each)      15
  2 scores (7 shots each)      25

(c) Targets: Target L will be used for all firing.

(d) Position: Without body or artificial rest; one hand only to be used.

(e) Arm: Colt’s automatic pistol, caliber .45, government model;
trigger-pull not less than six pounds.

(f) Ammunition: The Ordnance Department shall manufacture and issue
ammunition for use in preliminary practice and in the National divisional
pistol matches; all such ammunition to be as nearly as practicable of the
same date of manufacture and of the same quality.

(g) Sights: No alteration of sights will be allowed. The front or rear
sights may be blackened according to the judgment of the competitor.

(h) Cleaning: Pieces can be cleaned upon the completion of the score. In
competitions at more than one distance, cleaning will be permitted between
distances. While such cleaning will be permitted, it will not be required.

(i) Procedure, Rapid Fire; Pistol: The officer in charge of the line will
command “Load.” The magazine will be inserted in the pistol, the pistol
loaded with one cartridge therefrom, and the safety lock engaged with the
thumb of the right hand. When all is ready in the pit, the targets to be
fired will be drawn fully down (the rear targets being blank or targets of
another class than those being fired upon) and a red flag hoisted at the
center target. When the red flag is displayed, the officer in charge of
the firing line will command “Ready,” when the safety lock will be
disengaged and the position of “Raise pistol” assumed.

The firing line being ready, the pit is signaled or telephoned “Ready on
the firing line.” When this signal is received in the pit, the red flag is
waved and lowered, and five seconds thereafter the targets appear. At
exactly the proper number of seconds after the target is in position the
range officer commands or signals “Down,” having preceded this command two
or three seconds by the warning command or signal “Ready.” The target must
be fully exposed and stationary for the number of seconds called for in
the match and then must be withdrawn as quickly as possible. The number
and value of the hits and the number of misses will be signaled in the
usual manner after the score has been fired.

In case of a defective cartridge or a disabled pistol, or when more than
seven hits are made on the target, the score will be repeated. In case a
competitor fires on the wrong target only such shots as he may have fired
on his own target will be counted on his score. He will be given misses
for the remainder of his score.

Rules: As laid down in the Small Arms Firing Manual, 1913, except as
herein modified.

Prizes: One gold medal to the competitor making the highest aggregate
score, one silver medal to the competitor making the second highest score,
and one bronze medal to the competitor making the third highest score in
each National divisional competition. To be eligible to win a prize in any
National divisional pistol match, a competitor must be a resident or a
member of an organization located within the division in which the
competition occurs. No competitor shall be eligible to win prizes in more
than one National divisional competition.



APPENDIX III

TARGET PRACTICE REGULATIONS ADOPTED BY THE WAR DEPARTMENT

(_In Effect After Jan. 1st, 1914_)


The following is a digest of the target practice prescribed for the U. S.
Army, using the regulation Colt automatic pistol, caliber .45, with
service ammunition, as given in the “Small Arms Firing Manual” (War
Department Document No. 442).

A very excellent and complete program for target practice is contemplated.
Chapter IX is devoted to “Preliminary Drills; Position and Aiming Drills,”
in which the soldier is trained in all the motions of aiming and firing,
snapping the weapon. Exercises are provided for dismounted and mounted
soldiers.

Chapters X, XI, and XII prescribe the actual practice shooting with
complete rules, regulations, and methods of procedure, together with
illustrations and diagrams.

The regulation target practice is divided into two courses: the dismounted
course and the mounted course, each of which is separate and complete in
itself.

The following schedule shows the general target practice scheme of each
course, a score in all cases consisting of five consecutive shots.


TARGET PRACTICE SCHEDULE

DISMOUNTED COURSE

  _Instruction Practice_:                                           NO. OF
                                                                    SHOTS

  Slow fire, at 15 and 25 yards, minimum of 1 score at each
    range. Target L. Time limit, none.                                  10

  Rapid fire, at 15 and 25 yards, minimum of 2 scores at each
    range. Target L. Time, 20 seconds per score.                        20

  Quick fire, at 15 and 25 yards, minimum of 2 scores at each
    range. Target E--Bobbing. Time, 3 seconds per shot at 15
    yards; 4 seconds per shot at 25 yards.                              20

  _Record Practice_:

  Rapid fire, at 25 yards, 2 scores. Target L. Time, 20 seconds
    for each score                                                      10

  Quick fire, at 15 and 25 yards, 2 scores at each range.
    Target E--Bobbing. Time, 3 seconds per shot at 15 yards; 4
    seconds per shot at 25 yards.                                       20

  _Expert Test_:

  Rapid fire, at 50 yards, 1 score. Target L. Time, 30 seconds
    per score.                                                           5

  Quick fire, at 15 and 25 yards, 1 score at each range. Target
    E--Bobbing. Time, 3 seconds per shot at 15 yards; 4 seconds
    per shot at 25 yards.                                               10
                                                                        --
       Total                                                            95

MOUNTED COURSE

  _Instruction Practice_:

  _Dismounted_--

  Slow fire, 15 yards, minimum of 2 scores. Target L. Time
    limit, none.                                                        10

  Quick fire, 15 yards, minimum of 2 scores. Target M--Bobbing.
    Time, 3 seconds per shot.                                           10

  _Mounted_--

  Halt; minimum of 2 scores; one to the right and one to the
    left. Target M--Bobbing. Range, 10 yards. Time, 3 seconds
    per shot.                                                           10

  Walk; minimum of 2 scores; one score firing to the right while
    moving to the left and one score firing to the left while
    moving to the right around the circumference of circle about
    12 ft. in diameter tangent to the track at the firing point.
    Target M--Bobbing. Range, 10 yards. Time, 3 seconds per shot.       10

  Gallop; minimum of 8 scores. Target M. Range, 10 yards. Time
    governed by gait of at least 12 miles an hour.                      40

  [_Note_:--Five M targets are placed 10 yards from the track and
  10 yards apart (20 yards apart for the revolver). Each trooper
  makes eight circlings of the track (four in each direction)
  firing four scores to the right and four to the left.]

  _Record Practice_:

  Halt; quick fire. Target M--Bobbing. 2 scores 1 to the right,
    1 to the left. Range, 10 yards. Time, 3 seconds per shot.           10

  Gallop; Target M. Range, 10 and 14 yards. 4 scores--2, firing
    to the right while circling to the left; 2, firing to the
    left while circling to the right.                                   20

  Time governed by gait of at least 12 miles an hour.

  [_Note_:--Three of the five M targets (the first, the center,
  and the last targets) of the gallop stage, Instruction Practice,
  are set at an angle of 45 degrees to the track, and the trooper
  in making the run fires at each of these when facing them at
  about 14 yards range. The firing of the full score and the
  direction of the shots is therefore as follows: Right front,
  right, right front, right, and right rear. In making the left
  hand run, two targets are set at an angle and the firing is in
  the following order: Left, left front, left, left front, left.]

  _Expert Test_:

  Halt; 1 score. Five E targets--Bobbing; unknown angles. Range,
    8½ to 15 yards. Time, 2 seconds per shot.                            5

  Gallop; 1 score; group of three M targets. Range, 10 and 14
    yards; 3 shots to right advancing and 2 shots to left
    returning. Time governed by gait of at least 12 miles per
    hour.                                                                5

  [_Note_:--Two of the targets are set at an angle as in the gallop
  stage. Record Practice, the firing being right front, right, right
  rear, in advancing; and left front, left, in returning.]

  Gallop, extended; 2 scores. Range, 5 to 15 yards. Time governed
    by gait.                                                            10

  [_Note_:--Targets arranged as follows: Target F, 5 yards to the
  right; 20 yards further along track, Target E, 7 yards to the
  right; 30 yards further, Target M, 10 yards to the left; 20 yards
  further, Target M, 10 yards to the left; 30 yards further, Target
  M, 15 yards to the right. Two runs are made firing at the targets
  in the order named.]
                                                                       ---
        Total number of shots.                                         130

_Explanatory Notes, etc._

_Timing_: --Intervals of time are measured from the last note of the
signal or command, “Commence firing,” to the last note or word of “Cease
firing.”

_Targets_:--Target L is illustrated on page 91. Targets E, F, and M are
full size silhouette figures of men in the kneeling, prone and standing
positions, respectively. When “bobbing” target is prescribed, it refers to
an operating device for turning the targets 90 degrees on a vertical axis
by means of ropes. The target is thus made to turn so as to appear
edgewise and flatwise from the firing point and remains flatwise or
“exposed” for the number of seconds stated in the time limit for each
shot, and “turned from view” between shots for an interval of 3 to 5
seconds.

_Procedure_:--In quick fire the soldier stands at the firing point, pistol
loaded with 5 cartridges, hammer down (in mounted practice hammer cocked
at safe), weapon in holster, flap, if any, buttoned. Upon the first
exposure of the target the soldier draws and fires, or attempts to fire,
one shot at the target before it is turned from view and keeps the weapon
in hand until he has fired five shots at successive exposures of the
target to complete the score.

_Qualification Scores_: _Dismounted Course_--Sixty per cent. of the
aggregate possible score of the Instruction Practice for advancement to
Record Practice and 80 per cent. of the latter for advancement to Expert
Test. In Expert Test, 50 out of a possible 60. _Mounted Course_--Fifty per
cent. of the aggregate possible score of the Instruction Practice for
advancement to Record Practice and 70 per cent. of the latter for
advancement to Expert Test. In Expert Test, 13 out of a possible 20.

_Competitions_:--In every alternate year department pistol competitions
are held simultaneously with the department rifle competitions at places
designated by the department commanders.


ORGANIZED MILITIA TARGET PRACTICE

The prescribed course in effect in 1914 is adapted to the service
revolvers. Five shots constitute a score. All shooting is on Target L. The
course is divided into Instruction Practice and Record Practice.

_Instruction Practice_:

Slow Fire: Range 15, 25, and 50 yards; one score at each range. Time
limit, none.

Rapid Fire: Range 15, 25, and 50 yards; two scores at each range. Time
limit, 30 seconds per score.

Rapid Fire: Range 15 and 25 yards; two scores at each range. Time limit,
15 seconds per score.

_Record Practice_:

Rapid Fire: Range 25 and 50 yards; two scores at each range. Time limit,
30 seconds per score.

Rapid Fire: Range 15 and 25 yards; two scores at each range. Time limit,
15 seconds per score.

The rules, regulations, and procedure are the same as those governing the
U. S. Army practice.

Qualification scores are as follows out of a possible 400: Second
classman, 250; first classman, 300, and expert pistol shot, 320. Insignia
badges and pins are awarded to those qualifying.


U. S. NAVY TARGET PRACTICE REGULATIONS

The revolver practice in the U. S. Navy consists of three classes,
designated the Marksman’s Course, the Sharpshooter’s Course, and the
Expert Pistol Shot’s Special Course. Each course is subdivided into
“Instruction Practice” and “Record Practice.”

All shooting in the Marksman’s and Sharpshooter’s courses is done on
Target A, which is a rectangle 6 ft. high by 4 ft. wide, with a circular
black bull’s-eye 8 in. in diameter, counting 5, and concentric circles of
count with diameters as follows: 4 ring, 26 in.; 3 ring, 46 in.; 2
rectangle, rest of target. Target L is used in the Expert Course.

MARKSMAN’S COURSE (SLOW FIRE)

_Instruction Practice_:

At least 1 string of 6 shots, each range: 25 yds., 50 yds.; no time
limit.

_Record Practice_:

At least 1 string of 6 shots, each range: 25 yds., 50 yds.; time limit, 5
minutes.

SHARPSHOOTER’S COURSE (RAPID FIRE)

_Instruction Practice_:

6 shots, each range: 25 yds., 50 yds.; time limit, 30 seconds per score.

_Record Practice_:

6 shots, each range: 25 yds., 50 yds.; time limit, 30 seconds per score.

EXPERT PISTOL SHOT’S SPECIAL COURSE

_Instruction Practice_:

Slow Fire: 6 shots, each range: 15 yds., 25 yds., 50 yds. No time limit.

Timed Fire: One score of 5 shots, each range: 15 yds., 25 yds., 50 yds.
Time limit, 30 seconds for each score.

Rapid Fire: Two scores of 5 shots, each range: 15 yds., 25 yds. Time
limit, 10 seconds for each score.

_Record Practice_:

Timed Fire: Two scores of 5 shots, each range: 25 yds., 50 yds. Time
limit, 30 seconds for each score.

Rapid Fire: Two scores of 5 shots, each range: 15 yds., 25 yds. Time
limit, 10 seconds for each score.

Qualification scores are 80 per cent. of the possibles of each course.

In rapid fire practice the timing is done at the target. On a signal that
all is ready at the firing point, the target appears and remains exposed
during the time limit, then disappears.

In addition to the above regulation practice, the men are put through a
thorough preliminary course of position, sighting, and aiming drill.

The more expert men are given advanced practice in snap, double-action,
and left-hand shooting, also firing alternately at targets at different
distances and at floating objects at unknown distances.

Excellent practical suggestions and information is contained in Chapter V,
devoted to Pistol Practice, in “The Landing Force and Small Arms
Instructions,” edition 1911.



APPENDIX IV

DIGEST OF WAR DEPARTMENT TESTS OF AUTOMATIC PISTOLS


The board of officers appointed by the Secretary of War (Special Order No.
305, Dec. 28, 1906) to test automatic pistols and revolvers met at the
Springfield Armory, Springfield, Mass., on January 15, 1907. The board
consisted of: Col. Philip Reade, 23rd Infantry; Maj. Joseph T. Dickman,
13th Cavalry; Capt. Guy H. Preston, 13th Cavalry; Capt. Ernest D. Scott,
Artillery Corps, and Capt. John H. Rice, Ordnance Department.

The weapons referred to the board by the Chief of Ordnance for examination
and test with their weights (unloaded) were as follows:

  _Automatic Pistols, Caliber .45_            _Lbs._  _Oz._
  The Colt                                      2      2½
  The Luger                                     2      8
  The Savage                                    2      3
  The Knoble (single action)                    2     11½
  The Knoble (double action)                    2     10½
  The Bergmann                                  2      3½
  The White-Merrill                             2      6½

  _Double Action Revolvers, Caliber .45_
  The Colt                                      2      7
  The Smith & Wesson                            2      6

  _Automatic Revolver, Caliber .45_
  The Webley-Fosbury                            2     10

PROGRAMME OF TESTS OF AUTOMATIC PISTOLS[21]

1. Examination of pistol as to design, appearance, balance, suitability
for mounted troops, etc.

2. Special examination as to safety features.

3. Dismounting and assembling. The times required for each of the
following operations:

    (a) To dismount the breech and magazine mechanism, with the exception
    of the magazine catch.

    (b) To complete dismounting.

    (c) To assemble, except the breech and magazine mechanism.

    (d) To complete assembling.

4. The number of--

    (a) Pins and screws.

    (b) Small springs.

    (c) Other parts.

5. The number and kind of tools required to dismount and assemble.

6. Twenty rounds to be fired to observe working of pistol. The above tests
will be made with the pistol in the hands of and operated by the inventor
or his representative, if present.

7. Velocity at 25 feet, mean of 5 shots.

8. Accuracy and penetration at 75 feet; 10 shots for accuracy, 5 for
penetration.

9. Rapidity with accuracy; target 6 by 2 feet, range 100 feet. Number of
shots fired to be three times the capacity of clip. Pistol fired from
hand. Time and number of hits to be noted in each case. To be conducted by
representative of company, if present. Firing to begin with chamber and
magazine empty, and clips or holders arranged as desired by firer.

10. Rapidity at will. Same as preceding test, except that the pistol will
be fired without aim into a butt at short range, and hits will not be
considered.

11. Endurance. Pistol will then be fired deliberately 500 rounds as a
self-loader, cooling after each 50 rounds.

12. Velocity. Same as paragraph 7, above.

13. Decreased charges. Pistol to be fired 12 rounds as a self-loader with
cartridge in which the powder charge has been decreased so that the first
four will give pressure of 25 per cent. less, the second four 15 per cent.
less, and the last four 10 per cent. less than the service pressure.

14. Excessive charges. Pistol to be fired 5 times as a single loader, with
cartridges in which the charge of powder is increased to produce a
pressure in the chamber 25 per cent. greater than the regular pressure.

15. Pierced primers. Pistol will be fired once with a cartridge in which
the primer has been thinned so as to insure piercing. Two rounds will then
be fired to observe action.

16. Dust. With the mechanism closed and both ends of the barrel tightly
corked pistol will be exposed, in a box prepared for that purpose, to a
blast of fine sand for one minute. The surplus sand may then be removed by
blowing thereon, jarring the piece, or wiping with the bare hand only.

The Magazine should be--

    (a) Empty when exposed to dust.

    (b) Loaded when exposed to dust.

In both cases pistol should be used as a self-loader, and in the second
the cartridge may be removed and wiped, then reloaded. In case of
self-loading failures to work in either case the piece will be tried by
operating by hand.

17. Rust. The mechanism will be thoroughly cleansed of grease by boiling
in a solution of soda, the ends of the barrel tightly corked and the
pistol then placed in a saturated solution of sal-ammoniac for five
minutes. After being hung up indoors for 22 hours, five shots will be
fired into a sand butt, using pistol as a self-loader. In case the
self-loading mechanism fails to work, the pistol will then be tried by
operating by hand.

18. Supplementary Tests. Any piece which successfully passes the foregoing
tests may be subjected to such supplementary tests, or repetitions of
previous ones, to further determine its endurance or other qualities as
may be prescribed by the Chief of Ordnance or by the board.

General Remarks. During the above tests the pistol will be entirely in the
hands of the board, except when specifically stated otherwise, and no
alterations or repairs other than those possible on the ground will be
allowed, except by special permission of the board. If the pistol fails in
any test the remainder of the programme may be discontinued in the
discretion of the board.

In case of misfires the cartridges will be opened to determine cause, and
if due to the ammunition the test will be repeated.

The board thoroughly tested the merits of the various arms submitted to
them, and reported in 1907 the conclusion that in principle the automatic
pistol was better suited for service use than the revolver.

The board also recommended a .45-caliber pistol. At the same time it was
stated that the automatic pistol had not been sufficiently developed in
reliability to warrant its adoption. A service test was ordered, and the
Colt’s Patent Firearms Manufacturing Company and the Savage Arms Company
submitted automatic pistols according to specifications.

Two troops of cavalry were assigned to make this test and the report
showed that neither pistol had reached a desired proficiency. The matter
was then turned over to the Ordnance Department for further experiment.
Both of the arms companies were given time to improve their pistols under
the direction of Brig.-Gen. William Crozier, Chief of Ordnance;
Lieut.-Col. John T. Thompson, Ordnance Department, and Capt. Gilbert H.
Stewart, Ordnance Department. After a number of informal tests by these
officers, which demonstrated that the arms companies had approached the
standard set by the Ordnance Department, a new board of officers was
appointed to determine which of the two pistols should be adopted. This
board consisted of Majors Kenneth Morton and Walter G. Penfield and
Lieutenants C. A. Meals and Arthur D. Minick, Ordnance Department.

Two pistols were submitted to the board, one by the Savage Arms Company,
the other by the Colt’s Patent Firearms Manufacturing Company, and the
tests were conducted in March, 1911. The ammunition used was of recent
manufacture by the Union Metallic Cartridge Company, had a jacketed
230-grain bullet, and was loaded to give a muzzle velocity of 800 f.s. The
weight of the Savage was found to be 2 lbs. 8 oz.; the Colt 2 lbs. 7 oz.
The mechanical safety of both is convenient for operation with the thumb
of the firing hand. Time required to complete dismounting, Savage 29.6
seconds, Colt 24.5 seconds.; to assemble, except the magazine, Savage 5
min. 10.5 sec., Colt 4 min. 50 sec.; to complete assembling, additional
time, Savage 28.5 sec., Colt 12.5 sec. The number of parts in each pistol
was then counted, and found to be as follows: Total components, Savage 40,
including four in magazine; Colt 61, including seven in magazine. The
number and kind of tools required to dismount and assemble the pistols
were: Colt, one screwdriver; Savage, one combination tool (one
screwdriver, two drifts).

Fifty rounds from each pistol were fired deliberately into a butt to
observe the operation. The two pistols functioned normally. The Savage
pistol ejected the empty shells upward and to the front, while the Colt
ejected upward and to the right and rear. The velocity of each pistol was
measured at twenty-five feet, and the mean of five shots was: Savage,
849.4 ft. per second; Colt, 828.0 ft. per second. Two targets of ten shots
from each pistol were made for accuracy at seventy-five feet, using a
muzzle rest, with the resulting mean radii of dispersion: Savage, first
target 1.97″, second target 1.97″, mean 1.97″; Colt, first target .89″,
second target .82″, mean 0.8555″.

Three magazines full of cartridges were fired from each pistol at a target
six feet by two feet, 100 feet distant, to test the rapidity and accuracy.
The firing was begun with the chamber empty and three full magazines for
each pistol with it on the table. Results:

                        Savage       Colt
  Time                  35 sec.     28 sec.
  Number of shots       24  "       21  "
  Hits                  22  "       21  "
  Mean radii          7.27  "     5.85  "

The pistols were next fired for rapidity by the same persons into a butt
at short range and no hits considered: Savage, 24 shots, time 16 sec.;
Colt, 21 shots, time 12 sec. In all the above tests the pistols functioned
normally.

The two pistols were then thoroughly examined, oiled, and fired
deliberately 6,000 rounds each, being cleaned thoroughly, examined and
oiled after each 1,000 rounds. Wherever examination showed the least sign
of deformation it was noted. Each pistol was fired 100 rounds and then was
allowed to cool while the other was fired, giving each pistol at least
five minutes to cool. Firing was not begun after cooling until the hand
could be placed on the slide over the barrel without discomfort. There was
an interval of about two seconds between shots in the same magazine when
the pistol functioned normally.

During the firing of the first 1,000, in 1h. 29m., the magazine of each
pistol dropped about an inch, due to the fault of the operator. Second
1,000, in 1h. 48m., the Colt functioned perfectly; while the Savage missed
fire once, jammed twice and had trouble with the bolt twice. Third 1,000,
in 2h. 2m. the Colt functioned perfectly; in round 2,924 the bolt stop of
the Savage broke. Fourth 1,000, in 2h. 1m., the Colt functioned perfectly;
with the Savage there was a slight jam and two misfires, the bolt stop was
upset. Fifth 1,000, in 2h. 6m., the Colt functioned perfectly; the Savage
magazine dropped five times, the bolt stop was further upset and there
were two cracks in the bolt. Sixth 1,000, the Colt again functioned
perfectly, and there were five misfires with the Savage, two jams,
fourteen failures of the bolt to counter recoil fully, and a breakage of
the bolt lock spring. Minute examination of the Colt pistol after this
test failed to show any broken parts, the only defect being a minute
bulging of the frame near the front end of the grooves and a slight
upsetting of the bolt stop where it strikes the magazine follower.

The pistols were then fired five times as single loaders in a recoiling
rest with cartridges in which the powder charge was increased to give a
calculated chamber pressure of twenty-five per cent. greater than normal.
The Colt pistol functioned normally. The sear of the Savage broke at the
fourth round. A new sear was inserted, also a new sear spring, broken in
removing the broken sear. The removal of the broken sear was difficult on
account of the design of the pistol, and other parts were deformed in
removing the breech plug. Upon reassembling, the pistol functioned
normally in the fifth round. Each pistol was fired in a recoiling rest one
round, in which the primer had been thinned so as to be pierced by the
firing pin. Afterward two rounds were fired automatically. Both pistols
functioned satisfactorily. The pistols were then disassembled, cleaned,
and thoroughly examined. Both were found to be in good condition, with no
broken parts. All misfire cartridges were examined and no defects found.

The shock of recoil of the Savage was found much more severe than of the
Colt. The experienced operators who fired several thousand rounds in the
endurance test, in alternate five hundreds, estimated the fatigue of
firing 500 rounds with the Savage equal to firing 2,000 rounds with the
Colt.

“Of the two pistols the board is of the opinion that the Colt’s is
superior, because it is more reliable, the more enduring, the more easily
disassembled when there are broken parts to be replaced, and the more
accurate. It equals in these qualities the Colt caliber .45 revolver,
model 1909, while being superior to that arm in balance, safety, rapidity,
accuracy of fire, and interchangeability. The Colt pistol embodies all the
features considered essential, desirable, and preferable by the board of
officers convened by S. O. 305, W. D., Washington, December 28, 1906,
except that there is no automatic indicator showing that the pistol is
loaded or indicator showing the number of cartridges remaining in the
magazine. There are, however, a few riveted parts, and the board is
uncertain whether the pistol would function properly with non-jacketed
bullets. The board therefore recommends that Colt caliber .45 automatic
pistol of the design submitted to the board for test be adopted for use by
foot and mounted troops in the military service in consequence of its
marked superiority to the present service revolvers and to any other known
pistol, of its extreme reliability and endurance, and of its fulfillment
of all essential requirements.”

This report was approved March 23, 1911, by Col. S. E. Blunt, Ord. Dept.,
U. S. A., commanding Springfield Armory, Mass.



APPENDIX V

GUNSMITHING, REPAIRS, RELOADING EQUIPMENT, SUPPLIES, ETC.


Occasionally a firearm becomes disabled by the breaking of a spring or
some other part of the mechanism. All the manufacturers carry a stock of
duplicate parts and any broken or worn-out part can be obtained promptly
from the makers of the weapon and the replacement made with a screwdriver
and a few drifts. When any of the parts become worn, the simplest and most
inexpensive course to follow is to substitute new parts in the same
manner.

The most frequent source of difficulty is the wearing light of the
trigger-pull. This may also be corrected by the substitution of a new
hammer and a new trigger; or an experienced mechanic can generally correct
the difficulty with an oil stone. Inexperienced persons are liable to ruin
the parts if they attempt to do this work themselves.

The barrels of the weapons after long use, especially in the open on
camping expeditions, etc., become rusted or they are worn out by extensive
use so as to require renewal. In such cases a new barrel may be ordered
from the maker of the weapon, which should be sent to the factory to have
the substitution made and the necessary fitting and finish properly
executed. In the case of high-priced barrels, and especially where the
barrel is part of the action, it is sometimes less expensive to have a
good gunsmith bore out the interior of the barrel and insert a new sleeve
instead of replacing the entire barrel.

Very often the marksman will conceive an idea or invent an improvement
which will add to the convenience in manipulation or usefulness of the
weapon, the reloading tools, etc. As he becomes interested in the sport he
may want to try special sights, a different shape of trigger guard, matted
trigger, and various other modifications and refinements, thinking they
may improve his shooting. Without the necessary mechanical skill to
execute their ideas successfully all such special work should be intrusted
to a competent and first-class mechanic who is equipped and prepared to
execute work of this character in the best manner. The following are the
names and addresses of a few of the leading manufacturers and gunsmiths,
with a brief statement as to the character of work that each undertakes
and specializes on:

SMITH & WESSON, Springfield, Mass.

    This company maintains a repair department, but undertakes repair,
    reblueing and replating only on arms of their own manufacture. A
    limited quantity of special work is also undertaken, provided it meets
    with the approval of the manufacturers as being useful, desirable, and
    in nowise a detriment to the weapon. All repair and special work is
    executed in the order in which it is received, and as a limited force
    is engaged in this department a delay of a week or more sometimes
    occurs before the work can be begun. In case of general repairs the
    cost of same is quoted before repairs are started.

COLT PATENT FIREARMS MANUFACTURING CO., Hartford, Conn.

    This company maintains a repair department devoted exclusively to arms
    of Colt manufacture. Estimates of the cost of repairs are quoted
    before work is begun. Special work, reblueing and replating, is also
    executed in connection with Colt arms.

WINCHESTER REPEATING ARMS CO., New Haven, Conn.

    Reloading tools, bullet molds, bullets, shells, primers, etc.

UNION METALLIC CARTRIDGE CO., Bridgeport, Conn.

UNITED STATES CARTRIDGE CO., Lowell, Mass.

THE PETERS CARTRIDGE CO., Cincinnati, Ohio.

    Shells, bullets, and primers.

H. M. POPE, 18 Morris Street, Jersey City.

    Manufacturer of the famous “Pope” barrels for rifles, revolvers, and
    pistols. New barrels furnished for any of the leading makes of target
    arms. Pope graduated automatic powder measures and reloading tools.
    Telescope mountings. Special work and fine repair work of all kinds.

J. E. WILBURN, 403 Riverside Ave., Spokane, Wash.

    Specializes on very accurate and high-grade pistol and revolver
    barrels of .22 and .38 caliber. Fine repair work of every description.

IDEAL MANUFACTURING CO. (Marlin Fire Arms Co., Successors), New Haven,
Conn.

    Reloading tools, powder measures, bullet molds, bullets, etc.

H. H. KIFFE CO., 533 Broadway, New York City.

J. P. DANNEFELSER, 19 Warren Street, New York City.

    Carry a full line of smokeless powders for rifle and pistol
    ammunition.

(Nearly all the sporting goods dealers in the large cities carry a stock
of black and smokeless powders.)


THE END



APPENDIX VI

ADDENDA AND CORRECTIONS


_Add to first paragraph page 25_:

The Colt Automatic Pistol is now supplied with the automatic grip safety
in all models. This prevents the discharge of the weapon unless properly
held.

_Insert before last paragraph page 29_:

The latest addition to the target arms is the Colt .22 cal. Automatic
Pistol. It has a longer barrel than any other automatic pistol and is
fitted with adjustable sights. It has good balance and the long distance
between the sights makes excellent work at the target possible. (See Fig.
17a, facing page 32.)

_Add to first paragraph top of page 35_:

This model is supplied with an additional safety which prevents accidental
discharge in the event a cartridge is left in the barrel when the magazine
is withdrawn.

_Insert after Match F, page 177_:

The following new matches have been added to the annual contests of the U.
S. R. A.:

MATCH G--NOVICE LIMITED RE-ENTRY MATCH.--Outdoor Event.--Open to all
amateurs who have never won an important prize in our branch of sport.

Winners of honors in our National Championships, first and second place
honors in our State Championships, National honors in this match,
professional shooters and those who have won place in important matches
other than those of the U. S. R. A. are barred.

SCORE: Twenty-five shots in five strings of five shots each.

TIME: Thirty minutes.

WEAPON AND AMMUNITION: Any allowed in Matches A and B.

PRIZES: National--As in Match A.

STATE: As in Match F.

An honor medal will be given for a score of 210 or better that wins no
other prize.

ENTRANCE FEE: First entry $2. There may be four re-entries at $1.00 each.
As yet we have a silver cup for only the Indoor Match.

MATCH H--REVOLVER HANDICAP.--Indoor and Outdoor Event.--Arm, any revolver
within the rules for Match A. Ammunition any. Twenty-five shots in strings
of five shots each. Time, thirty minutes per score. Entrance fee, $3 to
paid-up members, $5 to all other persons.

The possible, 250, will be taken as a basis and a contestant allowed a
handicap thought likely to be necessary to make his score in this match
equal the possible. The fifty-shot and twenty-five shot revolver records
of the contestants on file with the secretary will be taken as the basis
of handicapping. The fifty shot records will be reduced to twenty-five
shot equivalents.

PRIZES: National medals as in Match A. If the whole number of contestants
in this match exceeds twenty, then state medals will also be awarded as in
Match A.

A bronze honor medal will be awarded for the highest score less handicap
if it wins no other prize.

Winners and Scores

  Indoor                 Handicap    Outdoor          Handicap
  1915--F. J. Dreher        25       I. B. Humphreys    45.5
  1916--F. L. Simmonds      47.5

MATCH I--PISTOL HANDICAP.--Indoor and Outdoor Event.--Arm, Colt .22
automatic and any pistol allowed in Match B. Ammunition, any. Entrance
fee, $3 to paid-up members, $5 to all other persons. Twenty-five shots in
strings of five shots each. Time of score, thirty minutes.

Prizes as in Match H.

Each entrant may name his own handicap. It must be claimed and mailed in a
letter bearing a post mark prior to the shooting of the match.

Scores with handicaps exceeding the possible will be penalized three
points for each point of excess.

Winners and Scores

  Indoor                  Handicap    Outdoor      Handicap
  1915--Rich’d Henderson     75       J. H. Snook     16
  1916--Stanley Runck        30

MATCH J--POLICE TEAM MATCH.--Indoor Only.--Limited to members of a
uniformed police force who must furnish credentials to the effect that
they have been enrolled one year or more. Five men teams.

Arm, any revolver with a barrel not more than 4½ inches long, trigger
pull not less than three pounds, calibre not less than .32. Twenty shots
per man. Five-shot strings. Time two minutes per string. Time to be
entered on target and signed by timer. Ammunition, the full factory charge
for the most powerful cartridge the arm will chamber. Entrance fee, $10
per team.

PRIZES: Medals for the members of the first three teams. Gold and silver;
silver; bronze. Six or more entries required to fill the match. Entry fees
refunded if “No contest.” With ten or more teams entering, silver medals
emblematic of state championship honor will be awarded for three
contesting teams from one state. With four or more teams from one state,
silver medals will be given the first team, bronze medals the second.
National medals take precedence.

Ties will be decided by the fewest shots of low count.

Winners and Scores

1915--Portland, Ore.

  R. H. Craddock    162
  J. H. Young       157
  W. D. Humphrey    155
  L. K. Evans       151
  J. T. Moore       146
                    ---
                    776

1916--San Francisco, Calif.

  S. Carr           165
  W. R. Proll       157
  J. M. Mann        157
  T. J. Sullivan    143
  E. C. Lange       140
                    ---
                    762

_Substitute for subject matter under U. S. Navy Target Practice
Regulations, pages 204 and 205, the following_:

The new firing regulations and prescribed course of practice with the
automatic pistol are as follows:[22]

Each officer or man may fire the pistol course for credits once per year
while attached to each division.

The firing in the pistol course may be done at any range.

Any target may be used.

The course is as follows:

  Position                Slow fire            Rapid fire
  Prone                    5 shots         1 string of 5 shots
  Kneeling                 5 shots         1 string of 5 shots
  Squatting                5 shots         1 string of 5 shots
  Standing                 5 shots         1 string of 5 shots
    Total number of shots     20                    20

  Aggregate number of shots                                 40
  Possible aggregate score                                 200

All men are eligible to compete for prizes in this course once per year
while attached to each division.

The value of a prize in the pistol course is $1.

When scoring in the pistol courses, in order to prevent the markers from
knowing the names of the individuals who are firing, the name of the firer
will not be announced by the scorer, but the number of the target he fires
upon will be substituted for his name.

Before automatic pistols are brought to a range, the magazines should be
removed and kept removed at all times except while the pistol is in actual
use at the firing point.

Under no circumstances should any one handle a pistol, loaded or unloaded,
except when he is on the firing line fully abreast of the firers, and the
pistol should never be pointed in any other direction than the front.


NOTES ON PISTOL PRACTICE

When a pistol is first taken in hand it should be examined to make sure
that it is not loaded.

Both the front sight and the rear sighting groove should be blackened.
When the pistol is aimed the front sight should be seen through the middle
of the rear sighting groove and the top of the front sight should be flush
with the top of the groove. The part of the target to be aimed at must be
determined by practice. With most pistols at 25 yards the aim is usually
taken at the bottom edge or in the bottom part of the bull’s-eye, and at
50 yards in the center or in the upper part of the bull’s-eye.

Grasp the stock of the pistol as high up as you can so that the barrel,
hand, and arm are as nearly as possible in one straight line. The thumb
should be extended along the upper part of the frame. The second joint of
the forefinger should be on the trigger.

Start with a light grip and gradually squeeze with the whole hand, the
trigger finger squeezing gradually back as the grip is tightened, and
continue squeezing without a jerk until the pistol fires. Decide to call
the hold and to keep the right eye open.

If the hits are bunched to one side they can be moved to the right by
increasing the pressure of the thumb against the left side of the pistol
or to the left by decreasing the pressure.

Snapping--that is, aiming and squeezing the trigger with the pistol not
loaded--is most valuable practice. No man should load and fire until he
has snapped several times to get acquainted with the trigger pull of the
pistol. Expert pistol shots do a great deal of snapping instead of a great
deal of firing. Steady holding can be acquired only by much snapping
practice.

In the prone position the right elbow has excellent support on the ground.
In the kneeling position the firer may kneel on either knee. Kneeling on
the left knee affords an excellent rest on the right knee for the elbow.
In the squatting position both elbows rest on the knees. In the standing
position face the target squarely, or nearly so. Stand upright, not
craning the head forward, and extend the arm to its full stretch.

A coach should be at each firing point. In addition to the general duties
of a coach, his specific duties in pistol practice are: (1) to stand
slightly behind the right side of the firer in order to prevent the pistol
being pointed away from the front, (2) to see that the pistol is not
loaded until the proper time, (3) to require the firer to explain the line
of sight, (4) to see that the firer takes the proper position and holds
the pistol properly, (5) to require the firer to snap several times and to
call the hold, (6) to see that the firer loads properly, and (7) to see
that the pistol is unloaded before it leaves the firer’s hands.


THE END



INDEX



INDEX


  A

  Accidents, 100, 107, 126, 133, 135

  Accuracy of Cartridges, 39

  Accuracy of Revolvers, 23, 46, 50

  Accuracy of Pistols, 29

  Accuracy Muzzle loading Pistols, 14

  Adjusting sights, 132-133

  Aiming, 127-128

  Air space for dense powders, 157

  Annual Matches, 97, 171-180, 197-205

  Ammunition, 37-61, 182

  “Any” Pistol defined, 180

  “Any” Revolver defined, 180

  Arms, 18-36, 182

  Arguments and Controversies, 139

  Artificial Light, 66, 118

  Automatic Pistol, 18, 25, 26, 34, 35

  Automatic Pistol defined, 19

  Automatic Pistol Tests, 206

  Automatic Revolver, 24


  B

  Balance of Arms, 125

  Ballistical Table, 60-61

  BB Caps, 135

  Bisley, 93

  Blacking Sights, 141

  “Blazing away” ammunition, 138

  Bore, to measure, 153-154

  Bullet holes, clean cut, 50

  Bullets, exact diameter of, 60, 61

  Bullets, 44, 149-155

  Bullets, flat pointed, 41

  Bullets, hollow pointed, 42

  Bullets, mantled, 44

  Bullets, soft nosed or “dum-dum,” 55

  Bullets, self-lubricating, 52

  Bullets, weight of, 60, 61

  Bullets stuck in barrels, 134


  C

  Care in handling arms, 107, 126, 127, 135

  Carlin-Reynolds tests, 74-75

  Carrying arms, 105

  Cartridges, automatic pistol, 54-58

  Cartridges, center fire, 43-61

  Cartridges, rim fire, 39, 43, 60

  Championship matches, 171-180, 197-205

  Charges, 60-61

  Cheap arms to be avoided, 122

  Classification of arms, 180

  Cleaning and care of arms, 143-146, 181

  Cleaning fluids, 144

  Clubs and Ranges, 111-121

  Coaching, 132

  Colt, Colonel, 14

  Competing in matches, 138-143

  Confinement of powder, 158

  Corrosion, 145-146

  Cowboy shooting, 137

  Crimping shells, 39


  D

  Disputes, 139

  Disqualification, 139

  Double actions, 126

  Drawing arms, 136

  Duelling, 14

  “Dum-dum” bullets, 55


  E

  Equipment and paraphernalia, 140-146

  Exhibition shooting, 18, 31

  Exact diameter of bullets, 60-61


  F

  Finish of arms, 124

  Firing, 128-132, 181

  First Pistols, 13

  First Revolver, 14

  Fit of arms, 121

  Fit of bullets, 155

  “Flinching,” 26, 110, 125

  Fluids, cleaning, 144

  Fluxing lead, 150

  Fouling, 37, 52, 54

  Franco-American matches, 79-83

  “Freak arms,” 31


  G

  Gallery charges, 47-51

  Gallery ranges, 116-121

  “Gas cutting,” 153

  Gould, A. C., 72

  “Grained gunpowder,” 13

  Grand aggregate medals, 171

  “Gun men,” 137

  Gunsmithing, 213


  H

  Handles or stocks, 123-124

  Hardening bullets, 154

  Hat for shooting, 141

  Hints for beginners, 122-146

  Holding position, 131

  Holster weapons, 23

  Hunting charges, 42, 55


  I

  International matches, 79-85

  Indoor Revolver championship, 178

  Indoor Pistol championship, 179

  Indoor Pocket Revolver championship, 179

  Indoor Novice match, 180

  Instructions to Officers in charge of U. S. R. A. championship contests,
      187


  K

  Keeping records, 138


  L

  Ladies’ clubs, 109

  Ladies, pistol shooting for, 107-110

  Large calibers, 32, 35, 90, 92

  Leading of barrel, 134

  League, U. S. R. A., 97

  Lesmok Powder, 156

  Long range shooting, 94-95

  Lubricant, 155

  Lubricating bullets, 154, 155


  M

  Manipulation, 126-128

  Mantled bullets, 44

  Marking, 114-116, 183

  Match shooting, 139

  Matches and Competitions, 96-98, 138-143, 171-180

  Measuring powder, 161, 162

  Metal cased bullets, 44

  Methods and Customs in conducting U. S. Revolver Association
      competitions, 184

  Military arms, 20-26

  Military arms, requirements of, 20, 21, 55, 56, 181

  Military championship match, 175

  Military record match, 174

  Military revolver team match, 175

  Misfires, .22-cal., 134

  Moulding bullets, 149-155

  Muzzle loading Pistol, 13

  Muzzle velocities, 58, 60, 61

  Muzzle energy, 60, 61


  N

  National Guard revolver practice, 204

  National organizations, 31

  National pistol match, 107-199

  National Rifle Association, 97

  Night shooting, 65-66

  Novice Re-entry match, 180


  O

  Oils, 145

  Olympic Games Matches, 83-85

  Opening mouth of shells, 161

  Organized Militia target practice, 204

  Outside lubrication, 41


  P

  Paine-Bennett match, 73

  Paine sights, 63

  Patridge sight, 63

  Penetration, 60-61

  Physical condition important, 143

  Pistol championship match, 172, 179

  Pistols, 27-29

  Pistol, definition of, 18-19

  Pistol muzzle loading, 13

  Pistol shooting for ladies, 107-110

  Pocket arms, 31-35, 181

  Pocket Revolver championship match, 176, 179

  Police, Revolver practice for, 99-106

  Position, 127-128, 182

  Possibles, 92

  Powders, 37, 155-159

  Powder charges, 60-61

  Powder measures, 161

  Practice shooting, 94-98

  Practical shooting, 136-137

  Primer difficulty, 42

  Primers, 147

  Proportion of charges, 38

  Protection from rust, 145-146

  Protests, 139, 183

  Pulling the trigger, 129-130

  Pull of trigger, 133


  Q

  Qualifications for shooting, 16

  Quick drawing of weapons, 135


  R

  Rapidity of fire in automatic pistols, 25

  Rapid fire shooting, 126, 142

  Ranges, 111-121

  Range officers, 139

  Records, 77, 184, 191-196

  Record, definition of, 76

  Reduced charges, 60, 61, 163, 165

  Reloading ammunition, 147-166, 213

  Repairs, 215

  Revolver championship match, 170, 178

  Revolver practice, 94-98

  Revolver practice for the police, 99-106, 132-138

  Revolver, definition of, 18

  Rim fire cartridges, 39-43, 60

  Round bullets, 164

  Rule to correct sights, 132

  Rules, shooting, 106, 120, 121, 127

  Rules and Regulations of the U. S. Revolver Association, 180-191

  Rust, 42, 145, 146


  S

  Score, defined, 86

  Scoring, 92, 183

  Second-hand arms, 122

  Selecting arms, 122-123

  Self-lubricating bullets, 52

  Shells, 148, 149, 160

  Shelter for contestants, 112

  Shooting matches, 139, 171-180

  Shooting equipment and paraphernalia, 140-146

  Shooting position, 67-69

  Shooting rules, 106, 120, 121

  Sights, 21, 59, 62, 67, 132, 133, 141, 182

  Sizing bullets, 154-155

  Small bullseyes undesirable, 93

  Smokeless charges, 60-61

  Smokeless powder, 156-159

  Spectacles, 141

  Splatter of bullets, 118

  Sport of pistol shooting, 15

  Spotting, 115

  Squadded competitions, 141

  Standard American target, 86

  Stopping power, 20, 57

  Strain in match shooting, 139

  Supervision, 183

  Supplies, 213


  T

  Targets, 86-93, 183

  Target arms, 26-31

  Target, definition of, 86

  Target practice, 94-98, 102-104, 132-138

  Target shooting, 70-85

  Tests, 74-75, 206-212

  Ties, 183

  Timing, 181

  Tin for bullets, 150

  Training, 143

  Trick shooting, 18

  Trigger pull, 124-125, 182

  “Trolleys,” 116


  U

  United States Army Medals, 199

  United States Army regulation practice, 200-203

  United States Army Pistol target, 91

  United States Navy regulation practice, 204

  United States Revolver Association, 78-79, 167-191

  U. S. R. A. _Bulletin_, 167

   "   "      Constitution, 168

   "   "      League Contest, 167, 189-191


  V

  Ventilation, 120


  W

  War Department Tests of Automatic Pistols, 206-212

  Weather conditions, 141-142

  Winan’s trophy, 76

  Wind, 141, 142

  Winners and scores in past championship matches, 171-180

  Wrong ammunition, 133



FOOTNOTES:

[1] The first pistols of which there is any authentic information were
made about 1540 by one Caminelleo Vitelli at Pistoia, Italy, from which
place the arm took its name.

[2] For a detailed history of the evolution of the pistol and revolver,
the reader is referred to “Text-book for Officers at Schools of Musketry,”
Longman & Co., London; “Kriegstechnische Zeitschrift,” Heft I and II,
1901, Mittler & Sohn, Berlin; “The Modern American Pistol and Revolver,”
Bradlee Whidden, Boston. Many interesting specimens of ancient and modern
pistols and revolvers are owned and exhibited by the United States
Cartridge Company of Lowell, Mass.

[3] See Ordnance Reports, Department of War, Washington, D. C., for
complete details of tests, etc.

[4] See Appendix for digest of these tests.

[5] The United States Revolver Association, The National Rifle Association
of Great Britain, and the United Shooting Societies of France. For
programmes and details, address the secretaries of the respective
organizations.

[6] For descriptions and illustrations of this style of shooting, see “The
Art of Revolver Shooting,” by Walter Winans (G. P. Putnam’s Sons, New York
and London). This elaborate work contains also much detailed information,
valuable suggestions, and many interesting personal experiences in
relation to revolver shooting.

[7] The difficulty is probably caused by the priming composition used at
the present time in smokeless rim-fire ammunition. These compositions vary
with different manufacturers, but most of them contain fulminate of
mercury, chlorate of potash, powdered glass, etc. The trouble is probably
caused principally by the chlorate of potash and perhaps by the fulminate
of mercury. At any rate, a corrosive residue is left which attacks the
barrel and causes it to rust. A priming composition free from deleterious
substances, and which will not leave a corrosive residue, is urgently
needed for both rim-fire and center-fire ammunition.

[8] So named after its adoption as the service ammunition of the Russian
cavalry.

[9] California Powder Works. This brand of powder is not retailed to small
consumers.

[10] Sold by American Specialty Co., 198 Fifth Avenue, New York City.

[11] See “The Modern American Pistol and Revolver,” by A. C. Gould
(Bradlee Whidden, Publisher, Boston, Mass.).

[12] See Appendix for Constitution, Annual Matches, Rules and Regulations,
etc.

[13] The position of a shot accurately indicated by a marker from a pit or
safe place near the target. A disc of sufficient size to be seen easily
from the firing point attached to the end of a pole is used for this
purpose, the marker placing the disc over the shot hole for a few seconds
immediately after each shot is fired.

[14] For a complete detailed description of range construction, including
illustrations, practical working drawings, etc., the reader is referred to
“Rifle Range Construction,” published by the E. I. du Pont Powder Company,
Rifle Smokeless Division, Wilmington, Del.

[15] See Appendix.

[16] Under this subject the author aims to give helpful practical
information and advice for the benefit of all who wish to acquire skill in
pistol and revolver shooting.

[17] The Ideal Manufacturing Company (Marlin Firearms Co., successors) of
New Haven, Conn., publishes a handbook containing full information in
regard to moulding bullets, reloading ammunition, tables, and other useful
information relating to shooting.

[18] See Gunsmithing, Repairs, etc., in the Appendix.

[19] In 1900 and 1901 the military target with a 4x5-inch elliptical
bull’s-eye was used. The bull’s-eye counted 5 and the possible was 375.
Since then the Standard American target with the 8-inch bull’s-eye has
been used. Prior to 1904 twenty-five shots were fired at each of three
ranges--25, 50, and 75 yards. That year the other ranges were discontinued
and the 75 shots have since been fired at 50 yards only.

[20] Penalized best shot in this string for over time.

[21] The tests for revolvers were similar, with suitable slight
modifications.

[22] Reproduced from “Small Arms Firing Regulation U. S. Navy, 1917.”



Transcriber's Notes:

Passages in italics are indicated by _italics_.

Superscripted characters are indicated by {superscript}.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Pistol and Revolver Shooting" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home